WorldWideScience

Sample records for netherlands norway spain

  1. Energy from waste. State-of-the-art report. Statistics 1996-1999. Data 2000/2001. Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This is the 4. edition of the report on waste to energy plants in the member countries of the ISWA Working Group on Thermal Treatment of Waste. This edition presents information on the plants by year 2000/2001 and includes operational data covering the years 1996-1999. The report is based on a questionnaire that was distributed to the waste to energy plants in the member countries in 2000. Only normal MSW incineration plants with a capacity of more than 15 tonnes/day or 10,000 tonnes/year are included, which means that special plants for hazardous waste, sludge, agricultural and hospital wastes are not included. Most, but not all, plants have answered a questionnaire, and this report is mainly based on the questionnaires received and the information provided by the questionnaires. In the first section the report presents a comparison of the situation of waste to energy in: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Hungary, Italy, Portugal, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland. The statistics in this section present the number of plants, the national capacity and flue gas cleaning systems. The section also presents the amount of waste incinerated, the energy recovered and the residues generated in 1999 in the 14 countries. The second section presents the national data on the incineration plants. For the USA the figures are listed in the second part of the report. (BA)

  2. Cost-effectiveness of screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm in the Netherlands and Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spronk, S; van Kempen, B J H; Boll, A P M; Jørgensen, J J; Hunink, M G M; Kristiansen, I S

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the cost-effectiveness of ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in men aged 65 years, for both the Netherlands and Norway. A Markov model was developed to simulate life expectancy, quality-adjusted life-years, net health benefits, lifetime costs and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for both screening and no screening for AAA. The best available evidence was retrieved from the literature and combined with primary data from the two countries separately, and analysed from a national perspective. A threshold willingness-to-pay (WTP) of €20,000 and €62,500 was used for data from the Netherlands and Norway respectively. The additional costs of the screening strategy compared with no screening were €421 (95 per cent confidence interval 33 to 806) per person in the Netherlands, and the additional life-years were 0·097 (-0·180 to 0·365), representing €4340 per life-year. For Norway, the values were €562 (59 to 1078), 0·057 (-0·135 to 0·253) life-years and €9860 per life-year respectively. In Norway the results were sensitive to a decrease in the prevalence of AAA in 65-year-old men to 1 per cent, or lower. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses indicated that AAA screening has a 70 per cent probability of being cost-effective in the Netherlands with a WTP threshold of €20,000, and 70 per cent in Norway with a threshold of €62,500. Using this model, screening for AAA in 65-year-old men would be highly cost-effective in both the Netherlands and Norway. Copyright © 2011 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Integrating climate change adaptation into civil protection: comparative lessons from Norway, Sweden and the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groven, K.; Aall, C.; van den Berg, Maya Marieke; Carlsson-Kanyama, A.; Coenen, Franciscus H.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Integrating policy on climate change adaptation into civil protection is explored through studies of extreme weather management at the national level in Norway, Sweden and the Netherlands, and through local case studies of the three coastal cities of Bergen, Malmö and Rotterdam. The research issues

  4. Perceived outcomes of public libraries in Finland, Norway and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vakkari, P.; Aabø, S.; Audunson, R.; Huysmans, F.; Oomes, M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to compare the perceived benefits of public libraries and their structure in the major areas of life between Finland, Norway and the Netherlands. Design/methodology/approach - The data were based on representative samples of Finnish, Norwegian and Dutch adult

  5. Research councils facing new science and technology : the case of nanotechnology in Finland, the Netherlands, Norway and Switzerland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Most, F.V.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis investigates how research funding organizations (RFOs) respond to a new emerging field of science and technology. It takes nanoscience and nanotechnology (nanotechnology for short) as its case and compares the responses of RFOs in Finland, the Netherlands, Norway and Finland.

  6. Shifting policy responses to domestic violence in the Netherlands and Spain (1980-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggeband, Conny

    2012-07-01

    This article seeks to understand differences in the evolution of policies to combat domestic violence against women in the Netherlands and Spain. Although policy change is often viewed as incremental change toward more progressive policies, the two countries studied here reflect opposing dynamics. The Netherlands moved from being a pioneering country to one that gradually marginalized the policy issue, whereas Spain, in contrast, recently developed innovative and far-reaching policies after a long period of low to moderate state responses. The case study points to the central role of frame negotiation, left-wing governments, and strong feminist mobilization.

  7. Similar problems, different solutions: Comparing refuse collection in the Netherlands and Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gradus, R.H.J.M.; Bel, G.; Dijkgraaf, E.; Fageda, X.

    2010-01-01

    Because of differences in institutional arrangements, public service markets, and national traditions regarding government intervention, local public service provision can vary greatly. In this paper we compare the procedures adopted by the local governments of The Netherlands and Spain in arranging

  8. Inclusiveness of identification among farmers in The Netherlands and Galicia (Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klandermans, P.G.; Sabucedo, J.M.; Rodriguez, M.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we discuss inclusiveness of identification among farmers in Galicia (Spain) and The Netherlands. Identification with three nested categories - farmers in the local community, farmers in the country, and farmers in Europe was assessed among 167 Dutch and 248 Galician farmers at three

  9. Why Do Tertiary Education Graduates Regret Their Study Program? A Comparison between Spain and the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucel, Aleksander; Vilalta-Bufi, Montserrat

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the determinants of regret of study program for tertiary education graduates in Spain and the Netherlands. These two countries differ in their educational system in terms of the tracking structure in their secondary education and the strength of their education-labor market linkages in tertiary education. Therefore, by…

  10. Does fish origin matter to European consumers? Insights from a consumer survey in Belgium, Norway and Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanhonacker, F.; Altintzoglou, T.; Luten, J.B.; Verbeke, W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This study aims to gain insights into the relevance and market potential of fish origin (farmed or wild) among consumers in Belgium, Norway and Spain. Design/methodology/approach – Cross-sectional data were collected through a consumer survey (n=1,319), conducted in November-December 2007

  11. Handling of natural occurring radioactive deposits in the oil and gas industry in Norway, United Kingdom and the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysebo, I.; Tufto, P.

    1999-03-01

    Deposits containing naturally occurring radioactive materials is an increasing problem in oil and gas production. Laws and regulations in this area is under preparation, and it is a wish for harmonization with the other oil and gas producing countries in the North Sea. The report gives an overview of amounts of waste and activity levels, decontamination methods and waste handling in Norway, Great Britain and the Netherlands

  12. Climate change policies in Norway and the Netherlands: different instruments, similar outcome?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christer, C.A.; Birger, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the extent to which climate change policies and instruments in Norway and the Netherlands have provided continuous incentives for the development, adoption and diffusion of new abatement technologies. More specifically, the paper examines whether differences between the types of instruments adopted (Dutch voluntary agreements and the Norwegian CO 2 tax), problem type and domestic political context have affected technological change in the two countries' petroleum sectors. In brief, empirical evidence suggests that the two cases display quite similar outcomes in terms of technological change. That said, there are also important differences, pertaining most notably to the development and adoption of radical innovations in the Norwegian petroleum sector. The differences are in turn attributed to the interplay between the respective policy instruments adopted and the political contexts in which they are applied. These findings are important not only for policymakers involved in the selection of effective instruments in climate change policy, but also for the development of theories and analytical frameworks to examine and assess dynamic efficiency. (author)

  13. Fairness reactions to personnel selection methods: An international comparison between the Netherlands, the United States, France, Spain, Portugal, and Singapore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, N.; Witvliet, C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports reactions to employee selection methods in the Netherlands and compares these findings internationally against six other previously published samples covering the United States, France, Spain, Portugal, and Singapore. A sample of 167 participants rated 10 popular assessment

  14. Media-politics interaction in times of economic crisis: a comparative study of Spain and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, R.; Mena, N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the multi-directional causal relationships between stock market ratings, negative economic coverage in two national newspapers and parliamentary questions addressing negative aspects of the economy in Spain and the Netherlands. Weekly-level Vector Autoregression (VAR)

  15. Similar problems, different solutions: comparing refuse collection in the Netherlands and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bel, Germà; Fageda, Xavier; Dijkgraaf, Elbert; Gradus, Raymond

    2010-01-01

    Because of differences in institutional arrangements, public service markets, and national traditions regarding government intervention, local public service provision can vary greatly. In this paper we compare the procedures adopted by the local governments of The Netherlands and Spain in arranging for the provision of solid waste collection. We find that Spain faces a problem of consolidation, opting more frequently to implement policies of privatization and cooperation, at the expense of competition. By contrast, The Netherlands, which has larger municipalities on average, resorts somewhat less to privatization and cooperation, and more to competition. Both options-cooperation and competition-have their merits when striving to strike a balance between transaction costs and scale economies. The choices made in organizational reform seem to be related to several factors, among which the nature of the political system and the size of municipalities appear to be relevant.

  16. Regulatory strategies for selected Member States (Denmark, Germany, Netherlands, Spain, the UK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieuwenhout, F.D.J.; Jansen, J.C.; Van der Welle, A.J. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Olmos, L.; Cossent, R.; Gomez, T. [Universidad Pontificia Comillas, Madrid (Spain); Poot, J.; Bongaerts, M. [Liander, Duiven (Netherlands); Trebolle, D. [Union Fenosa Distribucion, Madrid (Spain); Doersam, B. [MVV Energie, Mannheim (Germany); Bofinger, S.; Lichtner, P.; Gerhardt, N. [Fraunhofer Institute for Wind Energy and Energy System Technology, IWES, Bremerhaven (Germany); Jacobsen, H.; Ropenus, S.; Schroeder, S. [Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark DTU, Roskilde (Denmark); Auer, H.; Weissensteiner, L.; Prueggler, W.; Obersteiner, C.; Zach, K. [Energy Economics Group EEG, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria)

    2010-05-15

    This Work Package 6 report of the IMPROGRES project provides an overview of regulatory strategies and incentives, conducive to (1) network integration of increasing levels of distributed generation including notably intermittent renewable technology such as wind power and solar photovoltaics (PV) as well as (2) options for reducing impacts on surging network integration costs. Similar to the IMPROGRES project in general, this report focuses on European distribution networks. It includes specific country studies of Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain and the UK.

  17. Scientific mobility of Early Career Researchers in Spain and The Netherlands through their publications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson-Garcia, N.; Cañibano, C.; Woolley, R.; Costas, R.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents an exploratory analysis of different typologies of researchers according to their traceable mobility using scientific publications covered in the Web of Science (WoS). We compare two populations of researchers, of the same ‘scientific age’, based in Spain and The Netherlands. To establish reasonable comparisons between researchers based in The Netherlands and Spain, we must first identify similar groups of researchers in each country. We only consider 'trusted' direct linkages between author and affiliation as reported in scientific publications and recorded by WoS. We establish three different study groups: Mobile versus non-mobile researchers, returned versus not returned researchers and, single versus multiple affiliations. We observe differences in the mobility patterns and their relation with production and citation impact between countries. Differences for each study group are found in the case of Spain but not as evident for The Netherlands. We conclude remarking the need to further analyse the institutional framework of each country to better understand how much do they influence research mobility and in what way. (Author)

  18. Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underdal, B.

    1975-01-01

    A short report is given of the activities of Norway in the field of food irradiation. Experiments were performed with a 60 Co γ-source of 30,000 Ci. The chemical changes induced by irradiation were studied in fish and spices. Radiation microbiology studies were dealing with the effect of γ-radiation on Salmonella Senftenberg in solutions and herring meal. (MG) [de

  19. New Social Risks and Welfare State Reforms in Norway and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barth, Erling

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The NorSpaR project aims to analyse the main public policy initiatives by which Norway and Spain cope with the new social and economic challenges derived from the so-called New Social Risks (NSR. Although both countries present significant differences in their institutional settings (such as Spanish EU membership, or its belonging to diverse welfare regimes types (Norway is generally included in the Nordic regime, while Spain is part of the Mediterranean one, both countries share a common interest in addressing the aforementioned challenges while maintaining social cohesion. In the last decade, governments in both countries have tried to respond to those challenges by reforming their labour markets, adapting their unemployment schemes, as well as their gender, family and long-term care policies. The analysis covered in this project includes three areas of public policy addressing NSR. First, dependency is one of the most daunting challenges for post-industrial societies experiencing population ageing and with an increasing number of frail people in need of care. This situation is forcing governments to rethink their long-term care policies. Second, family and gender public programs need to respond to the growing difficulties of families in reconciling professional and family life. Third, in the transition to a post-industrial order, and in a context of mass unemployment, social protection systems have a renewed prominence. Along with the so-called passive policies offering financial support to the unemployed, active labour market policies are geared to put people back into work. In our analysis we try to find answers to the following questions: What are the challenges that each of these policies have been trying to address in recent years? How have these policies evolved? What kinds of reforms have been implemented, and which ones have been neglected? Have the policy goals and targets of welfare programs been modified in any significant way

  20. Recommendation on the Environmental Effect Report for the high-voltage transmission line between Netherlands and Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The recommendation on the title subject was addressed to the Dutch Minister of Economic Affairs and concerns the environmental impact of the new high-voltage transmission line (NorNed cable) from Norway to the Eemshaven in Groningen, Netherlands. In planning this power cable the environmental impact on the Wadden Sea has to be taken into account. Therefore an environmental effect report (MER, abbreviated in Dutch) has been drafted by the Dutch cooperative of electric power generating companies, Sep, and commented by the WaddenAdviesRaad

  1. Patterns of pharmaceutical use for immigrants to Spain and Norway: a comparative study of prescription databases in two European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno-Feliu, Luis Andres; Calderón-Larrañaga, Amaia; Prados-Torres, Alexandra; Revilla-López, Concha; Diaz, Esperanza

    2016-02-24

    Although equity in health care is theoretically a cornerstone in Western societies, several studies show that services do not always provide equitable care for immigrants. Differences in pharmaceutical consumption between immigrants and natives are explained by variances in predisposing factors, enabling factors and needs across populations, and can be used as a proxy of disparities in health care use. By comparing the relative differences in pharmacological use between natives and immigrants from the same four countries of origin living in Spain and Norway respectively, this article presents a new approach to the study of inequity in health care. All purchased drug prescriptions classified according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) system in Aragon (Spain) and Norway for a total of 5 million natives and nearly 100,000 immigrants for one calendar year were included in this cross-sectional study. Age and gender adjusted relative purchase rates for immigrants from Poland, China, Colombia and Morocco compared to native populations in each of the host countries were calculated. Direct standardisation was performed based on the 2009 population structure of the OECD countries. Overall, a significantly lower proportion of immigrants in Aragon (Spain) and Norway purchased pharmacological drugs compared to natives. Patterns of use across the different immigrant groups were consistent in both host countries, despite potential disparities between the Spanish and Norwegian health care systems. Immigrants from Morocco showed the highest drug use rates in relation to natives, especially for antidepressants, "pain killers" and drugs for peptic ulcer. Immigrants from China and Poland showed the lowest use rates, while Colombians where more similar to host countries. The similarities found between the two European countries in relation to immigrants' pharmaceutical use disregarding their host country emphasises the need to consider specific immigrant-related features

  2. Nursing Home Physicians' Assessments of Barriers and Strategies for End-of-Life Care in Norway and The Netherlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosse, Anette; Zuidema, Sytse; Boersma, Froukje

    2017-01-01

    of patients’ family, pain- and symptom assessment protocols, EOL care guidelines, routines for advance care planning, and education in EOL care for physicians and nursing staff. Conclusions: Inadequate staffing levels, as well as lack of competence, time, and interest emerge as important barriers to quality...... physicians usually work part time in NHs. Thus, we aimed at assessing and comparing NH physicians’ perspectives on barriers and strategies for providing EOL care in NHs in Norway and in The Netherlands. Design: A cross-sectional study using an electronic questionnaire was conducted in 2015. Setting...... physicians’ perceptions of organizational, educational, financial, legal, and personal prerequisites for quality EOL care. Differences between the countries were compared using χ2 test and t-test. Results: Most respondents in both countries reported inadequate staffing, lack of skills among nursing personnel...

  3. The associations between early life circumstances and later life health and employment in the Netherlands and Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores, M.; Kalwij, A.S.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, this paper provides empirical evidence for the Netherlands and Spain on the associations between individuals’ early life circumstances—measured by health and socioeconomic status (SES) during childhood—educational attainment, and

  4. Nursing Home Physicians' Assessments of Barriers and Strategies for End-of-Life Care in Norway and The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosse, Anette; Zuidema, Sytse; Boersma, Froukje; Malterud, Kirsti; Schaufel, Margrethe Aase; Ruths, Sabine

    2017-08-01

    Working conditions in nursing homes (NHs) may hamper teamwork in providing quality end-of-life (EOL) care, especially the participation of NH physicians. Dutch NH physicians are specialists or trainees in elderly care medicine with NHs as the main workplace, whereas in Norway, family physicians usually work part time in NHs. Thus, we aimed at assessing and comparing NH physicians' perspectives on barriers and strategies for providing EOL care in NHs in Norway and in The Netherlands. A cross-sectional study using an electronic questionnaire was conducted in 2015. All NH physicians in Norway (approximately 1200-1300) were invited to participate; 435 participated (response rate approximately 35%). Of the total 1664 members of the Dutch association of elderly care physicians approached, 244 participated (response rate 15%). We explored NH physicians' perceptions of organizational, educational, financial, legal, and personal prerequisites for quality EOL care. Differences between the countries were compared using χ 2 test and t-test. Most respondents in both countries reported inadequate staffing, lack of skills among nursing personnel, and heavy time commitment for physicians as important barriers; this was more pronounced among Dutch respondents. Approximately 30% of the respondents in both countries reported their own lack of interest in EOL care as an important barrier. Suggested improvement strategies were routines for involvement of patients' family, pain- and symptom assessment protocols, EOL care guidelines, routines for advance care planning, and education in EOL care for physicians and nursing staff. Inadequate staffing levels, as well as lack of competence, time, and interest emerge as important barriers to quality EOL care according to Dutch and Norwegian NH physicians. Their perspectives were mostly similar, despite large educational and organizational differences. Key strategies for improving EOL care in their facilities comprise education and

  5. Race and bicultural socialization in the Netherlands, Norway, and the United States of America in the adoptions of children from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley-Behringer, Maureen; Groza, Victor; Tieman, Wendy; Juffer, Femmie

    2014-04-01

    A cross-national sample of 622 internationally adopted children from India with White parents in The Netherlands (n = 409), Norway (n = 146), and the United States (n = 67) was used to contrast country-specific bicultural socialization (BCS) practices among families of transracial intercountry adoption. The 3 countries vary in their degrees of minority (US > Netherlands > Norway) and Indian populations (US > Norway > Netherlands). The current study examined parental survey trends among BCS practices, children's negative encounters about adoption, racial and positive discrimination, and parental worry about these issues. Country-specific differences were revealed: The United States and Norway (greatest Indian populations) reported the greatest similarity in BCS practices, classmates being a source of negative reactions/racial discrimination, and parental worry. The American sample encountered greater negative reactions to adoption from others; Dutch children experienced the least negative reactions from others overall, yet as in the United States (samples with the greatest minority heterogeneity) they still noted significant experiences of racial discrimination. Country-specific sociopolitical perceptions about adoption, ethnicity/race, and immigration are considered as factors that may have been used to inform parenting practices that facilitate children's biculturalism into family life (i.e., adoptive family stigma, percentages of Indian/minority populations, immigration policy trends). Concluding, cross-national research such as the current study may help intercountry adoption policymakers and practitioners to better understand and inform BCS practices in adoptive families.

  6. The Coherence of Vocational Education and Training in Norway and Spain: National Traditions and the Reshaping of VET Governance in Hybrid VET Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto-Otero, Manuel; Ure, Odd Bjorn

    2012-01-01

    Coherence of national education and training systems is increasingly tabled in European policy debates. Leaning on literature about the emergence and consolidation of national education systems, this article explores the rationale for VET reforms in Norway and Spain by scrutinising attempts to strengthen the coherence of their VET systems.…

  7. Analysis of conditions concerning the natural gas internal market organization in four european countries: Germany, Spain, Netherlands and United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-02-01

    The aim of this economic study is the wording of a synthetic document for the public information in the framework of the 98/30/CE european directive transposition to the gas internal market. It is writing in four main chapters, one for each country concerned: the Germany, the Spain, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. Each one presents the historical context, the actors of the natural gas industry and the main provisions. (A.L.B.)

  8. Eco-services for solar thermal systems. Case studies. The Netherlands and Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dermelj, M.; Djazalov, A.; Esser, P.; Freire, I.; Grafakos, S.; Kovacs, C.; Villalba, M.P.; Rafaj, P.

    1999-04-01

    To satisfy the consumption requirements from society the demand of materials and energy is increasing. Nowadays the use of conventional energy sources in all economical sectors has negative environmental impacts. The household sector contributes significantly to the CO2 emissions through the use of fossil fuels, as domestic energy sources. The majority of the energy consumed by this sector covers demand for space beating and hot water supply. Some systems, which use renewable energy resources, as solar thermal systems (STS), could be used for the same purpose. If they are integrated in dwellings for hot water provision, the quantity of conventional energy can be reduced significantly. The two main objectives of the study are: (1) Assess the most sustainable consumption pattern for STS (individual or collective use); (2) Assess the most sustainable ownership pattern for STS (owning, leasing or renting) for both consumption patterns. To achieve these two objectives the group focuses the research on the comparison of the consumption and ownership patterns of STS in The Netherlands and Spain. The analysis of environmental, economic and comfort aspects is carried out using the data from relevant case studies in both countries. Each combination of the product/service that results in an environmental benefit without decreasing the economic and comfort benefits is considered as eco-service. The results from this analysis and the recommendations for the target group (European Commission and National governments) are summarised bellow. refs

  9. Vocational Didactics: Core Assumptions and Approaches from Denmark, Germany, Norway, Spain and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessler, Michael; Moreno Herrera, Lázaro

    2015-01-01

    The design of vocational didactics has to meet special requirements. Six core assumptions are identified: outcome orientation, cultural-historical embedding, horizontal structure, vertical structure, temporal structure, and the changing nature of work. Different approaches and discussions from school-based systems (Spain and Sweden) and dual…

  10. Love at first sight. Co-operation between the Netherlands and Norway on the peaceful use of atomic energy, 1950-1960

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Splunter, J.M. van.

    1994-01-01

    This study describes the co-operation during the fifties and sixties between the Netherlands and Norway in the sphere of the peaceful use of nuclear energy. It is the story about the establishment, development and abolishment of the Joint Establishment for Nuclear Energy Research (JENER) at Kjeller, Norway. The start of operation of the Norwegian-Dutch reactor JEEP at Kjeller in July 1951 heralded the first phase of JENER. This rector became the first reactor in the world to be built outside the big-power states. The present study explains how it was possible for to two small states to go ahead with a reactor project at the outset of the post-war period. 13 refs

  11. Building Viable and Sustainable Regional Netchains: Case Studies of Regional Pork Netchains in Spain, Germany, and The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rannia Nijhoff‐Savvaki

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to give insight into critical issues contributing to the successful building of viable and sustainable regional netchains, focussing on chain governance mechanisms (coordination mechanisms, quality management systems, information systems and social embedding. It uses three representative case studies from the regional pork sector in Spain, Germany, and The Netherlands, illustrating different trajectories to commercially viable and sustainable regional netchains. By analysing the cases on each critical aspect, the present paper describes important issues and proposes specific elements of further research, including on the roles for(nongovernmental organisations.

  12. Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    The energy policy and the institutions of the Netherlands are presented and analyzed. A special attention is given o the enterprises of the energy sector, the supplying of each fossil fuels, the prices policy, the energy consumption and the stakes and forecasts. Statistical data on economical indicators and energy accounting are also provided. (A.L.B.)

  13. Illness perception and fibromyalgia impact on female patients from Spain and the Netherlands: do cultural differences exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Montero, Pedro J; Van Wilgen, C Paul; Segura-Jiménez, Victor; Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in illness perception and overall impact on fibromyalgia females from Spain and the Netherlands. A total of 325 fibromyalgia females from Spain (54.3 ± 7.1 years) and the Netherlands (51.8 ± 7.2 years) participated in the study. Illness perception and impact of fibromyalgia were assessed by the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire and the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, respectively. Spanish fibromyalgia females perceived more symptoms related to their fibromyalgia (identity) such as nausea, breathlessness, wheezing or fatigue (P fibromyalgia females experienced less timeline (acute/chronic) and consequences (all, P fibromyalgia females reported higher impact of fibromyalgia than Dutch females (61.2 + 14.8 vs. 54.9 + 16.4, respectively; P fibromyalgia and negative views of fibromyalgia were higher in Spanish fibromyalgia females, whereas Dutch fibromyalgia females presented higher score of positive beliefs about the controllability of the illness. Psychological interventions which help patients to cope with their illness perception might lead to an improvement of the impact of the disease on fibromyalgia females.

  14. News for Assimilation or Integration? Examining the Functions of News in Shaping Acculturation Experiences of Immigrants in the Netherlands and Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Paz Alencar (Amanda); M. Deuze (Mark)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis study investigates the functions of news media in shaping acculturation experiences of new economic and refugee immigrants in the Netherlands and Spain. Focus group data revealed that consumption of host country news media was mainly connected to immigrants’ deliberate strategies

  15. News for assimilation or integration? : Examining the functions of news in shaping acculturation experiences of immigrants in the Netherlands and Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alencar, A.; Deuze, M.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the functions of news media in shaping acculturation experiences of new economic and refugee immigrants in the Netherlands and Spain. Focus group data revealed that consumption of host country news media was mainly connected to immigrants’ deliberate strategies to assimilate

  16. Nursing Home Physicians' Assessments of Barriers and Strategies for End-of-Life Care in Norway and The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fosse, Anette; Zuidema, Sytse; Boersma, Froukje; Malterud, Kirsti; Schaufel, Margrethe Aase; Ruths, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Working conditions in nursing homes (NHs) may hamper teamwork in providing quality end-of-life (EOL) care, especially the participation of NH physicians. Dutch NH physicians are specialists or trainees in elderly care medicine with NHs as the main workplace, whereas in Norway, family

  17. NL-Netherlands: Court applies Google Spain: no right to be forgotten for convicted criminal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breemen, V.

    2014-01-01

    On 18 September 2014, the Amsterdam Court handed down the first national application of the EU Court of Justice’s Google Spain judgment. The case was initiated by a convicted criminal after Google had not fully granted his online removal requests. The court rejected the claim, but it should be noted

  18. Situation Report--Austria, Cameroon, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Egypt, France, German Federal Republic, Greece, Hungary, Irish Republic, Jamaica, Malta, Norway, Sabah, Sarawak, Spain, Tahiti (French Polynesia), Tonga, Turkey, and United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in 21 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Austria, Cameroon, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Egypt, France, German Federal Republic, Greece, Hungary, Irish Republic, Jamaica, Malta, Norway, Sabah, Sarawak, Spain, Tahiti, Tonga, Turkey, and United…

  19. Handling of natural occurring radioactive deposits in the oil and gas industry in Norway, United Kingdom and the Netherlands; Haandtering av radioaktive avleiringer i olje- og gassproduksjon i Norge, Storbritania og Nederland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lysebo, I.; Tufto, P

    1999-03-01

    Deposits containing naturally occurring radioactive materials is an increasing problem in oil and gas production. Laws and regulations in thisarea is under preparation, and it is a wish for harmonization with the other oil and gas producing countries in the North Sea. The report gives an overview of amounts of waste and activity levels, decontamination methods and waste handling in Norway, Great Britain and the Netherlands.

  20. Bisphenol A alternatives in thermal paper from the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and Norway. Screening and potential toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Björnsdotter, Maria K.; Jonker, Willem; Legradi, Jessica; Kool, Jeroen; Ballesteros-Gómez, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Thermal paper contains potentially toxic additives, such as bisphenol A (BPA), as a common color developer. Because of its known endocrine disrupting effects, structural analogues to BPA, such as bisphenol S (BPS), D-8 and Pergafast 201, have been used as alternatives, but little is known about the

  1. Bisphenol A alternatives in thermal paper from the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and Norway. Screening and potential toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björnsdotter, Maria K; Jonker, Willem; Legradi, Jessica; Kool, Jeroen; Ballesteros-Gómez, Ana

    2017-12-01

    Thermal paper contains potentially toxic additives, such as bisphenol A (BPA), as a common color developer. Because of its known endocrine disrupting effects, structural analogues to BPA, such as bisphenol S (BPS), D-8 and Pergafast 201, have been used as alternatives, but little is known about the presence and toxicological effects of alternatives other than BPS. In this study, thermal paper is screened by direct probe ambient mass spectrometry (rapid pre-screening method not requiring sample preparation) and by liquid chromatography (LC) with high resolution time-of flight (TOF-MS) mass spectrometry. Cash receipts and other thermal paper products (cinema tickets, boarding passes and luggage tags) were analyzed. Besides BPA and BPS, other developers only recently reported (Pergafast 201, D-8) or to the best of our knowledge not reported before (D-90, TGSA, BPS-MAE) were frequently found as well as some related unreported impurities (2,4-BPS that is a BPS related impurity and a TGSA related impurity). To gain some insight into the potential estrogenicity of the detected developers, a selection of extracts was further analyzed using a LC-nanofractionation platform in combination with cell-based bioassay testing. These preliminary results seems to indicate very low or absence of estrogenic activity for Pergafast 201, D-8, D-90, TGSA and BPS-MAE in comparison to BPA and BPS, although further dose-response tests with authentic standards are required to confirm these results. Compounds for which standards were available were also tested for developmental toxicity and neurotoxicity using zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. TGSA and D-8 induced similar teratogenic effects as BPA in zebrafish embryos. BPS and 2,4-BPS did not induce any developmental effects but 2,4-BPS did alter the locomotor activity at the tested concentration. Our findings suggest that the alternatives used as alternatives to BPA (except BPS) might not be estrogenic. However, TGSA and D-8 showed abnormal developmental effects similar to BPA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoppo, C.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on nuclear export activities in Spain, as elsewhere, which occur in a political, economic, and technological context. The factors operating the process are not always explicitly related in the public and the private sectors, nor between these sectors, by the relevant decision makers. A redefinition of Spain's policies in the nuclear sector has been going on since at least 1984, when a new energy plan was legislated by the newly elected Socialist government. It would be accurate to suggest that this process remains dynamic and not fully completed for policy purposes. This condition has resulted from the fact that Spain underwent a crucial political regime change from dictatorship to parliamentary democracy about a decade ago, with the transition to democracy only recently consolidated. Moreover, no policy in regard to nuclear nonproliferation existed during the Franco regime. Instead, Spain's official position was to maintain the right to preserve a nuclear option for national defense. However, this option was not developed into a concerted program to develop a nuclear military capability

  3. Access to Preventive Health Care for Undocumented Migrants: A Comparative Study of Germany, The Netherlands and Spain from a Human Rights Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Flegar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study analyzes the preventive health care provisions for nationals and undocumented migrants in Germany, the Netherlands and Spain in light of four indicators derived from the United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights’ General Comment 14 (GC 14. These indicators are (i immunization; (ii education and information; (iii regular screening programs; and (iv the promotion of the underlying determinants of health. It aims to answer the question of what preventive health care services for undocumented migrants are provided for in Germany, the Netherlands and Spain and how this should be evaluated from a human rights perspective. The study reveals that the access to preventive health care for undocumented migrants is largely insufficient in all three countries but most extensive in the Netherlands and least extensive in Germany. The paper concludes that a human rights-based approach to health law and policy can help to refine and concretize the individual rights and state obligations for the preventive health care of undocumented migrants. While the human rights framework is still insufficiently clear in some respects, the research concedes the added value of a rights-based approach as an evaluation tool, advocacy framework and moral principle to keep in mind when adopting or evaluating state policies in the health sector.

  4. Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    Spain is a constitutional monarchy with a population of 38.3 million growing at .5%/year. The most striking topographical features are the high plateaus and internal compartmentalization by mountain and river barriers. Nearly 3/4 of the country is arid. The Iberian peninsula was the scene of successive invasions and warfare for centuries. Phoenicians, Greeks, Carthaginians, Moors, Celts, Romans, and Visigoths all invaded at some time. The present language, religion, and laws stem from the Roman Period. The Reconquest from the North African Moors lasted over 700 years until they were driven out in 1492. The unification of present day Spain was complete by 1512. A period of dictatorial rule from 1923-31 ended with establishment of the Second Republic which saw increasing political polarization culminating in the Spanish Civil War. Franco's victory in 1939 was followed by official neutrality but pro-Axis policies during World War II. Spain's economy began to recover during the 1950s, but large scale modernization and development did not occur until the 1960s. Prince Juan Carlos de Borbon y Borbon, Franco's personally designated heir, assumed the title of king and chief of state with Franco's death in 1975. Franco's last prime minister was replaced in July 1976 in order to speed the pace of post-Franco liberalization. Spain's 1st parliamentary elections since 1936 were held in 1977, and a new constitution protecting human and civil rights and granting due process was overwhelmingly approved in 1978. The constitution also authorized creation of regional autonomous governments. By the mid-1970s, Spain had developed a strong and diversified industrial sector and a thriving tourist industry. From 1975-83, there were 8 years of double-digit inflation, an average growth rate of 1.5% in real terms, and an increase in unemployment from about 4.7% to 18.4%. By 1984 there was substantial improvement in inflation and the balance of payments. Goals of current government economic

  5. Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Spanish low and intermediate level radioactive wastes are disposed of at the El Cabril Disposal Facility, in the province of Cordoba (SPAIN). The fundamental safety objective of the facility consists of the immediate and longer term protection of people and the environment. This objective leads to the need to isolate the wastes from the human surroundings, such that any release of the radionuclides contained in them does not pose any radiological risk for either people or the environment over the necessary time period. Consequently, it is necessary to fully protect the wastes against external aggression, from both the climatic and biological point of view (infiltration of water, temperature variations, chemical action of water, attacks by living macro and microorganisms, plants, etc.). This waste isolation is achieved by means of a multi-barrier system separating the activity stored from the aforementioned actions

  6. Sustained diffusion of renewable energy. Politically defined investment contexts for the diffusion of renewable electricity technologies in Spain, the Netherlands and United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinica, V.

    2003-01-01

    The increasing concerns regarding the security of energy supply, climate change, and the environmental-health impacts of fossil fuels' burning and nuclear energy use have consolidated the political interest in many countries to support the diffusion of renewable energy technologies. In the industrialized countries that have adopted so far policies for renewable energy support, diffusion results are mixed. The core questions that challenge policy makers and academics are: How to design policies that are effective in market introduction and able to sustain diffusion in the long-term? and: What is the impact of different policy approaches in terms of technical and cost-performance improvements of renewable energy technologies? The study addresses these questions and proposes to analyze the diffusion potential of support systems from the perspective of investors. Policy design needs to account for the investment risks associated with support schemes and the profitability they enable for investors. But, still, the effectiveness of a specific support system may not be the same across national contexts. Financing agents and economic actors have different business requirements and business culture in various countries, which influences the effects of support systems. The technical particularities of technologies may also influence the diffusion process. In order to track down influences, the book examines the market diffusion processes of three renewable electricity technologies in three countries: wind energy in Spain, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom; biomass in Spain; and small hydropower technology in Spain. The book may be particularly interesting for policy makers and policy scholars concerned with the challenge of greening the energy supply, and understanding diffusion processes and their consequences

  7. Kjeller's impact in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goedkoop, J.A.

    1992-08-01

    This lecture is an attempt to assess the impact in the Netherlands of the bilateral co-operation with Norway in the field of nuclear energy during the fifties and sixties. The story about the establishment, development and abolishment of the Joint Establishment for Nuclear Energy Research (JENER) at Kjeller Norway is told

  8. The text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    On 5 April 1989 the Agency received in respect of the European Atomic Energy Community and Spain the notification required by Article 23(a) of the Agreement of 5 April 1973 between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency, which therefore came into force for Spain on that date

  9. Does a 'protective' message reduce the impact of an advergame promoting unhealthy foods to children? An experimental study in Spain and The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkvord, Frans; Lupiáñez-Villanueva, Francisco; Codagnone, Cristiano; Bogliacino, Francesco; Veltri, Giuseppe; Gaskell, George

    2017-05-01

    The weight of evidence points to the advertising of food affecting food consumption, especially among children. Such advertising often promotes unhealthy foods. Current policy deliberations focus on developing effective 'protective' messages to increase advertising literacy and consequent scepticism about advertising targeting children. This study examined whether incorporating a 'protective' message in an advergame promoting energy-dense snacks would reduce children's snack intake. A randomized between-subject design was conducted in the Netherlands (N = 215) and Spain (N = 382) with an advergame promoting either energy-dense snacks or nonfood products. The results showed that playing an advergame promoting energy-dense snacks increased caloric intake in both countries, irrespective of whether the 'protective' message was present or not. These results point to the limitations of 'protective' messages and advertising literacy and provide policy makers with a rationale for extending the current prohibition of food advertising to young children in the terrestrial media to online environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Wind power in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This report analyses business costs and socio-economic costs in the development of wind power in Norway and policy instruments to encourage such a development. It is founded on an analysis of the development of wind power in other countries, notably U.S.A, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands and Britain. The report describes the institutional background in each country, the policy instruments that have been used and still are and the results achieved. The various cost components in Norwegian wind power development and the expected market price of wind power are also discussed. The discussion of instruments distinguishes between investment oriented and production oriented instruments. 8 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  11. The effects of the fiscal terms applied to offshore petroleum exploitation of new fields: a comparative study of the UK, Norway, Denmark, Netherlands, Australia, China, Indonesia, Egypt, Nigeria, and United States outer continental shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, A.G.; Reading, D.; Macdonald, B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines the comparative impact of petroleum taxation in the UK, Norway, Denmark, the Netherlands, Australia, Nigeria, China, Indonesia, Egypt and U.S. Outer Continental Shelf at the field development stage. The emphasis is on the effects in offshore operating situations. The study examines the operation of the systems under (a) a range of field sizes typical for each of the regimes, (b) a variety of oil prices ($15, $18, and $23 per barrel in real terms), and (c) a wide range of field development costs. The results indicate that generally the complex fiscal instruments employed are not well-targetted on economic rents. Frequently the systems are regressive with respect to both oil price and development case changes. In the UK and Australia the schemes are related to profits in a reasonably sensitive manner and are less likely to cause disincentives to field developments than in other countries. Even where systems are ostensibly profit-related they may have effects similar to imposts based on gross revenues (such as ceilings on cost recovery). In most jurisdictions it is likely that discretionary changes will be required when the operating environment exhibits marked variations. (author)

  12. Recueil des legislations linguistiques dans le monde. Tome V: l'Algerie, l'Autriche, la Chine, le Danemark, la Finlande, la Hongrie, l'ile de Malte, le Maroc, la Norvege, la Nouvelle-Zelande, les Pays-Bas, le Royaume-Uni, la Tunisie, la Turquie, l'ex-URSS (Record of World Language-Related Legislation. Volume V: Algeria, Austria, China, Denmark, Finland, Hungary, Malta, Morocco, Norway, New Zealand, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Tunisia, Turkey, the former USSR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Jacques, Ed.; Maurais, Jacques, Ed.

    The volume is one of a series of six listing language-related legislation around the world. It contains the texts, in French, of laws of Algeria, Austria, China, Denmark, Finland, Hungary, Malta, Morocco, Norway, New Zealand, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Tunisia, Turkey, and the former Soviet Union. The laws concern official languages,…

  13. Electric transport in the Netherlands in an international perspective. Benchmark electric driving 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroon, P.; Weeda, M.; Appels, D.

