Sample records for net shape process

  1. Materials processing with de Laval spray-forming nozzles: Net-shape applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHugh, K.M. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    Spray forming is a materials processing technology in which a bulk liquid metal is converted to a spray of fine droplets and deposited onto a substrate or pattern to form a near-net-shape solid. Benefits include property improvement through rapid solidification of metals, near-net-shape fabrication, and process simplification through the elimination of unit operations. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory has developed a unique spray-forming method, the Controlled Aspiration Process (CAP), to produce near-net-shape solids and coatings of metals, polymers, and composite materials using de Laval nozzles. The application of this technology for the production of tooling and microelectromechanical systems is described.

  2. Near-Net-Shape Processing of Sintered Fibrous Ceramics Achieved (United States)

    Angel, Paul W.


    A variety of sintered fibrous ceramic (SFC) materials have been developed over the last 50 years as thermal barrier materials for reentry applications. SFC materials typically exhibit very low thermal conductivities combined with low densities and good thermal stability up to 2500 F. These materials have flown successfully on the space shuttle orbiters since the 1960's. More recently, the McDonnell Douglas Corporation successfully used SFC tiles as a heat shield on the underside of its DC X test vehicle. For both of these applications, tiles are machined from blocks of a specific type of SFC called an alumina-enhanced thermal barrier (AETB). The sizes of these blocks have been limited by the manufacturing process. In addition, as much as 80 to 90 percent of the material can be lost during the machining of tiles with significant amounts of curvature. To address these problems, the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field entered a cooperative contract with the Boeing Company to develop a vacuum-assisted forming process that can produce large (approximately 4 square feet), severely contoured panels of AETB while saving costs in comparison to the conventional cast-and-machine billet process. For shuttle use, AETB is slurry cast, drained, and fired to form square billets conforming to the shape of the filtration box. The billets are then cut into tiles of the appropriate size for thermally protecting the space shuttle. Processing techniques have limited the maximum size of AETB billets to 21.5 square inches by 6.5-in. thick, but the space shuttles use discrete heat shield tiles no more than 8 to 12 square inches. However, in other applications, large, complex shapes are needed, and the tiling approach is undesirable. For such applications, vacuum-assisted forming can produce large parts with complex shapes while reducing machining waste and eliminating cemented joints between bonded billets. Because it allows contoured shapes to be formed, material utilization is

  3. Numerical predictions of misruns in development of near-net shape casting process


    Jana, Santhanu Shakti Pada


    In this thesis, numerical investigations for development of a near net shape casting process for TiAl alloy are presented. The casting object used in this work is low pressure turbine (LPT) blade, which is characterized by extremely thin section areas that are prone to misruns. The work specifically focuses on predictions of misruns and developing strategies to avoid them. The numerical simulation methodology used in this work, is based on modelling all the three-phases i.e., gas, liquid and ...

  4. Process Optimization for Suppressing Cracks in Laser Engineered Net Shaping of Al2O3 Ceramics (United States)

    Niu, F. Y.; Wu, D. J.; Yan, S.; Ma, G. Y.; Zhang, B.


    Direct additive manufacturing of ceramics (DAMC) without binders is a promising technique for rapidly fabricating high-purity components with good performance. Nevertheless, cracks are easily generated during fabrication as a result of the high intrinsic brittleness of ceramics and the great temperature gradients. Therefore, optimizing the DAMC process is a challenge. In this study, direct fabrication of Al2O3 single-bead wall structures are conducted with a laser engineered net shaping (LENS) system. A new process optimization method for suppressing cracks is proposed based on analytical models, and then the influence of process parameters on crack number is discussed experimentally. The results indicate that the crack number decreases obviously with the increase of scanning speed. Single-bead wall specimens without cracks are successfully fabricated by the optimized process.

  5. Near net shape forming processes for chemically prepared zinc oxide varistors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockwood, Steven John; Voigt, James A.; Tuttle, Bruce Andrew; Bell, Nelson Simmons


    Chemically prepared zinc oxide powders are fabricated for the production of high aspect ratio varistor components. Colloidal processing in water was performed to reduce agglomerates to primary particles, form a high solids loading slurry, and prevent dopant migration. The milled and dispersed powder exhibited a viscoelastic to elastic behavioral transition at a volume loading of 43-46%. The origin of this transition was studied using acoustic spectroscopy, zeta potential measurements and oscillatory rheology. The phenomenon occurs due to a volume fraction solids dependent reduction in the zeta potential of the solid phase. It is postulated to result from divalent ion binding within the polyelectrolyte dispersant chain, and was mitigated using a polyethylene glycol plasticizing additive. Chemically prepared zinc oxide powders were processed for the production of high aspect ratio varistor components. Near net shape casting methods including slip casting and agarose gelcasting were evaluated for effectiveness in achieving a uniform green microstructure achieving density values near the theoretical maximum during sintering. The structure of the green parts was examined by mercury porisimetry. Agarose gelcasting produced green parts with low solids loading values and did not achieve high fired density. Isopressing the agarose cast parts after drying raised the fired density to greater than 95%, but the parts exhibited catastrophic shorting during electrical testing. Slip casting produced high green density parts, which exhibited high fired density values. The electrical characteristics of slip cast parts are comparable with dry pressed powder compacts. Alternative methods for near net shape forming of ceramic dispersions were investigated for use with the chemically prepared ZnO material. Recommendations for further investigation to achieve a viable production process are presented.

  6. Ceramic Near-Net Shaped Processing Using Highly-Loaded Aqueous Suspensions (United States)

    Rueschhoff, Lisa

    Ceramic materials offer great advantages over their metal counterparts, due to their lower density, higher hardness and wear resistance, and higher melting temperatures. However, the use of ceramics in applications where their properties would offer tremendous advantages are often limited due to the difficulty of forming them into complex and near-net shaped parts. Methods that have been developed to injection-mold or cast ceramics into more complicated shapes often use significant volume fractions of a carrier (often greater than 35 vol.% polymer), elevated temperature processing, or less-than-environmentally friendly chemicals where a complex chemical synthesis reaction must be timed perfectly for the approach to work. Furthermore, the continuing maturation of additive manufacturing methods requires a new approach for flowing/placing ceramic powders into useful designs. This thesis addresses the limitations of the current ceramic forming approaches by developing highly-stabilized and therefore high solids loading ceramic suspensions, with the requisite rheology for a variety of complex and near-net shaped forming techniques. Silicon nitride was chosen as a material of focus due to its high fracture toughness compared to other ceramic materials. Designing ceramic suspensions that are flowable at room temperature greatly simplifies processing as neither heating nor cooling are required during forming. Highly-loaded suspensions (>40 vol.%) are desired because all formed ceramic bodies have to be sintered to remove pores. Finally, using aqueous-based suspensions reduces any detrimental effect on the environment and tooling. The preparation of highly-loaded suspensions requires the development of a suitable dispersant through which particle-particle interactions are controlled. However, silicon nitride is difficult to stabilize in water due to complex surface and solution chemistry. In this study, aqueous silicon nitride suspensions up to 45 vol.% solids loading were

  7. A net-shape fabrication process of alumina micro-components using a soft lithography technique (United States)

    Zhu, Zhigang; Wei, Xueyong; Jiang, Kyle


    Microceramic components have outstanding properties, such as high temperature resistant, biocompatible, chemically stable and high hardness properties, and could be used in a wide range of applications. However, the fabrication of precision micro-components has long been a barrier and limited their applications. This paper presents a soft lithography technique to fabricate near net-shape alumina micro-components. The process uses elastomer polydimethysiloxane (PDMS) to replace traditional solid moulds and leaves the green patterns intact after demoulding. The whole soft lithography technique involves the following steps: (i) fabricating high aspect ratio SU-8 moulds using UV photolithography, (ii) producing PDMS soft moulds from SU-8 masters, (iii) making aqueous high solids loading alumina suspension, (iv) filling patterned PDMS mould with the aqueous alumina suspension and (v) demoulding and sintering. The rheological properties (zeta potential and viscosity) of aqueous alumina suspensions have been characterized in relation to the varying pH values and concentration of dispersant (D-3005). The optimal parameters of alumina suspension for mould filling have been achieved at a pH value = 11; concentration of dispersant = 0.05 g ml-1; amount of binder = 0.75%; highest solid loading = 70 wt%. After pressurized mould filling, complete, dense and free-standing micro-components have been achieved by using a 70 wt% alumina suspension and an optimum fabrication technique, while the overall linear shrinkage is found to be about 22%.

  8. Net Shape Rapid Manufacturing Using Nano Encapsulated Powders Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase II program is developing NET Shape components from Encapsulated Powders. Significant advances in Phase I for various materials and in net shape processing...

  9. EVo: Net Shape RTM Production Line


    Sven Torstrick; Felix Kruse; Martin Wiedemann


    EVo research platform is operated by the Center for Lightweight-Production-Technology of the German Aerospace Center in Stade. Its objective is technology demonstration of a fully automated RTM (Resin Transfer Molding) production line for composite parts in large quantities. Process steps include cutting and ply handling, draping, stacking, hot-forming, preform-trimming to net shape, resin injection, curing and demolding.

  10. EVo: Net Shape RTM Production Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Torstrick


    Full Text Available EVo research platform is operated by the Center for Lightweight-Production-Technology of the German Aerospace Center in Stade. Its objective is technology demonstration of a fully automated RTM (Resin Transfer Molding production line for composite parts in large quantities. Process steps include cutting and ply handling, draping, stacking, hot-forming, preform-trimming to net shape, resin injection, curing and demolding.

  11. Radiative and convective properties of 316L Stainless Steel fabricated using the Laser Engineered Net Shaping process (United States)

    Knopp, Jonathan

    Temperature evolution of metallic materials during the additive manufacturing process has direct influence in determining the materials microstructure and resultant characteristics. Through the power of Infrared (IR) thermography it is now possible to monitor thermal trends in a build structure, giving the power to adjust building parameters in real time. The IR camera views radiation in the IR wavelengths and determines temperature of an object by the amount of radiation emitted from the object in those wavelengths. Determining the amount of radiation emitted from the material, known as a materials emissivity, can be difficult in that emissivity is affected by both temperature and surface finish. It has been shown that the use of a micro-blackbody cavity can be used as an accurate reference temperature when the sample is held at thermal equilibrium. A micro-blackbody cavity was created in a sample of 316L Stainless Steel after being fabricated during using the Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS) process. Holding the sample at thermal equilibrium and using the micro-blackbody cavity as a reference and thermocouple as a second reference emissivity values were able to be obtained. IR thermography was also used to observe the manufacturing of these samples. When observing the IR thermography, patterns in the thermal history of the build were shown to be present as well as distinct cooling rates of the material. This information can be used to find true temperatures of 316L Stainless Steel during the LENS process for better control of desired material properties as well as future work in determining complete energy balance.

  12. Net Shape Rapid Manufacturing Using Nano Encapsulated Powders Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this STTR is to determine the capability of Net Shape LENS processing with Nano-coated powders. The unique composites produced using regualr...

  13. Laser Hot Wire Process: A Novel Process for Near-Net Shape Fabrication for High-Throughput Applications (United States)

    Kottman, Michael; Zhang, Shenjia; McGuffin-Cawley, James; Denney, Paul; Narayanan, Badri K.


    The laser hot wire process has gained considerable interest for additive manufacturing applications, leveraging its high deposition rate, low dilution, thermal stability, and general metallurgical control including the ability to introduce and preserve desired meta-stable phases. Recent advancements in closed-loop process control and laser technology have increased productivity, process stability, and control of deposit metallurgy. The laser hot wire process has shown success in several applications: repairing and rejuvenating casting dies, depositing a variety of alloys including abrasion wear-resistant overlays with solid and tubular wires, and producing low-dilution (<5%) nickel alloy overlays for corrosion applications. The feasibility of fabricating titanium buildups is being assessed for aerospace applications.

  14. Net-Shape HIP Powder Metallurgy Components for Rocket Engines (United States)

    Bampton, Cliff; Goodin, Wes; VanDaam, Tom; Creeger, Gordon; James, Steve


    True net shape consolidation of powder metal (PM) by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) provides opportunities for many cost, performance and life benefits over conventional fabrication processes for large rocket engine structures. Various forms of selectively net-shape PM have been around for thirty years or so. However, it is only recently that major applications have been pursued for rocket engine hardware fabricated in the United States. The method employs sacrificial metallic tooling (HIP capsule and shaped inserts), which is removed from the part after HIP consolidation of the powder, by selective acid dissolution. Full exploitation of net-shape PM requires innovative approaches in both component design and materials and processing details. The benefits include: uniform and homogeneous microstructure with no porosity, irrespective of component shape and size; elimination of welds and the associated quality and life limitations; removal of traditional producibility constraints on design freedom, such as forgeability and machinability, and scale-up to very large, monolithic parts, limited only by the size of existing HIP furnaces. Net-shape PM HIP also enables fabrication of complex configurations providing additional, unique functionalities. The progress made in these areas will be described. Then critical aspects of the technology that still require significant further development and maturation will be discussed from the perspective of an engine systems builder and end-user of the technology.

  15. Near Net Shape Manufacturing of New Titanium Powders for Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop a manufacturing technology to process new titanium powders into fully consolidated near net shape components for industrial applications. This will be achieved using various technologies, including press and sinter, pneumatic isostatic forging (PIF), hot isostatic pressing (HIP), and adiabatic compaction.

  16. Additive Manufacturing of Near-net Shaped Permanent Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paranthaman, M Parans [ORNL


    The technical objective of this technical collaboration phase I proposal is to fabricate near net-shaped permanent magnets using alloy powders utilizing direct metal deposition technologies at the ORNL MDF. Direct Manufacturing using the POM laser system was used to consolidate Nd2Fe14B (NdFeB) magnet powders into near net-shape parts efficiently and with virtually no wasted material as part of the feasibility study. We fabricated builds based on spherical NdFeB magnet particles. The results show that despite the ability to fabricate highly reactive materials in the laser deposition process, the magnetic coercivity and remanence of the NdFeB hard magnets is significantly reduced. X-ray powder diffraction in conjunction with electron microscopy showed that the material experienced a primary Nd2Fe17Bx solidification due to the undercooling effect (>60K). Consequently the presence of alpha iron phase resulted in deterioration of the build properties. Further optimization of the processing parameters is needed to maintain the Nd2Fe14B phase during fabrication.

  17. Computational Modeling aided Near Net Shape Manufacturing for Aluminum Alloys Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This program will focus on developing and validating computational models for near-net shape processing of aluminum alloys. Computational models will be developed...

  18. Electrohydraulic Forming of Near-Net Shape Automotive Panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golovaschenko, Sergey F.


    The objective of this project was to develop the electrohydraulic forming (EHF) process as a near-net shape automotive panel manufacturing technology that simultaneously reduces the energy embedded in vehicles and the energy consumed while producing automotive structures. Pulsed pressure is created via a shockwave generated by the discharge of high voltage capacitors through a pair of electrodes in a liquid-filled chamber. The shockwave in the liquid initiated by the expansion of the plasma channel formed between two electrodes propagates towards the blank and causes the blank to be deformed into a one-sided die cavity. The numerical model of the EHF process was validated experimentally and was successfully applied to the design of the electrode system and to a multi-electrode EHF chamber for full scale validation of the process. The numerical model was able to predict stresses in the dies during pulsed forming and was validated by the experimental study of the die insert failure mode for corner filling operations. The electrohydraulic forming process and its major subsystems, including durable electrodes, an EHF chamber, a water/air management system, a pulse generator and integrated process controls, were validated to be capable to operate in a fully automated, computer controlled mode for forming of a portion of a full-scale sheet metal component in laboratory conditions. Additionally, the novel processes of electrohydraulic trimming and electrohydraulic calibration were demonstrated at a reduced-scale component level. Furthermore, a hybrid process combining conventional stamping with EHF was demonstrated as a laboratory process for a full-scale automotive panel formed out of AHSS material. The economic feasibility of the developed EHF processes was defined by developing a cost model of the EHF process in comparison to the conventional stamping process.

  19. Near-Net Shape Powder Metallurgy Rhenium Thruster (United States)

    Leonhardt, Todd; Hamister, Mark; Carlen, Jan C.; Biaglow, James; Reed, Brian


    This paper describes the development of a method to produce a near-net shape (NNS) powder metallurgy (PM) rhenium combustion chamber of the size 445 N (100 lbf) used in a high performance liquid apogee engine. These engines are used in low earth Orbit and geostationary orbit for satellite positioning systems. The developments in near-net shape powder metallurgy rhenium combustion chambers reported in this paper will reduce manufacturing cost of the rhenium chambers by 25 percent, and reduce the manufacturing time by 30 to 40 percent. The quantity of rhenium metal powder used to produce a rhenium chamber is reduced by approximately 70 percent and the subsequent reduction in machining schedule and costs is nearly 50 percent.

  20. Manufacturing of thin walled near net shape iron castings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Per Leif


    The demand for near net shape thin walled iron castings is growing. This has several reasons, the main one is the need for lowering the fuel consumption of cars; the easiest way to do that is to lower the weight of the cars. The best way to do this was for a period of time believed to be substitu.......000.000 cars produced world wide each year consumes enormous amounts of cast parts ! The aim of the project is to develop the green sand molding method on DISAMATIC to be able to deal with the new demands for thin walled near net shape castings in iron.......The demand for near net shape thin walled iron castings is growing. This has several reasons, the main one is the need for lowering the fuel consumption of cars; the easiest way to do that is to lower the weight of the cars. The best way to do this was for a period of time believed...... to be substituting iron casings with aluminum castings. Substituting iron castings with aluminum castings is not as easy as first believed, and hence the substitution is very slow. This combined with the lack of fully exploiting the potential in iron castings, makes research in iron castings interesting. The 60...

  1. Asynchronous stream processing with S-Net

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grelck, C.; Scholz, S.-B.; Shafarenko, A.


    We present the rationale and design of S-Net, a coordination language for asynchronous stream processing. The language achieves a near-complete separation between the application code, written in any conventional programming language, and the coordination/communication code written in S-Net. Our

  2. Net Shape Manufacturing of Accelerator Components by High Pressure Combustion Driven Powder Compaction

    CERN Document Server

    Nagarathnam, Karthik


    We present an overview of the net shape and cost-effective manufacturing aspects of high density accelerator (normal and superconducting) components (e.g., NLC Copper disks) and materials behavior of copper, stainless steel, refractory materials (W, Mo and TZM), niobium and SiC by innovative high pressure Combustion Driven Compaction (CDC) technology. Some of the unique process advantages include high densities, net-shaping, improved surface finish/quality, suitability for simple/complex geometries, synthesis of single as well as multilayered materials, milliseconds of compaction process time, little or no post-machining, and process flexibility. Some of the key results of CDC fabricated sample geometries, process optimization, sintering responses and structure/property characteristics such as physical properties, surface roughness/quality, electrical conductivity, select microstructures and mechanical properties will be presented. Anticipated applications of CDC compaction include advanced x-ray targets, vac...

  3. Near Net Shape Fabrication Technology for Shape Memory Alloy Components Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This STTR Phase I effort proposes to develop an innovative, affordable processing route for larger-sized shape memory alloy (SMA) components. Despite significant...

  4. 2D net shape weaving for cost effective manufacture of textile reinforced composites (United States)

    Vo, D. M. P.; Kern, M.; Hoffmann, G.; Cherif, C.


    Despite significant weight and performance advantages over metal parts, the today’s demand for fibre-reinforced polymer composites (FRPC) has been limited mainly by their large manufacturing cost. The combination of dry textile preforms and low-cost consolidation processes such as resin transfer molding (RTM) has been appointed as a promising approach to low-cost FRPC manufacture. At the current state of the art, tooling and impregnation technology is well understood whereas preform fabrication technology has not been developed effectively. This paper presents an advanced 2D net shape weaving technology developed with the aim to establish a more cost effective system for the manufacture of dry textile preforms for FRPC. 2D net shape weaving is developed based on open reed weave (ORW) technology and enables the manufacture of 2D contoured woven fabrics with firm edge, so that oversize cutting and hand trimming after molding are no longer required. The introduction of 2D net shape woven fabrics helps to reduce material waste, cycle time and preform manufacturing cost significantly. Furthermore, higher grade of automation in preform fabrication can be achieved.

  5. Shaping forest safety nets with markets: Adaptation to climate ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Johnson Nkem


    Jun 29, 2010 ... This is likely to be worse in free market settings, especially when it diminishes the safety net ..... (1995), the cost to society of each palm tree killed through palm wine tapping ranges from 70,000 to 129,000 ... companies are involved in producing organic or alternative medicines, some of which are extracts ...

  6. Near net shape, low cost ceramic valves for advanced engine applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pidria, M.; Merlone, E.; Parussa, F. [Fiat Research Centre, Orbassano (Italy); Handelsman, J.; Gorodnev, A. [Ceracom Materials Ltd., Yavneh (Israel)


    Future gasoline and diesel engines with electro-hydraulic or electro-mechanical valve control systems require the development of lighter valves to achieve the best results in terms of increased performances, lower fuel consumption and overall efficiency. Ceramic materials can adequately satisfy the required mechanical and thermal properties, nevertheless they still lack as far as manufacturing costs are concerned. Objective of the work was the development of a low-cost forming and sintering process, to produce near-net shape ceramic valves thus requiring very low finishing operations and significantly minimizing material waste. Between available technical ceramic materials, silicon nitride has been chosen to replace conventional steels and Ni-based alloys for the exhaust valves application. The work was then devoted to (i) the selection of the best starting materials composition, taking into account the requirements of a cost effective and high volume production, (ii) the development of an innovative pressure-injection molding process to produce near-net shape parts via a thermosetting feedstock and (iii) the optimization of a proper pressure-less sintering route to obtain cost-competitive, real scale components with adequate final density and mechanical properties. (orig.)

  7. Gelcasting polymeric precursors for producing net-shaped graphites (United States)

    Klett, James W.; Janney, Mark A.


    The present invention discloses a method for molding complex and intricately shaped high density monolithic carbon, carbon-carbon, graphite, and thermoplastic composites using gelcasting technology. The method comprising a polymeric carbon precursor, a solvent, a dispersant, an anti-foaming agent, a monomer system, and an initiator system. The components are combined to form a suspension which is poured into a mold and heat-treated to form a thermoplastic part. The thermoplastic part can then be further densified and heat-treated to produce a high density carbon or graphite composite. The present invention also discloses the products derived from this method.

  8. Near-Net Shape Fabrication Using Low-Cost Titanium Alloy Powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. David M. Bowden; Dr. William H. Peter


    The use of titanium in commercial aircraft production has risen steadily over the last half century. The aerospace industry currently accounts for 58% of the domestic titanium market. The Kroll process, which has been used for over 50 years to produce titanium metal from its mineral form, consumes large quantities of energy. And, methods used to convert the titanium sponge output of the Kroll process into useful mill products also require significant energy resources. These traditional approaches result in product forms that are very expensive, have long lead times of up to a year or more, and require costly operations to fabricate finished parts. Given the increasing role of titanium in commercial aircraft, new titanium technologies are needed to create a more sustainable manufacturing strategy that consumes less energy, requires less material, and significantly reduces material and fabrication costs. A number of emerging processes are under development which could lead to a breakthrough in extraction technology. Several of these processes produce titanium alloy powder as a product. The availability of low-cost titanium powders may in turn enable a more efficient approach to the manufacture of titanium components using powder metallurgical processing. The objective of this project was to define energy-efficient strategies for manufacturing large-scale titanium structures using these low-cost powders as the starting material. Strategies include approaches to powder consolidation to achieve fully dense mill products, and joining technologies such as friction and laser welding to combine those mill products into near net shape (NNS) preforms for machining. The near net shape approach reduces material and machining requirements providing for improved affordability of titanium structures. Energy and cost modeling was used to define those approaches that offer the largest energy savings together with the economic benefits needed to drive implementation. Technical

  9. Multiobjective Shape Optimization for Deployment and Adjustment Properties of Cable-Net of Deployable Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqiang You


    Full Text Available Based on structural features of cable-net of deployable antenna, a multiobjective shape optimization method is proposed to help to engineer antenna’s cable-net structure that has better deployment and adjustment properties. In this method, the multiobjective optimum mathematical model is built with lower nodes’ locations of cable-net as variables, the average stress ratio of cable elements and strain energy as objectives, and surface precision and natural frequency of cable-net as constraints. Sequential quadratic programming method is used to solve this nonlinear mathematical model in conditions with different weighting coefficients, and the results show the validity and effectiveness of the proposed method and model.

  10. Generalized Net Model of Brevibacterium flavul 22LD Fermentation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olympia Roeva


    Full Text Available In order to render the specific peculiarities of the fermentation processes, as well as to avoid the complexity of mathematical description with systems of differential equations, the elaboration of some new methods and approaches for their modelling and control is predetermined. As a new, alternative approach for modelling of fermentation processes, an application of generalized nets is presented in this paper. The theory of generalized nets is applied to the fermentation process of Brevibacterium flavul 22LD for L-lysine production. A generalized net model of considered process is developed. For comparison and completeness, model with differential equations is also provided. The generalized nets model developed for the fed-batch cultivation of Brevibacterium flavul 22LD allows changing the concentration of the feeding solution and the aeration rate. In this way some inhibition effects are prevented and a possibility for optimal carrying out of the considered fermentation process is provided.

  11. Energy Consumption and Saving Analysis for Laser Engineered Net Shaping of Metal Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhichao Liu


    Full Text Available With the increasing awareness of environmental protection and sustainable manufacturing, the environmental impact of laser additive manufacturing (LAM technology has been attracting more and more attention. Aiming to quantitatively analyze the energy consumption and extract possible ways to save energy during the LAM process, this investigation studies the effects of input variables including laser power, scanning speed, and powder feed rate on the overall energy consumption during the laser deposition processes. Considering microhardness as a standard quality, the energy consumption of unit deposition volume (ECUDV, in J/mm3 is proposed as a measure for the average applied energy of the fabricated metal part. The potential energy-saving benefits of the ultrasonic vibration–assisted laser engineering net shaping (LENS process are also examined in this paper. The experimental results suggest that the theoretical and actual values of the energy consumption present different trends along with the same input variables. It is possible to reduce the energy consumption and, at the same time, maintain a good part quality and the optimal combination of the parameters referring to Inconel 718 as a material is laser power of 300 W, scanning speed of 8.47 mm/s and powder feed rate of 4 rpm. When the geometry shaping and microhardness are selected as evaluating criterions, American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI 4140 powder will cause the largest energy consumption per unit volume. The ultrasonic vibration–assisted LENS process cannot only improve the clad quality, but can also decrease the energy consumption to a considerable extent.

  12. Parallel signal processing with S-Net

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penczek, F.; Herhut, S.; Grelck, C.; Scholz, S.-B.; Shafarenko, A.; Barrère, R.; Lenormand, E.


    We argue that programming high-end stream-processing applications requires a form of coordination language that enables the designer to represent interactions between stream-processing functions asynchronously. We further argue that the level of abstraction that current programming tools engender

  13. Investigation of Friction Stir Welding and Laser Engineered Net Shaping of Metal Matrix Composite Materials (United States)

    Diwan, Ravinder M.


    prior set of operating conditions. Weld quality was evaluated using radiography and standard metallography techniques. Another aspect of the MMCs centered around the use of the laser engineered net shaping (LENS) processing of selected Narloy-Z composites. Such an approach has been earlier studied for fabrication of stainless steels. In the present study, attempts were made to fabricate straight cylindrical specimens using LENS process of Narloy-Z and Narloy-Z with 20 vol. % Al2O3 MMCs using the direct metal deposition Optomec LENS-750 system.

  14. One-step manufacturing of innovative flat-knitted 3D net-shape preforms for composite applications (United States)

    Bollengier, Quentin; Wieczorek, Florian; Hellmann, Sven; Trümper, Wolfgang; Cherif, Chokri


    Mostly due to the cost-intensive manually performed processing operations, the production of complex-shaped fibre reinforced plastic composites (FRPC) is currently very expensive and therefore either restricted to sectors with high added value or for small batch applications (e.g. in the aerospace or automotive industry). Previous works suggest that the successful integration of conventional textile manufacturing processes in the FRPC-process chain is the key to a cost-efficient manufacturing of complex three-dimensional (3D) FRPC-components with stress-oriented fibre arrangement. Therefore, this work focuses on the development of the multilayer weft knitting technology for the one-step manufacturing of complex 3D net-shaped preforms for high performance FRPC applications. In order to highlight the advantages of net-shaped multilayer weft knitted fabrics for the production of complex FRPC parts, seamless preforms such as 3D skin-stringer structures and tubular fabrics with load oriented fibre arrangement are realised. In this paper, the development of the textile bindings and performed technical modifications on flat knitting machines are presented. The results show that the multilayer weft knitting technology meets perfectly the requirements for a fully automated and reproducible manufacturing of complex 3D textile preforms with stress-oriented fibre arrangement.

  15. Near-Net-Shape Production of Hollow Titanium Alloy Components via Electrochemical Reduction of Metal Oxide Precursors in Molten Salts (United States)

    Hu, Di; Xiao, Wei; Chen, George Z.


    Metal oxide precursors (ca. 90 wt pct Ti, 6 wt pct Al, and 4 wt pct V) were prepared with a hollow structure in various shapes such as a sphere, miniature golf club head, and cup using a one-step solid slip-casting process. The precursors were then electro-deoxidized in molten calcium chloride [3.2 V, 1173 K (900 °C)] against a graphite anode. After 24 hours of electrolysis, the near-net-shape Ti-6Al-4V product maintained its original shape with controlled shrinkage. Oxygen contents in the Ti-6Al-4V components were typically below 2000 ppm. The maximum compressive stress and modulus of electrolytic products obtained in this work were approximately 243 MPa and 14 GPa, respectively, matching with the requirement for medical implants. Further research directions are discussed for mechanical improvement of the products via densification during or after electrolysis. This simple, fast, and energy-efficient near-net-shape manufacturing method could allow titanium alloy components with desired geometries to be prepared directly from a mixture of metal oxides, promising an innovative technology for the low-cost production of titanium alloy components.

  16. Heavy metals processing near-net-forming summary progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, L.D. [Custom Spray Technologies, Inc., Rigby, ID (United States); Thompson, J.E. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    This study utilized a converging-diverging nozzle to spray-form an alloy having a weight percent composition of 49.6% iron, 49.6% tungsten, and 0.8% carbon into samples for analysis. The alloy was a surrogate that displayed metallurgical characteristics similar to the alloys used in the heavy metals processing industry. US DOE facilities are evaluating advanced technologies which can simplify component fabrication, reduce handling steps, and minimize final machining. The goal of producing net-shaped components can be approached from several directions. In spray forming, molten metal is converted by a nozzle into a plume of fine droplets which quickly cool in flight and solidify against a substrate. The near-final dimension product that is formed receives additional benefits from rapid solidification. This single-step processing approach would aid the heavy metals industry by streamlining fabrication, improving production yields, and minimizing the generation of processing wastes. This Program effort provided a large selection of as-sprayed specimens. These samples were sprayed with gas-to-metal mass ratios ranging from 0.8:1 to 4:1. Samples targeted for analysis were produced from different spray conditions. Metallography on some samples revealed areas that were fully dense and homogeneous at 5,000X. These areas averaged grain sizes of 1 micron diameter. Other samples when viewed at 2,000X were highly segregated in the 10 micron diameter range. Deposit efficiencies of greater than 90% were demonstrated using the untailored spray system. Discharge gases were analyzed and two categories of particles were identified. One category of particle had a chemical composition characteristic of the alloy being sprayed and the second type of particle had a chemical composition characteristic of the ceramics used in the spray system component fabrication. Particles ranged in size from 0.07 to 3 microns in diameter. 8 refs., 67 figs., 20 tabs.

  17. The Role of Anode Manufacturing Processes in Net Carbon Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Khaji


    Full Text Available Carbon anodes are consumed in electrolysis cells during aluminum production. Carbon consumption in pre-bake anode cells is 400–450 kg C/t Al, considerably higher than the theoretical consumption of 334 kg C/t Al. This excess carbon consumption is partly due to the anode manufacturing processes. Net carbon consumption over the last three years at Emirates Aluminium (EMAL, also known as Emirates Global Aluminium (EGA Al Taweelah was analyzed with respect to anode manufacturing processes/parameters. The analysis indicates a relationship between net carbon consumption and many manufacturing processes, including anode desulfurization during anode baking. Anode desulfurization appears to increase the reaction surface area, thereby helping the Boudouard reaction between carbon and carbon dioxide in the electrolysis zone, as well as reducing the presence of sulfur which could inhibit this reaction. This paper presents correlations noted between anode manufacturing parameters and baked anode properties, and their impact on the net carbon consumption in electrolytic pots. Anode reactivities affect the carbon consumption in the pots during the electrolysis of alumina. Pitch content in anodes, impurities in anodes, and anode desulfurization during baking were studied to find their influence on anode reactivities. The understanding gained through this analysis helped reduce net carbon consumption by adjusting manufacturing processes. For an aluminum smelter producing one million tonnes of aluminum per year, the annual savings could be as much as US $0.45 million for every kg reduction in net carbon consumption.

  18. How extrusion shapes food processing (United States)

    This month's column will explore food extrusion. Extrusion is one of the most commonly used food manufacturing processes. Its versatility enables production of a diverse array of food products. This column will review the basic principles and provide an overview of applications. I would like to ...

  19. Shaping Education Policy: Power and Process (United States)

    Mitchell, Douglas E., Ed.; Crowson, Robert L., Ed.; Shipps, Dorothy, Ed.


    "Shaping Education Policy" is a comprehensive overview of education politics and policy during the most turbulent and rapidly changing period in American history. Respected scholars review the history of education policy to explain the political powers and processes that shape education today. Chapters cover major themes that have…

  20. Graspable objects shape number processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariagrazia eRanzini


    Full Text Available The field of numerical cognition represents an interesting case for action-based theories of cognition, since number is a special kind of abstract concept. Several studies have shown that within the parietal lobes adjacent neural regions code numerical magnitude and grasping-related information. This anatomical proximity between brain areas involved in number and sensorimotor processes may account for interactions between numerical magnitude and action. In particular, recent studies has demonstrated a causal role of action perception on numerical magnitude processing. If objects are represented in terms of actions (affordances, the causal role of action on number processing should extend to the case of objects affordances. This study investigates the relationship between numbers and objects affordances in two experiments, without (Experiment 1 or with (Experiment 2 a motor action execution (i.e., participants were asked to hold an object in their hands during the task. The task consisted in repeating aloud the odd or even digit within a pair depending on the type of the preceding or following object. Order of presentation (object-number vs. number-object, object type (graspable vs. ungraspable, object size (small vs. large, and Numerical magnitude (small vs. large were manipulated for each experiment. Experiment 1 showed a facilitation – in terms of quicker responses - for graspable over ungraspable objects preceded by numbers, and an effect of numerical magnitude after the presentation of graspable objects. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the action execution enhanced overall the sensitivity to numerical magnitude, however interfering with the effects of objects affordances on number processing. Overall, these findings demonstrate that numbers and graspable objects communicate with each other, supporting the view that abstract concepts may be grounded in motor experience.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeta Mihaela CIORTEA


    Full Text Available Purpose of the paper is to analyze the Petri net model, to describe the transport process, part of amanufacturing system and its dynamics.A hibrid Petri net model is built to describe the dinamics of the transport process manufacturingsystem. Mathematical formulation of the dinamycs processes a detailed description. Based on this model, theanalysis of the transport process is designed to be able to execute a production plan and resolve any conflictsthat may arise in the system.In the analysis dinamics known two stages: in the continuous variables are discrete hybrid system in thehibrid discrete variables are used as safety control with very well defined responsibilities.In terms of the chosen model, analyze transport process is designed to help execute a production planand resolve conflicts that may arise in the process, and then the ones in the system

  2. Near-net shape manufacture of B4C–Co and ZrC–Co composites by slip casting and pressureless sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortiz, Angel L.; Leal, Victor Manuel Candelario; Moreno, Rodrigo


    Fabrication of near-net shaped B4C–Co and ZrC–Co composites by slip casting and pressureless sintering is described. It is shown how B4C–Co and ZrC–Co concentrated suspensions can be prepared by aqueous colloidal processing, and optimized (in terms of pH, deflocculant contents, and sonication tim...... is given for these observations, and general implications are discussed for the near-net shape manufacture of these and similar carbide-metal composites for use in engineering applications....

  3. Rotational effects of polymeric fluids on shape of filaments in melt extruded net structures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rawal, A


    Full Text Available The present work deals with the net structures, which are produced by replacing the static die (spinneret) with two concentric dies rotating in opposite directions in a melt extrusion process. These dies consist of defined number of slots with non...

  4. Development of a net shape manufacturing method for ventilated brake discs in single piece design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuber, Ch.; Heidenreich, B. [German Aerospace Center (DLR) Institute of Structures and Design, Pfaffenwaldring 38-40, 70569, Stuttgart (Germany)


    Carbon fibre reinforced ceramic matrix composites (CMC), originally developed for lightweight heat shields of spacecraft, are used for high performance brake discs in sports cars from different manufacturers. In contrast to the CMC materials for space applications, based on woven fabrics and costly manufacturing methods, these low cost friction materials are produced by liquid silicon infiltration of porous Carbon/Carbon (C/C) preforms, based on short fibre reinforced CFRP green bodies manufactured via warm press technique. In this work, different manufacturing methods for ventilated CMC brake discs are compared to each other, and the development of a new technology for the manufacture of single piece C/C-SiC brake discs in net shape technique is presented. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. A Petri Net-Based Software Process Model for Developing Process-Oriented Information Systems (United States)

    Li, Yu; Oberweis, Andreas

    Aiming at increasing flexibility, efficiency, effectiveness, and transparency of information processing and resource deployment in organizations to ensure customer satisfaction and high quality of products and services, process-oriented information systems (POIS) represent a promising realization form of computerized business information systems. Due to the complexity of POIS, explicit and specialized software process models are required to guide POIS development. In this chapter we characterize POIS with an architecture framework and present a Petri net-based software process model tailored for POIS development with consideration of organizational roles. As integrated parts of the software process model, we also introduce XML nets, a variant of high-level Petri nets as basic methodology for business processes modeling, and an XML net-based software toolset providing comprehensive functionalities for POIS development.

  6. Processing Ocean Images to Detect Large Drift Nets (United States)

    Veenstra, Tim


    A computer program processes the digitized outputs of a set of downward-looking video cameras aboard an aircraft flying over the ocean. The purpose served by this software is to facilitate the detection of large drift nets that have been lost, abandoned, or jettisoned. The development of this software and of the associated imaging hardware is part of a larger effort to develop means of detecting and removing large drift nets before they cause further environmental damage to the ocean and to shores on which they sometimes impinge. The software is capable of near-realtime processing of as many as three video feeds at a rate of 30 frames per second. After a user sets the parameters of an adjustable algorithm, the software analyzes each video stream, detects any anomaly, issues a command to point a high-resolution camera toward the location of the anomaly, and, once the camera has been so aimed, issues a command to trigger the camera shutter. The resulting high-resolution image is digitized, and the resulting data are automatically uploaded to the operator s computer for analysis.

  7. Automatic Prompt System in the Process of Mapping plWordNet on Princeton WordNet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Kędzia


    Full Text Available Automatic Prompt System in the Process of Mapping plWordNet on Princeton WordNet The paper offers a critical evaluation of the power and usefulness of an automatic prompt system based on the extended Relaxation Labelling algorithm in the process of (manual mapping plWordNet on Princeton WordNet. To this end the results of manual mapping – that is inter-lingual relations between plWN and PWN synsets – are juxtaposed with the automatic prompts that were generated for the source language synsets to be mapped. We check the number and type of inter-lingual relations introduced on the basis of automatic prompts and the distance of the respective prompt synsets from the actual target language synsets.

  8. Synthesis of Fe-Al-Ti Based Intermetallics with the Use of Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kwiatkowska


    Full Text Available The Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS technique was combined with direct synthesis to fabricate L21-ordered Fe-Al-Ti based intermetallic alloys. It was found that ternary Fe-Al-Ti alloys can be synthesized using the LENS technique from a feedstock composed of a pre-alloyed Fe-Al powder and elemental Ti powder. The obtained average compositions of the ternary alloys after the laser deposition and subsequent annealing were quite close to the nominal compositions, but the distributions of the elements in the annealed samples recorded over a large area were inhomogeneous. No traces of pure Ti were observed in the deposited alloys. Macroscopic cracking and porosity were observed in all investigated alloys. The amount of porosity in the samples was less than 1.2 vol. %. It seems that the porosity originates from the porous pre-alloyed Fe-Al powders. Single-phase (L21, two-phase (L21-C14 and multiphase (L21-A2-C14 Fe-Al-Ti intermetallic alloys were obtained from the direct laser synthesis and annealing process. The most prominent feature of the ternary Fe-Al-Ti intermetallics synthesized by the LENS method is their fine-grained structure. The grain size is in the range of 3–5 μm, indicating grain refinement effect through the highly rapid cooling of the LENS process. The Fe-Al-Ti alloys synthesized by LENS and annealed at 1000 °C in the single-phase B2 region were prone to an essential grain growth. In contrast, the alloys annealed at 1000 °C in the two-phase L21-C14 region exhibited almost constant grain size values after the high-temperature annealing.

  9. Factors shaping effective utilization of health information technology in urban safety-net clinics. (United States)

    George, Sheba; Garth, Belinda; Fish, Allison; Baker, Richard


    Urban safety-net clinics are considered prime targets for the adoption of health information technology innovations; however, little is known about their utilization in such safety-net settings. Current scholarship provides limited guidance on the implementation of health information technology into safety-net settings as it typically assumes that adopting institutions have sufficient basic resources. This study addresses this gap by exploring the unique challenges urban resource-poor safety-net clinics must consider when adopting and utilizing health information technology. In-depth interviews (N = 15) were used with key stakeholders (clinic chief executive officers, medical directors, nursing directors, chief financial officers, and information technology directors) from staff at four clinics to explore (a) nonhealth information technology-related clinic needs, (b) how health information technology may provide solutions, and (c) perceptions of and experiences with health information technology. Participants identified several challenges, some of which appear amenable to health information technology solutions. Also identified were requirements for effective utilization of health information technology including physical infrastructural improvements, funding for equipment/training, creation of user groups to share health information technology knowledge/experiences, and specially tailored electronic billing guidelines. We found that despite the potential benefit that can be derived from health information technologies, the unplanned and uninformed introduction of these tools into these settings might actually create more problems than are solved. From these data, we were able to identify a set of factors that should be considered when integrating health information technology into the existing workflows of low-resourced urban safety-net clinics in order to maximize their utilization and enhance the quality of health care in such settings.

  10. Bulk Combinatorial Synthesis and High Throughput Characterization for Rapid Assessment of Magnetic Materials: Application of Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS™) (United States)

    Geng, J.; Nlebedim, I. C.; Besser, M. F.; Simsek, E.; Ott, R. T.


    A bulk combinatorial approach for synthesizing alloy libraries using laser engineered net shaping (LENS™; i.e., 3D printing) was utilized to rapidly assess material systems for magnetic applications. The LENS™ system feeds powders in different ratios into a melt pool created by a laser to synthesize samples with bulk (millimeters) dimensions. By analyzing these libraries with autosampler differential scanning calorimeter/thermal gravimetric analysis and vibrating sample magnetometry, we are able to rapidly characterize the thermodynamic and magnetic properties of the libraries. The Fe-Co binary alloy was used as a model system and the results were compared with data in the literature.

  11. Proof Nets and the Complexity of Processing Center-Embedded Constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, M


    This paper shows how proof nets can be used to formalize the notion of ``incomplete dependency'' used in psycholinguistic theories of the unacceptability of center-embedded constructions. Such theories of human language processing can usually be restated in terms of geometrical constraints on proof nets. The paper ends with a discussion of the relationship between these constraints and incremental semantic interpretation.

  12. Stochastic processes for line shapes and intensities (United States)

    Stamm, R.; Hammami, R.; Hannachi, I.; Capes, H.; Godbert-Mouret, L.; Koubiti, M.; Marandet, Y.; Rosato, J.


    Stochastic processes provide flexible and fast calculations for modeling dynamical interactions between an atom and charged particles. We use a stochastic renewal process for the plasma microfield being the cause of Stark broadening. The accuracy and improvement possibilities of Lyman profiles calculations with a renewal process are analyzed by comparing to ab initio simulations for ion broadening only. Stochastic processes may also be applied to out of equilibrium plasmas. We present our first results for the effect of Langmuir waves on a line broadened by electrons only, and for the changes of atomic populations submitted to strong temperature fluctuations.

  13. How initial representations shape coupled learning processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puranam, Phanish; Swamy, M.


    . We find that initial representations have important consequences for the success of the coupled learning process, particularly when communication is constrained and individual rates of learning are high. Under these conditions, initial representations that generate incorrect beliefs can outperform......Coupled learning processes, in which specialists from different domains learn how to make interdependent choices among alternatives, are common in organizations. We explore the role played by initial representations held by the learners in coupled learning processes using a formal agent-based model...... one that does not discriminate among alternatives, or even a mix of correct and incorrect representations among the learners. We draw implications for the design of coupled learning processes in organizations. © 2016 INFORMS....

  14. Pre-shaping of the Fingertip of Robot Hand Covered with Net Structure Proximity Sensor (United States)

    Suzuki, Kenji; Suzuki, Yosuke; Hasegawa, Hiroaki; Ming, Aiguo; Ishikawa, Masatoshi; Shimojo, Makoto

    To achieve skillful tasks with multi-fingered robot hands, many researchers have been working on sensor-based control of them. Vision sensors and tactile sensors are indispensable for the tasks, however, the correctness of the information from the vision sensors decreases as a robot hand approaches to a grasping object because of occlusion. This research aims to achieve seamless detection for reliable grasp by use of proximity sensors: correcting the positional error of the hand in vision-based approach, and contacting the fingertip in the posture for effective tactile sensing. In this paper, we propose a method for adjusting the posture of the fingertip to the surface of the object. The method applies “Net-Structure Proximity Sensor” on the fingertip, which can detect the postural error in the roll and pitch axes between the fingertip and the object surface. The experimental result shows that the postural error is corrected in the both axes even if the object dynamically rotates.

  15. Process Design by FEM Simulation for Shape Ring Rolling of Large-Sized Ring (United States)

    Lee, Y. S.; Lee, M. W.; Park, S. S.; Lee, I.; Moon, Y. H.


    Ring rolling process is usually used to fabricate large-sized ring, such as, tower flange for wind power electric generator. Many kinds of seamless ring are used in wind power electric generator and manufactured by ring rolling process. In general, final part is machined after forming with shape of plain square section. Since interests for near net shaping of seamless ring have been increased gradually because of green energy, it is necessary to develop the technology for shape ring rolling with respect to the market demands and cost. Therefore, we studied the process and die design for shape ring rolling of large sized ring over 3,500 mm out diameter by experiment and FEM simulation. Ring rolling process is very difficult to solve by FEM method because of equilibrium state and size effect, etc. Moreover, shape ring rolling is more difficult to solve the problem that two plastic deformation zones are different each other, that is main roll and conical roll. Also since conical roll has a shape, deformation velocity field is very much complex and the deformed section passed axial roll is different section and velocity field. The FE simulations are performed to analyze process variables affected in forming of profiled ring. Therefore, the main features of used FE model are: (1) it adopts a transient or unsteady state full ring mesh to model the deformation processes and shape development; (2) the mandrel and conical rolls are modeled using coupled heat-transfer elements; (3) the model involves the full process from blank through perform to final profiled ring. From these calculated results, we have proposed the mechanisms of various tools, such as mandrel and conical roll. The calculated results are compared experimental results. Calculated results can predict the tilting of profiled ring and then process variables to form large sized ring.

  16. An assembly process model based on object-oriented hierarchical time Petri Nets (United States)

    Wang, Jiapeng; Liu, Shaoli; Liu, Jianhua; Du, Zenghui


    In order to improve the versatility, accuracy and integrity of the assembly process model of complex products, an assembly process model based on object-oriented hierarchical time Petri Nets is presented. A complete assembly process information model including assembly resources, assembly inspection, time, structure and flexible parts is established, and this model describes the static and dynamic data involved in the assembly process. Through the analysis of three-dimensional assembly process information, the assembly information is hierarchically divided from the whole, the local to the details and the subnet model of different levels of object-oriented Petri Nets is established. The communication problem between Petri subnets is solved by using message database, and it reduces the complexity of system modeling effectively. Finally, the modeling process is presented, and a five layer Petri Nets model is established based on the hoisting process of the engine compartment of a wheeled armored vehicle.

  17. Tensile Fracture Behavior and Failure Mechanism of Additively-Manufactured AISI 4140 Low Alloy Steel by Laser Engineered Net Shaping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoyeol Kim


    Full Text Available AISI 4140 powder was directly deposited on AISI 4140 wrought substrate using laser engineered net shaping (LENS to investigate the compatibility of a LENS-deposited part with the substrate. Tensile testing at room temperature was performed to evaluate the interface bond performance and fracture behavior of the test specimens. All the samples failed within the as-deposited zone, indicating that the interfacial bond is stronger than the interlayer bond inside the deposit. The fracture surfaces were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy disperse X-ray spectrometry (EDS. Results show that the tensile fracture failure of the as-deposited part is primarily affected by lack-of-fusion defects, carbide precipitation, and oxide particles inclusions, which causes premature failure of the deposit by deteriorating the mechanical properties and structural integrity.

  18. The Analysis of Net Factors Influence on Remote Process Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baluch Dušan


    Full Text Available The contribution deals with the process monitoring based on www technologies. It also researches the influence of clients‘ number and the network transfer rate on the process monitoring quality. The process monitoring is realized by the distributed application. The server part of application (written in Delphi acquires actually measured data and sends them through the socket communication channel to the client. The client part of application is realized as applet (written in Java, which receives data from the server and executes their processing. There are some factors influencing the quality of the client–server communication on the server and client side, such as the number of running tasks, exploitation of system recourses, number of connected clients and network rate. Their influences are presented in graphical form. The first course represents a monitored signal, the second the accuracy of server’s time sending, the third the accuracy of client’s receiving and the fourth the duration of the packet transfer between the client and server. The computer working as a server is marked as S, the client is marked as K. The influence of client quality showed that the usable sample period is about 0.1s. By the study of quality of server S1 the applicable sample period 0.17s was specified. For shorter sample periods, the client isn’t capable to process received data and so occurs data buffering, which causes the time shift concerning to signal on server side. In this area monitoring is not desirable. The influence of client number showed that in the same time can correctly operate 19 to 33 clients at sample periods 0.085s to 0.33s. The influence of transfer rate showed applicability of monitoring so for local as for remote distances of clients.

  19. Prototyping Energy Efficient Thermo-Magnetic & Induction Hardening for Heat Treat & Net Shape Forming Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquil Ahmad


    Within this project, Eaton undertook the task of bringing about significant impact with respect to sustainability. One of the major goals for the Department of Energy is to achieve energy savings with a corresponding reduction in carbon foot print. The use of a coupled induction heat treatment with high magnetic field heat treatment makes possible not only improved performance alloys, but with faster processing times and lower processing energy, as well. With this technology, substitution of lower cost alloys for more exotic alloys became a possibility; microstructure could be tailored for improved magnetic properties or wear resistance or mechanical performance, as needed. A prototype commercial unit has been developed to conduct processing of materials. Testing of this equipment has been conducted and results demonstrate the feasibility for industrial commercialization.

  20. Powder Injection Molding (PIM) for Low Cost Manufacturing of Intricate Parts to Net-Shape (United States)


    NRC-IMI activities. Some of the most recent activities at NRC-IMI targets to PIM processing of titanium and Ti6Al4V alloy to match the most...0.13wt. % and carbon below 0.08 wt. %. Table 3 shows the actual stage of the optimization process using a commercial binder system and a Ti6Al4V ...powder containing 0.105wt.% of oxygen and 0.014wt.% of carbon (see Figure 7). Table 3: Interstitial contents of a PIM Ti6Al4V component O wt.% C wt


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor G. Fedorov


    Full Text Available Executable business process models, as well as programs, require evidence of a defect-free finish. The methods based on the formalism of Petri nets are widely used. A business process is a network of dishes, and its properties are set by the analysis of the properties of the network. The aim is to study the methods of displaying an executable business process model in a Petri net. Analysis of the properties of the resulting model allows us to prove a number of important properties: it is a network of free choice and clean without looping.

