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Sample records for net radiometer rn

  1. Dynamic response of the thermometric net radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. D. Wilson; W. J. Massman; G. E. Swaters

    2009-01-01

    We computed the dynamic response of an idealized thermometric net radiometer, when driven by an oscillating net longwave radiation intended roughly to simulate rapid fluctuations of the radiative environment such as might be expected during field use of such devices. The study was motivated by curiosity as to whether non-linearity of the surface boundary conditions...

  2. Design and evaluation of net radiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritschen, Leo J.; Fritschen, Charles L.

    Net radiometer designs were evaluated with respect to long and short wave sensitivities and to the effect of ambient wind on the signal. The design features of the instrument with the best overall performance include: equal sensitivity to long and short wave radiation, a thermal pile which is thermally isolated from the frame, a white guard ring, pathways for internal circulation between the top and bottom hemispheres, and self-supporting windshields. The windshields have O-ring seals, a ball joint is provided for ease of leveling, and ample desiccant is enclosed in the mounting pipe. Under a high radiant load, the net radiometer signal decreased by 2.5, 3.7, and 4.3 percent at wind speeds of 12.5, 4.6, and 7.5 m/s.

  3. GALILEO PROBE NET FLUX RADIOMETER DATA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Galileo Probe Net Flux Radiometer (NFR) measured net and upward radiation fluxes in Jupiter's atmosphere between about 0.44 bars and 14 bars, using five spectral...

  4. Improvements to water use and water stress estimates with the addition of IR and net radiometers to weather stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is often estimated with the Penman-Monteith (P-M) equation. Net radiation (Rn) is a major component of the surface energy balance and an input to the P-M equation, but it is challenging and expensive to measure accurately. For these reasons, most weather stations do not inclu...

  5. A Compact, Multi-view Net Flux Radiometer for Future Uranus and Neptune Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, S.; Amato, M.; Atkinson, D. H.; Hewagama, T.; Jennings, D. E.; Nixon, C. A.; Mousis, O.

    2017-01-01

    A Net Flux Radiometer (NFR) is presented that can be included in an atmospheric structure instrument suite for future probe missions to the icy giants Uranus and Neptune. The baseline design has two spectral channels i.e., a solar channel (0.4-to-3.5 m) and a thermal channel (4-to-300 m). The NFR is capable of viewing five distinct viewing angles during the descent. Non-imaging Winston cones with band-pass filters are used for each spectral channel and to define a 5 angular acceptance. Uncooled thermopile detectors are used in each spectral channel and are read out using a custom radiation hard application specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The baseline design can easily be changed to increase the number of detector channels from two to seven.

  6. Development of a Net Flux Radiometer for the Hera Saturn Probe Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Shahid; Amato, Michael; Atkinson, David; Mousis, Olivier; Nixon, Conor; Simon, Amy A.; Hera Probe Mission Team

    2016-10-01

    In situ exploration of all the giant planets in the outer solar system is an imperative and a Saturn probe is the next compelling step beyond Galileo's in situ exploration of Jupiter, the remote investigation of its interior, gravity, and magnetic fields by the Juno mission, and the Cassini spacecraft's similar orbital reconnaissance of Saturn. One such proposed future mission is "HERA: an international atmospheric probe to unveil the depths of Saturn" a nominal configuration is a combined ESA/Class-M probe mission accompanied by a launch vehicle and carrier relay spacecraft provided by NASA. One of the instruments being considered for inclusion on the probe is a Net Flux Radiometer (NFR) to unravel the vertical structure and properties of Saturn's cloud and haze layers. A NFR concept is presented that can be included in an atmospheric structure instrument suite for the Hera mission. The current design has two spectral channels i.e., a solar channel (0.4-to-5 µm) and a thermal channel (4-to-50 µm). The NFR is capable of viewing five distinct viewing angles during the descent. Non-imaging Winston cones with window and filter combinations define the spectral channels with a 5° Field-Of View (FOV). Uncooled thermopile detectors are used in each spectral channel and are read out using a custom designed radiation-hard Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC).

  7. Etched track radiometers in radon measurements: a review

    CERN Document Server

    Nikolaev, V A

    1999-01-01

    Passive radon radiometers, based on alpha particle etched track detectors, are very attractive for the assessment of radon exposure. The present review considers various devices used for measurement of the volume activity of radon isotopes and their daughters and determination of equilibrium coefficients. Such devices can be classified into 8 groups: (i) open or 'bare' detectors, (ii) open chambers, (iii) sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn chambers with an inlet filter, (iv) advanced sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn radiometers, (v) multipurpose radiometers, (vi) radiometers based on a combination of etched track detectors and an electrostatic field, (vii) radiometers based on etched track detectors and activated charcoal and (viii) devices for the measurement of radon isotopes and/or radon daughters by means of track parameter measurements. Some of them such as the open detector and the chamber with an inlet filter have a variety of modifications and are applied widely both in geophysical research and radon dosimetric surveys. At the...

  8. The Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, David P.

    1970-01-01

    The often observed and misunderstood phenomenon of movement of black and white vanes in toy radiometers under illumination is discussed in a generalized non-mathematical manner. Effects of light pressure, low gas density, friction, heat, and motion are illustrated. (JM)

  9. PHOCUS radiometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Nyström

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available PHOCUS – Particles, Hydrogen and Oxygen Chemistry in the Upper Summer Mesosphere is a Swedish sounding rocket experiment, launched in July 2011, with the main goal of investigating the upper atmosphere in the altitude range 50–110 km. This paper describes the SondRad instrument in the PHOCUS payload, a radiometer comprising two frequency channels (183 GHz and 557 GHz aimed at exploring the water vapour concentration distribution in connection with the appearance of noctilucent (night shining clouds. The design of the radiometer system has been done in a collaboration between Omnisys Instruments AB and the Group for Advanced Receiver Development (GARD at Chalmers University of Technology where Omnisys was responsible for the overall design, implementation, and verification of the radiometers and backend, whereas GARD was responsible for the radiometer optics and calibration systems.

    The SondRad instrument covers the water absorption lines at 183 GHz and 557 GHz. The 183 GHz channel is a side-looking radiometer, while the 557 GHz radiometer is placed along the rocket axis looking in the forward direction. Both channels employ sub-harmonically pumped Schottky mixers and Fast Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FFTS backends with 67 kHz resolution.

    The radiometers include novel calibration systems specifically adjusted for use with each frequency channel. The 183 GHz channel employs a continuous wave CW pilot signal calibrating the entire receiving chain, while the intermediate frequency chain (the IF-chain of the 557 GHz channel is calibrated by injecting a signal from a reference noise source through a directional coupler.

    The instrument collected complete spectra for both the 183 GHz and the 557 GHz with 300 Hz data rate for the 183 GHz channel and 10 Hz data rate for the 557 GHz channel for about 60 s reaching the apogee of the flight trajectory and 100 s after that. With lossless data compression using variable

  10. Broadband radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, T.W.

    1994-07-26

    A broadband radiometer is disclosed including (a) an optical integrating sphere having generally spherical integrating chamber and an entry port for receiving light (e.g., having visible and ultraviolet fractions), (b) a first optical radiation detector for receiving light from the sphere and producing an electrical output signal corresponding to broadband radiation, (c) a second optical radiation detector for receiving light from the sphere and producing an electrical output signal corresponding to a predetermined wavelength fraction of the broadband radiation, and (d) an output for producing an electrical signal which is proportional to the difference between the two electrical output signals. The radiometer is very useful, for example, in measuring the absolute amount of ultraviolet light present in a given light sample. 8 figs.

  11. Multiplication on Rn -A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Multiplication on Rn. 2. Adam's Theorems and Applications. Basudeb Datta received his Ph D degree from the. Indian Statistical Institute in 1988. Since July 1992 he has been at the Indian. Institute of Science,. Bangalore. His areas of interest are Topology and. Geometry. Basudeb Datta. In the first part of this article we ...

  12. UV irradiance radiometers calibration procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Doctorovich I. V.; Butenko V. K.; Hodovaniouk V. N.; Fodchuk I. M.; Yuriev V. G.

    2008-01-01

    The paper deals with the problems arising at calibration of narrow-band spectral-sensitive radiometers. The procedure of irradiance unit transfer to UV radiometers — UV radiometers calibration procedure — is presented.

  13. Radiometer on a Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Gill, John J.; Mehdi, Imran; Lee, Choonsup; Schlecht, Erich T.; Skalare, Anders; Ward, John S.; Siegel, Peter H.; Thomas, Bertrand C.

    2009-01-01

    The radiometer on a chip (ROC) integrates whole wafers together to p rovide a robust, extremely powerful way of making submillimeter rece ivers that provide vertically integrated functionality. By integratin g at the wafer level, customizing the interconnects, and planarizing the transmission media, it is possible to create a lightweight asse mbly performing the function of several pieces in a more conventiona l radiometer.

  14. Polarimetric Radiometer Configurations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels; Laursen, Brian; Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl

    1998-01-01

    Ocean wind speed and direction can be assessed with a polarimetric radiometer system measuring the full set of Stokes parameters. The first and second Stokes parameters are the sum and difference of the usual vertical and horizontal brightness temperatures. The third and forth Stokes parameters can...... be found either by cross correlating the received vertical and horizontal electrical fields, or they can be found by a combination of properly polarized brightness temperature measurements. These considerations directly point at two fundamentally different ways of implementing the polarimetric radiometer...... airborne, imaging, polarimetric radiometer system is presently in its development phase. The design of the system is discussed...

  15. Solar-Collector Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, J. M., Jr

    1984-01-01

    Water-cooled Kendall radiometer measures output of solar energy concentrators. Unit measures irradiance up to 30,000 solar constants with 1 percent accuracy and responds to wavelengths from ultraviolet to far infrared.

  16. Stressede børn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonseberg, Signe; Thomsen, Pernille

    2016-01-01

    Stressede børn får det bedre, når deres krop får lov at tale. Fysioterapeut Pernille Thomsen lærer børn at bruge kroppen, så de trives bedre. Og der er ingen hokuspokus, for det hele bygger på naturvidenskabelig forskning i kroppens hormoner og stress....

  17. Aquarius Radiometer Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Vine, D. M.; Piepmeier, J. R.; Dinnat, E. P.; de Matthaeis, P.; Utku, C.; Abraham, S.; Lagerloef, G.S.E.; Meissner, T.; Wentz, F.

    2014-01-01

    Aquarius was launched on June 10, 2011 as part of the Aquarius/SAC-D observatory and the instrument has been operating continuously since being turned on in August of the same year. The initial map of sea surface salinity was released one month later (September) and the quality of the retrieval has continuously improved since then. The Aquarius radiometers include several special features such as measurement of the third Stokes parameter, fast sampling, and careful thermal control, and a combined passive/active instrument. Aquarius is working well and in addition to helping measure salinity, the radiometer special features are generating new results.

  18. rn udvikler computerspil til børn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thessa

    2006-01-01

    Hvorfor tager spiludviklere ikke udgangspunkt i de børn, spillene udvikles til? Dette spørgsmål var grundlaget for et nordjysk projekt baseret på det pædagogiske læringsprincip ’story-line’. Forsøget gik ud på at se, om børn var i stand til at give udtryk for og gennemføre en form for spiludvikling...

  19. Assessing RN-to-RN peer review on clinical units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Judith A; Wickline, Mary A; Deetz, Jill; Berry, Elise S

    2012-04-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to measure informal registered nurse (RN)-to-RN peer review (defined as collegial communication about the quality of nursing care) at the work-unit level. Survey design with cluster sampling of 28 hospital or ambulatory care units (n = 541 respondents). Results were compared with existing patient safety and satisfaction data. A chi-squared test was used to compare responses against nurse characteristics. Nurses agreed that RN-to-RN peer review takes place on their units, but no correlation with patient safety and satisfaction data was found. Misunderstandings about the meaning of peer review were evident. Open-ended comments revealed barriers to peer review: fear of retribution, language barriers and lack of professionalism. Nurses need clarification of peer review. Issues with common language in a professional environment need to be addressed and nurses can learn collaboration from each other's cultures. Managers should support RN-to-RN peer review on clinical units. Methods used here may be useful to assess current departmental nurse peer review. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. rn i lavindkomstfamilier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sievertsen, Hans Henrik; Montgomery, Christopher J.

    Denne rapport belyser sammenhængen mellem en opvækst i lavindkomst og vilkår senere i livet. Rapporten afdækker for det første, hvor mange børn der har været påvirket af lavindkomst over de seneste tre årtier, ved at give en oversigt over udviklingen i antallet og andelen af børn i lavindkomsthus...

  1. A Multifrequency Radiometer System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels

    1977-01-01

    A radiometer system having four channels: 5 GHz, l7 GHz, 34 GHz, all vertical polarization, and a 34 GHz sky horn, will be described. The system which is designed for collecting glaciological and oceanographic data is intended for airborne use and imaging is achieved by means of a multifrequency...... elaborate processing later, using ground facilities. In conjunction with a side looking radar which is under development at present, the radiometers are intended as the remote sensing basis for an all-weather ice reconnaissance service in the Greenland seas....... conically scanning antenna. Implementation of the noise-injection technique ensures the high absolute accuracy needed for oceanographic purposes. The collected data can be preprocessed in a microcomputer system and displayed in real time. Simultaneously, the data are recorded digitally on tape for more...

  2. Hurricane Imaging Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, Daniel J.; Biswas, Sayak K.; James, Mark W.; Roberts, J. Brent; Jones, W. Linwood; Johnson, James; Farrar, Spencer; Sahawneh, Saleem; Ruf, Christopher S.; Morris, Mary; hide

    2014-01-01

    The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is a synthetic thinned array passive microwave radiometer designed to allow retrieval of surface wind speed in hurricanes, up through category five intensity. The retrieval technology follows the Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR), which measures surface wind speed in hurricanes along a narrow strip beneath the aircraft. HIRAD maps wind speeds in a swath below the aircraft, about 50-60 km wide when flown in the lower stratosphere. HIRAD has flown in the NASA Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) experiment in 2010 on a WB-57 aircraft, and on a Global Hawk unmanned aircraft system (UAS) in 2012 and 2013 as part of NASA's Hurricane and Severe Storms Sentinel (HS3) program. The GRIP program included flights over Hurricanes Earl and Karl (2010). The 2012 HS3 deployment did not include any hurricane flights for the UAS carrying HIRAD. The 2013 HS3 flights included one flight over the predecessor to TS Gabrielle, and one flight over Hurricane Ingrid. This presentation will describe the HIRAD instrument, its results from the 2010 and 2013 flights, and potential future developments.

  3. rn Utzon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime J. Ferrer Forés

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza el proyecto del arquitecto danés Jørn Utzon (1918-2008 para la construcción de la Escuela de la Unión de trabajadores daneses en Højstrup, Helsingør (1958-1962, desde las dos propuestas presentadas al concurso, que obtienen el primer y segundo premio, a las versiones del proyecto que desarrolla simultáneamente al proyecto de la Ópera de Sídney (1956-1973. El análisis de la evolucióndel proyecto de Højstrup permite aproximarse al talento plástico y al universo de extraordinario lirismo del arquitecto, a través de la exploración formal que desarrolla en torno a las plataformas y los recintos, a la relación entre los dos elementos de la escala tipológica, la torre y el cuerpo bajo, al estudio de los mecanismos de acceso mediante la porte-cochère, al sistema de agregación de las casas patio o el papel que desempeña la estructura en el proyecto, en un ejercicio de exploración arquitectónica que fluye desde los concursos, entendidos como laboratorios de experiencias formales, al desarrollo lento y gradual de los proyectos sucesivos atendiendo a la vez el sitio y la pieza tipológica, en una cuidada innovación plástica que reivindica la experimentación constructiva y la integración en el paisaje.

  4. Syge børn eller sygeliggjorte børn?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh-Müller, Grethe

    2008-01-01

    Det er blevet mere almindeligt at omtale børn med problemer som "syge børn". Artiklen problematiserer det synspunkt, at børn der mistrives er syge og fremfører det synspunkt, at de fleste af de børn, der mistrives snarere befinder sig i vanskelige livsomstændigheder, hvor fokus hellere burde rett...

  5. Reliability of three dental radiometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, E K; Asmussen, E

    1993-04-01

    The light intensity from 80 different curing units was recorded on three dental radiometers. Even though the correlation between the recordings obtained with the three testers was rather high, some units were categorized as good units by one radiometer and poor ones by another. It was also found that, in some case, there was a pronounced difference between the output within the same type of new units. Cavities were made in extracted third molars, filled with a microfilled resin, irradiated for 40 s with 20 of the curing units, and the depth of cure was measured. The radiometers were not able to rank the 20 units in accordance with their depth of cure. We conclude that the three radiometers are not fully reliable. However, they may become very useful tools for monitoring the output from a curing unit if the radiometer and the unit are calibrated.

  6. Saldo de radiação diurno em dosséis de batata como função da radiação solar global Daytime net radiation on potato canopies as a function of global solar radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno Bernardo Heldwein

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar a relação entre o saldo de radiação (Rn e a radiação solar global incidente (Rg sobre dosséis de plantas de batata em diferentes épocas de cultivo e fases de desenvolvimento para a geração de modelos lineares que representem essa relação. Os experimentos foram conduzidos na área experimental da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, RS, nos anos de 2004 a 2007. O Rn foi medido acima do dossel de plantas de seis experimentos de batata e a Rg em uma estação meteorológica automática distante 30 a 80 m dos experimentos. Para fins de cálculo, foram efetuadas as somas do período diurno, de Rn e de Rg, obtendo-se a relação entre Rn e Rg para cada dia. Também foi estimado o índice de área foliar das plantas. Foram obtidos modelos com elevado coeficiente de determinação e baixa raiz do quadrado médio do erro no teste entre valores independentes medidos e estimados, indicando boa precisão para a estimativa do saldo de radiação em dosséis de batata, em função da radiação solar global, independentemente da época do ano. A função linear geral obtida com dados de diferentes anos, épocas de cultivo e genótipos não foi sensível ao índice de área foliar, resultando em: Rn = 0,6410 Rg (R² = 0,976, que no teste apresentou RQME = 0,75 MJ m-2 dia-1. Conclui-se que o Rn pode ser estimado por meio da Rg medida nas estações automáticas com precisão suficiente para fins de modelagem.The objective of this work was to determine the relationship between net radiation (Rn and incident solar radiation (Rg in potato canopy at six different cultivation periods and stages of development in order to generate linear models that describe this relationship. The experiments were conducted in the experimental area of University of Santa Maria, RS, in the years of 2004 to 2007. Rn was measured by net radiometers in six experiments and Rg by automatic weather station, situated 30 to 80 m from the experiments. For

  7. Digital signal processing in microwave radiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, R. W.; Stanley, W. D.; Harrington, R. F.

