WorldWideScience

Sample records for netherlands small countries

  1. Country Report - The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schermers, G.; Wegman, F.; Vliet, P. van; Horst, A.R.A. van der; Boender, J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the most significant developments in the area of road (geometric) design practices and standards and related research in the Netherlands in recent years. The paper describes the importance of the Sustainable Road Safety policy in this context. Furthermore, it

  2. Radiotherapy in small countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Michael B; Zubizarreta, Eduardo H; Polo Rubio, J Alfredo

    2017-10-01

    To examine the availability of radiotherapy in small countries. A small country was defined as a country with a population less than one million persons. The economic status of each country was defined using the World Bank Classification. The number of cancers in each country was obtained from GLOBOCAN 2012. The number of cancer cases with an indication or radiotherapy was calculated using the CCORE model. There were 41 countries with a population of under 1 million; 15 were classified as High Income, 15 Upper Middle Income, 10 Lower Middle Income and one Low Income. 28 countries were islands. Populations ranged from 799 (Holy See) to 886450 (Fiji) and the total number of cancer cases occurring in small countries was 21,043 (range by country from 4 to 2476). Overall the total number of radiotherapy cases in small countries was 10982 (range by country from 2 to 1239). Radiotherapy was available in all HIC islands with 80 or more new cases of cancer in 2012 but was not available in any LMIC island. Fiji was the only LMIC island with a large radiotherapy caseload. Similar caseloads in non-island LMIC all had radiotherapy services. Most non-island HIC did not have radiotherapy services presumably because of the easy access to radiotherapy in neighbouring countries. There are no radiotherapy services in any LMIC islands. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Educational Planning in Small Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Mark

    For years, international literature has neglected the special features of educational planning in small countries. The recognition of small countries has increased over the last two decades, as they have begun to play a more important role in world politics. This three-part book evaluates the nature of the ecology of small countries and its…

  4. Undergraduate Courses in Family Medicine in the UK, Ireland, the Netherlands and the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan-Helge

    1993-01-01

    Almen medicin, Family Medicine, undergraduate Courses, the UK, Ireland, the Netherlands, the Nordic Countries......Almen medicin, Family Medicine, undergraduate Courses, the UK, Ireland, the Netherlands, the Nordic Countries...

  5. Activities of occupational physicians for occupational health services in small-scale enterprises in Japan and in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moriguchi, J.; Ikeda, M.; Sakuragi, S.; Takeda, K.; Muto, T.; Higashi, T.; Weel, A.N.H.; Van Dijk, F.J.

    2010-01-01

    Occupational health service (OHS) for small-scale enterprises (SSEs) is still limited in many countries. Both Japan and the Netherlands have universal OHS systems for all employees. The objective of this survey was to examine the activities of occupational physicians (OPs) in the two countries for

  6. Child Care Quality and Children's Cortisol in Basque Country and the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Harriet J.; Groeneveld, Marleen G.; Larrea, Inaki; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Barandiaran, Alexander; Linting, Marielle

    2010-01-01

    A cross-country comparison of children's cortisol levels at child care was performed in relation to their cortisol levels at home and the quality and quantity of child care they received. Participants were toddlers visiting child care centers in Spanish Basque Country (N = 60) and the Netherlands (N = 25) with substantial variation in structural…

  7. Employment assimilation of immigrants in the Netherlands: dip and catchup by source country

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zorlu, A.; Hartog, J.

    2012-01-01

    Using two Dutch labour force surveys, we compare employment assimilation of immigrants by source country, after ranking countries by presumed social-cultural distance to The Netherlands. We test this ranking of human capital transferability on the ranking by initial performance dip at entry as an

  8. Industrial training in the Netherlands: A comparison with some other EC countries

    OpenAIRE

    Aalders, M.J.A.M.; Bosch, Frans

    1991-01-01

    textabstractThe substantial differences in industrial training participation rates and costs at industry level are examined. Data on costs and participation rates for the European Community (EC) member states are presented, and attention is drawn to the differences in training systems among the countries, with special emphasis on The Netherlands. Results of an extensive survey on industrial training in The Netherlands show that remarkable differences exist between industrial sectors, both in ...

  9. IEA Bioenergy Tasks 30/31 : country report for the Netherlands : Biomass production for energy from sustainable forestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de J.J.; Spijker, J.H.; Elbersen, H.W.

    2007-01-01

    This country report provides information on the biomass production from sustainable forestry in the Netherlands. In chapter 2, Policy on bioenergy in the Netherlands, some information is summarized on bioenergy production in the Netherlands, developments in the policy of the Dutch government on

  10. Muslims ritualising death in the Netherlands: Death rites in a small town context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venhorst, C.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Muslims ritualising death in the Netherlands. Death rites in a small town context. Claudia Venhorst This study on the common practice of Islamic death rites in the Netherlands affords valuable insights in the lived religion of Muslims. Particularly in a small town context, marked by migration

  11. IEA Bioenergy Task 40 country report for the Netherlands 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goh, C.S.; Junginger, H.M.; Jonker, J.G.G.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2011-01-01

    This country report was written within the frame of IEA Bioenergy Task 40. In summary, the aims of this country report are: (1) To provide a concise overview of biomass policy, domestic resources, biomass users, biomass prices and biomass trade, and (2) To analyse bioenergy trends, and reasons for

  12. Small states, international pressures, and interlocking directorates: the cases of Switzerland and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemskerk, E.M.; Schnyder, G.

    2008-01-01

    Interlocking directorate networks among business enterprises have increasingly come under pressure due to internationalization and deregulation of markets. We show that in the small and internationalized economies of Switzerland and the Netherlands extensive changes have taken place. However,

  13. Emergence of Film Industries in Small Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Jan; Brambini, Annalisa; Maher, Sean

    Studies on the spatial organisation of film industries have grown steadily during the last decade. This has resulted in a highly valuable stream of research concerned with the clustering of the film industry. This literature has, however, neglected to pay attention to the specificities...... of the challenges faced by small countries aimed at building up a film industry in the context of global dominance by media conglomerates located in major audio-visual hubs such as Hollywood, New York and Paris. The conventional cluster and regional innovation systems-literature highlight respectively reduced...... transaction costs, cluster-based learning and knowledge externalities, tax incentives and systemic effects in explaining the spatial distribution of film activities. These factors are all supply factors. We illustrate how the supply factor based explanations need to integrate demand side factors...

  14. Exploiting the Value of Small Navies : The Experience of the Royal Netherlands Navy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouter van Straten; Julian Lindley-French

    2008-01-01

    The capabilities inherent in small naval forces are examined, using the Royal Netherlands Navy as a case study. International partnerships and effective strategies for control of littoral, estuarine and riverine areas are ways in which a small navy can make the most of limited resources.

  15. Employment Assimilation of Immigrants in The Netherlands: Dip and Catchup by Source Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslan Zorlu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Using two Dutch labour force surveys, we compare employment assimilation of immigrants by source country, after ranking countries by presumed social-cultural distance to The Netherlands. We test this ranking of human capital transferability on the ranking by initial performance dip at entry as an immigrant and speed of assimilation as measured by the slope on years-since-migration. We also test the predicted association between entry gap and speed of assimilation (faster assimilation if the initial dip is larger. Both hypotheses are largely supported. Most immigrant groups never reach parity with native Dutch, neither in (un-employment probability nor in job quality, and certainly not within 25 years after arrival.

  16. Perinatal mortality rate in the Netherlands compared to other European countries: a secondary analysis of Euro-PERISTAT data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, Ank; Baron, Ruth; Westerneng, Myrte; Twisk, Jos; Hutton, Eileen K

    2013-08-01

    the poor perinatal mortality ranking of the Netherlands compared to other European countries has led to questioning the safety of primary care births, particularly those at home. Primary care births are only planned at term. We therefore examined to which extent the perinatal mortality rate at term in the Netherlands contributes to its poor ranking. secondary analyses using published data from the Euro-PERISTAT study. women that gave birth in 2004 in the 29 European regions and countries called 'countries' included in the Euro-PERISTAT study (4,328,441 women in total and 1,940,977 women at term). odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for the comparison of perinatal mortality rates between European countries and the Netherlands, through logistic regression analyses using summary country data. combined perinatal mortality rates overall and at term. Perinatal deaths below 28 weeks, between 28 and 37 weeks and from 37 weeks onwards per 1000 total births. compared to the Netherlands, perinatal mortality rates at term were significantly higher for Denmark and Latvia and not significantly different compared to seven other countries. Eleven countries had a significantly lower rate, and for eight the term perinatal mortality rate could not be compared. The Netherlands had the highest number of perinatal deaths before 28 weeks per 1000 total births (4.3). the relatively high perinatal mortality rate in the Netherlands is driven more by extremely preterm births than births at term. Although the PERISTAT data cannot be used to show that the Dutch maternity care system is safe, neither should they be used to argue that the system is unsafe. The PERISTAT data alone do not support changes to the Dutch maternity care system that reduce the possibility for women to choose a home birth while benefits of these changes are uncertain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Socioeconomic status of very small areas and stroke incidence in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.; Westert, G.P.; Bos, G.A.M. van den

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To examine whether characteristics of very small living areas can be used to predict disease incidence and to use these characteristics to assess socioeconomic differences in stroke incidence in the Netherlands. Design: Characteristics of postcode areas of stroke patients are compared

  18. Socioeconomic status of very small areas and stroke incidence in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.; Westert, G. P.; van den Bos, G. A. M.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether characteristics of very small living areas can be used to predict disease incidence and to use these characteristics to assess socioeconomic differences in stroke incidence in the Netherlands. DESIGN: Characteristics of postcode areas of stroke patients are compared

  19. Seismic risk analysis of small earthquakes induced by hydrocarbon production in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassing, B.B.T.; Waarts, P.H.; Roos, W.; Nepveu, M.; Muntendam-Bos, A.G.; Eck, T. van

    2010-01-01

    In the northern parts of The Netherlands, the exploitation of gas fields has induced small earthquakes. These induced earthquakes have occasionally caused damage to buildings. A workflow was developed in order to evaluate the seismic risk of the exploitation of hydrocarbon fields. A Bayesian

  20. Graduates' Experiences of Work in Small Organizations in the UK and the Netherlands : Better than Expected

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, J.; Schalk, R.; Bosley, S.; van Overbeek, S.

    2002-01-01

    This project was designed to examine university graduates' expectations and experiences of employment in small organizations in the UK and the Netherlands. Specifically, three predictions were made on the basis of existing literature and tested using self-report questionnaire data gathered from 126

  1. Estimation of the use of antibiotics in the small ruminant industry in The Netherlands in 2011 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santman-Berends, Inge; Luttikholt, Saskia; Van den Brom, René; Van Schaik, Gerdien; Gonggrijp, Maaike; Hage, Han; Vellema, Piet

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the quantity of antibiotics and classes of antibiotics used in the small ruminant industry in the Netherlands in 2011 and 2012. Twelve large veterinary practices, located throughout the Netherlands were selected for this study. All small ruminant farms associated with these practices that had complete records on the quantity of antibiotics prescribed were included. The veterinary practices provided data on all antibiotics prescribed, and the estimated animal used daily dose of antibiotics per year (AUDD/Y) was calculated for each farm. The median AUDD/Y in small ruminant farms was zero in both years (mean 0.60 in 2011, and 0.62 in 2012). The largest quantity of antibiotic use was observed in the professional goat industry (herds of ≥32 goats) with a median AUDD/Y of 1.22 in 2011 and 0.73 in 2012. In the professional sheep industry (flocks of ≥32 sheep), the median AUDD/Y was 0 in 2011 and 0.10 in 2012. In the small scale industry (flocks or herds of antibiotics in the small scale industry and professional sheep farms belonged to the penicillin class. In professional goat farms, antibiotics of the aminoglycoside class were most frequently prescribed. This study provides the first assessment on the quantity of antibiotic use in the small ruminant industry. Given a comparable attitude towards antibiotic use, these results might be valid for small ruminant populations in other north-western European countries as well. The antibiotic use in the small ruminant industry appeared to be low, and is expected to play a minor role in the development of antibiotic resistance. Nevertheless, several major zoonotic bacterial pathogens are associated with the small ruminant industry, and it remains important that antibiotics are used in a prudent way.

  2. How can Small Countries in South Asia benefit from Biotechnology ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This grant will help small developing countries in South Asia develop biotechnology policies and use biotechnology to address immediate and critical development priorities. It will do so by supporting two distinct but interconnected activities. The first is a special session entitled, How can Small Countries in South Asia ...

  3. INTEGRATED DESIGN AND ENGINEERING USING BUILDING INFORMATION MODELLING: A PILOT PROJECT OF SMALL-SCALE HOUSING DEVELOPMENT IN THE NETHERLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizal Sebastian

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available During the design phase, decisions are made that affect, on average, 70% of the life-cycle cost of a building. Therefore, collaborative design relying on multidisciplinary knowledge of the building life cycle is essential. Building information modelling (BIM makes it possible to integrate knowledge from various project participants that traditionally work in different phases of the building process. BIM has been applied in a number of large-scale projects in the industrial real estate and infrastructure sectors in different countries, including The Netherlands. The projects in the housing sector, however, are predominantly small scale and carried out by small and medium enterprises (SMEs. These SMEs are looking for practical and affordable BIM solutions for housing projects. This article reports a pilot project of small-scale housing development using BIM in the province of Zeeland, The Netherlands. The conceptual knowledge derived from European and national research projects is disseminated to the SMEs through a series of experimental working sessions. Action learning protocols within a pilot project are developed to ensure direct impacts in terms of cost reduction and quality improvement. The project shows that BIM can be applied without radical changes to the SMEs' information and communication technology systems or to their business organizations. DOI: 10.3763/aedm.2010.0116 Source: Architectural Engineering and Design Management, Volume 6, Number 2, 2010 , pp. 103-110(8

  4. Small business economics: A perspective from The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractIn the analysis of economic phenomena either within or across industries there is room for integrating the role of small business. This contribution can be made by aggregation or generalization of the findings at the meso level, which again are partly based upon analyses at the micro

  5. Partnership patterns and homeownership: a cross-country comparison of Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, Michael J.; Mulder, Clara H.

    2016-01-01

    Using detailed micro-level survey data for three advanced European welfare-state economies (Germany, Netherlands and UK), our analyses suggest a fairly common hierarchy to homeownership, according to partnership status, exists. In all three countries, a variety of interrelated factors appear to

  6. Perinatal mortality rate in the Netherlands compared to other European countries: a secondary analysis of Euro-PERISTAT data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, J.; Baron, R.; Westerneng, M.; Twisk, J.; Hutton, E.K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: the poor perinatal mortality ranking of the Netherlands compared to other European countries has led to questioning the safety of primary care births, particularly those at home. Primary care births are only planned at term. We therefore examined to which extent the perinatal mortality

  7. Partnerships between Dutch municipalities and municipalities in countries of migration to the Netherlands; knowledge exchange and mutuality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ewijk, E.; Baud, I.S.A.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years a growing number of Dutch municipalities have established relations with local governments in the countries of migration to the Netherlands (e.g. Turkey, Suriname and Morocco). In addition to strengthening local governance and improving service delivery in the partner municipalities,

  8. Explaining capital punishment support in an abolitionist country: the case of The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessing, Dick J; de Keijser, Jan W; Elffers, Henk

    2003-12-01

    A substantial minority (35%) of the Dutch population is in favor of capital punishment. In this paper, it is argued that in a staunchly abolitionist country such as The Netherlands, the existence and perseverance of such support can be better understood and explained by conceiving of capital punishment support in attitudinal terms as part of a law and order syndrome. Death penalty attitudes are analyzed by means of hierarchic logistic regression analysis. It is shown that support can be modeled quite well, partly in terms of general attitudes to criminal justice, partly in terms of political and sociodemographic parameters. Within the criminal justice attitudes complex, more support is found among those endorsing harsh treatment of offenders, those willing to grant far-reaching powers to justice authorities, those believing that the government is not delivering on the topic of crime fighting, and those who are concerned about the level of crime. Within the political context, more support is enlisted among people who abstain from voting and those who vote at either extreme of the political spectrum as opposed to central parties' supporters. In sociodemographic segments it is the younger and poorly educated who are the strongest supporters of capital punishment. It is suggested that endorsing capital punishment can be better understood as an expressive act, displaying dissatisfaction with judicial and political elites in the country.

  9. How can Small Countries in South Asia benefit from Biotechnology ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The session will be held during the 5th Asian Conference on Biotechnology, and provide small South Asian countries with an opportunity to learn from the experience of OECD ... Six équipes de chercheurs de classe mondiale étudieront comment surmonter la résistance au traitement des cancers les plus mortels.

  10. Population Estimation Using a 3D City Model: A Multi-Scale Country-Wide Study in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo Ohori, Ken; Ledoux, Hugo; Peters, Ravi; Stoter, Jantien

    2016-01-01

    The remote estimation of a region’s population has for decades been a key application of geographic information science in demography. Most studies have used 2D data (maps, satellite imagery) to estimate population avoiding field surveys and questionnaires. As the availability of semantic 3D city models is constantly increasing, we investigate to what extent they can be used for the same purpose. Based on the assumption that housing space is a proxy for the number of its residents, we use two methods to estimate the population with 3D city models in two directions: (1) disaggregation (areal interpolation) to estimate the population of small administrative entities (e.g. neighbourhoods) from that of larger ones (e.g. municipalities); and (2) a statistical modelling approach to estimate the population of large entities from a sample composed of their smaller ones (e.g. one acquired by a government register). Starting from a complete Dutch census dataset at the neighbourhood level and a 3D model of all 9.9 million buildings in the Netherlands, we compare the population estimates obtained by both methods with the actual population as reported in the census, and use it to evaluate the quality that can be achieved by estimations at different administrative levels. We also analyse how the volume-based estimation enabled by 3D city models fares in comparison to 2D methods using building footprints and floor areas, as well as how it is affected by different levels of semantic detail in a 3D city model. We conclude that 3D city models are useful for estimations of large areas (e.g. for a country), and that the 3D approach has clear advantages over the 2D approach. PMID:27254151

  11. Population Estimation Using a 3D City Model: A Multi-Scale Country-Wide Study in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biljecki, Filip; Arroyo Ohori, Ken; Ledoux, Hugo; Peters, Ravi; Stoter, Jantien

    2016-01-01

    The remote estimation of a region's population has for decades been a key application of geographic information science in demography. Most studies have used 2D data (maps, satellite imagery) to estimate population avoiding field surveys and questionnaires. As the availability of semantic 3D city models is constantly increasing, we investigate to what extent they can be used for the same purpose. Based on the assumption that housing space is a proxy for the number of its residents, we use two methods to estimate the population with 3D city models in two directions: (1) disaggregation (areal interpolation) to estimate the population of small administrative entities (e.g. neighbourhoods) from that of larger ones (e.g. municipalities); and (2) a statistical modelling approach to estimate the population of large entities from a sample composed of their smaller ones (e.g. one acquired by a government register). Starting from a complete Dutch census dataset at the neighbourhood level and a 3D model of all 9.9 million buildings in the Netherlands, we compare the population estimates obtained by both methods with the actual population as reported in the census, and use it to evaluate the quality that can be achieved by estimations at different administrative levels. We also analyse how the volume-based estimation enabled by 3D city models fares in comparison to 2D methods using building footprints and floor areas, as well as how it is affected by different levels of semantic detail in a 3D city model. We conclude that 3D city models are useful for estimations of large areas (e.g. for a country), and that the 3D approach has clear advantages over the 2D approach.

  12. Small Modular Reactors for Enhancing Energy Security in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Kuznetsov

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, small modular reactors (SMRs have been attracting considerable attention around the world. SMR designs incorporate innovative approaches to achieve simplicity, modularity and speed of build, passive safety features, proliferation resistance, and reduced financial risk. The incremental capacity expansion associated with SMR deployment could provide a better match (than the large-scale reactors to the limited grid capacity of many developing countries. Because of their lower capital requirements, SMRs could also effectively address the energy needs of small developing countries with limited financial resources. Although SMRs can have substantially higher specific capital costs as compared to large-scale reactors, they may nevertheless enjoy significant economic benefits due to shorter build times, accelerated learning effects and co-siting economies, temporal and sizing flexibility of deployment, and design simplification.

  13. Small Modular Reactors for Enhancing Energy Security in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannis N. Kessides; Vladimir Kuznetsov

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, small modular reactors (SMRs) have been attracting considerable attention around the world. SMR designs incorporate innovative approaches to achieve simplicity, modularity and speed of build, passive safety features, proliferation resistance, and reduced financial risk. The incremental capacity expansion associated with SMR deployment could provide a better match (than the large-scale reactors) to the limited grid capacity of many developing countries. Because of their lower ...

  14. The effect of small peer group continuous quality improvement on the clinical practice of midwives in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, Y.; Verheijen, Nicole; Fleuren, M; Mokkink, Henk; Grol, R.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of small group continuous quality improvement (CQI) on the clinical practice of midwives in the Netherlands. DESIGN: Randomised pre-/post-test (balanced block). INTERVENTION: The CQI groups were assigned to either the set of peer review topics including 'perineal

  15. Small but significant socioeconomic inequalities in axillary staging and treatment of breast cancer in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarts, M J; Hamelinck, V C; Bastiaannet, E; Coebergh, J W W; Liefers, G J; Voogd, A C; van der Sangen, M; Louwman, W J

    2012-01-01

    Background: The use of sentinel node biopsy (SNB), lymph node dissection, breast-conserving surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormonal treatment for breast cancer was evaluated in relation to socioeconomic status (SES) in the Netherlands, where access to care was assumed to be equal. Methods: Female breast cancer patients diagnosed between 1994 and 2008 were selected from the nationwide population-based Netherlands Cancer Registry (N=176 505). Socioeconomic status was assessed based on income, employment and education at postal code level. Multivariable models included age, year of diagnosis and stage. Results: Sentinal node biopsy was less often applied in high-SES patients (multivariable analyses, ⩽49 years: odds ratio (OR) 0.70 (95% CI: 0.56–0.89); 50–75 years: 0.85 (0.73–0.99)). Additionally, lymph node dissection was less common in low-SES patients aged ⩾76 years (OR 1.34 (0.95–1.89)). Socioeconomic status-related differences in treatment were only significant in the age group 50–75 years. High-SES women with stage T1–2 were more likely to undergo breast-conserving surgery (+radiotherapy) (OR 1.15 (1.09–1.22) and OR 1.16 (1.09–1.22), respectively). Chemotherapy use among node-positive patients was higher in the high-SES group, but was not significant in multivariable analysis. Hormonal therapy was not related to SES. Conclusion: Small but significant differences were observed in the use of SNB, lymph node dissection and breast-conserving surgery according to SES in Dutch breast cancer patients despite assumed equal access to health care. PMID:22596236

  16. Country of Birth Does Not Influence Long-term Clinical, Virologic, and Immunological Outcome of HIV-Infected Children Living in the Netherlands: A Cohort Study Comparing Children Born in the Netherlands With Children Born in Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, Sophie; van Bilsen, Ward P. H.; Smit, Colette; Fraaij, Pieter L. A.; Warris, Adilia; Kuijpers, Taco W.; Geelen, Sibyl P. M.; Wolfs, Tom F. W.; Scherpbier, Henriette J.; van Rossum, Annemarie M. C.; Pajkrt, Dasja

    2015-01-01

    Background:Immigrant HIV-infected adults in industrialized countries show a poorer clinical and virologic outcome compared with native patients. We aimed to investigate potential differences in clinical, immunological, and virologic outcome in Dutch HIV-infected children born in the Netherlands (NL)

  17. Country of birth does not influence long-term clinical, virologic, and immunological outcome of HIV-infected children living in the Netherlands: a cohort study comparing children born in the Netherlands with children born in Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, S.; Bilsen, W.P. van; Smit, C.; Fraaij, P.L.; Warris, A.; Kuijpers, T.W.; Geelen, S.P.; Wolfs, T.F.; Scherpbier, H.J.; Rossum, A.M. van; Pajkrt, D.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Immigrant HIV-infected adults in industrialized countries show a poorer clinical and virologic outcome compared with native patients. We aimed to investigate potential differences in clinical, immunological, and virologic outcome in Dutch HIV-infected children born in the Netherlands

  18. Features of the value function for voice and their consistency across participants from four countries: Great Britain, Mexico, the Netherlands and the United States.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Price, K; Hall, T.; van den Bos, K; Hunton, J.; Lovett, S.; Tippett, M.

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated features of the value function for voice using subjects from four countries: Great Britain, Mexico, The Netherlands, and the United States. Across these four groups of subjects the shape of the value function was found to be similar, though differences in the estimated

  19. [Baltic connections : archival guide to the maritime relations of the countries around the Baltic Sea (including the Netherlands) 1450-1800)] / Enn Küng

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Küng, Enn

    2009-01-01

    Arvustus: Baltic connections : archival guide to the maritime relations of the countries around the Baltic Sea (including the Netherlands) 1450-1800). Leiden, Boston : Brill, 2007. Lisaks raamatule on arhiivijuht kättesaadav ka elektrooniliselt http://www.balticconnections.net/

  20. Solutions for biomass fuel market barriers and raw material availability. WP2 - Biomass fuel trade in Europe – Country report: The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junginger, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this country report are: (1) To identify new industries in the Netherlands where biomass is used as an energy carrier, or has the potential to be used in the future, and to describe which drivers, bottlenecks and opportunities these sectors see for the (increased) use of biomass; (2) To

  1. The Low Countries. Art and Society in Flanders and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devoldere, L.; Salverda, R.

    2008-01-01

    In de 56 langere en kortere bijdragen in dit zestiende jaarboek in de serie 'The Low Countries' wordt opnieuw een rijk palet aan actuele ontwikkelingen in de cultuur en samenleving van de Lage Landen (Nederland en Vlaanderen) gepresenteerd aan de engelstalige wereld daarbuiten. Het centrale thema

  2. Religion and parental values in a secularized country : Evidence from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieben, I.J.P.; Halman, L.C.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The authors explore the impact of religion on two key parental values – obedience and autonomy – in contemporary Dutch society, one of the most secularized countries in the world. Three main religious dimensions are investigated: belonging (religious denomination), behaving (church attendance) and

  3. Biotechnology in developing countries : Proceedings of the symposium, Delft, The Netherlands, 13-14 October 1982

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hemert, P.A.; Lelieveld, H.L.M.; La Rivière, J.W.M.

    1983-01-01

    Biotechnology in Developing Countries aims to be more than the cleverly chosen combination of two hot topics of today. It is obvious that Biotechnology, as the technology of using microorganisms and tissue cells, has certain intrinsic advantages over other technologies in the setting of a Developing

  4. Commemorating a ‘Foreign’ War in a Neutral Country : The Political Insignificance of World War I Memory in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribbens, Kees

    The recent creation of a First World War museum exhibit at Huis Doorn reflects the increased Dutch attention paid to this war, accompanying the international Centenary efforts, although the neutral Netherlands had not been actively involved in the military events of wwi. This initiative, on a small

  5. Lessons from a small country about the global obesity crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Kelly D; Yach, Derek

    2006-01-01

    Developed countries had high obesity rates before the problem was taken seriously and hence the genesis must be seen in retrospect. Developing countries offer a clear view of causal factors but also opportunities for prevention, which must focus on both food and physical activity environments. PMID:16968530

  6. Lessons from a small country about the global obesity crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yach Derek

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Developed countries had high obesity rates before the problem was taken seriously and hence the genesis must be seen in retrospect. Developing countries offer a clear view of causal factors but also opportunities for prevention, which must focus on both food and physical activity environments.

  7. The effect of small peer group continuous quality improvement on the clinical practice of midwives in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Yvonne; Verheijen, Nicole; Fleuren, Margot; Mokkink, Henk; Grol, Richard

    2003-12-01

    To study the effects of small group continuous quality improvement (CQI) on the clinical practice of midwives in the Netherlands. Randomised pre-/post-test (balanced block). The CQI groups were assigned to either the set of peer review topics including 'perineal repair' and 'artificial rupture of the membranes (ARM)', or to the set of topics including 'airway aspiration' and 'measuring blood pressure'. The two research groups acted as each other's control group. The Netherlands. Two hundred and fifty-five individual midwives practising in primary and secondary care who made up 28 peer groups. MEASUREMENT AND KEY FINDINGS: Questionnaires were used to collect data on clinical practice prior to the start of the intervention and one year later. Pre- and post-test data were received from 156 respondents. The intervention had a positive effect on adherence to the recommendations with respect to airway aspiration of the baby and measuring blood pressure. For ARM, no difference was found between pre- and post-test adherence to recommendations in the intervention group, while in the control group, the percentage of midwives that adhered to the recommendations decreased in the period between pre- and post-test. No significant effect was found for perineal repair. Small group CQI had a positive effect on changing clinical practice when the learning of new skills (e.g. learning a new suturing technique) was not necessary. Additional interventions are needed when implementing guidelines that recommend the learning of new skills.

  8. TOURISM WEBSITES CHARACTERISTICS IN A COUNTRY WITH SMALL INTERNET USE - CASE STUDY OF SERBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Tamara PAVLOVIĆ; DRAGIĆEVIĆ, VANJA; Svetlana VUKOSAV; Nevena ĆURČIĆ; Uglješa STANKOV

    2009-01-01

    Web is the powerful tool for tourism industry in economically developed countries. That mostly implies high website quality, use of Internet promotion techniques and good management of website distribution elements. However, what kinds of tourism websites characteristics are present in a country with small development and small use of Internet, such as Serbia? Serbia connected to Internet in 1996, and two years later first websites related to tourism subjects appeared, but still has small Int...

  9. Driving small-scale fisheries in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven W. Purcell

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale fisheries (SSFs engage the vast majority of the world’s fishers but are struggling to keep pace with coastal populations, and stocks are declining to levels that threaten reproductive capacity. The provision of food and livelihoods to low-income fishers into the future will be unlikely without radical changes to fisheries policy. We draw on repeating analogies of driving a car to illustrate fundamental reforms needed for driving (managing small-scale fisheries. SSFs will continue to be unsustainable by relying too heavily on output controls (the ‘brake’. Managers need to move away from routinely using moratoria (i.e. the ‘handbrake’ as a management measure, although these measures may be needed as a last resort. Scientists (‘backseat drivers’ must engage more directly with fishery management agencies to understand their constraints and needs. Resource managers must come to terms with regulating fishing inputs (the ‘accelerator’ by imposing limited-entry rules, vessel limitations or short fishing seasons in addition to sensible output controls. Reforms to resource management will need to entail unpopular measures if small-scale fisheries are to deliver sustained benefits to fishing communities into the future.

  10. Planning nature in urbanized countries. An analysis of monetary and non-monetary impacts of conservation policy scenarios in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijtsma, Frans J; van der Bilt, Willem G M; van Hinsberg, Arjen; de Knegt, Bart; van der Heide, Martijn; Leneman, Hans; Verburg, René

    2017-03-01

    Planning and conserving nature areas are challenging tasks in urbanized and intensively used countries like the Netherlands. This paper supports decision making and public policy debate about these tasks in both an empirical and a methodological way. Empirically, we explore policy alternatives by determining the potential consequences of different nature policy scenarios in the Netherlands. Methodologically, we employ a mixed monetary and non-monetary evaluation method known as multi-criteria cost-benefit analysis (MCCBA). We evaluate four new future directions of Dutch nature policy that address four dominant stakeholder demands: biodiversity conservation, the provision of ecosystem services, recreational potential as well as economic gains. To balance compact presentation of evaluation outcomes on the one hand and information richness of results on the other, we distinguish between two impact indicator sets: three "headline" and ten "elaborate" indicators. Using these indicators we discuss the quantitative assessment of the four nature policy scenarios by comparing them to two other scenarios, reflecting the 2010 stand-still baseline situation (2010) as well as a reference policy (Trend). In total, we evaluate six scenarios; four present new directions and two reflect existing or recently (2010) halted practices. Our findings first of all show that even in an urbanized country like the Netherlands, with its intensive competition among land use functions, serious gains in national and international biodiversity are possible. Second, we find that it is doubtful whether stimulating the provision of regulating ecosystem services in a country which applies intensive and profitable agricultural techniques is beneficial. Other countries or areas that are less suitable for intensive agricultural practices may be more logical for this. Finally we demonstrate that increasing urban recreational green space - a common challenge for many urban areas - can only be achieved at

  11. The Row Material Policy In Poor And Small Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia ŞARGU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The major tasks concerning economic diversification and modernization mean the importance of priorities for foreign policy regarding economic diplomacy. Thinking about the governmental tasks for prioritizing directions of foreign trade activities, by attracting international investors, by upgrading technology, importing advanced foreign technologies, exporting development, and promoting national economic interests abroad. The Governmental structures and authorized institutions always relay on importance for external economic policy, focusing on achieving concrete economic results. In a globalized industrialization, tasks of economic modernization, development of the resource and infrastructure establishing for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration, tasks that require intensification of economic cooperation in a widespread area. The particular importance in this research has the close relationship between cooperation within international organizations with universal or regional interests. Achieving the objectives of economic diplomacy will help improve the competitiveness of the economy ultimately, create new industries and jobs and economic growth of the country as a whole.

  12. The effectiveness of policies to transform a gas-exporting country into a gas-transit country : The case of The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipperus, Ouren T.; Mulder, Machiel

    The Netherlands has been a major European natural gas producer and exporter for many decades, but now faces the challenge to deal with diminishing resources. In response, the Dutch government initiated a gas-hub strategy, which is the policy to transform the gas industry from an export-oriented

  13. Small hydropower in Southern Africa – an overview of five countries in the region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker Klunne, Wim

    2013-01-01

    This paper looks at the status of small hydropower in Lesotho, Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland and Zimbabwe. For each country, an overview will be given of the electricity sector and the role of hydropower, the potential for small hydropower and the expected future of this technology. Small

  14. FEATURES OF SMALL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT IN THE CIS COUNTRIES: DOES INSTITUTIONAL ENVIRONMENT AFFECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Viktorovna Ostapenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the development of small businesses at the national level through a comparative analysis between the former Soviet countries – Ukraine, Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Kyrgyzstan. These countries are comparable by the previous path dependence (the period of the USSR, communism, by the position of the geographical location, as well as by similarity of cultural development. As can be seen from the analysis, which was conducted in article, the quantitative characteristics of small business development in the above countries are similar, based on the dependence on foreign markets and conditions in national economies. However, qualitative indicators of small business development in these countries are different. These differences can be attributed to the activities of the institutional environment (formal and informal institutions and its impact on the national economy. Conclusions about the effectiveness of quality of development of small business sector through the analysis of its contribution to the national economy are done.

  15. Small, medium, large or supersize: trends in food portion sizes in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhuis, Ingrid H M; Leeuwis, Franca H; Vermeer, Willemijn M

    2010-06-01

    Larger food portion sizes lead to increased energy intake levels and might contribute to the current obesity epidemic. Only a very limited number of studies are available on the actual development of food portion sizes during past decades. The present study aims to reveal trends in portion sizes of some high-energy-dense food products during recent decades in The Netherlands. The data were collected from manufacturers and from information found in professional journals, marketing and advertising materials, and on manufacturers' websites. A number of trends in food portion sizes were observed. Larger sizes have been added to the portion size portfolio. The portion sizes of a number of products have also increased since their introduction, although this did not apply to all the products included. Finally, multi-packs have been introduced and the number of products within a multi-pack has also increased. A trend towards larger portion sizes was observed, which is relevant to the public health debate regarding the prevention of overweight and obesity. It is recommended that developments in food portion sizes continue to be monitored over the coming years, and the effects of the newly introduced portion sizes on food intake be studied.

  16. Small risk of developing symptomatic tick-borne diseases following a tick bite in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofhuis Agnetha

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In The Netherlands, the incidence of Lyme borreliosis is on the rise. Besides its causative agent, Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., other potential pathogens like Rickettsia, Babesia and Ehrlichia species are present in Ixodes ricinus ticks. The risk of disease associated with these microorganisms after tick-bites remains, however, largely unclear. A prospective study was performed to investigate how many persons with tick-bites develop localized or systemic symptoms and whether these are associated with tick-borne microorganisms. Results In total, 297 Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected from 246 study participants who consulted a general practitioner on the island of Ameland for tick bites. Ticks were subjected to PCR to detect DNA of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp. or Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp.. Sixteen percent of the collected ticks were positive for Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., 19% for Rickettsia spp., 12% for Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp. and 10% for Babesia spp.. At least six months after the tick bite, study participants were interviewed on symptoms by means of a standard questionnaire. 14 out of 193 participants (8.3% reported reddening at the bite site and 6 participants (4.1% reported systemic symptoms. No association between symptoms and tick-borne microorganisms was found. Attachment duration ≥24 h was positively associated with reddening at the bite site and systemic symptoms. Using logistic regression techniques, reddening was positively correlated with presence of Borrelia afzelii, and having 'any symptoms' was positively associated with attachment duration. Conclusion The risk of contracting acute Lyme borreliosis, rickettsiosis, babesiosis or ehrlichiosis from a single tick bite was

  17. A Demo-Genetic Analysis of a Small Reintroduced Carnivore Population: The Otter (Lutra lutra in The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maelle Seignobosc

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the viability of reintroduced animal populations is a complicated task. Reintroductions are usually carried out with a small number of individuals, thereby, limiting the possibilities for monitoring because of the possible negative effects of intensive monitoring on survival and reproduction. Moreover, reintroduction studies are part of a socioeconomic interplay of forces, thereby, also limiting monitoring possibilities. Also, knowledge of population demography and abundance can be incomplete or unattainable. Here, we illustrate how we combined traditional telemetry and novel non-invasive genetic methodology to construct a detailed life table of a small reintroduced otter population in The Netherlands. Combining an appropriate capture-mark-recapture framework with a matrix modelling approach provides, in general, useful insights for such populations. The data indicated that (i male survival is lower than female survival, (ii the reintroduced population is currently growing (estimated λ=1.26: range [1.06, 1.42] and seems viable, (iii increasing adult survival is currently the critical stage at which efforts of field managers should concentrate, and (iv the modelling framework allowed us to determine the boundary conditions for the vital rates under which the population would go extinct. The applied approach directs at measurements that help field managers to implement the right conservation strategy after reintroductions.

  18. Determinants of Point-Of-Sale system adoption: a survey among small retailers in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plomp, M.G.A.; Huiden, R.P.; Batenburg, R.S.

    2011-01-01

    Several threats affect the survival of small, independent retail companies. Adoption and use of Point-of-Sale (POS) systems may offer important benefits to counter these threats. POS systems are not widely used by these retailers, however. This research investigates the determinants of the adoption

  19. Implementation of Lean Six Sigma in small- and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timans, W.; Antony, J.; Ahaus, K.; van Solingen, R.

    In this paper we provide an exploration and analysis of Lean Six Sigma (LSS) implementation in Dutch manufacturing/engineering small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Critical success factors (CSFs) and impeding factors are identified and analysed. Exploratory empirical evidence about LSS

  20. Population-based Results of Chemoradiotherapy for Limited Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damhuis, R.; Widder, J.; Senan, S.

    Aims: Treatment guidelines for limited stage small cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC) favour early concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Little is known about contemporary, real-world treatment patterns and outcome. We evaluated population-based practice patterns of CRT and corresponding survival in the

  1. Planning nature in urbanized countries. An analysis of monetary and non-monetary impacts of conservation policy scenarios in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans J. Sijtsma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Planning and conserving nature areas are challenging tasks in urbanized and intensively used countries like the Netherlands. This paper supports decision making and public policy debate about these tasks in both an empirical and a methodological way. Empirically, we explore policy alternatives by determining the potential consequences of different nature policy scenarios in the Netherlands. Methodologically, we employ a mixed monetary and non-monetary evaluation method known as multi-criteria cost-benefit analysis (MCCBA. We evaluate four new future directions of Dutch nature policy that address four dominant stakeholder demands: biodiversity conservation, the provision of ecosystem services, recreational potential as well as economic gains. To balance compact presentation of evaluation outcomes on the one hand and information richness of results on the other, we distinguish between two impact indicator sets: three “headline” and ten “elaborate” indicators. Using these indicators we discuss the quantitative assessment of the four nature policy scenarios by comparing them to two other scenarios, reflecting the 2010 stand-still baseline situation (2010 as well as a reference policy (Trend. In total, we evaluate six scenarios; four present new directions and two reflect existing or recently (2010 halted practices. Our findings first of all show that even in an urbanized country like the Netherlands, with its intensive competition among land use functions, serious gains in national and international biodiversity are possible. Second, we find that it is doubtful whether stimulating the provision of regulating ecosystem services in a country which applies intensive and profitable agricultural techniques is beneficial. Other countries or areas that are less suitable for intensive agricultural practices may be more logical for this. Finally we demonstrate that increasing urban recreational green space − a common challenge for many urban areas

  2. Return-to-work intervention for cancer survivors: budget impact and allocation of costs and returns in the Netherlands and six major EU-countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewes, Janne C; Steuten, Lotte M G; Groeneveld, Iris F; de Boer, Angela G E M; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; IJzerman, Maarten J; van Harten, Wim H

    2015-11-12

    Return-to-work (RTW)-interventions support cancer survivors in resuming work, but come at additional healthcare costs. The objective of this study was to assess the budget impact of a RTW-intervention, consisting of counselling sessions with an occupational physician and an exercise-programme. The secondary objective was to explore how the costs of RTW-interventions and its financial revenues are allocated among the involved stakeholders in several EU-countries. The budget impact (BI) of a RTW-intervention versus usual care was analysed yearly for 2015-2020 from a Dutch societal- and from the perspective of a large cancer centre. The allocation of the expected costs and financial benefits for each of the stakeholders involved was compared between the Netherlands, Belgium, England, France, Germany, Italy, and Sweden. The average intervention costs in this case were €1,519/patient. The BI for the Netherlands was €-14.7 m in 2015, rising to €-71.1 m in 2020, thus the intervention is cost-saving as the productivity benefits outweigh the intervention costs. For cancer centres the BI amounts to €293 k in 2015, increasing to €1.1 m in 2020. Across European countries, we observed differences regarding the extent to which stakeholders either invest or receive a share of the benefits from offering a RTW-intervention. The RTW-intervention is cost-saving from a societal perspective. Yet, the total intervention costs are considerable and, in many European countries, mainly covered by care providers that are not sufficiently reimbursed.