  2. Analysis for Cellinoid shape model in inverse process from lightcurves (United States)

    Lu, Xiao-Ping; Ip, Wing-Huen; Huang, Xiang-Jie; Zhao, Hai-Bin


    Based on the special shape first introduced by Alberto Cellino, which consists of eight ellipsoidal octants with the constraint that adjacent octants must have two identical semi-axes, an efficient algorithm to derive the physical parameters, such as the rotational period, pole orientation, and overall shape from either lightcurves or sparse photometric data of asteroids, is developed by Lu et al. and named as 'Cellinoid' shape model. For thoroughly investigating the relationship between the morphology of the synthetic lightcurves generated by the Cellinoid shape and its six semi-axes as well as rotational period and pole, the numerical tests are implemented to compare the synthetic lightcurves generated by three Cellinoid models with different parameters in this article. Furthermore, from the synthetic lightcurves generated by two convex shape models of (6) Hebe and (4179) Toutatis, the inverse process based on Cellinoid shape model is applied to search the best-fit parameters. Especially, for better simulating the real observations, the synthetic lightcurves are generated under the orbit limit of the two asteroids. By comparing the results derived from synthetic lightcurves observed in one apparition and multiple apparitions, the performance of Cellinoid shape model is confirmed and the suggestions for observations are presented. Finally, the whole process is also applied to real observed lightcurves of (433) Eros and the derived results are consistent with the known results.

  3. Image processing techniques in 3-D foot shape measurement system (United States)

    Liu, Guozhong; Li, Ping; Wang, Boxiong; Shi, Hui; Luo, Xiuzhi


    The 3-D foot-shape measurement system based on laser-line-scanning principle was designed and 3-D foot-shape measurements without blind areas and the automatic extraction of foot-parameters were achieved. The paper is focused on the study of the system structure and principle and image processing techniques. The key techniques related to the image processing for 3-D foot shape measurement system include laser stripe extraction, laser stripe coordinate transformation from CCD cameras image coordinates system to laser plane coordinates system, laser stripe assembly of eight CCD cameras and eliminating of image noise and disturbance. 3-D foot shape measurement makes it possible to realize custom-made shoe-making and shows great prosperity in shoe design, foot orthopaedic treatment, shoe size standardization and establishment of a feet database for consumers.

  4. Shaping human mortality patterns through intrinsic and extrinsic vitality processes


    Ting Li; James Anderson


    BACKGROUND While historical declines in human mortality are clearly shaped by lifestyle and environmental improvements, modeling patterns is difficult because intrinsic and extrinsic processes shape mortality through complex stochastic interactions. OBJECTIVE To develop a stochastic model describing intrinsic and extrinsic mortality rates and quantify historical mortality trends in terms of parameters describing the rates. METHODS Based on vitality, a stochastic age-declining measure of survi...

  5. An analysis of processes that can shape higher education research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An analysis of processes that can shape higher education research utilising as case-study an investigation into postgraduates from the rest of Africa at University ... Following a narrative account of this process, the article analyses the institutional settings of such research, utilizing some categorization from U Teichler (2000).

  6. Microstructural characterisation of high-entropy alloy AlCoCrFeNi fabricated by laser engineered net shaping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunce, I., E-mail: [Department of Advanced Materials and Technology, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Str., 01-908 Warsaw (Poland); Polanski, M.; Karczewski, K. [Department of Advanced Materials and Technology, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Str., 01-908 Warsaw (Poland); Plocinski, T.; Kurzydlowski, K.J. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, 141 Wołoska Str., 02-507 Warsaw (Poland)


    Laser engineered net shaping (LENS) was used to produce thin-walled samples of the high-entropy alloy AlCoCrFeNi from a prealloyed powder. To determine the effect of the cooling rate during solidification on the microstructure of the alloy, different laser scanning rates were used. A microstructural study of the surfaces of the sample walls was performed using X-ray diffraction analysis and optical and scanning/transmission electron microscopy. The crystal structure of the alloy was determined to be a body-centred cubic (bcc)-derivative B2-ordered type. The microstructure of the alloy produced by LENS was dendritic. Further, it was found that with an increase in the laser scanning rate from 2.5 to 40 mm s{sup −1}, the average grain size decreased from 108.3 ± 32.4 μm to 30.6 ± 9.2 μm. The maximum cooling rate achieved during the laser cladding of the alloy was 44 × 10{sup 3} K s{sup −1}. The electron microscopy study of the alloy showed the presence of precipitates. The morphology of the disordered bcc (Fe, Cr)-rich precipitates in the ordered B2 (Al, Ni)-rich matrix changed in the dendritic and interdendritic regions from fine and spherical (with a diameter of less 100 nm) to spinodal (with the thickness being less than 100 nm). The LENS- produced AlCoCrFeNi alloy exhibited an average microhardness of approximately 543 HV0.5; this was approximately 13% higher than the hardness in the as-cast state and can be attributed to the grain refinemet in the LENS- produced alloy. Moreover, it was found that increasing the cooling rate during laser cladding increasess the microhardness of the alloy. - Highlights: • Laser-engineered net shaping is used to produce samples of AlCoCrFeNi alloy. • The alloy has a body-centred cubic (bcc)-derivative B2-ordered crystal structure. • Electron microscopy images of the alloy show the presence of precipitates. • The microhardness of the laser-clad alloy is higher than that of the as-cast alloy. • The cooling rate

  7. Final report to the strategic environmental research and development program on near-net shape casting of uranium-6% niobium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourdin, W.H.


    Fabrication methods traditionally used in the fabrication of depleted uranium parts within the Department of Energy (DOE) are extremely wasteful, with only 3% of the starting material actually appearing as finished product. The current effort, funded by the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNLA), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), was conceived as a means to drastically reduce this inefficiency and the accompanying waste by demonstrating the technology to cast simple parts close to their final shape in molds made from a variety of materials. As a part of this coordinated study, LLNL was given, and has achieved, two primary objectives: (1) to demonstrate the feasibility of using refractory metal for reusable molds in the production of castings of uranium-6 wt% niobium alloy (U-6Nb); and (2) to demonstrate the utility of detailed simulations of thermal and fluid flow characteristics in the understanding and improvement of the near-net shape casting process. In both cases, our efforts were focused on a flat plate castings, which serve as simple prototypical parts. This report summarizes the results of LLNL work in each area.

  8. NCWin — A Component Object Model (COM) for processing and visualizing NetCDF data (United States)

    Liu, Jinxun; Chen, J.M.; Price, D.T.; Liu, S.


    NetCDF (Network Common Data Form) is a data sharing protocol and library that is commonly used in large-scale atmospheric and environmental data archiving and modeling. The NetCDF tool described here, named NCWin and coded with Borland C + + Builder, was built as a standard executable as well as a COM (component object model) for the Microsoft Windows environment. COM is a powerful technology that enhances the reuse of applications (as components). Environmental model developers from different modeling environments, such as Python, JAVA, VISUAL FORTRAN, VISUAL BASIC, VISUAL C + +, and DELPHI, can reuse NCWin in their models to read, write and visualize NetCDF data. Some Windows applications, such as ArcGIS and Microsoft PowerPoint, can also call NCWin within the application. NCWin has three major components: 1) The data conversion part is designed to convert binary raw data to and from NetCDF data. It can process six data types (unsigned char, signed char, short, int, float, double) and three spatial data formats (BIP, BIL, BSQ); 2) The visualization part is designed for displaying grid map series (playing forward or backward) with simple map legend, and displaying temporal trend curves for data on individual map pixels; and 3) The modeling interface is designed for environmental model development by which a set of integrated NetCDF functions is provided for processing NetCDF data. To demonstrate that the NCWin can easily extend the functions of some current GIS software and the Office applications, examples of calling NCWin within ArcGIS and MS PowerPoint for showing NetCDF map animations are given.

  9. Life cycle assessment and sustainable engineering in the context of near net shape grown components: striving towards a sustainable way of future production. (United States)

    Kämpfer, Christoph; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Beger, Anna-Lena; Jacobs, Georg; Löwer, Manuel; Moser, Franziska; Reimer, Julia; Trautz, Martin; Usadel, Björn; Wormit, Alexandra; Hollert, Henner


    Technical product harvesting (TEPHA) is a newly developing interdisciplinary approach in which bio-based production is investigated from a technical and ecological perspective. Society's demand for ecologically produced and sustainably operable goods is a key driver for the substitution of conventional materials like metals or plastics through bio-based alternatives. Technical product harvesting of near net shape grown components describes the use of suitable biomass for the production of technical products through influencing the natural shape of plants during their growth period. The use of natural materials may show positive effects on the amount of non-renewable resource consumption. This also increases the product recyclability at the end of its life cycle. Furthermore, through the near net shape growth of biomass, production steps can be reduced. As a consequence such approaches may save energy and the needed resources like crude oil, coal or gas. The derived near net shape grown components are not only considered beneficial from an environmental point of view. They can also have mechanical advantages through an intrinsic topology optimization in contrast to common natural materials, which are influenced in their shape after harvesting. In order to prove these benefits a comprehensive, interdisciplinary scientific strategy is needed. Here, both mechanical investigations and life cycle assessment as a method of environmental evaluation are used.

  10. Flying qualities of the Hermes spaceplane and shape definition process (United States)

    Raillon, E.; Parnis, P.; Devaux, N.

    This paper deals with the last Hermes spaceplane shape 1.0 definition and evaluation cycle. It focuses its interest on flying quality aspects to highlight in this important domain the shape definition process, but performance and other main design drivers are also defined and evaluated. After a general description of Hermes critical mission phases, trajectory control principles and flight parameters envelopes are defined. Then we recall the main reasons why Hermes is not similar to the U.S. Orbiter or Buran and that this was again confirmed in a trade-off in 1990. So iteration from 0.0 to 1.0 shape was limited within the same concept. The process of shape definition itself is described including presentation of all the checking points defined. A reduced set of 15 control points have been defined and must be evaluated with the best computational tools for acceptance by the agencies of the proposed shape. The 1.0 shape is presented and compared to its predecessor 0.0. In the second part we define and justify all the criteria concerning trajectory and flight control that were defined in the overall Shape's Requirement Document that was the result of an intensive system and synthesis activity. After computation/estimation of a detailed data base including uncertainties, the 1.0 characteristics are compared to the required ones that are almost all satisfied in nominal conditions and often with margins. Finally, the problem of compatibility of aerodynamically controllable range with respect to layout and overall CoG whose shift can be higher than 1% due to uncertainties is discussed including further work presently planned.

  11. Transformational Learning in Botswana: How Culture Shapes the Process (United States)

    Merriam, Sharan B.; Ntseane, Gabo


    Transformational learning as presented by Jack Mezirow has been critiqued for its Western, rational, and cognitive orientation. This qualitative study was conducted in the African nation of Botswana and examines how that culture shaped the process. In-depth interviews were held with 12 adults who acknowledged having an experience that had…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva-Maria Didden


    Full Text Available Shape from texture refers to the extraction of 3D information from 2D images with irregular texture. This paper introduces a statistical framework to learn shape from texture where convex texture elements in a 2D image are represented through a point process. In a first step, the 2D image is preprocessed to generate a probability map corresponding to an estimate of the unnormalized intensity of the latent point process underlying the texture elements. The latent point process is subsequently inferred from the probability map in a non-parametric, model free manner. Finally, the 3D information is extracted from the point pattern by applying a locally scaled point process model where the local scaling function represents the deformation caused by the projection of a 3D surface onto a 2D image.

  13. Femtosecond laser processing with a holographic line-shaped beam. (United States)

    Hasegawa, Satoshi; Shiono, Koji; Hayasaki, Yoshio


    Line-shaped femtosecond pulses are well-suited to large-area machining with high throughput in laser cutting, peeling, and grooving of materials. First, we demonstrated the single-shot fabrication of a line structure in a glass surface using a line-shaped pulse generated by a holographic cylindrical lens displayed on a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator. We found the line structure was uniform and smooth near the ends because of the ability to precisely control the intensity distribution and to achieve single-shot fabrication. Second, we demonstrated a line-shaped beam deformed three-dimensionally for showing the potential of holographic line-shaped beam processing. Third, we demonstrated laser peeling of an indium tin oxide film. We found that little debris around the fabricated area was observed, because the debris was removed by the beam itself. Last, we demonstrated laser grooving of stainless steel. We found the swelling of the surface included upwardly growing nanogratings, although many line-shaped pulse irradiations were given. The swelling was caused by the depositions of the debris on the top of the nanogratings.

  14. Data indicating temperature response of Ti–6Al–4V thin-walled structure during its additive manufacture via Laser Engineered Net Shaping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrett J. Marshall


    Full Text Available An OPTOMEC Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS™ 750 system was retrofitted with a melt pool pyrometer and in-chamber infrared (IR camera for nondestructive thermal inspection of the blown-powder, direct laser deposition (DLD process. Data indicative of temperature and heat transfer within the melt pool and heat affected zone atop a thin-walled structure of Ti–6Al–4V during its additive manufacture are provided. Melt pool temperature data were collected via the dual-wavelength pyrometer while the dynamic, bulk part temperature distribution was collected using the IR camera. Such data are provided in Comma Separated Values (CSV file format, containing a 752×480 matrix and a 320×240 matrix of temperatures corresponding to individual pixels of the pyrometer and IR camera, respectively. The IR camera and pyrometer temperature data are provided in blackbody-calibrated, raw forms. Provided thermal data can aid in generating and refining process-property-performance relationships between laser manufacturing and its fabricated materials.

  15. Data indicating temperature response of Ti-6Al-4V thin-walled structure during its additive manufacture via Laser Engineered Net Shaping. (United States)

    Marshall, Garrett J; Thompson, Scott M; Shamsaei, Nima


    An OPTOMEC Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS(™)) 750 system was retrofitted with a melt pool pyrometer and in-chamber infrared (IR) camera for nondestructive thermal inspection of the blown-powder, direct laser deposition (DLD) process. Data indicative of temperature and heat transfer within the melt pool and heat affected zone atop a thin-walled structure of Ti-6Al-4V during its additive manufacture are provided. Melt pool temperature data were collected via the dual-wavelength pyrometer while the dynamic, bulk part temperature distribution was collected using the IR camera. Such data are provided in Comma Separated Values (CSV) file format, containing a 752×480 matrix and a 320×240 matrix of temperatures corresponding to individual pixels of the pyrometer and IR camera, respectively. The IR camera and pyrometer temperature data are provided in blackbody-calibrated, raw forms. Provided thermal data can aid in generating and refining process-property-performance relationships between laser manufacturing and its fabricated materials.

  16. Final Technical Report - Autothermal Styrene Manufacturing Process with Net Export of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trubac, Robert , E.; Lin, Feng; Ghosh, Ruma: Greene, Marvin


    The overall objectives of the project were to: (a) develop an economically competitive processing technology for styrene monomer (SM) that would reduce process energy requirements by a minimum 25% relative to those of conventional technology while achieving a minimum 10% ROI; and (b) advance the technology towards commercial readiness. This technology is referred to as OMT (Oxymethylation of Toluene). The unique energy savings feature of the OMT technology would be replacement of the conventional benzene and ethylene feedstocks with toluene, methane in natural gas and air or oxygen, the latter of which have much lower specific energy of production values. As an oxidative technology, OMT is a net energy exporter rather than a net energy consumer like the conventional ethylbenzene/styrene (EB/SM) process. OMT plants would ultimately reduce the cost of styrene monomer which in turn will decrease the costs of polystyrene making it perhaps more cost competitive with competing polymers such as polypropylene.

  17. Producing Zirconium Diboride Components with Complex, Near-Net Shape Geometries by Aqueous Room-Temperature Injection Molding (United States)

    Wiesner, Valerie L.; Youngblood, Jeffrey; Trice, Rodney


    Room-temperature injection molding is proposed as a novel, low-cost and more energy efficient manufacturing process capable of forming complex-shaped zirconium diboride (ZrB2) parts. This innovative processing method utilized aqueous suspensions with high powder loading and a minimal amount (5 vol.) of water-soluble polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), which was used as a viscosity modifier. Rheological characterization was performed to evaluate the room-temperature flow properties of ZrB2-PVP suspensions. ZrB2 specimens were fabricated with high green body strength and were machinable prior to binder removal despite their low polymer content. After binder burnout and pressureless sintering, the bulk density and microstructure of specimens were characterized using Archimedes technique and scanning electron microscopy. X-Ray Diffraction was used to determine the phase compositions present in sintered specimens. Ultimate strength of sintered specimens will be determined using ASTM C1323-10 compressive C-ring test.

  18. Examples of Current and Future Uses of Neural-Net Image Processing for Aerospace Applications (United States)

    Decker, Arthur J.


    Feed forward artificial neural networks are very convenient for performing correlated interpolation of pairs of complex noisy data sets as well as detecting small changes in image data. Image-to-image, image-to-variable and image-to-index applications have been tested at Glenn. Early demonstration applications are summarized including image-directed alignment of optics, tomography, flow-visualization control of wind-tunnel operations and structural-model-trained neural networks. A practical application is reviewed that employs neural-net detection of structural damage from interference fringe patterns. Both sensor-based and optics-only calibration procedures are available for this technique. These accomplishments have generated the knowledge necessary to suggest some other applications for NASA and Government programs. A tomography application is discussed to support Glenn's Icing Research tomography effort. The self-regularizing capability of a neural net is shown to predict the expected performance of the tomography geometry and to augment fast data processing. Other potential applications involve the quantum technologies. It may be possible to use a neural net as an image-to-image controller of an optical tweezers being used for diagnostics of isolated nano structures. The image-to-image transformation properties also offer the potential for simulating quantum computing. Computer resources are detailed for implementing the black box calibration features of the neural nets.

  19. Laser engineered net shaping of quasi-continuous network microstructural TiB reinforced titanium matrix bulk composites: Microstructure and wear performance (United States)

    Hu, Yingbin; Ning, Fuda; Wang, Hui; Cong, Weilong; Zhao, Bo


    Titanium (Ti) and its alloys have been successfully applied to the aeronautical and biomedical industries. However, their poor tribological properties restrict their fields of applications under severe wear conditions. Facing to these challenges, this study investigated TiB reinforced Ti matrix composites (TiB-TMCs), fabricated by in-situ laser engineered net shaping (LENS) process, through analyzing parts quality, microstructure formation mechanisms, microstructure characterizations, and workpiece wear performance. At high B content areas (original B particle locations), reaction between Ti and B particles took place, generating flower-like microstructure. At low B content areas, eutectic TiB nanofibers contacted with each other with the formation of crosslinking microstructure. The crosslinking microstructural TiB aggregated and connected at the boundaries of Ti grains, forming a three-dimensional quasi-continuous network microstructure. The results show that compared with commercially pure Ti bulk parts, the TiB-TMCs exhibited superior wear performance (i.e. indentation wear resistance and friction wear resistance) due to the present of TiB reinforcement and the innovative microstructures formed inside TiB-TMCs. In addition, the qualities of the fabricated parts were improved with fewer interior defects by optimizing laser power, thus rendering better wear performance.

  20. Delayed processing of global shape information in developmental prosopagnosia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Klargaard, Solja K.; Petersen, Anders


    There is accumulating evidence suggesting that a central deficit in developmental prosopagnosia (DP), a disorder characterized by profound and lifelong difficulties with face recognition, concerns impaired holistic processing. Some of this evidence comes from studies using Navon’s paradigm where...... individuals with DP in Navon’s paradigm we find evidence of a reduced global precedence effect: The DPs are slower than controls to process global but not local shape information. Importantly, and in contrast to previous studies, we demonstrate that the DPs perform normally in a comprehensive test of visual...

  1. LanguageNet: A Novel Framework for Processing Unstructured Text Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah; Wiil, Uffe Kock


    In this paper we present LanguageNet—a novel framework for processing unstructured text information from human generated content. The state of the art information processing frameworks have some shortcomings: modeled in generalized form, trained on fixed (limited) data sets, and leaving...... the specialization necessary for information consolidation to the end users. The proposed framework is the first major attempt to address these shortcomings. LanguageNet provides extended support of graphical methods contributing added value to the capabilities of information processing. We discuss the benefits...

  2. WorkflowNet2BPEL4WS: A Tool for Translating Unstructured Workflow Processes to Readable BPEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; van der Aalst, Wil M. P.


    code and not easy to use by end-users. Therefore, we provide a mapping from WF-nets to BPEL. This mapping builds on the rich theory of Petri nets and can also be used to map other languages (e.g., UML, EPC, BPMN, etc.) onto BPEL. To evaluate WorkflowNet2BPEL4WS we used more than 100 processes modeled...

  3. Consensus shaping and safe space public participation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Kjell [Karita Research AB, Taeaby (Sweden)


    map public participation - consultation, consensus shaping processes and safe space. In contrast to consensus shaping processes, in the safe space approach there is no intention to develop solutions together between the implementer and other stakeholders. In comparison with the ladder, the basic approaches offer advantages for the mapping of public participation processes: If you strive for consensus or ''only'' clarity and awareness is a crucial question to be answered before a process is launched as it determines which stakeholders can join and which goals are feasible to reach. It is easier to use in assigning properties to a process, as it more straight-forward to understand if a process is consensus shaping or a safe space than where it is on the ladder. It clarifies better the links between the participation processes and the actual political and/or legal decision-making process. A consensus shaping process should produce real advice (or even decisions) but a safe space is limited to improving the decision making base with enhanced clarity.

  4. Modeling and Optimizing Energy Utilization of Steel Production Process: A Hybrid Petri Net Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wang


    Full Text Available The steel industry is responsible for nearly 9% of anthropogenic energy utilization in the world. It is urgent to reduce the total energy utilization of steel industry under the huge pressures on reducing energy consumption and CO2 emission. Meanwhile, the steel manufacturing is a typical continuous-discrete process with multiprocedures, multiobjects, multiconstraints, and multimachines coupled, which makes energy management rather difficult. In order to study the energy flow within the real steel production process, this paper presents a new modeling and optimization method for the process based on Hybrid Petri Nets (HPN in consideration of the situation above. Firstly, we introduce the detailed description of HPN. Then the real steel production process from one typical integrated steel plant is transformed into Hybrid Petri Net model as a case. Furthermore, we obtain a series of constraints of our optimization model from this model. In consideration of the real process situation, we pick the steel production, energy efficiency and self-made gas surplus as the main optimized goals in this paper. Afterwards, a fuzzy linear programming method is conducted to obtain the multiobjective optimization results. Finally, some measures are suggested to improve this low efficiency and high whole cost process structure.

  5. Bio-inspired Artificial Intelligence: А Generalized Net Model of the Regularization Process in MLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanimir Surchev


    Full Text Available Many objects and processes inspired by the nature have been recreated by the scientists. The inspiration to create a Multilayer Neural Network came from human brain as member of the group. It possesses complicated structure and it is difficult to recreate, because of the existence of too many processes that require different solving methods. The aim of the following paper is to describe one of the methods that improve learning process of Artificial Neural Network. The proposed generalized net method presents Regularization process in Multilayer Neural Network. The purpose of verification is to protect the neural network from overfitting. The regularization is commonly used in neural network training process. Many methods of verification are present, the subject of interest is the one known as Regularization. It contains function in order to set weights and biases with smaller values to protect from overfitting.

  6. Shaping human mortality patterns through intrinsic and extrinsic vitality processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Li


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND While historical declines in human mortality are clearly shaped by lifestyle and environmental improvements, modeling patterns is difficult because intrinsic and extrinsic processes shape mortality through complex stochastic interactions. OBJECTIVE To develop a stochastic model describing intrinsic and extrinsic mortality rates and quantify historical mortality trends in terms of parameters describing the rates. METHODS Based on vitality, a stochastic age-declining measure of survival capacity, extrinsic mortality occurs when an extrinsic challenge exceeds the remaining vitality and intrinsic mortality occurs with the complete loss of vitality by aging. Total mortality depends on the stochastic loss rate of vitality and the magnitude and frequency of extrinsic challenges. Parameters are estimated using maximum likelihood. RESULTS Fitting the model to two centuries of adult Swedish period data, intrinsic mortality dominated in old age and gradually declined over years. Extrinsic mortality increased with age and exhibited step-like decline over years driven by high-magnitude, low-frequency challenges in the 19th century and low-magnitude high-frequency challenges in the 20th century. CONCLUSIONS The Swedish mortality was driven by asynchronous intrinsic and extrinsic processes, coinciding with well-known epidemiological patterns involving lifestyle and health care. Because the processes are largely independent, predicting future mortality requires projecting trends of both processes. COMMENTS The model merges point-of-view and classical hazard rate mortality models and yields insights not available from either model individually. To obtain a closed form the intrinsic-extrinsic interactions were simplified, resulting in biased, but correctable, parameters estimates.

  7. Shape Up: An Eye-Tracking Study of Preschoolers' Shape Name Processing and Spatial Development (United States)

    Verdine, Brian N.; Bunger, Ann; Athanasopoulou, Angeliki; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy


    Learning the names of geometric shapes is at the intersection of early spatial, mathematical, and language skills, all important for school-readiness and predictors of later abilities in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). We investigated whether socioeconomic status (SES) influenced children's processing of shape names and…

  8. Alignment processes and shape variations in sup 184 Pt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, M.P.; Bingham, C.R.; Courtney, L.H.; Janzen, V.P.; Larabee, A.J.; Liu, Z.M.; Riedinger, L.L.; Schmitz, W. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville (USA). Dept. of Physics); Bengtsson, R.; Bengtsson, T.; Nazarewicz, W.; Zhang, J.Y. (Joint Inst. for Heavy Ion Research, Oak Ridge, TN (USA)); Johansson, J.K.; Popescu, D.G.; Waddington, J.C. (McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)); Baktash, C.; Halbert, M.L.; Johnson, N.R.; Lee, I.Y.; Schutz, Y.S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA). Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility); Nyberg, J.; Johnson, A.; Wyss, R. (Manne Siegbahn Inst. of Physics, Stockholm (Sweden) Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Physics Dept. 1); Dubuc, J.; Kajrys, G.; Monaro, S.; Pilotte, S. (Montreal Univ., Quebec (Canada)); Honkanen, K.; Sarantites, D.G. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (USA)); Haenni, D.R. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station (USA). Cyclotron Inst.)


    High-spin states in the transitional nucleus {sup 184}Pt were populated via the reactions {sup 154}Sm({sup 34}S, 4n){sup 184}Pt and {sup 172}Yb({sup 16}O, 4n){sup 184}Pt. The yrast band was extended up to I=28 {Dirac h} and six new side bands built on both neutron and proton quasiparticle configurations were observed. Shell correction-type calculations indicate variations of the nuclear shape in different bands, especially as a result of band crossings due to the process of angular momentum alignment. Comparison of the band characteristics are made between {sup 184}Pt and eight adjacent nuclei. The pattern of band crossings in these nine nuclei is considered from the viewpoint of blocking comparisons and of theoretical calculations. The competition between low-frequency {nu}i{sub 13/2} and {pi}h{sub 9/2} band crossings is discussed. (orig.).

  9. Mammalian NET-Seq Reveals Genome-wide Nascent Transcription Coupled to RNA Processing. (United States)

    Nojima, Takayuki; Gomes, Tomás; Grosso, Ana Rita Fialho; Kimura, Hiroshi; Dye, Michael J; Dhir, Somdutta; Carmo-Fonseca, Maria; Proudfoot, Nicholas J


    Transcription is a highly dynamic process. Consequently, we have developed native elongating transcript sequencing technology for mammalian chromatin (mNET-seq), which generates single-nucleotide resolution, nascent transcription profiles. Nascent RNA was detected in the active site of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) along with associated RNA processing intermediates. In particular, we detected 5'splice site cleavage by the spliceosome, showing that cleaved upstream exon transcripts are associated with Pol II CTD phosphorylated on the serine 5 position (S5P), which is accumulated over downstream exons. Also, depletion of termination factors substantially reduces Pol II pausing at gene ends, leading to termination defects. Notably, termination factors play an additional promoter role by restricting non-productive RNA synthesis in a Pol II CTD S2P-specific manner. Our results suggest that CTD phosphorylation patterns established for yeast transcription are significantly different in mammals. Taken together, mNET-seq provides dynamic and detailed snapshots of the complex events underlying transcription in mammals. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Native language shapes automatic neural processing of speech. (United States)

    Intartaglia, Bastien; White-Schwoch, Travis; Meunier, Christine; Roman, Stéphane; Kraus, Nina; Schön, Daniele


    The development of the phoneme inventory is driven by the acoustic-phonetic properties of one's native language. Neural representation of speech is known to be shaped by language experience, as indexed by cortical responses, and recent studies suggest that subcortical processing also exhibits this attunement to native language. However, most work to date has focused on the differences between tonal and non-tonal languages that use pitch variations to convey phonemic categories. The aim of this cross-language study is to determine whether subcortical encoding of speech sounds is sensitive to language experience by comparing native speakers of two non-tonal languages (French and English). We hypothesized that neural representations would be more robust and fine-grained for speech sounds that belong to the native phonemic inventory of the listener, and especially for the dimensions that are phonetically relevant to the listener such as high frequency components. We recorded neural responses of American English and French native speakers, listening to natural syllables of both languages. Results showed that, independently of the stimulus, American participants exhibited greater neural representation of the fundamental frequency compared to French participants, consistent with the importance of the fundamental frequency to convey stress patterns in English. Furthermore, participants showed more robust encoding and more precise spectral representations of the first formant when listening to the syllable of their native language as compared to non-native language. These results align with the hypothesis that language experience shapes sensory processing of speech and that this plasticity occurs as a function of what is meaningful to a listener. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Processable Shape Memory Polymer System for Biomedical Applications. (United States)

    Hearon, Keith; Wierzbicki, Mark A; Nash, Landon D; Landsman, Todd L; Laramy, Christine; Lonnecker, Alexander T; Gibbons, Michael C; Ur, Sarah; Cardinal, Kristen O; Wilson, Thomas S; Wooley, Karen L; Maitland, Duncan J


    Polyurethane shape memory polymers (SMPs) with tunable thermomechanical properties and advanced processing capabilities are synthesized, characterized, and implemented in the design of a microactuator medical device prototype. The ability to manipulate glass transition temperature (Tg ) and crosslink density in low-molecular weight aliphatic thermoplastic polyurethane SMPs is demonstrated using a synthetic approach that employs UV catalyzed thiol-ene "click" reactions to achieve postpolymerization crosslinking. Polyurethanes containing varying C=C functionalization are synthesized, solution blended with polythiol crosslinking agents and photoinitiator and subjected to UV irradiation, and the effects of number of synthetic parameters on crosslink density are reported. Thermomechanical properties are highly tunable, including glass transitions tailorable between 30 and 105 °C and rubbery moduli tailorable between 0.4 and 20 MPa. This new SMP system exhibits high toughness for many formulations, especially in the case of low crosslink density materials, for which toughness exceeds 90 MJ m(-3) at select straining temperatures. To demonstrate the advanced processing capability and synthetic versatility of this new SMP system, a laser-actuated SMP microgripper device for minimally invasive delivery of endovascular devices is fabricated, shown to exhibit an average gripping force of 1.43 ± 0.37 N and successfully deployed in an in vitro experimental setup under simulated physiological conditions. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Arithmetic processing in the brain shaped by cultures. (United States)

    Tang, Yiyuan; Zhang, Wutian; Chen, Kewei; Feng, Shigang; Ji, Ye; Shen, Junxian; Reiman, Eric M; Liu, Yijun


    The universal use of Arabic numbers in mathematics raises a question whether these digits are processed the same way in people speaking various languages, such as Chinese and English, which reflect differences in Eastern and Western cultures. Using functional MRI, we demonstrated a differential cortical representation of numbers between native Chinese and English speakers. Contrasting to native English speakers, who largely employ a language process that relies on the left perisylvian cortices for mental calculation such as a simple addition task, native Chinese speakers, instead, engage a visuo-premotor association network for the same task. Whereas in both groups the inferior parietal cortex was activated by a task for numerical quantity comparison, functional MRI connectivity analyses revealed a functional distinction between Chinese and English groups among the brain networks involved in the task. Our results further indicate that the different biological encoding of numbers may be shaped by visual reading experience during language acquisition and other cultural factors such as mathematics learning strategies and education systems, which cannot be explained completely by the differences in languages per se.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile Petit


    Full Text Available In Diesel engines, a key element in achieving a clean and efficient combustion process is a proper fuel-air mixing, which is a consequence of the fuel spray development and fuel-air interaction inside the engine combustion chamber. The spray structure and behavior are classically described by the length (penetration and width (angle of the spray plume but these parameters do not give any clue on the geometrical injection center and on the spray symmetry. The purpose of this paper is to find out original tools to characterize the Diesel spray: the virtual spray origin is the geometrical injection center, which may (or may not coincide with the injector axis. Another interesting point is the description of the Diesel spray in terms of symmetry: the spray plume internal and external symmetry characterize the spray and the injector performance. Our approach is first to find out the virtual spray origin: after the image segmentation, the spray is coded with the Freeman code and with an original shape coding from which the moments are derived. The symmetry axes are then computed and the spray plumes are discarded (or not for the virtual spray origin computation, which is derived from a Voronoi diagram. The last step is the internal and external spray plume symmetry characterization thanks to correlation and mathematical distances.

  14. Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Ti-6Al-4V and Inconel 718 Manufactured By Laser Engineered Net Shaping (United States)


    shaped and high density metallic components directly from CAD models utilizing metal powders. The standardized terminology for AM technologies ( ISO ...References [1] ISO /ASTM 52900, Standard Terminology for Additive Manufacturing – General Principles – Terminology, ASTM International, West Conshohocken...A 660 (2016) 24- 33. [15] G.J. Marshall, S.M. Thompson, N. Shamsaei, Data indicating temperature response of Ti– 6Al–4V thin-walled structure

  15. Programmable Shape Recovery Process of Water-Responsive Shape-Memory Poly(vinyl alcohol) by Wettability Contrast Strategy. (United States)

    Fang, Zhiqiang; Kuang, Yudi; Zhou, Panpan; Ming, Siyi; Zhu, Penghui; Liu, Yu; Ning, Honglong; Chen, Gang


    Water-responsive shape-memory polymers (SMPs) are desirable for biomedical applications, but their limited shape recovery process is problematic. Herein, we demonstrate a shape-memory poly(vinyl alcohol) (SM-PVA) with programmable multistep shape recovery processes in water via a wettability contrast strategy. A hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS)-treated SiO2 nanoparticle layer with varying loading weights was rationally deposited onto the surface of SM-PVA, aiming to create surface-wettability contrast. The varying wettability led to different water adsorption behaviors of SM-PVA that could be well-described by the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. The results calculated from the kinetic model showed that both the pseudo-first order-adsorption rate constant and the saturated water absorption of SM-PVA demonstrated a declining trend as the loading weight of SiO2 increased, which laid the foundation for the local regulation of the water-responsive rate of SM-PVA. Finally, two proof-of-concept drug-delivery devices with diverse three-dimensional structures and actuations are presented based on the water-responsive SM-PVA with preprogrammed multistep shape recovery processes. We believe the programmable shape-memory behavior of water-responsive SM-PVA could highly extend its use in drug delivery, tissue engineering scaffolds, and smart implantable devices, etc.

  16. Shape 4.0: 3D Shape Modeling and Processing Using Semantics. (United States)

    Spagnuolo, Michela


    In the last decade, sensor, communication, and computing technologies have advanced rapidly, producing dramatic changes in our daily lives and in a variety of application domains. Emerging technologies are leading us to a gradual, but inescapable integration of our material and digital realities and the advent of cyber-physical worlds. Although attaining visual realism is within the grasp of current 3D modeling approaches, it is less clear whether current modeling techniques will accommodate the needs of human communication and of the applications that we can already envisage in those futuristic worlds. Inspired by the evolution trends of the Web, this article describes the evolution of shape modeling from the Shape 1.0 geometry-only, mesh-based stage to the forthcoming semantics-driven Shape 4.0 era.

  17. Advanced oxidation and disinfection processes for onsite net-zero greywater reuse: A review. (United States)

    Gassie, Lucien W; Englehardt, James D


    Net-zero greywater (NZGW) reuse, or nearly closed-loop recycle of greywater for all original uses, can recover both water and its attendant hot-water thermal energy, while avoiding the installation and maintenance of a separate greywater sewer in residential areas. Such a system, if portable, could also provide wash water for remote emergency health care units. However, such greywater reuse engenders human contact with the recycled water, and hence superior treatment. The purpose of this paper is to review processes applicable to the mineralization of organics, including control of oxidative byproducts such as bromate, and maintenance of disinfection consistent with potable reuse guidelines, in NZGW systems. Specifically, TiO2-UV, UV-hydrogen peroxide, hydrogen peroxide-ozone, ozone-UV advanced oxidation processes, and UV, ozone, hydrogen peroxide, filtration, and chlorine disinfection processes were reviewed for performance, energy demand, environmental impact, and operational simplicity. Based on the literature reviewed, peroxone is the most energy-efficient process for organics mineralization. However, in portable applications where delivery of chemicals to the site is a concern, the UV-ozone process appears promising, at higher energy demand. In either case, reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, or ED may be useful in controlling the bromide precursor in make-up water, and a minor side-stream of ozone may be used to prevent microbial regrowth in the treated water. Where energy is not paramount, UV-hydrogen peroxide and UV-TiO2 can be used to mineralize organics while avoiding bromate formation, but may require a secondary process to prevent microbial regrowth. Chlorine and ozone may be useful for maintenance of disinfection residual. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Neural-Net Processing of Characteristic Patterns From Electronic Holograms of Vibrating Blades (United States)

    Decker, Arthur J.


    Finite-element-model-trained artificial neural networks can be used to process efficiently the characteristic patterns or mode shapes from electronic holograms of vibrating blades. The models used for routine design may not yet be sufficiently accurate for this application. This document discusses the creation of characteristic patterns; compares model generated and experimental characteristic patterns; and discusses the neural networks that transform the characteristic patterns into strain or damage information. The current potential to adapt electronic holography to spin rigs, wind tunnels and engines provides an incentive to have accurate finite element models lor training neural networks.

  19. An Efficient Scalable Work-Stealing Runtime for Macro Data Flow Processing Using S-Net

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbers, B.; Grelck, C.


    S-Net is a declarative coordination language and component technology aimed at radically facilitating software engineering for modern parallel compute systems by near-complete separation of concerns between application (component) engineering and concurrency orchestration. S-Net builds on the

  20. Influence of Sodium Bisulfite and Lithium Bromide Solutions on the Shape Fixation of Camel Guard Hairs in Slenderization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueliang Xiao


    Full Text Available Outstanding performance of natural camel hair has attracted much attention on the effective use of such specialty fiber to apparel textiles. In this paper, sodium bisulfide (SB and lithium bromide (LB solutions were used to process the camel guard hair before its slenderization. It is found that camel guard hair processed by SB solution shows the highest breaking elongation (~140% due to the breakage of disulfide bonds (reflected by Raman spectra. LB ions result in the disruption of hair crystalline phase with slight benefit to the slenderization (determined by X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. IR spectra indicate that hydrogen bonds of camel guard hair act as fixation switch in the programmed tensile test. It is discovered that guard hair reveals the best water-induced shape memory with 90% of stretching shape recovery, whereas the value remained to be 70% and 60% for hair processed by LB and SB solutions after breaking partial crystalline phase and disulfide cross-links separately (polymer net-points. The poorer shape memory of processed guard hair benefits its slenderization for more stable fixation of stretched length.

  1. Chemical processes related to net ozone tendencies in the free troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bozem


    Full Text Available Ozone (O3 is an important atmospheric oxidant, a greenhouse gas, and a hazard to human health and agriculture. Here we describe airborne in situ measurements and model simulations of O3 and its precursors during tropical and extratropical field campaigns over South America and Europe, respectively. Using the measurements, net ozone formation/destruction tendencies are calculated and compared to 3-D chemistry–transport model simulations. In general, observation-based net ozone tendencies are positive in the continental boundary layer and the upper troposphere at altitudes above  ∼  6 km in both environments. On the other hand, in the marine boundary layer and the middle troposphere, from the top of the boundary layer to about 6–8 km altitude, net O3 destruction prevails. The ozone tendencies are controlled by ambient concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NOx. In regions with net ozone destruction the available NOx is below the threshold value at which production and destruction of O3 balance. While threshold NO values increase with altitude, in the upper troposphere NOx concentrations are generally higher due to the integral effect of convective precursor transport from the boundary layer, downward transport from the stratosphere and NOx produced by lightning. Two case studies indicate that in fresh convective outflow of electrified thunderstorms net ozone production is enhanced by a factor 5–6 compared to the undisturbed upper tropospheric background. The chemistry–transport model MATCH-MPIC generally reproduces the pattern of observation-based net ozone tendencies but mostly underestimates the magnitude of the net tendency (for both net ozone production and destruction.

  2. Chemical processes related to net ozone tendencies in the free troposphere


    Bozem, Heiko; Butler, Tim M.; Lawrence, Mark G.; Harder, Hartwig; Martinez, Monica; Kubistin, Dagmar; Lelieveld, Jos; Fischer, Horst


    Ozone (O3) is an important atmospheric oxidant, a greenhouse gas, and a hazard to human health and agriculture. Here we describe airborne in-situ measurements and model simulations of O3 and its precursors during tropical and extratropical field campaigns over South America and Europe, respectively. Using the measurements, net ozone formation/destruction tendencies are calculated and compared to 3D chemistry-transport model simulations. In general, observation-based net ozone tendencies are p...

  3. Chemical processes related to net ozone tendencies in the free troposphere (United States)

    Bozem, Heiko; Butler, Tim M.; Lawrence, Mark G.; Harder, Hartwig; Martinez, Monica; Kubistin, Dagmar; Lelieveld, Jos; Fischer, Horst


    Ozone (O3) is an important atmospheric oxidant, a greenhouse gas, and a hazard to human health and agriculture. Here we describe airborne in situ measurements and model simulations of O3 and its precursors during tropical and extratropical field campaigns over South America and Europe, respectively. Using the measurements, net ozone formation/destruction tendencies are calculated and compared to 3-D chemistry-transport model simulations. In general, observation-based net ozone tendencies are positive in the continental boundary layer and the upper troposphere at altitudes above ˜ 6 km in both environments. On the other hand, in the marine boundary layer and the middle troposphere, from the top of the boundary layer to about 6-8 km altitude, net O3 destruction prevails. The ozone tendencies are controlled by ambient concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NOx). In regions with net ozone destruction the available NOx is below the threshold value at which production and destruction of O3 balance. While threshold NO values increase with altitude, in the upper troposphere NOx concentrations are generally higher due to the integral effect of convective precursor transport from the boundary layer, downward transport from the stratosphere and NOx produced by lightning. Two case studies indicate that in fresh convective outflow of electrified thunderstorms net ozone production is enhanced by a factor 5-6 compared to the undisturbed upper tropospheric background. The chemistry-transport model MATCH-MPIC generally reproduces the pattern of observation-based net ozone tendencies but mostly underestimates the magnitude of the net tendency (for both net ozone production and destruction).

  4. Effect of processed and fermented soyabeans on net absorption in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli-infected piglet small intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, J.L.; Nout, M.J.R.; Rombouts, F.M.; Andel, van E.E.; Nabuurs, M.J.A.; Meulen, van der J.


    Infectious diarrhoea is a major problem in both children and piglets. Infection of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) results in fluid secretion and electrolyte losses in the small intestine. In the present study the effect of processed and fermented soyabean products on net absorption during

  5. Performance of the Fourier shape parametrization for the fission process (United States)

    Schmitt, C.; Pomorski, K.; Nerlo-Pomorska, B.; Bartel, J.


    The availability of realistic potential energy landscapes in restricted deformation space is the prerequisite starting point for modeling several nuclear properties and reactions, namely large-amplitude phenomena. The achievement of a macroscopic-microscopic approach, employing an innovative four-dimensional (4D) nuclear shape parametrization based on a Fourier expansion, and a realistic potential-energy prescription, is presented. A systematic analysis of the 4D deformation energy landscapes over an extended region of the nuclear chart from Pt to Pu is performed, searching for fission valleys, as well as exotic ground and metastable states. The significance of the approach for predicting mass partitioning in low-energy fission is demonstrated. The ability of the model to address shape-driven effects, like stable octupole and very elongated isomeric configurations, is discussed, too. The proposed approach constitutes an efficient framework for an extended model of fission dynamics over a wide range of fissioning mass, excitation energy, and angular momentum.

  6. Metal Matrix Composite LOX Turbopump Housing via Novel Tool-less Net-Shape Pressure Infiltration Casting Technology (United States)

    Shah, Sandeep; Lee, Jonathan; Bhat, Biliyar; Wells, Doug; Gregg, Wayne; Marsh, Matthew; Genge, Gary; Forbes, John; Salvi, Alex; Cornie, James A.


    Metal matrix composites for propulsion components offer high performance and affordability, resulting in low weight and cost. The following sections in this viewgraph presentation describe the pressure infiltration casting of a metal matrix composite LOX turbopump housing: 1) Baseline Pump Design and Stress Analysis; 2) Tool-less Advanced Pressure Infiltration Casting Process; 3) Preform Splicing and Joining for Large Components such as Pump Housing; 4) Fullscale Pump Housing Redesign.

  7. Mathematics of shape description a morphological approach to image processing and computer graphics

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Pijush K


    Image processing problems are often not well defined because real images are contaminated with noise and other uncertain factors. In Mathematics of Shape Description, the authors take a mathematical approach to address these problems using the morphological and set-theoretic approach to image processing and computer graphics by presenting a simple shape model using two basic shape operators called Minkowski addition and decomposition. This book is ideal for professional researchers and engineers in Information Processing, Image Measurement, Shape Description, Shape Representation and Computer Graphics. Post-graduate and advanced undergraduate students in pure and applied mathematics, computer sciences, robotics and engineering will also benefit from this book.  Key FeaturesExplains the fundamental and advanced relationships between algebraic system and shape description through the set-theoretic approachPromotes interaction of image processing geochronology and mathematics in the field of algebraic geometryP...

  8. Estimation of net primary productivity using a process-based model in Gansu Province, Northwest China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peijuan; Xie, Donghui; Zhou, Yuyu; E, Youhao; Zhu, Qijiang


    The ecological structure in the arid and semi-arid region of Northwest China with forest, grassland, agriculture, Gobi, and desert, is complex, vulnerable, and unstable. It is a challenging and sustaining job to keep the ecological structure and improve its ecological function. Net primary productivity (NPP) modeling can help to improve the understanding of the ecosystem, and therefore, improve ecological efficiency. The boreal ecosystem productivity simulator (BEPS) model provides the possibility of NPP modeling in terrestrial ecosystem, but it has some limitations for application in arid and semi-arid regions. In this paper we improve the BEPS model, in terms of its water cycle by adding the processes of infiltration and surface runoff, to be applicable in arid and semi-arid regions. We model the NPP of forest, grass, and crop in Gansu Province as an experimental area in Northwest China in 2003 using the improved BEPS model, parameterized with moderate resolution remote sensing imageries and meteorological data. The modeled NPP using improved BEPS agrees better with the ground measurements in Qilian Mountain than that with original BEPS, with a higher R2 of 0.746 and lower root mean square error (RMSE) of 46.53 gC/m2 compared to R2 of 0.662 and RMSE of 60.19 gC/m2 from original BEPS. The modeled NPP of three vegetation types using improved BEPS show evident differences compared to that using original BEPS, with the highest difference ratio of 9.21% in forest and the lowest value of 4.29% in crop. The difference ratios between different vegetation types lie on the dependence on natural water sources. The modeled NPP in five geographic zones using improved BEPS are higher than those with original BEPS, with higher difference ratio in dry zones and lower value in wet zones.

  9. Assortative and modular networks are shaped by adaptive synchronization processes. (United States)

    Avalos-Gaytán, Vanesa; Almendral, Juan A; Papo, David; Schaeffer, Satu Elisa; Boccaletti, Stefano


    Modular organization and degree-degree correlations are ubiquitous in the connectivity structure of biological, technological, and social interacting systems. So far most studies have concentrated on unveiling both features in real world networks, but a model that succeeds in generating them simultaneously is needed. We consider a network of interacting phase oscillators, and an adaptation mechanism for the coupling that promotes the connection strengths between those elements that are dynamically correlated. We show that, under these circumstances, the dynamical organization of the oscillators shapes the topology of the graph in such a way that modularity and assortativity features emerge spontaneously and simultaneously. In turn, we prove that such an emergent structure is associated with an asymptotic arrangement of the collective dynamical state of the network into cluster synchronization.

  10. Laser Engineered Net Shaping of Nickel-Based Superalloy Inconel 718 Powders onto AISI 4140 Alloy Steel Substrates: Interface Bond and Fracture Failure Mechanism (United States)

    Kim, Hoyeol; Cong, Weilong; Zhang, Hong-Chao; Liu, Zhichao


    As a prospective candidate material for surface coating and repair applications, nickel-based superalloy Inconel 718 (IN718) was deposited on American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) 4140 alloy steel substrate by laser engineered net shaping (LENS) to investigate the compatibility between two dissimilar materials with a focus on interface bonding and fracture behavior of the hybrid specimens. The results show that the interface between the two dissimilar materials exhibits good metallurgical bonding. Through the tensile test, all the fractures occurred in the as-deposited IN718 section rather than the interface or the substrate, implying that the as-deposited interlayer bond strength is weaker than the interfacial bond strength. From the fractography using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy disperse X-ray spectrometry (EDS), three major factors affecting the tensile fracture failure of the as-deposited part are (i) metallurgical defects such as incompletely melted powder particles, lack-of-fusion porosity, and micropores; (ii) elemental segregation and Laves phase, and (iii) oxide formation. The fracture failure mechanism is a combination of all these factors which are detrimental to the mechanical properties and structural integrity by causing premature fracture failure of the as-deposited IN718. PMID:28772702

  11. Delayed processing of global shape in developmental prosopagnosia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Klargaard, Solja K.; Starrfelt, Randi


    Abstract There is accumulating evidence suggesting that the central deficit in developmental prosopagnosia (DP), a disorder characterized by lifelong difficulties with face recognition, concerns impaired holistic processing. Some of this evidence comes from studies using Navon's paradigm where...

  12. Fabrication of micro T-shaped tubular components by hydroforming process (United States)

    Manabe, Ken-ichi; Itai, Kenta; Tada, Kazuo


    This paper deals with a T-shape micro tube hydroforming (MTHF) process for 500 µm outer diameter copper microtube. The MTHF experiments were carried out using a MTHF system utilizing ultrahigh pressure. The fundamental micro hydroforming characteristics as well as forming limits are examined experimentally and numerically. From the results, a process window diagram for micro T-shape hydroforming process is created, and a suitable "success" region is revealed.

  13. Teaching and Learning of Computational Modelling in Creative Shaping Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela REIMANN


    Full Text Available Today, not only diverse design-related disciplines are required to actively deal with the digitization of information and its potentials and side effects for education processes. In Germany, technology didactics developed in vocational education and computer science education in general education, both separated from media pedagogy as an after-school program. Media education is not a subject in German schools yet. However, in the paper we argue for an interdisciplinary approach to learn about computational modeling in creative processes and aesthetic contexts. It crosses the borders of programming technology, arts and design processes in meaningful contexts. Educational scenarios using smart textile environments are introduced and reflected for project based learning.