    1980-01-01

    A microprocessor based digital signal processing unit has been proposed to replace analog sections of a microwave radiometer. A brief introduction to the radiometer system involved and a description of problems encountered in the use of digital techniques in radiometer design are discussed. An analysis of the digital signal processor as part of the radiometer is then presented.

  8. Mere Musik til Byens Børn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Finn

    Førsteårsrapport på København Kommunes treårige projekt Mere Musik til Byens Børn - et pilotprojekt med henblik på at sikre, at flere børn i København får mulighed for at deltage i forskellige former for frivillig musikundervisning. Særligt fokuseres der på at fremme, at alle børn i hele byen...

  9. Danske børn med sprogforstyrrelser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundahl Olsen, Lone

    2013-01-01

    Denne afhandling sætter fokus på en gruppe af danske børn med specifikke sproglige vanskeligheder (SLI). Fælles for disse børn er, at de har en normal IQ og ingen påviste neurologiske, følelsesmæssige, sociale eller fysiske vanskeligheder; men dette til trods tilegner disse børn sig ikke sproget ...

  10. Delebørn i tal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Mai Heide; Mathilde Hansen Stage, Sofie

    Hvordan påvirker samværsordninger børns hverdagsliv? Fungerer forældresamarbejdet anderledes, når der er en deleordning, og trives børn med udstrakt samvær bedre eller dårligere end andre skilsmissebørn? Med udgangspunkt i SFI’s Børneforløbsundersøgelse, som følger 6000 børn fra 1995, bliver der ...

  11. Retirement Financial Planning and the RN: An Integrative Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keele, Shanna; Alpert, Patricia T

    2015-10-01

    This integrative literature review examined the current research on RN retirement. The review identified 3 critical gaps in knowledge: (a) minimal knowledge regarding the economic impact on RN retirement, (b) incomplete information regarding the demographics of RN retirement, and (c) a scarcity of prospective longitudinal RN workforce studies. Future research must address these gaps to better address RN workforce sustainability.

  12. Interview med børn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Interview med børn handler om børneinterview i forbindelse med forskning. Bogen er tænkt som inspiration til og afsæt for metodiske refleksioner i forbindelse med inddragelse af børn som informanter.......Interview med børn handler om børneinterview i forbindelse med forskning. Bogen er tænkt som inspiration til og afsæt for metodiske refleksioner i forbindelse med inddragelse af børn som informanter....

  13. Feltarbejde blandt børn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulløv, Eva; Højlund, Susanne

    Feltarbejde blandt børn er en indføring i metodologi, dvs. grænseområdet mellem teori og metode. Forfatterne diskuterer, hvordan antropologisk viden om børn bliver til og argumenterer for, at feltstudier og børneperspektiver indebærer mere end at observere og interviewe. Bogen fokuserer på det...

  14. A note on Gaussian distributions in Rn

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Given any finite set F of (n − 1)-dimensional subspaces of Rn we give examples of nonGaussian probability measures in Rn whose marginal distribution in each subspace from F is Gaussian. However, if F is an infinite family of such (n − 1)- dimensional subspaces then such a nonGaussian probability measure in ...

  15. Compact Radiometers Expand Climate Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of Earth's water, energy, and carbon cycles, NASA plans to embark on the Soil Moisture Active and Passive mission in 2015. To prepare, Goddard Space Flight Center provided Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) funding to ProSensing Inc., of Amherst, Massachusetts, to develop a compact ultrastable radiometer for sea surface salinity and soil moisture mapping. ProSensing incorporated small, low-cost, high-performance elements into just a few circuit boards and now offers two lightweight radiometers commercially. Government research agencies, university research groups, and large corporations around the world are using the devices for mapping soil moisture, ocean salinity, and wind speed.

  16. Radiometer Testbed Development for SWOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangaslahti, Pekka; Brown, Shannon; Gaier, Todd; Dawson, Douglas; Harding, Dennis; Fu, Lee-Lueng; Esteban-Fernandez, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Conventional altimeters include nadir looking colocated 18-37 GHz microwave radiometer to measure wet tropospheric path delay. These have reduced accuracy in coastal zone (within 50 km from land) and do not provide wet path delay over land. The addition of high frequency channels to Jason-class radiometer will improve retrievals in coastal regions and enable retrievals over land. High-frequency window channels, 90, 130 and 166 GHz are optimum for improving performance in coastal region and channels on 183 GHz water vapor line are ideal for over-land retrievals.

  17. Vold mod børn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Else; Agerlund Sloth Larsen, Dorthe

    Undersøgelsen Vold mod børn er en redegørelse for omfanget af fysisk vold mod børn (forstået som aktiv fysisk børnemishandling) baseret på allerede eksisterende litteratur og statistik samt en kvalitativ interviewundersøgelse af hvordan sager med (mistanke om) fysisk vold mod børn i håndteres i...... kommunernes socialforvaltninger. Undersøgelsen blev igangsat, fordi Socialministeriet ønskede at få en viden dels om omfanget af vold mod børn og dels om eventuelle problemer i forhold til, hvordan vold mod børn i øjeblikket håndteres. Den anvendte metode Der er indsamlet eksisterende dansk litteratur og...

  18. Digital Array Gas Radiometer (DAGR) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation proposed here is a digital array gas radiometer (DAGR), a new design for a gas filter correlation radiometer (GFCR) to accurately measure and monitor...

  19. Microwave Radiometer Linearity Measured by Simple Means

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels

    2002-01-01

    Modern spaceborne radiometer systems feature an almost perfect on-board calibration, hence the primary calibration task to be carried out before launch is a check of radiometer linearity. This paper describes two ways of measuring linearity of microwave radiometers only requiring relatively simple...

  20. Radiological risk of actinon (/sup 219/Rn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, D.J.

    1981-12-01

    The research reported was designed to provide information on the following subjects: (1) development of the functional relations between exposure to the /sup 219/Rn decay chain and pertinent health effects; (2) specification of the circumstances under which a significant concentration of the decay chain may occur; (3) recommendation of an exposure standard which will provide protection of the public from significant elevation of health effects; and (4) an assessment of the impact of /sup 219/Rn on determinations of the concentration of the /sup 222/Rn decay chain and/or its precursors.

  1. Matérn thinned Cox processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ina Trolle; Hahn, Ute

    2016-01-01

    A class of spatial point process models that combine short range repulsion with medium range clustering is introduced. The model is motivated by patterns of centres of non-overlapping spherical cells in biological tissue which tend to have a clustering behaviour. Such a combination of clustering...... and hard core behaviour can be achieved by applying a dependent Matérn thinning to a Cox process. An exact formula for the intensity of a Matérn thinned shot noise Cox process is derived from the Palm distribution. For the more general class of Matérn thinned Cox processes, formulae for the intensity...

  2. Intercomparison of Rn-222 determination from groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterbacka, P.; Pettersson, H.; Hanste, U.-M.

    2010-01-01

    An intercomparison exercise on Rn-222 determination in groundwater was organized between eight Nordic laboratories. The individual laboratory results were in most cases within 20% of the median value and within reported uncertainties. Considering the particular difficulties in preparing, transpor......An intercomparison exercise on Rn-222 determination in groundwater was organized between eight Nordic laboratories. The individual laboratory results were in most cases within 20% of the median value and within reported uncertainties. Considering the particular difficulties in preparing...

  3. [The accuracy and consistency of dental radiometers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossouw, S

    2001-11-01

    Radiometers are used in dentistry to evaluate the intensity of light emitted by curing lights. This article discusses the accuracy and consistency of radiometers. The study was done as two experiments, dividing radiometers by age. In experiment 1, one Heliolux II curing light was tested nine times with each of four old radiometers. In experiment 2 the same curing light was tested with three very new radiometers, under identical circumstances. In experiment 1, the average intensities measured by the radiometers ranged between 262 and 348 mW/cm2, while the standard deviation varied between 7.59 and 42.03. In experiment 2, the average intensities measured by the radiometers ranged between 240 and 283.75 mW/cm2, while the standard deviation varied between 0.00 and 4.63. The seven radiometers differed significantly (P radiometers differs depending on the age of the unit, the state of repair of the unit, and how often it is standardised. In this study it was impossible to evaluate the accuracy of the radiometers.

  4. Microwave Radiometer Systems, Design and Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels; Vine, David Le

    Two important microwave remote sensors are the radar and the radiometer. There have been a number of books written on various aspects of radar, but there have been only a few written on microwave radiometers, especially on subjects of how to design and build radiometer systems. This book, which...... is the second edition of a book originally published in 1989, attempts to fill this void. The background for this book is many years of work with radiometer systems including design and manufacture of airborne imaging radiometer systems, laboratory as well as airborne field experiments with the systems......, and design of future spaceborne imagers. This book would not have been possible without the support and encouragement of several colleagues. Søren Nørvang Madsen, who is working with synthetic aperture radar systems, and, before him, Finn søndergaard have both contributed much to the work with radiometer...

  5. The Radiometer Atmospheric Cubesat Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, B.; Bryk, M.; Clark, J.; Donahue, K.; Ellyin, R.; Misra, S.; Romero-Wolf, A.; Statham, S.; Steinkraus, J.; Lightsey, E. G.; Fear, A.; Francis, P.; Kjellberg, H.; McDonald, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has been developing the Radiometer Atmospheric CubeSat Experiment (RACE) since 2012, which consists of a water vapor radiometer integrated on a 3U CubeSat platform. RACE will measure 2 channels of the 183 GHz water vapor line, and will be used to validate new low noise amplifier (LNA) technology and a novel amplifier based internal calibration subsystem. The 3U spacecraft is provided by the University of Texas at Austin's Satellite Design Laboratory. RACE will advance the technology readiness level (TRL) of the 183 GHz receiver subsystem from TRL 4 to TRL 6 and a CubeSat 183 GHz radiometer system from TRL 4 to TRL 7. Measurements at 183 GHz are used to retrieve integrated products and vertical profiles of water vapor. Current full scale satellite missions that can utilize the technology include AMSU, ATMS, SSMIS and Megha-Tropiques. The LNAs are designed at JPL, based on a 35 nm indium phosphide (InP) high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMT) technology developed by Northrop Grumman. The resulting single chip LNAs require only 25 mW of power. Current pre-launch instrument performance specifications include an RF gain of over 30 dB and a room noise figure of noise figure is dominated by the insertion loss of the Dicke switch which at these frequencies are > 5dB. If a coupler based calibration system is shown to be sufficient, future receiver systems will have noise figures noise figure variation over temperature is approximately 0.55 dB/K. The NEDT of the system is power consumption by eliminating the need for a local oscillator. A 2012 NASA CubeSat Launch Initiative (CSLI) selection, RACE is manifested for launch on the Orbital 3 (Orb-3) mission scheduled for October 2014. RACE will be deployed from the International Space Station (ISS) by NanoRacks.

  6. Matérn thinned Cox processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ina Trolle; Hahn, Ute

    A new class of spatial point process models that combines short range repulsion with medium range clustering is introduced. The model is motivated by patterns of centres of non-overlapping spherical cells in biological tissue which tend to have a clustering behaviour. Such a combination of cluste......A new class of spatial point process models that combines short range repulsion with medium range clustering is introduced. The model is motivated by patterns of centres of non-overlapping spherical cells in biological tissue which tend to have a clustering behaviour. Such a combination...... of clustering and hard core behaviour can be achieved by applying a dependent Matérn thinning to a Cox process. An exact formula for the intensity of a Matérn thinned shot noise Cox process is derived from the Palm distribution. For the more general class of Matérn thinned Cox processes, formulae...

  7. Skilsmissebørn med etnisk minoritetsbaggrund

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Mai Heide; Liversage, Anika; Olsen, Rikke Fuglsang

    Antallet af skilsmisser i etniske minoritetsfamilier er steget i de senere år. Børn med etnisk minoritetsbaggrund oplever i næsten lige så høj grad som danske, at deres forældre går fra hinanden. Men disse børn har nogle særlige udfordringer, viser denne undersøgelse, som har fokus på familier fra...... (OECD’s fattigdomsgrænse). Og langt flere end danske børn har mødre, der står uden for arbejdsmarkedet, som modtager kontanthjælp eller førtidspension. Undersøgelsen peger på, at der mangler en form for skilsmissekultur i de etniske miljøer, da forældrene har rødder i samfund, hvor der ikke er tradition...

  8. Net Locality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Gordon, Eric

    Provides an introduction to the new theory of Net Locality and the profound effect on individuals and societies when everything is located or locatable. Describes net locality as an emerging form of location awareness central to all aspects of digital media, from mobile phones, to Google Maps...... of emerging technologies, from GeoCities to GPS, Wi-Fi, Wiki Me, and Google Android....

  9. Net Neutrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej

    2017-01-01

    Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else.......Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else....

  10. Measuring the instrument function of radiometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winston, R. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Littlejohn, R.G. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The instrument function is a function of position and angle, the knowledge of which allows one to compute the response of a radiometer to an incident wave field in any state of coherence. The instrument function of a given radiometer need not be calculated; instead, it may be measured by calibration with incident plane waves.

  11. Bilingualism. Bilingual education. Natal/RN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Vian Jr

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at presenting a preliminary account of the bilingual education in Natal/RN based on the notions of bilingual (GROSJEAN, 1982; WEI, 2000 and bilingual education (HAMERS; BLANC, 2000; FISHMAN; LOVAS, 1970; DALE; TANNER, 2012. The data were collected through questionnaires and interviews in four private bilingual schools in Natal/RN. Results indicate that most of the schools include two languages concomitantly in their bilingual curriculum with differences as regards the hour load to work with each of the languages

  12. rn Utzon -Influences and Reinterpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The Paper presents a study of Jørn Utzon's architecture, in terms of its response to both local context and transcultural influences. The paper shows Utzon to have been a precursor and direct influence upon subsequent developments within contemporary regional architecture.......The Paper presents a study of Jørn Utzon's architecture, in terms of its response to both local context and transcultural influences. The paper shows Utzon to have been a precursor and direct influence upon subsequent developments within contemporary regional architecture....

  13. SMEX03 Aircraft Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer (PSR) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer (PSR) is an airborne microwave imaging radiometer developed and operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...

  14. SMEX02 Aircraft Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer (PSR) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer (PSR) is an airborne microwave imaging radiometer developed and operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...

  15. SAFARI 2000 Cloud Absorption Radiometer BRDF, Dry Season 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) is an airborne multi-wavelength scanning radiometer that can perform several functions including determining the...

  16. Udsatte børn i dagplejen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente

    undersøgelsen ‘Kan daginstitutioner gøre en forskel' (Jensen, 2005), der som led i Forskningsprogrammet om social arv pegede på vanskeligheder og muligheder i almentilbuddenes arbejde med udsatte børn fra dagtilbudsalderen. Senere gennemførtes fra 2005-2009 projektet ‘Handlekompetence i pædagogisk arbejde med...

  17. Dynamical Symmetry Breaking in RN Quantum Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Kotvytskiy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that in the RN gravitation model, there is no dynamical symmetry breaking effect in the formalism of the Schwinger-Dyson equation (in flat background space-time. A general formula for the second variation of the gravitational action is obtained from the quantum corrections hμν (in arbitrary background metrics.

  18. A Scanning Microwave Radar and Radiometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels

    1995-01-01

    The Scanning Microwave Radar and Radiometer (SMRR) is a line scanner featuring a combined radar and radiometer system operating around 35 and 94 GHz. The layout of the SMRR is shown. The 2 offset antenna parabolas scan in synchronism, the receiver antenna has the highest gain in order to ensure...... that footprints are identical for the radar and the radiometer. The instrument will be flown in a pod under a Gulfstream G3 normally cruising with 240 m/sec at 12500 m, and will thus be able to sense clouds and precipitation from above...

  19. GRIP HURRICANE IMAGING RADIOMETER (HIRAD) V0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GRIP Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) dataset was collected by the HIRAD instrument, which is a hurricane imaging, single-polarization passive C-band...

  20. GRIP HURRICANE IMAGING RADIOMETER (HIRAD) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GRIP Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) V1 dataset contains measurements of brightness temperature taken at 4, 5, 6 and 6.6 GHz, as well as MERRA 2 m wind...

  1. GRIP HURRICANE IMAGING RADIOMETER (HIRAD) V0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — HIRAD is a hurricane imaging, single-pol passive C-band radiometer with both cross-track and along-track resolution that measures strong ocean surface winds through...

  2. Microwave Radiometry and Radiometers for Ocean Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels

    2008-01-01

    aperture radiometer technique, both yielding imaging capability without scanning. Typical applications of microwave radiometry concerning oceans are: sea salinity, sea surface temperature, wind speed and direction, sea ice detection and classification. However, in an attempt to measure properties...

  3. Diffusers in silicon-photodiode radiometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, L P

    1982-03-01

    The problems encountered when making radiometric measurements with silicon-photodiode radiometers not incorporating diffusers are discussed, with special attention given to the case where laser beams are involved. A diffuserless radiometer head design is presented which eliminates most of these problems. These problems can also be avoided by using a diffuser. A radiometer head incorporating a diffuser is described, and its properties are studied for three types of diffuser: flashed opal, type-2250 translucent Plexiglas, and a three-piece ground and etched quartz. Graphical data are given for the spatial uniformity, angular response variation, and spectral attenuation associated with radiometer heads incorporating these three types of diffuser. It is shown that, for a wide range of radiometric and photometric applications, the quartz diffuser is the most desirable, although its use results in a somewhat limited angular field of view.