  3. Preconception care policy, guidelines, recommendations and services across six European countries: Belgium (Flanders), Denmark, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawe, Jill; Delbaere, Ilse; Ekstrand, Maria; Hegaard, Hanne Kristine; Larsson, Margareta; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Stern, Jenny; Steegers, Eric; Stephenson, Judith; Tydén, Tanja

    2015-04-01

    Preconception care is important for the screening, prevention and management of risk factors that affect pregnancy outcomes. We aimed to investigate pre-pregnancy care policies, guidelines, recommendations and services in six European countries. In 2013, an electronic search and investigation was undertaken of preconception policy, guidelines, recommendations and services available to healthcare professionals and the general public in six European countries: Belgium (Flanders), Denmark, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden and the United Kingdom. Findings were compared within five categories: Governmental policy and legislation; Professional bodies and organisations; Healthcare providers; Charitable organisations; Web-based public information and internet sites. All countries had preconception recommendations for women with chronic diseases, such as diabetes and epilepsy. Recommendations for healthy women and men were fragmented and inconsistent. Preconception guidance was often included in antenatal and pregnancy guidelines. Differences between countries were seen with regard to nutritional and lifestyle advice particularly in relation to fish, caffeine and alcohol consumption, and vitamin supplementation. Current guidelines are heterogeneous. Collaborative research across Europe is required in order to develop evidence-based guidelines for preconception health and care. There is a need to establish a clear strategy for promoting advice and guidance within the European childbearing population.

  4. TOURISM WEBSITES CHARACTERISTICS IN A COUNTRY WITH SMALL INTERNET USE - CASE STUDY OF SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara PAVLOVIĆ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Web is the powerful tool for tourism industry in economically developed countries. That mostly implies high website quality, use of Internet promotion techniques and good management of website distribution elements. However, what kinds of tourism websites characteristics are present in a country with small development and small use of Internet, such as Serbia? Serbia connected to Internet in 1996, and two years later first websites related to tourism subjects appeared, but still has small Internet penetration rate. Many companies in travel industry from developing countries use websites, but not in the right way. The purpose of this paper is to examine and show present tourism websites characteristics in term of its credibility, presentation and type of website content, visibility and search engine rank. The main method used in this research is structural observation of domestic 260 travel websites in Serbia. The results have pointed to the negative websites characteristics and inadequate use of its possibilities in tourism sector in Serbia.

  5. The Netherlands as importing country. Land use and emissions of basic materials flows; Nederland importland. Landgebruik en emissies van grondstofstromen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevenster, M.N.; Bijleveld, M.M.; Bergsma, G.C.; Croezen, H.J. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Delahaye, R. [Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek CBS, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2010-12-15

    This report analyses the environmental impacts of importing feedstocks for own consumption in the Netherlands and for the feedstocks that are forward after they have been shaped into a product. Based on data from Statistics Netherlands, a closer look is taken at toxic emissions land use and biodiversity. Feedstocks with a larger impact on these themes include: cocoa, chemical chains, coal, grains, wood, paper, cotton, oil seeds, steel, copper, aluminum, zinc transport fuels, fish, meat, dairy and potatoes. For most of these materials chain policy is being developed. Moreover, part of the policy is only focused on energy or on biodiversity. Integrating these themes may prevent contradictory measures from being taken. The report also presents the order of ranking of the materials for different environmental themes. [Dutch] In dit rapport is geanalyseerd wat de milieueffecten zijn van onze import van grondstoffen voor de eigen consumptie in Nederland en ook voor de grondstoffen die wij weer doorvoeren nadat we ze omgevormd hebben tot product. Er is op basis van CBS-data gekeken naar broeikasgassen, toxische emissie, landgebruik en biodiversiteit. Grondstoffen met een grote impact op deze thema's zijn: cacao, chemieketens, kolen, granen, hout, papier, katoen, oliezaden, staal, koper, aluminium, zink, transportbrandstoffen, vis, vlees, zuivel en aardappelen. Voor een groot deel van deze materialen is er ketenbeleid in ontwikkeling. Bovendien is een deel van het beleid alleen gericht op energie of alleen op biodiversiteit. Het integreren van die thema's kan voorkomen dat er tegenstrijdige maatregelen worden genomen. In het rapport zijn de rangordes van de materialen op de verschillende milieuthema's ook apart gepresenteerd.

  6. Currency Denomination of Bank Loans : Evidence from Small Firms in Transition Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, M.; Ongena, S.; Yesin, P.

    2008-01-01

    We examine the firm-level and country-level determinants of the currency denomination of small business loans. We introduce an information asymmetry between banks and firms in a model that also features the trade-off between the cost of debt and firm-level distress costs. Banks in our model don’t

  7. Explaining technical change in a small country the Finnish national innovation system

    CERN Document Server

    Vuorinen, Pentti

    1994-01-01

    Technical change is produced by the interaction of a large number of technical, economic, social and institutional factors. One of the starting points is the concept of national innovation systems. The aim of this book is to take Finland as an example illustrating the challenges faced by small countries. The characteristics and performance of the Finnish national innovation system of the last couple of decades are analyzed. The Finnish experience is put in a broader context by comparing it with a few other countries. The development paths possible in the near future are assessed. According to the results, many problems remain despite favourable developments in several technology indicators. The rigidities of the social institutions created during the 1970s and 1980s seem to have become obstacles for economic and technological development. There are fairly large differences between the countries studied, and even between the culturally and historically close Nordic countries. However,Finland and Sweden seem to...

  8. Commemorating a ‘Foreign’ War in a Neutral Country The Political Insignificance of World War 1 Memory in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kees Ribbens

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The recent creation of a First World War museum exhibit at Huis Doorn reflects the increased Dutch attention paid to this war, accompanying the international Centenary efforts, although the neutral Netherlands had not been actively involved in the military events of wwi. This initiative, on a small estate where the former German emperor Wilhelm II lived after the defeat of Germany in 1918, was not a natural outcome of the dynamics of Dutch historical culture. This article raises the question of how wwi became increasingly emphasised in the early twenty- first century, and to what extent this reflects a profound change in the national historical culture, which previously displayed no strong connections to wwi. While familiarity with wwi has grown among the Dutch media and the wider public, governmental interest remained limited (very different from the case of wwii, making it rather difficult to actually speak of politics of memory. 

  9. Out in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saskia Keuzenkamp; David Bos

    2007-01-01

    The Netherlands is generally regarded as a gay-friendly country. It was the first country in the world where partners of the same sex were allowed to marry. Any number of famous Dutch figures openly profess their homosexuality, including one of the ministers in the present  Dutch cabinet.

  10. Promoting space research and applications in developing countries through small satellite missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeting, M.

    The high vantage-point of space offers very direct and tangible benefits to developing countries when carefully focused upon their real and particular communications and Earth observation needs. However, until recently, access to space has been effectively restricted to only those countries prepared to invest enormous sums in complex facilities and expensive satellites and launchers: this has placed individual participation in space beyond the sensible grasp of developing countries. However, during the last decade, highly capable and yet inexpensive small satellites have been developed which provide an opportunity for developing countries realistically to acquire and operate their own independent space assets - customized to their particular national needs. Over the last 22 years, the Surrey Space Centre has pioneered, developed and launched 23 nano-micro-minisatellite missions, and has worked in partnership with 12 developing countries to enable them to take their first independent steps into space. Surrey has developed a comprehensive and in-depth space technology know-how transfer and 'hands-on' training programme that uses a collaborative project comprising the design, construction, launch and operation of a microsatellite to acquire an indigenous space capability and create the nucleus of a national space agency and space industry. Using low cost small satellite projects as a focus, developing countries are able to initiate a long term, affordable and sustainable national space programme specifically tailored to their requirements, that is able to access the benefits derived from Earth observation for land use and national security; improved communications services; catalyzing scientific research and indigenous high-technology supporting industries. Perhaps even more important is the long-term benefit to the country provided by stimulating educational and career opportunities for your scientists and engineers and retaining them inside the country rather the

  11. A review of mercury exposure among artisanal small-scale gold miners in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anders Kasper Bruun; Thomsen, Jane Frølund; Mikkelsen, Sigurd

    2014-01-01

    Extraction of gold using mercury has been a way out of poverty for millions of people in developing countries. Artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) has expanded during the last decades and is often carried out under primitive conditions. Thus, workers in this industry may be exposed to high...... levels of mercury and suffer from toxic effects from mercury exposure. The objective of this review was to provide an outline of the studies available on elemental mercury exposure among artisanal small-scale gold miners....

  12. Treatment Variation of Sequential versus Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy in Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients in the Netherlands and Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walraven, I; Damhuis, R A; Ten Berge, M G; Rosskamp, M; van Eycken, L; de Ruysscher, D; Belderbos, J S A

    2017-11-01

    Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) is considered the standard treatment regimen in non-surgical locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and sequential chemoradiotherapy (SCRT) is recommended in patients who are unfit to receive CCRT or when the treatment volume is considered too large. In this study, we investigated the proportion of CCRT/SCRT in the Netherlands and Belgium. Furthermore, patient and disease characteristics associated with SCRT were assessed. An observational study was carried out with data from three independent national registries: the Belgian Cancer Registry (BCR), the Netherlands Cancer Registry (NCR) and the Dutch Lung Cancer Audit-Radiotherapy (DLCA-R). Differences in patient and disease characteristics between CCRT and SCRT were tested with unpaired t-tests (for continuous variables) and with chi-square tests (for categorical variables). A prognostic model was constructed to determine patient and disease parameters predictive for the choice of SCRT. This study included 350 patients from the BCR, 780 patients from the NCR and 428 patients from the DLCA-R. More than half of the stage III NSCLC patients in the Netherlands (55%) and in Belgium more than a third (35%) were treated with CCRT. In both the Dutch and Belgian population, higher age and more advanced N-stage were significantly associated with SCRT. Performance score, pulmonary function, comorbidities and tumour volume were not associated with SCRT. In this observational population-based study, a large treatment variation in non-surgical stage III NSCLC patients was observed between and within the Netherlands and Belgium. Higher age and N-stage were significantly associated with the choice for SCRT. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Perceived discrimination in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Iris Andriessen; Henk Fernee; Karin Wittebrood

    2014-01-01

    Only available in electronic version There is no systematic structure in the Netherlands for mapping out the discrimination experiences of different groups in different areas of society. As in many other countries, discrimination studies in the Netherlands mostly focus on the experiences of specific groups, on specific domains or on specific types of discrimination. This study aims to chart the extent to which residents of the Netherlands perceive that they are subject to discrimination, from...

  14. Global standards and local knowledge building: upgrading small producers in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Aleman, Paola

    2012-07-31

    Local knowledge building is a crucial factor for upgrading small producers and improving their market competitiveness and livelihoods. The rise of global standards affecting food safety and environmental sustainability in agriculture sparks debates on the impact on smallholders in developing countries. This article presents a perspective on the links of international standards to knowledge and institution building for developing the capabilities of small producers. Interacting with global practices, indigenous private and public actors create local institutions to develop capabilities for product and process innovations that contribute to economic development and enhance food security. Local innovation depends on collective strategic efforts through increasing networks among small producers and other organizations, including firms, nongovernmental organizations, and government, that foster knowledge circulation and bring diverse resources and support to build local capabilities.

  15. The Role of Small Countries in Post-Soviet Territorial Restructuring: the Baltic Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnov V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This author analyses the 2013 Lithuanian presidency of the EU in the context of the Ukrainian crisis and evaluates the contribution of Latvia and Estonia (the former Soviet republics set to preside over the EU in 2015 and 2018 to the shift in the power balance in the post-Soviet space. Through assessing the actions of small countries in promoting the Eastern Partnership programme with an emphasis on the anti-Russian agenda, the author concludes that they will inflict harm on the EU in a long-term perspective. These former Soviet republics no longer rely on mere diplomacy, but resort to a whole new problematic narrative, where Russia is described as an “aggressive and unpredictable neighbour” that poses the “threat from the East.” Being more mobile, small countries are able to concentrate power and resources in one or several key areas. This makes it possible for these countries to take advantage of international politics (even if the consequences of such steps are miscalculated and “feed” on it through — so metimes consciously — creating “conflict nodes” in the relations between major players. This is especially true in the case of states that do not bear responsibility for global stability.

  16. Small Companies Innovations in Emerging Countries: E-Business Adoption and its Business Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Novaes Zilber

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Organizations have been taking advantage of e-business as an innovative opportunity to improve business results, but small companies have not been adopting this tool as quickly as large corporations. There are several studies on the adoption of e-business in developed countries, but there are fewer studies in emerging Latin American countries. Thus, the goal of this study was to describe the business model of small companies that have adopted e-business (an innovation to this segment in an emerging Latin American country. For that, we used a quantitative approach trough a survey data. Main results: the owners/shareholders play a central role in making decisions about the adoption of e-business; the main value delivered from using the internet was improved brand and/or product awareness. The companies using e-business achieved increase in business and an expanded geographic scope of sales. The main difficulties encountered were training personnel to work on the internet and defining which web activities can lead to achieve strategic objectives.

  17. Training for empowerment? A comparative study of nonformal education for women in small island countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A M

    1997-10-01

    This article compares nonformal education (NFE) and training options for women among the small island countries of Fiji, Kiribati, Niue, Tonga, Barbados, Grenada, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent. Data were obtained from 4 groups (the government agency for women, the national women's organization, a nongovernmental organization, and the university extension center) that operated an NFE course during 1992-94. Interviews were conducted among the tutor and 5 women from the selected NFE programs who had attended research workshops. Over 200 women were interviewed. Caribbean country NFE programs included a varied program of instruction that included, for example, self-defense, assertiveness training, and women-in-trade programs. South Pacific training programs included, for example, training of trainers, leadership training, women and traditional medicine, and women in development. Regional papers in preparation for the 1995 Beijing Conference included research findings on NFE, including workshop findings. Facilitators from Niue and Tonga were more satisfied with women's status in their countries than those in Fiji and Kiribati, but women in all 4 countries said things were changing. Women reported benefits from NFE programs such as new information, acquiring new skills, visiting new places, and sharing experiences with other women. In Kiribati and Tonga, women were disappointed in lack of follow-up. Caribbean women were self-aware, but gained insight into their lack of rights and justice. Not all programs empowered women. NFE providers and participants were unable to identify significant outcomes.

  18. Incentives for small clubs of Arctic countries to limit black carbon and methane emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aakre, Stine; Kallbekken, Steffen; Van Dingenen, Rita; Victor, David G.

    2018-01-01

    Although addressing climate change will ultimately require global cooperation, substantial progress may be achieved through small clubs of countries, where it is easier to forge and implement deals needed for policy coordination. Here we quantify the gains from cooperation in the Arctic region and find that nearly 90% of the potential for abating black carbon can be reached by countries acting in self-interest alone because soot, the main source of black carbon, causes severe harm to human health along with warming. Abating methane, by contrast, requires more cooperation because impacts are more diffused geographically. Well-designed clubs with as few as four members can realize more than 80% of the full group cooperation potential for reducing these pollutants. The pivotal player in every effective club is Russia—most other members of the Arctic Council, the institution most focused on advancing the collective interests of the region, offer little leverage on the problems at hand.

  19. Biomass gasification in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Drift, A. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    This reports summarizes the activities, industries, and plants on biomass gasification in the Netherlands. Most of the initiatives somehow relate to waste streams, rather than clean biomass, which may seem logic for a densely populated country as the Netherlands. Furthermore, there is an increasing interest for the production of SNG (Substitute Natural Gas) from biomass, both from governments and industry.

  20. Marriage migration in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leen Sterckx; Jaco Dagevos; Willem Huijnk; Jantine van Lisdonk

    2014-01-01

    Original title: Huwelijksmigratie in Nederland When a man or woman living in the Netherlands embarks on a relationship with a partner from another country and the couple decide to build a married life together in the Netherlands, we call this marriage migration. The foreign partner who moves to

  1. Perceived discrimination in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iris Andriessen; Henk Fernee; Karin Wittebrood

    2014-01-01

    Only available in electronic version There is no systematic structure in the Netherlands for mapping out the discrimination experiences of different groups in different areas of society. As in many other countries, discrimination studies in the Netherlands mostly focus on the experiences

  2. HOW DOES SMALL MEDIUM ENTERPRISE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES OVERCOME INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY ADOPTION PROBLEMS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambar Sari Dewi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of Small Medium Enterprise (SME has been proven to be important in economic development. Many research also believed that the rapid rise of SME’s development caused by Information and Communication Technology (ICT adaption in their business. However, its adoption in developing countries faces several problems. Using Rogers’ (1995 diffusion of innovation theory and Manueli’s et.al (2007 recommendations, this essay will argue that to overcome the problem, a strong cooperation should be taken, interpersonal communication should be use as well as type of ICTs should be chosen wisely, based on specifi needs.

  3. A review of mercury exposure among artisanal small-scale gold miners in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Anders Kasper Bruun; Thomsen, Jane Frølund; Mikkelsen, Sigurd

    2014-08-01

    Extraction of gold using mercury has been a way out of poverty for millions of people in developing countries. Artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) has expanded during the last decades and is often carried out under primitive conditions. Thus, workers in this industry may be exposed to high levels of mercury and suffer from toxic effects from mercury exposure. The objective of this review was to provide an outline of the studies available on elemental mercury exposure among artisanal small-scale gold miners. Searching the PubMed and Embase databases, 26 studies with a total of 3,005 exposed subjects and 442 controls across 14 different developing countries were found. Urine mercury levels were used as biomarkers of exposure. In general, the urine mercury levels were elevated and a considerable proportion of workers had urine mercury levels above existing guidelines. Exposed subjects were stratified into residents, miners, millers, smelters, and refiners, who by work task content were expected to be increasingly exposed to mercury. This group order did show a clear trend of increasing mercury levels. Mercury levels differed substantially between studies. Possible explanations include dissimilarities in gold extraction methods, use of protective devices, and selection of participants. This review provides evidence that artisanal gold miners and residents of the mining sites are exposed to mercury vapour to an extent where acute and long-term toxic effects of mercury are likely. Interventions aimed at reducing exposure and emission of mercury from ASGM are needed.

  4. High-Amplitude Atlantic Hurricanes Produce Disparate Mortality in Small, Low-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresser, Caleb; Allison, Jeroan; Broach, John; Smith, Mary-Elise; Milsten, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    Hurricanes cause substantial mortality, especially in developing nations, and climate science predicts that powerful hurricanes will increase in frequency during the coming decades. This study examined the association of wind speed and national economic conditions with mortality in a large sample of hurricane events in small countries. Economic, meteorological, and fatality data for 149 hurricane events in 16 nations between 1958 and 2011 were analyzed. Mortality rate was modeled with negative binomial regression implemented by generalized estimating equations to account for variable population exposure, sequence of storm events, exposure of multiple islands to the same storm, and nonlinear associations. Low-amplitude storms caused little mortality regardless of economic status. Among high-amplitude storms (Saffir-Simpson category 4 or 5), expected mortality rate was 0.72 deaths per 100,000 people (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.16-1.28) for nations in the highest tertile of per capita gross domestic product (GDP) compared with 25.93 deaths per 100,000 people (95% CI: 13.30-38.55) for nations with low per capita GDP. Lower per capita GDP and higher wind speeds were associated with greater mortality rates in small countries. Excessive fatalities occurred when powerful storms struck resource-poor nations. Predictions of increasing storm amplitude over time suggest increasing disparity between death rates unless steps are taken to modify the risk profiles of poor nations. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:832-837).

  5. Controlled Containment, Radioactive Waste Management in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codee, H.

    2002-02-26

    All radioactive waste produced in The Netherlands is managed by COVRA, the central organization for radioactive waste. The Netherlands forms a good example of a country with a small nuclear power program which will end in the near future. However, radioisotope production, nuclear research and other industrial activities will continue to produce radioactive waste. For the small volume, but broad spectrum of radioactive waste, including TENORM, The Netherlands has developed a management system based on the principles to isolate, to control and to monitor the waste. Long term storage is an essential element of the management system and forms a necessary step in the strategy of controlled containment that will ultimately result in final removal of the waste. Since the waste will remain retrievable for long time new technologies and new disposal options can be applied when available and feasible.

  6. Growing medicine: small-scale cannabis cultivation for medical purposes in six different countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkarainen, Pekka; Frank, Vibeke Asmussen; Barratt, Monica J; Dahl, Helle Vibeke; Decorte, Tom; Karjalainen, Karoliina; Lenton, Simon; Potter, Gary; Werse, Bernd

    2015-03-01

    The production and consumption of cannabis for the treatment of medical conditions is of increasing importance internationally; however, research on different aspects of the phenomenon is still scarce. In this article, we report findings from a cross-cultural study of small-scale cannabis cultivation for medical purposes. This kind of comparative study has not been done previously. The data were gathered with a help of web surveys conducted by the Global Cannabis Cultivation Research Consortium (GCCRC) in Australia, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Germany and the UK (N=5313). In the analysis we compare reports of medical motives, for what conditions cannabis is used, whether users have diagnoses for these conditions and whether the use of cannabis been recommended as a treatment of those conditions by a medical doctor. Descriptive statistics are used to show the main commonalities and noteworthy disparities across different countries. Findings from countries were quite similar, even though several national differences in details were found. Growing cannabis for medical purposes was widespread. The majority of medical growers reported cultivating cannabis for serious conditions. Most of them did have a formal diagnosis. One fifth had got a recommendation from their doctor, but in most cases cannabis use was self-medication which was not discussed with their doctors. There is a wider demand for licit access for medical cannabis than currently available in these countries. Ideologically, medical growers can be seen distancing themselves from both the legal and illicit drug markets. From a harm reduction perspective, it is worrying that, in the context of present health and control policies in these countries, many medical growers are using cannabis to treat serious medical conditions without proper medical advice and doctor's guidance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Geomagnetic Crustal field Anomalies over small countries (Austria and Albania) according to regional and global models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peqini, Klaudio; Duka, Bejo

    2017-04-01

    Austria and Albania are comparably small countries, geographically mostly elongated respectively in longitude and latitude. Using data from repeat stations on these countries and their neighboring countries, the regional spatial-temporal (ST) model for each country is build by polynomial expansion in time, latitude and longitude of the geomagnetic field components. The residuals between the observed values of the components of the magnetic field and those predicted by the model are interpreted as local anomalies of the Crustal/Lithosphere geomagnetic field. Using different global models (CM5, POMME-9, EMM2015, CHAOS-6), that are expansion in spherical harmonics up to maximum degree Lmax, the geomagnetic field contribution of internal sources at any place of the region (Austria or Albania) at any time (within the time interval of the respective model validity) can be calculated. These global models consider the spherical harmonics contribution from degree L = 1 to Lc as the Core field and the spherical harmonics contribution from the degree L = Lc + 1 to Lmax as Crust/Lithosphere static field, i.e. there is not considered the induced magnetization of the Crust/Lithosphere. We have calculated the crustal contribution in each region by different ways: by calculating the residuals between observed values and predicted values by the different models (up to Lmax) and then averaging these residuals; by calculating the residuals between the observed values and values predicted from the nuclear part (contribution from L = 1 to Lc) of different models; by the direct calculations of the models (considering contribution from L = Lc + 1 to Lmax). The results from different models and different ways for Austrian and Albanian regions will be compared. Especially the results for the total field (F) will be compared with available aeromagnetic and ground anomalies maps of the regions.

  8. Astronomy in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Wilfried; Habing, Harm

    2013-01-01

    We describe the state of astronomical research in the Netherlands per early 2012. We add some notes on its history of this research and on the strategic choices for the future. Compared to the size of the country (16 million people) the Netherlands is maintaining a high profile in astronomical research over a period of more than one century. The professional research community consists of about 650 people. This includes research staff, postdocs, PhD students, technical staff working on instrumentation projects and people involved in the operations of ground-based telescopes and astronomical space missions. We do not take into account staff working for international organizations based in the Netherlands. Astronomical research in the Netherlands is carried out at four university institutes and two national research institutes that fall under the umbrella of the national funding agency NWO. The Netherlands is the host of two international organizations: ESTEC, the technology division of the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE). The Netherlands are one of the founding members of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and of ESA. This paper will address a number of significant multilateral collaborations.

  9. Status of small water supplies in the Nordic countries: Characteristics, water quality and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdottir, Maria J; Persson, Kenneth M; Andradottir, Hrund O; Gardarsson, Sigurdur M

    2017-11-01

    Access to safe water is essential for public health and is one of the most important prerequisites for good living and safe food production. Many studies have shown that non-compliance with drinking water quality standards in small water supply systems is much higher than in large systems. Nevertheless, people served by small water supply systems have the right to the same level of health protection. Actions are therefore needed to improve the situation. The objective of the present study was to carry out a baseline analysis of the situation in the Nordic region and provide recommendations for governmental policy and actions. Data were gathered on number of water supplies, population served, compliance with regulations and waterborne disease outbreaks from various sources in the Nordic countries. The collected data showed that there are about 12500 regulated water supplies, 9400 of which serve fewer than 500 persons. The number of unregulated and poorly regulated supplies is unknown, but it can be roughly estimated that these serve 10% of the Nordic population on a permanent basis or 2.6 million people. However, this does not tell the whole story as many of the very small water supplies serve transient populations, summerhouse dwellers and tourist sites, with many more users. Non-compliance regarding microbes is much higher in the small supplies. The population weighted average fecal contamination incidence rate in the Nordic region is eleven times higher in the smaller supplies than in the large ones, 0.76% and 0.07%, respectively. Registered waterborne disease outbreaks were also more frequent in the small supplies than in the large ones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. The Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vries, Anthon K.

    1975-01-01

    Examines early childhood education in the Netherlands: its history, general conceptions of child upbringing and developmental psychology, organizational patterns, main research projects, and goals. (JH)

  11. Out in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Saskia Keuzenkamp; David Bos

    2007-01-01

    The Netherlands is generally regarded as a gay-friendly country. It was the first country in the world where partners of the same sex were allowed to marry. Any number of famous Dutch figures openly profess their homosexuality, including one of the ministers in the present  Dutch cabinet. And according to international comparative research, homosexuality is widely accepted in Dutch public opinion. However, hostility towards homosexuality also occurs, for example in schools. And gays and ...

  12. Variation in term birthweight across European countries affects the prevalence of small for gestational age among very preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeitlin, Jennifer; Bonamy, Anna-Karin Edstedt; Piedvache, Aurelie

    2017-01-01

    AIM: This study assessed the prevalence of small for gestational age (SGA) among very preterm (VPT) infants using national and European intrauterine references. METHODS: We generated country-specific and common European intrauterine growth references for 11 European countries, according to Gardos...

  13. Development of out-of-hours primary care by general practitioners (GPs) in The Netherlands: from small-call rotations to large-scale GP cooperatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Uden, Caro J T; Giesen, Paul H J; Metsemakers, Job F M; Grol, Richard P T M

    2006-09-01

    Over the last 10 years, care outside office hours by primary care physicians in The Netherlands has experienced a radical change. While Dutch general practitioners (GPs) formerly performed these services in small-call rotations, care is nowadays delivered by large-scale GP cooperatives. We searched the literature for relevant studies on the effect of the out-of-hours care reorganization in The Netherlands. We identified research that included before- and afterintervention studies, descriptive studies, and surveys. These studies focused on the consequences of reorganizing several aspects of out-of-hours care, such as patient and GP satisfaction, patient characteristics, utilization of care, and costs. Various studies showed that the reorganization has successfully addressed many of the critical issues that Dutch GPs were confronted with delivering these services. GPs' job satisfaction has increased, and patients seem to be satisfied with current out-of-hours care. Several aspects of out-of-hours care are discussed, such as telephone triage, self referrals, and future expectations, which should receive extra attention by researchers and health policy makers in the near future.

  14. Family caregiver perspectives on social relations of elderly residents with dementia in small-scale versus traditional long-term care settings in the Netherlands and Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rooij, Alida H P M; Luijkx, Katrien G; Spruytte, Nele; Emmerink, Peggy M J; Schols, Jos M G A; Declercq, Anja G

    2012-11-01

    To provide insight into family caregiver perspectives on social relations within the 'caregiving triangle' between family caregiver, professional caregiver and elderly resident with dementia. Results were compared between traditional versus small-scale long-term care settings in the Netherlands and Belgium. Residential dementia care is shifting towards a more holistic and person-centred approach. Until now, little is known about family caregiver perspectives. A quasi-experimental longitudinal design. This study was part of a larger research project focusing on the quality of life of residents with dementia in traditional and small-scale settings (n = 179). This study focused on family caregivers related to these residents (n = 64). They filled in a questionnaire containing 25 items (baseline and after 12 months) related to their perspectives on the interaction within the 'caregiving triangle'. Analyses were performed using mixed models and logistic regression. Compared to traditional settings, family caregivers of relatives with dementia living in small-scale settings had more contact with the professional caregivers, were more satisfied with this contact and felt that staff paid more attention to their feelings as family members. They also reported that staff showed better listening skills towards the residents. Furthermore, compared to those in Belgium, family caregivers in the Netherlands perceived staff to be less hurried and more accepting of help from family and felt that staff more often takes the resident seriously. In the move towards more person-centred care for residents with dementia, this study finds preliminary evidence for the importance of integrating the family perspective. Gaining more insight into the perspectives of family caregivers on the social relations within the 'caregiving triangle' may provide knowledge about the importance of the social system surrounding elderly residents with dementia and can provide pointers for future research.

  15. Comparative Analysis of Football Efficiency Among Two Small European Countries: Portugal and Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANNIS DOUVIS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper estimates changes in total productivity, breaking this down into technically efficient change and technological change by means of data envelopment analysis(DEA applied to a representative sample of football clubs operating in the two small European countries: Portugal and Greece. The aim of this procedure is to seek out those best practices that will lead to improved performance in the market. We rank the football clubs according to their change in total productivity for the period 1999/2000 to 2002/2003,concluding that some clubs experienced productivity growth while others experienced a decrease in productivity. The implications arising from the study are considered in terms of managerial policy.

  16. Gambling and problem gambling in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudriaan, Anna E

    2014-07-01

    To provide an overview of gambling in the Netherlands, focusing on historical background, policy, legislation, prevalence of problem gambling, availability of treatment options and research base. Literature review. Contradictions between gambling policy and practice have been present in the past 15-20 years, and have led to an increasingly stricter gambling regulation to retain the government policy to restrict gambling within a national monopoly. Conversely, political efforts have been made to legalize internet gambling, but have not yet been approved. Compared to other European countries, slot machine gambling and casino gambling are relatively popular, whereas betting is relatively unpopular. Last-year problem gambling prevalence (South Oaks Gambling Screen score > 5) is estimated at 0.22-0.15% (2005, 2011). Treatment for problem gambling is covered by health insurance under the same conditions as substance dependence, but only a small proportion of Dutch problem gamblers seeks help at addiction treatment centres. Gambling policy in the Netherlands has become stricter during recent last years in order to maintain the Dutch gambling monopoly. Problem gambling in the Netherlands is relatively stable. Dutch research on problem gambling has a lack of longitudinal studies. Most of the epidemiological gambling studies are reported in non-peer-reviewed research reports, which diminishes control by independent peers on the methodology and interpretation of results. Recent efforts to enhance consistency in research methods between gambling studies over time could enhance knowledge on changes in (problem) gambling in the Netherlands. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. A Small-Sized HTGR System Design for Multiple Heat Applications for Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirofumi Ohashi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Japan Atomic Energy Agency has conducted a conceptual design of a 50 MWt small-sized high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR for multiple heat applications, named HTR50S, with the reactor outlet coolant temperature of 750°C and 900°C. It is first-of-a-kind of the commercial plant or a demonstration plant of a small-sized HTGR system to be deployed in developing countries in the 2020s. The design concept of HTR50S is to satisfy the user requirements for multipurpose heat applications such as the district heating and process heat supply based on the steam turbine system and the demonstration of the power generation by helium gas turbine and the hydrogen production using the water splitting iodine-sulfur process, to upgrade its performance compared to that of HTTR without significant R&D utilizing the knowledge obtained by the HTTR design and operation, and to fulfill the high level of safety by utilizing the inherent features of HTGR and a passive decay heat removal system. The evaluation of technical feasibility shows that all design targets were satisfied by the design of each system and the preliminary safety analysis. This paper describes the conceptual design and the preliminary safety analysis of HTR50S.

  18. Organic agriculture in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sukkel, W.; Hommes, M.

    2009-01-01

    Dutch organic agriculture has unique characteristics and peculiarities. It is still a relatively small sector compared to conventional agriculture in the Netherlands. However, its market share is growing and organic agriculture leads the way in terms of sustainability and innovations

  19. Research on deployed Danish soldiers: why is knowledge derived from a small, Nordic country relevant for other countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Nielsen, Anni Brit Sternhagen; Andersen, Soren Bo

    2014-01-01

    population of Denmark is 5.66 million, resulting in a relatively high deployed-to-population ratio. Since research in the field have found deployed soldiers to be at increased risk for mental health problems following deployment this large number entails a potential public health problem for the Danish...... society. The Research and Knowledge Center in the Danish Veteran Center has over the last years conducted a longitudinal study of Danish soldiers deployed to Afghanistan from February to August 2009 on potential mental health problems that might arise in this population. In the following, a few highlights...... focusing on the development of posttraumatic stress (PTS) in this sample will be presented, and the relevance and generalizability of these findings to military populations from other countries will be discussed....

  20. Treatment Patterns and Differences in Survival of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Between Academic and Non-Academic Hospitals in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Naomi; Bongers, Mathilda L; Coupé, Veerle M H; Smit, Egbert F; Groen, Harry J M; Welling, Alle; Schramel, Franz M N H; Uyl-de Groot, Carin A

    2017-09-01

    The aims of this study are to analyze differences in survival between academic and non-academic hospitals and to provide insight into treatment patterns for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Results show the state of NSCLC survival and care in the Netherlands. The Netherlands Cancer Registry provided data on NSCLC survival for all Dutch hospitals. We used the Kaplan-Meier estimate to calculate median survival time by hospital type and a Cox proportional hazards model to estimate the relative risk of mortality (expressed as hazard ratios) for patients diagnosed in academic versus non-academic hospitals, with adjustment for age, gender, and tumor histology, and stratifying for disease stage. Data on treatment patterns in Dutch hospitals was obtained from 4 hospitals (2 academic, 2 non-academic). A random sample of patients diagnosed with NSCLC from January 2009 until January 2011 was identified through hospital databases. Data was obtained on patient characteristics, tumor characteristics, and treatments. The Cox proportional hazards model shows a significantly decreased hazard ratio of mortality for patients diagnosed in academic hospitals, as opposed to patients diagnosed in non-academic hospitals. This is specifically true for primary radiotherapy patients and patients who receive systemic treatment for non-metastasized NSCLC. Patients diagnosed in academic hospitals have better median overall survival than patients diagnosed in non-academic hospitals, especially for patients treated with radiotherapy, systemic treatment, or combinations. This difference may be caused by residual confounding since the estimates were not adjusted for performance status. A wide variety of surgical, radiotherapeutic, and systemic treatments is prescribed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Can Small Countries Benefit from the E-waste Global Value Chain?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meine Pieter, Dijk van, E-mail: mpvandijk@iss.nl [UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Erasmus University in Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-01-09

    E-waste is a term used to cover items of all types of electrical and electronic equipment and its parts that have been discarded by the owners as waste without the intention of re-use, because this equipment has ceased to be of any value to its owners. E-waste is one of the fastestgrowing waste streams globally. Since the Rio Summit Earth summit organized by the United Nations in 1992, the concept of sustainability extends to rendering basic services such as Solid Waste Management and dealing with e-waste. People are afraid of e-waste because of its possible negative effects on health and because it could pollute the environment. Indicators of unsustainable service provision concerninge-waste include irregular collection, open dumping, burning of solid and e-waste in open spaces. Often collection covers a small part of the country, cost recovery is limited or not existent, and one notes poor utilization of available resources with no or very limited reuse and recycling.

  2. Sport clubs in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werff, H. van der; Hoekman, R.H.A.; Kalmthout, J. van; Breuer, C.; Hoekman, R.; Nagel, S.; Werff, H. van der

    2015-01-01

    The Netherlands are a prosperous country. Compared to other countries wage differences and social inequality are low, and the standards for education, health, safety and security are high. Furthermore, with approximately 500 inhabitants per square kilometre it is dense populated. The culture of the

  3. Small-scale distribution and diel vertical migration of zooplankton in a shallow lake (Lake Naardermeer, the Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerbin, S.; Balayla, D.; Van de Bund, W.J.

    2003-01-01

    Small scale distribution and diurnal migration of zooplankton were investigated in lake Naardermeer, a shallow lake largely covered by uniform Chara beds. For sampling, pattern samplers with a number of inverted funnels facing towards the lake bottom and held in a frame were used. Samplers were

  4. Determinants of Point-of-Sale System Adoption: A Survey among Small Independent Retailers in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plomp, M.G.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313946809; Huiden, R.P.; Batenburg, R.S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074474421

    2011-01-01

    Several threats affect the survival of small, independent retail companies. Adoption and use of Point-of-Sale (POS) systems may offer important benefits to counter these threats. POS systems are not widely used by these retailers, however. This research investigates the determinants of the adoption

  5. Recurrence of small-for-gestational-age pregnancy: analysis of first and subsequent singleton pregnancies in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voskamp, Bart Jan; Kazemier, Brenda M.; Ravelli, Anita C. J.; Schaaf, Jelle; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Pajkrt, Eva

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) neonates are at increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcome. Our objective was to study the recurrence rate of SGA in subsequent pregnancies. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective national cohort study of all women with a structurally normal first and subsequent

  6. Exploring corporate sustainability integration into business activities. Experiences from 18 small and medium sized enterprises in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witjes, S.; Vermeulen, W.J.V.; Cramer, J.M.

    Although companies have shown a growing awareness of the importance of Corporate Sustainability (CS), integration of CS into their business activities is still problematic. Most of the CS research focuses on large corporations, with limited discussions of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs).

  7. Consumer choice between common generic and brand medicines in a country with a small generic market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraeyman, Jessica; Peeters, Lies; Van Hal, Guido; Beutels, Philippe; De Meyer, Guido R Y; De Loof, Hans

    2015-04-01

    Generic medicines offer an opportunity for governments to contain pharmaceutical expenditures, since generics are generally 10%-80% lower in price than brand medicines. Belgium has a small generic market that takes up 15% of the total pharmaceutical market in packages sold. To determine the knowledge of consumers about the different available packages of a common over-the-counter medicine (acetaminophen) with regard to price advantage, quality, and effectiveness in a country with a small generic market. We conducted an online survey in the general Flemish population using a questionnaire with 25 statements. The questionnaire also contained 2 informative interventions. First, we showed the price per package and per tablet that the patient would pay in the pharmacy. Second, we provided the respondent with general information about generic medication (equivalence, effectiveness, price, and recognition). Before and after the interventions, we probed for preferences and knowledge about the different packages. Multivariate logistic models were used to examine the independent effects of consumer characteristics on responses to the survey statements. We obtained a sample of 1,636 respondents. The general attitude towards generic medication was positive-only 5% would rather not use a generic. Nevertheless, only 17% of the respondents were able to recognize a generic medicine. Older consumers (aged 60 years and above) were more often confused about the different packages (OR = 2.59, 95% CI = 1.76-3.80, P ≤ 0.001). Consumers without a higher education degree tended to be more doubtful about the difference in effectiveness and quality between the different brands (OR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.44-0.79, P ≤ 0.001). Consumer recognition of the name of the active substance of acetaminophen was poor. When different brands were displayed, possible price advantage seemed to be an important motive to switch to a cheaper brand. Consumers generally found medicines

  8. Small and medium-sized enterprises’ exporting: Home and host country motivators effect on first and successive export venture decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilios Stouraitis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to investigate the internationalization (particularly exporting of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs taking a sample of United Kingdom (UK SMEs for the use in economic policy, academia and management. It focuses on the critical first and less risky step towards internationalization and separates the motivators into home country and host country. The paper investigates 44 specific, high impact, pre-selected exporting motivators from the literature and tests their effect on the firm’s initial export decision and latest (or sequential export decision. Results show that the first exporting choice affects later exporting choices and both are mostly affected by home country-specific, internal, motivators as opposed to host country-specific reactive motivators. In addition regionalization shows an association as European Union membership of the UK showed a relationship to subsequent entry mode choice. The paper’s results are of use to policy-makers and management.

  9. The role of government in collective bargaining: Scandinavia and the low countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michels, A.M.B.; Michels, Ank; Slomp, Hans

    1990-01-01

    This article compares the role of government in collective bargaining in five small West European countries. For the period until the second half of the 1970s, a distinction is made between countries in which government often interfered in wage bargaining, e. g. Denmark and The Netherlands, and

  10. The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelhaas, M.; Clerkx, A.P.P.M.

    2017-01-01

    Forest coverage in the Netherlands has expanded from 2% at the beginning of the nineteenth century to 11% nowadays (370,000 ha). Wood production is only one function among many others including recreation and nature protection. Consequently, the harvest level is low relative to the increment (~55%),

  11. Inpatient care of small and sick newborns: a multi-country analysis of health system bottlenecks and potential solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxon, Sarah G; Lawn, Joy E; Dickson, Kim E; Simen-Kapeu, Aline; Gupta, Gagan; Deorari, Ashok; Singhal, Nalini; New, Karen; Kenner, Carole; Bhutani, Vinod; Kumar, Rakesh; Molyneux, Elizabeth; Blencowe, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of child death worldwide. Small and sick newborns require timely, high-quality inpatient care to survive. This includes provision of warmth, feeding support, safe oxygen therapy and effective phototherapy with prevention and treatment of infections. Inpatient care for newborns requires dedicated ward space, staffed by health workers with specialist training and skills. Many of the estimated 2.8 million newborns that die every year do not have access to such specialised care. The bottleneck analysis tool was applied in 12 countries in Africa and Asia as part of the Every Newborn Action Plan process. Country workshops involved technical experts to complete the survey tool, which is designed to synthesise and grade health system "bottlenecks" (or factors that hinder the scale up) of maternal-newborn intervention packages. For this paper, we used quantitative and qualitative methods to analyse the bottleneck data, and combined these with literature review, to present priority bottlenecks and actions relevant to different health system building blocks for inpatient care of small and sick newborns. Inpatient care of small and sick newborns is an intervention package highlighted by all country workshop participants as having critical health system challenges. Health system building blocks with the highest graded (significant or major) bottlenecks were health workforce (10 out of 12 countries) and health financing (10 out of 12 countries), followed by community ownership and partnership (9 out of 12 countries). Priority actions based on solution themes for these bottlenecks are discussed. Whilst major bottlenecks to the scale-up of quality inpatient newborn care are present, effective solutions exist. For all countries included, there is a critical need for a neonatal nursing cadre. Small and sick newborns require increased, sustained funding with specific insurance schemes to cover inpatient care and avoid catastrophic out

  12. Personal identity in Belgium and The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klimstra, T.A.; Luyckx, K.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of research on personal identity formation in the Low Countries (Belgium and The Netherlands). First we describe the broader societal context and specificities of Belgium and The Netherlands, then we move to a historical overview of the identity models that have

  13. The Benefits of a Small Country as a Member of NATO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    in Small States in the Post-Cold War World: Slovenia and NATO Enlargement, ed. Zlatko Sabic and Charles Bukowski (Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers...2002), xi. 4 Zlatko Sabic, 11Small States Aspiring for NATO Membership: Some Factors Influencing the Accession Process," in Sabic and Bukowski , 3...Sabic and Bukowski , 3. 7 Commonwealth Secretariat and World Bank Joint Task Force on Small States in Sabic and Bukowski , 3. 8 Jennie Harre Hind

  14. Biological and social feasibility of Sesbania fallow practice in small holder agricultural farms in developing countries: a Zambian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opio, C

    2001-01-01

    Many small holder farmers in developing countries face problems of declining soil fertility and crop yields and insufficient money to buy expensive inorganic fertilizers. The Sesbania fallow system, an agroforestry technology, seems to hold a key to these problems. Based on field studies in eastern Zambia, this paper reports that fallow system has the potential to improve and sustain soil productivity in the small holder farms. However, the paper also reports that the ability for subsistence farmers to adopt the Sesbania fallow system is affected by gender differences in resource allocation to productive resources and institutional, cultural, and social structural settings in which farmers exist and make decisions.