  14. Automated Defect Recognition as a Critical Element of a Three Dimensional X-ray Computed Tomography Imaging-Based Smart Non-Destructive Testing Technique in Additive Manufacturing of Near Net-Shape Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istvan Szabo


    Full Text Available In this paper, a state of the art automated defect recognition (ADR system is presented that was developed specifically for Non-Destructive Testing (NDT of powder metallurgy (PM parts using three dimensional X-ray Computed Tomography (CT imaging, towards enabling online quality assurance and enhanced integrity confidence. PM parts exhibit typical defects such as microscopic cracks, porosity, and voids, internal to components that without an effective detection system, limit the growth of industrial applications. Compared to typical testing methods (e.g., destructive such as metallography that is based on sampling, cutting, and polishing of parts, CT provides full coverage of defect detection. This paper establishes the importance and advantages of an automated NDT system for the PM industry applications with particular emphasis on image processing procedures for defect recognition. Moreover, the article describes how to establish a reference library based on real 3D X-ray CT images of net-shape parts. The paper follows the development of the ADR system from processing 2D image slices of a measured 3D X-ray image to processing the complete 3D X-ray image as a whole. The introduced technique is successfully integrated into an automated in-line quality control system highly sought by major industry sectors in Oil and Gas, Automotive, and Aerospace.

  15. Heat Balance Analysis of EPS Products Shaping Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Władysiak R.


    Full Text Available The work is a part of research into the reduction of energy consumption in the production of EPSthrough the modernization of technological equipment used. This paper presents the results of research and analysis of heat transfer process between the water vapor that was provided to machine, the mold, the product and the environment. The paper shows the calculation of the heat balance of the production cycle for two types of mold: standard and modernized. The performance tests used an infrared imaging camera. The results were used to develop a computer image analysis and statistical analysis. This paper presents the main stages of the production process and the construction of technological equipment used, changing the mold surface temperature field during the production cycle and the structure of the heat balance for the mold and its instrumentation. It has been shown that the modernization of construction of technological equipment has reduced the temperature field and as a consequence of decreased of demand for process steam production cycle.

  16. Damage localization by statistical evaluation of signal-processed mode shapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulriksen, Martin Dalgaard; Damkilde, Lars


    in the spatial mode shape signals, hereby potentially facilitating damage detection and/or localization. However, by being based on distinguishing damage-induced discontinuities from other signal irregularities, an intrinsic deficiency in these methods is the high sensitivity towards measurement noise....... The present article introduces a damage localization method which, compared to the conventional mode shape-based methods, has greatly enhanced robustness towards measurement noise. The method is based on signal processing of spatial mode shapes by means of continuous wavelet transformation (CWT......) and subsequent application of a generalized discrete Teager-Kaiser energy operator (GDTKEO) to identify damage-induced mode shape discontinuities. In order to evaluate whether the identified discontinuities are in fact damage-induced, outlier analysis of principal components of the signal-processed mode shapes...

  17. Imprecision and uncertainty in information representation and processing new tools based on intuitionistic fuzzy sets and generalized nets

    CERN Document Server

    Sotirov, Sotir


    The book offers a comprehensive and timely overview of advanced mathematical tools for both uncertainty analysis and modeling of parallel processes, with a special emphasis on intuitionistic fuzzy sets and generalized nets. The different chapters, written by active researchers in their respective areas, are structured to provide a coherent picture of this interdisciplinary yet still evolving field of science. They describe key tools and give practical insights into and research perspectives on the use of Atanassov's intuitionistic fuzzy sets and logic, and generalized nets for describing and dealing with uncertainty in different areas of science, technology and business, in a single, to date unique book. Here, readers find theoretical chapters, dealing with intuitionistic fuzzy operators, membership functions and algorithms, among other topics, as well as application-oriented chapters, reporting on the implementation of methods and relevant case studies in management science, the IT industry, medicine and/or ...

  18. Fast Estimate of Rupture Process of Large Earthquakes via Real Time Hi-net Data (United States)

    Wang, D.; Kawakatsu, H.; Mori, J. J.


    We developed a real time system based on Hi-net seismic array that can offer fast and reliable source information, for example, source extent and rupture velocity, for earthquakes that occur at distance of roughly 30°- 85°with respect to the array center. We perform continuous grid search on a Hi-net real time data stream to identify possible source locations (following Nishida, K., Kawakatsu, H., and S. Obara, 2008). Earthquakes that occurred off the bright area of the array (30°- 85°with respect to the array center) will be ignored. Once a large seismic event is identified successfully, back-projection will be implemented to trace the source propagation and energy radiation. Results from extended global GRiD-MT and real time W phase inversion will be combined for the better identification of large seismic events. The time required is mainly due to the travel time from the epicenter to the array stations, so we can get the results between 6 to 13 min depending on the epicenter distances. This system can offer fast and robust estimates of earthquake source information, which will be useful for disaster mitigation, such as tsunami evacuation, emergency rescue, and aftershock hazard evaluation.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorensek, M


    Hybrid Sulfur cycle is gaining popularity as a possible means for massive production of hydrogen from nuclear energy. Several different ways of carrying out the SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolysis step are being pursued by a number of researchers. These alternatives are evaluated with complete flowsheet simulations and on a common design basis using Aspen Plus{trademark}. Sensitivity analyses are performed to assess the performance potential of each configuration, and the flowsheets are optimized for energy recovery. Net thermal efficiencies are calculated for the best set of operating conditions for each flowsheet and the results compared. This will help focus attention on the most promising electrolysis alternatives. The sensitivity analyses should also help identify those features that offer the greatest potential for improvement.

  20. Process Design for Hot Forging of Asymmetric to Symmetric Rib-web Shaped Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Cho


    Full Text Available The process design of hot forging, asymmetric to symmetric rib-web shaped steel, which is used for the turnout of express rails has been studied. Owing to the great difference in shape between the initial billet and the final forged product, it is impossible to hot forge the rail in a single stage operation. Therefore, multi stage forging and also die design for each stage are necessary for the production process. The numerical simulation for hot forging of asymmetric shape to symmetric shape was carried out using commercial FEM code, DEFORMTM-2D. Modification of the design and repeated simulation was carried out on the basis of the simulation results. For comparison with the simulation results, a flow analysis experiment using plasticine was also carried out. The results of the flow analysis experiment showed good agreement with those of the simulation.

  1. Computational fluid dynamics evaluation of liquid food thermal process in a brick shaped package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Esteves Duarte Augusto


    Full Text Available Food processes must ensure safety and high-quality products for a growing demand consumer creating the need for better knowledge of its unit operations. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD has been widely used for better understanding the food thermal processes, and it is one of the safest and most frequently used methods for food preservation. However, there is no single study in the literature describing thermal process of liquid foods in a brick shaped package. The present study evaluated such process and the influence of its orientation on the process lethality. It demonstrated the potential of using CFD to evaluate thermal processes of liquid foods and the importance of rheological characterization and convection in thermal processing of liquid foods. It also showed that packaging orientation does not result in different sterilization values during thermal process of the evaluated fluids in the brick shaped package.

  2. Nonlinear Pulse Shaping in Fibres for Pulse Generation and Optical Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Boscolo


    Full Text Available The development of new all-optical technologies for data processing and signal manipulation is a field of growing importance with a strong potential for numerous applications in diverse areas of modern science. Nonlinear phenomena occurring in optical fibres have many attractive features and great, but not yet fully explored, potential in signal processing. Here, we review recent progress on the use of fibre nonlinearities for the generation and shaping of optical pulses and on the applications of advanced pulse shapes in all-optical signal processing. Amongst other topics, we will discuss ultrahigh repetition rate pulse sources, the generation of parabolic shaped pulses in active and passive fibres, the generation of pulses with triangular temporal profiles, and coherent supercontinuum sources. The signal processing applications will span optical regeneration, linear distortion compensation, optical decision at the receiver in optical communication systems, spectral and temporal signal doubling, and frequency conversion.

  3. Numerical Modeling of Induction Heating Process using Inductors with Circular Shape Turns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Novac


    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the problemof numerical modeling of electromagneticfield coupled with the thermal one in theheating process of the steel billets, usinginductors with circular shape turns. As resultswe have: electromagnetic field lines evolutionand map temperatures in piece at the endingof heating process.

  4. Modelling the pultrusion process of an industrial L-shaped composite profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baran, Ismet; Akkerman, Remko; Hattel, Jesper Henri


    A numerical process simulation tool is developed for the pultrusion of an industrial L-shaped profile. The composite contains the combination of uni-directional (UD) roving and continuous filament mat (CFM) layers impregnated by a polyester resin system specifically prepared for the process. The ...... inside the part such that the UD and CFM layers have different stress levels at the end of the process. The predicted stress pattern is verified by performing a stress calculation using the classical laminate theory (CLT)....

  5. Kunstige neurale net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørning, Annette


    Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse.......Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse....

  6. Effects of the shape anisotropy and biasing field on the magnetization reversal process of the diamond-shaped NiFe nano films (United States)

    Xu, Sichen; Yin, Jianfeng; Tang, Rujun; Zhang, Wenxu; Peng, Bin; Zhang, Wanli


    The effects of the planar shape anisotropy and biasing field on the magnetization reversal process (MRP) of the diamond-shaped NiFe nano films have been investigated by micromagnetic simulations. Results show that when the length to width ratio (LWR) of the diamond-shaped film is small, the MRP of the diamond-shaped films are sensitive to LWR. But when LWR is larger than 2, a stable domain switching mode is observed which nucleates from the center of the diamond and then expands to the edges. At a fixed LWR, the magnitude of the switching fields decrease with the increase of the biasing field, but the domain switching mode is not affected by the biasing field. Further analysis shows that demagnetization energy dominates over the MRP of the diamond-shaped films. The above LWR dependence of MRP can be well explained by a variation of the shape anisotropic factor with LWR.

  7. Questioning Faculty Use of Information Technology by Context of NETS-T Standards in Bologna Process (United States)

    Elmas, Muzaffer


    Using technology in and out of class has been becoming more and more important recently. University settings also become more dependent to technology. Bologna process requires university and faculty diffuse and

  8. Analysis and detection of an incorrect profile shape in a classical scatterometric process (United States)

    Fawzi, Zaki Sabit; Robert, Stéphane; El Kalyoubi, Ismail; Bayard, Bernard


    Scatterometry has become an efficient alternative method for subwavelength diffraction grating characterisation in semiconductor industries. It is based on the reconstruction of the periodic surface from its optical response. Ellipsometry seems to be a more powerful technique for optical measurement and neural networks has proved its effectiveness in the inverse scattering problem. However, in all cases, inverse characterisation processing needs a previously defined geometrical model. The aim of this works to study the impact of an incorrect profile shape in the characterization process and to measure the ability to detect it. Two type of neural network will be treated based respectively on a fixed trapezoidal profile and a generic one involving four different shapes. Theoretical results are presented for different simulated samples including several profile shapes. Experimental results are performed on a photoresist grating with a period of 140 nm on silicon substrate.

  9. Shape design of an optimal comfortable pillow based on the analytic hierarchy process method. (United States)

    Liu, Shuo-Fang; Lee, Yann-Long; Liang, Jung-Chin


    Few studies have analyzed the shapes of pillows. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the pillow shape design and subjective comfort level for asymptomatic subjects. Four basic pillow designs factors were selected on the basis of literature review and recombined into 8 configurations for testing the rank of degrees of comfort. The data were analyzed by the analytic hierarchy process method to determine the most comfortable pillow. Pillow number 4 was the most comfortable pillow in terms of head, neck, shoulder, height, and overall comfort. The design factors of pillow number 4 were using a combination of standard, cervical, and shoulder pillows. A prototype of this pillow was developed on the basis of the study results for designing future pillow shapes. This study investigated the comfort level of particular users and redesign features of a pillow. A deconstruction analysis would simplify the process of determining the most comfortable pillow design and aid designers in designing pillows for groups.

  10. The Role of Motor Processes in Three-Dimensional Mental Rotation: Shaping Cognitive Processing via Sensorimotor Experience (United States)

    Moreau, David


    An extensive body of literature has explored the involvement of motor processes in mental rotation, yet underlying individual differences are less documented and remain to be fully understood. We propose that sensorimotor experience shapes spatial abilities such as assessed in mental rotation tasks. Elite wrestlers' and non-athletes' mental…

  11. NetCDF-CF-OPeNDAP: Standards for ocean data interoperability and object lessons for community data standards processes (United States)

    Hankin, Steven C.; Blower, Jon D.; Carval, Thierry; Casey, Kenneth S.; Donlon, Craig; Lauret, Olivier; Loubrieu, Thomas; Srinivasan, Ashwanth; Trinanes, Joaquin; Godøy, Øystein; Mendelssohn, Roy; Signell, Richard P.; de La Beaujardiere, Jeff; Cornillon, Peter; Blanc, Frederique; Rew, Russ; Harlan, Jack; Hall, Julie; Harrison, D.E.; Stammer, Detlef


    It is generally recognized that meeting society's emerging environmental science and management needs will require the marine data community to provide simpler, more effective and more interoperable access to its data. There is broad agreement, as well, that data standards are the bedrock upon which interoperability will be built. The path that would bring the marine data community to agree upon and utilize such standards, however, is often elusive. In this paper we examine the trio of standards 1) netCDF files; 2) the Climate and Forecast (CF) metadata convention; and 3) the OPeNDAP data access protocol. These standards taken together have brought our community a high level of interoperability for "gridded" data such as model outputs, satellite products and climatological analyses, and they are gaining rapid acceptance for ocean observations. We will provide an overview of the scope of the contribution that has been made. We then step back from the information technology considerations to examine the community or "social" process by which the successes were achieved. We contrast the path by which the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) has advanced the Global Telecommunications System (GTS) - netCDF/CF/OPeNDAP exemplifying a "bottom up" standards process whereas GTS is "top down". Both of these standards are tales of success at achieving specific purposes, yet each is hampered by technical limitations. These limitations sometimes lead to controversy over whether alternative technological directions should be pursued. Finally we draw general conclusions regarding the factors that affect the success of a standards development effort - the likelihood that an IT standard will meet its design goals and will achieve community-wide acceptance. We believe that a higher level of thoughtful awareness by the scientists, program managers and technology experts of the vital role of standards and the merits of alternative standards processes can help us as a community to

  12. WaveNet (United States)


    Coastal Inlets Research Program WaveNet WaveNet is a web-based, Graphical-User-Interface ( GUI ) data management tool developed for Corps coastal...generates tabular and graphical information for project planning and design documents. The WaveNet is a web-based GUI designed to provide users with from different sources, and employs a combination of Fortran, Python and Matlab codes to process and analyze data for USACE applications

  13. A Novel Continuous Extrusion Process to Fabricate Wedge-Shaped Light Guide Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tse Hsiao


    Full Text Available Backlight modules are key components in thin-film transistor liquid crystal displays (TFT-LCD. Among the components of a backlight module, the light guide plate (LGP plays the most important role controlling the light projected to the eyes of users. A wedge-shaped LGP, with its asymmetrical structure, is usually fabricated by an injection proces, but the fabrication time of this process is long. This study proposes a continuous extrusion process to fabricate wedge-shaped LGPs. This continuous process has advantages for mass production. Besides a T-die and rollers, this system also has an in situ monitor of the melt-bank that forms during the extrusion process, helping control the plate thickness. Results show that the melt bank has a close relationship with the plate thickness. The temperature of the bottom heater and roller was adjusted to reduce the surface deformation of the wedge-shaped plate. This continuous extrusion system can successfully manufacture wedge-shaped LGPs for mass production.

  14. General classification of maturation reaction-norm shape from size-based processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Asbjørn; Andersen, Ken Haste


    for growth and mortality is based on processes at the level of the individual, and is motivated by the energy budget of fish. MRN shape is a balance between opposing factors and depends on subtle details of size dependence of growth and mortality. MRNs with both positive and negative slopes are predicted...

  15. Decision-making of selectable process plans based on petri net with manufacturing constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Weiyue; Jones, Richard William; Yu, Fei


    Intelligent Computer-Aided process planning and decision making for manufacturing systems is a critical subject, that some might argue, has not received the attention it should have from the research community. Despite the progress made in the area of artificial intelligence, there has not been a...

  16. a platform for large-scale, open-source text processing on the cloud. (United States)

    Tablan, Valentin; Roberts, Ian; Cunningham, Hamish; Bontcheva, Kalina


    Cloud computing is increasingly being regarded as a key enabler of the 'democratization of science', because on-demand, highly scalable cloud computing facilities enable researchers anywhere to carry out data-intensive experiments. In the context of natural language processing (NLP), algorithms tend to be complex, which makes their parallelization and deployment on cloud platforms a non-trivial task. This study presents a new, unique, cloud-based platform for large-scale NLP research--GATECloud. net. It enables researchers to carry out data-intensive NLP experiments by harnessing the vast, on-demand compute power of the Amazon cloud. Important infrastructural issues are dealt with by the platform, completely transparently for the researcher: load balancing, efficient data upload and storage, deployment on the virtual machines, security and fault tolerance. We also include a cost-benefit analysis and usage evaluation.

  17. MORM--a Petri net based model for assessing OH&S risks in industrial processes: modeling qualitative aspects. (United States)

    Vernez, David; Buchs, Didier R; Pierrehumbert, Guillaume E; Besrour, Adel


    Because of the increase in workplace automation and the diversification of industrial processes, workplaces have become more and more complex. The classical approaches used to address workplace hazard concerns, such as checklists or sequence models, are, therefore, of limited use in such complex systems. Moreover, because of the multifaceted nature of workplaces, the use of single-oriented methods, such as AEA (man oriented), FMEA (system oriented), or HAZOP (process oriented), is not satisfactory. The use of a dynamic modeling approach in order to allow multiple-oriented analyses may constitute an alternative to overcome this limitation. The qualitative modeling aspects of the MORM (man-machine occupational risk modeling) model are discussed in this article. The model, realized on an object-oriented Petri net tool (CO-OPN), has been developed to simulate and analyze industrial processes in an OH&S perspective. The industrial process is modeled as a set of interconnected subnets (state spaces), which describe its constitutive machines. Process-related factors are introduced, in an explicit way, through machine interconnections and flow properties. While man-machine interactions are modeled as triggering events for the state spaces of the machines, the CREAM cognitive behavior model is used in order to establish the relevant triggering events. In the CO-OPN formalism, the model is expressed as a set of interconnected CO-OPN objects defined over data types expressing the measure attached to the flow of entities transiting through the machines. Constraints on the measures assigned to these entities are used to determine the state changes in each machine. Interconnecting machines implies the composition of such flow and consequently the interconnection of the measure constraints. This is reflected by the construction of constraint enrichment hierarchies, which can be used for simulation and analysis optimization in a clear mathematical framework. The use of Petri nets

  18. Structural Damage Localization by Outlier Analysis of Signal-processed Mode Shapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulriksen, Martin Dalgaard; Damkilde, Lars


    Contrary to global modal parameters such as eigenfrequencies, mode shapes inherently provide structural information on a local level. Therefore, this particular modal parameter and its derivatives are utilized extensively for damage identification. Typically, more or less advanced mathematical...... analysis is conducted by applying the Mahalanobis metric to major principal scores of the sensor-located bands of the signal-processed mode shape. The method is tested analytically on the basis of a free-vibrating beam and experimentally in the context of a residential-sized wind turbine blade subjected...

  19. Programming NET Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Alex


    Web services are poised to become a key technology for a wide range of Internet-enabled applications, spanning everything from straight B2B systems to mobile devices and proprietary in-house software. While there are several tools and platforms that can be used for building web services, developers are finding a powerful tool in Microsoft's .NET Framework and Visual Studio .NET. Designed from scratch to support the development of web services, the .NET Framework simplifies the process--programmers find that tasks that took an hour using the SOAP Toolkit take just minutes. Programming .NET

  20. Effect of the particle shape on the particle dynamics in a spheronization process (United States)

    Weis, Dominik; Niesing, Maria; Thommes, Markus; Antonyuk, Sergiy


    Spherical granules with a narrow size distribution are widely used in many pharmaceutical applications. Extrusion-spheronization is a well-established process to produce such pharmaceutical pellets. The cylindrical extrudates from the extrusion step are rounded in the spheronizer. The formation mechanisms inside of a spheronizer depend strongly on the particle dynamics. To describe the complex particle flow and interactions, the Discrete Element Method can be used. In our previous works the spherical particles during the last part of the spheronization process were studied. Since the pellets have a cylindrical shape at the beginning and undergo different stages of deformation during the rounding process, the objective of this study was the description of the influence of the particle shape on the particle dynamics. To predict the interactions of the pellets, their dominant plastic behaviour was described with an appropriate contact model and the material parameters were calibrated with compression and impact tests.

  1. Object shape and orientation do not routinely influence performance during language processing. (United States)

    Rommers, Joost; Meyer, Antje S; Huettig, Falk


    The role of visual representations during language processing remains unclear: They could be activated as a necessary part of the comprehension process, or they could be less crucial and influence performance in a task-dependent manner. In the present experiments, participants read sentences about an object. The sentences implied that the object had a specific shape or orientation. They then either named a picture of that object (Experiments 1 and 3) or decided whether the object had been mentioned in the sentence (Experiment 2). Orientation information did not reliably influence performance in any of the experiments. Shape representations influenced performance most strongly when participants were asked to compare a sentence with a picture or when they were explicitly asked to use mental imagery while reading the sentences. Thus, in contrast to previous claims, implied visual information often does not contribute substantially to the comprehension process during normal reading.

  2. An online detection system for aggregate sizes and shapes based on digital image processing (United States)

    Yang, Jianhong; Chen, Sijia


    Traditional aggregate size measuring methods are time-consuming, taxing, and do not deliver online measurements. A new online detection system for determining aggregate size and shape based on a digital camera with a charge-coupled device, and subsequent digital image processing, have been developed to overcome these problems. The system captures images of aggregates while falling and flat lying. Using these data, the particle size and shape distribution can be obtained in real time. Here, we calibrate this method using standard globules. Our experiments show that the maximum particle size distribution error was only 3 wt%, while the maximum particle shape distribution error was only 2 wt% for data derived from falling aggregates, having good dispersion. In contrast, the data for flat-lying aggregates had a maximum particle size distribution error of 12 wt%, and a maximum particle shape distribution error of 10 wt%; their accuracy was clearly lower than for falling aggregates. However, they performed well for single-graded aggregates, and did not require a dispersion device. Our system is low-cost and easy to install. It can successfully achieve online detection of aggregate size and shape with good reliability, and it has great potential for aggregate quality assurance.

  3. Accurate Segmentation of Vertebral Bodies and Processes Using Statistical Shape Decomposition and Conditional Models. (United States)

    Pereañez, Marco; Lekadir, Karim; Castro-Mateos, Isaac; Pozo, José Maria; Lazáry, Áron; Frangi, Alejandro F


    Detailed segmentation of the vertebrae is an important pre-requisite in various applications of image-based spine assessment, surgery and biomechanical modeling. In particular, accurate segmentation of the processes is required for image-guided interventions, for example for optimal placement of bone grafts between the transverse processes. Furthermore, the geometry of the processes is now required in musculoskeletal models due to their interaction with the muscles and ligaments. In this paper, we present a new method for detailed segmentation of both the vertebral bodies and processes based on statistical shape decomposition and conditional models. The proposed technique is specifically developed with the aim to handle the complex geometry of the processes and the large variability between individuals. The key technical novelty in this work is the introduction of a part-based statistical decomposition of the vertebrae, such that the complexity of the subparts is effectively reduced, and model specificity is increased. Subsequently, in order to maintain the statistical and anatomic coherence of the ensemble, conditional models are used to model the statistical inter-relationships between the different subparts. For shape reconstruction and segmentation, a robust model fitting procedure is used to exclude improbable inter-part relationships in the estimation of the shape parameters. Segmentation results based on a dataset of 30 healthy CT scans and a dataset of 10 pathological scans show a point-to-surface error improvement of 20% and 17% respectively, and the potential of the proposed technique for detailed vertebral modeling.

  4. Application specific beam profiles: new surface and thin-film refinement processes using beam shaping technologies (United States)

    Hauschild, Dirk


    Today, the use of laser photons for materials processing is a key technology in nearly all industries. Most of the applications use circular beam shapes with Gaussian intensity distribution that is given by the resonator of the laser or by the power delivery via optical fibre. These beam shapes can be typically used for material removal with cutting or drilling and for selective removal of material layers with ablation processes. In addition to the removal of materials, it is possible to modify and improve the material properties in case the dose of laser photons and the resulting light-material interaction addresses a defined window of energy and dwell-time. These process windows have typically dwell-times between µs and s because of using sintering, melting, thermal diffusion or photon induced chemical and physical reaction mechanisms. Using beam shaping technologies the laser beam profiles can be adapted to the material properties and time-temperature and the space-temperature envelopes can be modified to enable selective annealing or crystallization of layers or surfaces. Especially the control of the process energy inside the beam and at its edges opens a large area of laser applications that can be addressed only with an optimized spatial and angular beam profile with down to sub-percent intensity variation used in e.g. immersion lithography tools with ArF laser sources. LIMO will present examples for new beam shapes and related material refinement processes even on large surfaces and give an overview about new mechanisms in laser material processing for current and coming industrial applications.

  5. Net Locality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Gordon, Eric

    Provides an introduction to the new theory of Net Locality and the profound effect on individuals and societies when everything is located or locatable. Describes net locality as an emerging form of location awareness central to all aspects of digital media, from mobile phones, to Google Maps...... of emerging technologies, from GeoCities to GPS, Wi-Fi, Wiki Me, and Google Android....

  6. Net Neutrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej


    Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else.......Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else....

  7. A role for membrane shape and information processing in cardiac physiology. (United States)

    Knöll, Ralph


    While the heart is a dynamic organ and one of its major functions is to provide the organism with sufficient blood supply, the regulatory feedback systems, which allow adaptation to hemodynamic changes, remain not well understood. Our current description of mechanosensation focuses on stretch-sensitive ion channels, cytoskeletal components, structures such as the sarcomeric Z-disc, costameres, caveolae, or the concept of tensegrity, but these models appear incomplete as the remarkable plasticity of the myocardium in response to biomechanical stress and heart rate variations remains unexplained. Signaling activity at membranes depends on their geometric parameters such as surface area and curvature, which links shape to information processing. In the heart, continuous cycles of contraction and relaxation reshape membrane morphology and hence affect cardio-mechanic signaling. This article provides a brief review on current models of mechanosensation and focuses on how signaling, cardiac myocyte dynamics, and membrane shape interact and potentially give rise to a self-organized system that uses shape to sense the extra- and intracellular environment. This novel concept may help to explain how changes in frequency, and thus membrane shape, affect cardiac plasticity. One of the conclusions is that hypertrophy and associated fibrosis, which have been considered as necessary to cope with increased wall stress, can also be seen as part of complex feedback systems which use local membrane inhomogeneity in different cardiac cell types to influence whole organphysiology and which are predicted to fine-tune and thus regulate membrane-mediated signaling.

  8. An Open-source Toolbox for Analysing and Processing PhysioNet Databases in MATLAB and Octave. (United States)

    Silva, Ikaro; Moody, George B

    The WaveForm DataBase (WFDB) Toolbox for MATLAB/Octave enables integrated access to PhysioNet's software and databases. Using the WFDB Toolbox for MATLAB/Octave, users have access to over 50 physiological databases in PhysioNet. The toolbox provides access over 4 TB of biomedical signals including ECG, EEG, EMG, and PLETH. Additionally, most signals are accompanied by metadata such as medical annotations of clinical events: arrhythmias, sleep stages, seizures, hypotensive episodes, etc. Users of this toolbox should easily be able to reproduce, validate, and compare results published based on PhysioNet's software and databases.

  9. Shape Memory Effect in Cast Versus Deformation-Processed NiTiNb Alloys (United States)

    Hamilton, Reginald F.; Lanba, Asheesh; Ozbulut, Osman E.; Tittmann, Bernhard R.


    The shape memory effect (SME) response of a deformation-processed NiTiNb shape memory alloy is benchmarked against the response of a cast alloy. The insoluble Nb element ternary addition is known to widen the hysteresis with respect to the binary NiTi alloy. Cast microstructures naturally consist of a cellular arrangement of characteristic eutectic microconstituents surrounding primary matrix regions. Deformation processing typically aligns the microconstituents such that the microstructure resembles discontinuous fiber-reinforced composites. Processed alloys are typically characterized for heat-to-recover applications and thus deformed at constant temperature and subsequently heated for SME recovery, and the critical stress levels are expected to facilitate plastic deformation of the microconstituents. The current work employs thermal cycling under constant bias stresses below those critical levels. This comparative study of cast versus deformation-processed NiTiNb alloys contrasts the strain-temperature responses in terms of forward Δ T F = M s - M f and reverse Δ T R = A f - A s temperature intervals, the thermal hysteresis, and the recovery ratio. The results underscore that the deformation-processed microstructure inherently promotes irreversibility and differential forward and reverse transformation pathways.

  10. Estimation and Analysis of Spatiotemporal Dynamics of the Net Primary Productivity Integrating Efficiency Model with Process Model in Karst Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhang


    Full Text Available Estimates of regional net primary productivity (NPP are useful in modeling regional and global carbon cycles, especially in karst areas. This work developed a new method to study NPP characteristics and changes in Chongqing, a typical karst area. To estimate NPP accurately, the model which integrated an ecosystem process model (CEVSA with a light use efficiency model (GLOPEM called GLOPEM-CEVSA was applied. The fraction of photosynthetically active radiation (fPAR was derived from remote sensing data inversion based on moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer atmospheric and land products. Validation analyses showed that the PAR and NPP values, which were simulated by the model, matched the observed data well. The values of other relevant NPP models, as well as the MOD17A3 NPP products (NPP MOD17, were compared. In terms of spatial distribution, NPP decreased from northeast to southwest in the Chongqing region. The annual average NPP in the study area was approximately 534 gC/m2a (Std. = 175.53 from 2001 to 2011, with obvious seasonal variation characteristics. The NPP from April to October accounted for 80.1% of the annual NPP, while that from June to August accounted for 43.2%. NPP changed with the fraction of absorbed PAR, and NPP was also significantly correlated to precipitation and temperature at monthly temporal scales, and showed stronger sensitivity to interannual variation in temperature.

  11. The Prototype of Indicators of a Responsive Partner Shapes Information Processing: A False Recognition Study. (United States)

    Turan, Bulent


    When judging whether a relationship partner can be counted on to "be there" when needed, people may draw upon knowledge structures to process relevant information. We examined one such knowledge structure using the prototype methodology: indicators of a partner who is likely to be there when needed. In the first study (N = 91), the structure, content, and reliability of the prototype of indicators were examined. Then, using a false recognition study (N = 77), we demonstrated that once activated, the prototype of indicators of a partner who is likely to be there when needed affects information processing. Thus, the prototype of indicators may shape how people process support-relevant information in everyday life, affecting relationship outcomes. Using this knowledge structure may help a person process relevant information quickly and with cognitive economy. However, it may also lead to biases in judgments in certain situations.

  12. Red and processed meat intake and cancer risk: Results from the prospective NutriNet-Santé cohort study. (United States)

    Diallo, Abou; Deschasaux, Mélanie; Latino-Martel, Paule; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Fassier, Philippine; Allès, Benjamin; Guéraud, Françoise; Pierre, Fabrice H; Touvier, Mathilde


    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (WHO-IARC) classified red meat and processed meat as probably carcinogenic and carcinogenic for humans, respectively. These conclusions were mainly based on studies concerning colorectal cancer, but scientific evidence is still limited for other cancer locations. In this study, we investigated the prospective associations between red and processed meat intakes and overall, breast, and prostate cancer risk. This prospective study included 61,476 men and women of the French NutriNet-Santé cohort (2009-2015) aged ≥35 y and who completed at least three 24 hrs dietary records during the first year of follow-up. The risk of developing cancer was compared across sex-specific quintiles of red and processed meat intakes by multivariable Cox models. 1,609 first primary incident cancer cases were diagnosed during follow-up, among which 544 breast cancers and 222 prostate cancers. Red meat intake was associated with increased risk of overall cancers [HRQ5vs.Q1 =1.31 (1.10-1.55), ptrend  = 0.01) and breast cancer (HRQ5vs.Q1  = 1.83 (1.33-2.51), ptrend  = 0.002]. The latter association was observed in both premenopausal [HRQ5vs.Q1 =2.04 (1.03-4.06)] and postmenopausal women [HRQ5vs.Q1 =1.79 (1.26-2.55)]. No association was observed between red meat intake and prostate cancer risk. Processed meat intake was relatively low in this study (cut-offs for the 5th quintile = 46 g/d in men and 29 g/d in women) and was not associated with overall, breast or prostate cancer risk. This large cohort study suggested that red meat may be involved carcinogenesis at several cancer locations (other than colon-rectum), in particular breast cancer. These results are consistent with mechanistic evidence from experimental studies. © 2017 UICC.

  13. Network structure dependence on unconstrained isothermal-recovery processes for shape-memory thiol-epoxy "click" systems (United States)

    Belmonte, Alberto; Fernández-Francos, Xavier; De la Flor, Silvia; Serra, Àngels


    The shape-memory response ( SMR) of "click" thiol-epoxy polymers produced using latent catalysts, with different network structure and thermo-mechanical properties, was tested on unconstrained shape-recovery processes under isothermal conditions. Experiments at several programming temperatures (T_{prog}) and isothermal-recovery temperatures (T_{iso}) were carried out, and the shape-memory stability was analyzed through various consecutive shape-memory cycles. The temperature profile during the isothermal-recovery experiments was monitored, and it showed that the shape-recovery process takes place while the sample is becoming thermally stable and before stable isothermal temperature conditions are eventually reached. The shape-recovery process takes place in two different stages regardless of T_{iso}: a slow initial stage until the process is triggered at a temperature strongly related with the beginning of network relaxation, followed by the typical exponential decay of the relaxation processes until completion at a temperature below or very close to Tg. The shape-recovery process is slower in materials with more densely crosslinked and hindered network structures. The shape-recovery time (t_{sr}) is significantly reduced when the isothermal-recovery temperature T_{iso} increases from below to above Tg because the network relaxation dynamics accelerates. However, the temperature range from the beginning to the end of the recovery process is hardly affected by T_{iso}; at higher T_{iso} it is only slightly shifted to higher temperatures. These results suggest that the shape-recovery process can be controlled by changing the network structure and working at T_{iso} < Tg to maximize the effect of the structure and/or by increasing T_{iso} to minimize the effect but increasing the shape-recovery rate.

  14. Drug-releasing shape-memory polymers - the role of morphology, processing effects, and matrix degradation. (United States)

    Wischke, Christian; Behl, Marc; Lendlein, Andreas


    Shape-memory polymers (SMPs) have gained interest for temporary drug-release systems that should be anchored in the body by self-sufficient active movements of the polymeric matrix. Based on the so far published scientific literature, this review highlights three aspects that require particular attention when combining SMPs with drug molecules: i) the defined polymer morphology as required for the shape-memory function, ii) the strong effects that processing conditions such as drug-loading methodologies can have on the drug-release pattern from SMPs, and iii) the independent control of drug release and degradation by their timely separation. The combination of SMPs with a drug-release functionality leads to multifunctional carriers that are an interesting technology for pharmaceutical sciences and can be further expanded by new materials such as thermoplastic SMPs or temperature-memory polymers. Experimental studies should include relevant molecules as (model) drugs and provide a thermomechanical characterization also in an aqueous environment, report on the potential effect of drug type and loading levels on the shape-memory functionality, and explore the potential correlation of polymer degradation and drug release.

  15. The role of deep-water sedimentary processes in shaping a continental margin: The Northwest Atlantic (United States)

    Mosher, David C.; Campbell, D.C.; Gardner, J.V.; Piper, D.J.W.; Chaytor, Jason; Rebesco, M.


    The tectonic history of a margin dictates its general shape; however, its geomorphology is generally transformed by deep-sea sedimentary processes. The objective of this study is to show the influences of turbidity currents, contour currents and sediment mass failures on the geomorphology of the deep-water northwestern Atlantic margin (NWAM) between Blake Ridge and Hudson Trough, spanning about 32° of latitude and the shelf edge to the abyssal plain. This assessment is based on new multibeam echosounder data, global bathymetric models and sub-surface geophysical information.The deep-water NWAM is divided into four broad geomorphologic classifications based on their bathymetric shape: graded, above-grade, stepped and out-of-grade. These shapes were created as a function of the balance between sediment accumulation and removal that in turn were related to sedimentary processes and slope-accommodation. This descriptive method of classifying continental margins, while being non-interpretative, is more informative than the conventional continental shelf, slope and rise classification, and better facilitates interpretation concerning dominant sedimentary processes.Areas of the margin dominated by turbidity currents and slope by-pass developed graded slopes. If sediments did not by-pass the slope due to accommodation then an above grade or stepped slope resulted. Geostrophic currents created sedimentary bodies of a variety of forms and positions along the NWAM. Detached drifts form linear, above-grade slopes along their crests from the shelf edge to the deep basin. Plastered drifts formed stepped slope profiles. Sediment mass failure has had a variety of consequences on the margin morphology; large mass-failures created out-of-grade profiles, whereas smaller mass failures tended to remain on the slope and formed above-grade profiles at trough-mouth fans, or nearly graded profiles, such as offshore Cape Fear.

  16. Shape evolution of nanostructures by thermal and ion beam processing. Modeling and atomistic simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roentzsch, L.


    Single-crystalline nanostructures often exhibit gradients of surface (and/or interface) curvature that emerge from fabrication and growth processes or from thermal fluctuations. Thus, the system-inherent capillary force can initiate morphological transformations during further processing steps or during operation at elevated temperature. Therefore and because of the ongoing miniaturization of functional structures which causes a general rise in surface-to-volume ratios, solid-state capillary phenomena will become increasingly important: On the one hand diffusion-mediated capillary processes can be of practical use in view of non-conventional nanostructure fabrication methods based on self-organization mechanisms, on the other hand they can destroy the integrity of nanostructures which can go along with the failure of functionality. Additionally, capillarity-induced shape transformations are effected and can thereby be controlled by applied fields and forces (guided or driven evolution). With these prospects and challenges at hand, formation and shape transformation of single-crystalline nanostructures due to the system-inherent capillary force in combination with external fields or forces are investigated in the frame of this dissertation by means of atomistic computer simulations. For the exploration (search, description, and prediction) of reaction pathways of nanostructure shape transformations, kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations are the method of choice. Since the employed KMC code is founded on a cellular automaton principle, the spatio-temporal development of lattice-based N-particle systems (N up to several million) can be followed for time spans of several orders of magnitude, while considering local phenomena due to atomic-scale effects like diffusion, nucleation, dissociation, or ballistic displacements. In this work, the main emphasis is put on nanostructures which have a cylindrical geometry, for example, nanowires (NWs), nanorods, nanotubes etc

  17. Laser and Surface Processes of NiTi Shape Memory Elements for Micro-actuation (United States)

    Nespoli, Adelaide; Biffi, Carlo Alberto; Previtali, Barbara; Villa, Elena; Tuissi, Ausonio


    In the current microtechnology for actuation field, shape memory alloys (SMA) are considered one of the best candidates for the production of mini/micro devices thanks to their high power-to-weight ratio as function of the actuator weight and hence for their capability of generating high mechanical performance in very limited spaces. In the microscale the most suitable conformation of a SMA actuator is given by a planar wavy formed arrangement, i.e., the snake-like shape, which allows high strokes, considerable forces, and devices with very low sizes. This uncommon and complex geometry becomes more difficult to be realized when the actuator dimensions are scaled down to micrometric values. In this work, micro-snake-like actuators are laser machined using a nanosecond pulsed fiber laser, starting from a 120- μm-thick NiTi sheet. Chemical and electrochemical surface polishes are also investigated for the removal of the thermal damages of the laser process. Calorimetric and thermo-mechanical tests are accomplished to assess the NiTi microdevice performance after each step of the working process. It is shown that laser machining has to be followed by some post-processes in order to obtain a micro-actuator with good thermo-mechanical properties.

  18. Nanoforging – Innovation in three-dimensional processing and shaping of nanoscaled structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Landefeld


    Full Text Available Background: This paper describes the shaping of freestanding objects out of metallic structures in the nano- and submicron size. The technique used, called nanoforging, is very similar to the macroscopic forging process.Results: With spring actuated tools produced by focused ion beam milling, controlled forging is demonstrated. With only three steps, a conical bar stock is transformed to a flat- and semicircular bent bar stock.Conclusion: Compared with other forming techniques in the reduced scale, nanoforging represents a beneficial approach in forming freestanding metallic structures, due to its simplicity, and supplements other forming techniques.

  19. Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Use of Laser Engineered Net Shaping for Rapid Manufacturing of Dies with Protective Coatings and Improved Thermal Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, Jerald R. [Ohio State University


    retained as the exterior layer of the tooling, while commercially pure copper was chosen for the interior structure of the tooling. The tooling was fabricated by traditional machining of the copper substrate, and H13 powder was deposited on the copper via the Laser Engineered Net Shape (LENSTM) process. The H13 deposition layer was then final machined by traditional methods. Two tooling components were designed and fabricated; a thermal fatigue test specimen, and a core for a commercial aluminum high pressure die casting tool. The bimetallic thermal fatigue specimen demonstrated promising performance during testing, and the test results were used to improve the design and LENS TM deposition methods for subsequent manufacture of the commercial core. Results of the thermal finite element analysis for the thermal fatigue test specimen indicate that it has the ability to lose heat to the internal water cooling passages, and to external spray cooling, significantly faster than a monolithic H13 thermal fatigue sample. The commercial core is currently in the final stages of fabrication, and will be evaluated in an actual production environment at Shiloh Die casting. In this research, the feasibility of designing and fabricating copper/H13 bimetallic die casting tooling via LENS TM processing, for the purpose of improving die casting process efficiency, is demonstrated.

  20. The equivalency between logic Petri workflow nets and workflow nets. (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue


    Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented.

  1. EarthShape: A Strategy for Investigating the Role of Biota on Surface Processes (United States)

    Übernickel, Kirstin; Ehlers, Todd Alan; von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm; Paulino, Leandro


    EarthShape - "Earth surface shaping by biota" is a 6-year priority research program funded by the German science foundation (DFG-SPP 1803) that performs soil- and landscape-scale critical zone research at 4 locations along a climate gradient in Chile, South America. The program is in its first year and involves an interdisciplinary collaboration between geologists, geomorphologists, ecologists, soil scientists, microbiologists, geophysicists, geochemists, hydrogeologists and climatologists including 18 German and 8 Chilean institutions. EarthShape is composed of 4 research clusters representing the process chain from weathering of substrate to deposition of eroded material. Cluster 1 explores micro-biota as the "weathering engine". Investigations in this cluster quantify different mechanisms of biogenic weathering whereby plants, fungi, and bacteria interact with rock in the production of soil. Cluster 2 explores bio-mediated redistribution of material within the weathering zone. Studies in this cluster focus on soil catenas along hill slope profiles to investigate the modification of matter along its transport path. Cluster 3 explores biotic modulation of erosion and sediment routing at the catchment scale. Investigations in this cluster explore the effects of vegetation cover on solute and sediment transport from hill slopes to the channel network. Cluster 4 explores the depositional legacy of coupled biogenic and Earth surface systems. This cluster investigates records of vegetation-land surface interactions in different depositional settings. A final component of EarthShape lies in the integration of results from these 4 clusters using numerical models to bridging between the diverse times scales used by different disciplines. The Chilean Coastal Cordillera between 25° and 40°S was selected to carry out this research because its north-south orientation captures a large ecological and climate gradient. This gradient ranges from hyper-arid (Atacama desert) to

  2. RESTful NET

    CERN Document Server

    Flanders, Jon


    RESTful .NET is the first book that teaches Windows developers to build RESTful web services using the latest Microsoft tools. Written by Windows Communication Foundation (WFC) expert Jon Flanders, this hands-on tutorial demonstrates how you can use WCF and other components of the .NET 3.5 Framework to build, deploy and use REST-based web services in a variety of application scenarios. RESTful architecture offers a simpler approach to building web services than SOAP, SOA, and the cumbersome WS- stack. And WCF has proven to be a flexible technology for building distributed systems not necessa

  3. The Net Carbon Flux due to Deforestation and Forest Re-Growth in the Brazilian Amazon: Analysis using a Process-Based Model (United States)

    Hirsch, A. I.; Little, W. S.; Houghton, R. A.; Scott, N. A.; White, J. D.


    We developed a process-based model of forest growth, carbon cycling, and land cover dynamics named CARLUC (for CARbon and Land Use Change) to estimate the size of terrestrial carbon pools in terra firme (non-flooded) forests across the Brazilian Legal Amazon and the net flux of carbon resulting from forest disturbance and forest recovery from disturbance. Our goal in building the model was to construct a relatively simple ecosystem model that would respond to soil and climatic heterogeneity that allows us to study of the impact of Amazonian deforestation, selective logging, and accidental fire on the global carbon cycle. This paper focuses on the net flux caused by deforestation and forest re-growth over the period from 1970-1998. We calculate that the net flux to the atmosphere during this period reached a maximum of approx. 0.35 PgC/yr (1PgC = 1 x 10(exp I5) gC) in 1990, with a cumulative release of approx. 7 PgC from 1970- 1998. The net flux is higher than predicted by an earlier study by a total of 1 PgC over the period 1989-1 998 mainly because CARLUC predicts relatively high mature forest carbon storage compared to the datasets used in the earlier study. Incorporating the dynamics of litter and soil carbon pools into the model increases the cumulative net flux by approx. 1 PgC from 1970-1998, while different assumptions about land cover dynamics only caused small changes. The uncertainty of the net flux, calculated with a Monte-Carlo approach, is roughly 35% of the mean value (1 SD).

  4. Inverse Processing of Undefined Complex Shape Parts from Structural High Alloyed Tool Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Monkova


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the process of 3D digitization as a tool for increasing production efficiency of complex shaped parts. Utilizes the concept of reverse engineering and new the model of NC program generation STEP-NC, for the of templates production for winding the stator coil of electromotors that is for electric household appliances. The manual production of prototype was substituted by manufacturing with NC machines. A 3D scanner was used for data digitizing, CAD/CAM system Pro/Engineering was used for NC program generation, and 3D measuring equipment was used for verification of new produced parts. The company estimated that only due to the implementation of STEP NC standard into production process it was allowed to read the 3D geometry of the product without problems. It helps the workshop to shorten the time needed for part production by about 30%.

  5. How do environmental governance processes shape evaluation of outcomes by stakeholders? A causal pathways approach (United States)

    Plummer, Ryan; Dzyundzyak, Angela; Bodin, Örjan; Armitage, Derek; Schultz, Lisen


    Multi-stakeholder environmental management and governance processes are essential to realize social and ecological outcomes. Participation, collaboration, and learning are emphasized in these processes; to gain insights into how they influence stakeholders’ evaluations of outcomes in relation to management and governance interventions we use a path analysis approach to examine their relationships in individuals in four UNESCO Biosphere Reserves. We confirm a model showing that participation in more activities leads to greater ratings of process, and in turn, better evaluations of outcomes. We show the effects of participation in activities on evaluation of outcomes appear to be driven by learning more than collaboration. Original insights are offered as to how the evaluations of outcomes by stakeholders are shaped by their participation in activities and their experiences in management and governance processes. Understanding stakeholder perceptions about the processes in which they are involved and their evaluation of outcomes is imperative, and influences current and future levels of engagement. As such, the evaluation of outcomes themselves are an important tangible product from initiatives. Our research contributes to a future research agenda aimed at better understanding these pathways and their implications for engagement in stewardship and ultimately social and ecological outcomes, and to developing recommendations for practitioners engaged in environmental management and governance. PMID:28945792

  6. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Associate Professor of. Computer Science and. Automation at the Indian. Institute of Science,. Bangalore. His research interests are broadly in the areas of stochastic modeling and scheduling methodologies for future factories; and object oriented modeling. GENERAL I ARTICLE. Petri Nets. 1. Overview and Foundations.

  7. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 8. Petri Nets - Overview and Foundations. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 8 August 1999 pp ... Author Affiliations. Y Narahari1. Department ot Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  8. Estimation of errors caused by spherical approximation of earth shape in coordinates determination process of radio emission source using bearings


    Kochergin, Anatoliy; Chebotov, Olexandr; Chebotov, Volodymyr


    Estimation of errors in the process of coordinates’ determination of radio source with spherical approximation is conducted. It is demonstrated that for increasing of coordinates’ determination accuracy on spreading paths ellepsoidity of earth shape should be taken into consideration.

  9. Experience Shapes the Development of Neural Substrates of Face Processing in Human Ventral Temporal Cortex. (United States)

    Golarai, Golijeh; Liberman, Alina; Grill-Spector, Kalanit


    In adult humans, the ventral temporal cortex (VTC) represents faces in a reproducible topology. However, it is unknown what role visual experience plays in the development of this topology. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in children and adults, we found a sequential development, in which the topology of face-selective activations across the VTC was matured by age 7, but the spatial extent and degree of face selectivity continued to develop past age 7 into adulthood. Importantly, own- and other-age faces were differentially represented, both in the distributed multivoxel patterns across the VTC, and also in the magnitude of responses of face-selective regions. These results provide strong evidence that experience shapes cortical representations of faces during development from childhood to adulthood. Our findings have important implications for the role of experience and age in shaping the neural substrates of face processing in the human VTC. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:

  10. Bayesian signal processing of pulse shapes for background rejection in the Majorana Demonstrator (United States)

    Shanks, Benjamin; Majorana Collaboration


    The Majorana Demonstrator uses high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors in the p-type point contact (PPC) geometry to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay (0 νββ) in 76Ge. Due to the unique electric potential created within the PPC geometry, the detailed pulse shape depends on the number of energy depositions contained within a given event. Pulse shape analysis (PSA) techniques can be used to estimate the number of separate depositions which combine to form a single pulse. This information can be used to discriminate between 0 νββ candidate events, which deposit energy at a single detector site, and gamma ray background, which can scatter and deposit energy in multiple locations. The problem of determining whether a pulse is single- or multi-site is well suited to Bayesian classifiers. Once trained via supervised machine learning, these algorithms can perform nonlinear cuts against multi-site events using the estimated probability function as a discriminator. The Bayesian approach can also be naturally extended to incorporate a model of the physical process responsible for signal generation within the detector. Presented here is an overview of the Bayesian classifier developed for use on the Demonstrator. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, the Particle Astrophysics Program of the National Science Foundation, and the Sanford Underground Research Facility.

  11. Key processes shaping the current role and operation of higher education institutions in society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piróg Danuta


    Full Text Available The concurrent processes of globalisation, computerisation, and integration shape and constantly modify developmental factors and generate multidirectional social changes. Among social life fields, one of them has been particularly sensitive to the impact of those processes and has remained in clear feedback relationship with them is education, including university-level education. This article aims to present some reflections on the key processes which influence the environment of higher education institutions’ activity and on what their impact specifically is. The factors taken into account include: the transformation of the political and economic system, integration with the European higher education area, the market shift of education, evolving social demands towards higher education institutions and society’s attitude towards work. As knowledge has become an asset largely affecting the quality of life of people and society, universities have changed their focus from searching for and exploring truth, good and beauty in the world towards becoming innovation centres, transferring knowledge as offering their educational services. In this article, those trends have been exemplified in relation to geography degree programmes, and shown through an evolution of the model of the university. Based on a review of the literature, it seems that the processes discussed also concern geography degree programmes, and the future operation of these programmes closely depends on whether they can maintain their care for high quality education coupled with genuine efforts to ensure the smooth transition of graduates into the labour market.

  12. Sequential Filtering Processes Shape Feature Detection in Crickets: A Framework for Song Pattern Recognition. (United States)

    Hedwig, Berthold G


    Intraspecific acoustic communication requires filtering processes and feature detectors in the auditory pathway of the receiver for the recognition of species-specific signals. Insects like acoustically communicating crickets allow describing and analysing the mechanisms underlying auditory processing at the behavioral and neural level. Female crickets approach male calling song, their phonotactic behavior is tuned to the characteristic features of the song, such as the carrier frequency and the temporal pattern of sound pulses. Data from behavioral experiments and from neural recordings at different stages of processing in the auditory pathway lead to a concept of serially arranged filtering mechanisms. These encompass a filter for the carrier frequency at the level of the hearing organ, and the pulse duration through phasic onset responses of afferents and reciprocal inhibition of thoracic interneurons. Further, processing by a delay line and coincidence detector circuit in the brain leads to feature detecting neurons that specifically respond to the species-specific pulse rate, and match the characteristics of the phonotactic response. This same circuit may also control the response to the species-specific chirp pattern. Based on these serial filters and the feature detecting mechanism, female phonotactic behavior is shaped and tuned to the characteristic properties of male calling song.

