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Sample records for net radiometers electronic

  1. Dynamic response of the thermometric net radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. D. Wilson; W. J. Massman; G. E. Swaters

    2009-01-01

    We computed the dynamic response of an idealized thermometric net radiometer, when driven by an oscillating net longwave radiation intended roughly to simulate rapid fluctuations of the radiative environment such as might be expected during field use of such devices. The study was motivated by curiosity as to whether non-linearity of the surface boundary conditions...

  2. Design and evaluation of net radiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritschen, Leo J.; Fritschen, Charles L.

    Net radiometer designs were evaluated with respect to long and short wave sensitivities and to the effect of ambient wind on the signal. The design features of the instrument with the best overall performance include: equal sensitivity to long and short wave radiation, a thermal pile which is thermally isolated from the frame, a white guard ring, pathways for internal circulation between the top and bottom hemispheres, and self-supporting windshields. The windshields have O-ring seals, a ball joint is provided for ease of leveling, and ample desiccant is enclosed in the mounting pipe. Under a high radiant load, the net radiometer signal decreased by 2.5, 3.7, and 4.3 percent at wind speeds of 12.5, 4.6, and 7.5 m/s.

  3. GALILEO PROBE NET FLUX RADIOMETER DATA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Galileo Probe Net Flux Radiometer (NFR) measured net and upward radiation fluxes in Jupiter's atmosphere between about 0.44 bars and 14 bars, using five spectral...

  4. Calibration of electron cyclotron emission radiometer for KSTAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogi, Y; Jeong, S H; Lee, K D; Akaki, K; Mase, A; Kuwahara, D; Yoshinaga, T; Nagayama, Y; Kwon, M; Kawahata, K

    2010-10-01

    We developed and installed an electron cyclotron emission radiometer for taking measurements of Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) plasma. In order to precisely measure the absolute value of electron temperatures, a calibration measurement of the whole radiometer system was performed, which confirmed that the radiometer has an acceptably linear output signal for changes in input temperature. It was also found that the output power level predicted by a theoretical calculation agrees with that obtained by the calibration measurement. We also showed that the system displays acceptable noise-temperature performance around 0.23 eV.

  5. Design and Development of the SMAP Microwave Radiometer Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; Medeiros, James J.; Horgan, Kevin A.; Brambora, Clifford K.; Estep, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    The SMAP microwave radiometer will measure land surface brightness temperature at L-band (1413 MHz) in the presence of radio frequency interference (RFI) for soil moisture remote sensing. The radiometer design was driven by the requirements to incorporate internal calibration, to operate synchronously with the SMAP radar, and to mitigate the deleterious effects of RFI. The system design includes a highly linear super-heterodyne microwave receiver with internal reference loads and noise sources for calibration and an innovative digital signal processor and detection system. The front-end comprises a coaxial cable-based feed network, with a pair of diplexers and a coupled noise source, and radiometer front-end (RFE) box. Internal calibration is provided by reference switches and a common noise source inside the RFE. The RF back-end (RBE) downconverts the 1413 MHz channel to an intermediate frequency (IF) of 120 MHz. The IF signals are then sampled and quantized by high-speed analog-to-digital converters in the radiometer digital electronics (RDE) box. The RBE local oscillator and RDE sampling clocks are phase-locked to a common reference to ensure coherency between the signals. The RDE performs additional filtering, sub-band channelization, cross-correlation for measuring third and fourth Stokes parameters, and detection and integration of the first four raw moments of the signals. These data are packetized and sent to the ground for calibration and further processing. Here we discuss the novel features of the radiometer hardware particularly those influenced by the need to mitigate RFI.

  6. A Compact, Multi-view Net Flux Radiometer for Future Uranus and Neptune Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, S.; Amato, M.; Atkinson, D. H.; Hewagama, T.; Jennings, D. E.; Nixon, C. A.; Mousis, O.

    2017-01-01

    A Net Flux Radiometer (NFR) is presented that can be included in an atmospheric structure instrument suite for future probe missions to the icy giants Uranus and Neptune. The baseline design has two spectral channels i.e., a solar channel (0.4-to-3.5 m) and a thermal channel (4-to-300 m). The NFR is capable of viewing five distinct viewing angles during the descent. Non-imaging Winston cones with band-pass filters are used for each spectral channel and to define a 5 angular acceptance. Uncooled thermopile detectors are used in each spectral channel and are read out using a custom radiation hard application specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The baseline design can easily be changed to increase the number of detector channels from two to seven.

  7. Development of a Net Flux Radiometer for the Hera Saturn Probe Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Shahid; Amato, Michael; Atkinson, David; Mousis, Olivier; Nixon, Conor; Simon, Amy A.; Hera Probe Mission Team

    2016-10-01

    In situ exploration of all the giant planets in the outer solar system is an imperative and a Saturn probe is the next compelling step beyond Galileo's in situ exploration of Jupiter, the remote investigation of its interior, gravity, and magnetic fields by the Juno mission, and the Cassini spacecraft's similar orbital reconnaissance of Saturn. One such proposed future mission is "HERA: an international atmospheric probe to unveil the depths of Saturn" a nominal configuration is a combined ESA/Class-M probe mission accompanied by a launch vehicle and carrier relay spacecraft provided by NASA. One of the instruments being considered for inclusion on the probe is a Net Flux Radiometer (NFR) to unravel the vertical structure and properties of Saturn's cloud and haze layers. A NFR concept is presented that can be included in an atmospheric structure instrument suite for the Hera mission. The current design has two spectral channels i.e., a solar channel (0.4-to-5 µm) and a thermal channel (4-to-50 µm). The NFR is capable of viewing five distinct viewing angles during the descent. Non-imaging Winston cones with window and filter combinations define the spectral channels with a 5° Field-Of View (FOV). Uncooled thermopile detectors are used in each spectral channel and are read out using a custom designed radiation-hard Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC).

  8. Development of electronics and data acquisition system for independent calibration of electron cyclotron emission radiometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumari, Praveena, E-mail: praveena@ipr.res.in; Raulji, Vismaysinh; Mandaliya, Hitesh; Patel, Jignesh; Siju, Varsha; Pathak, S.K.; Rajpal, Rachana; Jha, R.

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Indigenous development of an electronics and data acquisition system to digitize signals for a desired time and automatization of calibration process. • 16 bit DAQ board with form factor of 90 × 89 mm. • VHDL Codes written for generating control signals for PC104 Bus, ADC and RAM. • Averaging process is done in two ways single point averaging and additive averaging. - Abstract: Signal conditioning units (SCU) along with Multichannel Data acquisition system (DAS) are developed and installed for automatization and frequent requirement of absolute calibration of ECE radiometer system. The DAS is an indigenously developed economical system which is based on Single Board Computer (SBC). The onboard RAM memory of 64 K for each channel enables the DAS for simultaneous and continuous acquisition. A Labview based graphical user interface provides commands locally or remotely to acquire, process, plot and finally save the data in binary format. The microscopic signals received from radiometer are strengthened, filtered by SCU and acquired through DAS for the set time and at set sampling frequency. Stored data are processed and analyzed offline with Labview utility. The calibration process has been performed for two hours continuously at different sampling frequency (100 Hz to 1 KHz) at two set of temperature like hot body and the room temperature. The detailed hardware and software design and testing results are explained in the paper.

  9. Improvements to water use and water stress estimates with the addition of IR and net radiometers to weather stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is often estimated with the Penman-Monteith (P-M) equation. Net radiation (Rn) is a major component of the surface energy balance and an input to the P-M equation, but it is challenging and expensive to measure accurately. For these reasons, most weather stations do not inclu...

  10. Measurement of the single-shot pulse energy of a free electron laser using a cryogenic radiometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masahiro, Kato; Norio, Saito; Yuichiro, Morishita; Takahiro, Tanaka [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), NMIJ, Tsukuba (Japan); Masahiro, Kato; Norio, Saito; Kai, Tiedtke; Pavle N, Juranic; Sorokin, A.A.; Richter, M.; Takahiro, Tanaka; Mitsuru, Nagasono; Makina, Yabashi; Kensuke, Tono; Tadashi, Togashi; Tetsuya, Ishikawa [RIKEN, XFEL Project Head Office, Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo (Japan); Kai, Tiedtke; Pavle N, Juranic; Sorokin, A.A.; Jastrow, U. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Sorokin, A.A. [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Polytekhnicheskaya 26, St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Richter, M.; Kroth, U.; Schoppe, H. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, PTB, Berlin (Germany); Tadashi, Togashi; Hiroaki, Kimura; Haruhiko, Ohashi [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Sayo, Hyogo (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    The absolute single-shot pulse energy of the SPring 8 extreme ultraviolet (EUV) free electron laser (FEL) was measured using a cryogenic radiometer with a relative standard uncertainty of 3%. The temperature change of the cavity in the cryogenic radiometer caused by an incident FEL pulse was determined using a lock-in amplifier and an ac Wheatstone bridge. The measured pulse energies were compared with a gas-monitor detector developed by Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt/Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron/Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute (Ioffe) at a wavelength of 51.3 nm at the SPring-8 EUV-FEL in a shot-to-shot mode. The pulse energies measured using the two detectors agree within 2.0%. (authors)

  11. KM3NeT Digital Optical Module electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real, Diego

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT collaboration is currently building of a neutrino telescope with a volume of several cubic kilometres at the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea. The telescope consists of a matrix of Digital Optical Modules that will detect the Cherenkov light originated by the interaction of the neutrinos in the proximity of the detector. This contribution describes the main components of the read-out electronics of the Digital Optical Module: the Power Board, which delivers all the power supply required by the Digital Optical Molule electronics; the Central Logic Board, the main core of the read-out system, hosting 31 Time to Digital Converters with 1 ns resolution and the White Rabbit protocol embedded in the Central Logic Board Field Programmable Gate Array; the Octopus boards, that transfer the Low Voltage Digital Signals from the PMT bases to the Central Logic Board and finally the PMT bases, in charge of converting the analogue signal produced in the 31 3" PMTs into a Low Voltage Digital Signal.

  12. Design and characterization of a 32-channel heterodyne radiometer for electron cyclotron emission measurements on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, X; Liu, X; Liu, Y; Domier, C W; Luhmann, N C; Li, E Z; Hu, L Q; Gao, X

    2014-07-01

    A 32-channel heterodyne radiometer has been developed for the measurement of electron cyclotron emission (ECE) on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST). This system collects X-mode ECE radiation spanning a frequency range of 104-168 GHz, where the frequency coverage corresponds to a full radial coverage for the case with a toroidal magnetic field of 2.3 T. The frequency range is equally spaced every 2 GHz from 105.1 to 167.1 GHz with an RF bandwidth of ~500 MHz and the video bandwidth can be switched among 50, 100, 200, and 400 kHz. Design objectives and characterization of the system are presented in this paper. Preliminary results for plasma operation are also presented.

  13. The Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, David P.

    1970-01-01

    The often observed and misunderstood phenomenon of movement of black and white vanes in toy radiometers under illumination is discussed in a generalized non-mathematical manner. Effects of light pressure, low gas density, friction, heat, and motion are illustrated. (JM)

  14. PHOCUS radiometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Nyström

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available PHOCUS – Particles, Hydrogen and Oxygen Chemistry in the Upper Summer Mesosphere is a Swedish sounding rocket experiment, launched in July 2011, with the main goal of investigating the upper atmosphere in the altitude range 50–110 km. This paper describes the SondRad instrument in the PHOCUS payload, a radiometer comprising two frequency channels (183 GHz and 557 GHz aimed at exploring the water vapour concentration distribution in connection with the appearance of noctilucent (night shining clouds. The design of the radiometer system has been done in a collaboration between Omnisys Instruments AB and the Group for Advanced Receiver Development (GARD at Chalmers University of Technology where Omnisys was responsible for the overall design, implementation, and verification of the radiometers and backend, whereas GARD was responsible for the radiometer optics and calibration systems.

    The SondRad instrument covers the water absorption lines at 183 GHz and 557 GHz. The 183 GHz channel is a side-looking radiometer, while the 557 GHz radiometer is placed along the rocket axis looking in the forward direction. Both channels employ sub-harmonically pumped Schottky mixers and Fast Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FFTS backends with 67 kHz resolution.

    The radiometers include novel calibration systems specifically adjusted for use with each frequency channel. The 183 GHz channel employs a continuous wave CW pilot signal calibrating the entire receiving chain, while the intermediate frequency chain (the IF-chain of the 557 GHz channel is calibrated by injecting a signal from a reference noise source through a directional coupler.

    The instrument collected complete spectra for both the 183 GHz and the 557 GHz with 300 Hz data rate for the 183 GHz channel and 10 Hz data rate for the 557 GHz channel for about 60 s reaching the apogee of the flight trajectory and 100 s after that. With lossless data compression using variable

  15. Measuring GNSS ionospheric total electron content at Concordia, and application to L-band radiometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Romano

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the project BIS - Bipolar Ionospheric Scintillation and Total Electron Content Monitoring, the ISACCO-DMC0 and ISACCO-DMC1 permanent monitoring stations were installed in 2008. The principal scope of the stations is to measure the ionospheric total electron content (TEC and to monitor the ionospheric scintillations, using high-sampling-frequency global positioning system (GPS ionospheric scintillation and TEC monitor (GISTM receivers. The disturbances that the ionosphere can induce on the electromagnetic signals emitted by the Global Navigation Satellite System constellations are due to the presence of electron density anomalies in the ionosphere, which are particularly frequent at high latitudes, where the upper atmosphere is highly sensitive to perturbations coming from outer space. With the development of present and future low-frequency space-borne microwave missions (e.g., Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity [SMOS], Aquarius, and Soil Moisture Active Passive missions, there is an increasing need to estimate the effects of the ionosphere on the propagation of electromagnetic waves that affects satellite measurements. As an example, how the TEC data collected at Concordia station are useful for the calibration of the European Space Agency SMOS data within the framework of an experiment promoted by the European Space Agency (known as DOMEX will be discussed. The present report shows the ability of the GISTM station to monitor ionospheric scintillation and TEC, which indicates that only the use of continuous GPS measurements can provide accurate information on TEC variability, which is necessary for continuous calibration of satellite data.

  16. Electron cyclotron emission radiometer upgrade on the J-TEXT tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Z. J.; Pan, X. M., E-mail: panxiaoming@hust.edu.cn; Ma, X. D.; Ruan, B. W.; Zhou, R. B.; Zhang, C. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

    2016-11-15

    To meet experimental requirements, the J-TEXT electron cyclotron emission (ECE) diagnostic is being upgraded. The front end antenna and transmission line have been modified and a new 8-channel W-band detecting unit has been developed. The improved ECE system will extend the frequency range from 94.5-124.5 GHz to 80.5-124.5 GHz. This will enable the system to cover the most plasma in the radius direction for B{sub T} = 1.8–2.2 T, and it even can cover almost the whole plasma range ρ = − 0.8–0.9 (minus means the high field side) at B{sub T} = 1.8 T. A new auxiliary channel bank with 8 narrow band, tunable yttrium iron garnet filters is planned to add to the ECE system. Due to observations along a major radius, perpendicular to B{sub T}, and relatively low electron temperature, Doppler and relativistic broadening are minimal and thus high spatial resolution measurements can be made at variable locations with these tunable channels.

  17. M&E-NetPay: A Micropayment System for Mobile and Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodi Huang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available As an increasing number of people purchase goods and services online, micropayment systems are becoming particularly important for mobile and electronic commerce. We have designed and developed such a system called M&E-NetPay (Mobile and Electronic NetPay. With open interoperability and mobility, M&E-NetPay uses web services to connect brokers and vendors, providing secure, flexible and reliable credit services over the Internet. In particular, M&E-NetPay makes use of a secure, inexpensive and debit-based off-line protocol that allows vendors to interact only with customers, after validating coins. The design of the architecture and protocol of M&E-NetPay are presented, together with the implementation of its prototype in ringtone and wallpaper sites. To validate our system, we have conducted its evaluations on performance, usability and heuristics. Furthermore, we compare our system to the CORBA-based (Common Object Request Broker Architecture off-line micro-payment systems. The results have demonstrated that M&E-NetPay outperforms the .NET-based M&E-NetPay system in terms of performance and user satisfaction.

  18. Broadband radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, T.W.

    1994-07-26

    A broadband radiometer is disclosed including (a) an optical integrating sphere having generally spherical integrating chamber and an entry port for receiving light (e.g., having visible and ultraviolet fractions), (b) a first optical radiation detector for receiving light from the sphere and producing an electrical output signal corresponding to broadband radiation, (c) a second optical radiation detector for receiving light from the sphere and producing an electrical output signal corresponding to a predetermined wavelength fraction of the broadband radiation, and (d) an output for producing an electrical signal which is proportional to the difference between the two electrical output signals. The radiometer is very useful, for example, in measuring the absolute amount of ultraviolet light present in a given light sample. 8 figs.

  19. Evaluation of runaway-electron effects on plasma-facing components for NET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, H.; Calén, H.

    1991-03-01

    Runaway electrons which are generated during disruptions can cause serious damage to plasma facing components in a next generation device like NET. A study was performed to quantify the response of NET plasma facing components to runaway-electron impact. For the determination of the energy deposition in the component materials Monte Carlo computations were performed. Since the subsurface metal structures can be strongly heated under runaway-electron impact from the computed results damage threshold values for the thermal excursions were derived. These damage thresholds are strongly dependent on the materials selection and the component design. For a carbonmolybdenum divertor with 10 and 20 mm carbon armour thickness and 1 degree electron incidence the damage thresholds are 100 MJ/m 2 and 220 MJ/m 2. The thresholds for a carbon-copper divertor under the same conditions are about 50% lower. On the first wall damage is anticipated for energy depositions above 180 MJ/m 2.

  20. A Web-Based Electronic Book (e-book) Library: The netLibrary Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connaway, Lynn Silipigni

    2001-01-01

    Identifies elements that are important for academic libraries to use in evaluating electronic books, including content; acquisition and collection development; software and hardware standards and protocols; digital rights management; access; archiving; privacy; the market and pricing; and enhancements and ideal features. Describes netLibrary, a…

  1. KM3NeT tower data acquisition and data transport electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolau C.A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the KM3Net European project, the production stage of a large volume underwater neutrino telescope has started. The forthcoming installation includes 8 towers and 24 strings, that will be installed 100 km off-shore Capo Passero (Italy at 3500 m depth. The KM3NeT tower, whose layout is strongly based on the NEMO Phase-2 prototype tower deployed in March 2013, has been re-engineered and partially re-designed in order to optimize production costs, power consumption, and usability. This contribution gives a description of the main electronics, including front-end, data transport and clock distribution system, of the KM3NeT tower detection unit.

  2. From Task Descriptions via Coloured Petri Nets Towards an Implementation of a New Electronic Patient Record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jens Bæk; Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; van der Aalst, Willibrordus Martinus Pancratius

    2008-01-01

    We consider a given specification of functional requirements for a new electronic patient record system for Fyn County, Denmark. The requirements are expressed as task descriptions, which are informal descriptions of work processes to be supported. We describe how these task descriptions are used...... help to validate and elicit requirements. The second CPN model is a Colored Workflow Net (CWN). The CWN is derived from the EUC. Together, the EUC and the CWN are used to close the gap between the given requirements specification and the realization of these requirements with the help of an IT system...

  3. Joint INFN-CERN-EuCARD-AccNet Workshop on Electron-Cloud Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Rumolo, Giovanni; Zimmermann, Frank; ECLOUD'12

    2013-01-01

    This report contains the Proceedings of the Joint INFN-Frascati, INFN-Pisa, CERN-LER and EuCARD-AccNet Mini-Workshop on Electron-Cloud Effects, “ECLOUD12”, held at La Biodola, Isola d’Elba, from 5 to 9 June 2012. The ECLOUD12 workshop reviewed many recent electron-cloud (EC) observations at existing storage rings, EC predictions for future accelerators, electron-cloud studies at DAFNE, EC mitigation by clearing electrodes and graphite/carbon coatings, modeling of incoherent EC effects, self-consistent simulations, synergies with other communities like the Valencia Space Consortium and the European Space Agency. ECLOUD12 discussed new EC observations at existing machines including LHC, CesrTA, PETRA-3, J-PARC, and FNAL MI; latest experimental efforts to characterize the EC – including EC diagnostics, experimental techniques, mitigation techniques such as coating and conditioning, advanced chemical and physical analyses of various vacuum-chamber surfaces, beam instabilities and emittance growth –; the...

  4. UV irradiance radiometers calibration procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Doctorovich I. V.; Butenko V. K.; Hodovaniouk V. N.; Fodchuk I. M.; Yuriev V. G.

    2008-01-01

    The paper deals with the problems arising at calibration of narrow-band spectral-sensitive radiometers. The procedure of irradiance unit transfer to UV radiometers — UV radiometers calibration procedure — is presented.

  5. Radiometer on a Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Gill, John J.; Mehdi, Imran; Lee, Choonsup; Schlecht, Erich T.; Skalare, Anders; Ward, John S.; Siegel, Peter H.; Thomas, Bertrand C.

    2009-01-01

    The radiometer on a chip (ROC) integrates whole wafers together to p rovide a robust, extremely powerful way of making submillimeter rece ivers that provide vertically integrated functionality. By integratin g at the wafer level, customizing the interconnects, and planarizing the transmission media, it is possible to create a lightweight asse mbly performing the function of several pieces in a more conventiona l radiometer.

  6. Net electron energy gain induced by superluminal phase velocity and subluminal group velocity of a laser in a plasma channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Li-Hong; Yao, Zheng-Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Xue, Ju-Kui

    2017-08-01

    We examine electron dynamics induced by laser-plasma interaction in a two-dimensional plasma channel, taking into action the laser phase velocity as well as the group velocity. The coupled effects of phase velocity, group velocity, and plasma channel on electron dynamics are discussed in detail. The superluminal phase velocity and the corresponding subluminal group velocity of the laser result in rich and complex electron dynamics, which are depicted in the plane of the phase velocity and plasma charge density. For weak superluminosity of the phase velocity, the effects of the phase velocity and the group velocity can be neglected. For moderate superluminosity of the phase velocity, a cross-over region can exist, where the highly energetic electron could be found and the net energy gain is several times greater than the energy gain in vacuum. For strong superluminosity of the phase velocity, the dephasing rate increases and thus limits the electron energy gain from the laser. However, the asymmetric laser pulse, attributed by the superluminal phase velocity and the subluminal group velocity, results in the electron getting adjustable net energy gain from the laser. The electron oscillations are no longer limited by the charge density threshold and the electron can always get net energy from the laser. These electron dynamics can also be modified by adjusting the polarization of the laser.

  7. Polarimetric Radiometer Configurations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels; Laursen, Brian; Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl

    1998-01-01

    Ocean wind speed and direction can be assessed with a polarimetric radiometer system measuring the full set of Stokes parameters. The first and second Stokes parameters are the sum and difference of the usual vertical and horizontal brightness temperatures. The third and forth Stokes parameters can...... be found either by cross correlating the received vertical and horizontal electrical fields, or they can be found by a combination of properly polarized brightness temperature measurements. These considerations directly point at two fundamentally different ways of implementing the polarimetric radiometer...... airborne, imaging, polarimetric radiometer system is presently in its development phase. The design of the system is discussed...

  8. Solar-Collector Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, J. M., Jr

    1984-01-01

    Water-cooled Kendall radiometer measures output of solar energy concentrators. Unit measures irradiance up to 30,000 solar constants with 1 percent accuracy and responds to wavelengths from ultraviolet to far infrared.

  9. The use of open source electronic health records within the federal safety net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwater, Jason C; Kwon, Nancy J; Nathanson, Ashley; Muckle, Alison E; Brown, Alexa; Cornejo, Kerri

    2014-01-01

    To conduct a federally funded study that examines the acquisition, implementation and operation of open source electronic health records (EHR) within safety net medical settings, such as federally qualified health centers (FQHC). The study was conducted by the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) at the University of Chicago from April to September 2010. The NORC team undertook a comprehensive environmental scan, including a literature review, a dozen key informant interviews using a semistructured protocol, and a series of site visits to West Virginia, California and Arizona FQHC that were currently using an open source EHR. Five of the six sites that were chosen as part of the study found a number of advantages in the use of their open source EHR system, such as utilizing a large community of users and developers to modify their EHR to fit the needs of their provider and patient communities, and lower acquisition and implementation costs as compared to a commercial system. Despite these advantages, many of the informants and site visit participants felt that widespread dissemination and use of open source was restrained due to a negative connotation regarding this type of software. In addition, a number of participants stated that there is a necessary level of technical acumen needed within the FQHC to make an open source EHR effective. An open source EHR provides advantages for FQHC that have limited resources to acquire and implement an EHR, but additional study is needed to evaluate its overall effectiveness.

  10. Aquarius Radiometer Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Vine, D. M.; Piepmeier, J. R.; Dinnat, E. P.; de Matthaeis, P.; Utku, C.; Abraham, S.; Lagerloef, G.S.E.; Meissner, T.; Wentz, F.

    2014-01-01

    Aquarius was launched on June 10, 2011 as part of the Aquarius/SAC-D observatory and the instrument has been operating continuously since being turned on in August of the same year. The initial map of sea surface salinity was released one month later (September) and the quality of the retrieval has continuously improved since then. The Aquarius radiometers include several special features such as measurement of the third Stokes parameter, fast sampling, and careful thermal control, and a combined passive/active instrument. Aquarius is working well and in addition to helping measure salinity, the radiometer special features are generating new results.

  11. The Radiometer Atmospheric Cubesat Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, B.; Bryk, M.; Clark, J.; Donahue, K.; Ellyin, R.; Misra, S.; Romero-Wolf, A.; Statham, S.; Steinkraus, J.; Lightsey, E. G.; Fear, A.; Francis, P.; Kjellberg, H.; McDonald, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has been developing the Radiometer Atmospheric CubeSat Experiment (RACE) since 2012, which consists of a water vapor radiometer integrated on a 3U CubeSat platform. RACE will measure 2 channels of the 183 GHz water vapor line, and will be used to validate new low noise amplifier (LNA) technology and a novel amplifier based internal calibration subsystem. The 3U spacecraft is provided by the University of Texas at Austin's Satellite Design Laboratory. RACE will advance the technology readiness level (TRL) of the 183 GHz receiver subsystem from TRL 4 to TRL 6 and a CubeSat 183 GHz radiometer system from TRL 4 to TRL 7. Measurements at 183 GHz are used to retrieve integrated products and vertical profiles of water vapor. Current full scale satellite missions that can utilize the technology include AMSU, ATMS, SSMIS and Megha-Tropiques. The LNAs are designed at JPL, based on a 35 nm indium phosphide (InP) high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMT) technology developed by Northrop Grumman. The resulting single chip LNAs require only 25 mW of power. Current pre-launch instrument performance specifications include an RF gain of over 30 dB and a room noise figure of noise figure is dominated by the insertion loss of the Dicke switch which at these frequencies are > 5dB. If a coupler based calibration system is shown to be sufficient, future receiver systems will have noise figures noise figure variation over temperature is approximately 0.55 dB/K. The NEDT of the system is power consumption by eliminating the need for a local oscillator. A 2012 NASA CubeSat Launch Initiative (CSLI) selection, RACE is manifested for launch on the Orbital 3 (Orb-3) mission scheduled for October 2014. RACE will be deployed from the International Space Station (ISS) by NanoRacks.

  12. A Multifrequency Radiometer System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels

    1977-01-01

    A radiometer system having four channels: 5 GHz, l7 GHz, 34 GHz, all vertical polarization, and a 34 GHz sky horn, will be described. The system which is designed for collecting glaciological and oceanographic data is intended for airborne use and imaging is achieved by means of a multifrequency...... elaborate processing later, using ground facilities. In conjunction with a side looking radar which is under development at present, the radiometers are intended as the remote sensing basis for an all-weather ice reconnaissance service in the Greenland seas....... conically scanning antenna. Implementation of the noise-injection technique ensures the high absolute accuracy needed for oceanographic purposes. The collected data can be preprocessed in a microcomputer system and displayed in real time. Simultaneously, the data are recorded digitally on tape for more...

  13. Virtual Global Magnetic Observatory VGMO.NET: A Component of the Electronic Geophysical Year Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papitashvili, V.; Petrov, V.; Clauer, R.; Saxena, A.; Papitashvili, N.

    2005-05-01

    During the past decade, many digital geomagnetic datasets have become available only via the World Wide Web. They are not necessarily submitted to the World Data Centers (WDC) as was required for standard magnetic observatories since the International Geophysical Year (1957-1958). As a result, the available worldwide geomagnetic databases have become diverse and distributed, creating an urgent need for more sophisticated search engines capable of identifying these databases on the Web and then retrieving data for scientific analyses. Here we report on a working prototype of the Virtual Global Magnetic Observatory (VGMO.NET), which introduces a new approach for the acquisition of geoscience data distributed worldwide. The VGMO.NET moves information exchange from a simple file transfer to a higher level of abstraction in forming the worldwide "data fabric" of distributed resources through the establishment of self-populating and self-sustaining data nodes. This is an "on-demand" objects-building Internet middleware application that is absolutely transparent to the remote users/clients in its internal data management activity. The VGMO.NET portal/server (i.e., one of the worldwide data fabric nodes) builds transferable data objects only from client requests: first by accessing the internal, server-side database and then, if data are not found locally, going through a pre-set list of Web-based geomagnetic data nodes (including WDC) and retrieving appropriate data for the requested interval. Upon retrieval, the data are converted into a uniform (e.g., flat-file) format and added to the node's database; therefore, future user requests of the same data interval from this node would not force a new search of the Web. Furthermore, the new user's self-populated database can be made available to others through the VGMO.NET as a new remote node (or even a new portal). Thus, every VGMO.NET user can include his/her database into the worldwide geomagnetic data fabric of a

  14. Hurricane Imaging Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, Daniel J.; Biswas, Sayak K.; James, Mark W.; Roberts, J. Brent; Jones, W. Linwood; Johnson, James; Farrar, Spencer; Sahawneh, Saleem; Ruf, Christopher S.; Morris, Mary; hide

    2014-01-01

    The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is a synthetic thinned array passive microwave radiometer designed to allow retrieval of surface wind speed in hurricanes, up through category five intensity. The retrieval technology follows the Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR), which measures surface wind speed in hurricanes along a narrow strip beneath the aircraft. HIRAD maps wind speeds in a swath below the aircraft, about 50-60 km wide when flown in the lower stratosphere. HIRAD has flown in the NASA Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) experiment in 2010 on a WB-57 aircraft, and on a Global Hawk unmanned aircraft system (UAS) in 2012 and 2013 as part of NASA's Hurricane and Severe Storms Sentinel (HS3) program. The GRIP program included flights over Hurricanes Earl and Karl (2010). The 2012 HS3 deployment did not include any hurricane flights for the UAS carrying HIRAD. The 2013 HS3 flights included one flight over the predecessor to TS Gabrielle, and one flight over Hurricane Ingrid. This presentation will describe the HIRAD instrument, its results from the 2010 and 2013 flights, and potential future developments.

  15. The PluriNetWork: an electronic representation of the network underlying pluripotency in mouse, and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Som, Anup; Harder, Clemens; Greber, Boris; Siatkowski, Marcin; Paudel, Yogesh; Warsow, Gregor; Cap, Clemens; Schöler, Hans; Fuellen, Georg

    2010-12-10

    Analysis of the mechanisms underlying pluripotency and reprogramming would benefit substantially from easy access to an electronic network of genes, proteins and mechanisms. Moreover, interpreting gene expression data needs to move beyond just the identification of the up-/downregulation of key genes and of overrepresented processes and pathways, towards clarifying the essential effects of the experiment in molecular terms. We have assembled a network of 574 molecular interactions, stimulations and inhibitions, based on a collection of research data from 177 publications until June 2010, involving 274 mouse genes/proteins, all in a standard electronic format, enabling analyses by readily available software such as Cytoscape and its plugins. The network includes the core circuit of Oct4 (Pou5f1), Sox2 and Nanog, its periphery (such as Stat3, Klf4, Esrrb, and c-Myc), connections to upstream signaling pathways (such as Activin, WNT, FGF, BMP, Insulin, Notch and LIF), and epigenetic regulators as well as some other relevant genes/proteins, such as proteins involved in nuclear import/export. We describe the general properties of the network, as well as a Gene Ontology analysis of the genes included. We use several expression data sets to condense the network to a set of network links that are affected in the course of an experiment, yielding hypotheses about the underlying mechanisms. We have initiated an electronic data repository that will be useful to understand pluripotency and to facilitate the interpretation of high-throughput data. To keep up with the growth of knowledge on the fundamental processes of pluripotency and reprogramming, we suggest to combine Wiki and social networking software towards a community curation system that is easy to use and flexible, and tailored to provide a benefit for the scientist, and to improve communication and exchange of research results. A PluriNetWork tutorial is available at http://www.ibima.med.uni-rostock.de/IBIMA/PluriNetWork/.

  16. Neural-Net Processing of Characteristic Patterns From Electronic Holograms of Vibrating Blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Arthur J.

    1999-01-01

    Finite-element-model-trained artificial neural networks can be used to process efficiently the characteristic patterns or mode shapes from electronic holograms of vibrating blades. The models used for routine design may not yet be sufficiently accurate for this application. This document discusses the creation of characteristic patterns; compares model generated and experimental characteristic patterns; and discusses the neural networks that transform the characteristic patterns into strain or damage information. The current potential to adapt electronic holography to spin rigs, wind tunnels and engines provides an incentive to have accurate finite element models lor training neural networks.

  17. Reliability of three dental radiometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, E K; Asmussen, E

    1993-04-01

    The light intensity from 80 different curing units was recorded on three dental radiometers. Even though the correlation between the recordings obtained with the three testers was rather high, some units were categorized as good units by one radiometer and poor ones by another. It was also found that, in some case, there was a pronounced difference between the output within the same type of new units. Cavities were made in extracted third molars, filled with a microfilled resin, irradiated for 40 s with 20 of the curing units, and the depth of cure was measured. The radiometers were not able to rank the 20 units in accordance with their depth of cure. We conclude that the three radiometers are not fully reliable. However, they may become very useful tools for monitoring the output from a curing unit if the radiometer and the unit are calibrated.

  18. The PluriNetWork: an electronic representation of the network underlying pluripotency in mouse, and its applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup Som

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Analysis of the mechanisms underlying pluripotency and reprogramming would benefit substantially from easy access to an electronic network of genes, proteins and mechanisms. Moreover, interpreting gene expression data needs to move beyond just the identification of the up-/downregulation of key genes and of overrepresented processes and pathways, towards clarifying the essential effects of the experiment in molecular terms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have assembled a network of 574 molecular interactions, stimulations and inhibitions, based on a collection of research data from 177 publications until June 2010, involving 274 mouse genes/proteins, all in a standard electronic format, enabling analyses by readily available software such as Cytoscape and its plugins. The network includes the core circuit of Oct4 (Pou5f1, Sox2 and Nanog, its periphery (such as Stat3, Klf4, Esrrb, and c-Myc, connections to upstream signaling pathways (such as Activin, WNT, FGF, BMP, Insulin, Notch and LIF, and epigenetic regulators as well as some other relevant genes/proteins, such as proteins involved in nuclear import/export. We describe the general properties of the network, as well as a Gene Ontology analysis of the genes included. We use several expression data sets to condense the network to a set of network links that are affected in the course of an experiment, yielding hypotheses about the underlying mechanisms. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have initiated an electronic data repository that will be useful to understand pluripotency and to facilitate the interpretation of high-throughput data. To keep up with the growth of knowledge on the fundamental processes of pluripotency and reprogramming, we suggest to combine Wiki and social networking software towards a community curation system that is easy to use and flexible, and tailored to provide a benefit for the scientist, and to improve communication and exchange of research results. A

  19. Digital signal processing in microwave radiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, R. W.; Stanley, W. D.; Harrington, R. F.

    1980-01-01

    A microprocessor based digital signal processing unit has been proposed to replace analog sections of a microwave radiometer. A brief introduction to the radiometer system involved and a description of problems encountered in the use of digital techniques in radiometer design are discussed. An analysis of the digital signal processor as part of the radiometer is then presented.

  20. Compact Radiometers Expand Climate Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of Earth's water, energy, and carbon cycles, NASA plans to embark on the Soil Moisture Active and Passive mission in 2015. To prepare, Goddard Space Flight Center provided Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) funding to ProSensing Inc., of Amherst, Massachusetts, to develop a compact ultrastable radiometer for sea surface salinity and soil moisture mapping. ProSensing incorporated small, low-cost, high-performance elements into just a few circuit boards and now offers two lightweight radiometers commercially. Government research agencies, university research groups, and large corporations around the world are using the devices for mapping soil moisture, ocean salinity, and wind speed.

  1. Radiometer Testbed Development for SWOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangaslahti, Pekka; Brown, Shannon; Gaier, Todd; Dawson, Douglas; Harding, Dennis; Fu, Lee-Lueng; Esteban-Fernandez, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Conventional altimeters include nadir looking colocated 18-37 GHz microwave radiometer to measure wet tropospheric path delay. These have reduced accuracy in coastal zone (within 50 km from land) and do not provide wet path delay over land. The addition of high frequency channels to Jason-class radiometer will improve retrievals in coastal regions and enable retrievals over land. High-frequency window channels, 90, 130 and 166 GHz are optimum for improving performance in coastal region and channels on 183 GHz water vapor line are ideal for over-land retrievals.

  2. Digital Array Gas Radiometer (DAGR) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation proposed here is a digital array gas radiometer (DAGR), a new design for a gas filter correlation radiometer (GFCR) to accurately measure and monitor...

  3. Microwave Radiometer Linearity Measured by Simple Means

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels

    2002-01-01

    Modern spaceborne radiometer systems feature an almost perfect on-board calibration, hence the primary calibration task to be carried out before launch is a check of radiometer linearity. This paper describes two ways of measuring linearity of microwave radiometers only requiring relatively simple...

  4. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Rosener, B. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host ``na-net.ornl.gov`` at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message ``send index`` to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user`s perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  5. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Rosener, B. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host na-net.ornl.gov'' at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message send index'' to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user's perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  6. [The accuracy and consistency of dental radiometers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossouw, S

    2001-11-01

    Radiometers are used in dentistry to evaluate the intensity of light emitted by curing lights. This article discusses the accuracy and consistency of radiometers. The study was done as two experiments, dividing radiometers by age. In experiment 1, one Heliolux II curing light was tested nine times with each of four old radiometers. In experiment 2 the same curing light was tested with three very new radiometers, under identical circumstances. In experiment 1, the average intensities measured by the radiometers ranged between 262 and 348 mW/cm2, while the standard deviation varied between 7.59 and 42.03. In experiment 2, the average intensities measured by the radiometers ranged between 240 and 283.75 mW/cm2, while the standard deviation varied between 0.00 and 4.63. The seven radiometers differed significantly (P radiometers differs depending on the age of the unit, the state of repair of the unit, and how often it is standardised. In this study it was impossible to evaluate the accuracy of the radiometers.

  7. The electronics readout and data acquisition system of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope node

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Real, Diego [IFIC, Instituto de Física Corpuscular, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, C/Catedrático José Beltrán, 2, 46980 Paterna (Spain); Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The KM3NeT neutrino telescope will be composed by tens of thousands of glass spheres, called Digital Optical Module (DOM), each of them containing 31 PMTs of small photocathode area (3'). The readout and data acquisition system of KM3NeT have to collect, treat and send to shore, in an economic way, the enormous amount of data produced by the photomultipliers and at the same time to provide time synchronization between each DOM at the level of 1 ns. It is described in the present article the Central Logic Board, that integrates the Time to Digital Converters and the White Rabbit protocol used for the DOM synchronization in a transparent way, the Power Board used in the DOM, the PMT base to readout the photomultipliers and the respective collecting boards, the so called Octopus Board.

  8. Microwave Radiometer Systems, Design and Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels; Vine, David Le

    Two important microwave remote sensors are the radar and the radiometer. There have been a number of books written on various aspects of radar, but there have been only a few written on microwave radiometers, especially on subjects of how to design and build radiometer systems. This book, which...... is the second edition of a book originally published in 1989, attempts to fill this void. The background for this book is many years of work with radiometer systems including design and manufacture of airborne imaging radiometer systems, laboratory as well as airborne field experiments with the systems......, and design of future spaceborne imagers. This book would not have been possible without the support and encouragement of several colleagues. Søren Nørvang Madsen, who is working with synthetic aperture radar systems, and, before him, Finn søndergaard have both contributed much to the work with radiometer...

  9. Net Locality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Gordon, Eric

    Provides an introduction to the new theory of Net Locality and the profound effect on individuals and societies when everything is located or locatable. Describes net locality as an emerging form of location awareness central to all aspects of digital media, from mobile phones, to Google Maps...... of emerging technologies, from GeoCities to GPS, Wi-Fi, Wiki Me, and Google Android....

  10. Net Neutrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej

    2017-01-01

    Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else.......Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else....

  11. Measuring the instrument function of radiometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winston, R. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Littlejohn, R.G. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The instrument function is a function of position and angle, the knowledge of which allows one to compute the response of a radiometer to an incident wave field in any state of coherence. The instrument function of a given radiometer need not be calculated; instead, it may be measured by calibration with incident plane waves.

  12. SMEX03 Aircraft Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer (PSR) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer (PSR) is an airborne microwave imaging radiometer developed and operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...

  13. SMEX02 Aircraft Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer (PSR) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer (PSR) is an airborne microwave imaging radiometer developed and operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...

  14. SAFARI 2000 Cloud Absorption Radiometer BRDF, Dry Season 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) is an airborne multi-wavelength scanning radiometer that can perform several functions including determining the...

  15. Diabetes and hypertension quality measurement in four safety-net sites: lessons learned after implementation of the same commercial electronic health record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkert, R; Dennehy, P; White, J; Hamilton, A; Tanner, C; Pohl, J M

    2014-01-01

    In this new era after the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act of 2009, the literature on lessons learned with electronic health record (EHR) implementation needs to be revisited. Our objective was to describe what implementation of a commercially available EHR with built-in quality query algorithms showed us about our care for diabetes and hypertension populations in four safety net clinics, specifically feasibility of data retrieval, measurements over time, quality of data, and how our teams used this data. A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2008 to October 2012 in four safety-net clinics located in the Midwest and Western United States. A data warehouse that stores data from across the U.S was utilized for data extraction from patients with diabetes or hypertension diagnoses and at least two office visits per year. Standard quality measures were collected over a period of two to four years. All sites were engaged in a partnership model with the IT staff and a shared learning process to enhance the use of the quality metrics. While use of the algorithms was feasible across sites, challenges occurred when attempting to use the query results for research purposes. There was wide variation of both process and outcome results by individual centers. Composite calculations balanced out the differences seen in the individual measures. Despite using consistent quality definitions, the differences across centers had an impact on numerators and denominators. All sites agreed to a partnership model of EHR implementation, and each center utilized the available resources of the partnership for Center-specific quality initiatives. Utilizing a shared EHR, a Regional Extension Center-like partnership model, and similar quality query algorithms allowed safety-net clinics to benchmark and improve the quality of care across differing patient populations and health care delivery models.