  15. Efficient Institutions and External Trade Policy Management Can Increase the Influence of a Small Country on the International Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Koleša

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on a country’s external trade policy management in relation to the processes within its sub national entities. Its main goal is to identify an optimal approach to realizing the national interests of a small EU member state at the international/sub national level. We argue that influence on certain decisions does not necessarily solely depend on the power (i. e., size of a country, but also depends on other factors, such as the country’s goals and ability to form alliances. We confirm that institutions are of key importance for efficient external trade policy management – small countries in particular can increase their influence at the international level substantially if they are capable of efficient process management and forming alliances with sub national actors. After analysing the systems in selected eu member states, we make proposals for enhancing the trade policy management process in Slovenia.

  16. Small wind turbines with timber blades for developing countries: Materials choice, development, installation and experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon; Freere, Peter; Sinha, Rakesh

    2011-01-01

    The low cost wind turbines with timber blades represent a good solution for the decentralized energy production in off-grid regions of developing countries. This paper summarizes the results of investigations on the mechanical testing and choice of timber for wind blades, testing of different...

  17. Small hydropower in Southern Africa: an overview of five countries in the region

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jonker Klunne, W

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available frameworks that facilitate IPPs and Power Purchase Agreements with the national utility do provide a basis for (local) commercial banks to provide finance. Off-grid hydropower for rural electrification purposes sees activities in the countries with an active...

  18. The state of the art of aquatic and semi-aquatic ecological restoration projects in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nienhuis, PH; Bakker, JP; Grootjans, AP; Gulati, RD; de Jonge, VN

    The Netherlands are a small, low-lying delta in W. Europe (42 000 km 2;50degrees-54degrees N; 3degrees-8degrees E), mainly consisting of alluvial deposits from the North Sea and from the large rivers Rhine and Meuse. The country was 'created by man'. The conversion of natural aquatic and terrestrial

  19. Influence of Intermediaries on the Efficiency of Export of Small and Medium Business Production in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzik Miqael Suvaryan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium business plays an important role in the national economies of developing countries. From this perspective, to create an effective system for exports is of key importance for these countries. The article provides the basis for the implementation of intermediary export organizations and systems for their interaction with small and medium business entities. On the example of Armenia, the authors proved that the introduction of intermediary organizations to enhance the participation of small and medium business in export operations is expedient. These organizations may be implemented in other developing countries. We used methods of analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, comparative method, statistical analysis and others. The authors proposed three possible options for establishing intermediary export organizations in developing countries.. Firstly, we considered the intermediary export organizations, established and managed directly by the state. Secondly, intermediary export organizations may be created by uniting of small and medium enterprises (SMEs of a particular industry in association. And the final option is the commercial intermediary organizations for export. By applying a comparative cost analysis of direct and indirect exports, the authors have developed a method for assessing the effectiveness of interaction of intermediary export organizations with small and medium-sized businesses. We defined the following components of the total exports costs: the costs of warehousing, packaging, transportation, information collection, contracts, search for the shadow broker and interaction with him/her, marketing, export documentation, broker services, banking and insurance services, personnel costs, operation of the structure, tax and customs payments. We have analysed possible changes in these costs and defined the value of the cost changes total indicator that shows more effective indirect exports. . The study defines the

  20. Small nation, big ships winter navigation and technological nationalism in a peripheral country, 1878-1978

    OpenAIRE

    Matala, Saara; Sahari, Aaro

    2017-01-01

    Finland is the only country in the world where all ports freeze over during a typical winter. Over the century 1878-1978, Finland developed a winter-seafaring system that broke the winter isolation and eliminated seasonal variation in shipping. By using diverse archival sources, we deconstruct the dominant narrative of Finnish winter seafaring through which national as well as technological development is often presented as natural, inevitable and straightforward. We reinterpret the Finnish w...

  1. Central Planning in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1947-01-01

    textabstractImmediately after the Liberation the Netherlands were faced with a severe shortage of all essential goods, particularly in the Western part of the country, where the period of famine had led to a complete exhaustion of all stocks, and where the Germans had deliberately destroyed the

  2. Infrared activities in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, A.N. de

    1987-01-01

    This presentation summarizes the infrared activities in the Netherlands during the past 30 years and indicates the directions for future work. The capabilities of infrared technology, being passive and useful for night vision applications were envisaged for a long time in our country. The dependence

  3. Net Neutrality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.

    2014-01-01

    The Netherlands is among the first countries that have put specific net neutrality standards in place. The decision to implement specific regulation was influenced by at least three factors. The first was the prevailing social and academic debate, partly due to developments in the United States. The

  4. Management of small-scale fisheries in developing countries : The case of Elephant Marsh in Malawi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosamu, I.B.M.

    2017-01-01

    Wetlands provide many ecosystem goods and services which include fish production. The sustainability of small-scale fisheries (SSF) has received considerable attention in recent years because fish is one of the major sources of animal protein to a considerable fraction of the global population which

  5. Spinoza and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. van Bunge (Wiep)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractMoving to my topic of Spinoza and the Netherlands, two separate questions present themselves: what did the Netherlands mean to Spinoza, and reversely, what did Spinoza mean to the Netherlands?

  6. Core inflation in a small transition country: choice of optimal measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagik G. Aghajanyan

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Several non-monetary (mainly supply factors affect prices in the short-run. It is widely acknowledged that in countries (especially countries in transition, where the price level is highly volatile and seasonal, it is not expedient for central banks to use official inflation index while formulating monetary policy. For this reason, it is crucial for central banks to work out, study and follow the behavior of core inflation that enables to reflect long-run price movements. This paper presents the application of various methods of calculating core inflation to Armenian data (for 1996:1-2002:12. Each measure is calculated at monthly frequencies and evaluated by different criteria. The analysis shows that core inflation indices, calculated by trimming the distribution of prices at 10 or 15%, are the best and most effective indicators for monetary policy-makers in Armenia, since they capture inflation trends and are closely tied to monetary aggregates. However, the median seems to be the best predictor for forecasting inflation of all core inflation measures discussed in this paper

  7. The Question of Instability, Uncompetitiveness and Growth Slowdown of Small Middle –Income Countries in the Euro Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Senjur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The thesis of this article is that a small country with a below-average per capita income is in a disadvantaged macroeconomic position inside the euro area. Small middle-income countries expected an acceleration of growth by joining the EMU. They were hoping to catch up in the convergence process within the euro area. Yet things turned out differently. The crisis in 2009–2012 has led to excessive instability due to exogenous macroeconomic prices and the lack of a lender of last resort for sovereign debtors. Small MICs are more vulnerable to asymmetric shocks from abroad due to the ‘one-size-fits-all’ economic policy at the EMU level. This is reflected in the excessive volatility of real economic variables (such as GDP and unemployment, and excessive financial instability (such as indebtedness and sovereign debt. The crisis also revealed weak price competitiveness of exports due to overvalued exchange rate of the euro and overall under-average productivity of the MICs. MICs had to respond with deflationary internal (surrogate devaluations and depressed aggregate demand. Measures of internal surrogate devaluations may partially improve situation in the medium term, yet they may worsen the competitive growth situation in the long run. A macroeconomic environment of macroeconomic instability and weak competitiveness may trigger a slowdown in growth.

  8. A methodology for producing small scale rural land use maps in semi-arid developing countries using orbital imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangenderen, J. L. (Principal Investigator); Lock, B. F.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Results have shown that it is feasible to design a methodology that can provide suitable guidelines for operational production of small scale rural land use maps of semiarid developing regions from LANDSAT MSS imagery, using inexpensive and unsophisticated visual techniques. The suggested methodology provides immediate practical benefits to map makers attempting to produce land use maps in countries with limited budgets and equipment. Many preprocessing and interpretation techniques were considered, but rejected on the grounds that they were inappropriate mainly due to the high cost of imagery and/or equipment, or due to their inadequacy for use in operational projects in the developing countries. Suggested imagery and interpretation techniques, consisting of color composites and monocular magnification proved to be the simplest, fastest, and most versatile methods.

  9. Child Labour Use in a Small Developing Country: Is it Luxury, Distributional or Substitution Axiom?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendra Reddy

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Child labour use in developing countries has been increasing over the years. In general, it’s characterized by low wages and long hours of work under dangerous, hazardous, unhealthy and unhygienic conditions, which could lead to poor physical and mental development. It deprives a child of education and natural development. In this paper, we examined the use of child labour in Fiji. The study utilized primary data collected using a structured survey to examine the determinants of child labour. The results from this study demonstrate that the variables such as household size, household income, and the gender of children significantly affect child labour supply. Furthermore, absence of adults from households is also a causal factor contributing towards child labour. Using these results, we make a case for “luxury” and “substitution” axioms for Fiji’s Child labour market.

  10. A comparative study of the financing, provision and quality of care in nursing homes: the approach of four European countries: Belgium, Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, A.; Campen, C. van; Kerkstra, A.

    2000-01-01

    As result of an increase in the numbers of frail elderly people, most European countries are facing problems with the financing and provision of services by nursing homes. At the same time, the expectations of quality of these services continue to rise. The main question investigated in this study

  11. R&D Internationalization, R&D Collaboration and Public Knowledge Institutions in Small Economies : Evidence from Finland and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Beers, C.; Berghäll, E.; Poot, T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates domestic and foreign innovating firms’ determinants of R&D collaboration with domestic universities and public knowledge institutes in Finland and the Netherlands. We put particular emphasis on the impact of incoming academic spillovers on the probability to co-operate with

  12. Late Mesolithic hunting of a small female aurochs in the valley of the River Tjonger (the Netherlands) in the light of Mesolithic aurochs hunting in NW Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prummel, W.; Niekus, M.J.L.Th.

    The valley of the River Tjonger, situated in the Province of Friesland (the Netherlands), is rich in prehistoric organic remains. The fill of the valley, consisting of waterlogged sediments (peat, gyttja and sands), presents favourable conditions for the preservation of bone, antler and botanical

  13. Asymmetry of ECOWAS integration process: contribution of regional hegemon and small country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis O Omo-Ogbebor

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the role of Nigeria and Ghana in ECOWAS specific fields of integration since its creation in 1975. It showed the relevance of Nigeria as a regional leader and the importance of Ghana as a key factor in ECOWAS integration process, and their respective foreign policy stand towards West African integration process in the present century. In order to evaluate and present the role of Nigeria and Ghana in ECOWAS integration process, the authors set out three main tasks to actualize it. The first task is to identify the main areas of ECOWAS integration process, namely: economic integration, security formation and political reformation using qualitative methodological analysis to achieve this task. The second task is the review of ECOWAS operational structure, which explained how Nigeria was able to exert its hegemony status in ECOWAS, and how Ghana is able to remain useful in ECOWAS despite the overwhelming influence of Nigeria. The third task is using historical analytical method to present facts and explain the various contributions by Nigeria and Ghana in ECOWAS economic liberation process, peacekeeping operations, and political interventions in ECOWAS member states which have brought relative peace and security to the region. The authors draw conclusion based on the result of the research analysis that, in spite of ECOWAS compositions which include the Francophone countries in the region and its leadership structure, Nigeria and Ghana have led by example, by devoting much attention and commitment to the ECOWAS integration process through mediations, peacekeeping, political intervention and economic cooperation.

  14. Risks of using social media as a marketing tool for small producers in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makhitha, K. M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this secondary research is to determine the suitability of social media as an element of marketing communication for craft producers. Secondary research was used to determine the suitability of social media as an element of marketing communication for craft producers in an emerging country. The growth in the craft market is also associated with the rise in local interest in South African craft fuelled by trends towards ethnic, rustic, earthy styles and increasing national pride and the return of local values. The consulted secondary resources confirm that social media has the potential to help crafters to create better brand awareness, better relationships with customers, and increase sales via these mechanisms. However, the major challenge for craft producers to use social media as a communication tool will be limited resources and illiteracy. The research recommends that the South African government provide support in the form of a centralized marketing agency that uses social media to promote craft producers products

  15. Work Ability and Its Related Factors Among Workers in Small and Medium Enterprises: Comparison Among Four ASEAN Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewboonchoo, Orawan; Isahak, Marzuki; Susilowati, Indri; Phuong, Toai Nguyen; Morioka, Ikuharu; Harncharoen, Kitiphong; Low, Wah Yun; Ratanasiripong, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Work ability is related to many factors that might influence one's capacity to work. This study aimed to examine the work ability and its related factors among small and medium enterprises (SME) workers in 4 Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries. The participants in this study included 2098 workers from food and textile industries in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam. A cross-sectional survey of anonymous self-administrated questionnaire was designed to collect information on sociodemographic factors, work environment and ergonomic condition, musculoskeletal disorders, and work ability. Bivariate correlation coefficient and multiple linear regression analyses were used to predict the work ability. Results of this study confirm that work ability in 4 ASEAN countries was similar to that in European countries, and that the sociodemographic factors, work environment and ergonomic condition, and musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) were associated with work ability. These factors are important for considering occupational health and safety policy to promote work ability in food, textile, and other SME workers. © 2016 APJPH.

  16. Small area associations between social context and alcohol-attributable mortality in a middle income country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Carniglia, Álvaro; Kaufman, Jay S; Pino, Paulina

    2014-04-01

    Little is known about the association between alcohol-attributable mortality and small area socioeconomic variables when considering causes both wholly and partially attributable to alcohol. An ecological study was conducted of the entire Chilean population aged 15 and older in 345 municipalities nationwide between 2004 and 2009. Deaths were attributed to alcohol consumption either wholly or partially, along with the estimated attributable fractions for each specified cause. Each municipality was characterized according to its average income and educational attainment. Estimates of the ecological associations were produced using a hierarchical Bayesian model, separating out deaths caused by alcohol and dividing them into seven groups of causes. Alcohol-attributable mortality risk showed an inverse association with income and education at the ecological level. A one-quintile increase in income was associated with an average decrease in risk of 10% (CI 95%: 10-20%) for cardiovascular deaths, 8% (6-10%) for intentional injuries and 7% (3-11%) for unintentional injuries. No associations were found between deaths due to cancers and other causes with income and education. Municipalities with lower income and education have higher risk of alcohol-attributable mortality in Chile. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The development of marketing in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Wierenga (Berend)

    1981-01-01

    textabstractThe article discusses marketing developments in the Netherlands. The author describes the evolution of marketing in the country from the traditional institutions such as wholesaling, retailing, and auctions, etc. to the nonprofit sectors. Marketing in the country has been described in

  18. Acceptance of homosexuality in the Netherlands 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Saskia Keuzenkamp

    2011-01-01

    The Dutch government wishes to promote the social acceptance of homosexuality. To gain an impression of the current status and the progress in achieving this objective, the government asked the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP to carry out a study of the current statistics and trends in this regard. This report shows that the Netherlands is still the most gay-tolerant country in Europe. Nonetheless, there are limits to that tolerance and there are some groups in Dutch society whi...

  19. Denmark country note 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte; Rostgaard, Tine

    2016-01-01

    . In addition to the new country, these are: Australia, Austria, Brazil, Belgium, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal...... available; the relationship between leave and ECEC entitlements; policy changes and developments since the previous review; publications since the previous review; and ongoing research in participating countries. The 2016 review includes one new country: Korea. Altogether, it covers 39 countries...

  20. Safety regions in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Jazić, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Political, economic, social and environmental changes that accompany the development of the modern world, encourage states to implement changes in the security field. One of these countries is the Netherlands, which reformed its system of public security by introducing safety regions. The safety regions represent a new form of organization in the field of emergency and disaster. They are not a new level of local government but rather a new form of public policy that involves all levels of the...

  1. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/16: The Potential of Technology for the Control of Small Weapons: Applications in Developing Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALTMANN, JURGEN

    2000-07-01

    For improving the control of small arms, technology provides many possibilities. Present and future technical means are described in several areas. With the help of sensors deployed on the ground or on board aircraft, larger areas can be monitored. Using tags, seals, and locks, important objects and installations can be safeguarded better. With modern data processing and communication systems, more information can be available, and it can be more speedily processed. Together with navigation and transport equipment, action can be taken faster and at greater range. Particular considerations are presented for cargo control at roads, seaports, and airports, for monitoring designated lines, and for the control of legal arms. By starting at a modest level, costs can be kept low, which would aid developing countries. From the menu of technologies available, systems need to be designed for the intended application and with an understanding of the local conditions. It is recommended that states start with short-term steps, such as acquiring more and better radio transceivers, vehicles, small aircraft, and personal computers. For the medium term, states should begin with experiments and field testing of technologies such as tags, sensors, and digital communication equipment.

  2. Small country, big business?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Kerstin; Starke, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses New Zealand's role in the global market for tertiary education. The internationalisation and liberalisation of education markets is progressing rapidly in today's globalising world, as reflected by the incorporation of education as a service into the GATS framework. Through...... of education shows that this is not necessarily the case, at least not in the medium-term: New Zealand's government rather appears to be an active facilitator of the liberalisation process in education. We review its recent move towards treating education as an international export good and present data...

  3. Estimates of burden and consequences of infants born small for gestational age in low and middle income countries with INTERGROWTH-21st standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Anne Cc; Kozuki, Naoko; Cousens, Simon

    2017-01-01

     CHERG birth cohorts from 14 population based sites in low and middle income countries. Main outcome measures In low and middle income countries in the year 2012, the number and proportion of infants born small for gestational age; number and proportion of neonatal deaths attributable to small...... for gestational age; the number and proportion of neonatal deaths that could be prevented by reducing the prevalence of small for gestational age to 10%. Results  In 2012, an estimated 23.3 million infants (uncertainty range 17.6 to 31.9; 19.3% of live births) were born small for gestational age in low and middle...... deaths were attributable to infants born small for gestational age, 21.9% of all neonatal deaths. The largest burden was in South Asia, where the prevalence was the highest (34%); about 26% of neonatal deaths were attributable to infants born small for gestational age. Reduction of the prevalence...

  4. Analysis of conditions concerning the natural gas internal market organization in four european countries: Germany, Spain, Netherlands and United Kingdom; Analyse des conditions encadrant l'organisation du marche interieur du gaz naturel dans quatre pays europeens: Allemagne, Espagne, Pays-Bas, Royaume-Uni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    The aim of this economic study is the wording of a synthetic document for the public information in the framework of the 98/30/CE european directive transposition to the gas internal market. It is writing in four main chapters, one for each country concerned: the Germany, the Spain, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. Each one presents the historical context, the actors of the natural gas industry and the main provisions. (A.L.B.)

  5. Barriers to reducing climate enhanced disaster risks in Least Developed Country-Small Islands through anticipatory adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Kuruppu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Small Island Developing States (SIDS classified as Least Developed Countries (LDCs are particularly vulnerable to the projected impacts of climate change. Given their particular vulnerabilities, climate adaptation investments are being made through both national and international efforts to build the capacity of various sectors and communities to reduce climate risks and associated disasters. Despite these efforts, reducing climate risks is not free of various challenges and barriers. This paper aims to synthesise a set of critical socio-economic barriers present at various spatial scales that are specific to Least Developed Country SIDS. It also aims to identify the processes that give rise to these barriers. Drawing on theories from natural hazards, a systematic literature review method was adopted to identify and organise the set of barriers by focussing on both academic papers and grey literature. The data revealed a notable lack of studies on adaptation within African and Caribbean LDC-SIDS. In general, there was a paucity of academic as well as grey literature being produced by authors from LDC-SIDS to challenge existing discourses related to adaptation barriers. The most common barriers identified included those related to governance, technical, cognitive and cultural. Three key findings can be drawn from this study in relation to formal adaptation initiatives. Firstly, the lack of focus on the adaptive capacity needs of Local Government or Island Councils and communities was a key barrier to ensure success of adaptation interventions. Secondly, international adaptation funding modalities did little to address root causes of vulnerability or support system transformations. These funds were geared at supporting sectoral level adaptation initiatives for vulnerable natural resource sectors such as water, biodiversity and coastal zones. Thirdly, there is a need to recognise the significance of cultural knowledge and practices in shaping

  6. Barriers to reducing climate enhanced disaster risks in Least Developed Country-Small Islands through anticipatory adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruppu, N.; Willie, R.

    2015-12-01

    Small Island Developing States (SIDS) classified as Least Developed Countries (LDCs) are particularly vulnerable to the projected impacts of climate change. Given their particular vulnerabilities, climate adaptation investments are being made through both national and international efforts to build the capacity of various sectors and communities to reduce climate risks and associated disasters. Despite these efforts, reducing climate risks is not free of various challenges and barriers. This paper aims to synthesise a set of critical socio-economic barriers present at various spatial scales that are specific to Least Developed Country SIDS. It also aims to identify the processes that give rise to these barriers. Drawing on theories from natural hazards, a systematic literature review method was adopted to identify and organise the set of barriers by focussing both on academic papers and grey literature. The data revealed a notable lack of studies on adaptation within African and Caribbean LDC-SIDS. In general, there was a paucity of academic as well as grey literature being produced by authors from LDC-SIDS to challenge existing discourses related to adaptation barriers. The most common barriers identified included those related to governance, technical, cognitive and cultural. Three key findings can be drawn from this study in relation to formal adaptation initiatives. Firstly, the lack of focus on the adaptive capacity needs of Local Government or Island Councils and communities was a key barrier to ensuring success of adaptation interventions. Secondly, international adaptation funding modalities did little to address root causes of vulnerability or support system transformations. These funds were geared at supporting sectoral level adaptation initiatives for vulnerable natural resource sectors such as water, biodiversity and coastal zones. Thirdly, there is a need to recognise the significance of cultural knowledge and practices in shaping adaptive choices of

  7. Sustainable sanitary landfills for neglected small cities in developing countries: The semi-mechanized trench method from Villanueva, Honduras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oakley, Stewart M., E-mail: soakley@csuchico.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, Chico State University, California State University, Chico, CA 95929 (United States); Jimenez, Ramon, E-mail: rjimenez1958@yahoo.com [Public Works, Municipality of Villanueva, Cortes (Honduras)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Open dumping is the most common form of waste disposal in neglected small cities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Semi-mechanized landfills can be a sustainable option for small cities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present the theory of design and operation of semi-mechanized landfills. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Villanueva, Honduras has operated its semi-mechanized landfill for 15 years. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cost of operation is US$4.60/ton with a land requirement of 0.2m{sup 2}/person-year. - Abstract: Open dumping is the most common practice for the disposal of urban solid wastes in the least developed regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America. Sanitary landfill design and operation has traditionally focused on large cities, but cities with fewer than 50,000 in population can comprise from 6% to 45% of a given country's total population. These thousands of small cities cannot afford to operate a sanitary landfill in the way it is proposed for large cities, where heavy equipment is used to spread and compact the waste in daily cells, and then to excavate, transport and apply daily cover, and leachate is managed with collection and treatment systems. This paper presents an alternative approach for small cities, known as the semi-mechanized trench method, which was developed in Villanueva, Honduras. In the semi-mechanized trench method a hydraulic excavator is used for 1-3 days to dig a trench that will last at least a month before it is filled with waste. Trucks can easily unload their wastes into the trench, and the wastes compact naturally due to semi-aerobic biodegradation, after which the trenches are refilled and covered. The exposed surface area is minimal since only the top surface of the wastes is exposed, the remainder being covered by the sides and bottom of the trench. The surplus material from trench excavation can be valorized for use as engineering fill onsite or off. The landfill in

  8. Data literacy and research data management in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wopereis, Iwan; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia

    2018-01-01

    Similar to most European countries, the Netherlands invests heavily in research data management facilities and support for university personnel. For instance, each university in the Netherlands has its program on these issues which is described in policy documents (e.g., Open Universiteit, 2014).

  9. Implementation of coastal erosion management in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, J.P.M. P.M.; Hommes, Saskia; Horstman, Erik

    2011-01-01

    The Netherlands is a low-lying country, in which 9 million people are living below sea level and 70% of the gross domestic product is being earned in areas below sea level. Therefore, protection against flooding is traditionally the primary focus of coastal policy in the Netherlands. Analysis shows

  10. The Salient History of Dalton Education in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ploeg, Piet

    2014-01-01

    In the Netherlands there are 400 Dalton schools, while Dalton education has all but disappeared elsewhere, including in its country of origin: the USA. Following a brief period in the 1920s in which it enjoyed strong international interest, it disappeared from the scene. How can it be that the Dalton Plan still exists only in the Netherlands? This…

  11. Book Review: A History of the Czechoslovak Ocean Shipping Company, 1948–1989: How a Small, Landlocked Country Ran Maritime Business During the Cold War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taudal Poulsen, René

    2016-01-01

    Review of: Lenka Krátká: A History of the Czechoslovak Ocean Shipping Company, 1948–1989: How a Small, Landlocked Country Ran Maritime Business During the Cold War. Stuttgart: Ibidem Verlag, 2015. x + 271 pp., tables, notes, bibliography. ISBN: 978-3-8382-0666-0, £23.90 (pbk).......Review of: Lenka Krátká: A History of the Czechoslovak Ocean Shipping Company, 1948–1989: How a Small, Landlocked Country Ran Maritime Business During the Cold War. Stuttgart: Ibidem Verlag, 2015. x + 271 pp., tables, notes, bibliography. ISBN: 978-3-8382-0666-0, £23.90 (pbk)....

  12. Denmark country note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte; Rostgaard, Tine

    2014-01-01

    , Israel. Altogether, it covers 35 countries. In addition to Israel, these are: Austria, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland...... overviews cover: each main type of leave; total leave available; the relationship between leave and ECEC entitlements; policy changes and developments since the previous review; publications since the previous review; and ongoing research in participating countries. The 2014 review includes one new country...

  13. Les raffineries de petite taille dans les pays en développement Small-Size Refineries in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonchere J. P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les raffineries de petite taille, nombreuses dans le monde, vont connaître un regain d'intérêt dans le contexte d'énergie chère que l'on connaît maintenant. Les pays en développement chercheront, plus que jamais, l'autosuffisance en pétrole, moteur essentiel de leur croissance. Toute découverte; même limitée, sera une aubaine et pourra offrir l'opportunité de réaliser une raffinerie. La déficience de l'infrastructure de transports, le manque chronique de moyens de financement et de devises étrangères inciteront nombre de pays en développement à considérer un projet de taille modeste avec intérêt. Des bénéfices substantiels peuvent en être retirés : délai de réalisation court et récupération rapide de la mise financière, montage financier facilité par sa modestie même, amélioration de la balance en devises étrangères, coûts de mise à la disposition du consommateur minimisés, intégration à une politique d'aménagement du territoire. There are many small-size refineries in the worid. Renewed interest will be shown in such refineries within the present context of expensive energy. More than ever the developing countries will seek to gain self sufficiency in cil, the essential locomotive of their growth. Any discovery, even limited, will be a windfall and will provide an opportunity ta build a refinery. Deficiencies in the transportation infrastructure together with the chronic lack of financing means and hard currency will incite a good many developing countries ta consider a modest-size project with interest. Substantiel benefits may be goined, i. e. short construction time and rapid recovery of the financiel outlay, facilitating of the financing by the very modesty of its size, improvement in the hard-currency balance and integration into a regional-development policy.

  14. Changing the relationship between tax administration and taxpayers: Horizontal monitoring in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Snežana R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Horizontal monitoring has been established as a tool to prevent aggressive tax structures. It is based on the change of the traditional relationship between tax administration and taxpayers. The program concentrates on corporate taxpayers, mostly large business, with exception of the Netherlands where includes large business, but also small and medium sector. Tax relations are based on the cooperation, mutual trust and transparency between tax administration and taxpayers. After accepted into program, taxpayers sign agreements with the tax administration (tax intermediaries sign the agreement on behalf of the group of their clients - small and medium enterprises. The agreements define tax rights and duties of both parties in line with the law. The paper gives an analysis of the horizontal monitoring as a concept and its features in the Netherlands that make its program unique comparing with similar programs in other countries.

  15. 76 FR 68039 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Successor Entities to the Netherlands Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... Regulation; Successor Entities to the Netherlands Antilles AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DoD), General... status of the islands that comprised the Netherlands Antilles. DATES: Effective Date: November 2, 2011.... Background The Netherlands Antilles was designated as a beneficiary country under the Caribbean Basin...

  16. Sustainable sanitary landfills for neglected small cities in developing countries: the semi-mechanized trench method from Villanueva, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Stewart M; Jimenez, Ramón

    2012-12-01

    Open dumping is the most common practice for the disposal of urban solid wastes in the least developed regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America. Sanitary landfill design and operation has traditionally focused on large cities, but cities with fewer than 50,000 in population can comprise from 6% to 45% of a given country's total population. These thousands of small cities cannot afford to operate a sanitary landfill in the way it is proposed for large cities, where heavy equipment is used to spread and compact the waste in daily cells, and then to excavate, transport and apply daily cover, and leachate is managed with collection and treatment systems. This paper presents an alternative approach for small cities, known as the semi-mechanized trench method, which was developed in Villanueva, Honduras. In the semi-mechanized trench method a hydraulic excavator is used for 1-3 days to dig a trench that will last at least a month before it is filled with waste. Trucks can easily unload their wastes into the trench, and the wastes compact naturally due to semi-aerobic biodegradation, after which the trenches are refilled and covered. The exposed surface area is minimal since only the top surface of the wastes is exposed, the remainder being covered by the sides and bottom of the trench. The surplus material from trench excavation can be valorized for use as engineering fill onsite or off. The landfill in Villanueva has operated for 15 years, using a total land area of approximately 11 ha for a population that grew from 23,000 to 48,000, with a land requirement of 0.2m(2)/person year, a cover to waste ratio of 0.2, and an estimated soil surplus of 298,000 m(3) that is valorized and used onsite. The landfill has been operated solely by the municipality with an operational cost in 2010 estimated at US$4.60 per ton. A modified water balance analysis at Villanueva shows negligible leachate generation from covered trenches and 700 m(3)/yr (60 m(3)/ha yr) from the two open

  17. Regional labour market dynamics in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, Lourens; van Dijk, J.

    This article analyzes the response of regional labor markets in the Netherlands to region-specific labor demand shocks. Previous studies show remarkable differences in response between regions in European countries and regions in the United States. The analysis shows that, in Dutch regions, the

  18. Stimulating medical education research in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaarsma, Debbie; Scherpbier, Albert; Van Der Vleuten, Cees; Ten Cate, Olle

    BACKGROUND: Since the 1970s, the Dutch have been active innovators and researchers in the medical education domain. With regards to the quantity of publications in the medical education literature, the Netherlands rank second among countries in Europe and fourth worldwide over the past years,

  19. Critical (information) Infrastructure Protection in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.; Burger, H.H.; Klaver, M.H.A.

    2003-01-01

    Some sectors and parts of the Dutch national infrastructure are that essential to the Netherlands that serious disruption or even loss of service could lead to a severe impact to the Dutch society, government and industry as well as to those of neighbouring countries. Early 2002, the Dutch

  20. Enhancing the innovative capacity of small firms through triple helix interactions : challenges and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranga, Liana Marina; Miedema, Joost; Jorna, Rene

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a recent exploratory study aiming to enhance the innovative capacity of small firms in the Northern Netherlands, a region lagging behind the rest of the country in terms of economic growth and innovative capacity. The triple helix perspective is adopted to examine

  1. Supporting the E-Business Readiness of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Approaches and Metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutla, Dawn; Bodorik, Peter; Dhaliwal, Jasbir

    2002-01-01

    Presents a conceptual model for governments in creating a climate that facilitates the national adoption of e-business. Focuses on the needs of small and medium-sized enterprises, suggests measures to assess how a country is performing in providing a positive e-business climate, and provides examples from Canada, The Netherlands, Norway, and…

  2. Euthanasia in Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Each of the Benelux countries (Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands) has enacted legislation that partially decriminalises euthanasia, defined as an act that intentionally terminates someone's life at their request. In the Netherlands and Luxembourg, but not in Belgium, the legislation partially decriminalised assisted suicide at the same time. In all three countries, euthanasia can only be performed by a doctor, in response to the patient's voluntary and well-considered request, and for patients who have an incurable disease that causes unbearable suffering, without any prospect of relief. In the Netherlands, minors can request euthanasia as of the age of 12 years. In 2011, reported euthanasia accounted for about 1% of deaths in Belgium and 3% in the Netherlands. In 75% of cases, cancer was the disease leading to a request for euthanasia. In the Netherlands, the number of cases of euthanasia reported by doctors in surveys matches the number that is officially declared. In Belgium, it is thought that there are as many unreported as reported cases of euthanasia. Since the enactment of euthanasia legislation, fewer deaths involve the intentional administration of lethal drugs without an explicit request from the patient.

  3. The Pacific experience: supporting small island countries and territories to meet their 2012 International Health Regulations (2005) commitments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kool, Jacob; Nilles, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Issue By 15 June 2012, States Parties to the International Health Regulations (2005), or IHR (2005), were required to have established the core capacities required to implement Annex 1 of IHR (2005). Context The Pacific is home to 10 million people spread over 21 Pacific island countries and territories. Seven of those have populations of less than 25 000 people; 14 of the 21 Pacific island countries and territories are States Parties to the IHR (2005). Action The World Health Organization Division of the South Pacific embarked on an initiative to support Pacific Island States Parties meet their 15 June 2012 IHR obligations. We adapted the 2012 IHR Monitoring Questionnaire (IHRMQ) to assist Pacific island countries and territories determine if they had met the capacities required to implement Annex 1 of the IHR (2005). If a Pacific island country or territory determined that it had not yet met the requirements, it could use the assessment outcome to develop a plan to address identified gaps. Outcome Direct support was provided to 19 of 21 (91%) Pacific island countries and territories including 13 of 14 (93%) States Parties. Twelve of 14 (86%) fulfilled their requirements by 15 June 2012; those that had not yet met the requirements requested extensions and submitted plans describing how the IHR core capacities would be met. Discussion Adapting the 2012 IHRMQ for this purpose provided an efficient tool for assessing national capacity to implement Annex 1 of IHR (2005) and provided clear indication of what capacities required strengthening. PMID:24319608

  4. Economic and other determinants of infant and child mortality in small developing countries: the case of Central America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojman, D E

    1996-03-01

    . Structural adjustment variables were found to have small impacts on the birth rate or limited impacts on child survival in poorer countries.

  5. International public health in third world country medical missions: when small legs walk, we all stand a little taller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daniel K; Weinstein, Stanley

    2009-01-01

    Medical and surgical missions in Third World countries are mentally, physically, and financially demanding; however, there are many foot and ankle surgeons volunteering their time because it provides high levels of personal and emotional satisfaction. After many years in the missionary field, we would like to share a compilation study of our long-term experience and outcomes from our international medical and surgical pediatric mission trips to Latin American countries. We hope to instill in others the same passion for this work by sharing our portion of contribution in this vast world of international public health.

  6. Different sizes, similar challenges: Out of home care for youth in Germany and the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemiek T. Harder

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available While there is a large difference in the number of young inhabitants in the Netherlands and Germany, their child protection frameworks are quite similar. In both countries, child protection services are mainlyfocused on youth aged 0 to 18 and regulations are aimed at clients' responsibility and their active involvement during care. Youth care services consist of community-based services, day treatment and outof-home care services, which include foster care and residential care. The history of out-of-home care services in both countries is characterized by similar developments. Over the last four decades, similar trends in residential care, towards more small-scale forms of residential care, smaller residential group sizes, and increasing professionalization of staff have emerged. Over the last two decades, a comparable trend towards increasing professionalization can be seen in the context of foster care in both countries. In addition, the number of youths in out-of-home care increased in both countries over the last decade, specifically in foster care. Over the last decade, more studies have been conducted in residential care than in foster care in both countries. Despite similar trends and developments in out-of-home care practice, research mainly shows differences in applied topics and methods between Germany and the Netherlands.

  7. Hunger and microbiology: is a low gastric acid-induced bacterial overgrowth in the small intestine a contributor to malnutrition in developing countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Shafiqul A; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Brüssow, Harald

    2017-09-01

    Underproduction of hydrochloric acid into the stomach is frequently encountered in subjects from developing countries. We explore the hypothesis that hypochlorhydria compromises the gastric barrier and favours bacterial overgrowth in the proximal parts of the small intestine where nutrient absorption takes place. Food calories are thus deviated into bacterial metabolism. In addition to an adequate caloric supply, correcting hypochlorhydria might be needed to decrease childhood malnutrition. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Treatment decision-making for advanced non-small cell lung cancer and differences among European countries: 1st AIOT-ETOP meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gridelli, Cesare; Stahel, Rolf; Besse, Benjamin; Ciardiello, Fortunato; Felip, Enriqueta; Gasparini, Stefano; Graziano, Paolo; Rossi, Antonio; de Marinis, Filippo

    2011-12-01

    The Italian Association of Thoracic Oncology (AIOT) and the European Thoracic Oncology Platform (ETOP) realized the first conjunct educational meeting, open to European oncologists involved in the treatment of thoracic malignancies, entitled "Advanced non-small cell lung cancer: new perspectives in first-line setting". The educational meeting included 8 interactive talks, held by European key opinion leaders, and 5 related clinical cases in which the attendees, divided in working tables based on their country origin, were involved for interactive discussion. The aim of this course was to elucidate the differences or similarities among the European countries in the first-line treatment of patients affected by advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Twenty-two attendees of the following countries participated: Austria, France, Italy, Spain, Swiss, and UK. As expected, some discrepancies between the groups were identified concerning the approach to the diagnostic phase, the choice of first-line regimen, the duration of treatment and the use of maintenance therapy. These discrepancies were mainly due to familiarity with specific therapies and lack of access to certain therapies due to local regulatory issues. The European Medicine Agency grants marketing of drugs in all Europe, regulatory agency of each country can register the drug, but can also deny public reimbursement thus restricting the options of the oncologist. The European Oncology Associations should join to their effort to achieve a uniform access to the cancer therapy for all patients in Europe. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Education as Cultural Mobilisation: The Great War and Its Effects on Moral Education in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolk, Vincent; Los, Willeke; Karsten, Sjoerd

    2014-01-01

    Education during World War I has been a relatively unexplored field of research, especially in the case of countries with a neutral stance in that war. The Netherlands is one such country. This article argues that even though the Netherlands was politically neutral, it was and considered itself a part of western civilisation and shared in the…

  10. Small business and tax compliance costs: A cross-country study of managerial benefits and tax concessions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chris Evans; Ann Hansford; John Hasseldine; Philip Lignier; Sharon Smulders; Francois Vaillancourt

    2014-01-01

      Concern about the size and the regressive nature of taxation compliance costs for small businesses has prompted many governments to introduce special tax concessions and regimes for that sector of the economy...

  11. Hoe de Nederlandse wetenschap beter te maken. [Improving the health of scientific research in The netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clevers, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    Biomedical science in the Netherlands and other continental European countries is lagging behind scientific research in English-speaking countries. A comparison between the two systems reveals several crucial differences. Although levels of government funding of scientific research are approximately

  12. Measuring performance of small and medium scale agrifood firms in developing countries: Gap between Theory and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Mutonyi, Sarah; Gyau, Amos

    2014-01-01

    Globalization and increasing population of middle income classes in developing countries has led to increased market opportunities. These markets are associated with demand for traceability, food safety and quality standards (Webber and Labaste, 2010). This requires the chains to be competitive and ability to manage and evaluate the performance of the supply chain becomes paramount. Performance measurement is defined as the process of quantifying efficiency and effectiveness of an action. In ...

  13. Rural youth culture : Keten in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haartsen, Tialda; Strijker, Dirk

    A remarkable present-day phenomenon in rural areas in the Netherlands is that young people, mostly males, often meet in small groups in self-built or at least self-fitted out sheds or caravans (keten). At first glance, these keten seem to be substitutes for more official entertainment sites in the

  14. Dedovshchina as an Element of the «Small Society» : Evidence From Russia and Other Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Oleynik

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Dedovshchina is considered as a by-product of a particular institutional organization, the «small» society. Non differentiation of the spheres of everyday life, personalized relationships, imperfect control of violence, duality of norms and the imposed authority characterize the «small» society. Dedovshchina consists in orienting the violence generated on everyday basis towards replacement victims or the victims that can be sacrificed. The «small» society produces phenomena similar to dedovshchina everywhere where it exists, in Russia as well as in the West. In the context of the Russian army, first-year soldiers transforms into replacement victims of the violence resulting from learning obedience as a centerpiece of the military service.

  15. Schoolsystem in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ing., M.Sc F.C. Holtkamp

    2004-01-01

    This paper explains the history of the graduate course in prosthetics and orthotics in the Netherlands. It also explains the schoolstystem in relationship towards vocational education and postgraduate education.