  13. Fabrication of Dish-Shaped Micro Parts by Laser Indirect Shocking Compound Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixia Liu


    Full Text Available Compound process technology has been investigated for many years on a macro scale, but only a few studies can be found on a micro scale due to the difficulties in tool manufacturing, parts transporting and punch-die alignment. In this paper, a novel technology of combining the laser shock wave and soft punch was introduced to fabricate the dish-shaped micro-parts on copper to solve these difficulties. This compound process includes deep drawing, punching and blanking and these processes can be completed almost at the same time because the duration time of laser is quite short, so the precision of the micro-parts can be ensured. A reasonable laser energy of 1550 mJ made the morphology, depth of deformation, dimensional accuracy and surface roughness achieve their best results when the thickness of the soft punches was 200 μm. In addition, thicker soft punches may hinder the compound process due to the action of unloading waves based on the elastic wave theory. So, the greatest thickness of the soft punches was 200 μm.

  14. Effect of a bell-shaped cover in spin coating process on final film thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pannek, M.; Dunkel, T.; Schubert, D.W. [GKSS Research Centre, Geesthacht (Germany)


    Thin polymer films can be prepared by spin coating with thicknesses ranging from nanometers to micrometers. The film thickness is controlled by concentration of the polymer solution, molar mass of the polymer and spinning speed. The patented GYRSET system for spin coating applications provides a fundamental modification. The bell-shaped cover minimizes air turbulences inside the process chamber; therefore, better uniformity of the layer is produced. This leads to highly reproducible results, uniform coverage, and reliable and uniform material application, in particular at lower spin speeds. We focus on the question how does the GYRSET system change the final film thickness. In particular, we have investigated modifications of the existing spin coat equation for solutions of polystyrene dissolved in toluene using the GYRSET system. In addition, we compare homogeneity of films prepared by open spin coating and GYRSET systems. (orig.)

  15. A case of impaired shape integration: Implications for models of visual object processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Marstrand, Lisbeth; Habekost, Thomas


    integration is not a prerequisite for normal object naming. However, on more demanding tests of visual object recognition, HE's performance deteriorated, with her performance being inversely related to the demand placed on integration of local elements into more elaborate shape descriptions. From this we...... conclude that shape integration is important for normal object recognition....... the notion that grouping may be divided into two general steps: (i) element clustering and (ii) shape configuration, with the latter operation being impaired in HE. As opposed to previous cases with shape integration deficits, HE was able to name objects accurately. Initially, this might suggest that shape...

  16. Processing and Characterization of Nickel-Manganese-Gallium Shape-Memory Fibers and Foams (United States)

    Zheng, Peiqi-Paige

    Ferromagnetic Ni-Mn-Ga shape memory alloys with large magnetic field-induced strains are promising candidates for actuators. Magnetic shape memory alloys display magnetic-field-induced strain (MFIS) of up to 10%, as single crystals. Polycrystalline materials are much easier to create but display a near-zero MFIS because twinning of neighboring grains introduces strain incompatibility leading to high internal stresses. Pores reduce these incompatibilities between grains and thus increase the MFIS of polycrystalline Ni-Mn-Ga which after training (thermo-magneto-mechanical cycling) exhibits MFIS as high as 8.7%. In this thesis, a systematic study of the effect of porosity on the magneto-mechanical properties of polycrystalline Ni-Mn-Ga foams is presented. The MFIS increased with increasing porosity, demonstrating that removal of constraints by addition of porosity is responsible for the high MFIS in polycrystalline foams. Ni-Mn-Ga foams with 57 volume percent of 355-500 micrometers open pores, with and without directional solidification were cast replicated. One directional solidified foam specimen showed a maximum magnetic-field induced strain of 0.65%, which is twice the value displayed by other foam specimens without directional solidification. This improvement is consistent with a reduction of incompatibility stresses under magnetic field from the reduced crystallographic misorientation between neighboring grains. Polycrystalline Ni-Mn-Ga foam displays ˜1% MFIS after the hermo-magnetic training. To show this effect in this highly textured sample, neutron diffraction texture measurements were conducted with a magnetic field applied at various orientations to the sample, demonstrating that selection of martensite variants takes place during cooling. Oligocrystalline Ni-Mn-Ga foams with an open porosity of 63.5?0.7% were created by a sintering replication process using NaCl space-holders. The high surface/volume ratio and mechanical stability under cyclic strain

  17. Using new media to build social capital for health: a qualitative process evaluation study of participation in the CityNet project. (United States)

    Bolam, Bruce; McLean, Carl; Pennington, Andrew; Gillies, Pamela


    The present article presents an exploratory qualitative process evaluation study of 'Ambassador' participation in CityNet, an innovative information-communication technology-based (ICT) project that aims to build aspects of social capital and improve access to information and services among disadvantaged groups in Nottingham, UK. A purposive sample of 40 'Ambassadors' interviewees was gathered in three waves of data collection. The two emergent analytic themes highlighted how improvements in confidence, self-esteem and social networks produced via participation were mitigated by structural problems in devolving power within the project. This illustrates how concepts of power are important for understanding the process of health promotion interventions using new media.

  18. Long-lasting insecticidal mosquito nets: effects of washing processes on pesticide residues, and human and environmental exposure


    Ouattara, Jean Pierre Nabléni


    Malaria is one of the public health problems in the world. More than 3.3 billion people are at risk of malaria. Children under the age of five year, and pregnant women are most severely affected. The disease is transmitted to human through the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus Anopheles. Nowadays Long-Lasting Insecticidal Mosquito Nets (LNs) are the most popular and useful tools for malaria control. At the same time LNs face some challenges as the need for reliable methods to c...

  19. Component processes in contour integration: a direct comparison between snakes and ladders in a detection and a shape discrimination task. (United States)

    Vancleef, Kathleen; Wagemans, Johan


    In contour integration, a relevant question is whether snakes and ladders are processed similarly. Higher presentation time thresholds for ladders in detection tasks indicate this is not the case. However, in a detection task only processing differences at the level of element linking and possibly contour localization might be picked up, while differences at the shape encoding level cannot be noticed. In this study, we make a direct comparison of detection and shape discrimination tasks to investigate if processing differences in the visual system between snakes and ladders are limited to contour detection or extend to higher level contour processing, like shape encoding. Stimuli consisted of elements that were oriented collinearly (snakes) or orthogonally (ladders) to the contour path and were surrounded by randomly oriented background elements. In two tasks, six experienced subjects either detected the contour when presented with a contour and a completely random stimulus or performed a shape discrimination task when presented with two contours with different curvature. Presentation time was varied in 9 steps between 8 and 492 ms. By applying a generalized linear mixed model we found that differences in snake and ladder processing are not limited to a detection stage but are also apparent at a shape encoding stage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Control of shape and size of polymer nanoparticles aggregates in a single-step microcontinuous flow process: a case of flower and spherical shapes. (United States)

    Visaveliya, Nikunjkumar; Köhler, J Michael


    Controlled aggregation of polymer nanoparticles for building anisotropic nano- and microstructures via a self-assembling bottom-up process is an important strategy. Therefore, in this work, the formation of structured poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) particles with diameters between lower micrometer and submicrometer range by use of a microcontinuous flow arrangement was investigated in the presence of nonionic water-soluble polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The investigations show that the microreaction strategy is well applicable and allows a tuning of size and shape of nanoparticles in dependence on reactant concentrations and flow rate ratios. Larger and complex structured polymer particles have been found at lower PVP concentration, whereas more compact submicron-sized particles were formed at higher PVP concentrations. The addition of ionic surfactants modulates the generation of characteristic particle shapes. The observation of intermediate states between complex flowerlike particles and simple spheres in dependence on the applied concentration of low molecular weight surfactants supports the explanation of particle formation by a mechanism with superposition of particle growth and assembling. When mixed surfactants (PVP-SDS or PVP-CTAB) are used, the final particles shape depends on the concentration of individual concentrations of surfactants and on the competition between mobility, solvation, and micelle formations.

  1. Effects of shielding coatings on the anode shaping process during counter-rotating electrochemical machining (United States)

    Wang, Dengyong; Zhu, Zengwei; Wang, Ningfeng; Zhu, Di


    Electrochemical machining (ECM) has been widely used in the aerospace, automotive, defense and medical industries for its many advantages over traditional machining methods. However, the machining accuracy in ECM is to a great extent limited by the stray corrosion of the unwanted material removal. Many attempts have been made to improve the ECM accuracy, such as the use of a pulse power, passivating electrolytes and auxiliary electrodes. However, they are sometimes insufficient for the reduction of the stray removal and have their limitations in many cases. To solve the stray corrosion problem in CRECM, insulating and conductive coatings are respectively used. The different implement processes of the two kinds of coatings are introduced. The effects of the two kinds of shielding coatings on the anode shaping process are investigated. Numerical simulations and experiments are conducted for the comparison of the two coatings. The simulation and experimental results show that both the two kinds of coatings are valid for the reduction of stray corrosion on the top surface of the convex structure. However, for insulating coating, the convex sidewall becomes concave when the height of the convex structure is over 1.26 mm. In addition, it is easy to peel off by the high-speed electrolyte. In contrast, the conductive coating has a strong adhesion, and can be well reserved during the whole machining process. The convex structure fabricated by using a conductive iron coating layer presents a favorable sidewall profile. It is concluded that the conductive coating is more effective for the improvement of the machining quality in CRECM. The proposed shielding coatings can also be employed to reduce the stray corrosion in other schemes of ECM.

  2. A Feeding Strategy in Inner L-Shape Ring Hot Rolling Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Meng


    Full Text Available In order to make the inner L-shape ring polling process with a closed die structure (ILRRCDS on the top and bottom of the driven roll stable, at first, this paper established the mathematical model for ILRRCDS. Then, the plastic penetration and biting-in conditions for ILRRCDS were deduced based on plain ring rolling theory. Moreover, a feeding strategy that can realize a constant growth of the ring’s outer radius was proposed and the reasonable value ranges of the feed rate of the mandrel were determined. The numerical simulation model for ILRRCDS is established based on ABAQUS software. Finally, the equivalent plastic strain (PEEQ and temperature distributions of rolled ring were obtained. The results indicated that the proposed feeding strategy can realize a stable ILRRCDS. At the end of ILRRCDS, the PEEQ at the inner radius surface of the ring is maximum, the PEEQ at the outer radius surface of the ring takes the second place, and the PEEQ at the middle part of ring is minimum. With the increase of rolling time, the higher temperature zone of the rolled ring gradually moves from the center part of the ring to the “inner corner zone” of the ring.

  3. The Application of Planned Behavior Theory to Predict the Consumption of Processed Body-Shaping Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. Yulianti


    Full Text Available The research aims were to identify the influence of attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control on intention to buy, and effect of intention to buy and perceive behavioral control over buying behavior on processed body-shapping milk which added by supplement for body shaping. Research was conducted in Sleman Regency and design used was survey. Sampling was taken by using judgmental sampling method with criteria that were female, aged 18-25 yr old and was categorized as normal to overweight appearance. Respondents used were 100 undergraduate female students. Questionnaire was used as an instrument in order for data collecting to measure research variable that had been tested on validity and reliability. Analyses used were single and multiple linier regression. The results showed that only attitude and perceived behavioral control influenced (P<0.05 intention to buy in normal-weight group, while in over-weight group attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control affected (P<0.001 attitude. Then, attitude and perceived behavioral control influenced buying behavior significantly both in normal and overweight. Therefore, it can be concluded that prediction capability of planned behavior theory are better when product relevancy to respondents was closed.

  4. High temperature deformation behavior and processing map for a nickel-titanium shape memory alloy (United States)

    Yin, Xiang-Qian; Lee, Sang-Won; Li, Yan-Feng; Park, Chan-Hee; Mi, Xu-Jun; Yeom, Jong-Taek


    The hot deformation behavior of 49.2Ti-50.8Ni shape memory alloy was studied using hot compressive deformation testing in the temperature range of 1023-1323 K and at strain rates of 0.01-10 s-1. The work-hardening rate was induced to analyze the stress-strain curves, and the critical stress σc and the dynamic recovery saturation stress σsat were measured which can be specified approximately by the expressions: σsat-1.12σp and σc-0.86σp. An Arrhenius model was calculated to describe the relationship between peak stress and the Z parameter. The relationship between deformation activation energy, the deformation conditions and the effect of Ni component in a binary TiNi alloy on the activation energy were discussed in this work. With the help of electron backscattering diffraction, a connected mode dynamic recrystallization microstructure was confirmed in peak efficiency regimes (850 °C & 0.01 s-1 and 1050 °C & 10 s-1) of the processing map.

  5. A process to estimate net infiltration using a site-scale water-budget approach, Rainier Mesa, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, 2002–05 (United States)

    Smith, David W.; Moreo, Michael T.; Garcia, C. Amanda; Halford, Keith J.; Fenelon, Joseph M.


    This report documents a process used to estimate net infiltration from precipitation, evapotranspiration (ET), and soil data acquired at two sites on Rainier Mesa. Rainier Mesa is a groundwater recharge area within the Nevada National Security Site where recharged water flows through bedrock fractures to a deep (450 meters) water table. The U.S. Geological Survey operated two ET stations on Rainier Mesa from 2002 to 2005 at sites characterized by pinyon-juniper and scrub-brush vegetative cover. Precipitation and ET data were corrected to remove measurement biases and gap-filled to develop continuous datasets. Net infiltration (percolation below the root zone) and changes in root-zone water storage were estimated using a monthly water-balance model.Site-scale water-budget results indicate that the heavily-fractured welded-tuff bedrock underlying thin (<40 centimeters) topsoil is a critical water source for vegetation during dry periods. Annual precipitation during the study period ranged from fourth lowest (182 millimeters [mm]) to second highest (708 mm) on record (record = 55 years). Annual ET exceeded precipitation during dry years, indicating that the fractured-bedrock reservoir capacity is sufficient to meet atmospheric-evaporative demands and to sustain vegetation through extended dry periods. Net infiltration (82 mm) was simulated during the wet year after the reservoir was rapidly filled to capacity. These results support previous conclusions that preferential fracture flow was induced, resulting in an episodic recharge pulse that was detected in nearby monitoring wells. The occurrence of net infiltration only during the wet year is consistent with detections of water-level rises in nearby monitoring wells that occur only following wet years.

  6. Adjoint-based shape optimization of fin geometry for enhanced solid/liquid phase-change process (United States)

    Morimoto, Kenichi; Suzuki, Yuji


    In recent years, the control of heat transfer processes, which play a critical role in various engineering devices/systems, has gained renewed attention. The present study aims to establish an adjoint-based shape optimization method for high-performance heat transfer processes involving phase-change phenomena. A possible example includes the application to the thermal management technique using phase-change material. Adjoint-based shape optimization scheme is useful to optimal shape design and optimal control of systems, for which the base function of the solution is unknown and the solution includes an infinite number of degrees of freedom. Here we formulate the shape-optimization scheme based on adjoint heat conduction analyses, focusing on the shape optimization of fin geometry. In the computation of the developed scheme, a meshless local Petrov-Galerkin (MLPG) method that is suited for dealing with complex boundary geometry is employed, and the enthalpy method is adopted for analyzing the motion of the phase-change interface. We examine in detail the effect of the initial geometry and the node distribution in the MLPG analysis upon the final solution of the shape optimization. Also, we present a new strategy for the computation using bubble mesh.

  7. Net Shape Manufacturing of Aeroengine Components (United States)


    making large or medium sized complex components. 2.2 Experimental The Ti6Al4V (Ti64) powder used is commercial PREP(plasma rotating electrode...Using mild steel tooling • PREP Ti6Al4V powder, 50-350μm in Materials for High Performance Applications THE UNIVERSITY OF BIRMINGHAM of HIPped Ti6Al4V (machined tensile samples and as-HIPped tensile sample) - 0.17 0.17 0.19 0.18 0.17 Oxygen (wt%) 239678794.0 19 23 22 21

  8. Homogenization and texture development in rapidly solidified AZ91E consolidated by Shear Assisted Processing and Extrusion (ShAPE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overman, N. R.; Whalen, S. A.; Bowden, M. E.; Olszta, M. J.; Kruska, K.; Clark, T.; Stevens, E. L.; Darsell, J. T.; Joshi, V. V.; Jiang, X.; Mattlin, K. F.; Mathaudhu, S. N.


    Shear Assisted Processing and Extrusion (ShAPE) -a novel processing route that combines high shear and extrusion conditions- was evaluated as a processing method to densify melt spun magnesium alloy (AZ91E) flake materials. This study illustrates the microstructural regimes and transitions in crystallographic texture that occur as a result of applying simultaneous linear and rotational shear during extrusion. Characterization of the flake precursor and extruded tube was performed using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and microindentation techniques. Results show a unique transition in the orientation of basal texture development. Despite the high temperatures involved during processing, uniform grain refinement and material homogenization are observed. These results forecast the ability to implement the ShAPE processing approach for a broader range of materials with novel microstructures and high performance.

  9. Processing and Characterization of NiTi Shape Memory Alloy Particle Reinforced Sn-In Solders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chung, Kohn C


    .... In previous work, it was proposed that reinforcement of solder by NiTi shape memory alloy particles to form smart composite solder reduces the inelastic strain of the solder and hence, may enhance...

  10. High Work Output Ni-Ti-Pt High Temperature Shape Memory Alloys and Associated Processing Methods (United States)

    Noebe, Ronald D. (Inventor); Draper, Susan L. (Inventor); Nathal, Michael V. (Inventor); Garg, Anita (Inventor)


    According to the invention, compositions of Ni-Ti-Pt high temperature, high force, shape memory alloys are disclosed that have transition temperatures above 100 C.; have narrow hysteresis; and produce a high specific work output.

  11. Investigation on the shape evolution of Cu2O crystals in the antibacterial process (United States)

    Wang, Meifang; Ni, Yonghong; Liu, Aimin


    In this work Cu2O microcrystals with various morphologies including octahedrons, cubes and hollow spheres were employed as the antimicrobial for the devitalization of Escherichia coli (E. coli). It was found that during the devitalization of E. coli, Cu2O microcrystals with various shapes presented similar change trend and finally was converted into flowerlike microstructures constructed by abundant nanosheets. Also, the shape change always started from {1 0 0} planes.

  12. Comparison Between Frame-Constrained Fix-Pixel-Value and Frame-Free Spiking-Dynamic-Pixel ConvNets for Visual Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément eFarabet


    Full Text Available Most scene segmentation and categorization architectures for the extraction of features in images and patches make exhaustive use of 2D convolution operations for template matching, template search and denoising. Convolutional Neural Networks (ConvNets are one example of such architectures that can implement general-purpose bio-inspired vision systems. In standard digital computers 2D convolutions are usually expensive in terms of resource consumption and impose severe limitations for efficient real-time applications. Nevertheless, neuro-cortex inspired solutions, like dedicated Frame-Based or Frame-Free Spiking ConvNet Convolution Processors, are advancing real-time visual processing. These two approaches share the neural inspiration, but each of them solves the problem in different ways. Frame-Based ConvNets process frame by frame video in- formation in a very robust and fast way that requires to use and share the available hardware resources (such as: multipliers, adders. Hardware resources are fixed and time multiplexed by fetching data in and out. Thus memory bandwidth and size is important for good performance. On the other hand, spike-based convolution processors are a frame-free alternative that is able to perform convolution of a spike-based source of visual information with very low latency, which makes ideal for very high speed applications. However, hardware resources need to be available all the time and cannot be time-multiplexed. Thus, hardware should be modular, reconfigurable and expansible. Hardware implementations in both VLSI custom integrated circuits (digital and analog and FPGA have been already used to demonstrate the performance of these systems. In this paper we present a comparison study of these two neuro- inspired solutions. A brief description of both systems is presented and also discussions about their differences, pros and cons.

  13. Assessing the impact of the urbanization process on net primary productivity in China in 1989-2000. (United States)

    Tian, Guangjin; Qiao, Zhi


    Urban development affects the material circulation and energy flow of ecosystems, thereby affecting the Net Primary Productivity (NPP). The loss of NPP due to urban expansion was calculated integrating GLO-PEM with remote sensing and GIS techniques in China during the period of 1989-2000. Using urban expansion and the mean NPP for the different land use types in the fourteen regions, the total loss of NPP was calculated as 0.95 Tg C, which accounted for 0.03% of the national NPP of 1989. The total loss of NPP due to the transformation from cropland to urban land accounted for 91.93%, followed by forest (7.17%) and grassland (0.69%). However, the conversion from unused land, industrial and construction land, and water bodies to urban land resulted in an increase in the NPP. The regions locating in eastern China and middle China had large reductions in the total NPP due to urban expansion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Nanofabrication of 10-nm T-shaped gates using a double patterning process with electron beam lithography and dry etch (United States)

    Shao, Jinhai; Deng, Jianan; Lu, W.; Chen, Yifang


    A process to fabricate T-shaped gates with the footprint scaling down to 10 nm using a double patterning procedure is reported. One of the keys in this process is to separate the definition of the footprint from that for the gate-head so that the proximity effect originated from electron forward scattering in the resist is significantly minimized, enabling us to achieve as narrow as 10-nm foot width. Furthermore, in contrast to the reported technique for 10-nm T-shaped profile in resist, this process utilizes a metallic film with a nanoslit as an etch mask to form a well-defined 10-nm-wide foot in a SiNx layer by reactive ion etch. Such a double patterning process has demonstrated enhanced reliability. The detailed process is comprehensively described, and its advantages and limitations are discussed. Nanofabrication of InP-based high-electron-mobility transistors using the developed process for 10- to 20-nm T-shaped gates is currently under the way.

  15. Use of Petri nets for the development of new control software for the in-vessel composting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, D.; Leston, I.; Armesto, I.; Mato, S.; Sole-Mauri, F.; Paulet, D.


    The composting process has been consolidated as one of the most accurate techniques for the treatment and recycling of the organic wastes. Along such process three different stages can be recognized taking into account temperature evolution, so the automation equipment's used to control the process at industrial scale must work on the control elements (fans, valves, sprinklers, etc.) with the objective that each of the stages is developed in a correct way. However, the organic wastes high variability, and the great amount of variables which can influence the microbial activity (responsible of the process), makes difficult to predict the behaviour a specific waste will develop once inside the bioreactor. (Author)

  16. Implementation strategies to increase access and demand of long-lasting insecticidal nets: a before-and-after study and scale-up process in Mozambique. (United States)

    Arroz, Jorge A H; Mendis, Chandana; Pinto, Liliana; Candrinho, Baltazar; Pinto, João; Martins, Maria do Rosário O


    The universal coverage bed nets campaign is a proven health intervention promoting increased access, ownership, and use of bed nets to reduce malaria burden. This article describes the intervention and implementation strategies that Mozambique carried out recently in order to improve access and increase demand for long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). A before-and-after study with a control group was used during Stage I of the implementation process. The following strategies were tested in Stage I: (1) use of coupons during household registration; (2) use of stickers to identify the registered households; (3) new LLIN ascription formula (one LLIN for every two people). In Stage II, the following additional strategies were implemented: (4) mapping and micro-planning; (5) training; and (6) supervision. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to compare and establish differences between intervened and control districts in Stage I. Main outcomes were: percentage of LLINs distributed, percentage of target households benefited. In Stage I, 87.8% (302,648) of planned LLINs were distributed in the intervention districts compared to 77.1% (219,613) in the control districts [OR: 2.14 (95% CI 2.11-2.16)]. Stage I results also showed that 80.6% (110,453) of households received at least one LLIN in the intervention districts compared to 72.8% (87,636) in the control districts [OR: 1.56 (95% CI 1.53-1.59)]. In Stage II, 98.4% (3,536,839) of the allocated LLINs were delivered, covering 98.6% (1,353,827) of the registered households. Stage I results achieved better LLINs and household coverage in districts with the newly implemented strategies. The results of stage II were also encouraging. Additional strategies adaptation is required for a wide-country LLIN campaign.

  17. A new versatile electrochemical etching chamber (VECEC) system for multi-size and multi-shape detector processing

    CERN Document Server

    Sohrabi, M


    A new versatile electrochemical etching ECE chamber (VECE) system is introduced in which the effective electrochemically etched area can have variable sizes and/or shapes required using templet etching. The flat rubber washers act as templets and holders of the etchant, and control the size and shape of the effective etched area of the detector which can be of various shapes and sizes desired. The system was operated in two operation modes A and B in which the both sides and one side of the detector were etched respectively. Detectors with etched areas having diameters from 1 to 18 cm have also been successfully etched by this system. Multi-chambers have been also designed using this principle for larger-scale multi-detector processing. The effects of etching area and time on the current through the detector have also been studied.

  18. Scaled-Up Fabrication of Thin-Walled ZK60 Tubing using Shear Assisted Processing and Extrusion (ShAPE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whalen, Scott A.; Joshi, Vineet V.; Overman, Nicole R.; Caldwell, Dustin D.; Lavender, Curt A.; Skszek, Tim


    Shear Assisted Processing and Extrusion (ShAPE) has been scaled-up and applied to direct extrusion of thin-walled magnesium tubing. Using ShAPE, billets of ZK60A-T5 were directly extruded into round tubes having an outer diameter of 50.8 mm and wall thickness of 1.52 mm. The severe shearing conditions inherent to ShAPE resulted in microstructural refinement with an average grain size of 3.8μm measured at the midpoint of the tube wall. Tensile testing per ATSM E-8 on specimens oriented parallel to the extrusion direction gave an ultimate tensile strength of 254.4 MPa and elongation of 20.1%. Specimens tested perpendicular to the extrusion direction had an ultimate tensile strength of 297.2 MPa and elongation of 25.0%. Due to material flow effects resulting from the simultaneous linear and rotational shear intrinsic to ShAPE, ram force and electrical power consumption during extrusion were just 40 kN and 11.5 kW respectively. This represents a significant reduction in ram force and power consumption compared to conventional extrusion. As such, there is potential for ShAPE to offer a scalable, lower cost extrusion option with potentially improved bulk mechanical properties.

  19. Critical Analysis of Moving Heat Source Shape for ARC Welding Process of High Deposition Rate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ghosh, A.; Hloch, Sergej; Chattopadhyaya, S.


    Roč. 21, č. 1 (2014), s. 95-98 ISSN 1330-3651 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : Gaussian heat distribution * oval heat source shape * Submerged Arc Welding Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 0.579, year: 2014

  20. 3D primary grain shapes resulting from semi-solid metal processing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Curle, Ulyate A


    Full Text Available simultaneously being cooled. Primary aluminium grains are extracted by an etch technique from a sample volume of the casting. The grain size distribution and shapes are analysed. The 3D particles are pictured with scanning electron microscopy. Various interesting...

  1. Petri Nets in Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico; Winskel, Glynn


    A process language for security protocols is presented together with a semantics in terms of sets of events. The denotation of process is a set of events, and as each event specifies a set of pre and postconditions, this denotation can be viewed as a Petri net. By means of an example we illustrate...... how the Petri-net semantics can be used to prove security properties....

  2. Color and texture of low-calorie peanuts as affected by a new oil extraction process named "Mechanical Expression Preserving Shape Integrity" (MEPSI)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nader, Joelle; Afif, Charbel; Louka, Nicolas


    The current healthy life style pushed to develop and implement a novel efficient defatting process of high quality called "Mechanical Expression Preserving Shape Integrity" that conserved the sensory...

  3. A novel methodology to model the cooling processes of packed horticultural produce using 3D shape models (United States)

    Gruyters, Willem; Verboven, Pieter; Rogge, Seppe; Vanmaercke, Simon; Ramon, Herman; Nicolai, Bart


    Freshly harvested horticultural produce require a proper temperature management to maintain their high economic value. Towards this end, low temperature storage is of crucial importance to maintain a high product quality. Optimizing both the package design of packed produce and the different steps in the postharvest cold chain can be achieved by numerical modelling of the relevant transport phenomena. This work presents a novel methodology to accurately model both the random filling of produce in a package and the subsequent cooling process. First, a cultivar-specific database of more than 100 realistic CAD models of apple and pear fruit is built with a validated geometrical 3D shape model generator. To have an accurate representation of a realistic picking season, the model generator also takes into account the biological variability of the produce shape. Next, a discrete element model (DEM) randomly chooses surface meshed bodies from the database to simulate the gravitational filling process of produce in a box or bin, using actual mechanical properties of the fruit. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is then developed with the final stacking arrangement of the produce to study the cooling efficiency of packages under several conditions and configurations. Here, a typical precooling operation is simulated to demonstrate the large differences between using actual 3D shapes of the fruit and an equivalent spheres approach that simplifies the problem drastically. From this study, it is concluded that using a simplified representation of the actual fruit shape may lead to a severe overestimation of the cooling behaviour.

  4. Protein crystallization image classification with elastic net (United States)

    Hung, Jeffrey; Collins, John; Weldetsion, Mehari; Newland, Oliver; Chiang, Eric; Guerrero, Steve; Okada, Kazunori


    Protein crystallization plays a crucial role in pharmaceutical research by supporting the investigation of a protein's molecular structure through X-ray diffraction of its crystal. Due to the rare occurrence of crystals, images must be manually inspected, a laborious process. We develop a solution incorporating a regularized, logistic regression model for automatically evaluating these images. Standard image features, such as shape context, Gabor filters and Fourier transforms, are first extracted to represent the heterogeneous appearance of our images. Then the proposed solution utilizes Elastic Net to select relevant features. Its L1-regularization mitigates the effects of our large dataset, and its L2- regularization ensures proper operation when the feature number exceeds the sample number. A two-tier cascade classifier based on naïve Bayes and random forest algorithms categorized the images. In order to validate the proposed method, we experimentally compare it with naïve Bayes, linear discriminant analysis, random forest, and their two-tier cascade classifiers, by 10-fold cross validation. Our experimental results demonstrate a 3-category accuracy of 74%, outperforming other models. In addition, Elastic Net better reduces the false negatives responsible for a high, domain specific risk. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to apply Elastic Net to classifying protein crystallization images. Performance measured on a large pharmaceutical dataset also fared well in comparison with those presented in the previous studies, while the reduction of the high-risk false negatives is promising.

  5. Complexity Metrics for Workflow Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; van der Aalst, Wil M.P.


    Process modeling languages such as EPCs, BPMN, flow charts, UML activity diagrams, Petri nets, etc.\\ are used to model business processes and to configure process-aware information systems. It is known that users have problems understanding these diagrams. In fact, even process engineers and system...

  6. The influence of data shape acquisition process and geometric accuracy of the mandible for numerical simulation. (United States)

    Relvas, C; Ramos, A; Completo, A; Simões, J A


    Computer-aided technologies have allowed new 3D modelling capabilities and engineering analyses based on experimental and numerical simulation. It has enormous potential for product development, such as biomedical instrumentation and implants. However, due to the complex shapes of anatomical structures, the accuracy of these technologies plays an important key role for adequate and accurate finite element analysis (FEA). The objective of this study was to determine the influence of the geometry variability between two digital models of a human model of the mandible. Two different shape acquisition techniques, CT scan and 3D laser scan, were assessed. A total of 130 points were controlled and the deviations between the measured points of the physical and 3D virtual models were assessed. The results of the FEA study showed a relative difference of 20% for the maximum displacement and 10% for the maximum strain between the two geometries.

  7. Prediction of process induced shape distortions and residual stresses in large fibre reinforced composite laminates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael Wenani

    The present thesis is devoted to numerical modelling of thermomechanical phenomena occurring during curing in the manufacture of large fibre reinforced polymer matrix composites with thick laminate sections using vacuum assisted resin transfer moulding (VARTM). The main application of interest...... in this work is modelling manufacturing induced shape distortions and residual stresses in commercial wind turbine composite blades. Key mechanisms known to contribute to shape distortions and residual stress build-up are reviewed and the underlying theories used to model these mechanisms are presented......) model in ABAQUS, different constitutive modelling approaches are investigated, including a cure hardening instantaneous linear elastic (CHILE) approach, a viscoelastic approach and a path-dependent approach. The latter is a limiting case of viscoelasticity. These approaches are investigated with regards...

  8. Estrogen shapes dopamine-dependent cognitive processes: Implications for women's health


    Jacobs, Emily Christine


    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is exquisitely sensitive to its neurochemical environment. Minor fluctuations in cortical dopamine (DA) can profoundly alter working memory (WM), a PFC-dependent cognitive function that supports an array of essential human behaviors, from problem-solving to fluid intelligence. Dopamine's action in the PFC follows an inverted U-shaped curve, where an optimal DA level is necessary for maximal function and both insufficient and excessive DA activity impairs PFC proces...

  9. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In an au- tomated manufacturing context, each philosopher may rep- resent a robotic assembly process that requires two robots for assembling workpieces, with the forks representing the assembly robots. Let the three philosophers be denoted by PI, P2, P3 and the three forks by Fl, F2, F3. PI needs forks FI (left fork) and.

  10. Effect of Tip Shape of Frictional Stir Burnishing Tool on Processed Layer’s Hardness, Residual Stress and Surface Roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimasa Takada


    Full Text Available Friction stir burnishing (FSB is a surface-enhancement method used after machining, without the need for an additional device. The FSB process is applied on a machine that uses rotation tools (e.g., machining center or multi-tasking machine. Therefore, the FSB process can be applied immediately after the cutting process using the same machine tool. Here, we apply the FSB to the shaft materials of 0.45% C steel using a multi-tasking machine. In the FSB process, the burnishing tool rotates at a high-revolution speed. The thin surface layer is rubbed and stirred as the temperature is increased and decreased. With the FSB process, high hardness or compressive residual stress can be obtained on the surface layer. However, when we applied the FSB process using a 3 mm diameter sphere tip shape tool, the surface roughness increased substantially (Ra = 20 µm. We therefore used four types of tip shape tools to examine the effect of burnishing tool tip radius on surface roughness, hardness, residual stress in the FSB process. Results indicated that the surface roughness was lowest (Ra = 10 µm when the tip radius tool diameter was large (30 mm.

  11. Processing of Ni30Pt20Ti50 High-Temperature Shape-Memory Alloy Into Thin Rod Demonstrated (United States)

    Noebe, Ronald D.; Draper, Susan L.; Biles, Tiffany A.; Leonhardt, Todd


    High-temperature shape-memory alloys (HTSMAs) based on nickel-titanium (NiTi) with significant ternary additions of palladium (Pd), platinum (Pt), gold (Au), or hafnium (Hf) have been identified as potential high-temperature actuator materials for use up to 500 C. These materials provide an enabling technology for the development of "smart structures" used to control the noise, emissions, or efficiency of gas turbine engines. The demand for these high-temperature versions of conventional shape-memory alloys also has been growing in the automotive, process control, and energy industries. However these materials, including the NiPtTi alloys being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center, will never find widespread acceptance unless they can be readily processed into useable forms.

  12. WaveNet: A Web-Based Metocean Data Access, Processing, and Analysis Tool. Part 3 - CDIP Database (United States)


    for available information. Step 4. Set the time range to determine availability of data for project needs. In Figure 4, time series of the...Lin, L., Z. Demirbilek, H. Mase , J. Zheng, and F. Yamada. 2008. CMS-Wave: A nearshore spectral wave processes model for coastal inlets and...and Development Center. Lin, L., Z. Demirbilek, and H. Mase . 2011b. Recent capabilities of CMS-Wave: A coastal wave model for inlets and navigation

  13. Processing of CuAlMn Shape Memory Foams with Open Spherical Pores by Silica-Gel Beads Infiltration Method (United States)

    Li, Hua; Yuan, Bin; Gao, Yan


    A molten metal infiltration process with amorphous SiO2 (silica-gel) beads as space holders was used to prepare Cu-based shape memory foams in this article. We found that the silica-gel beads with micropores inside expanded when being heated to elevated temperatures and that proper control of the expansion of silica-gel beads helped form necks between the beads with different bonding extent, which had been taken advantage of to have a good control of the foam morphology and porosity, by carefully designing suitable procedures and choosing proper parameters for the process. In addition, we studied in detail the effect of heating temperature, silica-gel bead density, and infiltration pressure of the present process on the morphology and porosity of CuAlMn shape memory foams. By coordinating these three key parameters, CuAlMn shape memory foams with open spherical pores and adjustable porosity from 66 to 85 pct were reliably produced.

  14. Advanced powder processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janney, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)


    Gelcasting is an advanced powder forming process. It is most commonly used to form ceramic or metal powders into complex, near-net shapes. Turbine rotors, gears, nozzles, and crucibles have been successfully gelcast in silicon nitride, alumina, nickel-based superalloy, and several steels. Gelcasting can also be used to make blanks that can be green machined to near-net shape and then high fired. Green machining has been successfully applied to both ceramic and metal gelcast blanks. Recently, the authors have used gelcasting to make tooling for metal casting applications. Most of the work has centered on H13 tool steel. They have demonstrated an ability to gelcast and sinter H13 to near net shape for metal casting tooling. Also, blanks of H13 have been cast, green machined into complex shape, and fired. Issues associated with forming, binder burnout, and sintering are addressed.

  15. Numerical simulation of the processes of small-diameter high-current electron beam shaping and injection

    CERN Document Server

    Gordeev, V S; Myskov, G A


    With the aid of BEAM 25 program there was carried out the numerical simulation of the non-stationary process of shaping a small-diameter (<= 20mm) high-current hollow electron beam in a diode with magnetic insulation,as well as of the process of beam injection into the accelerating LIA track. The diode configuration for the purpose of eliminating the leakage of electron flux to the anode surface was update. Presented are the results of calculation of the injected beam characteristics (amplitude-time parameters of a current pulse, space-angle distributions of electrons etc.) depending on diode geometric parameters.

  16. Activation of shape and semantic information during ambiguous homophone processing: eye tracking evidence from Hindi. (United States)

    Mishra, Ramesh Kumar; Singh, Siddharth


    In two visual world eye tracking studies, we examined the activation of subordinate meanings of ambiguous homophones in Hindi and particularly when the sentence context is biased towards the dominant meaning. Participants listened to sentences that were either neutral or biased towards the dominant meaning of the homophone and saw a display containing four pictures. In experiment 1, the display had a shape competitor of the subordinate meaning of the homophone in both neutral and biased conditions along with three unrelated distractors. Experiment 2 had semantic competitors of the subordinate meaning of the homophones along with three distractors. Proportion of fixations to different objects overtime suggested that participants activated the subordinate meanings and oriented their attention to the shape and semantic competitors even when the prior context was biased towards the dominant meaning. Overall, these data from Hindi provide further support to those models of lexical access that assume exhaustive access of both the meanings of an ambiguous homophone. These data suggest even a dominant bias does not eliminate the activation of perceptual and conceptual features of the subordinate meaning.

  17. Towards a standardized processing of Net Ecosystem Exchange measured with eddy covariance technique: algorithms and uncertainty estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Papale


    Full Text Available Eddy covariance technique to measure CO2, water and energy fluxes between biosphere and atmosphere is widely spread and used in various regional networks. Currently more than 250 eddy covariance sites are active around the world measuring carbon exchange at high temporal resolution for different biomes and climatic conditions. In this paper a new standardized set of corrections is introduced and the uncertainties associated with these corrections are assessed for eight different forest sites in Europe with a total of 12 yearly datasets. The uncertainties introduced on the two components GPP (Gross Primary Production and TER (Terrestrial Ecosystem Respiration are also discussed and a quantitative analysis presented. Through a factorial analysis we find that generally, uncertainties by different corrections are additive without interactions and that the heuristic u*-correction introduces the largest uncertainty. The results show that a standardized data processing is needed for an effective comparison across biomes and for underpinning inter-annual variability. The methodology presented in this paper has also been integrated in the European database of the eddy covariance measurements.

  18. Apparatus and method for atmospheric pressure reactive atom plasma processing for shaping of damage free surfaces (United States)

    Carr,; Jeffrey, W [Livermore, CA


    Fabrication apparatus and methods are disclosed for shaping and finishing difficult materials with no subsurface damage. The apparatus and methods use an atmospheric pressure mixed gas plasma discharge as a sub-aperture polisher of, for example, fused silica and single crystal silicon, silicon carbide and other materials. In one example, workpiece material is removed at the atomic level through reaction with fluorine atoms. In this example, these reactive species are produced by a noble gas plasma from trace constituent fluorocarbons or other fluorine containing gases added to the host argon matrix. The products of the reaction are gas phase compounds that flow from the surface of the workpiece, exposing fresh material to the etchant without condensation and redeposition on the newly created surface. The discharge provides a stable and predictable distribution of reactive species permitting the generation of a predetermined surface by translating the plasma across the workpiece along a calculated path.

  19. High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    High-level Petri nets are now widely used in both theoretical analysis and practical modelling of concurrent systems. The main reason for the success of this class of net models is that they make it possible to obtain much more succinct and manageable descriptions than can be obtained by means...... of low-level Petri nets - while, on the other hand, they still offer a wide range of analysis methods and tools. The step from low-level nets to high-level nets can be compared to the step from assembly languages to modern programming languages with an elaborated type concept. In low-level nets...... there is only one kind of token and this means that the state of a place is described by an integer (and in many cases even by a boolean). In high-level nets each token can carry a complex information/data - which, e.g., may describe the entire state of a process or a data base. Today most practical...

  20. Offline modeling for product quality prediction of mineral processing using modeling error PDF shaping and entropy minimization. (United States)

    Ding, Jinliang; Chai, Tianyou; Wang, Hong


    This paper presents a novel offline modeling for product quality prediction of mineral processing which consists of a number of unit processes in series. The prediction of the product quality of the whole mineral process (i.e., the mixed concentrate grade) plays an important role and the establishment of its predictive model is a key issue for the plantwide optimization. For this purpose, a hybrid modeling approach of the mixed concentrate grade prediction is proposed, which consists of a linear model and a nonlinear model. The least-squares support vector machine is adopted to establish the nonlinear model. The inputs of the predictive model are the performance indices of each unit process, while the output is the mixed concentrate grade. In this paper, the model parameter selection is transformed into the shape control of the probability density function (PDF) of the modeling error. In this context, both the PDF-control-based and minimum-entropy-based model parameter selection approaches are proposed. Indeed, this is the first time that the PDF shape control idea is used to deal with system modeling, where the key idea is to turn model parameters so that either the modeling error PDF is controlled to follow a target PDF or the modeling error entropy is minimized. The experimental results using the real plant data and the comparison of the two approaches are discussed. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed approaches.

  1. Processing Fluency in Education: How Metacognitive Feelings Shape Learning, Belief Formation, and Affect (United States)

    Reber, Rolf; Greifeneder, Rainer


    Processing fluency--the experienced ease with which a mental operation is performed--has attracted little attention in educational psychology, despite its relevance. The present article reviews and integrates empirical evidence on processing fluency that is relevant to school education. Fluency is important, for instance, in learning,…

  2. High Volume, Low-Cost Production Process for High-grade Silicon Carbide Optics Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following proposal summarizes the process by which Trex will utilize out patented CVC (Chemical Vapor Composite) SiC process to fabricate near net shape...

  3. "Fabrication of arbitrarily shaped carbonate apatite foam based on the interlocking process of dicalcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate". (United States)

    Sugiura, Yuki; Tsuru, Kanji; Ishikawa, Kunio


    Carbonate apatite (CO 3 Ap) foam with an interconnected porous structure is highly attractive as a scaffold for bone replacement. In this study, arbitrarily shaped CO 3 Ap foam was formed from α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) foam granules via a two-step process involving treatment with acidic calcium phosphate solution followed by hydrothermal treatment with NaHCO 3 . The treatment with acidic calcium phosphate solution, which is key to fabricating arbitrarily shaped CO 3 Ap foam, enables dicalcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) crystals to form on the α-TCP foam granules. The generated DCPD crystals cause the α-TCP granules to interlock with each other, inducing an α-TCP/DCPD foam. The interlocking structure containing DCPD crystals can survive hydrothermal treatment with NaHCO 3 . The arbitrarily shaped CO 3 Ap foam was fabricated from the α-TCP/DCPD foam via hydrothermal treatment at 200 °C for 24 h in the presence of a large amount of NaHCO 3 .

  4. Deformation and Phase Transformation Processes in Polycrystalline NiTi and NiTiHf High Temperature Shape Memory Alloys (United States)

    Benafan, Othmane


    The deformation and transformation mechanisms of polycrystalline Ni49.9Ti50.1 and Ni50.3Ti29.7Hf20 (in at.%) shape memory alloys were investigated by combined experimental and modeling efforts aided by an in situ neutron diffraction technique at stress and temperature. The thermomechanical response of the low temperature martensite, the high temperature austenite phases, and changes between these two states during thermomechanical cycling were probed and reported. In the cubic austenite phase, stress-induced martensite, deformation twinning and slip processes were observed which helped in constructing a deformation map that contained the limits over which each of the identified mechanisms was dominant. Deformation of the monoclinic martensitic phase was also investigated where the microstructural changes (texture, lattice strains, and phase fractions) during room-temperature deformation and subsequent thermal cycling were compared to the bulk macroscopic response. When cycling between these two phases, the evolution of inelastic strains, along with the shape setting procedures were examined and used for the optimization of the transformation properties as a function of deformation levels and temperatures. Finally, this work was extended to the development of multiaxial capabilities at elevated temperatures for the in situ neutron diffraction measurements of shape memory alloys on the VULCAN Diffractometer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  5. Using Digital Video Editing to Shape Novice Teachers: A Generative Process for Nurturing Professional Growth (United States)

    Calandra, Brendan; Brantley-Dias, Laurie


    The authors describe the generative process for using video editing for teachers' professional development. The article provides a rationale, a theoretical framework, and a critical review of the authors' work over the past five years.

  6. In vivo human cardiac fibre architecture estimation using shape-based diffusion tensor processing. (United States)

    Toussaint, Nicolas; Stoeck, Christian T; Schaeffter, Tobias; Kozerke, Sebastian; Sermesant, Maxime; Batchelor, Philip G


    In vivo imaging of cardiac 3D fibre architecture is still a practical and methodological challenge. However it potentially provides important clinical insights, for example leading to a better understanding of the pathophysiology and the follow up of ventricular remodelling after therapy. Recently, the acquisition of 2D multi-slice Diffusion Tensor Images (DTI) of the in vivo human heart has become feasible, yielding a limited number of slices with relatively poor signal-to-noise ratios. In this article, we present a method to analyse the fibre architecture of the left ventricle (LV) using shape-based transformation into a normalised Prolate Spheroidal coordinate frame. Secondly, a dense approximation scheme of the complete 3D cardiac fibre architecture of the LV from a limited number of DTI slices is proposed and validated using ex vivo data. Those two methods are applied in vivo to a group of healthy volunteers, on which 2D DTI slices of the LV were acquired using a free-breathing motion compensated protocol. Results demonstrate the advantages of using curvilinear coordinates both for the anaylsis and the interpolation of cardiac DTI information. Resulting in vivo fibre architecture was found to agree with data from previous studies on ex vivo hearts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Scaling of processes shaping the clonal dynamics and genetic mosaic of seagrasses through temporal genetic monitoring. (United States)

    Becheler, R; Benkara, E; Moalic, Y; Hily, C; Arnaud-Haond, S


    Theoretically, the dynamics of clonal and genetic diversities of clonal plant populations are strongly influenced by the competition among clones and rate of seedling recruitment, but little empirical assessment has been made of such dynamics through temporal genetic surveys. We aimed to quantify 3 years of evolution in the clonal and genetic composition of Zostera marina meadows, comparing parameters describing clonal architecture and genetic diversity at nine microsatellite markers. Variations in clonal structure revealed a decrease in the evenness of ramet distribution among genets. This illustrates the increasing dominance of some clonal lineages (multilocus lineages, MLLs) in populations. Despite the persistence of these MLLs over time, genetic differentiation was much stronger in time than in space, at the local scale. Contrastingly with the short-term evolution of clonal architecture, the patterns of genetic structure and genetic diversity sensu stricto (that is, heterozygosity and allelic richness) were stable in time. These results suggest the coexistence of (i) a fine grained (at the scale of a 20 × 30 m quadrat) stable core of persistent genets originating from an initial seedling recruitment and developing spatial dominance through clonal elongation; and (ii) a local (at the scale of the meadow) pool of transient genets subjected to annual turnover. This simultaneous occurrence of initial and repeated recruitment strategies highlights the different spatial scales at which distinct evolutionary drivers and mating systems (clonal competition, clonal growth, propagule dispersal and so on) operate to shape the dynamics of populations and the evolution of polymorphism in space and time.

  8. Preregistered Replication of "Affective Flexibility: Evaluative Processing Goals Shape Amygdala Activity". (United States)

    Lumian, Daniel S; McRae, Kateri


    The human amygdala is sensitive to stimulus characteristics, and growing evidence suggests that it is also responsive to cognitive framing in the form of evaluative goals. To examine whether different evaluations of stimulus characteristics shape amygdala activation, we conducted a preregistered replication of Cunningham, Van Bavel, and Johnsen's (2008) study demonstrating flexible mapping of amygdala activation to stimulus characteristics, depending on evaluative goals. Participants underwent functional MRI scanning while viewing famous names under three conditions: They were asked to report their overall attitude toward each name, their positive associations only, or their negative associations only. We observed an interaction between condition and rating type, identified as the effect of interest in Cunningham et al. (2008). Specifically, postscan positivity, but not negativity, ratings predicted left amygdala activation when participants were asked to evaluate positive, but not negative, associations with the names. These results provide convergent evidence that cognitive framing, in the form of evaluative goals, can significantly alter whether amygdala activation indexes positivity or negativity.

  9. Comparative Numerical Analysis of Sheet Formed into a V-Shaped Die Using Conventional and Electromagnetic Forming Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Kim


    Full Text Available A comparative and numerical study on the formability of a sheet formed into a V-shaped die using a conventional stamping operation and an electromagnetic forming (EMF process was performed. To evaluate the damage evolution and failure prediction using a finite-element method (FEM, the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman plasticity material model was employed in the numerical simulation. The impact of the sheet with the die generates a complex stress state during the EMF process. Damage suppression due to the tool-sheet interaction may be one of the main factors contributing to the increased formability in the EMF process compared to the conventional forming operation. In addition, a high level of kinetic energy produces high strain-rate constitutive and inertial effects, which delay the onset of necking and may also be responsible for the increased formability using EMF.

  10. Applying CFD in Manufacturing of Polymer Composite Reinforced with Shape Memory Alloy via Resin Transfer Molding Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Silva


    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the manufacturing process of polymer composite reinforced with shape memory metal alloys by RTM process using ANSYS CFX® software. The mathematical modeling consists of mass and momentum conservation equations applied to a metal mold with dimensions 0.3 × 0.3 × 0.002 m³ containing ten NiTi alloy wires 0.0005 m diameter. Results of the flow front position of the resin (polyester resin mixed with calcium carbonate particles, pressure, streamlines and resin velocity fields during the process are presented and discussed. We conclude that the addition of calcium carbonate resulted in increased resin viscosity and greater inlet pressure obtained at the entrance of the mold which resulted in short time to full fill the mold and the highest pressures at the NiTi alloy wire surface were obtained in the central region and near the mold entrance.

  11. Effect of Powder Size and Shape on the SLS Processability and Mechanical Properties of a TPU Elastomer


    Dadbakhsh, Sasan; Verbelen, Leander; Vandeputte, Tom; Strobbe, Dieter; Van Puyvelde, Peter; Kruth, Jean-Pierre


    This work investigates the influence of powder size/shape on selective laser sintering (SLS) of a thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) elastomer. It examines a TPU powder which had been cryogenically milled in two different sizes; coarse powder (D50∼200μm) with rough surfaces in comparison with a fine powder (D50∼63μm) with extremely fine flow additives. It is found that the coarse powder coalesces at lower temperatures and excessively smokes during the SLS processing. In comparison, the fine pow...