    2012-07-01

    This international benchmark on electric mobility has been conducted to compare the Dutch governmental efforts and developments in the field of electric road transport. The countries that have been considered in this benchmark are: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, UK, China, USA and South Korea. The Netherlands has a high ambition level with regard to the number of electric vehicles compared to other countries without a large car industry. As for the envisaged number of charging points, the Netherlands is one of the prominent leaders. In the field of R and D, Germany, South Korea and China take the lead, followed by France, the UK, the USA and Austria. However, the benchmark has only looked at specific funds for electric mobility, and has not looked at general R and D and innovation funds. The Netherlands has several electro-mobility field tests, but is not leading in number. However, regarding general market penetration, the Netherlands is one of the leading countries, next to Norway, based on the relative number of passenger cars and commercial vehicles on the road. Norway and Austria are leading countries when it comes to implementation of public charging infrastructure, but also in this field the Netherlands has a prominent position in the group of countries that follow. In the current pre-commercial phase, the introduction of electric transportation in the Netherlands is supported by a high-level advisory group, the so-called Formula E-Team. This group consists of representatives and experts from industry and (scientific) society, and acts as a figurehead for electric transport. The group advises on coordination of actions to stimulate not only electro- mobility, but also innovation which should lead to new economic activities. Currently, about two hundred companies are already active in the field of electro-mobility in the Netherlands, including some top players and many SMEs (Small Medium Enterprises). The

  14. Energy Law in the Netherlands. Recent developments in the Dutch energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In de Braekt, M.; Berger, K.; Ouwehand, P.; Reinders, E.M.

    2007-01-01

    European Energy Review 2007 provides an overview of the key developments that have taken place in the energy sector in 30 European jurisdictions during in 2006. Written by law firms in those jurisdictions, the review also includes a summary of each legal and regulatory energy framework. Issues such as industry structure, Third Party Access, the framework applying to use of system both at the transmission and distribution levels, market entry, promotion of renewable generation, nuclear power and cross border interconnection are examined. The jurisdictions covered are: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. This record concerns Energy Law The Netherlands.

  15. Female Part-time Employment in the Netherlands and Spain: an analysis through reasons for its demand and branches of activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sirvent Garcia del Valle, E.

    2005-01-01

    Part-time workers have achieved legal equality throughout the European Union-15 (EU-15), although the situation concerning real equality is rather different: it exists in some Member States but not in others. In the Netherlands, part-time employment is strongly developed and there is very little

  16. beta-lactamase producing bacteria in the subgingival microflora of adult patients with periodontitis. A comparison between Spain and The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrera, D; van Winkelhoff, AJ; Dellemijn-Kippuw, N; Winkel, EG; Sanz, M

    Background/aims: Countries with a high per capita antibiotic use frequently demonstrate a high level of drug resistance. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence and levels of beta-lactamase producing bacteria in the subgingival microflora in adult patients with periodontitis in Spain and

  17. 6 February 2012 - Supreme Audit Institutions from Norway, Poland, Spain and Switzerland visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5, CMS underground experimental area, CERN Control Centre and LHC superconducting magnet test hall. Delegations are throughout accompanied by Swiss P. Jenni, Polish T. Kurtyka, Spanish J. Salicio, Norwegian S. Stapnes and International Relations Adviser R. Voss. (Riksrevisjonen, Oslo; Tribunal de Cuentas , Madrid; the Court of Audit of Switzerland and Najwyzsza Izba Kontroli, Varsaw)

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2012-01-01

    6 February 2012 - Supreme Audit Institutions from Norway, Poland, Spain and Switzerland visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5, CMS underground experimental area, CERN Control Centre and LHC superconducting magnet test hall. Delegations are throughout accompanied by Swiss P. Jenni, Polish T. Kurtyka, Spanish J. Salicio, Norwegian S. Stapnes and International Relations Adviser R. Voss. (Riksrevisjonen, Oslo; Tribunal de Cuentas , Madrid; the Court of Audit of Switzerland and Najwyzsza Izba Kontroli, Varsaw)

  18. Norway: the traps of the petroleum wealth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastien, D.

    2006-01-01

    Thanks to petroleum, the Norwegian population is the richness in the world. The petroleum profits have been always carefully managed and stored in a special fund. However, this richness has now a disastrous impact on the Norwegian society which is progressively falling asleep in its comfort while the economy shows signs of overheating. Oil production has started its decline and will accelerate by 2010. The strategy of Norway is now to massively invest in gas exportation and to saturate the gas pipelines towards Europe. In the future Norway has planned to export LNG to the US and Spain. (J.S.)

  19. Analysis of conditions concerning the natural gas internal market organization in four european countries: Germany, Spain, Netherlands and United Kingdom; Analyse des conditions encadrant l'organisation du marche interieur du gaz naturel dans quatre pays europeens: Allemagne, Espagne, Pays-Bas, Royaume-Uni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    The aim of this economic study is the wording of a synthetic document for the public information in the framework of the 98/30/CE european directive transposition to the gas internal market. It is writing in four main chapters, one for each country concerned: the Germany, the Spain, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. Each one presents the historical context, the actors of the natural gas industry and the main provisions. (A.L.B.)

  20. Communication Received from the Permanent Mission of the Netherlands regarding Certain Member States' Guidelines for the Export of Nuclear Material, Equipment and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-12-01

    The Agency has received a Note Verbale from the Permanent Mission of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, dated 12 July 2011, in which it requests that the Agency circulate to all Member States a letter of 12 July 2011 from the Chairman of the Nuclear Suppliers Group, Ambassador Piet de Klerk, to the Director General, on behalf of the Governments of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Republic of Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America, providing further information on those Governments' Guidelines for Nuclear Transfers [es

  1. Communication Received from the Permanent Mission of the Netherlands regarding Certain Member States' Guidelines for the Export of Nuclear Material, Equipment and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The Agency has received a Note Verbale from the Permanent Mission of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, dated 12 July 2011, in which it requests that the Agency circulate to all Member States a letter of 12 July 2011 from the Chairman of the Nuclear Suppliers Group, Ambassador Piet de Klerk, to the Director General, on behalf of the Governments of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Republic of Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America, providing further information on those Governments' Guidelines for Nuclear Transfers

  2. Analytical performance of 17 general chemistry analytes across countries and across manufacturers in the INPUtS project of EQA organizers in Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, United Kingdom and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weykamp, Cas; Secchiero, Sandra; Plebani, Mario; Thelen, Marc; Cobbaert, Christa; Thomas, Annette; Jassam, Nuthar; Barth, Julian H; Perich, Carmen; Ricós, Carmen; Faria, Ana Paula

    2017-02-01

    Optimum patient care in relation to laboratory medicine is achieved when results of laboratory tests are equivalent, irrespective of the analytical platform used or the country where the laboratory is located. Standardization and harmonization minimize differences and the success of efforts to achieve this can be monitored with international category 1 external quality assessment (EQA) programs. An EQA project with commutable samples, targeted with reference measurement procedures (RMPs) was organized by EQA institutes in Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, UK, and Spain. Results of 17 general chemistry analytes were evaluated across countries and across manufacturers according to performance specifications derived from biological variation (BV). For K, uric acid, glucose, cholesterol and high-density density (HDL) cholesterol, the minimum performance specification was met in all countries and by all manufacturers. For Na, Cl, and Ca, the minimum performance specifications were met by none of the countries and manufacturers. For enzymes, the situation was complicated, as standardization of results of enzymes toward RMPs was still not achieved in 20% of the laboratories and questionable in the remaining 80%. The overall performance of the measurement of 17 general chemistry analytes in European medical laboratories met the minimum performance specifications. In this general picture, there were no significant differences per country and no significant differences per manufacturer. There were major differences between the analytes. There were six analytes for which the minimum quality specifications were not met and manufacturers should improve their performance for these analytes. Standardization of results of enzymes requires ongoing efforts.

  3. Wind power in Norway; Vindkraft i Norge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This report analyses business costs and socio-economic costs in the development of wind power in Norway and policy instruments to encourage such a development. It is founded on an analysis of the development of wind power in other countries, notably U.S.A, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands and Britain. The report describes the institutional background in each country, the policy instruments that have been used and still are and the results achieved. The various cost components in Norwegian wind power development and the expected market price of wind power are also discussed. The discussion of instruments distinguishes between investment oriented and production oriented instruments. 8 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Bargaining for Social Rights (BARSORI) project: Country report on Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos Martin, N.E.

    2012-01-01

    The Barsori project studied social partners' initiatives contributing to the reduction of precarious employment through collective bargaining and social dialogue. The project compared experiences in seven EU countries: Denmark, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Slovakia, Spain and the UK. Trade

  5. Immigrant entrepreneurship in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Vinogradov, Evgueni

    2008-01-01

    Doctoral thesis (Ph.D.) – Bodø Graduate School of Business, 2008 The purpose of this doctoral thesis is to add to the knowledge about immigrant entrepreneurship in Norway and to test the existing theories relating to immigrant entrepreneurship. In this work, an immigrant entrepreneur is defined as a business owner born outside Norway with both parents born abroad who is involved into the activities characterised by economic innovation, organisation creation, and profit-seeking in the marke...

  6. Norway; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2005-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper analyzes inflation in Norway with a view to shedding light on this surprising development and the possible near-term course of inflation, using statistical and econometric analyses. The paper reviews recent developments of monetary policy and inflation in Norway, applies statistical and econometric tools to identify factors influencing inflation, and describes the implications of the analysis for policymaking. Using data for six advanced small open economies explici...

  7. Energy policy in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauen, Edvard; Bjoerndalen, Joergen

    2003-01-01

    The authors argue that the current energy policy in Norway will inevitably lead to higher and more varying electricity prices in the Nordic countries than in the rest of Europe. The Energy Act works well, but politicians have not realized that Norway is now an integral part of the power market in Europe. The EU Commission considers that the Nordic model with regional prices in order to utilize the capacity of international (market splitting) is the best

  8. The Financial Relationship between Church and State in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bijsterveld, S.C.

    2007-01-01

    Webpublication: The Financial Relationship between Church and State in the Netherlands, Law and Religion in Transitional Societies.. Holmenkollen Park Hotel Rica, Oslo, Norway 2-3 December 2006. Co-sponsors: Council on Faith & International Affairs, Oslo Coalition on Freedom of Religion or Belief,

  9. The Intra Industry Trade between Portugal European Union, Portugal Spain, Portugal-France, Portugal Germany, Portugal-Ireland, Portugal-Greece and Portugal-Netherlands - a Dynamic Panel Data Analysis (1996 2000)

    OpenAIRE

    Horácio Faustino; Nuno Carlos Leitão

    2005-01-01

    PortugalÂ’s main trade partners have been Spain, Germany and France. In this paper we analyse the intra industry trade in the manufacturing industry between Portugal Spain, Portugal-France, Portugal Germany, Portugal-Ireland and Portugal-Greece. We also present the results of intra industry trade (IIT) between Portugal and the European Union. The innovation, technological progress, human capital, and scale economies are some of the explicative variables of the intra industry trade phenomena. ...

  10. Sports Diplomacy of Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobierecki Michał Marcin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Norway is perceived as a country with a clear international identity. The aim of the article is to investigate the sports diplomacy of Norway and to examine its influence on the international brand of this country. The author will define the term “sports diplomacy” and attempt to outline the strategy of Norway’s public diplomacy; an analysis of the methods used in Norwegian sports diplomacy will follow. The main hypothesis of this paper is that sports diplomacy only plays a subsidiary role in Norwegian nation branding.

  11. Electric transport in the Netherlands in an international perspective. Benchmark electric driving 2012; Elektrisch vervoer in Nederland in internationaal perspectief. Benchmark elektrisch rijden 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroon, P.; Weeda, M. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands); Appels, D. [Agentschap NL, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-07-15

    This international benchmark on electric mobility has been conducted to compare the Dutch governmental efforts and developments in the field of electric road transport. The countries that have been considered in this benchmark are: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, UK, China, USA and South Korea. The Netherlands has a high ambition level with regard to the number of electric vehicles compared to other countries without a large car industry. As for the envisaged number of charging points, the Netherlands is one of the prominent leaders. In the field of R and D, Germany, South Korea and China take the lead, followed by France, the UK, the USA and Austria. However, the benchmark has only looked at specific funds for electric mobility, and has not looked at general R and D and innovation funds. The Netherlands has several electro-mobility field tests, but is not leading in number. However, regarding general market penetration, the Netherlands is one of the leading countries, next to Norway, based on the relative number of passenger cars and commercial vehicles on the road. Norway and Austria are leading countries when it comes to implementation of public charging infrastructure, but also in this field the Netherlands has a prominent position in the group of countries that follow. In the current pre-commercial phase, the introduction of electric transportation in the Netherlands is supported by a high-level advisory group, the so-called Formula E-Team. This group consists of representatives and experts from industry and (scientific) society, and acts as a figurehead for electric transport. The group advises on coordination of actions to stimulate not only electro- mobility, but also innovation which should lead to new economic activities. Currently, about two hundred companies are already active in the field of electro-mobility in the Netherlands, including some top players and many SMEs (Small Medium Enterprises). The

  12. National report from Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugset, K.

    1995-01-01

    Review of activities and objectives in the area of creating operator support systems in nuclear power plants in Norway is presented. Development of a computerised alarm system for HAMMLAB (CASH) is described. A measure of situation awareness for use in the evaluation of nuclear power plant control room systems providing information about the current process state is discussed

  13. Educational Assessment in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tveit, Sverre

    2014-01-01

    Norway has seen major changes in the field of educational assessment over the past decade, following the 2001 '"PISA shock" that stimulated reform of the entire primary and secondary education systems: new outcome-based curricula with cross-disciplinary basic skills were accompanied by major revision of assessment regulations,…

  14. Chloride transport testing of blast furnace slag cement for durable concrete structures in Norway : From 2 days to one year age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.; de Rooij, M.R.; Larsen, CK; Pedersen, B; Beushausen, H.

    2016-01-01

    Blast furnace slag cement (BFSC) has been used in reinforced concrete structures in marine and road environment in The Netherlands for nearly a century. Experience is good and long service lives can be obtained. In Norway experience with BFSC is scarce. In The Netherlands, a high resistance against

  15. Chloride transport testing of blast furnace slag cement for durable concrete structires in Norway: From 2 days to one year age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.; Rooij, M.R. de; Larsen, C.K.; Pedersen, B.

    2016-01-01

    Blast furnace slag cement (BFSC) has been used in reinforced concrete structures in marine and road environment in The Netherlands for nearly a century. Experience is good and long service lives can be obtained. In Norway experience with BFSC is scarce. In The Netherlands, a high resistance against

  16. Focus: Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    Historically, Spain's nuclear program has had its share of successes and challenges. The country currently operates nine nuclear reactors totalling over 7,100 MWe of capacity and accounting for more than a third of Spain's electricity generation. Yet four reactors at advanced stages of construction remain mothballed due to a government-imposed moratorium, and a fire at one reactor in 1989 led to its premature closure and to a revival of anti-nuclear sentiment in the country. In the new national energy plan, Spain opted to continue the moratorium and rely upon conservation measures, additional natural gas imports, and electricity imports to meet expected demand. The current nuclear facilities will continue to operate, and the government will continue to pursue advanced reactor research, and expansion of the country's domestic uranium industry. Spain's integration into the European Community also is affecting the country's energy plans, prompting consolidation within the Spanish electricity sector in order to be more competitive in Europe

  17. Vegetables and social relations in Norway and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, Esther J.; Eiter, Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    This article aims to explore differences in motivation for and actual use of allotment gardens. Results from questionnaire surveys and semistructured interviews in two Norwegian and one Dutch garden show that growing vegetables and consuming the harvest is a fundamental part of gardening. The same

  18. LNG imports from Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roland, K.

    1989-01-01

    This paper is organized as follows: The first section outlines Norway's petroleum reserves and relates reserves of natural gas to potential markets. Then the paper focuses on specific fields or areas that could be devoted partly or mainly to service the US natural gas market. Finally, some indications are given of costs involved in field development, liquefaction and transportation and some very preliminary conclusions are arrived upon

  19. Nursing education in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrkjebø, Jane Mikkelsen; Mekki, Tone Elin; Hanestad, Berit Rokne

    2002-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe nursing education in Norway and some essential questions and challenges regarding the undergraduate and newly graduated nurses' competencies and functionally preparedness. The first formal training of nurses in Norway started in Oslo in 1886. Since then the education has changed considerably. As long as society is changing, and nurses are going to meet and adapt to societies needs, the education of nurses will also have to change continuously. The present general plan of nursing education has gone through a long process. The discussions have concerned the content of medical and natural science subjects, the practical part of the training and the relation between theory and practice. There are challenges in nursing education in Norway today. We have seen that recruitment has decreased, and that nurses seek jobs where they are better paid. To increase the accessibility distance and part-time education has been established. The theory-practice gap will always exist. Therefore we should aim to prepare the students to minimize this gap in a way that they can combine training of nursing with training in improvement. The demand of a masters degree to be a nursing teacher has reduced the teachers' ability to keep up their practical skills. The government pays nursing teachers who want to practice as nurses for several months to maintain their salary level during that period. There are many possibilities to improve nursing education in Norway. We are on our way with highly qualified teachers and students, and we still have enough good applicants. The new general plan and new law for universities and university colleges offer great opportunities. However, the shortage of nurses is a great challenge for further quality improvement both in clinical practice and in education.

  20. Indigenous infection with Francisella tularensis holarctica in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maraha, B.; Hajer, G.F.; Sjödin, A.; Forsman, M.; Paauw, A.; Roeselers, G.; Verspui, E.; Frenay, H.M.E.; Notermans, D.W.; Vries, M.C. de; Reubsaet, F.A.G.

    2013-01-01

    We report here the first case of indigenous tularemia detected inTheNetherlands, a nonendemic country, since 1953.Whole genome DNAsequence analysis assigned the isolate BD11-00177 to the genomic group B.FTNF002-00,which previously has been exclusively reported from Spain, France, Italy, Switzerland,

  1. Energy taxation in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandberg, E.

    1991-01-01

    A rough survey is given of the most important areas of Norwegian taxation and tariff policy within the energy sector. Planning is still in progress for regulations on taxing and duties on electric power and fossil fuels. This comprises part of the work on improving the economy and resource consumption, partly through giving higher priority to environmental issues. It is suggested that it could take some time before national goals for the development of an energy taxation system can be reached. There must be a balance between short and long-time issues. Norway will look to experiences gained in other countries. (AB)

  2. Arctic security and Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamnes, Rolf

    2013-03-01

    Global warming is one of the most serious threats facing mankind. Many regions and countries will be affected, and there will be many losers. The earliest and most intense climatic changes are being experienced in the Arctic region. Arctic average temperature has risen at twice the rate of the global average in the past half century. These changes provide an early indication for the world of the environmental and societal significance of global warming. For that reason, the Arctic presents itself as an important scientific laboratory for improving our understanding of the causes and patterns of climate changes. The rapidly rising temperature threatens the Arctic ecosystem, but the human consequences seem to be far less dramatic there than in many other places in the world. According to the U.S. National Intelligence Council, Russia has the potential to gain the most from increasingly temperate weather, because its petroleum reserves become more accessible and because the opening of an Arctic waterway could provide economic and commercial advantages. Norway might also be fortunate. Some years ago, the Financial Times asked: #Left Double Quotation Mark#What should Norway do about the fact that global warming will make their climate more hospitable and enhance their financial situation, even as it inflicts damage on other parts of the world?#Right Double Quotation Mark#(Author)

  3. The text of the agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Finland, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Article 23(a) of the Agreement of 5 April 1973 between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Agreement shall come into force for non-nuclear-weapon States Party to NPT which become members of the European Atomic Energy Community upon: (i) Notification to the Agency by the State concerned that its procedures with respect to the coming into force of the Agreement have been completed; and (ii) Notification to the Agency by the European Atomic Energy Community that it is in a position to apply its safeguards in respect of that State for the purposes of the Agreement. On 18 September 1995 the Agency received in respect of the European Atomic Energy Community and Finland the notifications required by Article 23(a) of the Agreement. For practical accounting purposes as proposed in the notifications, the Agreement came into force for Finland on 1 October 1995

  4. National report from Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugset, K.

    1993-01-01

    The only activity in Norway that is directly relevant for the present CRP is performed by Institutt for energiteknikk, the Norwegian Energy Research Institute. This institute is responsible for conducting the OECD Halden Reactor Project. This research project has as one of its main items a programme on ''Man-Machine Systems Research (MMSR)''. The main objective with this programme is to improve operational safety and efficiency of nuclear plants through introduction of new technology in the control room. This activity is divided into four main chapters; Development of computerised operator support systems; development of advanced control rooms; human factors activities related to introduction of new technology in the control room; software verification and validation. All these activities are relevant to the present CRP. A short description of each item is therefore given. 1 fig

  5. Bio energy in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamnaberg, Haavard; Sidelnikova, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The main conclusion in this report is that it is possible to make available about 14 TWh bio energy in Norway than what is used today to a charge that is located less than ca. 30 oere / kWh. Almost all this potential come from the forest and requires an increase in output up to the net sustained yield. Further 5 TWh may be available in the form of biogas at a cost that is both higher and have greater uncertainty than the fixed bio energy. It is set up a cost curve based on this work, which is quoted here. This reflects only the technical costs, and does not regard wages, commissions, taxes or fees. The value of alternative uses of biomass are not considered. The cost curve must therefore not be mixed with a supply curve. (eb)

  6. [Proceedings of the VII international symposium 'Cultural heritage in geosciences, mining and metallurgy : libraries, archives, museums' : "Museums and their collections" held at the Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Leiden (The Netherlands), 19-23 May, 2003 / Cor F. Winkler Prins and Stephen K. Donovan (editors)]: Historical mineral collections in the silver mining town of Kongsberg, Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nordrum, F.S.; Berg, B.I.

    2004-01-01

    The discovery of native silver deposits at Kongsberg, Norway, in 1623 created interest for silver specimens and mineral collecting, also among mining officers. Large collections were donated by J. Hiort, M.T. Brünnich and J. Esmark to the Mining Academy at Kongsberg. The Academy's collections were

  7. [Proceedings of the VII international symposium 'Cultural heritage in geosciences, mining and metallurgy : libraries, archives, museums' : "Museums and their collections" held at the Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Leiden (The Netherlands), 19-23 May, 2003 / Cor F. Winkler Prins and Stephen K. Donovan (editors)]: The distribution of silver specimens from the Kongsberg Silver Mines, Norway, 17th and 18th centuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, B.I.; Nordrum, F.S.

    2004-01-01

    Specimens of native silver from the Kongsberg mines in Norway are world famous and have been distributed through sales and gifts during the whole period of mining from 1623 to 1958. Names of customers, the number of sold specimens and their silver content are documented in accounts which are

  8. Sustainable Development Discourse in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruud, Audun

    2009-01-01

    Norway represents the case of an early-mover transforming into a recalcitrant average player. There is currently no active public SD debate, and if any, the environmental dimension remains the most prevalent. Climate change is the core issue. In spite of this political focus and new, ambitious objectives (i.e. that Norway is to be carbon neutral by 2030), and despite the fact that Norway has huge potentials for renewable energy production and export to Europe, there are few indications of any more substantial policy changes at a sectoral level

  9. Taxes for energy products, electricity and CO2. Consequences of the revision of the Energy Taxation Directive for the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blom, M.J.; Schroten, A.; Geurts, F.

    2011-07-01

    Taxes on energy products, electricity and CO2 are compared for a number of EU countries (Germany, Belgium, Denmark, United Kingdom, France, Luxembourg, Spain, Sweden and the Netherlands) with special focus on the fiscal, economic and environmental impacts of the revision of the European Energy Directive for the Netherlands. [nl

  10. Monogenic diabetes mellitus in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Oddmund Søvika; Henrik Underthun Irgens; Janne Molnes; Jørn V. Sagena; Lise Bjørkhaug; Helge Ræder; Anders Molveng; Pål R. Njølstad

    2013-01-01

    Here, we review data on monogenic diabetes mellitus in Norway based on the Norwegian MODY Registry at Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen. This registry comprises established or suspected cases of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) referred to our laboratory for genetic testing. We also present data on neonatal diabetes, another group of monogenic diabetes. To date, we have genetically diagnosed nearly 500 MODY cases in Norway. Mutations in the HNF1A gene (MODY3) were detected in a...

  11. NORWAY: a nuclear demonstration project?

    CERN Multimedia

    Clery, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    "Egil Lillestøl is a man with a rather unusual mission: he wants his homeland of Norway to take the lead in developement of of a new form of nuclear power. Norway is Europe's largest petroleum exporter, from its North Sea oil and gas fields, and Lillestøl, a physicist at the University of Bergen, believes the country needs to do something about its carbon emissions.

  12. Family and gender policies in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlung, Liera

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The NorSpaR project aims to analyse the main public policy initiatives by which Norway and Spain cope with the new social and economic challenges derived from the so-called New Social Risks (NSR. Although both countries present significant differences in their institutional settings (such as Spanish EU membership, or its belonging to diverse welfare regimes types (Norway is generally included in the Nordic regime, while Spain is part of the Mediterranean one, both countries share a common interest in addressing the aforementioned challenges while maintaining social cohesion. In the last decade, governments in both countries have tried to respond to those challenges by reforming their labour markets, adapting their unemployment schemes, as well as their gender, family and long-term care policies. The analysis covered in this project includes three areas of public policy addressing NSR. First, dependency is one of the most daunting challenges for post-industrial societies experiencing population ageing and with an increasing number of frail people in need of care. This situation is forcing governments to rethink their long-term care policies. Second, family and gender public programs need to respond to the growing difficulties of families in reconciling professional and family life. Third, in the transition to a post-industrial order, and in a context of mass unemployment, social protection systems have a renewed prominence. Along with the so-called passive policies offering financial support to the unemployed, active labour market policies are geared to put people back into work. In our analysis we try to find answers to the following questions: What are the challenges that each of these policies have been trying to address in recent years? How have these policies evolved? What kinds of reforms have been implemented, and which ones have been neglected? Have the policy goals and targets of welfare programs been modified in any significant way

  13. Unemployment and activation policies in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barth, Erling

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The NorSpaR project aims to analyse the main public policy initiatives by which Norway and Spain cope with the new social and economic challenges derived from the so-called New Social Risks (NSR. Although both countries present significant differences in their institutional settings (such as Spanish EU membership, or its belonging to diverse welfare regimes types (Norway is generally included in the Nordic regime, while Spain is part of the Mediterranean one, both countries share a common interest in addressing the aforementioned challenges while maintaining social cohesion. In the last decade, governments in both countries have tried to respond to those challenges by reforming their labour markets, adapting their unemployment schemes, as well as their gender, family and long-term care policies. The analysis covered in this project includes three areas of public policy addressing NSR. First, dependency is one of the most daunting challenges for post-industrial societies experiencing population ageing and with an increasing number of frail people in need of care. This situation is forcing governments to rethink their long-term care policies. Second, family and gender public programs need to respond to the growing difficulties of families in reconciling professional and family life. Third, in the transition to a post-industrial order, and in a context of mass unemployment, social protection systems have a renewed prominence. Along with the so-called passive policies offering financial support to the unemployed, active labour market policies are geared to put people back into work. In our analysis we try to find answers to the following questions: What are the challenges that each of these policies have been trying to address in recent years? How have these policies evolved? What kinds of reforms have been implemented, and which ones have been neglected? Have the policy goals and targets of welfare programs been modified in any significant way

  14. Passive houses in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halse, Andreas

    2008-12-15

    The paper analyzes the introduction of passive houses in the Norwegian house market. Passive houses are houses with extremely low levels of energy consumption for heating, and have not yet been built in Norway, but have started to enter the market in Germany and some other countries. The construction sector is analyzed as a sectoral innovation system. The different elements of the innovation system are studied. This includes government agencies, producers, consumers, finance and education. The analysis shows that passive and low-energy houses are on the verge of market breakthrough. This can partly be explained by economic calculations, and partly by processes of learning and change in the institutional set-up of the sector. The construction sector is a sector characterized by low innovative intensity and little interaction between different agents. Those working to promote passive houses have to some extent managed to cope with these challenges. This has happened by breaking away from the traditional focus of Norwegian energy efficiency policies on technology and the economically rational agents, by instead focusing on knowledge and institutional change at the level of the producers. (Author)

  15. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 740 - License Exception ENC Favorable Treatment Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT... Malta Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland...

  16. Norway: Some lessons from a international project on CCS communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torvatn, Hans; Tvedt, Sturle D.; Naess, Robert

    2010-07-01

    Full text: Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) has been part of the Norwegian debate on energy and possible solutions to the climate problems for more than a decade. One prime ministers fell from power on this issue, another first promised a 'Norwegian moon landing', then postponed the whole thing for several years. The debate has been heated several times, but little is known about what the public knows and thinks. The present paper presents some findings from six national surveys on knowledge and attitudes on CCS as part of the FENCO-ERA project 'Scrutinizing the impact of CCS communication on the general and local public (Impact of communication)'. Representative national surveys (N=61000) were conducted in six European countries: Germany, Greece, the Netherlands, Norway, Romania and the UK. Main topics covered: Sociodemographics, Attitudes towards energy issues, Media preferences, Trust, Knowledge on global warming and energy issues including CCS, initial attitudes towards CCS. The surveys also included an information experiment, testing the effect of positive and negative information on general acceptance of CCS. The paper will focus on the results from Norway using the other countries as illuminating contrasts. In Norway we will discuss four major findings: i) The majority of the Norwegian population are aware of CCS ii) There is a positive support for CCS demonstration plant, however, the support is unevenly distributed in the population iii) Information on CCS effects attitudes, however, source is less important than content iv) The project asked respondents to evaluate both risks and benefits. In Norway the effect of the benefit evaluation was stronger than the risk evaluation. Implications for CCS communication with the public as well as future research are discussed. (Author)

  17. ["Look to Norway"--but for how long?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Jon Birger; Raastad, Ragnhild; Berild, Dag

    2010-08-12

    Internationally, Norway receives positive attention mainly in the context of Winter Olympics or peace initiatives. However, an Associated Press article recently suggested that the Norwegian health care system had "found the Solution to Killer Superbug". Furthermore, Norway was proclaimed "The Most Infection Free Country in the World". What my be the reality behind such headlines, and how shall we as a nation maintain a favourable situation? Physicians in Scandinavian countries and the Netherlands have a long tradition for modest prescription of antibiotics, and are trained to use agents with a narrow antimicrobial spectre whenever possible. This is probably the main reason why these countries have had less antibiotic resistance than others. The number of antibiotics marketed in a country correlates positively with total drug consumption. Until 1992, Norwegian authorities could reject marketing of new compounds if national experts found no medical need for them. The foresight of senior colleagues has led to the number of marketed antibiotics in Norway, even today, being 10-fold lower than in some other European countries. The national surveillance programme, NORM, reports antimicrobial resistance in human pathogens on an annual basis. For example, national levels of MRSA and ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae are still very low whereas ampicillin and ciprofloxacin resistance in E coli and high- level gentamicin resistance in enterococci cause some concern. Norway has well-established epidemiological surveillance systems in the fields of microbiology and infectious diseases. Nevertheless, more knowledge is needed on how antibiotics are used in hospitals. Two national strategic plans (since 2003) have emphasized the explicit importance of antibiotic surveillance to counteract future antibiotic resistance problems. To fulfil national ambitions, there is an urgent need for economic grants to this field; the human resources are there and as eager to start as Olympic

  18. Corporatism in Denmark and Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Mikkel Mailand

    2009-01-01

    The literature of corporatism tends to bypass most Scandinavian countries and ignore state-social partner relations not related to wage bargaining and income policy. This contribution attempts to overcome both these shortcomings. It concludes that corporatism is alive in Denmark and Norway......, in Norway ‘peak-level' corporatism on wage setting remains stronger than in Denmark, whereas ‘meso-level' corporatism (corporatism in specific policy area) is stronger in Denmark than in Norway........ The social partners have, as general rule, been involved in formulating and implementing changes in welfare state policies, and corporatist arrangements are also seen in relation to some industrial relations issues. The two countries share a number of contextual features important for corporatism. However...

  19. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of the Czech Republic [es

  20. Norway between tradition and opening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mer, J.

    1996-01-01

    This book is a general presentation of Norway: natural and human framework, history, institutions and political life, economy, economic policy and means, foreign relations, and social life. In the chapter devoted to Norway's economy, the energy sources and policies of the country are described: hydro-power, coal, hydrocarbons (petroleum, natural gas and condensates, proven, discovered and undiscovered resources). The production, imports, exports, retail prices and national consumption are given for each energy sources and each economic sector. The chapter focusses on the deterministic role of energy in the Swedish economy: investments, contract management, balance of trade, public finances, employment etc.. (N.K.)

  1. Nuclear emergency planning in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baarli, J.

    1986-01-01

    The nuclear emergency planning in Norway is forming a part of the Search and Rescue Service of the country. Due to the fact that Norway do not have any nucleat power reactor, the nuclear emergency planning has not been given high priority. The problems however are a part of the activity of the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene, and the emergency preparedness is at the present time to a large extent based on the availability of professional health physicists and their knowledge, rather than established practices

  2. The chiropractic profession in Norway 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvammen, O. C.; Leboeuf-Yde, C.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The chiropractic profession in Norway has increased five-fold in the last two decades. As there is no academic graduate program in Norway, all chiropractors have been trained outside of Norway, in either Europe, America or Australia. This might have given Norwegian chiropractors heter...

  3. Netherlands' participation in SBWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brink, J.M. van den

    1991-01-01

    The Netherlands are running a Program for Intensifying Nuclear Knowhow (PINK) including design and safety analysis of enhanced-safety LWRs in order to train young engineers. The parties of PINK are: GKN (Operator of Dodewaard), KEMA (Research Institute of the Netherlands' Utilities), ECN (Netherlands' Energy Research Foundation), IRI (Interfaculty Reactor Institute of the Delft University of Technology) and Nucon (a division of Comprimo). The Dodewaard BWR has natural convection coolant circulation. This has influenced the decision by KEMA and Nucon in 1989 in discussion with General Electric Nuclear Energy to contribute to its Simplified BWR program

  4. Monogenic diabetes mellitus in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oddmund Søvika

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Here, we review data on monogenic diabetes mellitus in Norway based on the Norwegian MODY Registry at Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen. This registry comprises established or suspected cases of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY referred to our laboratory for genetic testing. We also present data on neonatal diabetes, another group of monogenic diabetes. To date, we have genetically diagnosed nearly 500 MODY cases in Norway. Mutations in the HNF1A gene (MODY3 were detected in about 50% of families with clinical MODY. GCK-MODY (MODY2 was the second most prevalent type, but may be underreported. We have also found mutations in the monogenic genes ABCC8, CEL, HNF1B, HNF4A, INS, KCNJ11 and NEUROD1. Based on genetic screening in the Norwegian MODY Registry and HUNT2, we estimate the number of MODY cases in Norway to be at least 2500-5000. Founder effects may determine the geographical distribution of MODY mutations in Norway. The molecular genetic testing of MODY and neonatal diabetes is mandatory for correct diagnosis and prognosis as well as choice of therapy

  5. Sleipner mishap jolts booming Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on Norway's buoyant offshore industry that was stunned when the concrete substructure for Sleipner natural gas field's main production platform sank in the Grandsfjord off Stavanger late last month. The accident, a blow to Norway's gas sales program in Europe, came with offshore activity in the Norwegian North Sea moving into a new boom period. Currently, 10 oil and gas fields are under development, and several projects are on the drawing board. Aker Oil and Gas, a leading offshore firm, says the country's construction industry will be working at capacity for the next 4 years. Norwegian oil production has been hovering just below 2 million b/d since the beginning of this year, making Norway the North Sea's largest producer, a position formerly held by the U.K. Gas production averages about 3 bcfd. With European gas demand sharply increasing, Norway is under pressure to increase output from new fields in the mid to late 1990s. The Sleipner setback forces state owned Den norske stats oljeselskap AS (Statoil) to cast around for supplies. Sleipner was to have begun deliveries to a consortium of continental gas companies in October 1993. Statoil believes it can fill the gap from existing fields in Norwegian waters

  6. Nuclear law Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bischof, W.

    1976-01-01

    This publication gives, in Dutch and German, a comprehensive survey of the Netherland's current law in the field of reactor safety and radiation protection, including a survey of international agreements. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Astronomy in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Wilfried; Habing, Harm

    2013-01-01

    We describe the state of astronomical research in the Netherlands per early 2012. We add some notes on its history of this research and on the strategic choices for the future. Compared to the size of the country (16 million people) the Netherlands is maintaining a high profile in astronomical research over a period of more than one century. The professional research community consists of about 650 people. This includes research staff, postdocs, PhD students, technical staff working on instrumentation projects and people involved in the operations of ground-based telescopes and astronomical space missions. We do not take into account staff working for international organizations based in the Netherlands. Astronomical research in the Netherlands is carried out at four university institutes and two national research institutes that fall under the umbrella of the national funding agency NWO. The Netherlands is the host of two international organizations: ESTEC, the technology division of the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE). The Netherlands are one of the founding members of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and of ESA. This paper will address a number of significant multilateral collaborations.

  8. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Article 17.a. of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Additional Protocol shall come into force on the date on which the Agency receives from the Community and the Signatory States written notification that their respective requirements for entry into force have been met. Article 23(a) of INFCIRC/193 provides the means for non-signatory States of the Additional Protocol to express their consent to be bound by the Additional Protocol. The Additional Protocol which came into force for the above-mentioned original signatories (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, the Community and the Agency) on 30 April 2004, has also entered into force for Cyprus, Estonia, Hungary, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia. The Agency received from the Republic of Latvia on 17 March 2008 and from the European Atomic Energy Community on 1 October 2008, notification that their respective requirements had been met. Accordingly, the Additional Protocol came into force for Latvia on 1 October 2008

  9. Wind power policy in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Norwegian government's ambition of developing 3 TWh wind power by 2010 seems hard to fulfill. Recently Norway's first wind park was officially opened on the island of Smoela, just off Kristiansund. The 20 large windmills are Danish-made and described in some detail in this article. Fulfillment of the government's ambition requires that 20 similar power stations are put into operation the coming eight years, and so far it has not been decided to build the next one. Statkraft have great ambitions for wind power. However, environmental considerations present difficulties. For instance, for Smoela, Statkraft spent an extra 4 million NOK on ground cables the last 1.5 km to land in order to minimize the disturbance of bird populations. Considerations for the white-tailed eagle may be a decisive factor in the development of wind power plants in Norway

  10. Philosophy of education in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Aakre, Bjørn Magne

    2009-01-01

    In Japan as well as Norway we experience growing interests and discussions about education. The main reason seems to be the fact that education has become more important than ever before. At the same time, most educational systems seem to face problems adapting to the rapid changes caused by globalization of values and cultures. Therefore, discussions about education not only involve new technology or alternative teaching methods, but also fundamental issues related to philosophy of education...

  11. Measurement of radioactivity in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, T.C.

    1989-10-01

    A nation-wide network of 11 monotoring stations for continuous registration of radioactivity in the air has been established in Norway. Via the telecommunication network, collected data are dayly automatically transmitted to the Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU). High radiation levels trigger an alarn for immediate transmission. The monotoring system and experiences in connection with its operation are described, and results from measurements in 1988 are presented. 14 figs

  12. Measurement of radioactivity in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, T.C.

    1988-05-01

    A nation-wide network of seven monitoring stations for continuous registration of radioactivity in the air has been established in Norway. Via the telecommunication network, collected data are dayly automatically transmitted to the Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU). High radiation levels will trigger an alarm for immediate transmission. The monitoring system and field experiences in connection with its operation are described. NILU's directions in the event of radiation alarm are specified and radiation measurements for 1987 are presented

  13. Measurement of radioactivity in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, T.C.

    1990-08-01

    A nation-wide network of 11 monitoring stations for continous registration of radioactivity in the air has been established in Norway. Via the telecommunication network, collected data are dayly automatically transmitted to the Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU). High radiation levels trigger an alarm for immediate transmission. The monitoring system and experiences in connection with its operation are described. Results from measurements in 1989 are presented. 18 figs

  14. Psychotraumatology in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Olff

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The contribution to psychotrauma literature from Dutch authors has a long tradition. The relatively high lifetime prevalence of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is not unique for the Netherlands and does not fully explain the interest in trauma and its consequences. In this overview of psychotraumatology in the Netherlands, we will discuss some of the key events and processes that contribute to the current interest. We outlined the historical basis and development of the field in the Netherlands, including the impact of World War II, the effects of major man-made or natural disasters, engagement in military conflicts, as well as smaller scale traumatic events like sexual abuse and traffic accidents. The liberal and open culture may have reduced stigma to trauma, while other sociocultural aspects may have contributed to increased prevalence. Finally, we describe Dutch psychotraumatology today and how history and culture have shaped the current scientific basis.