  16. Risk assessment of sheep welfare at small-scale slaughter in Nordic countries, comparing with large-scale slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultgren, Jan; Algers, Bo; Atkinson, Sophie; Ellingsen, Kristian; Eriksson, Sofia; Hreinsson, Kjartan; Nordensten, Lotta; Valtari, Heidi; Mejdell, Cecilie Marie

    2016-06-01

    During the pre-slaughter period, animals experience novel environment and procedures which may cause reduced welfare and suffering. Over the last decades, the slaughter industry has restructured into fewer and larger abattoirs, implying potential risks of transport stress, injuries, and impaired animal welfare. Since recently, however, there is growing interest in small-scale slaughter to supply locally or regionally produced meat. Risk managers at all levels thus need to assess animal welfare risks also at small-scale operations. This study aimed to assess risks of poor animal welfare at small-scale lamb slaughter (≤5000 sheep/year and ≤70 sheep/day) in Norway, Iceland, Sweden and Finland, and to compare these risks to large-scale industrial slaughter. Assessment was done applying an individual expert opinion approach during a 2-day workshop. Nine experts in lamb slaughter procedures, behaviour, physiology, health, scoring schemes and/or risk assessment provided estimates of exposure, likelihood of negative consequences following exposure, and intensity and duration of negative consequences for 71 hazards. The methods applied mainly adhered to the risk assessment guidelines of the European Food Safety Authority. The list of hazards was modified from an earlier study and distributed to the experts before the assessment. No other literature was reviewed specifically for the purpose of the assessment. The highest risks to animal welfare identified in both small- and large-scale slaughter were related to inadequate conditions during overnight lairage at the slaughter plant. For most hazards, risk estimates were lower in small-scale slaughter. The reverse was true for splitting of groups and separation of one sheep from the group. Small-scale slaughter has a potential for improved sheep welfare in comparison with large-scale industrial slaughter. Keeping the animals overnight at the slaughterhouse and prolonged fasting before slaughter should be avoided. Solutions

  17. Coeliac disease in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, J J; von Blomberg, B M E; Bueno-de Mesquita, H B; Mearin, M L

    2004-04-01

    The prevalence of adult coeliac disease in The Netherlands was studied in the Dutch Coeliac Disease Society and in blood donors but not in the general population. We therefore studied the prevalence of recognized and unrecognized coeliac disease in a large cohort, representative of the adult Dutch general population. Blood samples were available for anonymous research, as well as data on dietary habits, self-reported physical characteristics, health problems, quality of life and socio-economic circumstances. Subjects included 50,760 individuals who had previously participated in two large population-based studies on health status in relation to lifestyle factors. Recognized coeliac disease was studied in all subjects by identification of self-reported adherence to a gluten-free diet and subsequent confirmation of the diagnosis of coeliac disease. Unrecognized coeliac disease was studied in a random sample of 1440 out of the 50,760 subjects through serologic screening and human lymphocyte antigen (HLA) typing. The prevalence of recognized coeliac disease was 0.016% (95% confidence interval 0.008-0.031) and of unrecognized coeliac disease 0.35% (95% confidence interval 0.15-0.81). Menarcheal age was higher in women with recognized coeliac disease than in women without coeliac disease. The prevalence of adult recognized coeliac disease in The Netherlands is one of the lowest in Europe, while the prevalence of unrecognized coeliac disease is comparable with that in other European countries. Adult coeliac disease is strongly under diagnosed in The Netherlands. The higher menarcheal age in women with recognized coeliac disease may be explained by diagnostic delay.

  18. Inpatient care of small and sick newborns: a multi-country analysis of health system bottlenecks and potential solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Moxon, SG; Lawn, JE; Dickson, KE; Simen-Kapeu, A; Gupta, G.; Deorari, A; Singhal, N.; New, K; Kenner, C; V. Bhutani; Kumar, R.(Panjab University, Chandigarh, India); Molyneux, E; Blencowe, H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Preterm birth is the leading cause of child death worldwide. Small and sick newborns require timely, high-quality inpatient care to survive. This includes provision of warmth, feeding support, safe oxygen therapy and effective phototherapy with prevention and treatment of infections. Inpatient care for newborns requires dedicated ward space, staffed by health workers with specialist training and skills. Many of the estimated 2.8 million newborns that die every year do not have acce...

  19. Risk assessment of sheep welfare at small-scale slaughter in Nordic countries, comparing with large-scale slaughter

    OpenAIRE

    Hultgren, Jan; Algers, Bo; Atkinson, Sophie; Ellingsen, Kristian; Eriksson, Sofia; Hreinsson, Kjartan; Nordensten, Lotta; Valtari, Heidi; Mejdell, Cecilie Marie

    2016-01-01

    Background During the pre-slaughter period, animals experience novel environment and procedures which may cause reduced welfare and suffering. Over the last decades, the slaughter industry has restructured into fewer and larger abattoirs, implying potential risks of transport stress, injuries, and impaired animal welfare. Since recently, however, there is growing interest in small-scale slaughter to supply locally or regionally produced meat. Risk managers at all levels thus need to assess an...

  20. An overview of small-scale food fermentation technologies in developing countries with special reference to Thailand: scope for their improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valyasevi, Ruud; Rolle, Rosa S

    2002-05-25

    Small-scale food fermentation technologies in developing countries have evolved through years of experience rather than through scientific breakthroughs. Many small-scale manufacturers are, therefore, reluctant to accept change and modify fermentation processes. Upgrading the quality and safety of fermented foods, while reducing their production cost and maintaining their authenticity and uniqueness, is of utmost importance. One strategic approach, which has been successfully implemented for the improvement of small-scale soy sauce fermentation in Thailand, is the consortium approach. This approach has allowed industry to work closely in sharing knowledge and common problems, which in turn has provided scientists with the research direction that would best benefit the industry. This consortium approach has brought about changes in the methodologies used in the production of soy sauce, by shortening processing times, introducing fiberglass tanks as bioreactors instead of the traditionally used small earthenware containers and introducing cost-effective waste management systems. One barrier to the application of starter cultures in the small-scale fermentation industry is the loss of uniqueness of fermented products. However, the advent of molecular biology techniques has allowed science to tailor starter cultures to the specific requirements of the manufacturer. Using the techniques of molecular biology, it has been shown that microflora of a specific product vary according to origin and sensory quality. A cell bank is being developed to serve as a resource base for Thai fermented pork sausage in order to facilitate the application of starter cultures in the manufacture of that product.

  1. The protection of fundamental rights in the Netherlands and South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This contribution considers the protection of fundamental rights in the Netherlands and South Africa. Both countries strive to be constitutional democracies that respect basic rights. But both countries go about this aim in very different ways. These different paths to constitutionalism are compared, as well as the reasons for ...

  2. Situation Reports--Bahamas, Brasil, Guatemala, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in four foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahamas, Guatemala, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), and Uruguay. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where appropriate and if it is available. General…

  3. Hosting mega sport events in a small country: The (real impact on the development - cases of Croatia and Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šimić-Banović Ružica

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Majority of studies on the impact of the sports events on country's development are produced before the events take place and as such are in favour of the bidding process. When comparing these ex ante analyses to the ex post evidence, it has been in most cases obvious that they have been overly optimistic. This paper analyses the ex ante analysis provided by the Croatian bidding committee for the European Football Championship 2012. In addition to that, the ex ante study for the World Handball Championship 2009 in Croatia and (insufficient data for the handball championships that took place in Serbia were analysed as well. This paper contributes both to the debate on the realistic approach of several failed and won bids, and the debate on the future bids for the other sport events.

  4. THE DECENTRALISATION OF HEALTH MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS THROUGH SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES IN BRIC-COUNTRIES: A SEMANTIC MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Amato

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article has been developed to provide an analytical framework about the process of health decentralisation that has emerged in BRIC-countries. For this purpose, this study offers a reflection about the process of decentralisation in emerging BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India and China with theoretical argumentative issues about public health systems, and the reorganisation of the public health sector. The following review consequently focuses upon the managerial aspects of health systems, and SMEs' contribution to services delivery. In accordance, a semantic model organises current key determinants of involved actors in the public health sector for a contribution to understanding the affirmation of multiple forms of development in which the delivery of healthcare services has been critically implemented.

  5. Application of atmospheric solution precursor plasma spray to photocatalytic devices for small and medium industries in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindole, Dickson; Ando, Yasutaka

    2017-01-01

    For development of a functional film deposition process with high deposition rate, as a basic study, TiO2 films were deposited by atmospheric solution precursor plasma spray (ASPPS) process. Ethanol-diluted titanium tetraisobutoxide [TTIB: Ti(OC4H9)4] was used as a feedstock. To achieve a high plasma thermal energy at a low discharge power, N2-dominant Ar/N2 as the plasma working gas was used, for film deposition at various deposition distances. Consequently, photocatalytic TiO2 with a rutile/anatase mixture film structure was deposited evenly in this case. By conducting methylene blue decomposition and wettability tests, photocatalytic properties of the film were confirmed. When a TiO2 film was applied to photocatalytic dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), the cells generated an electromotive force of 0.143V oc, which is close to those of commercial DSSCs. From these results, the ASPPS process was found to have high potential for high rate functional film deposition and was cost effective, making it suitable for developing countries.

  6. Cost Effectiveness of the Angiotensin Receptor Neprilysin Inhibitor Sacubitril/Valsartan for Patients with Chronic Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction in the Netherlands: A Country Adaptation Analysis Under the Former and Current Dutch Pharmacoeconomic Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Isaac Corro; Versteegh, Matthijs M; de Boer, Rudolf A; Koenders, Jolanda M A; Linssen, Gerard C M; Meeder, Joan G; Rutten-van Mölken, Maureen P M H

    2017-12-01

    To describe the adaptation of a global health economic model to determine whether treatment with the angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor LCZ696 is cost effective compared with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril in adult patients with chronic heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction in the Netherlands; and to explore the effect of performing the cost-effectiveness analyses according to the new pharmacoeconomic Dutch guidelines (updated during the submission process of LCZ696), which require a value-of-information analysis and the inclusion of indirect medical costs of life-years gained. We adapted a UK model to reflect the societal perspective in the Netherlands by including travel expenses, productivity loss, informal care costs, and indirect medical costs during the life-years gained and performed a preliminary value-of-information analysis. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio obtained was €17,600 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. This was robust to changes in most structural assumptions and across different subgroups of patients. Probability sensitivity analysis results showed that the probability that LCZ696 is cost-effective at a €50,000 per QALY threshold is 99.8%, with a population expected value of perfect information of €297,128. On including indirect medical costs of life-years gained, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was €26,491 per QALY gained, and LCZ696 was 99.46% cost effective at €50,000 per QALY, with a population expected value of perfect information of €2,849,647. LCZ696 is cost effective compared with enalapril under the former and current Dutch guidelines. However, the (monetary) consequences of making a wrong decision were considerably different in both scenarios. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Weichselian Aeolian Geoheritage Top 20 of the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; Platform Aardkundige Waarden, members

    2016-04-01

    The Netherlands are known world-wide for its engineered landscapes, its deep polders and bulb fields. The deep polders, up to more than 5 meters below sea level, originated by reclaiming peat lakes and peat quarries made for fuel. Its bulb fields are situated on levelled permeable dunes on which the precise water management is possible that growing bulbs requires. The Waddensea and -islands are less widely known (except by German bathers), although they are a World Heritage. The Waddensea is a highly pristine tidal landscape that already occurs along the Dutch coast for over 10,000 years and an important Natura 2000 area. The Wadden islands have an interesting history of erosion and re-growth and old cultural landscapes that show the interaction of land use and small-scale differences in geology and geomorphology during different cultural periods. Therefore, it is time to change the international perception of foreign visitors to The Netherlands and add the high variety of its historical landscapes, partly pristine and partly old cultural landscapes, to its tourism qualities. The poster presents a Top 20 of a less spectacular but another internationally important Dutch landscape: the coversand sites of the Netherlands. The Top 20 is selected by Geoheritage NL's Platform Aardkundige Waarden. The coversands evolved during the Late Weichselian, when the Netherlands was not covered by land ice and for a long period of time was part of a polar desert. The coversand landscape with dunes of 0,5 m up to 15 metres is not spectacular, but very characteristic. The coversands comprise of more than half a kilometre broad and 40 kilometre long dunes, series of river dunes as well as isolated dunes. The coversands and related Holocene drift sands make up about a quarter of the Dutch landscape. Over a century ago more than half of this landscape still had its pristine topography. Now less than a few percent is remaining. Especially the few remaining heathlands on coversand are an

  8. Human trafficking and legalized prostitution in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegel Dina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available On 1 October 2000, the Netherlands became the first European country to legalize prostitution as a profession, with its rights and duties. On the other hand, this new Dutch law excluded those sex workers, who come from outside the EU. The majority of women working in the sex industry, who are considered illegal migrants in the Netherlands, had two choices: either leaving the country or disappearing into the illegal criminal circuit. For law enforcement and assistant services, it became extremely difficult to control the sector. In this paper, the consequences of the 'Brothel Law' are presented. What happens with illegal non-European sex workers in the Netherlands, how the problem of human trafficking is constructed in Dutch media and combated in the country, what could be learned from the 'Dutch case'? The paper aims to answer these questions and contribute to the general study on human trafficking and voluntary prostitution in Europe.

  9. Concomitant active tuberculosis prolongs survival in non-small cell lung cancer: a study in a tuberculosis-endemic country.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hsi Kuo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adjuvant tumor cell vaccine with chemotherapy against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC shows limited clinical response. Whether it provokes effective cellular immunity in tumor microenvironment is questionable. Concomitant active tuberculosis in NSCLC (TBLC resembles locoregional immunotherapy of tumor cell vaccine; thus, maximally enriches effective anti-tumor immunity. This study compares the survival and immunological cell profile in TBLC over NSCLC alone. METHODS: Retrospective review of NSCLC patients within 1-year-period of 2007 and follow-up till 2010. RESULTS: A total 276 NSCLC patients were included. The median survival of TBLC is longer than those of NSCLC alone (11.6 vs. 8.8 month, p<0.01. Active tuberculosis is an independent predictor of better survival with HR of 0.68 (95% CI, 0.48 ~ 0.97. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC (55.8 vs. 31.7%, p<0.01 is a significant risk factor for NSCLC with active TB. The median survival of SCC with active tuberculosis is significantly longer than adenocarcinoma or undetermined NSCLC with TB (14.2 vs. 6.6 and 2.8 months, p<0.05. Active tuberculosis in SCC increases the expression of CD3 (46.4 ± 24.8 vs. 24.0 ± 16.0, p<0.05, CXCR3 (35.1 ± 16.4 vs. 19.2 ± 13.3, p<0.01 and IP-10 (63.5 ± 21.9 vs. 35.5 ± 21.0, p<0.01, while expression of FOXP3 is decreased (3.5 ± 0.5 vs. 13.3 ± 3.7 p<0.05, p<0.05. Survival of SCC with high expression of CD3 (12.1 vs. 3.6 month, p<0.05 and CXCR3 (12.1 vs. 4.4 month, p<0.05 is longer than that with low expression. CONCLUSIONS: Active tuberculosis in NSCLC shows better survival outcome. The effective T lymphocyte infiltration in tumor possibly underlies the mechanism. Locoregional immunotherapy of tumor cell vaccine may deserve further researches.

  10. A Matter of Facts...and More: An Exploratory Analysis of the Content of Sexuality Education in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Rebecca M.; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Knijn, Trudie

    2008-01-01

    The Netherlands is often recognized for its approach to adolescent sexual health, noted by the country's low rates of teen pregnancy and high contraceptive use among young people. Different studies have compared the sexual health outcomes of youth in The Netherlands with those of young people in other developed countries, and, to varying degrees,…

  11. Worker participation - the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwantes, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Worker participation relates to the involvement of workers in the management decision-making processes. In this article attention is focused on worker participation related to occupational safety and health in the Netherlands. Worker participation can refer either to direct or indirect participation

  12. Mechatronics in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amerongen, J.; Jongkind, Wim

    1996-01-01

    This article assesses the present situation of mechatronics in the Netherlands. After a short historical survey, it describes the postgraduate ¿mechatronic designer course¿, introduced in 1991. It deals with the principles of this course and how these principles have been implemented. Also, the

  13. Sport in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Koen Breedveld

    2007-01-01

    Sport is a popular pastime in the Netherlands; 10 million people take part in at least one sport. To do this, they can choose from more than 27,000 non-profit sports clubs, or more than 5,000 commercial providers such as fitness centres or riding stables. These clubs and commercial providers

  14. Telework in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van het Kaar, R.

    2008-01-01

    Statistics show that the incidence of telework in the Netherlands has been rising since 2000, regardless of the precise definition used. The government has encouraged the use of telework by introducing tax benefits for employers who facilitate such work. This article looks at the extent of telework

  15. Morocco and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fritschy, W.; Bos, P. (eds.)

    2006-01-01

    This book on aspects of society, economy and culture in Morocco and the Netherlands contains contributions of 28 Moroccan and Dutch authors on religion, family and marriage law, local government and PJD, Abdelkrim, Morocco and the EU, drug trafficking, migration, youth, Dutch-Moroccan writers, and

  16. The Association of Workplace Exposures on Quality of Life in Small and Medium Enterprises Workers: A Cross-Sectional Study in Four ASEAN Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isahak, Marzuki; Loh, May Young; Susilowati, Indri Hapsari; Kaewboonchoo, Orawan; Harncharoen, Kitiphong; Mohd Amin, Nursuhaili; Toai, Nguyen Phuong; Low, Wah-Yun; Ratanasiripong, Paul

    2017-05-01

    Quality of life is associated with several factors, including personal living styles and working conditions. This article aims to investigate the factors associated with quality of life among small and medium enterprises (SME) workers in 4 countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), namely Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, and Vietnam. A total of 2014 workers from food and textile industries were asked to answer a questionnaire about their sociodemographic characteristics, working environment and conditions, and quality of life. Results from showed that lifestyle (ie, alcohol intake and exercising), working characteristics (ie, shift work, working hours, and working days) and workplace conditions were associated with SME workers' quality of life (ie, physical, psychological, social, and environmental domain). Among the 16 types of workplace conditions, "sitting on the chair" and "slippery floor" most affect their quality of life . It is important for these variables to be taken into account in promoting workers' well-being and quality of life.

  17. Regional differences in decline of mortality from selected conditions: The Netherlands, 1969-1984

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mackenbach, J. P.; Looman, C. W.; Kunst, A. E.; Habbema, J. D.; van der Maas, P. J.

    1988-01-01

    In The Netherlands, as in many other industrialized countries, recent mortality developments have been characterized by rapid declines for a number of important causes of death. The results of an analysis of regional variation in mortality decline within The Netherlands are reported, covering the

  18. Analysing and evaluating flood risk governance in the Netherlands: Drowning in safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaufmann, M.; Doorn-Hoekveld, W.J. van; Gilissen, H.K.; Rijswick, H.F.M.W. van

    2016-01-01

    The Netherlands has a long tradition of flood risk management, due to its special physical location in the delta of four major river systems. This low-lying country is historically characterised by a ‘fight against water’. The Flood Risk Governance Arrangement of the Netherlands is characterised by

  19. Water policy in the Netherlands; Integrated Management in a densely populated delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhard, A.J.; Folmer, H.

    2009-01-01

    As a low-lying delta region with a high population density, the Netherlands have long served as a study of successes and pitfalls in water management. Water Policy in the Netherlands traces the history of water governance in the country, from technological innovations to prevent wide-scale flooding,

  20. Euthanasia: law and practice in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, S

    1996-04-01

    In The Netherlands, euthanasia is defined as the deliberate termination of the life of a person on his request by another person. Although, in this limited sense, euthanasia is only one of the issues raised by medical decision-making at the end of life, it is, in particular, the acceptance of euthanasia in this country that has attracted attention from abroad. Also, in The Netherlands itself, the toleration of the courts of euthanasia (if carried out by a physician under strict conditions) has given rise to much debate. This contribution surveys the developments in the law (including recent legislation), and in medical practice, and explores the relation between the two, with particular attention to the position of the physician.

  1. Economic evaluation of progeny-testing and genomic selection schemes for small-sized nucleus dairy cattle breeding programs in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariuki, C M; Brascamp, E W; Komen, H; Kahi, A K; van Arendonk, J A M

    2017-03-01

    In developing countries minimal and erratic performance and pedigree recording impede implementation of large-sized breeding programs. Small-sized nucleus programs offer an alternative but rely on their economic performance for their viability. We investigated the economic performance of 2 alternative small-sized dairy nucleus programs [i.e., progeny testing (PT) and genomic selection (GS)] over a 20-yr investment period. The nucleus was made up of 453 male and 360 female animals distributed in 8 non-overlapping age classes. Each year 10 active sires and 100 elite dams were selected. Populations of commercial recorded cows (CRC) of sizes 12,592 and 25,184 were used to produce test daughters in PT or to create a reference population in GS, respectively. Economic performance was defined as gross margins, calculated as discounted revenues minus discounted costs following a single generation of selection. Revenues were calculated as cumulative discounted expressions (CDE, kg) × 0.32 (€/kg of milk) × 100,000 (size commercial population). Genetic superiorities, deterministically simulated using pseudo-BLUP index and CDE, were determined using gene flow. Costs were for one generation of selection. Results show that GS schemes had higher cumulated genetic gain in the commercial cow population and higher gross margins compared with PT schemes. Gross margins were between 3.2- and 5.2-fold higher for GS, depending on size of the CRC population. The increase in gross margin was mostly due to a decreased generation interval and lower running costs in GS schemes. In PT schemes many bulls are culled before selection. We therefore also compared 2 schemes in which semen was stored instead of keeping live bulls. As expected, semen storage resulted in an increase in gross margins in PT schemes, but gross margins remained lower than those of GS schemes. We conclude that implementation of small-sized GS breeding schemes can be economically viable for developing countries. The

  2. Influence of obstacles on the aerodynamic roughness of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Joost J.M. de; Vries, Arjen C. de; Klaassen, Wim

    The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of large- and small-scale obstacles (orography, tree lines, and dikes) on the effective aerodynamic roughness of the Netherlands, a relatively flat, small-scale landscape. The roughness averaging approach was based on drag coefficients. The

  3. Euthanasia in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, G.; Dillmann, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    The practice of euthanasia in the Netherlands is often used as an argument in debates outside the Netherlands--hence a clear description of the Dutch situation is important. This article summarises recent data and discusses conceptual issues and relevant characteristics of the system of health care. Special emphasis is put on regulation, including relevant data on notification and prosecution. Besides the practice of euthanasia the Dutch are confronted with the gaps in reporting of cases to the public prosecutor and the existence of cases of ending a life without an explicit request. Nevertheless, the "Dutch experiment" need not inevitably lead down the slippery slope because of the visibility and openness of this part of medical practice. This will lead to increased awareness, more safeguards, and improvement of medical decisions concerning the end of life. PMID:8019226

  4. Linking farm management to agri-environmental indicators: recent experiences from The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, J.W.A.; Verhagen, A.; Neeteson, J.J.; Conijn, J.G.; Schils, R.L.M.; Verloop, J.; Oenema, J.

    2004-01-01

    Agriculture in industrialised countries is under increasing pressure. Trade liberalisation, increasingly stringent environmental policy and climate change provide both a threat and a challenge to farmers and agricultural research. The Netherlands has a tradition of intensive agricultural research

  5. The Netherlands: childbearing within the context of a "Poldermodel" society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, C.M.; de Valk, H.A.G.; de Beer, J.A.A.; van Duin, C.

    2008-01-01

    Just like all other European countries, the Netherlands has experienced a considerable decline in fertility. The decline, however, is not as sharp as in most other parts of Europe. While especially Southern and Central Eastern Europe is faced with a persistent and pronounced drop in the TPFR to a

  6. Indigenous infection with Francisella tularensis holarctica in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maraha, B.; Hajer, G.F.; Sjödin, A.; Forsman, M.; Paauw, A.; Roeselers, G.; Verspui, E.; Frenay, H.M.E.; Notermans, D.W.; Vries, M.C. de; Reubsaet, F.A.G.

    2013-01-01

    We report here the first case of indigenous tularemia detected inTheNetherlands, a nonendemic country, since 1953.Whole genome DNAsequence analysis assigned the isolate BD11-00177 to the genomic group B.FTNF002-00,which previously has been exclusively reported from Spain, France, Italy, Switzerland,

  7. Courtship and bridal pregnancy in The Netherlands, 1870-1950

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, J.; Bras, H.A.J.; Rotering, P.P.P.

    2016-01-01

    Although frowned upon, bridal pregnancies were a common phenomenon in early twentieth-century Netherlands, as they were in many European countries. However, there was a marked regional and social variation in their occurrence. This variation still awaits explanation. In this period with its

  8. Courtship and bridal pregnancy in the Netherlands, 1870-1950

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Jan; Bras, Hilde; Rotering, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Although frowned upon, bridal pregnancies were a common phenomenon in early twentieth-century Netherlands, as they were in many European countries. However, there was a marked regional and social variation in their occurrence. This variation still awaits explanation. In this period with its

  9. The Salient History of Dalton Education in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, Piet

    2014-01-01

    In the Netherlands there are 400 Dalton schools, while Dalton education has all but disappeared elsewhere, including in its country of origin: the USA. Following a brief period in the 1920s in which it enjoyed strong international interest, it disappearedfrom the scene. How can it be that the Dalton

  10. Detection of noroviruses in shellfish in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxman, Ingeborg L A; Tilburg, Jeroen J H C; Loeke, Nathalie A J M te; Vennema, Harry; Jonker, Klaas; Boer, Enne de; Koopmans, Marion

    2006-01-01

    Shellfish from oyster farms in the Netherlands and imported from other European countries were examined for viral contamination. A method that allows sequence matching between noroviruses from human cases and shellfish was used. The samples of shellfish (n = 42) were analyzed using a semi-nested

  11. Community nursing in Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, J. van der; Kramer, K.; Kerkstra, A.; Stevens, F.C.J.; Derksen, A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper contains a comparative study on community nursing in the Netherlands, Belgium and Germany, carried out in the region around Maastricht, where the borders of the three countries meet. The well-known problem of comparative studies (the incomparability of concepts and data) has been solved

  12. The Netherlands and the Development of International Human Rights Instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reiding, H.

    2007-01-01

    When discussing the Netherlands' international human rights policies, the first aspects to come to mind are usually those related to how it addresses and reacts to concrete human rights violations by other countries. In fact, there sometimes appears to be a tendency for public opinion to identify a

  13. Morphological assessment of reconstructed lowland streams in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekhout, J.P.C.; Hoitink, Ton; Brouwer, de J.H.F.; Verdonschot, P.F.M.

    2015-01-01

    Channelisation measures taken halfway the 20th century have had destructive consequences for the diversity of the ecology in the majority of the lowland streams in countries such as the Netherlands. Re-meandering is the common practice in restoring these lowland streams. Three reconstructed

  14. Reforming occupational pension schemes : The case of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenberg, Lans; Gradus, R.

    2015-01-01

    In many countries, occupational plans are being reformed away from defined-benefit (DB) to defined-contribution (DC) designs. This paper explores the case of the Netherlands, which features a particularly high ratio of occupational pension assets to GDP. Dutch occupational DB plans suffer from a

  15. Pharmaceutical care in the Netherlands. History, definition and projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mil, J.W F

    1996-01-01

    The evolving concept of Pharmaceutical Care knows different interpretations in a different countries. In the Netherlands community pharmacists already perform several functions which may be part of the Pharmaceutical Care concept. The Dutch concept of Pharmaceutical care is tested in the TOM and

  16. Aging in the Netherlands: State of the art and science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, C.H.M.; van den Beld, H.K.; Aartsen, M.J.; Schroots, J.J.F.

    2013-01-01

    The population of the Netherlands is aging, although it is still relatively young in comparison with the population of most other European countries. As Dutch society transitions from a welfare state to a society based more on individual responsibility, the increasingly well-educated and financially

  17. Cross-cultural comparisons of personality : the Netherlands and England

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SANDERMAN, R; EYSENCK, SBG; ARRINDELL, W A

    1991-01-01

    401 men and 475 women completed the Dutch version of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Factor comparisons all exceeded 0.97 so that the factors of Psychoticism, Extraversion, Neuroticism, and Social Desirability are deemed to be identical in the two countries, England and The Netherlands. Sex

  18. Critical infrastructure protection in the Netherlands: a quick-scan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.; Burger, H.H.; Klaver, M.H.A.

    2003-01-01

    Some sectors and parts of the Dutch national infrastructure are that essential to the Netherlands that serious disruption or even loss of service could lead to a severe impact to the Dutch society, government and industry as well as to neighbouring countries. Early 2002, the Dutch government started

  19. Courtship and bridal pregnancy in the Netherlands, 1870-1950

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Jan; Bras, Hilde; Rotering, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Although frowned upon, bridal pregnancies were a common phenomenon in early twentieth-century Netherlands, as they were in many European countries. However, there was a marked regional and social variation in their occurrence. This variation still awaits explanation. In this period with its

  20. Consequences of Market-Based Measures CO2-emission Reduction Maritime Transport for the Netherlands; Gevolgen Market Based Measures CO2-emissiereductie zeevaart voor Nederland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wortelboer-van Donselaar, P.; Kansen, M.; Moorman, S. [Kennisinstituut voor Mobiliteitsbeleid KiM, Den Haag (Netherlands); Faber, J.; Koopman, M.; Smit, M. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands)

    2013-11-15

    The introduction of Market Based Measures (MBMs) to reduce the CO2 emissions of international sea shipping will have relatively limited economic effects for the Netherlands. Moreover, these effects are largely in line with those in other countries. For the Netherlands, however, the manner in which MBMS are organised and enforced is likely to be particularly important, given the importance of ports to the Dutch economy, the country's relatively large bunker sector, and the fact that Dutch shipowners operate relatively small vessels and on a relatively small scale. MBMs include pricing measures in the form of tax or trade systems, as well as other market-related proposals. In this research study, the consequences are analysed of four international MBM proposals for the Netherlands [Dutch] Om de CO2-uitstoot van de internationale zeevaartsector terug te dringen worden momenteel zogeheten Market Based Measures (MBMs), zoals bijvoorbeeld het veilen van emissierechten of het invoeren van een heffing, overwogen. De invoering van de MBMs zal voor Nederland relatief beperkte economische effecten hebben. Deze effecten wijken bovendien niet bijzonder af van die voor andere landen. De wijze waarop de MBMs worden georganiseerd en gehandhaafd, is voor Nederland mogelijk wel van onderscheidend belang. Dit gezien het belang van de havens voor de Nederlandse economie, de relatief grote bunkersector, en de relatief kleine schepen en kleinschaligheid van de Nederlandse reders.

  1. "small ACCELERATORS" 24 May - 2 June 2005

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    CERN Accelerator School and Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut (KVI) Groningen, the Netherlands announce a course on "Small Accelerators", Hotel Golden Tulip Drenthe, Zeegse, the Netherlands, 24 May - 2 June 2005. This specialised course is dedicated to the physics and the main applications of small accelerators. The course will review the different accelerator types as well as their specificities in terms of accelerator physics.

  2. Mission Statements of Christian Elementary Schools in the United States and the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandstra, Anne M.

    2012-01-01

    This study compares the mission statements of a small sample of Christian elementary schools in the United States and the Netherlands. In the United States, Christian schools are private schools, while in the Netherlands Christian schools receive state funding, just like public schools. Content analysis of mission statements revealed similarities…

  3. Risk of travelling to the country of origin for tuberculosis among immigrants living in a low-incidence country

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kik, S. V.; Mensen, M.; Beltman, M.; Gijsberts, M.; van Ameijden, E. J. C.; Cobelens, F. G. J.; Erkens, C.; Borgdorff, M. W.; Verver, S.

    2011-01-01

    SETTING: Two thirds of tuberculosis (TB) patients in the Netherlands are foreign-born. OBJECTIVE: To determine if travelling to the country of origin is a risk factor for TB among two different immigrant groups that have lived in the Netherlands for at least 2 years. DESIGN: In this unmatched

  4. The Chinese in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mérove Gijsberts; Willem Huijnk; Ria Vogels

    2011-01-01

    Original title: Chinese Nederlanders This report presents the first national picture of the position of the Chinese community in the Netherlands. A large-scale survey was conducted among persons of Chinese origin living in the Netherlands, with the aim of answering questions on a wide range of

  5. QANU - Quality Assurance Netherlands Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik Toft; Maria E., Weber; Vyt, André

    The Quality Assurance Netherlands Universities (QANU) underwent an ENQA-coordinated external review in 2016. The review was chaired by Henrik Toft Jensen, Research fellow at Roskilde University (RUC), Denmark.......The Quality Assurance Netherlands Universities (QANU) underwent an ENQA-coordinated external review in 2016. The review was chaired by Henrik Toft Jensen, Research fellow at Roskilde University (RUC), Denmark....

  6. Potato breeding in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de H.

    1953-01-01

    A remarkable feature of potato breeding in the Netherlands is the great number of private breeders who have concentrated their efforts on the improvement of the potato. The author calls attention to some circumstances and measures that have made potato breeding attractive in the Netherlands

  7. Regulating Privacy and Biobanks in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Aart C; van Hellemondt, Rachèl E

    2016-03-01

    The Netherlands does not have any specific legislation pertaining to human biological materials and data collection by biobanks. Instead, these issues are governed by a patchwork of laws, codes of practices, and other ethical instruments, where special emphasis is given to the right to privacy and self-determination. While draft legislation for biobanking was scheduled to enter into force in 2007, as of mid-2015 such legislation was still under consideration, with the intent that it would focus particularly on individual self-determination, the interests of research, the use of bodily materials collected by biobanks for criminal law purposes, and dilemmas around results that are clinically relevant for biobank participants. Under the current framework, the amount of privacy protection afforded to data is linked to its level of identifiability. International sharing of personal data to non-EU/European Economic Area countries is allowed if these countries provide adequate protection. © 2016 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics.

  8. Bargaining for Social Rights (BARSORI) project: Country report on Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos Martin, N.E.

    2012-01-01

    The Barsori project studied social partners' initiatives contributing to the reduction of precarious employment through collective bargaining and social dialogue. The project compared experiences in seven EU countries: Denmark, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Slovakia, Spain and the UK. Trade

  9. Determinants of subjective job insecurity in 5 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muñoz de Bustillo, R.; de Pedraza, P.

    2007-01-01

    The present study searches for subjective job insecurity predictors in five European Countries (Spain, Belgium, Finland, The Netherlands and Germany). The results find conclusions regarding demographic variables, such as age, gender, educational level; type of contract; family life variables, such

  10. netherland hydrological modeling instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogewoud, J. C.; de Lange, W. J.; Veldhuizen, A.; Prinsen, G.

    2012-04-01

    Netherlands Hydrological Modeling Instrument A decision support system for water basin management. J.C. Hoogewoud , W.J. de Lange ,A. Veldhuizen , G. Prinsen , The Netherlands Hydrological modeling Instrument (NHI) is the center point of a framework of models, to coherently model the hydrological system and the multitude of functions it supports. Dutch hydrological institutes Deltares, Alterra, Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, RWS Waterdienst, STOWA and Vewin are cooperating in enhancing the NHI for adequate decision support. The instrument is used by three different ministries involved in national water policy matters, for instance the WFD, drought management, manure policy and climate change issues. The basis of the modeling instrument is a state-of-the-art on-line coupling of the groundwater system (MODFLOW), the unsaturated zone (metaSWAP) and the surface water system (MOZART-DM). It brings together hydro(geo)logical processes from the column to the basin scale, ranging from 250x250m plots to the river Rhine and includes salt water flow. The NHI is validated with an eight year run (1998-2006) with dry and wet periods. For this run different parts of the hydrology have been compared with measurements. For instance, water demands in dry periods (e.g. for irrigation), discharges at outlets, groundwater levels and evaporation. A validation alone is not enough to get support from stakeholders. Involvement from stakeholders in the modeling process is needed. There fore to gain sufficient support and trust in the instrument on different (policy) levels a couple of actions have been taken: 1. a transparent evaluation of modeling-results has been set up 2. an extensive program is running to cooperate with regional waterboards and suppliers of drinking water in improving the NHI 3. sharing (hydrological) data via newly setup Modeling Database for local and national models 4. Enhancing the NHI with "local" information. The NHI is and has been used for many

  11. Electric transport in the Netherlands in an international perspective. Benchmark electric driving 2012; Elektrisch vervoer in Nederland in internationaal perspectief. Benchmark elektrisch rijden 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroon, P.; Weeda, M. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands); Appels, D. [Agentschap NL, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-07-15

    This international benchmark on electric mobility has been conducted to compare the Dutch governmental efforts and developments in the field of electric road transport. The countries that have been considered in this benchmark are: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, UK, China, USA and South Korea. The Netherlands has a high ambition level with regard to the number of electric vehicles compared to other countries without a large car industry. As for the envisaged number of charging points, the Netherlands is one of the prominent leaders. In the field of R and D, Germany, South Korea and China take the lead, followed by France, the UK, the USA and Austria. However, the benchmark has only looked at specific funds for electric mobility, and has not looked at general R and D and innovation funds. The Netherlands has several electro-mobility field tests, but is not leading in number. However, regarding general market penetration, the Netherlands is one of the leading countries, next to Norway, based on the relative number of passenger cars and commercial vehicles on the road. Norway and Austria are leading countries when it comes to implementation of public charging infrastructure, but also in this field the Netherlands has a prominent position in the group of countries that follow. In the current pre-commercial phase, the introduction of electric transportation in the Netherlands is supported by a high-level advisory group, the so-called Formula E-Team. This group consists of representatives and experts from industry and (scientific) society, and acts as a figurehead for electric transport. The group advises on coordination of actions to stimulate not only electro- mobility, but also innovation which should lead to new economic activities. Currently, about two hundred companies are already active in the field of electro-mobility in the Netherlands, including some top players and many SMEs (Small Medium Enterprises). The

  12. Cost Overruns in Large-Scale Transport Infrastructure Projects : A theoretical and empirical exploration for the Netherlands and worldwide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cantarelli, C.C.

    2011-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the costs of railroad infrastructure construction work out 11 per cent higher than forecast; the percentage for roads is 19 and 22 for bridges and tunnels. While this puts the Netherlands in a favourable light compared to other countries, the actual cost overruns are probably far

  13. Update of emission factors for nitrous oxide from agricultural soils on the basis of measurements in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuikman, P.J.; Hoek, van der K.W.; Smit, A.; Zwart, K.B.

    2006-01-01

    Emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) in the Netherlands are reported to the UNFCCC on the basis of a country specific methodology. In this study we have identified and analysed the values for emission factors in measurement from in the Netherlands in the period 1993 – 2003. The overall averaged emission

  14. A comparative evaluation of low-energy, passive and zero-energy houses in The Netherlands and Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mlecnik, E.; Jansen, S.; Schuetze, T.; De Vries, G.

    2011-01-01

    The presented research aims to evaluate highly energy-efficient dwellings, in particular Passive Houses (PH), in Flanders and in The Netherlands, based on end-user experiences. In the introduction the definition of PH in the Benelux countries Belgium and The Netherlands is compared with the Nordic

  15. Risk of childhood undernutrition related to small-for-gestational age and preterm birth in low- and middle-income countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christian, Parul; Lee, Sun Eun; Donahue Angel, Moira; Adair, Linda S.; Arifeen, Shams E.; Ashorn, Per; Barros, Fernando C.; Fall, Caroline H. D.; Fawzi, Wafaie W.; Hao, Wei; Hu, Gang; Humphrey, Jean H.; Huybregts, Lieven; Joglekar, Charu V.; Kariuki, Simon K.; Kolsteren, Patrick; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V.; Liu, Enqing; Martorell, Reynaldo; Osrin, David; Persson, Lars-Ake; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Richter, Linda; Roberfroid, Dominique; Sania, Ayesha; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Tielsch, James; Victora, Cesar G.; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.; Yan, Hong; Zeng, Lingxia; Black, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    Low- and middle-income countries continue to experience a large burden of stunting; 148 million children were estimated to be stunted, around 30-40% of all children in 2011. In many of these countries, foetal growth restriction (FGR) is common, as is subsequent growth faltering in the first 2 years.

  16. First record of Walckenaeria clavicornis (Araneae, Linyphiidae) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuts, B.; van Helsdingen, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    An adult male Walckenaeria clavicornis Emerton 1882 (unicornis-group of species in Wackenaeria) was found on 5 February 1998 at about 35 m distance from a parking place on the Amsterdam University grounds in the Netherlands. It was hiding in a dark small cavity in wet ground under a dark plate of

  17. Women in physics in the Netherlands : Recent Developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerd, Adrianne R.T. van; Marel, Nienke van der; Rudolf, Petra; Wolf, Els de; Hartline, Beverly Karplus; Horton, Renee K.; Kaicher, Catherine M.

    2009-01-01

    Although women are still a small minority in physics in the Netherlands, their visibility has increased markedly over the past five years. The measures put in place after the first IUPAP Women in Physics Conference in 2002 have in fact not increased the total number of female staff, but put the

  18. Home Care Reform in the Netherlands. Impacts on Unpaid Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction In the Netherlands, about half a million people make use of home care, that is, formally arranged, and publicly financed home care services. Until 1 January 2007, Dutch home care provisioning used to be supplied by relatively small, profit and non-profit home care

  19. The Introduction of Bioptic Driving in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, Aart C.; Melis-Dankers, Bart J.M.; Peli, Eli; Brouwer, Wiebo H.; Pijnakker, Petra; Delden, Geert van; Pluuren, Eelko van; Iddekinge, Birgit van; Derksen, Peter; Wanders, Irene; Witvliet, Jaap M.D.; Busscher, Rens B.; Bredewoud, Ruud A.; Vries, Jos de; Rosmalen, Jose H.M. van; Postema, Fokke Jan

    2008-01-01

    Background: In many US states, people with moderately reduced visual acuity (eg, 20/50–20/200) can legally drive with the aid of a small, spectacle-mounted (“bioptic”) telescope.We conducted a demonstration project to assess the viability of implementing bioptic driving in the Netherlands. In this

  20. Predicting externalizing problems in Moroccan immigrant adolescents in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Gonneke W J M; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Pels, Trees V M; Crijnen, Alfons A M

    2005-07-01

    Although an increasing proportion of the population in Western countries originates from non-Western parts of the world, little research has been conducted on predictors of externalizing problems in immigrant adolescent samples. This study on the predictors of externalizing problems in Moroccan immigrant adolescents in the Netherlands was aimed to contribute to the knowledge in this field. We obtained 415 parent-reports, 376 self-reports and 238 teacher-reports on problem behavior in a general population sample of randomly selected 11- to 18-year-old Moroccan immigrant adolescents, using the Child Behavior Checklist, Youth Self-Report and Teacher's Report Form. The data revealed a clear relation between externalizing problems and several child (gender, internalizing problems), proximal family (parental monitoring and affection, support from father and mother, and parent-child conflict), contextual family (conflicts between parents about parenting, destructive communication between parents, and total number of life-events), school/peer (problems at school, involvement with deviant peers, hanging out), and migration variables (adolescent's perceived discrimination). Hardly any association was observed between externalizing problems and parental psychopathology, and between externalizing problems and global family variables (e.g., family employment level). Most findings matched results found in earlier studies on non-immigrant youth. Our results suggest that the child, school/peer, and proximal family factors are essential in models predicting the development of externalizing behavior. The impact of the migration factor on externalizing problems turned out to be relatively small.