  12. In-Fiber Subpicosecond Pulse Shaping for Nonlinear Optical Telecommunication Data Processing at 640 Gbit/s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azaña, J.; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Palushani, Evarist


    We review recent work on all-fiber (long-period fiber grating) devices for optical pulse shaping, particularly flat-top pulse generation, down to the subpicosecond range and their application for nonlinear switching (demultiplexing) of optical time-division multiplexed (OTDM) data signals in fiber...... benefits in the demultiplexing process, including a significantly increased timing-jitter tolerance (up to ~500 fs, i.e., 30% of the bit period) and the associated improvement in the bit-error-rate performance (e.g., with a sensitivity increase of up to ~13 dB as compared with the use of Gaussian...

  13. Task-specific, dimension-based attentional shaping of motion processing in monkey area MT. (United States)

    Schledde, Bastian; Galashan, F Orlando; Przybyla, Magdalena; Kreiter, Andreas K; Wegener, Detlef


    Nonspatially selective attention is based on the notion that specific features or objects in the visual environment are effectively prioritized in cortical visual processing. Feature-based attention (FBA), in particular, is a well-studied process that dynamically and selectively addresses neurons preferentially processing the attended feature attribute (e.g., leftward motion). In everyday life, however, behavior may require high sensitivity for an entire feature dimension (e.g., motion), but experimental evidence for a feature dimension-specific attentional modulation on a cellular level is lacking. Therefore, we investigated neuronal activity in macaque motion-selective mediotemporal area (MT) in an experimental setting requiring the monkeys to detect either a motion change or a color change. We hypothesized that neural activity in MT is enhanced when the task requires perceptual sensitivity to motion. In line with this, we found that mean firing rates were higher in the motion task and that response variability and latency were lower compared with values in the color task, despite identical visual stimulation. This task-specific, dimension-based modulation of motion processing emerged already in the absence of visual input, was independent of the relation between the attended and stimulating motion direction, and was accompanied by a spatially global reduction of neuronal variability. The results provide single-cell support for the hypothesis of a feature dimension-specific top-down signal emphasizing the processing of an entire feature class.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Cortical processing serving visual perception prioritizes information according to current task requirements. We provide evidence in favor of a dimension-based attentional mechanism addressing all neurons that process visual information in the task-relevant feature domain. Behavioral tasks required monkeys to attend either color or motion, causing modulations of response strength, variability, latency, and

  14. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Rosener, B. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science


    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host ```` at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message ``send index`` to netlib{at} The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user`s perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  15. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Rosener, B. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science)


    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host'' at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message send index'' to netlib{at} The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user's perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  16. Colour or shape: examination of neural processes underlying mental flexibility in posttraumatic stress disorder. (United States)

    Pang, E W; Sedge, P; Grodecki, R; Robertson, A; MacDonald, M J; Jetly, R; Shek, P N; Taylor, M J


    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental disorder that stems from exposure to one or more traumatic events. While PTSD is thought to result from a dysregulation of emotional neurocircuitry, neurocognitive difficulties are frequently reported. Mental flexibility is a core executive function that involves the ability to shift and adapt to new information. It is essential for appropriate social-cognitive behaviours. Magnetoencephalography (MEG), a neuroimaging modality with high spatial and temporal resolution, has been used to track the progression of brain activation during tasks of mental flexibility called set-shifting. We hypothesized that the sensitivity of MEG would be able to capture the abnormal neurocircuitry implicated in PTSD and this would negatively impact brain regions involved in set-shifting. Twenty-two soldiers with PTSD and 24 matched control soldiers completed a colour-shape set-shifting task. MEG data were recorded and source localized to identify significant brain regions involved in the task. Activation latencies were obtained by analysing the time course of activation in each region. The control group showed a sequence of activity that involved dorsolateral frontal cortex, insula and posterior parietal cortices. The soldiers with PTSD showed these activations but they were interrupted by activations in paralimbic regions. This is consistent with models of PTSD that suggest dysfunctional neurocircuitry is driven by hyper-reactive limbic areas that are not appropriately modulated by prefrontal cortical control regions. This is the first study identifying the timing and location of atypical neural responses in PTSD with set-shifting and supports the model that hyperactive limbic structures negatively impact cognitive function.

  17. Lattice modeling of fracture processes in numerical concrete with irregular shape aggregates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qian, Z.; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.


    The fracture processes in concrete can be simulated by lattice fracture model [1]. A lattice network is usually constructed on top of the material structure of concrete, and then the mechanical properties of lattice elements are assigned, corresponding with the phases they represent. The material

  18. Expert Voices in Learning Improvisation: Shaping Regulation Processes through Experiential Influence (United States)

    de Bruin, Leon R.


    Interpersonal and collaborative activity plays an important role in the social aspects of self-regulated learning (SRL) development. Peer, teacher and group interactions facilitate support for self-regulation, co-regulation and socially shared regulatory processes. Situated and experiential interplay facilitates personal, co-constructed and…

  19. Impact of the shape of geological contact on mining losses in the process of near-contact zone development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Г. С. Курчин


    Full Text Available In Russia development of mineral resources is carried out on a truly grand scale, and mining industry is in its essence a basic sector, supporting and facilitating the development of national economy. It predetermines the need of safe and responsible attitude towards riches of our subsoil – mineral resources. With this in mind, one of the key requirements to extraction technologies is minimization of mining losses and ore dilution.The biggest ore losses in the mining block take place in the process of development of contact areas between the ore body and surrounding rocks, due to differences between development pattern and surface of geological contact. Complexity of the contact between ore and surrounding rocks is traditionally characterized by so called «stochastic contact zone». Technological difficulty of extracting ore from the ore – wallrock contact is determined by volatility of geometric parameters in «stochastic contact zone» in the plane of geological contact.Current paper focuses on the issues of standard-setting for mining losses and ore dilution in the process of near-contact zone development. A method is suggested to estimate standard values of losses and ore dilution in stochastic zones. Authors have developed an algorithm of defining the shape of the contact. In the stochastic zone the contact can have a rectangular, sinusoidal, serrate and straight-line shapes. Research has established a relation between the contact shape and amounts of mining losses and ore dilution, formulas to calculate standard values are presented. Using suggested method, standard values for contact ore losses can be obtained in a quicker and more reliable way.

  20. Response surface method optimization of V-shaped fin assisted latent heat thermal energy storage system during discharging process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Lohrasbi


    Full Text Available Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage Systems (LHTESS containing Phase Change Material (PCM are used to establish balance between energy supply and demand. PCMs have high latent heat but low thermal conductivity, which affects their heat transfer performance. In this paper, a novel fin array has been optimized by multi-objective Response Surface Method (RSM based on discharging process of PCM, and then this fin configuration is applied on LHTESS, and comparison between full discharging time by applying this fin array and LHTESS with other fin structures has been carried out. The employed numerical method in this paper is Standard Galerkin Finite Element Method. Adaptive grid refinement is used to solve the equations. Since the enhancement technique, which has been employed in the present study reduces the employed PCM mass, maximum energy storage capacity variations have been considered. Therefore phase change expedition and maximum energy storage capacity have been considered as the objectives of optimization and the importance of second objective is indicated which is proposed as the novelty here. Results indicate that considering maximum energy storage capacity as the objective of optimization procedure leads to efficient shape design of LHTESS. Also employing optimized V-shaped fin in LHTESS, expedites discharging process considerably in comparison with the LHTESS without fin.

  1. Fact vs fiction—how paratextual information shapes our reading processes (United States)

    Altmann, Ulrike; Bohrn, Isabel C.; Lubrich, Oliver; Menninghaus, Winfried; Jacobs, Arthur M.


    Our life is full of stories: some of them depict real-life events and were reported, e.g. in the daily news or in autobiographies, whereas other stories, as often presented to us in movies and novels, are fictional. However, we have only little insights in the neurocognitive processes underlying the reading of factual as compared to fictional contents. We investigated the neurocognitive effects of reading short narratives, labeled to be either factual or fictional. Reading in a factual mode engaged an activation pattern suggesting an action-based reconstruction of the events depicted in a story. This process seems to be past-oriented and leads to shorter reaction times at the behavioral level. In contrast, the brain activation patterns corresponding to reading fiction seem to reflect a constructive simulation of what might have happened. This is in line with studies on imagination of possible past or future events. PMID:22956671

  2. Fact vs fiction--how paratextual information shapes our reading processes. (United States)

    Altmann, Ulrike; Bohrn, Isabel C; Lubrich, Oliver; Menninghaus, Winfried; Jacobs, Arthur M


    Our life is full of stories: some of them depict real-life events and were reported, e.g. in the daily news or in autobiographies, whereas other stories, as often presented to us in movies and novels, are fictional. However, we have only little insights in the neurocognitive processes underlying the reading of factual as compared to fictional contents. We investigated the neurocognitive effects of reading short narratives, labeled to be either factual or fictional. Reading in a factual mode engaged an activation pattern suggesting an action-based reconstruction of the events depicted in a story. This process seems to be past-oriented and leads to shorter reaction times at the behavioral level. In contrast, the brain activation patterns corresponding to reading fiction seem to reflect a constructive simulation of what might have happened. This is in line with studies on imagination of possible past or future events.

  3. Parallel, multi-stage processing of colors, faces and shapes in macaque inferior temporal cortex


    Lafer-Sousa, Rosa; Conway, Bevil R.


    Visual-object processing culminates in inferior temporal (IT) cortex. To assess the organization of IT, we measured fMRI responses in alert monkey to achromatic images (faces, fruit, bodies, places) and colored gratings. IT contained multiple color-biased regions, which were typically ventral to face patches and, remarkably, yoked to them, spaced regularly at four locations predicted by known anatomy. Color and face selectivity increased for more anterior regions, indicative of a broad hierar...

  4. The neurophysiology of language processing shapes the evolution of grammar: evidence from case marking. (United States)

    Bickel, Balthasar; Witzlack-Makarevich, Alena; Choudhary, Kamal K; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina


    Do principles of language processing in the brain affect the way grammar evolves over time or is language change just a matter of socio-historical contingency? While the balance of evidence has been ambiguous and controversial, we identify here a neurophysiological constraint on the processing of language that has a systematic effect on the evolution of how noun phrases are marked by case (i.e. by such contrasts as between the English base form she and the object form her). In neurophysiological experiments across diverse languages we found that during processing, participants initially interpret the first base-form noun phrase they hear (e.g. she…) as an agent (which would fit a continuation like … greeted him), even when the sentence later requires the interpretation of a patient role (as in … was greeted). We show that this processing principle is also operative in Hindi, a language where initial base-form noun phrases most commonly denote patients because many agents receive a special case marker ("ergative") and are often left out in discourse. This finding suggests that the principle is species-wide and independent of the structural affordances of specific languages. As such, the principle favors the development and maintenance of case-marking systems that equate base-form cases with agents rather than with patients. We confirm this evolutionary bias by statistical analyses of phylogenetic signals in over 600 languages worldwide, controlling for confounding effects from language contact. Our findings suggest that at least one core property of grammar systematically adapts in its evolution to the neurophysiological conditions of the brain, independently of socio-historical factors. This opens up new avenues for understanding how specific properties of grammar have developed in tight interaction with the biological evolution of our species.

  5. Prescription, Description, Reflection: the shape of the software process improvement field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bo; Rose, Jeremy; Tjørnehøj, Gitte


    This article reviews 322 representative contributions to the the Software Process Improvement (SPI) literature. The contributions are categorised according to a simple framework: whether their primary goal is (to tell SPI professionals what to do), (to report actual instances of SPI programs...... in software organisations), or   prescriptive descriptive reflective (theoretically analytical). The field is found to be rather dominated by one approach (the Capability Maturity Model (CMM)) and heavily biased towards prescriptive contributions. Neither of these trends is necessarily beneficial...

  6. Transcranial Random Noise Stimulation (tRNS Shapes the Processing of Rapidly Changing Auditory Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina S. Rufener


    Full Text Available Neural oscillations in the gamma range are the dominant rhythmic activation pattern in the human auditory cortex. These gamma oscillations are functionally relevant for the processing of rapidly changing acoustic information in both speech and non-speech sounds. Accordingly, there is a tight link between the temporal resolution ability of the auditory system and inherent neural gamma oscillations. Transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS has been demonstrated to specifically increase gamma oscillation in the human auditory cortex. However, neither the physiological mechanisms of tRNS nor the behavioral consequences of this intervention are completely understood. In the present study we stimulated the human auditory cortex bilaterally with tRNS while EEG was continuously measured. Modulations in the participants’ temporal and spectral resolution ability were investigated by means of a gap detection task and a pitch discrimination task. Compared to sham, auditory tRNS increased the detection rate for near-threshold stimuli in the temporal domain only, while no such effect was present for the discrimination of spectral features. Behavioral findings were paralleled by reduced peak latencies of the P50 and N1 component of the auditory event-related potentials (ERP indicating an impact on early sensory processing. The facilitating effect of tRNS was limited to the processing of near-threshold stimuli while stimuli clearly below and above the individual perception threshold were not affected by tRNS. This non-linear relationship between the signal-to-noise level of the presented stimuli and the effect of stimulation further qualifies stochastic resonance (SR as the underlying mechanism of tRNS on auditory processing. Our results demonstrate a tRNS related improvement in acoustic perception of time critical auditory information and, thus, provide further indices that auditory tRNS can amplify the resonance frequency of the auditory system.

  7. The neurophysiology of language processing shapes the evolution of grammar: evidence from case marking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balthasar Bickel

    Full Text Available Do principles of language processing in the brain affect the way grammar evolves over time or is language change just a matter of socio-historical contingency? While the balance of evidence has been ambiguous and controversial, we identify here a neurophysiological constraint on the processing of language that has a systematic effect on the evolution of how noun phrases are marked by case (i.e. by such contrasts as between the English base form she and the object form her. In neurophysiological experiments across diverse languages we found that during processing, participants initially interpret the first base-form noun phrase they hear (e.g. she… as an agent (which would fit a continuation like … greeted him, even when the sentence later requires the interpretation of a patient role (as in … was greeted. We show that this processing principle is also operative in Hindi, a language where initial base-form noun phrases most commonly denote patients because many agents receive a special case marker ("ergative" and are often left out in discourse. This finding suggests that the principle is species-wide and independent of the structural affordances of specific languages. As such, the principle favors the development and maintenance of case-marking systems that equate base-form cases with agents rather than with patients. We confirm this evolutionary bias by statistical analyses of phylogenetic signals in over 600 languages worldwide, controlling for confounding effects from language contact. Our findings suggest that at least one core property of grammar systematically adapts in its evolution to the neurophysiological conditions of the brain, independently of socio-historical factors. This opens up new avenues for understanding how specific properties of grammar have developed in tight interaction with the biological evolution of our species.

  8. Morphological image processing for quantitative shape analysis of biomedical structures: effective contrast enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimori, Yoshitaka, E-mail: [National Institutes of Natural Sciences, 5-1 Higashiyama, Myodaiji, Okazaki, Aichi 444-8787 (Japan)


    A contrast enhancement approach utilizing a new type of mathematical morphology called rotational morphological processing is introduced. The method is quantitatively evaluated and then applied to some medical images. Image processing methods significantly contribute to visualization of images captured by biomedical modalities (such as mammography, X-ray computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and light and electron microscopy). Quantitative interpretation of the deluge of complicated biomedical images, however, poses many research challenges, one of which is to enhance structural features that are scarcely perceptible to the human eye. This study introduces a contrast enhancement approach based on a new type of mathematical morphology called rotational morphological processing. The proposed method is applied to medical images for the enhancement of structural features. The effectiveness of the method is evaluated quantitatively by the contrast improvement ratio (CIR). The CIR of the proposed method is 12.1, versus 4.7 and 0.1 for two conventional contrast enhancement methods, clearly indicating the high contrasting capability of the method.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The present work describes the main advantages of the implementation a newapproachfor ball-burnishing process, for precisely formation of regularly shaped roughness on external planar and cylindrical functional surfaces from machine parts. The considered approach includes the capabilities of contemporary CAM software products for automated programing, and 3-axis vertical or 4-axis horizontal machining centrescontrolled by CNC. A mathematical model developed for generating the sinusoidal curves, which represents needed toolpaths and an algorithm for obtaining the NC-code for corresponding machine tools are presented. The principle of the purposed processing schemes for ball burnishingof external planar or cylindrical surfaces is described and conclusions about the advantages of the purposed approach are given.

  10. The Role of the Built Environment: How Decentralized Nurse Stations Shape Communication, Patient Care Processes, and Patient Outcomes. (United States)

    Real, Kevin; Bardach, Shoshana H; Bardach, David R


    Increasingly, health communication scholars are attending to how hospital built environments shape communication, patient care processes, and patient outcomes. This multimethod study was conducted on two floors of a newly designed urban hospital. Nine focus groups interviews were conducted with 35 health care professionals from 10 provider groups. Seven of the groups were homogeneous by profession or level: nursing (three groups), nurse managers (two groups), and one group each of nurse care technicians ("techs") and physicians. Two mixed groups were comprised of staff from pharmacy, occupational therapy, patient care facilitators, physical therapy, social work, and pastoral care. Systematic qualitative analysis was conducted using a conceptual framework based on systems theory and prior health care design and communication research. Additionally, quantitative modeling was employed to assess walking distances in two different hospital designs. Results indicate nurses walked significantly more in the new hospital environment. Qualitative analysis revealed three insights developed in relationship to system structures, processes, and outcomes. First, decentralized nurse stations changed system interdependencies by reducing nurse-to-nurse interactions and teamwork while heightening nurse interdependencies and teamwork with other health care occupations. Second, many nursing-related processes remained centralized while nurse stations were decentralized, creating systems-based problems for nursing care. Third, nursing communities of practices were adversely affected by the new design. Implications of this study suggest that nurse station design shapes communication, patient care processes, and patient outcomes. Further, it is important to understand how the built environment, often treated as invisible in communication research, is crucial to understanding communication within complex health care systems.

  11. Novel Processing for Creating 3D Architectured Porous Shape Memory Alloy (United States)


    nominal composition of 48.6 at% Ni sieved to a size range of 44-106 μm. The composite structure was densified with hot isostatic pressing for 3.5 hr at 40...aspect ratio of 0.76, with a 435 μm major axis and a 365 μm minor axis as illustrated in Figure 2b. (see attachment) The hot pressing direction is...eutectic wicks into space between powder particles, liquid sintering them together upon solidification . The liquid phase sintering processing method is

  12. Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux is defined as the year-over-year change in Total Ecosystem Carbon Stock, or the net rate of carbon exchange between an ecosystem and the...

  13. Krebs cycle dysfunction shapes epigenetic landscape of chromatin: novel insights into mitochondrial regulation of aging process. (United States)

    Salminen, Antero; Kaarniranta, Kai; Hiltunen, Mikko; Kauppinen, Anu


    Although there is a substantial literature that mitochondria have a crucial role in the aging process, the mechanism has remained elusive. The role of reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial DNA injuries, and a decline in mitochondrial quality control has been proposed. Emerging studies have demonstrated that Krebs cycle intermediates, 2-oxoglutarate (also known as α-ketoglutarate), succinate and fumarate, can regulate the level of DNA and histone methylation. Moreover, citrate, also a Krebs cycle metabolite, can enhance histone acetylation. Genome-wide screening studies have revealed that the aging process is linked to significant epigenetic changes in the chromatin landscape, e.g. global demethylation of DNA and histones and increase in histone acetylation. Interestingly, recent studies have revealed that the demethylases of DNA (TET1-3) and histone lysines (KDM2-7) are members of 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases (2-OGDO). The 2-OGDO enzymes are activated by oxygen, iron and the major Krebs cycle intermediate, 2-oxoglutarate, whereas they are inhibited by succinate and fumarate. Considering the endosymbiont origin of mitochondria, it is not surprising that Krebs cycle metabolites can control the gene expression of host cell by modifying the epigenetic landscape of chromatin. It seems that age-related disturbances in mitochondrial metabolism can induce epigenetic reprogramming, which promotes the appearance of senescent phenotype and degenerative diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Extensive excitatory network interactions shape temporal processing of communication signals in a model sensory system. (United States)

    Ma, Xiaofeng; Kohashi, Tsunehiko; Carlson, Bruce A


    Many sensory brain regions are characterized by extensive local network interactions. However, we know relatively little about the contribution of this microcircuitry to sensory coding. Detailed analyses of neuronal microcircuitry are usually performed in vitro, whereas sensory processing is typically studied by recording from individual neurons in vivo. The electrosensory pathway of mormyrid fish provides a unique opportunity to link in vitro studies of synaptic physiology with in vivo studies of sensory processing. These fish communicate by actively varying the intervals between pulses of electricity. Within the midbrain posterior exterolateral nucleus (ELp), the temporal filtering of afferent spike trains establishes interval tuning by single neurons. We characterized pairwise neuronal connectivity among ELp neurons with dual whole cell recording in an in vitro whole brain preparation. We found a densely connected network in which single neurons influenced the responses of other neurons throughout the network. Similarly tuned neurons were more likely to share an excitatory synaptic connection than differently tuned neurons, and synaptic connections between similarly tuned neurons were stronger than connections between differently tuned neurons. We propose a general model for excitatory network interactions in which strong excitatory connections both reinforce and adjust tuning and weak excitatory connections make smaller modifications to tuning. The diversity of interval tuning observed among this population of neurons can be explained, in part, by each individual neuron receiving a different complement of local excitatory inputs.

  15. An fMRI investigation of emotional processing of body shape in bulimia nervosa. (United States)

    Spangler, Diane L; Allen, Mark D


    Cognitive-behavioral theories of eating disorder etiology emphasize the role of body-oriented self-schemas. Examination of brain regions associated with self-referencing, such as medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), during processing of body-related stimuli can thus be utilized to evaluate such theories. Twelve women with bulima nervosa (BN) and 12 comparison women underwent functional brain imaging while viewing images of women with either thin or overweight bodies in a self-referencing context. For thin bodies, there was no significant mPFC activation for either group. For overweight bodies, mPFC activation was significantly greater for BN patients, with a focus in subregions associated with emotional processing. These findings are consistent with cognitive models of eating disorders which posit that negative body-related stimuli are more central to self-schemas and more emotionally provocative in persons with eating disorders, lending support to treatment and prevention interventions that emphasize body overvaluation as a primary target of change. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. [Shaping of the migratory process in northern Mexico, 1930-1990]. (United States)

    Gutierrez Montes, R; Vazquez Benitez, G


    "During the third decade of this century Mexican geographical structure began to change notoriously. Due to the strong influence of [the] North American economy, the north of Mexico became progressively one of the most important regions in the country, with the emergence of favorable perspectives of economic growth. Soon it became attractive to migration from the demographically pressed regions of Central Mexico. Thus, the north of Mexico was favored by the presence of qualified workers and a growing population. However, the region was not evenly populated, due to geographic, historic, and socio-economic factors that...[affect] the processes of migration and settlement. Some regions present important changes in their migratory flow, evidenced by the presence of new entities of origin and the disappearance of others." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  17. Decision-making processes shaping the home food environments of young adult women with and without children. (United States)

    Raskind, Ilana G; Woodruff, Rebecca C; Ballard, Denise; Cherry, Sabrina T; Daniel, Sandra; Haardörfer, Regine; Kegler, Michelle C


    Although young adult women consume the majority of their total daily energy intake from home food sources, the decision-making processes that shape their home food environments have received limited attention. Further, how decision-making may be affected by the transformative experience of motherhood is unknown. In this study, we explore the factors that influence two key decision-making processes-food choices while grocery shopping and the use of non-home food sources-and whether there are differences by motherhood status. In-depth interviews were conducted with 40 women, aged 20-29, living in southwest Georgia. Thematic analysis was used to analyze qualitative data stratified by whether or not children were present in the home. Decision-making was affected by numerous factors, which differed across groups. In regard to grocery shopping, women with children more frequently discussed the influence of nutrition and the preferences of children, while women without children more frequently discussed the influence of taste and the preferences of other household members. Cost, convenience, weight control, and pre-planning meals emerged as salient in both groups. In regard to the use of non-home food sources, convenience and taste were discussed by both groups, while social factors were only discussed by women without children. The cost of eating out was the only reason cited for eating inside the home, and this factor only emerged among women with children. Motherhood may be an important contributor to the decision-making processes that shape young adult women's home food environments. Interventions may find success in framing messaging to emphasize factors identified as motivating healthy decisions, such as protecting the health of children, and practical strategies may be adapted from those already in use, such as pre-planning and budgeting for healthy meals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. In the ear of the beholder: how age shapes emotion processing in nonverbal vocalizations. (United States)

    Lima, César F; Alves, Tiago; Scott, Sophie K; Castro, São Luís


    It is well established that emotion recognition of facial expressions declines with age, but evidence for age-related differences in vocal emotions is more limited. This is especially true for nonverbal vocalizations such as laughter, sobs, or sighs. In this study, 43 younger adults (M = 22 years) and 43 older ones (M = 61.4 years) provided multiple emotion ratings of nonverbal emotional vocalizations. Contrasting with previous research, which often includes only one positive emotion (happiness) versus several negative ones, we examined 4 positive and 4 negative emotions: achievement/triumph, amusement, pleasure, relief, anger, disgust, fear, and sadness. We controlled for hearing loss and assessed general cognitive decline, cognitive control, verbal intelligence, working memory, current affect, emotion regulation, and personality. Older adults were less sensitive than younger ones to the intended vocal emotions, as indicated by decrements in ratings on the intended emotion scales and accuracy. These effects were similar for positive and negative emotions, and they were independent of age-related differences in cognitive, affective, and personality measures. Regression analyses revealed that younger and older participants' responses could be predicted from the acoustic properties of the temporal, intensity, fundamental frequency, and spectral profile of the vocalizations. The two groups were similarly efficient in using the acoustic cues, but there were differences in the patterns of emotion-specific predictors. This study suggests that ageing produces specific changes on the processing of nonverbal vocalizations. That decrements were not attenuated for positive emotions indicates that they cannot be explained by a positivity effect in older adults. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Professional Enterprise NET

    CERN Document Server

    Arking, Jon


    Comprehensive coverage to help experienced .NET developers create flexible, extensible enterprise application code If you're an experienced Microsoft .NET developer, you'll find in this book a road map to the latest enterprise development methodologies. It covers the tools you will use in addition to Visual Studio, including Spring.NET and nUnit, and applies to development with ASP.NET, C#, VB, Office (VBA), and database. You will find comprehensive coverage of the tools and practices that professional .NET developers need to master in order to build enterprise more flexible, testable, and ext

  20. Dynamic shape. (United States)

    Koenderink, J J; van Doorn, A J


    Many useful notions of partial order and/or similarity and relatedness of different geometrical features of smooth shapes that occur in psychologically valid descriptions of shape have no equivalents in the usual geometrical shape theories. This is especially true where similarities are noted between objects of different connectivity: in almost all of the present theories the topological type generates the primary categorization. It is argued that such relations find a logical place only in shape theories that involve morphogenesis. Any object can be embedded uniquely in a morphogenetic sequence if one takes resolution as the parameter of the sequence. A theory of measurement is presented that allows one to define surfaces and (boundary-) curves on multiple levels of resolution. The embedding is essentially unique and is generated via a partial differential equation that governs the evolution. A canonical projection connects any high resolution specimen to lower resolution versions. The bifurcation set of the projection generates natural part boundaries. Singularities of the evolution are completely characterized as emergence, accretion and versification processes (involving topological change) and singularities by which inflections (inflection points for curves, parabolic curves for surfaces) are generated. The latter singularities involve a single process for the generation of inflections and three other processes by which the existing inflection structure may be changed. Relations with existing theories in vogue in robotics and AI, as well as in psychophysics are discussed.

  1. Shape-controlled synthesis and properties of manganese sulfide microcrystals via a biomolecule-assisted hydrothermal process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Jinghui; Yu Runnan; Zhu Jianyu; Yi Ran; Qiu Guanzhou [School of Resources Processing and Bioengineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); He Yuehui [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Liu Xiaohe, E-mail: [School of Resources Processing and Bioengineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China)


    An effective biomolecule-assisted synthetic route has been successfully developed to prepare {gamma}-manganese sulfide (MnS) microtubes under hydrothermal conditions. In the synthetic system, soluble hydrated manganese chloride was employed to supply Mn source and L-cysteine was used as precipitator and complexing reagent. Sea urchin-like {gamma}-MnS and octahedron-like {alpha}-MnS microcrystals could also be selectively obtained by adjusting the process parameters such as hydrothermal temperature and reaction time. The phase structures, morphologies and properties of the as-prepared products were investigated in detail by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS), and photoluminescence spectra (PL). The photoluminescence studies exhibited the correlations between the morphology, size, and shape structure of MnS microcrystals and its optical properties. The formation mechanisms of manganese sulfide microcrystals were discussed based on the experimental results.

  2. Investigation of the spring-in of a pultruded L-shaped profile for various processing conditions and thicknesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baran, Ismet; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Akkerman, Remko


    In this study, a thermo-mechanical finite element model is developed to predict the spring- in of an industrially pultruded L-shaped profile made of glass/polyester composite. The resin curing kinetics are obtained from the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiments. The development...... of the resin modulus is derived using the dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) tests and the effective mechanical properties of the processing composite are calculated using a micromechanical model. The temperature and degree of cure distributions are obtained in a three dimensional (3D) thermo-chemical anlaysis...... with the one observed for the real pultruded parts in a commercial pultrusion company. In addition, the effects of the pulling speed and the part thickness on the spring-in formations are investigated using the proposed numerical simulation tool. It is found that the magnitude of the spring-in increases...

  3. Konjac Bio-Molecules Assisted, Rod-Spherical shaped Lead Nano Powder Synthesized by Electrolytic Process and Its Characterization Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Theivasanthi, T


    Synthesis and structural characterization of Pb nanoparticles by electrolysis using a bioactive compound - konjac aqueous extract is the main aim of this study. This method is a unique, novel, low cost and double-step procedure with good reproducibility and has not been used for nanoparticles preparation so far. Konjac extract has been added to prevent the oxidation of Pb nanoparticles. Also the synthesized nanoparticles have been dried in open air to observe their stability. Various types of characterization tools like XRD, SEM, Particle Size Analyzer, TEM-EDS, DSC, AAS and FT-IR have been utilized to study characters of the end product. Anti-bacterial Studies has also been done. After completion of synthesis process that we have made an attempt to change the shape of the synthesized nanoparticles by the influence of sunbeams and to find the effects of the sunlight on nanomaterials.

  4. Time to Talk? How the Structure of Dialog Processes Shapes Stakeholder Learning in Participatory Water Resources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Muro


    Full Text Available Public participation is increasingly viewed as a means to initiate social learning among stakeholders, resource managers, and policy makers rather than to ensure democratic representation. This growing understanding of participatory activities as learning platforms can be seen as a direct response to shifts in how natural resources management is framed, namely as uncertain, non-linear, and interlinked with the human dimensions. Social learning as it is discussed within the natural resources management (NRM context features a process of collective and communicative learning that is thought to enable stakeholders to arrive at a shared understanding of a specific environmental situation and to develop new solutions as well as ways of acting together in pursuit of a shared ambition. Yet, although case-study research on social-learning processes provides multiple accounts of positive experiences, there are also reports of mistaken learning, the intensification of tensions or conflict, and failure to reach agreement or verifiable consensus. Based on results of a postal survey of stakeholder experiences in two involvement initiatives, we can draw two main conclusions: First, social learning is a multidimensional and dynamic process and, as such, evolves in stages and to various degrees. Second, stakeholder processes are shaped and affected by a multitude of factors that constrain the occurrence of learning processes and eventually limit the extent to which these can contribute to sustainable NRM. Foremost, the fact that the intensity of stakeholder learning differed in the two investigated initiatives reinforces the role organizational arrangements play in encouraging the type of communicative process necessary for stakeholder learning.

  5. Analysis and Accounting of Hedging of a Net Investment in a Foreign Operation Process in the concept of Turkish Accounting Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veli Öztürk


    Full Text Available In recent years, in line with developments in the financial markets, financial instruments developed rapidly. As a result of this development, how to classify financial instruments, recognition of these principles has become important. As a result of the every day increase in types of financial instruments, financial risks have emerged. Especially after the end of the Bretton Woods system that based on fixed exchange rates in 1970’s, entities faced the financial risk. IAS 39 gathered financial risks faced by businesses in the financial markets in three groups. These risks are risk arising from financial instruments at fair value and risk arising from cash flows and risk arising from the net investment in a foreign operation. Preventing from the risk arising from the net investment in a foreign operation hedge that composes the subject of this study and also one type of prevention from financial risk, is explained in Turkish Accounting Standards TAS 21 and TAS 39. The implementation section of this study, one of the varieties of hedging, hedge accounting is an example of a net investment in a foreign operation. Example implementation is divided into three sections. In the first part, the increase and decreases at the exchange rates that arised from the position in which the entity made investment does not make forward contracts arised exchange rates are shown. In the second part of our application, the accounting records related to forward contract made for preventing from net investment risk are shown, and how the forward contract prevent the entity from net investment risk is explained. In the final part of the implementation, the disposal of the net investment in a foreign country and it’s results are shown.

  6. Optical properties of mineral dust aerosol including analysis of particle size, composition, and shape effects, and the impact of physical and chemical processing (United States)

    Alexander, Jennifer Mary

    distributions. The next goal of this work is to investigate if modeling methods developed in the studies of single mineral components can be generalized to predict the optical properties of more authentic aerosol samples which are complex mixtures of different minerals. Samples of Saharan sand, Iowa loess, and Arizona road dust are used here as test cases. T-matrix based simulations of the authentic samples, using measured particle size distributions, empirical mineralogies, and a priori particle shape models for each mineral component are directly compared with the measured IR extinction spectra and visible scattering profiles. This modeling approach offers a significant improvement over more commonly applied models that ignore variations in particle shape with size or mineralogy and include only a moderate range of shape parameters. Mineral dust samples processed with organic acids and humic material are also studied in order to explore how the optical properties of dust can change after being aged in the atmosphere. Processed samples include quartz mixed with humic material, and calcite reacted with acetic and oxalic acid. Clear differences in the light scattering properties are observed for all three processed mineral dust samples when compared to the unprocessed mineral dust or organic salt products. These interactions result in both internal and external mixtures depending on the sample. In addition, the presence of these organic materials can alter the mineral dust particle shape. Overall, however, these results demonstrate the need to account for the effects of atmospheric aging of mineral dust on aerosol optical properties. Particle shape can also affect the aerodynamic properties of mineral dust aerosol. In order to account for these effects, the dynamic shape factor is used to give a measure of particle asphericity. Dynamic shape factors of quartz are measured by mass and mobility selecting particles and measuring their vacuum aerodynamic diameter. From this, dynamic

  7. Effect of power history on the shape and the thermal stress of a large sapphire crystal during the Kyropoulos process (United States)

    Nguyen, Tran Phu; Chuang, Hsiao-Tsun; Chen, Jyh-Chen; Hu, Chieh


    In this study, the effect of the power history on the shape of a sapphire crystal and the thermal stress during the Kyropoulos process are numerically investigated. The simulation results show that the thermal stress is strongly dependent on the power history. The thermal stress distributions in the crystal for all growth stages produced with different power histories are also studied. The results show that high von Mises stress regions are found close to the seed of the crystal, the highly curved crystal surface and the crystal-melt interface. The maximum thermal stress, which occurs at the crystal-melt interface, increases significantly in value as the crystal expands at the crown. After this, there is reduction in the maximum thermal stress as the crystal lengthens. There is a remarkable enhancement in the maximum von Mises stress when the crystal-melt interface is close to the bottom of the crucible. There are two obvious peaks in the maximum Von Mises stress, at the end of the crown stage and in the final stage, when cracking defects can form. To alleviate this problem, different power histories are considered in order to optimize the process to produce the lowest thermal stress in the crystal. The optimal power history is found to produce a significant reduction in the thermal stress in the crown stage.

  8. Process coupling and control over the response of net ecosystem CO2 exchange to climate variability and insect disturbance in subalpine forests of the Western US (United States)

    Monson, R. K.; Moore, D. J.; Trahan, N. A.; Scott-Denton, L.; Burns, S. P.; Hu, J.; Bowling, D. R.


    Following ten years of studies in subalpine forest ecosystems of the Western US, we have concluded that the tight coupling between gross primary productivity (GPP) and the autotrophic component of soil respiration (Ra) drives responses of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) to climate variability and insect disturbance. This insight has been gained through long-term eddy flux observations, manipulative plot experiments, analyses of dynamics in the stable isotope compositions of CO2 and H2O, and chamber gas-exchange measurements. Using past observations from these studies, we deployed model-data assimilation techniques and forecast weather/climate modeling to estimate how the coupling between GPP and Ra is likely to affect future (Year 2100) dynamics in NEE. The amount of winter snow and its melting dynamics in the spring represents the dominant control over interannual variation in GPP. Using the SIPNET ecosystem process model, combined with knowledge about the stable isotope content of different water sources, we estimated that approximately 75% of growing season GPP is coupled to the use of snowmelt water, whereas approximately 25% is coupled to summer rain. The tight coupling between GPP and winter snow pack drives a similar tight coupling between soil respiration (Rs) and winter snow pack. Manipulation of snow pack on forest plots has shown that Rs increases with increased snow pack, and this effect disappears when trees are girdled, which stops the transfer of GPP to roots and the soil rhizosphere. Higher-than-normal winter snowpacks cause the carbon isotope ratios of soil-respired CO2 to be depleted in 13C, reflecting a signal of lower photosynthetic water-use efficiency in the GPP that is transferred to the soil rhizosphere. Large-scale forest disturbance due to catastrophic tree mortality from mountain pine beetle attack causes an initial (2-3 year) reduction in Rs, which is attributable to the loss of GPP and its effect on Ra. This near-term reduction in Rs

  9. NASA Net Zero Energy Buildings Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless, S.; Scheib, J.; Torcellini, P.; Hendron, B.; Slovensky, M.


    In preparation for the time-phased net zero energy requirement for new federal buildings starting in 2020, set forth in Executive Order 13514, NASA requested that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a roadmap for NASA's compliance. NASA detailed a Statement of Work that requested information on strategic, organizational, and tactical aspects of net zero energy buildings. In response, this document presents a high-level approach to net zero energy planning, design, construction, and operations, based on NREL's first-hand experience procuring net zero energy construction, and based on NREL and other industry research on net zero energy feasibility. The strategic approach to net zero energy starts with an interpretation of the executive order language relating to net zero energy. Specifically, this roadmap defines a net zero energy acquisition process as one that sets an aggressive energy use intensity goal for the building in project planning, meets the reduced demand goal through energy efficiency strategies and technologies, then adds renewable energy in a prioritized manner, using building-associated, emission- free sources first, to offset the annual energy use required at the building; the net zero energy process extends through the life of the building, requiring a balance of energy use and production in each calendar year.

  10. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt


    This paper describes how Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets) have been developed — from being a promising theoretical model to being a full-fledged language for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems (and other systems in which human beings and...... use of CP-nets — because it means that the function representation and the translations (which are a bit mathematically complex) no longer are parts of the basic definition of CP-nets. Instead they are parts of the invariant method (which anyway demands considerable mathematical skills...

  11. Game Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael


    This paper introduces the notion of game coloured Petri nets. This allows the modeler to explicitly model what parts of the model comprise the modeled system and what parts are the environment of the modeled system. We give the formal definition of game coloured Petri nets, a means of reachability...... analysis of this net class, and an application of game coloured Petri nets to automatically generate easy-to-understand visualizations of the model by exploiting the knowledge that some parts of the model are not interesting from a visualization perspective (i.e. they are part of the environment...

  12. Annotating Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Bo; Wells, Lisa Marie


    -net. An example of such auxiliary information is a counter which is associated with a token to be able to do performance analysis. Modifying colour sets and arc inscriptions in a CP-net to support a specific use may lead to creation of several slightly different CP-nets – only to support the different uses...... a method which makes it possible to associate auxiliary information, called annotations, with tokens without modifying the colour sets of the CP-net. Annotations are pieces of information that are not essential for determining the behaviour of the system being modelled, but are rather added to support...

  13. Net zero water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lindeque, M


    Full Text Available Is it possible to develop a building that uses a net zero amount of water? In recent years it has become evident that it is possible to have buildings that use a net zero amount of electricity. This is possible when the building is taken off...

  14. SolNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Ulrike; Vajen, Klaus; Bales, Chris


    SolNet, founded in 2006, is the first coordinated International PhD education program on Solar Thermal Engineering. The SolNet network is coordinated by the Institute of Thermal Engineering at Kassel University, Germany. The network offers PhD courses on solar heating and cooling, conference...

  15. Improvement of the functional properties of nanostructured Ti-Ni shape memory alloys by means of thermomechanical processing (United States)

    Kreitcberg, Alena

    Severe plastic deformation (SPD) is commonly used for nanostructure formation in Ti-Ni shape memory alloys (SMAs), but it increases the risk of damage during processing and, consequently, negatively affects functional fatigue resistance of these materials. The principal objective of this project is, therefore, to study the interrelations between the processing conditions, damageability during processing, microstructure and the functional properties of Ti-Ni SMAs with the aim of improving long-term functional performances of these materials by optimizing their processing conditions. First, microstructure and fatigue properties of Ti-Ni SMAs were studied after thermomechanical treatment (TMT) with different combinations of severe cold and warm rolling (CR and WR), as well as intermediate and post-deformation annealing (IA and PDA) technological steps. It was shown that either when WR and IA were introduced into the TMT schedule, or CR intensity was decreased, the fatigue life was improved as a consequence of less processing-induced damage and higher density of the favorable B2-austenite texture. This improvement was reached, however, at a price of a lower multi-cycle functional stability of these materials, the latter being a direct consequence of the microstructure coarsening after higher-temperature lower-intensity processing. At the end of this study, however, it was not possible to distinguish between contributions to the functional performances of Ti-Ni SMAs from different processing-related features: a) grain/subgrain size; b) texture; and c) level of rolling-induced defects. To be capable of separating contributions to the functional properties of Ti-Ni alloys from grain/subgrain size and from texture, the theoretical crystallographic resource of recovery strain after different TMTs and, therefore, different textures, were calculated and compared with the experiment. The comparative analysis showed that the structural factors (grain/subgrain size) strongly

  16. In-Fiber Subpicosecond Pulse Shaping for Nonlinear Optical Telecommunication Data Processing at 640 Gbit/s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Azaña


    Full Text Available We review recent work on all-fiber (long-period fiber grating devices for optical pulse shaping, particularly flat-top pulse generation, down to the subpicosecond range and their application for nonlinear switching (demultiplexing of optical time-division multiplexed (OTDM data signals in fiber-optic telecommunication links operating up to 640 Gbit/s. Experiments are presented demonstrating error-free 640-to-10 Gbit/s demultiplexing of the 64 tributary channels using the generated flat-top pulses for temporal gating in a Kerr-effect-based nonlinear optical loop mirror. The use of flat-top pulses has critical benefits in the demultiplexing process, including a significantly increased timing-jitter tolerance (up to ~500 fs, i.e., 30% of the bit period and the associated improvement in the bit-error-rate performance (e.g., with a sensitivity increase of up to ~13 dB as compared with the use of Gaussian-like gating pulses. Long-period fiber grating pulse shapers with reduced polarization dependence are fabricated and successfully used for polarization-independent 640-to-10 Gbit/s demultiplexing experiments.

  17. Conservação de melão rendilhado minimamente processado sob atmosfera modificada ativa Conservation of minimally processed net melon under active modified atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília de Arruda


    Full Text Available Melões rendilhados cv. Bônus II foram minimamente processados manualmente na forma de cubos, acondicionados em diversos materiais de embalagem com injeção da mistura gasosa (5% O2 + 20% CO2 + 75% N2 e armazenados a 3ºC durante 12 dias. Os materiais de embalagem foram: BB-200: filme multicamada da Cryovac 65µm; PBC:filme poliolefínico Probag Conservax 64µm; PP: filme de polipropileno 52µm. Como controle, utilizou-se bandeja de polietileno com tampa perfurada. Realizou-se monitoramento da composição gasosa, análises microbiológicas, sensoriais e físico-químicas a cada 3 dias. Foram determinadas as taxas de permeabilidade ao O2 e CO2 de cada filme. A embalagem BB-200 promoveu acúmulo de CO2 até níveis de 24% e redução de O2 até níveis de 0,4%. Na embalagem PBC a concentração de O2 estabilizou-se ao redor de 8% e a de CO2 ao redor de 4%, enquanto na embalagem de PP os níveis de gases estabilizaram-se ao redor de 13% O2 e 6% CO2. De maneira geral, as características físico-químicas e sensoriais foram pouco influenciadas pelos tratamentos. A alteração da composição gasosa foi eficiente no controle de microrganismos. A partir do 9º dia de armazenamento, os melões controle apresentaram níveis de bactérias mesófilas acima de 10(5 NMP/g, com riscos de apresentarem microrganismos patogênicos e/ou deterioradores.Net melons cv. Bonus II were minimally processed as cubes, wrapped in several packaging materials with injection of the gaseous mixture (5% O2 + 20% CO2 + 75% N2 and stored at 3ºC for 12 days. The packaging materials were: BB-200: Cryovac multlayer film 65mm; PBC: Probag Conservax polyolephinic film 64µm; PP: polypropylene film 52µm. Polystyrene trays were used as control with perforated cover. Gaseous composition inside of the packaging, microbiological, sensorial and physical-chemical characteristics were determined each 3 days. The gas permeability was determined for each film. BB-200 packaging promoted CO

  18. Discriminative Shape Alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, M.; de Bruijne, M.


    The alignment of shape data to a common mean before its subsequent processing is an ubiquitous step within the area shape analysis. Current approaches to shape analysis or, as more specifically considered in this work, shape classification perform the alignment in a fully unsupervised way......, not taking into account that eventually the shapes are to be assigned to two or more different classes. This work introduces a discriminative variation to well-known Procrustes alignment and demonstrates its benefit over this classical method in shape classification tasks. The focus is on two...

  19. Pro NET Best Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, Stephen D


    Pro .NET Best Practices is a practical reference to the best practices that you can apply to your .NET projects today. You will learn standards, techniques, and conventions that are sharply focused, realistic and helpful for achieving results, steering clear of unproven, idealistic, and impractical recommendations. Pro .NET Best Practices covers a broad range of practices and principles that development experts agree are the right ways to develop software, which includes continuous integration, automated testing, automated deployment, and code analysis. Whether the solution is from a free and

  20. Getting to Net Zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The technology necessary to build net zero energy buildings (NZEBs) is ready and available today, however, building to net zero energy performance levels can be challenging. Energy efficiency measures, onsite energy generation resources, load matching and grid interaction, climatic factors, and local policies vary from location to location and require unique methods of constructing NZEBs. It is recommended that Components start looking into how to construct and operate NZEBs now as there is a learning curve to net zero construction and FY 2020 is just around the corner.

  1. Instant Lucene.NET

    CERN Document Server

    Heydt, Michael


    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A step-by-step guide that helps you to index, search, and retrieve unstructured data with the help of Lucene.NET.Instant Lucene.NET How-to is essential for developers new to Lucene and Lucene.NET who are looking to get an immediate foundational understanding of how to use the library in their application. It's assumed you have programming experience in C# already, but not that you have experience with search techniques such as information retrieval theory (although there will be a l

  2. CDMA and TDMA based neural nets. (United States)

    Herrero, J C


    CDMA and TDMA telecommunication techniques were established long time ago, but they have acquired a renewed presence due to the rapidly increasing mobile phones demand. In this paper, we are going to see they are suitable for neural nets, if we leave the concept "connection" between processing units and we adopt the concept "messages" exchanged between them. This may open the door to neural nets with a higher number of processing units and flexible configuration.

  3. A wind tunnel study of the effects of collision processes on the shape and oscillation for moderate-size raindrops (United States)

    Szakáll, Miklós; Kessler, Simon; Diehl, Karoline; Mitra, Subir K.; Borrmann, Stephan


    Drop-drop collision experiments were carried out at the Mainz vertical wind tunnel. Water drops of 2.5 mm diameter were freely floated at their terminal velocities in a vertical air stream and collided with 0.5 mm diameter droplets. The collisions were recorded with a high speed digital video camera at a frame rate of 1000 per second. Altogether 116 collision events were observed, 75 of which ended with coalescence, and the rest with filament type breakup. The coalescence efficiency and its dependence on the Weber number and on the eccentricity of the colliding drops showed good agreement with earlier numerical studies. Thirty-six recorded collisions were further analyzed in order to characterize the oscillation behavior of large drops after a collisional excitation. Besides the introduction of the experimental method for studying the raindrop collisions, the study primarily focused on the characterization of the average value and the amplitude of the axis ratio variation, the active oscillation modes and their frequencies, and the decay of the oscillations excited by the collision. In spite of the fact that the amplitude of the axis ratio variation increased up to 4 to 6 times of its value before collision - depending on whether the collision ended with coalescence or breakup -, the average axis ratios increased by less than 1%. Since the sizes of largest drops after collision remained practically unchanged during the collision process, the frequencies of the active fundamental (n = 2) oscillation modes of the drops did not change significantly either. Instantaneously after collision the transverse oscillation mode and the whole body rotation dominated, while at a later instant the oblate-prolate mode determined again the drop shape alteration. It was further found that the damping of the oscillation after collision can be adequately described by the viscous decay of a liquid spherical drop.

  4. The interaction of neutral evolutionary processes with climatically-driven adaptive changes in the 3D shape of the human os coxae. (United States)

    Betti, Lia; von Cramon-Taubadel, Noreen; Manica, Andrea; Lycett, Stephen J


    Differences in the breadth of the pelvis among modern human populations and among extinct hominin species have often been interpreted in the light of thermoregulatory adaptation, whereby a larger pelvic girdle would help preserve body temperature in cold environments while a narrower pelvis would help dissipate heat in tropical climates. There is, however, a theoretical problem in interpreting a pattern of variation as evidence of selection without first accounting for the effects of neutral evolutionary processes (i.e., mutation, genetic drift and migration). Here, we analyse 3D configurations of 27 landmarks on the os coxae of 1494 modern human individuals representing 30 male and 23 female populations from five continents and a range of climatic conditions. We test for the effects of climate on the size and shape of the pelvic bone, while explicitly accounting for population history (i.e., geographically-mediated gene flow and genetic drift). We find that neutral processes account for a substantial proportion of shape variance in the human os coxae in both sexes. Beyond the neutral pattern due to population history, temperature is a significant predictor of shape and size variation in the os coxae, at least in males. The effect of climate on the shape of the pelvic bone, however, is comparatively limited, explaining only a small percentage of shape variation in males and females. In accordance with previous hypotheses, the size of the os coxae tends to increase with decreasing temperature, although the significance of the association is reduced when population history is taken into account. In conclusion, the shape and size of the human os coxae reflect both neutral evolutionary processes and climatically-driven adaptive changes. Neutral processes have a substantial effect on pelvic variation, suggesting such factors will need to be taken into account in future studies of human and fossil hominin coxal variation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  5. Fast Response Shape Memory Effect Titanium Nickel (TiNi) Foam Torque Tubes (United States)

    Jardine, Peter


    Shape Change Technologies has developed a process to manufacture net-shaped TiNi foam torque tubes that demonstrate the shape memory effect. The torque tubes dramatically reduce response time by a factor of 10. This Phase II project matured the actuator technology by rigorously characterizing the process to optimize the quality of the TiNi and developing a set of metrics to provide ISO 9002 quality assurance. A laboratory virtual instrument engineering workbench (LabVIEW'TM')-based, real-time control of the torsional actuators was developed. These actuators were developed with The Boeing Company for aerospace applications.

  6. Transforming shape in design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prats, Miquel; Lim, Sungwoo; Jowers, Iestyn


    This paper is concerned with how design shapes are generated and explored by means of sketching. It presents research into the way designers transform shapes from one state to another using sketch representations. An experimental investigation of the sketching processes of designers is presented....... Connections between sketches are defined in terms of shape transformations and described according to shape rules. These rules provide a formal description of the shape exploration process and develop understanding of the mechanics of sketching in design. The paper concludes by discussing the important...

  7. A Graphical Query Language for Querying Petri Nets (United States)

    Xiao, Lan; Zheng, Li; Xiao, Jian; Huang, Yi

    As the number of business process models increases, providing business analysts and IT experts with a query langue for querying business process models is of great practical value. This paper uses Petri net as business process modeling language and develops Petri Net Query Language (PNQL), a graphical query language for Petri nets. The syntax and semantics of PNQL are formally studied. PNQL allows users to get not only the perfectly matched Petri nets but also the Petri nets with high similarity. The complexity of PNQL is studied.