  15. Netherlands Reactor Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Briefly reviews the last year's work of the twenty year old Netherlands Reactor Centre (RCN) in the fields of reactor safety, fissile material, nuclear fission, non-nuclear energy systems and overseas co-operation. The annual report thus summarised is the last one to appear under the name of RCN. The terms of reference of the organisation having been broadened to include research into energy supply in general, it is to be known in future as the Netherlands Energy Research Centre (ECN). (D.J.B.)

  16. Tourists' perceptions and intention to revisit Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Lazar, Ana Florina; Komolikova-Blindheim, Galyna

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - The overall purpose of this study is to explore tourists' perceptions and their intention to revisit Norway. The aim is to find out what are the factors that drive the overall satisfaction, the willingness to recommend and the revisit intention of international tourists that spend their holiday in Norway. Design-Method-Approach - the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen 1991), is used as a framework to investigate tourists' intention and behavior towards Norway as destination. The o...

  17. Coastal Management in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.; Pilarczyk, K.W.

    1992-01-01

    The coast is a very important aspect of life in the Netherlands. 60 % of the Netherlands is below the sea level, everyone lives less than 200 km from a beach, and for most people the sea is less than 50 km away. But in the Netherlands there is officially no Agency for Coastal Zone Management,

  18. Evidemce from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masurel, E.

    2004-01-01

    This article deals with different aspects relating to how SMEs in the city and urban surroundings of Amsterdam (the Netherlands) go about creating a more secure environment. Security and criminality appear to be important issues for them. One-third of the entrepreneurs do not feel particularly safe

  19. Mechatronics in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amerongen, J.; Jongkind, Wim

    1996-01-01

    This article assesses the present situation of mechatronics in the Netherlands. After a short historical survey, it describes the postgraduate ¿mechatronic designer course¿, introduced in 1991. It deals with the principles of this course and how these principles have been implemented. Also, the

  20. Mousepox in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); J.S. Teppema; R.M.S. Wirahadiredja; G. van Steenis (Bert)

    1981-01-01

    textabstractTwo independent outbreaks of ectromelia in mice occurred in The Netherlands. In both cases, the causative virus was isolated and identified as ectromelia virus on the basis of serology, demonstration of antigen by indirect immunofluorescence, negative contrast electron microscopy,

  1. Country report: The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keune, M.; Tros, F.

    2014-01-01

    Young workers have a relatively weak labour market position in the Netherlands, both in terms of high youth unemployment and low quality of employment. For this reason, they could potentially benefit from union representation to improve their wages and working conditions. For the trade unions, young

  2. Country Report - The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schermers, G.; Wegman, F.; Vliet, P. van; Horst, A.R.A. van der; Boender, J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the most significant developments in the area of road (geometric) design practices and standards and related research in the Netherlands in recent years. The paper describes the importance of the Sustainable Road Safety policy in this context. Furthermore, it

  3. Syrians in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaco Dagevos; Willem Huijnk; Mieke Maliepaard; Emily Miltenburg

    2018-01-01

    Original title: "Syriërs in Nederland" The large influx of refugees between 2014 and 2016 meant the Netherlands was faced with a major challenge in organising sufficient reception facilities, establishing an adequate asylum procedure and for those granted a residence permit,

  4. Morocco and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fritschy, W.; Bos, P. (eds.)

    2006-01-01

    This book on aspects of society, economy and culture in Morocco and the Netherlands contains contributions of 28 Moroccan and Dutch authors on religion, family and marriage law, local government and PJD, Abdelkrim, Morocco and the EU, drug trafficking, migration, youth, Dutch-Moroccan writers, and

  5. The Netherlands: [national report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenhuis, W.

    2009-01-01

    The article offers updates related to the activities of the Association of Music Libraries, Archives and Documentation (IAML) in 2009 the Netherlands. It notes that the Muziekcentrum Nederland (MCN) for professional music life was opened. It states that Dutch IAML's board has organized a marketing

  6. Psychotraumatology in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermetten, Eric; Olff, Miranda

    2013-01-01

    The contribution to psychotrauma literature from Dutch authors has a long tradition. The relatively high lifetime prevalence of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is not unique for the Netherlands and does not fully explain the interest in trauma and its consequences. In this overview

  7. Worker participation - the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwantes, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Worker participation relates to the involvement of workers in the management decision-making processes. In this article attention is focused on worker participation related to occupational safety and health in the Netherlands. Worker participation can refer either to direct or indirect participation

  8. Mammography activity in Norway 1983 to 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Braaten, Tonje; Njor, Sisse H

    2011-01-01

    In Norway, an organized screening mammography program, the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP) started in four counties in 1996 and became nationwide in 2004. We collected data on pre-program screening activity, and in view of this activity we evaluated the potential impact...... of the program on breast cancer mortality in Norway....

  9. Severe human Babesia divergens infection in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mørch

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Human babesiosis is a rare but potentially life-threatening parasitic disease transmitted by ixodid ticks, and has not previously been reported in Norway. We report a case of severe babesiosis that occurred in Norway in 2007. The patient had previously undergone a splenectomy. He was frequently exposed to tick bites in an area endemic for bovine babesiosis in the west of Norway. The patient presented with severe haemolysis and multiorgan failure. Giemsa-stained blood smears revealed 30% parasitaemia with Babesia spp. He was treated with quinine in combination with clindamycin, apheresis, and supportive treatment with ventilatory support and haemofiltration, and made a complete recovery. This is the first case reported in Norway; however Babesia divergens seroprevalence in cattle in Norway is high, as is the risk of Ixodes ricinus tick bite in the general population. Babesiosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unexplained febrile haemolytic disease.

  10. Severe human Babesia divergens infection in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mørch, K; Holmaas, G; Frolander, P S; Kristoffersen, E K

    2015-04-01

    Human babesiosis is a rare but potentially life-threatening parasitic disease transmitted by ixodid ticks, and has not previously been reported in Norway. We report a case of severe babesiosis that occurred in Norway in 2007. The patient had previously undergone a splenectomy. He was frequently exposed to tick bites in an area endemic for bovine babesiosis in the west of Norway. The patient presented with severe haemolysis and multiorgan failure. Giemsa-stained blood smears revealed 30% parasitaemia with Babesia spp. He was treated with quinine in combination with clindamycin, apheresis, and supportive treatment with ventilatory support and haemofiltration, and made a complete recovery. This is the first case reported in Norway; however Babesia divergens seroprevalence in cattle in Norway is high, as is the risk of Ixodes ricinus tick bite in the general population. Babesiosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unexplained febrile haemolytic disease. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Statistical Yearbook of Norway 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The Statistical Yearbook of Norway 2012 contains statistics on Norway and main figures for the Nordic countries and other countries selected from international statistics. The international over-views are integrated with the other tables and figures. The selection of tables in this edition is mostly the same as in the 2011 edition. The yearbook's 480 tables and figures present the main trends in official statistics in most areas of society. The list of tables and figures and an index at the back of the book provide easy access to relevant information. In addition, source information and Internet addresses below the tables make the yearbook a good starting point for those who are looking for more detailed statistics. The statistics are based on data gathered in statistical surveys and from administrative data, which, in cooperation with other public institutions, have been made available for statistical purposes. Some tables have been prepared in their entirety by other public institutions. The statistics follow approved principles, standards and classifications that are in line with international recommendations and guidelines. Content: 00. General subjects; 01. Environment; 02. Population; 03. Health and social conditions; 04. Education; 05. Personal economy and housing conditions; 06. Labour market; 07. Recreational, cultural and sporting activities; 08. Prices and indices; 09. National Economy and external trade; 10. Industrial activities; 11. Financial markets; 12. Public finances; Geographical survey.(eb)

  12. Prehospital maternity care in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egenberg, Signe; Puntervoll, Stein Atle; Øian, Pål

    2011-11-29

    Out-of-hospital maternity care in Norway is randomly organised and not properly formalized. We wished to examine the extent, organisation and quality of this service. We obtained information from the Norwegian Medical Birth Registry on all unplanned out-of-hospital births in 2008. A questionnaire was sent to all maternity institutions, municipalities and emergency dispatch centres, with questions regarding the practical and formal organisation of the service using figures from 2008. 430 children, all above 22 weeks gestation, were born unplanned outside of hospitals in Norway in 2008. Of these, 194 were born unplanned at home, 189 while being transported and 47 in other locations (doctor's offices, infirmaries, unknown). Five out of 53 maternity institutions (9 %) confirmed they had a formal midwife service agreement for out-of-hospital births. 247 municipalities (79 %) claimed to have no such assistance. Of these, 33 are located at least 90 minutes away from the nearest maternity ward. Half of the emergency dispatch centres had no registration identifying formal agreements on assistance by midwives for out-of-hospital births. There is an urgent need to put in place formal agreements between the regional health authorities and the municipalities on out-of-hospital midwife services. A distance of 90 minutes' journey time to a maternity ward to fulfil the right to qualified assistance is not well-founded.

  13. Statistical Yearbook of Norway 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The Statistical Yearbook of Norway 2012 contains statistics on Norway and main figures for the Nordic countries and other countries selected from international statistics. The international over-views are integrated with the other tables and figures. The selection of tables in this edition is mostly the same as in the 2011 edition. The yearbook's 480 tables and figures present the main trends in official statistics in most areas of society. The list of tables and figures and an index at the back of the book provide easy access to relevant information. In addition, source information and Internet addresses below the tables make the yearbook a good starting point for those who are looking for more detailed statistics. The statistics are based on data gathered in statistical surveys and from administrative data, which, in cooperation with other public institutions, have been made available for statistical purposes. Some tables have been prepared in their entirety by other public institutions. The statistics follow approved principles, standards and classifications that are in line with international recommendations and guidelines. Content: 00. General subjects; 01. Environment; 02. Population; 03. Health and social conditions; 04. Education; 05. Personal economy and housing conditions; 06. Labour market; 07. Recreational, cultural and sporting activities; 08. Prices and indices; 09. National Economy and external trade; 10. Industrial activities; 11. Financial markets; 12. Public finances; Geographical survey.(eb)

  14. Euthanasia in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, G; Dillmann, R J

    1994-05-21

    The practice of euthanasia in the Netherlands is often used as an argument in debates outside the Netherlands--hence a clear description of the Dutch situation is important. This article summarises recent data and discusses conceptual issues and relevant characteristics of the system of health care. Special emphasis is put on regulation, including relevant data on notification and prosecution. Besides the practice of euthanasia the Dutch are confronted with the gaps in reporting of cases to the public prosecutor and the existence of cases of ending a life without an explicit request. Nevertheless, the "Dutch experiment" need not inevitably lead down the slippery slope because of the visibility and openness of this part of medical practice. This will lead to increased awareness, more safeguards, and improvement of medical decisions concerning the end of life.

  15. Creationism in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Blancke, Stefaan

    2010-01-01

    Recent events indicate that creationists are becoming increasingly active in the Netherlands. This article offers an overview of these events. First, I discuss the introduction of Intelligent Design (ID) creationism into the Dutch public sphere by a renowned physicist, Cees Dekker. Later, Dekker himself shifted towards a more evolution-friendly position, theistic evolution. Second, we will see how Dekker was followed in this shift by Andries Knevel, who is an important figure within the Dutch...

  16. Monitor Sustainable Netherlands 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-09-01

    The Monitor provides an image of the sustainability of the Dutch society. It shows which areas are successful and what the 'concerns for tomorrow' are from the point of view of sustainability. An analysis is conducted of how the Netherlands are doing in the fields of climate change, biodiversity, health, knowledge, graying and social cohesion. These and many other topics are discussed in this monitor by means of a number of sustainability indicators and detail analyses [mk]. [nl

  17. Monitor Sustainable Netherlands 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-02-01

    The Monitor provides an image of the sustainability of the Dutch society. It shows which areas are successful and what the 'concerns for tomorrow' are from the point of view of sustainability. An analysis is conducted of how the Netherlands are doing in the fields of climate change, biodiversity, health, knowledge, graying and social cohesion. These and many other topics are discussed in this monitor by means of a number of sustainability indicators and detail analyses [mk] [nl

  18. Benchmarking in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    In two articles an overview is given of the activities in the Dutch industry and energy sector with respect to benchmarking. In benchmarking operational processes of different competitive businesses are compared to improve your own performance. Benchmark covenants for energy efficiency between the Dutch government and industrial sectors contribute to a growth of the number of benchmark surveys in the energy intensive industry in the Netherlands. However, some doubt the effectiveness of the benchmark studies

  19. Worker participation - the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Kwantes, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Worker participation relates to the involvement of workers in the management decision-making processes. In this article attention is focused on worker participation related to occupational safety and health in the Netherlands. Worker participation can refer either to direct or indirect participation by the worker. Indirect participation involves employee representation, while direct participation relates to individual involvement in management’s decision-making processes. In the Framework Dir...

  20. Mechatronics in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    van Amerongen, J.; Jongkind, Wim

    1996-01-01

    This article assesses the present situation of mechatronics in the Netherlands. After a short historical survey, it describes the postgraduate ¿mechatronic designer course¿, introduced in 1991. It deals with the principles of this course and how these principles have been implemented. Also, the activities of the Dutch government in cooperation with the industrial mechatronics community to enhance the awareness of mechatronics, especially directed toward small and medium-sized enterprises (SME...

  1. Spain: Europe's California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilvert, Calvin

    1994-01-01

    Contends that, as Spain integrates into the European Economic Community, it is considered to be Europe's California. Asserts that making regional comparisons between California and Spain can be an effective teaching method. Provides comparisons in such areas as agriculture and tourism. (CFR)

  2. Energy Made in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz del Arbol, M.

    2011-01-01

    Spain is the first country in Europe and the second worldwide in installed thermoelectric solar power, the second place in Europe and fourth worldwide in wind energy. Moreover, Spain is the second country in photovoltaic energy so in Europe as in the World.

  3. Policy Brief: Bargaining for social rights of precarious workers in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos Martin, N.E.

    2012-01-01

    The main focus of the Barsori project was the contribution that social partners make to the reduction of precarious employment through collective bargaining and social dialogue. The project studied experiences in seven EU countries: Denmark, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Slovakia, Spain and the

  4. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Estonia and the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Article 17.a. of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Additional Protocol shall come into force on the date on which the Agency receives from the Community and the Signatory States written notification that their respective requirements for entry into force have been met. Article 23(a) of INFCIRC/193 provides the means for non-signatory States of the Additional Protocol to express their consent to be bound by the Additional Protocol

  5. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Estonia and the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Article 17.a. of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Additional Protocol shall come into force on the date on which the Agency receives from the Community and the Signatory States written notification that their respective requirements for entry into force have been met. Article 23(a) of INFCIRC/193 provides the means for non-signatory States of the Additional Protocol to express their consent to be bound by the Additional Protocol [es

  6. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Article 17.a. of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Additional Protocol shall come into force on the date on which the Agency receives from the Community and the Signatory States written notification that their respective requirements for entry into force have been met. Article 23(a) of Inference/193 provides the means for non-signatory States of the Additional Protocol to express their consent to be bound by the Additional Protocol [es

  7. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 11 June 1998. It was signed in Vienna on 22 September 1998

  8. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Accession of Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Article 17.a. of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Republic of Finland, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Hellenic Republic, Ireland, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of The Netherlands, the Portuguese Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency in implementation of Article III, (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) provides that the Additional Protocol shall come into force on the date on which the Agency receives from the Community and the Signatory States written notification that their respective requirements for entry into force have been met. Article 23(a) of INFCIRC/193 provides the means for non-signatory States of the Additional Protocol to express their consent to be bound by the Additional Protocol

  9. Position paper on screening for breast cancer by the European Society of Breast Imaging (EUSOBI) and 30 national breast radiology bodies from Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Israel, Lithuania, Moldova, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sardanelli, F.; Aase, H.S.; Alvarez, M.; Azavedo, E.; Baarslag, H.J.; Balleyguier, C.; Baltzer, P.A.; Beslagic, V.; Bick, U.; Bogdanovic-Stojanovic, D.; Briediene, R.; Brkljacic, B.; Herrero, J.; Colin, C.; Cornford, E.; Danes, J.; Geer, G. de; Esen, G.; Evans, A.; Fuchsjaeger, M.H.; Gilbert, F.J.; Graf, O.; Hargaden, G.; Helbich, T.H.; Heywang-Kobrunner, S.H.; Ivanov, V.; Jonsson, A.; Kuhl, C.K.; Lisencu, E.C.; Luczynska, E.; Mann, R.M.; Marques, J.C.; Martincich, L.; Mortier, M.; Muller-Schimpfle, M.; Ormandi, K.; Panizza, P.; Pediconi, F.; Pijnappel, R.M.; Pinker, K.; Rissanen, T.; Rotaru, N.; Saguatti, G.; Sella, T.; Slobodnikova, J.; Talk, M.; Taourel, P.; Trimboli, R.M.; Vejborg, I.; Vourtsis, A.; Forrai, G.

    2017-01-01

    EUSOBI and 30 national breast radiology bodies support mammography for population-based screening, demonstrated to reduce breast cancer (BC) mortality and treatment impact. According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer, the reduction in mortality is 40 % for women aged 50-69 years

  10. Position paper on screening for breast cancer by the European Society of Breast Imaging (EUSOBI) and 30 national breast radiology bodies from Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Israel, Lithuania, Moldova, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sardanelli, Francesco; Aase, Hildegunn S; Álvarez, Marina

    2017-01-01

    EUSOBI and 30 national breast radiology bodies support mammography for population-based screening, demonstrated to reduce breast cancer (BC) mortality and treatment impact. According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer, the reduction in mortality is 40 % for women aged 50-69 years ...

  11. Position paper on screening for breast cancer by the European Society of Breast Imaging (EUSOBI) and 30 national breast radiology bodies from Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Israel, Lithuania, Moldova, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardanelli, Francesco; Aase, Hildegunn S; Álvarez, Marina; Azavedo, Edward; Baarslag, Henk J; Balleyguier, Corinne; Baltzer, Pascal A; Beslagic, Vanesa; Bick, Ulrich; Bogdanovic-Stojanovic, Dragana; Briediene, Ruta; Brkljacic, Boris; Camps Herrero, Julia; Colin, Catherine; Cornford, Eleanor; Danes, Jan; de Geer, Gérard; Esen, Gul; Evans, Andrew; Fuchsjaeger, Michael H; Gilbert, Fiona J; Graf, Oswald; Hargaden, Gormlaith; Helbich, Thomas H; Heywang-Köbrunner, Sylvia H; Ivanov, Valentin; Jónsson, Ásbjörn; Kuhl, Christiane K; Lisencu, Eugenia C; Luczynska, Elzbieta; Mann, Ritse M; Marques, Jose C; Martincich, Laura; Mortier, Margarete; Müller-Schimpfle, Markus; Ormandi, Katalin; Panizza, Pietro; Pediconi, Federica; Pijnappel, Ruud M; Pinker, Katja; Rissanen, Tarja; Rotaru, Natalia; Saguatti, Gianni; Sella, Tamar; Slobodníková, Jana; Talk, Maret; Taourel, Patrice; Trimboli, Rubina M; Vejborg, Ilse; Vourtsis, Athina; Forrai, Gabor

    2017-07-01

    EUSOBI and 30 national breast radiology bodies support mammography for population-based screening, demonstrated to reduce breast cancer (BC) mortality and treatment impact. According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer, the reduction in mortality is 40 % for women aged 50-69 years taking up the invitation while the probability of false-positive needle biopsy is screening. Mortality reduction was also observed for the age groups 40-49 years and 70-74 years, although with "limited evidence". Thus, we firstly recommend biennial screening mammography for average-risk women aged 50-69 years; extension up to 73 or 75 years, biennially, is a second priority, from 40-45 to 49 years, annually, a third priority. Screening with thermography or other optical tools as alternatives to mammography is discouraged. Preference should be given to population screening programmes on a territorial basis, with double reading. Adoption of digital mammography (not film-screen or phosphor-plate computer radiography) is a priority, which also improves sensitivity in dense breasts. Radiologists qualified as screening readers should be involved in programmes. Digital breast tomosynthesis is also set to become "routine mammography" in the screening setting in the next future. Dedicated pathways for high-risk women offering breast MRI according to national or international guidelines and recommendations are encouraged. • EUSOBI and 30 national breast radiology bodies support screening mammography. • A first priority is double-reading biennial mammography for women aged 50-69 years. • Extension to 73-75 and from 40-45 to 49 years is also encouraged. • Digital mammography (not film-screen or computer radiography) should be used. • DBT is set to become "routine mammography" in the screening setting in the next future.

  12. Nutrient imbalance in Norway spruce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thelin, Gunnar

    2000-11-01

    The studies presented in my thesis indicate that growing Norway spruce in monoculture does not constitute sustainable forest management in a high N and S deposition environment, such as in southern Sweden. The combination of N-induced high growth rates and leaching due to soil acidification causes soil reserves of nutrients to decrease. This will increase the risk of nutrient imbalance within the trees when nutrient demands are not met. The development of nutrient imbalance in Scania, southern Sweden, was shown as negative trends in needle and soil nutrient status from the mid-80s to the present in Norway spruce and Scots pine stands. This imbalance appears to be connected to high levels of N and S deposition. Clear negative effects on tree vitality were found when using a new branch development method. Today, growth and vitality seems to be limited by K, rather than N, in spruce stands older than 40 years. However, younger stands appear to be able to absorb the deposited N without negative effects on growth and vitality. When investigating effects of nutrient stress on tree vitality, indicators such as branch length and shoot multiplication rate, which include effects accumulated over several years, are suitable. Countermeasures are needed in order to maintain the forest production at a high level. Positive effects on tree nutrient status after vitality fertilization (N-free fertilization) was shown in two micronutrient deficient stands in south-central Sweden. In addition, tree vitality was positively affected after the application of a site-adapted fertilizer to the canopy. Site-adaption of fertilizers will most likely improve the possibilities of a positive response on tree growth and vitality in declining stands. In a survey of Norway spruce in mixtures with beech, birch, or oak compared to monocultures it was shown that spruce nutrient status was higher in mixtures with deciduous species than in monocultures. By using mixed-species stands the need for

  13. Nutrient imbalance in Norway spruce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelin, Gunnar

    2000-11-01

    The studies presented in my thesis indicate that growing Norway spruce in monoculture does not constitute sustainable forest management in a high N and S deposition environment, such as in southern Sweden. The combination of N-induced high growth rates and leaching due to soil acidification causes soil reserves of nutrients to decrease. This will increase the risk of nutrient imbalance within the trees when nutrient demands are not met. The development of nutrient imbalance in Scania, southern Sweden, was shown as negative trends in needle and soil nutrient status from the mid-80s to the present in Norway spruce and Scots pine stands. This imbalance appears to be connected to high levels of N and S deposition. Clear negative effects on tree vitality were found when using a new branch development method. Today, growth and vitality seems to be limited by K, rather than N, in spruce stands older than 40 years. However, younger stands appear to be able to absorb the deposited N without negative effects on growth and vitality. When investigating effects of nutrient stress on tree vitality, indicators such as branch length and shoot multiplication rate, which include effects accumulated over several years, are suitable. Countermeasures are needed in order to maintain the forest production at a high level. Positive effects on tree nutrient status after vitality fertilization (N-free fertilization) was shown in two micronutrient deficient stands in south-central Sweden. In addition, tree vitality was positively affected after the application of a site-adapted fertilizer to the canopy. Site-adaption of fertilizers will most likely improve the possibilities of a positive response on tree growth and vitality in declining stands. In a survey of Norway spruce in mixtures with beech, birch, or oak compared to monocultures it was shown that spruce nutrient status was higher in mixtures with deciduous species than in monocultures. By using mixed-species stands the need for

  14. Indigenous Infection with Francisella tularensis holarctica in The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boulos Maraha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report here the first case of indigenous tularemia detected in The Netherlands, a nonendemic country, since 1953. Whole genome DNA sequence analysis assigned the isolate BD11-00177 to the genomic group B.FTNF002-00, which previously has been exclusively reported from Spain, France, Italy, Switzerland, and Germany. The patient had not been abroad for years, which implies that this is an indigenous infection. The current case might predict an upcoming distribution of Francisella tularensis holarctica genomic group B.FTNF002-00 in Europe.

  15. Evaluation of Research in Engineering Science in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Brussel, Hendrik Van Brussel; Lindberg, Bengt; Cederwall, Klas

    This report presents the conclusions of Panel 1: Construction engineering, Production and Operation. The Research Council of Norway (NFR) appointed three expert panels to evaluate Research in Engineering Science in Norway .......This report presents the conclusions of Panel 1: Construction engineering, Production and Operation. The Research Council of Norway (NFR) appointed three expert panels to evaluate Research in Engineering Science in Norway ....

  16. Country report of the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duijves, K A

    1997-12-01

    The presentation briefly reviews the following: general situation with nuclear power in the Netherlands; power reactors; research reactors; fuel performance; water chemistry; main research and development programmes.

  17. Spain: NATO or Neutrality,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    having Spain as a member. Spain is a traditional country in many ways. Religion is still a strongly-felt part of national life and atheism is looked at... Siglo XXI, 30 April 1979. Pedro J. Ramirez, "Diez Razones a favor de la OTAN," ABC, 17 September 1978, p. 7. 8 Ibid. Il 167 - SPAIN - WHAT’S IN IT...Cordoba and Granada. All three of the country’s major religions lived in relative harmony primarily in Moorish kingdoms, where the arts, commerce, and the

  18. HABOG, ATC Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vico, E.

    2010-01-01

    The Netherlands has opted for a centralized temporary storage strategy (ATC) for managing all radioactive waste produced in the country, prior to final disposal in deep geological formations. the agency. COVRA national agency with functions similar to those of ENRESA, operates a complex in the industrial area of Vlissingen-Oost, southwest of the country, near the Borssele nuclear power, within which is the centralized temporary storage facility HABOG , Acronym for building for the processing and storage of high level waste in operation since 2003. (Author)

  19. Netherlands Interuniversity Reactor Institut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This is the annual report of the Interuniversity Reactor Institute in the Netherlands for the Academic Year 1977-78. Activities of the general committee, the daily committee and the scientific advice board are presented. Detailed reports of the scientific studies performed are given under five subjects - radiation physics, reactor physics, radiation chemistry, radiochemistry and radiation hygiene and dosimetry. Summarised reports of the various industrial groups are also presented. Training and education, publications and reports, courses, visits and cooperation with other institutes in the area of scientific research are mentioned. (C.F.)

  20. Radiochemical analysis of fallout in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergh, H; Finstad, G; Lund, L; Michelsen, O; Ottar, B

    1957-01-01

    Data are tabulated on the concentration of radioactive iodine and strontium in samples of milk, and radioactive strontium and cesium in samples of drinking water collected in Norway, January to May 1957.

  1. Radiochemical analysis of fallout in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergh, H; Finstad, G; Lund, L; Michelsen, O; Ottar, B

    1957-01-01

    Data are tabulated on the concentration of radioactive iodine, strontium, and cesium in samples of milk and radioactive strontium and cesium in samples of drinking water collected in Norway during June 1957.

  2. Radiochemical analysis of fallout in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergh, H; Finstad, G; Lund, L; Michelsen, O; Ottar, B

    1957-01-01

    Data are tabulated on the concentration of radioactive iodine, strontium, and cesium in samples of milk collected in Norway in September 1957. Data are included from experiments on the purification of water contaminated with radioactive strontium and cesium.

  3. Radiochemical analysis of fallout in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergh, H; Finstad, G; Lund, L; Michelsen, O; Ottar, B

    1957-01-01

    Data are tabulated on the concentration of radioactive iodine and strontium in samples of milk, radioactive strontium and cesium in samples of drinking water, and radioactive strontium in tea and coffee preparations collected in Norway during May 1957.

  4. Biomass gasification in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Drift, A. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    This reports summarizes the activities, industries, and plants on biomass gasification in the Netherlands. Most of the initiatives somehow relate to waste streams, rather than clean biomass, which may seem logic for a densely populated country as the Netherlands. Furthermore, there is an increasing interest for the production of SNG (Substitute Natural Gas) from biomass, both from governments and industry.

  5. Perceived discrimination in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iris Andriessen; Henk Fernee; Karin Wittebrood

    2014-01-01

    Only available in electronic version There is no systematic structure in the Netherlands for mapping out the discrimination experiences of different groups in different areas of society. As in many other countries, discrimination studies in the Netherlands mostly focus on the experiences

  6. The Chinese in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mérove Gijsberts; Willem Huijnk; Ria Vogels

    2011-01-01

    Original title: Chinese Nederlanders This report presents the first national picture of the position of the Chinese community in the Netherlands. A large-scale survey was conducted among persons of Chinese origin living in the Netherlands, with the aim of answering questions on a wide range of

  7. Marriage migration in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leen Sterckx; Jaco Dagevos; Willem Huijnk; Jantine van Lisdonk

    2014-01-01

    Original title: Huwelijksmigratie in Nederland When a man or woman living in the Netherlands embarks on a relationship with a partner from another country and the couple decide to build a married life together in the Netherlands, we call this marriage migration. The foreign partner who moves to

  8. INES in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarzuela, J.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discusses the INES activities in Spain addressing the following issues: applicability; rating procedure; public information; activities in 1997; events above level 0 (October 1996 - September 1997); difficulties

  9. Energy use in Norway: An international perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unander, F.F.; Alm, L.K.; Schipper, L.

    1997-06-01

    The report examines the evolution of the structure and intensity of energy use in the main sectors of the Norwegian economy such as manufacturing, residential sector, services, and transport. The development in Norway is contrasted and compared to that in nine other countries such as Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Germany, U.K., France, Italy, United States, and Japan. The results show that Norway per capita energy use (excluding energy use in petroleum production) in 1992, after USA and Finland, was the highest of the 10 OECD countries being studied. Together with Finland, Norway showed the strongest growth in energy use per capita from 1973 to 1992. Some of the increased energy use in Norway can be attributed to more energy intensive structure and higher activity levels in the Norwegian economy. If the effect from changes in these two factors is excluded by holding the activity and structure in each sector constant at its 1973-level and only vary sub-sectorial energy intensities, Norway is still the country with the least reduction in energy intensities over the period from 1973 to 1992. Important underlying reasons in the same period are caused by increased indoor comfort level and the availability of both low-cost hydro power and biomass resources partly sheltering Norway from the impact of higher oil prices. 12 refs., 47 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Molecular Gastronomy in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    García-Segovia, Purificación; Garrido, María Dolores; Vercet Tormo, Antonio; Arboleya, Juan Carlos; FISZMAN DAL SANTO, SUSANA; Martínez Monzó, Javier; Laguarda, Sergio; Palacios, Victor; Ruiz Carrascal, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    [EN] Beyond the overwhelming international success of Ferrán Adria, Spain has been one of the countries with a more active implication in molecular gastronomy as a scientific discipline but also in the use of ingredients, technologies, and equipment from the scientificand technological universe in the culinary area. Nowadays, this is a well-established discipline in Spain, with a number of research groups covering related topics, several companies commercializing appliances and additives worl...

  11. netherland hydrological modeling instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogewoud, J. C.; de Lange, W. J.; Veldhuizen, A.; Prinsen, G.

    2012-04-01

    Netherlands Hydrological Modeling Instrument A decision support system for water basin management. J.C. Hoogewoud , W.J. de Lange ,A. Veldhuizen , G. Prinsen , The Netherlands Hydrological modeling Instrument (NHI) is the center point of a framework of models, to coherently model the hydrological system and the multitude of functions it supports. Dutch hydrological institutes Deltares, Alterra, Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, RWS Waterdienst, STOWA and Vewin are cooperating in enhancing the NHI for adequate decision support. The instrument is used by three different ministries involved in national water policy matters, for instance the WFD, drought management, manure policy and climate change issues. The basis of the modeling instrument is a state-of-the-art on-line coupling of the groundwater system (MODFLOW), the unsaturated zone (metaSWAP) and the surface water system (MOZART-DM). It brings together hydro(geo)logical processes from the column to the basin scale, ranging from 250x250m plots to the river Rhine and includes salt water flow. The NHI is validated with an eight year run (1998-2006) with dry and wet periods. For this run different parts of the hydrology have been compared with measurements. For instance, water demands in dry periods (e.g. for irrigation), discharges at outlets, groundwater levels and evaporation. A validation alone is not enough to get support from stakeholders. Involvement from stakeholders in the modeling process is needed. There fore to gain sufficient support and trust in the instrument on different (policy) levels a couple of actions have been taken: 1. a transparent evaluation of modeling-results has been set up 2. an extensive program is running to cooperate with regional waterboards and suppliers of drinking water in improving the NHI 3. sharing (hydrological) data via newly setup Modeling Database for local and national models 4. Enhancing the NHI with "local" information. The NHI is and has been used for many

  12. Spain's uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    Spain currently operates nine nuclear reactors totalling over 7,100 MWe of capacity, contributing about one-third of all electricity generated in Spain. Four reactors at advanced stages of construction remain mothballed as the result of a government-imposed moratorium, and a fire at Vandellos 1 in 1989 led to its premature closure and to a revival of anti-nuclear sentiment in the country. In the new national energy plan, which was sent to the Spanish Parliament on July 25, 1991, Spain opted to continue the nuclear moratorium that began in 1984 and rely upon conservation measures, additional natural gas imports, and electricity imports to meet expected demand. Under the new plan, nuclear power's share of Spain's total installed electrical generating capacity will fall from about 17 percent in 1990, to approximately 14 percent by the end of the century, as only the current nuclear facilities will continue to operate and no new nuclear plants will be built. Spain's integration into the European Community also is affecting the country's energy plans, prompting consolidation within the Spanish electricity sector in order to be more competitive in Europe. To supply the existing reactors, the government is supporting a major expansion of the country's domestic uranium industry

  13. Dental Education in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, David A.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Dental education in the Netherlands is reviewed in terms of dental practice, overall development, structure and functioning of a typical school of dentistry, admissions, student finances, curriculum, certification, postgraduate education, and education for related professions. (MSE)

  14. The Netherlands Bid Bood (GBIF)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Los, W.

    2001-01-01

    GBIF=Global Biodiversity Information Facility. The Bid Book was prepared for the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sciences, the Netherlands by a working group, co-ordinated by the University of Amsterdam.

  15. QANU - Quality Assurance Netherlands Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik Toft; Maria E., Weber; Vyt, André

    The Quality Assurance Netherlands Universities (QANU) underwent an ENQA-coordinated external review in 2016. The review was chaired by Henrik Toft Jensen, Research fellow at Roskilde University (RUC), Denmark....

  16. Chernobyl, what happened. [Netherlands; contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwigt, A

    1986-01-01

    In this article a description is given of the accident in the Chernobylsk-4 reactor and the resulting effects in the Netherlands. The Chernobylsk-4 reactor is described and the cause of the accident is followed step by step. The contamination of the Netherlands is mapped. The absorbed doses for the Dutch people are calculated. In the discussion the author recommends agreements about uniformity for sampling, activity measurements and follow-up studies. (Auth.). 5 refs.; 7 figs.; 1 table.

  17. Quality assurance in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villate, J.

    1980-01-01

    The first part of this lecture is devoted to present the energy program in Spain and the three generations of nuclear plants. The evolution of QA is outlined pointing out how IAEA Codes of Practice on QA is now a requirement and also how USA regulations, codes and standards have constituted, up to now, the main framework to develop QA activities in Spain. A general idea is given of the Spanish program of courses to qualify the personnel to be involved in QA tasks in nuclear power plants. Finally a general scheme is given, emphasizing the three main aspects: design, procurement and fabrication; construction (QA on site). (orig./RW)

  18. Spain investigates PLEX options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hevia, F.

    1990-01-01

    Spain's nuclear generation capacity will be reduced by some 6000MWe by the year 2015 if decommissioning of the units currently in operation takes place at the end of their 40-year design life. Bearing this in mind, in 1988 the Santa Maria de Garona BWR and the Jose Cabrera PWR were chosen by their respective owners as reference units for plant life extension (PLEX) activities. These plants are the oldest of their types operating in Spain and PLEX programmes were already under way. (author)

  19. American Studies in Norway: Past and Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole O. Moen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Norwegian “studies” of America started really more than a thousand years ago, when Leif Ericsson landed in Vinland, his name for that part of New Foundland where his party made quarters around the year A.D. 1000. However, it was not until 1825 that modern mass emigration from Norway to America started in earnest, when a small sailing vessel, the sloop Restaurationen, left the little village of Tysvær on the west coast of Norway, near Stavanger, for New York, carrying a load of 52 Quaker emigr...

  20. Language Policy and Corporate Law in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    to the Norwegian language version, 36.2 % of the companies presented their financial statements in Norwegian only, while 18.9 % of the companies had been granted dispensation from the Norwegian Directorate of Taxes to deviate from the language requirement of the Accounting Act and presented their financial...... of Norway (2005) the paper investigates how the 500 largest companies in Norway comply with the language requirement of the Norwegian Accounting Act for the financial year of 2015. The results show that 44.9 % of the companies presented their financial statements in one or more foreign language in addition...

  1. 77 FR 10772 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... countervailing duty order and antidumping duty order on fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway would not... and Chilled Atlantic Salmon from Norway: Investigation Nos. 701-TA-302 and 731-TA-454 (Third Review...

  2. The Gardnos Impact Structure, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dons, J. A.; Naterstad, J.

    1992-07-01

    The Gardnos area is situated 9 km north of the village Nesbyen in the county of Buskerud, south-central Norway. The peculiar "Gardnos breccia" was first described in 1945 and ascribed to explosive volcanic activity in Permian time. This conclusion has lately been questioned, and preliminary field and microscopic investigations by the authors in 1990-91 substantiated a theory of impact origin for the breccia and the structure. The Gardnos Impact Structure is the first of its kind to be described from Norway. Its geographical position is lat. 60 degrees 39'N, long. 9 degrees 00'E. The topography surrounding the structure ranges from 200 m.a.s.l. in the main Hallingdalen valley to more than 1000 m.a.s.l. in the high mountains nearby. At heights of 900-1000 m erosion has cut through the important, more or less horizontal boundary between a complex Precambrian crystalline basement and a deformed Caledonian cover sequence of Cambro-Ordovician sediments and overthrust nappes. Rocks of the latter sequence are however, still preserved in outliers no more than 3 km from the Gardnos structure. Erosional remnants of the Gardnos structure rocks are found within a semicircular area of 4-5 km diameter. Topographically the eroded structure now appears as a bowl-shaped, hanging side valley to Hallingdal. Wooded, late-Quaternary moraines and fluvioglacial deposits cover to a great extent the solid rocks, but the beds of many branching creeks provide good exposures. Thus a great variety of rocks formed within the Gardnos structure can be studied from approximately 350 m.a.s.l. up to more than 800 m.a.s.l. A variety of rocks from the Precambrian basement complex have been affected by the impact. This gives a unique opportunity to study shock-metamorphic effects on varying lithologies. Among the impact-produced structures and rock types that can easily be identified is an outer zone of breccia veining in the varied Precambrian lithologies, a lowermost lens of autochthonous breccia, the

  3. Molecular gastronomy in Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Segovia, P.; Garrido, M. D.; Vercet, A.

    2014-01-01

    Beyond the overwhelming international success of Ferrán Adria, Spain has been one of the countries with a more active implication in molecular gastronomy as a scientific discipline but also in the use of ingredients, technologies, and equipment from the scientific and technological universe...... with scientists for facing the future of Spanish gastronomy....