  4. RESTful NET

    CERN Document Server

    Flanders, Jon

    2008-01-01

    RESTful .NET is the first book that teaches Windows developers to build RESTful web services using the latest Microsoft tools. Written by Windows Communication Foundation (WFC) expert Jon Flanders, this hands-on tutorial demonstrates how you can use WCF and other components of the .NET 3.5 Framework to build, deploy and use REST-based web services in a variety of application scenarios. RESTful architecture offers a simpler approach to building web services than SOAP, SOA, and the cumbersome WS- stack. And WCF has proven to be a flexible technology for building distributed systems not necessa

  5. A simple and versatile sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn/ sup 2 sup 2 sup 0 Rn exposure chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, K N; Guan, Z J

    2002-01-01

    A simple sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn/ sup 2 sup 2 sup 0 Rn exposure chamber is described. The chamber is made of acrylic and has a volume of 0.41 m sup 3. The sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn and sup 2 sup 2 sup 0 Rn sources can be operated independently or simultaneously. The concentrations of sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn and sup 2 sup 2 sup 0 Rn were monitored by a continuous alpha spectrometer called RAD7. The capability of alpha spectrometry has removed the mutual interference between sup 2 sup 2 sup 0 Rn and sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn, which is a major problem in measuring sup 2 sup 2 sup 0 Rn. Furthermore, the capability can also provide fast response to changes in the sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn level and sup 2 sup 2 sup 0 Rn level in the exposure chamber, with temporal resolutions of about 20 and 2 min, respectively.

  6. Attached, unattached fraction of progeny concentrations and equilibrium factor for dose assessments from {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Parminder; Saini, Komal; Bajwa, Bikramjit Singh [Guru Nanak Dev University, Department of Physics, Amritsar, Punjab (India); Mishra, Rosaline; Sahoo, Bijay Kumar [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Radiological Physics and Advisory Division, Mumbai (India)

    2016-08-15

    In this study, measurements of indoor radon ({sup 222}Rn), thoron ({sup 220}Rn) and their equilibrium equivalent concentration (EEC) were carried out in 96 dwellings from 22 different villages situated in Hamirpur district, Himachal Pradesh, India, by using LR-115 type II-based pinhole twin cup dosimeters and deposition-based progeny sensors (DRPS/DTPS). The annual average indoor {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn concentrations observed in these dwellings were 63.82 and 89.59 Bq/m{sup 3}, respectively, while the average EEC (attached + unattached) for {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn was 29.28 and 2.74 Bq/m{sup 3}. For {sup 222}Rn (f{sub Rn}) and {sup 220}Rn (f{sub Tn}), the average values of unattached fraction were 0.11 and 0.09, respectively. The equilibrium factors for radon (F{sub Rn}) and thoron (F{sub Tn}) varied from 0.12 to 0.77 with an average of 0.50, and from 0.01 to 0.34 with an average of 0.05, respectively. The annual inhalation dose due to mouth and nasal breathing was calculated using dose conversion factors and unattached fractions. The indoor annual effective doses for {sup 222}Rn (AEDR) and {sup 220}Rn (AEDT) were found to be 1.92 and 0.83 mSv a{sup -1}, respectively. The values of {sup 222}Rn/{sup 220}Rn concentrations and annual effective doses obtained in the present study are within the safe limits as recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for indoor dwelling exposure conditions. (orig.)

  7. Socialt udsatte børn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Niels

    Socialt udsatte børn kan være svære at identificere. Ofte er der ikke konkrete tegn på udsathed, men blot en mistanke om, at der kan opstå problemer. Denne rapport samler resultaterne fra fi re delundersøgelser på feltet. Forskningen viser, at det er den langvarige belastning af fl ere samtidige ...

  8. Martin Pärn Kunstihoone salongis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    15. 03 Martin Pärna mööbligrupi "Martin" presentatsioon. 1998. a. pälvis M. Pärn Euroopa disainipreemia Best in the Best Rote Punkt, mida jagab Design Zentrum Nordrhein Westfalen. 1999. a. parim on M. Pärna Martela OY-le projekteeritud klapplaud. Aasta Design Team - Philipsi disaini meeskond. Äramärgitud tooted on näitusel Nordrhein Westfaleni Design Zentrumis

  9. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Associate Professor of. Computer Science and. Automation at the Indian. Institute of Science,. Bangalore. His research interests are broadly in the areas of stochastic modeling and scheduling methodologies for future factories; and object oriented modeling. GENERAL I ARTICLE. Petri Nets. 1. Overview and Foundations.

  10. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 8. Petri Nets - Overview and Foundations. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 8 August 1999 pp ... Author Affiliations. Y Narahari1. Department ot Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  11. "Har andre plejebørn det som mig?"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, H.

    Bogen handler om livet som plejebarn, som det opleves af børnene selv. Den formidler resultaterne fra forskningsprojektet: "Projekt Børnetinget - et talerør for plejebørn", hvor 15 børn i familiepleje er blevet interviewet og hvor 107 nuværende og tidligere plejebørn har skrevet på hjemmesiden ww...

  12. Kort og klart: Børn i lavindkomstfamilier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Trine; Sievertsen, Hans Henrik; Montgomery, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Hvor mange børn lever i familier med en lav indkomst? Er der blevet færre eller flere af dem i de seneste 30 år? Og hvordan går det børn i lavindkomstfamilier, når de bliver voksne? Det handler dette hæfte om. BUPL har bedt SFI undersøge, hvordan børn fra lavindkomstfamilier klarer sig som voksne...

  13. Blinde børn - integration eller isolation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Steen; Cayuelas Mateu, Nuria; Høst, Anders

    Blinde børn har i de senere årtier været integreret i den almindelige skole. Men betyder det, at de bliver bedre forberedt til et integreret liv som voksne? Det er langt fra sikkert, viser denne undersøgelse af blinde børn. Skolen sørger for, at de blinde børn har en støttelærer, så de får det he...

  14. Two blackbody radiometers of high accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, J M; Berdahl, C M

    1970-05-01

    Two cavity-type radiometers have been developed, based on first principles, having the capability of measuring an irradiance with an indicated error 0.3%. The prerequisites for this accuracy are a measuredaperture area, a measurement of electric voltages, and an effective absorptance of its blackbody cavity from 0.998 to 0.999 throughout the uv, visible, and ir spectral ranges. The first cavity-type radiometer is designed to operate only in a vacuum of radiometer in an evacuated cold chamber, an experimental determination of the Stefan-Boltzmann constant is obtained at a value that differs from the theoretical value by 0.3%, which indicates the degree of confidence that can be expected in measurements made with blackbody cavity radiometers. The second type of radiometer is designed to operate in either air or vacuum. Although its aperture opening is windowless, it is unaffected by wind. The range of intensities accurately measurable is from about 10 mW cm(-2) to 800 mW cm(-2); the indicated accuracy is also 0.3%.

  15. (222)Rn concentration in public secondary schools in Galicia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llerena, J J; Cortina, D; Durán, I; Sorribas, R

    2010-11-01

    In the framework of a (222)Rn screening campaign that was carried out in 58 public secondary schools in Galicia (NW Spain), the largest radon-prone area in the Iberian Peninsula, a positive correlation between indoor (222)Rn concentration and outdoor gamma exposure rate was obtained. A new approach to the data acquisition in screening surveys was tested, improving the performances of this type of study and gathering useful data for future remedial actions. Using short-period detectors (charcoal canisters) firstly, in order to detect places showing (222)Rn concentrations over 400Bqm(-3), the number of locations to be measured with long-period detectors (etched track detectors) is reduced. In this screening campaign, 34% of the schools surveyed presented at least one site exceeding the 400Bqm(-3) recommended action level established by the EU, and 15% had at least one site with (222)Rn values over 800Bqm(-3). The maximum value recorded was 2084+/-63Bqm(-3). These results are discussed and compared with data obtained in schools of several countries with similar geology. Seven schools were also studied for seasonal variations of (222)Rn activity concentration. The results were not conclusive, and no significant correlation between season and (222)Rn concentration was established. Finally, a continuous (222)Rn concentration monitor was placed in the secondary school exhibiting a mean value of the (222)Rn concentration very close to 400Bqm(-3). Maximum (222)Rn concentration values were found to occur at times when the school was unoccupied.

  16. Transitioning the RN to Ambulatory Care: An Investment in Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Juliet Walshe

    2016-01-01

    Registered nurses (RNs) struggle when transitioning from the inpatient setting to the outpatient clinical environment because it results in a diverse skill-set shift. The RN, considered an outpatient revenue source, experiences a decrease in peer-to-peer relationships, changes in leadership responsibilities, and changes in workgroup dynamics (supervision of unlicensed clinical personnel who function under the direction of the physician, not the RN). Ambulatory organizations find themselves implementing clinical orientation programs that may not delineate the attributes of the RN. This diminishes their value while emphasizing the unlicensed technical skill set. Creating a core RN orientation program template is paramount for the transition of the RN to the ambulatory setting. The literature reveals several areas where improving the value of the RN will ultimately enhance recruitment and retention, patient care outcomes, and leverage the RN role within any organization. Eleven 30-minute in-depth telephone interviews were conducted in addition to 4 nurse observations to explore the lived experience of the RN in ambulatory care. The findings disclosed an overarching theme of nurse isolation and offered insightful underpinnings for the nurse leader as ambulatory growth continues and nurse leaders further endorse the RN presence in the ambulatory setting.

  17. The Work of Jørn Utzon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Adrian; Mullins, Michael

    2008-01-01

     This paper will present a study of Jørn Utzon's architecture, in terms of its response to both local context and transcultural influences. The paper will show Utzon to have been a precursor and direct influence upon subsequent developments within contemporary regional architecture. In his work......, Utzon displays a Nordic sensibility to nature and integrity of design that strives for the attainment of quality in architecture and design, through the simple, honest yet noble synthesis of form, material and function, motivated by social values. To this essentially regional response, Utzon combines...... influence upon, subsequent developments within contemporary regional architecture....

  18. The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer: Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy L.; James, M. W.; Roberts, J. B.; Biswas, S. K.; Cecil, D.; Jones, W. L.; Johnson, J.; Farrar, S.; Sahawneh, S.; Ruf, C. S.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is an airborne passive microwave radiometer designed to provide high resolution, wide swath imagery of surface wind speed in tropical cyclones from a low profile planar antenna with no mechanical scanning. Wind speed and rain rate images from HIRAD's first field campaign (GRIP, 2010) are presented here followed, by a discussion on the performance of the newly installed thermal control system during the 2012 HS3 campaign. The paper ends with a discussion on the next generation dual polarization HIRAD antenna (already designed) for a future system capable of measuring wind direction as well as wind speed.

  19. GRIP HIGH-ALTITUDE MMIC SOUNDING RADIOMETER (HAMSR) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GRIP High-Altitude MMIC Sounding Radiometer (HAMSR) dataset was collectd by the High Altitude monolithic microwave integrated Circuit (MMIC) Sounding Radiometer...

  20. GPM Ground Validation Duke Microwave Radiometer (MWR) IPHEx V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Duke Microwave Radiometer (MWR) IPHEx dataset consists of data collected by the MWR, which is a sensitive microwave radiometer that detects...

  1. Småbørn i interaktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Tine Basse

    Småbørn i interaktion. En undersøgelse af socialt udviklingspotentiale og muligheder for interaktion for småbørn med autisme i forskellige pædagogiske og organisatoriske miljøer. På baggrund af kvalitativ, naturalistisk empiri, i form af observationer, videooptagelser, interviews og samtaler, søg...

  2. Forord: Børn & Kultur - det æstetiskes betydning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    3. peer-reviewed konferencerapport fra BIN-Nordens projekt: Børn & kultur i det 21. århundrede - hvad ved vi?......3. peer-reviewed konferencerapport fra BIN-Nordens projekt: Børn & kultur i det 21. århundrede - hvad ved vi?...

  3. Time dependent accuracy of dental radiometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marović, Danijela; Matić, Sanja; Kelić, Katarina; Klarić, Eva; Rakić, Mario; Tarle, Zrinka

    2013-06-01

    Inadequate intensity of the polymerization light source can compromise the quality and longevity of dental composite restorations. In order to maintain optimal strength of polymerization devices, regular control of polymerization units is necessary. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of two radiometers in the measurement of light intensity of photopolymerization devices concerning the time point of measurement. Light intensity measurements of 16 halogen and 8 LED curing lights were performed using three different devices at the beginning as well as 10 and 40 seconds after the start of illumination. Two were handheld radiometers: Bluephase meter (BM) and Cure Rite (CR), while an integrating sphere (IS) represented the reference device. Data were statistically analyzed using Friedman's test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test (p radiometers tended to overestimate the light intensity of LED and halogen curing units when compared to the reference device. The time point of measurement influences the output value. The heating of radiometers was proposed as a possible explanation for the inaccuracy.

  4. Dual Microwave Radiometer Experiment Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchand, Roger [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Passive microwave radiometers (MWRs) are the most commonly used and accurate instruments the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Research Facility has to retrieve cloud liquid water path (LWP). The MWR measurements (microwave radiances or brightness temperatures) are often used to derive LWP using climatological constraints, but are frequently also combined with measurements from radar and other instruments for cloud microphysical retrievals. Nominally this latter approach improves the retrieval of LWP and other cloud microphysical quantities (such as effective radius or number concentration), but this also means that when MWR data are poor, other cloud microphysical quantities are also negatively affected. Unfortunately, current MWR data is often contaminated by water on the MWR radome. This water makes a substantial contribution to the measured radiance and typically results in retrievals of cloud liquid water and column water vapor that are biased high. While it is obvious when the contamination by standing water is large (and retrieval biases are large), much of the time it is difficult to know with confidence that there is no contamination. At present there is no attempt to estimate or correct for this source of error, and identification of problems is largely left to users. Typically users are advised to simply throw out all data when the MWR “wet-window” resistance-based sensor indicates water is present, but this sensor is adjusted by hand and is known to be temperamental. In order to address this problem, a pair of ARM microwave radiometers was deployed to the University of Washington (UW) in Seattle, Washington, USA. The radiometers were operated such that one radiometer was scanned under a cover that (nominally) prevents this radiometer radome from gathering water and permits measurements away from zenith; while the other radiometer is operated normally – open or uncovered - with the radome exposed to the sky

  5. BOREAS RSS-14 Level -3 Gridded Radiometer and Satellite Surface Radiation Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Hodges, Gary; Smith, Eric A.

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS RSS-14 team collected and processed GOES-7 and -8 images of the BOREAS region as part of its effort to characterize the incoming, reflected, and emitted radiation at regional scales. This data set contains surface radiation parameters, such as net radiation and net solar radiation, that have been interpolated from GOES-7 images and AMS data onto the standard BOREAS mapping grid at a resolution of 5 km N-S and E-W. While some parameters are taken directly from the AMS data set, others have been corrected according to calibrations carried out during IFC-2 in 1994. The corrected values as well as the uncorrected values are included. For example, two values of net radiation are provided: an uncorrected value (Rn), and a value that has been corrected according to the calibrations (Rn-COR). The data are provided in binary image format data files. Some of the data files on the BOREAS CD-ROMs have been compressed using the Gzip program. See section 8.2 for details. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  6. Inferring 222Rn soil fluxes from ambient 222Rn activity and eddy covariance measurements of CO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, van der Sander; Manohar, Swagath; Vermeulen, Alex; Bosveld, Fred; Meijer, Harro; Manning, Andrew; Molen, van der Michiel; Laan-Luijkx, van der Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    We present a new methodology, which we call Single Pair of Observations Technique with Eddy Covariance (SPOT-EC), to estimate regional-scale surface fluxes of 222Rn from tower-based observations of 222Rn activity concentration, CO2 mole fractions and direct CO2 flux measurements from eddy

  7. Radiometer calibration methods and resulting irradiance differences: Radiometer calibration methods and resulting irradiance differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habte, Aron [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401 USA; Sengupta, Manajit [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401 USA; Andreas, Afshin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401 USA; Reda, Ibrahim [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401 USA; Robinson, Justin [GroundWork Renewables Inc., Logan UT 84321 USA

    2016-10-07

    Accurate solar radiation measured by radiometers depends on instrument performance specifications, installation method, calibration procedure, measurement conditions, maintenance practices, location, and environmental conditions. This study addresses the effect of different calibration methodologies and resulting differences provided by radiometric calibration service providers such as the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and manufacturers of radiometers. Some of these methods calibrate radiometers indoors and some outdoors. To establish or understand the differences in calibration methodologies, we processed and analyzed field-measured data from radiometers deployed for 10 months at NREL's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. These different methods of calibration resulted in a difference of +/-1% to +/-2% in solar irradiance measurements. Analyzing these differences will ultimately assist in determining the uncertainties of the field radiometer data and will help develop a consensus on a standard for calibration. Further advancing procedures for precisely calibrating radiometers to world reference standards that reduce measurement uncertainties will help the accurate prediction of the output of planned solar conversion projects and improve the bankability of financing solar projects.

  8. Methods of determining the spatial response nonlinearities of radiometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, F A

    1970-09-01

    In many instances, a radiometer's responses are found to be nonuniform with respect to target positions within its field of view. This paper examines the effects of spatial nonuniformity for the case of a symmetrical uniform source boresighted in the radiometer's field of view and shows how these effects can be dealt with by relating the radiometer's output with its field of view unfilled to its output when its field of view is totally filled by a uniform source. By analysis of a Huggins Mark IX radiometer, it is shown that errors in excess of 18% can result through ignorance of the radiometer's nonlinearity caused by spatial response nonuniformity.

  9. rn i vanskeligheder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Lindqvist, Ditte Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Uvished i ungeliv med en alvorligt syg forælder Abstract Stadig flere børn og unge lever med en somatisk syg forælder henover mange år. Dette kapitel undersøger teenage-liv med en alvorligt somatisk syg forælder, set fra de unges perspektiv og med interesse for hvordan situationen påvirker deres...... daglige liv og udvikling. Uvished om forælderens overlevelse, prognose, behandlingsreaktioner, levetid osv. bliver et organiserende princip i de unges hverdagsliv - som giver anledning til en række forandringer i den unges sociale udviklingssituation. Livet som pårørende til en forælder med sygdom...