  1. Netherlands in the spotlight at the ENLIGHT meeting on particle therapy

    CERN Multimedia

    Virginia Greco (CERN) and Manjit Dosanjh (ENLIGHT co-coordinator)

    2016-01-01

    The annual meeting of ENLIGHT, which focuses on particle therapy for cancer treatment, was held in the Netherlands.   Participants of the annual meeting of ENLIGHT, held in the Netherlands from 15-17 September 2016. The annual meeting of ENLIGHT (European Network for Light Hadron Therapy), which gathers experts working worldwide in centres and research institutions for particle therapy for cancer treatment, was hosted this year by the Dutch National Institute for Subatomic Physics (Nikhef) and the University of Utrecht, in the Netherlands, from 15-17 September. Chaired by the co-coordinator of ENLIGHT, Manjit Dosanjh, and the local organisers, Els Koffeman and Jan Visser from Nikhef, the meeting was attended by almost 100 participants from 15 countries. The Netherlands took centre stage at the ENLIGHT meeting: four brand new centres for proton therapy in the Netherlands are currently at various phases of completion as a consequence of the recent approval by the Dutch government of a plan for mak...

  2. The Netherlands: Childbearing within the context of a "Poldermodel" society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coen Van Duin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The Netherlands has seen a considerable decline of the period total fertility rate and delayed childbearing, just like all other European countries. The drop in fertility, however, has not been as sharp as in many other regions of Europe. The period total fertility rate in the Netherlands has stabilized since the late 1970s at around 1.6 children per woman, and it has even risen slightly since 1995. In addition, although the Netherlands has one of the oldest first-time mothers, completed fertility is still rather high compared to other European countries, suggesting a strong "catching up" of births by women in their thirties. This chapter provides a comprehensive overview of the main driving forces behind specific fertility trends in the Netherlands. Among other factors, it focuses on changing patterns of home leaving and union formation, declining partnership stability, and the growing acceptability and use of contraception. The chapter also looks at prolonged education, rising labor-force participation of women, economic uncertainties, the growing migrant population, and family policies. Data allowing, and to the extent possible, we examine the effects of these factors on decision-making about parenthood and the timing of childbearing.

  3. Refugee groups in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edith Dourleijn; Jaco Dagevos

    2011-01-01

    Original title: Vluchtelingengroepen in Nederland This report describes for the first time the socioeconomic and sociocultural position of the four largest refugee groups in the Netherlands, originating from Afghanistan, Iraq, Iran and Somalia. Virtually nothing is known about these migrants,

  4. The Impacts of Business Support Services for Small and Medium Enterprises on Firm Performance in Low-and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piza C

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES OF THE REVIEW Business support interventions in low and middle-income countries (LMICs direct a large amount of resources to SMEs, with the assumption that institutional constraints impede small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs from generating profits and employment at the firm level, which in turn is thought to impede economic growth and poverty reduction. Yet despite this abundance of resources, very little is known about the impact of such interventions. To address this gap, this systematic review analyses evaluations of SME support services in LMICs to help inform policy debates pertaining to SMEs and business support services. This review examines the available evidence on the effects of SME support services in LMICs on firm-level performance indicators (such as revenues, profits, and productivity, employment generation, and labour productivity. METHODS We systematically searched for available literature. To identify relevant papers for this review, we conducted electronic searches on key platforms; snowball sampling of references from relevant papers and book chapters, and suggestions from recognized experts in the field. We focused on LMICs as defined by the World Bank classifications, and on evidence published since the year 2000, so as to include more sophisticated evaluation techniques. The references retrieved for this review are up-to-date as of December 2014. We included studies that evaluated the effectiveness of business support services on firm level outcomes of SMEs in low- and middle-income countries. We defined SMEs as firms with between two and 250 employees, but also included studies that used annual revenue to classify firms as SMEs instead of employee count. We examined interventions involving tax simplification, exports and access to external markets; support for innovation policies; support to local production systems; training and technical assistance, and SME financing and credit guarantee

  5. History, development and future of trauma care for multiple injured patients in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansink, K W W; Leenen, L P H

    2013-02-01

    The development of trauma systems all over the world resulted in improved outcome for a broad range of trauma victims. In this review, we demonstrate the developments of an inclusive regionalised trauma system in the Netherlands and the subsequent developments in our level one trauma centre and trauma region in comparison. With the seasoning of the trauma system, further improvements in outcome could be demonstrated, in the region an OR of 0.84 and in the trauma centre an OR of 0.61, in a later comparison over the years another OR 0.74 was noted. In addition, a further diversification of the trauma populations was seen in the various hospitals with different levels, based on a pre-hospital triage system. Torso and multiple injured patients were more seen in the trauma centre and increased to more than 350 patients with an ISS of >15, whereas monotrauma was almost exclusively seen in the level two and three hospitals. The further development of the trauma system is discussed, in which the minimum requirements of the individual trauma surgeon and institution are taken as a guideline. Based on these considerations, a further concentration of the most severely injured patients is proposed in a small country as the Netherlands culminating in one trauma centre for the most severely injured patients, combined with an integrated pre-hospital helicopter system, on top of the current good functioning inclusive trauma system. These developments could be a template for further developments of trauma systems in Europe.

  6. Carbon footprint comparison of innovative techniques in the construction and maintenance of road infrastructure in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer, E.E.; Leegwater, G.A.; Vos-Effting, S.E. de; Wit, M.S. de

    2015-01-01

    The ambition of European countries to reduce their national greenhouse gas emissions, has been translated in the Netherlands in green procurement policy of the national road administration. An increasing amount of innovative techniques and approaches in road infrastructure construction and

  7. Euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide? A survey from the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouwenhoven, P.S.C.; Thiel, G.J.M.W. van; Raijmakers, N.J.H.; Rietjens, J.A.C.; Heide, A. van der; Delden, J.J.M. van

    2014-01-01

    Background: Legalizing euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide (PAS) is a current topic of debate in many countries. The Netherlands is the only country where legislation covers both. Objectives: To study physicians’ experiences and attitudes concerning the choice between euthanasia and PAS.

  8. Lack of improvement of life expectancy at advanced ages in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J. Nusselder (Wilma); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Several countries have reported an increase in life expectancy at advanced ages. This paper analyses recent changes in life expectancy at age 60 and 85 in The Netherlands, a low mortality country with reliable mortality data. METHODS: We used

  9. Sustainability of comprehensive universal long-term care insurance in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.T. Schut (Erik); B. van den Berg (Bernard)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe Netherlands was the first country that introduced a universal mandatory social health insurance scheme for covering a broad range of long-term care (LTC) services provided in a variety of care settings. Compared with most other OECD countries, both total and public expenditure on LTC

  10. Time-space trends in cancer incidence in The Netherlands in 1989–2003

    OpenAIRE

    Siesling, Sabine; van der Aa, Maaike A.; Coebergh, Jan W.W.; Pukkala, Eero

    2008-01-01

    Incidence of cancer may vary within a country and over time because of previous differences in exposure to risk factors or interventions for early detection (screening). This study describes time-space trends of incidence of common cancer sites across the Netherlands during the period 1989–2003 and speculates on the reasons for the observations. From the Netherlands Cancer Registry, World standardized incidence rates per municipality were smoothed calculating weighted averages for each 2 km b...

  11. Analysing and evaluating flood risk governance in the Netherlands : Drowning in safety?

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufmann, M.; van Doorn - Hoekveld, W.J.; Gilissen, H.K.; van Rijswick, H.F.M.W.

    2016-01-01

    The Netherlands has a long tradition of flood risk management, due to its special physical location in the delta of four major river systems. This low-lying country is historically characterised by a ‘fight against water’. The Flood Risk Governance Arrangement of the Netherlands is characterised by a strong focus on reducing flood probability and governmental responsibility. A key characteristic is the statutory right to flood protection from the state. The arrangement of actors, rules, resou...

  12. Why Did the Netherlands Develop So Early? The Legacy of the Brethren of the Common Life

    OpenAIRE

    Akçomak, I. Semih; Webbink, Dinand; ter Weel, Bas

    2016-01-01

    In many Dutch cities there are Geert Groote schools. This is no coincidence, because Geert Groote's (1340-1384) ideas form the foundation of modern education in the Netherlands and many other countries. Much less known is that his investments, and those of his followers, have put the Netherlands on the pathway towards the Golden Age. In this study, we describe the mechanism by which the influence of Groote so impressive. Furthermore, we present econometric estimates that indicate a long-lasti...

  13. First-Year Evaluation of GPM-Rainfall over the Netherlands: IMERG Day 1 Final Run (V03D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerts, A.; Rios Gaona, M. F.; Overeem, A.; Leijnse, H.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2016-12-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is the successor to the rainfall satellite mission TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission) which orbited Earth for 17 years. With its core observatory launched on February 27, 2014, GPM offers global precipitation estimates between 60°N to 60°S at 0.1° x 0.1° resolution every 30 min. Conversely to the TRMM era, now the Netherlands is within the coverage provided by GPM. Here we assess the first year of GPM rainfall retrievals from the half-hourly gridded product IMERG (Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM) Day 1 Final Run (V03D). This product is compared against gauge-adjusted radar rainfall maps over the land surface of the Netherlands at half-hourly, daily, monthly, and yearly scales. These radar rainfall maps are considered to be ground truth. The evaluation of the first year of IMERG operations is done through time series, scatter plots, empirical exceedance probabilities and various statistical indicators. In general, there is a tendency of IMERG to slightly underestimate (2%) country-wide rainfall depths. Nevertheless, the relative underestimation is small enough to propose IMERG as a reliable source of precipitation data, especially for areas where rain gauge networks or ground-based radars do not offer this type of high-resolution data and availability. The potential of GPM for rainfall estimation in a mid-latitude country is confirmed.

  14. [Birds, mosquitoes and West Nile virus: little risk of West Nile fever in the Netherlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijster, Janneke W; Stroo, C J Arjan; Braks, Marieta A H

    2016-01-01

    Due to increased incidence of West Nile fever (WNF) in Europe and the rapid spread of West Nile virus (WNV) in the US, it is commonly thought that it will only be a matter of time before WNV reaches the Netherlands. However, assessing whether WNV is really a threat to the Dutch population is challenging, due to the numerous factors affecting transmission of the virus. Some of these factors are known to limit the risk of WNF in the Netherlands. This risk is determined by the interaction between the pathogen (WNV), the vectors (Culex mosquitoes), the reservoirs (birds) and the exposure of humans to infected mosquitoes. In this paper, we discuss the factors influencing introduction, establishment and spread of WNV in the Netherlands. The probability that each of these three phases will occur in the Netherlands is currently relatively small, as is the risk of WNF infection in humans in the Netherlands.

  15. The Employment Experience of Refugees in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    de Vroome, Thomas; Tubergen, Frank van

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on the economically disadvantaged position of refugees. We use survey data of refugees from Somalia, Iran, Afghanistan, Iraq, and the former Yugoslavia in the Netherlands, to analyze refugees’ odds of employment and their occupational status. In line with human capital and social capital theory, we find that host country specific education, work experience, language proficiency, and contacts with natives are positively related to the chances of employment and occupational s...

  16. Physician-assisted death in psychiatric practice in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Groenewoud, Hanny; Maas,Paul; van der Wal, Gerrit; Hengeveld, Michiel; Tholen, A.J.; Schudel, Willem; van der Heide, Agnes

    1997-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: In 1994 the Dutch Supreme Court ruled that in exceptional instances, physician-assisted suicide might be justifiable for patients with unbearable mental suffering but no physical illness. We studied physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia in psychiatric practice in the Netherlands. METHODS: In 1996, we sent questionnaires to 673 Dutch psychiatrists - about half of all such specialists in the country - and received 552 responses from the 667 who met the study criteria...

  17. Country Report The Netherlands - Assessment Sustainable Governance Indicators Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppe, Robertus; Hoppe, Thomas; Woldendorp, Jaap; Bandelow, Nils C.

    2011-01-01

    The nature of Dutch democracy, once considered a highly stable product of cooperation, compromise and consensus-seeking practices across socioeconomic and sociocultural lines, has changed. Whereas the accessibility and levels (not forms) of participation have changed little, autocratically led

  18. Far better to serve in heaven than to reign in hell : the logic of incorporation in the European communities by a very small developing country : Malta, a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Baldacchino, Godfrey; University of Prince Edward Island. Institute of Island Studies; ; An island living : patterns of autonomy and dependence in the small islands of the North Atlantic

    1992-01-01

    In spite of the rhetoric of viability and endogenously led growth and development, small states are generally resigned to a status of dependency, surviving as rentier economies and remi ttance societies. Most appear determined today that their best (and only?) bet is for even better integration within the world economic order. They may have decolonised but they have no intention to disengage. To do so effectively, they often seek to establish a life-line to richer countri...

  19. A Register-Based Study of Diseases With an Autosomal Recessive Origin in Small Children in Denmark According to Maternal Country of Origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundlund, Anna; Hansen, Anne Vinkel; Pedersen, Grete Skøtt

    2015-01-01

    information on consanguinity is lacking, this suggestion is difficult to test. With an indirect approach, we addressed this question by comparing the risk of diseases with autosomal recessive inheritance in children born in Denmark of Danish-born women and of women born in these five countries, respectively...

  20. Wellbeing in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeroen Boelhouwer

    2010-01-01

    Several countries have recently begun showing a good deal of interest in obtaining a broader perspective on prosperity and national development. This study is concerned with the background and history of the SCP life situation index. SCP has used this index to track trends in the life

  1. The Geodiversity in Drift Sand Landscapes of The Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; Riksen, Michel

    2015-04-01

    The authors carried out detailed field studies of more than twelve drift sand landscapes in The Netherlands. The objective of these studies was to restore Natura-2000 values by restoring the wind activity. Active drift sands occur almost exclusively in The Netherlands, Natura 2000 habitat 2330 'Inland dunes with open Corynephorus and Agrostis grasslands', for which reason our country is largely responsible for this European landscape. Active drift sands had almost disappeared for two reasons: first, the stabilization of the drift sands by air pollution, mainly nitrogen, which stimulates the growth of algae and grasses that initiate soil formation, and second, by the growth of forests surrounding the sands, which decreases the wind force. The restoration studies revealed differences in the geodiversity between and within the drift sand areas. Whereas the drift sands on geological and soil maps show as almost homogenous areas, they have in fact highly variable geo-conditions of which examples will be given. These geodiversity aspects concern differences in geomorphological structure, origin, sediments and age of the drift sands. Differences in wind and water erosion, trampling and soil formation add to the geodiversity within the drift sand areas. Especially in the primary stages of succession the differences in geodiversity are relevant for the Natura-2000 values. We discerned three main types of active sands. Firstly, the impressive drift sands with large parabolic dune structures, often consisting of series of interlocking parabolic dunes. They developed from the northeast towards the southwest, against the direction of the dominant wind, and must have taken centuries to develop. Small parts of these systems are still active, other parts show different degrees of soil formation. Their origin is still unclear but probably dates from medieval times (Heidinga, 1985, Jungerius & Riksen, 2008). Second are the drift sand areas with irregular hills from 0.5 to about 2

  2. Quantifying urban heat island effects and human comfort for cities of variable size and urban morphology in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, G.J.; Koopmans, S.; Heusinkveld, B.G.; Hove, van B.; Holtslag, A.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the canopy layer urban heat island (UHI) and human comfort in a range of small to large cities and villages in the Netherlands. So far, this subject has not been substantially studied in the Netherlands, since it has a relatively mild Cfb climate and impact was assumed to be

  3. Iris Yellow Spot Virus in the Netherlands: Occurence in Onion and Confirmation of Transmission by Thrips tabaci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedjes, K.; Verhoeven, J.Th.J.; Goldbach, R.W.; Peters, D.

    2011-01-01

    Since its first detection in the Netherlands in 1992, Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV, genus Tospovirus) has been reported worldwide in Allium crops, in a few ornamentals and in a small number of weeds. After recent findings of IYSV in Alstroemeria and Eustoma in the Netherlands, a number of

  4. Participatory Training to Improve Safety and Health in Small Construction Sites in Some Countries in Asia: Development and Application of the WISCON Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Tsuyoshi

    2016-08-01

    A participatory training program, Work Improvement in Small Construction Sites, was developed to provide practical support measures to the small construction sector. Managers and workers from selected small sites were interviewed about their occupational safety and health risks. The Work Improvement in Small Construction Sites training program comprised a 45-item action checklist, photos, and illustrations showing local examples and group work methods. Pilot training workshops were carried out with workers and employers in Cambodia, Laos, Mongolia, Thailand, and Vietnam. Participants subsequently planned, and using locally available low-cost materials, implemented their own improvements such as hand-made hand trucks to carry heavy materials, removal of projecting nails from timber materials, and fences to protect roof workers from falling. Local Work Improvement in Small Construction Sites trainers consisting of government officials, workers, employers, and nongovernment organization representatives were then trained to implement the Work Improvement in Small Construction Sites training widely. Keys to success were easy-to-apply training tools aiming at immediate, low-cost improvements, and collaboration with various local people's networks. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. End-of-life care and circumstances of death in patients dying as a result of cancer in Belgium and the Netherlands: a retrospective comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeussen, Koen; Van den Block, Lieve; Echteld, Michael A; Boffin, Nicole; Bilsen, Johan; Van Casteren, Viviane; Abarshi, Ebun; Donker, Gé; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje; Deliens, Luc

    2011-11-10

    To examine and compare end-of-life care in patients with cancer dying in Belgium and the Netherlands. A mortality follow-back study was undertaken in 2008 via representative nationwide sentinel networks of general practitioners (GPs) in Belgium and the Netherlands. By using similar standardized procedures, GPs reported on aspects of end-of-life care and the circumstances of nonsudden death of patients with cancer in their practice. Of the 422 reported patients with cancer, most resided at home during the last year of life (Belgium, 91%; the Netherlands, 95%). Death occurred at home in 34% (Belgium) and 61% (the Netherlands) and in the hospital in 29% (Belgium) and 19% (the Netherlands). In the last month of life, end-of-life issues were more often discussed in the Netherlands (88%) than in Belgium (68%). In both countries, physical problems were discussed most often (Belgium, 49%; the Netherlands, 78%) and spiritual issues least often (Belgium, 20%; the Netherlands, 32%). Certain end-of-life treatment preferences were known for 43% (Belgium) and 67% (the Netherlands) of patients. In the last week of life, treatment was most often focused on palliation (Belgium, 94%; the Netherlands, 91%). Physical distress was reported in 84% (Belgium) and 76% (the Netherlands) of patients and psychological distress in 59% and 36%. Most distressing was lack of energy (Belgium, 73%; the Netherlands, 71%) and lack of appetite (Belgium, 61%; the Netherlands, 53%). Two thirds of patients were bedridden (Belgium, 67%; the Netherlands, 69%). Although place of death and communication about end-of-life issues differ substantially, a palliative treatment goal is adopted for the vast majority of patients in both countries. However, GPs reported that the majority of patients experienced symptom distress at the end of life, which suggests important challenges remain for improving end-of-life care.

  6. Enchytraeidae of the Netherlands (Annelida; Oligochaeta)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunst, de J.H.

    1965-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary check list of 46 species of Enchytraeidae hitherto found in the Netherlands. With the exception of Enchytraeus albidus and Hemifridericia parva, these species are recorded from the Netherlands for the first time.

  7. Diabetes MILES--The Netherlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nefs, Giesje; Bot, Mariska; Browne, Jessica L

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As the number of people with diabetes is increasing rapidly worldwide, a more thorough understanding of the psychosocial aspects of living with this condition has become an important health care priority. While our knowledge has grown substantially over the past two decades with respect...... to the physical, emotional and social difficulties that people with diabetes may encounter, many important issues remain to be elucidated. Under the umbrella of the Diabetes MILES (Management and Impact for Long-term Empowerment and Success) Study International Collaborative, Diabetes MILES--The Netherlands aims...... to examine how Dutch adults with diabetes manage their condition and how it affects their lives. Topics of special interest in Diabetes MILES--The Netherlands include subtypes of depression, Type D personality, mindfulness, sleep and sexual functioning. METHODS/DESIGN: Diabetes MILES--The Netherlands...

  8. The incidence of anorexia nervosa in Netherlands Antilles immigrants in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoeken, Daphne; Veling, Wim; Smink, Frederique R. E.; Hoek, Hans W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Previously we found that the incidence of anorexia nervosa (AN) in the general population was much lower in the Netherlands Antilles than in the Netherlands. As a follow-up we compared the incidence of AN in the Netherlands in persons from the Netherlands Antilles to native Dutch. Method:

  9. Home-making of older Antillean migrants in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijering, Louise; Lager, Debbie

    2014-05-01

    A group of 141,345 immigrants from the Netherlands Antilles, a former colony, live in the Netherlands. An increasing number of these migrants are at or above retirement age, and for them, the question of where they want to grow old becomes relevant. It is important for people to age in a place where they feel at home, as attachment to place increases wellbeing in old age. In this article we discuss how older Antillean migrants in the Netherlands make their house and immediate living environment into a home. We focus on home-making practices in a broader cultural context, and in relation to wellbeing. These topics are addressed by drawing on qualitative life-history interviews with Antillean older people, who live in a co-housing community for older adults. It turns out that objects which remind the participants of their home country play an important role in making a home. Also, the community, with people from similar backgrounds, contributes to a sense of home. Finally, the presence of children and other family members is a key motivation for the participants' decision to age in the Netherlands.

  10. General practitioner reported incidence of Lyme carditis in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofhuis, A; Arend, S M; Davids, C J; Tukkie, R; van Pelt, W

    2015-11-01

    Between 1994 and 2009, incidence rates of general practitioner (GP) consultations for tick bites and erythema migrans, the most common early manifestation of Lyme borreliosis, have increased substantially in the Netherlands. The current article aims to estimate and validate the incidence of GP-reported Lyme carditis in the Netherlands. We sent a questionnaire to all GPs in the Netherlands on clinical diagnoses of Lyme borreliosis in 2009 and 2010. To validate and adjust the obtained incidence rate, medical records of cases of Lyme carditis reported by GPs in this incidence survey were reviewed and categorised according to likelihood of the diagnosis of Lyme carditis. Lyme carditis occurred in 0.2 % of all patients with GP-reported Lyme borreliosis. The adjusted annual incidence was six GP-reported cases of Lyme carditis per 10 million inhabitants, i.e. approximately ten cases per year in 2009 and 2010. We report the first incidence estimate for Lyme carditis in the Netherlands, validated by a systematic review of the medical records. Although Lyme carditis is an uncommon manifestation of Lyme borreliosis, physicians need to be aware of this diagnosis, in particular in countries where the incidence of Lyme borreliosis has increased during the past decades.

  11. Individual experiences with reintegration policies in Denmark and the Netherlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hohnen, Pernille

    This working paper analyses individual experiences of different models of labour market reintegration in Denmark and in the Netherlands. The paper has two principal aims. First, to make an analysis of experiences of reintegration at an individual level in the two countries, based on qualitative...... interviews with Danish and Dutch persons, who have a reduced capacity to work. The second aim is to discuss how the fact that these jobs are very differently constructed both culturally and socially, may be linked to the different political models in the two countries. The Danish model based on a campaign...

  12. The Type of Contract and Starting Wage and Wage Growth: The Evidence from New Graduates from Post-Secondary Schools in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Takuya Hasebe

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of a type of employment contract on starting wage and short-term wage growth. I estimate the differences in starting wage and wage growth patterns between temporary and permanent workers by using a dataset from the Netherlands. The data contain new graduates from post-secondary schools in the Netherlands. As in the continental European countries, the use of temporary employment is common in the Netherlands, especially among young workers. Those who just graduate...

  13. Energy R and D in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EEM Luiten; JJ Dooley; K Blok

    1999-09-07

    This report documents trends in R and D and in particular (public) energy R and D in the Netherlands. Besides quantitative information on R and D and energy R and D, the report gives an impression of changes in science and technology policy, energy policy and changes in energy research priorities (both organizational and financial). In the Netherlands, 2.09% of GDP (or $6.7 billion) was invested in R and D activities in 1995. The private sector financed 46% of all R and D in that year. A small but significant fraction (9.3%) of the research performed in the Netherlands is financed by foreign public and private sector entities. Energy R and D has been identified by the national Strategic Foresight Activity as an important area of R and D for government support in the future. This is due in part to the overall decline in public support for energy R and D that occurred from 1985 to 1995. However, recent concern over climate change and energy policy has resulted in increased budgets for energy R and D. Recent policy documents (e.g., the Memorandum on Energy R and D in April 1998) and initiatives (e.g., a recent university energy R and D program; intensification of climate policy, partly in R and D) indicate the growing interest in addressing the issue of climate change partly through energy R and D. The Dutch government believes that the liberalization of the energy market in the Netherlands justifies an active role for the government to guarantee the longer-term transformation to a sustainable energy system. In terms of climate policy, the expanded and more efficient use of natural gas is seen as a suitable transition option towards a sustainable energy system. However, energy efficiency (and in particular energy efficiency in the industrial sector) and the introduction of renewable technologies (solar energy, wind energy and biomass) are generally favored for the long term. Recently, additional funding was allocated for research on industrial &apos

  14. National and regional estimates of term and preterm babies born small for gestational age in 138 low-income and middle-income countries in 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Anne C C; Katz, Joanne; Blencowe, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: National estimates for the numbers of babies born small for gestational age and the comorbidity with preterm birth are unavailable. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of term and preterm babies born small for gestational age (term-SGA and preterm-SGA), and the relation to low birthwe...... to increase survival and reduce disability, stunting, and non-communicable diseases. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation by a grant to the US Fund for UNICEF to support the activities of the Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG)....

  15. Extent and origin of resistance to antituberculosis drugs in the Netherlands, 1993 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruesen, C; van Gageldonk-Lafeber, A B; de Vries, G; Erkens, C G; van Rest, J; Korthals Altes, H; de Neeling, H; Kamst, M; van Soolingen, D

    2014-03-20

    The elimination of tuberculosis (TB) is threatened by an apparent increase in the level of resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In the Netherlands, where the majority of TB patients are migrants, resistance may also be increasing. We conducted a retrospective study, using 18,294 M. tuberculosis isolates from TB cases notified between 1993 and 2011. We investigated the trends in antituberculosis drug resistance, focusing on the country of birth of the patients and whether resistance had developed during treatment or was the result of transmission of resistant M. tuberculosis strains. For both scenarios, we determined whether this had happened in or outside the Netherlands. Antituberculosis drug resistance was found in 13% of all cases analysed and showed an increasing trend among patients who had been born in the Netherlands (pNetherlands or before 1993 (when DNA fingerprinting was not systematically performed), in some cases (n=45), resistance was acquired in the Netherlands. We conclude that antituberculosis drug resistance is increasing in the Netherlands, mostly related to migration from high TB-incidence countries, but also to domestic acquisition.

  16. Primary small bowel anastomosis in generalised peritonitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deGraaf, JS; van Goor, Harry; Bleichrodt, RP

    Objective: To find out if primary small bowel anastomosis of the bowel is safe in patients with generalised peritonitis who are treated by planned relaparotomies. Design: Retrospective study. Setting: University hospital, The Netherlands. Subjects. 10 Patients with generalised purulent peritonitis

  17. European Bat Lyssaviruses, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, van der W.H.M.; Heide, van der R.; Verstraten, E.R.A.M.; Kramps, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    To study European bat lyssavirus (EBLV) in bat reservoirs in the Netherlands, native bats have been tested for rabies since 1984. For all collected bats, data including species, age, sex, and date and location found were recorded. A total of 1,219 serotine bats, Eptesicus serotinus, were tested, and

  18. Robotics Activities in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg- de Lange, D.J.B.A.

    2010-01-01

    Since April 2010, in The Netherlands robotics activities are coordinated by RoboNED. This Dutch Robotics Platform, chaired by Prof. Stefano Stramigioli, aims to stimulate the synergy between the robotics fields and to formulate a focus. The goal of RoboNED is three fold: 1) RoboNED aims to bring the

  19. Work life in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossche, S. van den; Dhondt, S.; Genabeek, J. van; Goudswaard, A.; Hooftman, W.; Houtman, I.; Klein Hesselink, J.; Korte, E. de; Kraan, K.; Oeij, P.; Pot, F.; Smulders, P.G.W.; Vaas, F.; Wevers, C.; Willems, D.

    2012-01-01

    The nature of work is changing, not only in the Netherlands but throughout Europe. There is a growing demand for different types of products and services. These demands are influenced by technological developments and innovations, but also by globalization, which indicates the integration of

  20. Netherlands: archives, libraries and museums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, E.; Huysmans, F.; van Mensch, P.; Bates, M.J.; Maack, M.N.

    2010-01-01

    This entry provides an overview of the development and current state of archives, libraries, and museums as institutions, and the related professions and disciplines within the Netherlands. The entry describes social and political issues affecting information institutions from the early nineteenth

  1. Coeliac disease in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweizer, JJ; Blomberg - van der Flier, von B.M.E.; Mesquita, HB Bueno-de; Mearin, ML

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of adult coeliac disease in The Netherlands was studied in the Dutch Coeliac Disease Society and in blood donors but not in the general population. We therefore studied the prevalence of recognized and unrecognized coeliac disease in a large cohort, representative of the

  2. Emergency departments in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, W.A.M.H.; Giesen, P.H.J.; Wensing, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Emergency medicine in The Netherlands is faced with an increasing interest by politicians and stakeholders in health care. This is due to crowding, increasing costs, criticism of the quality of emergency care, restructuring of out-of-hours services in primary care and the introduction of a training

  3. Environmental chronology of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windt, Henny J. van der; Harle, Nigel

    1997-01-01

    This report encompasses all major events in nature management and environmental policy in the Netherlands from 1814-1995. All relevant bills, policy documents and government departments as well as important events and incidents have been included. For instant mass demonstrations against nuclear

  4. Rural areas in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haartsen, T.; Huigen, P.P.P.; Groote, P.

    2003-01-01

    According to the OECD standard, there are no rural areas in the Netherlands. Nonetheless, debate continues about the future of the Dutch countryside. In order to explore how Dutch inhabitants think about rural areas a survey was conducted by the authors, focusing on two topics: the kind of

  5. Adaptation strategies in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, J.; Klostermann, J.E.M.; Bergsma, E.; Jong, P.; Albrecht, E.; Schmidt, M.; Mißler-Behr, M.; Spyra, S.P.N.

    2014-01-01

    Although climate change has been prominently featured on the global scientific and political agendas since the World Climate Conference in 1979 (WCC 1979), the specific importance of adaptation to climate change has only been underlined about 20 years later. The Netherlands, because it lies largely

  6. Sport in the Netherlands 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Koen Breedveld

    2009-01-01

    Sport is a popular pastime in the Netherlands; More than 10 million people take part in at least one sport. To do this, they can choose from more than 27,000 non-profit sports clubs, or more than 7,200 commercial providers such as fitness centres or riding stables. Among the most popular sports

  7. The Netherlands : A tax haven?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemmeren, Eric; Kuijer, Martin; Werner, Wouter

    2017-01-01

    The taxation of multinational enterprises is currently subject to intensive international and national debates. In these debates the Netherlands has sometimes been labelled as a ‘tax haven’. This term has a strong negative connotation. In any case, a country’s reputation is at stake if it is

  8. Patient education in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bensing, J.; Visser, Adriaan; Saan, Hans

    2001-01-01

    This article presents the development of patient education (PE) in The Netherlands from a historical perspective. A description is given of the first pioneering years from the 70s till the late 80s, in which early topics like the organization of PE, the orchestration of PE between different

  9. Chinese Companies in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, T.M.; Pieke, F.N.; Stam, T.

    2017-01-01

    The rapid growth of Chinese investment in the Netherlands has been cause for both excitement and anxiety. Many of the companies and other investors are still unknown and the background and objectives of their investment often remain unclear. This research takes a close look at fourteen Chinese

  10. Elder abuse in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inger Plaisier; Mirjam de Klerk

    2015-01-01

    Original title: Ouderenmishandeling in Nederland It is twenty years since the last study was carried out on the number of older persons in the Netherlands who are deliberate or accidental victims of abuse in the form of verbal, physical or sexual violence, financial abuse and/or neglect by

  11. Investigating the prevalence and predictors of media multitasking across countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorveld, H.A.M.; Segijn, C.M.; Ketelaar, P.E.; Smit, E.G.

    2014-01-01

    This study provides insight into the prevalence and predictors of different forms of media multitasking across different countries. Results of a survey of 5,973 participants from six countries (the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, and France) demonstrated that

  12. Investigating the Prevalence and Predictors of Media Multitasking across Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorveld, H.A.M.; Segijn, C.M.; Ketelaar, P.E.; Smit, E.G.

    2014-01-01

    This study provides insight into the prevalence and predictors of different forms of media multitasking across different countries. Results of a survey of 5,973 participants from six countries (the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, and France) demonstrated that

  13. “Every woman counts”: a gender-analysis of numeracy in the Low Countries during the early modern period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moor, Tine; van Zanden, Jan Luiten

    2010-01-01

    New evidence from Flanders and the Netherlands demonstrates that age heaping was gradually diminishing in large parts of the Low Countries during the sixteenth century, that (unexpectedly) almost no gender gap was apparent in the change (women even outperforming men at times), and that differences between town and countryside were small. These findings suggest an early rise in numeracy (or at least a “number sense”) in both urban and rural areas, linked to demographic change and commercial development. Between 1600 and 1800, Flanders, in particular, seems to have lost its strong distinctiveness in this regard.

  14. Health care utilisation by ethnic minorities in the Netherlands.

    OpenAIRE

    Uiters, E.H.; Devillé, W.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Foets, M.

    2003-01-01

    Background: An increasing number of migrants is living in Europe, but little is known about their access to health care services. Research indicates that the health care utilisation of migrants differs from the native population. However, most studies were undertaken in a local setting and included a relatively small numbers of migrants. Therefore, we decided to conduct a survey among the four largest groups of migrants in the Netherlands, in addition to a national representative health surve...

  15. Short Maternal Stature Increases Risk of Small-for-Gestational-Age and Preterm Births in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozuki, Naoko; Katz, Joanne; Lee, Anne Cc

    2015-01-01

    /or preterm births in LMIC may be associated with short maternal stature annually. A reduction in this burden requires primary prevention of SGA, improvement in postnatal growth through early childhood, and possibly further intervention in late childhood and adolescence. It is vital for researchers to broaden...... short maternal stature and outcomes of SGA alone, preterm birth alone, or both, and to calculate the population attributable fraction of SGA and preterm birth associated with short maternal stature. METHODS: We conducted an individual participant data meta-analysis with the use of data sets from 12...... population-based cohort studies and the WHO Global Survey on Maternal and Perinatal Health (13 of 24 available data sets used) from low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). We included those with weight taken within 72 h of birth, gestational age, and maternal height data (n = 177,000). For each...

  16. The demand-side innovation policies and sustainable development in the small EU country. Nõudluspoolsed innovatsioonipoliitikad ja jätkusuutlik areng Euroopa Liidu väikeriigis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tõnu Roolaht

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Various regulations, standards, public procurement activities, subsidies for private demand, and other similar support measures form the demand-side innovation policies. In the modern era, countries and governments dedicate more and more attention to the economic, social, and environmental sustainability of development and entrepreneurship. Sustainable development aims to meet human needs so that economic and social conditions will improve or at least not deteriorate and environment is preserved in order to allow future generations to meet their needs as well. Several demand-side innovation policy measures target also sustainability either as primary or secondary goal. Such policy measures tend to suffer from overshooting effects or fail to influence the behaviour in a desired manner. The purpose of this study is to offer suggestions concerning demand-side policy measures in order to improve their impact on the sustainability of development

  17. Cost Analyses in the US and Japan: A Cross-Country Comparative Analysis Applied to the PRONOUNCE Trial in Non-Squamous Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Lisa M; Rajan, Narayan; Winfree, Katherine; Davey, Peter; Ball, Mark; Knox, Hediyyih; Graham, Christopher

    2015-12-01

    Health technology assessment is not required for regulatory submission or approval in either the United States (US) or Japan. This study was designed as a cross-country evaluation of cost analyses conducted in the US and Japan based on the PRONOUNCE phase III lung cancer trial, which compared pemetrexed plus carboplatin followed by pemetrexed (PemC) versus paclitaxel plus carboplatin plus bevacizumab followed by bevacizumab (PCB). Two cost analyses were conducted in accordance with International Society For Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research good research practice standards. Costs were obtained based on local pricing structures; outcomes were considered equivalent based on the PRONOUNCE trial results. Other inputs were included from the trial data (e.g., toxicity rates) or from local practice sources (e.g., toxicity management). The models were compared across key input and transferability factors. Despite differences in local input data, both models demonstrated a similar direction, with the cost of PemC being consistently lower than the cost of PCB. The variation in individual input parameters did affect some of the specific categories, such as toxicity, and impacted sensitivity analyses, with the cost differential between comparators being greater in Japan than in the US. When economic models are based on clinical trial data, many inputs and outcomes are held consistent. The alterable inputs were not in and of themselves large enough to significantly impact the results between countries, which were directionally consistent with greater variation seen in sensitivity analyses. The factors that vary across jurisdictions, even when minor, can have an impact on trial-based economic analyses. Eli Lilly and Company.

  18. Aichi virus in sewage and surface water, the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodder, Willemijn J; Rutjes, Saskia A; Takumi, Katsuhisa; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria

    2013-08-01

    Detection of Aichi virus in humans was initially reported in Japan in 1989. To establish a timeline for the prevalence of Aichi virus infection among humans in the Netherlands, we conducted molecular analysis of archival water samples from 1987-2000 and 2009-2012. Aichi virus RNA was detected in 100% (8/8) of sewage samples and 100% (7/7) of surface water samples collected during 1987-2000 and 100% (8/8) of sewage samples and 71% (5/7) of surface water samples collected during 2009-2012. Several genotype A and B Aichi virus lineages were observed over the 25-year period studied, but the time course of viral genetic diversity showed recent expansion of the genotype B population over genotype A. Our results show that Aichi virus has been circulating among the human population in the Netherlands since before its initial detection in humans was reported and that genotype B now predominates in this country.

  19. [Suicide among migrant populations and native Dutch in The Netherlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garssen, M J; Hoogenboezem, J; Kerkhof, A J F M

    2006-09-30

    To determine the differences in suicide mortality between native Dutch and migrant groups in the Netherlands from different countries and regions of origin, taking the differences in age structure into account. Retrospective. Data from the statistics on causes of death from the Dutch Central Bureau of Statistics, Statistics Netherlands (CBS), based on the causes of death given in the certificates from the doctor or forensic pathologist, were coupled to the reports of death from the Municipal Population Registration (GBA). In this way, the country of origin of the deceased could be determined. The confidentiality of these data is regulated by law. For the period 1996-2004, all 13,737 persons were selected who had committed suicide (International classification of diseases (ICD)-10-codes X60-X84). The country of origin was determined on the basis of data on the country of birth of the deceased and his or her parents. Someone is a 'migrant' ('foreign') according to the definition of the CBS if at least one of the parents was born outside the Netherlands. There were substantial differences in suicide mortality between migrant groups in the Netherlands. These differences reflected, to some extent, suicide mortality patterns in the countries and regions of origin. On the whole, migrants originating from western countries showed suicide mortality rates that were well above the average rate for native Dutch. High suicide rates were seen in male migrants from southern and eastern Europe. On the other hand, suicide mortality was significantly lower among Turks and Moroccans than among native Dutch. Only young adult males of non-western origin, with the exception of Moroccans, were much more likely to commit suicide than native Dutch. Although much attention has recently been paid to the elevated rates of attempted suicide among young women from Surinam, their suicide mortality was increased less than that of men from Surinam up to middle age. These increased suicide rates

  20. Small hazardous waste generators in developing countries: use of stabilization/solidification process as an economic tool for metal wastewater treatment and appropriate sludge disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marcos A R; Mater, Luciana; Souza-Sierra, Maria M; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Sperb, Rafael; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2007-08-25

    The aim of this study was to propose a profitable destination for an industrial sludge that can cover the wastewater treatment costs of small waste generators. Optimized stabilization/solidification technology was used to treat hazardous waste from an electroplating industry that is currently released untreated to the environment. The stabilized/solidified (S/S) waste product was used as a raw material to build concrete blocks, to be sold as pavement blocks or used in roadbeds and/or parking lots. The quality of the blocks containing a mixture of cement, lime, clay and waste was evaluated by means of leaching and solubility tests according to the current Brazilian waste regulations. Results showed very low metal leachability and solubility of the block constituents, indicating a low environmental impact. Concerning economic benefits from the S/S process and reuse of the resultant product, the cost of untreated heavy metal-containing sludge disposal to landfill is usually on the order of US$ 150-200 per tonne of waste, while 1tonne of concrete roadbed blocks (with 25% of S/S waste constitution) has a value of around US$ 100. The results of this work showed that the cement, clay and lime-based process of stabilization/solidification of hazardous waste sludge is sufficiently effective and economically viable to stimulate the treatment of wastewater from small industrial waste generators.

  1. Likely country of origin in publications on randomised controlled trials and controlled clinical trials during the last 60 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolova Dimitrinka

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of publications on clinical trials is unknown as well as the countries publishing most trial reports. To try to examine these questions we performed an ecological study. Methods We searched the 454,449 records on publications in The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL in The Cochrane Library, Issue 3, 2005 (CD-ROM version for possible country of origin. We inspected a random sample of 906 records for information on country and type of trial. Results There was an exponential growth of publications on randomised controlled trials and controlled clinical trials since 1946, but the growth seems to have seized since 2000. We identified the possible country of origin of 210,974 publications (46.4%. The USA is leading with about 46,789 publications followed by UK, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Canada, and France. Sweden becomes the leader with 891 publications per million inhabitants during the last 60 years followed by Denmark (n = 864, New Zealand (n = 791, Finland (n = 781, the Netherlands (n = 570, Switzerland (n = 547, and Norway (n = 543. In depth assessment of the random sample backed these findings. Conclusion Many records lacked country of origin, even after the additional scrutiny. The number of publications on clinical trials increased exponentially until the turn of the century. Rather small, democratic, and wealthy countries take the lead when the number of publications on clinical trials is calculated based on million inhabitants. If all countries produced the same number of trials as these countries, this could mean thousands of new effective treatments during the next 60 years.