  4. Communication Received from the Permanent Mission of the Netherlands regarding Certain Member States' Guidelines for the Export of Nuclear Material, Equipment and Technology; Communication recue de la mission permanente des Pays-Bas concernant les Directives de certains Etats Membres applicables a l'exportation de matieres, d'equipements et de technologie nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-05

    The Agency has received a Note Verbale from the Permanent Mission of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, dated 12 July 2011, in which it requests that the Agency circulate to all Member States a letter of 12 July 2011 from the Chairman of the Nuclear Suppliers Group, Ambassador Piet de Klerk, to the Director General, on behalf of the Governments of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Republic of Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America, providing further information on those Governments' Guidelines for Nuclear Transfers [French] L'Agence a recu une note verbale de la mission permanente du Royaume des Pays-Bas, en date du 12 juillet 2011, lui demandant de communiquer a tous les Etats Membres une lettre du 12 juillet 2011 du president du Groupe des fournisseurs nucleaires, l'ambassadeur Piet de Klerk, adressee au Directeur general au nom des gouvernements des Etats suivants : Afrique du Sud, Allemagne, Argentine, Australie, Autriche, Belarus, Belgique, Bresil, Bulgarie, Canada, Chine, Croatie, Chypre, Danemark, Espagne, Estonie, Etats-Unis d'Amerique, Federation de Russie, Finlande, France, Grece, Hongrie, Irlande, Islande, Italie, Japon, Kazakhstan, Lettonie, Lituanie, Luxembourg, Malte, Norvege, Nouvelle-Zelande, Pays-Bas, Pologne, Portugal, Republique de Coree, Republique tcheque, Roumanie, Royaume-Uni de Grande-Bretagne et d'Irlande du Nord, Slovaquie, Slovenie, Suede, Suisse, Turquie et Ukraineb. Cette lettre apporte des informations supplementaires sur les Directives de ces gouvernements applicables aux transferts nucleaires.

  5. Inclusive Women's Organisations in Denmark and Norway?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene; Thun, Cecilie

    2010-01-01

    The article demonstrates how majority women’s organizations in Denmark and Norway react differently to the challenge of collaborating with new groups of women in society. The question of collaboration with minority women’s organizations prompts existing majority organizations to navigate between ...

  6. Disturbed security in Norway and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Lieder

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The content of the article is an attempt to determine the course and consequences of terrorist attacks that took place in 2010 in Sweden and 2011 in Norway. A Comparative Study includes responses of societies and political elites of both countries.

  7. INOPS Survey data report for Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Andrej Christian; Holt, Steffen

    This data report provides statistics on the organization, management and performance of different ways of providing maintenance services within the municipal park and road sector(s) in Norway. The statistics relies on data collected in the period from April 2015 to October 2015 through an online...

  8. Geographical distribution of Phytophthora ramorum in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    María- Luz Herrero; Brita Toppe; Trond Rafoss

    2008-01-01

    In November 2002, Phytophthora ramorum was detected for the first time in Norway. It was isolated from Rhododendron catawbiense imported earlier the same year. After the first detection, the Norwegian Food Safety Authority has carried out surveys from 2003 to 2006. The surveys were first directed to nurseries and garden centres....

  9. The cost of multiple sclerosis in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, B; Myhr, K-M; Nyland, H; Aarseth, J H

    2012-02-01

    Health economic aspects have been increasingly important during introduction of new treatments for multiple sclerosis. As a partial response for Norway, a cost-of-illness study was carried out to estimate the yearly cost of the illness to society and relate costs and patients' quality of life to illness severity. Estimated cost to society was Euro 439 million in 2002 exclusive of the cost of reduced quality of life. The cost per patient was close to Euro 65,000. Account taken of methodological differences, the results compare to results for Sweden, Norway's closest neighboring country. The illness reduced patients' quality of life with 0.26. More patients were early retired because of their MS in Norway than in any of nine other European countries comprised by a recent European study, illustrating a liberal practice in Norway. The Norwegian cost of unpaid assistance was almost identical to the Swedish cost that was the lowest found across the countries in the European study. When related to illness severity, the cost per patient increased, and the patients' experienced quality of life decreased with increasing EDSS levels in line with what has been found for other countries. Cost-of-MS studies have been carried out for a number of countries. Together they contribute to our understanding of the economic consequences of multiple sclerosis and, if their results are related to illness severity, also provide valuable information for further economic analyses of treatment and medication. Our study adds to this.

  10. Radiochemical analysis of fallout in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergh, H; Finstad, G; Lund, L; Michelsen, O; Ottar, B

    1957-01-01

    Data are tabulated on the concentration of radioactive iodine, strontium, and cesium in samples of milk, radioactive strontium and cesium in samples of rain water, and radiocesium in preparations of tea and coffee collected in Norway during July and August 1957.

  11. Mid-Norway power study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-06-15

    This report documents the results of a four months study by Shell in relation to the request from the Petroleum and Energy Minister to evaluate the viability of developing a gas fired power plant in the Nyhamna area. The power plant sizes studied are 50, 200, 430 and 860 MW nominal output, both with and without a Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) facilities and with an earliest start up of 2014. The power supply and demand balance is evaluated to investigate the case for building a power plant depending on demand development in the mid-Norway region. The report concludes that there is a deficit in the region which will probably be addressed through a combination of planned measures, including the planned 400 MW capacity transmission line (Oerskog to Fardal) and temporary power plants at Tjebegodden and Nyhamna together with an assumed new 2 TWh/yr capacity small hydro and wind power projects. However, a commercial sized power plant (400 MW or larger) could provide a more robust means of supply as well as provide the potential for further demand growth. The study has evaluated technical and commercial concepts for the different sized power plants with considerable experience drawn from Shell's earlier involvement in the Halten CO{sub 2} project. Order of magnitude cost estimates have been developed based on the current market outlook, for the power plant cases and the associated carbon capture facilities, including CO{sub 2} transportation pipeline and disposal wells. The carbon capture design has been based on state of the art amine technology. An economic model was developed specifically for this study for a power plant using a range of assumptions for gas, electricity and carbon credit prices. The model includes optimisation of income based on positive 'sparkspread'. The conclusion from the evaluations shows that there is a substantial gap between the likely economics and the economics that would be required for a commercial company to make an

  12. Systems of educational specialization and labor market outcomes in Norway, Australia and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Werfhorst, H.G.

    2004-01-01

    To account for differences between systems of education of highly educated societies, we argue that the impact of academic discipline (field of study) on labor market outcomes should be central. Three modifications of earlier typologies are needed to account for cross-national differences in the

  13. Energy consumption: energy consumption in mainland Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnussen, Inger Helene; Killingland, Magnus; Spilde, Dag

    2012-07-25

    The purpose of this report is to describe trends in energy consumption in mainland Norway, with an emphasis on key trends within the largest consumer groups. We also explain common terms and concepts in the field of energy consumption. Finally, we look at forecasts for future energy consumption, produced by bodies outside NVE. Total final energy consumption in mainland Norway in 2009 was 207 TWh. The most important end-user groups are households, service industries, manufacturing industry and transport. In addition, the energy sector in mainland Norway consumed 15 TWh. Energy consumed in the energy sector is not considered as final consumption, as the energy is used to produce new energy products. The long-term trend in energy consumption in mainland Norway is that fuel in the transport sector and electricity for the energy sector increases, while energy consumption in other sectors flattens out. The main reason for an increased use of fuel in the transport sector is the rise in the number of motorised machinery and vehicles in mainland Norway. This has caused a rise in gasoline and diesel consumption of 75 per cent since 1976. The petroleum sector is the largest consumer of energy within the energy sector in mainland Norway, and electricity from onshore to platforms in the North Sea and to new shore side installations has led to a rise in electricity consumption from 1 TWh in 1995 to 5 TWh in 2009. The energy consumption in households showed flat trend from 1996 to 2009, after many years of growth. The main reasons are a warmer climate, higher energy prices, the use of heats pumps and more energy-efficient buildings. In the service industries, the growth in energy consumptions has slightly decreased since the late 1990s, for much the same reasons as for households. In manufacturing industries the energy consumption have flatten out mainly due to the closure of energy-intensive businesses and the establishment of new more energy-efficient businesses. Electricity is

  14. Ataxia with Vitamin E Deficiency in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areej Elkamil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency (AVED is a rare autosomal recessive neurological disorder which usually starts in childhood. The clinical presentation is very similar to Friedreich ataxia, most patients have progressive truncal and extremity ataxia, areflexia, positive Babinski sign, dysarthria and sensory neuropathy. Methods We made an inquiry to our colleagues in Norway, we included information from a prevalence study published southern Norway and added data from our own known case. Results A newly published prevalence study of hereditary ataxias (total of 171 subjects found only one subject with AVED in Southeast Norway. We describe two more patients, one from the Central part and one from the Northern part of Norway. All 3 cases had age of onset in early childhood (age of 4–5 years and all experienced gait ataxia and dysarthria. The genetic testing confirmed that they had pathogenic mutations in the α-tocopherol transfer protein gene (TTPA. All were carriers of the non-sense c.400C > T mutation, one was homozygous for that mutation and the others were compound heterozygous, either with c.358G > A or c.513_514insTT. The homozygous carrier was by far the most severely affected case. Conclusions We estimate the occurrence of AVED in Norway to be at least 0.6 per million inhabitants. We emphasize that all patients who develop ataxia in childhood should be routinely tested for AVED to make an early diagnosis for initiating treatment with high dose vitamin E to avoid severe neurological deficits.

  15. Sickness presenteeism in Norway and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vegard Johansen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sickness presenteeism (SP refers to the practice of going to work despite illness. This article describes the distribution of SP in Norway and Sweden. It also discusses relations between SP and various work characteristics and personal factors in the two countries. Methods: More than 2500 Norwegian and Swedish workers between 20 and 60 years of age answered a postal questionnaire. The Norwegian and Swedish samples are weighed and representative with regard to both variables of regional background and demography, but the response rate was low. The distribution of SP is measured by frequency (episodes in the previous year and by length (total days of SP in the previous year. This study employed binary and multinomial logistic regression to detect which factors influence the frequency of SP. Results: Fifty-five per cent of the respondents in Norway and Sweden practised SP in the previous year. The frequency of SP episodes is similar in the two countries. Further, respondents with low/medium income, physical work, and managerial responsibilities report SP more often in both countries. Non-western immigrants, the less educated, and those employed by others are overrepresented with SP in Norway. Neither gender nor age had any particular influence. Discussion: In accordance with previous studies, this study among Norwegian and Swedish workers suggests that some SP during a working year may be more common than no SP. Our analyses of determinants of SP present some previously undocumented differences. Divisions between sedentary versus physical work and management versus non-management were important for SP in Norway and Sweden. Moreover, non-western immigrants are overrepresented with SP in Norway, but this pattern does not prevail in Sweden. Some possible causes for non-western immigrants to report more SP are suggested in the article, but we need more research to follow up on the missing correlation between ethnic background and SP in

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of a Common Midwife Toad Virus-Like Ranavirus Associated with Mass Mortalities in Wild Amphibians in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Joseph; Saucedo, Bernardo; Rijks, Jolianne; Kik, Marja; Haenen, Olga L. M.; Engelsma, Marc Y.; Gröne, Andrea; Verheije, M. Helene; Wilkie, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    A ranavirus associated with mass mortalities in wild water frogs (Pelophylax spp.) and other amphibians in the Netherlands since 2010 was isolated, and its complete genome sequence was determined. The virus has a genome of 107,772 bp and shows 96.5% sequence identity with the common midwife toad virus from Spain. PMID:25540340

  17. Diabetes MILES--The Netherlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nefs, Giesje; Bot, Mariska; Browne, Jessica L

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As the number of people with diabetes is increasing rapidly worldwide, a more thorough understanding of the psychosocial aspects of living with this condition has become an important health care priority. While our knowledge has grown substantially over the past two decades with respect...... to the physical, emotional and social difficulties that people with diabetes may encounter, many important issues remain to be elucidated. Under the umbrella of the Diabetes MILES (Management and Impact for Long-term Empowerment and Success) Study International Collaborative, Diabetes MILES--The Netherlands aims...... to examine how Dutch adults with diabetes manage their condition and how it affects their lives. Topics of special interest in Diabetes MILES--The Netherlands include subtypes of depression, Type D personality, mindfulness, sleep and sexual functioning. METHODS/DESIGN: Diabetes MILES--The Netherlands...

  18. The incidence of anorexia nervosa in Netherlands Antilles immigrants in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoeken, Daphne; Veling, Wim; Smink, Frederique R. E.; Hoek, Hans W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Previously we found that the incidence of anorexia nervosa (AN) in the general population was much lower in the Netherlands Antilles than in the Netherlands. As a follow-up we compared the incidence of AN in the Netherlands in persons from the Netherlands Antilles to native Dutch. Method:

  19. Nuclear energy in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isla, M.

    1984-01-01

    The 'Plan Energetico Nacional de 1983' (1983 National Energy Program)(PEN-83) was approved recently by the Spanish Government and presented to the 'Cortes Espanolas' (Spanish Parliament) in May 1984. The PEN-83 is being discussed at present in the Parliament and it is possible that some modifications be introduced, but expectedly will be rather limited and minor. PEN-83 covers the period 1983-1992. It includes a comparative analysis of the evolution and situation in OECD countries and in Spain. In Spain the offer, supply and consumption of primary energy and of the interrelation with other economic indicators, such as the gross domestic product, inflation rate and unemployment compared with that of the industrialized OECD countries, has shown a much lower capability to adapt its structure to the energy price increases

  20. Wind energy in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruijne, R. de

    1990-01-01

    Wind energy is a 'winning reality' in the Netherlands. This is apparent from the results by researchers, industry and the market. During recent years the market has acquired confidence in wind energy. At the start of 1987 there was about 15 MW of installed wind power in the Netherlands. Halfway through 1990 this has almost quadrupled, with 45 MW in operation and 35 MW under construction. The power companies have specific capital expenditure plans for further growth to approximately 400 MW by 1995. This investment scheme will consist of existing turbines (< 600 kW). (Author)

  1. Nuclear power in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    the plans of the Spanish Government to reduce their dependence on oil over the next ten years by a considerable increase in nuclear generating capacity are outlined. Data on the type, generating power, location and commissioning data of a number of nuclear power stations in Spain are tabulated. The use of foreign companies for the design and construction of the nuclear stations and the national organisations responsible for different aspects of the programme are considered. (UK)

  2. Snakebite poisoning in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Sierra, Cristina; Nogué-Xarau, Santiago; Pinillos Echeverría, Miguel Ángel; Rey Pecharromán, José Miguel

    2018-01-01

    Emergencies due to snakebites, although unusual in Spain, are potentially serious. Of the 13 species native to the Iberian peninsula, only 5 are poisonous: 2 belong to the Colubridae family and 3 to the Viperidae family. Bites from these venemous snakes can be life-threatening, but the venomous species can be easily identified by attending to certain physical traits. Signs denoting poisoning from vipers, and the appropriate treatment to follow, have changed in recent years.

  3. Energy Efficiency in Norway 1990-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Eva

    2003-06-01

    This is the national report for Norway in the EU/SAVE project ''Indicators for Energy Efficiency Monitoring and Target setting (ODYSSEE)''. The report deals with energy use and energy efficiency in Norway 1990-2000 (2001 for overall energy use). Final energy use per Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was reduced by approximately 1.9% pr year in the period 1990 to 2001. The energy efficiency improvement has been calculated to 0.6% pr year, while the role of structural changes has been 1.3% pr year. A detailed sector analysis has been done, applying Laspeyres indices to attribute changes in energy use to activity, structure or intensity (efficiency). Aggregating sectors, we have found a total efficiency improvement of approximately 11 TWh from 1990 to 2000. (author)

  4. The best energy recovery project in Norway?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melaasen, Erik

    2001-01-01

    Norway is one of the world's leading producers of ferro-alloys and silicon metals. The high temperature required in the production process is obtained by using electric energy. The temperature of the waste gases varies between 200 and 900 o C. To recover the energy of hot dust-holding gases from ferro-alloy plants the waste gases are cooled by means of steam production. The ferro-alloy plant Globe Norge AS Hafslund Metall and the energy supply company Birka Energi have signed an agreement to build Norway's largest energy recovery plant. The plant will recover 260 GWh per year. The oil consumption will be reduced by 26000 tonne per year and the annual emission of carbon dioxide by 80000 tonne. Steam from the plant will be supplied to the two companies Borregaard and Glomma Papp. The article describes the plant in some detail

  5. Pragmatism of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization’s and European Union’s Strategic Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-13

    Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherland, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia , Spain, Turkey...Netherland, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia , Spain, Sweden, and United Kingdom. 3 North Atlantic Treaty Organizations, “NATO-EU: A...supranational organization through a constitutional process, the organization did achieve its highest level of state integration within the

  6. Petrol war in Nijmegen, Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jong, E.; Kramer, I.

    2000-01-01

    Since April 2000 a petrol war rages in Nijmegen and surroundings (Netherlands) whereby considerable discounts are given to the national retail prices. The cause of the war is a new unmanned petrol station of the enterprise Tango. In this article the development and the consequences of the discount at petrol stations in Nijmegen and surroundings are analyzed 3 refs

  7. Adaptation strategies in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, J.; Klostermann, J.E.M.; Bergsma, E.; Jong, P.; Albrecht, E.; Schmidt, M.; Mißler-Behr, M.; Spyra, S.P.N.

    2014-01-01

    Although climate change has been prominently featured on the global scientific and political agendas since the World Climate Conference in 1979 (WCC 1979), the specific importance of adaptation to climate change has only been underlined about 20 years later. The Netherlands, because it lies largely

  8. The Netherlands: self-employed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.

    2009-01-01

    This is the national contribution to the CAR on self-employed workers in the Netherlands. In this national contribution information is provided on self-employed workers in relation to (1) legal provisions and social security, (2) recent trends in self-employment with no employees, (3) collective

  9. Country update for the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufour, F.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the status of geothermal energy development in the Netherlands. It provides statistical data on the wells drilled for direct heat utilization of geothermal resources from January 1, 1985 to January 1, 1990. The well types drilled are as follows: thermal gradient or other scientific purpose, exploration, production, injection, and combined electrical and direct use

  10. Chinese Companies in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, T.M.; Pieke, F.N.; Stam, T.

    2017-01-01

    The rapid growth of Chinese investment in the Netherlands has been cause for both excitement and anxiety. Many of the companies and other investors are still unknown and the background and objectives of their investment often remain unclear. This research takes a close look at fourteen Chinese

  11. Settling in in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mérove Gijsberts; Marcel Lubbers

    2015-01-01

    Original title: Langer in Nederland What happens to the position of Poles and Bulgarians in the Netherlands in the first years following migration? This publication is based on information from a panel survey which tracks Polish and Bulgarian migrants in the first years after their entry in

  12. At home in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mérove Gijsberts; Jaco Dagevos

    2010-01-01

    The integration of migrants has been exercising minds in the Netherlands for several decades now. The tone of the debate in both the political and public arena has frequently been sombre, reflecting the widespread feeling that large sections of the migrant population, and especially migrants

  13. The Netherlands : A tax haven?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemmeren, Eric; Kuijer, Martin; Werner, Wouter

    2017-01-01

    The taxation of multinational enterprises is currently subject to intensive international and national debates. In these debates the Netherlands has sometimes been labelled as a ‘tax haven’. This term has a strong negative connotation. In any case, a country’s reputation is at stake if it is

  14. Luminescence dating of Netherland's sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallinga, J.; Davids, F.; Dijkmans, J.W.A.

    2007-01-01

    Over the last decades luminescence dating techniques have been developed that allow earth scientists to determine the time of deposition of sediments. In this contribution we revity: 1) the development of the methodology, 2) tests of the reliability of luminescence dating on Netherlands' sediments;

  15. Social innovation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeij, P.R.A.; Dhondt, S.; Ooms, M.

    2018-01-01

    The Netherlands is catching up with social innovation. In the former century combating social problems was a task of public organisations and government, largely carried out top down. Today the responsibility to tackle social issues is partly shifting to public-private partnerships, social

  16. How sustainable is the Netherlands?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-11-01

    This memo compares the sustainability of the Netherlands to foreign countries. It examines existing studies and benchmarks that tell us about the various components of sustainability. A closer look is taken at environmental aspects, spatial use, CO2 emission, labor participation, life expectancy, welfare and corruption. [nl

  17. Elder abuse in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inger Plaisier; Mirjam de Klerk

    2015-01-01

    Original title: Ouderenmishandeling in Nederland It is twenty years since the last study was carried out on the number of older persons in the Netherlands who are deliberate or accidental victims of abuse in the form of verbal, physical or sexual violence, financial abuse and/or neglect by

  18. Getting practical in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, Hendrik Jan; Sonneveld, Wim; Fatih Taşar, M.

    2012-01-01

    Practical work is essential in secondary school science education. Although there is no doubt about that statement, for example in the Netherlands, there is a discussion going on about the efficiency of practical work: what do students learn when they work on practicals, and is this the most

  19. Robotics Activities in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg- de Lange, D.J.B.A.

    2010-01-01

    Since April 2010, in The Netherlands robotics activities are coordinated by RoboNED. This Dutch Robotics Platform, chaired by Prof. Stefano Stramigioli, aims to stimulate the synergy between the robotics fields and to formulate a focus. The goal of RoboNED is three fold: 1) RoboNED aims to bring the

  20. European Bat Lyssaviruses, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, van der W.H.M.; Heide, van der R.; Verstraten, E.R.A.M.; Kramps, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    To study European bat lyssavirus (EBLV) in bat reservoirs in the Netherlands, native bats have been tested for rabies since 1984. For all collected bats, data including species, age, sex, and date and location found were recorded. A total of 1,219 serotine bats, Eptesicus serotinus, were tested, and

  1. Coeliac disease in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweizer, JJ; Blomberg - van der Flier, von B.M.E.; Mesquita, HB Bueno-de; Mearin, ML

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of adult coeliac disease in The Netherlands was studied in the Dutch Coeliac Disease Society and in blood donors but not in the general population. We therefore studied the prevalence of recognized and unrecognized coeliac disease in a large cohort, representative of the

  2. Surgical training in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borel-Rinkes, Inne H. M.; Gouma, Dirk J.; Hamming, Jaap F.

    2008-01-01

    Surgical training in the Netherlands has traditionally been characterized by learning on the job under the classic master-trainee doctrine. Over the past decades, it has become regionally organized with intensive structural training courses, and a peer-based quality control system. Recently, the

  3. Work life in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossche, S. van den; Dhondt, S.; Genabeek, J. van; Goudswaard, A.; Hooftman, W.; Houtman, I.; Klein Hesselink, J.; Korte, E. de; Kraan, K.; Oeij, P.; Pot, F.; Smulders, P.G.W.; Vaas, F.; Wevers, C.; Willems, D.

    2012-01-01

    The nature of work is changing, not only in the Netherlands but throughout Europe. There is a growing demand for different types of products and services. These demands are influenced by technological developments and innovations, but also by globalization, which indicates the integration of

  4. Net Neutrality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.

    2014-01-01

    The Netherlands is among the first countries that have put specific net neutrality standards in place. The decision to implement specific regulation was influenced by at least three factors. The first was the prevailing social and academic debate, partly due to developments in the United States. The

  5. The electric power industry in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baleo, J.N.; Anthoine, K.; Vallon, D.; Baleo, V.

    2003-03-01

    As more than 99% of the electric power in Norway come from the hydro energy, the climatic conditions influence the energy prices. Since 1996 and because of an increasing consumption, the country needs to import electric power from Sweden, Denmark, Finland and for a little part Russia. This report evaluates the today situation, the distribution and production sources, the regulations, the Government policy and the research programs concerning the ''classical energy sources'' and the renewable energies. (A.L.B.)

  6. Doing Business in Norway: An International Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Warner-Søderholm, Gillian; Bertsch, Andy; Abdullah, ABM; Saeed, M.

    2014-01-01

    This is an open access journal available from the publisher Asian Research Consortium http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=publisher&type=167 With the recent economic crisis, in having a petroleum-based economy, Norway has withstood the fluctuation in the international business sector. Indeed, the Norwegian economy is prosperous despite the global recession. There is a positive outlook in the Norwegian market and there are no major deterrents for emerging business leaders. Nevert...

  7. Effects of climate changes in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sygna, Linda; O'Brien, Karen

    2001-02-01

    This report presents the conclusions of a seminar on ''Effects of climate changes'' held in Norway in Oct. 2000. Too little is known about how climatic changes affect nature and society. This type of research is not well supported economically and there has been a lack of coordinated and long-term funds. This may change, however, as the development of strategies to meet climatic changes in the future requires a unified understanding of their impacts

  8. Postpartum Depression Among Somali Women in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løvlie, Astrid Louise; Madar, Ahmed Ali

    2017-06-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) has been described as the most common complication experienced postpartum, affecting about 10-15 % of all new mothers. Factors like a history of mental illness, and experienced recent adverse life events has been associated with an increased risk for developing PPD. Immigrant women in Western countries have been found to have a marked higher prevalence of PPD compared to the general population. In Norway the prevalence of PPD in the general population has been found to be around 8-10 %, and among Pakistani immigrants a rate of 7.6 % was found. Somali people in Norway are the second largest immigrant group in Norway with a non-Western background. No study on PPD and associated factors among Somali women has been found in the literature. The aim of the study was to assess PPD and associated factors among Somali women in greater Oslo region, Norway. A cross-sectional survey was conducted; recruiting new mothers through all maternity wards in the Oslo region. Data was collected with interview-administrated questionnaires. PPD was assessed using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), defining those scoring ≥10 to have a possible PPD. Of the 80 eligible women identified, 39 (49 %) consented to participate, and completed the study. Of the 39 respondents 3 (7.7 %) were assessed to have a possible PPD. Most important associated factors found were history of mental illness, having experienced technical assistance during delivery, self-rated health and experienced economical problems last 12 months. A low prevalence of PPD was found, and both the prevalence and its associated factors should be interpreted with caution. The associated factors do not have enough power to give any strength to the associations. However, some of the results can be used in develop new hypotheses with regard to PPD among Somali women as immigrants in a Western society.

  9. Power production and energy consumption in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    The main electrical resource of Norway comes from its rivers: 99% of the electric power is produced by hydroelectric power plants. Other sources, like wind and natural gas, are envisaged for the enhancement of Norway's energy production capacity. In this document, the part devoted to power production presents the different electricity production sources and their impact on the Norwegian economy. The energy consumption is detailed in the third part with an historical review of its evolution and a description of the main sectors involved in this consumption. The forth part describes the main actors of the energy sector with their industrial structure, the research institutes and universities performing R and D in this domain, and the energy trades with surrounding countries. The fifth part stresses on the research projects, on the government promoting actions through the Norwegian Research Council, and gives some examples of todays research projects. The sixth part deals with international cooperation in the R and D domain with a particular attention given to the relations between Norway, France and Europe. (J.S.)

  10. Spinal cord injuries among paragliders in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekand, T; Schaanning, E E; Varga, V; Schattel, U; Gronning, M

    2008-06-01

    A national retrospective descriptive study. To study the clinical effects of spinal cord injuries (SCIs) caused by paragliding accidents in Norway. Spinal cord units at Haukeland University Hospital, Sunnaas Rehabilitation Hospital and St Olav Hospital in Norway. We studied the medical files for nine patients with SCI caused by paragliding accidents to evaluate the circumstances of the accidents, and clinical effects of injury. We obtained the data from hospital patient files at all three spinal units in Norway and crosschecked them through the Norwegian Paragliding Association's voluntary registry for injuries. All patients were hospitalized from 1997 to 2006, eight men and one woman, with mean age 30.7 years. The causes of the accidents were landing problems combined with unexpected wind whirls, technical problems and limited experience with unexpected events. All patients contracted fractures in the thoracolumbal junction of the spine, most commonly at the L1 level. At clinical follow-up, all patients presented clinically incomplete SCI (American Spinal Injury Association impairment scores B-D). Their main health problems differed widely, ranging from urinary and sexual disturbances to neuropathic pain and loss of motor functioning. Only three patients returned to full-time employment after rehabilitation. Paragliding accidents cause spinal fractures predominantly in the thoracolumbal junction with subsequent SCIs and increased morbidity. All patients experienced permanent health problems that influenced daily activities and required long-time clinical follow-up and medical intervention. Better education in landing techniques and understanding of aerodynamics may reduce the risk of paragliding accidents.

  11. Norway in a liberalized European energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aune, Finn Roar; Golombek, Rolf; Rosendahl, Knut Einar; Kittelsen, Sverre A.C.

    2000-01-01

    The authors study the short-term effects of a comprehensive liberalization of the gas and power markets in Europe. The analysis is based on a statically applied general equilibrium model which gives an overall and consistent treatment of the energy markets in Europe. The model preserves the structural features in the production, transport and consumption of gas and electricity in Europe, as well as the new competitive situation arising from the liberalization. It is found that the liberalization leads to a strong fall in the price of electricity. The fall in price reflects increased competition and that idle capacity in the power sector is used to increase the production of electricity. In comparison with the real observations in 1996 (the basis year of the model) the price to the end-user is cut in half. The liberalization also leads to a fall in the price of gas. The price fall reflects in part increased competition, in part the fact that falling prise of electricity reduces the demand for gas. However, the price reduction (in per cent) is not as great as for electricity. The model is also used to study the effects in Norway of increased gas production when the gas is either used in increased gas power production in Norway, or is exported. The main conclusion is that (1) the total emission of carbon dioxide goes down in Western Europe, (2) the reduction is greatest if the gas is burned as gas power in Norway

  12. 75 FR 76664 - Commerce Control List: Revising Descriptions of Items and Foreign Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ..., 1401 Constitution Avenue, NW., Room 2705, Washington, DC 20230, ATTN: Notice of Inquiry--CCL. FOR..., Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden...

  13. Operational Law Handbook 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-26

    Denmark Egypt France [Greece] India Iraq Japan Luxembourg Morocco Nepal [the Netherlands] Norway Oman Pakistan Saudi Arabia [Spain...Support Equipment CSH Combat Support Hospital CSM Command Sergeant Major CSP Contracting Support Plan CSR Controlled Supply Rate CSS Combat Service

  14. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 744 - Countries Not Subject to Certain Nuclear End-Use Restrictions in § 744.2(a)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY: END-USER AND END-USE BASED Pt. 744, Supp. 3... Marino and Holy See) Japan Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Norway Portugal Spain Sweden Turkey United...

  15. 32 CFR 728.42 - NATO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 728.42 NATO. (a) NATO SOFA nations. Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Federal Republic of Germany, France, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, the United Kingdom...

  16. Understanding the RECORDS 3 Trial and its impact on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-12-06

    Dec 6, 2015 ... outdated and highly vulnerable manufacturing processes and predictably ... Mexico, the Netherlands, Norway, Peru South Africa,. Spain, and Sweden. ... quality of life of patients in the two arms as an outcome measure.

  17. CDC Vital Signs: Motor Vehicle Crash Deaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ireland, Israel, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. Problem Motor ... 0.02-0.05%). Use advanced engineering and technology, such as: Ignition interlocks for all people convicted ...

  18. 77 FR 12935 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; New Designated Country (Armenia) and Other Trade Agreements Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... necessary, to select regulatory approaches that maximize net benefits (including potential economic... regarding the burden estimates or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions..., Macao China, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain...

  19. [Suicide in Spain today].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Pérez, Isabel; Olry de Labry-Lima, Antonio

    2006-03-01

    Spain presents one of the lowest suicide rates (8.7 per 100,000) but, as well as Ireland, it has also experienced one of the highest rate increases both within Europe and within the world. In our country, it can be observed an increase in the suicide rates from 1975 to 1994, being this increase greater in men than in women. It can also be noted that there was a stabilisation in the following years. Social factors, specially those which have to deal with gender roles and changes in these roles, are the most common explanations. Another possible explanation for the observed increase in mortality due to suicide among young men could be the AIDS epidemic and intravenous drug addiction, that was observed in Spain during the eighties and nineties. Furthermore, we are witnessing an epidemic related to violence against children and women. Literature strongly suggests that child abuse (psychological and sexual) is associated with increased suicide risk in adolescent or adult life. Women experience violence from their intimate partners and have a greater risk of suffering from chronic pain, diverse somatisations, greater substance use like drugs and alcohol, depression and suicide attempt. The association between work precariousness and suicide seems to be due to economic and social and family support factors, which can lead to greater vulnerability to mental health problems. These factors are of great relevance, since Spain presents one of the highest unemployment and temporary employment rates in the European Union. It seems reasonable that, due to the individualism that characterises the contemporary society, its demands and the new role of women in the work market that cause, among others, a greater difficulty in combining work and family life, are factors that could explain the lack of decrease in suicide rates.

  20. Energy planning in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortina Garcia, J.

    1995-01-01

    This report aims to describe energy planning in Spain. It briefly analyses the three completed national energy plans (Plan Energetico Nacional, PEN). The fourth PEN 1991-2000 is analysed in detail, by reference to its objectives and characteristics and to developments during its first five years in operation. The Ministry of Industry and Energy has updated PEN en 1995, almost halfway through its period, and this is also summarised. Finally, there are some reflections on the future of energy planning. (Author) 46 refs

  1. Norway’s Challenges In the High North

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    North an important area. Norway has jurisdiction over about one million square miles at sea, seven times larger than the mainland territory; therefore...creates an enormous expanse of territorial waters and a vast economic zone. Norway has jurisdiction over about one million square miles at sea, seven...islands, like the Russian mining community situated in Barentsburg. In turn, Norway exercises authority in the Fishery Protection Zone around Svalbard

  2. Nuclear material control in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velilla, A.

    1988-01-01

    A general view about the safeguards activities in Spain is presented. The national system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials is described. The safeguards agreements signed by Spain are presented and the facilities and nuclear materials under these agreements are listed. (E.G.) [pt

  3. Early Childhood Inclusion in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giné, Climent; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Cañadas, Margarita; Paniagua, Gema

    2016-01-01

    This article describes early childhood inclusion in educational settings in Spain. First, we address the legislative framework of preschool education in Spain and offer a brief analysis of some relevant issues, including the current situation of early childhood education and inclusion at this stage. Second, current policies and practices relating…

  4. Future spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste infrastructure in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerlie, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    In Norway a Governmental Committee was appointed in 1991 to make an evaluation of the future steps that need to be taken in Norway to find a final solution for the spent nuclear fuel and for some other radioactive waste for which a disposal option does not exist today. The report from the Committee is now undergoing a formal hearing process. Based on the Committees recommendation and comments during the hearing the responsible Ministry will take a decision on future infrastructure in Norway for the spent nuclear fuel. This will be decisive for the future management of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste in Norway. (author)

  5. Empowering Local Electricity Markets: A survey study from Switzerland, Norway, Spain and Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Reuter, Emmanuelle; Loock, Moritz

    2017-01-01

    Greater integration of renewable energy sources constitutes a key priority for successfully achieving agreed-upon climate goal targets. Nuclear phase out, decentralization of supply, liberalization, digital technological innovations, and the sharing economy are only some of the key issues that the energy industry is facing in the coming decade. Notwithstanding some of the associated challenges, a number of tremendous opportunities are also arising, and success can be achieved by introducin...

  6. Analysis of the Preferences for a New Convenient Seafood Product: Empirical Application for Spain and Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Dopico, Domingo Calvo; Olsen, Svein Ottar; Tudoran, Alina

    2007-01-01

    Fish and seafood products represent a very healthy food, low in saturated fats and offer an excellent source of protein essential for our health. However, very often, consumer behaviour would seem to infer that seafood products do not rank particularly highly in terms of preference, this being due to the perception of various physical and psychological costs, which represent barriers to consumption. Consequently, there is an opportunity to develop new tailor-made seafood products more adapted...

  7. Environmental performance reviews: Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-10-01

    The second OECD Review of Spain's environmental performance reviews Spain's progress in the context of OECD environmental strategy for the first decade of the 21st century in relation to its own policy objectives. It praises a number of achievements such as in commitments to climate change policies and developments of cogeneration and renewable energy sources. Although emissions of sulphur dioxide from the energy sector have fallen since 1990 they are still high when measured per capita and per unit of GDP. The OECD recommends further control of emissions of SOx, NOx, VOCs and NH{sub 3}. Subsidies such as compulsory purchase of domestic coal by electricity producers are set to increase. The report recommends the phasing out of environmental subsidies (which has begun) and making use of economic instruments to encourage efficient resource management and reduction of pollutants. Greenhouse gas emissions increased by 38% between 1990 and 2002 and the outlook for the next few years is pessimistic. 39 figs., 31 tabs.

  8. Nuclear energy in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villota, C. de

    2007-01-01

    Carlos Villota. Director of Nuclear Energy of UNESA gave an overview of the Spanish nuclear industry, the utility companies and the relevant institutions. Companies of the nuclear industry include firms that produce heavy components or equipment (ENSA), manufacturers of nuclear fuel (ENUSA), engineering companies, the National Company for Radioactive Waste Management (ENRESA), and nuclear power plants (nine units at seven sites). Nuclear energy is a significant component of the energy mix in Spain: 11% of all energy produced in Spain is of nuclear origin, whilst the share of nuclear energy in the total electricity generation is approximately 23%. The five main players of the energy sector that provide for the vast majority of electricity production, distribution, and supply have formed the Spanish Electricity Industry Association (UNESA). The latter carries out co-ordination, representation, management and promotion tasks for its members, as well as the protection of their business and professional interests. In the nuclear field, UNESA through its Nuclear Energy Committee co-ordinates aspects related to nuclear safety and radiological protection, regulation, NPP operation and R and D. Regarding the institutional framework of the nuclear industry, ENSA, ENUSA and ENRESA are controlled by the national government through the Ministry of Economy and Finance and the Ministry of Science and Technology. All companies of the nuclear industry are licensed by the Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade (MITYC), while the regulatory body is the Nuclear Safety Council (CSN). It is noteworthy that CSN is independent of the government, as it reports directly to Parliament. (author)

  9. Solar energy in Amersfoort, Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eijpe, H.A.

    1997-01-01

    For the first time in the world a newly to be built housing area (Nieuwland in Amersfoort, Netherlands) will be constructed, exclusively on the basis of sustainability. First, the use of three forms of solar energy conversion techniques (thermal solar energy, passive solar energy and photovoltaic energy) is going to be integrated in 50 rental houses. At the end of this century 10,000 m 2 of solar cells will be installed with a capacity of 1 MWp. 2 figs

  10. Natural gas in Norway - Possibilities and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerstad, H.; Eldegard, T.; Reve, T.; Sunnevaag, K.; Aarrestad, J.

    1995-06-01

    Norway is rich in gas resources. In recent years, gas sales from the Norwegian continental shelf have been in the order of 25 to 30 billion Sm 3 /yr and are expected to increase strongly the next 10 to 15 years. However, a scattered population, a difficult topography, long distances between large potential consumers and where the gas is brought ashore, make it difficult to utilize the gas commercially in this country. Moreover, the gas will have to compete with a highly developed hydro-electric network. This report evaluates possibilities and hindrances in the establishment of a home market for natural gas in Norway. The low population density implies that using gas for preheating of water, heating of rooms etc will not become important except, perhaps, locally, where gas may be available for other reasons. As a source of energy and raw material in many industrial processes, natural gas can become important in some coastal areas and in central parts of eastern Norway. Discussions are in progress on gas power stations for electricity production. This has aroused some controversy because of environmental problems, and for political acceptance gas power will have to replace coal power. As a fuel, gas may be of interest for domestic ferries and for busses. A lack of capital under financial risk and gas prices limit the market development. Although tax policy is presently favourable to gas power, the risk taken by private investors in converting to natural gas is increased by their not knowing for how long the gas will be exempt from environmental tax. 74 refs., 8 figs., 27 tabs

  11. The hunt for a Cs-137 cloud in Southern Europe. Aftermath of an accident in Algeciras, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hantke, T.; Aldenkamp, F.; Overwater, R.; Slaper, H.