  10. Sekundární metalurgie ve slévárnách

    OpenAIRE

    Klika, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Cílem této práce je provést literární rešerši jednotlivých používaných postupů sekundární metalurgie. V práci je popsán princip metod a jejich výhody a nevýhody po zavedení ve výrobě, zejména postupy při výrobě oceli. Zmiňovány jsou zejména výhody sekundární metalurgie, jako je odplynění, oduhličení, odsíření a chemická nebo tepelná homogenizace tekutého kovu v pánvi. The aim of this bachelor thesis is to write a literary research about various methods of secondary metallurgy. In the thesi...

  11. Accuracy of LED and halogen radiometers using different light sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Howard W; Vandewalle, Kraig S; Berzins, David W; Charlton, David G

    2006-01-01

    To determine the accuracy of commercially available, handheld light-emitting diode (LED) and halogen-based radiometers using LED and quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH) curing lights with light guides of various diameters. The irradiance of an LED curing light (L.E. Demetron 1, SDS/Kerr, Orange, CA, USA) and a QTH curing light (Optilux 501, SDS/Kerr) were measured using multiple units of an LED (Demetron L.E.D. Radiometer, SDS/Kerr) and a halogen radiometer (Demetron 100, SDS/Kerr) and compared with each other and to a laboratory-grade power meter (control). Measurements were made using five light guides with distal light guide diameters of 4, 7, 8, 10, and 12.5 mm. For each light guide, five readings were made with each of three radiometers of each radiometer type. Data were analyzed with two-way analysis of variance/Tukey; alpha = 0.05. In general, both handheld radiometer types exhibited significantly different irradiance readings compared with the control meter. Additionally, readings between radiometer types were found to differ slightly, but were correlated. In general, the LED radiometer provided slightly lower irradiance readings than the halogen radiometer, irrespective of light source. With both types of handheld radiometers, the use of the larger-diameter light guides tended to overestimate the irradiance values as seen in the control, while smaller-diameter light guides tended to underestimate. The evaluated LED or halogen handheld radiometers may be used interchangeably to determine the irradiance of both LED and QTH visible-light-curing units. Measured differences between the two radiometer types were small and probably not clinically significant. However, the diameter of light guides may affect the accuracy of the radiometers, with larger-diameter light guides overestimating and smaller-diameter guides underestimating the irradiance value measured by the control instrument.

  12. Limited Data Problems for the Generalized Radon Transform in Rn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frikel, Jürgen; Quinto, Eric Todd

    2016-01-01

    We consider the generalized Radon transform (defined in terms of smooth weight functions) on hyperplanes in Rn. We analyze general filtered backprojection type reconstruction methods for limited data with filters given by general pseudodifferential operators. We provide microlocal characterizatio...

  13. Thoron (220Rn) in the indoor environment and work places

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, T. V.; Sahoo, B. K.

    2009-08-01

    Ever since studies on uranium miners established the presence of a positive risk coefficient for the occurrence of lung cancer in miners exposed to elevated levels of 222Rn and its progeny, there was a great upsurge of interest in the measurement of 222Rn in the environment. Subsequently, considerable data is being generated on the levels of 222Rn in the environment across the worlds and is being periodically reported by UNSCEAR reports. In contrast to this, data pertaining to 220Rn in indoors and workplace environment is scaree due to the genral perception that its levels are negligible due to its shorter half life, and subsequently its contribution to the total inhalation dose is ignored, in the presence of other significant sources of natural radiation. This may not be true. Globally many locations have higher levels of natural background radiation due to elevated levels of primordial radio nuclides in the soil and their decay products like radon (222Rn), and thoron (220Rn) in the environment. Of late, technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material has also contributed to the burden of background radiation. It is estimated that inhalation of 222Rn, 220Rn and their short lived progenies contribute more than 54% of the total natural background radiation dose received by the general population. 220Rn problem exists in industries which use thorium nitrate. Including India, lamps using thoriated gas mantles are still being used for indoor and outdoor lighting and by hawkers in rural as well as urban areas. Considering the fact that large amount of thorium nitrate is being handled by these industries, contribution to the inhalation dose of workers from 220Rn gas emanated and build up of the progeny in ambient air may also be quite significant. In this paper current status of 220Rn levels in the indoor environment and workplaces as well as in other industries where large amount of 232Th is being handled is being summarized. Methods of measurement and

  14. Validation of Empirical and Semi-empirical Net Radiation Models versus Observed Data for Cold Semi-arid Climate Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    aliakbar sabziparvar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Solar Net Radiation (Rn is one of the most important component which influences soil heat flux, evapotranspiration rate and hydrological cycle. This parameter (Rn is measured based on the difference between downward and upward shortwave (SW and longwave (LW irradiances reaching the Earth’s surface. Field measurements of Rn are scarce, expensive and difficult due to the instrumental maintenance. As a result, in most research cases, Rn is estimated by the empirical, semi-empirical and physical radiation models. Almorox et al. (2008 suggested a net radiation model based on a linear regression model by using global solar radiation (Rs and sunshine hours. Alados et al. (2003 evaluated the relation between Rn and Rs for Spain. They showed that the models based on shortwave radiation works perfect in estimating solar net radiation. In another work, Irmak et al. (2003 presented two empirical Rn models, which worked with the minimum numbers of weather parameters. They evaluated their models for humid, dry, inland and coastal regions of the United States. They concluded that both Rn models work better than FAO-56 Penman-Monteith model. Sabziparvar et al. (2016 estimated the daily Rn for four climate types in Iran. They examined various net radiation models namely: Wright, Basic Regression Model (BRM, Linacre, Berliand, Irmak, and Monteith. Their results highlighted that on regional averages, the linear BRM model has the superior performance in generating the most accurate daily ET0. They also showed that for 70% of the study sites, the linear Rn models can be reliable candidates instead of sophisticated nonlinear Rn models. Having considered the importance of Rn in determining crop water requirement, the aim of this study is to obtain the best performance Rn model for cold semi-arid climate of Hamedan. Materials and Methods: We employed hourly and daily weather data and Rn data, which were measured during December 2011 to June 2013 in

  15. rn Utzon’s Maritime Origins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Thomas Arvid

    2014-01-01

    Article about Jørn Utzons and the influence on his architecture comming from his early years with sailing, and learning about boat construction and the design principles from his father - the yacht designer Aage Utzon.......Article about Jørn Utzons and the influence on his architecture comming from his early years with sailing, and learning about boat construction and the design principles from his father - the yacht designer Aage Utzon....

  16. Post-graduation factors predicting NCLEX-RN success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeman, Pamela Butler; Waterhouse, Julie Keith

    2003-01-01

    The academic and nonacademic factors that influence nursing students' success on the licensure exam have been widely reported. However, many questions remain as to why certain candidates fail the exam. This pilot study explores postgraduation influences on the NCLEX-RN.(R) Factors such as length and type of study, work hours, review course participation, sleep, and stress were recorded using the newly developed NCLEX Preparation Survey. Results suggest both expected and unexpected relationships between these factors and NCLEX-RN mastery.

  17. Interview med 11-årige børn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Ole; Andersen, Dines

    grænser for, hvad de kan spørges om. Og manglende læsefærdigheder kan betyde, at de fagligt svage børn glider ud af undersøgelserne. Pilotprojektet viser, at web-baserede spørgeskemaer med lyd giver mulighed for mere repræsentative undersøgelser. Undersøgelsen viser desuden, at børn godt kan svare på...

  18. Sprog hos børn med autisme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brynskov, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    Spredningen i sproglige færdigheder hos børn med autisme er enorm. Dette forhold vanskeliggør forskning inden for området, og omvendt bevirker forskningen og de valg – og ikke mindst fravalg – som autismeforskere er nødt til at foretage, at gruppen af børn med autisme kommer til at fremstå mere...

  19. Margus Pärn : turuliidri koht on Maximale jõukohane 4-5 aastaga / Margus Pärn ; interv. Viljar Rääsk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pärn, Margus

    2008-01-01

    Leedu jaekaubandusketi Maxima Eesti juht Margus Pärn vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad Eesti jaekaubandusturgu ja Maxima positsiooni selles, ettevõtte laienemist ning turuliidri rolli saavutamise võimalust. Lisa: Margus Pärn. Tabel: Maxima

  20. Seasonal Variation of Unattached fraction and Equilibrium factor of 222Rn and 220Rn using DRPS/DTPS and Pin -hole cup dosimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangotra, P.; Mehra, R.; Jakhu, R.

    2015-12-01

    222Rn (Radon), 220Rn (Thoron) and their progenies are naturally occurring radionuclides in environment and responsible for the radiological dose to population. The 222Rn, 220Rn concentration and their separate attached and unattached progeny concentration (season-wise) in units of EEC have been measured in the dwellings of Muktsar and Mansa districts of Punjab (India), using Pin- hole cup dosimeters and deposition based progeny sensors (DTPS/DRPS). The indoor 222Rn concentration was maximum in the rainy season (60 Bqm-3) while 220Rn concentration was maximum in winter season (57 Bqm-3). However EEC of 222Rn and 220Rn has distinct seasonal demeanour than their parent nuclides. The unattached EEC for both 222Rn and 220Rn (EERCU and EETCU) were higher in summer and rainy season as compared to winter season. The equilibrium factor ( for 222Rn and for 220Rn) and unattached fraction ( for 222Rn and for 220Rn) has been calculated separately. The (0.44 ± 0.04) in the studied area was similar to 0.4 that proposed by UNSCEAR and for (0.05 ± 0.01) it was greater than specified value 0.02 by UNSCEAR. The was higher in summer season as compared to rainy and winter season. Due to very smaller value of , a proper relation has not been observed seasonally. The unattached fraction in environment may increase the risk of radiological exposure and absorbed at faster rate into blood then the attached 222Rn and 220Rn progeny. The overall arithmetic mean (rainy, winter and summer seasons) of and were 0.09 ± 0.02 and 0.10 ± 0.03 respectively. The and were lower in winter season as compared to rainy and summer seasons due to higher value of attached EEC present in winter season. A positive and significant correlation (0.56) has been observed between the and aerosol concentration (Z (cm-3)).

  1. A new radiometer for earth radiation budget studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, P.G.

    1992-01-01

    A critical need for the US Global Change Research Program is to provide continuous, well-calibrated radiometric data for radiation balance studies. This paper describes a new, compact, relatively light-weight, adaptable radiometer which will provide both spectrally integrated measurements and data in selected spectral bands. The radiometer design is suitable for use on (small) satellites, aircraft, or Unmanned Aerospace Vehicles (UAVs). Some considerations for the implementation of this radiometer on a small satellite are given. 17 refs.

  2. RN-BSN Students' Perceptions of the Differences in Practice of the ADN- and BSN-Prepared RN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthias, April D; Kim-Godwin, Yeoun Soo

    2016-01-01

    This study explored RN-BSN students' perceptions of practice differences between nurses prepared with an ADN and BSN. Five themes were identified in 20 students' discussion posts: "a nurse is a nurse" at the bedside, beyond the bedside, BSN wanted, digging deeper, and appraisal. Results illustrate the need for educators to assist nurses in translating the differentiated educational competencies to the practice role of the bedside RN.

  3. GRIP HIGH-ALTITUDE MMIC SOUNDING RADIOMETER (HAMSR) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The High Altitude monolithic microwave integrated Circuit (MMIC) Sounding Radiometer (HAMSR) is a microwave atmospheric sounder developed by JPL under the NASA...

  4. Calibration plan for the sea and land surface temperature radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David L.; Nightingale, Tim J.; Mortimer, Hugh; Middleton, Kevin; Edeson, Ruben; Cox, Caroline V.; Mutlow, Chris T.; Maddison, Brian J.

    2013-10-01

    The Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR) to be flown on ESA's Sentinel-3 mission is a multichannel scanning radiometer that will continue the 21-year datasets of the Along Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) series. As its name implies, measurements from SLSTR will be used to retrieve global sea surface temperatures to an uncertainty of planning for the on-orbit monitoring and calibration activities to ensure that calibration is maintained. These activities include vicarious calibration techniques that have been developed through previous missions, and the deployment of ship-borne radiometers.

  5. GPM GROUND VALIDATION DUAL POLARIZATION RADIOMETER GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Dual Polarization Radiometer GCPEx dataset provides brightness temperature measurements at frequencies 90 GHz (not polarized) and 150 GHz...

  6. GPM GROUND VALIDATION DUAL POLARIZATION RADIOMETER GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Dual Polarization Radiometer GCPEx dataset includes brightness temperature measurements at frequencies 90 GHz (not polarized) and 150 GHz...

  7. GPM GROUND VALIDATION ENVIRONMENT CANADA (EC) RADIOMETER GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Environment Canada (EC) Radiometer GCPEx dataset contains retrievals of temperature, water vapor, relative humidity, liquid water profiles...

  8. Preliminary development of digital signal processing in microwave radiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, W. D.

    1980-01-01

    Topics covered involve a number of closely related tasks including: the development of several control loop and dynamic noise model computer programs for simulating microwave radiometer measurements; computer modeling of an existing stepped frequency radiometer in an effort to determine its optimum operational characteristics; investigation of the classical second order analog control loop to determine its ability to reduce the estimation error in a microwave radiometer; investigation of several digital signal processing unit designs; initiation of efforts to develop required hardware and software for implementation of the digital signal processing unit; and investigation of the general characteristics and peculiarities of digital processing noiselike microwave radiometer signals.

  9. PV-MCT working standard radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppeldauer, George P.; Podobedov, V. B.

    2012-06-01

    Sensitive infrared working-standard detectors with large active area are needed to extend the signal dynamic range of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) pyroelectric transfer-standards used for infrared spectral power responsivity calibrations. Increased sensitivity is especially important for irradiance mode responsivity measurements. The noise equivalent power (NEP) of the NIST used pyroelectric transfer-standards is about 8 nW/Hz1/2, equal to a D*= 5.5 x 107 cm Hz1/2/W. A large-area photovoltaic HgCdTe (PV-MCT) detector was custom made for the 2.5 μm to 11 μm wavelength range using a 4-stage thermoelectric cooler. At least an order of magnitude lower NEP was expected than that of the pyroelectric transfer-standards to measure irradiance. The large detector area was produced with multiple p-n junctions. The periodical, multiple-junction structure produced a spatial non-uniformity in the detector response. The PV-MCT radiometer was characterized for spatial non-uniformity of response using different incident beam sizes to evaluate the uncertainty component caused by the spatial non-uniformity. The output voltage noise and also the current and voltage responsivities were evaluated at different signal gains and frequencies. The output voltage noise was decreased and the voltage responsivity was increased to lower the NEP of the radiometer. The uncertainty of the spectral power responsivity measurements was evaluated. It is recommended to use a bootstrap type trans-impedance amplifier along with a cold field-of-view limiter to improve the NEP of the PV-MCT radiometer.

  10. RF Reference Switch for Spaceflight Radiometer Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuble, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this technology is to provide improved calibration and measurement sensitivity to the Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission (SMAP) radiometer. While RF switches have been used in the past to calibrate microwave radiometers, the switch used on SMAP employs several techniques uniquely tailored to the instrument requirements and passive remote-sensing in general to improve radiometer performance. Measurement error and sensitivity are improved by employing techniques to reduce thermal gradients within the device, reduce insertion loss during antenna observations, increase insertion loss temporal stability, and increase rejection of radar and RFI (radio-frequency interference) signals during calibration. The two legs of the single-pole double-throw reference switch employ three PIN diodes per leg in a parallel-shunt configuration to minimize insertion loss and increase stability while exceeding rejection requirements at 1,413 MHz. The high-speed packaged diodes are selected to minimize junction capacitance and resistance while ensuring the parallel devices have very similar I-V curves. Switch rejection is improved by adding high-impedance quarter-wave tapers before and after the diodes, along with replacing the ground via of one diode per leg with an open circuit stub. Errors due to thermal gradients in the switch are reduced by embedding the 50-ohm reference load within the switch, along with using a 0.25-in. (approximately equal to 0.6-cm) aluminum prebacked substrate. Previous spaceflight microwave radiometers did not embed the reference load and thermocouple directly within the calibration switch. In doing so, the SMAP switch reduces error caused by thermal gradients between the load and switch. Thermal issues are further reduced by moving the custom, highspeed regulated driver circuit to a physically separate PWB (printed wiring board). Regarding RF performance, previous spaceflight reference switches have not employed high-impedance tapers to improve

  11. Intra- and inter-brand accuracy of four dental radiometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Richard Bengt; Labrie, Daniel; Kazmi, Sonya; Fahey, John; Felix, Christopher M

    2012-06-01

    This study measured the accuracy and precision of four commercial dental radiometers. The intra-brand accuracy was also determined. The light outputs from 14 different curing lights were measured three times using four brands of dental radiometers and the results were compared to two laboratory-grade power meters that were used as the "gold standard". To ensure proper representation, three examples of each brand of dental radiometer were used. Data collected was analyzed using ANOVA, with 95% confidence intervals, comparing the laboratory-grade meters to the dental radiometers. Bioequivalence was established where the confidence interval for the irradiance values was within ±20% of the "gold standard" reading. Forest plots were used to highlight bioequivalence values. The two laboratory-grade meters differed by less than 0.6%. Overall, all three examples of the Bluephase and SDI radiometers as well as two examples of the LEDRadiometer and one CureRite meter were bioequivalent to the gold standard. However, the type of curing light measured had a significant effect on the accuracy of the radiometer. There was significant variability of the irradiance readings between radiometer brands, and between irradiance values recorded by the three samples of each brand studied. This made it impossible to definitively rank the radiometer brands for accuracy. Within the ±20% bioequivalence limits of this study, there was a clinically significant difference in the irradiance readings between radiometer brands and the choice of curing light affected the results. There was also significant variation in irradiance readings reported by different examples of the same brand of radiometer. Whether in clinical practice or in research, dental radiometers should not be used when either the irradiance or energy delivered needs to be accurately known.

  12. Conceptual radiometer design studies for Earth observations from low Earth orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Richard F.