  16. [Health Science Research with Primary Care Routine Data From Electronic Patient Records: the BeoNet Registry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingner, Heidrun; Aumann, Ines; Wacker, Margarethe; Kreuter, Michael; Leidl, Reiner; von der Schulenburg, J-Matthias Graf; Welte, Tobias

    2017-07-11

    Reliable current information is needed for daily patient care and the health system, but comprehensive data, especially from primary care, are scarce and/or hard to access. The BeoNet Register-Database (BNR) aims to depict quality of medical care in Germany using routine data and with no additional documentation or costs for GPs. Registry design, data structure and database use will be demonstrated using chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) as an example. The BNR is moving through pilot- and roll-out phases. Participating practices provide standardized information about (1) master data (2) practice profile (3) infrastructure and documentation systems. The routinely documented data will be pseudonymized before transmission via standardized secure interfaces to the registry database. Practices can participate in studies in cooperation with BNR if informed consent is obtained from the patients. The registry data will be linked with questionnaires on health care utilization, quality of life and disease-specific parameters. Researchers and physicians can access quasi anonymized data in specific datasets extracted from the registry. Regular automatic data quality checks and feedback from GPs, patients and researchers enhance the quality of the registry. Performance and data analysis are continuously optimized. The data security concept has been approved and ethical approval is on hand. GPs, pediatricians and pneumologists from Hanover, Munich and Heidelberg participated in the pilot phase. The registry database currently holds 98497 patient IDs and related information. BNR contains more than the standard billing data collected by health insurers. The data are applicable to a wide range of health practices, health care and economics and disease development questions. Questionnaires have been generated, tested and are being distributed. First descriptive analyses of prevalence, age and gender have been performed. Quality and validity checks have been implemented. 2016

  17. A Scanning Microwave Radar and Radiometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels

    1995-01-01

    The Scanning Microwave Radar and Radiometer (SMRR) is a line scanner featuring a combined radar and radiometer system operating around 35 and 94 GHz. The layout of the SMRR is shown. The 2 offset antenna parabolas scan in synchronism, the receiver antenna has the highest gain in order to ensure...... that footprints are identical for the radar and the radiometer. The instrument will be flown in a pod under a Gulfstream G3 normally cruising with 240 m/sec at 12500 m, and will thus be able to sense clouds and precipitation from above...

  18. GRIP HURRICANE IMAGING RADIOMETER (HIRAD) V0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GRIP Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) dataset was collected by the HIRAD instrument, which is a hurricane imaging, single-polarization passive C-band...

  19. GRIP HURRICANE IMAGING RADIOMETER (HIRAD) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GRIP Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) V1 dataset contains measurements of brightness temperature taken at 4, 5, 6 and 6.6 GHz, as well as MERRA 2 m wind...

  20. GRIP HURRICANE IMAGING RADIOMETER (HIRAD) V0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — HIRAD is a hurricane imaging, single-pol passive C-band radiometer with both cross-track and along-track resolution that measures strong ocean surface winds through...

  1. Microwave Radiometry and Radiometers for Ocean Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels

    2008-01-01

    aperture radiometer technique, both yielding imaging capability without scanning. Typical applications of microwave radiometry concerning oceans are: sea salinity, sea surface temperature, wind speed and direction, sea ice detection and classification. However, in an attempt to measure properties...

  2. Diffusers in silicon-photodiode radiometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, L P

    1982-03-01

    The problems encountered when making radiometric measurements with silicon-photodiode radiometers not incorporating diffusers are discussed, with special attention given to the case where laser beams are involved. A diffuserless radiometer head design is presented which eliminates most of these problems. These problems can also be avoided by using a diffuser. A radiometer head incorporating a diffuser is described, and its properties are studied for three types of diffuser: flashed opal, type-2250 translucent Plexiglas, and a three-piece ground and etched quartz. Graphical data are given for the spatial uniformity, angular response variation, and spectral attenuation associated with radiometer heads incorporating these three types of diffuser. It is shown that, for a wide range of radiometric and photometric applications, the quartz diffuser is the most desirable, although its use results in a somewhat limited angular field of view.

  3. RESTful NET

    CERN Document Server

    Flanders, Jon

    2008-01-01

    RESTful .NET is the first book that teaches Windows developers to build RESTful web services using the latest Microsoft tools. Written by Windows Communication Foundation (WFC) expert Jon Flanders, this hands-on tutorial demonstrates how you can use WCF and other components of the .NET 3.5 Framework to build, deploy and use REST-based web services in a variety of application scenarios. RESTful architecture offers a simpler approach to building web services than SOAP, SOA, and the cumbersome WS- stack. And WCF has proven to be a flexible technology for building distributed systems not necessa

  4. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Associate Professor of. Computer Science and. Automation at the Indian. Institute of Science,. Bangalore. His research interests are broadly in the areas of stochastic modeling and scheduling methodologies for future factories; and object oriented modeling. GENERAL I ARTICLE. Petri Nets. 1. Overview and Foundations.

  5. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 8. Petri Nets - Overview and Foundations. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 8 August 1999 pp ... Author Affiliations. Y Narahari1. Department ot Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  6. The equivalency between logic Petri workflow nets and workflow nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue

    2015-01-01

    Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented.

  7. Two blackbody radiometers of high accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, J M; Berdahl, C M

    1970-05-01

    Two cavity-type radiometers have been developed, based on first principles, having the capability of measuring an irradiance with an indicated error 0.3%. The prerequisites for this accuracy are a measuredaperture area, a measurement of electric voltages, and an effective absorptance of its blackbody cavity from 0.998 to 0.999 throughout the uv, visible, and ir spectral ranges. The first cavity-type radiometer is designed to operate only in a vacuum of radiometer in an evacuated cold chamber, an experimental determination of the Stefan-Boltzmann constant is obtained at a value that differs from the theoretical value by 0.3%, which indicates the degree of confidence that can be expected in measurements made with blackbody cavity radiometers. The second type of radiometer is designed to operate in either air or vacuum. Although its aperture opening is windowless, it is unaffected by wind. The range of intensities accurately measurable is from about 10 mW cm(-2) to 800 mW cm(-2); the indicated accuracy is also 0.3%.

  8. The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer: Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy L.; James, M. W.; Roberts, J. B.; Biswas, S. K.; Cecil, D.; Jones, W. L.; Johnson, J.; Farrar, S.; Sahawneh, S.; Ruf, C. S.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is an airborne passive microwave radiometer designed to provide high resolution, wide swath imagery of surface wind speed in tropical cyclones from a low profile planar antenna with no mechanical scanning. Wind speed and rain rate images from HIRAD's first field campaign (GRIP, 2010) are presented here followed, by a discussion on the performance of the newly installed thermal control system during the 2012 HS3 campaign. The paper ends with a discussion on the next generation dual polarization HIRAD antenna (already designed) for a future system capable of measuring wind direction as well as wind speed.

  9. ELBARA II, an L-band radiometer system for soil moisture research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwank, Mike; Wiesmann, Andreas; Werner, Charles; Mätzler, Christian; Weber, Daniel; Murk, Axel; Völksch, Ingo; Wegmüller, Urs

    2010-01-01

    L-band (1-2 GHz) microwave radiometry is a remote sensing technique that can be used to monitor soil moisture, and is deployed in the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) Mission of the European Space Agency (ESA). Performing ground-based radiometer campaigns before launch, during the commissioning phase and during the operative SMOS mission is important for validating the satellite data and for the further improvement of the radiative transfer models used in the soil-moisture retrieval algorithms. To address these needs, three identical L-band radiometer systems were ordered by ESA. They rely on the proven architecture of the ETH L-Band radiometer for soil moisture research (ELBARA) with major improvements in the microwave electronics, the internal calibration sources, the data acquisition, the user interface, and the mechanics. The purpose of this paper is to describe the design of the instruments and the main characteristics that are relevant for the user.

  10. GRIP HIGH-ALTITUDE MMIC SOUNDING RADIOMETER (HAMSR) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GRIP High-Altitude MMIC Sounding Radiometer (HAMSR) dataset was collectd by the High Altitude monolithic microwave integrated Circuit (MMIC) Sounding Radiometer...

  11. GPM Ground Validation Duke Microwave Radiometer (MWR) IPHEx V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Duke Microwave Radiometer (MWR) IPHEx dataset consists of data collected by the MWR, which is a sensitive microwave radiometer that detects...

  12. Increased Ratio of Electron Transport to Net Assimilation Rate Supports Elevated Isoprenoid Emission Rate in Eucalypts under Drought1[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dani, Kaidala Ganesha Srikanta; Jamie, Ian McLeod; Prentice, Iain Colin; Atwell, Brian James

    2014-01-01

    Plants undergoing heat and low-CO2 stresses emit large amounts of volatile isoprenoids compared with those in stress-free conditions. One hypothesis posits that the balance between reducing power availability and its use in carbon assimilation determines constitutive isoprenoid emission rates in plants and potentially even their maximum emission capacity under brief periods of stress. To test this, we used abiotic stresses to manipulate the availability of reducing power. Specifically, we examined the effects of mild to severe drought on photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR) and net carbon assimilation rate (NAR) and the relationship between estimated energy pools and constitutive volatile isoprenoid emission rates in two species of eucalypts: Eucalyptus occidentalis (drought tolerant) and Eucalyptus camaldulensis (drought sensitive). Isoprenoid emission rates were insensitive to mild drought, and the rates increased when the decline in NAR reached a certain species-specific threshold. ETR was sustained under drought and the ETR-NAR ratio increased, driving constitutive isoprenoid emission until severe drought caused carbon limitation of the methylerythritol phosphate pathway. The estimated residual reducing power unused for carbon assimilation, based on the energetic status model, significantly correlated with constitutive isoprenoid emission rates across gradients of drought (r2 > 0.8) and photorespiratory stress (r2 > 0.9). Carbon availability could critically limit emission rates under severe drought and photorespiratory stresses. Under most instances of moderate abiotic stress levels, increased isoprenoid emission rates compete with photorespiration for the residual reducing power not invested in carbon assimilation. A similar mechanism also explains the individual positive effects of low-CO2, heat, and drought stresses on isoprenoid emission. PMID:25139160

  13. Time dependent accuracy of dental radiometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marović, Danijela; Matić, Sanja; Kelić, Katarina; Klarić, Eva; Rakić, Mario; Tarle, Zrinka

    2013-06-01

    Inadequate intensity of the polymerization light source can compromise the quality and longevity of dental composite restorations. In order to maintain optimal strength of polymerization devices, regular control of polymerization units is necessary. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of two radiometers in the measurement of light intensity of photopolymerization devices concerning the time point of measurement. Light intensity measurements of 16 halogen and 8 LED curing lights were performed using three different devices at the beginning as well as 10 and 40 seconds after the start of illumination. Two were handheld radiometers: Bluephase meter (BM) and Cure Rite (CR), while an integrating sphere (IS) represented the reference device. Data were statistically analyzed using Friedman's test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test (p radiometers tended to overestimate the light intensity of LED and halogen curing units when compared to the reference device. The time point of measurement influences the output value. The heating of radiometers was proposed as a possible explanation for the inaccuracy.

  14. Dual Microwave Radiometer Experiment Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchand, Roger [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Passive microwave radiometers (MWRs) are the most commonly used and accurate instruments the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Research Facility has to retrieve cloud liquid water path (LWP). The MWR measurements (microwave radiances or brightness temperatures) are often used to derive LWP using climatological constraints, but are frequently also combined with measurements from radar and other instruments for cloud microphysical retrievals. Nominally this latter approach improves the retrieval of LWP and other cloud microphysical quantities (such as effective radius or number concentration), but this also means that when MWR data are poor, other cloud microphysical quantities are also negatively affected. Unfortunately, current MWR data is often contaminated by water on the MWR radome. This water makes a substantial contribution to the measured radiance and typically results in retrievals of cloud liquid water and column water vapor that are biased high. While it is obvious when the contamination by standing water is large (and retrieval biases are large), much of the time it is difficult to know with confidence that there is no contamination. At present there is no attempt to estimate or correct for this source of error, and identification of problems is largely left to users. Typically users are advised to simply throw out all data when the MWR “wet-window” resistance-based sensor indicates water is present, but this sensor is adjusted by hand and is known to be temperamental. In order to address this problem, a pair of ARM microwave radiometers was deployed to the University of Washington (UW) in Seattle, Washington, USA. The radiometers were operated such that one radiometer was scanned under a cover that (nominally) prevents this radiometer radome from gathering water and permits measurements away from zenith; while the other radiometer is operated normally – open or uncovered - with the radome exposed to the sky

  15. Radiometer calibration methods and resulting irradiance differences: Radiometer calibration methods and resulting irradiance differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habte, Aron [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401 USA; Sengupta, Manajit [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401 USA; Andreas, Afshin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401 USA; Reda, Ibrahim [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401 USA; Robinson, Justin [GroundWork Renewables Inc., Logan UT 84321 USA

    2016-10-07

    Accurate solar radiation measured by radiometers depends on instrument performance specifications, installation method, calibration procedure, measurement conditions, maintenance practices, location, and environmental conditions. This study addresses the effect of different calibration methodologies and resulting differences provided by radiometric calibration service providers such as the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and manufacturers of radiometers. Some of these methods calibrate radiometers indoors and some outdoors. To establish or understand the differences in calibration methodologies, we processed and analyzed field-measured data from radiometers deployed for 10 months at NREL's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. These different methods of calibration resulted in a difference of +/-1% to +/-2% in solar irradiance measurements. Analyzing these differences will ultimately assist in determining the uncertainties of the field radiometer data and will help develop a consensus on a standard for calibration. Further advancing procedures for precisely calibrating radiometers to world reference standards that reduce measurement uncertainties will help the accurate prediction of the output of planned solar conversion projects and improve the bankability of financing solar projects.

  16. Methods of determining the spatial response nonlinearities of radiometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, F A

    1970-09-01

    In many instances, a radiometer's responses are found to be nonuniform with respect to target positions within its field of view. This paper examines the effects of spatial nonuniformity for the case of a symmetrical uniform source boresighted in the radiometer's field of view and shows how these effects can be dealt with by relating the radiometer's output with its field of view unfilled to its output when its field of view is totally filled by a uniform source. By analysis of a Huggins Mark IX radiometer, it is shown that errors in excess of 18% can result through ignorance of the radiometer's nonlinearity caused by spatial response nonuniformity.

  17. Accuracy of LED and halogen radiometers using different light sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Howard W; Vandewalle, Kraig S; Berzins, David W; Charlton, David G

    2006-01-01

    To determine the accuracy of commercially available, handheld light-emitting diode (LED) and halogen-based radiometers using LED and quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH) curing lights with light guides of various diameters. The irradiance of an LED curing light (L.E. Demetron 1, SDS/Kerr, Orange, CA, USA) and a QTH curing light (Optilux 501, SDS/Kerr) were measured using multiple units of an LED (Demetron L.E.D. Radiometer, SDS/Kerr) and a halogen radiometer (Demetron 100, SDS/Kerr) and compared with each other and to a laboratory-grade power meter (control). Measurements were made using five light guides with distal light guide diameters of 4, 7, 8, 10, and 12.5 mm. For each light guide, five readings were made with each of three radiometers of each radiometer type. Data were analyzed with two-way analysis of variance/Tukey; alpha = 0.05. In general, both handheld radiometer types exhibited significantly different irradiance readings compared with the control meter. Additionally, readings between radiometer types were found to differ slightly, but were correlated. In general, the LED radiometer provided slightly lower irradiance readings than the halogen radiometer, irrespective of light source. With both types of handheld radiometers, the use of the larger-diameter light guides tended to overestimate the irradiance values as seen in the control, while smaller-diameter light guides tended to underestimate. The evaluated LED or halogen handheld radiometers may be used interchangeably to determine the irradiance of both LED and QTH visible-light-curing units. Measured differences between the two radiometer types were small and probably not clinically significant. However, the diameter of light guides may affect the accuracy of the radiometers, with larger-diameter light guides overestimating and smaller-diameter guides underestimating the irradiance value measured by the control instrument.

  18. Design and first plasma measurements of the ITER-ECE prototype radiometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin, M. E.; Brookman, M. W.; Rowan, W. L. [Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Danani, S. [ITER-India/Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Bryerton, E. W.; Dougherty, P. [Virginia Diodes, Inc., Charlottesville, Virginia 22902 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    On ITER, second harmonic optically thick electron cyclotron emission (ECE) in the range of 220-340 GHz will supply the electron temperature (T{sub e}). To investigate the requirements and capabilities prescribed for the ITER system, a prototype radiometer covering this frequency range has been developed by Virginia Diodes, Inc. The first plasma measurements with this instrument have been carried out on the DIII-D tokamak, with lab bench tests and measurements of third through fifth harmonic ECE from high T{sub e} plasmas. At DIII-D the instrument shares the transmission line of the Michelson interferometer and can simultaneously acquire data. Comparison of the ECE radiation temperature from the absolutely calibrated Michelson and the prototype receiver shows that the ITER radiometer provides accurate measurements of the millimeter radiation across the instrument band.

  19. A new radiometer for earth radiation budget studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, P.G.

    1992-01-01

    A critical need for the US Global Change Research Program is to provide continuous, well-calibrated radiometric data for radiation balance studies. This paper describes a new, compact, relatively light-weight, adaptable radiometer which will provide both spectrally integrated measurements and data in selected spectral bands. The radiometer design is suitable for use on (small) satellites, aircraft, or Unmanned Aerospace Vehicles (UAVs). Some considerations for the implementation of this radiometer on a small satellite are given. 17 refs.

  20. GRIP HIGH-ALTITUDE MMIC SOUNDING RADIOMETER (HAMSR) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The High Altitude monolithic microwave integrated Circuit (MMIC) Sounding Radiometer (HAMSR) is a microwave atmospheric sounder developed by JPL under the NASA...

  1. Calibration plan for the sea and land surface temperature radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David L.; Nightingale, Tim J.; Mortimer, Hugh; Middleton, Kevin; Edeson, Ruben; Cox, Caroline V.; Mutlow, Chris T.; Maddison, Brian J.

    2013-10-01

    The Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR) to be flown on ESA's Sentinel-3 mission is a multichannel scanning radiometer that will continue the 21-year datasets of the Along Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) series. As its name implies, measurements from SLSTR will be used to retrieve global sea surface temperatures to an uncertainty of planning for the on-orbit monitoring and calibration activities to ensure that calibration is maintained. These activities include vicarious calibration techniques that have been developed through previous missions, and the deployment of ship-borne radiometers.

  2. GPM GROUND VALIDATION DUAL POLARIZATION RADIOMETER GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Dual Polarization Radiometer GCPEx dataset provides brightness temperature measurements at frequencies 90 GHz (not polarized) and 150 GHz...

  3. GPM GROUND VALIDATION DUAL POLARIZATION RADIOMETER GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Dual Polarization Radiometer GCPEx dataset includes brightness temperature measurements at frequencies 90 GHz (not polarized) and 150 GHz...

  4. GPM GROUND VALIDATION ENVIRONMENT CANADA (EC) RADIOMETER GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Environment Canada (EC) Radiometer GCPEx dataset contains retrievals of temperature, water vapor, relative humidity, liquid water profiles...

  5. Preliminary development of digital signal processing in microwave radiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, W. D.

    1980-01-01

    Topics covered involve a number of closely related tasks including: the development of several control loop and dynamic noise model computer programs for simulating microwave radiometer measurements; computer modeling of an existing stepped frequency radiometer in an effort to determine its optimum operational characteristics; investigation of the classical second order analog control loop to determine its ability to reduce the estimation error in a microwave radiometer; investigation of several digital signal processing unit designs; initiation of efforts to develop required hardware and software for implementation of the digital signal processing unit; and investigation of the general characteristics and peculiarities of digital processing noiselike microwave radiometer signals.

  6. PV-MCT working standard radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppeldauer, George P.; Podobedov, V. B.

    2012-06-01

    Sensitive infrared working-standard detectors with large active area are needed to extend the signal dynamic range of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) pyroelectric transfer-standards used for infrared spectral power responsivity calibrations. Increased sensitivity is especially important for irradiance mode responsivity measurements. The noise equivalent power (NEP) of the NIST used pyroelectric transfer-standards is about 8 nW/Hz1/2, equal to a D*= 5.5 x 107 cm Hz1/2/W. A large-area photovoltaic HgCdTe (PV-MCT) detector was custom made for the 2.5 μm to 11 μm wavelength range using a 4-stage thermoelectric cooler. At least an order of magnitude lower NEP was expected than that of the pyroelectric transfer-standards to measure irradiance. The large detector area was produced with multiple p-n junctions. The periodical, multiple-junction structure produced a spatial non-uniformity in the detector response. The PV-MCT radiometer was characterized for spatial non-uniformity of response using different incident beam sizes to evaluate the uncertainty component caused by the spatial non-uniformity. The output voltage noise and also the current and voltage responsivities were evaluated at different signal gains and frequencies. The output voltage noise was decreased and the voltage responsivity was increased to lower the NEP of the radiometer. The uncertainty of the spectral power responsivity measurements was evaluated. It is recommended to use a bootstrap type trans-impedance amplifier along with a cold field-of-view limiter to improve the NEP of the PV-MCT radiometer.

  7. RF Reference Switch for Spaceflight Radiometer Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuble, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this technology is to provide improved calibration and measurement sensitivity to the Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission (SMAP) radiometer. While RF switches have been used in the past to calibrate microwave radiometers, the switch used on SMAP employs several techniques uniquely tailored to the instrument requirements and passive remote-sensing in general to improve radiometer performance. Measurement error and sensitivity are improved by employing techniques to reduce thermal gradients within the device, reduce insertion loss during antenna observations, increase insertion loss temporal stability, and increase rejection of radar and RFI (radio-frequency interference) signals during calibration. The two legs of the single-pole double-throw reference switch employ three PIN diodes per leg in a parallel-shunt configuration to minimize insertion loss and increase stability while exceeding rejection requirements at 1,413 MHz. The high-speed packaged diodes are selected to minimize junction capacitance and resistance while ensuring the parallel devices have very similar I-V curves. Switch rejection is improved by adding high-impedance quarter-wave tapers before and after the diodes, along with replacing the ground via of one diode per leg with an open circuit stub. Errors due to thermal gradients in the switch are reduced by embedding the 50-ohm reference load within the switch, along with using a 0.25-in. (approximately equal to 0.6-cm) aluminum prebacked substrate. Previous spaceflight microwave radiometers did not embed the reference load and thermocouple directly within the calibration switch. In doing so, the SMAP switch reduces error caused by thermal gradients between the load and switch. Thermal issues are further reduced by moving the custom, highspeed regulated driver circuit to a physically separate PWB (printed wiring board). Regarding RF performance, previous spaceflight reference switches have not employed high-impedance tapers to improve

  8. Intra- and inter-brand accuracy of four dental radiometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Richard Bengt; Labrie, Daniel; Kazmi, Sonya; Fahey, John; Felix, Christopher M

    2012-06-01

    This study measured the accuracy and precision of four commercial dental radiometers. The intra-brand accuracy was also determined. The light outputs from 14 different curing lights were measured three times using four brands of dental radiometers and the results were compared to two laboratory-grade power meters that were used as the "gold standard". To ensure proper representation, three examples of each brand of dental radiometer were used. Data collected was analyzed using ANOVA, with 95% confidence intervals, comparing the laboratory-grade meters to the dental radiometers. Bioequivalence was established where the confidence interval for the irradiance values was within ±20% of the "gold standard" reading. Forest plots were used to highlight bioequivalence values. The two laboratory-grade meters differed by less than 0.6%. Overall, all three examples of the Bluephase and SDI radiometers as well as two examples of the LEDRadiometer and one CureRite meter were bioequivalent to the gold standard. However, the type of curing light measured had a significant effect on the accuracy of the radiometer. There was significant variability of the irradiance readings between radiometer brands, and between irradiance values recorded by the three samples of each brand studied. This made it impossible to definitively rank the radiometer brands for accuracy. Within the ±20% bioequivalence limits of this study, there was a clinically significant difference in the irradiance readings between radiometer brands and the choice of curing light affected the results. There was also significant variation in irradiance readings reported by different examples of the same brand of radiometer. Whether in clinical practice or in research, dental radiometers should not be used when either the irradiance or energy delivered needs to be accurately known.

  9. Conceptual radiometer design studies for Earth observations from low Earth orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Richard F.

    1994-01-01

    A conceptual radiometer design study was performed to determine the optimum design approach for spaceborne radiometers in low Earth orbit. Radiometric system configurations which included total power radiometers, unbalanced Dicke radiometers, and balanced Dicke, or as known as noise injection, radiometers were studied. Radiometer receiver configurations which were analyzed included the direct detection radiometer receiver, the double sideband homodyne radiometer receiver, and the single sideband heterodyne radiometer receiver. Radiometer system performance was also studied. This included radiometric sensitivity analysis of the three different radiometer system configurations studied. Both external and internal calibration techniques were analyzed. An accuracy analysis with and without mismatch losses was performed. It was determined that the balanced Dicke radiometer system configuration with direct detection receivers and external calibrations was optimum where frequent calibration such as once per minute were not feasible.

  10. Microfluidic Radiometal Labeling Systems for Biomolecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichert, D E; Kenis, P J. A.

    2011-12-29

    In a typical labeling procedure with radiometals, such as Cu-64 and Ga-68; a very large (~ 100-fold) excess of the non-radioactive reactant (precursor) is used to promote rapid and efficient incorporation of the radioisotope into the PET imaging agent. In order to achieve high specific activities, careful control of reaction conditions and extensive chromatographic purifications are required in order to separate the labeled compounds from the cold precursors. Here we propose a microfluidic approach to overcome these problems, and achieve high specific activities in a more convenient, semi-automated fashion and faster time frame. Microfluidic reactors, consisting of a network of micron-sized channels (typical dimensions in the range 10 - 300¼m), filters, separation columns, electrodes and reaction loops/chambers etched onto a solid substrate, are now emerging as an extremely useful technology for the intensification and miniaturization of chemical processes. The ability to manipulate, process and analyze reagent concentrations and reaction interfaces in both space and time within the channel network of a microreactor provides the fine level of reaction control that is desirable in PET radiochemistry practice. These factors can bring radiometal labeling, specifically the preparation of radio-labeled biomolecules such as antibodies, much closer to their theoretical maximum specific activities.

  11. Novel multi-beam radiometers for accurate ocean surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellin, C.; Pontoppidan, K.; Nielsen, P. H.

    2014-01-01

    Novel antenna architectures for real aperture multi-beam radiometers providing high resolution and high sensitivity for accurate sea surface temperature (SST) and ocean vector wind (OVW) measurements are investigated. On the basis of the radiometer requirements set for future SST/OVW missions...

  12. Measurement errors with low-cost citizen science radiometers

    OpenAIRE

    Bardají, R.; Piera Fernández, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    The KdUINO is a Do-It-Yourself buoy with low-cost radiometers that measure a parameter related to water transparency, the diffuse attenuation coefficient integrated into all the photosynthetically active radiation. In this contribution, we analyze the measurement errors of a novel low-cost multispectral radiometer that is used with the KdUINO. Peer Reviewed

  13. A novel L-band polarimetric radiometer featuring subharmonic sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotbøll, J.; Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl; Skou, Niels

    2003-01-01

    A novel L-band radiometer trading analog components for digital circuits has been designed, built and operated. It is a fully polarimetric radiometer of the correlation type, and it is based on the subharmonic sampling principle in which the L-band signal is directly sampled by a fast A to D...

  14. L-Band Polarimetric Correlation Radiometer with Subharmonic Sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotbøll, Jesper; Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl; Skou, Niels

    2001-01-01

    A novel L-band radiometer trading analog complexity for digital ditto has been designed and built. It is a fully polarimetric radiometer of the correlation type and it is based on the sub-harmonic sampling principle in which the L-band signal is directly sampled by a fast A to D converter...

  15. Etched track radiometers in radon measurements: a review

    CERN Document Server

    Nikolaev, V A

    1999-01-01

    Passive radon radiometers, based on alpha particle etched track detectors, are very attractive for the assessment of radon exposure. The present review considers various devices used for measurement of the volume activity of radon isotopes and their daughters and determination of equilibrium coefficients. Such devices can be classified into 8 groups: (i) open or 'bare' detectors, (ii) open chambers, (iii) sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn chambers with an inlet filter, (iv) advanced sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn radiometers, (v) multipurpose radiometers, (vi) radiometers based on a combination of etched track detectors and an electrostatic field, (vii) radiometers based on etched track detectors and activated charcoal and (viii) devices for the measurement of radon isotopes and/or radon daughters by means of track parameter measurements. Some of them such as the open detector and the chamber with an inlet filter have a variety of modifications and are applied widely both in geophysical research and radon dosimetric surveys. At the...

  16. Assessment of Radiometer Calibration with GPS Radio Occultation for the MiRaTA CubeSat Mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinan, Anne D; Cahoy, Kerri L; Bishop, Rebecca L; Lui, Susan S; Bardeen, James R; Mulligan, Tamitha; Blackwell, William J; Leslie, R Vincent; Osaretin, Idahosa; Shields, Michael

    2016-12-01

    The Microwave Radiometer Technology Acceleration (MiRaTA) is a 3U CubeSat mission sponsored by the NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO). The science payload on MiRaTA consists of a tri-band microwave radiometer and Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (GPSRO) sensor. The microwave radiometer takes measurements of all-weather temperature (V-band, 50-57 GHz), water vapor (G-band, 175-191 GHz), and cloud ice (G-band, 205 GHz) to provide observations used to improve weather forecasting. The Aerospace Corporation's GPSRO experiment, called the Compact TEC (Total Electron Content) and Atmospheric GPS Sensor (CTAGS), measures profiles of temperature and pressure in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (∼20 km) and electron density in the ionosphere (over 100 km). The MiRaTA mission will validate new technologies in both passive microwave radiometry and GPS radio occultation: (1) new ultra-compact and low-power technology for multi-channel and multi-band passive microwave radiometers, (2) the application of a commercial off the shelf (COTS) GPS receiver and custom patch antenna array technology to obtain neutral atmospheric GPSRO retrieval from a nanosatellite, and (3) a new approach to spaceborne microwave radiometer calibration using adjacent GPSRO measurements. In this paper, we focus on objective (3), developing operational models to meet a mission goal of 100 concurrent radiometer and GPSRO measurements, and estimating the temperature measurement precision for the CTAGS instrument based on thermal noise. Based on an analysis of thermal noise of the CTAGS instrument, the expected temperature retrieval precision is between 0.17 K and 1.4 K, which supports the improvement of radiometric calibration to 0.25 K.

  17. SMEX03 Aircraft Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer (PSR) Data, Alabama, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer (PSR) is an airborne microwave imaging radiometer developed and operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...

  18. Four absolute cavity radiometer (pyrheliometer) intercomparisons at New River, Arizona: radiometer standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estey, R.S.; Seaman, C.H.

    1981-07-01

    Four detailed intercomparisons were made for a number of models of cavity-type self-calibrating radiometers (pyrheliometers). Each intercomparison consisted of simultaneous readings of pyrheliometers at 30-second intervals in runs of 10 minutes, with at least 15 runs per intercomparison. Twenty-seven instruments were in at least one intercomparison, and five were in all four. Summarized results and all raw data are provided from the intercomparisons.

  19. Stable Targets for Spaceborne Microwave Radiometer Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njoku, Eni G.; Chan, S. K.; Armstrong, R. L.; Brodzik, M. J.; Savoie, M. H.; Knowles, K.

    2006-01-01

    Beginning in the 1970s, continuous observations of the Earth have been made by spaceborne microwave radiometers. Since these instruments have different observational characteristics, care must be taken in combining their data to form consistent long term records of brightness temperatures and derived geophysical quantities. To be useful for climate studies, data from different instruments must be calibrated relative to each other and to reference targets on the ground whose characteristics are stable and can be monitored continuously. Identifying such targets over land is not straightforward due to the heterogeneity and complexity of the land surface and cover. In this work, we provide an analysis of multi-sensor brightness temperature statistics over ocean, tropical forest, and ice sheet locations, spanning the period from 1978 to the present, and indicate the potential of these sites as continuous calibration monitoring targets.

  20. Ozone height profiles using laser heterodyne radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, S. L.

    1994-01-01

    The monitoring of vertical profiles of ozone and related minor constituents in the atmosphere are of great significance to understanding the complex interaction between atmospheric dynamics, chemistry and radiation budget. An ultra high spectral resolution tunable CO2 laser heterodyne radiometer has been designed, developed and set up at the National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi to obtain vertical profiles of various minor constituents the characteristic absorption lines in 9 to 11 micron spectral range. Due to its high spectral resolution the lines can be resolved completely and data obtained are inverted to get vertical profiles using an inversion technique developed by the author. In the present communication the salient features of the laser heterodyne system and the results obtained are discussed in detail.

  1. Method for characterization of filter radiometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toivanen, P; Manoochehri, F; Kärhä, P; Ikonen, E; Lassila, A

    1999-03-20

    We have developed a new method for characterizing the irradiance responsivity of filter radiometers. The method is based on a spatially uniform, known irradiance, generated by combining several identical laser beams. The measurement setup and the experimental demonstration at one wavelength are presented. The diffraction correction related to the generated irradiance is studied experimentally. The uncertainty analysis of the method indicates a relative standard uncertainty of 1 x 10(-3). The results with the new method are compared with the characterization measurements based on our present spectral-irradiance scale. The results have a relative deviation of 1 x 10(-3), which is well within the combined standard uncertainty of the comparison.

  2. Precision of hand-held dental radiometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueggeberg, F A

    1993-06-01

    The intensity of light within the wavelengths of 400 to 500 nm on a dental photocurable resin restorative material is a vital factor affecting many of the physical and chemical properties of the resulting restoration. This paper compares the precision of two recently introduced hand-held radiometers. The results indicate that the response of both hand-held meters was linear. For a given amount of decrease in light source intensity, both hand-held units responded with a corresponding decrement in measured intensity value. Both hand-held meters were found to limit their pass band of intensity readings between 400 and 515 nm, making them very useful clinical instruments. However, the absolute intensity readings between the two units were significantly different.

  3. Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux is defined as the year-over-year change in Total Ecosystem Carbon Stock, or the net rate of carbon exchange between an ecosystem and the...

  4. Calibration OGSEs for multichannel radiometers for Mars atmosphere studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, J. J.; J Álvarez, F.; Gonzalez-Guerrero, M.; Apéstigue, V.; Martín, I.; Fernández, J. M.; Fernán, A. A.; Arruego, I.

    2018-02-01

    This work describes several Optical Ground Support Equipment (OGSEs) developed by INTA (Spanish Institute of Aerospace Technology—Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial) for the calibration and characterization of their self-manufactured multichannel radiometers (solar irradiance sensors—SIS) developed for working on the surface of Mars and studying the atmosphere of that planet. Nowadays, INTA is developing two SIS for the ESA ExoMars 2020 and for the JPL/NASA Mars 2020 missions. These calibration OGSEs have been improved since the first model in 2011 developed for Mars MetNet Precursor mission. This work describes the currently used OGSE. Calibration tests provide an objective evidence of the SIS performance, allowing the conversion of the electrical sensor output into accurate physical measurements (irradiance) with uncertainty bounds. Calibration results of the SIS on board of the Dust characterisation, Risk assessment, and Environment Analyzer on the Martian Surface (DREAMS) on board the ExoMars 2016 Schiaparelli module (EDM—entry and descent module) are also presented, as well as their error propagation. Theoretical precision and accuracy of the instrument are determined by these results. Two types of OGSE are used as a function of the pursued aim: calibration OGSEs and Optical Fast Verification (OFV) GSE. Calibration OGSEs consist of three setups which characterize with the highest possible accuracy, the responsivity, the angular response and the thermal behavior; OFV OGSE verify that the performance of the sensor is close to nominal after every environmental and qualification test. Results show that the accuracy of the calibrated sensors is a function of the accuracy of the optical detectors and of the light conditions. For normal direct incidence and diffuse light, the accuracy is in the same order of uncertainty as that of the reference cell used for fixing the irradiance, which is about 1%.

  5. Calibration of Correlation Radiometers Using Pseudo-Random Noise Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Pantoja

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The calibration of correlation radiometers, and particularly aperture synthesis interferometric radiometers, is a critical issue to ensure their performance. Current calibration techniques are based on the measurement of the cross-correlation of receivers’ outputs when injecting noise from a common noise source requiring a very stable distribution network. For large interferometric radiometers this centralized noise injection approach is very complex from the point of view of mass, volume and phase/amplitude equalization. Distributed noise injection techniques have been proposed as a feasible alternative, but are unable to correct for the so-called “baseline errors” associated with the particular pair of receivers forming the baseline. In this work it is proposed the use of centralized Pseudo-Random Noise (PRN signals to calibrate correlation radiometers. PRNs are sequences of symbols with a long repetition period that have a flat spectrum over a bandwidth which is determined by the symbol rate. Since their spectrum resembles that of thermal noise, they can be used to calibrate correlation radiometers. At the same time, since these sequences are deterministic, new calibration schemes can be envisaged, such as the correlation of each receiver’s output with a baseband local replica of the PRN sequence, as well as new distribution schemes of calibration signals. This work analyzes the general requirements and performance of using PRN sequences for the calibration of microwave correlation radiometers, and particularizes the study to a potential implementation in a large aperture synthesis radiometer using an optical distribution network.

  6. Calibration of correlation radiometers using pseudo-random noise signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Isaac Ramos; Bosch-Lluis, Xavi; Camps, Adriano; Alvarez, Nereida Rodriguez; Hernandez, Juan Fernando Marchán; Domènech, Enric Valencia; Vernich, Carlos; de la Rosa, Sonia; Pantoja, Sebastián

    2009-01-01

    The calibration of correlation radiometers, and particularly aperture synthesis interferometric radiometers, is a critical issue to ensure their performance. Current calibration techniques are based on the measurement of the cross-correlation of receivers' outputs when injecting noise from a common noise source requiring a very stable distribution network. For large interferometric radiometers this centralized noise injection approach is very complex from the point of view of mass, volume and phase/amplitude equalization. Distributed noise injection techniques have been proposed as a feasible alternative, but are unable to correct for the so-called "baseline errors" associated with the particular pair of receivers forming the baseline. In this work it is proposed the use of centralized Pseudo-Random Noise (PRN) signals to calibrate correlation radiometers. PRNs are sequences of symbols with a long repetition period that have a flat spectrum over a bandwidth which is determined by the symbol rate. Since their spectrum resembles that of thermal noise, they can be used to calibrate correlation radiometers. At the same time, since these sequences are deterministic, new calibration schemes can be envisaged, such as the correlation of each receiver's output with a baseband local replica of the PRN sequence, as well as new distribution schemes of calibration signals. This work analyzes the general requirements and performance of using PRN sequences for the calibration of microwave correlation radiometers, and particularizes the study to a potential implementation in a large aperture synthesis radiometer using an optical distribution network.

  7. Aquarius L-Band Radiometers Calibration Using Cold Sky Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinnat, Emmanuel P.; Le Vine, David M.; Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; Brown, Shannon T.; Hong, Liang

    2015-01-01

    An important element in the calibration plan for the Aquarius radiometers is to look at the cold sky. This involves rotating the satellite 180 degrees from its nominal Earth viewing configuration to point the main beams at the celestial sky. At L-band, the cold sky provides a stable, well-characterized scene to be used as a calibration reference. This paper describes the cold sky calibration for Aquarius and how it is used as part of the absolute calibration. Cold sky observations helped establish the radiometer bias, by correcting for an error in the spillover lobe of the antenna pattern, and monitor the long-term radiometer drift.

  8. Calibration of the TUD Ku-band Synthetic Aperture Radiometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Brian; Skou, Niels

    1995-01-01

    The TUD Synthetic Aperture Radiometer is a 2-channel demonstration model that can simulate a thinned aperture radiometer having an unfilled aperture consisting of several small antenna elements. Aperture synthesis obtained by interferometric measurements using the antenna elements in pairs......, followed by an image reconstruction based on an inverse Fourier transform, results in an imaging instrument without the need of mechanical scan. The thinned aperture and the non-scanning feature make the technique attractive for low frequency spaceborne radiometer systems, e.g. at L-band. Initial...

  9. Professional Enterprise NET

    CERN Document Server

    Arking, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Comprehensive coverage to help experienced .NET developers create flexible, extensible enterprise application code If you're an experienced Microsoft .NET developer, you'll find in this book a road map to the latest enterprise development methodologies. It covers the tools you will use in addition to Visual Studio, including Spring.NET and nUnit, and applies to development with ASP.NET, C#, VB, Office (VBA), and database. You will find comprehensive coverage of the tools and practices that professional .NET developers need to master in order to build enterprise more flexible, testable, and ext

  10. An enzymatic biosensor based on three-dimensional ZnO nanotetrapods spatial net modified AlGaAs/GaAs high electron mobility transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yu [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Bioengineering Program, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States); Zhang, Xiaohui; Yan, Xiaoqin; Liao, Qingliang; Wang, Zengze; Zhang, Yue, E-mail: yuezhang@ustb.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2014-11-24

    We designed and constructed three dimensional (3D) zinc oxide Nanotetrapods (T-ZnOs) modified AlGaAs/GaAs high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) for enzymatic uric acid (UA) detection. The chemical vapor deposition synthesized T-ZnOs was distributed on the gate areas of HEMTs in order to immobilize uricase and improve the sensitivity of the HEMTs. Combining with the high efficiency of enzyme immobilization by T-ZnOs and high sensitivity from HEMT, the as-constructed uricase/T-ZnOs/HEMTs biosensor showed fast response towards UA at ∼1 s, wide linear range from 0.2 nM to 0.2 mM and the low detect limit at 0.2 nM. The results point out an avenue to design electronic device as miniaturized lab-on-chip device for high sensitive and specific in biomedical and clinical diagnosis applications.

  11. Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) Handbook With subsections for derivative instruments: Multifilter Radiometer (MFR) Normal Incidence Multifilter Radiometer (NIMFR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodges, Gary B. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States). Earth System Research Lab.; Michalsky, Joseph J. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States). Earth System Research Lab.

    2016-03-01

    The visible Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) is a passive instrument that measures global and diffuse components of solar irradiance at six narrowband channels and one open, or broadband, channel (Harrison et al. 1994). Direct irradiance is not a primary measurement, but is calculated using diffuse and global measurements. To collect one data record, the MFRSR takes measurements at four different shadowband positions. The first measurement is taken with the shadowband in the nadir (home) position. The next three measurements are, in order, the first side-band, sun-blocked, and second side-band. The side-band measurements are used to correct for the portion of the sky obscured by the shadowband. The nominal wavelengths of the narrowband channels are 415, 500, 615, 673, 870, and 940 nm. From such measurements, one may infer the atmosphere’s aerosol optical depth at each wavelength. In turn, these optical depths may be used to derive information about the column abundances of ozone and water vapor (Michalsky et al. 1995), as well as aerosol (Harrison and Michalsky 1994) and other atmospheric constituents.

  12. Hurricane Satellite (HURSAT) from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Huricane Satellite (HURSAT)-Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) is used to extend the HURSAT data set such that appling the Objective Dvorak technique...

  13. Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) was successfully launched into sun-synchronous polar orbit aboard Terra, NASA's first Earth Observing System (EOS)...