    1998-01-01

    In a scrap processing business in Algeciras in Spain a cesium source accidentally was melted along with the scrap in a blast-furnace of the steel industry Acerinox. The National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM, abbreviated in Dutch) measured the radioactive release on monitors in Bilthoven, Netherlands. Model calculations, in combination with measured data, show that there was no reason to warn Dutch tourists at Mallorca, Spain. The accident also is a test for the reliability of monitoring networks and distribution models

  12. Ranavirus-associated mass mortality in wild amphibians, the Netherlands, 2010: a first report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kik, Marja; Martel, An; Sluijs, Annemarieke Spitzen-van der; Pasmans, Frank; Wohlsein, Peter; Gröne, Andrea; Rijks, Jolianne M

    2011-11-01

    In 2010, a mass die-off of over 1000 wild water frogs (Pelophylax spp.) and at least 10 common newts (Lissotriton vulgaris) occurred in a pond in The Netherlands. Haemorrhagic disease with hepatomegaly and splenomegaly was evident. Microscopically, multiple organs presented cells with multifocal intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies, in which ranavirus-like particles were demonstrated ultrastructurally. All specimens examined tested positive for ranavirus by PCR. The sequence obtained showed a 100% identity with the one deposited for common midwife toad virus (CMTV). This is the first report of ranavirus-associated mortality in wild amphibian populations in The Netherlands. It is also the first time CMTV or a CMTV-like virus has been reported in these two species in the adult stage and outside of Spain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. China renewable energy in Africa and Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This study assesses the potential for Norwegian engagement in Sino-African renewable energy development. The study analyzes Norwegian competitiveness and complementarities towards Chinese energy actors in the African market, and identifies respective strengths and weaknesses against the backdrop of the African market. The report identifies barriers and opportunities for Norwegian commercial and developmental engagement towards upscaling renewable energy in Africa that may also apply to other OECD countries. Finally, the report points to possibilities for Norway to support sustainable Sino-African renewable energy development.(auth)

  14. New Moho map of southern Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stratford, Wanda Rose; Thybo, Hans; Faleide, J.-I.

    2009-01-01

    A recent seismic refraction study across southern Norway has revealed that the up to 2469 m high Southern Scandes Mountains are not isostatically compensated by a thick crust. Rather, the Moho depths are close to average for continental crust with elevations of ~1 km. Evidence from new seismic data......, low densities in the upper-mantle or mantle dynamics, is likely. The relationship between topography and Moho depth breaks down for the Oslo Graben and the Fennoscandian Shield to the east and north. High density lower crustal rocks below Oslo Graben and increasing crust and lithospheric thicknesses...

  15. Norway's ICT Accessibility Legislation, Methods and Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygg, Malin; Rømen, Dagfinn; Sterri, Brynhild Runa

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Norwegian legislation on Universal Design of information and communication technology (ICT) and how the Norwegian Authority for Universal Design of ICT works to enforce and achieve the goals behind the legislation. The Authority uses indicators to check websites for compliance with the regulations. This paper describes the rationale and intended use for the indicators and how they are used for both supervision and benchmarks as well as a way of gathering data to give an overview of the current state of Universal Design of websites in Norway.

  16. Development of energy law in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakken, Stein Arne

    2000-01-01

    In Norway, energy law is still in its infancy, nine years after the deregulation of the energy market. But on the year 2000 budget 1,5 million NOK have been made available for research and teaching of energy law at Nordic Institute for Maritime Law, University of Oslo. This institute has for many years been working on judicial matters in connection with the offshore petroleum activities and has extended their research into problems faced by the electric power sector after the deregulation of the market

  17. Oil and gas taxation in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oien, A.

    1992-01-01

    The Norwegian petroleum tax system builds on the general business tax system. A reform of the petroleum tax system was therefore prompted by the reform of the ordinary company tax system in Norway. The reform of the general company taxation system made a reform of the petroleum taxation system necessary. As the petroleum tax system had to be changed, it was natural to review the incentive structure of the system to see if it could be improved. These two elements formed the foundation of the work on petroleum tax reform. (Author)

  18. Daylight and absenteeism--evidence from Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markussen, Simen; Røed, Knut

    2015-01-01

    Based on administrative register data from Norway, we examine the impact of hours of daylight on sick-leave absences among workers. Our preferred estimates imply that an additional hour of daylight increases the daily entry rate to absenteeism by 0.5 percent and the corresponding recovery rate by 0.8 percent, ceteris paribus. The overall relationship between absenteeism and daylight hours is negative. Absenteeism is also sensitive to weather conditions. Heavy snowfall raises the incidence of absence during the winter, while warm weather reduces the probability of returning to work during the summer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Vitamin K requirement in Danish anticoagulant-resistant Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mette D.; Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Nielsen, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus, Denmark, anticoagulant rodenticide resistance, vitamin K requirement......Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus, Denmark, anticoagulant rodenticide resistance, vitamin K requirement...

  20. IEA HPP Annex 29 - ground-source heat pumps overcoming technical and market barriers. Status report Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stene, Joern

    2004-12-01

    Norway is a member of Annex 29, 'Ground-Source Heat Pump Systems Overcoming Technical and Market Barriers' (2004-2006), organized under the umbrella of the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the IEA Heat Pump Programme (HPP). The 7 participating countries are Austria (Operating Agent), Canada, Japan, Norway, Spain, Sweden and the USA. The Norwegian participation is financed by ENOVA SF, and SINTEF Energy Research is responsible for planning and carrying out the Norwegian activities. This report provides a status for ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems in Norway with regard to state-of-the-art technology, installation examples, geological data, costs and market opportunities. A Norwegian Internet home page for ground-source heat pump systems (www.energy.sintef.no/prosjekt/Annex29) is also presented. GSHP systems in Norway are classified as direct systems (groundwater and soil/ground) and indirect closed-loop systems (vertical-rock and horizontal-soil/ground). The vast majority of the installations are indirect closed-loop systems utilizing vertical boreholes in rock as a heat source, heat sink and thermal energy storage. GSHP systems are relatively capital intensive installations, but they achieve high energy efficiency due to the relatively high and stable heat source temperature and the fact that a considerable share of the cooling demand in non-residential buildings can be covered by means of free cooling. In order to obtain energy efficient and reliable GSHP installations, it is important to implement a total quality concept where focus is on quality and system integration during all stages of the project. A life cycle analysis (LCA) will be an important tool in such a concept, since both the investment costs as well as the lifetime operational and maintenance costs are included (author) (ml) Litt usikker pae tag 620- ikke en vanlig sintef rapportkode

  1. Burnup credit in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conde, J.M.; Recio, M.

    2001-01-01

    The status of development of burnup credit for criticality safety analyses in Spain is described in this paper. Ongoing activities in the country in this field, both national and international, are resumed. Burnup credit is currently being applied to wet storage of PWR fuel, and credit to integral burnable absorbers is given for BWR fuel storage. It is envisaged to apply burnup credit techniques to the new generation of transport casks now in the design phase. The analysis methodologies submitted for the analyses of PWR and BWR fuel wet storage are outlined. Analytical activities in the country are described, as well as international collaborations in this field. Perspectives for future research and development of new applications are finally resumed. (author)

  2. Young Christians in Norway, national socialism, and the German ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The German occupation of Norway during the Second World War caused unprecedented problems for the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Norway and other Christian denominations. The subordination of the church to the de facto Nazi state eventually led its bishops and most of its pastors to sever their ties to the ...

  3. King Harald V and Queen Sonja of Norway visit CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Norway's King Harald V and Queen Sonja take a tour of the ATLAS detector with CERN's Director-General Robert Aymar in April 2006. During their visit the royal party met with members of CERN's Norwegian community. A group of about 40 students greeted the royal motorcade with a belting rendition of 'The King's Song', Norway's royal anthem.

  4. Marine Spatial Planning: Norway´s management plans

    OpenAIRE

    Hoel, Alf Håkon; Olsen, Erik

    2010-01-01

    Since the adoption of a government white paper on ocean governance in 2001, Norway has worked on the development and implementation of marine spatial planning in the format of regional management plans. Management plans for the Barents Sea and the oceans off northern Norway and the Norwegian Sea were adopted in 2006 and 2009, respect...

  5. A Report on the HEAD-Ache in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjeldvoll, Arild; Welle-Strand, Anne

    2009-01-01

    The article examines different understandings of school leadership in Norway by reporting the findings of a HEAD Project (2004-8). The article discusses how school leadership training in Norway has responded to the government's educational policy aims and strategies in the context of globalization. using the concept of "education value…

  6. The Spanish Wind Energy Situation and Comparison with Portugal and The Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varela, M.; Gonzalez, R. [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain)

    1999-05-01

    This report review the institutional and legal framework of wind energy in Spain as well as the current market situation, considering the geographical distribution of power, its past evaluation, what are the spanish foreseen wind power. A review of main actor within the wind market: suppliers promoters, administrative bodies, is also performed. The second part of the report carries out a comparison of the Spanish wind energy situation with the current conditions in Portugal and The Netherlands. These two countries present different approaches to wind energy integration. Finally, the report states some differences and weak points comparing their wind energy situation with the Spanish one. (Author) 12 refs.

  7. "In Holland we are a nice family. In Norway we are a happy family!": Om nederlandske entreprenører i bygde-Norge

    OpenAIRE

    Risvaag, Lillian Beate

    2011-01-01

    Norwegians keep moving away from the small villages in the countryside to the bigger towns. They seek the urban life far away from the boring and all too safe life in the parish. In other countries we can see something different, and among these are Netherland. More and more people here wants away from the stressful life in the big tows, to peace and quiet in rural areas. Their only problem is the lack of these places. Some solve this problem by moving to countries like Norway. This thesi...

  8. Road deaths in the Netherlands. [Previously known as: Road fatalities in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    This fact sheet outlines the development of the number of road deaths in the Netherlands since 1950. After a rise in the 1950s and 1960s, the number of road deaths in the Netherlands has shown a gradual decline since 1973. In 2016, there were 629 road deaths in the Netherlands. After the years of

  9. HIV Transmission Patterns Among The Netherlands, Suriname, and The Netherlands Antilles: A Molecular Epidemiological Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, Merlijn A.; Cornelissen, Marion; Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Prins, Maria; Coutinho, Roel A.; van Sighem, Ard I.; Sabajo, Lesley; Duits, Ashley J.; Winkel, Cai N.; Prins, Jan M.; van der Ende, Marchina E.; Kauffmann, Robert H.; Op de Coul, Eline L.

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to study patterns of HIV transmission among Suriname, The Netherlands Antilles, and The Netherlands. Fragments of env, gag, and pol genes of 55 HIV-infected Surinamese, Antillean, and Dutch heterosexuals living in The Netherlands and 72 HIV-infected heterosexuals living in Suriname and the

  10. The presence of hydrocarbons in southeast Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanken, Niels Martin; Hansen, Malene Dolberg; Kresten Nielsen, Jesper

    Hydrocarbons, mostly found as solid pyrobitumen, are known from more than 30 localities in southeast Norway. They occur as inclusions in a wide range of "reservoir rocks" spanning from Permo-Carboniferous breccias to veins (vein quartz and calcite veins) in Precambrian granites, gneisses and amph......Hydrocarbons, mostly found as solid pyrobitumen, are known from more than 30 localities in southeast Norway. They occur as inclusions in a wide range of "reservoir rocks" spanning from Permo-Carboniferous breccias to veins (vein quartz and calcite veins) in Precambrian granites, gneisses......, indicating that Alum Shale was the most important source rock. Petrographic investigations combined with stable isotope analyses (d13C and d18O) of the cement containing pyrobitumen indicate two phases of hydrocarbon migration. The first phase probably took place in Upper Silurian to Lower Devonian time......, when the Alum Shale entered the oil window. These hydrocarbons are mostly found as pyrobitumen in primary voids and calcite cemented veins in Cambro-Silurian sedimentary deposits. The second phase is probably of Late Carboniferous/Permian age and was due to the increased heat flow during the formation...

  11. Results of workplace drug testing in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde Marie Erøy Lund

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Workplace drug testing is less common in Norway than in many other countries. During the period from 2000-2006, 13469 urine or blood samples from employees in the offshore industry, shipping companies and aviation industry were submitted to the Norwegian Institute of Public Health for drug testing. The samples were analysed for benzodiazepines, illicit drugs, muscle relaxants with sedating properties, opioids and z-hypnotics. In total, 2.9% of the samples were positive for one or more substances. During the study period the prevalence decreased for morphine (from 1.9% to 1.1% and increased for amphetamine (from 0.04% to 0.6%, clonazepam (from 0% to 0.1%, methamphetamine (from 0.04% to 0.6%, nitrazepam (from 0% to 0.4% and oxazepam (from 0.5% to 1.3% (p<0.05. There was no significant change in prevalence for the other substances included in the analytical programme. Illicit drugs were significantly associated with lower age (OR: 0.93, p<0.05. This study found low prevalence of drugs among employees in companies with workplace drug testing programmes in Norway.

  12. Avoiding the resource curse the case Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holden, Steinar

    2013-01-01

    In many countries, natural resources have been detrimental to the economic development. The literature on “the resource curse” shows a bleak relationship: countries with large natural resources generally experience lower economic growth than other countries. Norway does not fit into this picture. Economic growth has much higher than in most other industrialized countries. This paper describes the key features of the Norwegian management of the petroleum resources. The main focus is on the management of the revenues from the petroleum sector, but the effects of the petroleum sector on the Norwegian economy more generally are also discussed. - Highlights: • In Norway, the sizeable petroleum resources have led to higher economic growth and a higher GDP per capita, measured in purchasing power parities. • This paper describes the key features of the Norwegian management of the petroleum resources. • The main focus is on the management of the revenues from the petroleum sector • Effects of the petroleum sector on the Norwegian economy more generally are also discussed

  13. Playing with LISEM: Experiences from Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greipsland, Inga; Krzeminska, Dominika

    2017-04-01

    Reducing soil loss from agricultural land is an important environmental challenge that is of relevance for both the European Soil Thematic Strategy (EC 2002) and the Water Framework Directive (EC 2000). Agricultural land in Norway is scarce, covering only around 3% of the total land area (The World Bank, 2015), which puts stress on preserving soil quality for food production. Additionally, reducing sediment loss is a national priority because of associated transport of pollutants such as phosphorous, which can cause eutrophication in nearby waterbodies. It is necessary to find tools that can estimate the effect of different scenarios on erosion processes on agricultural areas. We would like to present the challenges experienced and the results obtained by using LISEM (Limburg Soil Erosion Model) on the plot- subcatchment- and catchment scale in southeastern Norway. The agricultural catchment has been the subject of long-term monitoring of water quality. Challenges included spatial upscaling of local calibration, calibration on areas with very low soil loss rates and equifinality. In this poster, we want to facilitate a discussion about the possibilities of and limitations to the model for predicting hydrological and soil erosion processes at different scales.

  14. Coordinating health care: lessons from Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trond Tjerbo

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: What influences the coordination of care between general practitioners and hospitals? In this paper, general practitioner satisfaction with hospital—GP interaction is revealed, and related to several background variables. Method: A questionnaire was sent to all general practitioners in Norway (3388, asking their opinion on the interaction and coordination of health care in their district. A second questionnaire was sent to all the somatic hospitals in Norway (59 regarding formal routines and structures. The results were analysed using ordinary least squares regression. Results: General practitioners tend to be less satisfied with the coordination of care when their primary hospital is large and cost-effective with a high share of elderly patients. Together with the degree to which the general practitioner is involved in arenas where hospital physicians and general practitioners interact, these factors turned out to be good predictors of general practitioner satisfaction. Implication: To improve coordination between general practitioners and specialists, one should focus upon the structural traits within the hospitals in different regions as well as creating common arenas where the physicians can interact.

  15. [Medical publishing in Norway 1905-2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylenna, Magne; Larsen, Øivind

    2005-06-02

    The nation-building process in Norway took mainly place before the Norwegian-Swedish union came to a close in 1905. This was not a dramatic change, though the end of the union did bring a lift to Norwegian national consciousness. In 1905 there were three general medical journals in Norway and approximately 1200 doctors. German was the most important language of international science, but most scientific publishing was done in Norwegian. After the Second World War, English became the dominating language of scientific communication. Twentieth-century medicine and medical publishing was an era of specialisation and internationalisation. Norwegian medicine has to a large extent been internationalised through Nordic cooperation, with the Nordic specialist journals being of particular importance. With increasing professionalism in research, international English-language journals have become the major channels of communication, though several Norwegian-language journals (on paper or on the internet) have been established and are of crucial importance to a national identity within medical specialties. In 2005 there is only one general medical journal in Norwegian, in a country with approximately 20,000 doctors. A national identity related to medical publishing is not given much attention, though national medicine is still closely tied in with national culture. Good clinical practice should be based on a firm knowledge of local society and local tradition. This is a challenge in contemporary medical publishing.

  16. Cesarean section among immigrants in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangen, S; Stoltenberg, C; Skrondal, A; Magnus, P; Stray-Pedersen, B

    2000-07-01

    We studied prevalences and risk factors for cesarean section among different groups of immigrants from countries outside Western Europe and North America in comparison to ethnic Norwegians. The study is population based using data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. A total of 553,491 live births during the period 1986-1995 were studied, including 17,891 births to immigrant mothers. The prevalences of cesarean section ranged from 10.1% among women from Vietnam to 25.8% in the group of Filipino origin. The use of abdominal delivery was also high in the groups from Sri Lanka/India (21.3%), Somalia/Eritrea/Ethiopia (20.5%) and Chile/Brazil (24.3%), while the frequency among women from Turkey/Morocco (12.6%) and Pakistan (13.2%) was approximately the same as among ethnic Norwegians (12.4%). Feto-pelvic disproportion, fetal distress and prolonged labor were the most important diagnoses associated with the high prevalences, but the significance of these diagnoses differed among the groups. Other unknown factors come into play, particularly among women from Somalia/Eritrea/Ethiopia and Chile/Brazil. There was substantial variation in the use of cesarean section among ethnic groups in Norway. The diagnoses feto-pelvic disproportion, fetal distress and prolonged labor may be confounded by a number of factors including maternal request for cesarean section and difficulties in handling the delivery. Further research is needed to explain the observed differences.

  17. Spent fuel management in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    The spent fuel management strategy in Spain is presented. The strategy includes temporary solutions and plans for final disposal. The need for R and D including partitioning and transmutation, as well as the financial constraints are also addressed. (author)

  18. Reactor safety in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eendebak, B.Th.

    1983-01-01

    In this book, the author gives a survey of the most important safety aspects of the construction and operation of nuclear power plants in the Netherlands. It deals with concrete questions like how to choose appropriate sites for power plants; what are the risks for people living in their surroundings; what are the consequences of possible accidents; what to do with the nuclear wastes and what are the conseqences for new generations. For answering these questions, the author has presented a fairly well documented outline of the contemporary problems. So, the book is a useful tool for everybody who wants to become acquainted with the nuclear controversy (G.J.P.)

  19. The Social State of the Netherlands 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rob Bijl; Jeroen Boelhouwer; Evert Pommer; Peggy Schyns

    2010-01-01

    How is the Dutch population faring? That is the central question addressed in The Social State of the Netherlands 2009. In this book we describe the present status of the Netherlands and the Dutch in a number of key areas of life, and also highlight the changes that have taken place in people's

  20. The Upper Permian in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, W.A.

    1955-01-01

    The Upper Permian in the Netherlands, as known from borehole data, is deposited in a mainly evaporitic facies north of the Brabant and Rhenish Massifs. In the extreme south (Belgian Campine, de Peel) a near-shore facies of reef dolomites and elastics occurs. In the western and central Netherlands

  1. The Poor Side of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cok Vrooman; Stella Hoff

    2004-01-01

    Poverty is a theme that has attracted a great deal of attention in the Netherlands over the last decade, both in government policy and in academic research and statistics. Since 1997 the Social and Cultural Planning Office (SCP) and Statistics Netherlands (CBS) have published a regular Poverty

  2. Rise in maternal mortality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutte, J. M.; Steegers, E. A. P.; Schuitemaker, N. W. E.; Santema, J. G.; de Boer, K.; Pel, M.; Vermeulen, G.; Visser, W.; van Roosmalen, J.

    2010-01-01

    To assess causes, trends and substandard care factors in maternal mortality in the Netherlands. Design Confidential enquiry into the causes of maternal mortality. Nationwide in the Netherlands. 2,557,208 live births. Data analysis of all maternal deaths in the period 1993-2005. Maternal mortality.

  3. The Netherlands: A Case of Fading Leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liefferink, J.D.; Boezeman, D.F.; Coninck, H.C. de; Wurzel, R.K.W.; Connelly, J.; Liefferink, D.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter analyses the relationship between the development of domestic climate policy in the Netherlands and the Dutch efforts in this field in the EU and international arena since the 1980s. Traditionally, the Netherlands has enjoyed a reputation as an environmental and climate leader, based on

  4. The Social State of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rob Bijl; Jeroen Boelhouwer; Evert Pommer

    2007-01-01

    Original title: De sociale staat van Nederland 2007. How is the Dutch population faring? That is the central question addressed in The Social State of the Netherlands 2007. To answer this question, the report describes the position of the Netherlands and the Dutch in a number of key areas of

  5. Agricultural marketing in Belgium and The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Viaene, J.

    1993-01-01

    Agriculture in Belgium and the Netherlands has a strong export tradition and has been market oriented for a long time. In this article agricultural markeling in Belgium and the Netherlands is analyzed on the basis of the concepts structure, conduct and performance. In our review of market structure

  6. The European Gas and Oil Market: The Role of Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbo, F.

    2008-01-01

    The research question of this paper is related to the role of Norway in the European gas and oil market. This study aims to give a presentation of the energy policy in Norway and Norwegian participation at the European level. The first chapter will introduce Norwegian relations with Europe. For the purpose of my research, I will focus mainly on Norwegian energy policy in the second chapter, presenting Norway's oil industry in chapter 2.1.; Norwegian gas production in chapter 2.2.; and the Norwegian electrical power system in chapter 2.3. The sub-chapter 2.4. will analyse in detail the activity of the largest Norwegian oil and gas company, StatoilHydro. The third chapter will be dedicated to Norway's green energy policy (wind, sun and water), etc. The fourth chapter looks at the European perspective and will examine the European strategic gas and oil market in a globalized world. The fifth chapter will present Norway's participation in the European gas and oil market. Such strategic research must also include a look at the European Union's (EU) energy market development between Russia and Norway, which will be presented in chapter six. And finally, Norway's contribution to the development of an EU energy policy in fighting climate change will be emphasised in chapter seven. This research will analyse the following central issues: - Norwegian oil industry, - Norwegian gas production, - Norwegian electrical power system, - Norwegian challenges in the European gas and oil market. (author)

  7. Nuclear power in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koryakin, Yu.I.

    1977-01-01

    The present states of nuclear power in Spain is shortly surveyed. Data are provided on NPPs currently in operation, under construction, designed and planned. In line with the 10-year ''National programme of electricity supply'' a major and all increasing part of the electricity generation growth is to be ensured by NPPs and to account for more than 50% by the end of the period (1987). Out of the 7 units of NPPs now under construction, 6 units utilize PWR reactors and only 1 unit- a BWR reactor. The roles of private and public sectors are noted. Main characteristics of the ''ENSA'' plant now under construction are provided where components of NPPs with PWR and BWR reactors will be fabricated. Major developments in the fields of mining, milling and extraction of U from lignites, U enrichment, fuel fabrication and spent fuel reprocessing are considered. Measures now taken to improve the licensing procedure, surveillance of NPPs and personnel training are to advance the nuclear power development programme in the country

  8. Natural gas in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Voogd, J G

    1965-08-01

    In 1948, the first natural gas was found in Netherlands. Since 1951 it has been supplied by gas undertakings. Originally reserves were limited (c. 350 milliard ftU3D of dry gas in the NE. and c. 175 milliard ftU3D, mostly wet gas, in the SW). These finds have been completely overshadowed by the huge deposits discovered in 1960 in the province of Groningen near the village of Slochteren, these reserves being estimated now at 38.5 billion ftU3D at least. This gas is not of high cal val (894 Btu/ftU3D), but contains only traces of sulfur. The concession is being developed for a partnership formed by Shell (30%), Standard Oil Company of new Jersey (Esso, 30%), and ''Staatsmijnen,'' the Government owned Netherlands State Mining Industry (40%). The natural gas is destined, first, for domestic use, especially, for space heating, and secondly, for industrial purpose, after which important quantities will be available for export.

  9. Serious ski jumping injuries in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, K

    1985-01-01

    Injuries caused by ski jumping have been poorly investigated. Among approximately 2,200 licensed jumpers in Norway, there occurred at least 12 injuries with a permanent medical disability of greater than or equal to 10%. The risk of being seriously injured is approximately 5% in a 5 year period (1977 to 1981); it is higher in the age group 15 to 17 years. Seven injuries were very serious [four central nervous system (CNS) lesions, two leg amputations, and one blindness of one eye], and five were less serious (sequelae to fractures of the lower extremities). The first jump of the day is particularly dangerous, and so is the beginning and end of the season. It seems dangerous to use more than one standard heel block. Poor preparation of the jump may have contributed to the accidents. Based on the findings, several prophylactic measures are suggested.

  10. THE STATUS OF SYNTAXONOMY IN NORWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. FREMSTAD

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available

    In Norway syntaxonomical work started approximately at the same time in Central Europe. Nordhagen was the pioneer, making the basis for the classification of especially alpine communities, followed by Dahl and Gjaerevoll, also focusing on alpine vegetation. During the 1970-80’s a large number of syntaxonomical studies were made on a diversity of topics; most of these studies were never published. The rather species-poor flora and the difficulties of applying the concept of character species have caused Norwegian botanists to develop a classification system of their own, as a summary of present knowledge. The next step should be to rework a large number of relevès with numerical methods to form the basis of a national vegetation survey.

  11. THE STATUS OF SYNTAXONOMY IN NORWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. FREMSTAD

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available In Norway syntaxonomical work started approximately at the same time in Central Europe. Nordhagen was the pioneer, making the basis for the classification of especially alpine communities, followed by Dahl and Gjaerevoll, also focusing on alpine vegetation. During the 1970-80’s a large number of syntaxonomical studies were made on a diversity of topics; most of these studies were never published. The rather species-poor flora and the difficulties of applying the concept of character species have caused Norwegian botanists to develop a classification system of their own, as a summary of present knowledge. The next step should be to rework a large number of relevès with numerical methods to form the basis of a national vegetation survey.

  12. Pregnancy outcome in Norway after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irgens, L.M.; Lie, R.T.; Ulstein, M.; Skeie Jensen, T.; Skjaerven, R.; Sivertsen, F.; Reitan, J.B.; Strand, F.; Strand, T.; Egil Skjeldestad, F.

    1991-01-01

    Pregnancy outcome has been studied in terms of legal abortions, early spontaneous abortions and total number of pregnancies (in an ad hoc study covering 6 counties) as well as various perinatal health problems (on the basis of routinely recorded data for epidemiological surveillance from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway). Apparently, no effects were observed in terms of an increased occurrence of legal abortions, while spontaneous abortions increased from 2.4% of all pregnancies during the last 12 months before the accident to 3% after the accident. At the same time, the total number of pregnancies somewhat decreased. Based on monthly measurements in each municipality of external and internal (food-based) doses, dose-response associations were assessed for a number of perinatal health problems. No associations were observed

  13. An evaluation of radiation protection in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berteig, L.; Flatby, J.

    1979-01-01

    A survey of radiation protection in Norway is presented. Statens Institutt for Straalehygiene is the organization which performs the radiation protection functions on a national basis, and the laws upon which its activities are based are cited. The relevant parts of the ILO Convention nr.115 are also cited. The tasks of the institute are divided in the following programmes:- (i)radiation protection regulations and inspection, (ii) training and information (iii) emergency planning and provisions (iv) development of methods and, (v) administration. These programmes are defined and briefly described. The organisational structure and tasks are described. Analysis in tabular form of the status of the tasks leads to the conclusion that, while the institute's laboratories and equipment are satisfactory shortage of personnel restricts the adequate performance of its tasks. (JIW)

  14. Sunnite-Shiite Polemics in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Linge

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the so-called Islamic State’s expansion in Syria and Iraq, Sunnite-Shiite polarization appears as an increasingly relevant topic, including among Muslims in Europe. Taking into consideration that this is a relatively new manifestation of intolerance in the West, such intra-Islamic tensions remain an under-researched subject and are superficially described as a reproduction of Middle Eastern so-called sectarianism. While this article recognizes the regional origin of exclusivist Islamic narratives and their dissemination by transnational Islamic networks, it also highlights the fact that Sunnite-Shiite polemics are rearticulated in new local contexts. In light of the IS’s anti-Shiism in particular, the public debate in Norway about “Islamic radicalism” is currently being rationalized by many Norwegian Muslims in terms of the “moderate self” versus the “extreme other”, notably across the Sunnite-Shiite divide. 

  15. Energy carriers in Norway; Energibaerere i Norge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-01-15

    Within the Norwegian energy consumption, electricity is by far the most dominant energy carrier. In the last thirty years electricity has had an increased significance, while oil has been reduce. A trend that is likely to continue. Energy politics has among others these objectives: environment, reliability of supply and effective energy supply. These objectives are somewhat contradictory. In agreement with the environmental politic phasing out oil leads to a reduction in greenhouse gases. However this politic will have a local impact only effecting Norway, in a larger European connection it might lead to a larger net emission of CO{sub 2}. A political intervention in the energy market might also lead to a reduction in the energy markets effectiveness and flexibility. This report addresses this problem: If a total phase out of the stationary oil consumption is conducted, what energy carriers will this consumption convert to?

  16. Challenges for Norway as an energy nation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The Norwegian energy sector is a dominating factor in the economy of Norway. Both in the power sector and the petroleum sector industrial environments have been developed that possess resources, skill and technology which form a good foundation for further industrial commitments. Deregulation of the energy markets, new corporate strategies and phasing-up of national frontiers represent new challenges to the energy sector. Failing international focus among many energy companies in addition to less domestic activity may lead the energy sector into a negative development, We have formulated two active strategies for meeting the challenges of the future. If the recommended strategy, industrial reorientation, is followed, the consolidation of the Norwegian power sector will be continued and the state's owner interests on the Norwegian continental shelf coordinated. At the same time the public ownership will be wound up through partial privatization. Establishing powerful Norwegian energy companies creates the best foundation for meeting the competition in a much more demanding energy market

  17. Bio energy in Norway; Bioenergi i Noreg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamnaberg, Haavard; Sidelnikova, Maria

    2011-07-01

    The main conclusion in this report is that it is possible to make available about 14 TWh bio energy in Norway than what is used today to a charge that is located less than ca. 30 oere / kWh. Almost all this potential come from the forest and requires an increase in output up to the net sustained yield. Further 5 TWh may be available in the form of biogas at a cost that is both higher and have greater uncertainty than the fixed bio energy. It is set up a cost curve based on this work, which is quoted here. This reflects only the technical costs, and does not regard wages, commissions, taxes or fees. The value of alternative uses of biomass are not considered. The cost curve must therefore not be mixed with a supply curve. (eb)

  18. Diabetes: cost of illness in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenssen Trond

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus places a considerable burden on patients in terms of morbidity and mortality and on society in terms of costs. Costs related to diabetes are expected to increase due to increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to estimate the health care costs attributable to type 1 and type 2 diabetes in Norway in 2005. Methods Data on inpatient hospital services, outpatient clinic visits, physician services, drugs, medical equipment, nutrition guidance, physiotherapy, acupuncture, foot therapy and indirect costs were collected from national registers and responses to a survey of 584 patients with diabetes. The study was performed with a prevalence approach. Uncertainty was explored by means of bootstrapping. Results When hospital stays with diabetes as a secondary diagnosis were excluded, the total costs were €293 million, which represents about 1.4% of the total health care expenditure. Pharmaceuticals accounted for €95 million (32%, disability pensions €48 million (16%, medical devices €40 million (14% and hospital admissions €21 million (7%. Patient expenditures for acupuncture, physiotherapy and foot therapy were many times higher than expenditure for nutritional guidance. Indirect costs (lost production from job absenteeism accounted for €70.1 million (24% of the €293 million and included sick leave (€16.7 million, disability support and disability pensions (€48.2 million and other indirect costs (€5.3 million. If all diabetes related hospital stays are included (primary- and secondary diagnosis total costs amounts to €535 million, about 2.6% of the total health care expenditure in Norway. Conclusions Diabetes represents a considerable burden to society in terms of health care costs and productivity losses.

  19. Cesium fallout in Norway after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backe, S.; Bjerke, H.; Rudjord, A.L.; Ugletveit, F.

    1986-01-01

    Results of country-wide measurements of 137 Cs and 134 Cs in soil samples in Norway after the Chernobyl accident are reported. The results clearly demonstrates that municipalities in the central part of southern Norway, Troendelag and the southern part of Nordland, have been rather heavily contaminated. The total fallout of 137 Cs and 134 Cs from the Chernobyl accident in Norway is estimated to 2300 TBq and 1200 TBq, respectively. This is approximately 6% of the cesium activity released from the reactor

  20. Municipalities in Western Norway concentrate on natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Only one percent of the natural gas from the Norwegian gas fields is currently used in Norway and it is a national goal that 10 percent of the gas produced shall be used for domestic purposes. Western Norway should pioneer this development, as this is where the gas is brought on land. ''Vestlandsroeret AS'' is a project in which sixteen municipalities - including the city Bergen - and eleven companies plan to develop infrastructure which will provide for transport of the gas to customers and markets in Western Norway. The article also discusses environmental considerations, public opinion, the utilization of waste heat and extensive development of cod culture

  1. Demand for radiotherapy in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, A; Borrás, J M; López-Torrecilla, J; Algara, M; Palacios-Eito, A; Gómez-Caamaño, A; Olay, L; Lara, P C

    2017-02-01

    Assessing the demand for radiotherapy in Spain based on existing evidence to estimate the human resources and equipment needed so that every person in Spain has access to high-quality radiotherapy when they need it. We used data from the European Cancer Observatory on the estimated incidence of cancer in Spain in 2012, along with the evidence-based indications for radiotherapy developed by the Australian CCORE project, to obtain an optimal radiotherapy utilisation proportion (OUP) for each tumour. About 50.5 % of new cancers in Spain require radiotherapy at least once over the course of the disease. Additional demand for these services comes from reradiation therapy and non-melanoma skin cancer. Approximately, 25-30 % of cancer patients with an indication for radiotherapy do not receive it due to factors that include access, patient preference, familiarity with the treatment among physicians, and especially resource shortages, all of which contribute to its underutilisation. Radiotherapy is underused in Spain. The increasing incidence of cancer expected over the next decade and the greater frequency of reradiations necessitate the incorporation of radiotherapy demand into need-based calculations for cancer services planning.

  2. Forum on stakeholder confidence: Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vari, A.; Pescatore, C.

    2006-01-01

    The FSC workshop in Spain provided an important opportunity to carry out an in-depth examination of decision-making processes undertaken in an NEA member country, and to reflect on the evolution that has taken place over time. It offered a well-rounded perspective on the inclusion of stakeholders in decision making, and the atmosphere of the meetings was conducive to an honest and open exchange of ideas. The workshop started with the introduction of two case studies: the earlier attempt in Spain to locate a potential site for a high-level waste (HLW) disposal facility, and the dismantling of the Vandellos-I nuclear power plant. This was followed by two days of presentations and round-table discussions based on the recent COWAM Spain initiative (stemming from the EU-wide project on Community Waste Management), which aims at developing recommendations for institutional arrangements and decision-making processes concerning the siting of waste management facilities in Spain. This article provides a brief summary of the case studies and the COWAM Spain initiative, followed by some of the lessons learnt from an international perspective. (authors)

  3. Organophosphorous flame retardants in biota from Svalbard, Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hallanger, I.G.; Sagerup, K.; Evenset, A.; Kovacs, K.M.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Fuglei, E.; Routti, H.; Aars, J.; Strom, H.; Lydersen, C.; Gabrielsen, G. W.

    2015-01-01

    Eight arctic species, including fish, birds and mammals, from diverse habitats (marine and terrestrial) within the Svalbard Archipelago, Norway, were screened for 14 organophosphorus flame retardant (PFR) compounds. Ten PFRs were detected: tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate (TCEP),

  4. Norway's role in international collaboration towards rehabilitation of Andreeva Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdall, M; Sneve, M; Standring, W J F; Amundsen, I

    2009-12-01

    Andreeva Bay is one of the largest and most hazardous nuclear legacy sites in northwest Russia. The site is the location of large amounts of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) and radioactive wastes and the risks associated with the site have precipitated an extensive international collaborative effort towards securing and rehabilitating the site. Given the location and proximity of the site, Norway has and continues to contribute in a number of ways towards this effort. Norway's activities in relation to rehabilitative efforts at Andreeva Bay are focused on both infrastructural and remediative initiatives as well as regulatory collaboration with Russia towards ensuring effective and safe operations during handling and removal of SNF and radioactive materials. This article describes Norway's role within international efforts in the context of the rehabilitation of Andreeva Bay and outlines previous activities and Norway's future direction with respect to the site.

  5. Plans for wind power in Norway - Enova's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stensaas, Dag Rune

    2006-01-01

    A brief presentation of Enova's view on wind power development in Norway. Enova supports a continued development of wind power combined with the development of district heating, as well as other measures to reduce energy consumption (ml)

  6. Direct maternal deaths in Norway 1976-1995

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersgaard, Alice Beate; Langhoff-Roos, J.; Oian, P.

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: To report direct maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in Norway between 1976 and 1995 including a description of the underlying complications in pregnancy, the causes of death and assessment of standard of care. METHODS: The maternal deaths were identified through the Cause of Death Registry......, Statistics Norway, and Medical Birth Registry of Norway. We requested copies of the hospital case records and the maternal death autopsies. The direct maternal deaths were classified on the basis underlying causes and assessed for substandard care according to the guidelines at the time of death...... and preventability provided optimal conditions and up to date guidelines. RESULTS: In the period 1976-1995 we identified 61 direct maternal deaths in Norway. The direct MMR was 5.5/100,000 births. Sufficient information was available for analysis in 51 of these cases. Six deaths occurred in early pregnancy. Among...

  7. Energy prospects in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latzko, D.G.H.

    1976-12-01

    The world situation on energy supplies is surveyed briefly, including problems that might arise concerning production and transport; then, the energy situation in the Netherlands is treated. For the purpose of this article, only relevant primary sources of energy, those whose large-scale utilization had been demonstrated to date, viz., fossil fuels, hydroelectric power, uranium in light-water reactors, and solar radiation came up for discussion. For the pronounced growth in total consumption the model proposed by A.A. De Boer (Econ. Statist. Rep., 59, No. 2954, 469-71(1974)) and inspired by the Dutch economist Prof. Tinbergen was adopted. This model assumes a gradual decrease in the annual growth to 1 or 2 percent about the year 2012. On the basis of this model, meeting the resultant demand for energy until the turn of the century is investigated.

  8. Energy Report Netherlands 2000 (EVN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruijn, A.

    2000-01-01

    An overview of developments and events in the Netherlands in 2000 in the field of energy is presented. This edition comprises three parts. In the first part (Chronicle) a chronological overview is given of events in 2000 regarding governmental and energy policy, developments in the sectors natural gas and petroleum exploration, refineries and petroleum products, electric power production and the natural gas industry, the energy distribution sector, renewable energy and energy conservation. In part 2 (Focus) three items, which have been in particular important for the energy sector or for the Dutch society, are discussed in more detail. Attention is paid to the high oil prices, the Dutch climate policy in an international perspective, energy labels and energy bonuses. The final part (3, Trends) is based on statistical data and presents trends with regard to energy prices, energy demand, energy supply, energy-related emissions, and the market development of energy technologies and energy efficient products. 36 refs

  9. Nucnet experience in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souwer, Corinne

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear Energy is a highly debated issue in the Netherlands. Public opposition has caused many delays in political decision making in relation with the expansion of new power plants. Recently the need for new reactor designs like the inherently safe reactors has become stronger. This is important for the communicators working in the nuclear field. Therefore it is needed to have a communication policy in which the main goal is building community relations focusing to public concerns and needs to gain acceptance. The public needs to be informed on options and benefits. Positive messages can influence attention and understanding, for example newspaper articles and television programs. Nucnet is an important instrument in building these relations

  10. Active Ageing in the Labour Market. Country Report – Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Helgøy, Ingrid

    2004-01-01

    The paper analyse active aging policy in the labour market in Norway. First, a statistical analysis of the changes in labour market is presented. Even though European countries are more challenged than Norway, demographic ageing puts some pressure on the labour force and the ability of the welfare state to meet the needs of increased retirees in the future. The statistical analysis deals with labour market participation, unemployment, part-time employment, education, early exit and w...