    1994-01-01

    A conceptual radiometer design study was performed to determine the optimum design approach for spaceborne radiometers in low Earth orbit. Radiometric system configurations which included total power radiometers, unbalanced Dicke radiometers, and balanced Dicke, or as known as noise injection, radiometers were studied. Radiometer receiver configurations which were analyzed included the direct detection radiometer receiver, the double sideband homodyne radiometer receiver, and the single sideband heterodyne radiometer receiver. Radiometer system performance was also studied. This included radiometric sensitivity analysis of the three different radiometer system configurations studied. Both external and internal calibration techniques were analyzed. An accuracy analysis with and without mismatch losses was performed. It was determined that the balanced Dicke radiometer system configuration with direct detection receivers and external calibrations was optimum where frequent calibration such as once per minute were not feasible.

  13. Microfluidic Radiometal Labeling Systems for Biomolecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichert, D E; Kenis, P J. A.

    2011-12-29

    In a typical labeling procedure with radiometals, such as Cu-64 and Ga-68; a very large (~ 100-fold) excess of the non-radioactive reactant (precursor) is used to promote rapid and efficient incorporation of the radioisotope into the PET imaging agent. In order to achieve high specific activities, careful control of reaction conditions and extensive chromatographic purifications are required in order to separate the labeled compounds from the cold precursors. Here we propose a microfluidic approach to overcome these problems, and achieve high specific activities in a more convenient, semi-automated fashion and faster time frame. Microfluidic reactors, consisting of a network of micron-sized channels (typical dimensions in the range 10 - 300¼m), filters, separation columns, electrodes and reaction loops/chambers etched onto a solid substrate, are now emerging as an extremely useful technology for the intensification and miniaturization of chemical processes. The ability to manipulate, process and analyze reagent concentrations and reaction interfaces in both space and time within the channel network of a microreactor provides the fine level of reaction control that is desirable in PET radiochemistry practice. These factors can bring radiometal labeling, specifically the preparation of radio-labeled biomolecules such as antibodies, much closer to their theoretical maximum specific activities.

  14. Novel multi-beam radiometers for accurate ocean surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellin, C.; Pontoppidan, K.; Nielsen, P. H.

    2014-01-01

    Novel antenna architectures for real aperture multi-beam radiometers providing high resolution and high sensitivity for accurate sea surface temperature (SST) and ocean vector wind (OVW) measurements are investigated. On the basis of the radiometer requirements set for future SST/OVW missions...

  15. Measurement errors with low-cost citizen science radiometers

    OpenAIRE

    Bardají, R.; Piera Fernández, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    The KdUINO is a Do-It-Yourself buoy with low-cost radiometers that measure a parameter related to water transparency, the diffuse attenuation coefficient integrated into all the photosynthetically active radiation. In this contribution, we analyze the measurement errors of a novel low-cost multispectral radiometer that is used with the KdUINO. Peer Reviewed

  16. A novel L-band polarimetric radiometer featuring subharmonic sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotbøll, J.; Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl; Skou, Niels

    2003-01-01

    A novel L-band radiometer trading analog components for digital circuits has been designed, built and operated. It is a fully polarimetric radiometer of the correlation type, and it is based on the subharmonic sampling principle in which the L-band signal is directly sampled by a fast A to D...

  17. L-Band Polarimetric Correlation Radiometer with Subharmonic Sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotbøll, Jesper; Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl; Skou, Niels

    2001-01-01

    A novel L-band radiometer trading analog complexity for digital ditto has been designed and built. It is a fully polarimetric radiometer of the correlation type and it is based on the sub-harmonic sampling principle in which the L-band signal is directly sampled by a fast A to D converter...

  18. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Rosener, B. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host ``na-net.ornl.gov`` at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message ``send index`` to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user`s perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  19. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Rosener, B. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host na-net.ornl.gov'' at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message send index'' to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user's perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  20. SMEX03 Aircraft Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer (PSR) Data, Alabama, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer (PSR) is an airborne microwave imaging radiometer developed and operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...

  1. A micromegas detector for {sup 222}Rn emanations measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García, J. A.; Garza, J. G.; Irastorza, I. G.; Mirallas, H. [Laboratorio de Física Nuclear y Altas Energías, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2013-08-08

    The {sup 222}Rn emanation has significant contribution in the overall background for rare event searches experiments. In order to measure this emanations a high sensitivity detector has been designed. The detection method is based on the electrostatic collection of the {sup 222}Rn daughters on a Micromegas detector. Using a chamber with a volume of 21.2 l for the collection of {sup 218}Po and {sup 214}Po progeny of {sup 222}Rn and a 12 × 12cm{sup 2} pixelized Micromegas for the α detection. The advantages of the Micromegas detectors are the low intrinsic radioactivity and the track reconstruction of the α’s, having excellent capabilities for event discrimination.

  2. Present status of 222Rn in groundwater in Extremadura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán López, M; Martín Sánchez, A

    2008-10-01

    Radon-222 was measured in groundwater sources of Extremadura (Spain), analyzing 350 samples from private and public springs, wells, and spas by liquid scintillation counting (LSC) and gamma spectrometry. The 222Rn activity concentrations ranged from 0.24 to 1168 Bq L(-1). The statistical analysis showed a log-normal distribution with a mean of (111+/-7) Bq L(-1) and a median of (36+/-3) Bq L(-1). A hydrogeological study revealed correlations between the activity concentration and the aquifer material's characteristics. A map of 222Rn in groundwater was elaborated and compared with the natural gamma radiation map for this region. About 35% of the samples showed 222Rn activity concentrations above the Euratom recommended limit of 100 Bq L(-1). Three uranium series radionuclides (238U, 234U, and 226Ra) were also assayed by alpha-particle spectrometry, estimating the annual effective dose due to the presence of these natural radionuclides in drinking water.

  3. Indoor {sup 222}Rn survey in Zacatecas State, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirino, L.L. [Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Apartado Postal 495, Zacatecas, Zac. 98000 (Mexico)]. E-mail: leo.quiri@gmail.com; Soriano, J.M. [Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Apartado Postal 495, Zacatecas, Zac. 98000 (Mexico); Mireles, F. [Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Apartado Postal 495, Zacatecas, Zac. 98000 (Mexico); Davila, J.I. [Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Apartado Postal 495, Zacatecas, Zac. 98000 (Mexico); Lopez, H. [Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Apartado Postal 495, Zacatecas, Zac. 98000 (Mexico); Pinedo, J.L. [Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Apartado Postal 495, Zacatecas, Zac. 98000 (Mexico); Rios, C. [Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Apartado Postal 495, Zacatecas, Zac. 98000 (Mexico)

    2007-03-15

    As part of a program for discovering whether afflicted areas exist, indoor {sup 222}Rn concentrations in the State of Zacatecas were surveyed, {sup 222}Rn concentration being measured by {gamma}-ray spectrometry of radon decay products adsorbed into charcoal canisters. A survey was implemented during Summer 2001: 228 dwellings in the state were tested by taking mean 254 measurements. Concentrations exhibited a left-skewed distribution of indoor {sup 222}Rn, showing overall average, minimum, and maximum concentrations of 67, 26, and 511 Bq m{sup -3}, respectively. Only seven of the measurements (2.7%) were found equal to or greater than the US EPA action limit (148 Bq m{sup -3}). Thus, we conclude that the indoor radon environment in Zacatecas State is under US EPA action limit. The few high concentration spots suggest that geological conditions rather than construction materials may be the determinant factor.

  4. Indoor 222Rn survey in Zacatecas State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirino, L L; Soriano, J M; Mireles, F; Dávila, J I; López, H; Pinedo, J L; Rios, C

    2007-03-01

    As part of a program for discovering whether afflicted areas exist, indoor (222)Rn concentrations in the State of Zacatecas were surveyed, (222)Rn concentration being measured by gamma-ray spectrometry of radon decay products adsorbed into charcoal canisters. A survey was implemented during Summer 2001: 228 dwellings in the state were tested by taking mean 254 measurements. Concentrations exhibited a left-skewed distribution of indoor (222)Rn, showing overall average, minimum, and maximum concentrations of 67, 26, and 511 Bqm(-3), respectively. Only seven of the measurements (2.7%) were found equal to or greater than the US EPA action limit (148 Bqm(-3)). Thus, we conclude that the indoor radon environment in Zacatecas State is under US EPA action limit. The few high concentration spots suggest that geological conditions rather than construction materials may be the determinant factor.

  5. Ole Bjørn Kraft 1893-1980

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Christian Houlberg

    2010-01-01

    Ole Bjørn Kraft (1893-1980) var en central konservativ politiker i årene før og efter anden verdenskrig. Han markerede sig som udpræget idépolitiker og opnåede ad flere omgange at blive minister.......Ole Bjørn Kraft (1893-1980) var en central konservativ politiker i årene før og efter anden verdenskrig. Han markerede sig som udpræget idépolitiker og opnåede ad flere omgange at blive minister....

  6. Four absolute cavity radiometer (pyrheliometer) intercomparisons at New River, Arizona: radiometer standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estey, R.S.; Seaman, C.H.

    1981-07-01

    Four detailed intercomparisons were made for a number of models of cavity-type self-calibrating radiometers (pyrheliometers). Each intercomparison consisted of simultaneous readings of pyrheliometers at 30-second intervals in runs of 10 minutes, with at least 15 runs per intercomparison. Twenty-seven instruments were in at least one intercomparison, and five were in all four. Summarized results and all raw data are provided from the intercomparisons.

  7. Stable Targets for Spaceborne Microwave Radiometer Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njoku, Eni G.; Chan, S. K.; Armstrong, R. L.; Brodzik, M. J.; Savoie, M. H.; Knowles, K.

    2006-01-01

    Beginning in the 1970s, continuous observations of the Earth have been made by spaceborne microwave radiometers. Since these instruments have different observational characteristics, care must be taken in combining their data to form consistent long term records of brightness temperatures and derived geophysical quantities. To be useful for climate studies, data from different instruments must be calibrated relative to each other and to reference targets on the ground whose characteristics are stable and can be monitored continuously. Identifying such targets over land is not straightforward due to the heterogeneity and complexity of the land surface and cover. In this work, we provide an analysis of multi-sensor brightness temperature statistics over ocean, tropical forest, and ice sheet locations, spanning the period from 1978 to the present, and indicate the potential of these sites as continuous calibration monitoring targets.

  8. Ozone height profiles using laser heterodyne radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, S. L.

    1994-01-01

    The monitoring of vertical profiles of ozone and related minor constituents in the atmosphere are of great significance to understanding the complex interaction between atmospheric dynamics, chemistry and radiation budget. An ultra high spectral resolution tunable CO2 laser heterodyne radiometer has been designed, developed and set up at the National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi to obtain vertical profiles of various minor constituents the characteristic absorption lines in 9 to 11 micron spectral range. Due to its high spectral resolution the lines can be resolved completely and data obtained are inverted to get vertical profiles using an inversion technique developed by the author. In the present communication the salient features of the laser heterodyne system and the results obtained are discussed in detail.

  9. Method for characterization of filter radiometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toivanen, P; Manoochehri, F; Kärhä, P; Ikonen, E; Lassila, A

    1999-03-20

    We have developed a new method for characterizing the irradiance responsivity of filter radiometers. The method is based on a spatially uniform, known irradiance, generated by combining several identical laser beams. The measurement setup and the experimental demonstration at one wavelength are presented. The diffraction correction related to the generated irradiance is studied experimentally. The uncertainty analysis of the method indicates a relative standard uncertainty of 1 x 10(-3). The results with the new method are compared with the characterization measurements based on our present spectral-irradiance scale. The results have a relative deviation of 1 x 10(-3), which is well within the combined standard uncertainty of the comparison.

  10. Precision of hand-held dental radiometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueggeberg, F A

    1993-06-01

    The intensity of light within the wavelengths of 400 to 500 nm on a dental photocurable resin restorative material is a vital factor affecting many of the physical and chemical properties of the resulting restoration. This paper compares the precision of two recently introduced hand-held radiometers. The results indicate that the response of both hand-held meters was linear. For a given amount of decrease in light source intensity, both hand-held units responded with a corresponding decrement in measured intensity value. Both hand-held meters were found to limit their pass band of intensity readings between 400 and 515 nm, making them very useful clinical instruments. However, the absolute intensity readings between the two units were significantly different.

  11. Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux is defined as the year-over-year change in Total Ecosystem Carbon Stock, or the net rate of carbon exchange between an ecosystem and the...

  12. Calibration OGSEs for multichannel radiometers for Mars atmosphere studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, J. J.; J Álvarez, F.; Gonzalez-Guerrero, M.; Apéstigue, V.; Martín, I.; Fernández, J. M.; Fernán, A. A.; Arruego, I.

    2018-02-01

    This work describes several Optical Ground Support Equipment (OGSEs) developed by INTA (Spanish Institute of Aerospace Technology—Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial) for the calibration and characterization of their self-manufactured multichannel radiometers (solar irradiance sensors—SIS) developed for working on the surface of Mars and studying the atmosphere of that planet. Nowadays, INTA is developing two SIS for the ESA ExoMars 2020 and for the JPL/NASA Mars 2020 missions. These calibration OGSEs have been improved since the first model in 2011 developed for Mars MetNet Precursor mission. This work describes the currently used OGSE. Calibration tests provide an objective evidence of the SIS performance, allowing the conversion of the electrical sensor output into accurate physical measurements (irradiance) with uncertainty bounds. Calibration results of the SIS on board of the Dust characterisation, Risk assessment, and Environment Analyzer on the Martian Surface (DREAMS) on board the ExoMars 2016 Schiaparelli module (EDM—entry and descent module) are also presented, as well as their error propagation. Theoretical precision and accuracy of the instrument are determined by these results. Two types of OGSE are used as a function of the pursued aim: calibration OGSEs and Optical Fast Verification (OFV) GSE. Calibration OGSEs consist of three setups which characterize with the highest possible accuracy, the responsivity, the angular response and the thermal behavior; OFV OGSE verify that the performance of the sensor is close to nominal after every environmental and qualification test. Results show that the accuracy of the calibrated sensors is a function of the accuracy of the optical detectors and of the light conditions. For normal direct incidence and diffuse light, the accuracy is in the same order of uncertainty as that of the reference cell used for fixing the irradiance, which is about 1%.

  13. Calibration of Correlation Radiometers Using Pseudo-Random Noise Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Pantoja

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The calibration of correlation radiometers, and particularly aperture synthesis interferometric radiometers, is a critical issue to ensure their performance. Current calibration techniques are based on the measurement of the cross-correlation of receivers’ outputs when injecting noise from a common noise source requiring a very stable distribution network. For large interferometric radiometers this centralized noise injection approach is very complex from the point of view of mass, volume and phase/amplitude equalization. Distributed noise injection techniques have been proposed as a feasible alternative, but are unable to correct for the so-called “baseline errors” associated with the particular pair of receivers forming the baseline. In this work it is proposed the use of centralized Pseudo-Random Noise (PRN signals to calibrate correlation radiometers. PRNs are sequences of symbols with a long repetition period that have a flat spectrum over a bandwidth which is determined by the symbol rate. Since their spectrum resembles that of thermal noise, they can be used to calibrate correlation radiometers. At the same time, since these sequences are deterministic, new calibration schemes can be envisaged, such as the correlation of each receiver’s output with a baseband local replica of the PRN sequence, as well as new distribution schemes of calibration signals. This work analyzes the general requirements and performance of using PRN sequences for the calibration of microwave correlation radiometers, and particularizes the study to a potential implementation in a large aperture synthesis radiometer using an optical distribution network.

  14. Calibration of correlation radiometers using pseudo-random noise signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Isaac Ramos; Bosch-Lluis, Xavi; Camps, Adriano; Alvarez, Nereida Rodriguez; Hernandez, Juan Fernando Marchán; Domènech, Enric Valencia; Vernich, Carlos; de la Rosa, Sonia; Pantoja, Sebastián

    2009-01-01

    The calibration of correlation radiometers, and particularly aperture synthesis interferometric radiometers, is a critical issue to ensure their performance. Current calibration techniques are based on the measurement of the cross-correlation of receivers' outputs when injecting noise from a common noise source requiring a very stable distribution network. For large interferometric radiometers this centralized noise injection approach is very complex from the point of view of mass, volume and phase/amplitude equalization. Distributed noise injection techniques have been proposed as a feasible alternative, but are unable to correct for the so-called "baseline errors" associated with the particular pair of receivers forming the baseline. In this work it is proposed the use of centralized Pseudo-Random Noise (PRN) signals to calibrate correlation radiometers. PRNs are sequences of symbols with a long repetition period that have a flat spectrum over a bandwidth which is determined by the symbol rate. Since their spectrum resembles that of thermal noise, they can be used to calibrate correlation radiometers. At the same time, since these sequences are deterministic, new calibration schemes can be envisaged, such as the correlation of each receiver's output with a baseband local replica of the PRN sequence, as well as new distribution schemes of calibration signals. This work analyzes the general requirements and performance of using PRN sequences for the calibration of microwave correlation radiometers, and particularizes the study to a potential implementation in a large aperture synthesis radiometer using an optical distribution network.

  15. Tur-samspil i musikterapi med børn med svære kommunikationsvanskeligheder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Ulla

    2006-01-01

    præcisering af de træk ved barnets deltagelse i tur-samspillet, som kan indgå i musikterapeutisk assessment af samspil med kommunikationssvage børn. Klinisk tager artiklen udgangspunkt i musikterapeutisk samspil med børn med betydelige funktionsnedsættelser, herunder børn med autisme. Artiklens indhold...

  16. Hvordan ser cykelegnede omgivelser for børn ud?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Trine Agervig; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Olafsson, Anton Stahl

    2014-01-01

    Børns cykelvaner er påvirket af forældre, nærmiljøets trafikforhold og lokale transportnormer. Det viser en ny undersøgelse, som er lavet blandt forældre til 20 skolebørn i Hovedstadsområdet....

  17. Ulighed i børn og unges sundhed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian

    Belysning af hvordan ulighed i opvækstforhold og forskellige sociale udgangspunkter, forstået som "social kapital", er en ressource, som opbygges gennem opvæksten og som har enorme konsekvenser for børn og unges praktikker i relation til sundhed. desuden en diskussion af forskellige opfattelser a...