  14. NAMMA HIGH ALTITUDE MMIC SOUNDING RADIOMETER (HAMSR) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NAMMA High Altitude MMIC Sounding Radiometer (HAMSR) dataset consists of data collected by HAMSR, which is a 25-channel microwave atmospheric sounder operating...

  15. Effect of Chamber Wall Proximity on Radiometer Force Production (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Selden, N. P; Gimelshein, N. E; Gimelshein, S. F; Ketsdever, A. D

    2008-01-01

    ... on a given radiometer configuration in both the free molecule and transitional regimes. The contribution of the chamber walls to both the flowfield structure and radiometric force production were examined for helium, argon, and nitrogen test gases...

  16. In situ calibration technique for UV spectral radiometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S R; Forgan, B W

    1995-08-20

    A technique for calibrating spectral radiometers measuring global (2π sr) irradiance using solar irradiance at the top of the atmosphere as the absolute irradiance reference is reported. In addition to providing a calibration at all measured wavelengths, the technique provides a direct measure of the angular response of the radiometer. For instruments that can be used to measure the ultraviolet-B region, the calibration also provides an estimate of the ozone column amount.

  17. Characterization of a Compact Water Vapor Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Ajay; Selina, Rob

    2018-01-01

    We report on laboratory test results of the Compact Water Vapor Radiometer (CWVR) prototype for the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), a five-channel design centered around the 22 GHz water vapor line. Fluctuations in perceptible water vapor cause fluctuations in atmospheric brightness emission, which are assumed to be proportional to phase fluctuations of the astronomical signal seen by an antenna. The design is intended to support empirical radiometric phase corrections for each baseline in the array.The dynamic range, channel isolation, and gain stability of the device were characterized. The device has a useful dynamic range of order 18 dB after calibration, and the CWVR channel isolation requirement of 102.6 sec. With temperature corrections, the single channel and channel difference gain stability per channel is < 2 x 10-4 over τ = 2.5 - 103 sec, which meets the < 2 x 10-4 requirement. The observable gain stability is < 2.5 x 10-4 over τ = 2.5 - 103 sec, which meets the < 2.5 x 10-4 requirement.Overall, the test results indicate that the CWVR meets required specifications for dynamic range, channel isolation, and gain stability in order to proceed with testing on a pair of VLA antennas.

  18. Bolometric detectors: optimization for differential radiometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glezer, E N; Lange, A E; Wilbanks, T M

    1992-12-01

    A differential radiometer can be constructed by placing two matched bolometric detectors in an ac bridge, thus producing a signal that is proportional to the difference in power incident on the two detectors. In conditions of large and time-varying common-mode radiative load, the common-mode response resulting from imperfectly matched detectors can limit the stability of the difference signal. For semiconductor thermistor bolometers we find that the bridge can always be trimmed to null the common-mode response for a given instantaneous value of the radiative load. However, subsequent changes in the commonmode radiative load change the operating point of the detectors, giving rise to a second-order common-mode response. This response can be minimized by increasing the electrical-power dissipation in the detectors at the cost of sensitivity. For the case that we are analyzing, and for mismatches in detector parameters that are typical of randomly paired detectors, common-mode rejection ratios in excess of 10(3) can be achieved under 20% changes in radiative load.

  19. Light curing unit effectiveness assessed by dental radiometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortall, A C; Harrington, E; Wilson, H J

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the effectiveness of five commercially available hand-held dental radiometers and a computer-based experimental radiometer. Light intensity of five visible light activation units was determined using the dental radiometers. The influence of curing light intensity on depth of cure of a hybrid composite material was determined using a digital penetrometer. The radiometers evaluated varied with respect to sensor aperture diameter, scale readings (analogue or digital) and the units of measurement (arbitrary or mW cm2). The experimental computer-based radiometer allowed continuous recording of intensity against time; thus the light output could be monitored over the entire irradiation period. When light intensity readings were normalized with regard to a standardized light sensing device aperture of 4 mm diameter, a linear relationship was found between depth of cure and the logarithm of the intensity of the light. The results of this investigation support the use of dental radiometers for periodically monitoring visible light activation units.

  20. WaveNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Coastal Inlets Research Program WaveNet WaveNet is a web-based, Graphical-User-Interface ( GUI ) data management tool developed for Corps coastal...generates tabular and graphical information for project planning and design documents. The WaveNet is a web-based GUI designed to provide users with a...data from different sources, and employs a combination of Fortran, Python and Matlab codes to process and analyze data for USACE applications

  1. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes how Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets) have been developed — from being a promising theoretical model to being a full-fledged language for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems (and other systems in which human beings and...... use of CP-nets — because it means that the function representation and the translations (which are a bit mathematically complex) no longer are parts of the basic definition of CP-nets. Instead they are parts of the invariant method (which anyway demands considerable mathematical skills...

  2. Game Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of game coloured Petri nets. This allows the modeler to explicitly model what parts of the model comprise the modeled system and what parts are the environment of the modeled system. We give the formal definition of game coloured Petri nets, a means of reachability...... analysis of this net class, and an application of game coloured Petri nets to automatically generate easy-to-understand visualizations of the model by exploiting the knowledge that some parts of the model are not interesting from a visualization perspective (i.e. they are part of the environment...

  3. Programming NET Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Alex

    2007-01-01

    Web services are poised to become a key technology for a wide range of Internet-enabled applications, spanning everything from straight B2B systems to mobile devices and proprietary in-house software. While there are several tools and platforms that can be used for building web services, developers are finding a powerful tool in Microsoft's .NET Framework and Visual Studio .NET. Designed from scratch to support the development of web services, the .NET Framework simplifies the process--programmers find that tasks that took an hour using the SOAP Toolkit take just minutes. Programming .NET

  4. Annotating Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Bo; Wells, Lisa Marie

    2002-01-01

    -net. An example of such auxiliary information is a counter which is associated with a token to be able to do performance analysis. Modifying colour sets and arc inscriptions in a CP-net to support a specific use may lead to creation of several slightly different CP-nets – only to support the different uses...... a method which makes it possible to associate auxiliary information, called annotations, with tokens without modifying the colour sets of the CP-net. Annotations are pieces of information that are not essential for determining the behaviour of the system being modelled, but are rather added to support...

  5. Preliminary Design of the Brazilian's National Institute for Space Research Broadband Radiometer for Solar Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berni, L. A.; Vieira, L. E. A.; Savonov, G. S.; Dal Lago, A.; Mendes, O.; Silva, M. R.; Guarnieri, F.; Sampaio, M.; Barbosa, M. J.; Vilas Boas, J. V.; Branco, R. H. F.; Nishimori, M.; Silva, L. A.; Carlesso, F.; Rodríguez Gómez, J. M.; Alves, L. R.; Vaz Castilho, B.; Santos, J.; Silva Paula, A.; Cardoso, F.

    2017-10-01

    The Total Solar Irradiance (TSI), which is the total radiation arriving at Earth's atmosphere from the Sun, is one of the most important forcing of the Earths climate. Measurements of the TSI have been made employing instruments on board several space-based platforms during the last four solar cycles. However, combining these measurements is still challenging due to the degradation of the sensor elements and the long-term stability of the electronics. Here we describe the preliminary efforts to design an absolute radiometer based on the principle of electrical substitution that is under development at Brazilian's National Institute for Space Research (INPE).

  6. Net zero water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lindeque, M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Is it possible to develop a building that uses a net zero amount of water? In recent years it has become evident that it is possible to have buildings that use a net zero amount of electricity. This is possible when the building is taken off...

  7. SolNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Ulrike; Vajen, Klaus; Bales, Chris

    2014-01-01

    SolNet, founded in 2006, is the first coordinated International PhD education program on Solar Thermal Engineering. The SolNet network is coordinated by the Institute of Thermal Engineering at Kassel University, Germany. The network offers PhD courses on solar heating and cooling, conference...

  8. Kunstige neurale net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørning, Annette

    1994-01-01

    Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse.......Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse....

  9. APHID: A Wideband, Multichannel Radiometer for Phase Delay Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staguhn, J.; Harris, A. I.; Munday, L. G.; Woody, D. P.

    Atmospheric phase fluctuations of mm and sub-mm signals are predominantly caused by line of sight fluctuations in the amount of water vapor. Measurements of the line emission from tropospheric water vapor can be used to track and correct these fluctuations. We present model calculations which led to the design of a multichannel water vapor radiometer for phase correction of millimeter arrays. Our particular emphasis is on designing a phase correction scheme for mid-latitude sites (BIMA, OVRO), and for high-altitude sites. The instrument being implemented at OVRO and BIMA is a cooled double-sideband heterodyne receiver centered on the 22.2GHz water vapor line with a 0.5 - 4.0GHz IF. The back end is a 16 channel analog lag correlator similar to the WASP spectrometer (Harris et al 1998). We present two applications for the multichannel radiometer. A line fit to the observed spectra is expected to provide sufficient accuracy for mm phase correction with the 22 GHZ line. The radiometer can also be used for the determination of the vertical water vapor distribution from the observed line shape. We discuss how this information can be used to improve the accuracy of water vapor radiometers which have too few channels to observe the line shape, and for phase correction schemes which are based on a 183 GHz water line radiometer.

  10. Recalibration and Validation of the SMAP L-Band Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jinzheng; Piepmeier, Jeffrey; Le Vine, David M.; Dinnat, Emmanuel; Bindlish, Rajat; De amici, Giovanni; Mohammed, Priscilla; Misra, Sidharth; Yueh, Simon; Meissner, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    SMAP mission was launched on 31st January 2015 in a 6 AM 6 PM sun-synchronous orbit at 685 km altitude to measure soil moisture and freethaw globally. The passive instrument of SMAP is a fully polarimetric L-band radiometer (1.4GHz) operating with a bandwidth of 24MHz. The radiometer L1B data product version 3 has been released for public science activities. Post-launch calibration and validation activities are described in [4,5]. Validation results show that SMAP antenna temperature (TA) is 2.6 K warmer over galactic Cold Sky (CS), and land TB is 2.6 K colder comparing to SMOS land TB (compared at the top of the atmosphere) after the update of the reflectors thermal model. Due to the biases, the SMAP radiometer is under re-calibration for next data release in 2018.We present the updated calibration approaches for the SMAP radiometer product. We will discuss the various radiometer calibration parameters and part of the validation process and result.

  11. ECE imaging of electron temperature and electron temperature fluctuations (invited)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, B.H.; Domier, C.W.; N C Luhmann Jr.,; Brower, D.L.; Cima, G.; Donne, A. J. H.; Oyevaar, T.; van de Pol, M.J.

    2001-01-01

    Electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECE imaging or ECEI) is a novel plasma diagnostic technique for the study of electron temperature profiles and fluctuations in magnetic fusion plasma devices. Instead of a single receiver located in the tokamak midplane as in conventional ECE radiometers, ECEI

  12. Pro NET Best Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, Stephen D

    2011-01-01

    Pro .NET Best Practices is a practical reference to the best practices that you can apply to your .NET projects today. You will learn standards, techniques, and conventions that are sharply focused, realistic and helpful for achieving results, steering clear of unproven, idealistic, and impractical recommendations. Pro .NET Best Practices covers a broad range of practices and principles that development experts agree are the right ways to develop software, which includes continuous integration, automated testing, automated deployment, and code analysis. Whether the solution is from a free and

  13. Getting to Net Zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-01

    The technology necessary to build net zero energy buildings (NZEBs) is ready and available today, however, building to net zero energy performance levels can be challenging. Energy efficiency measures, onsite energy generation resources, load matching and grid interaction, climatic factors, and local policies vary from location to location and require unique methods of constructing NZEBs. It is recommended that Components start looking into how to construct and operate NZEBs now as there is a learning curve to net zero construction and FY 2020 is just around the corner.

  14. Instant Lucene.NET

    CERN Document Server

    Heydt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A step-by-step guide that helps you to index, search, and retrieve unstructured data with the help of Lucene.NET.Instant Lucene.NET How-to is essential for developers new to Lucene and Lucene.NET who are looking to get an immediate foundational understanding of how to use the library in their application. It's assumed you have programming experience in C# already, but not that you have experience with search techniques such as information retrieval theory (although there will be a l

  15. Self-shading correction for oceanographic upwelling radiometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leathers, Robert; Downes, Trijntje; Mobley, Cutris

    2004-10-04

    We present the derivation of an analytical model for the self-shading error of an oceanographic upwelling radiometer. The radiometer is assumed to be cylindrical and can either be a profiling instrument or include a wider cylindrical buoy for floating at the sea surface. The model treats both optically shallow and optically deep water conditions and can be applied any distance off the seafloor. We evaluate the model by comparing its results to those from Monte Carlo simulations. The analytical model performs well over a large range of environmental conditions and provides a significant improvement to previous analytical models. The model is intended for investigators who need to apply self-shading corrections to radiometer data but who do not have the ability to compute shading corrections with Monte Carlo simulations. The model also can provide guidance for instrument design and cruise planning.

  16. Design and calibration of field deployable ground-viewing radiometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Nikolaus; Czapla-Myers, Jeffrey; Leisso, Nathan; Biggar, Stuart; Burkhart, Charles; Kingston, Rob; Thome, Kurtis

    2013-01-10

    Three improved ground-viewing radiometers were built to support the Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS) developed by the Remote Sensing Group (RSG) at the University of Arizona. Improved over previous light-emitting diode based versions, these filter-based radiometers employ seven silicon detectors and one InGaAs detector covering a wavelength range of 400-1550 nm. They are temperature controlled and designed for greater stability and lower noise. The radiometer systems show signal-to-noise ratios of greater than 1000 for all eight channels at typical field calibration signal levels. Predeployment laboratory radiance calibrations using a 1 m spherical integrating source compare well with in situ field calibrations using the solar radiation based calibration method; all bands are within ±2.7% for the case tested.

  17. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Musall, Eike

    2010-01-01

    and identify possible renewable energy supply options which may be considered in calculations. Finally, the gap between the methodology proposed by each organisation and their respective national building code is assessed; providing an overview of the possible changes building codes will need to undergo......The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...... parameters used in the calculations are discussed and the various renewable supply options considered in the methodologies are summarised graphically. Thus, the paper helps to understand different existing approaches to calculate energy balance in Net ZEBs, highlights the importance of variables selection...

  18. PhysioNet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The PhysioNet Resource is intended to stimulate current research and new investigations in the study of complex biomedical and physiologic signals. It offers free...

  19. NetSig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Heiko; Lawrence, Michael S; Chouinard, Candace R

    2018-01-01

    Methods that integrate molecular network information and tumor genome data could complement gene-based statistical tests to identify likely new cancer genes; but such approaches are challenging to validate at scale, and their predictive value remains unclear. We developed a robust statistic (Net......Sig) that integrates protein interaction networks with data from 4,742 tumor exomes. NetSig can accurately classify known driver genes in 60% of tested tumor types and predicts 62 new driver candidates. Using a quantitative experimental framework to determine in vivo tumorigenic potential in mice, we found that Net......Sig candidates induce tumors at rates that are comparable to those of known oncogenes and are ten-fold higher than those of random genes. By reanalyzing nine tumor-inducing NetSig candidates in 242 patients with oncogene-negative lung adenocarcinomas, we find that two (AKT2 and TFDP2) are significantly amplified...

  20. Long-term temporal stability of the National Institute of Standards and Technology spectral irradiance scale determined with absolute filter radiometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Howard W; Gibson, Charles E

    2002-10-01

    The temporal stability of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) spectral irradiance scale as measured with broadband filter radiometers calibrated for absolute spectral irradiance responsivity is described. The working standard free-electron laser (FEL) lamps and the check standard FEL lamps have been monitored with radiometers in the ultraviolet and the visible wavelength regions. The measurements made with these two radiometers reveal that the NIST spectral irradiance scale as compared with an absolute thermodynamic scale has not changed by more than 1.5% in the visible from 1993 to 1999. Similar measurements in the ultraviolet reveal that the corresponding change is less than 1.5% from 1995 to 1999. Furthermore, a check of the spectral irradiance scale by six different filter radiometers calibrated for absolute spectral irradiance responsivity based on the high-accuracy cryogenic radiometer shows that the agreement between the present scale and the detector-based scale is better than 1.3% throughout the visible to the near-infrared wavelength region. These results validate the assigned spectral irradiance of the widely disseminated NIST or NIST-traceable standard sources.

  1. Measurements on Active Cold Loads for Radiometer Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels; Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl; Balling, Jan E.

    2008-01-01

    Two semi-conductor Active Cold Loads (ACLs) to be used as cold references in spaceborne microwave radiometers have been developed. An X-band frequency was chosen, and the target noise temperature value was in the 50 to 100 K range. The ACLs are characterized in the operating temperature range 0 50...... degrees C, and long term stability is assessed. To this end a Test Bed has been developed. This Test Bed is actually a stable radiometer, and its design is briefly reviewed. The test setup is described, and preliminary test campaign results indicate output temperatures of 77 K and 55 K for the two ACLs...

  2. Measurements on Active Cold Loads for Radiometer Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl; Skou, Niels; Balling, Jan E.

    2009-01-01

    Two semiconductor active cold loads (ACLs) to be used as cold references in spaceborne microwave radiometers have been developed. An X-band frequency was chosen, and the target noise temperature value was in the 50-100-K range. The ACLs are characterized in the operating temperature range of 0deg......C-50degC, and long-term stability is assessed. To this end, a test bed has been developed. This test bed is actually a stable radiometer, and its design and performance are discussed. The test setup is described, and test campaign results indicate output temperatures of 77 and 56 K for the two ACLs...

  3. Performance Measurements on Active Cold Loads for Radiometer Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels; Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl; Balling, Jan E.

    2007-01-01

    Two semi-conductor Active Cold Loads (ACLs) to be used as cold references in spaceborne microwave radiometers have been developed. An X-band frequency has been chosen, and the target noise temperature value is in the 50 to 100 K range. The ACLs are to be characterized in the operating temperature...... range 0-50 degrees C, and long term stability must be assessed. To this end a Test Bed has been developed. This Test Bed is actually a stable radiometer, and its design and development is discussed. The test setup is described, and preliminary test campaign results indicate output temperatures of 73 K...

  4. TideNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    query tide data sources in a desired geographic region of USA and its territories (Figure 1). Users can select a tide data source through the Google Map ...select data sources according to the desired geographic region. It uses the Google Map interface to display data from different sources. Recent...Coastal Inlets Research Program TideNet The TideNet is a web-based Graphical User Interface (GUI) that provides users with GIS mapping tools to

  5. Building Neural Net Software

    OpenAIRE

    Neto, João Pedro; Costa, José Félix

    1999-01-01

    In a recent paper [Neto et al. 97] we showed that programming languages can be translated on recurrent (analog, rational weighted) neural nets. The goal was not efficiency but simplicity. Indeed we used a number-theoretic approach to machine programming, where (integer) numbers were coded in a unary fashion, introducing a exponential slow down in the computations, with respect to a two-symbol tape Turing machine. Implementation of programming languages in neural nets turns to be not only theo...

  6. Interaction Nets in Russian

    OpenAIRE

    Salikhmetov, Anton

    2013-01-01

    Draft translation to Russian of Chapter 7, Interaction-Based Models of Computation, from Models of Computation: An Introduction to Computability Theory by Maribel Fernandez. "In this chapter, we study interaction nets, a model of computation that can be seen as a representative of a class of models based on the notion of 'computation as interaction'. Interaction nets are a graphical model of computation devised by Yves Lafont in 1990 as a generalisation of the proof structures of linear logic...

  7. Programming NET 35

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Bestselling author Jesse Liberty and industry expert Alex Horovitz uncover the common threads that unite the .NET 3.5 technologies, so you can benefit from the best practices and architectural patterns baked into the new Microsoft frameworks. The book offers a Grand Tour" of .NET 3.5 that describes how the principal technologies can be used together, with Ajax, to build modern n-tier and service-oriented applications. "

  8. GPM GROUND VALIDATION CONICAL SCANNING MILLIMETER-WAVE IMAGING RADIOMETER (COSMIR) GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Conical Scanning Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (COSMIR) GCPEx dataset used the Conical Scanning Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer...

  9. Novel Low-Impact Integration of a Microwave Radiometer into Cloud Radar System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The radiometer channel will have significant filtering to reduce the contamination of the radar signal into the radiometer channels.The successful isolation between...

  10. HURRICANE AND SEVERE STORM SENTINEL (HS3) HURRICANE IMAGING RADIOMETER (HIRAD) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) was collected by the Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD), which was a multi-band...

  11. Cloud Absorption Radiometer Autonomous Navigation System - CANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, Duncan; Gatebe, Charles; McCune, Bill; Hellwig, Dustan

    2013-01-01

    CAR (cloud absorption radiometer) acquires spatial reference data from host aircraft navigation systems. This poses various problems during CAR data reduction, including navigation data format, accuracy of position data, accuracy of airframe inertial data, and navigation data rate. Incorporating its own navigation system, which included GPS (Global Positioning System), roll axis inertia and rates, and three axis acceleration, CANS expedites data reduction and increases the accuracy of the CAR end data product. CANS provides a self-contained navigation system for the CAR, using inertial reference and GPS positional information. The intent of the software application was to correct the sensor with respect to aircraft roll in real time based upon inputs from a precision navigation sensor. In addition, the navigation information (including GPS position), attitude data, and sensor position details are all streamed to a remote system for recording and later analysis. CANS comprises a commercially available inertial navigation system with integral GPS capability (Attitude Heading Reference System AHRS) integrated into the CAR support structure and data system. The unit is attached to the bottom of the tripod support structure. The related GPS antenna is located on the P-3 radome immediately above the CAR. The AHRS unit provides a RS-232 data stream containing global position and inertial attitude and velocity data to the CAR, which is recorded concurrently with the CAR data. This independence from aircraft navigation input provides for position and inertial state data that accounts for very small changes in aircraft attitude and position, sensed at the CAR location as opposed to aircraft state sensors typically installed close to the aircraft center of gravity. More accurate positional data enables quicker CAR data reduction with better resolution. The CANS software operates in two modes: initialization/calibration and operational. In the initialization/calibration mode

  12. A New Way to Demonstrate the Radiometer as a Heat Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladkouski, V. I.; Pinchuk, A. I.

    2015-01-01

    While the radiometer is readily available as a toy, A. E. Woodruff notes that it is also a very useful tool to help us understand how to resolve certain scientific problems. Many physicists think they know how the radiometer works, but only a few actually understand it. Here we present a demonstration that shows that a radiometer can be thought of…

  13. Processor breadboard for on-board RFI detection and mitigation in MetOp-SG radiometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels; Kristensen, Steen S.; Kovanen, Arhippa

    2015-01-01

    Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) is an increasing threat to proper operation of space-borne Earth viewing microwave radiometer systems. There is a steady growth in active services, and tougher requirements to sensitivity and fidelity of future radiometer systems. Thus it has been decided...... to ground at the modest data rate usually associated with radiometer systems....

  14. Design of a Push-Broom Multi-Beam Radiometer for Future Ocean Observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellin, C.; Pontoppidan, K.; Nielsen, P. H.

    2015-01-01

    The design of a push-broom multi-beam radiometer for future ocean observations is described. The radiometer provides a sensitivity one order of magnitude higher than a traditional conical scanning radiometer, and has the big advantage of being fully stationary relative to the satellite platform...

  15. Measurement of small antenna reflector losses for radiometer calibration budget

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels

    1997-01-01

    Antenna reflector losses play an important role in the calibration budget for a microwave radiometer. If the losses are small, they are difficult to measure by traditional means. However, they can be assessed directly by radiometric means using the sky brightness temperature as incident radiation...

  16. High resolution soil moisture radiometer. [large space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilheit, T. T.

    1978-01-01

    An electrically scanned pushbroom phased antenna array is described for a microwave radiometer which can provide agriculturally meaningful measurements of soil moisture. The antenna size of 100 meters at 1400 MHz or 230 meters at 611 MHz requires several shuttle launches and orbital assembly. Problems inherent to the size of the structure and specific instrument problems are discussed as well as the preliminary design.

  17. Improved cavity-type absolute total-radiation radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, J. M., Sr.; Plamondon, J. A., Jr.

    1967-01-01

    Conical cavity-type absolute radiometer measures the intensity of radiant energy to an accuracy of one to two percent in a vacuum of ten to the minus fifth torr or lower. There is a uniform response over the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared range, and it requires no calibration or comparison with a radiation standard.

  18. Planck-LFI radiometers' spectral response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zonca, A [INAF-IASF Milano, Via E. Bassini 15, 20133 Milano (Italy); Franceschet, C; Mennella, A; Bersanelli, M [Universita di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via G. Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Battaglia, P; Silvestri, R [Thales Alenia Space Italia S.p.A., S.S. Padana Superiore 290, 20090 Vimodrone, Milano (Italy); Villa, F; Butler, R C; Cuttaia, F; Mandolesi, N [INAF-IASF Bologna, Via P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); D' Arcangelo, O [IFP-CNR, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Artal, E [Departamento de IngenierIa de Comunicaciones, Universidad de Cantabria, Avenida de los Castros s/n. 39005 Santander (Spain); Davis, R J [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Galeotta, S; Maris, M [INAF-OATs, Via G.B. Tiepolo 11, I-34131, Trieste (Italy); Hughes, N; Jukkala, P; Kilpiae, V-H [DA-Design Oy, Keskuskatu 29, FI-31600, Jokioinen (Finland); Laaninen, M [Ylinen Electronics Oy, Teollisuustie 9A, FIN-02700, Kauniainen (Finland); Mendes, L, E-mail: andrea.zonca@fisica.unimi.i [ESA - ESAC, Camino bajo del Castillo, s/n, Villanueva de la Canada 28692 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-12-15

    The Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) is an array of pseudo-correlation radiometers on board the Planck satellite, the ESA mission dedicated to precision measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background. The LFI covers three bands centred at 30, 44 and 70 GHz, with a goal bandwidth of 20% of the central frequency. The characterization of the broadband frequency response of each radiometer is necessary to understand and correct for systematic effects, particularly those related to foreground residuals and polarization measurements. In this paper we present the measured band shape of all the LFI channels and discuss the methods adopted for their estimation. The spectral characterization of each radiometer was obtained by combining the measured spectral response of individual units through a dedicated RF model of the LFI receiver scheme. As a consistency check, we also attempted end-to-end spectral measurements of the integrated radiometer chain in a cryogenic chamber. However, due to systematic effects in the measurement setup, only qualitative results were obtained from these tests. The measured LFI bandpasses exhibit a moderate level of ripple, compatible with the instrument scientific requirements.

  19. Moisture Retrievals from the Windsat spaceborne polarimetric microwave radiometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parinussa, R.M.; Holmes, T.R.H.; de Jeu, R.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    An existing methodology to derive surface soil moisture from passive microwave satellite observations is applied to the WindSat multifrequency polarimetric microwave radiometer. The methodology is a radiative-transfer-based model that has successfully been applied to a series of (historical)

  20. Calibration of the solar UV radiometers in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leszczynski, K.; Jokela, K.; Visuri, R.; Ylianttila, L. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland). Non-Ionizing Radiation Lab.

    1996-12-31

    In this report, the main emphasis is given to (1) the problems associated with the basic calibration of the spectroradiometer and (2) the year-to-year variability of the calibrations of the solar UV network radiometers. Also, the results from intercomparisons of the Brewer and OL 742 spectroradiometers are included

  1. The design of an in-water optical radiometer

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desa, E.S.; Desa, B.A.E.; DeSa, E.J.

    and downwelling spectral irradiance over an effective dynamic range greater than six decades and with a spectral resolution of 2nm. The emergence of a new generation of radiometers is now practically possible with the advent of scientific grade CCD (charged couple...

  2. Determination of maritime snowfall from radar and microwave radiometer measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinman, James A.; Hakkarinen, Ida M.

    1990-01-01

    This study examines the effect of snowfall on high frequency microwave radiances measured from above the atmosphere by airborne radiometers. Attention is given to the analysis of a maritime snow storm so that snow accumulation on the surface would not introduce ambiguities into the analysis of the upwelling radiances.

  3. A comparison of ultraviolet radiometers' long-term performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper we present a comparison of the performance characteristics of two types of broad-band ultraviolet radiometers. The first type of instrument is manufactured by Eppley Laboratories of the USA and the second type is manufactured by Kipp and Zonen of Holland. The results presented in this paper are for a ...

  4. Evolution and design characteristics of the microwave radiometer spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    The evolution of the design of the microwave radiometer spacecraft from conception to preliminary design is described. Alternatives and tradeoff rationale are described, and the configuration and structural design features that were developed and refined during the design processes are presented for the three structural configurations studied (two geodesic trusses and a flexible catenary).

  5. DESIGN OF MEDICAL RADIOMETER FRONT-END FOR IMPROVED PERFORMANCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemetsen, O; Birkelund, Y; Jacobsen, S K; Maccarini, P F; Stauffer, P R

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the possibility of building a singleband Dicke radiometer that is inexpensive, small-sized, stable, highly sensitive, and which consists of readily available microwave components. The selected frequency band is at 3.25-3.75 GHz which provides a reasonable compromise between spatial resolution (antenna size) and sensing depth for radiometry applications in lossy tissue. Foreseen applications of the instrument are non-invasive temperature monitoring for breast cancer detection and temperature monitoring during heating. We have found off-the-shelf microwave components that are sufficiently small (water baths. Experiments showed superior sensitivity (36% higher) when implementing the low noise amplifier before the Dicke switch (close to the antenna) compared to the other design with the Dicke switch in front. Radiometer performance was also tested in a multilayered phantom during alternating heating and radiometric reading. Empirical tests showed that for the configuration with Dicke switch first, the switch had to be locked in the reference position during application of microwave heating to avoid damage to the active components (amplifiers and power meter). For the configuration with a low noise amplifier up front, damage would occur to the active components of the radiometer if used in presence of the microwave heating antenna. Nevertheless, this design showed significantly improved sensitivity of measured temperatures and merits further investigation to determine methods of protecting the radiometer for amplifier first front ends.

  6. Topographic Signatures in Aquarius Radiometer/Scatterometer Response: Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utku, C.; LeVine, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of topography on remote sensing at L-band is examined using the co-located Aquarius radiometer and scatterometer observations over land. A correlation with slope standard deviation is demonstrated for both the radiometer and scatterometer at topographic scales. Although the goal of Aquarius is remote sensing of sea surface salinity, the radiometer and scatterometer are on continuously and collect data for remote sensing research over land. Research is reported here using the data over land to determine if topography could have impact on the passive remote sensing at L-band. In this study, we report observations from two study regions: North Africa between 15 deg and 30 deg Northern latitudes and Australia less the Tasmania Island. Common to these two regions are the semi-arid climate and low population density; both favorable conditions to isolate the effect of topography from other sources of scatter and emission such as vegetation and urban areas. Over these study regions, topographic scale slopes within each Aquarius pixel are computed and their standard deviations are compared with Aquarius scatterometer and radiometer observations over a 36 day period between days 275 and 311 of 2011.

  7. Landmine detection with an imaging 94-GHz radiometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J.S.; Dekker, R.J.; Ewijk, L.J.

    1996-01-01

    We analyzed a time series of 94 GHz radiometer images of a sandbox with buried and unburied, metal and plastic AP and AT dummy mines. The images covered almost a complete 24 hour cycle, with both clear sky and rain conditions occurring. The AP nor the buried mines were visible at any time. The

  8. The Use of Filtered Radiometers for Radiance Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Albert C; Johnson, B Carol

    2011-01-01

    A methodology for using a calibrated filter radiometer to measure and monitor the spectral radiance of calibration sources is described. An example is presented using the NIST calibration sphere source that is used to support the NASA Earth Observing remote-sensing program.

  9. The Use of Cryogenic HEMT Amplifiers in Wide Band Radiometers

    OpenAIRE

    Jarosik, Norman

    2000-01-01

    Advances in device fabrication, modelling and design techniques have made wide band, low noise cryogenic amplifiers available at frequencies up to 106 GHz. Microwave radiometry applications as used in radio astronomy capitalize on the low noise and large bandwidths of these amplifiers. Radiometers must be carefully designed so as to preclude sensitivity degradations caused by small, low frequency gain fluctuations inherent in these amplifiers.

  10. The airborne EMIRAD L-band radiometer system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl; Kristensen, Steen Savstrup; Balling, Jan E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the EMIRAD L-band radiometer, developed in support of the ESA/SMOS mission. The instrument is a fully polarimetric, dual antenna system, built with special focus on antenna accuracy, receiver stability, and detection and mitigation of radio frequency interference (RFI...

  11. Temperature measurements of natural surfaces using infrared radiometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, D

    1968-09-01

    The radiometric method for surface temperature measurements in meteorology and its airborne use are discussed, with emphasis on possible errors of this method. These are caused by the air layer between radiometer and target, by the nonblackbody characteristic, and by the nonuniformity of natural surfaces. Methods for correcting and reducing these errors are described. Examples of airborne surface temperature measurements are presented.

  12. Microwave Radiometer – 3 Channel (MWR3C) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadeddu, MP

    2012-05-04

    The microwave radiometer 3-channel (MWR3C) provides time-series measurements of brightness temperatures from three channels centered at 23.834, 30, and 89 GHz. These three channels are sensitive to the presence of liquid water and precipitable water vapor.

  13. Calibration of Hurricane Imaging Radiometer C-Band Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sayak K.; Cecil, Daniel J.; James, Mark W.

    2017-01-01

    The laboratory calibration of airborne Hurricane Imaging Radiometer's C-Band multi-frequency receivers is described here. The method used to obtain the values of receiver frontend loss, internal cold load brightness temperature and injected noise diode temperature is presented along with the expected RMS uncertainty in the final calibration.

  14. Dense Focal Plane Arrays for Pushbroom Satellite Radiometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iupikov, O. A.; Ivashina, M. V.; Pontoppidan, K.

    2014-01-01

    Performance of a dense focal plane array feeding an offset toroidal reflector antenna system is studied and discussed in the context of a potential application in multi-beam radiometers for ocean surveillance. We present a preliminary design of the array feed for the 5-m diameter antenna at X-ban...

  15. The Odin satellite - II. Radiometer data processing and calibration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olberg, M; Frisk, U; Lecacheux, A; Olofsson, AOH; Baron, P; Bergman, P; Florin, G; Hjalmarson, A; Larsson, B; Murtagh, D; Olofsson, G; Pagani, L; Sandqvist, A; Teyssier, D; Torchinsky, SA; Volk, K

    The radiometer on-board the Odin satellite comprises four different sub-mm receivers covering the 486 - 581 GHz frequency range and one fixed frequency 119 GHz receiver. Two auto-correlators and one acousto-optical spectrometer serve as backends. This article gives an overview over the processing of

  16. Upgrades and Real Time Ntm Control Application of the Ece Radiometer on Asdex Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, N. K.; Suttrop, W.; Behler, K.; Giannone, L.; Manini, A.; Maraschek, M.; Raupp, G.; Reich, M.; Sips, A. C. C.; Stober, J.; Treutterer, W.; ASDEX Upgrade Team; Cirant, S.

    2009-04-01

    The 60-channel electron cyclotron emission (ECE) radiometer diagnostic on the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak is presently being upgraded to include a 1 MHz sampling rate data acquisition system. This expanded capability allows electron temperature measurements up to 500 kHz (anti-aliasing filter cut-off) with spatial resolution ~1 cm, and will thus provide measurement of plasma phenomena on the MHD timescale, such as neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs). The upgraded and existing systems may be run in parallel for comparison, and some of the first plasma measurements using the two systems together are presented. A particular planned application of the upgraded radiometer is integration into a real-time NTM stabilization loop using targeted deposition of electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH). For this loop, it is necessary to determine the locations of the NTM and ECRH deposition using ECE measurements. As the magnetic island of the NTM repeatedly rotates through the ECE line of sight, electron temperature fluctuations at the NTM frequency are observed. The magnetic perturbation caused by the NTM is independently measured using Mirnov coils, and a correlation profile between these magnetic measurements and the ECE data is constructed. The phase difference between ECE oscillations on opposite sides of the island manifests as a zero-crossing of the correlation profile, which determines the NTM location in ECE channel space. To determine the location of ECRH power deposition, the power from a given gyrotron may be modulated at a particular frequency. Correlation analysis of this modulated signal and the ECE data identifies a particular ECE channel associated with the deposition of that gyrotron. Real time equilibrium reconstruction allows the ECE channels to be translated into flux surface and spatial coordinates for use in the feedback loop.

  17. La plataforma .NET

    OpenAIRE

    Fornas Estrada, Miquel

    2008-01-01

    L'aparició de la plataforma .NET Framework ha suposat un canvi molt important en la forma de crear i distribuir aplicacions, degut a que incorpora una sèrie d'innovacions tècniques i productives que simplifiquen molt les tasques necessàries per desenvolupar un projecte. La aparición de la plataforma. NET Framework ha supuesto un cambio muy importante en la forma de crear y distribuir aplicaciones, debido a que incorpora una serie de innovaciones técnicas y productivas que simplifican mucho...

  18. Biological Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Wingender, E

    2011-01-01

    It was suggested some years ago that Petri nets might be well suited to modeling metabolic networks, overcoming some of the limitations encountered by the use of systems employing ODEs (ordinary differential equations). Much work has been done since then which confirms this and demonstrates the usefulness of this concept for systems biology. Petri net technology is not only intuitively understood by scientists trained in the life sciences, it also has a robust mathematical foundation and provides the required degree of flexibility. As a result it appears to be a very promising approach to mode

  19. PHyTIR - A Prototype Thermal Infrared Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jau, Bruno M.; Hook, Simon J.; Johnson, William R.; Foote, Marc C.; Paine, Christopher G.; Pannell, Zack W.; Smythe, Robert F.; Kuan, Gary M.; Jakoboski, Julie K.; Eng, Bjorn T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the PHyTIR (Prototype HyspIRI Thermal Infrared Radiometer) instrument, which is the engineering model for the proposed HyspIRI (Hyperspectral Infrared Imager) earth observing instrument. The HyspIRI mission would be comprised of the HyspIRI TIR (Thermal Infrared Imager), and a VSWIR (Visible Short-Wave Infra-Red Imaging Spectrometer). Both instruments would be used to address key science questions related to the earth's carbon cycle, ecosystems, climate, and solid earth properties. Data gathering of volcanic activities, earthquakes, wildfires, water use and availability, urbanization, and land surface compositions and changes, would aid the predictions and evaluations of such events and the impact they create. Even though the proposed technology for the HyspIRI imager is mature, the PHyTIR prototype is needed to advance the technology levels for several of the instrument's key components, and to reduce risks, in particular to validate 1) the higher sensitivity, spatial resolution, and higher throughput required for this focal plane array, 2) the pointing accuracy, 2) the characteristics of several spectral channels, and 4) the use of ambient temperature optics. The PHyTIR telescope consists of the focal plane assembly that is housed within a cold housing located inside a vacuum enclosure; all mounted to a bulkhead, and an optical train that consists of 3 powered mirrors; extending to both sides of the bulkhead. A yoke connects the telescope to a scan mirror. The rotating mirror enables to scan- a large track on the ground. This structure is supported by kinematic mounts, linking the telescope assembly to a base plate that would also become the spacecraft interface for HyspIRI. The focal plane's cooling units are also mounted to the base plate, as is an overall enclosure that has two viewing ports with large exterior baffles, shielding the focal plane from incoming stray light. PHyTIR's electronics is distributed inside and near the vacuum

  20. Net charge affects morphology and visual properties of ovalbumin aggregates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijers, M.; Broersen, K.; Barneveld, P.A.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Hamer, R.J.; Jongh, H.H.J.de; Visschers, R.W.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of ovalbumin net charge on aggregate morphology and visual properties was investigated using chromatography, electrophoresis, electron microscopy, and turbidity measurements. A range of differently charged ovalbumin variants (net charge ranging from -1 to -26 at pH 7) was produced using

  1. Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) L-Band Microwave Radiometer Post-Launch Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jinzheng; Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; Misra, Sidharth; Dinnat, Emmanuel P.; Hudson, Derek; Le Vine, David M.; De Amici, Giovanni; Mohammed, Priscilla N.; Yueh, Simon H.; Meissner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The SMAP microwave radiometer is a fully-polarimetric L-band radiometer flown on the SMAP satellite in a 6 AM/ 6 PM sun-synchronous orbit at 685 km altitude. Since April, 2015, the radiometer is under calibration and validation to assess the quality of the radiometer L1B data product. Calibration methods including the SMAP L1B TA2TB (from Antenna Temperature (TA) to the Earth's surface Brightness Temperature (TB)) algorithm and TA forward models are outlined, and validation approaches to calibration stability/quality are described in this paper including future work. Results show that the current radiometer L1B data satisfies its requirements.

  2. Underlying Surface Remote Sensing by the Microwave Radiometer with High Measurement Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubaichin Anton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a new approach to microwave radiometer design. The approach implies simultaneous using both modified zero measurement method and multi-receiver technique. Simultaneous using increases the operating characteristics of airborne microwave radiometers for aircrafts with self-contained power supply. The block diagram of the onboard Earth remote sensing microwave radiometric system is presented. The block diagram and operating timing diagrams of the designed radiometer are shown. An original technique to design a fiducial noise source for transfer characteristics is discussed. The advantages of the designed radiometer in comparison with the state of the art zero-type microwave radiometer are described.

  3. Wind direction over the ocean determined by an airborne, imaging, polarimetric radiometer system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Brian; Skou, Niels

    2001-01-01

    The speed and direction of winds over the ocean can be determined by polarimetric radiometers. This has been established by theoretical work and demonstrated experimentally using airborne radiometers carrying out circle flights and thus measuring the full 360° azimuthal response from the sea...... surface. An airborne experiment, with the aim of measuring wind direction over the ocean using an imaging polarimetric radiometer, is described. A polarimetric radiometer system of the correlation type, measuring all four Stokes brightness parameters, is used. Imaging is achieved using a 1-m aperture...... in the radiometer imagery....

  4. Petri Nets-Applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 9. Petri Nets - Applications. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 9 September 1999 pp 44-52. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/09/0044-0052. Author Affiliations. Y Narahari ...

  5. Safety nets or straitjackets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Does regulation of working hours at national and sector level impose straitjackets, or offer safety nets to employees seeking working time flexibility? This article compares legislation and collective agreements in the metal industries of Denmark, Germany and the USA. The industry has historically...

  6. Coloured Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. This book introduces the constructs of the CPN modelling language and presents the related analysis methods. It provides a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN.

  7. Boom Booom Net Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Yong, Louisa; Dobie, Ian

    1999-01-01

    of an existing Internet radio station; Boom Booom Net Radio. Whilst necessity dictates some use of technology-related terminology, wherever possible we have endeavoured to keep such jargon to a minimum and to either explain it in the text or to provide further explanation in the appended glossary....

  8. Game Theory .net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Mikhael

    2003-01-01

    States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of GameTheory.net is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…

  9. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism...

  10. DESIGN OF MEDICAL RADIOMETER FRONT-END FOR IMPROVED PERFORMANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemetsen, Ø.; Birkelund, Y.; Jacobsen, S. K.; Maccarini, P. F.; Stauffer, P. R.