  11. Norway; Staff Report for the 2001 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2002-01-01

    This 2001 Article IV Consultation highlights that the real mainland (non-oil) GDP of Norway is estimated to have grown well below potential in 2001, at 1¼ percent. Although high oil prices supported household confidence and domestic activity through most of the year, the global slowdown has recently begun to affect Norway. Labor market conditions remain tight in service sectors, but weakened in technology and traditional export industries. Despite high domestic cost increases, consumer price ...

  12. Future Manufacturing Systems in Norway – Strategy, Architecture and Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Kolla, Sri Sudha Vijay Keshav

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the suitability of Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) in Norwegian manufacturing industries and its implementation. This study explores the research and innovation needs in Norway which will be given as inputs to Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) 2030 of European Commission to share future manufacturing strategies in Norway. The objectives of the research are to identifying the opportunities and challenges of CPS, developing a feasible reference architecture of CPS which benef...

  13. Adaptive Evolution and Demographic History of Norway Spruce (Picea Abies)

    OpenAIRE

    Källman, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    One of the major challenges in evolutionary biology is to determine the genetic basis of adaptive variation. In Norway spruce (Picea abies) the timing of bud set shows a very strong latitudinal cline despite a very low genetic differentiation between populations. The timing of bud set in Norway spruce is under strong genetic control and triggered by changes in photoperiod, but no genes controlling this response have so far been described. In this thesis we used a combination of functional stu...

  14. The future of personal wealth and inheritance taxation in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Pekala, Maciek

    2013-01-01

    Many countries have recently abandoned or experienced significant reduction in tax rates and revenues from personal wealth and inheritance taxation. Today, Norway remains one of the few countries that still tax annual wealth and intergenerational wealth transfers. Both taxes however face a substantial opposition and their future remains uncertain. In this paper, a dynamic microsimulation model MOSART developed by Statistics Norway is used to project and discuss future revenues and distributio...

  15. International Student Migration to Norway. Who stays and who leaves?

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Lea Nga Thanh

    2014-01-01

    International student migration to Norway has markedly increased during the past 20 years. This inflow has caused the Norwegian authorities to shed light on the topic. Until 2001, it was expected from the Norwegian authorities that international students return home after graduation. After the 21th century several policy changes occurred to attract more international students to Norway, and making it easier for international students to obtain a work permit after their studies. This thesis an...

  16. The Mesolithic of Western Norway : prevailing problems and possibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Bang-Andersen, Sveinung

    1995-01-01

    The landscape and settlement development in West Norway until c. 5200 y. b.p. is broadly outlined. An evaluation of the source material reveals lacunaes which delimit detailed information on topics such as daily life, mortuary practices and artistic skills. However, the Mesolithic of West Norway holds a rich potential for insight into cultural-historical problems of a superior order, in particular the process of colonization.

  17. Mosquitoes of the Netherlands Antilles and their hygienic importance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuyp, van der Edwin

    1954-01-01

    The Netherlands Antilles may be divided into: (1) The Curaçao Group (or Netherlands Leeward Islands): Curaçao, Aruba and Bonaire. (2) The St. Martin Group (or Netherlands Windward Islands): (Netherlands) St. Maarten, Saba and St. Eustatius. The latter islands are very small, forming together only

  18. Impacts of climate change in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bresser, A.H.M.; Berk, M.M.; Van den Born, G.J.; Van Bree, L.; Van Gaalen, F.W.; Ligtvoet, W.; Van Minnen, J.G.; Witmer, M.C.H.

    2005-10-01

    The main conclusion of the study on the title subject is that the impacts of climatic change in the Netherlands are still limited. However, the impacts will be stronger in the next decades and will be even problematic at the end of this century. In this book an overview is given of probable changes in the climate for the Netherlands, danger for flooding in specific areas of the Netherlands, changes of the nature, impacts for agriculture, tourism and recreation, and industry and businesses, and risks for public health [nl

  19. Spain: Success story in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longdon, Norman

    From the early 1960's, European governments were aware that they had to take part in the exploration, and potential exploitation, of space, or be left behind in a field of high-technology that had far-reaching possibilities. It was also realized that financial and manpower constraints would limit the extent to which individual nations could carry out their own national programs. They, therefor, joined forces in two organizations: the European Space Research Organization (ESRO) and the European Launcher Development Organization (ELDO). By 1975, when the potential of space development had been more fully appreciated, the two organizations were merged into the Europeans Space Agency (ESA) of which Spain was a founding member. ESA looks after the interest of 13 member states, one associated member state (Finland), and one cooperating state (Canada) in the peaceful uses of space. Its programs center around a mandatory core of technological research and space science to which member states contribute on the basis of their Gross National Product. Spain in 1992 contributes 6.46% to this mandatory program budget. The member states then have the chance to join optional programs that include telecommunications, observation of the earth and its environment, space transportation systems, microgravity research, and participation in the European contribution to the International Space Station Freedom. Each government decides whether it is in its interest to join a particular optional program, and the percentage that it wishes to contribute to the budget. Although in the early days of ESA, Spain participated in only a few optional programs, today Spain makes a significant contribution to nearly all of ESA's optional programs. This document presents Spain's contributions to particular ESA Programs and discusses Spain's future involvement in ESA.

  20. Light pollution in Spain 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Zamorano, J.; Pila-Díez, B.; Rubio, J.; Ruiz, R.; Rodríguez-Herranz, I.; González-Pérez, A.

    2011-11-01

    The most recent data on electricity consumption for public lighting inSpain is presented and compared with light pollution measurements asderived from night satellite imagery. NOAA-MSP images (low-resolution)and higher resolution images obtained with conventional DSLR cameras on board the International Space Station (ISS) have been used.We show that the data can be related to night sky brightness maps with a study conducted within the Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid. Weintend to extend our work to the rest of Spain through tight collaborationwith amateur astronomers.

  1. [Intensive medicine in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    the future of intensive care medicine in Spain and in Europe, recommendations are made towards specialization in intensive care medicine incorporating in the training program those competences (knowledge, skills and attitudes) that should be present an intensivist in Europe and that are extensively fulfilled by the current Spanish training program. The trajectory followed by intensive care medicine in Europe and recently in China, shows the increasing need of intensive care and the progressive recognition of the specialty in economically growing countries, and emphasizes the need of homogenization in the training of future specialists in intensive care medicine globally. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  2. Water footprint of hydro power in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeland, Kolbjørn; Tallaksen, Lena; Haakon Bakken, Tor; Killingtveit, Ånund

    2015-04-01

    The IPCC Special Report on Renewable Energy (IPCC, 2012) assesses the potential for renewable energy sources to replace fossil-based fuels and benchmarks the technologies with respect to a set of criteria, including their water footprint measured as m3/MWh. While most of the renewable technologies show a typical range of 1-5 m3/MWh, the very sparse data on hydropower range from a minimum of 0.04 to a maximum of 209 m3/MWh. More recent studies on water footprint from hydropower indicate that the water consumption rates could go even far beyond the numbers published by IPCC (2012). The methodological approach behind these numbers are, however, criticized as it appears over-simplistic and several issues need to be defined and clarified in order to present the 'true picture' of the water footprint of hydropower. Despite this, the rather high numbers for hydropower may imply a reputational risk for the sector and also be a direct investment risk in new projects if hydropower is considered a "large-scale water consumer". Estimation of water footprint has two important components (i) definition of water footprint (including system boundaries), and (ii) estimation of evaporation, which is assumed to constitute the main water loss from hydropower. Here we will mainly address the second topic and have chosen to use a water footprint definition based on net evapotranspiration from reservoirs. Thus, we need estimates of evapotranspiration from the land surface prior to inundation and the evaporation from the reservoir after it has been filled up. The primary objective of the study is to estimate water footprint of hydropower in Norway and in particular to answer the following questions: (i) How does different environmental variables influence water footprint estimation in Norway?, and in particular (ii) What is the total/specific water footprint from Norwegian hydropower production? To answer these questions we tested how environmental variables like climate and vegetation

  3. Energy efficiency policies and measures in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Eva

    2012-07-01

    This report represents the national case study of Norway for the IEE-project {sup M}onitoring of EU and national energy efficiency targets (ODYSSEE-MURE 2010)'. The Norwegian part of the project is co-funded by Enova. The report presents the recent energy efficiency trends in Norway on the basis of indicators extracted from the ODYSSEE database. The database contains information on energy use in a detailed level of the industry, transport, household and service sectors and other energy use. lt also contains information on energy drivers like heated square meters in the households and services sectors, transported passenger-km and ton-km of gods, value added, production index, production volumes etc. Final energy consumption has increased from 195 TWh in 1990 lo 229 TWh in 2010 The last ten years the energy consumption has varied between 212I Wh (2009) and 229 TWh (2010) with an annual average of 221TfUh. The sector using most energy is the industry, but the share has decreased from 40 % in 1990 to 31 % in 2010. From 1990 to 2010 the growth rate has been highest in the transport sector. Half of the energy end-use was electricity in 20,10, 42 % was fossil fuels and 6 % was biomass. The electricity use has an annual increase of 0.8 % since 1990, but the last decade the annual increase is reduced to 0.14 %. The consumption of oil products has decreased in stationary end-use (heating) and increased in the transport sector. In ODYSSEE, an aggregate bottom-up energy efficiency index, ODEX, is calculated. This energy efficiency index aggregates the trends in the detailed bottom-up indicators in one single indicator. This ODEX has improved by 26 o/o from 1990 to 2010 or by 1.3 o/o per year. This means that energy efficiency policies and measures implemented since 1990 have contributed to a decrease in the energy use of 2010 of approximately 59 TWh. (Author)

  4. PSA results and trends for Spain's NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carretero, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Spain regulatory authority CSN demanded performance of PSA for all Spain nuclear power plants. The specific data analysis carried out as a part of the PSA has contributed to the realistic view on the results which could be achieved by the PSA. The main characteristics of the PSA in Spain and PSA trends in the development are presented in the paper

  5. Coal Transition in the Netherlands. An historical case study for the project 'Coal Transitions: Research and Dialogue on the Future of Coal'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gales, Ben; Hoelsgens, Rick

    2017-01-01

    This is one of the 6 country case-studies commissioned to collect experience on past coal transitions. The 6 countries are: Czech Republic, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain, UK, USA. Their role in the Coal Transitions project was to provide background information for a Synthesis Report for decision makers, and provide general lessons for national project teams to take into account in developing their coal transitions pathways for the future. This document provides on overview of coal transitions in the Netherlands in the post-war period. The main focus is an in depth case study of the reconversion of the Limburg region in the South-east of the country which took place from 1965 to 1990. This is discussed in the first part of the document. The later part of the document discusses the re-emergence of coal as an energy source in the Netherlands and present challenges to phasing out coal use

  6. Gambling and problem gambling in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudriaan, Anna E.

    2014-01-01

    To provide an overview of gambling in the Netherlands, focusing on historical background, policy, legislation, prevalence of problem gambling, availability of treatment options and research base. Literature review. Contradictions between gambling policy and practice have been present in the past

  7. Opteren voor de Netherlands Commercial Court

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeben, J.; Keirse, A.L.M.; Reijneveld, M.D.

    Internationale contracten leiden tot internationale handelsgeschillen. Deze kunnen onder meer worden beslecht bij een commercial court. In Nederland wordt momenteel een Netherlands Commercial Court (NCC) opgericht. Dit introduceert een keuze voor (contracts)partijen voor een nieuw forum voor

  8. Clinical immunology - Autoimmunity in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tervaert, Jan Willem Cohen; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical immunology is in the Netherlands a separate clinical specialty within internal medicine and pediatrics. Clinical immunologists work closely together with nephrologists, rheumatologists and many other medical specialists. Apart from research and teaching, clinical immunologists are taking

  9. Space research in the Netherlands 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    In 1960, the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences established a committee with the task of coordinating space research in the Netherlands and maintaining the necessary international contacts. This committe, usually called GROC, has instituted four working groups, in which most of the Netherlands space research is concentrated. These groups are: Working Group for Solar and Stellar Space Research, Working Group for Cosmic Rays, Working Group for Photometry and the Working Group for Satellite Geodesy. General information on space research in the Netherlands Anno 1980 is given. Detailed data about the working groups, their work during 1980 and their programmes are presented, together with a survey of their scientific publications. A financial summary is also included. (Auth.)

  10. Revamp urged for Norway's offshore regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the Norwegian government has come under renewed pressure from offshore operators to fine tune its licensing procedures and tax regime. The need for change was emphasized at the Advanced Petroleum Conference in Stavanger attended by senior personnel from companies active in the Norwegian and British sectors of the North Sea. Companies have had some success in the tax front, winning changes in proposals from Norway's Ministry of Finance for offshore tax reform. The changes were required to offset a general reduction in the corporate tax to 28% from 50.8%. Norsk Shell has told the government that in view of uncertainty about taxes it will not take part in the normal industry-government discussions about what acreage should be included in the 14th licensing round to be announced next year. This action does not bar Shell from participating in the licensing round when it gets under way. Shell has the if the tax package is not changed sharply in its passage through Storting it is unlikely to bid for new licenses

  11. Establishing 'design basis threat' in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerli, M.B.; Naadland, E.; Reistad, O.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: INFCIRC 225 (Rev. 4) assumes that a state's physical protection system should be based on the state's evaluation of the threat, and that this should be reflected in the relevant legislation. Other factors should also be considered, including the state's emergency response capabilities and the existing and relevant measures of the state's system of accounting for and control of nuclear material. A design basis threat developed from an evaluation by the state of the threat of unauthorized removal of nuclear material and of sabotage of nuclear material and nuclear facilities is an essential element of a state's system of physical protection. The state should continuously review the threat, and evaluate the implications of any changes in that threat for the required levels and the methods of physical protection. As part of a national design basis threat assessment, this paper evaluates the risk of nuclear or radiological terrorism and sabotage in Norway. Possible scenarios are presented and plausible consequences are discussed with a view to characterize the risks. The need for more stringent regulatory requirements will be discussed, together with the (positive) impact of improved systems and procedures of physical protection on nuclear emergency planning. Special emphasis is placed on discussing the design basis threat for different scenarios in order to systemize regulatory efforts to update the current legislation, requirement for operators' contingency planning, response efforts and the need for emergency exercises. (author)

  12. INLAND DUNE VEGETATION OF THE NETHERLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. HAVEMAN

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Drifting sands in the Netherlands are the result of human over-exploitation (sod-cutting, over-grazing of woodlands and heathlands. The most important association of inland sand dune areas is the Spergulo-Corynephoretum (Corynephorion canescentis, which is poor in vascular plants, but in it older stager rich in mosses and especially lichens. In the Netherlands, the area of drifting sand is reduced dramatically in the last 70 years. mainly by afforestation and spontaneous succession.

  13. Novel lyssavirus in bat, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aréchiga Ceballos, Nidia; Vázquez Morón, Sonia; Berciano, José M; Nicolás, Olga; Aznar López, Carolina; Juste, Javier; Rodríguez Nevado, Cristina; Aguilar Setién, Alvaro; Echevarría, Juan E

    2013-05-01

    A new tentative lyssavirus, Lleida bat lyssavirus, was found in a bent-winged bat (Miniopterus schreibersii) in Spain. It does not belong to phylogroups I or II, and it seems to be more closely related to the West Causasian bat virus, and especially to the Ikoma lyssavirus.

  14. Novel Lyssavirus in Bat, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Ceballos, Nidia Ar?chiga; Mor?n, Sonia V?zquez; Berciano, Jos? M.; Nicol?s, Olga; L?pez, Carolina Aznar; Juste, Javier; Nevado, Cristina Rodr?guez; Seti?n, ?lvaro Aguilar; Echevarr?a, Juan E.

    2013-01-01

    A new tentative lyssavirus, Lleida bat lyssavirus, was found in a bent-winged bat (Miniopterus schreibersii) in Spain. It does not belong to phylogroups I or II, and it seems to be more closely related to the West Causasian bat virus, and especially to the Ikoma lyssavirus.

  15. The gas industry in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jego, H.

    1999-01-01

    This short presentation of the Spanish gas industry looks at the industry's different players including Gas Natural, which controls almost all of the gas distribution in Spain. Natural gas, almost all of which is imported, accounts for an ever-growing share in the country's energy balance and has undergone great developments, particularly in industry and in thermal generating plants. (author)

  16. Business is humming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, C.; Gregory, R.; Purdy, M.

    1997-01-01

    The paper discusses the outlook for Western European gas and oil industries. Renewed interest in older producing areas, plus plenty of frontier license awards combine to keep UK and Norway drillers hopping. Production rates hold steady despite softer prices. Separate evaluations are given for United Kingdom, Norway, Netherlands, Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Italy, France, Austria, and briefly for Greece, Spain, Portugal, and Malta

  17. NORADAPT. Community Adaptation and Vulnerability in Norway; NORADAPT. Community Adaptation and Vulnerability in Norway. Sluttrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oort, Bob van; Hovelsrud, Grete K.; Dannevig, Halvor; Bybraaten, Stine

    2012-10-15

    In NORADAPT, researchers from CICERO Center for Climate Research, Western Norway Research Institute, Eastern Norway Research Institute and the Norwegian Meteorological Institute worked in close cooperation with 8 selected municipalities, with the aim to help municipalities assess their vulnerability to climate change and develop adaptation strategies in collaboration with the research group. This report presents climate scenarios for all project municipalities and interprets the expected changes from the figures produced for each municipality. The report refers to socioeconomic scenarios which were developed as part of the project, describes progress throughout the project period and summarizes the main findings of the project through a summary of the final conference at Losby Gods 24-25 October 2011. The project has shown that municipalities are able to put climate change on the agenda, utilize scientific knowledge and implement adaptation measures, but that this depends on several factors, such as capacity, knowledge and involvement in local government, access to relevant knowledge and policy measures, and clear guidance and supervision from regional and national authorities. (Author)

  18. Cancer incidence in Spain, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galceran, J; Ameijide, A; Carulla, M; Mateos, A; Quirós, J R; Rojas, D; Alemán, A; Torrella, A; Chico, M; Vicente, M; Díaz, J M; Larrañaga, N; Marcos-Gragera, R; Sánchez, M J; Perucha, J; Franch, P; Navarro, C; Ardanaz, E; Bigorra, J; Rodrigo, P; Bonet, R Peris

    2017-07-01

    Periodic cancer incidence estimates of Spain from all existing population-based cancer registries at any given time are required. The objective of this study was to present the current situation of cancer incidence in Spain. The Spanish Network of Cancer Registries (REDECAN) estimated the numbers of new cancer cases occurred in Spain in 2015 by applying the incidence-mortality ratios method. In the calculus, incidence data from population-based cancer registries and mortality data of all Spain were used. In 2015, nearly a quarter of a million new invasive cancer cases were diagnosed in Spain, almost 149,000 in men (60.0%) and 99,000 in women. Globally, the five most common cancers were those of colon-rectum, prostate, lung, breast and urinary bladder. By gender, the four most common cancers in men were those of prostate (22.4%), colon-rectum (16.6%), lung (15.1%) and urinary bladder (11.7%). In women, the most common ones were those of breast (28.0%), colon-rectum (16.9%), corpus uteri (6.2%) and lung (6.0%). In recent years, cancer incidence in men seems to have stabilized due to the fact that the decrease in tobacco-related cancers compensates for the increase in other types of cancer like those of colon and prostate. In women, despite the stabilization of breast cancer incidence, increased incidence is due, above all, to the rise of colorectal and tobacco-related cancers. To reduce these incident cancer cases, improvement of smoking control policies and extension of colorectal cancer screening should be the two priorities in cancer prevention for the next years.

  19. Energy Report Netherlands 1999 (EVN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahuis, R.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of developments and events in the Netherlands in 1999 in the field of energy is presented. This edition comprises four parts. In the first part (Chronicle) a chronological overview is given of events in 1999 regarding governmental and energy policy, developments in the sectors natural gas and petroleum exploration, refineries and petroleum products, electric power production and the natural gas industry, the energy distribution sector, renewable energy and energy conservation, and technological developments and research. In part 2 (Focus) three items, which have been in particular important for the energy sector or for the Dutch society, are discussed in more detail. Attention is paid to sustainable industry parks, the production of energy from waste and biomass, and the Implementation Paper for Climate Policy. Part 3 (View) is of a contemplative nature. The subject concerns the options to reduce emission in foreign countries in relation with opportunities in developing countries for economic development. The final part (4, Trends) is based on statistical data and presents trends with regard to energy prices, energy demand, energy supply, energy-related emissions, and the market development of energy technologies and energy efficient products. 36 refs

  20. Emissions trading in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapfel, P.

    2002-01-01

    In the article 'Emissions trading in the Netherlands. The optimal route towards an international scheme?' (issue 1, 2002) Mulder asks the question to what extent a Dutch national CO2 trading scheme is a worthwhile effort toward an international trading scheme (i.e. is it a first step toward a European-wide emissions trading scheme) when presenting the proposal of the Dutch Commission on CO2 trade and related economic analysis. His conclusion, underlined by modeling results, is that a national scheme along the lines proposed by the Dutch Commission is an expensive policy instrument due to the high transaction costs. The first-best option according to Mulder is to impose CO2-emissions trading with an absolute ceiling on an international level. In the meantime, he states, improving the design of the energy tax system may be an efficient alternative. In this comment I would like to address two issues. First, does the approach proposed by the Dutch Commission make sense from a European perspective towards an EU-wide cap and trade allowance scheme as proposed by the European Commission in October 2001? and Second, what might this Dutch model and philosophy, scaled up to the EU level, look like?

  1. Renewable electricity in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junginger, M.; Agterbosch, S.; Faaij, A.; Turkenburg, W.

    2004-01-01

    The Dutch policy goal is to achieve a share of 17% renewable electricity in the domestic demand in 2020, corresponding to 18-24 TWh. It is uncertain whether and under which conditions this aim can be achieved. This paper aims to explore the feasible deployment of renewable electricity production in the Netherlands until 2020 by evaluating different images representing policies and societal preferences. Simultaneously, the most promising technologies for different settings are investigated and identified. First Dutch policy goals, governmental policy measures and definitions of renewable electricity are discussed. Second, a comparison is made of four existing studies that analyze the possible developments of renewable electricity production in the coming decades. Finally, three images are set up with emphasis on the different key factors that influence the maximum realizable potential. Results indicate onshore wind, offshore wind and large-scale biomass plants as most promising, robust options in terms of economical performance, ecological sustainability and high technical implementation rate. In the image with high implementation rates, an annual production of 42 TWh may be achieved in 2020, while under stringent economical or ecological criteria, about 25 TWh may be reached. When only the robust options are considered, 9-22 TWh can be realized. The analysis illustrates the importance of taking the different key factors mentioned influencing implementation into account. Doing so allows for identification of robust and less robust technological options under different conditions

  2. Carbon sequestration by young Norway spruce monoculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorny, R.; Rajsnerova, P.; Kubásek, J.

    2012-04-01

    Many studies have been focused on allometry, wood-mass inventory, carbon (C) sequestration, and biomass expansion factors as the first step for the evaluation of C sinks of different plant ecosystems. To identify and quantify these terrestrial C sinks, and evaluate CO2 human-induced emissions on the other hand, information for C balance accounting (for impletion of commitment to Kyoto protocol) are currently highly needed. Temperate forest ecosystems have recently been identified as important C sink. Carbon sink might be associated with environmental changes (elevated [CO2], air temperature, N deposition etc.) and large areas of managed fast-growing young forests. Norway spruce (Pice abies L. Karst) is the dominant tree species (35%) in Central European forests. It covers 55 % of the total forested area in the Czech Republic, mostly at high altitudes. In this contribution we present C sequestration by young (30-35 year-old) Norway spruce monocultures in highland (650-700 m a.s.l., AT- mean annual temperature: 6.9 ° C; P- annual amount of precipitation: 700 mm; GL- growing season duration: 150 days) and mountain (850-900 m a.s.l.; AT of 5.5 ° C; P of 1300 mm; and GL of 120 days) areas and an effect of a different type of thinning. However, the similar stem diameter at the breast height and biomass proportions among above-ground tree organs were obtained in the both localities; the trees highly differ in their height, above-ground organ's biomass values and total above ground biomass, particularly in stem. On the total mean tree biomass needle, branch and stem biomass participated by 22 %, 24 % and 54 % in highland, and by 19 %, 23 % and 58 % in mountain area, respectively. Silvicultural management affects mainly structure, density, and tree species composition of the stand. Therefore, dendrometric parameters of a tree resulted from genotype, growth conditions and from management history as well. Low type of thinning (LT; common in highland) stimulates rather tree

  3. Challenges for developing national climate services – Poland and Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew W. Kundzewicz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution discusses the challenges for developing national climate services in two countries with high fossil fuel production – Poland (coal and Norway (oil and gas. Both countries, Poland and Norway, have highly developed weather services, but largely differ on climate services. Since empirical and dynamical downscaling of climate models started in Norway over 20 years ago and meteorological and hydrological institutions in Oslo and Bergen have been collaborating on tailoring and disseminating downscaled climate projections to the Norwegian society, climate services are now well developed in Norway. The Norwegian Centre for Climate Services (NCCS was established in 2011. In contrast, climate services in Poland, in the international understanding, do not exist. Actually, Poland is not an exception, as compared to other Central and Eastern European countries, many of which neither have their national climate services, nor are really interested in European climate services disseminated via common EU initiatives. It is worth posing a question – can Poland learn from Norway as regards climate services? This contribution is based on results of the CHASE-PL (Climate change impact assessment for selected sectors in Poland project, carried out in the framework of the Polish – Norwegian Research Programme. The information generated within the Polish-Norwegian CHASE-PL project that is being broadly disseminated in Poland can be considered as a substitute for information delivered in other countries by climate services.

  4. Stakeholder perceptions of manure treatment technologies in Denmark, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Y.; Velthof, G.L.; Case, S.D.C.; Oelofse, M.; Grignani, C.; Balsari, P.; Zavattaro, L.; Gioelli, F.; Bernal, M.P.; Fangueiro, D.; Trindade, H.; Jensen, L.S.; Oenema, O.

    2018-01-01

    Manure treatment technologies have been developed in Europe to better use animal manures and to reduce their environmental impact, but the adoption of these technologies in practice is regionally diverse and still limited. Also, little is known about the opinions of stakeholders towards manure

  5. Antimicrobial profiles of periodontal pathogens isolated from periodontitis patients in the Netherlands and Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winkelhoff, AJ; Herrera, D; Oteo, A; Sanz, M

    Background and Aim: Antimicrobial resistance of periodontal pathogens towards currently used antibiotics in periodontics has been investigated in a previous study. Microbial resistance in the periodontal microflora was more frequently observed in Spanish patients in comparison with Dutch patients.

  6. Symbols or results?. Norway`s contribution to global climate policy; Symboler eller resultater. Norges bidrag til global klimapolitikk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haugland, Torleif; Lunde, Leiv; Vraalstad, Knut; Roland, Kjell

    1997-12-31

    The report is part of an evaluation of political climate challenges faced by Norway. The aim to stabilize CO{sub 2} emissions before the year 2000 is unrealistic. This is because (1) almost all electricity produced in Norway is hydropower, (2) more than half of the expected CO{sub 2} emissions up to 2020 comes from increased activities on the large and profitable petroleum deposits in the North Sea; these activities are hard to slow down, (3) substantial emission reductions in the process industry are expensive or impossible because of a lack of raw material without carbon, (4) reductions in the transport sector are impossible because of dispersed settlement, (5) strong economic growth and low unemployment imply increased energy consumption. All together this means that stabilizing the emissions in Norway costs more than in most of the OECD countries. The supposed gain in climate quality from measures in one country may ``leak`` out in the sense that the activities whose reduction caused the gain are moved a country that does not have an active climate policy and thus the global consequences may even be negative. Four examples are given: (1) Unlike most countries, Norway uses high-quality hydropower for heating. If Norway had instead used efficient petroleum fuels for heating and exported this electric energy to countries that generate electricity from inefficient carbon, then these countries would reduce the emission of CO{sub 2} by more than Norway would increase it. (2) Much of the emissions from the activities in the North Sea comes from electricity production in low-efficiency gas turbines. This emission could be eliminated by electricity supplied from land. But with today`s power balance in Norway, such electricity would be Danish carbon-generated. (3) CO{sub 2} tax on the energy intensive but efficient Norwegian process industry could move production to a country with more polluting production. (4) Reducing Norwegian gas export to Europe would decrease

  7. The climate regime: Results, causes and the role of Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, Steinar

    2001-01-01

    About a decade after the Climate Convention, little has been achieved to solve this problem. It is stressed, however, that our knowledge of the problem has increased and today few serious actors would deny the existence of the problem. National and international institutions to deal with it are being established. The main reason why the problem remains unsolved is that it is so much more difficult than most other environmental problems. The political will and ability to handle it has been limited. In the countries that do have reduced emissions, this is mostly not due to climate considerations. Norway is quite representative for many OECD countries. Although they were high in the beginning, ambitions have been reduced over time and are characterized by economical pragmatism rather than high environmental ideals. Norway has implemented more measures than many comparable nations, but this does not substantially reduce the emission of climate gases from the oil- and gas-producing nation Norway

  8. Norway [and the closer relations with the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Opinion in Norway seems to have settled on the idea that having a closer relation to the EC is inevitable, although opinion is divided as to whether this will be a good thing. The plain fact is that with Denmark already involved and the Swedes thinking about it, some Norwegian politicians are nervous about being left out in the cold. However, this feeling of inevitability does not mean that the EC can treat Norway's curious economy like an oyster, to be cracked open and eaten at a time of its own choosing. The Norweigians are, after all, sitting on Western Europe's largest and most secure hydrocarbon reserves for export, and they also have hydropower. The situation in which these resources place Norway are examined with respect to EC membership. (author)

  9. Electricity from biomass in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Beuge, M.J.J.; Sillevis Smit, E.T.

    2004-01-01

    In the past decade, the international community has ta-ken various measures towards achieving a more sustainable energy supply and a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, among which the conclusion of the Kyoto protocol. Both the European Union and The Netherlands regard the large scale use of biomass for the production of electricity as an important instrument towards achieving the aforementioned policy goals. In this regard the European Union introduced the Renewables Directive, the implementation of which in The Netherlands has recently been completed. In connection with the above, The Netherlands' Minister for Economic Affairs recently published the Biomass Action Plan, aimed at increasing - in the short term - energy production, in particular electricity production, from biomass. This article provides insight into the outlines of the legal framework that is relevant for the production of electricity from biomass in The Netherlands. Following a brief introduction to the relationship between bio energy and biomass, as well as a short introduction to the most important ways in which biomass contributes to the production of electricity in The Netherlands, the article sketches the contours of the European and Dutch policies and related legislation regarding the production of electricity from biomass. In particular, this article describes the Dutch legislation aimed at subsidising and thus promoting the production of electricity from biomass, as well as the requirements with which electricity production installations making use of biomass must comply for an environmental and/or waste perspective [nl

  10. Euthanasia in Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Each of the Benelux countries (Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands) has enacted legislation that partially decriminalises euthanasia, defined as an act that intentionally terminates someone's life at their request. In the Netherlands and Luxembourg, but not in Belgium, the legislation partially decriminalised assisted suicide at the same time. In all three countries, euthanasia can only be performed by a doctor, in response to the patient's voluntary and well-considered request, and for patients who have an incurable disease that causes unbearable suffering, without any prospect of relief. In the Netherlands, minors can request euthanasia as of the age of 12 years. In 2011, reported euthanasia accounted for about 1% of deaths in Belgium and 3% in the Netherlands. In 75% of cases, cancer was the disease leading to a request for euthanasia. In the Netherlands, the number of cases of euthanasia reported by doctors in surveys matches the number that is officially declared. In Belgium, it is thought that there are as many unreported as reported cases of euthanasia. Since the enactment of euthanasia legislation, fewer deaths involve the intentional administration of lethal drugs without an explicit request from the patient.

  11. Spain; Financial System Stability Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) Update for Spain. Although there is a core of strong banks that are well managed and appear resilient to further shocks, vulnerabilities remain. Substantial progress has been made in reforming the former savings banks, and the most vulnerable institutions have either been resolved or are being restructured. Recent measures address the most problematic part of banks’ portfolios. Moving ahead, a further restru...

  12. Update on Spain's oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, D.; Gutierrez, I.

    1994-01-01

    Since Spain's entry into the European Community a liberalisation of the oil industry has occurred culminating in two oil sector reform laws passed in 1992. While competition has increased, a return to the free-market policies which held sway before 1927 has not happened. Rather, three large companies dominate the Spanish oil market, with continuing input from government towards liberalization, if somewhat slowly. This paper describes recent changes and examines factors which limit liberalization policies. (UK)

  13. NORPERM, the Norwegian Permafrost Database - a TSP NORWAY IPY legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliussen, H.; Christiansen, H. H.; Strand, G. S.; Iversen, S.; Midttømme, K.; Rønning, J. S.

    2010-10-01

    NORPERM, the Norwegian Permafrost Database, was developed at the Geological Survey of Norway during the International Polar Year (IPY) 2007-2009 as the main data legacy of the IPY research project Permafrost Observatory Project: A Contribution to the Thermal State of Permafrost in Norway and Svalbard (TSP NORWAY). Its structural and technical design is described in this paper along with the ground temperature data infrastructure in Norway and Svalbard, focussing on the TSP NORWAY permafrost observatory installations in the North Scandinavian Permafrost Observatory and Nordenskiöld Land Permafrost Observatory, being the primary data providers of NORPERM. Further developments of the database, possibly towards a regional database for the Nordic area, are also discussed. The purpose of NORPERM is to store ground temperature data safely and in a standard format for use in future research. The IPY data policy of open, free, full and timely release of IPY data is followed, and the borehole metadata description follows the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P) standard. NORPERM is purely a temperature database, and the data is stored in a relation database management system and made publically available online through a map-based graphical user interface. The datasets include temperature time series from various depths in boreholes and from the air, snow cover, ground-surface or upper ground layer recorded by miniature temperature data-loggers, and temperature profiles with depth in boreholes obtained by occasional manual logging. All the temperature data from the TSP NORWAY research project is included in the database, totalling 32 temperature time series from boreholes, 98 time series of micrometeorological temperature conditions, and 6 temperature depth profiles obtained by manual logging in boreholes. The database content will gradually increase as data from previous and future projects are added. Links to near real-time permafrost temperatures, obtained

  14. 7 CFR 319.56-34 - Clementines from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clementines from Spain. 319.56-34 Section 319.56-34... Clementines from Spain. Clementines (Citrus reticulata) from Spain may only be imported into the United States... agreement. Clementines from Spain may be imported only if the Government of Spain or its designated...

  15. Construction industry accidents in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camino López, Miguel A; Ritzel, Dale O; Fontaneda, Ignacio; González Alcantara, Oscar J

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzed industrial accidents that take place on construction sites and their severity. Eighteen variables were studied. We analyzed the influence of each of these with respect to the severity and fatality of the accident. This descriptive analysis was grounded in 1,630,452 accidents, representing the total number of accidents suffered by workers in the construction sector in Spain over the period 1990-2000. It was shown that age, type of contract, time of accident, length of service in the company, company size, day of the week, and the remainder of the variables under analysis influenced the seriousness of the accident. IMPACT ON INJURY PREVENTION: The results obtained show that different training was needed, depending on the severity of accidents, for different age, length of service in the company, organization of work, and time when workers work. The research provides an insight to the likely causes of construction injuries in Spain. As a result of the analysis, industries and governmental agencies in Spain can start to provide appropriate strategies and training to the construction workers.

  16. The power situation in Mid-Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The strained power situation in Mid-Norway is in broad terms an energy problem, and the situation is especially precarious in the county of Moere og Romsdal. There is a risk that even in normal years, there will be insufficient energy supply unless new measures are implemented. There is a 50 percent chance that the situation will become more strained than in normal years. In the long term there is a possibility to increase the capacity of the system by increasing the import capacity as well as the production, but this is not realistic before 2011. A gas work at Tjeldbergodden can at the earliest be operative in 2011. The gas work at Skogn can at the earliest be operative in 2009, and needs to be accompanied by fortifications in the distribution net in order to help the situation in Moere og Romsdal. In short term the import capacity to the region will be reduced, and there are limits to how much new production capacity that can be taken in. Therefore, measures have to be made in order to reduce the consumption and increase the import. To make sure the measures will have satisfactory effect, they need to be implemented soon, so they can have effect over a longer period. It is limited how big reduction one can expect from the normal supply consumption. It is estimated that the consumption can be reduced by 10 percent at the maximum, by the use of high prices in the area, but this requires that the consumers expect a prolonged level of high energy prices at 0,80 Nok/kWh, and in addition short-term price fluctuations. Energy-intensive industry may find it profitable to reduce the consumption at prices below 0,80 Nok/kWh, but the potential for this is probably small in Moere og Romsdal. In a dry year it will hardly be possible to meet the energy demand without resorting to measures and in worst case rationing. The costs of rationing are substantially higher than the cost of backup power plants

  17. Radioactive fallout in Norway from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, P.

    1994-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident had considerable consequences for Norway. Except for the areas in the former USSR, around Chernobyl some areas in Norway received fallout which gave the highest contamination levels. The natural and semi natural ecosystems will produce food products with high activity levels of radiocesium for several decennium. Cost-effective countermeasures were implemented, and they reduced the doses considerable, especially for critical groups. Doses received over the next 50 years will probably cause cancer in 500 persons. 63 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  18. The Medical Birth Registry of Norway – An international perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen J. Wilcox

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Some of the most practical questions of perinatal medicine are regarding couples who have had pregnancy problems in the past, and their risk of having such problems in future pregnancies. For example, if a couple has a child with a birth defect, what are their chances that their next child will have a defect? The key to answering such questions is the availability of linked data such as those provided by the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Such linked data provide a unique resource for addressing a broad range of questions in perinatal epidemiology. The Medical Birth Registry of Norway has been a pioneer in answering such questions.

  19. The Medical Birth Registry of Norway – An international perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen J. Wilcox

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Some of the most practical questions of perinatal medicine are regarding couples who have had pregnancy problems in the past, and their risk of having such problems in future pregnancies. For example, if a couple has a child with a birth defect, what are their chances that their next child will have a defect? The key to answering such questions is the availability of linked data such as those provided by the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Such linked data provide a unique resource for addressing a broad range of questions in perinatal epidemiology. The Medical Birth Registry of Norway has been a pioneer in answering such questions

  20. The Gothenburg Protocol: NOx emissions problematic for Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, Oddvar

    2000-01-01

    The Gothenburg Protocol concerns long-range air pollution and is a continuation of earlier protocols and agreements. Its recommendations are based on calculations of where the greatest possible health- and environmental impact is obtained per dollar invested. European countries have done much to reduce the emission of sulphur dioxide. Norway and most other countries, however, have difficulties reducing their emissions of nitrogen oxides. In Norway, the emission of sulphur dioxide must also be substantially reduced, as the tolerance limit for SO2 in nature is low. It is socio-economically profitable for Norway to conform to the Gothenburg Protocol. One of the largest environmental problems in Norway is acid rain and death of fish. Although it is difficult to calculate the exact values of fishing-lakes and of reduced health injuries when the emissions of harmful waste gases are reduced, the profit is very high. 90% of the SO2 pollution in Norway is long-range transported from abroad. Yet Norway must reduce the domestic emissions from 30 000 to 22 000 tonnes the next 10 years. Most of the present emission of SO2 in Norway comes from the production of metals. The reduction goal can be achieved by a combination of improving industrial processes, SO2 cleaning, and reducing the sulphur content of oil. In many European countries, the greatest problem is the increasing emission of NOx and formation of ozone at the ground, which is largely due to the rapidly increasing motor traffic. In Norway, most of the NOx emission comes from the coastal traffic and the fishing fleet, followed by the motor traffic, the petroleum industry and the processing industry. The most cost-effective NOx reductions can be obtained in the North Sea by installing low-NOx gas turbines. In ships, catalytic cleaning of NOx and engine improvements will contribute. On land, the goods traffic can be made more efficient. Most of the emission of ammonia comes from agriculture, where special measures are

  1. Working in the Hotel, Restaurant and Tourism Industry in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Haavisto, Veera

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this bachelor’s thesis is to study what are the factors that make Norway an appealing work place, why Finnish people have left there for work and how they have adapted to the Norwegian working culture. Thus, the aim of the thesis is to present Norway as an optional work place for Finnish hotel, restaurant and tourism employees. The intention of the theoretical framework is to provide the reader an overview of the Norwegian labour market, economic situation and working cult...