  18. Vold mod førskolebørn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oldrup, Helene; Lindstrøm, Maia; Korzen, Sara

    Denne rapport handler om praksis og barrierer for opsporing af og underretning om vold mod førskolebørn. Rapporten er baseret på 22 kvalitative interviews med fagfolk inden for dagpasning, sundhedsvæsen og det sociale system. Undersøgelsen viser bl.a., at en del af fagfolkene ofte tøver med at un...

  19. Fremme af mental sundhed blandt skolebørn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen

    afprøvet en mængde tilgange og modeller, der kan bruges dels til at igangsætte aktiviteter, der fremmer børn og unges mentale sundhed, dels som hjælp til at fremstille et evidensbaseret grundlag for dette arbejde. Især i USA, Australien og Storbritannien har der været fokus på evidensbaseret praksis og......Skolebørns sundhed har i høj grad noget med deres positive selvopfattelse, kammerater, skolen og familien at gøre. Det viser en lang række nyere undersøgelser, der alle peger på, at det er nødvendigt at skærpe opmærksomheden på børn og unges mentale sundhed. Internationalt er der udviklet og...... praksisbaseret evidens i relation til fremme af børn og unges mentale sundhed. I Danmark har man endnu ikke på samme måde en tilgængelig systematiseret viden herom, men der er - ikke mindst blandt de danske sundhedsplejersker - opmærksomhed på evidensgrundlaget for at arbejde med børn og unges trivsel og...

  20. Musikterapi med kontakt- og kommunikationssvage børn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Britta Vinkler

    2009-01-01

    I artiklen beskrives, hvordan musikterapi er med til at støtte en målrettet udviklingsproces hos børn, med diagnoser som Asperger syndrom, autisme, opmærksomhedsforstyrrelser, ADHD o.lign. Musikkens kvaliteter beskrives og illustreres gennem vignetter fra terapiforløb, der alle er foregået i Klinik...

  1. De sunde overvægtige børn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    From, Ditte-Marie

    Aron Antonovsky's forstand betoner alt det, der allerede gør sund og/eller virker sundhedsfremmende i hverdagslivet. Afhandlingen bygger på analyse af kommunale sundhedsdokumenter samt analyser baseret på observation af kommunale sundhedskurser. Endvidere inddrages de overvægtige børn som en aktiv...

  2. Calibration of electron cyclotron emission radiometer for KSTAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogi, Y; Jeong, S H; Lee, K D; Akaki, K; Mase, A; Kuwahara, D; Yoshinaga, T; Nagayama, Y; Kwon, M; Kawahata, K

    2010-10-01

    We developed and installed an electron cyclotron emission radiometer for taking measurements of Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) plasma. In order to precisely measure the absolute value of electron temperatures, a calibration measurement of the whole radiometer system was performed, which confirmed that the radiometer has an acceptably linear output signal for changes in input temperature. It was also found that the output power level predicted by a theoretical calculation agrees with that obtained by the calibration measurement. We also showed that the system displays acceptable noise-temperature performance around 0.23 eV.

  3. Aquarius L-Band Radiometers Calibration Using Cold Sky Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinnat, Emmanuel P.; Le Vine, David M.; Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; Brown, Shannon T.; Hong, Liang

    2015-01-01

    An important element in the calibration plan for the Aquarius radiometers is to look at the cold sky. This involves rotating the satellite 180 degrees from its nominal Earth viewing configuration to point the main beams at the celestial sky. At L-band, the cold sky provides a stable, well-characterized scene to be used as a calibration reference. This paper describes the cold sky calibration for Aquarius and how it is used as part of the absolute calibration. Cold sky observations helped establish the radiometer bias, by correcting for an error in the spillover lobe of the antenna pattern, and monitor the long-term radiometer drift.

  4. Calibration of the TUD Ku-band Synthetic Aperture Radiometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Brian; Skou, Niels

    1995-01-01

    The TUD Synthetic Aperture Radiometer is a 2-channel demonstration model that can simulate a thinned aperture radiometer having an unfilled aperture consisting of several small antenna elements. Aperture synthesis obtained by interferometric measurements using the antenna elements in pairs......, followed by an image reconstruction based on an inverse Fourier transform, results in an imaging instrument without the need of mechanical scan. The thinned aperture and the non-scanning feature make the technique attractive for low frequency spaceborne radiometer systems, e.g. at L-band. Initial...

  5. Professional Enterprise NET

    CERN Document Server

    Arking, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Comprehensive coverage to help experienced .NET developers create flexible, extensible enterprise application code If you're an experienced Microsoft .NET developer, you'll find in this book a road map to the latest enterprise development methodologies. It covers the tools you will use in addition to Visual Studio, including Spring.NET and nUnit, and applies to development with ASP.NET, C#, VB, Office (VBA), and database. You will find comprehensive coverage of the tools and practices that professional .NET developers need to master in order to build enterprise more flexible, testable, and ext

  6. Etched track technique to measure sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn and sup 2 sup 2 sup 0 Rn fluxes on soil surface

    CERN Document Server

    Csige, I

    2003-01-01

    sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn and sup 2 sup 2 sup 0 Rn in the human environment are considered to be a risk factor because of the radiation dose due to the inhalation of their short-lived daughters. Main source of radon is usually the soil; therefore the measurement of fluxes of sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn and sup 2 sup 2 sup 0 Rn on soil surfaces is often a relevant parameter to characterise building site radon potential. An etched track detector technique was developed to measure long-time average sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn and sup 2 sup 2 sup 0 Rn fluxes. (R.P.)

  7. Effects of RN Age and Experience on Transformational Leadership Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Susan; Gish, Mary; Rosenblum, Ruth; Herman, Michael

    2017-06-01

    This study reported the evolution of transformational leadership (TL) practices and behaviors across years of age, management experience, and professional nursing practice within a professional nursing leadership organization. Recent studies of CNO TL found valuations peak near age 60 years. This study reported on a wider range of management positions, correlating years of RN practice and management experience and age to TL metrics. This study used Kouzes and Posner's Leadership Practices Inventory-Self-Assessment (LPI-S) to survey a nursing leadership organization, the Association of California Nurse Leaders (ACNL). Anonymous responses were analyzed to identify leadership trends in age and years of professional service. On average, LPI-S metrics of leadership skills advance through years of management, RN experience, and age. The TL scores are statistically higher in most LPI-S categories for those with more than 30 years of RN or management experience. Decade-averaged LPI-S TL metrics in the ACNL survey evolve linearly throughout age before peaking in the decade from age 60 to 69 years. A similar evolution of TL metrics is seen in decades of either years of management experience or years of RN experience. Transformational leadership increased with nursing maturity particularly for LPI-S categories of "inspire a shared vision," "challenge the process," and "enable others to act." In the ACNL population studied, decade-averaged leadership metrics advanced. Leadership evolution with age in the broader RN population peaked in age bracket 60 to 69 years. The LPI-S averages declined when older than 70 years, coinciding with a shift from full-time work toward retirement and part-time employment.

  8. Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) Handbook With subsections for derivative instruments: Multifilter Radiometer (MFR) Normal Incidence Multifilter Radiometer (NIMFR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodges, Gary B. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States). Earth System Research Lab.; Michalsky, Joseph J. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States). Earth System Research Lab.

    2016-03-01

    The visible Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) is a passive instrument that measures global and diffuse components of solar irradiance at six narrowband channels and one open, or broadband, channel (Harrison et al. 1994). Direct irradiance is not a primary measurement, but is calculated using diffuse and global measurements. To collect one data record, the MFRSR takes measurements at four different shadowband positions. The first measurement is taken with the shadowband in the nadir (home) position. The next three measurements are, in order, the first side-band, sun-blocked, and second side-band. The side-band measurements are used to correct for the portion of the sky obscured by the shadowband. The nominal wavelengths of the narrowband channels are 415, 500, 615, 673, 870, and 940 nm. From such measurements, one may infer the atmosphere’s aerosol optical depth at each wavelength. In turn, these optical depths may be used to derive information about the column abundances of ozone and water vapor (Michalsky et al. 1995), as well as aerosol (Harrison and Michalsky 1994) and other atmospheric constituents.

  9. Derivation of Surface Net Radiation at the Valencia Anchor Station from Top of the Atmosphere Gerb Fluxes by Means of Linear Models and Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraldo Ferreira, A.; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto; Velazquez Blazquez, Almudena; Soria-Olivas, Emilio; Serrano Lopez, Antonio J.; Gomez Chova, Juan

    2012-07-01

    In this work, Linear Models (LM) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) have been developed to estimate net radiation (RN) at the surface. The models have been developed and evaluated by using the synergy between Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB-1) and Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) data, both instruments onboard METEOSAT-9, and ``in situ'' measurements. The data used in this work, corresponding to August 2006 and June to August 2007, proceed from Top of the Atmosphere (TOA) broadband fluxes from GERB-1, every 15 min, and from net radiation at the surface measured, every 10 min, at the Valencia Anchor Station (VAS) area, having measured independently the shortwave and the longwave radiation components (downwelling and upwelling) for different land uses and land cover. The adjustment of both temporal resolutions for the satellite and in situ data was achieved by linear interpolation that showed less standard deviation than the cubic one. The LMs were developed and validated by using satellite TOA RN and ground station surface RN measurements, only considering cloudy free days selected from the ground data. The ANN model was developed both for cloudy and cloudy-free conditions using seven input variables selected for the training/validation sets, namely, hour, day, month, surface RN, solar zenith angle and TOA shortwave and longwave fluxes. Both, LMs and ANNs show remarkably good agreement when compared to surface RN measurements. Therefore, this methodology can be successfully applied to estimate RN at surface from GERB/SEVIRI data.

  10. Hurricane Satellite (HURSAT) from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Huricane Satellite (HURSAT)-Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) is used to extend the HURSAT data set such that appling the Objective Dvorak technique...

  11. Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) was successfully launched into sun-synchronous polar orbit aboard Terra, NASA's first Earth Observing System (EOS)...

  12. NAMMA HIGH ALTITUDE MMIC SOUNDING RADIOMETER (HAMSR) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NAMMA High Altitude MMIC Sounding Radiometer (HAMSR) dataset consists of data collected by HAMSR, which is a 25-channel microwave atmospheric sounder operating...

  13. Effect of Chamber Wall Proximity on Radiometer Force Production (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Selden, N. P; Gimelshein, N. E; Gimelshein, S. F; Ketsdever, A. D

    2008-01-01

    ... on a given radiometer configuration in both the free molecule and transitional regimes. The contribution of the chamber walls to both the flowfield structure and radiometric force production were examined for helium, argon, and nitrogen test gases...

  14. In situ calibration technique for UV spectral radiometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S R; Forgan, B W

    1995-08-20

    A technique for calibrating spectral radiometers measuring global (2π sr) irradiance using solar irradiance at the top of the atmosphere as the absolute irradiance reference is reported. In addition to providing a calibration at all measured wavelengths, the technique provides a direct measure of the angular response of the radiometer. For instruments that can be used to measure the ultraviolet-B region, the calibration also provides an estimate of the ozone column amount.

  15. Characterization of a Compact Water Vapor Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Ajay; Selina, Rob

    2018-01-01

    We report on laboratory test results of the Compact Water Vapor Radiometer (CWVR) prototype for the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), a five-channel design centered around the 22 GHz water vapor line. Fluctuations in perceptible water vapor cause fluctuations in atmospheric brightness emission, which are assumed to be proportional to phase fluctuations of the astronomical signal seen by an antenna. The design is intended to support empirical radiometric phase corrections for each baseline in the array.The dynamic range, channel isolation, and gain stability of the device were characterized. The device has a useful dynamic range of order 18 dB after calibration, and the CWVR channel isolation requirement of 102.6 sec. With temperature corrections, the single channel and channel difference gain stability per channel is < 2 x 10-4 over τ = 2.5 - 103 sec, which meets the < 2 x 10-4 requirement. The observable gain stability is < 2.5 x 10-4 over τ = 2.5 - 103 sec, which meets the < 2.5 x 10-4 requirement.Overall, the test results indicate that the CWVR meets required specifications for dynamic range, channel isolation, and gain stability in order to proceed with testing on a pair of VLA antennas.

  16. Bolometric detectors: optimization for differential radiometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glezer, E N; Lange, A E; Wilbanks, T M

    1992-12-01

    A differential radiometer can be constructed by placing two matched bolometric detectors in an ac bridge, thus producing a signal that is proportional to the difference in power incident on the two detectors. In conditions of large and time-varying common-mode radiative load, the common-mode response resulting from imperfectly matched detectors can limit the stability of the difference signal. For semiconductor thermistor bolometers we find that the bridge can always be trimmed to null the common-mode response for a given instantaneous value of the radiative load. However, subsequent changes in the commonmode radiative load change the operating point of the detectors, giving rise to a second-order common-mode response. This response can be minimized by increasing the electrical-power dissipation in the detectors at the cost of sensitivity. For the case that we are analyzing, and for mismatches in detector parameters that are typical of randomly paired detectors, common-mode rejection ratios in excess of 10(3) can be achieved under 20% changes in radiative load.

  17. Light curing unit effectiveness assessed by dental radiometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortall, A C; Harrington, E; Wilson, H J

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the effectiveness of five commercially available hand-held dental radiometers and a computer-based experimental radiometer. Light intensity of five visible light activation units was determined using the dental radiometers. The influence of curing light intensity on depth of cure of a hybrid composite material was determined using a digital penetrometer. The radiometers evaluated varied with respect to sensor aperture diameter, scale readings (analogue or digital) and the units of measurement (arbitrary or mW cm2). The experimental computer-based radiometer allowed continuous recording of intensity against time; thus the light output could be monitored over the entire irradiation period. When light intensity readings were normalized with regard to a standardized light sensing device aperture of 4 mm diameter, a linear relationship was found between depth of cure and the logarithm of the intensity of the light. The results of this investigation support the use of dental radiometers for periodically monitoring visible light activation units.

  18. WaveNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Coastal Inlets Research Program WaveNet WaveNet is a web-based, Graphical-User-Interface ( GUI ) data management tool developed for Corps coastal...generates tabular and graphical information for project planning and design documents. The WaveNet is a web-based GUI designed to provide users with a...data from different sources, and employs a combination of Fortran, Python and Matlab codes to process and analyze data for USACE applications

  19. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes how Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets) have been developed — from being a promising theoretical model to being a full-fledged language for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems (and other systems in which human beings and...... use of CP-nets — because it means that the function representation and the translations (which are a bit mathematically complex) no longer are parts of the basic definition of CP-nets. Instead they are parts of the invariant method (which anyway demands considerable mathematical skills...

  20. Game Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of game coloured Petri nets. This allows the modeler to explicitly model what parts of the model comprise the modeled system and what parts are the environment of the modeled system. We give the formal definition of game coloured Petri nets, a means of reachability...... analysis of this net class, and an application of game coloured Petri nets to automatically generate easy-to-understand visualizations of the model by exploiting the knowledge that some parts of the model are not interesting from a visualization perspective (i.e. they are part of the environment...

  1. Programming NET Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Alex

    2007-01-01

    Web services are poised to become a key technology for a wide range of Internet-enabled applications, spanning everything from straight B2B systems to mobile devices and proprietary in-house software. While there are several tools and platforms that can be used for building web services, developers are finding a powerful tool in Microsoft's .NET Framework and Visual Studio .NET. Designed from scratch to support the development of web services, the .NET Framework simplifies the process--programmers find that tasks that took an hour using the SOAP Toolkit take just minutes. Programming .NET

  2. Annotating Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Bo; Wells, Lisa Marie

    2002-01-01

    -net. An example of such auxiliary information is a counter which is associated with a token to be able to do performance analysis. Modifying colour sets and arc inscriptions in a CP-net to support a specific use may lead to creation of several slightly different CP-nets – only to support the different uses...... a method which makes it possible to associate auxiliary information, called annotations, with tokens without modifying the colour sets of the CP-net. Annotations are pieces of information that are not essential for determining the behaviour of the system being modelled, but are rather added to support...

  3. On Frequency Offset Estimation Using the iNET Preamble in Frequency Selective Fading Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    ASM fields; (bottom) the relationship between the indexes of the received samples r(n), the signal samples s(n), the preamble samples p (n) and the short...frequency offset estimators for SOQPSK-TG equipped with the iNET preamble and operating in ISI channels. Four of the five estimators exam - ined here are...sync marker ( ASM ), and data bits (an LDPC codeword). The availability of a preamble introduces the possibility of data-aided synchro- nization in

  4. Priit Pärn ohjab Turus festivali / Tiit Tuumalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuumalu, Tiit, 1971-

    2001-01-01

    Turu Kunstiakadeemia animatsiooniosakonda juhatav Priit Pärn lükkas eile käima I Turu animafestivali Tough Eye, kus võistleb ka kolm eesti filmi. Toimub ka Eesti päev, kus näidatakse uute tööde kõrval ka Elbert Tuganovi jt. klassikaks saanud animafilme, kaasaarvatud säilinud lõik esimesest eesti joonisfilmist "Kutsu-Juku seiklused" (1931)

  5. Activity of radon ($^{222} $ Rn) in the lower atmospheric surface ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Analysis of one year measurements of in situ radon ( 222 Rn) and its progenies along with surface air temperature, relative humidity and pressure near to the Earth's surface has been carried out for the first time at the National Atmospheric Research Laboratory (NARL, 13.5◦N and 79.2◦E) located in a rural site in Gadanki, ...

  6. Læringsmodstand hos børn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig

    2017-01-01

    I dette kapitel beskrives dimensioner ved børns læring og med særligt fokus på Illeris’ begreb læringsmodstand. Det tages udgangspunkt i den kulturhistoriske skoles læringsteori med reference til bl.a. Vygotsky og Leontjev. Børn i såvel dagtilbud som skolen vil løbende vise modstand mod læring...

  7. Spilleregler i musikterapi med børn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Ulla

    2005-01-01

    Artiklen gennemgår udvalgte eksempler på anvendelse af spilleregler i musikterapi med børneklientgrupper. Efter en kort introduktion af Priestleys syn på analytisk musikterapi med børn, præsenteres læseren således for en række caseeksempler fra faglitteraturen, der giver indblik i udformning og a...