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the possibility of building a singleband Dicke radiometer that is inexpensive, small-sized, stable, highly sensitive, and which consists of readily available microwave components. The selected frequency band is at 3.25–3.75 GHz which provides a reasonable compromise between spatial resolution (antenna size) and sensing depth for radiometry applications in lossy tissue. Foreseen applications of the instrument are non-invasive temperature monitoring for breast cancer detection and temperature monitoring during heating. We have found off-the-shelf microwave components that are sufficiently small (radiometers have been realized: one is a conventional design with the Dicke switch at the front-end to select either the antenna or noise reference channels for amplification. The second design places a matched pair of low noise amplifiers in front of the Dicke switch to reduce system noise figure. Numerical simulations were performed to test the design concepts before building prototype PCB front-end layouts of the radiometer. Both designs provide an overall power gain of approximately 50 dB over a 500 MHz bandwidth centered at 3.5 GHz. No stability problems were observed despite using triple-cascaded amplifier configurations to boost the thermal signals. The prototypes were tested for sensitivity after calibration in two different water baths. Experiments showed superior sensitivity (36% higher) when implementing the low noise amplifier before the Dicke switch (close to the antenna) compared to the other design with the Dicke switch in front. Radiometer performance was also tested in a multilayered phantom during alternating heating and radiometric reading. Empirical tests showed that for the configuration with Dicke switch first, the switch had to be locked in the reference position during application of microwave heating to avoid damage to the active components (amplifiers and power meter). For the configuration with a low noise amplifier up front

  11. Rotating shadowband radiometer development and analysis of spectral shortwave data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalsky, J.; Harrison, L.; Min, Q. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    Our goals in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program are improved measurements of spectral shortwave radiation and improved techniques for the retrieval of climatologically sensitive parameters. The multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) that was developed during the first years of the ARM program has become a workhorse at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site, and it is widely deployed in other climate programs. We have spent most of our effort this year developing techniques to retrieve column aerosol, water vapor, and ozone from direct beam spectral measurements of the MFRSR. Additionally, we have had some success in calculating shortwave surface diffuse spectral irradiance. Using the surface albedo and the global irradiance, we have calculated cloud optical depths. From cloud optical depth and liquid water measured with the microwave radiometer, we have calculated effective liquid cloud particle radii. The rest of the text will provide some detail regarding each of these efforts.

  12. Transmission of radiometer data from the Synchronous Meteorological Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    The Synchronous Meteorological Satellite uses a spin scanner radiometer which generates eight visual signals and two infrared signals. These signals are multiplexed and converted into a 28-Mbps data stream. This signal is transmitted to ground by quadriphase modulation at 1686.1 MHz. On the ground, the digital signal is reconstructed to an analog signal. To conserve bandwidth, an analog-to-digital converter with a nonlinear transfer function was used for the visual signals. The size of the quantization step was made proportional to the noise output of the scanner photomultiplier tube which increases as the square root of incident light. The radiometer data transmission link was simulated on a digital computer to determine the transfer function. Some results of the simulation are shown.

  13. An improved outdoor calibration procedure for broadband ultraviolet radiometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancillo, M L; Serrano, A; Antón, M; García, J A; Vilaplana, J M; de la Morena, B

    2005-01-01

    This article aims at improving the broadband ultraviolet radiometer's calibration methodology. For this goal, three broadband radiometers are calibrated against a spectrophotometer of reference. Three different one-step calibration models are tested: ratio, first order and second order. The latter is proposed in order to adequately reproduce the high dependence on the solar zenith angle shown by the other two models and, therefore, to improve the calibration performance at high solar elevations. The proposed new second-order model requires no additional information and, thus, keeps the operational character of the one-step methodology. The models are compared in terms of their root mean square error and the most qualified is subsequently validated by comparing its predictions with the spectrophotometer measurements within an independent validation data subset. Results show that the best calibration is achieved by the second-order model, with a mean bias error and mean absolute bias error lower than 2.2 and 6.7%, respectively.

  14. Quantitative Analysis of Spectral Impacts on Silicon Photodiode Radiometers: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, D. R.

    2011-04-01

    Inexpensive broadband pyranometers with silicon photodiode detectors have a non-uniform spectral response over the spectral range of 300-1100 nm. The response region includes only about 70% to 75% of the total energy in the terrestrial solar spectral distribution from 300 nm to 4000 nm. The solar spectrum constantly changes with solar position and atmospheric conditions. Relative spectral distributions of diffuse hemispherical irradiance sky radiation and total global hemispherical irradiance are drastically different. This analysis convolves a typical photodiode response with SMARTS 2.9.5 spectral model spectra for different sites and atmospheric conditions. Differences in solar component spectra lead to differences on the order of 2% in global hemispherical and 5% or more in diffuse hemispherical irradiances from silicon radiometers. The result is that errors of more than 7% can occur in the computation of direct normal irradiance from global hemispherical irradiance and diffuse hemispherical irradiance using these radiometers.

  15. Accurate antenna reflector loss measurements for radiometer calibration budget

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels

    1996-01-01

    Antenna reflector losses may play an important role in the calibration budget for a microwave radiometer. If the losses are small they are difficult to measure by traditional means. However, they can be assessed directly by radiometric means using the sky brightness temperature as incident radiat...... radiation. The paper describes how such measurements are carried out as well as a suitable experimental set-up. The main reflector of the European Space Agency's MIMR system is used to demonstrate the principle...

  16. Analysis of Anechoic Chamber Testing of the Hurricane Imaging Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenigstein, David; Ruf, Chris; James, Mark; Simmons, David; Miller, Timothy; Buckley, Courtney

    2010-01-01

    The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer System (HIRAD) is a new airborne passive microwave remote sensor developed to observe hurricanes. HIRAD incorporates synthetic thinned array radiometry technology, which use Fourier synthesis to reconstruct images from an array of correlated antenna elements. The HIRAD system response to a point emitter has been measured in an anechoic chamber. With this data, a Fourier inversion image reconstruction algorithm has been developed. Performance analysis of the apparatus is presented, along with an overview of the image reconstruction algorithm

  17. Water Quality Models with Different Functions of Exotech Radiometer Bands

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, K. R.; Krishnan, R.; Chakraborty, A. K.; Deekshatulu, B. L.

    1981-01-01

    Surveillance of water quality by remote sensing technique can be pursued with advantage. An attempt has been made in this paper to obtain regional models of water quality of inland tanks and lakes. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis between water quality parameters and several functions of Exotech radiometer band reflectance values, namely, bands alone, bands and their ratios, and, bands and their products are evaluated with respect to performance of the regression parameters. It is...

  18. A filter-wheel solar radiometer for atmospheric transmission studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, G. E.; Peck, R. L.; Allen, G. R.

    1973-01-01

    A filter-wheel solar radiometer has been developed for monitoring the atmospheric optical depth at multiple narrow-wavelength intervals in the visible and near IR regions of the spectrum. Measurements of the direct solar radiations are converted to a digital format and stored in punched tape for eventual analysis by a computer. During stable clear weather condition, the instrument is capable of providing monochromatic optical depths to an estimated rms accuracy of 0.005.

  19. Ozone profiles above Kiruna from two ground-based radiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Niall J.; Walker, Kaley A.; Raffalski, Uwe; Kivi, Rigel; Gross, Jochen; Manney, Gloria L.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents new atmospheric ozone concentration profiles retrieved from measurements made with two ground-based millimetre-wave radiometers in Kiruna, Sweden. The instruments are the Kiruna Microwave Radiometer (KIMRA) and the Millimeter wave Radiometer 2 (MIRA 2). The ozone concentration profiles are retrieved using an optimal estimation inversion technique, and they cover an altitude range of ˜ 16-54 km, with an altitude resolution of, at best, 8 km. The KIMRA and MIRA 2 measurements are compared to each other, to measurements from balloon-borne ozonesonde measurements at Sodankylä, Finland, and to measurements made by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) aboard the Aura satellite. KIMRA has a correlation of 0.82, but shows a low bias, with respect to the ozonesonde data, and MIRA 2 shows a smaller magnitude low bias and a 0.98 correlation coefficient. Both radiometers are in general agreement with each other and with MLS data, showing high correlation coefficients, but there are differences between measurements that are not explained by random errors. An oscillatory bias with a peak of approximately ±1 ppmv is identified in the KIMRA ozone profiles over an altitude range of ˜ 18-35 km, and is believed to be due to baseline wave features that are present in the spectra. A time series analysis of KIMRA ozone for winters 2008-2013 shows the existence of a local wintertime minimum in the ozone profile above Kiruna. The measurements have been ongoing at Kiruna since 2002 and late 2012 for KIMRA and MIRA 2, respectively.

  20. Fusion of synthetic aperture radiometer and noise waveform SAR images

    OpenAIRE

    Lukin, Konstantin A.; Kudriashov, V. V.

    2014-01-01

    Noise waveform SAR generates 2D SAR images of a scene. Advanced radiometric SAR imaging provides information on the objects thermal radiation, angular coordinates and even range. The brightness temperatures of rough and smooth surfaces are different. An active, noise waveform, operating mode of bistatic radiometer, based on antennae with beam synthesis, is considered with respect to the roughness criteria. The optimal and quasi-optimal algorithms for fusion of radiometric and SAR images are p...

  1. Jason Microwave Radiometer On Orbit Calibration, Validation and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, C. S.; Brown, S. T.; Keihm, S. J.; Kitiyakara, A.

    2002-12-01

    The Jason Microwave Radiometer (JMR) on the Jason-1 altimeter satellite measures radiometric brightness temperature (TB) at 18.7, 23.8, and 34.0 GHz in the nadir direction, from which is estimated the excess path delay (PD) through the atmosphere experienced by the Jason radar altimeter signal due to water vapor and suspended cloud liquid water. JMR is an improved follow-on to the TOPEX Microwave Radiometer (TMR) on the earlier TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter satellite. Early work calibrating JMR and validating its performance during the first six months of the mission will be presented. Placement of Jason-1 into a virtually identical orbit with TOPEX/Poseidon, with approximately 70 s time displacement, has afforded unprecedented accuracy in the intercalibration of two satellite radiometers. The virtual elimination of spatial and temporal decorrelation errors between JMR and TMR TBs and PDs allows intercomparison fine tuning at a much more precise level, and with greatly reduced data averaging requirements, relative to the earlier TMR comparisons with other satellite instruments (SSM/I, ERS-1,2), island radiosondes, GPS, and ground-based water vapor radiometers. Calibration of the JMR TBs has been evaluated at the low end of its on-orbit range by comparing the differences between vicarious cold reference TBs of it and adjacent TMR channels with those predicted by theory. At the high end of the TB range, comparisons are made with TMR TBs over suitable regions of the Sahara desert and Amazon rain forest. Characterization of JMR performance at intermediate TB levels is possible using a variety of statistical intercomparison techniques.

  2. Application of pylon radon daughter standard for calibration of radiometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chruścielewski, Wojciech; Olszewski, Jerzy; Bogusz, Malgorzata

    2002-01-01

    Radiometers for measurements of radon daughter potential energy used in the surveillance of the work environment need a systematic calibration. This paper presents how a commercially available device produced by the Pylon Company can be applied. This device allows to produce, simply and directly, standard sources of radon daughters, corresponding with the energy, geometry and properties of radiation originated from an air sample. The calibration yielded the results that proved to be in agreement with those obtained previously by means of radon chamber.

  3. Ocean Color Inferred from Radiometers on Low-Flying Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churnside, James H; Wilson, James J

    2008-02-08

    The color of sunlight reflected from the ocean to orbiting visible radiometers hasprovided a great deal of information about the global ocean, after suitable corrections aremade for atmospheric effects. Similar ocean-color measurements can be made from a lowflyingaircraft to get higher spatial resolution and to obtain measurements under clouds.A different set of corrections is required in this case, and we describe algorithms to correctfor clouds and sea-surface effects. An example is presented and errors in the correctionsdiscussed.

  4. Solar occultation sounding of pressure and temperature using narrowband radiometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J H; Russell Iii, J M; Smith, M A

    1980-07-01

    A technique for simultaneously retrieving pressure and temperature profiles using satellite-based narrow-band radiometer measurements of absorption in the CO(2) 4.3-microm band is described. Pressure and temperature profiles for earth's upper atmosphere on a global scale can be obtained with errors <3% and 3 K, respectively. The p - T information can be used not only for improving the accuracy of inverted gas concentrations in the same absorption experiment but also for investigating the upper atmosphere circulation.

  5. Development and application of an automated precision solar radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Gang-gang; Li, Xin; Zhang, Quan; Zheng, Xiao-bing; Yan, Jing

    2016-10-01

    Automated filed vicarious calibration is becoming a growing trend for satellite remote sensor, which require a solar radiometer have to automatic measure reliable data for a long time whatever the weather conditions and transfer measurement data to the user office. An automated precision solar radiometer has been developed. It is used in measuring the solar spectral irradiance received at the Earth surface. The instrument consists of 8 parallel separate silicon-photodiode-based channels with narrow band-pass filters from the visible to near-IR regions. Each channel has a 2.0° full-angle Filed of View (FOV). The detectors and filters are temperature stabilized using a Thermal Energy Converter at 30+/-0.2°. The instrument is pointed toward the sun via an auto-tracking system that actively tracks the sun within a +/-0.1°. It collects data automatically and communicates with user terminal through BDS (China's BeiDou Navigation Satellite System) while records data as a redundant in internal memory, including working state and error. The solar radiometer is automated in the sense that it requires no supervision throughout the whole process of working. It calculates start-time and stop-time every day matched with the time of sunrise and sunset, and stop working once the precipitation. Calibrated via Langley curves and simultaneous observed with CE318, the different of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) is within 5%. The solar radiometer had run in all kinds of harsh weather condition in Gobi in Dunhuang and obtain the AODs nearly eight months continuously. This paper presents instrument design analysis, atmospheric optical depth retrievals as well as the experiment result.

  6. Experimental measurements and noise analysis of a cryogenic radiometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, S. M.; Woods, S. I.; Jung, T. M.; Carter, A. C.; Datla, R. U. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), 100 Bureau Drive, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    A cryogenic radiometer device, intended for use as part of an electrical-substitution radiometer, was measured at low temperature. The device consists of a receiver cavity mechanically and thermally connected to a temperature-controlled stage through a thin-walled polyimide tube which serves as a weak thermal link. With the temperature difference between the receiver and the stage measured in millikelvin and the electrical power measured in picowatts, the measured responsivity was 4700 K/mW and the measured thermal time constant was 14 s at a stage temperature of 1.885 K. Noise analysis in terms of Noise Equivalent Power (NEP) was used to quantify the various fundamental and technical noise contributions, including phonon noise and Johnson-Nyquist noise. The noise analysis clarifies the path toward a cryogenic radiometer with a noise floor limited by fundamental phonon noise, where the magnitude of the phonon NEP is 6.5 fW/√(Hz) for the measured experimental parameters.

  7. Advanced modelling of the Planck-LFI radiometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglia, P [Thales Alenia Space Italia S.p.A., S.S. Padana Superiore 290, 20090 Vimodrone (Italy); Franceschet, C; Bersanelli, M; Maino, D; Mennella, A [Universita di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via G. Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Zonca, A [INAF-IASF Milano, Via E. Bassini 15, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Butler, R C; Mandolesi, N [INAF-IASF Bologna, Via P. Gobetti, 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); D' Arcangelo, O; Platania, P [IFP-CNR, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Davis, R J [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Galeotta, S [INAF-OATs, Via G.B. Tiepolo 11, I-34131, Trieste (Italy); Guzzi, P [Numonyx, R and D Technology Center, Via C. Olivetti 2, 20041 Agrate Brianza (Italy); Hoyland, R [Instituto de AstrofIsica de Canarias, C/ Via Lactea S/N, E-38200, La Laguna (Tenerife) (Spain); Hughes, N; Jukkala, P [DA-Design Oy Jokioinen (Finland); Kettle, D [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester, M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Laaninen, M [Ylinen Electronics Oy Kauniainen (Finland); Leonardi, R; Meinhold, P, E-mail: paola.battaglia@thalesaleniaspace.co [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    The Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) is a radiometer array covering the 30-70 GHz spectral range on-board the ESA Planck satellite, launched on May 14th, 2009 to observe the cosmic microwave background (CMB) with unprecedented precision. In this paper we describe the development and validation of a software model of the LFI pseudo-correlation receivers which enables to reproduce and predict all the main system parameters of interest as measured at each of the 44 LFI detectors. These include system total gain, noise temperature, band-pass response, non-linear response. The LFI Advanced RF Model (LARFM) has been constructed by using commercial software tools and data of each radiometer component as measured at single unit level. The LARFM has been successfully used to reproduce the LFI behavior observed during the LFI ground-test campaign. The model is an essential element in the database of LFI data processing center and will be available for any detailed study of radiometer behaviour during the survey.

  8. Neonatal phototherapy radiometers: current performance characteristics and future requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, Douglas McG; Nicol, Ruth; Chapman, Phillip

    2014-04-01

    Hand held radiometers provide a convenient means of monitoring the output of neonatal phototherapy treatment devices as part of planned programs of device maintenance and output monitoring. It was considered appropriate to determine the wavelength and angular response of a selection of such meters and compare their indicated values with that derived from spectral analysis of phototherapy light sources. This was undertaken using a Bentham DMc150 double grating spectroradiometer and a series of 10nm band pass optical filters in the range 400-640 nm used in conjunction with a fiber optic light source. Specific meters investigated included a GE Biliblanket Light Meter II, a NeoBLUE radiometer and a Bio-TEK radiometer 74345 device. Comparisons were made of measurements made using the hand held meters and the Bentham DMc 150 system for a range of neonatal phototherapy treatment devices. The use of such meters is discussed in relation to applicable equipment standards and recommendations of intensive phototherapy from clinical groups such as the American Academy of Pediatrics and a specification for a spectroradiometer based measurement system is proposed. Copyright © 2013 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A horizontal vane radiometer: Experiment, theory, and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, David; Larraza, Andres, E-mail: larraza@nps.edu [Department of Physics, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California 93940 (United States); Garcia, Alejandro [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Jose State University, San Jose, California 95152 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    The existence of two motive forces on a Crookes radiometer has complicated the investigation of either force independently. The thermal creep shear force in particular has been subject to differing interpretations of the direction in which it acts and its order of magnitude. In this article, we provide a horizontal vane radiometer design which isolates the thermal creep shear force. The horizontal vane radiometer is explored through experiment, kinetic theory, and the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. The qualitative agreement between the three methods of investigation is good except for a dependence of the force on the width of the vane even when the temperature gradient is narrower than the vane which is present in the DSMC method results but not in the theory. The experimental results qualitatively resemble the theory in this regard. The quantitative agreement between the three methods of investigation is better than an order of magnitude in the cases examined. The theory is closer to the experimental values for narrow vanes and the simulations are closer to the experimental values for the wide vanes. We find that the thermal creep force acts from the hot side to the cold side of the vane. We also find the peak in the radiometer’s angular speed as a function of pressure is explained as much by the behavior of the drag force as by the behavior of the thermal creep force.

  10. Food Safety Nets:

    OpenAIRE

    Haggblade, Steven; Diallo, Boubacar; Staatz, John; Theriault, Veronique; Traoré, Abdramane

    2013-01-01

    Food and social safety nets have a history as long as human civilization. In hunter gatherer societies, food sharing is pervasive. Group members who prove unlucky in the short run, hunting or foraging, receive food from other households in anticipation of reciprocal consideration at a later time (Smith 1988). With the emergence of the first large sedentary civilizations in the Middle East, administrative systems developed specifically around food storage and distribution. The ancient Egyptian...

  11. Net technical assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Wegmann, David G.

    1989-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The present and near term military balance of power between the U.S. and the Soviet Union can be expressed in a variety of net assessments. One can examine the strategic nuclear balance, the conventional balance in Europe, the maritime balance, and many others. Such assessments are essential not only for policy making but for arms control purposes and future force structure planning. However, to project the future military balance, on...

  12. The net charge at interfaces between insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristowe, N. C.; Littlewood, P. B.; Artacho, Emilio

    2011-03-01

    The issue of the net charge at insulating oxide interfaces is briefly reviewed with the ambition of dispelling myths of such charges being affected by covalency and related charge density effects. For electrostatic analysis purposes, the net charge at such interfaces is defined by the counting of discrete electrons and core ion charges, and by the definition of the reference polarization of the separate, unperturbed bulk materials. The arguments are illustrated for the case of a thin film of LaAlO3 over SrTiO3 in the absence of free carriers, for which the net charge is exactly 0.5e per interface formula unit, if the polarization response in both materials is referred to zero bulk values. Further consequences of the argument are extracted for structural and chemical alterations of such interfaces, in which internal rearrangements are distinguished from extrinsic alterations (changes of stoichiometry, redox processes), only the latter affecting the interfacial net charge. The arguments are reviewed alongside the proposal of Stengel and Vanderbilt (2009 Phys. Rev. B 80 241103) of using formal polarization values instead of net interfacial charges, based on the interface theorem of Vanderbilt and King-Smith (1993 Phys. Rev. B 48 4442-55). Implications for non-centrosymmetric materials are discussed, as well as for interfaces for which the charge mismatch is an integer number of polarization quanta.

  13. The net charge at interfaces between insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bristowe, N C; Littlewood, P B [Theory of Condensed Matter Group, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Artacho, Emilio, E-mail: ncb30@cam.ac.uk [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EQ (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-02

    The issue of the net charge at insulating oxide interfaces is briefly reviewed with the ambition of dispelling myths of such charges being affected by covalency and related charge density effects. For electrostatic analysis purposes, the net charge at such interfaces is defined by the counting of discrete electrons and core ion charges, and by the definition of the reference polarization of the separate, unperturbed bulk materials. The arguments are illustrated for the case of a thin film of LaAlO{sub 3} over SrTiO{sub 3} in the absence of free carriers, for which the net charge is exactly 0.5e per interface formula unit, if the polarization response in both materials is referred to zero bulk values. Further consequences of the argument are extracted for structural and chemical alterations of such interfaces, in which internal rearrangements are distinguished from extrinsic alterations (changes of stoichiometry, redox processes), only the latter affecting the interfacial net charge. The arguments are reviewed alongside the proposal of Stengel and Vanderbilt (2009 Phys. Rev. B 80 241103) of using formal polarization values instead of net interfacial charges, based on the interface theorem of Vanderbilt and King-Smith (1993 Phys. Rev. B 48 4442-55). Implications for non-centrosymmetric materials are discussed, as well as for interfaces for which the charge mismatch is an integer number of polarization quanta. (viewpoint)

  14. Using WordNet for Building WordNets

    CERN Document Server

    Farreres, X; Farreres, Xavier; Rodriguez, Horacio; Rigau, German

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarises a set of methodologies and techniques for the fast construction of multilingual WordNets. The English WordNet is used in this approach as a backbone for Catalan and Spanish WordNets and as a lexical knowledge resource for several subtasks.

  15. The multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) - precision infrared radiometer (PIR) platform in Fairbanks: Scientific objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamnes, K.; Leontieva, E. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) and precision infrared radiometer (PIR) have been employed at the Geophysical Institute in Fairbanks to check their performance under arctic conditions. Drawing on the experience of the previous measurements in the Arctic, the PIR was equipped with a ventilator to prevent frost and moisture build-up. We adopted the Solar Infrared Observing Sytem (SIROS) concept from the Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) to allow implementation of the same data processing software for a set of radiation and meteorological instruments. To validate the level of performance of the whole SIROS prior to its incorporation into the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) Cloud and Radiation Testbed Site instrumental suite for flux radiatin measurements, the comparison between measurements and model predictions will be undertaken to assess the MFRSR-PIR Arctic data quality.

  16. Proof nets for lingusitic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moot, R.C.A.

    2002-01-01

    This book investigates the possible linguistic applications of proof nets, redundancy free representations of proofs, which were introduced by Girard for linear logic. We will adapt the notion of proof net to allow the formulation of a proof net calculus which is soundand complete for the

  17. Teaching Tennis for Net Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Bryce

    1989-01-01

    A program for teaching tennis to beginners, NET (Net Easy Teaching) is described. The program addresses three common needs shared by tennis students: active involvement in hitting the ball, clearing the net, and positive reinforcement. A sample lesson plan is included. (IAH)

  18. Net4Care Ecosystem Website

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius; Rasmussen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    is a tele-monitoring scenario in which Net4Care clients are deployed in a gateway in private homes. Medical devices then connect to these gateways and transmit their observations to a Net4Care server. In turn the Net4Care server creates valid clinical HL7 documents, stores them in a national XDS repository...

  19. Master Robotic Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Lipunov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the MASTER-Net project is to produce a unique fast sky survey with all sky observed over a single night down to a limiting magnitude of 19-20. Such a survey will make it possible to address a number of fundamental problems: search for dark energy via the discovery and photometry of supernovae (including SNIa, search for exoplanets, microlensing effects, discovery of minor bodies in the Solar System, and space-junk monitoring. All MASTER telescopes can be guided by alerts, and we plan to observe prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts synchronously in several filters and in several polarization planes.

  20. Art/Net/Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik; Lindstrøm, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    The seminar Art|Net|Work deals with two important changes in our culture. On one side, the network has become essential in the latest technological development. The Internet has entered a new phase, Web 2.0, including the occurrence of as ‘Wiki’s’, ‘Peer-2-Peer’ distribution, user controlled...... the praxis of the artist. We see different kinds of interventions and activism (including ‘hacktivism’) using the network as a way of questioning the invisible rules that govern public and semi-public spaces. Who ‘owns’ them? What kind of social relationships do they generate? On what principle...

  1. Helminth.net: expansions to Nematode.net and an introduction to Trematode.net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, John; Rosa, Bruce A.; Ozersky, Philip; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Zhang, Xu; Bhonagiri-Palsikar, Veena; Tyagi, Rahul; Wang, Qi; Choi, Young-Jun; Gao, Xin; McNulty, Samantha N.; Brindley, Paul J.; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2015-01-01

    Helminth.net (http://www.helminth.net) is the new moniker for a collection of databases: Nematode.net and Trematode.net. Within this collection we provide services and resources for parasitic roundworms (nematodes) and flatworms (trematodes), collectively known as helminths. For over a decade we have provided resources for studying nematodes via our veteran site Nematode.net (http://nematode.net). In this article, (i) we provide an update on the expansions of Nematode.net that hosts omics data from 84 species and provides advanced search tools to the broad scientific community so that data can be mined in a useful and user-friendly manner and (ii) we introduce Trematode.net, a site dedicated to the dissemination of data from flukes, flatworm parasites of the class Trematoda, phylum Platyhelminthes. Trematode.net is an independent component of Helminth.net and currently hosts data from 16 species, with information ranging from genomic, functional genomic data, enzymatic pathway utilization to microbiome changes associated with helminth infections. The databases’ interface, with a sophisticated query engine as a backbone, is intended to allow users to search for multi-factorial combinations of species’ omics properties. This report describes updates to Nematode.net since its last description in NAR, 2012, and also introduces and presents its new sibling site, Trematode.net. PMID:25392426

  2. NETS FOR PEACH PROTECTED CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelia Schettini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the radiometric properties of coloured nets used to protect a peach cultivation. The modifications of the solar spectral distribution, mainly in the R and FR wavelength band, influence plant photomorphogenesis by means of the phytochrome and cryptochrome. The phytochrome response is characterized in terms of radiation rate in the red wavelengths (R, 600-700 nm to that in the farred radiation (FR, 700-800 nm, i.e. the R/FR ratio. The effects of the blue radiation (B, 400-500 nm is investigated by the ratio between the blue radiation and the far-red radiation, i.e. the B/FR ratio. A BLUE net, a RED net, a YELLOW net, a PEARL net, a GREY net and a NEUTRAL net were tested in Bari (Italy, latitude 41° 05’ N. Peach trees were located in pots inside the greenhouses and in open field. The growth of the trees cultivated in open field was lower in comparison to the growth of the trees grown under the nets. The RED, PEARL, YELLOW and GREY nets increased the growth of the trees more than the other nets. The nets positively influenced the fruit characteristics, such as fruit weight and flesh firmness.

  3. Ground registration of data from an airborne Multifrequency Microwave Radiometer (MfMR). [Colby, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The agricultural soil moisture experiment was conducted near Colby, Kansas, in July and August 1978. A portion of the data collected was taken with a five band microwave radiometer. A method of locating the radiometer footprints with respect to a ground based coordinate system is documented. The procedure requires that the airplane's flight parameters along with aerial photography be acquired simultaneously with the radiometer data. The software which documented reads in data from the precision radiation thermometer (PRT Model 5) and attaches the scene temperature to the corresponding multifrequency microwave radiometer data. Listings of the programs used in the registration process are included.

  4. Radiometer Calibration and Characterization (RCC) User's Manual: Windows Version 4.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreas, Afshin M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wilcox, Stephen M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-29

    The Radiometer Calibration and Characterization (RCC) software is a data acquisition and data archival system for performing Broadband Outdoor Radiometer Calibrations (BORCAL). RCC provides a unique method of calibrating broadband atmospheric longwave and solar shortwave radiometers using techniques that reduce measurement uncertainty and better characterize a radiometer's response profile. The RCC software automatically monitors and controls many of the components that contribute to uncertainty in an instrument's responsivity. This is a user's manual and guide to the RCC software.

  5. Nimbus-3 Medium-Resolution Infrared Radiometer (MRIR) Level 1 Meteorological Radiation Data V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nimbus-3 Medium-Resolution Infrared Radiometer (MRIR) Level 1 Meteorological Radiance Data contain radiances expressed as equivalent blackbody temperatures along...

  6. Calibration approach and plan for the sea and land surface temperature radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David L.; Nightingale, Tim J.; Mortimer, Hugh; Middleton, Kevin; Edeson, Ruben; Cox, Caroline V.; Mutlow, Chris T.; Maddison, Brian J.; Coppo, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The sea and land surface temperature radiometer (SLSTR) to be flown on the European Space Agency's (ESA) Sentinel-3 mission is a multichannel scanning radiometer that will continue the 21 year dataset of the along-track scanning radiometer (ATSR) series. As its name implies, measurements from SLSTR will be used to retrieve global sea surface temperatures to an uncertainty of planning for the on-orbit monitoring and calibration activities to ensure that the calibration is maintained. These activities include vicarious calibration techniques that have been developed through previous missions and the deployment of ship-borne radiometers.

  7. Effect of curing-tip diameter on the accuracy of dental radiometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, D L; Charlton, D G; Hilton, T J

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of four commercially available radiometers when curing tips of different diameters were used. A visible-light curing unit (Optilux 500) with a new 80-watt quartz-halogen bulb (OptiBulb) was used as the light source for all measurements. The unit's irradiance value was measured using three hand-held radiometers (Demetron model #100, Cure-Rite model #644726, and Coltolux Light Meter) and a built-in visible-light curing unit radiometer (Optilux 500). Measurements were made with four curing tips of diameters 4 mm, 7.5 mm, 10.5 mm, and 12 mm. For each tip, trials were made with five radiometers of each model. Student's t-tests at the 0.05 level of significance were used to compare the mean irradiance measured by each model of radiometer, to the irradiance value measured by a laboratory-grade power meter. A one-way analysis of variance at the 0.05 level of significance was used to compare the irradiance values among the five samples of each commercially available radiometer model. Except for the Optilux 500 built-in radiometer with the 10.5-mm tip, all the commercially available radiometers exhibited irradiance values significantly different from those of the laboratory-grade power meter. There were no statistically significant differences among the five samples of each commercially available radiometer model.

  8. Superhigh-frequency radiometer with post-detector pulse-duration modulation

    CERN Document Server

    Filatov, A V

    2002-01-01

    Paper describes a superhigh-frequency radiometer with extra pulse-duration modulation of reference signal by low frequency. Pulse-duration modulation is realized due to various coefficients of reference signal sharing in resistive attenuators of a low-frequency unit. Design of radiometer makes use of modification of zero measurement method when automatic control is realized by variation of pulse-duration signal duration. Radiometer switching to zero balance in a low-frequency section enables to use high-frequency units of any modulating radiometer with symmetry modulation

  9. A New Approach for Radiometric Cross Calibration of Satellite-borne Radiometers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Qu, John J; Hao, Xianjun; Hauss, Bruce; Wang, Chunming; Privette, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    Approaches for establishing the absolute calibration of a newly deployed, satellite-borne radiometer have varied from aircraft under flights with previously calibrated sensors to vicarious calibration...

  10. Boreal Inundation Mapping with SMAP Radiometer Data for Methane Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungbum; Brisco, Brian; Poncos, Valentin

    2017-04-01

    Inundation and consequent anoxic condition induce methane release, which is one of the most potent greenhouse gases. Boreal regions contain large amounts of organic carbon, which is a potentially major methane emission source under climatic warming conditions. Boreal wetlands in particular are one of the largest sources of uncertainties in global methane budget. Wetland spatial extent together with the gas release rate remains highly unknown. Characterization of the existing inundation database is poor, because of the inundation under clouds and dense vegetation. In this work, the inundation extent is derived using brightness temperature data acquired by the L-band Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite, which offers the L-band capabilities to penetrate clouds and vegetation at 3-day revisit. The fidelity of the SMAP watermask is assessed as a first step in this investigation by comparing with the following data sets: 3-m resolution maps derived using Radarsat synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data in northern Canada and multi-sensor climatology over Siberia. Because Radarsat coverages are limited despite its high spatial resolution, at the time and location where Radarsats are not available, we also compare with 3-km resolution SMAP SAR data that are concurrent with the SMAP radiometer data globally until July 2015. Inundation extents were derived with Radarsat, SMAP SAR, and SMAP radiometer over the 60 km x 60km area at Peace Athabasca Delta (PAD), Canada on 6 days in spring and summer 2015. The SMAP SAR results match the locations of Radarsat waterbodies. However, the SMAP SAR underestimates the water extent, mainly over mixed pixels that have subpixel land presence. The threshold value (-3 dB) applied to the SMAP SAR was determined previously over the global domain. The threshold is dependent on the type of local landcover within a mixed pixel. Further analysis is needed to locally optimize the threshold. The SMAP radiometer water fraction over Peace

  11. Atomicity in Electronic Commerce,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Atomicity in Electronic Commerce J. D. Tygar January 1996 CMU-CS-96-112 School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213...other research sponsor. Keywords: electronic commerce , atomicity, NetBill, IBIP, cryptography, transaction pro- cessing, ACID, franking, electronic ...goods over networks. Electronic commerce has inspired a large variety of work. Unfortunately, much of that work ignores traditional transaction

  12. Study of high frequency MHD modes from ECE radiometer in Tore Supra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubuit N.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tore Supra ECE diagnostic has been recently upgraded to study MHD modes driven by energetic particles up to 400 kHz. To improve the measurement sensitivity, the ECE signals of the 32 channels radiometer were amplified just below the saturation limit and sources of noise were investigated in order to keep it as low as possible. With such an improvement, fast particle driven modes with frequencies up to 200 kHz were detected. A 4-channel correlation ECE system using YIG filters with tuneable frequency was also installed. It allows fine radial scans of MHD modes and correlation length measurements. For the two kinds of YIG filter in use, the minimum frequency separation between two ECE channels that could be achieved was established measuring the correlation coefficient between the respective radiation noises. Finally, by modelling the ECE radiometer taking into account the antenna radiation pattern and the vertical position of the ECE beam relative to the plasma centre we improved the data analysis tools, thus giving a better determination of the phase radial structure of ECE oscillations. The poloidal structure of MHD modes can then be identified from ECE data and, for off axis ECE lines of sight, the direction of the plasma rotation can also be determined. This method allows identifying the occurrence of an inverse cascade of electron fishbone modes ranging from m/n=4/4 to 1/1 (m and n are the poloidal and toroidal mode numbers, respectively which appears in lower hybrid current drive plasmas.

  13. Compositional Ground Truth of Diviner Lunar Radiometer Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhagen, B. T.; Thomas, I. R.; Bowles, N. E.; Allen, C. C.; Donaldson Hanna, K. L.; Foote, E. J.; Paige, D. A.

    2012-01-01

    The Moon affords us a unique opportunity to "ground truth" thermal infrared (i.e. 3 to 25 micron) observations of an airless body. The Moon is the most accessable member of the most abundant class of solar system bodies, which includes Mercury, astroids, and icy satellites. The Apollo samples returned from the Moon are the only extraterrestrial samples with known spatial context. And the Diviner Lunar Radiometer (Diviner) is the first instrument to globally map the spectral thermal emission of an airless body. Here we compare Diviner observations of Apollo sites to compositional and spectral measurements of Apollo lunar soil samples in simulated lunar environment (SLE).

  14. The Diviner Lunar Radiometer Compositional Data Products: Description and Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhagen, B. T.; Lucey, P. G.; Bandfield, J. L.; Hayne, P. O.; William, J. P.; Paige, D. A.

    2011-01-01

    The Diviner lunar radiometer has made the first direct global measurements of silicate mineralogy of the lunar surface using multispectral thermal emission mapping. By mid-March, 2011, the first derived compositional data products (level 3) will be released into the Planetary Data System (PDS) Geosciences Node. These products describe the Diviner Science Team's best efforts to determine the position of the Christiansen feature (CF), which is directly related to silicate mineralogy of lunar soils. The initial release of these products include data from the mission's primary mapping phase between 9/17/09 and 9/16/10. This work describes at a high level the creation of Diviner's compositional data products.

  15. COBE DMR results and implications. [Differential Microwave Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoot, George F.

    1992-01-01

    This lecture presents early results obtained from the first six months of measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) by Differential Microwave Radiometers (DMR) aboard COBE and discusses significant cosmological implications. The DMR maps show the dipole anisotropy and some galactic emission but otherwise a spatially smooth early universe. The measurements are sufficiently precise that we must pay careful attention to potential systematic errors. Maps of galactic and local emission such as those produced by the FIRAS and DIRBE instruments will be needed to identify foregrounds from extragalactic emission and thus to interpret the results in terms of events in the early universe. The current DMR results are significant for Cosmology.

  16. Aquarius Radiometer Performance: Early On-Orbit Calibration and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; LeVine, David M.; Yueh, Simon H.; Wentz, Frank; Ruf, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The Aquarius/SAC-D observatory was launched into a 657-km altitude, 6-PM ascending node, sun-synchronous polar orbit from Vandenberg, California, USA on June 10, 2011. The Aquarius instrument was commissioned two months after launch and began operating in mission mode August 25. The Aquarius radiometer meets all engineering requirements, exhibited initial calibration biases within expected error bars, and continues to operate well. A review of the instrument design, discussion of early on-orbit performance and calibration assessment, and investigation of an on-going calibration drift are summarized in this abstract.

  17. Ocean Color Inferred from Radiometers on Low-Flying Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Wilson

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The color of sunlight reflected from the ocean to orbiting visible radiometers hasprovided a great deal of information about the global ocean, after suitable corrections aremade for atmospheric effects. Similar ocean-color measurements can be made from a lowflyingaircraft to get higher spatial resolution and to obtain measurements under clouds.A different set of corrections is required in this case, and we describe algorithms to correctfor clouds and sea-surface effects. An example is presented and errors in the correctionsdiscussed.

  18. A study of the directional response of ultraviolet radiometers: I. Practical evaluation and implications for ultraviolet measurement standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pye, S D; Martin, C J

    2000-09-01

    The directional responses of a range of ultraviolet radiometers commonly used for irradiance measurements of UVB and UVC have been studied. Radiometers with 24 diffuser/filter combinations were assessed using a deuterium source, and three different diffuser/filter designs were assessed using a monochromatic source. The directional responses of the radiometers have been calculated and expressed in terms of figures of merit similar to those described for (photopic) illuminance meters in BS 667 and CIE 69. Those radiometers that performed best for the measurement of both small and extended sources of UVB and UVC had raised PTFE diffusers. We conclude that UV radiometers with a directional response error f2 radiometer.

  19. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    studies that illustrate the practical use of CPN modelling and validation for design, specification, simulation, verification and implementation in various application domains. Their presentation primarily aims at readers interested in the practical use of CPN. Thus all concepts and constructs are first......Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism...... and the immense number of possible execution sequences. In this textbook, Jensen and Kristensen introduce the constructs of the CPN modelling language and present the related analysis methods in detail. They also provide a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN by showcasing selected industrial case...

  20. Modeling the frequency response of microwave radiometers with QUCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonca, A.; Roucaries, B.; Williams, B.; Rubin, I.; D'Arcangelo, O.; Meinhold, P.; Lubin, P.; Franceschet, C.; Jahn, S.; Mennella, A.; Bersanelli, M.

    2010-12-01

    Characterization of the frequency response of coherent radiometric receivers is a key element in estimating the flux of astrophysical emissions, since the measured signal depends on the convolution of the source spectral emission with the instrument band shape. Laboratory Radio Frequency (RF) measurements of the instrument bandpass often require complex test setups and are subject to a number of systematic effects driven by thermal issues and impedance matching, particularly if cryogenic operation is involved. In this paper we present an approach to modeling radiometers bandpasses by integrating simulations and RF measurements of individual components. This method is based on QUCS (Quasi Universal Circuit Simulator), an open-source circuit simulator, which gives the flexibility of choosing among the available devices, implementing new analytical software models or using measured S-parameters. Therefore an independent estimate of the instrument bandpass is achieved using standard individual component measurements and validated analytical simulations. In order to automate the process of preparing input data, running simulations and exporting results we developed the Python package python-qucs and released it under GNU Public License. We discuss, as working cases, bandpass response modeling of the COFE and Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) radiometers and compare results obtained with QUCS and with a commercial circuit simulator software. The main purpose of bandpass modeling in COFE is to optimize component matching, while in LFI they represent the best estimation of frequency response, since end-to-end measurements were strongly affected by systematic effects.

  1. Modeling the frequency response of microwave radiometers with QUCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zonca, A; Williams, B; Rubin, I; Meinhold, P; Lubin, P [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Roucaries, B [Universite Paris-Est, Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussees, 75732 Paris (France); D' Arcangelo, O [IFP-CNR, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Franceschet, C; Mennella, A; Bersanelli, M [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Jahn, S, E-mail: zonca@deepspace.ucsb.edu [Infineon Technologies AG, Am Campeon 1-12, 85579 Neubiberg, Munich (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    Characterization of the frequency response of coherent radiometric receivers is a key element in estimating the flux of astrophysical emissions, since the measured signal depends on the convolution of the source spectral emission with the instrument band shape. Laboratory Radio Frequency (RF) measurements of the instrument bandpass often require complex test setups and are subject to a number of systematic effects driven by thermal issues and impedance matching, particularly if cryogenic operation is involved. In this paper we present an approach to modeling radiometers bandpasses by integrating simulations and RF measurements of individual components. This method is based on QUCS (Quasi Universal Circuit Simulator), an open-source circuit simulator, which gives the flexibility of choosing among the available devices, implementing new analytical software models or using measured S-parameters. Therefore an independent estimate of the instrument bandpass is achieved using standard individual component measurements and validated analytical simulations. In order to automate the process of preparing input data, running simulations and exporting results we developed the Python package python-qucs and released it under GNU Public License. We discuss, as working cases, bandpass response modeling of the COFE and Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) radiometers and compare results obtained with QUCS and with a commercial circuit simulator software. The main purpose of bandpass modeling in COFE is to optimize component matching, while in LFI they represent the best estimation of frequency response, since end-to-end measurements were strongly affected by systematic effects.