  8. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Musall, Eike


    and identify possible renewable energy supply options which may be considered in calculations. Finally, the gap between the methodology proposed by each organisation and their respective national building code is assessed; providing an overview of the possible changes building codes will need to undergo......The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...... parameters used in the calculations are discussed and the various renewable supply options considered in the methodologies are summarised graphically. Thus, the paper helps to understand different existing approaches to calculate energy balance in Net ZEBs, highlights the importance of variables selection...

  9. PhysioNet (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The PhysioNet Resource is intended to stimulate current research and new investigations in the study of complex biomedical and physiologic signals. It offers free...

  10. NetSig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Heiko; Lawrence, Michael S; Chouinard, Candace R


    Methods that integrate molecular network information and tumor genome data could complement gene-based statistical tests to identify likely new cancer genes; but such approaches are challenging to validate at scale, and their predictive value remains unclear. We developed a robust statistic (Net......Sig) that integrates protein interaction networks with data from 4,742 tumor exomes. NetSig can accurately classify known driver genes in 60% of tested tumor types and predicts 62 new driver candidates. Using a quantitative experimental framework to determine in vivo tumorigenic potential in mice, we found that Net......Sig candidates induce tumors at rates that are comparable to those of known oncogenes and are ten-fold higher than those of random genes. By reanalyzing nine tumor-inducing NetSig candidates in 242 patients with oncogene-negative lung adenocarcinomas, we find that two (AKT2 and TFDP2) are significantly amplified...

  11. Net Reaction Rate and Neutrino Cooling Rate for the Urca Process in Departure from Chemical Equilibrium in the Crust of Fast-accreting Neutron Stars (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Hua; Huang, Xi; Zheng, Xiao-Ping

    We discuss the effect of compression on Urca shells in the ocean and crust of accreting neutron stars, especially in superbursting sources. We find that Urca shells may be deviated from chemical equilibrium in neutron stars which accrete at several tenths of the local Eddington accretion rate. The deviation depends on the energy threshold of the parent and daughter nuclei, the transition strength, the temperature, and the local accretion rate. In a typical crust model of accreting neutron stars, the chemical departures range from a few tenths of kBT to tens of kBT for various Urca pairs. If the Urca shell can exist in crusts of accreting neutron stars, compression may enhance the net neutrino cooling rate by a factor of about 1-2 relative to the neutrino emissivity in chemical equilibrium. For some cases, such as Urca pairs with small energy thresholds and/or weak transition strength, the large chemical departure may result in net heating rather than cooling, although the released heat can be small. Strong Urca pairs in the deep crust are hard to be deviated even in neutron stars accreting at the local Eddington accretion rate.

  12. TideNet (United States)


    query tide data sources in a desired geographic region of USA and its territories (Figure 1). Users can select a tide data source through the Google Map data sources according to the desired geographic region. It uses the Google Map interface to display data from different sources. Recent...Coastal Inlets Research Program TideNet The TideNet is a web-based Graphical User Interface (GUI) that provides users with GIS mapping tools to

  13. Building Neural Net Software


    Neto, João Pedro; Costa, José Félix


    In a recent paper [Neto et al. 97] we showed that programming languages can be translated on recurrent (analog, rational weighted) neural nets. The goal was not efficiency but simplicity. Indeed we used a number-theoretic approach to machine programming, where (integer) numbers were coded in a unary fashion, introducing a exponential slow down in the computations, with respect to a two-symbol tape Turing machine. Implementation of programming languages in neural nets turns to be not only theo...

  14. Interaction Nets in Russian


    Salikhmetov, Anton


    Draft translation to Russian of Chapter 7, Interaction-Based Models of Computation, from Models of Computation: An Introduction to Computability Theory by Maribel Fernandez. "In this chapter, we study interaction nets, a model of computation that can be seen as a representative of a class of models based on the notion of 'computation as interaction'. Interaction nets are a graphical model of computation devised by Yves Lafont in 1990 as a generalisation of the proof structures of linear logic...

  15. Programming NET 35

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse


    Bestselling author Jesse Liberty and industry expert Alex Horovitz uncover the common threads that unite the .NET 3.5 technologies, so you can benefit from the best practices and architectural patterns baked into the new Microsoft frameworks. The book offers a Grand Tour" of .NET 3.5 that describes how the principal technologies can be used together, with Ajax, to build modern n-tier and service-oriented applications. "

  16. -Net Approach to Sensor -Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusco Giordano


    Full Text Available Wireless sensors rely on battery power, and in many applications it is difficult or prohibitive to replace them. Hence, in order to prolongate the system's lifetime, some sensors can be kept inactive while others perform all the tasks. In this paper, we study the -coverage problem of activating the minimum number of sensors to ensure that every point in the area is covered by at least sensors. This ensures higher fault tolerance, robustness, and improves many operations, among which position detection and intrusion detection. The -coverage problem is trivially NP-complete, and hence we can only provide approximation algorithms. In this paper, we present an algorithm based on an extension of the classical -net technique. This method gives an -approximation, where is the number of sensors in an optimal solution. We do not make any particular assumption on the shape of the areas covered by each sensor, besides that they must be closed, connected, and without holes.

  17. Autonomous oscillatory shape change of DEA induced by the charge-discharge process under a constant voltage (United States)

    Tamagawa, Hirohisa; Kakihana, Masaki; Sasaki, Minoru

    Despite the promising characteristics of Dielectric Elastomel Actuator (DEA) as a practical soft actuator, the need of high voltage for its operation prevents the successful fabrication of a practical DEA, that is, the high voltage generation takes a bulky and costly power supply. Induction of complex shape change motion of DEA such as oscillatory shape change takes even a more bulky and costly multipurpose power supply. It is a serious practical issue to be overcome. In our latest study, however, we could build a simple DEA system which exhibited a relatively complex and autonomous oscillatory shape change merely under a constant voltage, though the voltage needed was high. This successful outcome must broaden the potential usefulness of DEA as a practical soft actuator.

  18. Shape-controlled synthesis of Cu2O nanocrystals by one pot solution-phase reduction process (United States)

    Zhang, Meili; Yu, Jinpeng; Zhang, Jianmin; Lan, Qi; Dai, Jia; Huang, Yaohan; Li, Guangli; Fan, Qingfei; Fan, Ximei; Zhou, Zuowan


    An interesting evolution to prepare shape-controlled Cu2O nanocrystals was realized by a convenient one pot synthesis. The Cu2O nanocrystals with different shapes can be obtained simply by adjusting the composition of reaction system. And, a plausible mechanism was also proposed to explain the nanostructures formation. The surface of Cu2O spheres with thorn exhibited high photocatalytic activity on the degradation of methyl orange (MO) solution under visible light irradiation. The photodegradation efficiency of MO solution reach up to 99.67% at the first 10 min. It is still as high as 98% even at the end of the fourth cycle.

  19. Shaping healthcare-seeking processes during fatal illness in resource-poor settings. A study in Lao PDR. (United States)

    Alvesson, Helle M; Lindelow, Magnus; Khanthaphat, Bouasavanh; Laflamme, Lucie


    There are profound social meanings attached to bearing children that affect the experience of losing a child, which is akin to the loss of a mother in the household. The objective of this study is to comprehend the broader processes that shape household healthcare-seeking during fatal illness episodes or reproductive health emergencies in resource-poor communities. The study was conducted in six purposively selected poor, rural communities in Lao PDR, located in two districts that represent communities with different access to health facilities and contain diverse ethnic groups. Households having experienced fatal cases were first identified in focus group discussions with community members, which lead to the identification of 26 deaths in eleven households through caregiver and spouse interviews. The interviews used an open-ended anthropological approach and followed a three-delay framework. Interpretive description was used in the data analysis. The healthcare-seeking behavior reported by caregivers revealed a broad range of providers, reflecting the mix of public, private, informal and traditional health services in Lao PDR. Most caregivers had experienced multiple constraints in healthcare-seeking prior to death. Decisions regarding care-seeking were characterized as social rather than individual actions. They were constrained by medical costs, low expectations of recovery and worries about normative expectations from healthcare workers on how patients and caregivers should behave at health facilities to qualify for treatment. Caregivers raised the difficulties in determining the severity of the state of the child/mother. Delays in reaching care related to lack of physical access and to risks associated with taking a sick family member out of the local community. Delays in receiving care were affected by the perceived low quality of care provided at the health facilities. Care-seeking is influenced by family- and community-based relations, which are integrated

  20. Shaping healthcare-seeking processes during fatal illness in resource-poor settings. A study in Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvesson Helle M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are profound social meanings attached to bearing children that affect the experience of losing a child, which is akin to the loss of a mother in the household. The objective of this study is to comprehend the broader processes that shape household healthcare-seeking during fatal illness episodes or reproductive health emergencies in resource-poor communities. Methods The study was conducted in six purposively selected poor, rural communities in Lao PDR, located in two districts that represent communities with different access to health facilities and contain diverse ethnic groups. Households having experienced fatal cases were first identified in focus group discussions with community members, which lead to the identification of 26 deaths in eleven households through caregiver and spouse interviews. The interviews used an open-ended anthropological approach and followed a three-delay framework. Interpretive description was used in the data analysis. Results The healthcare-seeking behavior reported by caregivers revealed a broad range of providers, reflecting the mix of public, private, informal and traditional health services in Lao PDR. Most caregivers had experienced multiple constraints in healthcare-seeking prior to death. Decisions regarding care-seeking were characterized as social rather than individual actions. They were constrained by medical costs, low expectations of recovery and worries about normative expectations from healthcare workers on how patients and caregivers should behave at health facilities to qualify for treatment. Caregivers raised the difficulties in determining the severity of the state of the child/mother. Delays in reaching care related to lack of physical access and to risks associated with taking a sick family member out of the local community. Delays in receiving care were affected by the perceived low quality of care provided at the health facilities. Conclusions Care-seeking is

  1. A Marked Poisson Process Driven Latent Shape Model for 3D Segmentation of Reflectance Confocal Microscopy Image Stacks of Human Skin. (United States)

    Ghanta, Sindhu; Jordan, Michael I; Kose, Kivanc; Brooks, Dana H; Rajadhyaksha, Milind; Dy, Jennifer G


    process with shape priors and performs inference using Gibbs sampling. Experimental results show that the proposed unsupervised model is able to automatically detect the DEJ with physiologically relevant accuracy in the range 10- 20 μm .

  2. A Marked Poisson Process Driven Latent Shape Model for 3D Segmentation of Reflectance Confocal Microscopy Image Stacks of Human Skin (United States)

    Ghanta, Sindhu; Jordan, Michael I.; Kose, Kivanc; Brooks, Dana H.; Rajadhyaksha, Milind; Dy, Jennifer G.


    Segmenting objects of interest from 3D datasets is a common problem encountered in biological data. Small field of view and intrinsic biological variability combined with optically subtle changes of intensity, resolution and low contrast in images make the task of segmentation difficult, especially for microscopy of unstained living or freshly excised thick tissues. Incorporating shape information in addition to the appearance of the object of interest can often help improve segmentation performance. However, shapes of objects in tissue can be highly variable and design of a flexible shape model that encompasses these variations is challenging. To address such complex segmentation problems, we propose a unified probabilistic framework that can incorporate the uncertainty associated with complex shapes, variable appearance and unknown locations. The driving application which inspired the development of this framework is a biologically important segmentation problem: the task of automatically detecting and segmenting the dermal-epidermal junction (DEJ) in 3D reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) images of human skin. RCM imaging allows noninvasive observation of cellular, nuclear and morphological detail. The DEJ is an important morphological feature as it is where disorder, disease and cancer usually start. Detecting the DEJ is challenging because it is a 2D surface in a 3D volume which has strong but highly variable number of irregularly spaced and variably shaped “peaks and valleys”. In addition, RCM imaging resolution, contrast and intensity vary with depth. Thus a prior model needs to incorporate the intrinsic structure while allowing variability in essentially all its parameters. We propose a model which can incorporate objects of interest with complex shapes and variable appearance in an unsupervised setting by utilizing domain knowledge to build appropriate priors of the model. Our novel strategy to model this structure combines a spatial Poisson process

  3. An Optimization Algorithm for the Design of an Irregularly-Shaped Bridge Based on the Orthogonal Test and Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanbing Liu


    Full Text Available Irregularly-shaped bridges are usually adopted to connect the main bridge and ramps in urban overpasses, which are under significant flexion-torsion coupling effects and in complicated stress states. In irregular-shaped bridge design, the parameters such as ramp radius, bifurcation diaphragm stiffness, box girder height, and supporting condition could affect structural performance in different manners. In this paper, the influence of various parameters on three indices, including maximum stress, the stress variation coefficient, and the fundamental frequency of torsional vibration, is investigated and analyzed based on orthogonal test method. Through orthogonal analysis, the major influence parameters and corresponding optimal values for these indices are achieved. Combining with the analytic hierarchy process (AHP, the hierarchical structure model of the multi-indices orthogonal test is established and a comprehensive weight analysis method is proposed to reflect the parameter influence on overall mechanical properties of an irregularly-shaped bridge. Influence order and optimal values of parameters for overall mechanical properties are determined based on the weight of factors and levels calculated by the comprehensive weight analysis method. The results indicate that the comprehensive weight analysis method is superior to the overall balance method, which verifies the effectiveness and accuracy of the comprehensive weight analysis in the parameter optimization of the multi-indices orthogonal test for an irregularly-shaped bridge. Optimal parameters obtained in this paper can provide reference and guidance for parameter control in irregularly-shaped bridge design.

  4. La plataforma .NET


    Fornas Estrada, Miquel


    L'aparició de la plataforma .NET Framework ha suposat un canvi molt important en la forma de crear i distribuir aplicacions, degut a que incorpora una sèrie d'innovacions tècniques i productives que simplifiquen molt les tasques necessàries per desenvolupar un projecte. La aparición de la plataforma. NET Framework ha supuesto un cambio muy importante en la forma de crear y distribuir aplicaciones, debido a que incorpora una serie de innovaciones técnicas y productivas que simplifican mucho...

  5. Biological Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Wingender, E


    It was suggested some years ago that Petri nets might be well suited to modeling metabolic networks, overcoming some of the limitations encountered by the use of systems employing ODEs (ordinary differential equations). Much work has been done since then which confirms this and demonstrates the usefulness of this concept for systems biology. Petri net technology is not only intuitively understood by scientists trained in the life sciences, it also has a robust mathematical foundation and provides the required degree of flexibility. As a result it appears to be a very promising approach to mode

  6. Midpoint Shapes. (United States)

    Welchman, Rosamond; Urso, Josephine


    Emphasizes the importance of children exploring hands-on and minds-on mathematics. Presents a midpoint shape activity for students to explore the midpoint shape of familiar quadrilaterals, such as squares and rectangles. (KHR)

  7. Modality-specific spectral dynamics in response to visual and tactile sequential shape information processing tasks: An MEG study using multivariate pattern classification analysis. (United States)

    Gohel, Bakul; Lee, Peter; Jeong, Yong


    Brain regions that respond to more than one sensory modality are characterized as multisensory regions. Studies on the processing of shape or object information have revealed recruitment of the lateral occipital cortex, posterior parietal cortex, and other regions regardless of input sensory modalities. However, it remains unknown whether such regions show similar (modality-invariant) or different (modality-specific) neural oscillatory dynamics, as recorded using magnetoencephalography (MEG), in response to identical shape information processing tasks delivered to different sensory modalities. Modality-invariant or modality-specific neural oscillatory dynamics indirectly suggest modality-independent or modality-dependent participation of particular brain regions, respectively. Therefore, this study investigated the modality-specificity of neural oscillatory dynamics in the form of spectral power modulation patterns in response to visual and tactile sequential shape-processing tasks that are well-matched in terms of speed and content between the sensory modalities. Task-related changes in spectral power modulation and differences in spectral power modulation between sensory modalities were investigated at source-space (voxel) level, using a multivariate pattern classification (MVPC) approach. Additionally, whole analyses were extended from the voxel level to the independent-component level to take account of signal leakage effects caused by inverse solution. The modality-specific spectral dynamics in multisensory and higher-order brain regions, such as the lateral occipital cortex, posterior parietal cortex, inferior temporal cortex, and other brain regions, showed task-related modulation in response to both sensory modalities. This suggests modality-dependency of such brain regions on the input sensory modality for sequential shape-information processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Petri Nets-Applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 9. Petri Nets - Applications. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 9 September 1999 pp 44-52. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: Author Affiliations. Y Narahari ...

  9. Safety nets or straitjackets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna


    Does regulation of working hours at national and sector level impose straitjackets, or offer safety nets to employees seeking working time flexibility? This article compares legislation and collective agreements in the metal industries of Denmark, Germany and the USA. The industry has historically...

  10. Coloured Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kurt


    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. This book introduces the constructs of the CPN modelling language and presents the related analysis methods. It provides a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN.

  11. Boom Booom Net Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Yong, Louisa; Dobie, Ian


    of an existing Internet radio station; Boom Booom Net Radio. Whilst necessity dictates some use of technology-related terminology, wherever possible we have endeavoured to keep such jargon to a minimum and to either explain it in the text or to provide further explanation in the appended glossary....

  12. Game Theory .net. (United States)

    Shor, Mikhael


    States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…

  13. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism...

  14. Approximation methods for stochastic petri nets (United States)

    Jungnitz, Hauke Joerg


    Stochastic Marked Graphs are a concurrent decision free formalism provided with a powerful synchronization mechanism generalizing conventional Fork Join Queueing Networks. In some particular cases the analysis of the throughput can be done analytically. Otherwise the analysis suffers from the classical state explosion problem. Embedded in the divide and conquer paradigm, approximation techniques are introduced for the analysis of stochastic marked graphs and Macroplace/Macrotransition-nets (MPMT-nets), a new subclass introduced herein. MPMT-nets are a subclass of Petri nets that allow limited choice, concurrency and sharing of resources. The modeling power of MPMT is much larger than that of marked graphs, e.g., MPMT-nets can model manufacturing flow lines with unreliable machines and dataflow graphs where choice and synchronization occur. The basic idea leads to the notion of a cut to split the original net system into two subnets. The cuts lead to two aggregated net systems where one of the subnets is reduced to a single transition. A further reduction leads to a basic skeleton. The generalization of the idea leads to multiple cuts, where single cuts can be applied recursively leading to a hierarchical decomposition. Based on the decomposition, a response time approximation technique for the performance analysis is introduced. Also, delay equivalence, which has previously been introduced in the context of marked graphs by Woodside et al., Marie's method and flow equivalent aggregation are applied to the aggregated net systems. The experimental results show that response time approximation converges quickly and shows reasonable accuracy in most cases. The convergence of Marie's method and flow equivalent aggregation are applied to the aggregated net systems. The experimental results show that response time approximation converges quickly and shows reasonable accuracy in most cases. The convergence of Marie's is slower, but the accuracy is generally better. Delay

  15. Design of sustained release fine particles using two-step mechanical powder processing: particle shape modification of drug crystals and dry particle coating with polymer nanoparticle agglomerate. (United States)

    Kondo, Keita; Ito, Natsuki; Niwa, Toshiyuki; Danjo, Kazumi


    We attempted to prepare sustained release fine particles using a two-step mechanical powder processing method; particle-shape modification and dry particle coating. First, particle shape of bulk drug was modified by mechanical treatment to yield drug crystals suitable for the coating process. Drug crystals became more rounded with increasing rotation speed, which demonstrates that powerful mechanical stress yields spherical drug crystals with narrow size distribution. This process is the result of destruction, granulation and refinement of drug crystals. Second, the modified drug particles and polymer coating powder were mechanically treated to prepare composite particles. Polymer nanoparticle agglomerate obtained by drying poly(meth)acrylate aqueous dispersion was used as a coating powder. The porous nanoparticle agglomerate has superior coating performance, because it is completely deagglomerated under mechanical stress to form fine fragments that act as guest particles. As a result, spherical drug crystals treated with porous agglomerate were effectively coated by poly(meth)acrylate powder, showing sustained release after curing. From these findings, particle-shape modification of drug crystals and dry particle coating with nanoparticle agglomerate using a mechanical powder processor is expected as an innovative technique for preparing controlled-release coated particles having high drug content and size smaller than 100 μm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. NET 40 Generics Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Sudipta


    This is a concise, practical guide that will help you learn Generics in .NET, with lots of real world and fun-to-build examples and clear explanations. It is packed with screenshots to aid your understanding of the process. This book is aimed at beginners in Generics. It assumes some working knowledge of C# , but it isn't mandatory. The following would get the most use out of the book: Newbie C# developers struggling with Generics. Experienced C++ and Java Programmers who are migrating to C# and looking for an alternative to other generic frameworks like STL and JCF would find this book handy.

  17. Perspectives in shape analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bruckstein, Alfred; Maragos, Petros; Wuhrer, Stefanie


    This book presents recent advances in the field of shape analysis. Written by experts in the fields of continuous-scale shape analysis, discrete shape analysis and sparsity, and numerical computing who hail from different communities, it provides a unique view of the topic from a broad range of perspectives. Over the last decade, it has become increasingly affordable to digitize shape information at high resolution. Yet analyzing and processing this data remains challenging because of the large amount of data involved, and because modern applications such as human-computer interaction require real-time processing. Meeting these challenges requires interdisciplinary approaches that combine concepts from a variety of research areas, including numerical computing, differential geometry, deformable shape modeling, sparse data representation, and machine learning. On the algorithmic side, many shape analysis tasks are modeled using partial differential equations, which can be solved using tools from the field of n...

  18. Net ecosystem calcification and net primary production in two Hawaii back-reef systems (United States)

    Kiili, S.; Colbert, S.; Hart, K.


    Back-reef systems have complex carbon cycling, driven by dominant benthic communities that change with environmental conditions and display characteristic patterns of net primary production (NP) and net ecosystem calcification (G). The G/NP ratio provides a fundamental community-level assessment to compare systems spatially and to evaluate temporal changes in carbon cycling. Carbon dynamics were examined at leeward Hōnaunau and windward Waíōpae, Hawaíi Island. Both locations discharge brackish groundwater, including geothermal water at Waíōpae. The change in total CO2 (TCO2) and total alkalinity (TA) between morning and afternoon was measured to calculate the G/NP ratio along a salinity gradient. At both sites, aragonite saturation (ΩAr) was lower than open ocean conditions, and increased with salinity. Between the morning and afternoon, ΩAr increased by at least 1 as photosynthesis consumed CO2. At Waíōpae, water was corrosive to aragonite due to the input of acidic groundwater, but not at Honaunau, demonstrating the importance of local watershed characteristics on ΩAr. Across the salinity gradient, TA and TCO2 decreased between morning and afternoon. At Hōnaunau, G/NP increased from 0.11 to 0.31 with salinity, consistent with an offshore increase in coral cover. But at Waíōpae, G/NP decreased from 0.49 to 0.0 with salinity, despite an increase in coral cover with salinity. Low G may be caused by benthic processes, including coral bleaching or high rates of carbonate dissolution in interstitial waters between tide pools. Broader environmental conditions than just salinity, including pH of fresh groundwater inputs, shape the carbon cycling in the back-reef system. Examining the G/NP ratio of a back-reef system allows for a simple method to establish community level activity, and possibly indicate changes in a dynamic system.

  19. Vacuum Die Casting Process and Simulation for Manufacturing 0.8 mm-Thick Aluminum Plate with Four Maze Shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul Kyu Jin


    Full Text Available Using vacuum die casting, 0.8 mm-thick plates in complicated shapes are manufactured with the highly castable aluminum alloy Silafont-36 (AlSi9MgMn. The sizes and shapes of the cavities, made of thin plates, feature four different mazes. To investigate formability and mechanical properties by shot condition, a total of six parameters (melt temperatures of 730 °C and 710 °C; plunger speeds of 3.0 m/s and 2.5 m/s; vacuum pressure of 250 mbar and no vacuum are varied in experiments, and corresponding simulations are performed. Simulation results obtained through MAGMA software show similar tendencies to those of the experiments. When the melt pouring temperature is set to 730 °C rather than 710 °C, formability and mechanical properties are superior, and when the plunger speed is set to 3.0 m/s rather than to 2.5 m/s, a fine, even structure is obtained with better mechanical properties. The non-vacuumed sample is half unfilled. The tensile strength and elongation of the sample fabricated under a melt temperature of 730 °C, plunger speed of 3.0 m/s, and vacuum pressure of 250 mbar are 265 MPa and 8.5%, respectively.

  20. Biodegradable vascular stents with high tensile and compressive strength: a novel strategy for applying monofilaments via solid-state drawing and shaped-annealing processes. (United States)

    Im, Seung Hyuk; Kim, Chang Yong; Jung, Youngmee; Jang, Yangsoo; Kim, Soo Hyun


    Monofilaments such as those consisting of polyamide (PA), polydioxanone (PDS), and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), have been commonly used in various industries. However, most are non-biodegradable, which is unfavorable for many biomedical applications. Although biodegradable polymers offer significant benefits, they are still limited by their weak mechanical properties, which is an obstacle for use as a biomaterial that requires high strength. To overcome the current limitations of biodegradable monofilaments, a novel solid-state drawing (SSD) process was designed to significantly improve the mechanical properties of both PA and poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) monofilaments in this study. Both PA and PLLA monofilaments exhibited more than two-fold increased tensile strength and a highly reduced thickness using SSD. In X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analyses, it was determined that SSD could not only promote the α-crystal phase, but also smoothen the surface of PLLA monofilaments. To apply SSD-monofilaments with superior properties to cardiovascular stents, a shaped-annealing (SA) process was designed as the follow-up process after SSD. Using this process, three types of vascular stents could be fabricated, composed of SSD-monofilaments: double-helix, single-spring and double-spring shaped stents. The annealing temperature was optimized at 80 °C to minimize the loss of mechanical and physical properties of SSD-monofilaments for secondary processing. All three types of vascular stents were tested according to ISO 25539-2. Consequently, it was confirmed that spring-shaped stents had good recovery rate values and a high compressive modulus. In conclusion, this study showed significantly improved mechanical properties of both tensile and compressive strength simultaneously and extended the potential for biomedical applications of monofilaments.

  1. Continuous wet-process growth of ZnO nanoarrays for wire-shaped photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cell. (United States)

    Tao, Pan; Guo, Wanwan; Du, Jun; Tao, Changyuan; Qing, Shenglan; Fan, Xing


    Well-aligned ZnO nanorod arrays have been grown on metal-plated polymer fiber via a mild wet process in a newly-designed continuous reactor, aiming to provide wire-shaped photoanodes for wearable dye-sensitized solar cells. The growth conditions were systematically optimized with the help of computational flow-field simulation. The flow field in the reactor will not only affect the morphology of the ZnO nanorod⧹nanowire but also affect the pattern distribution of nanoarray on the electrode surface. Unlike the sectional structure from the traditional batch-type reactor, ZnO nanorods with finely-controlled length and uniform morphology could be grown from the continuous reactor. After optimization, the wire-shaped ZnO-type photoanode grown from the continuous reactor exhibited better photovoltaic performance than that from the traditional batch-type reactor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparing digital-light-processing (DLP) and liquid-crystal-on-silicon (LCoS) technologies for high-quality 3D shape measurement (United States)

    Gong, Chen; Li, Beiwen; Harding, Kevin G.; Zhang, Song


    This paper presents a thorough comparison between the digital-light-processing (DLP) technology and liquid-crystal-onsilicon (LCoS) technology on high-quality 3D shape measurement. Specifically, we will study not only each individual color, but also the combination of different color (i.e., white light). The binary defocusing and focused sinusoidal fringe projection methods will be evaluated under all these scenarios. Experimental data demonstrated that for slow speed measurements, DLP has better fringe contrast and thus higher signal to noise ratio (SNR) for better quality 3D shape measurement when the binary defocusing method is employed, or when proper synchronization is present when the focus sinusoidal method is used; and LCoS provides more flexibility for system development when the focus sinusoidal method is employed.

  3. Food Safety Nets:


    Haggblade, Steven; Diallo, Boubacar; Staatz, John; Theriault, Veronique; Traoré, Abdramane


    Food and social safety nets have a history as long as human civilization. In hunter gatherer societies, food sharing is pervasive. Group members who prove unlucky in the short run, hunting or foraging, receive food from other households in anticipation of reciprocal consideration at a later time (Smith 1988). With the emergence of the first large sedentary civilizations in the Middle East, administrative systems developed specifically around food storage and distribution. The ancient Egyptian...

  4. Net technical assessment


    Wegmann, David G.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The present and near term military balance of power between the U.S. and the Soviet Union can be expressed in a variety of net assessments. One can examine the strategic nuclear balance, the conventional balance in Europe, the maritime balance, and many others. Such assessments are essential not only for policy making but for arms control purposes and future force structure planning. However, to project the future military balance, on...

  5. Influence exerted by the shape of the surfaces of working roll barrels upon the course of the MEFASS (Metal Forming Aided by Shear Stresses rolling process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Świątoniowski A.


    Full Text Available The essential aspect of the MEFASS rolling process is introducing the cyclic axial counter movement of the rolls transverse to the direction of rolling in the course of a band pass through a rolling gap. The effect of a change in the way of deformation obtained in this manner makes it possible to set in one roll pass a deformation several times larger than it is possible in a conventional process. In this paper, upon the basis of the computer model of the MES process, supported by experimental research, the analysis of the influence exerted by the shape of the surface of roll barrels upon the distribution of the intensity of stresses σi and deformations εi in the section of the band being rolled, and also upon the kinematic and force parameters of the process.

  6. Using WordNet for Building WordNets

    CERN Document Server

    Farreres, X; Farreres, Xavier; Rodriguez, Horacio; Rigau, German


    This paper summarises a set of methodologies and techniques for the fast construction of multilingual WordNets. The English WordNet is used in this approach as a backbone for Catalan and Spanish WordNets and as a lexical knowledge resource for several subtasks.

  7. Behavior and effect of Ti{sub 2}Ni phase during processing of NiTi shape memory alloy wire from cast ingot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhagyaraj, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208 016 (India); Ramaiah, K.V.; Saikrishna, C.N.; Bhaumik, S.K. [Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Materials Science Division, CSIR – National Aerospace Laboratories, Bangalore 560 017 (India); Gouthama, E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208 016 (India)


    Highlights: •Ti{sub 2}Ni second phase particles forms in different sizes and shapes in cast ingot. •TEM evidences showed shearing/fragmentation of Ti{sub 2}Ni during processing. •Matrix close to Ti{sub 2}Ni experienced severe plastic deformation lead to amorphisation. •Ti{sub 2}Ni interfaces were mostly faceted and assist in nucleation of martensite. •Heterogeneity of microstructure observed near to and away from Ti{sub 2}Ni. -- Abstract: Binary NiTi alloy is one of the commercially successful shape memory alloys (SMAs). Generally, the NiTi alloy composition used for thermal actuator application is slightly Ti-rich. In the present study, vacuum arc melted alloy of 50.2Ti–Ni (at.%) composition was prepared and characterized using optical, scanning and transmission electron microcopy. Formation of second phase particles (SPPs) in the cast alloy and their influence on development of microstructure during processing of the alloy into wire form has been investigated. Results showed that the present alloy contained Ti{sub 2}Ni type SPPs in the matrix. In the cast alloy, the Ti{sub 2}Ni particles form in varying sizes (1–10 μm) and shapes. During subsequent thermo-mechanical processing, these SPPs get sheared/fragmented into smaller particles with low aspect ratio. The presence of SPPs plays a significant role in refinement of the microstructure during processing of the alloy. During deformation of the alloy, the matrix phase around the SPPs experiences conditions similar to that observed in severe plastic deformation of metallic materials, leading to localized amorphisation of the matrix phase.

  8. Low-Cost, Net-Shape Ceramic Radial Turbine Program (United States)


    summarized in Table 21. The as-received material is nearly pure beta Si3N4 with only a few minor XRD peaks which have not been identified. Phases...After 2732F exposure, only B Si3N4 is detectable in the specimen interior and a cristobalite in the oxide layer. 61 .- --- k. ,,.l ,i I nn - n - - nn...Interior; a Cristobalite in Oxide Layer - 62 , These initial studies indicated that the Code 1 material was relatively pure and free of unstable

  9. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT): Advanced Near Net Shape Technology Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop and mature manufacturing technology to enable fabrication of single-piece integrally-stiffened launch vehicle structures to replace expensive, heavy, and...

  10. Net Shape Technology in Aerospace Structures. Volume 1. (United States)


    composed o f man \\ smll decta-ilI parIt s maid cI n sta I f: J1r om o ne p re cisi o n ’or-g In g. The cst I im tcd savNIn)g s -Ic h i c \\ e d M...metal I I orgy materialIs baised onl ra pid sol idi ficatIIon tech nology . Conser\\ at I nn ofC miatcr Ial s i n its own ri gh t is not genicrall a 1 1P r

  11. Near net shape forming unsing semi-solid metal forming

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, G


    Full Text Available Cost of material same as standard casting alloys Semi-solid state achieved direct from liquid. Oxidation reduced – reduced oxide entrapment. Reduced loss of metal during reheating. SSM scrap can be recycled in house. Hydrogen... CYLINDERS •SUSPENSION ARMS •WHEELS •PISTONS •KNUCKELS •ENGINE MOUNTS •PULEYS •ROCKER ARMS •BELT COVERS •MOTOR HOUSINGS •SPACE FRAMES 2005 Thin walled structural parts in doors A-Pillar Door AUDI A3 2005 Rear seat cover BMW R 1200 C motor bike...

  12. Hierarchical structure of ecological and non-ecological processes of differentiation shaped ongoing gastropod radiation in the Malawi Basin. (United States)

    Van Bocxlaer, Bert


    Ecological processes, non-ecological processes or a combination of both may cause reproductive isolation and speciation, but their specific roles and potentially complex interactions in evolutionary radiations remain poorly understood, which defines a central knowledge gap at the interface of microevolution and macroevolution. Here I examine genome scans in combination with phenotypic and environmental data to disentangle how ecological and non-ecological processes contributed to population differentiation and speciation in an ongoing radiation of Lanistes gastropods from the Malawi Basin. I found a remarkable hierarchical structure of differentiation mechanisms in space and time: neutral and mutation-order processes are older and occur mainly between regions, whereas more recent adaptive processes are the main driver of genetic differentiation and reproductive isolation within regions. The strongest differentiation occurs between habitats and between regions, i.e. when ecological and non-ecological processes act synergistically. The structured occurrence of these processes based on the specific geographical setting and ecological opportunities strongly influenced the potential for evolutionary radiation. The results highlight the importance of interactions between various mechanisms of differentiation in evolutionary radiations, and suggest that non-ecological processes are important in adaptive radiations, including those of cichlids. Insight into such interactions is critical to understanding large-scale patterns of organismal diversity. © 2017 The Author(s).

  13. Computer-aided process planning in prismatic shape die components based on Standard for the Exchange of Product model data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awais Ahmad Khan


    Full Text Available Insufficient technologies made good integration between the die components in design, process planning, and manufacturing impossible in the past few years. Nowadays, the advanced technologies based on Standard for the Exchange of Product model data are making it possible. This article discusses the three main steps for achieving the complete process planning for prismatic parts of the die components. These three steps are data extraction, feature recognition, and process planning. The proposed computer-aided process planning system works as part of an integrated system to cover the process planning of any prismatic part die component. The system is built using Visual Basic with EWDraw system for visualizing the Standard for the Exchange of Product model data file. The system works successfully and can cover any type of sheet metal die components. The case study discussed in this article is taken from a large design of progressive die.

  14. One-step electro-spinning/netting technique for controllably preparing polyurethane nano-fiber/net. (United States)

    Hu, Juanping; Wang, Xianfeng; Ding, Bin; Lin, Jinyou; Yu, Jianyong; Sun, Gang


    Electro-spinning/netting (ESN) as a cutting-edge technique evokes much interest because of its ability in the one-step preparation of versatile nano-fiber/net (NFN) membranes. Here, a controllable fabrication of polyurethane (PU) NFN membranes with attractive structures, consisting of common electrospun nanofibers and two-dimensional (2D) soap bubble-like structured nano-nets via an ESN process is reported. The unique nanoscaled NFN architecture can be finely controlled by regulating the solution properties and several ESN process parameters. The versatile PU nano-nets comprising interlinked nanowires with ultrathin diameters (5-40 nm) mean that the NFN structured membranes possess several excellent characteristics, such as an extremely large specific surface area, high porosity and large stacking density, which would be particularly useful for applications in ultrafiltration, special protective clothing, ultrasensitive sensors, catalyst support and so on. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Proof nets for lingusitic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moot, R.C.A.


    This book investigates the possible linguistic applications of proof nets, redundancy free representations of proofs, which were introduced by Girard for linear logic. We will adapt the notion of proof net to allow the formulation of a proof net calculus which is soundand complete for the

  16. Teaching Tennis for Net Success. (United States)

    Young, Bryce


    A program for teaching tennis to beginners, NET (Net Easy Teaching) is described. The program addresses three common needs shared by tennis students: active involvement in hitting the ball, clearing the net, and positive reinforcement. A sample lesson plan is included. (IAH)

  17. Net4Care Ecosystem Website

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius; Rasmussen, Morten


    is a tele-monitoring scenario in which Net4Care clients are deployed in a gateway in private homes. Medical devices then connect to these gateways and transmit their observations to a Net4Care server. In turn the Net4Care server creates valid clinical HL7 documents, stores them in a national XDS repository...

  18. Master Robotic Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Lipunov


    Full Text Available The main goal of the MASTER-Net project is to produce a unique fast sky survey with all sky observed over a single night down to a limiting magnitude of 19-20. Such a survey will make it possible to address a number of fundamental problems: search for dark energy via the discovery and photometry of supernovae (including SNIa, search for exoplanets, microlensing effects, discovery of minor bodies in the Solar System, and space-junk monitoring. All MASTER telescopes can be guided by alerts, and we plan to observe prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts synchronously in several filters and in several polarization planes.

  19. Art/Net/Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik; Lindstrøm, Hanne


    The seminar Art|Net|Work deals with two important changes in our culture. On one side, the network has become essential in the latest technological development. The Internet has entered a new phase, Web 2.0, including the occurrence of as ‘Wiki’s’, ‘Peer-2-Peer’ distribution, user controlled...... the praxis of the artist. We see different kinds of interventions and activism (including ‘hacktivism’) using the network as a way of questioning the invisible rules that govern public and semi-public spaces. Who ‘owns’ them? What kind of social relationships do they generate? On what principle...

  20. Quality inspection guided laser processing of irregular shape objects by stereo vision measurement: application in badminton shuttle manufacturing (United States)

    Qi, Li; Wang, Shun; Zhang, Yixin; Sun, Yingying; Zhang, Xuping


    The quality inspection process is usually carried out after first processing of the raw materials such as cutting and milling. This is because the parts of the materials to be used are unidentified until they have been trimmed. If the quality of the material is assessed before the laser process, then the energy and efforts wasted on defected materials can be saved. We proposed a new production scheme that can achieve quantitative quality inspection prior to primitive laser cutting by means of three-dimensional (3-D) vision measurement. First, the 3-D model of the object is reconstructed by the stereo cameras, from which the spatial cutting path is derived. Second, collaborating with another rear camera, the 3-D cutting path is reprojected to both the frontal and rear views of the object and thus generates the regions-of-interest (ROIs) for surface defect analysis. An accurate visual guided laser process and reprojection-based ROI segmentation are enabled by a global-optimization-based trinocular calibration method. The prototype system was built and tested with the processing of raw duck feathers for high-quality badminton shuttle manufacture. Incorporating with a two-dimensional wavelet-decomposition-based defect analysis algorithm, both the geometrical and appearance features of the raw feathers are quantified before they are cut into small patches, which result in fully automatic feather cutting and sorting.

  1. Shape memory characteristics and mechanical properties of powder metallurgy processed Ti50Ni40Cu10 alloy. (United States)

    Kim, Yeon-Wook


    Ti-Ni-Cu alloy powders were prepared by gas atomization and porous bulk specimens were fabricated by spark plasma sintering (SPS). The microstructure of as-solidified powders exhibited a cellular structure and they contained a high density of nano-sized porosities which were located in the intercellular regions. XRD analysis showed that one-step martensitic transformation of B2-B19 occurred in all alloy powders and SPS specimens. When the martensitic transformation start temperature (M(s)) and austenite transformation finish temperature (A(f)) were determined in order to analyze the dependence of powder size on transformation temperatures, the M(s) increased slightly from -17.5 degrees C to - 14.6 degrees C as increasing the powder size ranging from between 25 and 50 μm to ranging between 100 and 150 μm. However, the M(s) and A(f) of the as-atomized powders is much smaller than those of SPS specimens and the M(s) of porous specimen was about 10.9 degrees C. Loading-unloading compressive tests were carried out to investigate the mechanical properties of porous Ti-Ni-Cu specimen. The specimen was compressed to the strain of 6% at a temperature higher than A,. After unloading, the residual strain was 2.1%. After the compressed specimen was heated to 60 degrees C and held for 30 minutes and then cooled to room temperature, the changes in the length of the specimens were measured. Then it was found that the recovered strain ascribed to shape memory effect was 1.5%.

  2. expansions to and an introduction to (United States)

    Martin, John; Rosa, Bruce A.; Ozersky, Philip; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Zhang, Xu; Bhonagiri-Palsikar, Veena; Tyagi, Rahul; Wang, Qi; Choi, Young-Jun; Gao, Xin; McNulty, Samantha N.; Brindley, Paul J.; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2015-01-01 ( is the new moniker for a collection of databases: and Within this collection we provide services and resources for parasitic roundworms (nematodes) and flatworms (trematodes), collectively known as helminths. For over a decade we have provided resources for studying nematodes via our veteran site ( In this article, (i) we provide an update on the expansions of that hosts omics data from 84 species and provides advanced search tools to the broad scientific community so that data can be mined in a useful and user-friendly manner and (ii) we introduce, a site dedicated to the dissemination of data from flukes, flatworm parasites of the class Trematoda, phylum Platyhelminthes. is an independent component of and currently hosts data from 16 species, with information ranging from genomic, functional genomic data, enzymatic pathway utilization to microbiome changes associated with helminth infections. The databases’ interface, with a sophisticated query engine as a backbone, is intended to allow users to search for multi-factorial combinations of species’ omics properties. This report describes updates to since its last description in NAR, 2012, and also introduces and presents its new sibling site, PMID:25392426


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelia Schettini


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the radiometric properties of coloured nets used to protect a peach cultivation. The modifications of the solar spectral distribution, mainly in the R and FR wavelength band, influence plant photomorphogenesis by means of the phytochrome and cryptochrome. The phytochrome response is characterized in terms of radiation rate in the red wavelengths (R, 600-700 nm to that in the farred radiation (FR, 700-800 nm, i.e. the R/FR ratio. The effects of the blue radiation (B, 400-500 nm is investigated by the ratio between the blue radiation and the far-red radiation, i.e. the B/FR ratio. A BLUE net, a RED net, a YELLOW net, a PEARL net, a GREY net and a NEUTRAL net were tested in Bari (Italy, latitude 41° 05’ N. Peach trees were located in pots inside the greenhouses and in open field. The growth of the trees cultivated in open field was lower in comparison to the growth of the trees grown under the nets. The RED, PEARL, YELLOW and GREY nets increased the growth of the trees more than the other nets. The nets positively influenced the fruit characteristics, such as fruit weight and flesh firmness.

  4. Experiential and Contextual Factors That Shape Engineering Interest and Educational Decision-Making Processes among Female Students (United States)

    Swan, Amy


    This qualitative study explores the formation of educational and vocational goals among female first-year engineering students at two community colleges and one four-year institution, as well as contextual influences on this process. Participants' pathways to college are also explored, as well as their pathways into engineering. The findings…

  5. Soundness of Timed-Arc Workflow Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateo, Jose Antonio; Srba, Jiri; Sørensen, Mathias Grund


    Analysis of workflow processes with quantitative aspects like timing is of interest in numerous time-critical applications. We suggest a workflow model based on timed-arc Petri nets and study the foundational problems of soundness and strong (time-bounded) soundness. We explore the decidability o...

  6. Petri Nets as Models of Linear Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn


    The chief purpose of this paper is to appraise the feasibility of Girad's linear logic as a specification language for parallel processes. To this end we propose an interpretation of linear logic in Petri nets, with respect to which we investigate the expressive power of the logic...

  7. Novel fabrication process for 3D meander-shaped microcoils in SU-8 dielectric and their application to linear micromotors (United States)

    Seidemann, Volker; Buettgenbach, Stephanus


    This paper reports on an optimized fabrication process for three dimensional coil structures such as meander or helical coils wound around in plane magnetic structures. The process consists of UV depth lithography employing AZ4562 and SU8 photo resists and electroplating of copper and nickel-iron. Furthermore SU8 is used as the embedding dielectric due to its excellent planarization properties and high structural aspect ratio. Special emphasis was laid on the decrease of via interconnect resistance by electroplating the vias and upper conductors in a single step thus avoiding a large number of resistive interfaces. This was achieved by sacrificial wiring and structured seed layers. The developed technology is applied to a variable reluctance micro motor with a novel design that avoids high friction. The presented concept makes use of a stator traveler configuration generating complementary attraction forces. The technology and design concept is presented and first results are demonstrated.

  8. The Battle for the Soul of Management Denmark-The Shaping of the Danish Versions of Business Process Reengineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Vogelius, Peter


    it might be possible to find new ways of handling the development of labour. Although not as powerful as their rhetoric, the concepts do have impact on the development of the organisation and labour. Thus the fads and the concepts is societally facilitating new visions and theories on the development......Managerial theory distilled into tidy concepts is continually and almost ritually launched into the international and national management audiences. The paper discuss the contemporary exemplar of such management concepts: Business Process Reengineering (BPR). By taking the management fads serious...... at central elements between Danish BPR-promoters. They occurred on the issues of employment effects, change management, employee participation, the role of IT, and radical change. On the other hand convergence occurred on the cross functional process view and the silencing of the work-visions formulated...

  9. Multipass comminution process to produce precision wood particles of uniform size and shape with disrupted grain structure from wood chips (United States)

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N


    A process of comminution of wood chips (C) having a grain direction to produce a mixture of wood particles (P), wherein the wood chips are characterized by an average length dimension (L.sub.C) as measured substantially parallel to the grain, an average width dimension (W.sub.C) as measured normal to L.sub.C and aligned cross grain, and an average height dimension (H.sub.C) as measured normal to W.sub.C and L.sub.C, and wherein the comminution process comprises the step of feeding the wood chips in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction one or more times through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of wood chip travel.

  10. Cardiorespiratory concerns shape brain responses during automatic panic-related scene processing in patients with panic disorder (United States)

    Feldker, Katharina; Heitmann, Carina Yvonne; Neumeister, Paula; Brinkmann, Leonie; Bruchmann, Maximillan; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Straube, Thomas


    Background Increased automatic processing of threat-related stimuli has been proposed as a key element in panic disorder. Little is known about the neural basis of automatic processing, in particular to task-irrelevant, panic-related, ecologically valid stimuli, or about the association between brain activation and symptomatology in patients with panic disorder. Methods The present event-related functional MRI (fMRI) study compared brain responses to task-irrelevant, panic-related and neutral visual stimuli in medication-free patients with panic disorder and healthy controls. Panic-related and neutral scenes were presented while participants performed a spatially non-overlapping bar orientation task. Correlation analyses investigated the association between brain responses and panic-related aspects of symptomatology, measured using the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI). Results We included 26 patients with panic disorder and 26 heatlhy controls in our analysis. Compared with controls, patients with panic disorder showed elevated activation in the amygdala, brainstem, thalamus, insula, anterior cingulate cortex and midcingulate cortex in response to panic-related versus neutral task-irrelevant stimuli. Furthermore, fear of cardiovascular symptoms (a subcomponent of the ASI) was associated with insula activation, whereas fear of respiratory symptoms was associated with brainstem hyperactivation in patients with panic disorder. Limitations The additional implementation of measures of autonomic activation, such as pupil diameter, heart rate, or electrodermal activity, would have been informative during the fMRI scan as well as during the rating procedure. Conclusion Results reveal a neural network involved in the processing of panic-related distractor stimuli in patients with panic disorder and suggest an automatic weighting of panic-related information depending on the magnitude of cardiovascular and respiratory symptoms. Insula and brainstem activations show function

  11. Activation of PAD4 in NET formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda eRohrbach


    Full Text Available Peptidyl arginine deiminases, or PADs, convert arginine residues to the non-ribosomally encoded amino acid citrulline in a variety of protein substrates. PAD4 is expressed in granulocytes and is essential for the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs via PAD4-mediated histone citrullination. Citrullination of histones is thought to promote NET formation by inducing chromatin decondensation and facilitating the expulsion of chromosomal DNA that is coated with antimicrobial molecules. Numerous stimuli have been reported to lead to PAD4 activation and NET formation. However, how this signaling process proceeds and how PAD4 becomes activated in cells is largely unknown. Herein, we describe the various stimuli and signaling pathways that have been implicated in PAD4 activation and NET formation, including the role of reactive oxygen species generation. To provide a foundation for the above discussion, we first describe PAD4 structure and function, and how these studies led to the development of PAD-specific inhibitors. A comprehensive survey of the receptors and signaling pathways that regulate PAD4 activation will be important for our understanding of innate immunity, and the identification of signaling intermediates in PAD4 activation may also lead to the generation of pharmaceuticals to target NET-related pathogenesis.

  12. The net charge at interfaces between insulators (United States)

    Bristowe, N. C.; Littlewood, P. B.; Artacho, Emilio


    The issue of the net charge at insulating oxide interfaces is briefly reviewed with the ambition of dispelling myths of such charges being affected by covalency and related charge density effects. For electrostatic analysis purposes, the net charge at such interfaces is defined by the counting of discrete electrons and core ion charges, and by the definition of the reference polarization of the separate, unperturbed bulk materials. The arguments are illustrated for the case of a thin film of LaAlO3 over SrTiO3 in the absence of free carriers, for which the net charge is exactly 0.5e per interface formula unit, if the polarization response in both materials is referred to zero bulk values. Further consequences of the argument are extracted for structural and chemical alterations of such interfaces, in which internal rearrangements are distinguished from extrinsic alterations (changes of stoichiometry, redox processes), only the latter affecting the interfacial net charge. The arguments are reviewed alongside the proposal of Stengel and Vanderbilt (2009 Phys. Rev. B 80 241103) of using formal polarization values instead of net interfacial charges, based on the interface theorem of Vanderbilt and King-Smith (1993 Phys. Rev. B 48 4442-55). Implications for non-centrosymmetric materials are discussed, as well as for interfaces for which the charge mismatch is an integer number of polarization quanta.