  8. Limited Data Problems for the Generalized Radon Transform in Rn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frikel, Jürgen; Quinto, Eric Todd

    2016-01-01

    We consider the generalized Radon transform (defined in terms of smooth weight functions) on hyperplanes in Rn. We analyze general filtered backprojection type reconstruction methods for limited data with filters given by general pseudodifferential operators. We provide microlocal characterizatio...... use specific filters). In our proofs, we employ a general paradigm that is based on the calculus of Fourier integral operators. Since this technique does not rely on explicit expressions of the reconstruction operators, it enables us to analyze more general imaging situations....

  9. Present status of {sup 222}Rn in groundwater in Extremadura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galan Lopez, M. [Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radiaciones Ionizantes, CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: monica.galan@ciemat.es; Martin Sanchez, A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)

    2008-10-15

    Radon-222 was measured in groundwater sources of Extremadura (Spain), analyzing 350 samples from private and public springs, wells, and spas by liquid scintillation counting (LSC) and gamma spectrometry. The {sup 222}Rn activity concentrations ranged from 0.24 to 1168 Bq L{sup -1}. The statistical analysis showed a log-normal distribution with a mean of (111 {+-} 7) Bq L{sup -1} and a median of (36 {+-} 3) Bq L{sup -1}. A hydrogeological study revealed correlations between the activity concentration and the aquifer material's characteristics. A map of {sup 222}Rn in groundwater was elaborated and compared with the natural gamma radiation map for this region. About 35% of the samples showed {sup 222}Rn activity concentrations above the Euratom recommended limit of 100 Bq L{sup -1}. Three uranium series radionuclides ({sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, and {sup 226}Ra) were also assayed by alpha-particle spectrometry, estimating the annual effective dose due to the presence of these natural radionuclides in drinking water.

  10. Net zero water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lindeque, M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Is it possible to develop a building that uses a net zero amount of water? In recent years it has become evident that it is possible to have buildings that use a net zero amount of electricity. This is possible when the building is taken off...

  11. SolNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Ulrike; Vajen, Klaus; Bales, Chris

    2014-01-01

    SolNet, founded in 2006, is the first coordinated International PhD education program on Solar Thermal Engineering. The SolNet network is coordinated by the Institute of Thermal Engineering at Kassel University, Germany. The network offers PhD courses on solar heating and cooling, conference...

  12. Kunstige neurale net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørning, Annette

    1994-01-01

    Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse.......Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse....

  13. Analysis of ground-based 222Rn measurements over Spain: Filling the gap in southwestern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, C.; Àgueda, A.; Vogel, F. R.; Vargas, A.; Zimnoch, M.; Wach, P.; Martín, J. E.; López-Coto, I.; Bolívar, J. P.; Morguí, J. A.; Rodó, X.

    2016-09-01

    Harmonized atmospheric 222Rn observations are required by the scientific community: these data have been lacking in southern Europe. We report on three recently established ground-based atmospheric 222Rn monitoring stations in Spain. We characterize the variability of atmospheric 222Rn concentrations at each of these stations in relation to source strengths, local, and regional atmospheric processes. For the study, measured atmospheric 222Rn concentrations, estimated 222Rn fluxes, and regional footprint analysis have been used. In addition, the atmospheric radon monitor operating at each station has been compared to a 222Rn progeny monitor. Annual means of 222Rn concentrations at Gredos (GIC3), Delta de l'Ebre (DEC3), and Huelva (UHU) stations were 17.3 ± 2.0 Bq m-3, 5.8 ± 0.8 Bq m-3, and 5.1 ± 0.7 Bq m-3, respectively. The GIC3 station showed high 222Rn concentration differences during the day and by seasons. The coastal station DEC3 presented background concentrations typical of the region, except when inland 222Rn-rich air masses are transported into the deltaic area. The highest 222Rn concentrations at UHU station were observed when local recirculation facilitates accumulation of 222Rn from nearby source represented by phosphogypsum piles. Results of the comparison performed between monitors revealed that the performance of the direct radon monitor is not affected by meteorological conditions, whereas the 222Rn progeny monitor seems to underestimate 222Rn concentrations under saturated atmospheric conditions. Initial findings indicate that the monitor responses seem to be in agreement for unsaturated atmospheric conditions but a further long-term comparison study will be needed to confirm this result.

  14. Analytical FcRn affinity chromatography for functional characterization of monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlothauer, Tilman; Rueger, Petra; Stracke, Jan Olaf; Hertenberger, Hubert; Fingas, Felix; Kling, Lothar; Emrich, Thomas; Drabner, Georg; Seeber, Stefan; Auer, Johannes; Koch, Stefan; Papadimitriou, Apollon

    2013-01-01

    The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) is important for the metabolic fate of IgG antibodies in vivo. Analysis of the interaction between FcRn and IgG in vitro might provide insight into the structural and functional integrity of therapeutic IgG that may affect pharmacokinetics (PK) in vivo. We developed a standardized pH gradient FcRn affinity liquid chromatography method with conditions closely resembling the physiological mechanism of interaction between IgG and FcRn. This method allows the separation of molecular IgG isoforms, degradation products and engineered molecules based on their affinity to FcRn. Human FcRn was immobilized on the column and a linear pH gradient from pH 5.5 to 8.8 was applied. FcRn chromatography was used in comparison to surface plasmon resonance to characterize different monoclonal IgG preparations, e.g., oxidized or aggregated species. Wild-type and engineered IgGs were compared in vitro by FcRn chromatography and in vivo by PK studies in huFcRn transgenic mice. Analytical FcRn chromatography allows differentiation of IgG samples and variants by peak pattern and retention time profile. The method can distinguish: 1) IgGs with different Fabs, 2) oxidized from native IgG, 3) aggregates from monomer and 4) antibodies with mutations in the Fc part from wild-type IgGs. Changes in the FcRn chromatographic behavior of mutant IgGs relative to the wild-type IgG correlate to changes in the PK profile in the FcRn transgenic mice. These results demonstrate that FcRn affinity chromatography is a useful new method for the assessment of IgG integrity.

  15. Analytical FcRn affinity chromatography for functional characterization of monoclonal antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlothauer, Tilman; Rueger, Petra; Stracke, Jan Olaf; Hertenberger, Hubert; Fingas, Felix; Kling, Lothar; Emrich, Thomas; Drabner, Georg; Seeber, Stefan; Auer, Johannes; Koch, Stefan; Papadimitriou, Apollon

    2013-01-01

    The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) is important for the metabolic fate of IgG antibodies in vivo. Analysis of the interaction between FcRn and IgG in vitro might provide insight into the structural and functional integrity of therapeutic IgG that may affect pharmacokinetics (PK) in vivo. We developed a standardized pH gradient FcRn affinity liquid chromatography method with conditions closely resembling the physiological mechanism of interaction between IgG and FcRn. This method allows the separation of molecular IgG isoforms, degradation products and engineered molecules based on their affinity to FcRn. Human FcRn was immobilized on the column and a linear pH gradient from pH 5.5 to 8.8 was applied. FcRn chromatography was used in comparison to surface plasmon resonance to characterize different monoclonal IgG preparations, e.g., oxidized or aggregated species. Wild-type and engineered IgGs were compared in vitro by FcRn chromatography and in vivo by PK studies in huFcRn transgenic mice. Analytical FcRn chromatography allows differentiation of IgG samples and variants by peak pattern and retention time profile. The method can distinguish: 1) IgGs with different Fabs, 2) oxidized from native IgG, 3) aggregates from monomer and 4) antibodies with mutations in the Fc part from wild-type IgGs. Changes in the FcRn chromatographic behavior of mutant IgGs relative to the wild-type IgG correlate to changes in the PK profile in the FcRn transgenic mice. These results demonstrate that FcRn affinity chromatography is a useful new method for the assessment of IgG integrity. PMID:23765230

  16. The Role of FcRn in Antigen Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kristi; Rath, Timo; Pyzik, Michal; Blumberg, Richard S.

    2014-01-01

    Immunoglobulins are unique molecules capable of simultaneously recognizing a diverse array of antigens and themselves being recognized by a broad array of receptors. The abundance specifically of the IgG subclass and the variety of signaling receptors to which it binds render this an important immunomodulatory molecule. In addition to the classical Fcγ receptors that bind IgG at the cell surface, the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) is a lifelong resident of the endolysosomal system of most hematopoietic cells where it determines the intracellular fate of both IgG and IgG-containing immune complexes (IgG IC). Cross-linking of FcRn by multivalent IgG IC within antigen presenting cells such as dendritic cells initiates specific mechanisms that result in trafficking of the antigen-bearing IgG IC into compartments from which the antigen can successfully be processed into peptide epitopes compatible with loading onto both major histocompatibility complex class I and II molecules. In turn, this enables the synchronous activation of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses against the cognate antigen, thereby bridging the gap between the humoral and cellular branches of the adaptive immune response. Critically, FcRn-driven T cell priming is efficient at very low doses of antigen due to the exquisite sensitivity of the IgG-mediated antigen delivery system through which it operates. FcRn-mediated antigen presentation has important consequences in tissue compartments replete with IgG and serves not only to determine homeostatic immune activation at a variety of sites but also to induce inflammatory responses upon exposure to antigens perceived as foreign. Therapeutically targeting the pathway by which FcRn enables T cell activation in response to IgG IC is thus a highly attractive prospect not only for the treatment of diseases that are driven by immune complexes but also for manipulating local immune responses against defined antigens such as those present during infections and

  17. APHID: A Wideband, Multichannel Radiometer for Phase Delay Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staguhn, J.; Harris, A. I.; Munday, L. G.; Woody, D. P.

    Atmospheric phase fluctuations of mm and sub-mm signals are predominantly caused by line of sight fluctuations in the amount of water vapor. Measurements of the line emission from tropospheric water vapor can be used to track and correct these fluctuations. We present model calculations which led to the design of a multichannel water vapor radiometer for phase correction of millimeter arrays. Our particular emphasis is on designing a phase correction scheme for mid-latitude sites (BIMA, OVRO), and for high-altitude sites. The instrument being implemented at OVRO and BIMA is a cooled double-sideband heterodyne receiver centered on the 22.2GHz water vapor line with a 0.5 - 4.0GHz IF. The back end is a 16 channel analog lag correlator similar to the WASP spectrometer (Harris et al 1998). We present two applications for the multichannel radiometer. A line fit to the observed spectra is expected to provide sufficient accuracy for mm phase correction with the 22 GHZ line. The radiometer can also be used for the determination of the vertical water vapor distribution from the observed line shape. We discuss how this information can be used to improve the accuracy of water vapor radiometers which have too few channels to observe the line shape, and for phase correction schemes which are based on a 183 GHz water line radiometer.

  18. Recalibration and Validation of the SMAP L-Band Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jinzheng; Piepmeier, Jeffrey; Le Vine, David M.; Dinnat, Emmanuel; Bindlish, Rajat; De amici, Giovanni; Mohammed, Priscilla; Misra, Sidharth; Yueh, Simon; Meissner, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    SMAP mission was launched on 31st January 2015 in a 6 AM 6 PM sun-synchronous orbit at 685 km altitude to measure soil moisture and freethaw globally. The passive instrument of SMAP is a fully polarimetric L-band radiometer (1.4GHz) operating with a bandwidth of 24MHz. The radiometer L1B data product version 3 has been released for public science activities. Post-launch calibration and validation activities are described in [4,5]. Validation results show that SMAP antenna temperature (TA) is 2.6 K warmer over galactic Cold Sky (CS), and land TB is 2.6 K colder comparing to SMOS land TB (compared at the top of the atmosphere) after the update of the reflectors thermal model. Due to the biases, the SMAP radiometer is under re-calibration for next data release in 2018.We present the updated calibration approaches for the SMAP radiometer product. We will discuss the various radiometer calibration parameters and part of the validation process and result.

  19. Pro NET Best Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, Stephen D

    2011-01-01

    Pro .NET Best Practices is a practical reference to the best practices that you can apply to your .NET projects today. You will learn standards, techniques, and conventions that are sharply focused, realistic and helpful for achieving results, steering clear of unproven, idealistic, and impractical recommendations. Pro .NET Best Practices covers a broad range of practices and principles that development experts agree are the right ways to develop software, which includes continuous integration, automated testing, automated deployment, and code analysis. Whether the solution is from a free and

  20. Getting to Net Zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-01

    The technology necessary to build net zero energy buildings (NZEBs) is ready and available today, however, building to net zero energy performance levels can be challenging. Energy efficiency measures, onsite energy generation resources, load matching and grid interaction, climatic factors, and local policies vary from location to location and require unique methods of constructing NZEBs. It is recommended that Components start looking into how to construct and operate NZEBs now as there is a learning curve to net zero construction and FY 2020 is just around the corner.

  1. Instant Lucene.NET

    CERN Document Server

    Heydt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A step-by-step guide that helps you to index, search, and retrieve unstructured data with the help of Lucene.NET.Instant Lucene.NET How-to is essential for developers new to Lucene and Lucene.NET who are looking to get an immediate foundational understanding of how to use the library in their application. It's assumed you have programming experience in C# already, but not that you have experience with search techniques such as information retrieval theory (although there will be a l

  2. Self-shading correction for oceanographic upwelling radiometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leathers, Robert; Downes, Trijntje; Mobley, Cutris

    2004-10-04

    We present the derivation of an analytical model for the self-shading error of an oceanographic upwelling radiometer. The radiometer is assumed to be cylindrical and can either be a profiling instrument or include a wider cylindrical buoy for floating at the sea surface. The model treats both optically shallow and optically deep water conditions and can be applied any distance off the seafloor. We evaluate the model by comparing its results to those from Monte Carlo simulations. The analytical model performs well over a large range of environmental conditions and provides a significant improvement to previous analytical models. The model is intended for investigators who need to apply self-shading corrections to radiometer data but who do not have the ability to compute shading corrections with Monte Carlo simulations. The model also can provide guidance for instrument design and cruise planning.

  3. Design and calibration of field deployable ground-viewing radiometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Nikolaus; Czapla-Myers, Jeffrey; Leisso, Nathan; Biggar, Stuart; Burkhart, Charles; Kingston, Rob; Thome, Kurtis

    2013-01-10

    Three improved ground-viewing radiometers were built to support the Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS) developed by the Remote Sensing Group (RSG) at the University of Arizona. Improved over previous light-emitting diode based versions, these filter-based radiometers employ seven silicon detectors and one InGaAs detector covering a wavelength range of 400-1550 nm. They are temperature controlled and designed for greater stability and lower noise. The radiometer systems show signal-to-noise ratios of greater than 1000 for all eight channels at typical field calibration signal levels. Predeployment laboratory radiance calibrations using a 1 m spherical integrating source compare well with in situ field calibrations using the solar radiation based calibration method; all bands are within ±2.7% for the case tested.

  4. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Musall, Eike

    2010-01-01

    and identify possible renewable energy supply options which may be considered in calculations. Finally, the gap between the methodology proposed by each organisation and their respective national building code is assessed; providing an overview of the possible changes building codes will need to undergo......The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...... parameters used in the calculations are discussed and the various renewable supply options considered in the methodologies are summarised graphically. Thus, the paper helps to understand different existing approaches to calculate energy balance in Net ZEBs, highlights the importance of variables selection...

  5. PhysioNet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The PhysioNet Resource is intended to stimulate current research and new investigations in the study of complex biomedical and physiologic signals. It offers free...

  6. NetSig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Heiko; Lawrence, Michael S; Chouinard, Candace R

    2018-01-01

    Methods that integrate molecular network information and tumor genome data could complement gene-based statistical tests to identify likely new cancer genes; but such approaches are challenging to validate at scale, and their predictive value remains unclear. We developed a robust statistic (Net......Sig) that integrates protein interaction networks with data from 4,742 tumor exomes. NetSig can accurately classify known driver genes in 60% of tested tumor types and predicts 62 new driver candidates. Using a quantitative experimental framework to determine in vivo tumorigenic potential in mice, we found that Net......Sig candidates induce tumors at rates that are comparable to those of known oncogenes and are ten-fold higher than those of random genes. By reanalyzing nine tumor-inducing NetSig candidates in 242 patients with oncogene-negative lung adenocarcinomas, we find that two (AKT2 and TFDP2) are significantly amplified...

  7. rn skal behandles ens, selv om de er forskellige

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bylander, Helle Iben; Krogh, Trine Kjær; Thomsen, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Kald dem ikke tosprogede - for så har du allerede ekskluderet dem. Og tro ikke at børn skal behandles forskelligt, fordi de er forskellige. Mød dem i sprog og leg som alle andre børn! Vær brobygger i inklusionen!......Kald dem ikke tosprogede - for så har du allerede ekskluderet dem. Og tro ikke at børn skal behandles forskelligt, fordi de er forskellige. Mød dem i sprog og leg som alle andre børn! Vær brobygger i inklusionen!...

  8. Dento-alveolær kirurgi på børn og unge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Anni Birgitte; Pedersen, Flemming; Haubek, Dorte

    2015-01-01

    Erfaringer med dento-alveolær kirurgi på børn og unge Dento-alveolær kirurgi på børn og unge forudsætter, at det samlede team besidder børnekompetence, dvs. den nødvendige odontologiske indsigt, høj kompetence indenfor kommunikation med børn og forældre samt en positiv holdning til børn og foræld...

  9. Room model with three modal distributions of attached 220Rn progeny and dose conversion factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikezić, D; Stevanović, N

    2007-01-01

    Jacobi parametric room model was extended to the three modal distribution of aerosols, and applied to (220)Rn progeny. The computer program was developed to calculate ratios of progeny activity concentrations in different modes to (220)Rn concentration. The ratios are relatively small and they are given as functions on ventilation rate. Dose conversion factor (DCF) for (220)Rn progeny was calculated as 4.5 mSv WLM(-1), which is smaller by over three times than that for (222)Rn progeny.

  10. Measurements on Active Cold Loads for Radiometer Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels; Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl; Balling, Jan E.