  2. Aquarius Radiometer RFI Detection, Mitigation, and Impact Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, Christopher; Chen, David; Le Vine, David; de Matthaeis, Paolo; Piepmeier, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    The Aquarius/SAC-D satellite was launched on 10 June 2011 into a sun-synchronous polar orbit and the Aquarius microwave radiometers [1] became operational on 25 August 2011. Since that time, it has been measuring brightness temperatures at 1.4 GHz with vertical, horizontal and 3rd Stokes polarizations . Beginning well before the launch, there has been the concern that Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) could have an appreciable presence. This concern was initiated by, among other things, its prevalence in both early [2] and more recent [3,4] aircraft field experiments using 1.4 GHz radiometers, as well as by the strong RFI environment encountered during the recent ESA SMOS mission, also at 1.4 GHz [5]. As a result, a number of methods for RFI detection and mitigation have been developed and tested. One in particular, "glitch detection" and "pulse blanking" mitigation has been adapted for use by Aquarius [6, 7]. The early on-orbit performance of the Aquarius RFI detection and mitigation algorithm is presented here, together with an assessment of the global RFI environment at 1.4 GHz which can be derived from the Aquarius results.

  3. First national intercomparison of solar ultraviolet radiometers in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Diémoz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A blind intercomparison of ground-based ultraviolet (UV instruments has been organized for the first time in Italy. The campaign was coordinated by the Environmental Protection Agency of Aosta Valley (ARPA Valle d'Aosta and took place in Saint-Christophe (45.8° N, 7.4° E, 570 m a.s.l., in the Alpine region, from 8 to 23 June 2010. It involved 8 institutions, 10 broadband radiometers, 2 filter radiometers and 2 spectroradiometers. Synchronized measurements of downward global solar UV irradiance at the ground were collected and the raw series were then individually processed by the respective operators on the base of their own procedures and calibration data. A radiative transfer model was successfully applied as an interpretative tool. The input parameters and output results are described in detail. The comparison was performed in terms of global solar UV Index and integrated UV-A irradiance against a well-calibrated double monochromator spectroradiometer as reference. An improved algorithm for comparing broadband data and spectra has been developed and is discussed in detail. For some instruments, we found average deviations ranging from −16 % up to 20 % relative to the reference and diurnal variations as large as 15 % even in clear days. Remarkable deviations were found for the instruments calibrated in the manufacturers' facilities and never involved in field intercomparison. Finally, some recommendations to the UV operators based on the campaign results are proposed.

  4. Physical, biological, and chemical data from radiometer, profiling reflectance radiometer, and CTD casts in a world-wide distribution as part of the SeaWiFS/SIMBIOS project from 13 September 1981 to 16 December 1999 (NODC Accession 0000632)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, biological, and chemical data were collected using radiometer, profiling reflectance radiometer, and CTD casts in a world-wide distribution from 13...

  5. Production, Labeling and In Vivo Studies with the Theranostic Positron-Emitting Radiometals 44Sc, 55/58m/58gCo, 61/64Cu, 86Y and 69Ge =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdovinos, Hector Francisco

    In this dissertation, novel radiochemical separation methods for these radiometals that satisfy such requirements are presented, including a detailed characterization of the separated radionuclide in terms of radionuclidic purity, specific activity and spatial resolution in a small animal PET scanner. This dissertation also presents novel targetry and radiochemical separation methods for the production of less conventional radiometals that constitute "theranostic" (therapeutic and diagnostic) pairs, namely the Auger electron emitters 58mCo and 71Ge and their positron emitting complements 55Co and 69Ge. The theranostic potential of each radiometal is demonstrated first by collecting biodistribution data from PET imaging of tumor-bearing mice intravenously injected with radiolabeled agents, followed by internal dosimetry calculations focusing on the therapeutic and radiotoxic implications caused by the agent. Special attention is given to the radionuclides with intrinsic theranostic properties in themselves: 64Cu and the parent-daughter pair 58m/58gCo. The radiolabeled agents that are employed include the radiometal by itself, that is, weakly bound to a simple ligand in solution (all radiometals), as well as strongly bound to a chelator-conjugated tumor-targeting antibody called TRC105 (55Co, 58mCo, 58gCo, 64Cu and 86Y) or incorporated into the structure of a super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (69Ge).

  6. Technique for Radiometer and Antenna Array Calibration with a Radiated Noise Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Karthik; Limaye, Ashutosh; Laymon, Charles; Meyer, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new technique to calibrate a microwave radiometer and antenna array system. This calibration technique uses a radiated noise source in addition to two calibration sources internal to the radiometer. The method accurately calibrates antenna arrays with embedded active devices (such as amplifiers) which are used extensively in active phased array antennas.

  7. A simple method to minimize orientation effects in a profiling radiometer

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, T.; Talaulikar, M.; Desa, E.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; SrinivasaKumar, T.; Lotlikar, A.

    -fall radiometer is found to be a better option for measuring underwater light parameters as it avoids the effects of ship shadow and is easy to operate, the measurements demand profiling the radiometer vertical in water with minimum tilt. Here we present...

  8. Spaceborne L-band Radiometers: Push-broom or Synthetic Aperture?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels

    2004-01-01

    L-band radiometers can measure ocean salinity and soil moisture from space. A synthetic aperture radiometer system, SMOS, is under development by ESA for launch in 2007. A real aperture push-broom system, Aquarius, has been approved by NASA for launch in 2008. Pros et cons of the two fundamentally...

  9. Challenges in application of Active Cold Loads for microwave radiometer calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl; Balling, Jan E.; Skou, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Two Active Cold Loads (ACLs) for microwave radiometer calibration, operating at X-band, are evaluated with respect to important stability parameters. Using a stable radiometer system as test bed, absolute levels of 77 K and 55 K are found. This paper identifies and summarizes potential challenges...

  10. A spaceborne synthetic aperture radiometer simulated by the TUD demonstration model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Brian; Skou, Niels

    1994-01-01

    The TUD synthetic aperture radiometer demonstration model consists of a 2-channel X-band correlation radiometer with two horn antennas and an antenna mounting structure enabling the horns to be mounted in relevant positions within a certain aperture. The cross correlation of the signals from the 2...

  11. Mars MetNet Mission Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, Ari-Matti; Aleksashkin, Sergei; Arruego, Ignacio; Schmidt, Walter; Genzer, Maria; Vazquez, Luis; Haukka, Harri

    2015-04-01

    New kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is under development in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested. 1. MetNet Lander The MetNet landing vehicles are using an inflatable entry and descent system instead of rigid heat shields and parachutes as earlier semi-hard landing devices have used. This way the ratio of the payload mass to the overall mass is optimized. The landing impact will burrow the payload container into the Martian soil providing a more favorable thermal environment for the electronics and a suitable orientation of the telescopic boom with external sensors and the radio link antenna. It is planned to deploy several tens of MNLs on the Martian surface operating at least partly at the same time to allow meteorological network science. 2. Scientific Payload The payload of the two MNL precursor models includes the following instruments: Atmospheric instruments: 1. MetBaro Pressure device 2. MetHumi Humidity device 3. MetTemp Temperature sensors Optical devices: 1. PanCam Panoramic 2. MetSIS Solar irradiance sensor with OWLS optical wireless system for data transfer 3. DS Dust sensor The descent processes dynamic properties are monitored by a special 3-axis accelerometer combined with a 3-axis gyrometer. The data will be sent via auxiliary beacon antenna throughout the

  12. CAROLS: A New Airborne L-Band Radiometer for Ocean Surface and Land Observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zribi, Mehrez; Parde, Mickael; Boutin, Jacquline

    2011-01-01

    on board a dedicated French ATR42 research aircraft, in conjunction with other airborne instruments (C-Band scatterometer-STORM, the GOLD-RTR GPS system, the infrared CIMEL radiometer and a visible wavelength camera). Following initial laboratory qualifications, three airborne campaigns involving 21......The "Cooperative Airborne Radiometer for Ocean and Land Studies" (CAROLS) L-Band radiometer was designed and built as a copy of the EMIRAD II radiometer constructed by the Technical University of Denmark team. It is a fully polarimetric and direct sampling correlation radiometer. It is installed...... flights were carried out over South West France, the Valencia site and the Bay of Biscay (Atlantic Ocean) in 2007, 2008 and 2009, in coordination with in situ field campaigns. In order to validate the CAROLS data, various aircraft flight patterns and maneuvers were implemented, including straight...

  13. Intercomparison of 51 radiometers for determining global horizontal irradiance and direct normal irradiance measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habte, Aron; Sengupta, Manajit; Andreas, Afshin; Wilcox, Stephen; Stoffel, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Accurate solar radiation measurements require properly installed and maintained radiometers with calibrations traceable to the World Radiometric Reference. This study analyzes the performance of 51 commercially available and prototype radiometers used for measuring global horizontal irradiances or direct normal irradiances. These include pyranometers, pyrheliometers, rotating shadowband radiometers, and a pyranometer with an internal shading mask deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. The radiometers in this study were deployed for one year (from April 1, 2011, through March 31, 2012), and their measurements were compared under clear-sky, partly cloudy, and mostly cloudy conditions to reference values of low estimated measurement uncertainties. The intent of this paper is to present a general overview of each radiometer's performance based on the instrumentation and environmental conditions available at NREL.

  14. Ability of four dental radiometers to measure the light output from nine curing lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimokawa, Carlos Alberto Kenji; Harlow, Jessie Eudora; Turbino, Míriam Lacalle; Price, Richard Bengt

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of four dental radiometers when measuring the output from nine light curing units (LCUs). The light output from nine light-emitting diode LCUs was measured with a laboratory-grade power meter (PowerMax-Pro 150 HD) and four dental radiometers (Bluephase Meter II, SDI LED Radiometer, Kerr LED Radiometer, and LEDEX CM4000). Ten measurements were made of each LCU with each radiometer. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey tests (α=0.05) were used to determine if there was a difference between the calculated irradiance values from the power meter and those from the radiometers. Where applicable, the LCUs were ranked according to their power and irradiance values. The emission spectra from the LCUs was measured using an integrating sphere attached to a fiber-optic spectrometer (N=10). The beam profile of the LCUs was measured with a beam profiler camera. Of the dental radiometers, only the Bluephase Meter II could measure power. ANOVA showed no significant difference between power values measured with the laboratory-grade meter and the Bluephase Meter II (p=0.527). The difference between the mean irradiance reported by the various radiometers for the same LCU was up to 479mW/cm 2 . The ranking of the power values obtained using the laboratory-grade meter was the same for the Bluephase Meter II. When compared to the calculated irradiance values from the laboratory-grade power meter, the Bluephase Meter II provided the most accurate data. Considering the great variation between the irradiance values provided by radiometers and their overall inaccuracy when compared to a laboratory-grade meter, dentists should not place too much faith in the absolute irradiance value. However, hand-held radiometers can be used to monitor changes in the light output of LCUs over time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Linear Logic on Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn

    This article shows how individual Petri nets form models of Girard's intuitionistic linear logic. It explores questions of expressiveness and completeness of linear logic with respect to this interpretation. An aim is to use Petri nets to give an understanding of linear logic and give some apprai...

  16. Reference Guide Microsoft.NET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee M van der; Verspaij GJ; Rosbergen S; IMP; NMD

    2003-01-01

    Developers, administrators and managers can get more understanding of the .NET technology with this report. They can also make better choices how to use this technology. The report describes the results and conclusions of a study of the usability for the RIVM of this new generation .NET development

  17. Net neutrality and audiovisual services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.; Nikoltchev, S.

    2011-01-01

    Net neutrality is high on the European agenda. New regulations for the communication sector provide a legal framework for net neutrality and need to be implemented on both a European and a national level. The key element is not just about blocking or slowing down traffic across communication

  18. A Small Universal Petri Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A. Zaitsev

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A universal deterministic inhibitor Petri net with 14 places, 29 transitions and 138 arcs was constructed via simulation of Neary and Woods' weakly universal Turing machine with 2 states and 4 symbols; the total time complexity is exponential in the running time of their weak machine. To simulate the blank words of the weakly universal Turing machine, a couple of dedicated transitions insert their codes when reaching edges of the working zone. To complete a chain of a given Petri net encoding to be executed by the universal Petri net, a translation of a bi-tag system into a Turing machine was constructed. The constructed Petri net is universal in the standard sense; a weaker form of universality for Petri nets was not introduced in this work.

  19. Global ultraviolet spectra derived directly from observations with multichannel radiometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuenzalida, H A

    1998-11-20

    Some general features of multichannel filter radiometers operating in the UV region of the solar spectrum are reviewed with emphasis on calibration problems that are due to incomplete knowledge of responsivity in the UV-B region. An alternative calibration procedure that is able to generate a full UV spectrum obtained by a constrained inversion method is presented. Accuracy of such spectra is assessed with simulated and with real data. A comparison between customary calibration and an alternative procedure is made in terms of monochromatic UV-B irradiance and CIE dose rate (CIE is the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage) and indicates that irradiances are estimated within 8% accuracy with solar zenith angles as great as 60 degrees and that dose rates are within 6% for any solar zenith angle. The advantage of having an additional channel in the UV-B region is considered.

  20. The infrared imaging radiometer for PICASSO-CENA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlay, Gilles; Arnolfo, Marie-Christine; Bret-Dibat, Thierry; Lifferman, Anne; Pelon, Jacques

    2017-11-01

    Microbolometers are infrared detectors of an emerging technology mainly developed in US and few other countries for few years. The main targets of these developments are low performing and low cost military and civilian applications like survey cameras. Applications in space are now arising thanks to the design simplification and the associated cost reduction allowed by this new technology. Among the four instruments of the payload of PICASSO-CENA, the Imaging Infrared Radiometer (IIR) is based on the microbolometer technology. An infrared camera in development for the IASI instrument is the core of the IIR. The aim of the paper is to recall the PICASSO-CENA mission goal, to describe the IIR instrument architecture and highlight its main features and performances and to give the its development status.

  1. Carbon monoxide mixing ratio inference from gas filter radiometer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallio, H. A.; Reichle, H. G., Jr.; Casas, J. C.; Saylor, M. S.; Gormsen, B. B.

    1983-01-01

    A new algorithm has been developed which permits, for the first time, real time data reduction of nadir measurements taken with a gas filter correlation radiometer to determine tropospheric carbon monoxide concentrations. The algorithm significantly reduces the complexity of the equations to be solved while providing accuracy comparable to line-by-line calculations. The method is based on a regression analysis technique using a truncated power series representation of the primary instrument output signals to infer directly a weighted average of trace gas concentration. The results produced by a microcomputer-based implementation of this technique are compared with those produced by the more rigorous line-by-line methods. This algorithm has been used in the reduction of Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites, Shuttle, and aircraft data.

  2. Data processing for the DMSP microwave radiometer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigone, J. L.; Stogryn, A. P.

    1977-01-01

    A software program was developed and tested to process microwave radiometry data to be acquired by the microwave sensor (SSM/T) on the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program spacecraft. The SSM/T 7-channel microwave radiometer and systems data will be data-linked to Air Force Global Weather Central (AFGWC) where they will be merged with ephemeris data prior to product processing for use in the AFGWC upper air data base (UADB). The overall system utilizes an integrated design to provide atmospheric temperature soundings for global applications. The fully automated processing at AFGWC was accomplished by four related computer processor programs to produce compatible UADB soundings, evaluate system performance, and update the a priori developed inversion matrices. Tests with simulated data produced results significantly better than climatology.

  3. Calibrating ground-based microwave radiometers: Uncertainty and drifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küchler, N.; Turner, D. D.; Löhnert, U.; Crewell, S.

    2016-04-01

    The quality of microwave radiometer (MWR) calibrations, including both the absolute radiometric accuracy and the spectral consistency, determines the accuracy of geophysical retrievals. The Microwave Radiometer Calibration Experiment (MiRaCalE) was conducted to evaluate the performance of MWR calibration techniques, especially of the so-called Tipping Curve Calibrations (TCC) and Liquid Nitrogen Calibrations (LN2cal), by repeatedly calibrating a fourth-generation Humidity and Temperature Profiler (HATPRO-G4) that measures downwelling radiance between 20 GHz and 60 GHz. MiRaCalE revealed two major points to improve MWR calibrations: (i) the necessary repetition frequency for MWR calibration techniques to correct drifts, which ensures stable long-term measurements; and (ii) the spectral consistency of control measurements of a well known reference is useful to estimate calibration accuracy. Besides, we determined the accuracy of the HATPRO's liquid nitrogen-cooled blackbody's temperature. TCCs and LN2cals were found to agree within 0.5 K when observing the liquid nitrogen-cooled blackbody with a physical temperature of 77 K. This agreement of two different calibration techniques suggests that the brightness temperature of the LN2 cooled blackbody is accurate within at least 0.5 K, which is a significant reduction of the uncertainties that have been assumed to vary between 0.6 K and 1.5 K when calibrating the HATPRO-G4. The error propagation of both techniques was found to behave almost linearly, leading to maximum uncertainties of 0.7 K when observing a scene that is associated with a brightness temperature of 15 K.

  4. HP3-RAD: a compact radiometer design with on-site calibration for in-situ exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Emanuel; Mueller, Nils; Grott, Matthias; Walter, Ingo; Knollenberg, Jörg; Hanschke, Frank; Kessler, Ernst; Meyer, Hans-Georg

    2016-09-01

    Many processes on planetary bodies are driven by their respective surface energy balance, and while planetary climate is influenced by the dynamics of the atmospheric boundary layer, surface radiation drives the Yarkovksy and YORB effects on small airless bodies. In addition, insolation governs cometary activity and drives the dust cycle on Mars. The radiative flux received and emitted at the surface of solar system bodies is thus a fundamental quantity, which is driven by the reception of solar radiation in the visible wavelength band, while re-radiation primarily occurs in the thermal infrared. Knowledge of the relevant radiative fluxes enables studies of thermo-physical surface properties, and radiometers to measure surface brightness temperatures have been payloads on many missions. The HP3-RAD is part of the Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package (HP3) on the InSight mission to Mars. It is a light-weight thermal infrared radiometer with compact design. HP3-RAD measures radiative flux in 3 spectral bands using thermopile detectors. The 120 g device includes integrated front-end electronics as well as a deployable cover that protects the sensors from dust contamination during landing. In addition, the cover is simultaneously used as a calibration target. The instrument concept as well as its implementation will be described, and special emphasis will be put on technological challenges encountered during instrument development. Potential future improvements of the design will be discussed.

  5. High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    High-level Petri nets are now widely used in both theoretical analysis and practical modelling of concurrent systems. The main reason for the success of this class of net models is that they make it possible to obtain much more succinct and manageable descriptions than can be obtained by means...... of low-level Petri nets - while, on the other hand, they still offer a wide range of analysis methods and tools. The step from low-level nets to high-level nets can be compared to the step from assembly languages to modern programming languages with an elaborated type concept. In low-level nets...... there is only one kind of token and this means that the state of a place is described by an integer (and in many cases even by a boolean). In high-level nets each token can carry a complex information/data - which, e.g., may describe the entire state of a process or a data base. Today most practical...

  6. The Impact of Indoor and Outdoor Radiometer Calibration on Solar Measurements: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habte, Aron; Sengupta, Manajit; Andreas, Afshin; Reda, Ibrahim; Robinson, Justin

    2016-07-01

    Accurate solar radiation data sets are critical to reducing the expenses associated with mitigating performance risk for solar energy conversion systems, and they help utility planners and grid system operators understand the impacts of solar resource variability. The accuracy of solar radiation measured by radiometers depends on the instrument performance specification, installation method, calibration procedure, measurement conditions, maintenance practices, location, and environmental conditions. This study addresses the effect of calibration methodologies and the resulting calibration responsivities provided by radiometric calibration service providers such as the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and manufacturers of radiometers. Some of these radiometers are calibrated indoors, and some are calibrated outdoors. To establish or understand the differences in calibration methodology, we processed and analyzed field-measured data from these radiometers. This study investigates calibration responsivities provided by NREL's broadband outdoor radiometer calibration (BORCAL) and a few prominent manufacturers. The reference radiometer calibrations are traceable to the World Radiometric Reference. These different methods of calibration demonstrated 1% to 2% differences in solar irradiance measurement. Analyzing these values will ultimately assist in determining the uncertainties of the radiometer data and will assist in developing consensus on a standard for calibration.

  7. Document analysis with neural net circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Hans Peter

    1994-01-01

    Document analysis is one of the main applications of machine vision today and offers great opportunities for neural net circuits. Despite more and more data processing with computers, the number of paper documents is still increasing rapidly. A fast translation of data from paper into electronic format is needed almost everywhere, and when done manually, this is a time consuming process. Markets range from small scanners for personal use to high-volume document analysis systems, such as address readers for the postal service or check processing systems for banks. A major concern with present systems is the accuracy of the automatic interpretation. Today's algorithms fail miserably when noise is present, when print quality is poor, or when the layout is complex. A common approach to circumvent these problems is to restrict the variations of the documents handled by a system. In our laboratory, we had the best luck with circuits implementing basic functions, such as convolutions, that can be used in many different algorithms. To illustrate the flexibility of this approach, three applications of the NET32K circuit are described in this short viewgraph presentation: locating address blocks, cleaning document images by removing noise, and locating areas of interest in personal checks to improve image compression. Several of the ideas realized in this circuit that were inspired by neural nets, such as analog computation with a low resolution, resulted in a chip that is well suited for real-world document analysis applications and that compares favorably with alternative, 'conventional' circuits.

  8. Pro asynchronous programming with .NET

    CERN Document Server

    Blewett, Richard; Ltd, Rock Solid Knowledge

    2014-01-01

    Pro Asynchronous Programming with .NET teaches the essential skill of asynchronous programming in .NET. It answers critical questions in .NET application development, such as: how do I keep my program responding at all times to keep my users happy how do I make the most of the available hardware how can I improve performanceIn the modern world, users expect more and more from their applications and devices, and multi-core hardware has the potential to provide it. But it takes carefully crafted code to turn that potential into responsive, scalable applications.With Pro Asynchronous Programming

  9. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André

    2017-08-01

    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  10. Evaluation of Radiometers Deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habte, Aron; Wilcox, Stephen; Stoffel, Thomas

    2015-12-23

    This study analyzes the performance of various commercially available radiometers used for measuring global horizontal irradiances and direct normal irradiances. These include pyranometers, pyrheliometers, rotating shadowband radiometers, and a pyranometer with fixed internal shading and are all deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. Data from 32 global horizontal irradiance and 19 direct normal irradiance radiometers are presented. The radiometers in this study were deployed for one year (from April 1, 2011, through March 31, 2012) and compared to measurements from radiometers with the lowest values of estimated measurement uncertainties for producing reference global horizontal irradiances and direct normal irradiances.

  11. Radio Frequency Interference Mitigation for the Planned SMAP Radar and Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Michael; Chan, Samuel; Belz, Eric; Piepmeier, Jeffrey; Mohammed, Priscilla; Kim, Edward; Johnson, Joel T.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's planned SMAP mission will utilize a radar operating in a band centered on 1.26 GHz and a co-observing radiometer operating at 1.41 GHz to measure surface soil moisture. Both the radar and radiometer sub-systems are susceptible to radio frequency interference (RFI). Any significant impact of such interference requires mitigation in order to avoid degradation in the SMAP science products. Studies of RFT detection and mitigation methods for both the radar and radiometer are continuing in order to assess the risk to mission products and to refine the performance achieved.

  12. Filter-radiometer-based realization of candela and establishment of photometric scale at UME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samedov, Farhad; Durak, Murat; Bazkır, Özcan

    2005-11-01

    The luminous intensity unit of candela was realized based on filter-radiometer, which is traceable to detector-based primary standard electrical substitution cryogenic radiometer (ESCR). In that realization the traditional Osram Wi41/G-type incandescent lamp and filter-radiometer consisting of an aperture, a V(λ) filter and a silicon photodiode based trap detector were used as light source and detection element, respectively. Measurement techniques of effective aperture area, spectral transmittance of V(λ) filter and absolute responsivity of trap detector are also presented.

  13. Spectral Power and Irradiance Responsivity Calibration of InSb Working-Standard Radiometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppeldauer, G; Rácz, M

    2000-11-01

    New, improved-performance InSb power-irradiance meters have been developed and characterized to maintain the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) spectral responsivity scale between 2 and 5.1 mum. The InSb radiometers were calibrated against the transfer-standard cryogenic bolometer that is tied to the primary-standard cryogenic radiometer of the NIST. The InSb radiometers serve as easy-to-use working standards for routine spectral power and irradiance responsivity calibrations. The spectral irradiance responsivities were derived from the spectral power responsivities by use of the measured area of the apertures in front of the InSb detectors.

  14. Characterization and calibration of ultraviolet broadband radiometers measuring erythemally weighted irradiance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hülsen, Gregor; Gröbner, Julian

    2007-08-10

    An ultraviolet calibration center has been established in Davos, Switzerland. It provides a laboratory for characterizing the spectral and angular response of broadband radiometers. The absolute calibration of these instruments is performed through the comparison to the reference spectroradiometer QASUME. We present what we believe to be a novel calibration methodology that explicitly includes the information of the angular and spectral response functions. From the results of the latest broadband intercomparison campaign, the typical uncertainties of these instruments could be obtained. Most radiometers have an expanded uncertainty of approximately 7%. The angular response introduces an uncertainty of 0.9%-7.2%, depending on the cosine error of the radiometer.

  15. Measurement of Ocean Wind Vector by an Airborne, Imaging Polarimetric Radiometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels; Laursen, Brian

    1998-01-01

    Airborne measurements of the sea surface have been carried out with an imaging polarimetric 16-GHz radiometer system, aimed at determining the wind direction. The radiometer system features a high-speed digital correlator, and it measures all four parameters of the brightness temperature Stokes...... vector simultaneously. Preliminary experiments have confirmed the directional signatures of the sea brightness temperature as reported by other researchers and have led to development of improved instrumentation with the intention of determining the wind vector pixel by pixel in the radiometer imagery....

  16. Digital processor breadboard for RFI detection and mitigation in spaceborne radiometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Steen Savstrup; Skou, Niels; Kovanen, Arhippa

    2014-01-01

    The increasing problem with Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) in protected radiometer frequency bands has inspired the development and implementation of methods for detecting RFI. With increasing demands for next generation spaceborne radiometers, it becomes necessary to include RFI detection...... in such systems. Since input to these methods require much more data than traditional radiometer data, and since the downlink capacity for spaceborne systems are limited, RFI detection and mitigation must be implemented on-board thereby maintaining the low downlink data rate. The development of such a system...

  17. Petri Net Tool Overview 1986

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Feldbrugge, Frits

    1987-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the characteristics of all currently available net based tools. It is a compilation of information provided by tool authors or contact persons. A concise one page overview is provided as well....

  18. Understanding Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salom, Jaume; Widén, Joakim; Candanedo, José

    2011-01-01

    Although several alternative definitions exist, a Net-Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) can be succinctly described as a grid-connected building that generates as much energy as it uses over a year. The “net-zero” balance is attained by applying energy conservation and efficiency measures...... and by incorporating renewable energy systems. While based on annual balances, a complete description of a Net ZEB requires examining the system at smaller time-scales. This assessment should address: (a) the relationship between power generation and building loads and (b) the resulting interaction with the power grid....... This paper presents and categorizes quantitative indicators suitable to describe both aspects of the building’s performance. These indicators, named LMGI - Load Matching and Grid Interaction indicators, are easily quantifiable and could complement the output variables of existing building simulation tools...

  19. PolicyNet Publication System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The PolicyNet Publication System project will merge the Oracle-based Policy Repository (POMS) and the SQL-Server CAMP system (MSOM) into a new system with an Oracle...

  20. KM3NeT

    CERN Multimedia

    KM3NeT is a large scale next-generation neutrino telescope located in the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea, optimized for the discovery of galactic neutrino sources emitting in the TeV energy region.

  1. Net Neutrality: Background and Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilroy, Angele A

    2006-01-01

    .... The move to place restrictions on the owners of the networks that compose and provide access to the Internet, to ensure equal access and nondiscriminatory treatment, is referred to as "net neutrality...

  2. Petri Nets in Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A process language for security protocols is presented together with a semantics in terms of sets of events. The denotation of process is a set of events, and as each event specifies a set of pre and postconditions, this denotation can be viewed as a Petri net. By means of an example we illustrate...... how the Petri-net semantics can be used to prove security properties....

  3. The Economics of Net Neutrality

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, Robert W.; Wallsten, Scott

    2006-01-01

    This essay examines the economics of "net neutrality" and broadband Internet access. We argue that mandating net neutrality would be likely to reduce economic welfare. Instead, the government should focus on creating competition in the broadband market by liberalizing more spectrum and reducing entry barriers created by certain local regulations. In cases where a broadband provider can exercise market power the government should use its antitrust enforcement authority to police anticompetitiv...

  4. Solar-Blind Diamond Detectors for Lyra, the Solar VUV Radiometer on Board Proba II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmoussa, A.; Hochedez, J.-F.; Schmutz, W. K.; Schühle, U.; Nesládek, M.; Stockman, Y.; Kroth, U.; Richter, M.; Theissen, A.; Remes, Z.; Haenen, K.; Mortet, V.; Koller, S.; Halain, J. P.; Petersen, R.; Dominique, M.; D'Olieslaeger, M.

    2003-12-01

    Fabrication, packaging and experimental results on the calibration of metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetectors made on diamond are reported. LYRA (Lyman-α RAdiometer onboard PROBA-2) will use diamond detectors for the first time in space for a solar physics instrument. A set of measurement campaigns was designed to obtain the XUV-to-VIS responsivity of the devices and other characterizations. The measurements of responsivity in EUV and VUV spectral ranges (40 240 nm) have been carried out by the Physkalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany at the electron storage ring BESSY II. The longer wavelength range from 210 to 1127 nm was measured with monochromatic light by using a Xe-lamp at IMO-IMOMEC. The diamond detectors exhibit a photoresponse which lie in the 35 65 mA/W range at 200 nm (corresponding to an external quantum efficiency of 20 40%) and indicate a visible rejection ratio (200 500 nm) higher than four orders of magnitude.

  5. 26 CFR 1.904(f)-3 - Allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation of net operating losses and net....904(f)-3 Allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses. For rules relating to the allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses, see § 1.904(g)-3T. ...

  6. 29 CFR 4204.13 - Net income and net tangible assets tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Net income and net tangible assets tests. 4204.13 Section....13 Net income and net tangible assets tests. (a) General. The criteria under this section are that either— (1) Net income test. The purchaser's average net income after taxes for its three most recent...

  7. GPM GROUND VALIDATION ADVANCED MICROWAVE PRECIPITATION RADIOMETER (AMPR) MC3E V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) instrument played a key role in the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E). The AMPR...

  8. A satellite-based multichannel infrared radiometer to sound the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esplin, Roy W.; Batty, J. Clair; Jensen, Mark; McLain, Dave; Jensen, Scott; Stauder, John; Stump, Charles W.; Roettker, William A.; Vanek, Michael D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a 12-channel infrared radiometer with the acronym SABER (Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission radiometry) that has been selected by NASA to fly on the TIMED (Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics) mission.

  9. Deconvolution of wide field-of-view radiometer measurements of earth-emitted radiation. I - Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G. L.; Green, R. N.

    1981-01-01

    The theory of deconvolution of wide field-of-view (WFOV) radiometer measurements of earth-emitted radiation provides a technique by which the resolution of such measurements can be enhanced to provide radiant exitance at the top of the atmosphere with a finer resolution than the field of view. An analytical solution for the earth-emitted radiant exitance in terms of WFOV radiometer measurements is derived for the nonaxisymmetric (or regional) case, in which the measurements and radiant exitance are considered to be functions of both latitude and longitude. This solution makes it possible to deconvolve a set of WFOV radiometer measurements of earth-emitted radiation and obtain information with a finer resolution than the instantaneous field of view of the instrument. It is shown that there are tradeoffs involved in the selection between WFOV and scanning radiometers.

  10. GPM GROUND VALIDATION CONICAL SCANNING MILLIMETER-WAVE IMAGING RADIOMETER (COSMIR) GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Conical Scanning Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (CoSMIR) dataset for the GPM Cold-season Precipitation Experiment (GCPEx) plays the role as an airborne...

  11. GPM GROUND VALIDATION CONICAL SCANNING MILLIMETER-WAVE IMAGING RADIOMETER (COSMIR) MC3E V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Conical Scanning Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (CoSMIR) dataset for the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) plays the role as an...

  12. GPM GROUND VALIDATION CONICAL SCANNING MILLIMETER-WAVE IMAGING RADIOMETER (COSMIR) IPHEx V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Conical Scanning Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (CoSMIR) IPHEx dataset includes data gathered during the Integrated Precipitation and...

  13. GPM GROUND VALIDATION ADVANCED MICROWAVE PRECIPITATION RADIOMETER (AMPR) IPHEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) IPHEx dataset was acquired by the AMPR instrument during the IPHEx field campaign in...

  14. GPM GROUND VALIDATION ADVANCED MICROWAVE PRECIPITATION RADIOMETER (AMPR) IPHEX V2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) IPHEx dataset was acquired by the AMPR instrument during the IPHEx field campaign in...

  15. AVHRR Orbital Segment = NOAA's Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Files: 1992 - 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data set is comprised of data collected by the AVHRR sensor and held in the archives of the USGS Earth Resources...

  16. Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) Monthly Mean Integrated Water Vapor (IWV) By Prabhakara

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SMMR_IWV_PRABHAKARA data are Special Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) Monthly Mean Integrated Water Vapor (IWV) data by Prabhakara.The Scanning Multichannel...

  17. Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) Monthly Mean Atmospheric Liquid Water (ALW) By Prabhakara

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SMMR_ALW_PRABHAKARA data are Special Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) Monthly Mean Atmospheric Liquid Water (ALW) data by Prabhakara.The Prabhakara Scanning...

  18. SMAP L2 Radiometer Half-Orbit 36 km EASE-Grid Soil Moisture V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Passive soil moisture estimates onto a 36-km global Earth-fixed grid, based on radiometer measurements acquired when the SMAP spacecraft is travelling from North to...

  19. Nimbus-2 Level 2 Medium Resolution Infrared Radiometer (MRIR) V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nimbus II Medium Resolution Infrared Radiometer (MRIR) was designed to measure electromagnetic radiation emitted and reflected from the earth and its atmosphere...

  20. AVHRR Composites = Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer U.S. Alaska: 1989 - Present

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) Composites are produced from multiple Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) daily observations that have...

  1. NPP Visible Infrared Imager-Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Quasi-Analytical Algorithm (GSM) Global Mapped Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Visible and Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is a multi-disciplinary instrument that is being flown on the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) series of...

  2. NPP Visible Infrared Imager-Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Quasi-Analytical Algorithm (GSM) Global Binned Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Visible and Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is a multi-disciplinary instrument that is being flown on the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) series of...

  3. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Cloud Mask Environmental Data Record (EDR) from NDE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains a high quality Environmental Data Record (EDR) of cloud masks from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument onboard...

  4. Realization of photometric base unit of candela traceable to cryogenic radiometer at UME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samedov, F.; Bazkır, Ö.

    2005-06-01

    At National Metrology Institute of Turkey (UME, Ulusal Metroloji Enstitüsü), luminous intensity unit of candela was realized using detector-based approach and photometric scale was re-established depending on this new realization. Candela was measured on photometric bench using interferometric distance measurement system and filter-radiometer traceable to UME primary level electrical-substitution cryogenic radiometer. Thermally stabilized filter radiometer, which has been designed for spectral irradiance measurements, is consists of trap detector, filter housing and precision aperture. Different measurement techniques were used to fully characterize each parameter of filter-radiometer; like effective aperture area, spectral transmittance of V(λ) filter and responsivity of trap detector.

  5. Optimizing Performance of a Microwave Salinity Mapper: STARRS L-Band Radiometer Enhancements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burrage, Derek M; Wesson, Joel C; Goodberlet, Mark A; Miller, Jerry L

    2007-01-01

    Airborne microwave radiometers for salinity remote sensing have advanced to a point where operational surveys can be conducted over the inner continental shelf to observe the evolution of freshwater...

  6. NPP Visible Infrared Imager-Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Remote-Sensing Reflectance (RRS) Global Mapped Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Visible and Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is a multi-disciplinary instrument that is being flown on the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) series of...

  7. Intersatellite Calibration of Polar-orbiting Radiometers using the SNO/SCO Method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cao, Changyong; Weng, Fuzhong; Goldberg, Mitch; Wu, Xiangqian; Xu, Hui; Ciren, Pubu

    2005-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for intercalibrating the polar-orbiting radiometers on different satellites to achieve the consistency and traceability required for long-term climate studies with the 25...

  8. Compact Front-end Prototype for Next Generation RFI-rejecting Polarimetric L-band Radiometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Brian Sveistrup; Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl; Skou, Niels

    2009-01-01

    Realizing the need for lower noise figure and smaller physical size in todays higly sensitive radiometers, this paper presents a new compact analog front-end (AFE) for use with the existing L-band (1400-1427 MHz) radiometer designed and operated by the Technical University of Denmark. Using...... subharmonic sampling to sample directly at the RF-frequency, this radiometer obtains a fully polarimetric response and enables detection and removal of radio frequency interference (RFI). A more compact AFE will enable various desired features, as for example the ability to use the front-end with antenna...... arrays needing one receiver per antenna (Synthetic Aperture Radiometer, SARad), reduced weight for airborne missions and an easy temperature stabilization, i.e. improved instrument stability. The new front-end possesses an improved system noise temperature of only 76 K (roughly 40 K improvement) measured...

  9. Analysis of Radiometer Data from the Volga SA-2 Static Firing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Emery, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    ...) Test Area 5 on September 15, 1999. Signatures were measured using a non-imaging radiometer and a suite of imaging instruments ranging from the ultraviolet through long wave infrared, as well as laser backscatter and transmission measurements...

  10. A multipoint correction method for environmental temperature changes in airborne double-antenna microwave radiometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian; Zhao, Kai; Jiang, Tao

    2014-04-29

    This manuscript describes a new type Ka-band airborne double-antenna microwave radiometer (ADAMR) designed for detecting atmospheric supercooled water content (SCWC). The source of the measurement error is investigated by analyzing the model of the system gain factor and the principle of the auto-gain compensative technique utilized in the radiometer. Then, a multipoint temperature correction method based on the two-point calibration method for this radiometer is proposed. The multipoint temperature correction method can eliminate the effect of changes in environmental temperature by establishing the relationship between the measurement error and the physical temperatures of the temperature-sensitive units. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of the correction method, the long-term outdoor temperature experiment is carried out. The multipoint temperature correction equations are obtained by using the least square regression method. The comparison results show that the measuring accuracy of the radiometer can be increased more effectively by using the multipoint temperature correction method.

  11. Experimental and Computational Study of Area and Perimeter Contributions to Radiometer Forces (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Selden, N. P; Muntz, E. P; Gimelshein, S. F; Alexeenko, A; Ketsdever, A. D

    2008-01-01

    .... Gas pressure was varied from .006 to 6 Pa, which was a broad enough range to observe the characteristic peak force production of a radiometer in the transition regime, where the peak occurs at Kn approximately 0.1...

  12. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Aerosol Detection Environmental Data Record (EDR) from NDE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a high quality operational Environmental Data Record (EDR) of suspended matter from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS)...

  13. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Snow Cover Environmental Data Record (EDR) from NDE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a high quality operational Environmental Data Record (EDR) of snow cover from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument...

  14. An optical scanning subsystem for a UAS-enabled hyperspectral radiometer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A hyperspectral visible radiometer instrument system has been developed for use on UAS platforms.  It has been successfully flown on three previous UAS field...

  15. NPP Visible Infrared Imager-Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Chlorophyll (CHL) Global Mapped Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Visible and Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is a multi-disciplinary instrument that is being flown on the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) series of...

  16. CAMEX-4 CONICALLY-SCANNING TWO-LOOK AIRBORNE RADIOMETER (C-STAR) V1a

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Conically-Scanning Two-look Airborne Radiometer (C-STAR) was deployed during the Fourth Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-4). C-STAR data were collected...

  17. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Smoothed Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from NDE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Smoothed Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from NDE is a weekly product derived from the VIIRS...

  18. GPM Ground Validation Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) OLYMPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) OLYMPEX dataset was collected by the AMPR instrument flown on the high altitude ER-2...

  19. GPM Ground Validation Conical Scanning Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (CoSMIR) OLYMPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Conical Scanning Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (CoSMIR) OLYMPEX dataset consists of brightness temperatures from 9 channels as...

  20. Evaluating Solar Resource Data Obtained from Multiple Radiometers Deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Andreas, A.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.

    2014-09-01

    Solar radiation resource measurements from radiometers are used to predict and evaluate the performance of photovoltaic and concentrating solar power systems, validate satellite-based models for estimating solar resources, and advance research in solar forecasting and climate change. This study analyzes the performance of various commercially available radiometers used for measuring global horizontal irradiances (GHI) and direct normal irradiances (DNI). These include pyranometers, pyrheliometers, rotating shadowband irradiometers, and a pyranometer with a shading ring deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL). The radiometers in this study were deployed for one year (from April 1, 2011, through March 31, 2012) and compared to measurements from radiometers with the lowest values of estimated measurement uncertainties for producing reference GHI and DNI.

  1. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Sensor Data Record (SDR) from IDPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sensor Data Records (SDRs), or Level 1b data, from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) are the calibrated and geolocated radiance and reflectance...

  2. The TSI Radiometer Facility: absolute calibrations for total solar irradiance instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Greg; Heuerman, Karl; Harber, Dave; Drake, Ginger

    2007-09-01

    The total solar irradiance (TSI) climate data record includes overlapping measurements from 10 spaceborne radiometers. The continuity of this climate data record is essential for detecting potential long-term solar fluctuations, as offsets between different instruments generally exceed the stated instrument uncertainties. The risk of loss of continuity in this nearly 30-year record drives the need for future instruments with solar power levels to these needed accuracy levels. The new TSI Radiometer Facility (TRF) is intended to provide such calibrations. Based on a cryogenic radiometer with a uniform input light source of solar irradiance power levels, the TRF allows direct comparisons between a TSI instrument and a reference cryogenic radiometer viewing the same light beam in a common vacuum system. We describe here the details of this facility designed to achieve 0.01% absolute accuracy.

  3. Shortwave Radiometer Calibration Methods Comparison and Resulting Solar Irradiance Measurement Differences: A User Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habte, Aron; Sengupta, Manajit; Andreas, Afshin; Reda, Ibrahim; Robinson, Justin

    2016-11-21

    Banks financing solar energy projects require assurance that these systems will produce the energy predicted. Furthermore, utility planners and grid system operators need to understand the impact of the variable solar resource on solar energy conversion system performance. Accurate solar radiation data sets reduce the expense associated with mitigating performance risk and assist in understanding the impacts of solar resource variability. The accuracy of solar radiation measured by radiometers depends on the instrument performance specification, installation method, calibration procedure, measurement conditions, maintenance practices, location, and environmental conditions. This study addresses the effect of different calibration methods provided by radiometric calibration service providers, such as NREL and manufacturers of radiometers, on the resulting calibration responsivity. Some of these radiometers are calibrated indoors and some outdoors. To establish or understand the differences in calibration methodology, we processed and analyzed field-measured data from these radiometers. This study investigates calibration responsivities provided by NREL's broadband outdoor radiometer calibration (BORCAL) and a few prominent manufacturers. The BORCAL method provides the outdoor calibration responsivity of pyranometers and pyrheliometers at 45 degree solar zenith angle, and as a function of solar zenith angle determined by clear-sky comparisons with reference irradiance. The BORCAL method also employs a thermal offset correction to the calibration responsivity of single-black thermopile detectors used in pyranometers. Indoor calibrations of radiometers by their manufacturers are performed using a stable artificial light source in a side-by-side comparison between the test radiometer under calibration and a reference radiometer of the same type. In both methods, the reference radiometer calibrations are traceable to the World Radiometric Reference (WRR). These

  4. Development of a Miniature L-band Radiometer for Education Outreach in Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Lyon B.