  13. The net charge at interfaces between insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bristowe, N C; Littlewood, P B [Theory of Condensed Matter Group, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Artacho, Emilio, E-mail: [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EQ (United Kingdom)


    The issue of the net charge at insulating oxide interfaces is briefly reviewed with the ambition of dispelling myths of such charges being affected by covalency and related charge density effects. For electrostatic analysis purposes, the net charge at such interfaces is defined by the counting of discrete electrons and core ion charges, and by the definition of the reference polarization of the separate, unperturbed bulk materials. The arguments are illustrated for the case of a thin film of LaAlO{sub 3} over SrTiO{sub 3} in the absence of free carriers, for which the net charge is exactly 0.5e per interface formula unit, if the polarization response in both materials is referred to zero bulk values. Further consequences of the argument are extracted for structural and chemical alterations of such interfaces, in which internal rearrangements are distinguished from extrinsic alterations (changes of stoichiometry, redox processes), only the latter affecting the interfacial net charge. The arguments are reviewed alongside the proposal of Stengel and Vanderbilt (2009 Phys. Rev. B 80 241103) of using formal polarization values instead of net interfacial charges, based on the interface theorem of Vanderbilt and King-Smith (1993 Phys. Rev. B 48 4442-55). Implications for non-centrosymmetric materials are discussed, as well as for interfaces for which the charge mismatch is an integer number of polarization quanta. (viewpoint)

  14. Validated simulator for space debris removal with nets and other flexible tethers applications (United States)

    Gołębiowski, Wojciech; Michalczyk, Rafał; Dyrek, Michał; Battista, Umberto; Wormnes, Kjetil


    In the context of active debris removal technologies and preparation activities for the e.Deorbit mission, a simulator for net-shaped elastic bodies dynamics and their interactions with rigid bodies, has been developed. Its main application is to aid net design and test scenarios for space debris deorbitation. The simulator can model all the phases of the debris capturing process: net launch, flight and wrapping around the target. It handles coupled simulation of rigid and flexible bodies dynamics. Flexible bodies were implemented using Cosserat rods model. It allows to simulate flexible threads or wires with elasticity and damping for stretching, bending and torsion. Threads may be combined into structures of any topology, so the software is able to simulate nets, pure tethers, tether bundles, cages, trusses, etc. Full contact dynamics was implemented. Programmatic interaction with simulation is possible - i.e. for control implementation. The underlying model has been experimentally validated and due to significant gravity influence, experiment had to be performed in microgravity conditions. Validation experiment for parabolic flight was a downscaled process of Envisat capturing. The prepacked net was launched towards the satellite model, it expanded, hit the model and wrapped around it. The whole process was recorded with 2 fast stereographic camera sets for full 3D trajectory reconstruction. The trajectories were used to compare net dynamics to respective simulations and then to validate the simulation tool. The experiments were performed on board of a Falcon-20 aircraft, operated by National Research Council in Ottawa, Canada. Validation results show that model reflects phenomenon physics accurately enough, so it may be used for scenario evaluation and mission design purposes. The functionalities of the simulator are described in detail in the paper, as well as its underlying model, sample cases and methodology behind validation. Results are presented and

  15. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    studies that illustrate the practical use of CPN modelling and validation for design, specification, simulation, verification and implementation in various application domains. Their presentation primarily aims at readers interested in the practical use of CPN. Thus all concepts and constructs are first......Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism...... and the immense number of possible execution sequences. In this textbook, Jensen and Kristensen introduce the constructs of the CPN modelling language and present the related analysis methods in detail. They also provide a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN by showcasing selected industrial case...

  16. Comminution process to produce precision wood particles of uniform size and shape with disrupted grain structure from wood chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, James H.; Lanning, David N.


    A process of comminution of wood chips (C) having a grain direction to produce a mixture of wood particles (P), wherein the wood chips are characterized by an average length dimension (L.sub.C) as measured substantially parallel to the grain, an average width dimension (W.sub.C) as measured normal to L.sub.C and aligned cross grain, and an average height dimension (H.sub.C) as measured normal to W.sub.C and L.sub.C, wherein W.sub.C>L.sub.C, and wherein the comminution process comprises the step of feeding the wood chips in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of wood chip travel, wherein the cutting discs have a uniform thickness (T.sub.D), and wherein at least one of L.sub.C, W.sub.C, and H.sub.C is less than T.sub.D.

  17. Comminution process to produce precision wood particles of uniform size and shape with disrupted grain structure from wood chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N


    A process of comminution of wood chips (C) having a grain direction to produce a mixture of wood particles (P), wherein the wood chips are characterized by an average length dimension (L.sub.C) as measured substantially parallel to the grain, an average width dimension (W.sub.C) as measured normal to L.sub.C and aligned cross grain, and an average height dimension (H.sub.C) as measured normal to W.sub.C and L.sub.C, and wherein the comminution process comprises the step of feeding the wood chips in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of wood chip travel, wherein the cutting discs have a uniform thickness (T.sub.D), and wherein at least one of L.sub.C, W.sub.C, and H.sub.C is greater than T.sub.D.

  18. Comminution process to produce engineered wood particles of uniform size and shape with disrupted grain structure from veneer (United States)

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N


    Comminution process of wood veneer to produce wood particles, by feeding wood veneer in a direction of travel substantially normal to grain through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of veneer travel, wherein the cutting discs have a uniform thickness (Td), to produce wood particles characterized by a length dimension (L) substantially equal to the Td and aligned substantially parallel to grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) substantially equal to the veneer thickness (Tv) and aligned normal to W and L, wherein the W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces with end checking between crosscut fibers.

  19. Comminution process to produce wood particles of uniform size and shape with disrupted grain structure from veneer (United States)

    Dooley, James H.; Lanning, David N.


    Comminution process of wood veneer to produce wood particles, by feeding wood veneer in a direction of travel substantially normal to grain through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of wood veneer travel, wherein the cutting discs have a uniform thickness (Td), to produce wood particles characterized by a length dimension (L) substantially equal to the Td and aligned substantially parallel to grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) aligned normal to W and L, wherein the W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces with end checking between crosscut fibers.

  20. Mexico in the United States: Analysis of the Processes that Shape the «Illegalized» Mexican Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pilar Tudela-Vázquez


    Full Text Available In 2006, migrant rights demonstrations in the United States became important scenarios of Mexican identity. This work attempts to approach this phenomenon by analyzing, from a historical perspective, the processes involved in ascription to this identity in the US nation state project, from parameters of subordinated belonging. For this purpose, three axes of analysis are proposed: 1 incorporating the production of external political identities as a constituent aspect of the national community, ascribed to the nation-state political model; 2 recognizing the current role of colonial heritage; 3 incorporating the interrelation between the consolidation of a market economy and the legal production of a precarious and expendable workforce. The article’s main aim is to address «illegality» as a dynamic sociopolitical space, rather than as a legal status, from which to produce new formulas of active citizenship.

  1. An Introduction to the Practical Use of Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt


    this, we have combined the strength of Petri nets with the strength of programming languages. Petri nets provide the primitives for describing synchronisation of concurrent processes, while programming languages provide the primitives for definition of data types and manipulation of their data values......The development of Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets or CPN) has been driven by the desire to develop a modelling language - at the same time theoretically well-founded and versatile enough to be used in practice for systems of the size and complexity found in typical industrial projects. To achieve....... The paper focuses on the practical use of Coloured Petri Nets. It introduces the basic ideas behind the CPN language, and it illustrates how CPN models can be analysed by means of simulation, state spaces and condensed state spaces. The paper also describes how CP-nets can be extended with a time concept...

  2. Demand and willingness-to-pay for bed nets in Tanzania: results from a choice experiment. (United States)

    Gingrich, Chris D; Ricotta, Emily; Kahwa, Amos; Kahabuka, Catherine; Koenker, Hannah


    Universal coverage campaigns for long-lasting insecticide-treated nets do not always reach the goal of one net for every two household members, and even when ownership of at least one net per household is high, many households may not own enough nets. The retail market provides these households options for replacing or increasing the number of nets they own with products that best fit their needs since a variety of net shapes, sizes, and colours are available. Hence, it is important to understand the factors affecting private net demand. This study explores private demand for nets in Tanzania using a discrete choice experiment. The experiment provides participants the option to buy nets with their own money, and thus should prove more accurate than a hypothetical survey of net preferences. Nearly 800 participants sampled in two regions showed an overall strong demand for nets, with 40% choosing to buy a net across all seven combinations of net prices and characteristics such as size, shape, and insecticide treatment. Only 8% of all participants chose not to buy a single net. A key factor influencing demand was whether a participant's household currently owned sufficient nets for all members, with rural participants showing lower net coverage and greater demand than urban participants. Both poor and less poor households showed strong evidence of making purchase decisions based on more than price alone. Mean willingness-to-pay values for a net started at US$1.10 and grew by US$0.50-1.40 for various attributes such as rectangular shape, large size, and insecticide treatment. The impact of price on demand was negative but small, with elasticity values between -0.25 and -0.45. The results suggest that private demand for nets in Tanzania could potentially supplement future coverage campaigns. Net manufacturers and retailers should advertise and promote consumers' preferred net attributes to improve sales and further expand net access and coverage. To overcome household

  3. Factors and processes shaping the population structure and distribution of genetic variation across the species range of the freshwater snail radix balthica (Pulmonata, Basommatophora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feldmeyer Barbara


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Factors and processes shaping the population structure and spatial distribution of genetic diversity across a species' distribution range are important in determining the range limits. We comprehensively analysed the influence of recurrent and historic factors and processes on the population genetic structure, mating system and the distribution of genetic variability of the pulmonate freshwater snail Radix balthica. This analysis was based on microsatellite variation and mitochondrial haplotypes using Generalised Linear Statistical Modelling in a Model Selection framework. Results Populations of R. balthica were found throughout North-Western Europe with range margins marked either by dispersal barriers or the presence of other Radix taxa. Overall, the population structure was characterised by distance independent passive dispersal mainly along a Southwest-Northeast axis, the absence of isolation-by-distance together with rather isolated and genetically depauperated populations compared to the variation present in the entire species due to strong local drift. A recent, climate driven range expansion explained most of the variance in genetic variation, reducing at least temporarily the genetic variability in this area. Other factors such as geographic marginality and dispersal barriers play only a minor role. Conclusions To our knowledge, such a population structure has rarely been reported before. It might nevertheless be typical for passively dispersed, patchily distributed taxa (e.g. freshwater invertebrates. The strong local drift implied in such a structure is expected to erode genetic variation at both neutral and coding loci and thus probably diminish evolutionary potential. This study shows that the analysis of multiple factors is crucial for the inference of the processes shaping the distribution of genetic variation throughout species ranges.

  4. Net Neutrality in Canada and what it means for libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Guindon


    Full Text Available Net Neutrality, the idea that the Internet should be provided to all without discrimination based on content or applications, has been an important policy issue in the last few years. A lack of net neutrality could negatively impact libraries, intellectual freedom, cultural diversity, and the right to privacy. This paper looks at the issues that underline the net neutrality debate and describes how they are shaped by the different actors that are concerned with the future of the Internet. Technological issues, such as traffic shaping by Internet Service Providers, and legal issues in the context of Canada’s Telecommunications Act, are also addressed. Finally, the paper reviews the recent CRTC policy on Internet Traffic Management Practices.

  5. The Influence of Colour on Radiometric Performances of Agricultural Nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellano, S.; Hemming, S.; Russo, G.


    The whole construction parameters of the net, combined with the shape of the structure, the position of the sun and the sky conditions affect the radiometric performance of the permeable covering system. The radiometric properties of the permeable membrane influence the quality of the agricultural

  6. Stimulus-response mappings shape inhibition processes: a combined EEG-fMRI study of contextual stopping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina F Lavallee

    Full Text Available Humans are rarely faced with one simple task, but are typically confronted with complex stimulus constellations and varying stimulus-relevance in a given situation. Through modifying the prototypical stop-signal task and by combined recording and analysis of electroencephalography (EEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, we studied the effects of stimulus relevance for the generation of a response or its inhibition. Stimulus response mappings were modified by contextual cues, indicating which of two different stimuli following a go stimulus was relevant for stopping. Overall, response inhibition, that is comparing successful stopping to a stop-signal against go-signal related processes, was associated with increased activity in right inferior and left midfrontal regions, as well as increased EEG delta and theta power; however, stimulus-response conditions in which the most infrequent stop-signal was relevant for inhibition, were associated with decreased activity in regions typically involved in response inhibition, as well as decreased activity in the delta and theta bands as compared to conditions wherein the relevant stop-signal frequency was higher. Behaviorally, this (aforementioned condition, which demanded inhibition only from the most infrequent stimulus, was also associated with reduced reaction times and lower error rates. This pattern of results does not align with typical stimulus frequency-driven findings and suggests interplay between task relevance and stimulus frequency of the stop-signal. Moreover, with a multimodal EEG-fMRI analysis, we demonstrated significant parameterization for response inhibition with delta, theta and beta time-frequency values, which may be interpreted as reflecting conflict monitoring, evaluative and/or motor processes as suggested by previous work (Huster et al., 2013; Aron, 2011. Further multimodal results suggest a possible neurophysiological and behavioral benefit under conditions

  7. Expert system for the optimisation of melt extruded net structures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rawal, A


    Full Text Available Net structures were produced by replacing the static die (spinneret) with two concentric dies (consisting of slots) rotating in opposite directions in a melt extrusion process. A series of net structures and filaments were produced from a square die...

  8. Effect of Experience of Use on The Process of Formation of Stereotype Images on Shapes of Products (United States)

    Kwak, Yong-Min; Yamanaka, Toshimasa

    It is necessary to explain the terms used in this research to help the readers better understand the contents of this research. Originally stereotype meant the lead plate cast from a mold of letterpress printing, but now it is used as a term indicating a simplified and fixed notion toward certain group “Knowledge in fixed form” or a term indicating an image simplified and generalized over the members of certain group.[1] Generally, stereotype is used in negative cases, but has both sides of positive and negative view.[2, 3] I believe that a research on the factors of forming stereotype[4] images commonly felt by a large number of persons may suggest a new research methodology for the areas which require high level of creative thinking such as areas of design and researches on emotions. Stereotype images appear between persons, groups and images of countries, enterprises and other organizations. For example, as we usually hear words saying ‘He maybe oo because he is from oo’, we have strong images of characteristics commonly held by the persons who belong to certain categories after tying regions and persons to dividing categories.[5, 6] In this research, I define such images as the stereotype images. This kind of phenomenon appears for the articles used in daily lives. In this research, I established a hypothesis that stereotype images exist for products and underwent the process of verification through experiments.

  9. Dynamics of human categorization in a collaborative tagging system: How social processes of semantic stabilization shape individual sensemaking. (United States)

    Ley, Tobias; Seitlinger, Paul


    We study how categories form and develop over time in a sensemaking task by groups of students employing a collaborative tagging system. In line with distributed cognition theories, we look at both the tags students use and their strength of representation in memory. We hypothesize that categories get more differentiated over time as students learn, and that semantic stabilization on the group level (i.e. the convergence in the use of tags) mediates this relationship. Results of a field experiment that tested the impact of topic study duration on the specificity of tags confirms these hypotheses, although it was not study duration that produced this effect, but rather the effectiveness of the collaborative taxonomy the groups built. In the groups with higher levels of semantic stabilization, we found use of more specific tags and better representation in memory. We discuss these findings with regard to the important role of the information value of tags that would drive both the convergence on the group level as well as a shift to more specific levels of categorization. We also discuss the implication for cognitive science research by highlighting the importance of collaboratively built artefacts in the process of how knowledge is acquired, and implications for educational applications of collaborative tagging environments.

  10. Growth of dandelion-shaped CuInSe2 nanostructures by a two-step solvothermal process (United States)

    Zhou, Wenwen; Yin, Zongyou; Hao Sim, Dao; Zhang, Hua; Ma, Jan; Hng, Huey Hoon; Yan, Qingyu


    CuInSe2 (CIS) nanodandelion structures were synthesized by a two-step solvothermal approach. First, InSe nanodandelions were prepared by reacting In(acac)3 with trioctylphosphine-selenide (TOP-Se) in 1-octadecene (ODE) at 170 °C in the presence of oleic acid. These InSe dandelions were composed of polycrystalline nanosheets with thickness dandelions could be tuned within the range of 300 nm-2 µm by adjusting the amount of oleic acid added during the synthesis. The InSe dandelion structures were then reacted with Cu(acac)2 in the second-step solvothermal process in ODE to form CIS nanodandelions. The band gap of the CIS dandelions was determined from ultraviolet (UV) absorption measurements to be ~ 1.36 eV, and this value did not show any obvious change upon varying the size of the CIS dandelions. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements showed that the specific surface area of these CIS dandelion structures was 44.80 m2 g - 1, which was more than five times higher than that of the CIS quantum dots (e.g. 8.22 m2 g - 1) prepared by using reported protocols. A fast photoresponsive behavior was demonstrated in a photoswitching device using the 200 nm CIS dandelions as the active materials, which suggested their possible application in optoelectronic devices.

  11. Effect of surface treatment and sterilization processes on the corrosion behavior of NiTi shape memory alloy. (United States)

    Thierry, B; Tabrizian, M; Trepanier, C; Savadogo, O; Yahia, L


    Nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloy derives its biocompatibility and good corrosion resistance from a homogeneous oxide layer mainly composed of TiO(2), with a very low concentration of nickel. In this article, we described the corrosion behavior of NiTi alloys after mechanical polishing, electropolishing, and sterilization processes using cyclic polarization and atomic absorption. As a preparative surface treatment, electropolishing decreased the amount of nickel on the surface and remarkably improved the corrosion behavior of the alloy by increasing the mean breakdown potential value and the reproducibility of the results (0.99 +/- 0.05 V/SCE vs. 0.53 +/- 0. 42). Ethylene oxide and Sterrad(R) sterilization techniques did not modify the corrosion resistance of electropolished NiTi, whereas a steam autoclave and, to a lesser extent, peracetic acid sterilization produced scattered breakdown potential. In comparing the corrosion resistance of common biomaterials, NiTi ranked between 316L stainless steel and Ti6A14V even after sterilization. Electropolished NiTi and 316L stainless-steel alloys released similar amounts of nickel after a few days of immersion in Hank's solution. Measurements by atomic absorption have shown that the amount of released nickel from passive dissolution was below the expected toxic level in the human body. Auger electron spectroscopy analyses indicated surface contamination by Ca and P on NiTi during immersion, but no significant modification in oxide thickness was observed.

  12. Contemporary and historical evolutionary processes interact to shape patterns of within-lake phenotypic divergences in polyphenic pumpkinseed sunfish, Lepomis gibbosus (United States)

    Weese, Dylan J; Ferguson, Moira M; Robinson, Beren W


    Historical and contemporary evolutionary processes can both contribute to patterns of phenotypic variation among populations of a species. Recent studies are revealing how interactions between historical and contemporary processes better explain observed patterns of phenotypic divergence than either process alone. Here, we investigate the roles of evolutionary history and adaptation to current environmental conditions in structuring phenotypic variation among polyphenic populations of sunfish inhabiting 12 postglacial lakes in eastern North America. The pumpkinseed sunfish polyphenism includes sympatric ecomorphs specialized for littoral or pelagic lake habitats. First, we use population genetic methods to test the evolutionary independence of within-lake phenotypic divergences of ecomorphs and to describe patterns of genetic structure among lake populations that clustered into three geographical groupings. We then used multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) to partition body shape variation (quantified with geometric morphometrics) among the effects of evolutionary history (reflecting phenotypic variation among genetic clusters), the shared phenotypic response of all populations to alternate habitats within lakes (reflecting adaptation to contemporary conditions), and unique phenotypic responses to habitats within lakes nested within genetic clusters. All effects had a significant influence on body form, but the effects of history and the interaction between history and contemporary habitat were larger than contemporary processes in structuring phenotypic variation. This highlights how divergence can be better understood against a known backdrop of evolutionary history. PMID:22822436

  13. Growth of dandelion-shaped CuInSe{sub 2} nanostructures by a two-step solvothermal process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Wenwen; Yin Zongyou; Sim, Dao Hao; Zhang Hua; Ma Jan; Hng, Huey Hoon; Yan Qingyu, E-mail: [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)


    CuInSe{sub 2} (CIS) nanodandelion structures were synthesized by a two-step solvothermal approach. First, InSe nanodandelions were prepared by reacting In(acac){sub 3} with trioctylphosphine-selenide (TOP-Se) in 1-octadecene (ODE) at 170 {sup 0}C in the presence of oleic acid. These InSe dandelions were composed of polycrystalline nanosheets with thickness < 10 nm. The size of the InSe dandelions could be tuned within the range of 300 nm-2 {mu}m by adjusting the amount of oleic acid added during the synthesis. The InSe dandelion structures were then reacted with Cu(acac){sub 2} in the second-step solvothermal process in ODE to form CIS nanodandelions. The band gap of the CIS dandelions was determined from ultraviolet (UV) absorption measurements to be {approx} 1.36 eV, and this value did not show any obvious change upon varying the size of the CIS dandelions. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements showed that the specific surface area of these CIS dandelion structures was 44.80 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, which was more than five times higher than that of the CIS quantum dots (e.g. 8.22 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}) prepared by using reported protocols. A fast photoresponsive behavior was demonstrated in a photoswitching device using the 200 nm CIS dandelions as the active materials, which suggested their possible application in optoelectronic devices.

  14. Direct laser processing of bulk lead zirconate titanate ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Sheldon A.; Balla, Vamsi Krishna; Bose, Susmita [W.M. Keck Biomedical Materials Research Laboratory, School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States); Bandyopadhyay, Amit, E-mail: [W.M. Keck Biomedical Materials Research Laboratory, School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States)


    Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS{sup TM}) has been used to fabricate dense, net shape melt-cast structures of lead zirconate titanate (PZT), in a single step, directly on a metallic substrate by complete melting and resolidification of PZT powders. From our results, it appears that reasonable dielectric properties can be obtained in LENS{sup TM} processed PZT structures without post-fabrication heat treatments. Our results also demonstrate potential application of LENS{sup TM} towards direct fabrication of PZT based embedded sensors and transducers on structural components.

  15. On Characterizing Particle Shape (United States)

    Ennis, Bryan J.; Rickman, Douglas; Rollins, A. Brent; Ennis, Brandon


    It is well known that particle shape affects flow characteristics of granular materials, as well as a variety of other solids processing issues such as compaction, rheology, filtration and other two-phase flow problems. The impact of shape crosses many diverse and commercially important applications, including pharmaceuticals, civil engineering, metallurgy, health, and food processing. Two applications studied here include the dry solids flow of lunar simulants (e.g. JSC-1, NU-LHT-2M, OB-1), and the flow properties of wet concrete, including final compressive strength. A multi-dimensional generalized, engineering method to quantitatively characterize particle shapes has been developed, applicable to both single particle orientation and multi-particle assemblies. The two-dimension, three dimension inversion problem is also treated, and the application of these methods to DEM model particles will be discussed. In the case of lunar simulants, flow properties of six lunar simulants have been measured, and the impact of particle shape on flowability - as characterized by the shape method developed here -- is discussed, especially in the context of three simulants of similar size range. In the context of concrete processing, concrete construction is a major contributor to greenhouse gas production, of which the major contributor is cement binding loading. Any optimization in concrete rheology and packing that can reduce cement loading and improve strength loading can also reduce currently required construction safety factors. The characterization approach here is also demonstrated for the impact of rock aggregate shape on concrete slump rheology and dry compressive strength.

  16. Linear Logic on Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn

    This article shows how individual Petri nets form models of Girard's intuitionistic linear logic. It explores questions of expressiveness and completeness of linear logic with respect to this interpretation. An aim is to use Petri nets to give an understanding of linear logic and give some apprai...

  17. Reference Guide Microsoft.NET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee M van der; Verspaij GJ; Rosbergen S; IMP; NMD


    Developers, administrators and managers can get more understanding of the .NET technology with this report. They can also make better choices how to use this technology. The report describes the results and conclusions of a study of the usability for the RIVM of this new generation .NET development

  18. Net neutrality and audiovisual services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.; Nikoltchev, S.


    Net neutrality is high on the European agenda. New regulations for the communication sector provide a legal framework for net neutrality and need to be implemented on both a European and a national level. The key element is not just about blocking or slowing down traffic across communication

  19. Petri net methodology for solving healthcare management issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushk Abdul Rauf


    Full Text Available Various approaches of Petri nets can be achieved as system security and information flow in the healthcare recording system inside any medical or health-related business. Petri net system formal modeling is essential as well as important to track down the records and secure information inside a preformed health organization. In this paper, we mainly focused on the formal model Petri net which security mechanism is controlled by public key encryption where PN based modeling is preferred. This Petri net is a mathematical modeling to solve graphical notation for step by step processes that include choice, repetition, and circumstantial execution. Petri nets offer widely mathematical applications of discrete and continuous event execution semiotics, with an efficient mathematical analysis processing theory. We sure that our formal model will lay a solid foundation to minimize the risks and overcome the security risks in the healthcare industry.

  20. A Small Universal Petri Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A. Zaitsev


    Full Text Available A universal deterministic inhibitor Petri net with 14 places, 29 transitions and 138 arcs was constructed via simulation of Neary and Woods' weakly universal Turing machine with 2 states and 4 symbols; the total time complexity is exponential in the running time of their weak machine. To simulate the blank words of the weakly universal Turing machine, a couple of dedicated transitions insert their codes when reaching edges of the working zone. To complete a chain of a given Petri net encoding to be executed by the universal Petri net, a translation of a bi-tag system into a Turing machine was constructed. The constructed Petri net is universal in the standard sense; a weaker form of universality for Petri nets was not introduced in this work.

  1. Pairwise harmonics for shape analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Youyi


    This paper introduces a simple yet effective shape analysis mechanism for geometry processing. Unlike traditional shape analysis techniques which compute descriptors per surface point up to certain neighborhoods, we introduce a shape analysis framework in which the descriptors are based on pairs of surface points. Such a pairwise analysis approach leads to a new class of shape descriptors that are more global, discriminative, and can effectively capture the variations in the underlying geometry. Specifically, we introduce new shape descriptors based on the isocurves of harmonic functions whose global maximum and minimum occur at the point pair. We show that these shape descriptors can infer shape structures and consistently lead to simpler and more efficient algorithms than the state-of-the-art methods for three applications: intrinsic reflectional symmetry axis computation, matching shape extremities, and simultaneous surface segmentation and skeletonization. © 2012 IEEE.

  2. Different processes lead to similar patterns: a test of codivergence and the role of sea level and climate changes in shaping a southern temperate freshwater assemblage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barber Brian R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding how freshwater assemblages have been formed and maintained is a fundamental goal in evolutionary and ecological disciplines. Here we use a historical approach to test the hypothesis of codivergence in three clades of the Chilean freshwater species assemblage. Molecular studies of freshwater crabs (Aegla: Aeglidae: Anomura and catfish (Trichomycterus arealatus: Trichomycteridae: Teleostei exhibited similar levels of genetic divergences of mitochondrial lineages between species of crabs and phylogroups of the catfish, suggesting a shared evolutionary history among the three clades in this species assemblage. Results A phylogeny was constructed for Trichomycterus areolatus under the following best-fit molecular models of evolution GTR + I + R, HKY + I, and HKY for cytochrome b, growth hormone, and rag 1 respectively. A GTR + I + R model provided the best fit for both 28S and mitochondrial loci and was used to construct both Aegla phylogenies. Three different diversification models were observed and the three groups arose during different time periods, from 2.25 to 5.05 million years ago (Ma. Cladogenesis within Trichomycterus areolatus was initiated roughly 2.25 Ma (Late Pliocene - Early Pleistocene some 1.7 - 2.8 million years after the basal divergences observed in both Aegla clades. These results reject the hypothesis of codivergence. Conclusions The similar genetic distances between terminal sister-lineages observed in these select taxa from the freshwater Chilean species assemblage were formed by different processes occurring over the last ~5.0 Ma. Dramatic changes in historic sea levels documented in the region appear to have independently shaped the evolutionary history of each group. Our study illustrates the important role that history plays in shaping a species assemblage and argues against assuming similar patterns equal a shared evolutionary history.

  3. Net Shape Molding of Monolithic Complex-shaped Damage-Tolerant Cryo-Insulators Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Passive thermal control of cryogenic systems using foam insulations can help achieve Zero Boil-Off (ZBO). There is as much thermal energy transferred to Cryo tanks...

  4. Novel 3D resist shaping process via e-beam lithography, with application for the formation of blased planar waveguide gratings and planar lenses on GaAs (United States)

    Poli, Louis C.; Kondek, Christine A.; Novembre, Anthony E.; McLane, George F.


    Planar waveguide gratings are finding applications in wide band signal processing for imaging and location radars. Advanced forms may take the form of a `blased' topology, in which height as well as line and space dimensioning are engineered. This allows more complicated beam steering and wave interaction along the grating, promising better control over efficiency and more diverse engineering application. Planar lenses are being investigated as a method of coupling optical signals to the substrate. Realizing these devices also requires modification of the host substrate in three dimensions and is a difficult technological hurdle. Inherently low contrast resists can be shaped with the aid of clever processing techniques and have been classically used to obtain smaller line widths than the lithography technique would have normally allowed. In this work we utilize an experimental negative tone resist formulation to realize three dimensional features on GaAs substrates. The negative tone resist of interest, P(SI-CMS)-20, is under development (AT&T Bell Labs, Murray Hill, NJ) as a high performance single component system to be used in the fabrication of x-ray masks. Its properties include high resolution and the more unusual ability to faithfully retain a post processed film thickness that is primarily dependent upon e-beam dose, while using a fixed post exposure processing methodology. A curve of film thickness retention versus dose is then selected to define a required post exposure processed film thickness. A nominal 200 nm thick film is first spun onto the GaAs host wafer and softbaked. A Leica EBMF-10.5 vector scan electron beam lithography tool working at 25 KeV beam energy is used for patterning. A saw tooth or step ramping in processed resist height may now be achieved with a series of single pass lines or small areal features of successively higher dose density. The minimum dose corresponds to the minimum incipient gel of the resist and clears the foot of the

  5. Mars MetNet Mission Status (United States)

    Harri, Ari-Matti; Aleksashkin, Sergei; Arruego, Ignacio; Schmidt, Walter; Genzer, Maria; Vazquez, Luis; Haukka, Harri


    New kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is under development in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested. 1. MetNet Lander The MetNet landing vehicles are using an inflatable entry and descent system instead of rigid heat shields and parachutes as earlier semi-hard landing devices have used. This way the ratio of the payload mass to the overall mass is optimized. The landing impact will burrow the payload container into the Martian soil providing a more favorable thermal environment for the electronics and a suitable orientation of the telescopic boom with external sensors and the radio link antenna. It is planned to deploy several tens of MNLs on the Martian surface operating at least partly at the same time to allow meteorological network science. 2. Scientific Payload The payload of the two MNL precursor models includes the following instruments: Atmospheric instruments: 1. MetBaro Pressure device 2. MetHumi Humidity device 3. MetTemp Temperature sensors Optical devices: 1. PanCam Panoramic 2. MetSIS Solar irradiance sensor with OWLS optical wireless system for data transfer 3. DS Dust sensor The descent processes dynamic properties are monitored by a special 3-axis accelerometer combined with a 3-axis gyrometer. The data will be sent via auxiliary beacon antenna throughout the

  6. Pro asynchronous programming with .NET

    CERN Document Server

    Blewett, Richard; Ltd, Rock Solid Knowledge


    Pro Asynchronous Programming with .NET teaches the essential skill of asynchronous programming in .NET. It answers critical questions in .NET application development, such as: how do I keep my program responding at all times to keep my users happy how do I make the most of the available hardware how can I improve performanceIn the modern world, users expect more and more from their applications and devices, and multi-core hardware has the potential to provide it. But it takes carefully crafted code to turn that potential into responsive, scalable applications.With Pro Asynchronous Programming

  7. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks (United States)

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André


    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  8. Document analysis with neural net circuits (United States)

    Graf, Hans Peter


    Document analysis is one of the main applications of machine vision today and offers great opportunities for neural net circuits. Despite more and more data processing with computers, the number of paper documents is still increasing rapidly. A fast translation of data from paper into electronic format is needed almost everywhere, and when done manually, this is a time consuming process. Markets range from small scanners for personal use to high-volume document analysis systems, such as address readers for the postal service or check processing systems for banks. A major concern with present systems is the accuracy of the automatic interpretation. Today's algorithms fail miserably when noise is present, when print quality is poor, or when the layout is complex. A common approach to circumvent these problems is to restrict the variations of the documents handled by a system. In our laboratory, we had the best luck with circuits implementing basic functions, such as convolutions, that can be used in many different algorithms. To illustrate the flexibility of this approach, three applications of the NET32K circuit are described in this short viewgraph presentation: locating address blocks, cleaning document images by removing noise, and locating areas of interest in personal checks to improve image compression. Several of the ideas realized in this circuit that were inspired by neural nets, such as analog computation with a low resolution, resulted in a chip that is well suited for real-world document analysis applications and that compares favorably with alternative, 'conventional' circuits.

  9. Laser beam shaping techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Industrial, military, medical, and research and development applications of lasers frequently require a beam with a specified irradiance distribution in some plane. A common requirement is a laser profile that is uniform over some cross-section. Such applications include laser/material processing, laser material interaction studies, fiber injection systems, optical data image processing, lithography, medical applications, and military applications. Laser beam shaping techniques can be divided into three areas: apertured beams, field mappers, and multi-aperture beam integrators. An uncertainty relation exists for laser beam shaping that puts constraints on system design. In this paper the authors review the basics of laser beam shaping and present applications and limitations of various techniques.

  10. Effects of Palladium Content, Quaternary Alloying, and Thermomechanical Processing on the Behavior of Ni-Ti-Pd Shape Memory Alloys for Actuator Applications (United States)

    Bigelow, Glen


    The need for compact, solid-state actuation systems for use in the aerospace, automotive, and other transportation industries is currently driving research in high-temperature shape memory alloys (HTSMA) having transformation temperatures above 100 C. One of the basic high temperature systems under investigation to fill this need is NiTiPd. Prior work on this alloy system has focused on phase transformations and respective temperatures, no-load shape memory behavior (strain recovery), and tensile behavior for selected alloys. In addition, a few tests have been done to determine the effect of boron additions and thermomechanical treatment on the aforementioned properties. The main properties that affect the performance of a solid state actuator, namely work output, transformation strain, and permanent deformation during thermal cycling under load have mainly been neglected. There is also no consistent data representing the mechanical behavior of this alloy system over a broad range of compositions. For this thesis, ternary NiTiPd alloys containing 15 to 46 at.% palladium were processed and the transformation temperatures, basic tensile properties, and work characteristics determined. However, testing reveals that at higher levels of alloying addition, the benefit of increased transformation temperature begins to be offset by lowered work output and permanent deformation or "walking" of the alloy during thermal cycling under load. In response to this dilemma, NiTiPd alloys have been further alloyed with gold, platinum, and hafnium additions to solid solution strengthen the martensite and parent austenite phases in order to improve the thermomechanical behavior of these materials. The tensile properties, work behavior, and dimensional stability during repeated thermal cycling under load for the ternary and quaternary alloys were compared and discussed. In addition, the benefits of more advanced thermomechanical processing or training on the dimensional stability of

  11. The  Practitioner's guide to Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lars Michael; Christensen, Søren; Jensen, Kurt


    four hundred commercial companies. It is available free of charge, also for commercial use. This paper provides a comprehensive road map to the practical use of CP-nets and the Design/CPN tool. We give an informal introduction to the basic concepts and ideas underliying CP-nets. The key components......, hardware design, embedded systems, software system designs, and busness process-engineering. Design/CPN is a graphical computer tool supporting the practial use of CP-nets. The tool supports the construction, simulation, and functional and performance analysis of CPN models. the tool is used by more than...... and facilities of the Design/CPN tool are presented and their use illustrated. The paper is self-contained and does not assume any prior kowledge of Petri nets and CP-nets nor any experience with the Design/CPN tool...

  12. Petri Net Tool Overview 1986

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Feldbrugge, Frits


    This paper provides an overview of the characteristics of all currently available net based tools. It is a compilation of information provided by tool authors or contact persons. A concise one page overview is provided as well....

  13. Understanding Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salom, Jaume; Widén, Joakim; Candanedo, José


    Although several alternative definitions exist, a Net-Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) can be succinctly described as a grid-connected building that generates as much energy as it uses over a year. The “net-zero” balance is attained by applying energy conservation and efficiency measures...... and by incorporating renewable energy systems. While based on annual balances, a complete description of a Net ZEB requires examining the system at smaller time-scales. This assessment should address: (a) the relationship between power generation and building loads and (b) the resulting interaction with the power grid....... This paper presents and categorizes quantitative indicators suitable to describe both aspects of the building’s performance. These indicators, named LMGI - Load Matching and Grid Interaction indicators, are easily quantifiable and could complement the output variables of existing building simulation tools...

  14. PolicyNet Publication System (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The PolicyNet Publication System project will merge the Oracle-based Policy Repository (POMS) and the SQL-Server CAMP system (MSOM) into a new system with an Oracle...

  15. KM3NeT

    CERN Multimedia

    KM3NeT is a large scale next-generation neutrino telescope located in the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea, optimized for the discovery of galactic neutrino sources emitting in the TeV energy region.

  16. Net Neutrality: Background and Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilroy, Angele A


    .... The move to place restrictions on the owners of the networks that compose and provide access to the Internet, to ensure equal access and nondiscriminatory treatment, is referred to as "net neutrality...

  17. The Economics of Net Neutrality


    Hahn, Robert W.; Wallsten, Scott


    This essay examines the economics of "net neutrality" and broadband Internet access. We argue that mandating net neutrality would be likely to reduce economic welfare. Instead, the government should focus on creating competition in the broadband market by liberalizing more spectrum and reducing entry barriers created by certain local regulations. In cases where a broadband provider can exercise market power the government should use its antitrust enforcement authority to police anticompetitiv...

  18. Analysis of () Line Shape

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The line shape is also simulated by the Monte–Carlo method, the molecular dissociation contributes to 57% neutral atoms and 53% emission intensity in front of the limiter, and 85% neutral atoms and 82% emission intensity in front of the wall. The processes of atoms and molecules influence on the energy balance is ...

  19. Shape memory polyurethane nanocomposites (United States)

    Cao, Feina

    stress could be tailored by the processing conditions. The recovery stress increased with decrease of stretching rate, and increase of stretching temperature and stretch ratio. The recovery stress of polyurethane/clay nanocomposites largely depended on the degree of clay exfoliation. Higher recovery stress was found in nanocomposites with better clay dispersion. The dependence of stress relaxation on stretching conditions, clay type, and clay content was also investigated and related to shape recovery stress. It was found that stress relaxation occurred more easily in the presence of nanoclay.

  20. 40 CFR 73.83 - Secretary of Energy's action on net income neutrality applications. (United States)


    ... Renewable Energy Reserve § 73.83 Secretary of Energy's action on net income neutrality applications. (a) First come, first served. The Secretary of Energy will process and certify net income neutrality... of Energy determines that the net income neutrality certification application does not meet the...

  1. [Shaping the future of vocational rehabilitation of adults: eight fields of action as starting points for a cross-actor innovation process]. (United States)

    Riedel, H-P; Ellger-Rüttgardt, S; Karbe, H; Niehaus, M; Rauch, A; Schian, H-M; Schmidt, C; Schott, T; Schröder, H; Spijkers, W; Wittwer, U


    Established by the Federal Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs (BMAS) in October 2007, the Scientific Expert Group RehaFutur had been commissioned to elaborate cornerstones for the medium- and long-term development of vocational rehabilitation of adults with disabilities (re-integration). Initial questions inter alia were as follows: Which function should vocational rehabilitation have in a service- and knowledge-oriented working world that will increasingly be affected by demographic change? How can disabled persons' right to occupational participation by way of vocational rehabilitation, a right stipulated both under the German constitution and in German law, be realized as needed also in the future? Various fields of action have been derived on the basis, for one, of an investigation of the factors, social law, social and education policy as well as European, influencing vocational rehabilitation and, for the other, of an evaluation of current labour market and demographic developments. Dealt with in the fields of action outlined are the aspects: equitable opportunities of access, developmental and needs orientation, closeness to the real occupational and working world, as well as the role of self-determination and self-responsibility. The fields of action are to be understood as framework concept for shaping a cross-actor innovation process. Sustainable vocational rehabilitation is characterized in particular by the fact that it is specifically targeted at promoting disabled persons' self-determination and self-responsibility actively using these in the process and that it strengthens an independent lifestyle, ensures social participation by inclusive structures; also, it facilitates continued participation in working life by ongoing education involving holistic development of professional and personal competencies oriented towards the individual's resources and potentials, safeguarding it by systematic networking with companies. The concept presented for

  2. Characterization of structural relaxation in As2Se3 for analysis of lens shape change in glass press mold cooling and post-process annealing (United States)

    Koontz, Erick; Wachtel, Peter; Musgraves, J. David; Richardson, Kathleen


    This study explores the structural relaxation behavior of As2Se3 by thermo mechanical analysis in order to characterize and eventually predict volume change in As2Se3 upon relaxation during cooling after precision glass molding (PGM) and annealing. A vertical beam of As2Se3 was placed in a thermo mechanical analyzer (TMA) and fully relaxed at a given temperature. The temperature was then quickly changed a given amount and the 1-D relaxation of the beam was measured until it reached equilibrium at the new temperature. The resultant curve was then fit with a Prony series which captured the relaxation data. The mathematical representation of the relaxation is then analyzed as a function of time, temperature, and quench rate and can be used to predict one dimensional (1-D) length change upon relaxation. A maximum of three terms is needed to describe the relaxation behavior and that number declines with an increase in temperature. This decay of the number of Prony terms needed to describe relaxation points to a structure that relaxes with less complexity as it approaches Tg. These trends can be converted to 3-D due to the amorphous and therefore typically isotropic nature of As2Se3 glass. This volume change information as a function of vital processing parameters can then be used to predict the change in shape of a work piece during cooling or post process annealing within a precision molding cycle. The mathematical representation of volume relaxation can then be applied to finite element models (FEM) of As2Se3 lenses or other optical elements.

  3. Interests shape how adolescents pay attention: the interaction of motivation and top-down attentional processes in biasing sensory activations to anticipated events. (United States)

    Banerjee, Snigdha; Frey, Hans-Peter; Molholm, Sophie; Foxe, John J


    The voluntary allocation of attention to environmental inputs is a crucial mechanism of healthy cognitive functioning, and is probably influenced by an observer's level of interest in a stimulus. For example, an individual who is passionate about soccer but bored by botany will obviously be more attentive at a soccer match than an orchid show. The influence of monetary rewards on attention has been examined, but the impact of more common motivating factors (i.e. the level of interest in the materials under observation) remains unclear, especially during development. Here, stimulus sets were designed based on survey measures of the level of interest of adolescent participants in several item classes. High-density electroencephalography was recorded during a cued spatial attention task in which stimuli of high or low interest were presented in separate blocks. The motivational impact on performance of a spatial attention task was assessed, along with event-related potential measures of anticipatory top-down attention. As predicted, performance was improved for the spatial target detection of high interest items. Further, the impact of motivation was observed in parieto-occipital processes associated with anticipatory top-down spatial attention. The anticipatory activity over these regions was also increased for high vs. low interest stimuli, irrespective of the direction of spatial attention. The results also showed stronger anticipatory attentional and motivational modulations over the right vs. left parieto-occipital cortex. These data suggest that motivation enhances top-down attentional processes, and can independently shape activations in sensory regions in anticipation of events. They also suggest that attentional functions across hemispheres may not fully mature until late adolescence. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. 26 CFR 1.904(f)-3 - Allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses. (United States)


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation of net operating losses and net....904(f)-3 Allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses. For rules relating to the allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses, see § 1.904(g)-3T. ...

  5. 29 CFR 4204.13 - Net income and net tangible assets tests. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Net income and net tangible assets tests. 4204.13 Section....13 Net income and net tangible assets tests. (a) General. The criteria under this section are that either— (1) Net income test. The purchaser's average net income after taxes for its three most recent...

  6. Instant Autodesk AutoCAD 2014 customization with .NET

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Tom


    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. An instruction-based guide with examples written in the C# programming language. VB.NET programmers can also take advantage of these examples by using one of the free conversion websites to convert the examples to VB.NET.Clear, step-by-step instructions and complete code examples illustrate the processes, making it easy to develop your own custom AutoCAD tools.This book is perfect if you are interested in customizing AutoCAD 2014 using the .NET API. You should have a basic familiari

  7. SpaceNet: Modeling and Simulating Space Logistics (United States)

    Lee, Gene; Jordan, Elizabeth; Shishko, Robert; de Weck, Olivier; Armar, Nii; Siddiqi, Afreen


    This paper summarizes the current state of the art in interplanetary supply chain modeling and discusses SpaceNet as one particular method and tool to address space logistics modeling and simulation challenges. Fundamental upgrades to the interplanetary supply chain framework such as process groups, nested elements, and cargo sharing, enabled SpaceNet to model an integrated set of missions as a campaign. The capabilities and uses of SpaceNet are demonstrated by a step-by-step modeling and simulation of a lunar campaign.

  8. Transformation hardening by linear-polarized laser beam. Report 2. Development of novel laser beam shaping optics and its applications to materials processing; Chokusen henko reza wo mochiiru hentai koka. 2. Atarashii reza shaping kogakukei no kaihatsu to sono oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, I.; Maruo, H. [Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan)


    Shape variable laser beam shaping optics for which linear polarized beam is utilized is applied to the hardening of carbon steel by CO2 laser beam to analyze the absorptivity. In addition, linear polarized beam is irradiated to inclined materials for laser hardening to analyze the depth of hardening and the distribution of temperature. The absorptivity of random polarized beam by the bare specimens is as low as 20%. It is as high as above 40% with the graphite coated specimen, but is nearly constant with no dependence on the angle of incidence. The absorptivity in p-polarization increases with the increase in the angle of incidence. When linear polarized beam is used, the total efficiency of the bare specimen becomes high by about 1.5 times that of the graphite coated specimen subjected to random polarized beam. Hardening of bear material by laser beam is quite possible when p-polarization is employed. An approximation equation is derived with which the temperature distribution and hardened depth can be obtained easily if beam distribution and absorptivity are given, and it is applied to the evaluation of laser hardening of inclined specimens using linear polarized beam. 22 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  9. EnviroNET: Space environment for Strategic Defense Initiative experiments (United States)

    Lauriente, Michael


    EnviroNET is an operational system available to the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) experimenters who have access to a terminal or dial-up port. It is a tail node on Space Physics Analysis Network (SPAN) accessible directly or through the national networks via NPSS. Some of the benefits to using EnviroNET include: validated NASA environmental information and interactive space models; facilitating the payload integration process; easy access to expert assistance; and potential for time and cost savings.

  10. TimeNET Optimization Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Bodenstein


    Full Text Available In this paper a novel tool for simulation-based optimization and design-space exploration of Stochastic Colored Petri nets (SCPN is introduced. The working title of this tool is TimeNET Optimization Environment (TOE. Targeted users of this tool are people modeling complex systems with SCPNs in TimeNET who want to find parameter sets that are optimal for a certain performance measure (fitness function. It allows users to create and simulate sets of SCPNs and to run different optimization algorithms based on parameter variation. The development of this tool was motivated by the need to automate and speed up tests of heuristic optimization algorithms to be applied for SCPN optimization. A result caching mechanism is used to avoid recalculations.

  11. Implementing NetScaler VPX

    CERN Document Server

    Sandbu, Marius


    An easy-to-follow guide with detailed step-by step-instructions on how to implement the different key components in NetScaler, with real-world examples and sample scenarios.If you are a Citrix or network administrator who needs to implement NetScaler in your virtual environment to gain an insight on its functionality, this book is ideal for you. A basic understanding of networking and familiarity with some of the different Citrix products such as XenApp or XenDesktop is a prerequisite.

  12. Net4Care PHMR Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the SimpleClinicalDocument......The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the Simple...

  13. Pro DLR in NET 4

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Chaur


    Microsoft's Dynamic Language Runtime (DLR) is a platform for running dynamic languages such as Ruby and Python on an equal footing with compiled languages such as C#. Furthermore, the runtime is the foundation for many useful software design and architecture techniques you can apply as you develop your .NET applications. Pro DLR in .NET 4 introduces you to the DLR, showing how you can use it to write software that combines dynamic and static languages, letting you choose the right tool for the job. You will learn the core DLR components such as LINQ expressions, call sites, binders, and dynami

  14. Hierarchies in Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Peter; Jensen, Kurt; Shapiro, Robert M.


    The paper shows how to extend Coloured Petri Nets with a hierarchy concept. The paper proposes five different hierarchy constructs, which allow the analyst to structure large CP-nets as a set of interrelated subnets (called pages). The paper discusses the properties of the proposed hierarchy...... constructs, and it illustrates them by means of two examples. The hierarchy constructs can be used for theoretical considerations, but their main use is to describe and analyse large real-world systems. All of the hierarchy constructs are supported by the editing and analysis facilities in the CPN Palette...

  15. Spray Forming of NiTi and NiTiPd Shape-Memory Alloys (United States)

    Mabe, James; Ruggeri, Robert; Noebe, Ronald


    In the work to be presented, vacuum plasma spray forming has been used as a process to deposit and consolidate prealloyed NiTi and NiTiPd powders into near net shape actuators. Testing showed that excellent shape memory behavior could be developed in the deposited materials and the investigation proved that VPS forming could be a means to directly form a wide range of shape memory alloy components. The results of DSC characterization and actual actuation test results will be presented demonstrating the behavior of a Nitinol 55 alloy and a higher transition temperature NiTiPd alloy in the form of torque tube actuators that could be used in aircraft and aerospace controls.

  16. Shape effects on the cluster spreading process of spin-crossover compounds analyzed within an elastic model with Eden and Kawasaki dynamics (United States)

    Enachescu, Cristian; Nishino, Masamichi; Miyashita, Seiji; Boukheddaden, Kamel; Varret, François; Rikvold, Per Arne


    In this paper we study the growth properties of domains of low-spin molecules in a high-spin background in open-boundary elliptically shaped spin-crossover systems within the framework of a mechanoelastic model. The molecules are situated on a triangular lattice and are linked by springs, through which they interact. Elliptical shapes are chosen in order to allow an in-depth analysis of cluster shapes as a function of the local curvature at their starting point and the length of the interface between the two phases. In contrast to the case of rectangular and hexagonal shapes, where the clusters always start from corners, we find that for ellipses clusters nucleate from vertices, covertices, or any other site. We apply and compare two kinds of dynamics, Eden-like and Kawasaki, in order to determine the stable shape of the clusters and the most probable starting points. We show that the wetting angle for small clusters is somewhat higher than π /2 and approaches this value only for large clusters. The stability of clusters is analyzed by comparing the Gibbs free energy to the elastic energy in the system and is discussed as a function of the cluster size, curvature of the starting place, and temperature.

  17. D.NET case study

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    developing products, marketing tools and building capacity of the grass root telecentre workers. D.Net recognized that it had several ideas worth developing into small interventions that would make big differences, but resource constraints were a barrier for scaling-up these initiatives. More demands, limited resources.

  18. Surgery for GEP-NETs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, Ulrich; Hansen, Carsten Palnæs


    Surgery is the only treatment that may cure the patient with gastroentero-pancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumours (NET) and neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC) and should always be considered as first line treatment if R0/R1 resection can be achieved. The surgical and interventional procedures for GEP...

  19. Net Neutrality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.


    The Netherlands is among the first countries that have put specific net neutrality standards in place. The decision to implement specific regulation was influenced by at least three factors. The first was the prevailing social and academic debate, partly due to developments in the United States. The

  20. Quantitative shape measurements of distal volcanic ash

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Colleen M. Riley; William I. Rose; Gregg J. S. Bluth


    ...‐shaped particles affect transport processes and radiative transfer measurements. In this study, a methodology was developed to characterize particle shapes, sizes, and terminal velocities for three ash samples of different compositions...

  1. Shape Shifting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Stefan; Hundebøl, Jesper; Jensen, Jens Stissing


    In this paper we are concerned with the specific effects of a 3D building model produced and reproduced in the planning and construction phases on a particular construction project. We contrast these effects with the policy intentions expressed within a state funded, public initiative that aims...... by providing pervasive on-site planning and logistics, where the 3D building model combined with process-data developed and maintained by the individual contractor should facilitate the production of detailed step-by-step production planning in the form of ‘production cards'. The empirical findings from...... may be hampered if they fail to create room for such local ‘contextualization' processes....

  2. Software Tool Integrating Data Flow Diagrams and Petri Nets (United States)

    Thronesbery, Carroll; Tavana, Madjid


    Data Flow Diagram - Petri Net (DFPN) is a software tool for analyzing other software to be developed. The full name of this program reflects its design, which combines the benefit of data-flow diagrams (which are typically favored by software analysts) with the power and precision of Petri-net models, without requiring specialized Petri-net training. (A Petri net is a particular type of directed graph, a description of which would exceed the scope of this article.) DFPN assists a software analyst in drawing and specifying a data-flow diagram, then translates the diagram into a Petri net, then enables graphical tracing of execution paths through the Petri net for verification, by the end user, of the properties of the software to be developed. In comparison with prior means of verifying the properties of software to be developed, DFPN makes verification by the end user more nearly certain, thereby making it easier to identify and correct misconceptions earlier in the development process, when correction is less expensive. After the verification by the end user, DFPN generates a printable system specification in the form of descriptions of processes and data.