  2. Likely country of origin in publications on randomised controlled trials and controlled clinical trials during the last 60 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluud, Christian; Nikolova, Dimitrinka

    2007-02-27

    The number of publications on clinical trials is unknown as well as the countries publishing most trial reports. To try to examine these questions we performed an ecological study. We searched the 454,449 records on publications in The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, Issue 3, 2005 (CD-ROM version) for possible country of origin. We inspected a random sample of 906 records for information on country and type of trial. There was an exponential growth of publications on randomised controlled trials and controlled clinical trials since 1946, but the growth seems to have seized since 2000. We identified the possible country of origin of 210,974 publications (46.4%). The USA is leading with about 46,789 publications followed by UK, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Canada, and France. Sweden becomes the leader with 891 publications per million inhabitants during the last 60 years followed by Denmark (n = 864), New Zealand (n = 791), Finland (n = 781), the Netherlands (n = 570), Switzerland (n = 547), and Norway (n = 543). In depth assessment of the random sample backed these findings. Many records lacked country of origin, even after the additional scrutiny. The number of publications on clinical trials increased exponentially until the turn of the century. Rather small, democratic, and wealthy countries take the lead when the number of publications on clinical trials is calculated based on million inhabitants. If all countries produced the same number of trials as these countries, this could mean thousands of new effective treatments during the next 60 years.

  3. Iris Yellow Spot Virus in the Netherlands: Occurence in Onion and Confirmation of Transmission by Thrips tabaci

    OpenAIRE

    Hoedjes, K.; Verhoeven, J. Th. J.; Goldbach, R.W.; Peters, D.

    2011-01-01

    Since its first detection in the Netherlands in 1992, Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV, genus Tospovirus) has been reported worldwide in Allium crops, in a few ornamentals and in a small number of weeds. After recent findings of IYSV in Alstroemeria and Eustoma in the Netherlands, a number of neighbouring onion fields were surveyed. In 2005 and 2006, only few infected plants were found with obvious symptoms of IYSV. In 2007, after sampling and testing small leaf samples with various types of dama...

  4. High seroprevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi antibodies in forestry workers and individuals suspected of human granulocytic anaplasmosis in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jahfari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Substantial exposure to Borrelia miyamotoi occurs through bites from Ixodes ricinus ticks in the Netherlands, which also transmit Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Direct evidence for B. miyamotoi infection in European populations is scarce. A flu-like illness with high fever, resembling human granulocytic anaplasmosis, has been attributed to B. miyamotoi infections in relatively small groups. Borrelia miyamotoi infections associated with chronic meningoencephalitis have also been described in case reports. Assuming that an IgG antibody response against B. miyamotoi antigens reflects (endured infection, the seroprevalence in different risk groups was examined. Sera from nine out of ten confirmed B. miyamotoi infections from Russia were found to be positive with the recombinant antigen used, and no significant cross-reactivity was observed in secondary syphilis patients. The seroprevalence in blood donors was set at 2.0% (95% CI 0.4–5.7%. Elevated seroprevalences in individuals with serologically confirmed, 7.4% (2.0–17.9%, or unconfirmed, 8.6% (1.8–23%, Lyme neuroborreliosis were not significantly different from those in blood donors. The prevalence of anti-B. miyamotoi antibodies among forestry workers was 10% (5.3–16.8% and in patients with serologically unconfirmed but suspected human granulocytic anaplasmosis was 14.6% (9.0–21.8%; these were significantly higher compared with the seroprevalence in blood donors. Our findings indicate that infections with B. miyamotoi occur in tick-exposed individuals in the Netherlands. In addition, B. miyamotoi infections should be considered in patients reporting tick bites and febrile illness with unresolved aetiology in the Netherlands, and other countries where I. ricinus ticks are endemic.

  5. A Register-Based Study of Diseases With an Autosomal Recessive Origin in Small Children in Denmark According to Maternal Country of Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundlund, Anna; Hansen, Anne Vinkel; Pedersen, Grete Skøtt; Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Brøndum-Nielsen, Karen; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2015-07-01

    Compared with children born of Danish mothers, the mortality of children, born and living in Denmark, is significantly increased in those with a mother from Afghanistan, Iraq, Pakistan, Somalia, and Turkey. Consanguinity has been suggested to account for part of this disparity. Since information on consanguinity is lacking, this suggestion is difficult to test. With an indirect approach, we addressed this question by comparing the risk of diseases with autosomal recessive inheritance in children born in Denmark of Danish-born women and of women born in these five countries, respectively. All children born in Denmark (1994-2010) were followed until 5 years of age or end-of-study period for the risk of hospitalisation with diseases of autosomal recessive aetiology, and therefore considered consanguinity-related. Diagnoses of autosomal recessive diseases were identified using two different methods: a literature review of consanguinity-associated diseases and a search in the Online Catalogue of Human Genes and Genetic Disorders. Risks were also calculated for diseases with known non-autosomal recessive aetiology (considered non-consanguinity-related). We estimated adjusted hazard ratios for the diseases in children of foreign-born women compared with children of Danish-born women. Compared with offspring of Danish-born women, the risk of a consanguinity-related disease was significantly increased in children of foreign-born women, although the absolute risk was low. The risk of non-consanguinity-related diseases did not differ between the groups compared. The findings support the hypothesis that consanguinity accounts for some, however a minor part, of the disparity in child mortality among migrants in Denmark. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Local Taxation in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    van der Hoek, M. Peter

    1991-01-01

    Provincial governments in the Netherlands have only one general tax at their disposal. However, it has become an insufficient source of revenue for this level of government in the Dutch system. To increase the revenue raising capacity of the provincial governments, thirteen broad-based general tax proposals not used at the local level were examined. The objective was to find a fair and equitable tax that could easily be collected and would result in fl. 200 million in additional revenue for t...

  7. Local spread of classical swine fever upon virus introduction into The Netherlands: Mapping of areas at high risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boender, G.J.; Nodelijk, G.; Hagenaars, T.H.J.; Elbers, A.R.W.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background In the recent past, the introduction of Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV) followed by between-herd spread has given rise to a number of large epidemics in The Netherlands and Belgium. Both these countries are pork-exporting countries. Particularly important in these epidemics has been

  8. 76 FR 54928 - Export Administration Regulations: Netherlands Antilles, Curaçao, Sint Maarten and Timor-Leste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... Regulations: Netherlands Antilles, Cura ao, Sint Maarten and Timor-Leste AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and... Commerce Country Chart. This rule also revises the name ``East Timor'' to read ``Timor- Leste'' throughout... Commerce Country Chart as ``East Timor'' should instead be referred to by its proper name, which is ``Timor...

  9. Rewarding integration? Citizenship regulations and the socio-cultural integration of immigrants in the Netherlands, France and Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ersanilli, E.F.; Koopmans, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper compares the levels of socio-cultural integration of naturalised and non-naturalised immigrants in the Netherlands, France and Germany. Socio-cultural integration is measured by host-country identification, proficiency and use of the host-country language, and interethnic social contacts.

  10. Exploring high-end climate change scenarios for flood protection of the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazeleger, W.; Katsman, C.; Sterl, A.; Beersma, J.

    2009-04-01

    Sea level rise, changing storm frequency and intensity, and increased river discharge resulting from climate change pose a particular threat to low-lying countries like the Netherlands and create many new challenges for them. With these threats and challenges in mind, the Dutch cabinet established a special committee, the Delta Committee, charged with the development of effective planning-, management- and adaptation strategies for climate proofing the Netherlands. At the request of the Dutch Delta Committee, an international scientific assessment has been carried out to explore high-end climate change scenarios for flood protection of the Netherlands. Upper-bound values and longer-term projections (up to 2200) of climate-induced sea level rise, changing storm surge conditions, and peak discharge of the river Rhine have been considered. The assessment builds on a review of recent studies, model projections and expert opinions. For the scenarios for sea level rise, thermal expansion of the ocean, the shrinking of small glaciers, the Greenland and the Antarctic Ice Sheets, and changes in terrestrial water storage are considered separately, along with their uncertainties. Except for the contribution of the Antarctic Ice Sheet all contributions are assumed to depend (at least in part) on the rise in global mean atmospheric temperature rise. To arrive at a projection for local sea level, elastic and gravity effects of elastic deformation of the Earth's crust arising from mass redistribution due to the melting of land-based ice masses, local expansion differences with respect to the global mean (dominated by ocean circulation changes) and local land movement were accounted for. Depending on the adopted impact of the elastic and gravity effects, a high-end projection for local sea level rise of 0.50 - 1.15 m and 0.05 - 1.25 m is projected for the Dutch coast for 2100. For 2200 these ranges are 1.5 - 4 m and 0.5 - 4.0 m. Besides sea level rise, the height of storm surges

  11. Environmental comparison of solid waste management systems: A case study of the cities of Iasi, Romania and Enschede, Netherlands.

    OpenAIRE

    Chinea, Cristina; Petraru, Madalina; Bressers, Johannes T.A.; Gavrilescu, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable approach to solid waste management in any region can be achieved by integrated waste management systems. The waste management systems differ in developed and developing countries. The Netherlands has a unique waste management system, the Dutch approach to waste consist in “avoid waste as much as possible, recover the valuable raw materials from any waste that is created, try to generate energy by incinerating the residual waste, and only then dump what is left”. Netherlands is tod...

  12. Trends in preterm birth: singleton and multiple pregnancies in the Netherlands, 2000-2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaaf, J. M.; Mol, B. W. J.; Abu-Hanna, A.; Ravelli, A. C. J.

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have reported increasing trends in preterm birth in developed countries, mainly attributable to an increase in medically indicated preterm births. Our aim was to describe trends in preterm birth among singleton and multiple pregnancies in the Netherlands. Prospective cohort study.

  13. Sociodemographic factors and incidence of melanoma in the Netherlands 1994-2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Aa, M.A.; de Vries, E.; Hoekstra, H.J.; Coebergh, J.W.W.; Siesling, Sabine

    2011-01-01

    Background: Time–space incidence maps of the Netherlands indicated differences in incidence of cutaneous melanoma (melanoma) over the country, which might be related to sociodemographic characteristics of living environment and socioeconomic status (SES) of the patients. The goal of this study was

  14. Explaining low uptake for Down syndrome screening in the Netherlands : (and predicting utilisation of other programmes)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crombag, NMTH

    2016-01-01

    In the Netherlands, only a quarter of all pregnant women take part in the current Down syndrome screening(DSS) programme. Compared to other Northern European countries, Dutch uptake rates are very low. This thesis concentrates on the test-utilisation of DSS, in particular the factors impeding or

  15. Renewing stigmatised estates in the Netherlands : A framework for image renewal strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassenberg, F.

    2004-01-01

    Like in so many other European countries, the large housing estates of the post-World War II generation in the Netherlands did not fulfil the great and often Utopian expectations. Nowadays they are confronted with the effects of a negative image, a stigma. Images differ according to the persons

  16. Time-space trends in cancer incidence in The Netherlands in 1989–2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siesling, Sabine; van der Aa, Maaike A.; Coebergh, Jan W.W.; Pukkala, Eero

    2008-01-01

    Incidence of cancer may vary within a country and over time because of previous differences in exposure to risk factors or interventions for early detection (screening). This study describes time-space trends of incidence of common cancer sites across the Netherlands during the period 1989–2003 and

  17. Determinants of regional differences in lung cancer mortality in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunst, A. E.; Looman, C. W.; Mackenbach, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    Although regional differences in lung cancer mortality are likely to be attributable to regional differences in tobacco smoking, studies in various countries found only weak relationships. This paper aimed at explaining regional differences in lung cancer mortality in the Netherlands. In a first

  18. New Mothers' Employment and Public Policy in the UK, Germany, The Netherlands, Sweden, and Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kenjoh, E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the link between family-friendly policies and women's employment after birth of the first child in the UK, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, and Japan in the 1980s and the 1990s. Our econometric analyses use household panel data from each of the five countries: BHPS, GSOEP,

  19. Temptations of turnout and modernisation: e-voting discourses in the UK and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Wolter; van Haren, R.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of the research described was to identify reasons for differences between discourses on electronic voting in the UK and The Netherlands, from a qualitative point of view. Design/methodology/approach – From both countries, eight e-voting experts were interviewed on their

  20. Part-time employment: a comparative analysis of Spain and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blázquez Cuesta, M.; Ramos Martín, N.E.

    2009-01-01

    Most industrialized countries have seen part-time employment as a percentage of total employment increasing in the last decade. This paper presents the results of a comparative study of part-time employment in Spain and the Netherlands. The project comprises a legal comparative study of the

  1. Albinistic common seals (Phoca vitulina) and melanistic grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) rehabilitated in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osinga, Nynke; 't Hart, Pieter; Vader, Pieter C. van Voorst

    2010-01-01

    The Seal Rehabilitation and Research Centre (SRRC) in Pieterburen, The Netherlands, rehabilitates seals from the waters of the Wadden Sea, North Sea and Southwest Delta area. Incidental observations of albinism and melanism in common and grey seals are known from countries surrounding the North Sea.

  2. Implications of PISA outcomes for science curriculum reform in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkelhof, H.M.C.; Kordes, J.H.; Savelsbergh, E.R.

    2013-01-01

    As the PISA 2006 results came out, the Netherlands brief y celebrated their 9th position in the overall country ranking for science. After that, interest in the PISA results rapidly declined. Nevertheless, there is sufficient reason to take a closer look at the PISA results, for instance because (a)

  3. Bridging Mobilities : ICTs appropriation by Cameroonians in South Africa and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyamnjoh, Henrietta Mambo

    2013-01-01

    With a focus on Cameroonian migrants from Pinyin and Mankon who are currently living in Cape Town and the Netherlands, this volume examines the workings of the social fabric of mobile communities. It sheds light on how these communities are crafting lives for themselves in the host country and

  4. Bridging mobilities : ICTs appropriation by Cameroonians in South Africa and The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyamnjoh, H.

    2013-01-01

    With a focus on Cameroonian migrants from Pinyin and Mankon who are currently living in Cape Town and the Netherlands, this volume examines the workings of the social fabric of mobile communities. It sheds light on how these communities are crafting lives for themselves in the host country and

  5. Accident scenarios for marshalling yards in the Netherlands: Private or public fire fighting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosmuller, N.

    2008-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Seveso and Seveso II directive [1996], many Western European countries have the opportunity to demand installations processing hazardous materials to have a a private fire brigade. In the Netherlands, based on the Dutch company fire brigade decree certain companies can

  6. Nitrogen and phosphorus consumption, utilisation and losses in pig production: The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Jongbloed, A.W.; Aarnink, A.J.A.

    1999-01-01

    In recent years pig production has been intensified in most European countries. This has resulted in a surplus of manure, exceeding the nutrient needs of the plants. In The Netherlands different laws have been introduced since 1984 to reduce these environmental problems. In this paper the

  7. Comparison and evaluation of the roles of tomato farmer cooperatives in Taiwan and The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, B.-S.

    2012-01-01

    Tomato is one of the most popular vegetables all over the world and the production was 145 million tonnes in 2011. In Taiwan and The Netherlands, tomato also became an important vegetable nowadays. In both countries, the farmer cooperatives are the way to help farmers accessing markets. However,

  8. Media rating systems: do they work? Shop floor compliance with age restrictions in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosselt, Jordi Franciscus; van Hoof, Joris Jasper; de Jong, Menno D.T.

    2012-01-01

    Media rating systems have been introduced in many countries to protect minors from being exposed to harmful media content. This study examines whether retailers comply with the guidelines of media ratings in the Netherlands. In a mystery shopping study, minors tried to buy or rent media products for

  9. 'Voodoo' on the doorstep : young Nigerian prostitutes and magic policing in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van R.A.

    2001-01-01

    This article deals with the moral panic that emerged in the Netherlands when it became publicly known that under-age Nigerian girls were being smuggled into the country to be put to 'work' in the sex industry. A police investigation not only found hundreds of cases but also uncovered the fact that

  10. Performance in Home Schooling: An Argument against Compulsory Schooling in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blok, Henk

    2004-01-01

    Although home education is a growing phenomenon in many Western countries, it is almost non-existent in the Netherlands. Under Dutch educational law, children must be educated in the school system. Home schooling is thought to endanger children's development. This study examines--primarily American--analyses of performance in home schooling. Its…

  11. In the spotlight: a blessing and a curse for immigrant women in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sawitri Saharso; dr. B. (Baukje) Prins

    2008-01-01

    Within a short period of time, the Netherlands transformed itself from a relatively tolerant country to a nation that called for cultural assimilation, tough measures and neo-patriotism. The discursive genre of 'new realism' played a crucial role in this retreat from multiculturalism, and that had

  12. In the spotlight: A blessing and a curse for immigrant women in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, Baukje; Saharso, Sawitri

    2008-01-01

    Within a short period of time, the Netherlands transformed itself from a relatively tolerant country to a nation that called for cultural assimilation, tough measures and neo-patriotism. The discursive genre of `new realism' played a crucial role in this retreat from multiculturalism, and that had a

  13. In the spotlight - A blessing and a curse for immigrant women in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, Baukje; Saharso, Sawitri

    Within a short period of time, the Netherlands transformed itself from a relatively tolerant country to a nation that called for cultural assimilation, tough measures and neo-patriotism. The discursive genre of 'new realism' played a crucial role in this retreat from multiculturalism, and that had a

  14. Increase in imported malaria in the Netherlands in asylum seekers and VFR travellers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gier, B. de; Suryapranata, F.S.; Croughs, M.; Genderen, P.J. van; Keuter, M.; Visser, L.G.; Vugt, M. De; Sonder, G.J.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malaria is a notifiable disease in the Netherlands, a non-endemic country. Imported malaria infections occur regularly among travellers, migrants and visitors. Surveillance data were analysed from 2008 to 2015. Trends in amounts of notifications among risk groups were analysed using

  15. Increase in imported malaria in the Netherlands in asylum seekers and VFR travellers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Gier, Brechje; Suryapranata, Franciska S. T.; Croughs, Mieke; van Genderen, Perry J. J.; Keuter, Monique; Visser, Leo G.; van Vugt, Michele; Sonder, Gerard J. B.

    2017-01-01

    Malaria is a notifiable disease in the Netherlands, a non-endemic country. Imported malaria infections occur regularly among travellers, migrants and visitors. Surveillance data were analysed from 2008 to 2015. Trends in amounts of notifications among risk groups were analysed using Poisson

  16. The distribution of the invasive harvestman Dicranopalpus ramosus in the Netherlands (Arachnida: Opiliones)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordijk, J.; Wijnhoven, H.; Cuppen, J.G.M.

    2007-01-01

    Dicranopalpus ramous is one of the most characteristic harvestmen in our country. Because this species is quite easy to identify, many persons were able to contribute to the first distribution map ever presented for a harvestman species in the Netherlands. Remarkably, D. ramosus has succeeded to

  17. The Dutch secret : How to provide safe drinking water without chlorine in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.W.M.H.; Medema, G.J.; Van Dijk, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    The Netherlands is one of the few countries where chlorine is not used at all, neither for primary disinfection nor to maintain a residual disinfectant in the distribution network. The Dutch approach that allows production and distribution of drinking water without the use of chlorine while not

  18. Advancing Sustainable Safety : national road safety outlook for The Netherlands for 2005-2020.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F. Aarts, L. & Bax, C.

    2009-01-01

    Although road safety has improved enormously over time, and The Netherlands is one of the safest countries in the world, the current annual number of road casualties is still considered as unacceptable. To support next steps the sustainable safety vision was launched in the early 1990s. The idea was

  19. School-based management in the Netherlands: the educational consequences of lump-sum funding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karsten, S.; Meijer, J.

    1999-01-01

    Important changes are taking place in the ways schools are funded in a large number of countries. In by far the majority of cases, these changes involve more freedom at the school level to decide how money should be spent. The Netherlands has had lump-sum funding in vocational secondary education

  20. On the presence of Rana ridibunda ridibunda Pallas in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1975-01-01

    Since long there has been a dispute whether in the Netherlands there occur one or two species of green frogs of the genus Rana. There has never been any doubt concerning the presence of Rana esculenta Linnaeus, a species widely distributed throughout the country (Van de Bund, 1964, 1968). The first

  1. Spillover effects of supplementary on basic health insurance: Evidence from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A-F. Roos (Anne-Fleur); F.T. Schut (Erik)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractLike many other countries, the Netherlands has a health insurance system that combines mandatory basic insurance with voluntary supplementary insurance. Both types of insurance are founded on different principles. Since basic and supplementary insurance are sold by the same health

  2. Acarological risk of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infections across space and time in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, W.; Vliet, van A.J.H.; Verhulst, N.O.; Jacobs, F.H.H.; Gassner, F.; Hartemink, Nienke; Mulder, S.; Sprong, H.

    2017-01-01

    A longitudinal investigation on tick populations and their Borrelia infections in the Netherlands was undertaken between 2006 and 2011 with the aim to assess spatial and temporal patterns of the acarological risk in forested sites across the country and to assess variations in Borrelia genospecies

  3. Spatial variation in stage distribution in colorectal cancer in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elferink, M. A. G.; Pukkala, E.; Klaase, J. M.; Siesling, S.

    Background: In the Netherlands the incidence of colorectal cancer has increased, mainly in the eastern part of the country. Patient delay due to unawareness or ignorance of symptoms and differences in use of diagnostic tools could have influence on the stage distribution. The aim of this study was

  4. Osteoporosis in the Netherlands; A burden of illness study commissioned by Merck Sharp & Dohme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.E.D. de Laet (Chris); B.A. van Hout (Ben); H.A.P. Pols (Huib)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThis report provides an overview of the available quantitative information about osteoporosis in the Netherlands, and of the costs associated with it. We present information relevant for this country, making as few assumptions as possible. Although the main subject is osteoporosis, the

  5. Age-specific trends in cardiovascular mortality rates in the Netherlands between 1980 and 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Peeters (Anna); W.J. Nusselder (Wilma); C. Stevenson (Christopher); E.J. Boyko (Edward); L. Moon (Lynelle); A. Tonkin (Andrew)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractRecent analyses suggest the decline in coronary heart disease mortality rates is slowing in younger age groups in countries such as the US and the UK. This work aimed to analyse recent trends in cardiovascular mortality rates in the Netherlands. Analysis was of annual all circulatory,

  6. Cost-effectiveness of universal vaccination ag ainst varicella in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Boer, P.T.; Postma, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The Netherlands has no varicella vaccination in its National Immunization Program (NIP). Although varicella is regarded as a mild disease, implementation of varicella vaccination in the immunization schedule of several countries has shown to be cost-effective. Dutch children are infected

  7. HOW THE FINANCIAL CRISIS HAS AFFECTED THE ECONOMIC INDICATORS OF THE NETHERLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răzvan Hagimă

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite of being affected by the economic crisis, the Netherlands managed to minimize its effects. This situation is highlighted in a comparison with Romania and the European Union, between the levels of the most important economic indicators. Moreover, when other countries registered negative trends in their economic growth, the Dutch economy succeeded in this matter.

  8. Regional differences in productivity growth in The Netherlands : an industry-level growth accounting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, Lourens; Dijk, Jouke van

    2005-01-01

    It is well known that the productivity growth in Europe is slowing down, against an increasing growth rate in the US. The Netherlands is one of countries in Europe with the lowest growth rates of productivity. This paper presents the results of a growth accounting exercise applied to regional

  9. Water Education in the Netherlands: An Integrated Curriculum Using NCSS Standards for Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bron, Jeroen; van Vliet, Eddie

    2013-01-01

    There is much that can be learned from a curriculum developed in The Netherlands, a country famous for having been "claimed from the sea." Nothing can be truer than that, but there is more to the story than just the physical aspect of claiming land from the water. The identity of the Dutch, the history of their maritime and seafaring…

  10. Reforming pension fund governance in the Netherlands: finding a collective voice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwan, N.

    2013-01-01

    As in other European countries, the introduction of more freedom of choice in the pension system has been hotly debated in the Netherlands. Much of the debate has focused on the contents of pension plans, such as flexibility in retirement age, benefits levels and investment options. A second

  11. Ethnic differences in Internal Medicine referrals and diagnosis in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.C. Lanting (Loes); A.H. Bootsma (Aart); S.W.J. Lamberts (Steven); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); I.M.A. Joung (Inez)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAs in other Western countries, the number of immigrants in the Netherlands is growing rapidly. In 1980 non-western immigrants constituted about 3% of the population, in 1990 it was 6% and currently it is more than 10%. Nearly half of the migrant population lives in the four major cities.

  12. The epidemiology of tuberculosis among asylum seekers in The Netherlands: implications for screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Burg, J. L.; Verver, S.; Borgdorff, M. W.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify low-risk groups among asylum seekers in the Netherlands that may be excluded from tuberculosis (TB) screening at entry or during follow-up. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of medical records of asylum seekers entering the country between January 1994 and March 1997.

  13. Determinants of traffic accident mortality in The Netherlands: a geographical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beeck, E. F.; Mackenbach, J. P.; Looman, C. W.; Kunst, A. E.

    1991-01-01

    In the Netherlands, a country with one of the lowest levels of traffic accident mortality in the world, large regional mortality differences can be observed. An analysis was performed of the contribution of regional differences in traffic mobility (kilometers travelled/person-years), injury rate

  14. Why Do Tertiary Education Graduates Regret Their Study Program? A Comparison between Spain and the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucel, Aleksander; Vilalta-Bufi, Montserrat

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the determinants of regret of study program for tertiary education graduates in Spain and the Netherlands. These two countries differ in their educational system in terms of the tracking structure in their secondary education and the strength of their education-labor market linkages in tertiary education. Therefore, by…

  15. Bioenergy production chain development in the Netherlands : key factors for success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, H.; Kalf, R.; Elbersen, H.W.

    2010-01-01

    Development of bioenergy production in the Netherlands is lagging. This paper presents an inventory of problems met by new bioenergy chains and compares these to literature and to other countries. Theoretical frameworks suggest that five elements are crucial for successful bioenergy chain

  16. Flood risk, uncertainty and changing river protection policy in the Netherlands: the case of 'calamity polders'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth, D.; Warner, J.F.

    2007-01-01

    Extreme river discharges, floods and debates about climate change triggered a shift in flood protection policy in the Netherlands from infrastructural to spatial measures. The new policy directive of `Room for the River¿, details of which were introduced in 2000, should prepare the country for

  17. Uncertainties in the development of unconventional gas production in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eker, S.; Van Daalen, C.

    2012-01-01

    Unconventional gas has raised debates all over the world following its considerable contribution to the natural gas production of some countries such as the US. The Netherlands, which is a prominent gas producer in the Western Europe, also considers unconventional resources as an alternative to

  18. Citizen satisfaction with private security guards in the Netherlands: perceptions of an ambiguous occupation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Steden, R.; Nalla, M.

    2010-01-01

    The employment of private security guards has increased in many European countries in recent decades and the Netherlands is no exception. However, despite large increases in the growth of the private security industry, little is known about how the public perceives agents of private policing and

  19. A reconsideration of the status of English in the Netherlands within the Kachruvian Three Circles model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, M.; Meurs, W.F.J. van; Planken, B.C.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.

    2016-01-01

    The English used in the Netherlands, a European Union country, is classified by many linguists as an ESL variety, or, within Kachru’s (1985) Three Circles model, as an Outer Circle variety, or as being between an Outer and an Expanding Circle variety. This paper investigates the status of English in

  20. Highly successful treatment outcome of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in the Netherlands, 2000-2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Altena, R.; de Vries, G.; Haar, C. H.; de Lange, W. C. M.; Magis-Escurra, C.; van den Hof, S.; van Soolingen, D.; Boeree, M. J.; van der Werf, T. S.

    SETTING: Resistance to the two key anti-tuberculosis drugs isoniazid and rifampicin is a characteristic of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). MDR-TB is a scourge requiring toxic, prolonged treatment and is associated with poor outcomes. The Netherlands is a country with a long-standing,

  1. Acceptance of homosexuality by ethnic and religious groups in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willem Huijnk

    2014-01-01

    Original title: De acceptatie van homoseksualiteit door etnische en religieuze groepen in Nederland lthough acceptance of homosexuality in the Netherlands is high compared with other countries, there are still certain groups where this acceptance cannot be taken for granted. To gain a

  2. Report on Birds from the Netherlands received from 1 September 1908 till 1 September 1909

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van E.D.

    1909-01-01

    In my paper oil the Avifauna of the Netherlands, which I published in the preceding volume of this periodical, I gave a list of all the species observed in our country and an account of the most interesting specimens in the collection of our Museum, with the number of the specimens of each species

  3. Inclusiveness of identification among farmers in The Netherlands and Galicia (Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klandermans, P.G.; Sabucedo, J.M.; Rodriguez, M.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we discuss inclusiveness of identification among farmers in Galicia (Spain) and The Netherlands. Identification with three nested categories - farmers in the local community, farmers in the country, and farmers in Europe was assessed among 167 Dutch and 248 Galician farmers at three

  4. Potato breeding in the Netherlands: a successful participatory model with collaboration between farmers and commercial breeders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almekinders, C.J.M.; Mertens, L.; Loon, van J.P.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.

    2014-01-01

    Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB) is mostly considered relevant to smallholder agriculture in developing countries. PPB involves getting farmers to participate in plant breeding to overcome shortcomings in the formal plant breeding system. The potato breeding system in the Netherlands has a long

  5. The Lancashire Quality of Life Profile: first experiences in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nieuwenhuizen, C.; Schene, A.; Boevink, W.; Wolf, J.

    1998-01-01

    In the Netherlands, as in many other European countries, there is a strong desire for a reliable, valid and feasible instrument to assess the quality of life of people with long-term mental illness. After careful evaluation, it was decided to translate and adapt the Lancashire Quality of Life

  6. Health workforce remuneration: Comparing wage levels, ranking and dispersion of 16 occupational groups in 20 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijdens, K.; de Vries, D.H.

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on remuneration in the Human Resources for Health (HRH), comparing wage levels, ranking and dispersion of 16 HRH occupations in 20 countries (Argentina, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, India, Mexico, Netherlands, Poland, Russian

  7. Telemedicine for Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combi, Carlo; Pozzani, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Developing countries need telemedicine applications that help in many situations, when physicians are a small number with respect to the population, when specialized physicians are not available, when patients and physicians in rural villages need assistance in the delivery of health care. Moreover, the requirements of telemedicine applications for developing countries are somewhat more demanding than for developed countries. Indeed, further social, organizational, and technical aspects need to be considered for successful telemedicine applications in developing countries. Objective We consider all the major projects in telemedicine, devoted to developing countries, as described by the proper scientific literature. On the basis of such literature, we want to define a specific taxonomy that allows a proper classification and a fast overview of telemedicine projects in developing countries. Moreover, by considering both the literature and some recent direct experiences, we want to complete such overview by discussing some design issues to be taken into consideration when developing telemedicine software systems. Methods We considered and reviewed the major conferences and journals in depth, and looked for reports on the telemedicine projects. Results We provide the reader with a survey of the main projects and systems, from which we derived a taxonomy of features of telemedicine systems for developing countries. We also propose and discuss some classification criteria for design issues, based on the lessons learned in this research area. Conclusions We highlight some challenges and recommendations to be considered when designing a telemedicine system for developing countries. PMID:27803948

  8. [Poliomyelitis in The Netherlands, 1979-1991: immunity and exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rümke, H C; Oostvogel, P M; van der Veer, M; van Steenis, G; van Loon, A M

    1993-07-10

    An overview is presented of serological and virological studies on poliovirus immunization and circulation in the Netherlands, performed between 1979 and 1991. In this period, only three patients with poliomyelitis were notified. All had acquired the infection abroad. The vaccinations in the national immunization programme, using inactivated poliovirus vaccine, build a strong immunity. This can also be seen in age-stratified serological profiles of the Dutch population. In these surveys, persons from the time at which vaccination was offered have neutralizing antibodies. Older persons, especially those born between 1930 and 1945, sometimes lack antibodies. However, 85-90% of them show a rapid booster response upon vaccination, demonstrating immunological memory. Hence, they will be protected against poliomyelitis upon contact with wild poliovirus. Virological data show a regular import of poliovirus, especially in adoptive children tested on entry into the Netherlands, coming from developing countries. Nearly all other virus isolates in Dutchmen were related to import from such countries. None of the imported patients or other persons in whom poliovirus was detected spread the virus over the country. It demonstrates that as a rule the herd immunity of the well-vaccinated Dutch population is good. Exceptions occur, however, as demonstrated by the epidemics in 1978 and 1992. Large socio-geographic clusters of susceptible people who refuse vaccinations are not sufficiently protected.

  9. HIV Transmission Patterns Among The Netherlands, Suriname, and The Netherlands Antilles: A Molecular Epidemiological Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, Merlijn A.; Cornelissen, Marion; Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Prins, Maria; Coutinho, Roel A.; van Sighem, Ard I.; Sabajo, Lesley; Duits, Ashley J.; Winkel, Cai N.; Prins, Jan M.; van der Ende, Marchina E.; Kauffmann, Robert H.; Op de Coul, Eline L.

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to study patterns of HIV transmission among Suriname, The Netherlands Antilles, and The Netherlands. Fragments of env, gag, and pol genes of 55 HIV-infected Surinamese, Antillean, and Dutch heterosexuals living in The Netherlands and 72 HIV-infected heterosexuals living in Suriname and the

  10. Road deaths in the Netherlands. [Previously known as: Road fatalities in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    This fact sheet outlines the development of the number of road deaths in the Netherlands since 1950. After a rise in the 1950s and 1960s, the number of road deaths in the Netherlands has shown a gradual decline since 1973. In 2016, there were 629 road deaths in the Netherlands. After the years of

  11. 75 FR 30431 - Carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... COMMISSION Carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden AGENCY: United States... on carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden. SUMMARY: The Commission... carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  12. Heritage language anxiety and majority language anxiety among Turkish immigrants in the Netherlands.

    OpenAIRE

    Sevinc, Yesim; Dewaele, Jean-Marc

    2016-01-01

    Aims and objectives: This study examines the language anxiety that occurs in immigrants’ daily lives when speaking the heritage language and the majority language, both in their host country and during visits to their home country. It compares the levels of heritage language anxiety and majority language anxiety across three generations of the Turkish immigrant community in the Netherlands and explores the link between immigrants’ language anxiety, and sociobiographical (i.e. generation, gend...

  13. Heritage language anxiety and majority language anxiety among Turkish immigrants in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Sevinç, Y.; Dewaele, Jean-Marc

    2016-01-01

    Aims and objectives: This study examines the language anxiety that occurs in immigrants’ daily lives when speaking the heritage language and the majority language, both in their host country and during visits to their home country. It compares the levels of heritage language anxiety and majority language anxiety across three generations of the Turkish immigrant community in the Netherlands and explores the link between immigrants’ language anxiety, and sociobiographical (i.e. generation, gend...

  14. Risk factors and adverse perinatal outcomes among term and preterm infants born small-for-gestational-age: secondary analyses of the WHO Multi-Country Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Ota

    Full Text Available Small for gestational age (SGA is not only a major indicator of perinatal mortality and morbidity, but also the morbidity risks in later in life. We aim to estimate the association between the birth of SGA infants and the risk factors and adverse perinatal outcomes among twenty-nine countries in Africa, Latin America, the Middle East and Asia in 359 health facilities in 2010-11.We analysed facility-based, cross-sectional data from the WHO Multi-country Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health. We constructed multilevel logistic regression models with random effects for facilities and countries to estimate the risk factors for SGA infants using country-specific birthweight reference standards in preterm and term delivery, and SGA's association with adverse perinatal outcomes. We compared the risks and adverse perinatal outcomes with appropriate for gestational age (AGA infants categorized by preterm and term delivery.A total of 295,829 singleton infants delivered were analysed. The overall prevalence of SGA was highest in Cambodia (18.8%, Nepal (17.9%, the Occupied Palestinian Territory (16.1%, and Japan (16.0%, while the lowest was observed in Afghanistan (4.8%, Uganda (6.6% and Thailand (9.7%. The risk of preterm SGA infants was significantly higher among nulliparous mothers and mothers with chronic hypertension and preeclampsia/eclampsia (aOR: 2.89; 95% CI: 2.55-3.28 compared with AGA infants. Higher risks of term SGA were observed among sociodemographic factors and women with preeclampsia/eclampsia, anaemia and other medical conditions. Multiparity (> = 3 (AOR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.83-0.92 was a protective factor for term SGA. The risk of perinatal mortality was significantly higher in preterm SGA deliveries in low to high HDI countries.Preterm SGA is associated with medical conditions related to preeclampsia, but not with sociodemographic status. Term SGA is associated with sociodemographic status and various medical conditions.

  15. Perinatal mortality in the Netherlands. Backgrounds of a worsening international ranking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joop Garssen

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal mortality rates have dropped sharply in the past few decades, in the Netherlands as well as in all other European countries. However, as the decrease has generally slowed down since the 1980s, the Netherlands has lost its prominent position in the international ranking of countries with favourable perinatal mortality rates. This lower ranking is not only the result of the dialectics of progress, but also the consequence of a relatively restrained use of antenatal diagnostics. In addition, the Netherlands is among the European countries scoring highest on a number of important risk factors. This article examines the effect on perinatal mortality rates of known risk factors, in particular the presence of non-western foreigners, multiple births and older mothers. With respect to the latter factor, it is concluded that children of older mothers run a significantly higher risk of foetal mortality, whereas babies of young mothers (including women in their early twenties run a higher risk of infant mortality. For babies of non-western mothers, infant mortality rates are higher, although there are substantial differences between ethnic backgrounds. First week mortality is most unfavourable for Surinamese and Antillean/Aruban children, and post-neonatal mortality is highest among Turkish and Moroccan babies. The fact that relatively many non-western foreigners from countries with relatively high risks of perinatal mortality have settled in the Netherlands, is one of the reasons for the fall in the international ranking. Lastly, the increase in the number of multiple births has been stronger in the Netherlands than in most other countries. The higher incidence of assisted reproduction explains most of this increase.

  16. Funding of a medical research institute in a small country: 15 years of Instituto de Patologia e Imunologia Molecular da Universidade do Porto (IPATIMUP)--interview conducted by Ivan Damjanov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel

    2005-06-01

    This is an interview with Prof Manuel Sobrinho-Simoes, the Director of the Institute of Molecular Pathology and Immunology of the University of Porto (IPATIMUP), Porto, Portugal. The interview was prepared for this Pathology thematic issue, by Prof Ivan Damjanov, from the University of Kansas School of Medicine, Kansas City, Kansas, USA. The interview deals with the funding and the growth of IPATIMUP, which became, within 15 years from its inception, one of the leading biomedical research institutions of Portugal. The interview touches upon the logistical, political, financial, and personnel-related problems they encountered during these 15 years. It illustrates some of the dilemmas and questions faced by scientists in Porto, which are also relevant to scientists in other small countries.

  17. How immigrants adapt their smoking behaviour: comparative analysis among Turkish immigrants in Germany and the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Katharina; Sauzet, Odile; Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Spallek, Jacob; Razum, Oliver

    2014-08-14

    Smoking behaviour among immigrants is assumed to converge to that of the host country's majority population with increasing duration of stay. We compared smoking prevalence among Turkish immigrants residing in two different countries (Germany (DE)/the Netherlands (NL)) between and within countries by time spent in Turkey and DE/NL. The German 2009 micro-census and the Dutch POLS database (national survey, 1997-2004) were analysed. An interaction variable with dichotomised length of stay (LOS) in Turkey (age: 0-17; 18+) and categorised LOS in the host country (immigration year: 1979 and earlier, 1980-1999, 2000-2009; the latter only for Germany) was generated. Age standardised smoking prevalences and sex-specific logistic regression models were calculated. 6,517 Turkish participants were identified in Germany, 2,106 in the Netherlands. Age-standardised smoking prevalences were higher among Turkish immigrants in the Netherlands compared to those in Germany: 62.3% vs. 53.1% (men/lower education); 30.6% vs. 23.0% (women/lower education). A similar trend was observed for the majority population of both countries. The chance of being a smoker was lower among Turkish men with short LOS in Turkey and middle LOS in Germany/the Netherlands compared to those with short LOS in Turkey and long LOS in Germany/the Netherlands (NL: OR = 0.57[95% CI = 0.36-0.89]; DE: OR = 0.73[95% CI = 0.56-0.95]). Contrary to that, the chance of being a smoker was higher among Turkish men with long LOS in Turkey and middle LOS in Germany/the Netherlands compared to those with long LOS in Turkey and long LOS in Germany/the Netherlands (NL: OR = 1.35[95% CI = 0.79-2.33]; DE: OR = 1.44[95% CI = 1.03-2.02]). The effects for Turkish women were similar, but smaller and often non-significant. Turkish immigrants adapt their smoking behaviour towards that of the Dutch/German majority population with increasing duration of stay. This was particularly obvious among those who left Turkey before the age of 18

  18. The Upper Permian in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, W.A.

    1955-01-01

    The Upper Permian in the Netherlands, as known from borehole data, is deposited in a mainly evaporitic facies north of the Brabant and Rhenish Massifs. In the extreme south (Belgian Campine, de Peel) a near-shore facies of reef dolomites and elastics occurs. In the western and central Netherlands

  19. A soil sampling program for the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visschers, R.; Finke, P.A.; Gruijter, de J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Soil data users in The Netherlands were inventoried for current and future data needs. Prioritized data needs were used to design the Netherlands Soil Sampling Program (NSSP) as a framework containing 3 groups of related projects: map upgrading, map updating and upgrading of pedotransfer functions.