    2004-01-01

    Work performed under this grant developed a 1.4-Mhz radiometer for use in soil moisture remote sensing from space. The resulting instrument was integrated onto HuskySat. HuskySat is a 30-kg nanosatellite built under sponsorship from the Air Force Research Laboratory and NASA. This report consists of the interface document for the radiometer (the Science Payload of HuskySat) as detailed in the vehicle design report.

  5. SMOS calibration and validation activities with airborne interferometric radiometer HUT-2D during spring 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kainulainen, J.; Rautiainen, K.; Sievinen, P.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present calibration and validation activities of European Space Agency’s SMOS mission, which utilize airborne interferomentric L-band radiometer system HUT-2D of the Aalto University. During spring 2010 the instrument was used to measure three SMOS validation target areas, one...... in Denmark and two in Germany. We present these areas shortly, and describe the airborne activities. We show some exemplary measurements of the radiometer system and demonstrate the studies using the data....

  6. Results from the 4th WMO Filter Radiometer Comparison for aerosol optical depth measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Kazadzis, Stelios; Kouremeti, Natalia; Diémoz, Henri; Gröbner, Julian; Forgan, Bruce W.; Campanelli, Monica; Estellés, Victor; Lantz, Kathleen; Michalsky, Joseph; Carlund, Thomas; Cuevas, Emilio; Toledano, Carlos; Becker, Ralf; Nyeki, Stephan; Kosmopoulos, Panagiotis G.

    2017-01-01

    This study presents the results of the 4th Filter Radiometer Comparison that was held in Davos, Switzerland, between September 28 and October 16, 2015. Thirty filter radiometers and spectroradiometers from 12 countries participated including reference instruments from global aerosol networks. The absolute differences of all instruments compared to the reference have been based on the WMO criterion defined as 95 % of the measured data has to be within 0.005 ± 0.001/...

  7. A concept for global crop forecasting. [using microwave radiometer satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelace, U. M.; Wright, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    The mission, instrumentation, and design concepts for microwave radiometer satellites for continuous crop condition forecasting and monitoring on a global basis are described. Soil moisture affects both crop growth and the dielectric properties of the soil, and can be quantified by analysis of reflected radiance passively received by orbiting spacecraft. A dedicated satellite reading a swath 200 km across, with 1 km and 1 K temperature resolution, could track the time-varying changes of solid moisture, sea ice, and water surface temperature. Launched by the Shuttle into an interim orbit, a boost would place the satellite in a 400 or 700 km orbit. Resolution requirements indicate a 45-725 m diam antenna, with 70 dB gain, operating at frequencies of 1.08, 2.03, and 4.95 GHz to ensure atmospheric transparency. Alternative structural concepts include either double-layer tetrahedral or single-layer geodesic trusses as the basic structural members. An analysis of the electrostatic positioning of the parabolic antenna membrane is outlined.

  8. Time series inversion of spectra from ground-based radiometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Christensen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Retrieving time series of atmospheric constituents from ground-based spectrometers often requires different temporal averaging depending on the altitude region in focus. This can lead to several datasets existing for one instrument, which complicates validation and comparisons between instruments. This paper puts forth a possible solution by incorporating the temporal domain into the maximum a posteriori (MAP retrieval algorithm. The state vector is increased to include measurements spanning a time period, and the temporal correlations between the true atmospheric states are explicitly specified in the a priori uncertainty matrix. This allows the MAP method to effectively select the best temporal smoothing for each altitude, removing the need for several datasets to cover different altitudes. The method is compared to traditional averaging of spectra using a simulated retrieval of water vapour in the mesosphere. The simulations show that the method offers a significant advantage compared to the traditional method, extending the sensitivity an additional 10 km upwards without reducing the temporal resolution at lower altitudes. The method is also tested on the Onsala Space Observatory (OSO water vapour microwave radiometer confirming the advantages found in the simulation. Additionally, it is shown how the method can interpolate data in time and provide diagnostic values to evaluate the interpolated data.

  9. Regolith Formation Rates and Evolution from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayne, P. O.; Ghent, R. R.; Bandfield, J. L.; Vasavada, A. R.; Williams, J. P.; Siegler, M. A.; Lucey, P. G.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Elder, C. M.; Paige, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Fragmentation and overturn of lunar surface materials produces a layer of regolith, which increases in thickness through time. Experiments on the lunar surface during the Apollo era, combined with remote sensing, found that the upper 10's of cm of regolith exhibit a rapid increase in density and thermal conductivity with depth. This is interpreted to be the signature of impact gardening, which operates most rapidly in the uppermost layers. Gravity data from the GRAIL mission showed that impacts have also extensively fractured the deeper crust. The breakdown and mixing of crustal materials is therefore a central process to lunar evolution and must be understood in order to interpret compositional information from remote sensing and sample analysis. Recently, thermal infrared data from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Diviner radiometer were used to provide the first remote observational constraints on the rate of ejecta breakdown around craters geologic units. We will also discuss several anomalous features that merit further investigation. Reference: Ghent, R. R., Hayne, P. O., Bandfield, J. L., Campbell, B. A., Allen, C. C., Carter, L. M., & Paige, D. A. (2014). Constraints on the recent rate of lunar ejecta breakdown and implications for crater ages. Geology, 42(12), 1059-1062.

  10. Jupiter's global ammonia distribution inferred from Juno Microwave Radiometer Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Ingersoll, Andrew; Ewald, Shawn; Oyafuso, Fabiano; Janssen, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The Juno microwave radiometer (Juno/MWR) has made several observations of Jupiter's atmosphere by measuring the thermal emission from pressure levels down to a few hundred bars. The main objective of Juno/MWR is to determine Jupiter's deep water abundance because water is the key to understand Jovian meteorology that we observe at the cloud level, and because the deep water abundance hints at a giant planet's volatile and heavy element history. Since ammonia is the major opacity source in the Juno/MWR channels, it is especially important to figure out the ammonia distribution before we can conclude anything on the water abundance. At this stage of our analysis, we have inverted a global map (vertical and latitudinal) of ammonia distribution from the observed brightness temperatures at six wavelengths using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique. This method fully calibrates error and explores a wide range of the parameter space to avoid falling into a local minimum. The robustness of the retrieval is explained by matching the features in the ammonia distribution with the features in the microwave spectra. We will also announce the initial result of the retrieval of water abundance using the same technique.

  11. Polarimetric characteristics of a class of hyperspectral radiometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talone, Marco; Zibordi, Giuseppe

    2016-12-10

    The polarimetric characteristics of a class of hyperspectral radiometers commonly applied for above-water radiometry have been investigated by analyzing a sample of sensors. Results indicate polarization sensitivity increasing with wavelength and exhibiting values varying from sensor to sensor. In the case of radiance sensors, the maximum differences increase from approximately 0.4% at 400 nm to 1.3% at 750 nm. In the case of irradiance sensors, due to depolarizing effects of the diffusing collector, the maximum differences between horizontal and vertical polarization sensitivities vary from approximately 0.3% at 400 nm to 0.6% at 750 nm. Application of the previous results to above-water radiometry measurements performed in sediment dominated waters indicates that neglecting polarization effects may lead to uncertainties not exceeding a few tenths of a percent in remote sensing reflectance RRS determined in the 400-570 nm spectral interval. Conversely, uncertainties spectrally increase toward the near infrared, reaching several percent at 750 nm in the case of oligotrophic waters.

  12. [Radiometers performance attenuation and data correction in long-term observation of total radiation and photosynthetically active radiation in typical forest ecosystems in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhi-Lin; Sun, Xiao-Min; Yu, Gui-Rui; Wen, Xue-Fa; Zhang, Yi-Ping; Han, Shi-Jie; Yan, Jun-Hua; Wang, Hui-Min

    2011-11-01

    Based on the total radiation and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) observations with net radiometer (CNR1) and quantum sensor (Li-190SB) in 4 ChinaFLUX forest sites (Changbaishan, Qianyanzhou, Dinghushan, and Xishuangbanna) in 2003-2008, this paper analyzed the uncertainties and the radiometers performance changes in long-term and continuous field observation. The results showed that the 98% accuracy of the total radiation measured with CNR1 (Q(cNR1)) could satisfy the technical criterion for the sites except Xishuangbanna where the Q(CNR1) was averagely about 7% lower than Q(CM11), the radiation measured with high accuracy pyranometer CM11. For most sites, though the temperature had definite effects on the performance of CNR1, the effects were still within the allowable range of the accuracy of the instrument. Besides temperature, the seasonal fog often occurred in tropical rain forests in Xishuangbanna also had effects on the performance of CNR1. Based on the long-term variations of PAR, especially its ratio to total radiation in the 4 sites, it was found that quantum sensor (Li-190SB) had obvious performance attenuation, with the mean annual attenuation rate being about 4%. To correct the observation error caused by Li-190SB, an attempt was made to give a post-correction of the PAR observations, which could basically eliminate the quantum sensor's performance attenuation due to long-term field measurement.

  13. TimeNET Optimization Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Bodenstein

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a novel tool for simulation-based optimization and design-space exploration of Stochastic Colored Petri nets (SCPN is introduced. The working title of this tool is TimeNET Optimization Environment (TOE. Targeted users of this tool are people modeling complex systems with SCPNs in TimeNET who want to find parameter sets that are optimal for a certain performance measure (fitness function. It allows users to create and simulate sets of SCPNs and to run different optimization algorithms based on parameter variation. The development of this tool was motivated by the need to automate and speed up tests of heuristic optimization algorithms to be applied for SCPN optimization. A result caching mechanism is used to avoid recalculations.

  14. Implementing NetScaler VPX

    CERN Document Server

    Sandbu, Marius

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow guide with detailed step-by step-instructions on how to implement the different key components in NetScaler, with real-world examples and sample scenarios.If you are a Citrix or network administrator who needs to implement NetScaler in your virtual environment to gain an insight on its functionality, this book is ideal for you. A basic understanding of networking and familiarity with some of the different Citrix products such as XenApp or XenDesktop is a prerequisite.

  15. Net4Care PHMR Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the SimpleClinicalDocument......The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the Simple...

  16. Pro DLR in NET 4

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Chaur

    2011-01-01

    Microsoft's Dynamic Language Runtime (DLR) is a platform for running dynamic languages such as Ruby and Python on an equal footing with compiled languages such as C#. Furthermore, the runtime is the foundation for many useful software design and architecture techniques you can apply as you develop your .NET applications. Pro DLR in .NET 4 introduces you to the DLR, showing how you can use it to write software that combines dynamic and static languages, letting you choose the right tool for the job. You will learn the core DLR components such as LINQ expressions, call sites, binders, and dynami

  17. Hierarchies in Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Peter; Jensen, Kurt; Shapiro, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    The paper shows how to extend Coloured Petri Nets with a hierarchy concept. The paper proposes five different hierarchy constructs, which allow the analyst to structure large CP-nets as a set of interrelated subnets (called pages). The paper discusses the properties of the proposed hierarchy...... constructs, and it illustrates them by means of two examples. The hierarchy constructs can be used for theoretical considerations, but their main use is to describe and analyse large real-world systems. All of the hierarchy constructs are supported by the editing and analysis facilities in the CPN Palette...

  18. Effect of emitted wavelength and light guide type on irradiance discrepancies in hand-held dental curing radiometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameyama, Atsushi; Haruyama, Akiko; Asami, Masako; Takahashi, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine any discrepancies in the outputs of five commercial dental radiometers and also to evaluate the accuracy of these devices using a laboratory-grade spectroradiometer. The power densities of 12 different curing light sources were repeatedly measured for a total of five times using each radiometer in a random order. The emission spectra of all of the curing light sources were also measured using the spectroradiometer, and the integral value of each spectrum was calculated to determine the genuine power densities, which were then compared to the displayed power densities measured by the dental radiometers. The displayed values of power density were various and were dependent on the brand of radiometer, and this may be because each radiometer has a different wavelength sensitivity. These results cast doubt upon the accuracy of commercially available dental radiometers.

  19. LYRA, a solar UV radiometer on Proba2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochedez, J.-F.; Schmutz, W.; Stockman, Y.; Schühle, U.; Benmoussa, A.; Koller, S.; Haenen, K.; Berghmans, D.; Defise, J.-M.; Halain, J.-P.; Theissen, A.; Delouille, V.; Slemzin, V.; Gillotay, D.; Fussen, D.; Dominique, M.; Vanhellemont, F.; McMullin, D.; Kretzschmar, M.; Mitrofanov, A.; Nicula, B.; Wauters, L.; Roth, H.; Rozanov, E.; Rüedi, I.; Wehrli, C.; Soltani, A.; Amano, H.; van der Linden, R.; Zhukov, A.; Clette, F.; Koizumi, S.; Mortet, V.; Remes, Z.; Petersen, R.; Nesládek, M.; D'Olieslaeger, M.; Roggen, J.; Rochus, P.

    LYRA is the solar UV radiometer that will embark in 2006 onboard Proba2, a technologically oriented ESA micro-mission. LYRA is designed and manufactured by a Belgian Swiss German consortium (ROB, PMOD/WRC, IMOMEC, CSL, MPS and BISA) with additional international collaborations. It will monitor the solar irradiance in four UV passbands. They have been chosen for their relevance to Solar Physics, Aeronomy and Space Weather: (1) the 115 125 nm Lyman-α channel, (2) the 200 220 nm Herzberg continuum range, (3) the Aluminium filter channel (17 70 nm) including He II at 30.4 nm and (4) the Zirconium filter channel (1 20 nm). The radiometric calibration will be traceable to synchrotron source standards (PTB and NIST). The stability will be monitored by onboard calibration sources (LEDs), which allow to distinguish between potential degradations of the detectors and filters. Additionally, a redundancy strategy maximizes the accuracy and the stability of the measurements. LYRA will benefit from wide bandgap detectors based on diamond: it will be the first space assessment of a pioneering UV detectors program. Diamond sensors make the instruments radiation-hard and solar-blind: their high bandgap energy makes them insensitive to visible light and, therefore, make dispensable visible light blocking filters, which seriously attenuate the desired ultraviolet signal. Their elimination augments the effective area and hence the signal-to-noise, therefore increasing the precision and the cadence. The SWAP EUV imaging telescope will operate next to LYRA on Proba2. Together, they will establish a high performance solar monitor for operational space weather nowcasting and research. LYRA demonstrates technologies important for future missions such as the ESA Solar Orbiter.

  20. D.NET case study

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    lremy

    developing products, marketing tools and building capacity of the grass root telecentre workers. D.Net recognized that it had several ideas worth developing into small interventions that would make big differences, but resource constraints were a barrier for scaling-up these initiatives. More demands, limited resources.

  1. Surgery for GEP-NETs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, Ulrich; Hansen, Carsten Palnæs

    2012-01-01

    Surgery is the only treatment that may cure the patient with gastroentero-pancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumours (NET) and neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC) and should always be considered as first line treatment if R0/R1 resection can be achieved. The surgical and interventional procedures for GEP...

  2. Net Neutrality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.

    2014-01-01

    The Netherlands is among the first countries that have put specific net neutrality standards in place. The decision to implement specific regulation was influenced by at least three factors. The first was the prevailing social and academic debate, partly due to developments in the United States. The

  3. Complexity Metrics for Workflow Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; van der Aalst, Wil M.P.

    2009-01-01

    Process modeling languages such as EPCs, BPMN, flow charts, UML activity diagrams, Petri nets, etc.\\ are used to model business processes and to configure process-aware information systems. It is known that users have problems understanding these diagrams. In fact, even process engineers and system...

  4. Evaluation of Radiometers in Full-Time Use at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Solar Radiation Research Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, S. M.; Myers, D. R.

    2008-12-01

    This report describes the evaluation of the relative performance of the complement of solar radiometers deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL).

  5. Net-Zero Energy Technical Shelter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    Technical shelters are the basic structures for storing electronic and technical equipment, and commonly used for telecommunication base station, windmill, gas station, etc. Due to their high internal heat load density and special operation schedule, they consume more energy than normal residential...... or commercial buildings. On the other hand, it is a big challenge to power the technical shelter in remote area where the grids are either not available or the expansion of grid is expensive. In order to minimize the energy consumption and obtain a reliable and cost-efficient power solution for technical...... shelter, this study will apply the net-zero energy concept into the technical shelter design. The energy conservation can be achieved by proper design of building envelop and optimization of the cooling strategies. Both experiments and numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the indoor...

  6. Access Nets: Modeling Access to Physical Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohardt, Robert; Chang, Bor-Yuh Evan; Sankaranarayanan, Sriram

    Electronic, software-managed mechanisms using, for example, radio-frequency identification (RFID) cards, enable great flexibility in specifying access control policies to physical spaces. For example, access rights may vary based on time of day or could differ in normal versus emergency situations. With such fine-grained control, understanding and reasoning about what a policy permits becomes surprisingly difficult requiring knowledge of permission levels, spatial layout, and time. In this paper, we present a formal modeling framework, called AccessNets, suitable for describing a combination of access permissions, physical spaces, and temporal constraints. Furthermore, we provide evidence that model checking techniques are effective in reasoning about physical access control policies. We describe our results from a tool that uses reachability analysis to validate security policies.

  7. Caught in the Net: Perineuronal Nets and Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Slaker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to drugs of abuse induces plasticity in the brain and creates persistent drug-related memories. These changes in plasticity and persistent drug memories are believed to produce aberrant motivation and reinforcement contributing to addiction. Most studies have explored the effect drugs of abuse have on pre- and postsynaptic cells and astrocytes; however, more recently, attention has shifted to explore the effect these drugs have on the extracellular matrix (ECM. Within the ECM are unique structures arranged in a net-like manner, surrounding a subset of neurons called perineuronal nets (PNNs. This review focuses on drug-induced changes in PNNs, the molecules that regulate PNNs, and the expression of PNNs within brain circuitry mediating motivation, reward, and reinforcement as it pertains to addiction.

  8. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Army Net Zero Training Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-20

    sensors were strategically placed throughout the installation by magnetically attaching them to water main valve stems. The sensors check sound...Recycle Wrap  Substitutes for Packaging Materials  Re-Use of Textiles and Linens  Setting Printers to Double-Sided Printing Net Zero Waste...can effectively achieve source reduction. Clean and Re-Use Shop Rags - Shop rags represent a large textile waste stream at many installations. As a

  9. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Net Zero Waste Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-20

    Anaerobic Digesters – Although anaerobic digestion is not a new technology and has been used on a large-scale basis in wastewater treatment , the...technology and has been used on a large-scale basis in wastewater treatment , the use of the technology should be demonstrated with other...approaches can be used for cardboard and cellulose -based packaging materials. This approach is in line with the Net Zero Waste hierarchy in terms of

  10. A sea ice concentration estimation algorithm utilizing radiometer and SAR data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Karvonen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the possibility of combining the high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR segmentation and ice concentration estimated by radiometer brightness temperatures. Here we present an algorithm for mapping a radiometer-based concentration value for each SAR segment. The concentrations are estimated by a multi-layer perceptron (MLP neural network which has the AMSR-2 (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 polarization ratios and gradient ratios of four radiometer channels as its inputs. The results have been compared numerically to the gridded Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI ice chart concentrations and high-resolution AMSR-2 ASI (ARTIST Sea Ice algorithm concentrations provided by the University of Hamburg and also visually to the AMSR-2 bootstrap algorithm concentrations, which are given in much coarser resolution. The differences when compared to FMI daily ice charts were on average small. When compared to ASI ice concentrations, the differences were a bit larger, but still small on average. According to our comparisons, the largest differences typically occur near the ice edge and sea–land boundary. The main advantage of combining radiometer-based ice concentration estimation and SAR segmentation seems to be a more precise estimation of the boundaries of different ice concentration zones.

  11. Electronic Correlated Noise Calibration Standard for Interferometric and Polarimetric Microwave Radiometers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A new type of calibration standard is proposed which produces a pair of microwave noise signals to aid in the characterization and calibration of correlating...

  12. HANPP Collection: Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity (NPP) portion of the Human Appropriation of Net Primary...

  13. Hydrodynamic characteristics of plane netting used for aquaculture net cages in uniform current

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DONG, SHUCHUANG; HU, FUXIANG; KUMAZAWA, TAISEI; SIODE, DAISUKE; TOKAI, TADASHI

    2016-01-01

      The hydrodynamic characteristics of polyethylene (PE) netting and chain link wire netting with different types of twine diameter and mesh size for aquaculture net cages were examined by experiments in a flume tank...

  14. MWR: Microwave Radiometer for the Juno Mission to Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, M. A.; Oswald, J. E.; Brown, S. T.; Gulkis, S.; Levin, S. M.; Bolton, S. J.; Allison, M. D.; Atreya, S. K.; Gautier, D.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Lunine, J. I.; Orton, G. S.; Owen, T. C.; Steffes, P. G.; Adumitroaie, V.; Bellotti, A.; Jewell, L. A.; Li, C.; Li, L.; Misra, S.; Oyafuso, F. A.; Santos-Costa, D.; Sarkissian, E.; Williamson, R.; Arballo, J. K.; Kitiyakara, A.; Ulloa-Severino, A.; Chen, J. C.; Maiwald, F. W.; Sahakian, A. S.; Pingree, P. J.; Lee, K. A.; Mazer, A. S.; Redick, R.; Hodges, R. E.; Hughes, R. C.; Bedrosian, G.; Dawson, D. E.; Hatch, W. A.; Russell, D. S.; Chamberlain, N. F.; Zawadski, M. S.; Khayatian, B.; Franklin, B. R.; Conley, H. A.; Kempenaar, J. G.; Loo, M. S.; Sunada, E. T.; Vorperion, V.; Wang, C. C.

    2017-03-01

    The Juno Microwave Radiometer (MWR) is a six-frequency scientific instrument designed and built to investigate the deep atmosphere of Jupiter. It is one of a suite of instruments on NASA's New Frontiers Mission Juno launched to Jupiter on August 5, 2011. The focus of this paper is the description of the scientific objectives of the MWR investigation along with the experimental design, observational approach, and calibration that will achieve these objectives, based on the Juno mission plan up to Jupiter orbit insertion on July 4, 2016. With frequencies distributed approximately by octave from 600 MHz to 22 GHz, the MWR will sample the atmospheric thermal radiation from depths extending from the ammonia cloud region at around 1 bar to pressure levels as deep as 1000 bars. The primary scientific objectives of the MWR investigation are to determine the presently unknown dynamical properties of Jupiter's subcloud atmosphere and to determine the global abundance of oxygen and nitrogen, present in the atmosphere as water and ammonia deep below their respective cloud decks. The MWR experiment is designed to measure both the thermal radiation from Jupiter and its emission-angle dependence at each frequency relative to the atmospheric local normal with high accuracy. The antennas at the four highest frequencies (21.9, 10.0, 5.2, and 2.6 GHz) have ˜12° beamwidths and will achieve a spatial resolution approaching 600 km near perijove. The antennas at the lowest frequencies (0.6 and 1.25 GHz) are constrained by physical size limitations and have 20° beamwidths, enabling a spatial resolution of as high as 1000 km to be obtained. The MWR will obtain Jupiter's brightness temperature and its emission-angle dependence at each point along the subspacecraft track, over angles up to 60° from the normal over most latitudes, during at least six perijove passes after orbit insertion. The emission-angle dependence will be obtained for all frequencies to an accuracy of better than one

  15. MWR: Microwave Radiometer for the Juno Mission to Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, M. A.; Oswald, J. E.; Brown, S. T.; Gulkis, S.; Levin, S. M.; Bolton, S. J.; Allison, M. D.; Atreya, S. K.; Gautier, D.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Lunine, J. I.; Orton, G. S.; Owen, T. C.; Steffes, P. G.; Adumitroaie, V.; Bellotti, A.; Jewell, L. A.; Li, C.; Li, L.; Misra, S.; Oyafuso, F. A.; Santos-Costa, D.; Sarkissian, E.; Williamson, R.; Arballo, J. K.; Kitiyakara, A.; Ulloa-Severino, A.; Chen, J. C.; Maiwald, F. W.; Sahakian, A. S.; Pingree, P. J.; Lee, K. A.; Mazer, A. S.; Redick, R.; Hodges, R. E.; Hughes, R. C.; Bedrosian, G.; Dawson, D. E.; Hatch, W. A.; Russell, D. S.; Chamberlain, N. F.; Zawadski, M. S.; Khayatian, B.; Franklin, B. R.; Conley, H. A.; Kempenaar, J. G.; Loo, M. S.; Sunada, E. T.; Vorperion, V.; Wang, C. C.

    2017-11-01

    The Juno Microwave Radiometer (MWR) is a six-frequency scientific instrument designed and built to investigate the deep atmosphere of Jupiter. It is one of a suite of instruments on NASA's New Frontiers Mission Juno launched to Jupiter on August 5, 2011. The focus of this paper is the description of the scientific objectives of the MWR investigation along with the experimental design, observational approach, and calibration that will achieve these objectives, based on the Juno mission plan up to Jupiter orbit insertion on July 4, 2016. With frequencies distributed approximately by octave from 600 MHz to 22 GHz, the MWR will sample the atmospheric thermal radiation from depths extending from the ammonia cloud region at around 1 bar to pressure levels as deep as 1000 bars. The primary scientific objectives of the MWR investigation are to determine the presently unknown dynamical properties of Jupiter's subcloud atmosphere and to determine the global abundance of oxygen and nitrogen, present in the atmosphere as water and ammonia deep below their respective cloud decks. The MWR experiment is designed to measure both the thermal radiation from Jupiter and its emission-angle dependence at each frequency relative to the atmospheric local normal with high accuracy. The antennas at the four highest frequencies (21.9, 10.0, 5.2, and 2.6 GHz) have ˜12° beamwidths and will achieve a spatial resolution approaching 600 km near perijove. The antennas at the lowest frequencies (0.6 and 1.25 GHz) are constrained by physical size limitations and have 20° beamwidths, enabling a spatial resolution of as high as 1000 km to be obtained. The MWR will obtain Jupiter's brightness temperature and its emission-angle dependence at each point along the subspacecraft track, over angles up to 60° from the normal over most latitudes, during at least six perijove passes after orbit insertion. The emission-angle dependence will be obtained for all frequencies to an accuracy of better than one

  16. SkyNet: A Modular Nuclear Reaction Network Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippuner, Jonas; Roberts, Luke F.

    2017-12-01

    Almost all of the elements heavier than hydrogen that are present in our solar system were produced by nuclear burning processes either in the early universe or at some point in the life cycle of stars. In all of these environments, there are dozens to thousands of nuclear species that interact with each other to produce successively heavier elements. In this paper, we present SkyNet, a new general-purpose nuclear reaction network that evolves the abundances of nuclear species under the influence of nuclear reactions. SkyNet can be used to compute the nucleosynthesis evolution in all astrophysical scenarios where nucleosynthesis occurs. SkyNet is free and open source, and aims to be easy to use and flexible. Any list of isotopes can be evolved, and SkyNet supports different types of nuclear reactions. SkyNet is modular so that new or existing physics, like nuclear reactions or equations of state, can easily be added or modified. Here, we present in detail the physics implemented in SkyNet with a focus on a self-consistent transition to and from nuclear statistical equilibrium to non-equilibrium nuclear burning, our implementation of electron screening, and coupling of the network to an equation of state. We also present comprehensive code tests and comparisons with existing nuclear reaction networks. We find that SkyNet agrees with published results and other codes to an accuracy of a few percent. Discrepancies, where they exist, can be traced to differences in the physics implementations.

  17. Isolated unit tests in .Net

    OpenAIRE

    Haukilehto, Tero

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis isolation in unit testing is studied to get a precise picture of the isolation frameworks available for .Net environment. At the beginning testing is discussed in theory with the benefits and the problems it may have been linked with. The theory includes software development in general in connection with testing. Theory of isolation is also described before the actual isolation frameworks are represented. Common frameworks are described in more detail and comparable informa...

  18. Entamoeba histolytica induces human neutrophils to form NETs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura-Juarez, J; Campos-Esparza, Mr; Pacheco-Yepez, J; López-Blanco, J A; Adabache-Ortíz, A; Silva-Briano, M; Campos-Rodríguez, R

    2016-08-01

    Entamoeba histolytica invades the intestine and other organs during the pathogenesis of amoebiasis. In the early stages, the host organism responds with an inflammatory infiltrate composed mostly of neutrophils. It has been reported that these immune cells, activated by E. histolytica, exert a protective role by releasing proteolytic enzymes and generating reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) and antimicrobial peptides. It is now known that neutrophils also produce neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which are able to damage and kill pathogens. Studies have shown that intracellular protozoan pathogens, including Toxoplasma gondi, Plasmodium falciparum and Leishmania spp, induce neutrophils to release NETs and are damaged by them. However, the action of this mechanism has not been explored in relation to E. histolytica trophozoites. Through scanning electron, epifluorescence microscopy and viability assays, we show for first time that during in vitro interaction with E. histolytica trophozoites, human neutrophils released NETs that covered amoebas and reduced amoebic viability. These NETs presented histones, myeloperoxidase and decondensed chromatin. The results suggest that NETs participate in the elimination of the parasite. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. New improved algorithm for sky calibration of L-band radiometers JLBARA and ELBARA II

    KAUST Repository

    Dimitrov, Marin

    2012-03-01

    We propose a new algorithm for sky calibration of the L-band radiometers JLBARA and ELBARA II, introducing the effective transmissivities of the instruments. The suggested approach was tested using experimental data obtained at the Selhausen test site, Germany. It was shown that for JLBARA the effective transmissivities depend strongly on the air temperature and decrease with increasing air temperature, while for ELBARA II such strong dependence was not observed. It was also shown that the effective transmissivities account for the antenna and feed cable loss effects, and for the variations of the radiometer gain due to air temperature changes. The new calibration algorithm reduces significantly the bias of brightness temperature estimates for both radiometers, especially for JLBARA. © 2012 IEEE.

  20. Optical depth measurements by shadow-band radiometers and their uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Mikhail D; Kiedron, Peter; Michalsky, Joseph J; Hodges, Gary; Flynn, Connor J; Lacis, Andrew A

    2007-11-20

    Shadow-band radiometers in general, and especially the Multi-Filter Rotating Shadow-band Radiometer (MFRSR), are widely used for atmospheric optical depth measurements. The major programs running MFRSR networks in the United States include the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, U.S. Department of Agriculture UV-B Monitoring and Research Program, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Surface Radiation (SURFRAD) Network, and NASA Solar Irradiance Research Network (SIRN). We discuss a number of technical issues specific to shadow-band radiometers and their impact on the optical depth measurements. These problems include instrument tilt and misalignment, as well as some data processing artifacts. Techniques for data evaluation and automatic detection of some of these problems are described.

  1. Nonadiabatic electron heat pump

    OpenAIRE

    Rey, Miguel; Strass, Michael; Kohler, Sigmund; Hänggi, Peter; Sols, Fernando

    2006-01-01

    We investigate a mechanism for extracting heat from metallic conductors based on the energy-selective transmission of electrons through a spatially asymmetric resonant structure subject to ac driving. This quantum refrigerator can operate at zero net electronic current as it replaces hot by cold electrons through two energetically symmetric inelastic channels. We present numerical results for a specific heterostructure and discuss general trends. We also explore the conditions under which the...

  2. The Compact Lightweight Absolute Radiometer (CLARA) for Total Solar Irradiance Measurements on the NORSAT-1 Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Benjamin; Finsterle, Wolfgang; Koller, Silvio; Levesque, Pierre-Luc; Pfiffner, Daniel; Schmutz, Werner

    2017-04-01

    Continuous and precise Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) measurements are indispensable to evaluate the influence of short- and long-term solar variability on the Earth's energy budget. The existence of a potential long-term trend in the suns activity and whether or not such a trend could be climate effective is still a matter of debate. The Compact Lightweight Absolute Radiometer (CLARA) is one of PMOD/WRC's future contributions to the almost seamless series of space borne TSI measurements since 1978. CLARA was designed and built by PMOD/WRC and characterized and calibrated by PMOD/WRC as part of the "European Metrology Research Program" (EMRP) project "European Metrology for Earth Observation and Climate" (MetEOC-2) funded by the European Commission. The main goals of the CLARA experiment are to continue the TSI data record with high accuracy and precision and to facilitate monitoring with its compact and adaptable design. CLARA will be one of three payloads of the Norwegian micro satellite NORSAT-1, along with Langmuir probes for space plasma research and an Automatic Identification System (AIS) receiver to monitor maritime traffic in Norwegian waters. The launch of NORSAT-1 is planned for March 2017. We present the design and calibration of CLARA, a new generation of Electrical Substitution Radiometers (ESR) comprising the latest radiometer developments of PMOD/WRC: i) A three-detector design for degradation tracking and redundancy, ii) a digital control system, iii) a new reference block and detector design to minimize size and weight of the instrument. The characterization of the CLARA instrument components provides an overview on the improvements that were achieved with the latest radiometer developments. An end-to-end calibration of CLARA against the SI-traceable cryogenic radiometer of the TSI Radiometer Facility (TRF) at the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) in Boulder (Colorado) results in a combined measurement uncertainty of 0.05% (k = 1

  3. Using High-Resolution Hand-Held Radiometers To Measure In-Situ Thermal Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Douglas M.; Krintz, Donald F.

    1984-03-01

    A field study was carried out to investigate the accuracy of using high-resolution radiometers to determine the in situ thermal resistance of building components having conventional residential construction. Two different types of radiometers were used to determine the thermal resistances of the walls of six test buildings located at the National Bureau of Standards. These radiometer thermal resistance measurements were compared to reference thermal resistance values determined from steady-state series resistance predictions, time-averaged heat-flow-sensor measurements, and guarded-hot-box measurements. When measurements were carried out 5 hours after sunset when the outdoor temperature was relatively steady and the heating plant was operated in a typical cyclic fashion, the following results were obtained: for lightweight wood-frame cavity walls, the radiometer procedures were found to distinguish wall thermal resistance 4.4 h.ft2- °F/Btu (0.77 m2•K/W) systematically higher than corresponding reference values. Such a discrimination will per-mit insulated and uninsulated walls to be distinguished. However, in the case of walls having large heat capacity (e.g., masonry and log), thermal storage effects produced large time lags between the outdoor diurnal temperature variation and the heat-flow response at the inside surface. This phenomenon caused radiometer thermal resistances to deviate substantially from corresponding reference values. This study recommends that the ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 101-1981 be modified requiring the heating plant to be operated in a typical cyclic fashion instead of being turned off prior to and during radiometer measurements.

  4. Event hierarchies in DanNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bolette Sandford; Nimb, Sanni

    2008-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler udarbejdelsen af et verbumshierarki i det leksikalsk-semantiske ordnet, DanNet.......Artiklen omhandler udarbejdelsen af et verbumshierarki i det leksikalsk-semantiske ordnet, DanNet....

  5. The Uniframe .Net Web Service Discovery Service

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berbeco, Robert W

    2003-01-01

    Microsoft .NET allows the creation of distributed systems in a seamless manner Within NET small, discrete applications, referred to as Web services, are utilized to connect to each other or larger applications...

  6. Long Term RadNet Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This RadNet Quality Data Asset includes all data since initiation and when ERAMS was expanded to become RadNet, name changed to reflect new mission. This includes...

  7. Description and Performance of an L-Band Radiometer with Digital Beamforming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F. Marchan-Hernandez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the description and performance tests of an L-band microwave radiometer with Digital Beamforming (DBF, developed for the Passive Advanced Unit (PAU for ocean monitoring project. PAU is an instrument that combines, in a single receiver and without time multiplexing, a microwave radiometer at L-band (PAU-RAD and a GPS-reflectometer (PAU-GNSS-R. This paper focuses on the PAU‑RAD beamformer’s first results, analyzing the hardware and software required for the developed prototype. Finally, it discusses the first results measured in the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC anechoic chamber.

  8. An Optimal Beamforming Algorithm for Phased-Array Antennas Used in Multi-Beam Spaceborne Radiometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iupikov, O. A.; Ivashina, M. V.; Pontoppidan, K.

    2015-01-01

    Strict requirements for future spaceborne ocean missions using multi-beam radiometers call for new antenna technologies, such as digital beamforming phased arrays. In this paper, we present an optimal beamforming algorithm for phased-array antenna systems designed to operate as focal plane arrays...... (FPA) in push-broom radiometers. This algorithm is formulated as an optimization procedure that maximizes the beam efficiency, while minimizing the side-lobe and cross-polarization power in the area of Earth, subject to a constraint on the beamformer dynamic range. The proposed algorithm is applied...

  9. On-board digital RFI and polarimetry processor for future spaceborne radiometer systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels; Kristensen, Steen Savstrup; Ruokokoski, T.

    2012-01-01

    Man-made Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) is an increasingly threatening problem for passive microwave radiometry from space. The problem is presently very evident in L-band data from SMOS, but it is realized that it is already now a problem at other traditional radiometer bands at C, X, and Ku...... bands. Studies of data from existing radiometer systems have revealed this, and clearly indicates increasing RFI intensity over time. Thus, future missions have to take this into consideration, and dedicated hardware and algorithms to safely detect and mitigate RFI must be included. The design...

  10. PsychoNet: a psycholinguistc commonsense ontology

    OpenAIRE

    Mohtasseb, Haytham; Ahmed, Amr

    2010-01-01

    Ontologies have been widely accepted as the most advanced knowledge representation model. This paper introduces PsychoNet, a new knowledgebase that forms the link between psycholinguistic taxonomy, existing in LIWC, and its semantic textual representation in the form of commonsense semantic ontology, represented by ConceptNet. The integration of LIWC and ConceptNet and the added functionalities facilitate employing ConceptNet in psycholinguistic studies. Furthermore, it simplifies utilization...

  11. 78 FR 72451 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BL74 Net Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service...). These regulations provide guidance on the computation of net investment income. The regulations affect... lesser of: (A) The individual's net investment income for such taxable year, or (B) the excess (if any...

  12. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net investment. 69.302 Section 69.302... Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B Rural...) Investment in Accounts 2002, 2003 and to the extent such inclusions are allowed by this Commission, Account...

  13. 47 CFR 65.450 - Net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.450 Section 65.450... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.450 Net income. (a) Net income shall consist of all revenues derived from the provision of interstate telecommunications services...

  14. 47 CFR 65.500 - Net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.500 Section 65.500... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Interexchange Carriers § 65.500 Net income. The net income methodology specified in § 65.450 shall be utilized by all interexchange carriers that are...

  15. NetBeans IDE 8 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Salter, David

    2014-01-01

    If you're a Java developer of any level using NetBeans and want to learn how to get the most out of NetBeans, then this book is for you. Learning how to utilize NetBeans will provide a firm foundation for your Java application development.

  16. Characterizing behavioural congruences for Petri nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Priese, Lutz; Sassone, Vladimiro

    1995-01-01

    We exploit a notion of interface for Petri nets in order to design a set of net combinators. For such a calculus of nets, we focus on the behavioural congruences arising from four simple notions of behaviour, viz., traces, maximal traces, step, and maximal step traces, and from the corresponding...

  17. 27 CFR 4.37 - Net contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the volume of wine within the container, except that the following tolerances shall be allowed: (1... THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.37 Net contents. (a) Statement of net contents. The net contents of wine for which a standard of fill is...

  18. Validation of the uncertainty budget for soft X-ray radiant power measurement using a cryogenic radiometer

    CERN Document Server

    Rabus, H; Scholze, F; Thornagel, R; Ulm, G

    2002-01-01

    The cryogenic radiometer SYRES, a thermal detector based on the electrical substitution principle, has been used as the primary detector standard for radiant power measurement in the ultraviolet, vacuum ultraviolet and soft X-ray spectral ranges. In order to investigate the possibility of radiant energy being deposited in its absorber cavity without being transformed into heat when detecting soft X-rays, SYRES has been directly compared with the electron storage ring BESSY 1, a primary radiometric source standard of calculable spectral radiant power. To this end, the integral radiant power emitted by the storage ring,into a solid angle defined by a high-precision aperture was measured with SYRES. The experiments were conducted at two nominal energies of the circulating electrons, 800 MeV and 340 MeV, to study the influence of the different spectral distributions of the synchrotron radiation. For the original graphite-coated cavity absorber, significant discrepancies were found which could be traced back to th...

  19. NET 40 Generics Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Sudipta

    2012-01-01

    This is a concise, practical guide that will help you learn Generics in .NET, with lots of real world and fun-to-build examples and clear explanations. It is packed with screenshots to aid your understanding of the process. This book is aimed at beginners in Generics. It assumes some working knowledge of C# , but it isn't mandatory. The following would get the most use out of the book: Newbie C# developers struggling with Generics. Experienced C++ and Java Programmers who are migrating to C# and looking for an alternative to other generic frameworks like STL and JCF would find this book handy.

  20. The Net Reclassification Index (NRI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pepe, Margaret S.; Fan, Jing; Feng, Ziding

    2015-01-01

    The Net Reclassification Index (NRI) is a very popular measure for evaluating the improvement in prediction performance gained by adding a marker to a set of baseline predictors. However, the statistical properties of this novel measure have not been explored in depth. We demonstrate the alarming...... marker is proven to erroneously yield a positive NRI. Some insight into this phenomenon is provided. Since large values for the NRI statistic may simply be due to use of poorly fitting risk models, we suggest caution in using the NRI as the basis for marker evaluation. Other measures of prediction...

  1. InP HEMT Integrated Circuits for Submillimeter Wave Radiometers in Earth Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, William R.; Chattopadhyay, Goutam

    2012-01-01

    The operating frequency of InP integrated circuits has pushed well into the Submillimeter Wave frequency band, with amplification reported as high as 670 GHz. This paper provides an overview of current performance and potential application of InP HEMT to Submillimeter Wave radiometers for earth remote sensing.

  2. Estimation of optimal size of plots for experiments with radiometer in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-07-29

    Jul 29, 2015 ... Estimation of optimal size of plots for experiments with radiometer in beans. Roger Nabeyama Michels1*, Marcelo Giovanetti Canteri2, Inês Cristina de Batista Fonseca2,. Marcelo ... with beans, the size of the portions differ according to the ... obtained through the minor form: 0.45 m × 1 m (Table 1). The.

  3. Retrieval of physical properties of interference filters integrated in radiometer instruments by using reverse engineering process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Ríos, F. Javier; Jiménez, Juan José; Gonzalez-Guerrero, Miguel; Martin, Israel

    2017-11-01

    The Solar Irradiance flux experiment a spectral filtering process as the irradiance flux propagates from the source to the sensor. When using radiometer sensors for optical measurement both the atmospheric transmittance, sensor's filter and the responsivity of the detector produces a spectral filtering.