  2. Surveying perceptions of landslide risk management in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Jessica Ka Yi; Eidsvig, Unni

    2016-04-01

    Enhanced precipitation due to climate change leads to increase in both frequency and intensity of landslides in Norway. A proactive approach to risk management is therefore required to significantly reduce the losses associated with landslides. Opinions and perceptions from practitioners on the performance of landslide risk management can provide insights on areas for improvement in the landslide risk management strategies in Norway. The Risk Management Index (RMI), proposed by Cardona et al. (2004), is a well-established method to measure perceptions of disaster management of selected actors holistically. The RMI is measured based on opinion questionnaires to technical staff, decision-makers, and stakeholders involved in all stages of risk reduction strategies. It is a composite index that considers a wide variety of strategies to manage risks, including structural and non-structural measures, acceptance strategies, disaster management, and risk transfer. The RMI method was modified to be implemented in landslide hazards and to fit with Norwegian conditions. An opinion survey was conducted in autumn 2015 to measure perceptions of landslide risk management in Norway. Perceptions were surveyed for two time periods: 2015 and 2050, and are based on national, county, and municipality levels. Based on the survey results, performance of landslide risk management at any administrative levels in Norway is perceived to improve from `significant' in 2015 to `significant' to `outstanding' in 2050. Knowledge and technology, climate, risk perceptions, and anthropogenic activities are mostly considered by respondents for their 2050 perceptions. Several aspects of landslide risk management in Norway can be improved. For example, landslide hazard evaluation and mapping should be prioritised in Norway. Upgrading, retrofitting, and reconstruction of assets may also be included in the landslide risk reduction strategies. In addition, there should be more focus on inter

  3. Polar Bears, Hot Coffee, Wireless Schools, and Much More: Teaching American Studies in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experience and her observations as a Roving Scholar of American Studies in Norway through the Norway Fulbright Foundation grant. The author visited upper secondary schools all over Norway, teaching lessons to both students and teachers on topics related to U.S. history, government, culture, and geography. She…

  4. The importance of Norway in the oil and natural gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noreng, Oeystein

    2006-01-01

    The article presents an analysis of the global energy markets with emphasis on the Northern areas and the importance of Norway. The energy supplies and prices, the OPEC role, the role of Norway and Russia in the natural gas markets and energy policies are discussed. Various risk aspects particularly for Norway are mentioned. (tk)

  5. Mobilising for the animal cause as consumers: an analysis of strategies and practices in Netherlands and Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terragni, L.; Schipper, L.; Torjusen, H.; Beekman, V.

    2006-01-01

    In the last years, there has been an increasing focus on consumption as a means for expressing ethical concerns and for influencing questionable market practices. The issue of the treatment of farm animals has been openly discussed for a long time. The focus of this paper is to analyse varying

  6. ESTIMATE MEDICAL SERVICES IN THE NETHERLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norina-Consuela FORNA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the many great things about living in the Netherlands is the excellent standard of Dutch healthcare, rated as the best in Europe. The Netherlands tops the list of 34 nations in the 2012 Euro Health Consumer Index (the ‘industry standard’ of modern healthcare and spends 11.9 percent of GDP on health, being the second only after the United States. Plus, almost all the doctors speak excellent English, making healthcare in the Netherlands very accessible to expats. The purpose of the research is to investigate the health sector in the Netherlands and to connect it to the European systems and global requirements. Methods. Conducted research was focused on analysis, comparison, deduction or induction methods. Medicine in the Netherlands is taught differently than in Europe, both in terms of the approach to the subject and timeline to qualification. A visitor to the Netherlands faces no special health risks, as the overall health conditions are excellent. No special inoculations are required. Any necessary immunization is available locally. Although Dutch law is strict about commercial processing, cooking, handling, and serving of foods, consumers are advised to show caution when using eggs and preparing poultry, as salmonella bacteria has been found in these products. Tap water is of excellent quality and safe to drink. Dutch medical care is of high quality and is comparable to the medical care one finds throughout Western Europe. Diagnostic laboratories and specialists in all fields of medicine are available. Hospitals are well-equipped, and maternity hospitals and many clinics are available. Most doctors and dentists speak English. Most medicines are available locally. They may not, however, be the same brand names as those used in the United States and prices are generally higher. Tourists should bring a supply of the medicine that they know they will need whilst abroad and provide proper documentation.

  7. Green growth in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balde, K.; Boelens, A.; Brinksma, E.; Edens, B.; Hiethaar, S.; Klein, P.; Schenau, S.

    2011-04-01

    In 2009 the Ministerial Council Meeting of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) committed itself to a green growth strategy. Such a strategy fosters economic growth and development while ensuring that natural resources can continue to provide the ecosystem services on which our well-being relies. It also endorses investment, competition and innovation which will underpin sustained growth and give rise to new economic opportunities. Green growth provides both a policy strategy for implementing this economic transformation and a monitoring framework with a proposed set of indicators. This report presents an overview of the state of green growth in the Netherlands. It should be regarded as a benchmark for a more thorough and comprehensive assessment of green growth in the future. It is based on the set of indicators proposed by the OECD in their intermediate report of February 2011. Data relevant to the Dutch situation are presented for twenty of these indicators, illustrating the observed trends. The indicators are grouped in four themes. For the first theme, environmental efficiency of production, on the whole the indicators show increased efficiency. However, indicators such as greenhouse gas intensity, energy efficiency and material intensity show only relative decoupling, which on its own is not enough to ensure green growth. In addition, the increase in environmental efficiency is partly explained by substitution of imports for domestic production, which is not conducive to green growth on a global scale: the efficiency gains in domestic production, for example, are offset by increases in foreign greenhouse gas emissions. Water use and agricultural nutrient surpluses are the only indicators where absolute decoupling has occurred. The second theme contains indicators regarding the natural assets base. This group of indicators provides a mixed picture. Natural gas reserves are decreasing and the overall level of threat to animal

  8. The future energy situation in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This book is the result of a study into the future energy situation in the Netherlands, performed by the electricity companies in the country. The first five chapters sketch the framework within which energy policy is currently forced to operate. Further technical and physical conditions are considered in the following six chapters, including environmental and safety aspects. A prognosis for energy demand in the Netherlands until the end of the century is presented and five different scenarios are discussed, as means of supplying this demand. Nuclear energy is one of the sources considered throughout the text. (C.F.)

  9. Agricultural Cooperatives in the Netherlands: key success factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijman, J.

    2016-01-01

    The paper argues that the ongoing success of agricultural cooperatives in the Netherlands can be explained by the combination of five factors. First, the Netherlands has an enabling cooperative legislation. Second, cooperatives in the Netherlands have been able to maintain effective member control

  10. The Caribbean Netherlands, five years after the transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evert Pommer; Rob Bijl .

    2015-01-01

    Original title: Vijf jaar Caribisch Nederland On 10 October 2010 the islands of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba, under the flag of the Caribbean Netherlands, acquired the status of new Dutch public bodies, as part of the Netherlands. This transition marked the end of the Netherlands Antilles as

  11. The Spanish Wind Energy Situation and Comparison with Portugal and The Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varela, M.; Gonzalez, R.

    1999-01-01

    This report review the institutional and legal framework of wind energy in Spain as well as the current market situation, considering the geographical distribution of power, its past evolution, what are the Spanish foreseen wind power.... A review of main actor within the wind market: suppliers, promoters, administrative bodies, is also performed. The second part of the report carries out a comparison of the Spanish wind energy situation with the current conditions in Portugal and The Netherlands. These two countries present different levels of wind development with also different approaches to wind energy integration. Finally, the report states some differences and weak points comparing their wind energy situation with the Spanish one. (Author) 12 refs

  12. Radioactive fall-out in Norway after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skjerve, Eystein [Dept. of Food Hygiene, Norwegian College of Veterinary Medicine (Norway)

    1986-07-01

    During the fall-out from the atmosphere during the fifties and sixties, a system of local control of radioactive contamination of food was built up. (LORACON - LOcal RAdioactivity COntrol). The different Meat and Food Inspection Services were equipped with Geiger Mueller instruments. The system was in operation until late seventies. From 1977 there was no testing and calibration of the instruments. The development towards a reduction of the state of readiness was accelerated when the Norwegian Parliament decided that Norway should not establish any nuclear power plants (1979). Only the universities and special institutions as the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene and the Institute for Energy Technique were still able to analyse on radioactive isotopes. The confusion about how much radioactive fall-out from the Chernobyl reactor accident Norway received lasted for some weeks in Norway. Partially, this was due to the lack of instruments, but also many experts rejected the idea that an accident so far away might cause these amounts of fall-out consisted of Iodine and Cesium. The fall-out followed a very irregular pattern both nationally and locally with the mountain areas in Middle Norway most affected.

  13. Smoking Habits among Teachers in Primary Schools in Norway 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seip, Anne Karen

    1982-01-01

    A representative sample (N=1988) of members of the two main teachers' organizations in Norway were mailed questionnaires in the spring of 1977 regarding their past and present smoking habits, and 92 percent responded. The percentage of daily smokers among the teachers was approximately half of that found in the general population. (BRR)

  14. Relating Cenozoic North Sea sediments to topography in southern Norway:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anell, Ingrid Anna Margareta; Thybo, Hans; Stratford, Wanda Rose

    2010-01-01

    the Shetland platform continued throughout the Cenozoic while supply from southern Norway increased markedly around the Eocene–Oligocene, coeval with the greenhouse–icehouse transition. Mass balance calculations of sediment and eroded rock volumes suggest that while some topography along the western margin...... that Plio-Pleistocene erosion over-deepened a pre-existing topography....

  15. Aligning Participation with Authorship: Independent Transmedia Documentary Production in Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karlsen, Joakim

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe main contribution of this article is to describe how the concept of non-fiction transmedia has challenged the independent documentary film community in Norway. How the new possibilities afforded by web- and mobile media, with the potential of reconfiguring the current relation

  16. The PRT Concept -- US Experiences and Their Relevance for Norway

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vaagland, Per O

    2008-01-01

    ...) in Afghanistan, and Norway's concept of operations of PRTs in that country. One of the goals of this study is to examine the challenges connected with the establishment of such a concept, which is interagency and civilian-military in nature...

  17. Life satisfaction and competence of Bosnian refugees in Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanSelm, K; Sam, DL; Van Oudenhoven, JP

    In this study the relative influence of age, gender, locus of control, preferred acculturation strategy, perceived majority members' attitude, and social support on life satisfaction and competence of Bosnian refugees was examined. Hundred and six Bosnians living temporarily in Norway completed a

  18. Carbon sources in vertical profile of Norway spruce stand

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavelka, Marian; Janouš, Dalibor; Urban, Otmar; Acosta, Manuel; Pokorný, Radek; Havránková, Kateřina; Formanek, P.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 30 (2003), s. 199-206 ISSN 1336-5266 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LN00A141; GA ČR(CZ) GA526/03/1021 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : Carbon stock * respiration * Norway spruce Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  19. The Bookshelf: Digitisation and Access to Copyright Items in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarstein, Vigdis Moe

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the challenges faced in digitising copyright-protected books and other materials within the National Library of Norway. Design/methodology/approach: Following a description of Bokhylla, or The Bookshelf, the paper outlines the strategies adopted within the National Library of Norway…

  20. The Public-Private Partnership in ECEC Provision in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Peder

    2014-01-01

    This article seeks to answer three central questions pertaining to public-private partnership in early childhood education and care (ECEC provision) in Norway: How has public-private partnership developed during the last four decades? How is public-private partnership understood in Norwegian ECEC policy? What seem to be the future challenges in…

  1. Russia’s Security Relations with Finland, Norway, and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. RUSSIA’S SECURITY... RELATIONS WITH FINLAND, NORWAY, AND SWEDEN by Rory J. Hayden September 2017 Thesis Advisor: Mikhail Tsypkin Co-Advisor: David S. Yost...THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK i REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of

  2. Soil surface CO2 fluxes in a Norway spruce stand

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Acosta, Manuel; Janouš, Dalibor; Marek, Michal V.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 50 (2004), s. 573-578 ISSN 1212-4834 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB3087301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : Norway spruce * Soil CO2 efflux * Q10 Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  3. Mountain Norway spruce forests: Needle supply and its nutrient content

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovářová, Marcela; Vacek, S.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 49, - (2003), s. 327-332 ISSN 1212-4834 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114; GA ČR GA206/99/1416 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : Šumava Mts. * Mountain Norway spruce forest * needle mass Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  4. Occupational radon daughter exposure in underground workplaces in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, T.; Kolstad, A.K.

    1991-01-01

    Occupational doses from radon daughter exposure in different underground environments in Norway have been estimated. Monitoring programs have been undertaken in mines, hydroelectric power stations, defence installations and tunnels. Based on these measurements the average effective dose equivalent and the corresponding collective effective dose equivalent have been estimated. Hydroelectric power stations is the largest group. In 1984 and 1985 measurements were performed in about 130 of the appr. 150 facilities in Norway. The average radon concentration was about 270 Bq/m 3 , and the corresponding average annual effective dose equivalent between 2 and 2.5 mSv. In 1984 there were about 19 mines in operations in Norway. Based on the measurements, the average radon concentration in mines is 260 Bq/m 3 , and the corresponding average annual effective dose equivalent 3.4 mSv. However, at the time being there are only 10 mines in operation and the number of miners has been reduced from about 1400 in 1984 to about 900 in 1990. The measurements show that the average level of radon in defence installations and tunnels is less than in mines and hydroelectric power stations. The total collective effective dose equivalent for workers underground in Norway is estimated in this paper to be between 5 and 7 manSv. 9 refs., 3 tabs

  5. Applicability of the PROSPECT model for Norway spruce needles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malenovsky, Z.; Albrechtova, J.; Lhotakova, Z.; Zurita Milla, R.; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Schaepman, M.E.; Cudlin, P.

    2006-01-01

    The potential applicability of the leaf radiative transfer model PROSPECT (version 3.01) was tested for Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) needles collected from stress resistant and resilient trees. Direct comparison of the measured and simulated leaf optical properties between 450¿1000 nm

  6. Secular Life Philosophy as a Subject in Schools in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Kristian

    1981-01-01

    In Norway changes in legislation in recent years have loosened the firm hold of Christian philosophy in the schools and given room for alternative secular philosophy. This article presents background information and an outline of the basic plan for life philosophy as a school subject. (Author/SJL)

  7. Reproduction of the shorthorn sculpin Myoxocephalus scorpius in northern Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luksenburg, JA; Pedersen, T; Falk-Petersen, IB

    The reproduction and life history events of the shorthorn sculpin Myoxocephalus scorpius were studied in an unexploited high latitude population in Tromso, northern Norway. Shorthorn sculpins were sampled from November 1998 to March 1999 to determine sex ratio, spawning period, oogenesis, fecundity,

  8. Radioactive fall-out in Norway after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjerve, Eystein

    1986-01-01

    During the fall-out from the atmosphere during the fifties and sixties, a system of local control of radioactive contamination of food was built up. (LORACON - LOcal RAdioactivity COntrol). The different Meat and Food Inspection Services were equipped with Geiger Mueller instruments. The system was in operation until late seventies. From 1977 there was no testing and calibration of the instruments. The development towards a reduction of the state of readiness was accelerated when the Norwegian Parliament decided that Norway should not establish any nuclear power plants (1979). Only the universities and special institutions as the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene and the Institute for Energy Technique were still able to analyse on radioactive isotopes. The confusion about how much radioactive fall-out from the Chernobyl reactor accident Norway received lasted for some weeks in Norway. Partially, this was due to the lack of instruments, but also many experts rejected the idea that an accident so far away might cause these amounts of fall-out consisted of Iodine and Cesium. The fall-out followed a very irregular pattern both nationally and locally with the mountain areas in Middle Norway most affected

  9. Salmonellae in avian wildlife in Norway from 1969 to 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsum, T.; Handeland, K.; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    2002-01-01

    Postmortem records of wild-living birds in Norway with laboratory-confirmed findings of salmonella infection were summarized for the period from 1969 to 2000. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 470 birds belonging to 26 species. The salmonella-positive birds included 441 small passerines, 15 gull...

  10. Handling of quarry waste from schist production at Oppdal, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willy Danielsen, Svein; Alnæs, Lisbeth; Azrague, Kamal; Suleng, Jon

    2017-04-01

    Handling of quarry waste from schist production at Oppdal, Norway Svein Willy Danielsen1), Lisbeth Alnæs2), Kamal Azrague2), Jon Suleng3) 1) Geomaterials Consultant, Trondheim Norway, 2) SINTEF, Trondheim, Norway, 3) AF Gruppen AS, Oppdal, Norway A significant amount of aggregate research in Norway has been focused on the recovery and use of surplus sizes from hard rock aggregate quarries. The use of sand sized quarry waste (QW) from crushing/processing has been motivated by the rapid depletion of traditional sand/gravel resources, increasing land-use conflicts, and the need to minimise QW deposits which for some quarries are becoming a critical factor for economy as well as for environmental reasons. With an annual aggregate production of 77 million tons, out of which approximately 83 % comes from hard rock, the annual volume of size market, the economic - and also environmental - potential will be considerable. Understanding the geological conditions and petrographic properties of the rock is vital. This is a quartz-feldspar rich metamorphic rock - a meta-arkose - containing rhythmically distributed planar lamina (less than 2 mm thick) or scattered occurrence of mica, separated by layers composed predominately of quartz and feldspar. The rock can be split along the lamina to slabs varying from 0.5 cm to more than 10 cm in thickness, and the microstructure can be characterized as being granoblastic to gneissic. . This makes it possible by well designed crushing process and careful selection of the in-going rock particles, to obtain well shaped aggregates up to at least 20 mm. The on-going project will also study the total cost situation depending on the QW utilisation, discuss the environmental and sustainability issues with a societal perspective, and also consider the market opportunities.

  11. Forecast of useful energy for the TIMES-Norway model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, Eva

    2012-01-01

    A regional forecast of useful energy demand in seven Norwegian regions is calculated based on an earlier work with a national forecast. This forecast will be input to the energy system model TIMES-Norway and analyses will result in forecasts of energy use of different energy carriers with varying external conditions (not included in this report). The forecast presented here describes the methodology used and the resulting forecast of useful energy. lt is based on information of the long-term development of the economy by the Ministry of Finance, projections of population growths from Statistics Norway and several other studies. The definition of a forecast of useful energy demand is not absolute, but depends on the purpose. One has to be careful not to include parts that are a part of the energy system model, such as energy efficiency measures. In the forecast presented here the influence of new building regulations and the prohibition of production of incandescent light bulbs in EU etc. are included. Other energy efficiency measures such as energy management, heat pumps, tightening of leaks etc. are modelled as technologies to invest in and are included in the TIMES-Norway model. The elasticity between different energy carriers are handled by the TIMES-Norway model and some elasticity is also included as the possibility to invest in energy efficiency measures. The forecast results in an increase of the total useful energy from 2006 to 2050 by 18 o/o. The growth is expected to be highest in the regions South and East. The industry remains at a constant level in the base case and increased or reduced energy demand is analysed as different scenarios with the TIMES-Norway model. The most important driver is the population growth. Together with the assumptions made it results in increased useful energy demand in the household and service sectors of 25 o/o and 57 % respectively.(au)

  12. Forecast of useful energy for the TIMES-Norway model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Eva

    2012-07-25

    A regional forecast of useful energy demand in seven Norwegian regions is calculated based on an earlier work with a national forecast. This forecast will be input to the energy system model TIMES-Norway and analyses will result in forecasts of energy use of different energy carriers with varying external conditions (not included in this report). The forecast presented here describes the methodology used and the resulting forecast of useful energy. lt is based on information of the long-term development of the economy by the Ministry of Finance, projections of population growths from Statistics Norway and several other studies. The definition of a forecast of useful energy demand is not absolute, but depends on the purpose. One has to be careful not to include parts that are a part of the energy system model, such as energy efficiency measures. In the forecast presented here the influence of new building regulations and the prohibition of production of incandescent light bulbs in EU etc. are included. Other energy efficiency measures such as energy management, heat pumps, tightening of leaks etc. are modelled as technologies to invest in and are included in the TIMES-Norway model. The elasticity between different energy carriers are handled by the TIMES-Norway model and some elasticity is also included as the possibility to invest in energy efficiency measures. The forecast results in an increase of the total useful energy from 2006 to 2050 by 18 o/o. The growth is expected to be highest in the regions South and East. The industry remains at a constant level in the base case and increased or reduced energy demand is analysed as different scenarios with the TIMES-Norway model. The most important driver is the population growth. Together with the assumptions made it results in increased useful energy demand in the household and service sectors of 25 o/o and 57 % respectively.(au)

  13. International bioenergy trade in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junginger, H.M.; de Wit, M.P.; Sikkema, R.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2008-01-01

    The international biomass trade in the Netherlands has been growing strongly over the last few years, but information on the corresponding volumes, origins and prices is barely available. The objectives of this paper are to quantify imported and exported biomass volumes and origins, and identify

  14. VOCATIONAL TRAINING FOR ADULTS IN THE NETHERLANDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministry of Social Affairs and Public Health, Amsterdam (Netherlands).

    THE NETHERLANDS GOVERNMENT HAS TAKEN OVER ADULT VOCATIONAL TRAINING TO MAKE UP FOR THE ARREARS IN VOCATIONAL TRAINING CAUSED DURING WORLD WAR II AND TO ACHIEVE A SWITCHOVER OF WORKERS FROM TRADES WITH A LABOR SURPLUS TO TRADES WITH A LABOR SHORTAGE. IT HAS ESTABLISHED A NUMBER OF VOCATIONAL TRAINING CENTERS FOR THE INITIAL TRAINING OF PERSONS FOR…

  15. The Umbelliferae of the Netherlands Indies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buwalda, P.

    1936-01-01

    Besides the Umbelliferae of the Netherlands Indies proper, also those of the Malay Peninsula and the non-Dutch parts of Borneo and New Guinea have been taken up in this revision. The materials examined belong to the following Herbaria: (B) = the Herbarium of the Botanic Garden, Buitenzorg. (BD) =

  16. Corporate-governmental networks in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mokken, R.J.; Stokman, F.N.

    1979-01-01

    Corporate networks studies have been restricted mainly to the private or business sectors. Network analyses involving both corporations and state or government agencies have been extremely rare. In this paper, the intercorporate network of interlocking directorates in the Netherlands, based on 86

  17. Validation of the Netherlands pacemaker patient registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, WA; Kingma, T; Hooijschuur, CAM; Dassen, WRM; Hoorntje, JCA; van Gelder, LM

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with the validation of the information stored in the Netherlands central pacemaker patient database. At this moment the registry database contains information on more than 70500 patients, 85000 pacemakers and 90000 leads. The validation procedures consisted of an internal

  18. The Netherlands Bird Avoidance Model, Final Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shamoun-Baranes, J.; Bouten, W.; Sierdsema, H.; van Belle, J.; van Gasteren, J.R.; van Loon, E.E.

    2006-01-01

    The NL-BAM was developed as a web-based decision support tool to be used by the bird hazard avoidance experts in the ecology unit of the Royal Netherlands Air Force. The NL-BAM will be used together with the ROBIN 4 radar system to provide BirdTAMS, for real time warnings and flight planning and to

  19. Euthanasia in the Netherlands: a slippery slope?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, Brigit

    2017-01-01

    The Dutch euthanasia legislation has been lauded as well as criticized by legal scholars and physicians in the Netherlands and abroad. The legal framework so established is renowned for setting a number of valuable due-care criteria for the physician to follow when performing euthanasia on a

  20. Gambling and problem gambling in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudriaan, Anna E

    2014-07-01

    To provide an overview of gambling in the Netherlands, focusing on historical background, policy, legislation, prevalence of problem gambling, availability of treatment options and research base. Literature review. Contradictions between gambling policy and practice have been present in the past 15-20 years, and have led to an increasingly stricter gambling regulation to retain the government policy to restrict gambling within a national monopoly. Conversely, political efforts have been made to legalize internet gambling, but have not yet been approved. Compared to other European countries, slot machine gambling and casino gambling are relatively popular, whereas betting is relatively unpopular. Last-year problem gambling prevalence (South Oaks Gambling Screen score > 5) is estimated at 0.22-0.15% (2005, 2011). Treatment for problem gambling is covered by health insurance under the same conditions as substance dependence, but only a small proportion of Dutch problem gamblers seeks help at addiction treatment centres. Gambling policy in the Netherlands has become stricter during recent last years in order to maintain the Dutch gambling monopoly. Problem gambling in the Netherlands is relatively stable. Dutch research on problem gambling has a lack of longitudinal studies. Most of the epidemiological gambling studies are reported in non-peer-reviewed research reports, which diminishes control by independent peers on the methodology and interpretation of results. Recent efforts to enhance consistency in research methods between gambling studies over time could enhance knowledge on changes in (problem) gambling in the Netherlands. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. Voicing discrimination in multilingual and multiethnic Netherlands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    the Dutch.1 To do justice to the phenomena described here on a European or a global level would require an entire ... occupying forces, the Dutch did not manage to save their compatriots. Did they look away? .... No matter how many generations of an immigrant group have lived in the Netherlands (the most extreme case ...

  2. Work and health statistics in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.

    2004-01-01

    In this report provides statistical information about many key aspects of working life, charting their evolution and societal impact over the years. A continuous rise in the pace of work of 1.5% per annum took place in the Netherlands over a 20-year period. This levelled off at national level in

  3. Working conditions remain stable in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.; Hooftman, W.

    2008-01-01

    Despite significant changes in the national questionnaires on work and health, the quality of work as well as health complaints in the Netherlands appear to be relatively stable. Pace of work seems to be on the increase again and more people are working in excess of their contractual hours.

  4. Space research in the Netherlands 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    The reports of the four working groups of the Netherlands Committee for Geophysics and Space Research are given for 1976. The research desribed includes the electromagnetic and particle radiation of the sun and stars, cosmic rays and non-solar X-and gamma-radiation, photometric observations in the far infrared and ultraviolet spectral regions and observational and geometric satellite geodesy. (Auth.)

  5. Shellfish reef restoration pilots: Voordelta The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sas, H.; Kamermans, P.; Have, van der T.M.; Lengkeek, W.; Smaal, A.C.

    2016-01-01

    Once, shellfish reefs - mainly flat oysters - covered about 20% of the North Sea floor, but diseases, pollution and overfishing have led to a significant decline. As part of the Haringvliet Dream Fund Project (www.haringvliet.nu), ARK
    Nature and World Wildlife Fund Netherlands are working on

  6. The distribution of bats in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braaksma, S.

    1970-01-01

    The Research Institute for Nature Management (R.I.N.) has compiled all available information on the distribution of bats in the Netherlands up till 1968. The data were derived from literature and museum specimens, as well as from numerous unpublished observations. Around 1960 much was known already

  7. The reception of relativity in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Besouw, J.; van Dongen, J.A.E.F.

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the early academic and public reception of Albert Einstein's theory of relativity in the Netherlands, particularly after Arthur Eddington's eclipse experiments of 1919. Initially, not much attention was given to relativity, as it did not seem an improvement over Hendrik A.

  8. Regional labour market dynamics in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, Lourens; van Dijk, J.

    This article analyzes the response of regional labor markets in the Netherlands to region-specific labor demand shocks. Previous studies show remarkable differences in response between regions in European countries and regions in the United States. The analysis shows that, in Dutch regions, the

  9. Part time working in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wil Portegijs; Saskia Keuzenkamp

    2008-01-01

    Original title: Nederland deeltijdland. The Netherlands is at the top of the league when it comes to part-time working. Women in particular very frequently work part-time. This is blamed on the difficulty of combining paid employment with care tasks, thus limiting the scope for participation

  10. Netherlands Electricity Regulatory Service DTe. Internet site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The implementation of the Dutch Electricity Law and the observance of compliance with the law is commissioned to the Netherlands Electricity Regulatory Service DTe. Their Internet site contains several full-text documents related to the tasks of DTe (mainly with respect to tariffs and transportation of electricity)

  11. Training the physician assistant in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spenkelink-Schut, G.; ten Cate, O.Th.J.; Kort, H.S.M.

    2008-01-01

    The concept of the physician assistant (PA) in the United States has served as a model for other countries in providing one solution for the challenges in their health care systems. In the Netherlands there is a growing shortage of adequately trained health care workers, an increasing demand for

  12. Modelling Forest Water Consumption in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolman, A.J.; Nonhebel, S.

    1988-01-01

    The water consumption of oak, beech, spruce and pine forest is predicted from routinely measured meteorological data for five locations in the Netherlands. Differences in water consumption are found to be primarily a result of differences in interception loss. Predicted interception loss was found

  13. The prevalence of stalking in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Aa, S.; Kunst, M.J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Over eight years after the enactment of the Dutch anti-stalking provisions there are still no figures detailing the prevalence of stalking in The Netherlands. This article aims to estimate the lifetime and annual prevalence of this form of victimization within the Dutch population. Questionnaires

  14. Netherlands Energy Research Foundation Annual Report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    This Annual Report includes a brief survey of the nuclear research activities of the Netherlands Energy Research Center (ECN) in Petten during 1987. They cover the following subjects: reactor safety, processing, storage and disposal of radioactive waste, advanced nuclear reactors, radiation protection, nuclear analysis, and contributions to the European thermonuclear-fusion research. (H.W.). 20 figs.; 18 fotos; 1 tab

  15. Mapping groundwater quality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pebesma, Edzer Jan

    1996-01-01

    Groundwater quality is the suitability of groundwater for a certain purpose (e.g. for human consumption), and is mostly determined by its chemical composition. Pollution from agricultural and industrial origin threatens the groundwater quality in the Netherlands. Locally, this pollution is

  16. Recognizablility of rural roads in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, L.T. & Davidse, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the Sustainable Safety vision is an important guide in improving road safety. It is considered that the road environment shouldconform to the expectations of road users in order to prevent errors thatcould lead to road crashes. These expectations are based on the characteristics

  17. Gerontological research in the Netherlands: An inventory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haaijman, J.J.; Borne, H.W. van den

    1978-01-01

    An inventory of the recently concluded, current and planned gerontological research in the Netherlands has been made. About 160 investigators are committed to this kind of research, on which they spend 71 man years. In terms of manpower, the most effort is spent in social gerontology (76

  18. Streptococcus suis meningitis in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beek, Diederik; Spanjaard, Lodewijk; de Gans, Jan

    2008-01-01

    We present four patients with Streptococcus suis meningitis identified during a 3.5-year prospective surveillance study in the Netherlands. All cases were associated with exposure to pigs. Patients presented with classic symptoms and signs of bacterial meningitis. Outcome was characterized by severe

  19. Solid waste disposal in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brasser, L.J.

    1990-01-01

    In The Netherlands, a small and densely populated country, the disposal of solid waste requires strict precautions. Because the landscape is flat and the watertable just under groundlevel, landfilling and dumping must be avoided as much as possible. Incineration of municipal and industrial waste are

  20. Stimulating medical education research in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaarsma, Debbie; Scherpbier, Albert; Van Der Vleuten, Cees; Ten Cate, Olle

    BACKGROUND: Since the 1970s, the Dutch have been active innovators and researchers in the medical education domain. With regards to the quantity of publications in the medical education literature, the Netherlands rank second among countries in Europe and fourth worldwide over the past years,

  1. Nutrient management regulations in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder, J.J.; Neeteson, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    The application of nutrients affect the quality of the environment which justifies the consideration of regulations regarding their use in agriculture. In the early 1990s The Netherlands decided to use the indicator `nutrient surplus at farm level¿ as the basis for a regulation which was called the

  2. Jews in the Netherlands and their languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, A.C.J.

    2014-01-01

    Cultural contacts between majority and minority groups involve many different aspects, one of which is language. Jews have been living in the Netherlands since around the beginning of the sixteenth century. In the two centuries that followed, their language repertoire was very rich, consisting of at

  3. Acceptance of homosexuality in the Netherlands 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saskia Keuzenkamp

    2011-01-01

    The Dutch government wishes to promote the social acceptance of homosexuality. To gain an impression of the current status and the progress in achieving this objective, the government asked the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP to carry out a study of the current statistics and

  4. Facility management research in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, Thomas; van der Voordt, Theo; Mobach, Mark P.

    This article provides a brief overview of the history and development of facility management research in the Netherlands and indicates future directions. Facility management as a profession has developed from single service to multi-services and integral services over the past 15 years.

  5. Climate Change Communication in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewulf, A.R.P.J.; Boezeman, Daan; Vink, M.J.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change communication in the Netherlands started in the 1950s, but it was not until the late 1970s that the issue earned a place on the public agenda, as an aspect of the energy problem, and in the shadow of controversy about nuclear energy. Driven largely by scientific reports and political

  6. Interpretive policy analysis in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bommel, Severine; van Hulst, M.J.; Yanow, Dvora; van Nispen, Frans; Scholten, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This chapter outlines the character of interpretive policy analysis (IPA) and then looks at the history and present state of its practice in the Netherlands. In an approach commonly found in science studies, that history is traced through key actors and their publications, institutional locations,

  7. Fusarium basal rot in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de C.L.M.; Broek, van den R.C.F.M.; Brink, van den L.

    2006-01-01

    Fusarium basal rot of onion, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cepae, is a steadily increasing problem in The Netherlands. Financial losses for Dutch farmers confronted with Fusarium basal rot is substantial, due to yield reduction and high storage costs. This paper describes the development and

  8. Going Dutch: Higher Education in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, David

    2016-01-01

    This article outlines some of the policy issues currently faced by research-based universities in the Netherlands. The focus is on four leading universities (University of Amsterdam: UvA; Free University of Amsterdam: VU; Leiden University; and Delft University of Technology: TUD). The author visited these institutions as part of a Study Tour…

  9. Childcare in the Netherlands: Lessons in Privatisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgunduz, Yusuf Emre; Plantenga, Janneke

    2014-01-01

    In 2005 the Child Care Act was introduced in the Netherlands. The explicit objective of the childcare reform has been to stimulate the operation of market forces so that childcare services are provided in an efficient way. The change towards a demand-driven financing system implies that there is no longer public provision of childcare services in…

  10. Islamic Primary Schools in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dronkers, Jaap

    2016-01-01

    During the last 20 years of the 20th century, Islamic primary schools were founded in the Netherlands thanks to its constitutional "freedom of education" (which allows state-funded religious schools), its voucher system (each school receives the same amount of money per pupil), and school choice by parents. This essay gives some…

  11. The Netherlands and the world ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besselink, C.

    1994-01-01

    A short survey of the Dutch impact on the global environment is presented. The ecological costs of Dutch trade relations, both in the Netherlands and the rest of the world are examined. A strategy to attain a more sustainable society is provided

  12. 'Ethiopia-Netherlands AIDS research project'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, E. J.; Rinke de Wit, T. F.; Fontanet, A. L.; Goudsmit, J.; Miedema, F.; Coutinho, R. A.

    2001-01-01

    The 'Ethiopia-Netherlands AIDS Research Project' (ENARP), started in 1994, is a long-term collaboration between AIDS researchers in Amsterdam and the Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute in Addis Ababa. The ENARP's primary objectives include conducting studies on HIV and AIDS in

  13. The history of radiotherapy in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levendag, PC; Vermey, J; Senan, S

    1996-01-01

    Soon after the discovery of x-rays by W. C. Rontgen in 1895, a publication on fluoroscopy and x-ray pictures/films appeared in the Dutch medical literature in February 1896, The present article reviews the subsequent developments in the field of therapeutic radiology in The Netherlands and, in

  14. Gastroenteritis in sentinel general practices, the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, M.A.S. de; Koopmans, M.P.G.; Kortbeek, L.M.; Leeuwen, N.J. van; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Duynhoven, Y.T.H.P. van

    2001-01-01

    From 1996 to 1999, the incidence of gastroenteritis in general practices and the role of a broad range of pathogens in the Netherlands were studied. All patients with gastroenteritis who had visited a general practitioner were reported. All patients who had visited a general practitioner for

  15. Acceptance of homosexuality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisette Kuyper; Floor Bakker

    2006-01-01

    Original title: De houding ten opzichte van homoseksualiteit. To date, relatively little systematic research has been carried out on public attitudes to homosexual men and women in the Netherlands - far less than in the United States, for example. SCP has recently carried out a large-scale

  16. Education and diversity in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeman, Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article sets out the Dutch approach to the multicultural question. It focuses on how national policies, schools, teachers and teacher educators are addressing and making sense of questions of cultural and religious diversity. The article shows how the Netherlands has partly accommodated itself

  17. Social Housing in the Netherlands, Chapter 10

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsinga, M.; Wassenberg, F.

    2007-01-01

    Nowhere else in Europe does social housing dominate the housing market as it does in the Netherlands. Over one third of all households rent a social-sector dwelling. There are 2.4 million social rented dwellings, a number that has been stable during the last decade. Almost all social housing is

  18. Bird-marking in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van E.D.

    1911-01-01

    Since May of this year the Museum of Natural History at Leyden is carrying into execution the inquiry into migration and other movements of birds in the Netherlands by means of aluminium rings. The results will be published in this periodical and at the same time in Dutch in the periodical of the

  19. Landmine detection technology research in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleijpen, H.M.A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the activities on research and development in the technology area for landmine detection in the Netherlands. The main players, their projects and the long term and short term project goals are presented. The projects cover the range from military applications to

  20. Public Administration Programmes in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.N. Raadschelders; F.K.M. van Nispen tot Pannerden (Frans)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractPublic administration in The Netherlands is generally approached as a multi-disciplinary field of inquiry, especially in the social sciences. Some schools attempt a more integrating approach preserving the integrity of Public Administration as an academic discipline. Its focus is on: 1.

  1. Research in technical communication in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, C.J.M.

    1994-01-01

    In the Netherlands, research in technical communication is a part of research in 'functional text,' which has concrete goals that must be achieved by lay readers. Three recent studies focus on the use of and failure to use software manuals, the minimalist approach and learning styles, and the effect

  2. Occupational adjustment of immigrants in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zorlu, A.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the speed of the occupational adjustment of immigrants using Labour Force Surveys 2004 and 2005 from Statistics Netherlands. The analysis provides new evidence that immigrants start with jobs at the lower levels of skill distribution. Their occupational achievement improves

  3. Trends in labour immigration to the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alberda, A.P.; Bloemendal, C.; Braams, N.; Fortanier, F.; van Gaalen, R.; Rooijakkers, B.; Smit, R.