  20. Serious road injuries in The Netherlands dissected.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijermars, W.A.M. Bos, N.M. & Stipdonk, H.L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the characteristics and injury patterns of serious road injuries (MAIS2+ inpatients) in the Netherlands. Methods: In the Netherlands, the actual number of serious injuries is estimated by linking police data to hospital data. The distribution of serious road injuries over 1)

  1. The Poor Side of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cok Vrooman; Stella Hoff

    2004-01-01

    Poverty is a theme that has attracted a great deal of attention in the Netherlands over the last decade, both in government policy and in academic research and statistics. Since 1997 the Social and Cultural Planning Office (SCP) and Statistics Netherlands (CBS) have published a regular Poverty

  2. Agricultural marketing in Belgium and The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Viaene, J.

    1993-01-01

    Agriculture in Belgium and the Netherlands has a strong export tradition and has been market oriented for a long time. In this article agricultural markeling in Belgium and the Netherlands is analyzed on the basis of the concepts structure, conduct and performance. In our review of market structure

  3. The Netherlands: A Case of Fading Leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liefferink, J.D.; Boezeman, D.F.; Coninck, H.C. de; Wurzel, R.K.W.; Connelly, J.; Liefferink, D.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter analyses the relationship between the development of domestic climate policy in the Netherlands and the Dutch efforts in this field in the EU and international arena since the 1980s. Traditionally, the Netherlands has enjoyed a reputation as an environmental and climate leader, based on

  4. Real world cost of human epidermal receptor 2-positive metastatic breast cancer patients: a longitudinal incidence-based observational costing study in the Netherlands and Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederix, G W J; Severens, J L; Hövels, A M; van Hasselt, J G C; Hooiveld, M J J; Neven, P; Raaijmakers, J A M; Schellens, J H M

    2015-05-01

    Currently, no country-specific metastatic breast cancer (MBC) observational costing data are available for the Netherlands and Belgium. Our aim is to describe country-specific resource use and costs of human epidermal receptor 2 (HER-2)-positive MBC in the Netherlands and Belgium, making use of real-world data. The eligibility period for patient selection was from April 2004 to April 2010. Inclusion and retrospective data collection begins at the time of first diagnosis of HER-2-positive MBC during the eligibility period and ends 24 months post-index diagnosis of MBC or at patient death. We identified 88 eligible patients in the Netherlands and 44 patients in Belgium. The total costs of medical treatment and other resource use utilisation per patient was €48,301 in the Netherlands and €37,431 in Belgium. Majority of costs was related to the use of trastuzumab in both countries, which was 50% of the total costs in the Netherlands and 56% in Belgium respectively. Our study provides estimates of resource use and costs for HER-2-positive MBC in the Netherlands and Belgium. We noticed various differences in resource use patterns between both countries demonstrating caution is needed when transferring cost estimates between countries. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Small Business Tax Regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Yilmaz, Fatih; Coolidge, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Simplified tax regimes for micro and small enterprises in developing countries are intended to facilitate voluntary tax compliance. However, survey evidence suggests that small business taxation based on simplified bookkeeping or turnover is sometimes perceived as too complex for microenterprises in countries with high illiteracy levels. Very simple fixed tax regimes not requiring any book...

  6. The role of Surinamese migrants in the transmission of Chlamydia trachomatis between Paramaribo, Suriname and Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bom, Reinier J M; van der Helm, Jannie J; Bruisten, Sylvia M; Grünberg, Antoon W; Sabajo, Leslie O A; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F; de Vries, Henry J C

    2013-01-01

    The large Surinamese migrant population in the Netherlands is a major risk group for urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Suriname, a former Dutch colony, also has a high prevalence of C. trachomatis. Surinamese migrants travel extensively between the Netherlands and Suriname. Our objective was to assess whether the Surinamese migrants in the Netherlands form a bridge population facilitating transmission of C. trachomatis between Suriname and the Netherlands. If so, joint prevention campaigns involving both countries might be required. Between March 2008 and July 2010, participants were recruited at clinics in Paramaribo, Suriname and in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Participants were grouped as native Surinamese, native Dutch, Surinamese migrant, Dutch migrant, or Other, based on country of residence and country of birth of the participant and of their parents. Risk behavior, such as sexual mixing between ethnic groups, was recorded and C. trachomatis positive samples were typed through multilocus sequence typing (MLST). A minimum spanning tree of samples from 426 participants showed four MLST clusters. The MLST strain distribution of Surinamese migrants differed significantly from both the native Surinamese and Dutch populations, but was not an intermediate state between these two populations. Sexual mixing between the Surinamese migrants and the Dutch and Surinamese natives occurred frequently. Yet, the MLST cluster distribution did not differ significantly between participants who mixed and those who did not. Sexual mixing occurred between Surinamese migrants in Amsterdam and the native populations of Suriname and the Netherlands. These migrants, however, did not seem to form an effective bridge population for C. trachomatis transmission between the native populations. Although our data do not seem to justify the need for joint campaigns to reduce the transmission of C. trachomatis strains between both countries, intensified preventive campaigns to

  7. Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guibault, L.; van 't Klooster, K.; Hilty, R.M.; Nérisson, S.

    2012-01-01

    Generally speaking, Dutch copyright law does not differentiate in terms of the effects of copyright law according to various work categories. The Dutch Copyright Act protects "works of literature, science or art", as exemplified in the non-exhaustive list of work categories of Article 10(1) which is

  8. Frequent hepatitis E in the Netherlands without traveling or immunosuppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koot, H; Hogema, B M; Koot, M; Molier, M; Zaaijer, H L

    2015-01-01

    In several Western countries, silent endemic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is common among blood donors. Immunocompromised persons may develop chronic hepatitis E, but the relevance of endemic HEV for immunocompetent persons remains largely unknown. We investigated the immune status and travel history in cases of hepatitis E in the Netherlands. Between January 2009 and May 2014, physicians throughout the Netherlands submitted samples from 4067 hepatitis patients to Sanquin Diagnostic Services for HEV antibody testing. For the 144 patients testing positive for HEV IgM and HEV RNA, travel behavior and immune status were assessed. Complete information was obtained for 81 patients. Surprisingly, the majority of patients (52/81, 64%) were immunocompetent and did not travel outside Europe. HEV genotyping was obtained for 47 non-traveling patients, all concerned HEV genotype 3. Our findings suggest that currently in Western countries the impact of hepatitis E for non-traveling, immunocompetent persons is underestimated. Historically cases of hepatitis A, B and C, but not cases of hepatitis E, are notifiable and warrant preventive measures. However, in parts of Western Europe HEV may have become the most important source of viral hepatitis, in immunocompetent and in immunosuppressed persons. Pending measures against the ongoing transmission of HEV genotype 3 in parts of Europe, physicians should consider hepatitis E in dealing with new hepatitis patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Aspects of medical migration with particular reference to the United Kingdom and the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herfs, Paul G P

    2014-10-14

    In most countries of the European Economic Area (EEA), there is no large-scale migration of medical graduates with diplomas obtained outside the EEA, which are international medical graduates (IMGs). In the United Kingdom however, health care is in part dependent on the influx of IMGs. In 2005, of all the doctors practising in the UK, 31% were educated outside the country. In most EEA-countries, health care is not dependent on the influx of IMGs.The aim of this study is to present data relating to the changes in IMG migration in the UK since the extension of the European Union in May 2004. In addition, data are presented on IMG migration in the Netherlands. These migration flows show that migration patterns differ strongly within these two EU-countries. This study makes use of registration data on migrating doctors from the General Medical Council (GMC) in the UK and from the Dutch Department of Health. Moreover, data on the ratio of medical doctors in relation to a country's population were extracted from the World Health Organization (WHO). The influx of IMGs in the UK has changed in recent years due to the extension of the European Union in 2004, the expansion of UK medical schools and changes in the policy towards non-EEA doctors.The influx of IMGs in the Netherlands is described in detail. In the Netherlands, many IMGs come from Afghanistan, Iraq and Surinam. There are clear differences between IMG immigration in the UK and in the Netherlands. In the UK, the National Health Service continues to be very reliant on immigration to fill shortage posts, whereas the number of immigrant doctors working in the Netherlands is much smaller. Both the UK and the Netherlands' regulatory bodies have shared great concerns about the linguistic and communication skills of both EEA and non-EEA doctors seeking to work in these countries. IMG migration is a global and intricate problem. The source countries, not only those where English is the first or second language, experience

  10. Assessing patient safety culture in hospitals across countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, C; Smits, M; Sorra, J; Huang, C C

    2013-07-01

    It is believed that in order to reduce the number of adverse events, hospitals have to stimulate a more open culture and reflective attitude towards errors and patient safety. The objective is to examine similarities and differences in hospital patient safety culture in three countries: the Netherlands, the USA and Taiwan. This is a cross-sectional survey study across three countries. A questionnaire, the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (Hospital SOPS), was disseminated nationwide in the Netherlands, the USA and Taiwan. The study was conducted in 45 hospitals in the Netherlands, 622 in the USA and 74 in Taiwan. A total of 3779 professionals from the participating hospitals in the Netherlands, 196 462 from the USA and 10 146 from Taiwan participated in the study. The main outcome measures of the study were 12 dimensions of patient safety culture, e.g. Teamwork, Organizational learning, Communication openness. Most hospitals in all three countries have high scores on teamwork within units. The area with a high potential for improvement in all three countries is Handoffs and transitions. Differences between countries exist on the following dimensions: Non-punitive response to error, Feedback and communication about error, Communication openness, Management support for patient safety and Organizational learning--continuous improvement. On the whole, US respondents were more positive about the safety culture in their hospitals than Dutch and Taiwanese respondents. Nevertheless, there are even larger differences between hospitals within a country. Comparison of patient safety culture data has shown similarities and differences within and between countries. All three countries can improve areas of their patient safety culture. Countries can identify and share best practices and learn from each other.

  11. Manganese Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sousa Galito

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cheickna Bounajim Cissé wrote an article in Mars 2013 in the Journal Les Afriques N. º 237, suggesting a new acronym, MANGANESE, for the nine African countries: Morocco, Angola, Namibia, Ghana, Algeria, Nigeria, Egypt, South Africa and Ethiopia. According to Cissé, this group of African nations will be the fastest growing states in the region over the next few years. The purpose of this article is to test the pertinence of the acronym, discuss the credibility and reliability of the future prospects of these countries by comparing selected socioeconomic and sociopolitical indicators based on the latest global rankings and trends. Likewise, the potential of Cissé's claim will be assessed, especially in relationship to drug trafficking and terrorism that may put their recent sustainability in danger now and in the future.

  12. Results of Infrasound Interferometry in Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, J. T.; Ruigrok, E. N.; Evers, L. G.; Simons, D. G.; Wapenaar, K.

    2012-04-01

    The travel time of infrasound through the atmosphere depends on the temperature and the wind. These atmospheric conditions could be estimated by measuring the travel times between different receivers (microbarometers). For such an estimation an inverse model of the propagation of infrasound through the atmosphere is essential. In the first step it is useful to build a forward model. The inputs of our raytracing model are the atmospheric conditions and the positions of source and receiver. The model consists of three elements the source, the channel and the receiver. The source is a blast wave or microbaroms. The channel is the atmosphere and it takes into account the travel time along the eigen ray, the attenuation of the different atmospheric layers, the spreading of the rays and the influence of caustics. Each receiver is reached by different rays (eigen rays). To determine the eigen rays is part of the receiver element. As output the model generates synthetic barograms. The synthetic barograms can be used to explain measured barograms. Furthermore the synthetic barograms can also be used to evaluate the determination of the travel time. The accurate travel time is for the inverse model as input essential. Since small changes of the travel time lead to big changes of the output (temperature and wind). The travel time between two receivers is determined by crosscorrelating the barograms of these two receivers. This technique was already successfully applied in the troposphere (Haney, 2009). We show that the same can be achieved with more complicated stratospheric phases. Now we compare the crosscorrelation of synthetic barograms with the crosscorrelation of measured barograms. These barograms are measured with the 'Large Aperture Infrasound Array' (LAIA). LAIA is being installed by the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) in the framework of the radio-astronomical 'Low Frequency Array' (LOFAR) initiative. LAIA will consist of thirty microbarometers

  13. Consequences of Climate Change for agriculture and nature in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Arends

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available After the publication of the IPCC reports on climate change, the Dutch Meteorological Institute of the Netherlands (KNMI conducted a study on the consequences of climate change for the Netherlands. Four different scenarios regarding the rise in temperature and their consequences have been developed. Other institutes have elaborated more on these scenarios, making predictions on the effects of climate change on nature and agriculture for the Netherlands. Overall conclusions are that climate change will have dramatic consequences for nature, agriculture and Dutch society in general, being so exposed to rising sea levels. Depending on the scenario, consequences have various gradients of impacts and effects. In general, it is estimated that winters will be softer and wetter, and that summers will be hotter and drier with intermittent torrential rains that can have dire consequences for agriculture and nature. Growing seasons will start earlier and will last longer which could lead to mismatches in species interaction. Species of various kind will suffer the effects of climate change and will disappear from the Netherlands altogether, either through extinction or by moving away north. Other warmth loving species from the south of the Netherlands will move upwards towards the country leading to possible threats to indigenous species.

  14. Wine from the Netherlands: investigating the effect of soil-type on taste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vis, Geert-Jan; Maljers, Denise; Beurskens, Stan

    2016-04-01

    During the last decade professional viticulture has seen a strong increase in the Netherlands, reaching 270 ha in 2015. Although on a European scale this is a small area, the number of prize-winning quality wines is steadily growing. This growth can largely be ascribed to new grape varieties from Germany and Switzerland, that are better adapted to the cooler and moister climate at the northern fringe of the viticultural zone, as well as to increasing viticultural expertise. The distribution of vineyards across the Netherlands shows that they occur on a plethora of substrates. Dutch substrate is dominated by typical lowland deposits such as fluvial and marine sands and clays and aeolian sands. Unlike many European countries, bedrock is scarce. Only in the south-eastern extremity and in the east of the country, carbonate bedrock is present at or near the surface. This wide variety of substrate triggered our interest in the effect of the various soil-types on the smell and taste characteristics of wines. An effect which is often mentioned concerning well-known foreign wines. We wondered whether an Auxerrois wine from carbonate rocks tastes significantly different from a wine from the same grape variety from loess. And how about a Johanniter wine from fluvial deposits versus windblown sands? And what happens if you make wine in exactly the same way with the same grape variety and from the same vineyard, but with three different yeast types? To answer our questions, we selected ten Dutch vineyards with varying soil-types and the grape varieties Auxerrois and Johanniter. In October 2014 we harvested the grapes and wine was made under controlled identical conditions (in a double setup). The wines were scientifically tested at the institute of Viticulture and Oenology in Neustadt, Germany. The results show no significant effect of soil-type on the smell and taste of Dutch wines in our experiment. Varying yeast types (Cryarome, 3079, VL2) used on Souvignier Gris grapes from

  15. The art of imperfection: contemporary synagogues in Germany and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkaaik, O.

    2014-01-01

    This article compares the remarkable revival of Jewish religious architecture in Germany and the Netherlands by focusing on two cases in particular: a newly built synagogue centre in Dresden and a renovated synagogue in a small Dutch town. Both structures contain a carefully styled ornament of

  16. Increasing part-time working hours in the Netherlands. Identifying policy recommendations through Group Model Building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleijenbergh, I.L.; Fokkinga, B.L.A.

    2013-01-01

    With 73% of women and 19% of men working part-time,the Netherlands is known as the champion of part-time work. In order to increase especially the working hours of women with small part-time jobs (less than 20 hours per week) the Dutch government installed a thinktank of employers, employees

  17. Genetic impoverishment of the last black grouse (Tetrao tetrix) population in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsson, J.K.; Jansman, H.A.H.; Niewold, F.J.J.; Segelbacher, G.; Höglund, J.; Koelewijn, H.P.

    2005-01-01

    We have studied a small isolated bottlenecked population of Black grouse (Tetrao tetrix) in the Netherlands to examine the impact of isolation and reduction in numbers on the genetic diversity. We compared the genetic diversity in the last present Dutch population with Dutch museum samples and three

  18. INTEREST-RATE DIFFERENTIALS AND EXCHANGE-RATE POLICIES IN AUSTRIA, THE NETHERLANDS, AND BELGIUM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KNOT, K; DEHAAN, J

    In this paper, the small, but persistent interest rate differentials via-a-vis Germany which have existed in Austria, the Netherlands, and Belgium are analysed. These interest differentials may be thought of to consist of three parts: expected exchange rate movements within the band, expected

  19. Investing in workplace innovation pays off for SME's: a regional innovation initiative from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeij, P.R.A.; Vroome, E.M.M. de; Bolland, A.; Gründemann, R.W.M.; Teeffelen, L. van

    2014-01-01

    From 2009 to 2013 the workplace innovation project “My Enterprise 2.0” was carried out in the region of Utrecht in the Netherlands in order to strengthen the workplace innovation capability of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Participating enterprises completed a questionnaire regarding

  20. Home Care Reform in the Netherlands: Impacts on Unpaid Care in Rotterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAbstract The 2007 change in the law of home care for household help in the Netherlands concerns competitive tendering at municipal level. This has reduced quality and choice for care receivers. In this paper, I report from a small survey in the city of Rotterdam on the impact of the law

  1. Home Care Reform in the Netherlands: Impacts on Unpaid Care in Rotterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: The 2007 change in the law of home care for household help in the Netherlands concerns competitive tendering at municipal level. This has reduced quality and choice for care receivers. In this paper, I report from a small survey in the city of Rotterdam on the impact of the

  2. A database of methane concentrations as measured in the Netherlands and Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen LHJM; Wal JT van der; Hollander JC; Vermeulen A; Vosbeek MEJP; LLO

    1997-01-01

    In order to increase our knowledge of methane emissions on a small scale the project 'Sources, regional scaling and validation of CH4 emissions from the Netherlands and Northwest Europe' is carried out in the framework of Phase 2 of the National Research Program on Global Air Pollution and Climate

  3. Genetic population differentiation and connectivity among fragmented Moor frog (Rana arvalis) populations in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arens, P.F.P.; Sluis, van der T.; Westende, van 't W.P.C.; Vosman, B.; Vos, C.C.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    We studied the effects of landscape structure, habitat loss and fragmentation on genetic differentiation of Moor frog populations in two landscapes in The Netherlands (Drenthe and Noord-Brabant). Microsatellite data of eight loci showed small to moderate genetic differentiation among populations in

  4. THE EFFECT OF LAND USE CHANGE ON LAND SURFACE TEMPERATURE IN THE NETHERLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Youneszadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Netherlands is a small country with a relatively large population which experienced a rapid rate of land use changes from 2000 to 2008 years due to the industrialization and population increase. Land use change is especially related to the urban expansion and open agriculture reduction due to the enhanced economic growth. This research reports an investigation into the application of remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS in combination with statistical methods to provide a quantitative information on the effect of land use change on the land surface temperature. In this study, remote sensing techniques were used to retrieve the land surface temperature (LST by using the MODIS Terra (MOD11A2 Satellite imagery product. As land use change alters the thermal environment, the land surface temperature (LST could be a proper change indicator to show the thermal changes in relation with land use changes. The Geographical information system was further applied to extract the mean yearly land surface temperature (LST for each land use type and each province in the 2003, 2006 and 2008 years, by using the zonal statistic techniques. The results show that, the inland water and offshore area has the highest night land surface temperature (LST. Furthermore, the Zued (South-Holland province has the highest night LST value in the 2003, 2006 and 2008 years. The result of this research will be helpful tool for urban planners and environmental scientists by providing the critical information about the land surface temperature.

  5. Clinical immunology--autoimmunity in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervaert, Jan Willem Cohen; Kallenberg, Cees G M

    2014-12-01

    Clinical immunology is in the Netherlands a separate clinical specialty within internal medicine and pediatrics. Clinical immunologists work closely together with nephrologists, rheumatologists and many other medical specialists. Apart from research and teaching, clinical immunologists are taking care of patients with immune-deficiencies, vasculitides and systemic auto-immune diseases. Clinical immunology in the Netherlands has always been an important contributor to basic and clinical science in the Netherlands. Major scientific contributions were made in the field of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and ANCA associated vasculitis. These Dutch contributions will be reviewed in this article. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Elements of Social Security in 6 European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    Elements of Social Security in 6 European Countries contains an overview of important benefit schemes in Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Germany, Great Britain and the Nether-lands. The schemes are categorized according to common sets of criteria and compared. Stylized cases illustrate the impact...

  7. Isoflavone intake in four different European countries : The VENUS approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp-Baart, M.A.J. van; Brants, H.A.M.; Kiely, M.; Mulligan, A.; Turrini, A.; Sermoneta, C.; Kilkkinen, A.; Valsta, L.M.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the level of isoflavone intake (total isoflavones, daidzein and genistein) in four European countries: Ireland, Italy, The Netherlands and the UK. For this purpose national food composition databases of isoflavone content were created in a comparable way, using

  8. {sup 18}F-FDG PET for the lymph node staging of non-small cell lung cancer in a tuberculosis-endemic country: Is dual time point imaging worth the effort?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, Ruoh-Fang; Cheng, Mei-Fang; Wu, Yen-Wen [National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei (China); Chen, Ke-Cheng; Lee, Jang-Ming; Lee, Yung-Chie [National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Thoracic Section, Department of Surgery, Taipei (China); Chang, Yeun-Chung; Wang, Jane [National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Department of Medical Imaging, Taipei (China)

    2008-07-15

    This study was to compare {sup 18}F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET) with thoracic contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) in the ability of lymph node (LN) staging non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in a tuberculosis-prevalent country. The usefulness of dual time point PET imaging (DTPI) in NSCLC nodal staging was also evaluated. We reviewed 96 NSCLC patients (mean age, 65.3 {+-} 11.7 years) who had received PET studies before their surgery. DTPI were performed on 37 patients (mean age, 64.8 {+-} 12.2 years) who received an additional scan of thorax 3 h after tracer injection. The accuracies of nodal staging by CECT and PET were evaluated according to final histopathology of hilar and mediastinal LN resected by surgery. The accuracy for nodal staging by CECT was 65.6% and that by PET was 82.3% (p < 0.05). Six patients were over-staged and 11 were under-staged by PET. Tuberculosis (n = 3, 50%) were mostly responsible for false-positive, while small tumor foci (n = 7, 63.6%) were mostly accountable for false-negative. For the 37 patients with DTPI, 45 min standardized uptake value (SUV) and 3 h SUV for negative LNs are significantly lower than those for positive LNs (p < 0.0001). Nevertheless, the retention index (RI) showed no significant difference between these two groups. Our study demonstrates that PET is more accurate than CECT in LN staging NSCLC patients in Taiwan where TB is still prevalent. Semi-quantitative SUV method or DTPI with RI does not result in better diagnostic accuracy than visual analysis of PET images. (orig.)

  9. Educational inequalities in mortality by cause of death: first national data for the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulhánová, Ivana; Hoffmann, Rasmus; Eikemo, Terje A; Menvielle, Gwenn; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2014-10-01

    Using new facilities for linking large databases, we aimed to evaluate for the first time the magnitude of relative and absolute educational inequalities in mortality by sex and cause of death in the Netherlands. We analyzed data from Dutch Labour Force Surveys (1998-2002) with mortality follow-up 1998-2007 among people aged 30-79 years. We calculated hazard ratios using Cox proportional hazards model, age-standardized mortality rates and partial life expectancy by education. We compared results for the Netherlands with those for other European countries. The relative risk of dying was about two times higher among primary educated men and women as compared to their tertiary educated counterparts, leading to a gap in partial life expectancy of 3.4 years (men) and 2.4 years (women). Inequalities in mortality are similar to those in other countries in North-Western Europe, but inequalities in lung cancer mortality are substantially larger in the Netherlands, particularly among men. The Netherlands has large inequalities in mortality, especially for smoking-related causes of death. These large inequalities require the urgent attention of policy makers.

  10. How television went digital in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.; van der Sloot, B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes the development of digital television in the Netherlands, analyzing such key policy issues as: technical decisions on access for public television, license conditions, and other issues.

  11. Gambling and problem gambling in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudriaan, Anna E.

    2014-01-01

    To provide an overview of gambling in the Netherlands, focusing on historical background, policy, legislation, prevalence of problem gambling, availability of treatment options and research base. Literature review. Contradictions between gambling policy and practice have been present in the past

  12. Clinical immunology - Autoimmunity in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tervaert, Jan Willem Cohen; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical immunology is in the Netherlands a separate clinical specialty within internal medicine and pediatrics. Clinical immunologists work closely together with nephrologists, rheumatologists and many other medical specialists. Apart from research and teaching, clinical immunologists are taking

  13. Preparing primary care for the future - perspectives from the Netherlands, England, and USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, Antje; Bodenheimer, Thomas; Baker, Richard; Goodwin, Nick; Spreeuwenberg, Cor; Vrijhoef, Hubertus J M; Nolte, Ellen; Gerlach, Ferdinand M

    2011-01-01

    All modern healthcare systems need to respond to the common challenges posed by an aging population combined with a growing number of patients with (complex) chronic conditions and rising patient expectations. Countries with 'stronger' primary care systems (e.g. the Netherlands and England) seem to be better prepared to address these challenges than countries with 'weaker' primary care (e.g. USA). The role of primary care in a health care system is strongly related to its organisation and funding, thus determining the starting point and the possibilities for change. We selected the Netherlands, England, and USA as examples for the diversity of approaches to organise and finance health care. We analysed the main problems for primary care and reviewed strategies and practice models used to meet the challenges described above. The Netherlands aim to strengthen prevention for chronic diseases, while England strives to improve the management of patients with multimorbidity, prevent hospital admissions to contain costs, and to satisfy the increased demand of patients for access to primary care. Both countries seek to reorganise care around the patient and place their needs at the centre. The USA has to provide sufficient workforce, organisation, and funding for primary care to ensure better access, prevention, and provision of chronic care for its population. Strategies to improve (trans-sectoral) cooperation and care coordination, a main issue in all three countries, include the implementation of standards of care and bundled payments for chronic diseases in the Netherlands, GP commissioning, federated and group practice models in England, and the introduction of the Patient-Centred Medical Home and accountable care organisations in the USA. Organisation and financing of health care differ widely in the three countries. However, the necessity to improve coordination and integration of chronic disease care remains a common and core challenge. Copyright © 2011. Published

  14. QAP co-sponsors global meeting on quality assurance in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    A consultative meeting on quality health care in developing countries was held in the Netherlands immediately before the 1993 conference of the International Society of Quality Assurance in Health Care. Sponsored by the USAID-funded Quality Assurance Project in collaboration with the World Health Organization and the Danish foreign aid agency, DANIDA, the meeting brought together representatives from 17 developing countries. Participants enthusiastically exchanged experiences in adapting and applying quality assurance methods to resource-strained health care systems and valued the recommendations they received. Technical discussions focused on strategic planning, standard setting and monitoring, problem solving, and quality assurance capacity building. The meeting included background papers on each theme, synopses of the work of representatives of selected countries, and small group sessions. The participants recognized that certain structures, such as a data and health information monitoring system, must be in place to sustain a quality assurance program. There are also key environmental factors, including a commitment in the form of resource allocation from top leadership. The highlights of the meeting were presented at the general conference to great acclaim. Participants in the meeting benefitted from the information generated by the exchange of ideas and became unified in their understanding that quality assurance is a viable and necessary component of health care management. The success of the meeting led to the proposal which is under consideration that a permanent committee be established to ensure the participation of representatives of developing countries in international quality assurance activities.

  15. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DIVERSIFICATION STRATEGY AND FIRM PERFORMANCE IN DEVELOPED AND EMERGING ECONOMY CONTEXTS: EVIDENCE FROM TURKEY, ITALY AND NETHERLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Akpinar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine whether there is a difference between types of diversification and performance comparing Turkey, Italy and Netherlands. There are studies with the conclusion that the indicators of the relationship between diversification strategies and firm performance of developed countries differ from the indicators of developing countries. The data of 166 firms in Netherlands, 265 firms in Italy and 128 firms in Turkey were analyzed. The data of 2007-2011 was used in the research. Return on Assets (ROA and Return on Sales (ROS for financial performance and Entropy Index for diversification were used. According to the results, there is no correlation between total entropy and a performance criterion ROA and ROS in Italy and Netherlands. On the other hand, in Turkey, it is understood that there is a low-level positive correlation between total entropy and firm performance.

  16. Urban Scaling of Cities in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    van Raan, Anthony F. J.; Gerwin van der Meulen; Willem Goedhart

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the socioeconomic scaling behavior of all cities with more than 50,000 inhabitants in the Netherlands and found significant superlinear scaling of the gross urban product with population size. Of these cities, 22 major cities have urban agglomerations and urban areas defined by the Netherlands Central Bureau of Statistics. For these major cities we investigated the superlinear scaling for three separate modalities: the cities defined as municipalities, their urban agglomeratio...

  17. INLAND DUNE VEGETATION OF THE NETHERLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. HAVEMAN

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Drifting sands in the Netherlands are the result of human over-exploitation (sod-cutting, over-grazing of woodlands and heathlands. The most important association of inland sand dune areas is the Spergulo-Corynephoretum (Corynephorion canescentis, which is poor in vascular plants, but in it older stager rich in mosses and especially lichens. In the Netherlands, the area of drifting sand is reduced dramatically in the last 70 years. mainly by afforestation and spontaneous succession.

  18. Acceptance of homosexuality in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Lisette Kuyper; Floor Bakker

    2006-01-01

    Original title: De houding ten opzichte van homoseksualiteit. To date, relatively little systematic research has been carried out on public attitudes to homosexual men and women in the Netherlands - far less than in the United States, for example. SCP has recently carried out a large-scale survey of the attitudes of the Dutch public to homosexuality; this was published earlier this year under the title Just doing what comes naturally. Acceptance of homosexuality in the Netherlands (Gewoon doe...

  19. The Influence Of Different Information Sources On Innovation Performance: Evidence From France, The Netherlands And Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bach Mirjana Pejić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Information sources are considered a catalyst for innovation improvement, and because of this it is particularly important to learn more regarding their impact on innovation performance. Therefore, the goal of this research is to investigate to what extent the usage of different information sources influences internal and external R&D activities in three countries, Croatia, France and the Netherlands, by employing CIS data, which covers the period from 2006 to 2008. These countries were chosen because of the different levels of their country competitiveness (measured by the Global Competitiveness Index, which permits us to investigate if the usage of information sources has varying impact on their innovation performance. Our results reveal that internal sources, customers, suppliers and universities are important information sources for both internal and external R&D activities in all three countries. However, significant differences are also found. Firms from the Netherlands (which has the highest country competitiveness use information sources differently, relying on competitors as one of their most important sources of innovation. On the other hand, the government did not have any impact on firms in Croatia (which has the lowest country competitiveness, indicating that this may be the reason for similar countries lagging behind.

  20. Precipitation Indices Low Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Engelen, A. F. V.; Ynsen, F.; Buisman, J.; van der Schrier, G.

    2009-09-01

    (+2): Wide scale river flooding, marshy acres and meadows.-Farmers cope with poor harvests of hay, grains, fruit etc. resulting in famines.-Late grape harvests, poor yield quantity and quality of wine. Wet period (+1): High water levels cq discharges of major rivers, tributaries and brooks, local river floodings, marshy acres and meadows in the low lying areas.-Wearisome and hampered agriculture. Normal (0) Dry period (-1): Low water levels cq discharges of major rivers, tributaries and brooks. Some brooks may dry up.-Summer half year: local short of yield of grass, hay and other forage.-Summer half year: moor-, peat- and forest fires. Very dry period (-2): Very low water levels cq discharges of major rivers and tributaries. Brooks and wells dry up. Serious shortage of drinking water; especially in summer.-Major agricultural damage, shortage of water, mortality stock of cattle. Shortage of grain. Flour can not be produced due to water mills running out of water, shortage of bread, bread riots, famines.-Large scale forest and peat areas, resulting in serious air pollution. Town fires. By verifying the historical evidence on these criterions, a series of 5 step indices ranging from very dry to very wet for summer and winter half year of the Low Countries was obtained. Subsequently these indices series were compared with the instrumentally observed seasonal precipitation sums for De Bilt (1735-2008), which is considered to be representative for the Central Netherlands. For winter (Oct-March) and summer half year (Apr.-Sept.) the accumulated precipitation amounts are calculated; these amounts are approximately normally distributed. Based on this distribution, the cumulative frequency distribution is calculated. By tabulating the number of summers in the pre-instrumental period 1201-1750 for each of the drought classes, a distribution is calculated which is then related to the modern accumulated precipitation distribution. Assuming that the accumulated precipitation amount

  1. Survey of HTR related research at IRI, Delft, Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoogenboom, J.E.; Wallerbos, E.J.M.; Van der Hagen, T.H.J.J.; Van Dam, H. [Interfaculty Reactor Institute IRI, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Tuerkcan, E. [ECN Nuclear Research, Petten (Netherlands)

    1998-09-01

    High temperature helium-cooled reactors have a large potential for inherent safety. Therefore, several projects on HTR research are being carried out or were carried out at the Interfaculty Reactor Institute (IRI) of the Delft University of Technology in Delft, Netherlands. As part of a larger research programme measurements of core reactivity, reactivity worth of safety rods and of small samples being oscillated in the reactor core were carried out at the PROTEUS facility of the Paul Scherrer Institute at Villigen, Switzerland. Together with other partners in the Netherlands a small inherently safe co-generation plant with a pebble-bed HTR core was designed and analysed. It was verified that such a reactor can operate continuously for 10 years by adding continuously fuel pebbles until the maximum available core height is reached. As a new, innovative, inherently safe reactor type the design of a fluidized-bed reactor with coated fuel particles on a helium gas stream is discussed and results are shown for the analysis of inherent criticality safety under varying coolant flow rates. IRI is also taking part in the new IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme, which involves participation in the start-up experiments of the Japanese HTTR and carrying out calculations for the core physics benchmark test. 11 refs.

  2. Situation Report--Barbados, Finland, German Democratic Republic, Italy, Lesotho, Luxembourg, Malagasy Republic (Madagascar), Malaysia (West), Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Singapore, Sweden, Syrian Arab Republic, and Yugoslavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in 15 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Barbados, Finland, German Democratic Republic, Italy, Lesotho, Luxembourg, Malagasy Republic, Malaysia (West), Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Singapore, Sweden, Syrian Arab Republic, and Yogoslavia. Information…

  3. The effect of postponement of first motherhood on permanent involuntary childlessness and total fertility rate in six European countries since the 1970s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    te Velde, Egbert; Habbema, Dik; Leridon, Henri; Eijkemans, Marinus

    2012-04-01

    Postponement of childbearing since the 1970s has led to an increase in permanent involuntarily childlessness. We will address the magnitude of this trend, the effect of IVF/ICSI and the effect on total fertility rate (TFR an often used demographic measure for the level of fertility) in six EU countries. Using a fertility micro-simulation model, we estimate the effect of postponement of first motherhood on permanent involuntary childlessness in six representative European countries since 1970/1985: Sweden, Austria, Czech Republic, The Netherlands, West Germany and Spain. To estimate the effect of IVF/ICSI on this trend, we use data on the results of all IVF/ICSI cycles performed in The Netherlands in 2003 and 2004. Permanent involuntary childlessness approximately doubled since 1970s and rose to ~4% in the Czech Republic and to ~7% in Spain with the other countries in between. If all couples entitled to have IVF/ICSI were to be treated, the effect of postponement would almost have been neutralized. However, only a limited proportion of eligible couple are being treated. Without postponement, TFRs would have been between 0.03 and 0.05 higher. The effect of postponement on permanent involuntary childlessness is considerable. So far IVF/ICSI only had a slight effect on this trend. The impact of postponement on TFRs is small compared with other demographic trends.

  4. Alien origins: xenophilia and the rise of medical anthropology in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Geest, Sjaak

    2012-04-01

    The beginnings of medical anthropology in the Netherlands have a 'xenophile' character in two respects. First, those who started to call themselves medical anthropologists in the 1970s and 1980s were influenced and inspired not so much by anthropological colleagues, but by medical doctors working in tropical countries who had shown an interest in the role of culture during their medical work. Secondly, what was seen as medical anthropology in those early days almost always took place in 'foreign' countries and cultures. One can hardly overestimate the exoticist character of medical anthropology up to the 1980s. It was almost automatic for anthropologists to take an interest in medical issues occurring in another cultural setting, while overlooking the same issues at home. Medical anthropology 'at home' started only around 1990. At present, medical anthropology in the Netherlands is gradually overcoming its xenophile predilection.

  5. Consumer price sensitivity and social health insurer choice in Germany and The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schut, Frederik T; Gress, Stefan; Wasem, Juergen

    2003-06-01

    In this paper, we examine the effects of the introduction of free choice and price competition in social health insurance in Germany and the Netherlands. Using panel data at the sickness fund level we estimate the price elasticity of sickness fund choice in both countries. We find that the price elasticity in Germany is high and rapidly increasing. Consistent with findings of other studies on health plan choice, the price elasticity is much lower for elderly than for non-elderly. In the Netherlands, by contrast, the price elasticity of fund choice is negligible. Only when people were forced to choose a sickness fund, they were quite sensitive to premium differences. Key factors in explaining the observed differences in switching behavior between both countries are the degree of financial risk for sickness funds, the features of the risk-adjustment mechanism and the role of employers.

  6. On Women, Egg Cells and Embryos Gender in the Regulatory Debates on Embryonic Research in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirejczyk, Marta

    2008-01-01

    In contrast to many countries, the political debates in the Netherlands on reproductive technologies and embryo research have paid particular attention to the issue of health risks to women. This article focuses on the question to what extent the discourse of gender has contributed to shaping the

  7. Environmental comparison of solid waste management systems: A case study of the cities of Iasi, Romania and Enschede, Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chinea, Cristina; Petraru, Madalina; Bressers, Johannes T.A.; Gavrilescu, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable approach to solid waste management in any region can be achieved by integrated waste management systems. The waste management systems differ in developed and developing countries. The Netherlands has a unique waste management system, the Dutch approach to waste consist in “avoid waste as

  8. Mobility in a labour market with non-standard jobs : A panel data analysis for the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, R.

    2007-01-01

    In the last 25 years the number of flexible jobs has been expanding in most European countries. For example, in the Netherlands in 1995, about 11 per cent of workers was working in a fixed-term temporary job and about 37 per cent of workers was working in a part-time job. Seven years later, in 2002

  9. Adapting to climate change in The Netherlands: an inventory of climate adaptation options and ranking of alternatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, de K.; Dellink, R.B.; Ruijs, A.J.W.; Bolwidt, L.; Buuren, van A.; Graveland, J.; Groot, de R.S.; Kuikman, P.J.; Reinhard, A.J.; Rötter, R.P.; Tassone, V.C.; Verhagen, A.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2009-01-01

    In many countries around the world impacts of climate change are assessed and adaptation options identified. We describe an approach for a qualitative and quantitative assessment of adaptation options to respond to climate change in the Netherlands. The study introduces an inventory and ranking of

  10. Green knowledge exchange Turkey-The Netherlands : priority issues identified for cooperation in the field of biodiversity protection and conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, C.; Koopmanschap, E.M.J.

    2008-01-01

    As a consequence of its geographical location Turkey is very rich in biodiversity; its flora is richest, both in terms of overall plant diversity and level of endemism compared to Europe, North Africa, or countries in the Middle East. The Netherlands has been involved in biodiversity issues in

  11. Views and beliefs of social studies teachers on citizenship education: a comparative study of the Netherlands, Bulgaria and Croatia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeliazkova, Margarita I.; Cunningham, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a comparative study of high school social science teachers in three European countries: the Netherlands, Bulgaria, and Croatia, and presents data from teacher interviews using Q methodology. An aim of the study is to make explicit the link between teachers’ views on citizenship

  12. Water quality management in the Netherlands : Contribution to the Dutch-Japanese workshops on the treatment of municipal waste water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoornstra, J.S.; De Jong, J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes water management in the Netherlands with an emphasis on water quality aspects. First some features of the country are presented, underlining the importance of water and indicating the need for international cooperation on water quality matters. In the third paragraph, the water

  13. Internationalization of Curricula in Higher Education Institutions in Comparative Perspectives: Case Studies of China, Japan and The Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Futao

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the major issues and character of internationalization of curricula in higher education institutions in recent years in three non-English-speaking countries--China, Japan and The Netherlands. By making a comparative analysis of curricula provided for international students and curricula with international subjects,…

  14. Rule of morality vs. rule of law? An exploratory study of civil servant values in China and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, L.; van der Wal, Z.

    2014-01-01

    This article assesses whether civil servant values in China and the Netherlands reflect different administrative traditions (i.e., rule of morality vs. rule of law). The question is highly relevant because both countries have recently undergone reform and modernization, and their mutual dealings and

  15. POPULATION ECOLOGY AND CONSERVATION OF THE BARN OWL TYTO-ALBA IN FARMLAND HABITATS IN LIEMERS AND ACHTERHOEK (THE NETHERLANDS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEBRUIJN, O

    1994-01-01

    Over the last decades, the Barn Owl population has markedly decreased in range and breeding numbers in The Netherlands as in most western European countries. For effective conservation and population management, it is essential to know which factors are responsible for this decline. The present

  16. Adapting to climate change in The Netherlands: an inventory of climate adaptation options and ranking of alternatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. de Bruin (Kelly); R.B. Dellink (Rob); A. Ruijs (Arjan); L. Bolwidt; M.W. van Buuren (Arwin); J. Graveland (Jaap); R.S. de Groot; P.J. Kuikman; S. Reinhard; R.P. Roetter (Reimund); V.C. Tassone (Valentina); A.P. Verhagen (Arianne); E.C. van Ierland (Ekko)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIn many countries around the world impacts of climate change are assessed and adaptation options identified. We describe an approach for a qualitative and quantitative assessment of adaptation options to respond to climate change in the Netherlands. The study introduces an inventory and

  17. The Exodus from the Netherlands or Brain Circulation: Push and Pull Factors ofRemigration among Highly Educated Turkish Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Celik; Dr. T. Notten

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of Turkish Dutch, the Netherlands’ largest ethnic minority group, are beginning to return to their country of origin, taking with them the education and skills they have acquired abroad, as the Netherlands faces challenges from economic difficulties and socio-political tensions.

  18. Shi‘i Muslim youth in the Netherlands : Negotiating Shi‘i fatwas and rituals in the Dutch context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlatmann, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades of the 20th century large numbers of Shi‘i Muslims, mainly from Iran, Iraq and Afghanistan, sought refuge in western countries, including the Netherlands. From the 1990 Shi‘i religious authorities began to issue fatwas specifically for Shi‘i Muslims living in the West. This

  19. Children of Turkish immigrants in Germany and the Netherlands: the impact of differences in vocational and academic tracking systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crul, M.; Schneider, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Context: Much research is being done on Turkish immigrants and their children in Germany and the Netherlands, but almost always from a national perspective. To compare the situation, for example, regarding educational outcomes across the two countries has proved to be very difficult

  20. Waking a sleeping giant : Policy tools to improve the energy performance of the existing housing stock in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murphy, L.C.; Meijer, F.M.

    2011-01-01

    The Netherlands like many European countries has issued ambitious national targets to achieve climate change goals. It is recognised that to achieve these goals the energy saving potential idling in the existing housing stock must be exploited. To date the Dutch response is largely defined by the

  1. Soil acidification and imbalanced nutrient availability in Scots pine forest soils in the Netherlands : causes, extent and control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, G.