  4. Airborne L-band radiometer mapping of the dome-C area in Antarctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels; Kristensen, Steen Savstrup; Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl

    2015-01-01

    A 350 km × 350 km area near the Concordia station on the high plateau of Dome-C in Antarctica has been mapped by an airborne L-band radiometer system. The area was expected to display a rather uniform brightness temperature (TB) close to the yearly mean temperature-well suited for calibration...

  5. Mapping of the DOME-C area in Antarctica by an airborne L-band radiometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels; Kristensen, Steen Savstrup; Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl

    2014-01-01

    A 350 × 350 km area near the Concordia station on the high plateau of Dome C in Antarctica has been mapped by an airborne L-band radiometer system. The area was expected to display a rather uniform brightness temperature close to the yearly mean temperature — well suited for calibration checks...

  6. First Results from the Microwave Radiometer (MWR) on Aquarius/SAC-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L.; Gallo, J.; Rocca, D.; Rabolli, M.; Madero, F.; Kuba, J.; Masuelli, S.; Heredia, S. D.; Biswas, S. K.; Hejazin, Y.

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents first results from the Microwave Radiometer (MWR) instrument on the Aquarius/SAC-D satellite launched in June 2011. The MWR is a three channel pushbroom microwave radiometer with 8 antenna beams/channel that provides a measurement swath of approximately 380 Km. These channels provide 36.5 GHz dual horizontal and vertical polarized and 23.8 GHz horizontal polarized radiance measurements in an overlapping swath with the L-band Aquarius radiometer/scatterometer. From these microwave brightness temperatures, MWR provides ancillary geophysical measurements of columnar water vapor, ocean surface wind speed, oceanic rain rate and sea ice cover, which support the Aquarius mission objective of global sea surface salinity measurements. Results are presented showing MWR measurements compared to similar measurements made by the WindSat polarimetric radiometer on the US Navy's Coriolis satellite. The orbits of Aquarius and Windsat are very similar and provide about 60% overlap within a ± 45 minute window. First, inter-satellite radiometric comparisons of MWR brightness temperature with the WindSat are discussed. Also comparisons are made of MWR geophysical parameter retrievals with collocated WindSat environmental data records and the NOAA Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) atmospheric and ocean surface parameters.

  7. L-Band Radiometers Measuring Salinity From Space: Atmospheric Propagation Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels; Hofman-Bang, Dorthe

    2005-01-01

    Microwave radiometers can measure sea surface salinity from space using L-band frequencies around 1.4 GHz. However, requirements to the accuracy of the measurements, in order to be satisfactory for the user, are so stringent that the influence of the intervening atmosphere cannot be neglected...

  8. A New Algorithm to Determine the Spectral Aerosol Optical Depth from Satellite Radiometer Measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veefkind, J.P.; Leeuw, G. de

    1998-01-01

    A new aerosol retrieval algorithm is presented which computes the spectral optical depth over the ocean from spaceborne radiometers. It includes both multiple scattering and the bi-directional reflectance of the ocean surface. The previous termalgorithmnext term is applied to data from the Along

  9. Estimation of optimal size of plots for experiments with radiometer in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-07-29

    Jul 29, 2015 ... radiometer in beans. Roger Nabeyama Michels1*, Marcelo Giovanetti Canteri2, Inês Cristina de Batista Fonseca2,. Marcelo Augusto de Aguiar e Silva2 and José Alexandre de França2. 1Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná, Avenida dos Pioneiros, 3131, CEP 86036-370, Londrina, PR, Brasil.

  10. Polarimetric Signatures from a Crop Covered Land Surface Measured by an L-band Polarimetric Radiometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl; Skou, Niels

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes preliminary results from field measurements of polarimetric azimuth signatures with the EMIRAD L-band polarimetric radiometer, performed over a land test site at the Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique in Avignon, France. Scans of 180 degrees in azimuth were carried...

  11. Intercomparison of the LBIR Absolute Cryogenic Radiometers to the NIST Optical Power Measurement Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedchak, James A; Carter, Adriaan C; Datla, Raju

    2006-01-01

    The Low Background Infrared calibration (LBIR) facility at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) presently maintains four absolute cryogenic radiometers (ACRs) which serve as standard reference detectors for infrared calibrations performed by the facility. The primary standard for optical power measurements at NIST-Gaithersburg has been the High Accuracy Cryogenic Radiometer (HACR). Recently, an improved radiometer, the Primary Optical Watt Radiometer (POWR), has replaced the HACR as the primary standard. In this paper, we present the results of comparisons between the radiometric powers measured by the four ACRs presently maintained by the LBIR facility to that measured by the HACR and POWR. This was done by using a Si photodiode light-trapping detector as a secondary transfer standard to compare the primary national standards to the ACRs maintained by the LBIR facility. The technique used to compare an ACR to the trap detector is described in detail. The absolute optical power measurements are found to be within 0.1 % of the primary standard for all the ACRs examined in this study.

  12. Considerations About Antenna Pattern Measurements of 2-D Aperture Synthesis Radiometers

    OpenAIRE

    Camps Carmona, Adriano José; Skou, Neils; Torres Torres, Francisco; Corbella Sanahuja, Ignasi; Duffo Ubeda, Núria

    2006-01-01

    Accurate measurement of the antenna voltage patterns of large-aperture synthesis radiometers is critical in order to achieve good radiometric accuracy, and a very time consuming and expensive task. Measurement requirements and a tradeoff study relating radiometric accuracy degradation and number of elements to be measured are presented. Peer Reviewed

  13. An RFI Detection Algorithm for Microwave Radiometers Using Sparse Component Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed-Tano, Priscilla N.; Korde-Patel, Asmita; Gholian, Armen; Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; Schoenwald, Adam; Bradley, Damon

    2017-01-01

    Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) is a threat to passive microwave measurements and if undetected, can corrupt science retrievals. The sparse component analysis (SCA) for blind source separation has been investigated to detect RFI in microwave radiometer data. Various techniques using SCA have been simulated to determine detection performance with continuous wave (CW) RFI.

  14. Modification of the collective Thomson scattering radiometer in the search for parametric decay on TEXTOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Salewski, Mirko; Bongers, W.

    2012-01-01

    Strong scattering of high-power millimeter waves at 140 GHz has been shown to take place in heating and current-drive experiments at TEXTOR when a tearing mode is present in the plasma. The scattering signal is at present supposed to be generated by the parametric decay instability. Here we descr...... with independent backscattering radiometer data....

  15. Considerations About Antenna Pattern Measurements of 2-D Aperture Synthesis Radiometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Camps, Adreano; Skou, Niels; Torres, Francesc

    2006-01-01

    Accurate measurement of the antenna voltage patterns of large-aperture synthesis radiometers is critical in order to achieve good radiometric accuracy, and a very time consuming and expensive task. Measurement requirements and a tradeoff study relating radiometric accuracy degradation and number...

  16. Measurement of Wind Signatures on the Sea Surface using an L-band Polarimetric Radiometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl; Rotbøll, Jesper; Skou, Niels

    2002-01-01

    A series of circle flights have been carried out over the wind driven sea, using the EMIRAD L-band polarimetric radiometer, described in J. Rotboll et al. (2001). Data are calibrated and corrected for aircraft attitude, and 360 degrees azimuth profiles are generated. The results show some variation...

  17. The 1997 North American Interagency Intercomparison of Ultraviolet Spectroradiometers Including Narrowband Filter Radiometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Kathleen; Disterhoft, Patrick; Early, Edward; Thompson, Ambler; DeLuisi, John; Berndt, Jerry; Harrison, Lee; Kiedron, Peter; Ehramjian, James; Bernhard, Germar; Cabasug, Lauriana; Robertson, James; Mou, Wanfeng; Taylor, Thomas; Slusser, James; Bigelow, David; Durham, Bill; Janson, George; Hayes, Douglass; Beaubien, Mark; Beaubien, Arthur

    2002-01-01

    The fourth North American Intercomparison of Ultraviolet Monitoring Spectroradiometers was held September 15 to 25, 1997 at Table Mountain outside of Boulder, Colorado, USA. Concern over stratospheric ozone depletion has prompted several government agencies in North America to establish networks of spectroradiometers for monitoring solar ultraviolet irradiance at the surface of the Earth. The main purpose of the Intercomparison was to assess the ability of spectroradiometers to accurately measure solar ultraviolet irradiance, and to compare the results between instruments of different monitoring networks. This Intercomparison was coordinated by NIST and NOAA, and included participants from the ASRC, EPA, NIST, NSF, SERC, USDA, and YES. The UV measuring instruments included scanning spectroradiometers, spectrographs, narrow band multi-filter radiometers, and broadband radiometers. Instruments were characterized for wavelength accuracy, bandwidth, stray-light rejection, and spectral irradiance responsivity. The spectral irradiance responsivity was determined two to three times outdoors to assess temporal stability. Synchronized spectral scans of the solar irradiance were performed over several days. Using the spectral irradiance responsivities determined with the NIST traceable standard lamp, and a simple convolution technique with a Gaussian slit-scattering function to account for the different bandwidths of the instruments, the measured solar irradiance from the spectroradiometers excluding the filter radiometers at 16.5 h UTC had a relative standard deviation of ±4 % for wavelengths greater than 305 nm. The relative standard deviation for the solar irradiance at 16.5 h UTC including the filter radiometer was ±4 % for filter functions above 300 nm.

  18. Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Radiometer Subband Calibration and Calibration Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jinzheng; Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; De Amici, Giovanni; Mohammed, Priscilla N.

    2016-01-01

    The SMAP is one of four first-tier missions recommended by the US National Research Council's Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space (Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond, Space Studies Board, National Academies Press, 2007). The observatory was launched on Jan 31, 2015. The goal of the SMAP is to measure the global soil moisture and freeze/thaw from space. The L-band radiometer is the passive portion of the spaceborne instrument. It measures all four Stokes antenna temperatures and outputs counts. The Level 1B Brightness Temperature (L1B_TB) science algorithm converts radiometer counts to the Earths surface brightness temperature. The results are reported in the radiometer level 1B data product together with the calibrated antenna temperature (TA) and all of the corrections to the unwanted sources contribution. The calibrated L1B data product are required to satisfy the overall radiometer error budget of 1.3 K needed to meet the soil moisture requirement of 0.04 volumetric fraction uncertainty and the calibration drift requirement of no larger than 0.4 K per month.

  19. Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) Radiometer Subband Calibration and Calibration Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jinzheng; Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; De Amici, Giovanni; Mohammed, Priscilla

    2016-01-01

    The SMAP is one of four first-tier missions recommended by the US National Research Council's Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space (Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond, Space Studies Board, National Academies Press, 2007)]. The observatory was launched on Jan 31, 2015. The goal of the SMAP is to measure the global soil moisture and freeze/thaw from space. The L-band radiometer is the passive portion of the spaceborne instrument. It measures all four Stokes antenna temperatures and outputs counts. The Level 1B Brightness Temperature (L1B_TB) science algorithm converts radiometer counts to the Earths surface brightness temperature. The results are reported in the radiometer level 1B data product together with the calibrated antenna temperature (TA) and all of the corrections to the unwanted sources contribution. The calibrated L1B data product are required to satisfy the overall radiometer error budget of 1.3 K needed to meet the soil moisture requirement of 0.04 volumetric fraction uncertainty and the calibration drift requirement of no larger than 0.4 K per month.

  20. Future spaceborne ocean missions using high sensitivity multiple-beam radiometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels; Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl; Kristensen, Steen Savstrup

    2014-01-01

    Design considerations concerning a scanning as well as a push-broom microwave radiometer system are presented. Strict requirements to spatial and radiometric resolution leads to a multiple-beam scanner achieving good sensitivity through integration over many beams, or to a push-broom system where...

  1. The Atmospheric radiation measurement (ARM program network of microwave radiometers: instrumentation, data, and retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Cadeddu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Climate Research Facility of the US Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Program operates a network of ground-based microwave radiometers. Data and retrievals from these instruments have been available to the scientific community for almost 20 yr. In the past five years the network has expanded to include a total of 22 microwave radiometers deployed in various locations around the world. The new instruments cover a frequency range between 22 and 197 GHz and are consistently and automatically calibrated. The latest addition to the network is a new generation of three-channel radiometers, currently in the early stage of deployment at all ARM sites. The network has been specifically designed to achieve increased accuracy in the retrieval of precipitable water vapor (PWV and cloud liquid water path (LWP with the long-term goal of providing the scientific community with reliable, calibrated radiometric data and retrievals of important geophysical quantities with well-characterized uncertainties. The radiometers provide high-quality, continuous datasets that can be utilized in a wealth of applications and scientific studies. This paper presents an overview of the microwave instrumentation, calibration procedures, data, and retrievals that are available for download from the ARM data archive.

  2. Stray light effects in above-water remote-sensing reflectance from hyperspectral radiometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talone, Marco; Zibordi, Giuseppe; Ansko, Ilmar; Banks, Andrew Clive; Kuusk, Joel

    2016-05-20

    Stray light perturbations are unwanted distortions of the measured spectrum due to the nonideal performance of optical radiometers. Because of this, stray light characterization and correction is essential when accurate radiometric measurements are a necessity. In agreement with such a need, this study focused on stray light correction of hyperspectral radiometers widely applied for above-water measurements to determine the remote-sensing reflectance (RRS). Stray light of sample radiometers was experimentally characterized and a correction algorithm was developed and applied to field measurements performed in the Mediterranean Sea. Results indicate that mean stray light corrections are appreciable, with values generally varying from -1% to +1% in the 400-700 nm spectral region for downward irradiance and sky radiance, and from -1% to +4% for total radiance from the sea. Mean corrections for data products such as RRS exhibit values that depend on water type varying between -0.5% and +1% in the blue-green spectral region, with peaks up to 9% in the red in eutrophic waters. The possibility of using one common stray light correction matrix for the analyzed class of radiometers was also investigated. Results centered on RRS support such a feasibility at the expense of an increment of the uncertainty typically well below 0.5% in the blue-green and up to 1% in the red, assuming sensors are based on spectrographs from the same production batch.

  3. Page 1 um- SST measurements with IR radiometer 207 neglect of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SST measurements with IR radiometer 207 neglect of reflectiºn by assuming unity emissivity would cause an error A.T. --. (T, T, pr where T, is the radiation temperature of the atmosphere, T, is the bulk temperature ºf the scº, * is the reflectivity and p is the atmospheric trans- missivity. ("lºnges in surface temperature ; T range ...

  4. The Impact of Indoor and Outdoor Radiometer Calibration on Solar Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habte, Aron; Sengupta, Manajit; Andreas, Afshin; Reda, Ibrahim; Robinson, Justin

    2016-06-02

    This study addresses the effect of calibration methodologies on calibration responsivities and the resulting impact on radiometric measurements. The calibration responsivities used in this study are provided by NREL's broadband outdoor radiometer calibration (BORCAL) and a few prominent manufacturers. The BORCAL method provides outdoor calibration responsivity of pyranometers and pyrheliometers at a 45 degree solar zenith angle and responsivity as a function of solar zenith angle determined by clear-sky comparisons to reference irradiance. The BORCAL method also employs a thermal offset correction to the calibration responsivity of single-black thermopile detectors used in pyranometers. Indoor calibrations of radiometers by their manufacturers are performed using a stable artificial light source in a side-by-side comparison of the test radiometer under calibration to a reference radiometer of the same type. These different methods of calibration demonstrated 1percent to 2 percent differences in solar irradiance measurement. Analyzing these values will ultimately enable a reduction in radiometric measurement uncertainties and assist in developing consensus on a standard for calibration.

  5. Hybrid PSO-ASVR-based method for data fitting in the calibration of infrared radiometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Sen; Li, Chengwei, E-mail: heikuanghit@163.com [School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2016-06-15

    The present paper describes a hybrid particle swarm optimization-adaptive support vector regression (PSO-ASVR)-based method for data fitting in the calibration of infrared radiometer. The proposed hybrid PSO-ASVR-based method is based on PSO in combination with Adaptive Processing and Support Vector Regression (SVR). The optimization technique involves setting parameters in the ASVR fitting procedure, which significantly improves the fitting accuracy. However, its use in the calibration of infrared radiometer has not yet been widely explored. Bearing this in mind, the PSO-ASVR-based method, which is based on the statistical learning theory, is successfully used here to get the relationship between the radiation of a standard source and the response of an infrared radiometer. Main advantages of this method are the flexible adjustment mechanism in data processing and the optimization mechanism in a kernel parameter setting of SVR. Numerical examples and applications to the calibration of infrared radiometer are performed to verify the performance of PSO-ASVR-based method compared to conventional data fitting methods.

  6. Electronic Business Transaction Infrastructure Analysis Using Petri Nets and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Andrew Lee

    2010-01-01

    Rapid growth in eBusiness has made industry and commerce increasingly dependent on the hardware and software infrastructure that enables high-volume transaction processing across the Internet. Large transaction volumes at major industrial-firm data centers rely on robust transaction protocols and adequately provisioned hardware capacity to ensure…

  7. Improved characterization of scenes with a combination of MMW radar and radiometer information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, Stephan; Peichl, Markus; Schreiber, Eric; Anglberger, Harald

    2017-05-01

    For security related applications MMW radar and radiometer systems in remote sensing or stand-off configurations are well established techniques. The range of development stages extends from experimental to commercial systems on the civil and military market. Typical examples are systems for personnel screening at airports for concealed object detection under clothing, enhanced vision or landing aid for helicopter and vehicle based systems for suspicious object or IED detection along roads. Due to the physical principle of active (radar) and passive (radiometer) MMW measurement techniques the appearance of single objects and thus the complete scenario is rather different for radar and radiometer images. A reasonable combination of both measurement techniques could lead to enhanced object information. However, some technical requirements should be taken into account. The imaging geometry for both sensors should be nearly identical, the geometrical resolution and the wavelength should be similar and at best the imaging process should be carried out simultaneously. Therefore theoretical and experimental investigations on a suitable combination of MMW radar and radiometer information have been conducted. First experiments in 2016 have been done with an imaging linescanner based on a cylindrical imaging geometry [1]. It combines a horizontal line scan in azimuth with a linear motion in vertical direction for the second image dimension. The main drawback of the system is the limited number of pixel in vertical dimension at a certain distance. Nevertheless the near range imaging results where promising. Therefore the combination of radar and radiometer sensor was assembled on the DLR wide-field-of-view linescanner ABOSCA which is based on a spherical imaging geometry [2]. A comparison of both imaging systems is discussed. The investigations concentrate on rather basic scenarios with canonical targets like flat plates, spheres, corner reflectors and cylinders. First

  8. Preliminary Evaluation of the SMAP Radiometer Soil Moisture Product over China Using In Situ Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayong Sun

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP satellite makes coincident global measurements of soil moisture using an L-band radar instrument and an L-band radiometer. It is crucial to evaluate the errors in the newest L-band SMAP satellite-derived soil moisture products, before they are routinely used in scientific research and applications. This study represents the first evaluation of the SMAP radiometer soil moisture product over China. In this paper, a preliminary evaluation was performed using sparse in situ measurements from 655 China Meteorological Administration (CMA monitoring stations between 1 April 2015 and 31 August 2016. The SMAP radiometer-derived soil moisture product was evaluated against two schemes of original soil moisture and the soil moisture anomaly in different geographical zones and land cover types. Four performance metrics, i.e., bias, root mean square error (RMSE, unbiased root mean square error (ubRMSE, and the correlation coefficient (R, were used in the accuracy evaluation. The results indicated that the SMAP radiometer-derived soil moisture product agreed relatively well with the in situ measurements, with ubRMSE values of 0.058 cm3·cm−3 and 0.039 cm3·cm−3 based on original data and anomaly data, respectively. The values of the SMAP radiometer-based soil moisture product were overestimated in wet areas, especially in the Southwest China, South China, Southeast China, East China, and Central China zones. The accuracies over croplands and in Northeast China were the worst. Soil moisture, surface roughness, and vegetation are crucial factors contributing to the error in the soil moisture product. Moreover, radio frequency interference contributes to the overestimation over the northern portion of the East China zone. This study provides guidelines for the application of the SMAP-derived soil moisture product in China and acts as a reference for improving the retrieval algorithm.

  9. Millimeter wave radiometer installation in Río Gallegos, southern Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orte, P. F.; Salvador, J.; Wolfram, E.; D'Elia, R.; Nagahama, T.; Kojima, Y.; Tanada, R.; Kuwahara, T.; Morihira, A.; Quel, E.; Mizuno, A.

    2011-05-01

    With the aim of contribution to the study of atmospheric ozone layer, a new sensitive radiometer for atmospheric minor constituents has been installed in the Observatorio Atmosférico de la Patagonia Austral, División LIDAR, CEILAP (CITEDEF-CONICET), in October 2010. This observatory is established in the city of Rio Gallegos (51° 36' S, 69° 19' W), Argentina, close to the spring ozone hole. The millimeter wave radiometer was developed in STEL (Solar Terrestrial Environment Laboratory), Nagoya University, Japan. This passive remote sensing instrument is able to measure the ozone (O3) amount in the high stratosphere and mesosphere continuously and automatically with a high time resolution. The millimeter wave radiometer ozone profiles will be supplemented with the ozone profiles obtained from the DIAL system existent in the observatory. The millimeter wave radiometer is based on the spectral signal detection from the atmosphere due to the molecular rotational transition of molecules under study. The operation is based on a superheterodyne system which uses a Superconductor-Insulator-Superconductor (SIS) mixer receiver operating at 203.6GHz. The SIS mixer junction consists of a sandwich structure of Nb/AlOx/Nb, and is cooled to 4.2K with a closed cycle He-gas refrigerator. Two additional heterodyne-mixed stages are realized with the aim to shift the measured spectral line until a frequency around of 500 MHz. A FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) spectrometer system is used as a back end. The aims of this work are to show the potential of the millimeter wave radiometer installed in the subpolar latitudes close to the polar ozone hole and to present the preliminary result of the first measurements.

  10. Calibration of ground-based microwave radiometers - Accuracy assessment and recommendations for network users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospichal, Bernhard; Küchler, Nils; Löhnert, Ulrich; Crewell, Susanne; Czekala, Harald; Güldner, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Ground-based microwave radiometers (MWR) are becoming widely used in atmospheric remote sensing and start to be routinely operated by national weather services and other institutions. However, common standards for calibration of these radiometers and a detailed knowledge about the error characteristics is needed, in order to assimilate the data into models. Intercomparisons of calibrations by different MWRs have rarely been done. Therefore, two calibration experiments in Lindenberg (2014) and Meckenheim (2015) were performed in the frame of TOPROF (Cost action ES1303) in order to assess uncertainties and differences between various instruments. In addition, a series of experiments were taken in Oklahoma in autumn 2014. The focus lay on the performance of the two main instrument types, which are currently used operationally. These are the MP-Profiler series by Radiometrics Corporation as well as the HATPRO series by Radiometer Physics GmbH (RPG). Both instrument types are operating in two frequency bands, one along the 22 GHz water vapour line, the other one at the lower wing of the 60 GHz oxygen absorption complex. The goal was to establish protocols for providing quality controlled (QC) MWR data and their uncertainties. To this end, standardized calibration procedures for MWR were developed and recommendations for radiometer users were compiled. We focus here mainly on data types, integration times and optimal settings for calibration intervals, both for absolute (liquid nitrogen, tipping curve) as well as relative (hot load, noise diode) calibrations. Besides the recommendations for ground-based MWR operators, we will present methods to determine the accuracy of the calibration as well as means for automatic data quality control. In addition, some results from the intercomparison of different radiometers will be discussed.

  11. Potential soil moisture products from the aquarius radiometer and scatterometer using an observing system simulation experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Luo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Using an observing system simulation experiment (OSSE, we investigate the potential soil moisture retrieval capability of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA Aquarius radiometer (L-band 1.413 GHz and scatterometer (L-band, 1.260 GHz. We estimate potential errors in soil moisture retrievals and identify the sources that could cause those errors. The OSSE system includes (i a land surface model in the NASA Land Information System, (ii a radiative transfer and backscatter model, (iii a realistic orbital sampling model, and (iv an inverse soil moisture retrieval model. We execute the OSSE over a 1000 × 2200 km2 region in the central United States, including the Red and Arkansas river basins. Spatial distributions of soil moisture retrieved from the radiometer and scatterometer are close to the synthetic truth. High root mean square errors (RMSEs of radiometer retrievals are found over the heavily vegetated regions, while large RMSEs of scatterometer retrievals are scattered over the entire domain. The temporal variations of soil moisture are realistically captured over a sparely vegetated region with correlations 0.98 and 0.63, and RMSEs 1.28% and 8.23% vol/vol for radiometer and scatterometer, respectively. Over the densely vegetated region, soil moisture exhibits larger temporal variation than the truth, leading to correlation 0.70 and 0.67, respectively, and RMSEs 9.49% and 6.09% vol/vol respectively. The domain-averaged correlations and RMSEs suggest that radiometer is more accurate than scatterometer in retrieving soil moisture. The analysis also demonstrates that the accuracy of the retrieved soil moisture is affected by vegetation coverage and spatial aggregation.

  12. Potential Soil Moisture Products from the Aquarius Radiometer and Scatterometer Using an Observing System Simulation Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Yan [I.M. Systems Group at NOAA/NCEP/EMC; Feng, Xia [George Mason University; Houser, Paul [George Mason University; Anantharaj, Valentine G [ORNL; Fan, Xingang [Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green; De Lannoy, Gabrielle [Ghent University, Belgium; Zhan, Xiwu [NOAA/NESDIS Center for Satellite Applications and Research; Dabbiru, Lalitha [Mississippi State University (MSU)

    2013-01-01

    Using an observing system simulation experiment (OSSE), we investigate the potential soil moisture retrieval capability of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Aquarius radiometer (L-band 1.413 GHz) and scatterometer (L-band, 1.260 GHz). We estimate potential errors in soil moisture retrievals and identify the sources that could cause those errors. The OSSE system includes (i) a land surface model in the NASA Land Information System, (ii) a radiative transfer and backscatter model, (iii) a realistic orbital sampling model, and (iv) an inverse soil moisture retrieval model. We execute the OSSE over a 1000 2200 km2 region in the central United States, including the Red and Arkansas river basins. Spatial distributions of soil moisture retrieved from the radiometer and scatterometer are close to the synthetic truth. High root mean square errors (RMSEs) of radiometer retrievals are found over the heavily vegetated regions, while large RMSEs of scatterometer retrievals are scattered over the entire domain. The temporal variations of soil moisture are realistically captured over a sparely vegetated region with correlations 0.98 and 0.63, and RMSEs 1.28% and 8.23% vol/vol for radiometer and scatterometer, respectively. Over the densely vegetated region, soil moisture exhibits larger temporal variation than the truth, leading to correlation 0.70 and 0.67, respectively, and RMSEs 9.49% and 6.09% vol/vol respectively. The domain-averaged correlations and RMSEs suggest that radiometer is more accurate than scatterometer in retrieving soil moisture. The analysis also demonstrates that the accuracy of the retrieved soil moisture is affected by vegetation coverage and spatial aggregation.

  13. The KM3NeT Digital Optical Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivolo, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    KM3NeT is a European deep-sea multidisciplinary research infrastructure in the Mediterranean Sea. It will host a km3-scale neutrino telescope and dedicated instruments for long-term and continuous measurements for Earth and Sea sciences. The KM3NeT neutrino telescope is a 3-dimensional array of Digital Optical Modules, suspended in the sea by means of vertical string structures, called Detection Units, supported by two pre-stretched Dyneema ropes, anchored to the seabed and kept taut with a system of buoys. The Digital Optical Module represents the active part of the neutrino telescope. It is composed by a 17-inch, 14 mm thick borosilicate glass (Vitrovex) spheric vessel housing 31 photomultiplier tubes with 3-inch photocathode diameter and the associated front-end and readout electronics. The technical solution adopted for the KM3NeT optical modules is characterized by an innovative design, considering that existing neutrino telescopes, Baikal, IceCube and ANTARES, all use large photomultipliers, typically with a diameter of 8″ or 10″. It offers several advantages: higher sensitive surface (1260 cm2), weaker sensitivity to Earth's magnetic field, better distinction between single-photon and multi-photon events (photon counting) and directional information with an almost isotropic field of view. In this contribution the design and the performance of the KM3NeT Digital Optical Modules are discussed, with a particular focus on enabling technologies and integration procedure.

  14. -Net Approach to Sensor -Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusco Giordano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensors rely on battery power, and in many applications it is difficult or prohibitive to replace them. Hence, in order to prolongate the system's lifetime, some sensors can be kept inactive while others perform all the tasks. In this paper, we study the -coverage problem of activating the minimum number of sensors to ensure that every point in the area is covered by at least sensors. This ensures higher fault tolerance, robustness, and improves many operations, among which position detection and intrusion detection. The -coverage problem is trivially NP-complete, and hence we can only provide approximation algorithms. In this paper, we present an algorithm based on an extension of the classical -net technique. This method gives an -approximation, where is the number of sensors in an optimal solution. We do not make any particular assumption on the shape of the areas covered by each sensor, besides that they must be closed, connected, and without holes.

  15. NETS - Danish participation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsen, S. (Grontmij - Carl Bro, Glostrup (Denmark)); Theel, C. (Baltic Sea Solutions, Holeby (Denmark))

    2008-12-15

    Within the NICe-funded project 'Nordic Environmental Technology Solutions (NETS)' a new type of networking at the Nordic level was organized in order to jointly exploit the rapidly growing market potential in the environmental technology sector. The project aimed at increased and professionalized commercialization of Nordic Cleantech in energy and water business segments through 1) closer cooperation and joint marketing activities, 2) a website, 3) cleantech product information via brochures and publications 4) and participating in relevant trade fairs and other industry events. Facilitating business-to-business activities was another core task for the NETS project partners from Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark with the aim to encourage total solutions for combined Cleantech system offers. The project has achieved to establish a Cleantech register of 600 Nordic Cleantech companies, a network of 86 member enterprises, produced several publications and brochures for direct technology promotion and a website for direct access to company profiles and contact data. The project partners have attended 14 relevant international Cleantech trade fairs and conferences and facilitated business-to-business contacts added by capacity building offers through two company workshops. The future challenge for the project partners and Nordic Cleantech will be to coordinate the numerous efforts within the Nordic countries in order to reach concerted action and binding of member companies for reliable services, an improved visibility and knowledge exchange. With Cleantech's growing market influence and public awareness, the need to develop total solutions is increasing likewise. Marketing efforts should be encouraged cross-sectional and cross-border among the various levels of involved actors from both the public and the private sector. (au)

  16. EmojiNet: Building a Machine Readable Sense Inventory for Emoji

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijeratne, Sanjaya; Balasuriya, Lakshika; Sheth, Amit; Doran, Derek

    2017-01-01

    Emoji are a contemporary and extremely popular way to enhance electronic communication. Without rigid semantics attached to them, emoji symbols take on different meanings based on the context of a message. Thus, like the word sense disambiguation task in natural language processing, machines also need to disambiguate the meaning or ‘sense’ of an emoji. In a first step toward achieving this goal, this paper presents EmojiNet, the first machine readable sense inventory for emoji. EmojiNet is a resource enabling systems to link emoji with their context-specific meaning. It is automatically constructed by integrating multiple emoji resources with BabelNet, which is the most comprehensive multilingual sense inventory available to date. The paper discusses its construction, evaluates the automatic resource creation process, and presents a use case where EmojiNet disambiguates emoji usage in tweets. EmojiNet is available online for use at http://emojinet.knoesis.org. PMID:28736776

  17. Mars MetNet Mission - Martian Atmospheric Observational Post Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Ari-Matti; Haukka, Harri; Aleksashkin, Sergey; Arruego, Ignacio; Schmidt, Walter; Genzer, Maria; Vazquez, Luis; Siikonen, Timo; Palin, Matti

    2017-04-01

    A new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is under development in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested. 1. MetNet Lander The MetNet landing vehicles are using an inflatable entry and descent system instead of rigid heat shields and parachutes as earlier semi-hard landing devices have used. This way the ratio of the payload mass to the overall mass is optimized. The landing impact will burrow the payload container into the Martian soil providing a more favorable thermal environment for the electronics and a suitable orientation of the telescopic boom with external sensors and the radio link antenna. It is planned to deploy several tens of MNLs on the Martian surface operating at least partly at the same time to allow meteorological network science. 2. Strawman Scientific Payload The strawman payload of the two MNL precursor models includes the following instruments: Atmospheric instruments: - MetBaro Pressure device - MetHumi Humidity device - MetTemp Temperature sensors Optical devices: - PanCam Panoramic - MetSIS Solar irradiance sensor with OWLS optical wireless system for data transfer - DS Dust sensor Composition and Structure Devices: Tri-axial magnetometer MOURA Tri-axial System Accelerometer The descent processes dynamic properties are monitored by a special 3-axis

  18. Precipitation Estimation Using Combined Radar/Radiometer Measurements Within the GPM Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission is an international satellite mission specifically designed to unify and advance precipitation measurements from a constellation of research and operational microwave sensors. The GPM mission centers upon the deployment of a Core Observatory in a 65o non-Sun-synchronous orbit to serve as a physics observatory and a transfer standard for intersatellite calibration of constellation radiometers. The GPM Core Observatory will carry a Ku/Ka-band Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) and a conical-scanning multi-channel (10-183 GHz) GPM Microwave Radiometer (GMI). The DPR will be the first dual-frequency radar in space to provide not only measurements of 3-D precipitation structures but also quantitative information on microphysical properties of precipitating particles needed for improving precipitation retrievals from microwave sensors. The DPR and GMI measurements will together provide a database that relates vertical hydrometeor profiles to multi-frequency microwave radiances over a variety of environmental conditions across the globe. This combined database will be used as a common transfer standard for improving the accuracy and consistency of precipitation retrievals from all constellation radiometers. For global coverage, GPM relies on existing satellite programs and new mission opportunities from a consortium of partners through bilateral agreements with either NASA or JAXA. Each constellation member may have its unique scientific or operational objectives but contributes microwave observations to GPM for the generation and dissemination of unified global precipitation data products. In addition to the DPR and GMI on the Core Observatory, the baseline GPM constellation consists of the following sensors: (1) Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) instruments on the U.S. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites, (2) the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-2 (AMSR-2) on the GCOM-W1

  19. Application and Theory of Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 13th International Conference onApplication and Theory of Petri Nets, held in Sheffield, England, in June 1992. The aim of the Petri net conferences is to create a forum for discussing progress in the application and theory of Petri nets. Typically....... Balbo and W. Reisig, 18 submitted papers, and seven project papers. The submitted papers and project presentations were selectedby the programme committee and a panel of referees from a large number of submissions....

  20. Are You Neutral About Net Neutrality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-20

    Information Resources Management College National Defense University Are You Neutral About Net Neutrality ? A presentation for Systems & Software...author uses Verizon FiOS for phone, TV, and internet service 3 Agenda Net Neutrality —Through 2 Lenses Who Are the Players & What Are They Saying...Medical Treatment Mini-Case Studies Updates Closing Thoughts 4 Working Definitions of Net Neutrality "Network Neutrality" is the concept that

  1. Texture Based Image Analysis With Neural Nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilovici, Irina S.; Ong, Hoo-Tee; Ostrander, Kim E.

    1990-03-01

    In this paper, we combine direct image statistics and spatial frequency domain techniques with a neural net model to analyze texture based images. The resultant optimal texture features obtained from the direct and transformed image form the exemplar pattern of the neural net. The proposed approach introduces an automated texture analysis applied to metallography for determining the cooling rate and mechanical working of the materials. The results suggest that the proposed method enhances the practical applications of neural nets and texture extraction features.

  2. Factors associated with mosquito net use by individuals in households owning nets in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graves Patricia M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ownership of insecticidal mosquito nets has dramatically increased in Ethiopia since 2006, but the proportion of persons with access to such nets who use them has declined. It is important to understand individual level net use factors in the context of the home to modify programmes so as to maximize net use. Methods Generalized linear latent and mixed models (GLLAMM were used to investigate net use using individual level data from people living in net-owning households from two surveys in Ethiopia: baseline 2006 included 12,678 individuals from 2,468 households and a sub-sample of the Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS in 2007 included 14,663 individuals from 3,353 households. Individual factors (age, sex, pregnancy; net factors (condition, age, net density; household factors (number of rooms [2006] or sleeping spaces [2007], IRS, women's knowledge and school attendance [2007 only], wealth, altitude; and cluster level factors (rural or urban were investigated in univariate and multi-variable models for each survey. Results In 2006, increased net use was associated with: age 25-49 years (adjusted (a OR = 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.2-1.7 compared to children U5; female gender (aOR = 1.4; 95% CI 1.2-1.5; fewer nets with holes (Ptrend = 0.002; and increasing net density (Ptrend [all nets in HH good] = 1.6; 95% CI 1.2-2.1; increasing net density (Ptrend [per additional space] = 0.6, 95% CI 0.5-0.7; more old nets (aOR [all nets in HH older than 12 months] = 0.5; 95% CI 0.3-0.7; and increasing household altitude (Ptrend Conclusion In both surveys, net use was more likely by women, if nets had fewer holes and were at higher net per person density within households. School-age children and young adults were much less likely to use a net. Increasing availability of nets within households (i.e. increasing net density, and improving net condition while focusing on education and promotion of net use, especially in school-age children

  3. Pro Agile NET Development with Scrum

    CERN Document Server

    Blankenship, Jerrel; Millett, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Pro Agile .NET Development with SCRUM guides you through a real-world ASP.NET project and shows how agile methodology is put into practice. There is plenty of literature on the theory behind agile methodologies, but no book on the market takes the concepts of agile practices and applies these in a practical manner to an end-to-end ASP.NET project, especially the estimating, requirements and management aspects of a project. Pro Agile .NET Development with SCRUM takes you through the initial stages of a project - gathering requirements and setting up an environment - through to the development a

  4. Pro ASP.NET MVC 4

    CERN Document Server

    Freeman, Adam

    2012-01-01

    The ASP.NET MVC 4 Framework is the latest evolution of Microsoft's ASP.NET web platform. It provides a high-productivity programming model that promotes cleaner code architecture, test-driven development, and powerful extensibility, combined with all the benefits of ASP.NET. ASP.NET MVC 4 contains a number of significant advances over previous versions. New mobile and desktop templates (employing adaptive rendering) are included together with support for jQuery Mobile for the first time. New display modes allow your application to select views based on the browser that's making the request whi

  5. Professional Visual Basic 2010 and .NET 4

    CERN Document Server

    Sheldon, Bill; Sharkey, Kent

    2010-01-01

    Intermediate and advanced coverage of Visual Basic 2010 and .NET 4 for professional developers. If you've already covered the basics and want to dive deep into VB and .NET topics that professional programmers use most, this is your book. You'll find a quick review of introductory topics-always helpful-before the author team of experts moves you quickly into such topics as data access with ADO.NET, Language Integrated Query (LINQ), security, ASP.NET web programming with Visual Basic, Windows workflow, threading, and more. You'll explore all the new features of Visual Basic 2010 as well as all t

  6. NASA Net Zero Energy Buildings Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless, S.; Scheib, J.; Torcellini, P.; Hendron, B.; Slovensky, M.

    2014-10-01

    In preparation for the time-phased net zero energy requirement for new federal buildings starting in 2020, set forth in Executive Order 13514, NASA requested that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a roadmap for NASA's compliance. NASA detailed a Statement of Work that requested information on strategic, organizational, and tactical aspects of net zero energy buildings. In response, this document presents a high-level approach to net zero energy planning, design, construction, and operations, based on NREL's first-hand experience procuring net zero energy construction, and based on NREL and other industry research on net zero energy feasibility. The strategic approach to net zero energy starts with an interpretation of the executive order language relating to net zero energy. Specifically, this roadmap defines a net zero energy acquisition process as one that sets an aggressive energy use intensity goal for the building in project planning, meets the reduced demand goal through energy efficiency strategies and technologies, then adds renewable energy in a prioritized manner, using building-associated, emission- free sources first, to offset the annual energy use required at the building; the net zero energy process extends through the life of the building, requiring a balance of energy use and production in each calendar year.

  7. Towards a Standard for Modular Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart; Petrucci, Laure

    2009-01-01

    When designing complex systems, mechanisms for structuring, composing, and reusing system components are crucial. Today, there are many approaches for equipping Petri nets with such mechanisms. In the context of defining a standard interchange format for Petri nets, modular PNML was defined....... Moreover, we present and discuss some more advanced features of modular Petri nets that could be included in the standard. This way, we provide a formal foundation and a basis for a discussion of features to be included in the upcoming standard of a module concept for Petri nets in general and for high...

  8. Development of the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) radiometer derived landscape freeze/thaw product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colliander, A.; Xu, X.; Dunbar, R. S.; Derksen, C.; Kim, Y.; Kimball, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    A baseline SMAP mission objective was to determine the land surface binary freeze/thaw (FT) state for northern (>45°N) regions with 80% spatial classification accuracy at 3 km resolution and 2-day average intervals. These requirements were initially achieved from the SMAP radar until the sensor failed in July 2015. The FT algorithm is now transitioning to using SMAP radiometer inputs. The main compromises of this change are a coarse (36 km) radiometer footprint, enhanced noise and potential FT signal degradation from seasonal vegetation biomass, soil moisture and surface inundation changes. The new daily passive FT product (L3_FT_P) is based on the same seasonal threshold algorithm as the radar derived product (L3_FT_A): instantaneous SMAP measurements are compared to reference signatures acquired during seasonal frozen and thawed states. Instead of radar inputs, the normalized polarization ratio (NPR) is calculated from SMAP radiometer measurements. The L3_FT_P algorithm is applied using NPR inputs, whereby NPR decreases and increases are associated with respective landscape freezing and thawing. A lower NPR under frozen conditions is due to smaller V-pol brightness temperature increases and larger H-pol increases. Using in situ measurements from core validation sites, the temporal behavior of backscatter and NPR measurements were evaluated during the spring 2015 radar and radiometer overlap period. The transition from frozen to thawed states produced a NPR response similar in timing and magnitude to the radar response, resulting in similar freeze to thaw seasonal transition dates. While the post-thaw radar backscatter consistently remained at elevated values relative to the frozen state, the NPR drifted downwards following the main thaw transition (due to de-polarization of the scene), which may introduce false freeze classification errors. Both radar and radiometer results tended to lead observed soil thawing due to strong sensitivity of the microwave

  9. EmojiNet: Building a Machine Readable Sense Inventory for Emoji

    OpenAIRE

    Wijeratne, Sanjaya; Balasuriya, Lakshika; Sheth, Amit; Doran, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Emoji are a contemporary and extremely popular way to enhance electronic communication. Without rigid semantics attached to them, emoji symbols take on different meanings based on the context of a message. Thus, like the word sense disambiguation task in natural language processing, machines also need to disambiguate the meaning or ?sense? of an emoji. In a first step toward achieving this goal, this paper presents EmojiNet, the first machine readable sense inventory for emoji. EmojiNet is a ...

  10. Digital optical modules for the KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalekin, Oleg [Universitaet Erlangen, ECAP (Germany); Collaboration: ANTARES-KM3NeT-Erlangen-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    KM3NeT is multi-cubic-kilometer neutrino telescope under construction in the Mediterranean Sea. In the currently running Phase 1 of the project, almost 30 detection units - 700 m tall vertical structures holding 18 Digital Optical Modules (DOMs) each - will be produced and deployed. A KM3NeT DOM consists of a pressure resistant glass sphere encapsulating 31 photomultiplier tubes of 80 mm diameter, readout electronics and additional instrumentation for calibration and monitoring. The Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics is one of the DOM integration sites of the project. This contribution describes the design, functionality and integration procedure of the KM3NeT DOM.