  3. Caught in the Net: Perineuronal Nets and Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Slaker


    Full Text Available Exposure to drugs of abuse induces plasticity in the brain and creates persistent drug-related memories. These changes in plasticity and persistent drug memories are believed to produce aberrant motivation and reinforcement contributing to addiction. Most studies have explored the effect drugs of abuse have on pre- and postsynaptic cells and astrocytes; however, more recently, attention has shifted to explore the effect these drugs have on the extracellular matrix (ECM. Within the ECM are unique structures arranged in a net-like manner, surrounding a subset of neurons called perineuronal nets (PNNs. This review focuses on drug-induced changes in PNNs, the molecules that regulate PNNs, and the expression of PNNs within brain circuitry mediating motivation, reward, and reinforcement as it pertains to addiction.

  4. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Army Net Zero Training Report (United States)


    sensors were strategically placed throughout the installation by magnetically attaching them to water main valve stems. The sensors check sound...Recycle Wrap  Substitutes for Packaging Materials  Re-Use of Textiles and Linens  Setting Printers to Double-Sided Printing Net Zero Waste...can effectively achieve source reduction. Clean and Re-Use Shop Rags - Shop rags represent a large textile waste stream at many installations. As a

  5. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Net Zero Waste Best Practices (United States)


    Anaerobic Digesters – Although anaerobic digestion is not a new technology and has been used on a large-scale basis in wastewater treatment , and has been used on a large-scale basis in wastewater treatment , the use of the technology should be demonstrated with other...approaches can be used for cardboard and cellulose -based packaging materials. This approach is in line with the Net Zero Waste hierarchy in terms of

  6. Shape Shifting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Stefan; Hundebøl, Jesper; Larsen, Casper Schultz

    In this paper we are concerned with the specific effects of a 3D building model produced and reproduced in the planning and construction phases on a particular construction project. We contrast these effects with the policy intentions expressed within a state funded, public initiative that aims...... to promote so-called ‘digital construction' in Denmark. One of the main objectives of this initiative is to ensure better coordination between the different phases of the building project through the application of 3D Building Information Models (BIM). The intentions are to improve the construction phase...... by providing pervasive on-site planning and logistics, where the 3D building model combined with process-data developed and maintained by the individual contractor should facilitate the production of detailed step-by-step production planning in the form of ‘production cards'. The empirical findings from...

  7. HANPP Collection: Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity (NPP) portion of the Human Appropriation of Net Primary...

  8. Hydrodynamic characteristics of plane netting used for aquaculture net cages in uniform current

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library



      The hydrodynamic characteristics of polyethylene (PE) netting and chain link wire netting with different types of twine diameter and mesh size for aquaculture net cages were examined by experiments in a flume tank...

  9. Isolated unit tests in .Net


    Haukilehto, Tero


    In this thesis isolation in unit testing is studied to get a precise picture of the isolation frameworks available for .Net environment. At the beginning testing is discussed in theory with the benefits and the problems it may have been linked with. The theory includes software development in general in connection with testing. Theory of isolation is also described before the actual isolation frameworks are represented. Common frameworks are described in more detail and comparable informa...

  10. Biomedical Shape Memory Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHEN Xue-lin


    Full Text Available Shape memory polymers(SMPs are a class of functional "smart" materials that have shown bright prospects in the area of biomedical applications. The novel smart materials with multifunction of biodegradability and biocompatibility can be designed based on their general principle, composition and structure. In this review, the latest process of three typical biodegradable SMPs(poly(lactide acide, poly(ε-caprolactone, polyurethane was summarized. These three SMPs were classified in different structures and discussed, and shape-memory mechanism, recovery rate and fixed rate, response speed was analysed in detail, also, some biomedical applications were presented. Finally, the future development and applications of SMPs are prospected: two-way SMPs and body temperature induced SMPs will be the focus attension by researchers.

  11. Children's schemes for anticipating the validity of nets for solids (United States)

    Wright, Vince; Smith, Ken


    There is growing acknowledgement of the importance of spatial abilities to student achievement across a broad range of domains and disciplines. Nets are one way to connect three-dimensional shapes and their two-dimensional representations and are a common focus of geometry curricula. Thirty-four students at year 6 (upper primary school) were interviewed on two occasions about their anticipation of whether or not given nets for the cube- and square-based pyramid would fold to form the target solid. Vergnaud's ( Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 17(2), 167-181, 1998, Human Development, 52, 83-94, 2009) four characteristics of schemes were used as a theoretical lens to analyse the data. Successful schemes depended on the interaction of operational invariants, such as strategic choice of the base, rules for action, particularly rotation of shapes, and anticipations of composites of polygons in the net forming arrangements of faces in the solid. Inferences were rare. These data suggest that students need teacher support to make inferences, in order to create transferable schemes.

  12. Event hierarchies in DanNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bolette Sandford; Nimb, Sanni


    Artiklen omhandler udarbejdelsen af et verbumshierarki i det leksikalsk-semantiske ordnet, DanNet.......Artiklen omhandler udarbejdelsen af et verbumshierarki i det leksikalsk-semantiske ordnet, DanNet....

  13. The Uniframe .Net Web Service Discovery Service

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berbeco, Robert W


    Microsoft .NET allows the creation of distributed systems in a seamless manner Within NET small, discrete applications, referred to as Web services, are utilized to connect to each other or larger applications...

  14. Long Term RadNet Quality Data (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This RadNet Quality Data Asset includes all data since initiation and when ERAMS was expanded to become RadNet, name changed to reflect new mission. This includes...

  15. VitisNet: "Omics" integration through grapevine molecular networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Grimplet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genomic data release for the grapevine has increased exponentially in the last five years. The Vitis vinifera genome has been sequenced and Vitis EST, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic tools and data sets continue to be developed. The next critical challenge is to provide biological meaning to this tremendous amount of data by annotating genes and integrating them within their biological context. We have developed and validated a system of Grapevine Molecular Networks (VitisNet. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The sequences from the Vitis vinifera (cv. Pinot Noir PN40024 genome sequencing project and ESTs from the Vitis genus have been paired and the 39,424 resulting unique sequences have been manually annotated. Among these, 13,145 genes have been assigned to 219 networks. The pathway sets include 88 "Metabolic", 15 "Genetic Information Processing", 12 "Environmental Information Processing", 3 "Cellular Processes", 21 "Transport", and 80 "Transcription Factors". The quantitative data is loaded onto molecular networks, allowing the simultaneous visualization of changes in the transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome for a given experiment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: VitisNet uses manually annotated networks in SBML or XML format, enabling the integration of large datasets, streamlining biological functional processing, and improving the understanding of dynamic processes in systems biology experiments. VitisNet is grounded in the Vitis vinifera genome (currently at 8x coverage and can be readily updated with subsequent updates of the genome or biochemical discoveries. The molecular network files can be dynamically searched by pathway name or individual genes, proteins, or metabolites through the MetNet Pathway database and web-portal at All VitisNet files including the manual annotation of the grape genome encompassing pathway names, individual genes, their genome identifier, and chromosome

  16. PsychoNet: a psycholinguistc commonsense ontology


    Mohtasseb, Haytham; Ahmed, Amr


    Ontologies have been widely accepted as the most advanced knowledge representation model. This paper introduces PsychoNet, a new knowledgebase that forms the link between psycholinguistic taxonomy, existing in LIWC, and its semantic textual representation in the form of commonsense semantic ontology, represented by ConceptNet. The integration of LIWC and ConceptNet and the added functionalities facilitate employing ConceptNet in psycholinguistic studies. Furthermore, it simplifies utilization...

  17. 78 FR 72451 - Net Investment Income Tax (United States)


    ... Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BL74 Net Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service...). These regulations provide guidance on the computation of net investment income. The regulations affect... lesser of: (A) The individual's net investment income for such taxable year, or (B) the excess (if any...

  18. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net investment. 69.302 Section 69.302... Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B Rural...) Investment in Accounts 2002, 2003 and to the extent such inclusions are allowed by this Commission, Account...

  19. 47 CFR 65.450 - Net income. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.450 Section 65.450... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.450 Net income. (a) Net income shall consist of all revenues derived from the provision of interstate telecommunications services...

  20. 47 CFR 65.500 - Net income. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.500 Section 65.500... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Interexchange Carriers § 65.500 Net income. The net income methodology specified in § 65.450 shall be utilized by all interexchange carriers that are...

  1. NetBeans IDE 8 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Salter, David


    If you're a Java developer of any level using NetBeans and want to learn how to get the most out of NetBeans, then this book is for you. Learning how to utilize NetBeans will provide a firm foundation for your Java application development.

  2. Characterizing behavioural congruences for Petri nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Priese, Lutz; Sassone, Vladimiro


    We exploit a notion of interface for Petri nets in order to design a set of net combinators. For such a calculus of nets, we focus on the behavioural congruences arising from four simple notions of behaviour, viz., traces, maximal traces, step, and maximal step traces, and from the corresponding...

  3. 27 CFR 4.37 - Net contents. (United States)


    ... the volume of wine within the container, except that the following tolerances shall be allowed: (1... THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.37 Net contents. (a) Statement of net contents. The net contents of wine for which a standard of fill is...

  4. Post polymerization cure shape memory polymers (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas S; Hearon, Michael Keith; Bearinger, Jane P


    This invention relates to chemical polymer compositions, methods of synthesis, and fabrication methods for devices regarding polymers capable of displaying shape memory behavior (SMPs) and which can first be polymerized to a linear or branched polymeric structure, having thermoplastic properties, subsequently processed into a device through processes typical of polymer melts, solutions, and dispersions and then crossed linked to a shape memory thermoset polymer retaining the processed shape.

  5. Post polymerization cure shape memory polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Thomas S.; Hearon, II, Michael Keith; Bearinger, Jane P.


    This invention relates to chemical polymer compositions, methods of synthesis, and fabrication methods for devices regarding polymers capable of displaying shape memory behavior (SMPs) and which can first be polymerized to a linear or branched polymeric structure, having thermoplastic properties, subsequently processed into a device through processes typical of polymer melts, solutions, and dispersions and then crossed linked to a shape memory thermoset polymer retaining the processed shape.

  6. Aktivasi Keterlibatan Publik dalam Program Berita ‘NET 10’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinar Safa Anggraeni


    Full Text Available This research entitled Activation of The Public Engagement in `NET 10` News Program. An intrinsic case study by Robert E. Stake on Activating The Public Engagement in `NET 10` Citizen Journalism NET TV’s News Program. This research aimed to understand NET TV’s public management strategy in 'NET 10' news program. In addition, this research also aimed to determine how the editorial staff considere the standard of news value and news judgment on citizen journalist news, and the function of public sphere in the mass media of citizen journalism. The method used qualitative research with intrinsic case study approach by Robert E. Stake to NET TV’s editorial. The results showed the editorial’s strategy of public management by following action: (1 provided easily of joining  'NET CJ', (2 created  campaigns to increase the number of CJ, (3 nature CJ by keeping good and giving relationship evaluations, (4 provides rewards for the creator of CJ news aired in 'NET 10', and (5 educates CJ in making a citizen journalism news. NET TV used curation techniques in the process of citizen journalism news gatekeeper to keep the news value and news judment standard of citizen journalism news. Unfortunately, ‘NET 10’’s citizen journalism news rate of the proportion of news comprehensive continues to fall down because the editorial put loyalty forward. 'NET CJ' act as a opinions catalyst of the citizens to the government.

  7. Multi-Objective Optimization of Squeeze Casting Process using Genetic Algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimization


    Patel G.C.M.; Krishna P.; Vundavilli P.R.; Parappagoudar M.B.


    The near net shaped manufacturing ability of squeeze casting process requiresto set the process variable combinations at their optimal levels to obtain both aesthetic appearance and internal soundness of the cast parts. The aesthetic and internal soundness of cast parts deal with surface roughness and tensile strength those can readily put the part in service without the requirement of costly secondary manufacturing processes (like polishing, shot blasting, plating, hear treatment etc.). It i...

  8. WindNet: Improving the impact assessment of wind power projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Jones


    Full Text Available Growing international demand for renewable energy has led to rapid growth in the wind power sector and wind farms are becoming an increasingly common feature of landscapes and seascapes in many countries. However, as the most appropriate locations within established markets are taken up, and as wind power penetrates new markets, there is an increasing likelihood that proposed projects will encroach on sensitive landscapes and residential areas. This will present challenges for the industry, particularly due to the impact that public opinion can have upon the outcomes of planning decisions about specific projects. This article introduces the four key dimensions of the WindNet programme, which are helping to elucidate some of the socio-technical debates that will likely shape the future of the wind power sector. The article outlines studies investigating (1 public responses to cumulative landscape and visual impacts, (2 the auditory impact of wind power projects on human health, (3 the science of wind farm design and its implications for planning, and (4 the relevance of the democratic deficit explanation of the so-called "social gap" in wind farm siting. The outcomes of the research being conducted by WindNet stand to help reduce uncertainty within the planning process and assist in providing a more comprehensive and fairer assessment of the possible impacts associated with wind power project development.

  9. The Net Reclassification Index (NRI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pepe, Margaret S.; Fan, Jing; Feng, Ziding


    The Net Reclassification Index (NRI) is a very popular measure for evaluating the improvement in prediction performance gained by adding a marker to a set of baseline predictors. However, the statistical properties of this novel measure have not been explored in depth. We demonstrate the alarming...... marker is proven to erroneously yield a positive NRI. Some insight into this phenomenon is provided. Since large values for the NRI statistic may simply be due to use of poorly fitting risk models, we suggest caution in using the NRI as the basis for marker evaluation. Other measures of prediction...

  10. Optics-Only Calibration of a Neural-Net Based Optical NDE Method for Structural Health Monitoring (United States)

    Decker, Arthur J.


    A calibration process is presented that uses optical measurements alone to calibrate a neural-net based NDE method. The method itself detects small changes in the vibration mode shapes of structures. The optics-only calibration process confirms previous work that the sensitivity to vibration-amplitude changes can be as small as 10 nanometers. A more practical value in an NDE service laboratory is shown to be 50 nanometers. Both model-generated and experimental calibrations are demonstrated using two implementations of the calibration technique. The implementations are based on previously published demonstrations of the NDE method and an alternative calibration procedure that depends on comparing neural-net and point sensor measurements. The optics-only calibration method, unlike the alternative method, does not require modifications of the structure being tested or the creation of calibration objects. The calibration process can be used to test improvements in the NDE process and to develop a vibration-mode-independence of damagedetection sensitivity. The calibration effort was intended to support NASA s objective to promote safety in the operations of ground test facilities or aviation safety, in general, by allowing the detection of the gradual onset of structural changes and damage.

  11. Dysgraphia Defined. NetNews. Volume 5, Number 3 (United States)

    LDA of Minnesota, 2005


    In this issue of "NetNews," the focus is on dysgraphia, a form of writing disability. Both dyslexia and dysgraphia fall under the category of specific learning disability. They may be related because significant language processing problems can impact both reading and spelling--although there is less incidence of dysgraphia. Dysgraphia…

  12. Implementation architecture and multithreaded runtime system of S-Net

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grelck, C.; Penczek, F.; Scholz, S.-B.; Chitil, O.


    S-Net is a declarative coordination language and component technology aimed at modern multi-core/many-core architectures and systems-on-chip. It builds on the concept of stream processing to structure networks of communicating asynchronous components, which can be implemented using a conventional

  13. Classification of handwritten digits using a RAM neural net architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, T.M.


    Results are reported on the task of recognizing handwritten digits without any advanced pre-processing. The result are obtained using a RAM-based neural network, making use of small receptive fields. Furthermore, a technique that introduces negative weights into the RAM net is reported. The results...

  14. SkyNet: A Modular Nuclear Reaction Network Library (United States)

    Lippuner, Jonas; Roberts, Luke F.


    Almost all of the elements heavier than hydrogen that are present in our solar system were produced by nuclear burning processes either in the early universe or at some point in the life cycle of stars. In all of these environments, there are dozens to thousands of nuclear species that interact with each other to produce successively heavier elements. In this paper, we present SkyNet, a new general-purpose nuclear reaction network that evolves the abundances of nuclear species under the influence of nuclear reactions. SkyNet can be used to compute the nucleosynthesis evolution in all astrophysical scenarios where nucleosynthesis occurs. SkyNet is free and open source, and aims to be easy to use and flexible. Any list of isotopes can be evolved, and SkyNet supports different types of nuclear reactions. SkyNet is modular so that new or existing physics, like nuclear reactions or equations of state, can easily be added or modified. Here, we present in detail the physics implemented in SkyNet with a focus on a self-consistent transition to and from nuclear statistical equilibrium to non-equilibrium nuclear burning, our implementation of electron screening, and coupling of the network to an equation of state. We also present comprehensive code tests and comparisons with existing nuclear reaction networks. We find that SkyNet agrees with published results and other codes to an accuracy of a few percent. Discrepancies, where they exist, can be traced to differences in the physics implementations.

  15. The influence of oxidation process on exchange bias in egg-shaped FeO/Fe3O4 core/shell nanoparticles (United States)

    Leszczyński, Błażej; Hadjipanayis, George C.; El-Gendy, Ahmed A.; Załęski, Karol; Śniadecki, Zbigniew; Musiał, Andrzej; Jarek, Marcin; Jurga, Stefan; Skumiel, Andrzej


    Egg-shaped nanoparticles with a core-shell morphology were synthesized by thermal decomposition of an iron oleate complex. XRD and M(T) magnetic measurements confirmed the presence of FeO (wustite) and Fe3O4 (magnetite) phases in the nanoparticles. Oxidation of FeO to Fe3O4 was found to be the mechanism for the shell formation. As-made nanoparticles exhibited high values of exchange bias at 2 K. Oxidation led to decrease of exchange field from 2880 Oe (in as-made sample) to 330 Oe (in oxidized sample). At temperatures higher than the Néel temperature of FeO (200 K) there was no exchange bias. An interesting observation was made showing the exchange field to be higher than the coercive field at temperatures close to magnetite's Verwey transition.

  16. Near Net Manufacturing Using Thin Gage Friction Stir Welding (United States)

    Takeshita, Jennifer; Potter, David; Holquin, Michael


    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) and near net spin forming of FSW aluminumn blanks were investigated for large-scale pressure vessel applications. With a specific focus on very thin gage 2xxx and 7xxx aluminum alloys, the program concentrated on the following: the criteria used for material selection, a potential manufacturing flow, and the effectiveness and associated risks of near net spin forming. Discussion will include the mechanical properties of the friction stir welds and the parent material from before and after the spin forming process. This effort was performed under a NASA Space Exploration initiative focused on increasing the affordability, reliability and performance of pressure vessels larger than 10 ft. diameter.

  17. Global climate change and terrestrial net primary production (United States)

    Melillo, Jerry M.; Mcguire, A. D.; Kicklighter, David W.; Moore, Berrien, III; Vorosmarty, Charles J.; Schloss, Annette L.


    A process-based model was used to estimate global patterns of net primary production and soil nitrogen cycling for contemporary climate conditions and current atmospheric CO2 concentration. Over half of the global annual net primary production was estimated to occur in the tropics, with most of the production attributable to tropical evergreen forest. The effects of CO2 doubling and associated climate changes were also explored. The responses in tropical and dry temperate ecosystems were dominated by CO2, but those in northern and moist temperate ecosystems reflected the effects of temperature on nitrogen availability.

  18. Shape memory polymers (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas S.; Bearinger, Jane P.


    New shape memory polymer compositions, methods for synthesizing new shape memory polymers, and apparatus comprising an actuator and a shape memory polymer wherein the shape memory polymer comprises at least a portion of the actuator. A shape memory polymer comprising a polymer composition which physically forms a network structure wherein the polymer composition has shape-memory behavior and can be formed into a permanent primary shape, re-formed into a stable secondary shape, and controllably actuated to recover the permanent primary shape. Polymers have optimal aliphatic network structures due to minimization of dangling chains by using monomers that are symmetrical and that have matching amine and hydroxyl groups providing polymers and polymer foams with clarity, tight (narrow temperature range) single transitions, and high shape recovery and recovery force that are especially useful for implanting in the human body.

  19. Shape memory polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Thomas S.; Bearinger, Jane P.


    New shape memory polymer compositions, methods for synthesizing new shape memory polymers, and apparatus comprising an actuator and a shape memory polymer wherein the shape memory polymer comprises at least a portion of the actuator. A shape memory polymer comprising a polymer composition which physically forms a network structure wherein the polymer composition has shape-memory behavior and can be formed into a permanent primary shape, re-formed into a stable secondary shape, and controllably actuated to recover the permanent primary shape. Polymers have optimal aliphatic network structures due to minimization of dangling chains by using monomers that are symmetrical and that have matching amine and hydroxl groups providing polymers and polymer foams with clarity, tight (narrow temperature range) single transitions, and high shape recovery and recovery force that are especially useful for implanting in the human body.

  20. An analytical method for well-formed workflow/Petri net verification of classical soundness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clempner Julio


    Full Text Available In this paper we consider workflow nets as dynamical systems governed by ordinary difference equations described by a particular class of Petri nets. Workflow nets are a formal model of business processes. Well-formed business processes correspond to sound workflow nets. Even if it seems necessary to require the soundness of workflow nets, there exist business processes with conditional behavior that will not necessarily satisfy the soundness property. In this sense, we propose an analytical method for showing that a workflow net satisfies the classical soundness property using a Petri net. To present our statement, we use Lyapunov stability theory to tackle the classical soundness verification problem for a class of dynamical systems described by Petri nets. This class of Petri nets allows a dynamical model representation that can be expressed in terms of difference equations. As a result, by applying Lyapunov theory, the classical soundness property for workflow nets is solved proving that the Petri net representation is stable. We show that a finite and non-blocking workflow net satisfies the sound property if and only if its corresponding PN is stable, i.e., given the incidence matrix A of the corresponding PN, there exists a Փ strictly positive m vector such that AՓ≤ 0. The key contribution of the paper is the analytical method itself that satisfies part of the definition of the classical soundness requirements. The method is designed for practical applications, guarantees that anomalies can be detected without domain knowledge, and can be easily implemented into existing commercial systems that do not support the verification of workflows. The validity of the proposed method is successfully demonstrated by application examples.

  1. NetSuite OneWorld Implementation 2011 R2

    CERN Document Server

    Foydel, Thomas


    This book is a focused, step-by step tutorial that shows you how to successfully implement NetSuite OneWorld into your organization. It is written in an easy-to-read style, with a strong emphasis on real-world, practical examples with step-by-step explanations. The book focuses on NetSuite OneWorld 2011 R1. If you are an application administrator, business analyst, project team member or business process owner who wants to implement NetSuite OneWorld into your organization, then this book is for you. This book might also be useful if you are a business manager considering a new system for your

  2. Form, formation, and deformation : the influence of material properties and process conditions on the shape of granules produced by high shear granulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, Anneke Margriet


    High shear granulation The introduction of this thesis describes the high shear granulation process. High shear granulation is a commonly used unit operation to produce larger granules of primary particles. The granulation process has been described to consist of different stages. The initial growth

  3. Shape measurements of volcanic particles by CAMSIZER


    Lo Castro, Maria Deborah; Andronico, Daniele; Nunnari, Giuseppe; Spata, Alessandro; Torrisi, Alessio


    The shape of volcanic particles is an important parameter holding information related to physical and geochemical processes. The study of particle shape may help improving knowledge on the main eruptive processes (fragmentation, transport and sedimentation) during explosive activity. In general, volcanic ash is formed by different components, namely juvenile, lithic and crystal particles, each one characterized by peculiar morphology. Moreover, quantifying the shape of pyroclasts is needed by...

  4. NETS - Danish participation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsen, S. (Grontmij - Carl Bro, Glostrup (Denmark)); Theel, C. (Baltic Sea Solutions, Holeby (Denmark))


    Within the NICe-funded project 'Nordic Environmental Technology Solutions (NETS)' a new type of networking at the Nordic level was organized in order to jointly exploit the rapidly growing market potential in the environmental technology sector. The project aimed at increased and professionalized commercialization of Nordic Cleantech in energy and water business segments through 1) closer cooperation and joint marketing activities, 2) a website, 3) cleantech product information via brochures and publications 4) and participating in relevant trade fairs and other industry events. Facilitating business-to-business activities was another core task for the NETS project partners from Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark with the aim to encourage total solutions for combined Cleantech system offers. The project has achieved to establish a Cleantech register of 600 Nordic Cleantech companies, a network of 86 member enterprises, produced several publications and brochures for direct technology promotion and a website for direct access to company profiles and contact data. The project partners have attended 14 relevant international Cleantech trade fairs and conferences and facilitated business-to-business contacts added by capacity building offers through two company workshops. The future challenge for the project partners and Nordic Cleantech will be to coordinate the numerous efforts within the Nordic countries in order to reach concerted action and binding of member companies for reliable services, an improved visibility and knowledge exchange. With Cleantech's growing market influence and public awareness, the need to develop total solutions is increasing likewise. Marketing efforts should be encouraged cross-sectional and cross-border among the various levels of involved actors from both the public and the private sector. (au)

  5. Minimal Edge-Transitive Nets for the Design and Construction of Metal-Organic Frameworks

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed


    Highly-connected and minimal edge-transitive nets (with one or two kinds of edge) can be regarded as ideal blueprints for the rational design and construction of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Here we report and affirm the prominence of highly-connected nets as suitable targets in reticular chemistry for the design and synthesis of MOFs. Of special interest are augmented highly-connected binodal edge-transitive nets embedding a unique and precise positioning and connectivity of the net vertex figures, regarded as net-coded building units (net-cBUs). Explicitly, a definite net-cBU encompasses precise geometrical information that codes uniquely and matchlessly a selected net, a compelling perquisite for the rational design of MOFs. Interestingly, the double six-membered ring (d6R) building unit offers great prospective to be deployed as a net-cBU for the deliberate reticulation of the sole two edge-transitive nets with a vertex figure as a d6R, namely the (4,12)-coordinated shp net (square and hexagonal prism) and the (6,12)-coordinated alb net (aluminium diboride, hexagonal prism and trigonal prism). Conceivably, we envisioned and proposed various MOF structures based on the derived shp and alb nets. Gaining access to the requisite net-cBUs is essential for the successful practice of reticular chemistry; correspondingly organic and organic chemistries were deployed to afford concomitant molecular building blocks (MBBs) with the looked-for shape and connectivity. Practically, the combination of the 12-connected (12-c) rare-earth (RE) polynuclear, points of extension matching the 12 vertices of the hexagonal prism (d6R) with a 4-connected tetracarboxylate ligand or a 6-connected hexacarboxylate ligand afforded the targeted shp-MOF or alb-MOF, respectively. Intuitively, a dodecacarboxylate ligand can be conceived and purported as a compatible 12-c MBB, plausibly affording the positioning of the carbon centers of the twelve carboxylate groups on the vertices of the

  6. Development of Network Interface Cards for TRIDAQ systems with the NaNet framework (United States)

    Ammendola, R.; Biagioni, A.; Cretaro, P.; Di Lorenzo, S.; Fiorini, M.; Frezza, O.; Lamanna, G.; Lo Cicero, F.; Lonardo, A.; Martinelli, M.; Neri, I.; Paolucci, P. S.; Pastorelli, E.; Piandani, R.; Pontisso, L.; Rossetti, D.; Simula, F.; Sozzi, M.; Valente, P.; Vicini, P.


    NaNet is a framework for the development of FPGA-based PCI Express (PCIe) Network Interface Cards (NICs) with real-time data transport architecture that can be effectively employed in TRIDAQ systems. Key features of the architecture are the flexibility in the configuration of the number and kind of the I/O channels, the hardware offloading of the network protocol stack, the stream processing capability, and the zero-copy CPU and GPU Remote Direct Memory Access (RDMA). Three NIC designs have been developed with the NaNet framework: NaNet-1 and NaNet-10 for the CERN NA62 low level trigger and NaNet3 for the KM3NeT-IT underwater neutrino telescope DAQ system. We will focus our description on the NaNet-10 design, as it is the most complete of the three in terms of capabilities and integrated IPs of the framework.

  7. Sufficient and Necessary Condition to Decide Compatibility for a Class of Interorganizational Workflow Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanjun Liu


    Full Text Available Interorganizational Workflow nets (IWF-nets can well model many concurrent systems such as web service composition, in which multiple processes interact via sending/receiving messages. Compatibility of IWF-nets is a crucial criterion for the correctness of these systems. It guarantees that a system has no deadlock, livelock, or dead tasks. In our previous work we proved that the compatibility problem is PSPACE-complete for safe IWF-nets. This paper defines a subclass of IWF-nets that can model many cases about interactions. Necessary and sufficient condition is presented to decide their compatibility, and it depends on the net structures only. Finally, an algorithm is developed based on the condition.

  8. Research on image registration based on D-Nets (United States)

    Wu, Cengceng; Liu, Zhaoguang; Cheng, Hongtan


    Image registration is the key technology of digital imaging applications, it is used widely. We researched the image registration techniques in this paper. Based on the basis of D-Nets image registration algorithms, we propose a new innovation. We turn first to process image, so we can get synthetic images of original images and enhanced images. Then we extract SIFT feature in the original image. Next, in order to reduce noise of the image, we use the Gauss filter to process the synthesized image. Then we do experiments with synthetic images in the process of image registration. In this process, we use the D-Nets algorithm to achieve. Compared to the existing method, it can greatly improve the accuracy and recall.

  9. Online Conformance Checking for Petri Nets and Event Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burattin, Andrea


    Within process mining, we can identify conformance checking as the task of computing the extent to which executions of a process model are in line with the reference behavior. Most approaches currently available in the literature (for imperative models, such as Petri nets) perform just a-posterio......Within process mining, we can identify conformance checking as the task of computing the extent to which executions of a process model are in line with the reference behavior. Most approaches currently available in the literature (for imperative models, such as Petri nets) perform just a......-posteriori analyses. This means that the amount of nonconformant behavior is quantified after the completion of the current execution. The tool presented in this paper, instead, proposes an approach for online conformance checking: not only it is capable of quantifying the deviating behavior on the fly...

  10. Effect of frozen storage, different thawing methods and cooking processes on the survival of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in commercially shaped beef patties. (United States)

    Manios, Stavros G; Skandamis, Panagiotis N


    The effect of common handling practices (i.e., freezing, thawing and cooking) of beef patties on the survival of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7, was evaluated. Inoculated ground beef was stored at -22 °C for 5 and 75 days. After thawing at 4 °C/16 h, 20 °C/12 h, in microwave/22-24 min, or without prior thawing, beef patties (90 g) were shaped and cooked in oven-broiler or in pan-grill to internal temperatures of 60 °C or 71 °C. Cooking in oven-broiler was more effective compared to pan-grill, especially when cooked to 71 °C. Defrosting methods did not affect significantly (P ≥ 0.05) the survival of the pathogens during subsequent cooking. Frozen storage for 75 days enhanced the survival of E. coli O157:H7, as the pathogen survived 3.1 logCFU/g when cooked in oven-broiler at 71 °C. Results may supplement the existing guidelines for the appropriate practices, associated with freezing, thawing and cooking of patties in households or catering services. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The influence of oxidation process on exchange bias in egg-shaped FeO/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} core/shell nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leszczyński, Błażej, E-mail: [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Hadjipanayis, George C.; El-Gendy, Ahmed A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, 217 Sharp Lab, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Załęski, Karol [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Śniadecki, Zbigniew [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, M. Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland); Musiał, Andrzej [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, M. Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland); Jarek, Marcin [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Jurga, Stefan [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Skumiel, Andrzej [Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland)


    Egg-shaped nanoparticles with a core–shell morphology were synthesized by thermal decomposition of an iron oleate complex. XRD and M(T) magnetic measurements confirmed the presence of FeO (wustite) and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} (magnetite) phases in the nanoparticles. Oxidation of FeO to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} was found to be the mechanism for the shell formation. As-made nanoparticles exhibited high values of exchange bias at 2 K. Oxidation led to decrease of exchange field from 2880 Oe (in as-made sample) to 330 Oe (in oxidized sample). At temperatures higher than the Néel temperature of FeO (200 K) there was no exchange bias. An interesting observation was made showing the exchange field to be higher than the coercive field at temperatures close to magnetite's Verwey transition. - Highlights: • Synthesis of monodispersed FeO nanoparticles is shown. • As-made FeO nanoparticle is antiferromagnetically ordered, when it is oxidized to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, the FeO core becomes small and disordered. • Exchange bias in well-ordered and disordered core is different.

  12. Children's Schemes for Anticipating the Validity of Nets for Solids (United States)

    Wright, Vince; Smith, Ken


    There is growing acknowledgement of the importance of spatial abilities to student achievement across a broad range of domains and disciplines. Nets are one way to connect three-dimensional shapes and their two-dimensional representations and are a common focus of geometry curricula. Thirty-four students at year 6 (upper primary school) were…

  13. Application and Theory of Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 13th International Conference onApplication and Theory of Petri Nets, held in Sheffield, England, in June 1992. The aim of the Petri net conferences is to create a forum for discussing progress in the application and theory of Petri nets. Typically....... Balbo and W. Reisig, 18 submitted papers, and seven project papers. The submitted papers and project presentations were selectedby the programme committee and a panel of referees from a large number of submissions....

  14. Are You Neutral About Net Neutrality (United States)


    Information Resources Management College National Defense University Are You Neutral About Net Neutrality ? A presentation for Systems & uses Verizon FiOS for phone, TV, and internet service 3 Agenda Net Neutrality —Through 2 Lenses Who Are the Players & What Are They Saying...Medical Treatment Mini-Case Studies Updates Closing Thoughts 4 Working Definitions of Net Neutrality "Network Neutrality" is the concept that

  15. Texture Based Image Analysis With Neural Nets (United States)

    Ilovici, Irina S.; Ong, Hoo-Tee; Ostrander, Kim E.


    In this paper, we combine direct image statistics and spatial frequency domain techniques with a neural net model to analyze texture based images. The resultant optimal texture features obtained from the direct and transformed image form the exemplar pattern of the neural net. The proposed approach introduces an automated texture analysis applied to metallography for determining the cooling rate and mechanical working of the materials. The results suggest that the proposed method enhances the practical applications of neural nets and texture extraction features.

  16. Factors associated with mosquito net use by individuals in households owning nets in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graves Patricia M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ownership of insecticidal mosquito nets has dramatically increased in Ethiopia since 2006, but the proportion of persons with access to such nets who use them has declined. It is important to understand individual level net use factors in the context of the home to modify programmes so as to maximize net use. Methods Generalized linear latent and mixed models (GLLAMM were used to investigate net use using individual level data from people living in net-owning households from two surveys in Ethiopia: baseline 2006 included 12,678 individuals from 2,468 households and a sub-sample of the Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS in 2007 included 14,663 individuals from 3,353 households. Individual factors (age, sex, pregnancy; net factors (condition, age, net density; household factors (number of rooms [2006] or sleeping spaces [2007], IRS, women's knowledge and school attendance [2007 only], wealth, altitude; and cluster level factors (rural or urban were investigated in univariate and multi-variable models for each survey. Results In 2006, increased net use was associated with: age 25-49 years (adjusted (a OR = 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.2-1.7 compared to children U5; female gender (aOR = 1.4; 95% CI 1.2-1.5; fewer nets with holes (Ptrend = 0.002; and increasing net density (Ptrend [all nets in HH good] = 1.6; 95% CI 1.2-2.1; increasing net density (Ptrend [per additional space] = 0.6, 95% CI 0.5-0.7; more old nets (aOR [all nets in HH older than 12 months] = 0.5; 95% CI 0.3-0.7; and increasing household altitude (Ptrend Conclusion In both surveys, net use was more likely by women, if nets had fewer holes and were at higher net per person density within households. School-age children and young adults were much less likely to use a net. Increasing availability of nets within households (i.e. increasing net density, and improving net condition while focusing on education and promotion of net use, especially in school-age children

  17. Net Operating Working Capital, Capital Budgeting, and Cash Budgets: A Teaching Example (United States)

    Tuner, James A.


    Many introductory finance texts present information on the capital budgeting process, including estimation of project cash flows. Typically, estimation of project cash flows begins with a calculation of net income. Getting from net income to cash flows requires accounting for non-cash items such as depreciation. Also important is the effect of…

  18. Development of superplastic steel processing. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, A. [comp.


    Objective was to provide basis for producing, processing, and forming UHCS (ultrahigh carbon steel) on a commercial scale. Business plans were developed for potential commercialization. Effort was directed at improving the combination of flow stress and forming rates in UHCS alloys in order to make near net shape superplastic forming competitive; the result was the development of a series of UHCS alloys and processing, the selection of which depends on the specific requirements of the commercial application. Useful ancillary properties of these materials include: improved mechanical properties, wear resistance, and oxidation resistance at elevated temperatures.

  19. Pro Agile NET Development with Scrum

    CERN Document Server

    Blankenship, Jerrel; Millett, Scott


    Pro Agile .NET Development with SCRUM guides you through a real-world ASP.NET project and shows how agile methodology is put into practice. There is plenty of literature on the theory behind agile methodologies, but no book on the market takes the concepts of agile practices and applies these in a practical manner to an end-to-end ASP.NET project, especially the estimating, requirements and management aspects of a project. Pro Agile .NET Development with SCRUM takes you through the initial stages of a project - gathering requirements and setting up an environment - through to the development a

  20. Pro ASP.NET MVC 4

    CERN Document Server

    Freeman, Adam


    The ASP.NET MVC 4 Framework is the latest evolution of Microsoft's ASP.NET web platform. It provides a high-productivity programming model that promotes cleaner code architecture, test-driven development, and powerful extensibility, combined with all the benefits of ASP.NET. ASP.NET MVC 4 contains a number of significant advances over previous versions. New mobile and desktop templates (employing adaptive rendering) are included together with support for jQuery Mobile for the first time. New display modes allow your application to select views based on the browser that's making the request whi

  1. Professional Visual Basic 2010 and .NET 4

    CERN Document Server

    Sheldon, Bill; Sharkey, Kent


    Intermediate and advanced coverage of Visual Basic 2010 and .NET 4 for professional developers. If you've already covered the basics and want to dive deep into VB and .NET topics that professional programmers use most, this is your book. You'll find a quick review of introductory topics-always helpful-before the author team of experts moves you quickly into such topics as data access with ADO.NET, Language Integrated Query (LINQ), security, ASP.NET web programming with Visual Basic, Windows workflow, threading, and more. You'll explore all the new features of Visual Basic 2010 as well as all t

  2. Towards a Standard for Modular Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart; Petrucci, Laure


    When designing complex systems, mechanisms for structuring, composing, and reusing system components are crucial. Today, there are many approaches for equipping Petri nets with such mechanisms. In the context of defining a standard interchange format for Petri nets, modular PNML was defined....... Moreover, we present and discuss some more advanced features of modular Petri nets that could be included in the standard. This way, we provide a formal foundation and a basis for a discussion of features to be included in the upcoming standard of a module concept for Petri nets in general and for high...

  3. Gyral net: A new representation of cortical folding organization. (United States)

    Chen, Hanbo; Li, Yujie; Ge, Fangfei; Li, Gang; Shen, Dinggang; Liu, Tianming


    One distinct feature of the cerebral cortex is its convex (gyri) and concave (sulci) folding patterns. Due to the remarkable complexity and variability of gyral/sulcal shapes, it has been challenging to quantitatively model their organization patterns. Inspired by the observation that the lines of gyral crests can form a connected graph on each brain hemisphere, we propose a new representation of cortical gyri/sulci organization pattern - gyral net, which models cortical architecture from a graph perspective, starting with nodes and edges obtained from the reconstructed cortical surfaces. A novel computational framework is developed to efficiently and automatically construct gyral nets from surface meshes, and four measurements are devised to quantify the folding patterns. Using an MRI dataset for autism study as a test bed, we identified reduced local connectivity cost and increased curviness of gyral net bilaterally on the parietal lobe, occipital lobe, and temporal lobe in autistic patients. Additionally, we found that the cortical thickness and the gyral straightness of gyral joints are higher than the rest of gyral crest regions. The proposed representation offers a new tool for a comprehensive and reliable characterization of the cortical folding organization. This novel computational framework will enable large-scale analyses of cortical folding patterns in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Experiments and simulation of a net closing mechanism for tether-net capture of space debris (United States)

    Sharf, Inna; Thomsen, Benjamin; Botta, Eleonora M.; Misra, Arun K.


    This research addresses the design and testing of a debris containment system for use in a tether-net approach to space debris removal. The tether-net active debris removal involves the ejection of a net from a spacecraft by applying impulses to masses on the net, subsequent expansion of the net, the envelopment and capture of the debris target, and the de-orbiting of the debris via a tether to the chaser spacecraft. To ensure a debris removal mission's success, it is important that the debris be successfully captured and then, secured within the net. To this end, we present a concept for a net closing mechanism, which we believe will permit consistently successful debris capture via a simple and unobtrusive design. This net closing system functions by extending the main tether connecting the chaser spacecraft and the net vertex to the perimeter and around the perimeter of the net, allowing the tether to actuate closure of the net in a manner similar to a cinch cord. A particular embodiment of the design in a laboratory test-bed is described: the test-bed itself is comprised of a scaled-down tether-net, a supporting frame and a mock-up debris. Experiments conducted with the facility demonstrate the practicality of the net closing system. A model of the net closure concept has been integrated into the previously developed dynamics simulator of the chaser/tether-net/debris system. Simulations under tether tensioning conditions demonstrate the effectiveness of the closure concept for debris containment, in the gravity-free environment of space, for a realistic debris target. The on-ground experimental test-bed is also used to showcase its utility for validating the dynamics simulation of the net deployment, and a full-scale automated setup would make possible a range of validation studies of other aspects of a tether-net debris capture mission.

  5. Bacteriophages as microorganisms shape in the processes of treatment of drinkable waters; Bacteriofagos como microorganismos modelo en los procesos de tratamiento de aguas potables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arza, I.; Mendez, X.; Valero, F.; Jofre, J.; Lucena, F.


    The removal of bacteriophages and bacterial indicators at the different stages of treatment in a drinking treatment plant were determined in order to investigate the usefulness of phages as model organisms to evaluate the effectiveness of the processes of the plant. Pre chlorination-flocculation-sedimentation was by far the most efficient step in removing phages, faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci during the periods. Sulphite reducing clostridia were the most resistant to this first stage of treatment. Entero viruses were never detected in finished water, and consequently their removal could not be quantified. The phages infecting Bact, fragilis and somatic coli phages are significantly more abundant then entero viruses in raw waters, heir numbers more elevated and their greater resistance during the process, allows their isolation throughout the processing. Consequently, somatic coliphages and phages infectingBact. fragilis deserve durther attention as model organisms for the evaluation of removal of human enteric viruses in water treatment plants. (Author) 21 refs.

  6. Bayesian Vision for Shape Recovery (United States)

    Jalobeanu, Andre


    We present a new Bayesian vision technique that aims at recovering a shape from two or more noisy observations taken under similar lighting conditions. The shape is parametrized by a piecewise linear height field, textured by a piecewise linear irradiance field, and we assume Gaussian Markovian priors for both shape vertices and irradiance variables. The observation process. also known as rendering, is modeled by a non-affine projection (e.g. perspective projection) followed by a convolution with a piecewise linear point spread function. and contamination by additive Gaussian noise. We assume that the observation parameters are calibrated beforehand. The major novelty of the proposed method consists of marginalizing out the irradiances considered as nuisance parameters, which is achieved by Laplace approximations. This reduces the inference to minimizing an energy that only depends on the shape vertices, and therefore allows an efficient Iterated Conditional Mode (ICM) optimization scheme to be implemented. A Gaussian approximation of the posterior shape density is computed, thus providing estimates both the geometry and its uncertainty. We illustrate the effectiveness of the new method by shape reconstruction results in a 2D case. A 3D version is currently under development and aims at recovering a surface from multiple images, reconstructing the topography by marginalizing out both albedo and shading.

  7. A novel workflow for seismic net pay estimation with uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Glinsky, Michael E; Unaldi, Muhlis; Nagassar, Vishal


    This paper presents a novel workflow for seismic net pay estimation with uncertainty. It is demonstrated on the Cassra/Iris Field. The theory for the stochastic wavelet derivation (which estimates the seismic noise level along with the wavelet, time-to-depth mapping, and their uncertainties), the stochastic sparse spike inversion, and the net pay estimation (using secant areas) along with its uncertainty; will be outlined. This includes benchmarking of this methodology on a synthetic model. A critical part of this process is the calibration of the secant areas. This is done in a two step process. First, a preliminary calibration is done with the stochastic reflection response modeling using rock physics relationships derived from the well logs. Second, a refinement is made to the calibration to account for the encountered net pay at the wells. Finally, a variogram structure is estimated from the extracted secant area map, then used to build in the lateral correlation to the ensemble of net pay maps while matc...

  8. HANPP Collection: Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) as a Percentage of Net Primary Product (NPP) portion of the HANPP Collection represents a map identifying...

  9. Self-erecting shapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reading, Matthew W.


    Technologies for making self-erecting structures are described herein. An exemplary self-erecting structure comprises a plurality of shape-memory members that connect two or more hub components. When forces are applied to the self-erecting structure, the shape-memory members can deform, and when the forces are removed the shape-memory members can return to their original pre-deformation shape, allowing the self-erecting structure to return to its own original shape under its own power. A shape of the self-erecting structure depends on a spatial orientation of the hub components, and a relative orientation of the shape-memory members, which in turn depends on an orientation of joining of the shape-memory members with the hub components.

  10. Shaped Recess Flow Control (United States)

    Shyam, Vikram (Inventor); Poinsatte, Philip (Inventor); Thurman, Douglas (Inventor)


    One or more embodiments of techniques or systems for shaped recess flow control are provided herein. A shaped recess or cavity can be formed on a surface associated with fluid flow. The shaped recess can be configured to create or induce fluid effects, temperature effects, or shedding effects that interact with a free stream or other structures. The shaped recess can be formed at an angle to a free stream flow and may be substantially "V" shaped. The shaped recess can be coupled with a cooling channel, for example. The shaped recess can be upstream or downstream from a cooling channel and aligned in a variety of manners. Due to the fluid effects, shedding effects, and temperature effects created by a shaped recess, lift-off or separation of cooling jets of cooling channels can be mitigated, thereby enhancing film cooling effectiveness.

  11. Price smarter on the Net. (United States)

    Baker, W; Marn, M; Zawada, C


    Companies generally have set prices on the Internet in two ways. Many start-ups have offered untenably low prices in a rush to capture first-mover advantage. Many incumbents have simply charged the same prices on-line as they do off-line. Either way, companies are missing a big opportunity. The fundamental value of the Internet lies not in lowering prices or making them consistent but in optimizing them. After all, if it's easy for customers to compare prices on the Internet, it's also easy for companies to track customers' behavior and adjust prices accordingly. The Net lets companies optimize prices in three ways. First, it lets them set and announce prices with greater precision. Different prices can be tested easily, and customers' responses can be collected instantly. Companies can set the most profitable prices, and they can tap into previously hidden customer demand. Second, because it's so easy to change prices on the Internet, companies can adjust prices in response to even small fluctuations in market conditions, customer demand, or competitors' behavior. Third, companies can use the clickstream data and purchase histories that it collects through the Internet to segment customers quickly. Then it can offer segment-specific prices or promotions immediately. By taking full advantage of the unique possibilities afforded by the Internet to set prices with precision, adapt to changing circumstances quickly, and segment customers accurately, companies can get their pricing right. It's one of the ultimate drivers of e-business success.

  12. Cell shape: taking the heat. (United States)

    Kunda, Patricia; Rohn, Jennifer L; Baum, Buzz


    Preservation of cell architecture under physically stressful conditions is a basic requirement for many biological processes and is critical for mechanosensory systems built to translate subtle changes in cell shape into changes in organism behaviour. A new study reveals how an extracellular protein--Spam--helps mechanosensory organs in the fruit fly to withstand the effects of the water loss that accompanies heat shock.

  13. Uranium alloy forming process research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, T.S.; Biesiada, T.A.; Sunwoo, A.; Long, J.; Anklam, T.; Kang, S.W.


    The study of modern U-6Nb processes is motivated by the needs to reduce fabrication costs and to improve efficiency in material usage. We have studied two potential options: physical vapor deposition (PVD) for manufacturing near-net-shape U-6Nb, and kinetic-energy metallization (KEM) as a supplemental process for refurbishing recycled parts. In FY 1996, we completed two series of PVD runs and heat treatment analyses, the characterization of the microstructure and mechanical properties, a comparison of the results to data for wrought-processed material, and experimental demonstration of the KEM feasibility process with a wide range of variables (particle materials and sizes, gases and gas pressures, and substrate materials), and computer modeling calculations.

  14. Effect of Thermomechanical Processing on the Microstructure, Properties, and Work Behavior of a Ti50.5 Ni29.5 Pt20 High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloy (United States)

    Noebe, Ronald; Draper, Susan; Gaydosh, Darrell; Garga, Anita; Lerch, Brad; Penney, Nicholas; Begelow, Glen; Padula, Santo, II; Brown, Jeff


    TiNiPt shape memory alloys are particularly promising for use as solid state actuators in environments up to 300 C, due to a reasonable balance of properties, including acceptable work output. However, one of the challenges to commercializing a viable high-temperature shape memory alloy (HTSMA) is to establish the appropriate primary and secondary processing techniques for fabrication of the material in a required product form such as rod and wire. Consequently, a Ti(50.5)Ni(29.5)Pt20 alloy was processed using several techniques including single-pass high-temperature extrusion, multiple-pass high-temperature extrusion, and cold drawing to produce bar stock, thin rod, and fine wire, respectively. The effects of heat treatment on the hardness, grain size, room temperature tensile properties, and transformation temperatures of hot- and cold-worked material were examined. Basic tensile properties as a function of temperature and the strain-temperature response of the alloy under constant load, for the determination of work output, were also investigated for various forms of the Ti(50.5)Ni(29.5)Pt20 alloy, including fine wire.

  15. The Hue of Shapes (United States)

    Albertazzi, Liliana; Da Pos, Osvaldo; Canal, Luisa; Micciolo, Rocco; Malfatti, Michela; Vescovi, Massimo


    This article presents an experimental study on the naturally biased association between shape and color. For each basic geometric shape studied, participants were asked to indicate the color perceived as most closely related to it, choosing from the Natural Color System Hue Circle. Results show that the choices of color for each shape were not…

  16. Building with shapes

    CERN Document Server

    Mooney, Carla


    There are shapes everywhere you look. You can put shapes together or build with them. What can you build with three circles? In this title, students will explore and understand that certain attributes define what a shape is called. This title will allow students to identify the main purpose of a text, including what the author wants to answer, explain, or describe.

  17. 78 FR 72393 - Net Investment Income Tax (United States)


    ... Investment Income Tax; Final and Proposed Rules #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 231 / Monday, December... Parts 1 and 602 RIN 1545-BK44 Net Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury... Investment Income Tax and the computation of Net Investment Income. The regulations affect individuals...

  18. 77 FR 72611 - Net Investment Income Tax (United States)


    ... December 5, 2012 Part V Department of the Treasury Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 Net Investment... Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking...) the individual's net investment income for such taxable year, or (B) the excess (if any) of (i) the...

  19. Net analyte signal based statistical quality control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skibsted, E.T.S.; Boelens, H.F.M.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Smilde, A.K.; Broad, N.W.; Rees, D.R.; Witte, D.T.


    Net analyte signal statistical quality control (NAS-SQC) is a new methodology to perform multivariate product quality monitoring based on the net analyte signal approach. The main advantage of NAS-SQC is that the systematic variation in the product due to the analyte (or property) of interest is

  20. Using the MVC architecture on . NET platform


    Ježek, David


    This thesis deals with usage of MVC (Model View Controller) technology in web development on ASP.NET platform from Microsoft. Mainly it deals with latest version of framework ASP.NET MVC 3. First part describes MVC architecture and the second describes usage of MVC in certain parts of web application an comparing with PHP.