    1993-01-01

    Introduction

    Since the 1950s, in the Netherlands and several other western European countries an intensified livestock production system has developed. As a consequence, the quantities of NH x (NH

  2. Sex Education Materials in The Netherlands and in England and Wales : a comparison of content, use and teaching practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewis, Jane; Knijn, Trudie

    2003-01-01

    Sex education in The Netherlands and in the UK [1] has attracted attention because of the huge differences between the teenage pregnancy rates. There are substantial similarities in the way in which sex education is structured in the two countries, and yet the approach to the subject is very

  3. Use of health care services by Afghan, Iranian, and Somali refugees and asylum seekers living in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, A.A.M.; Bramsen, I.; Devillé, W.; Willigen, L.H.M. van; Hovens, J.E.; Ploeg, H.M. van der

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although asylum seekers have been coming to The Netherlands since the 1980s, very few epidemiological studies have focused on this group of inhabitants, or on the refugees who have resettled in this country. The objective of this study is to estimate the use of health care services by

  4. Creating or awakening national pride through sporting success? A longitudinal study on macro effects in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elling, A.; van Hilvoorde, I.M.; van den Dool, R.

    2013-01-01

    Like many other countries, the Dutch government increased investments in elite sports in the last decennium, partly driven by the ambition to organise the Olympic Games in 2028 in the Netherlands. One of the most important legitimations for this ambition is that elite sports events and national

  5. Factors explaining inadequate prenatal care utilization by first and second generation non-western women in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerleider, A.W.; Manniën, J.; Wiegers, T.A.; Francke, A.L.; Devillé, W.L.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In many industrialized western countries non-western women constitute a substantial part of the prenatal care client population. In The Netherlands, these women have also been shown to be more likely to make inadequate use of prenatal care. Explanatory factors for this include, among

  6. Which characteristics of nursing home residents influence differences in malnutrition prevalence? An international comparison of The Netherlands, Germany and Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nie-Visser, Noémi C; Meijers, Judith; Schols, Jos; Lohrmann, Christa; Bartholomeyczik, Sabine; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke; Halfens, Ruud

    2014-03-28

    Prevalence rates of malnutrition vary considerably internationally, partly due to differences in measurement methodology and instruments. In the present study, the same measurement methodology and instruments were used in The Netherlands, Germany and Austria. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether resident characteristics influence possible differences in malnutrition prevalence between countries. The study followed a cross-sectional, multi-centre design that measured malnutrition in nursing home residents from The Netherlands, Germany and Austria. Resident data were gathered using a standardised questionnaire. Malnutrition was operationalised using BMI, unintentional weight loss and nutritional intake. Data were analysed using an association model. The prevalence rates of malnutrition in The Netherlands, Germany and Austria were 18·3, 20·1 and 22·5 %, respectively. The multivariate generalised estimating equation (GEE) logistic regression analysis showed that sex, age, care dependency, the mean number of diseases and some specific diseases were influencing factors for whether the resident was malnourished or not. The OR of malnutrition in the three countries declined after including the influencing factors resulting from the multivariate GEE analysis. The present study reveals that differences in the prevalence rates of malnutrition in nursing homes in The Netherlands, Germany and Austria are influenced by different resident characteristics. Since other country-related factors could also play an important role in influencing differences in the prevalence rates of malnutrition between the countries (structural and process factors of malnutrition care policy). We recommend the investigation of these factors in future studies.

  7. Why does education matter to employers in different institutional contexts? A vignette study in England and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Stasio, V.; van de Werfhorst, H.G.

    We study the process by which employers evaluate and interpret information related to the educational background of job applicants in simulated hiring contexts. We focus on England and the Netherlands, countries with very different education systems and labor-market institutions. Using a vignette

  8. Converge or not converge: the European Union and higher education policies in the Netherlands, Belgium/Flanders and Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakic, V.; Rakic, Vojin

    2001-01-01

    This article examines the impact of European integration on higher education policies of the Netherlands, Belgium/Flanders and Germany. The analysis of higher education policies in the three countries is part of a broader project, which focuses on a majority of E.U. member states. The selection of

  9. Between relationality and territoriality : investigating the geographies of justice movements in The Netherlands and the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beaumont, Justin; Nicholls, Walter

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the geographies of justice movements in Rotterdam in The Netherlands and Los Angeles in the United States. In their wider national and international frameworks movements in both countries continue to contest unjust forms of urbanization characterized by neoliberal initiatives

  10. Regional governance of youth unemployment : A comparison of three Innovative Practices of Multi-Level Cooperation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muffels, Ruud; van der Meer, Marc; Bekker, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    This chapter compares three innovative practices of regional governance within one country, the Netherlands. Its first goal is to draw lessons on how to improve the governance of youth unemployment or the (re)integration of youngsters in the labour market. These are considerd potentially innovative

  11. Social science teachers on citizenship education: a comparative study of three European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeliazkova, Margarita I.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of high school teachers’ views on citizenship education in three European countries – the Netherlands, Bulgaria, and Croatia. In all these countries, citizenship is an important part of school curriculum. The teachers need to find ways to deal with the everyday

  12. The Impact of Origin and Host Country Schooling on the Economic Performance of Immigrants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanas, A.M.; Tubergen, F.A. van

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the economic returns to schooling acquired in the country of origin and the country of destination. It uses large-scale survey data on Turkish, Moroccan, Surinamese and Antillean immigrants in the Netherlands, which contain direct measures of pre- and post-migration schooling. It

  13. The impact of origin- and host-country schooling on the economic performance of immigrants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanas, A.M.; Tubergen, F.A. van

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the economic returns to schooling acquired in the country of origin and the country of destination. It uses large-scale survey data on Turkish, Moroccan, Surinamese and Antillean immigrants in the Netherlands, which contain direct measures of pre- and post-migration schooling. It

  14. Farm specific risk factors for Campylobacter colonization of broilers in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borck Høg, Birgitte; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Williams, N.

    2015-01-01

    was clearly affected by country. In descending order; broiler flocks were more likely to be colonized in Poland, the UK, Spain, the Netherlands, Denmark and Norway due to country specific factors that could not be explained by the management and climate variables in the explored models. The seasonality...

  15. Louse-borne relapsing fever (Borrelia recurrentis) in asylum seekers from Eritrea, the Netherlands, July 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilting, K R; Stienstra, Y; Sinha, B; Braks, M; Cornish, D; Grundmann, H

    2015-07-30

    Two patients from Eritrea, recently arrived in the Netherlands, presented with fever and were investigated for malaria. Bloodfilms showed spirochetes but no blood parasites. Louse-borne relapsing fever caused by Borrelia recurrentis was diagnosed. Treatment was complicated by severe Jarisch-Herxheimer reactions in both patients. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of B. recurrentis infection in migrant populations who travel under crowded conditions, especially after passing through endemic areas such as Ethiopia and neighbouring countries.

  16. The external water footprint of the Netherlands: Quantification and impact assessment

    OpenAIRE

    van Oel, P.R.; Mekonnen, Mesfin; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2008-01-01

    This study quantifies the external water footprint of the Netherlands by partner country and import product and assesses the impact of this footprint by contrasting the geographically explicit water footprint with water scarcity in the different parts of the world. Hotspots are identified as the places where the external water footprint of Dutch consumers is significant on the one hand and where water scarcity is serious on the other hand. The study shows that Dutch consumption implies the us...

  17. Regulatory strategies for selected Member States (Denmark, Germany, Netherlands, Spain, the UK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieuwenhout, F.D.J.; Jansen, J.C.; Van der Welle, A.J. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Olmos, L.; Cossent, R.; Gomez, T. [Universidad Pontificia Comillas, Madrid (Spain); Poot, J.; Bongaerts, M. [Liander, Duiven (Netherlands); Trebolle, D. [Union Fenosa Distribucion, Madrid (Spain); Doersam, B. [MVV Energie, Mannheim (Germany); Bofinger, S.; Lichtner, P.; Gerhardt, N. [Fraunhofer Institute for Wind Energy and Energy System Technology, IWES, Bremerhaven (Germany); Jacobsen, H.; Ropenus, S.; Schroeder, S. [Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark DTU, Roskilde (Denmark); Auer, H.; Weissensteiner, L.; Prueggler, W.; Obersteiner, C.; Zach, K. [Energy Economics Group EEG, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria)

    2010-05-15

    This Work Package 6 report of the IMPROGRES project provides an overview of regulatory strategies and incentives, conducive to (1) network integration of increasing levels of distributed generation including notably intermittent renewable technology such as wind power and solar photovoltaics (PV) as well as (2) options for reducing impacts on surging network integration costs. Similar to the IMPROGRES project in general, this report focuses on European distribution networks. It includes specific country studies of Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain and the UK.

  18. Acceptance of homosexuality by ethnic and religious groups in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Willem Huijnk

    2014-01-01

    Original title: De acceptatie van homoseksualiteit door etnische en religieuze groepen in Nederland lthough acceptance of homosexuality in the Netherlands is high compared with other countries, there are still certain groups where this acceptance cannot be taken for granted. To gain a better picture of this, an exploratory study was carried out at the request of the Emancipation department at the Dutch Ministry of Education, Culture and Science. The purpose of this study is to use existing da...

  19. Treatment strategies and survival of older breast cancer patients - an international comparison between the Netherlands and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiderlen, Mandy; Walsh, Paul M; Bastiaannet, Esther; Kelly, Maria B; Audisio, Riccardo A; Boelens, Petra G; Brown, Chris; Dekkers, Olaf M; de Craen, Anton J M; van de Velde, Cornelis J H; Liefers, Gerrit-Jan

    2015-01-01

    Forty percent of breast cancers occur among older patients. Unfortunately, there is a lack of evidence for treatment guidelines for older breast cancer patients. The aim of this study is to compare treatment strategy and relative survival for operable breast cancer in the elderly between The Netherlands and Ireland. From the Dutch and Irish national cancer registries, women aged ≥65 years with non-metastatic breast cancer were included (2001-2009). Proportions of patients receiving guideline-adherent locoregional treatment, endocrine therapy, and chemotherapy were calculated and compared between the countries by stage. Secondly, 5-year relative survival was calculated by stage and compared between countries. Overall, 41,055 patients from The Netherlands and 5,826 patients from Ireland were included. Overall, more patients received guideline-adherent locoregional treatment in The Netherlands, overall (80% vs. 68%, adjusted pIreland, where endocrine therapy was prescribed to 92% of hormone receptor-positive patients, compared to 59% in The Netherlands. In The Netherlands, only 6% received chemotherapy, as compared 24% in Ireland. But relative survival was poorer in Ireland (5 years relative survival 89% vs. 83%), especially in stage II (87% vs. 85%) and stage III (61% vs. 58%) patients. Treatment for older breast cancer patients differed significantly on all treatment modalities between The Netherlands and Ireland. More locoregional treatment was provided in The Netherlands, and more systemic therapy was provided in Ireland. Relative survival for Irish patients was worse than for their Dutch counterparts. This finding should be a strong recommendation to study breast cancer treatment and survival internationally, with the ultimate goal to equalize the survival rates for breast cancer patients across Europe.

  20. The first five years of euthanasia legislation in Belgium and the Netherlands: description and comparison of cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rurup, Mette L; Smets, Tinne; Cohen, Joachim; Bilsen, Johan; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D; Deliens, Luc

    2012-01-01

    The Netherlands and Belgium legalized euthanasia in 2002. In this study we describe and compare cases of reported euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in the first 5 years of legislation. The databases of the cases reported in Belgium and the Netherlands were made available by the review committees. We compared characteristics of all cases reported between September 2002-December 2007. In the Netherlands 10,319 cases were reported, in Belgium 1917. Gender and age distributions were similar in both countries. Most patients suffered from cancer (83-87%), but patients more often suffered from diseases of the nervous system in Belgium (8.3% vs. 3.9%). In the Netherlands, reported euthanasia more often occurred at home compared with Belgium (81% vs. 42%), where it occurred more often in hospital (52% vs. 9%). In the Netherlands, all cases were based on the oral request of a competent patient. In Belgium, 2.1% of the reported cases was based on an advance directive. We conclude that countries debating legislation must realise that the rules and procedures for euthanasia they would agree upon and the way they are codified or not into law may influence the practice that develops once the legislation is effected or what part of that practice is reported.

  1. Spatial variation in stage distribution in colorectal cancer in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elferink, M A G; Pukkala, E; Klaase, J M; Siesling, S

    2012-05-01

    In the Netherlands the incidence of colorectal cancer has increased, mainly in the eastern part of the country. Patient delay due to unawareness or ignorance of symptoms and differences in use of diagnostic tools could have influence on the stage distribution. The aim of this study was to evaluate geographical differences in stage-specific incidence rates of colon and rectal cancer in the Netherlands. Age-adjusted incidence rates for cancers of the colon and rectum diagnosed in 2001-2005 and registered in the Netherlands Cancer Registry were calculated for each municipality and stage. The incidence for each 500m by 500m grid was estimated as a weighted average of the incidence rates of the neighbouring municipalities. The incidence rates and the stage distribution are both presented as maps. Geographic variation in stage-specific incidence was evaluated using spatial scan statistic. In both colon and rectal cancer, significant spatial variation in stage-specific incidences was found, except for colon cancer of stages III and IV. The regions with a higher stage-specific incidence were almost all in the south eastern part of the Netherlands, however, these differences were not seen in the stage distribution. There were no differences in stage distribution between large cities and the rest of the country. These maps give insight into differences in stage-specific incidences of colon and rectal cancer in the Netherlands. Educational interventions to increase the awareness of symptoms of colorectal cancer may be especially useful for the population in regions with high incidence of advanced stages. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The future of smoking-attributable mortality: the case of England & Wales, Denmark and the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeldraijer, Lenny; Bonneux, Luc; van Duin, Coen; van Wissen, Leo; Janssen, Fanny

    2015-02-01

    We formally estimate future smoking-attributable mortality up to 2050 for the total national populations of England & Wales, Denmark and the Netherlands, providing an update and extension of the descriptive smoking-epidemic model. We used smoking prevalence and population-level lung cancer mortality data for England & Wales, Denmark and the Netherlands, covering the period 1950-2009. To estimate the future smoking-attributable mortality fraction (SAF) we: (i) project lung cancer mortality by extrapolating age-period-cohort trends, using the observed convergence of smoking prevalence and similarities in past lung cancer mortality between men and women as input; and (ii) add other causes of death attributable to smoking by applying a simplified version of the indirect Peto-Lopez method to the projected lung cancer mortality. The SAF for men in 2009 was 19% (44 872 deaths) in England & Wales, 22% (5861 deaths) in Denmark and 25% (16 385 deaths) in the Netherlands. In our projections, these fractions decline to 6, 12 and 14%, respectively, in 2050. The SAF for women peaked at 14% (38 883 deaths) in 2008 in England & Wales, and is expected to peak in 2028 in Denmark (22%) and in 2033 in the Netherlands (23%). By 2050, a decline to 9, 17 and 19%, respectively, is foreseen. Different indirect estimation methods of the SAF in 2050 yield a range of 1-8% (England & Wales), 8-13% (Denmark) and 11-16% (the Netherlands) for men, and 7-16, 12-26 and 13-31% for women. From northern European data we project that smoking-attributable mortality will remain important for the future, especially for women. Whereas substantial differences between countries remain, the age-specific evolution of smoking-attributable mortality remains similar across countries and between sexes. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Digital Inheritance in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berlee, A.

    2017-01-01

    Our accumulation of assets is increasingly digital. What happens to these digital assets upon our death? In this Country Report, the topic of a digital inheritance is discussed in the context of Dutch law. It includes general rules on succession and their application to digital assets, which

  4. Waste Management Strategy in The Netherlands. Part 1. Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haverkate, B.R.W

    2002-05-08

    This report reflects the input prepared in the framework of work package 1 of the thematic network COMPAS, which deals with the identification of waste forms in EU member states and their applicant countries. In accordance with the COMPAS project plan a brief introduction of the nuclear industry in The Netherlands and some historical milestones in radioactive waste research are given first (in chapter 1), after which the current waste management policy is described (in chapter 2). Those aspects that could play a role in identifying alternative waste management strategies and influencing strategy issues have been emphasised. The current and projected radioactive waste forms will be part of this (decision) process and consequently are summarised in (chapter 3 of) this report. Finally, advanced waste reduction technologies are addressed (in chapter 4), because they could influence (future) waste management strategies. Naturally radioactive materials are also discussed in (chapter 5 of) this report.

  5. Waste Management Strategy in The Netherlands. Part 3. Strategy Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haverkate, B.R.W

    2003-05-05

    This report reflects the Dutch input prepared in the framework of work package 3 of the EU thematic network COMPAS, which dealt with the evaluation and comparison of waste management strategies in EU member states and their applicant countries. Based on three generic decision trees the current strategy as well as the reason(s) for the selected options regarding radioactive waste management in The Netherlands is extensively described in this report. The trees are represented in terms of (numbered) decision nodes. Each node is discussed in the context of the Dutch situation, with relevant potential outcomes being highlighted where possible. After a short introduction (chapter 1) followed by a brief waste management policy overview (chapter 2), this approach is considered, in chapter 3, for: spent nuclear fuel and high level waste; low and intermediate level waste; disposal strategy.

  6. The development of a new chemistry curriculum in the Netherlands ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of a new chemistry curriculum in the Netherlands: Introducing ... Journal Home > Vol 4, No 2 (2014) >. Log in or ... This paper describes the recent changes in chemistry education in secondary school in the Netherlands.

  7. Homeless Families in the Netherlands: Intervention Policies and Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catelijne Akkermans

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The demographics of the homeless population in many countries are currently shifting, and this cannot be explained by the different welfare systems to be found in these countries. Nevertheless, there is some evidence that the homelessness policies of some countries are converging, and we observe a combination of decentralisation, housing first, and a taylor-made, individualised approach. However, what is interesting is the question as to what extent these policies are based on a punitive dimension or on a justice dimension. This aspect is little discussed in the Netherlands where policies to combat homelessness are intended to put an end to public nuisance and to get the homeless off the street. Research into evicted families demonstrates that combining elements of (mild coercion with efforts to solve homelessness leads to problems in at least three domains: the motivation of homeless families to accept help and support, the quality of life in the individualised approach, and the matter of registration. These problems need investigating, also from an international perspective.

  8. Landfill reduction experience in The Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharff, Heijo, E-mail: h.scharff@afvalzorg.nl

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • ‘Zero waste’ initiatives never consider risks, side effects or experience of achieved low levels of landfill. • This paper provides insight into what works and what not. • Where strong gradients in regulations and tax occur between countries, waste will find its way to landfills across borders. • Strong landfill reduction can create a fierce competition over the remaining waste to be landfilled resulting in losses. • At some point a public organisation should take responsibility for the operation of a ‘safety net’ in waste management. - Abstract: Modern waste legislation aims at resource efficiency and landfill reduction. This paper analyses more than 20 years of landfill reduction in the Netherlands. The combination of landfill regulations, landfill tax and landfill bans resulted in the desired landfill reduction, but also had negative effects. A fierce competition developed over the remaining waste to be landfilled. In 2013 the Dutch landfill industry generated €40 million of annual revenue, had €58 million annual costs and therefore incurred an annual loss of €18 million. It is not an attractive option to prematurely end business. There is a risk that Dutch landfill operators will not be able to fulfil the financial obligations for closure and aftercare. Contrary to the polluter pays principle the burden may end up with society. EU regulations prohibiting export of waste for disposal are in place. Strong differentials in landfill tax rate between nations have nevertheless resulted in transboundary shipment of waste and in non-compliance with the self-sufficiency and proximity principles. During the transformation from a disposal society to a recycling society, it is important to carefully plan required capacity and to guide the reorganisation of the landfill sector. At some point, it is no longer profitable to provide landfill services. It may be necessary for public organisations or the state to take responsibility for the

  9. Loneliness among women with rheumatoid arthritis: a cross-cultural study in the Netherlands and Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mansoury, Tarek M; Taal, Erik; Abdel-Nasser, Ahmed M; Riemsma, Robert P; Mahfouz, Refaat; Mahmoud, Jehan A; El-Badawy, Samir A; Rasker, Johannes J

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this study was to explain loneliness as experienced by women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in a cross-cultural context. We studied 36 Egyptian female RA patients and 140 female Dutch RA patients.. Self-report data were collected about loneliness, physical and psychological health status, social support and social network, needs for help, attitudes and feelings of guilt. Loneliness was significantly higher among Egyptian (44.2 +/- 32.3) than Dutch (12.9 +/- 18.9) female RA patients (F = 54.3, p loneliness could be explained by worse affect (anxiety and depression; beta = 0.51), fewer children (beta = 0.31), and higher negative social support for the patients (beta = 0.28) in multiple regression analysis. In the Netherlands, 35% of feeling lonely could be explained by worse affect scores (beta = 0.52), less positive social support for the patients (beta = 0.24), and a higher degree of disability (beta = 0.21). Age of the patients and disease duration only explained 4% and 3% of the loneliness of RA patients in Egypt and the Netherlands, respectively. Female Egyptian RA patients experienced more loneliness than Dutch patients. Affect is the most important and constant variable in explaining loneliness in both countries. The role of the family in perceived loneliness is greater in Egypt than the Netherlands. Low social support received by patients is important in explaining loneliness in the Netherlands but not in Egypt.

  10. Professional opinion on oral cleft during pregnancy: a comparison between Israel and The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maarse, Wies; Boonacker, Chantal W B; Lapid, Oren; Swanenburg De Veye, Henriette F N; Weiner, Zeev; Kon, Moshe; van Delden, Johannes J M; Mink van der Molen, Aebele B

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the opinion of obstetric care providers who perform prenatal ultrasounds to screen for anomalies and who advise women about their options, including termination of pregnancy, when an oral cleft is detected. We compared providers' opinions about pregnancy termination for isolated oral cleft in The Netherlands, where the number of terminations is low, and in Israel, where the number is high. Online questionnaires were used. The questions assessed the providers' views regarding the estimated burden of treatment, the functioning ability, and the level of happiness of children with an oral cleft and their parents. Additionally, we assessed providers' opinions on pregnancy termination for isolated oral cleft. In The Netherlands, more professionals considered oral cleft a disability (rate differences 17.8%, 95% confidence interval: 0.5-33.1%) than in Israel. In the Netherlands, 10.6% of respondents (compared with 11.1% in Israel) thought that an isolated cleft was a reason for terminations of pregnancy (TOP) (rate differences 0.6%, 95% confidence interval: -12% to 10.9%). Prenatal care providers in The Netherlands and Israel do not differ in their opinions about the severity of oral cleft and the acceptability of TOP for an isolated oral cleft. This study shows that prenatal care providers' attitudes do therefore not explain the dramatic difference between these countries in the number of TOP for isolated oral cleft. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Effectiveness of unit-based pricing of waste in the Netherlands: applying a general equilibrium model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beukering, Pieter J H; Bartelings, Heleen; Linderhof, Vincent G M; Oosterhuis, Frans H

    2009-11-01

    Differential and variable rates (DVR) in waste collection charging give a price incentive to households to reduce their waste and increase recycling. International empirical evidence confirms the effectiveness of DVR schemes, with limited unwanted side effects. In the Netherlands, currently some 20% of the population is charged at DVR. This is less than in several other countries. Taking into account differences between types of households and dwellings, this study analyses various scenarios for extended use of DVR in the Netherlands. The analysis shows that further penetration of DVR is a cost-effective instrument for waste reduction and more recycling. Moreover, DVR can itself be seen as a necessary condition for the successful implementation of other economic instruments, such as waste taxes. It is therefore recommended to stimulate municipalities to adopt DVR schemes in the Netherlands, accompanied by the provision of adequate facilities for waste separation by households. Before introducing DVR in 'very strongly urbanized' municipalities (i.e. the 12 largest cities in the Netherlands) a pilot experiment in one of them might be useful to test the behavioral response in this category.

  12. Determination of perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) in drinking water from the Netherlands and Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafeiraki, Effrosyni; Costopoulou, Danae; Vassiliadou, Irene; Leondiadis, Leondios; Dassenakis, Emmanouil; Traag, Wim; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; van Leeuwen, Stefan P J

    2015-01-01

    In the present study 11 perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) were analysed in drinking tap water samples from the Netherlands (n = 37) and from Greece (n = 43) by applying LC-MS/MS and isotope dilution. PFASs concentrations above the limit of quantification, LOQ (0.6 ng/l) were detected in 20.9% of the samples from Greece. Total PFAS concentrations ranged between Netherlands. This seems attributable to the source, which is purified surface water in this area. Short-chain PFASs and especially perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) were detected most frequently, whereas long-chain PFASs (C > 8) were only rarely detected. In the drinking water samples from the eastern part of the Netherlands, where drinking water is sourced from groundwater reservoirs, no PFASs were detected. This demonstrates that exposure to PFASs through drinking water in the Netherlands is dependent on the source. Additionally, five samples of bottled water from each country were analysed in the current study, with all of them originating from ground wells. In these samples, all PFASs were below the LOQ.

  13. Staff exchange within and between nursing homes in The Netherlands and potential implications for MRSA transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAN Gaalen, R D; Hopman, H A; Haenen, A; VAN DEN Dool, C

    2017-03-01

    A recent countrywide MRSA spa-type 1081 outbreak in The Netherlands predominantly affected nursing homes, generating questions on how infection spreads within and between nursing homes despite a low national prevalence. Since the transfer of residents between nursing homes is uncommon in The Netherlands, we hypothesized that staff exchange plays an important role in transmission. This exploratory study investigated the extent of former (last 2 years) and current staff exchange within and between nursing homes in The Netherlands. We relied on a questionnaire that was targeted towards nursing-home staff members who had contact with residents. We found that 17·9% and 12·4% of the nursing-home staff formerly (last 2 years) or currently worked in other healthcare institutes besides their job in the nursing home through which they were selected to participate in this study. Moreover, 39·7% of study participants worked on more than one ward. Our study shows that, in The Netherlands, nursing-home staff form a substantial number of links between wards within nursing homes and nursing homes are linked to a large network of healthcare institutes through their staff members potentially providing a pathway for MRSA transmission between nursing homes and throughout the country.

  14. Predictors of car smoking rules among smokers in France, Germany and the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchman, Sara C; Guignard, Romain; Nagelhout, Gera E; Mons, Ute; Beck, François; van den Putte, Bas; Crone, Mathilde; de Vries, Hein; Hyland, Andrew; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2012-02-01

    As exposure to tobacco smoke pollution (TSP) has been identified as a cause of premature death and disease in non-smokers, and studies have demonstrated that smoking in cars produces high levels of TSP, this study will investigate smokers' rules for smoking in their cars, and predictors of car smoking rules, including potentially modifiable correlates. Data were drawn from nationally representative samples of current smokers from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project surveys in France (2007), Germany (2007), and the Netherlands (2008). Smokers in France and Germany were asked about smoking rules in their cars, and smokers in the Netherlands were asked about smoking rules in cars carrying children. In France and Germany, 59% and 52% of smokers respectively, allowed smoking in their cars. In the Netherlands, 36% of smokers allowed smoking in cars carrying children. Predictors of allowing smoking in cars included: being a daily vs. non-daily smoker, being younger vs. older age, having no (young) children in the home, being a heavier smoker, and allowing smoking in the home. In the Netherlands, smokers who agreed that TSP is dangerous to non-smokers were less likely to allow smoking in cars carrying children. Overall, a sizeable proportion of smokers allowed smoking in their cars across the three countries. Media campaigns with information about the dangers of TSP may increase the adoption of smoke-free cars. These media campaigns could target smokers who are most likely to allow smoking in cars.

  15. Public acceptance of euthanasia in Europe: a survey study in 47 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joachim; Van Landeghem, Paul; Carpentier, Nico; Deliens, Luc

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, the European euthanasia debate has become more intense, and the practice was legalized in the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg. We aimed to determine the current degree of public acceptance of euthanasia across Europe and investigate what factors explain differences. Data were derived from the 2008 wave of the European Values Survey (EVS), conducted in 47 European countries (N = 67,786, response rate = 69 %). Acceptance of euthanasia was rated on a 1-10 scale. Relatively high acceptance was found in a small cluster of Western European countries, including the three countries that have legalized euthanasia and Denmark, France, Sweden and Spain. In a large part of Europe public acceptance was relatively low to moderate. Comparison with the results of the previous EVS wave (1999) suggests a tendency towards a polarization in Europe, with most of Western Europe becoming more permissive and most of Eastern Europe becoming less permissive. There is roughly a West-East division in euthanasia acceptance among the European public, making a pan-European policy approach to the issue difficult.

  16. Establishing specialized health services for professional consultation in euthanasia: experiences in the Netherlands and Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wesemael, Yanna; Cohen, Joachim; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D; Bilsen, Johan; Deliens, Luc

    2009-12-04

    The Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg have adopted laws decriminalizing euthanasia under strict conditions of prudent practice. These laws stipulate, among other things, that the attending physician should consult an independent colleague to judge whether the substantive criteria of due care have been met. In this context initiatives were taken in the Netherlands and Belgium to establish specialized services providing such consultants: Support and Consultation for Euthanasia in the Netherlands (SCEN) and Life End Information Forum (LEIF) in Belgium. The aim of this study is to describe and compare these initiatives. We studied and compared relevant documents concerning the Dutch and Belgian consultation service (e.g. articles of bye-laws, inventories of activities, training books, consultation protocols). In both countries, the consultation services are delivered by trained physicians who can be consulted in cases of a request for euthanasia and who offer support and information to attending physicians. The context in which the two organisations were founded, as well as the way they are organised and regulated, is different in each country. By providing information on all end-of-life care matters, the Belgian LEIF seems to have a broader consultation role than the Dutch SCEN. SCEN on the other hand has a longer history, is more regulated and organised on a larger scale and receives more government funding than LEIF. The number of training hours for physicians is equal. However, SCEN-training puts more emphasis on the consultation report, whereas LEIF-training primarily emphasizes the ethical framework of end-of-life decisions. In case of a request for euthanasia, in the Netherlands as well as in Belgium similar consultation services by independent qualified physicians have been developed. In countries where legalising physician-assisted death is being contemplated, the development of such a consultation provision could also be considered in order to safeguard

  17. Establishing specialized health services for professional consultation in euthanasia: experiences in the Netherlands and Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilsen Johan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg have adopted laws decriminalizing euthanasia under strict conditions of prudent practice. These laws stipulate, among other things, that the attending physician should consult an independent colleague to judge whether the substantive criteria of due care have been met. In this context initiatives were taken in the Netherlands and Belgium to establish specialized services providing such consultants: Support and Consultation for Euthanasia in the Netherlands (SCEN and Life End Information Forum (LEIF in Belgium. The aim of this study is to describe and compare these initiatives. Methods We studied and compared relevant documents concerning the Dutch and Belgian consultation service (e.g. articles of bye-laws, inventories of activities, training books, consultation protocols. Results In both countries, the consultation services are delivered by trained physicians who can be consulted in cases of a request for euthanasia and who offer support and information to attending physicians. The context in which the two organisations were founded, as well as the way they are organised and regulated, is different in each country. By providing information on all end-of-life care matters, the Belgian LEIF seems to have a broader consultation role than the Dutch SCEN. SCEN on the other hand has a longer history, is more regulated and organised on a larger scale and receives more government funding than LEIF. The number of training hours for physicians is equal. However, SCEN-training puts more emphasis on the consultation report, whereas LEIF-training primarily emphasizes the ethical framework of end-of-life decisions. Conclusion In case of a request for euthanasia, in the Netherlands as well as in Belgium similar consultation services by independent qualified physicians have been developed. In countries where legalising physician-assisted death is being contemplated, the development of such a

  18. Agricultural Cooperatives in the Netherlands: key success factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijman, J.

    2016-01-01

    The paper argues that the ongoing success of agricultural cooperatives in the Netherlands can be explained by the combination of five factors. First, the Netherlands has an enabling cooperative legislation. Second, cooperatives in the Netherlands have been able to maintain effective member control

  19. Prevalence of alcohol and other psychoactive substances in injured drivers: comparison between Belgium and The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, Sara-Ann; Houwing, Sjoerd; Hagenzieker, Marjan; Verstraete, Alain G

    2012-07-10

    To compare the prevalence of alcohol and (il)licit drugs in seriously injured drivers in Belgium (BE) and the Netherlands (NL). Injured car and van drivers admitted to the emergency departments of five hospitals in Belgium and three in the Netherlands from January 2008 to May 2010 were included. Blood samples were taken and analysed for ethanol (with an enzymatic method) and 22 other psychoactive substances (UPLC-MS/MS or GC-MS). In total 535 injured drivers were included in the study (BE: 348; NL: 187). More drivers were found positive for alcohol and drugs in Belgium (52.6%) than in the Netherlands (33.9%). Alcohol (≥0.1 g/L) was the most prevalent substance in both countries (BE: 42.5%; NL: 29.6%). A similar prevalence was found for amphetamine (BE: 2.6%; NL: 2.2%) and cocaine (BE: 2.3%; NL: 2.1%). In the Netherlands almost no positive findings for cannabis were recorded (0.5%). No driver tested positive for benzodiazepines in the Netherlands compared to 7.3% in Belgium. More injured drivers tested positive for Z-drugs (BE: 1.8%; NL: 0.5%) and medicinal opioids (BE: 3.3%; NL: 0.5%) in Belgium. The prevalence of alcohol in seriously injured drivers was 12% higher found in Belgium than in the Netherlands. The prevalence of drugs was similar in both countries except for THC and medicinal drugs, particularly benzodiazepines, with a much higher prevalence in Belgium. In comparison to previous survey there were differences in the prevalence of THC, benzodiazepines and combinations of drugs. Possible explanations are the different matrix used, a bias in study population, or in case of illicit opiates and benzodiazepines a different consumption pattern in the two countries. Alcohol is still the most prevalent substance among the injured driver population and this increased the last 15 years. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. When small is beautiful. Boom time for small hydro?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, John

    2002-08-01

    Although small hydropower projects generally contribute a small proportion of most nations' electricity needs their importance often exceeds their size. The author, a freelance industrial journalist considers prospects for small hydro, how such schemes are benefiting communities throughout the world and why some countries are more successfully using small hydro than others. (Author)

  1. Antibiotic prescribing in relation to diagnoses and consultation rates in Belgium, the Netherlands and Sweden: use of European quality indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrstrup, Mia; van der Velden, Alike; Engstrom, Sven; Goderis, Geert; Molstad, Sigvard; Verheij, Theo; Coenen, Samuel; Adriaenssens, Niels

    2017-03-01

    To assess the quality of antibiotic prescribing in primary care in Belgium, the Netherlands and Sweden using European disease-specific antibiotic prescribing quality indicators (APQI) and taking into account the threshold to consult and national guidelines. A retrospective observational database study. Routine primary health care registration networks in Belgium, the Netherlands and Sweden. All consultations for one of seven acute infections [upper respiratory tract infection (URTI), sinusitis, tonsillitis, otitis media, bronchitis, pneumonia and cystitis] and the antibiotic prescriptions in 2012 corresponding to these diagnoses. Consultation incidences for these diagnoses and APQI values (a) the percentages of patients receiving an antibiotic per diagnosis, (b) the percentages prescribed first-choice antibiotics and (c) the percentages prescribed quinolones. The consultation incidence for respiratory tract infection was much higher in Belgium than in the Netherlands and Sweden. Most of the prescribing percentage indicators (a) were outside the recommended ranges, with Belgium deviating the most for URTI and bronchitis, Sweden for tonsillitis and the Netherlands for cystitis. The Netherlands and Sweden prescribed the recommended antibiotics (b) to a higher degree and the prescribing of quinolones exceeded the proposed range for most diagnoses (c) in Belgium. The interpretation of APQI was found to be dependent on the consultation incidences. High consultation incidences were associated with high antibiotic prescription rates. Taking into account the recommended treatments from national guidelines improved the results of the APQI values for sinusitis in the Netherlands and cystitis in Sweden. Quality assessment using European disease-specific APQI was feasible and their inter-country comparison can identify opportunities for quality improvement. Their interpretation, however, should take consultation incidences and national guidelines into account. Differences in

  2. Understanding obstacles to the recognition of and response to dementia in different European countries: a modified focus group approach using multinational, multi-disciplinary expert groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iliffe, S.; De Lepeleire, J.; van Hout, H.P.J.; Kenny, G.; Lewis, A.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.

    2005-01-01

    Experts from eight European countries (Belgium, France, The Netherlands, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Spain and the United Kingdom) and the disciplines of clinical psychology, general practice, geriatric medicine, old age psychiatry, medical sociology, nursing and voluntary body organisation met in

  3. Cooperation under the RES Directive - Case study on a joint project: An offshore wind park in the North Sea (cooperation between the Netherlands, Belgium, UK, and Luxembourg)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitzing, Lena; Nysten, Jana; Gephart, Malte

    .The joint project consists of a 1000 MW offshore wind park located on Dutch territory, to beconnected to an offshore hub on Belgian territory. Belgium, the Netherlands and the UK will togetherundertake the joint project and share the production and the RES benefits. Belgium will be the drivingforce...... of the joint project, organising the necessary negotiations and initiatives. The country will alsoassume most risks related to the development of the wind park. Therefore, we assume that the jointproject will be shared in the following way: 40% to Belgium, 30% to the Netherlands, and 30% tothe UK. We further...... wind resources, which will help meeting its ambitious RES target. TheNetherlands will benefit from the connection of the wind park to the Belgian offshore hub. This will beat lower cost than a connection to Dutch shore – in return, the Netherlands will though only receive30% of the wind production...

  4. The distribution of bats in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braaksma, S.

    1970-01-01

    The Research Institute for Nature Management (R.I.N.) has compiled all available information on the distribution of bats in the Netherlands up till 1968. The data were derived from literature and museum specimens, as well as from numerous unpublished observations. Around 1960 much was known already

  5. Green data centres in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Owen van der Lee; ir. A. Kasper; ir. Marco A. Dorenbos; Anda Counotte-Potman; dr. Th.J.G. Thiadens

    2010-01-01

    Green data centres are the talk of the day. But who in fact is involved in developing green data centres? What is their contribution? And what does this contribution constitute in practical terms? This article states which stakeholders are involved in green data centres in the Netherlands, what

  6. Shellfish reef restoration pilots: Voordelta The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sas, H.; Kamermans, P.; Have, van der T.M.; Lengkeek, W.; Smaal, A.C.

    2016-01-01

    Once, shellfish reefs - mainly flat oysters - covered about 20% of the North Sea floor, but diseases, pollution and overfishing have led to a significant decline. As part of the Haringvliet Dream Fund Project (www.haringvliet.nu), ARK
    Nature and World Wildlife Fund Netherlands are working on

  7. Restructuring Environmental Legislation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuuren, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    In 2002, the newly elected Cabinet in the Netherlands decided to act upon a growing number of complaints from businesses that government legis-lation is the cause of heavy administrative burdens for companies. According to businesses, this has a negative impact on the economy. The Cabinet promised

  8. Administration by negotiation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, O.J.D.M.L.

    2002-01-01

    The legal literature in the Netherlands has been paying a considerable amount of attention for some time now to horizontal administration or administration by negotiation., voluntary agreements, mediation, Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) and dispute settlement. The issue is still of continued

  9. Modelling Forest Water Consumption in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolman, A.J.; Nonhebel, S.

    1988-01-01

    The water consumption of oak, beech, spruce and pine forest is predicted from routinely measured meteorological data for five locations in the Netherlands. Differences in water consumption are found to be primarily a result of differences in interception loss. Predicted interception loss was found

  10. The Netherlands Yearbook on International Cooperation 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoebink, P.R.J.

    2009-01-01

    'The Netherlands Yearbook on International Cooperation 2008' is a second of the series yearbooks. The Yearbook has as objectives: to stimulate and feed the scientific and political debate on the Dutch international cooperation; to offer opportunities for publication for researchers in the field of

  11. Chapter 5: Adaptation Strategies in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klostermann, J.E.M.; Gupta, J.; Bergsma, E.; Jong, P.

    2014-01-01

    Although climate change has been prominently featured on the global scientific and political agendas since the World Climate Conference in 1979 (WCC 1979), the specific importance of adaptation to climate change has only been underlined about 20 years later. The Netherlands, because it lies largely

  12. The Netherlands in a European Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2000-01-01

    How does the Netherlands compare with the other members of the European family? This issue of the Social and Cultural Report is devoted chiefly to answering that question. From how long we can expect to live to how much television we watch: from having the most part-time jobs to the least number

  13. Calcareous sponges of the Netherlands (Porifera, Calcarea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolwijk, van Th.

    1982-01-01

    The taxonomy of calcareous sponges occurring in the Netherlands is reviewed, using field observations of live individuals, microscopical examination of individual skeletons and study of the breeding cycle. This led to the conclusion that a new species had to be erected and other species

  14. Mapping groundwater quality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pebesma, Edzer Jan

    1996-01-01

    Groundwater quality is the suitability of groundwater for a certain purpose (e.g. for human consumption), and is mostly determined by its chemical composition. Pollution from agricultural and industrial origin threatens the groundwater quality in the Netherlands. Locally, this pollution is

  15. Norms of filial obligation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Dykstra (Pearl); T. Fokkema (Tineke)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn this article we examine to what extent norms of filial obligation in the Netherlands are shaped by group value patterns, family constellation, possibilities for helping others, and actual experiences of support exchange. The data are drawn from the first wave of the combined main and

  16. The Netherlands: wage flexibility and collective bargaining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van het Kaar, R.

    2009-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the incidence of variable payments systems (VPS) and performance-related pay (PRP) gradually increases. Most forms of VPS are covered by collective bargaining, with the exception of share and option schemes. Virtually all agreements only allow upward variability. Employers and

  17. Wildlife value orientations in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    Wildlife value orientations among inhabitants of the Netherlands were explored by conducting semi-structured interviews, and using predefined value orientations that were previously revealed in the United States. Special attention was paid to the existence of mutualism orientations, viewing wildlife

  18. Acceptance of homosexuality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisette Kuyper; Floor Bakker

    2006-01-01

    Original title: De houding ten opzichte van homoseksualiteit. To date, relatively little systematic research has been carried out on public attitudes to homosexual men and women in the Netherlands - far less than in the United States, for example. SCP has recently carried out a large-scale

  19. Prevalence of Dupuytren Disease in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanting, Rosanne; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; Westerink, Bram; Werker, Paul M N

    Background: Dupuytren disease is a fibroproliferative disease of palmar fascias of the hand. The prevalence of Dupuytren disease and the association with potential risk factors have been the subject of several studies, although there is a paucity of such data from The Netherlands. Methods: To study

  20. Issues and party competition in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, Kees; Macdonald, Stuart Elaine; Rabinowitz, George

    1999-01-01

    The Netherlands represents the prototypic case of a consociational democracy; in addition, the Dutch system has an extremely low threshold for obtaining representation in the legislature, making it open to challengers of any political persuasion. This article has two explicit goals: to compare two