  11. Nocturnal aerosol optical thickness measured with a sun/moon photometer developed by improving the Prede Sky-radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiobara, Masataka; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Hishida, Kosuke; Uchiyama, Akihiro

    2017-04-01

    Sun photometry to obtain the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) needs the sun. Since the moon must be another source of light instead of the sun during night-time, a moon photometer was developed by improving the Prede POM-02 Sky-radiometer to measure the spectral lunar irradiance. The original POM-02 model has an electric dynamic range of 109 to measure both of direct- and circum-solar radiation. The electronics of POM-02 was upgraded to include a 1011 dynamic range for better performance to measure the direct lunar irradiance at the visible range as well as the sun and sky measurements with a single instrument. A CCD-based position sensor was newly developed to track the moon as well as the sun continuously. The position of the moon/sun is determined with accuracy of better than 0.01° by a real-time processing system using the CCD imager. Test measurements with the improved POM-02 instrument were performed for the half to full moon conditions, and showed a good performance for lunar photometry to obtain the nocturnal AOTs.

  12. Experiments and simulation of a net closing mechanism for tether-net capture of space debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, Inna; Thomsen, Benjamin; Botta, Eleonora M.; Misra, Arun K.

    2017-10-01

    This research addresses the design and testing of a debris containment system for use in a tether-net approach to space debris removal. The tether-net active debris removal involves the ejection of a net from a spacecraft by applying impulses to masses on the net, subsequent expansion of the net, the envelopment and capture of the debris target, and the de-orbiting of the debris via a tether to the chaser spacecraft. To ensure a debris removal mission's success, it is important that the debris be successfully captured and then, secured within the net. To this end, we present a concept for a net closing mechanism, which we believe will permit consistently successful debris capture via a simple and unobtrusive design. This net closing system functions by extending the main tether connecting the chaser spacecraft and the net vertex to the perimeter and around the perimeter of the net, allowing the tether to actuate closure of the net in a manner similar to a cinch cord. A particular embodiment of the design in a laboratory test-bed is described: the test-bed itself is comprised of a scaled-down tether-net, a supporting frame and a mock-up debris. Experiments conducted with the facility demonstrate the practicality of the net closing system. A model of the net closure concept has been integrated into the previously developed dynamics simulator of the chaser/tether-net/debris system. Simulations under tether tensioning conditions demonstrate the effectiveness of the closure concept for debris containment, in the gravity-free environment of space, for a realistic debris target. The on-ground experimental test-bed is also used to showcase its utility for validating the dynamics simulation of the net deployment, and a full-scale automated setup would make possible a range of validation studies of other aspects of a tether-net debris capture mission.

  13. FPGA shore station demonstrator for KM3NeT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anassontzis, E.G. [Physics Department, University of Athens (Greece); Belias, A.; Koutsoukos, S.; Koutsoumpos, V. [NESTOR Institute for Astroparticle Physics, National Observatory of Athens, 24001 Pylos (Greece); Manolopoulos, K., E-mail: kmanolo@phys.uoa.gr [NESTOR Institute for Astroparticle Physics, National Observatory of Athens, 24001 Pylos (Greece); Resvanis, L.K. [Physics Department, University of Athens (Greece); NESTOR Institute for Astroparticle Physics, National Observatory of Athens, 24001 Pylos (Greece)

    2013-10-11

    The KM3NeT readout concept is based on a point-to-point optical network connecting the 10,000 optical modules in the deep-sea neutrino telescope with the shore station. The numerous fiber optic channels arriving at the shore station will be concentrated on the shore electronics systems, which will receive, merge and time order the data, and send them to the DAQ system. Although the network functionality is bi-directional, the physical channel allocation is asymmetric; most channels are assigned to the data reception and only a few channels are used for control with data transport from shore to the telescope. We will discuss the FPGA based platform systems for the shore station and the appropriate firmware implementation for the data gathering and broadcast demands of a neutrino telescope. We will present our experiences based on FPGA evaluation platforms suitable to build a demonstrator of the KM3NeT shore station.

  14. Net Neutrality: The Great Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Mary

    2015-01-01

    FCC Chairman Tom Wheeler, speaking at the International Consumer Electronics Show in January, called for an open Internet which would make sure that ISPs had economic incentives to build better networks while still protecting consumers and innovators. His specific recommendations were shared with the other members of the FCC in February. One of…

  15. HANPP Collection: Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) as a Percentage of Net Primary Product (NPP) portion of the HANPP Collection represents a map identifying...

  16. Price smarter on the Net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, W; Marn, M; Zawada, C

    2001-02-01

    Companies generally have set prices on the Internet in two ways. Many start-ups have offered untenably low prices in a rush to capture first-mover advantage. Many incumbents have simply charged the same prices on-line as they do off-line. Either way, companies are missing a big opportunity. The fundamental value of the Internet lies not in lowering prices or making them consistent but in optimizing them. After all, if it's easy for customers to compare prices on the Internet, it's also easy for companies to track customers' behavior and adjust prices accordingly. The Net lets companies optimize prices in three ways. First, it lets them set and announce prices with greater precision. Different prices can be tested easily, and customers' responses can be collected instantly. Companies can set the most profitable prices, and they can tap into previously hidden customer demand. Second, because it's so easy to change prices on the Internet, companies can adjust prices in response to even small fluctuations in market conditions, customer demand, or competitors' behavior. Third, companies can use the clickstream data and purchase histories that it collects through the Internet to segment customers quickly. Then it can offer segment-specific prices or promotions immediately. By taking full advantage of the unique possibilities afforded by the Internet to set prices with precision, adapt to changing circumstances quickly, and segment customers accurately, companies can get their pricing right. It's one of the ultimate drivers of e-business success.

  17. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Cloud Top Temperature (CTT) Environmental Data Record (EDR) from IDPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a high quality operational Environmental Data Record (EDR) from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument onboard the...

  18. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Imagery (not Near Constant Contrast) Environmental Data Record (EDR) from IDPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a high quality operational Environmental Data Record (EDR) from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument onboard the...

  19. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Near Constant Contrast (NCC) Imagery Environmental Data Record (EDR) from IDPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a high quality operational Environmental Data Record (EDR) from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument onboard the...

  20. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Land Surface Temperature (LST) Environmental Data Record (EDR) from IDPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a high quality operational Environmental Data Record (EDR) of Land Surface Temperature (LST) from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite...

  1. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Ice Surface Temperature (IST) Environmental Data Record (EDR) from IDPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a high quality operational Environmental Data Record (EDR) from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument onboard the...

  2. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Volcanic Ash Detection and Height Environmental Data Record (EDR) from NDE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a high quality operational Environmental Data Record (EDR) of volcanic ash from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer (VIIRS) instrument...

  3. Nimbus-2 High-Resolution Infrared Radiometer (HRIR) Imagery of Cloud Cover at Night on 70 mm Film V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The HRIRN2IM data product contains scanned negatives of photofacsimile 70mm film strips from the Nimbus-2 High-Resolution Infrared Radiometer. The images contain...

  4. Nimbus-1 High-Resolution Infrared Radiometer (HRIR) Imagery of Cloud Cover at Night on 70 mm Film V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The HRIRN1IM data product contains scanned negatives of photofacsimile 70mm film strips from the Nimbus-1 High-Resolution Infrared Radiometer. The images contain...

  5. Nimbus-6 High Resolution Infrared Radiometer (HIRS) Level 1 Calibrated Radiances for the Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP) V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nimbus-6 High Resolution Infrared Radiometer (HIRS) Level 1 Calibrated Radiances for the Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP) data product contains daily...

  6. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Sea Ice Characterization (SIC) Environmental Data Record (EDR) from IDPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains an Environmental Data Record (EDR) of Sea Ice Characterization (SIC) from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument...

  7. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Cloud Base Height (CBH) Environmental Data Record (EDR) from IDPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a high quality operational Environmental Data Record (EDR) of Cloud Base Heights (CBH) from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite...

  8. GPM GROUND VALIDATION ENVIRONMENT CANADA (EC) PASSIVE MICROWAVE RADIOMETER AND SOIL MOISTURE-TEMPERATURE DATA GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Environment Canada (EC) Passive Microwave Radiometer and Soil Moisture-Temperature Data GCPEx dataset gathered data during the GPM...

  9. NPP Visible Infrared Imager-Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Diffuse Attenuation Coefficient for Downwelling Irradiance (KD) Global Mapped Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Visible and Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is a multi-disciplinary instrument that is being flown on the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) series of...

  10. NPP Visible Infrared Imager-Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Diffuse Attenuation Coefficient for Downwelling Irradiance (KD) Global Binned Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Visible and Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is a multi-disciplinary instrument that is being flown on the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) series of...

  11. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Ice Thickness and Age Environmental Data Records (EDRs) from NDE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a high quality operational Environmental Data Record (EDR) of Ice Thickness and Age from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS)...

  12. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Cloud Type and Phase Environmental Data Record (EDR) from NDE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a high quality operational Environmental Data Record (EDR) of cloud type and phase from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS)...

  13. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Ocean Color/Chlorophyll (OCC) Environmental Data Record (EDR) from IDPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a high quality operational Environmental Data Record (EDR) of Ocean Color/Chlorophyll (OCC) from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite...

  14. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Cloud Top Height (CTH) Environmental Data Record (EDR) from IDPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a high quality operational Environmental Data Record (EDR) from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument onboard the...

  15. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Cloud Cover Layer (CCL) Environmental Data Record (EDR) from IDPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a high quality Environmental Data Record (EDR) of Cloud Cover Layers (CCL) from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS)...

  16. Design studies of large aperture, high-resolution Earth science microwave radiometers compatible with small launch vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Lyle C.; Bailey, M. C.; Harrington, Richard F.; Kendall, Bruce M.; Campbell, Thomas G.

    1994-01-01

    High-spatial-resolution microwave radiometer sensing from space with reasonable swath widths and revisit times favors large aperture systems. However, with traditional precision antenna design, the size and weight requirements for such systems are in conflict with the need to emphasize small launch vehicles. This paper describes tradeoffs between the science requirements, basic operational parameters, and expected sensor performance for selected satellite radiometer concepts utilizing novel lightweight compactly packaged real apertures. Antenna, feed, and radiometer subsystem design and calibration are presented. Preliminary results show that novel lightweight real aperture coupled with state-of-the-art radiometer designs are compatible with small launch systems, and hold promise for high-resolution earth science measurements of sea ice, precipitation, soil moisture, sea surface temperature, and ocean wind speeds.

  17. HURRICANE AND SEVERE STORM SENTINEL (HS3) GLOBAL HAWK HIGH ALTITUDE MMIC SOUNDING RADIOMETER (HAMSR) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) Global Hawk High Altitude MMIC Sounding Radiometer (HAMSR) dataset includes measurements gathered by the HAMSR...

  18. Development of Breakthrough Technology for Spaceflight Microwave Radiometers? RFI Noise Detection and Mitigation Based on the HHT2 Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microwave active/passive radiometer is the premier instrument for remote sensing of Earth. However, it carries the price of non-linear response by its horn-receiver...

  19. Airborne radar and radiometer experiment for quantitative remote measurements of rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozu, Toshiaki; Meneghini, Robert; Boncyk, Wayne; Wilheit, Thomas T.; Nakamura, Kenji

    1989-01-01

    An aircraft experiment has been conducted with a dual-frequency (10 GHz and 35 GHz) radar/radiometer system and an 18-GHz radiometer to test various rain-rate retrieval algorithms from space. In the experiment, which took place in the fall of 1988 at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, VA, both stratiform and convective storms were observed. A ground-based radar and rain gauges were also used to obtain truth data. An external radar calibration is made with rain gauge data, thereby enabling quantitative reflectivity measurements. Comparisons between path attenuations derived from the surface return and from the radar reflectivity profile are made to test the feasibility of a technique to estimate the raindrop size distribution from simultaneous radar and path-attenuation measurements.

  20. Characteristic of a Digital Correlation Radiometer Back End with Finite Wordlength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sayak K.; Hyde, David W.; James, Mark W.; Cecil, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    The performance characteristic of a digital correlation radiometer signal processing back end (DBE) is analyzed using a simulator. The particular design studied here corresponds to the airborne Hurricane Imaging radiometer which was jointly developed by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, University of Michigan, University of Central Florida and NOAA. Laboratory and flight test data is found to be in accord with the simulation results. Overall design seems to be optimum for the typical input signal dynamic range. It was found that the performance of the digital kurtosis could be improved by lowering the DBE input power level. An unusual scaling between digital correlation channels observed in the instrument data is confirmed to be a DBE characteristic.

  1. Analysis of RFI Identification and Mitigation in CAROLS Radiometer Data Using a Hardware Spectrum Analyser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Caudoux

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A method to identify and mitigate radio frequency interference (RFI in microwave radiometry based on the use of a spectrum analyzer has been developed. This method has been tested with CAROLS L-band airborne radiometer data that are strongly corrupted by RFI. RFI is a major limiting factor in passive microwave remote sensing interpretation. Although the 1.400–1.427 GHz bandwidth is protected, RFI sources close to these frequencies are still capable of corrupting radiometric measurements. In order to reduce the detrimental effects of RFI on brightness temperature measurements, a new spectrum analyzer has been added to the CAROLS radiometer system. A post processing algorithm is proposed, based on selective filters within the useful bandwidth divided into sub-bands. Two discriminant analyses based on the computation of kurtosis and Euclidian distances have been compared evaluated and validated in order to accurately separate the RF interference from natural signals.

  2. The Cubesat Radiometer Radio Frequency Interference Technology Validation (CubeRRT) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, S.; Johnson, J. T.; Ball, C.; Chen, C. C.; Smith, G.; McKelvey, C.; Andrews, M.; O'Brien, A.; Kocz, J.; Jarnot, R.; Brown, S. T.; Piepmeier, J. R.; Lucey, J.; Miles, L. R.; Bradley, D.; Mohammed, P.

    2016-12-01

    Passive microwave measurements made below 40GHz have experienced increased amounts of man-made radio frequency interference (RFI) over the past couple of decades. Such RFI has had a degenerative impact on various important geophysical retrievals such as soil-moisture, sea-surface salinity, atmospheric water vapor, precipitation etc. The commercial demand for spectrum allocation has increased over the past couple of years - infringing on frequencies traditionally reserved for scientific uses such as Earth observation at passive microwave frequencies. With the current trend in shared spectrum allocations, future microwave radiometers will have to co-exist with terrestrial RFI sources. The CubeSat Radiometer Radio Frequency Interference Technology Validation (CubeRRT) mission is developing a 6U Cubesat system to demonstrate RFI detection and filtering technologies for future microwave radiometer remote sensing missions. CubeRRT will operate between 6-40GHz, and demonstrate on-board real-time RFI detection on Earth brightness temperatures tuned over 1GHz steps. The expected launch date for CubeRRT is early 2018. Digital subsystems for higher frequency microwave radiometry require a larger bandwidth, as well as more processing power and on-board operation capabilities for RFI filtering. Real-time and on-board RFI filtering technology development is critical for future missions to allow manageable downlink data volumes. The enabling CubeRRT technology is a digital FPGA-based spectrometer with a bandwidth of 1 GHz that is capable of implementing advanced RFI filtering algorithms that use the kurtosis and cross-frequency RFI detection methods in real-time on board the spacecraft. The CubeRRT payload consists of 3 subsystems: a wideband helical antenna, a tunable analog radiometer subsystem, and a digital backend. The following presentation will present an overview of the system and results from the latest integration and test.

  3. Using a Cold Radiometer to Measure Heat Loads and Survey Heat Leaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipirro, M.; Tuttle, J.; Hait, T.; Shirron, P.

    2014-01-01

    We have developed an inexpensive cold radiometer for use in thermal/vacuum chambers to measure heat loads, characterize emissivity and specularity of surfaces and to survey areas to evaluate stray heat loads. We report here the results of two such tests for the James Webb Space Telescope to measure heat loads and effective emissivities of 2 major pieces of optical ground support equipment that will be used in upcoming thermal vacuum testing of the Telescope.

  4. A General Analysis of the Impact of Digitization in Microwave Correlation Radiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch-Lluis, Xavier; Ramos-Perez, Isaac; Camps, Adriano; Rodriguez-Alvarez, Nereida; Valencia, Enric; Park, Hyuk

    2011-01-01

    This study provides a general framework to analyze the effects on correlation radiometers of a generic quantization scheme and sampling process. It reviews, unifies and expands several previous works that focused on these effects separately. In addition, it provides a general theoretical background that allows analyzing any digitization scheme including any number of quantization levels, irregular quantization steps, gain compression, clipping, jitter and skew effects of the sampling period. PMID:22163943

  5. Tropical Cyclones Wind Measurements with the SMAP L-Band Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardulli, L.; Meissner, T.; Wentz, F. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission SMAP was launched in January 2015 and has been providing science data since April 2015. Though designed to measure soil moisture, the SMAP radiometer has an excellent capability to measure ocean winds in tropical cyclones at a resolution of 40 km, with a swath width of 1000 km. The L-band radiometer V-pol and H-pol channels keep very good sensitivity to ocean surface wind speed even at very high wind speeds and they are only little impacted by rain. We briefly discuss the major features of the SMAP sensor, the geophysical model function that is used in the ocean vector wind retrieval and the basic steps of the retrieval algorithm. We will then illustrate the capability of this instrument to observe very high surface winds by comparing them to other validation datasets. The most important validation source is NOAA's airborne Step Frequency Microwave Radiometer SFMR, whose wind speeds were collocated with SMAP in space and time and resampled to the SMAP resolution. A comparison between SMAP and SFMR winds in hurricanes of the 2015 season, including Patricia, shows excellent correlation over a wide wind speed range (15 - 70 m/s) and no degradation in rain. This agreement is unique and gives SMAP a distinct advantage over many other space-borne sensors such as C-band or Ku-band scatterometers or radiometers, which either lose sensitivity at very high winds or degrade in rainy conditions. We will analyze the SMAP surface winds during the full evolution of the storms in recent intense tropical cyclones (Patricia, Winston, Fantala, and Nepartak) and compare them with wind measurements from ASCAT, RapidScat, and WindSat, with the NCEP wind fields, and with the best track data from the Joint Typhoon Warning Center.The SMAP wind data are available as twice-daily 0.25 deg gridded maps at www.remss.com.

  6. Development of microwave radiometer sensor technology for geostationary earth science platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, T. G.; Lawrence, R. W.; Schroeder, L. C.; Kendall, B. M.; Harrington, R. F.

    1991-01-01

    A new research and technology program has been initiated at the Langley Research Center of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for developing advanced, high resolution microwave radiometer (HI-RES) sensors suitable for Mission to Planet Earth (MPE) remote sensing applications. The objective of this program is to provide the technology needed to enable and enhance the long-term observations, documentation, and understanding of the earth as a system.

  7. GROMOS-C, a novel ground-based microwave radiometer for ozone measurement campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, S.; Murk, A.; Kämpfer, N.

    2015-07-01

    Stratospheric ozone is of major interest as it absorbs most harmful UV radiation from the sun, allowing life on Earth. Ground-based microwave remote sensing is the only method that allows for the measurement of ozone profiles up to the mesopause, over 24 hours and under different weather conditions with high time resolution. In this paper a novel ground-based microwave radiometer is presented. It is called GROMOS-C (GRound based Ozone MOnitoring System for Campaigns), and it has been designed to measure the vertical profile of ozone distribution in the middle atmosphere by observing ozone emission spectra at a frequency of 110.836 GHz. The instrument is designed in a compact way which makes it transportable and suitable for outdoor use in campaigns, an advantageous feature that is lacking in present day ozone radiometers. It is operated through remote control. GROMOS-C is a total power radiometer which uses a pre-amplified heterodyne receiver, and a digital fast Fourier transform spectrometer for the spectral analysis. Among its main new features, the incorporation of different calibration loads stands out; this includes a noise diode and a new type of blackbody target specifically designed for this instrument, based on Peltier elements. The calibration scheme does not depend on the use of liquid nitrogen; therefore GROMOS-C can be operated at remote places with no maintenance requirements. In addition, the instrument can be switched in frequency to observe the CO line at 115 GHz. A description of the main characteristics of GROMOS-C is included in this paper, as well as the results of a first campaign at the High Altitude Research Station at Jungfraujoch (HFSJ), Switzerland. The validation is performed by comparison of the retrieved profiles against equivalent profiles from MLS (Microwave Limb Sounding) satellite data, ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast) model data, as well as our nearby NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric

  8. A General Analysis of the Impact of Digitization in Microwave Correlation Radiometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuk Park

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study provides a general framework to analyze the effects on correlation radiometers of a generic quantization scheme and sampling process. It reviews, unifies and expands several previous works that focused on these effects separately. In addition, it provides a general theoretical background that allows analyzing any digitization scheme including any number of quantization levels, irregular quantization steps, gain compression, clipping, jitter and skew effects of the sampling period.

  9. A general analysis of the impact of digitization in microwave correlation radiometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch-Lluis, Xavier; Ramos-Perez, Isaac; Camps, Adriano; Rodriguez-Alvarez, Nereida; Valencia, Enric; Park, Hyuk

    2011-01-01

    This study provides a general framework to analyze the effects on correlation radiometers of a generic quantization scheme and sampling process. It reviews, unifies and expands several previous works that focused on these effects separately. In addition, it provides a general theoretical background that allows analyzing any digitization scheme including any number of quantization levels, irregular quantization steps, gain compression, clipping, jitter and skew effects of the sampling period.

  10. SHADOWS: spectrogonio radiometer for bidirectional reflectance studies of dark meteorites and terrestrial analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potin, S.; Beck, P.; Schmitt, B.; Brissaud, O.

    2017-09-01

    A new spectrogonio radiometer SHADOWS is designed for the spectral bidirectional reflectance study of dark surfaces. Its official delivery as an European simulation facility within the Europlanet 2020 RI program is set late August 2017. This abstract presents a general description of the instrument, and some of its measurements modes. Test spectra measured with the instrument's prototype on challenging dark surfaces (Spectral Black, Metal Velvet and Vantablack) are then presented.

  11. Intercomparison of monochromatic source facilities for the determination of the relative spectral response of erythemal broadband filter radiometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreder, Josef; Gröbner, Julian; Los, Alexander; Blumthaler, Mario

    2004-07-01

    The relative spectral responses of erythemally weighted broadband radiometers determined at three different laboratories are compared, and the systems are described. The results of measurements of four different broadband radiometers are discussed. Although the common dynamic range of the measured relative spectral responses is approximately 10(4), the differences in the relative spectral response functions are lower than 20%. These differences are related mostly to measurement uncertainties and differences in the spectral response facilities.

  12. 78 FR 72393 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Investment Income Tax; Final and Proposed Rules #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 231 / Monday, December... Parts 1 and 602 RIN 1545-BK44 Net Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury... Investment Income Tax and the computation of Net Investment Income. The regulations affect individuals...

  13. 77 FR 72611 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... December 5, 2012 Part V Department of the Treasury Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 Net Investment... Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking...) the individual's net investment income for such taxable year, or (B) the excess (if any) of (i) the...

  14. Net analyte signal based statistical quality control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skibsted, E.T.S.; Boelens, H.F.M.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Smilde, A.K.; Broad, N.W.; Rees, D.R.; Witte, D.T.

    2005-01-01

    Net analyte signal statistical quality control (NAS-SQC) is a new methodology to perform multivariate product quality monitoring based on the net analyte signal approach. The main advantage of NAS-SQC is that the systematic variation in the product due to the analyte (or property) of interest is

  15. Asynchronous stream processing with S-Net

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grelck, C.; Scholz, S.-B.; Shafarenko, A.

    2010-01-01

    We present the rationale and design of S-Net, a coordination language for asynchronous stream processing. The language achieves a near-complete separation between the application code, written in any conventional programming language, and the coordination/communication code written in S-Net. Our

  16. Using the MVC architecture on . NET platform

    OpenAIRE

    Ježek, David

    2011-01-01

    This thesis deals with usage of MVC (Model View Controller) technology in web development on ASP.NET platform from Microsoft. Mainly it deals with latest version of framework ASP.NET MVC 3. First part describes MVC architecture and the second describes usage of MVC in certain parts of web application an comparing with PHP.

  17. Analysis of Petri Nets and Transition Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eike Best

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a stand-alone, no-frills tool supporting the analysis of (labelled place/transition Petri nets and the synthesis of labelled transition systems into Petri nets. It is implemented as a collection of independent, dedicated algorithms which have been designed to operate modularly, portably, extensibly, and efficiently.

  18. 27 CFR 7.27 - Net contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net contents. 7.27 Section 7.27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... the net contents are displayed by having the same blown, branded, or burned in the container in...

  19. Petri nets and other models of concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Sassone, Vladimiro

    1998-01-01

    This paper retraces, collects, and summarises contributions of the authors - in collaboration with others - on the theme of Petri nets and their categorical relationships to other models of concurrency.......This paper retraces, collects, and summarises contributions of the authors - in collaboration with others - on the theme of Petri nets and their categorical relationships to other models of concurrency....

  20. Delta Semantics Defined By Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    This report is identical to an earlier version of May 1978 except that Chapter 5 has been revised. A new paper: "A Petri Net Definition of a System Description Language", DAIMI, April 1979, 20 pages, extends the Petri net model to include a data state representing the program variables. Delta...

  1. Net neutrality and inflation of traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peitz, M.; Schütt, Florian

    Under strict net neutrality Internet service providers (ISPs) are required to carry data without any differentiation and at no cost to the content provider. We provide a simple framework with a monopoly ISP to evaluate the short-run effects of different net neutrality rules. Content differs in its

  2. Net Neutrality and Inflation of Traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peitz, M.; Schütt, F.

    2015-01-01

    Under strict net neutrality Internet service providers (ISPs) are required to carry data without any differentiation and at no cost to the content provider. We provide a simple framework with a monopoly ISP to evaluate different net neutrality rules. Content differs in its sensitivity to delay.

  3. The Net Neutrality Debate: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Rich

    2006-01-01

    Rich Greenfield examines the basics of today's net neutrality debate that is likely to be an ongoing issue for society. Greenfield states the problems inherent in the definition of "net neutrality" used by Common Cause: "Network neutrality is the principle that Internet users should be able to access any web content they choose and…

  4. Teaching and Learning with the Net Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Kassandra; Marateo, Raymond C.; Ferris, S. Pixy

    2007-01-01

    As the Net Generation places increasingly greater demands on educators, students and teachers must jointly consider innovative ways of teaching and learning. In this, educators are supported by the fact that the Net Generation wants to learn. However, these same educators should not fail to realize that this generation learns differently from…

  5. Verification of Timed-Arc Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lasse; Jacobsen, Morten; Møller, Mikael Harkjær

    2011-01-01

    Timed-Arc Petri Nets (TAPN) are an extension of the classical P/T nets with continuous time. Tokens in TAPN carry an age and arcs between places and transitions are labelled with time intervals restricting the age of tokens available for transition firing. The TAPN model posses a number...

  6. A Brief Introduction to Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1997-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets or CPN) is a graphical oriented language for design, specification, simulation and verification of systems. It is in particular well- suited for systems in which communication, synchronisation and resource sharing are important. Typical examples of application areas a...

  7. Gill net and trammel net selectivity in the northern Aegean Sea, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Saadet Karakulak

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Fishing trials were carried out with gill nets and trammel nets in the northern Aegean Sea from March 2004 to February 2005. Four different mesh sizes for the gill nets and the inner panel of trammel nets (16, 18, 20 and 22 mm bar length were used. Selectivity parameters for the five most economically important species, bogue (Boops boops, annular sea bream (Diplodus annularis, striped red mullet (Mullus surmuletus, axillary sea bream (Pagellus acarne and blotched picarel (Spicara maena, caught by the two gears were estimated. The SELECT method was used to estimate the selectivity parameters of a variety of models. Catch composition and catch proportion of several species were different in gill and trammel nets. The length frequency distributions of the species caught by the two gears were significantly different. The bi-modal model selectivity curve gave the best fit for gill net and trammel net data, and there was little difference between the modal lengths of these nets. However, a clear difference was found in catching efficiency. The highest catch rates were obtained with the trammel net. Given that many discard species and small fish are caught by gill nets and trammel nets with a mesh size of 16 mm, it is clear that these nets are not appropriate for fisheries. Consequently, the best mesh size for multispecies fisheries is 18 mm. This mesh size will considerably reduce the numbers of small sized individuals and discard species in the catch.

  8. Intercomparison of stratospheric temperature profiles from a ground-based microwave radiometer with other techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas-Guzmán, Francisco; Kämpfer, Niklaus; Schranz, Franziska; Steinbrecht, Wolfgang; Haefele, Alexander

    2017-11-01

    In this work the stratospheric performance of a relatively new microwave temperature radiometer (TEMPERA) has been evaluated. With this goal in mind, almost 3 years of temperature measurements (January 2014-September 2016) from the TEMPERA radiometer were intercompared with simultaneous measurements from other techniques: radiosondes, MLS satellite and Rayleigh lidar. This intercomparison campaign was carried out at the aerological station of MeteoSwiss at Payerne (Switzerland). In addition, the temperature profiles from TEMPERA were used to validate the temperature outputs from the SD-WACCM model. The results showed in general a very good agreement between TEMPERA and the different instruments and the model, with a high correlation (higher than 0.9) in the temperature evolution at different altitudes between TEMPERA and the different data sets. An annual pattern was observed in the stratospheric temperature with generally higher temperatures in summer than in winter and with a higher variability during winter. A clear change in the tendency of the temperature deviations was detected in summer 2015, which was due to the repair of an attenuator in the TEMPERA spectrometer. The mean and the standard deviations of the temperature differences between TEMPERA and the different measurements were calculated for two periods (before and after the repair) in order to quantify the accuracy and precision of this radiometer over the campaign period. The results showed absolute biases and standard deviations lower than 2 K for most of the altitudes. In addition, comparisons proved the good performance of TEMPERA in measuring the temperature in the stratosphere.

  9. Vitamin D synthesis measured with a multiband filter radiometer in Río Gallegos, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orte, Facundo; Wolfram, Elian; Salvador, Jacobo; D'Elia, Raúl; Bulnes, Daniela; Leme, N. Paes; Quel, Eduardo

    2013-05-01

    Vitamin D plays an important role in human health. Vitamin D production from the sun is affected by UVB solar radiation. This paper presents a simple method for retrieving vitamin D-weighted UV by using a multiband filter radiometer GUV-541 installed at the Atmospheric Observatory of Southern Patagonia (OAPA) (51 ° 33' S, 69° 19' W), Río Gallegos. The methodology used combines irradiance measurements from a multiband filter radiometer with spectral irradiance modeled by the SOS radiative transfer code (developed by Lille University of Science and Technology (USTL)). The spectrum modeled is weighted with vitamin D action spectra published by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE), which describes the relative effectiveness of different wavelengths in the generation of this particular biological response. This method is validated using the vitamin D-weighted UV derived from a Brewer MKIII spectrophotometer (SN 124) belonging to the National Institute for Spatial Research (INPE), Brazil, which is able to measure solar spectra between 290 and 325nm. The method presents a good correlation between the two independent instruments. This procedure increases the instrumental capabilities of the multiband filter radiometer. Moreover, it evaluates the annual variation of vitamin D-weighted UV doses from exposure to ultraviolet radiation. These values are likely to be lower than suitable levels of vitamin D during winter and part of spring and autumn at these latitudes.

  10. PAU-SA: A Synthetic Aperture Interferometric Radiometer Test Bed for Potential Improvements in Future Missions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merce Vall-llosera

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS mission is an Earth Explorer Opportunity mission from the European Space Agency (ESA. Its goal is to produce global maps of soil moisture and ocean salinity using the Microwave Imaging Radiometer by Aperture Synthesis (MIRAS. The purpose of the Passive Advanced Unit Synthetic Aperture (PAU-SA instrument is to study and test some potential improvements that could eventually be implemented in future missions using interferometric radiometers such as the Geoestacionary Atmosferic Sounder (GAS, the Precipitation and All-weather Temperature and Humidity (PATH and the Geostationary Interferometric Microwave Sounder (GIMS. Both MIRAS and PAU-SA are Y-shaped arrays with uniformly distributed antennas, but the receiver topology and the processing unit are quite different. The purpose of this work is to identify the elements in the MIRAS’s design susceptible of improvement and apply them in the PAU-SA instrument demonstrator, to test them in view of these future interferometric radiometer missions.

  11. PAU-SA: A Synthetic Aperture Interferometric Radiometer Test Bed for Potential Improvements in Future Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Perez, Isaac; Camps, Adriano; Bosch-Lluis, Xavi; Rodriguez-Alvarez, Nereida; Valencia-Domènech, Enric; Park, Hyuk; Forte, Giuseppe; Vall-llosera, Merce

    2012-01-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission is an Earth Explorer Opportunity mission from the European Space Agency (ESA). Its goal is to produce global maps of soil moisture and ocean salinity using the Microwave Imaging Radiometer by Aperture Synthesis (MIRAS). The purpose of the Passive Advanced Unit Synthetic Aperture (PAU-SA) instrument is to study and test some potential improvements that could eventually be implemented in future missions using interferometric radiometers such as the Geoestacionary Atmosferic Sounder (GAS), the Precipitation and All-weather Temperature and Humidity (PATH) and the Geostationary Interferometric Microwave Sounder (GIMS). Both MIRAS and PAU-SA are Y-shaped arrays with uniformly distributed antennas, but the receiver topology and the processing unit are quite different. The purpose of this work is to identify the elements in the MIRAS's design susceptible of improvement and apply them in the PAU-SA instrument demonstrator, to test them in view of these future interferometric radiometer missions. PMID:22969371

  12. The use of clinical broadband UV radiometers for optical radiation hazard measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, Trevelyan

    2011-12-01

    The implementation of the UK Control of Artificial Optical Radiation at Work Regulations 2010 requires the employer to perform a risk assessment of workers' exposure to UV radiation from phototherapy equipment in the hospital environment. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that, where the source spectrum is known, an assessment of exposure to UV sources commonly used in hospitals, including assessment of reflections and transmission through personal protective equipment, may be performed with sufficient reliability by radiometer measurement rather than by complex spectroradiometric measurements. An intercomparison of radiometer and spectroradiometer measurements of exposure to UV sources was carried out. Direct exposure was considered, as well as exposure to reflected or scattered beams and that transmitted through eyewear. Assessment by radiometer of direct exposure and exposure to reflections demonstrated an acceptable measurement error in the context of the inherent uncertainty in the assumptions of the exposure scenario. Assessment of transmitted beams may result in a greater measurement error due to spectral mismatch; however, for typical exposure scenarios the error remained acceptable in comparison with the exposure limit value. The methodology presented reduces the complexity of the measurement of UV hazard levels for common phototherapy equipment.

  13. Evaluation of the Validated Soil Moisture Product from the SMAP Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, P.; Chan, S.; Colliander, A.; Dunbar, S.; Njoku, E.; Bindlish, R.; Chen, F.; Jackson, T.; Burgin, M.; Piepmeier, J.; hide

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission launched on January 31, 2015 into a sun-synchronous 6 am/6 pm orbit with an objective to produce global mapping of high-resolution soil moisture and freeze-thaw state every 2-3 days using an L-band (active) radar and an L-band (passive) radiometer. The SMAP radiometer began acquiring routine science data on March 31, 2015 and continues to operate nominally. SMAP's radiometer-derived soil moisture product (L2_SM_P) provides soil moisture estimates posted on a 36 km fixed Earth grid using brightness temperature observations from descending (6 am) passes and ancillary data. A beta quality version of L2_SM_P was released to the public in September, 2015, with the fully validated L2_SM_P soil moisture data expected to be released in May, 2016. Additional improvements (including optimization of retrieval algorithm parameters and upscaling approaches) and methodology expansions (including increasing the number of core sites, model-based intercomparisons, and results from several intensive field campaigns) are anticipated in moving from accuracy assessment of the beta quality data to an evaluation of the fully validated L2_SM_P data product.

  14. Calibration of incandescent lamps for spectral irradiance by means of absolute radiometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, L P

    1980-08-15

    A method for calibrating incandescent lamps for spectral irradiance by means of absolute radiometers is described in which a secondary radiometer is calibrated spectrally against absolute radiometers and then used in conjunction with a series of filters to calibrate the lamps. Considering both narrowband and wideband filters, an extensive mathematical error analysis is performed. The use of narrowband filters (20-25-nm halfwidth) is found to be advantageous because very little information is required on the spectral distribution of the lamp being measured. The most serious source of error is a wavelength shift in the measured spectral transmittances of the filters, especially at shorter avelengths; for example, at 400 nm, a wavelength shift error of 1 nm can cause an error approaching 3%. It is estimated that the accuracy of spectral irradiance measurements made using the method described here will vary between +/-1 and +/-0.5% from ~350 to 800 nm. Measurements on 500-W quartz-bromine spectral irradiance standards are described. With such lamps, only four or five narrowband filters are required to cover the spectral range from the near UV to the near IR. The measured and calibration values agreed to ~ +/-0.5% on average with a maximum difference of ~1%.

  15. Precipitating Snow Retrievals from Combined Airborne Cloud Radar and Millimeter-Wave Radiometer Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecu, Mircea; Olson, William S.

    2008-01-01

    An algorithm for retrieving snow over oceans from combined cloud radar and millimeter-wave radiometer observations is developed. The algorithm involves the use of physical models to simulate cloud radar and millimeter-wave radiometer observations from basic atmospheric variables such as hydrometeor content, temperature, and relative humidity profiles and is based on an optimal estimation technique to retrieve these variables from actual observations. A high-resolution simulation of a lake-effect snowstorm by a cloud-resolving model is used to test the algorithm. That is, synthetic observations are generated from the output of the cloud numerical model, and the retrieval algorithm is applied to the synthetic data. The algorithm performance is assessed by comparing the retrievals with the reference variables used in synthesizing the observations. The synthetic observation experiment indicates good performance of the retrieval algorithm. The algorithm is also applied to real observations from the Wakasa Bay field experiment that took place over the Sea of Japan in January and February 2003. The application of the retrieval algorithm to data from the field experiment yields snow estimates that are consistent with both the cloud radar and radiometer observations.

  16. Discrete, continuous, and hybrid petri nets

    CERN Document Server

    David, René

    2004-01-01

    Petri nets do not designate a single modeling formalism. In fact, newcomers to the field confess sometimes to be a little puzzled by the diversity of formalisms that are recognized under this "umbrella". Disregarding some extensions to the theoretical modeling capabilities, and looking at the level of abstraction of the formalisms, Condition/Event, Elementary, Place/Transition, Predicate/Transition, Colored, Object Oriented... net systems are frequently encountered in the literature. On the other side, provided with appropriate interpretative extensions, Controled Net Systems, Marking Diagrams (the Petri net generalization of State Diagrams), or the many-many variants in which time can be explicitly incorporated -Time(d), Deterministic, (Generalized) Stochastic, Fuzzy...- are defined. This represents another way to define practical formalisms that can be obtained by the "cro- product" of the two mentioned dimensions. Thus Petri nets constitute a modeling paradigm, understandable in a broad sense as "the total...

  17. A study of the directional response of ultraviolet radiometers: II. Implications for ultraviolet phototherapy derived from computer simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C J; Pye, S D

    2000-09-01

    A theoretical model has been used to simulate irradiances for ultraviolet (UV) phototherapy cabinets and other sources. The accuracy of the simulation results has been checked by comparison with experimental measurements. The simulations have been used to study the influence of different factors on UV phototherapy exposure and to develop recommendations for the operation and calibration of phototherapy cabinets. Many radiometers used in the evaluation of skin doses have input optics with directional responses that are not proportional to the cosine of the angle of incidence for the UV radiation. Data on radiometer directional responses have been incorporated into the simulations, which show that the poor directional responses for some radiometers currently in use will give errors of 20-50% in the assessment of irradiance. The influence of lamp source geometries employed for radiometer calibration has been investigated. UV phototherapy dosimetry commonly uses a spectroradiometer and a radiometer in the transfer of irradiance calibrations from a small standard UV lamp to a large-area source with a different UV spectrum. Recommendations are given on the range of acceptability for radiometer directional responses and a method is described for determining whether these are fulfilled. Recommendations are made on the techniques that should be used for calibration.

  18. Pro visual C++/CLI and the net 35 platform

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Pro Visual C++/CLI and the .NET 3.5 Platform is about writing .NET applications using C++/CLI. While readers are learning the ins and outs of .NET application development, they will also be learning the syntax of C++, both old and new to .NET. Readers will also gain a good understanding of the .NET architecture. This is truly a .NET book applying C++ as its development language not another C++ syntax book that happens to cover .NET.

  19. Electron cyclotron emission diagnostics on KSTAR tokamak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, S H; Lee, K D; Kogi, Y; Kawahata, K; Nagayama, Y; Mase, A; Kwon, M

    2010-10-01

    A new electron cyclotron emission (ECE) diagnostics system was installed for the Second Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) campaign. The new ECE system consists of an ECE collecting optics system, an overmode circular corrugated waveguide system, and 48 channel heterodyne radiometer with the frequency range of 110-162 GHz. During the 2 T operation of the KSTAR tokamak, the electron temperatures as well as its radial profiles at the high field side were measured and sawtooth phenomena were also observed. We also discuss the effect of a window on in situ calibration.

  20. Spatiotemporal Variability of Earth's Radiation Balance Components from Russian Radiometer IKOR-M

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherviakov, M.

    2016-12-01

    The radiometer IKOR-M was created in National Research Saratov State University for satellite monitoring of the outgoing reflected short-wave radiation, which is one of the components of Earth's radiation budget. Such information can be used in different models of long-term weather forecasts, in researches of climate change trends and in calculation of absorbed solar radiation values and albedo of the Earth-atmosphere system. The IKOR-M product archive is available online at all times. A searchable catalogue of data products is continually updated and users may search and download data products via the Earth radiation balance components research laboratory website as soon as they become available. Two series of measurements from two different IKOR-M are available. The first radiometer had worked from October 2009 to August 2014 and second - from August 2014 to the present. Therefore, there is a period when both radiometers work at the same time. Top-of-atmosphere fluxes deduced from the "Meteor-M" No 1 measurement in August, 2014 show very good agreement with the fluxes determined from "Meteor-M" No 2. The scale relationship of the IKOR-M radiometers on "Meteor - M" No 1 and No 2 satellites found by comparing of the global distribution maps for monthly averaged albedo values. The seasonal and interannual variations of OSR, albedo and ASR were discussed. The variations between SW radiation budget components seem to be within observational uncertainty and natural variability governed by cloudiness, water vapor and aerosol variations. It was assessed spatial and temporal variations of albedo and the absorbed solar radiation over different regions. Latitudinal distributions of albedo and ASR were estimated in more detail. Meridional cross sections over oceans and land were used separately for this estimation. It was shown that the albedo and ASR data received from the radiometer IKOR-M can be used to detect El Nino in the Pacific Ocean. The reported study was funded by