    2011-01-01

    The process of internationalisation is not only reflected in increased international trade and investment flows, but also in the increased movement of people across borders, often to take on jobs abroad (labour migration). Between 2000 and 2008, labour immigration to the Netherlands displayed a

  4. The genus Alangium in the Netherlands Indies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloembergen, S.

    1935-01-01

    The present revision comprises, besides the Alangia of the Netherlands Indies proper, also those of the Malay Peninsula, North Borneo, and Eastern New Guinea. The materials examined were kindly put at the author’s disposal by the Directions of the following herbaria: B = the Herbarium of the Botanic

  5. Administration by negotiation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, O.J.D.M.L.

    2002-01-01

    The legal literature in the Netherlands has been paying a considerable amount of attention for some time now to horizontal administration or administration by negotiation., voluntary agreements, mediation, Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) and dispute settlement. The issue is still of continued

  6. Engaging scientists : organising valorisation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Stefan de

    2015-01-01

    Globally, the call for impact of science on society is louder than ever. The Netherlands is no exception. In 2004, valorisation was introduced as a core element of Dutch science policy, aiming to increase the societal benefits of academic research. In scientific practice, the introduction

  7. Pensions in the Netherlands: solidarity and choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stella Hof

    2015-01-01

    Like Japan, the Netherlands has an ageing population. As a consequence, the affordability of old-age pensions is under pressure. The labour market is also changing, with people more often changing jobs or choosing to become self-employed. Both trends raise the question of whether the pension

  8. The development of marketing in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Wierenga (Berend)

    1981-01-01

    textabstractThe article discusses marketing developments in the Netherlands. The author describes the evolution of marketing in the country from the traditional institutions such as wholesaling, retailing, and auctions, etc. to the nonprofit sectors. Marketing in the country has been described in

  9. EELA Training Activities in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherubino, C.; Ciuffo, L. N.; Fuentes, A.; Mayo, R.

    2007-01-01

    EELA (E-Infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America) is a collaboration project between Latin American and European institutions whose aim is to consolidate a shared e-Infrastructure for e-Science applications. Training activities play a crucial role in this scope, providing the necessary skills to the users and allowing them to properly utilize the available grid infrastructure at all levels. This paper highlights the results achieved by the knowledge dissemination task of the project, in particular those obtained in Spain, one of the most active EELA partners. The EELA project is funded by the European Commission under the contract number IST- 2006-026409. (Author)

  10. Acid Deposition Maps in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artinano, B.; Cabal, H.; Garcia, C.

    1998-01-01

    Animal and monthly deposition velocity and total sulfur deposition maps have been performed for the peninsular Spain for 1992 by using the inferential method. To do this, updated databases with high space and time resolution, for land uses (CORINE) and meteorological information from analysis modelling for the same year, have been utilized. The final result are deposition maps in a 5x5 Km 2 grid which allow to assess the methodology used in Europe to obtain the maps of excedances over the critical loads of pollutants. (Author) 32 refs

  11. HIV transmission patterns among The Netherlands, Suriname, and The Netherlands Antilles: a molecular epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Merlijn A; Cornelissen, Marion; Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Prins, Maria; Coutinho, Roel A; van Sighem, Ard I; Sabajo, Lesley; Duits, Ashley J; Winkel, Cai N; Prins, Jan M; van der Ende, Marchina E; Kauffmann, Robert H; Op de Coul, Eline L

    2011-02-01

    We aimed to study patterns of HIV transmission among Suriname, The Netherlands Antilles, and The Netherlands. Fragments of env, gag, and pol genes of 55 HIV-infected Surinamese, Antillean, and Dutch heterosexuals living in The Netherlands and 72 HIV-infected heterosexuals living in Suriname and the Antilles were amplified and sequenced. We included 145 pol sequences of HIV-infected Surinamese, Antillean, and Dutch heterosexuals living in The Netherlands from an observational cohort. All sequences were phylogenetically analyzed by neighbor-joining. Additionally, HIV-1 mobility among ethnic groups was estimated. A phylogenetic tree of all pol sequences showed two Surinamese and three Antillean clusters of related strains, but no clustering between ethnic groups. Clusters included sequences of individuals living in Suriname and the Antilles as well as those who have migrated to The Netherlands. Similar clustering patterns were observed in env and gag. Analysis of HIV mobility among ethnic groups showed significantly lower migration between groups than expected under the hypothesis of panmixis, apart from higher HIV migration between Antilleans in The Netherlands and all other groups. Our study shows that HIV transmission mainly occurs within the ethnic group. This suggests that cultural factors could have a larger impact on HIV mobility than geographic distance.

  12. [Nuclear medicine in Spain: high technology 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano Castrejón, A M; Prats Rivera, E; Alonso Farto, J C; Vallejo Casas, J A; Rodriguez Gasen, A; Setoain Perego, J; Arbizu Lostao, J

    2014-01-01

    This article details the high technology equipment in Spain obtained through a survey sent to the three main provider companies of equipment installed in Spain. The geographical distribution of high technology by Autonomous Communities and its antiquity have been analyzed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  13. Spain succeeds on the PWR learning curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varley, J.

    1982-01-01

    The development of nuclear power in Spain is described. Although the programme has been delayed and cut back, success has been achieved in carrying out technology transfer. Spain now has an industry capable of exporting nuclear components, equipment and expertise. An architect-engineering capability has also developed. (U.K.)

  14. Inspection of nuclear fuel transport in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo Mendez, J.

    1977-01-01

    The experience acquired in inspecting nuclear fuel shipments carried out in Spain will serve as a basis for establishing the regulations wich must be adhered to for future transports, as the transport of nuclear fuels in Spain will increase considerably within the next years as a result of the Spanish nuclear program. The experience acquired in nuclear fuel transport inspection is described. (author) [es

  15. Teaching Gender and Geography in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ramon, Maria-Dolors

    2011-01-01

    Since the introduction of gender themes into university teaching in geography in Spain in 1989, significant gains have been made but challenges remain in relation to placing gender into undergraduate curricula and developing teaching resources in local languages. Geographers in Spain have to meet those challenges in the near future in order to…

  16. Marriage strategies among immigrants in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez-Domínguez, M.; de Valk, H.A.G.; Reher, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies patterns of endogamous marriages of immigrants in Spain by using data from the National Immigrant Survey of Spain (2007). First of all, we examine patterns of endogamous marriage and links between migration and marriage. Second, we assess the factors influencing the likelihood of

  17. Spain's marketing sector seeing more changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Spain's petroleum marketing sector continues to restructure. Partly state owned Repsol SA and Royal Dutch/Shell Group are discussing supplying each other's retail outlets in the UK and Spain. And Portugal's state owned Petroleos de Portugal (Petrogal), seeking to sharply expand retail operations in Spain, complains of government interference with foreign investment in Spanish marketing. Meantime, Conoco Inc. Has agreed with Saras SpA Raffinerie Sarde, Milan, to set up a network of service stations in northern Spain and Portugal at a cost of 100 billion pesetas (%972 million). The two are considering building an oil terminal at the port city of Gijon in Asturias, Spain, and the Exxon Corp., Total, and Shell are interested in participating in the project

  18. Spain. Women in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, E; Serrano, N

    1994-08-01

    Spanish women live almost 2 times longer today than did their great grandmothers (60-65 years vs. 35). Contraception is more accessible, resulting in fewer pregnancies and their complications. The National Health Service of Spain provides women and their families medical care. Yet, women's health risks continue. Class, race, and geography result in women having uneven access to medical care. Primary health care services are not a priority as are high- technology hospitals. Women, who already lead a busy life, still care for older people or people with disabilities. Many households have a very limited or no income and depend on welfare benefits or family. There are more women than men who are poor because women, many of whom are single, are raising large families and many live alone. Women are often the victims of violence and of domestic abuse (1993, 86 violent deaths and 200,000 cases of abuse by a partner). Spain has laws that protect women facing divorce and that allow abortion, but men have created the world order. Women suffer daily in a world which does not recognize rape and sexual harassment as war crimes (e.g., former Yugoslavia). In Seville, the Solidarity Network of Women in Black is a pacifist group working to stop violence. They plan on setting up links to publicly denounce and act against all aggression and to institutionalize women's right to full freedom. War is destroying women's lives.

  19. Ice thickness measurements and volume estimates for glaciers in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, Liss M.; Huss, Matthias; Melvold, Kjetil; Elvehøy, Hallgeir; Winsvold, Solveig H.

    2014-05-01

    Whereas glacier areas in many mountain regions around the world now are well surveyed using optical satellite sensors and available in digital inventories, measurements of ice thickness are sparse in comparison and a global dataset does not exist. Since the 1980s ice thickness measurements have been carried out by ground penetrating radar on many glaciers in Norway, often as part of contract work for hydropower companies with the aim to calculate hydrological divides of ice caps. Measurements have been conducted on numerous glaciers, covering the largest ice caps as well as a few smaller mountain glaciers. However, so far no ice volume estimate for Norway has been derived from these measurements. Here, we give an overview of ice thickness measurements in Norway, and use a distributed model to interpolate and extrapolate the data to provide an ice volume estimate of all glaciers in Norway. We also compare the results to various volume-area/thickness-scaling approaches using values from the literature as well as scaling constants we obtained from ice thickness measurements in Norway. Glacier outlines from a Landsat-derived inventory from 1999-2006 together with a national digital elevation model were used as input data for the ice volume calculations. The inventory covers all glaciers in mainland Norway and consists of 2534 glaciers (3143 glacier units) covering an area of 2692 km2 ± 81 km2. To calculate the ice thickness distribution of glaciers in Norway we used a distributed model which estimates surface mass balance distribution, calculates the volumetric balance flux and converts it into thickness using the flow law for ice. We calibrated this model with ice thickness data for Norway, mainly by adjusting the mass balance gradient. Model results generally agree well with the measured values, however, larger deviations were found for some glaciers. The total ice volume of Norway was estimated to be 275 km3 ± 30 km3. From the ice thickness data set we selected

  20. Thorium as an energy source. Opportunities for Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-01-15

    Final Recommendations of the Thorium Report Committee: 1) No technology should be idolized or demonized. All carbon-dioxide (Co2) emission-free energy production technologies should be considered. The potential contribution of nuclear energy to a sustainable energy future should be recognized. 2) An investigation into the resources in the Fen Complex and other sites in Norway should be performed. It is essential to assess whether thorium in Norwegian rocks can be defined as an economical asset for the benefit of future generations. Furthermore, the application of new technologies for the extraction of thorium from the available mineral sources should be studied. 3) Testing of thorium fuel in the Halden Reactor should be encouraged, taking benefit of the well recognized nuclear fuel competence in Halden. 4) Norway should strengthen its participation in international collaborations by joining the EURATOM fission program and the GIF program on Generation IV reactors suitable for the use of thorium. 5) The development of an Accelerator Driven System (ADS) using thorium is not within the capability of Norway working alone. Joining the European effort in this field should be considered. Norwegian research groups should be encouraged to participate in relevant international projects, although these are currently focused on waste management. 6) Norway should bring its competence in waste management up to an international standard and collaboration with Sweden and Finland could be beneficial. 7) Norway should bring its competence with respect to dose assessment related to the thorium cycle up to an international standard. 8) Since the proliferation resistance of uranium-233 depends on the reactor and reprocessing technologies, this aspect will be of key concern should any thorium reactor be built in Norway. 9) Any new nuclear activities in Norway, e.g. thorium fuel cycles, would need strong international pooling of human resources, and in the case of thorium, a strong long

  1. Thorium as an energy source. Opportunities for Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Final Recommendations of the Thorium Report Committee: 1) No technology should be idolized or demonized. All carbon-dioxide (Co2) emission-free energy production technologies should be considered. The potential contribution of nuclear energy to a sustainable energy future should be recognized. 2) An investigation into the resources in the Fen Complex and other sites in Norway should be performed. It is essential to assess whether thorium in Norwegian rocks can be defined as an economical asset for the benefit of future generations. Furthermore, the application of new technologies for the extraction of thorium from the available mineral sources should be studied. 3) Testing of thorium fuel in the Halden Reactor should be encouraged, taking benefit of the well recognized nuclear fuel competence in Halden. 4) Norway should strengthen its participation in international collaborations by joining the EURATOM fission program and the GIF program on Generation IV reactors suitable for the use of thorium. 5) The development of an Accelerator Driven System (ADS) using thorium is not within the capability of Norway working alone. Joining the European effort in this field should be considered. Norwegian research groups should be encouraged to participate in relevant international projects, although these are currently focused on waste management. 6) Norway should bring its competence in waste management up to an international standard and collaboration with Sweden and Finland could be beneficial. 7) Norway should bring its competence with respect to dose assessment related to the thorium cycle up to an international standard. 8) Since the proliferation resistance of uranium-233 depends on the reactor and reprocessing technologies, this aspect will be of key concern should any thorium reactor be built in Norway. 9) Any new nuclear activities in Norway, e.g. thorium fuel cycles, would need strong international pooling of human resources, and in the case of thorium, a strong long

  2. The hunt for a Cs-137 cloud in Southern Europe. Aftermath of an accident in Algeciras, Spain; De jacht op een Cs-137-wolk in Zuid-Europa. Aftermath van een ongeval in Algeciras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hantke, T; Aldenkamp, F; Overwater, R; Slaper, H [Laboratorium voor Stralingsonderzoek, Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieuhygiene RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    1998-10-01

    In a scrap processing business in Algeciras in Spain a cesium source accidentally was melted along with the scrap in a blast-furnace of the steel industry Acerinox. The National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM, abbreviated in Dutch) measured the radioactive release on monitors in Bilthoven, Netherlands. Model calculations, in combination with measured data, show that there was no reason to warn Dutch tourists at Mallorca, Spain. The accident also is a test for the reliability of monitoring networks and distribution models

  3. Size-dependence of tree growth response to drought for Norway spruce and European beech individuals in monospecific and mixed-species stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, H; Pretzsch, H; Schütze, G; Rötzer, T

    2017-09-01

    Climate anomalies have resulted in changing forest productivity, increasing tree mortality in Central and Southern Europe. This has resulted in more severe and frequent ecological disturbances to forest stands. This study analysed the size-dependence of growth response to drought years based on 384 tree individuals of Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] and European beech [Fagus sylvatica ([L.)] in Bavaria, Germany. Samples were collected in both monospecific and mixed-species stands. To quantify the growth response to drought stress, indices for basal area increment, resistance, recovery and resilience were calculated from tree ring measurements of increment cores. Linear mixed models were developed to estimate the influence of drought periods. The results show that ageing-related growth decline is significant in drought years. Drought resilience and resistance decrease significantly with growth size among Norway spruce individuals. Evidence is also provided for robustness in the resilience capacity of European beech during drought stress. Spruce benefits from species mixing with deciduous beech, with over-yielding spruce in pure stands. The importance of the influence of size-dependence within tree growth studies during disturbances is highlighted and should be considered in future studies of disturbances, including drought. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  4. Salt production by means of solution minig in The Netherlands using the exploitation activities of AkzoNobel; Salzgewinnung durch Aussolung in den Niederlanden am Beispiel der Gewinnungsaktivitaeten der AkzoNobel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paar, Wim; Wekenborg, Hubert [Akzo Nobel Industrial Chemicals B.V., Hengelo (Netherlands). sub-Business Unit Akzo Nobel Salt B.V.

    2011-06-15

    The Netherlands has a long history of salt production and salt trade. Since the prohibition of salt production in the year 1515, the Netherlands were dependent on salt imports especially from France, Portugal, Spain and from the Cape Verde Islands. In the 18th century, a two-stage process for extracting salt from sea water was developed. This method consisted of an evaporation of sea water and a subsequent concentration of the brine. In the 19th century, this process (grading) was forbidden because the amount of taxes could not be determined. Therefore, since 1871 The Netherlands were dependent on the import of rock salt from the United Kingdom and Germany. Due to the declining exports of salt, from the year 1900 the Dutch manufactures produced salt only for domestic needs.

  5. Carcinoma of the tongue in Norway and Wisconsin. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermund, H.

    1982-01-01

    The records of 503 patients with carcinoma of the tongue diagnosed between 1958 and 1972 were reviewed. The preponderance of tongue carcinoma among men was confirmed both in The Norwegian Radium Hospital (NRH) and the University of Wisconsin Hospitals (UW), but it was relatively more frequent among women in NRH and in UW than in southern Europe. More women had on presentation less advanced tumors at NRH than at UW. The incidence of tongue carcinoma in Norway increased steadily with age for both sexes. The sex ratio did not change in Norway such as in England, Canada and the United States. Tumor of the posterior one-third of the tongue was relatively infrequent in women both in NRH and UW, in agreement with reports from other countries. The length of survival was analysed and no significant sex difference was demonstrated. The younger patients had less advanced tumors and a better prognosis. (Auth.)

  6. Gas power in Norway claimed to aggravate the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langseth, Bjarne

    2001-01-01

    In this article it is asserted that gas power production in Norway will displace the rehabilitation of hydroelectric power stations and energy economization. Hence, gas power will aggravate the environment. The introduction of gas power should be postponed until the market price covers the environmental cost. A principle argument for rapid development of gas power in Norway is the statement that this will reduce the total emission of carbon dioxide. The article challenges this view. Although the electricity market has well supplied with cheap energy, almost all the debate about energy policy the last years has concentrated on the ''problem'' of failing national energy coverage in a so-called normal year. Both market prices and pure logic based on cost-effectiveness indicate that energy import is not the problem, but rather the solution. Indeed, the problem is not kWh, but kW

  7. Survey of nematodes associated with terrestrial slugs in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J L; Ivanova, E S; Hatteland, B A; Brurberg, M B; Haukeland, S

    2016-09-01

    A survey of nematodes associated with terrestrial slugs was conducted for the first time in Norway. A total of 611 terrestrial slugs were collected from 32 sample sites. Slugs were identified by means of morphological examination, dissection of genitalia and molecular analysis using mitochondrial DNA. Twelve slug species were identified, representing four different slug families. Internal nematodes were identified by means of morphological analysis and the sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene. Of the sample sites studied, 62.5% were found to be positive for nematode parasites, with 18.7% of all slugs discovered being infected. Five nematode species were identified in this study: Alloionema appendiculatum, Agfa flexilis, Angiostoma limacis, Angiostoma sp. and Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita. Of these species, only one nematode was previously undescribed (Angiostoma sp.). This is the first record of the presence of A. appendiculatum, A. flexilis and A. limacis in Norway.

  8. Benthic monitoring of salmon farms in Norway using foraminiferal metabarcoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Jan; Esling, Philippe; Lejzerowicz, Franck

    2016-01-01

    The rapid growth of the salmon industry necessitates the development of fast and accurate tools to assess its environmental impact. Macrobenthic monitoring is commonly used to measure the impact of organic enrichment associated with salmon farm activities. However, classical benthic monitoring can...... of macrofauna-based benthic monitoring. Here, we tested the application of foraminiferal metabarcoding to benthic monitoring of salmon farms in Norway. We analysed 140 samples of eDNA and environmental RNA (eRNA) extracted from surface sediment samples collected at 4 salmon farming sites in Norway. We sequenced...... of Foraminifera as bioindicators of organic enrichment associated with salmon farming. The foraminiferal diversity increased with the distance to fish cages, and metabarcoding provides an assessment of the ecological quality comparable to the morphological analyses. The foraminiferal metabarcoding approach...

  9. Transnational spaces of care: migrant nurses in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksen, Lise Widding

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that international nurse recruitment from Latvia to Norway is not a win–win situation. The gains and losses of nurse migration are unevenly distributed between sender and receiver countries. On the basis of empirical research and interviews with Latvian nurses and families they left behind, this article argues that nurse migration transforms families and communities and that national health services now become global workplaces. Some decades ago feminist research pointed to the fact that the welfare state was based on a male breadwinner family and women’s unpaid production of care work at home. Today this production of unpaid care is “outsourced” from richer to poorer countries and is related to an emergence of transnational spaces of care. International nurse recruitment and global nurse care chains in Norway increasingly provide the labor that prevents the new adult worker model and gender equality politics from being disrupted in times where families are overloaded with elder care loads.

  10. Cancer of the thyroid and 131I fallout in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oftedal, P.; Lund, E.

    1983-01-01

    From 1953 to 1962 Norway received relatively high levels of radioactive fallout. On the basis of extensive measurements in air, precipitation, food and humans, the dose to the thyroid due to 131 I has been calculated. Cancer registration in Norway is practically completely efficient because of obligatory notification of the Cancer Registry by physicians, pathology laboratories, and the Central Bureau of Statistics of all cases or death certificates concerning cancer. Analysis of the Cancer Registry data from 1953 to 1980 concerning birth cohorts 1936 to 1961 indicates an overall increasing trend in thyroid cancer morbidity, most pronounced in female cohorts born 1930-50. The highest, most abrupt irregularities reveal a coincidence of high numbers with high 131 I content in milk consumed during the years of prepuberty and puberty. Possible interpretations are discussed. (author)

  11. National independence, women's political participation, and life expectancy in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobles, Jenna; Brown, Ryan; Catalano, Ralph

    2010-05-01

    This study investigates the role of national independence and women's political participation on population health using historical lifespan data from Norway. We use time-series methods to analyze data measuring the actual length of time lived by Norwegian birth cohorts spanning a 61 year period surrounding the political emancipation of Norway from Sweden in 1905 and the establishment of a Norwegian monarchy in 1906. The use of a discrete, historical event improves our ability to interpret the population health effects of national independence and women's political participation as causal. We find a large and significant positive effect on the lifespan of Norwegian females born in the 1906 cohort. Interestingly, the effect does not extend to all living females during the Norwegian drive toward sovereignty. We conclude that the beneficial effects were likely conferred through intrauterine biological transfers and/or neonatal investments specific to the first year of life. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Impacts of extreme weather events on transport infrastructure in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauenfelder, Regula; Solheim, Anders; Isaksen, Ketil; Romstad, Bård; Dyrrdal, Anita V.; Ekseth, Kristine H. H.; Gangstø Skaland, Reidun; Harbitz, Alf; Harbitz, Carl B.; Haugen, Jan E.; Hygen, Hans O.; Haakenstad, Hilde; Jaedicke, Christian; Jónsson, Árni; Klæboe, Ronny; Ludvigsen, Johanna; Meyer, Nele K.; Rauken, Trude; Sverdrup-Thygeson, Kjetil

    2016-04-01

    With the latest results on expected future increase in air temperature and precipitation changes reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the climate robustness of important infrastructure is of raising concern in Norway, as well as in the rest of Europe. Economic consequences of natural disasters have increased considerably since 1950. In addition to the effect of demographic changes such as population growth, urbanization and more and more concentration of valuable assets, this increase is also related to an augmenting frequency of extreme events, such as storms, flooding, drought, and landslides. This change is also observable in Norway, where the increased frequency of strong precipitation has led to frequent flooding and landslide events during the last 20 years. A number of studies show that climate change causes an increase in both frequency and intensity of several types of extreme weather, especially when it comes to precipitation. Such extreme weather events greatly affect the transport infrastructure, with numerous and long closures of roads and railroads, in addition to damage and repair costs. Frequent closures of railroad and roads lead to delay or failure in delivery of goods, which again may lead to a loss of customers and/or - eventually - markets. Much of the Norwegian transport infrastructure is more than 50 years old and therefore not adequately dimensioned, even for present climatic conditions. In order to assess these problems and challenges posed to the Norwegian transport infrastructure from present-day and future extreme weather events, the project "Impacts of extreme weather events on infrastructure in Norway (InfraRisk)" was performed under the research Council of Norway program 'NORKLIMA', between 2009 and 2013. The main results of the project are: - Moderate to strong precipitation events have become more frequent and more intense in Norway over the last 50 years, and this trend continues throughout the 21st

  13. 7 CFR 319.56-31 - Peppers from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peppers from Spain. 319.56-31 Section 319.56-31... from Spain. Peppers (fruit) (Capsicum spp.) may be imported into the United States from Spain only... subpart: (a) The peppers must be grown in the Alicante or Almeria Province of Spain in pest-proof...

  14. 78 FR 6227 - Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    .... APHIS-2011-0132] RIN 0579-AD62 Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and... continental Spain. As a condition of entry, fresh apricots from continental Spain would have to be produced in... organization of Spain certifying that the fruit is free from all quarantine pests and has been produced in...

  15. Environmental Accounts of the Netherlands 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-11-01

    Economic developments have an impact on the environment. Environmental accounts describe the relationship between the economy and the environment. Because the environmental accounts are integrated with concepts from the national accounts, developments in the field of the environment and macro-economic developments in the Netherlands can be compared directly (see Statline for some key indicators). Key indicators can be derived from the environmental accounts that provide insight into sustainability with respect to the development of the environment and the economy. The integrated system makes it possible to quantify and analyse the underlying causes of changes in environmental indicators. The effects of changes in - among other things - economic growth, environmental efficiency and international trade can therefore be expressed in figures. This publication presents the results of the environmental accounts developed by Statistics Netherlands.

  16. Radiation dosimetry activities in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broerse, J.J.; Mijnheer, B.J.

    1986-07-01

    The Netherlands Commission for Radiation Dosimetry (NCS) was officially established on 3 September 1982 with the aim of promoting the appropriate use of dosimetry of ionizing radiation both for scientific research and practical applications. The present report provides a compilation of the dosimetry acitivities and expertise available in the Netherlands, based on the replies to a questionnaire mailed under the auspices of the NCS and might suffer from some incompleteness in specific details. The addresses of the Dutch groups with the names of the scientists are given. Individual scientists, not connected with a scientific group, hospital or organization have not been included in this list. Also the names of commercial firms producing dosimetric systems have been omitted. (Auth.)

  17. Urban and regional labour market mobility in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Stambøl, Lasse Sigbjørn

    2005-01-01

    Across Europe the competitiveness of urban and regional labour markets becomes an increasingly important task for regional and sector policies. Efficient matching of local demand and supply of labour at different qualification levels is considered to be an important prerequisite both for economic growth and social cohesion in every region. This study contains the main results of a research project analysing the urban and regional labour market mobility in Norway. The main purpose of the study...

  18. Trans* and gender variant citizenship and the state in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Monro, Surya; Van der Ros, Janneke

    2017-01-01

    The last decade has seen the expansion of trans identities that are gender queer, non-binary, androgynous, or multiply-sexed and gendered in Western Europe. These developments mark a shift from a uniformly gender-binaried system to one that encompasses some degree of gender pluralism, as reflected to an extent in policy changes in some European countries. However, gender binarism is still prevalent. This article uses the case of Norway to demonstrate a contrast between the citizenship statuse...

  19. Norway; Staff Report for the 2002 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2003-01-01

    This 2002 Article IV Consultation for Norway highlights that the mainland GDP growth edged up to an estimated 1.4 percent in 2002, from 12 percent in 2001, driven by strong consumption growth. Mainland investment and traditional exports slackened, as a result of weak external demand, high real interest rates, and an appreciation of the nominal effective exchange rate by 11.5 percent during 2002. Unemployment remained fairly stable through 2002 as the expansion of the sheltered sector offset e...

  20. Macroeconomic effects of proposed pension reforms in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Fredriksen, Dennis; Heide, Kim Massey; Holmøy, Erling; Solli, Ingeborg Foldøy

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: Ageing combined with generous welfare state schemes makes the present fiscal policy in Norway unsustainable, despite large government petroleum revenues. We estimate to what extent two suggested reforms of the public pension system improve fiscal sustainability and stimulate employment, two main objectives of the reforms. To this end we apply two large models iteratively: 1) a detailed dynamic micro simulation model to estimate government pension expenditures; 2) a la...

  1. Experience from the nuclear accident in Chernobyl. [Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    On 27 May 1986, the Norwegian government appointed an inter-ministerial committee of senior officials to prepare a report on experiences in connection with the Chernobyl accident. The present first part of the committee's report describes how the discharges spread from the reactor to Scandinavia and the situation as regards contamination in different parts of Norway. The report also deals with the emergency response, the basis for decisions and countermeasures, and countermeasures and action levels used.

  2. Radiation hygiene analysis of medical activities in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxeboel, G.; Olerud, H.M.; Lundgren, L.E.

    1988-01-01

    Based on statistics from 1983, calculations of collective doses for 15 ordinary examinations have been performed. About 2.6 million examination are carried out in Norway yearly. A total of 2500 manSv from X-ray diagnostics seems to be a good estimate. Examinations of the urogenital system and the gastrointestinal system are of greatest importance. Calculations of patient doses are based on 3000 measurements of area exposure (Rcm 2 ) in 40 Norwegian hospitals

  3. Norway and the arctic: between multilateral governance and geopolitics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flikke, Geir

    2013-03-01

    The article analyzes Norwegian politics in the high north in light of multilateral institutions and new security challenges. The author maintains that Norway's politics is based on functional multilateral organizations and continuity and predictability in the UN framework. This can become more of a challenge if the competition for resource access hardens and the Arctic is defined as a strategically valuable area for one or more states.(Author)

  4. Beaver management in Norway : a model for continental Europe?

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Howard; Rosell, Frank

    2003-01-01

    While Norway has been managing beaver (Castor fiber) for more than 150 years, most central European countries have little experience and none are presently harvesting beaver, despite rapidly growing populations and conflicts. Here we present the Norwegian beaver management model as an example. The main goals are to enhance biodiversity, produce a harvestable surplus, and reduce beaver-human conflicts. Beaver management should maximize recreational opportunities and allow landowners to profit ...

  5. Research on bioremediation of oil polluted shorelines in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sveum, P.

    1995-01-01

    Marine bioremediation research in Norway has been directed towards the use of fertilizers on arctic shorelines and ice infested waters. In addition from the focus on fertilizers, the research has paid considerable attention to nutrient dynamics, and the influence of microfauna such as bacterial and fungal grazers on the dynamics of macronutrients. The interactions between microbial and physical processes on the shorelines, between photochemical processes and nutrient dynamics, have also been addressed. 29 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Labour market mobility among senior workers in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Tobro, Anne Marte Lunde

    2015-01-01

    As many developed countries, Norway has a growing elderly population and need to administer some policy change to cover the cost of the increasing number of pension recipients. One of the solutions to this problem is to give workers incentive to stay in the workforce longer. This thesis analyse the senior workers labour market mobility by studying the probability of leaving the workforce and the probability for senior workers to conduct a job change. Understanding job-to-nonemployment and job...

  7. Biomass market and trade in Norway: Status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troemborg, Erik; Bolkesjoe, Torjus Folsland; Solberg, Birger

    2008-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of bioenergy use, prices, markets and markets prospects in Norway. The current energy production based on biomass in Norway is about 50 pJ or 10% of the stationary energy consumption. About one-half is produced and used in forest industries. The main share of bioenergy used by households consists of firewood in stoves. The use of refined, solid biofuels in heat production is hampered by low coverage of water-borne heating systems and historically low end-user prices of electricity. Harvest levels in Norwegian forests are much below annual growth, implying that forest biomass resources steadily accumulate. Decreasing wood prices combined with rising prices of oil and electricity in recent year have improved competitiveness of solid biofuels in the heat market. Projections of future bioenergy use in Norway using a partial equilibrium forest sector model suggest that bioenergy use will increase in some market segments with the current price levels of electricity and oil. However, quite minor improvements of bioenergy competitiveness or increased energy prices may release substantially higher bioenergy use. A net increase in bioenergy use of 5 TWh (18 PJ) by 2010 is realistic, but requires public awareness of the opportunities in bioenergy technologies, as well as significant economic incentives. Wood stoves and replacement of oil-boilers in central heating systems show highest competitiveness, whereas district heating systems need higher energy prices or more subsidies to be competitive. Biomass for combined heat and power projects or domestically produced liquid biofuels seems to have limited competitiveness in the short term. On the raw material side, wood residues, and roundwood from pine and non-coniferous species represent the main potential, whereas spruce continues to be consumed by the forest industries. According to the model projections, imported biomass will take a significant share of the possible increase of wood consumption

  8. Adoption of routine telemedicine in Norway: the current picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanaboni, Paolo; Knarvik, Undine; Wootton, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Background Telemedicine appears to be ready for wider adoption. Although existing research evidence is useful, the adoption of routine telemedicine in healthcare systems has been slow. Objective We conducted a study to explore the current use of routine telemedicine in Norway, at national, regional, and local levels, to provide objective and up-to-date information and to estimate the potential for wider adoption of telemedicine. Design A top-down approach was used to collect official data on the national use of telemedicine from the Norwegian Patient Register. A bottom-up approach was used to collect complementary information on the routine use of telemedicine through a survey conducted at the five largest publicly funded hospitals. Results Results show that routine telemedicine has been adopted in all health regions in Norway and in 68% of hospitals. Despite being widely adopted, the current level of use of telemedicine is low compared to the number of face-to-face visits. Examples of routine telemedicine can be found in several clinical specialties. Most services connect different hospitals in secondary care, and they are mostly delivered as teleconsultations via videoconference. Conclusions Routine telemedicine in Norway has been widely adopted, probably for geographical reasons, as in other settings. However, the level of use of telemedicine in Norway is rather low, and it has significant potential for further development as an alternative to face-to-face outpatient visits. This study is a first attempt to map routine telemedicine at regional, institutional, and clinical levels, and it provides useful information to understand the adoption of telemedicine in routine healthcare and to measure change in future updates. PMID:24433942

  9. Mitochondrial DNA variation in the Viking age population of Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Krzewińska, Maja; Bjørnstad, Gro; Skoglund, Pontus; Olason, Pall Isolfur; Bill, Jan; Götherström, Anders; Hagelberg, Erika

    2015-01-01

    The medieval Norsemen or Vikings had an important biological and cultural impact on many parts of Europe through raids, colonization and trade, from about AD 793 to 1066. To help understand the genetic affinities of the ancient Norsemen, and their genetic contribution to the gene pool of other Europeans, we analysed DNA markers in Late Iron Age skeletal remains from Norway. DNA was extracted from 80 individuals, and mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms were detected by next-generation sequencing. ...

  10. Radiation hygiene analysis of medical activities in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olerud, H.M.

    1987-01-01

    A computer program for the evaluation of radiation protection parameters connected to diagnostic X-ray examination has been developed. For a selected X-ray examination the program picks out key values from a data base containg patient observations and calculates integral doses, collective doses and i njury cases . When the volume of the data base is sufficient large, a total concequence analysis of diagnostric X-ray activities in Norway will be carried out

  11. 'Online Shopping’ Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Sankaran, Pervaiz Ali and Sudha

    2010-01-01

    The primary goal of this research is to analyze the customer satisfaction and loyalty of the online customers in Norway. The theoretical framework discusses in brief about the effects of customer loyalty and retention on customer satisfaction. The study on customer satisfaction and loyalty has been done from the perspective of a firm performing online business. To understand the customer satisfaction and loyalty level of online Norwegian shoppers, we pursued with the collection of quantitativ...

  12. Association of health involvement and attitudes towards eating fish on farmed and wild fish consumption in Belgium, Norway and Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altintzoglou, T.; Vanhonacker, F.; Verbeke, W.; Luten, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Consumers in many European countries do not equally meet the recommended daily intake levels for fish consumption. Various factors that can influence fish consumption behaviour have been identified but limited research has been performed on fish consumption behaviour, discriminating between farmed

  13. Superconductivity in Spain. Midas program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yndurain, F.

    1996-01-01

    The different activities in the field of applied superconductivity carried out in Spain under the auspices of the MIDAS program are reported. Applications using both low- and high-temperature superconductors are considered. In the low temperature superconductors case, the design and construction of a 1 mega joule SMES (Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage) unit, as well as the fabrication of voltage and resistance standards, are reviewed. Developments involving the design and fabrication of an inductive current fault limited and mono- and multi-filamentary wires and tapes using high-temperature superconductors are discussed. Finally, the prospects for the application of superconductivity technology to electric power systems for the electric utilities is considered. (author)

  14. Clinical biochemistry education in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queraltó, J M

    1994-12-31

    Clinical biochemistry in Spain was first established in 1978 as an independent specialty. It is one of several clinical laboratory sciences specialties, together with haematology, microbiology, immunology and general laboratory (Clinical analysis, análisis clinicos). Graduates in Medicine, Pharmacy, Chemistry and Biological Sciences can enter post-graduate training in Clinical Chemistry after a nation-wide examination. Training in an accredited Clinical Chemistry department is 4 years. A national committee for medical and pharmacist specialties advises the government on the number of trainees, program and educational units accreditation criteria. Technical staff includes nurses and specifically trained technologists. Accreditation of laboratories is developed at different regional levels. The Spanish Society for Clinical Biochemistry and Molecular Pathology (SECQ), the national representative in the IFCC, has 1600 members, currently publishes a scientific journal (Química Clinica) and a newsletter. It organizes a continuous education program, a quality control program and an annual Congress.

  15. Nuclear insurance problems in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez del Campo, Julian.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the problems raised in Spain by third party liability insurance for nuclear damage. National law in this field is based on the Paris Convention on nuclear third party liability and defines the conditions of liability of operators of nuclear installations. The insurance contract requirements must comply with the regulations on cover for nuclear risks, under the control of the Finance Ministry's competent services. Certain exceptional nuclear risks which cannot be covered entirely by ordinary insurance policies, are taken over by the Consorcio de Compensacion de Seguros which belongs to this Ministry. From the insurance viewpoint, the regulations make a distinction between nuclear and radioactive installations and nuclear transport. (NEA) [fr

  16. Uranium ore processing in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josa, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    The paper presents a review of the Spanish needs of uranium concentrates and uranium ore processing technology and trends in Spain. Spain produces approximately 200t U 3 O 8 /a at two facilities. One plant in the south (Andujar, Jaen) can obtain 70t U 3 O 8 /a and uses a conventional acid leaching process with countercurrent solvent extraction. A second plant, situated in the west (Ciudad Rodrigo, Salamanca) has started in 1975 and has a capacity of 120-130t U 3 O 8 /a, using acid heap leaching and solvent extraction. There is another experimental facility (Don Benito, Badajoz) scheduled to start in 1976 and expected to produce about 25-35t U 3 O 8 /a as a by-product of the research work. For the near future (1978) it is hoped to increase the production with: (a) A new conventional acid leaching/solvent extraction plant in Ciudad Rodrigo; its tentative capacity is fixed at 550t U 3 O 8 /a. (b) A facility in the south, to recover about 130t U 3 O 8 /a from phosphoric acid. (c) Several small mobile plants (30t U 3 O 8 /a per plant); these will be placed near small and isolated mines. The next production increase (1979-1980) will come with the treatment of sandstones (Guadalajara and Cataluna) and lignites(Cataluna); this is being studied. There are also research programmes to study the recovery of uranium from low-grade ores (heap, in-situ and bacterial leaching) and from other industries. (author)

  17. Trust, accreditation and Philanthropy in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Bekkers, R.H.F.P.

    2003-01-01

    Given the increasing numbers of scandals, the awareness among fund-raisers that the public’s trust is crucial for the nonprofit sector is growing. This study investigates the relationship between trust and charitable giving. Charitable organizations can increase the public’s trust by signaling their trustworthiness. The example of the Netherlands shows how a system of accreditation can be an instrument for signaling trustworthiness to the public. Donors aware of the accreditation system have ...

  18. International bioenergy trade in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Junginger, H.M.; de Wit, M.P.; Sikkema, R.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2008-01-01

    The international biomass trade in the Netherlands has been growing strongly over the last few years, but information on the corresponding volumes, origins and prices is barely available. The objectives of this paper are to quantify imported and exported biomass volumes and origins, and identify drivers and barriers behind the trade flows. Data collection was based on existing statistics and information obtained from biomass traders and end-users. Net import of biomass for energy purposes has...

  19. Opteren voor de Netherlands Commercial Court

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeben, J.; Keirse, A.L.M.; Reijneveld, M.D.

    2017-01-01

    Internationale contracten leiden tot internationale handelsgeschillen. Deze kunnen onder meer worden beslecht bij een commercial court. In Nederland wordt momenteel een Netherlands Commercial Court (NCC) opgericht. Dit introduceert een keuze voor (contracts)partijen voor een nieuw forum voor beslechting van internationale handelsgeschillen in de Engelse taal, waarbij de belangen van snelheid, efficiëntie en goede financierbaarheid centraal staan. Dit artikel verkent de positieve aspecten van ...

  20. Medical use of cannabis in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorter, Robert W; Butorac, Mario; Cobian, Eloy Pulido; van der Sluis, Willem

    2005-03-08

    The authors investigated the indications for cannabis prescription in the Netherlands and assessed its efficacy and side effects. A majority (64.1%) of patients reported a good or excellent effect on their symptoms. Of these patients, approximately 44% used cannabis for >/=5 months. Indications were neurologic disorders, pain, musculoskeletal disorders, and cancer anorexia/cachexia. Inhaled cannabis was perceived as more effective than oral administration. Reported side effects were generally mild.