    2008-01-01

    Two semi-conductor Active Cold Loads (ACLs) to be used as cold references in spaceborne microwave radiometers have been developed. An X-band frequency was chosen, and the target noise temperature value was in the 50 to 100 K range. The ACLs are characterized in the operating temperature range 0 50...... degrees C, and long term stability is assessed. To this end a Test Bed has been developed. This Test Bed is actually a stable radiometer, and its design is briefly reviewed. The test setup is described, and preliminary test campaign results indicate output temperatures of 77 K and 55 K for the two ACLs...

  11. Measurements on Active Cold Loads for Radiometer Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl; Skou, Niels; Balling, Jan E.

    2009-01-01

    Two semiconductor active cold loads (ACLs) to be used as cold references in spaceborne microwave radiometers have been developed. An X-band frequency was chosen, and the target noise temperature value was in the 50-100-K range. The ACLs are characterized in the operating temperature range of 0deg......C-50degC, and long-term stability is assessed. To this end, a test bed has been developed. This test bed is actually a stable radiometer, and its design and performance are discussed. The test setup is described, and test campaign results indicate output temperatures of 77 and 56 K for the two ACLs...

  12. Performance Measurements on Active Cold Loads for Radiometer Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels; Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl; Balling, Jan E.

    2007-01-01

    Two semi-conductor Active Cold Loads (ACLs) to be used as cold references in spaceborne microwave radiometers have been developed. An X-band frequency has been chosen, and the target noise temperature value is in the 50 to 100 K range. The ACLs are to be characterized in the operating temperature...... range 0-50 degrees C, and long term stability must be assessed. To this end a Test Bed has been developed. This Test Bed is actually a stable radiometer, and its design and development is discussed. The test setup is described, and preliminary test campaign results indicate output temperatures of 73 K...

  13. TideNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    query tide data sources in a desired geographic region of USA and its territories (Figure 1). Users can select a tide data source through the Google Map ...select data sources according to the desired geographic region. It uses the Google Map interface to display data from different sources. Recent...Coastal Inlets Research Program TideNet The TideNet is a web-based Graphical User Interface (GUI) that provides users with GIS mapping tools to

  14. Building Neural Net Software

    OpenAIRE

    Neto, João Pedro; Costa, José Félix

    1999-01-01

    In a recent paper [Neto et al. 97] we showed that programming languages can be translated on recurrent (analog, rational weighted) neural nets. The goal was not efficiency but simplicity. Indeed we used a number-theoretic approach to machine programming, where (integer) numbers were coded in a unary fashion, introducing a exponential slow down in the computations, with respect to a two-symbol tape Turing machine. Implementation of programming languages in neural nets turns to be not only theo...

  15. Interaction Nets in Russian

    OpenAIRE

    Salikhmetov, Anton

    2013-01-01

    Draft translation to Russian of Chapter 7, Interaction-Based Models of Computation, from Models of Computation: An Introduction to Computability Theory by Maribel Fernandez. "In this chapter, we study interaction nets, a model of computation that can be seen as a representative of a class of models based on the notion of 'computation as interaction'. Interaction nets are a graphical model of computation devised by Yves Lafont in 1990 as a generalisation of the proof structures of linear logic...

  16. Programming NET 35

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Bestselling author Jesse Liberty and industry expert Alex Horovitz uncover the common threads that unite the .NET 3.5 technologies, so you can benefit from the best practices and architectural patterns baked into the new Microsoft frameworks. The book offers a Grand Tour" of .NET 3.5 that describes how the principal technologies can be used together, with Ajax, to build modern n-tier and service-oriented applications. "

  17. GPM GROUND VALIDATION CONICAL SCANNING MILLIMETER-WAVE IMAGING RADIOMETER (COSMIR) GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Conical Scanning Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (COSMIR) GCPEx dataset used the Conical Scanning Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer...

  18. Novel Low-Impact Integration of a Microwave Radiometer into Cloud Radar System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The radiometer channel will have significant filtering to reduce the contamination of the radar signal into the radiometer channels.The successful isolation between...

  19. HURRICANE AND SEVERE STORM SENTINEL (HS3) HURRICANE IMAGING RADIOMETER (HIRAD) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) was collected by the Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD), which was a multi-band...

  20. Cloud Absorption Radiometer Autonomous Navigation System - CANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, Duncan; Gatebe, Charles; McCune, Bill; Hellwig, Dustan

    2013-01-01

    CAR (cloud absorption radiometer) acquires spatial reference data from host aircraft navigation systems. This poses various problems during CAR data reduction, including navigation data format, accuracy of position data, accuracy of airframe inertial data, and navigation data rate. Incorporating its own navigation system, which included GPS (Global Positioning System), roll axis inertia and rates, and three axis acceleration, CANS expedites data reduction and increases the accuracy of the CAR end data product. CANS provides a self-contained navigation system for the CAR, using inertial reference and GPS positional information. The intent of the software application was to correct the sensor with respect to aircraft roll in real time based upon inputs from a precision navigation sensor. In addition, the navigation information (including GPS position), attitude data, and sensor position details are all streamed to a remote system for recording and later analysis. CANS comprises a commercially available inertial navigation system with integral GPS capability (Attitude Heading Reference System AHRS) integrated into the CAR support structure and data system. The unit is attached to the bottom of the tripod support structure. The related GPS antenna is located on the P-3 radome immediately above the CAR. The AHRS unit provides a RS-232 data stream containing global position and inertial attitude and velocity data to the CAR, which is recorded concurrently with the CAR data. This independence from aircraft navigation input provides for position and inertial state data that accounts for very small changes in aircraft attitude and position, sensed at the CAR location as opposed to aircraft state sensors typically installed close to the aircraft center of gravity. More accurate positional data enables quicker CAR data reduction with better resolution. The CANS software operates in two modes: initialization/calibration and operational. In the initialization/calibration mode

  1. A New Way to Demonstrate the Radiometer as a Heat Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladkouski, V. I.; Pinchuk, A. I.

    2015-01-01

    While the radiometer is readily available as a toy, A. E. Woodruff notes that it is also a very useful tool to help us understand how to resolve certain scientific problems. Many physicists think they know how the radiometer works, but only a few actually understand it. Here we present a demonstration that shows that a radiometer can be thought of…

  2. Processor breadboard for on-board RFI detection and mitigation in MetOp-SG radiometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels; Kristensen, Steen S.; Kovanen, Arhippa

    2015-01-01

    Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) is an increasing threat to proper operation of space-borne Earth viewing microwave radiometer systems. There is a steady growth in active services, and tougher requirements to sensitivity and fidelity of future radiometer systems. Thus it has been decided...... to ground at the modest data rate usually associated with radiometer systems....

  3. Design of a Push-Broom Multi-Beam Radiometer for Future Ocean Observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellin, C.; Pontoppidan, K.; Nielsen, P. H.

    2015-01-01

    The design of a push-broom multi-beam radiometer for future ocean observations is described. The radiometer provides a sensitivity one order of magnitude higher than a traditional conical scanning radiometer, and has the big advantage of being fully stationary relative to the satellite platform...

  4. Measurement of small antenna reflector losses for radiometer calibration budget

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels

    1997-01-01

    Antenna reflector losses play an important role in the calibration budget for a microwave radiometer. If the losses are small, they are difficult to measure by traditional means. However, they can be assessed directly by radiometric means using the sky brightness temperature as incident radiation...

  5. High resolution soil moisture radiometer. [large space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilheit, T. T.

    1978-01-01

    An electrically scanned pushbroom phased antenna array is described for a microwave radiometer which can provide agriculturally meaningful measurements of soil moisture. The antenna size of 100 meters at 1400 MHz or 230 meters at 611 MHz requires several shuttle launches and orbital assembly. Problems inherent to the size of the structure and specific instrument problems are discussed as well as the preliminary design.

  6. Improved cavity-type absolute total-radiation radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, J. M., Sr.; Plamondon, J. A., Jr.

    1967-01-01

    Conical cavity-type absolute radiometer measures the intensity of radiant energy to an accuracy of one to two percent in a vacuum of ten to the minus fifth torr or lower. There is a uniform response over the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared range, and it requires no calibration or comparison with a radiation standard.

  7. Planck-LFI radiometers' spectral response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zonca, A [INAF-IASF Milano, Via E. Bassini 15, 20133 Milano (Italy); Franceschet, C; Mennella, A; Bersanelli, M [Universita di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via G. Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Battaglia, P; Silvestri, R [Thales Alenia Space Italia S.p.A., S.S. Padana Superiore 290, 20090 Vimodrone, Milano (Italy); Villa, F; Butler, R C; Cuttaia, F; Mandolesi, N [INAF-IASF Bologna, Via P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); D' Arcangelo, O [IFP-CNR, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Artal, E [Departamento de IngenierIa de Comunicaciones, Universidad de Cantabria, Avenida de los Castros s/n. 39005 Santander (Spain); Davis, R J [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Galeotta, S; Maris, M [INAF-OATs, Via G.B. Tiepolo 11, I-34131, Trieste (Italy); Hughes, N; Jukkala, P; Kilpiae, V-H [DA-Design Oy, Keskuskatu 29, FI-31600, Jokioinen (Finland); Laaninen, M [Ylinen Electronics Oy, Teollisuustie 9A, FIN-02700, Kauniainen (Finland); Mendes, L, E-mail: andrea.zonca@fisica.unimi.i [ESA - ESAC, Camino bajo del Castillo, s/n, Villanueva de la Canada 28692 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-12-15

    The Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) is an array of pseudo-correlation radiometers on board the Planck satellite, the ESA mission dedicated to precision measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background. The LFI covers three bands centred at 30, 44 and 70 GHz, with a goal bandwidth of 20% of the central frequency. The characterization of the broadband frequency response of each radiometer is necessary to understand and correct for systematic effects, particularly those related to foreground residuals and polarization measurements. In this paper we present the measured band shape of all the LFI channels and discuss the methods adopted for their estimation. The spectral characterization of each radiometer was obtained by combining the measured spectral response of individual units through a dedicated RF model of the LFI receiver scheme. As a consistency check, we also attempted end-to-end spectral measurements of the integrated radiometer chain in a cryogenic chamber. However, due to systematic effects in the measurement setup, only qualitative results were obtained from these tests. The measured LFI bandpasses exhibit a moderate level of ripple, compatible with the instrument scientific requirements.

  8. Moisture Retrievals from the Windsat spaceborne polarimetric microwave radiometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parinussa, R.M.; Holmes, T.R.H.; de Jeu, R.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    An existing methodology to derive surface soil moisture from passive microwave satellite observations is applied to the WindSat multifrequency polarimetric microwave radiometer. The methodology is a radiative-transfer-based model that has successfully been applied to a series of (historical)

  9. Calibration of the solar UV radiometers in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leszczynski, K.; Jokela, K.; Visuri, R.; Ylianttila, L. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland). Non-Ionizing Radiation Lab.

    1996-12-31

    In this report, the main emphasis is given to (1) the problems associated with the basic calibration of the spectroradiometer and (2) the year-to-year variability of the calibrations of the solar UV network radiometers. Also, the results from intercomparisons of the Brewer and OL 742 spectroradiometers are included

  10. The design of an in-water optical radiometer

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desa, E.S.; Desa, B.A.E.; DeSa, E.J.

    and downwelling spectral irradiance over an effective dynamic range greater than six decades and with a spectral resolution of 2nm. The emergence of a new generation of radiometers is now practically possible with the advent of scientific grade CCD (charged couple...

  11. Determination of maritime snowfall from radar and microwave radiometer measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinman, James A.; Hakkarinen, Ida M.

    1990-01-01

    This study examines the effect of snowfall on high frequency microwave radiances measured from above the atmosphere by airborne radiometers. Attention is given to the analysis of a maritime snow storm so that snow accumulation on the surface would not introduce ambiguities into the analysis of the upwelling radiances.

  12. A comparison of ultraviolet radiometers' long-term performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper we present a comparison of the performance characteristics of two types of broad-band ultraviolet radiometers. The first type of instrument is manufactured by Eppley Laboratories of the USA and the second type is manufactured by Kipp and Zonen of Holland. The results presented in this paper are for a ...

  13. Evolution and design characteristics of the microwave radiometer spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    The evolution of the design of the microwave radiometer spacecraft from conception to preliminary design is described. Alternatives and tradeoff rationale are described, and the configuration and structural design features that were developed and refined during the design processes are presented for the three structural configurations studied (two geodesic trusses and a flexible catenary).

  14. DESIGN OF MEDICAL RADIOMETER FRONT-END FOR IMPROVED PERFORMANCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemetsen, O; Birkelund, Y; Jacobsen, S K; Maccarini, P F; Stauffer, P R

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the possibility of building a singleband Dicke radiometer that is inexpensive, small-sized, stable, highly sensitive, and which consists of readily available microwave components. The selected frequency band is at 3.25-3.75 GHz which provides a reasonable compromise between spatial resolution (antenna size) and sensing depth for radiometry applications in lossy tissue. Foreseen applications of the instrument are non-invasive temperature monitoring for breast cancer detection and temperature monitoring during heating. We have found off-the-shelf microwave components that are sufficiently small (water baths. Experiments showed superior sensitivity (36% higher) when implementing the low noise amplifier before the Dicke switch (close to the antenna) compared to the other design with the Dicke switch in front. Radiometer performance was also tested in a multilayered phantom during alternating heating and radiometric reading. Empirical tests showed that for the configuration with Dicke switch first, the switch had to be locked in the reference position during application of microwave heating to avoid damage to the active components (amplifiers and power meter). For the configuration with a low noise amplifier up front, damage would occur to the active components of the radiometer if used in presence of the microwave heating antenna. Nevertheless, this design showed significantly improved sensitivity of measured temperatures and merits further investigation to determine methods of protecting the radiometer for amplifier first front ends.

  15. Topographic Signatures in Aquarius Radiometer/Scatterometer Response: Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utku, C.; LeVine, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of topography on remote sensing at L-band is examined using the co-located Aquarius radiometer and scatterometer observations over land. A correlation with slope standard deviation is demonstrated for both the radiometer and scatterometer at topographic scales. Although the goal of Aquarius is remote sensing of sea surface salinity, the radiometer and scatterometer are on continuously and collect data for remote sensing research over land. Research is reported here using the data over land to determine if topography could have impact on the passive remote sensing at L-band. In this study, we report observations from two study regions: North Africa between 15 deg and 30 deg Northern latitudes and Australia less the Tasmania Island. Common to these two regions are the semi-arid climate and low population density; both favorable conditions to isolate the effect of topography from other sources of scatter and emission such as vegetation and urban areas. Over these study regions, topographic scale slopes within each Aquarius pixel are computed and their standard deviations are compared with Aquarius scatterometer and radiometer observations over a 36 day period between days 275 and 311 of 2011.

  16. Landmine detection with an imaging 94-GHz radiometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J.S.; Dekker, R.J.; Ewijk, L.J.

    1996-01-01

    We analyzed a time series of 94 GHz radiometer images of a sandbox with buried and unburied, metal and plastic AP and AT dummy mines. The images covered almost a complete 24 hour cycle, with both clear sky and rain conditions occurring. The AP nor the buried mines were visible at any time. The

  17. The Use of Filtered Radiometers for Radiance Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Albert C; Johnson, B Carol

    2011-01-01

    A methodology for using a calibrated filter radiometer to measure and monitor the spectral radiance of calibration sources is described. An example is presented using the NIST calibration sphere source that is used to support the NASA Earth Observing remote-sensing program.

  18. The Use of Cryogenic HEMT Amplifiers in Wide Band Radiometers

    OpenAIRE

    Jarosik, Norman

    2000-01-01

    Advances in device fabrication, modelling and design techniques have made wide band, low noise cryogenic amplifiers available at frequencies up to 106 GHz. Microwave radiometry applications as used in radio astronomy capitalize on the low noise and large bandwidths of these amplifiers. Radiometers must be carefully designed so as to preclude sensitivity degradations caused by small, low frequency gain fluctuations inherent in these amplifiers.

  19. The airborne EMIRAD L-band radiometer system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl; Kristensen, Steen Savstrup; Balling, Jan E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the EMIRAD L-band radiometer, developed in support of the ESA/SMOS mission. The instrument is a fully polarimetric, dual antenna system, built with special focus on antenna accuracy, receiver stability, and detection and mitigation of radio frequency interference (RFI...

  20. Temperature measurements of natural surfaces using infrared radiometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, D

    1968-09-01

    The radiometric method for surface temperature measurements in meteorology and its airborne use are discussed, with emphasis on possible errors of this method. These are caused by the air layer between radiometer and target, by the nonblackbody characteristic, and by the nonuniformity of natural surfaces. Methods for correcting and reducing these errors are described. Examples of airborne surface temperature measurements are presented.

  1. Microwave Radiometer – 3 Channel (MWR3C) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadeddu, MP

    2012-05-04

    The microwave radiometer 3-channel (MWR3C) provides time-series measurements of brightness temperatures from three channels centered at 23.834, 30, and 89 GHz. These three channels are sensitive to the presence of liquid water and precipitable water vapor.

  2. Calibration of Hurricane Imaging Radiometer C-Band Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sayak K.; Cecil, Daniel J.; James, Mark W.

    2017-01-01

    The laboratory calibration of airborne Hurricane Imaging Radiometer's C-Band multi-frequency receivers is described here. The method used to obtain the values of receiver frontend loss, internal cold load brightness temperature and injected noise diode temperature is presented along with the expected RMS uncertainty in the final calibration.

  3. Dense Focal Plane Arrays for Pushbroom Satellite Radiometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iupikov, O. A.; Ivashina, M. V.; Pontoppidan, K.

    2014-01-01

    Performance of a dense focal plane array feeding an offset toroidal reflector antenna system is studied and discussed in the context of a potential application in multi-beam radiometers for ocean surveillance. We present a preliminary design of the array feed for the 5-m diameter antenna at X-ban...

  4. The Odin satellite - II. Radiometer data processing and calibration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olberg, M; Frisk, U; Lecacheux, A; Olofsson, AOH; Baron, P; Bergman, P; Florin, G; Hjalmarson, A; Larsson, B; Murtagh, D; Olofsson, G; Pagani, L; Sandqvist, A; Teyssier, D; Torchinsky, SA; Volk, K

    The radiometer on-board the Odin satellite comprises four different sub-mm receivers covering the 486 - 581 GHz frequency range and one fixed frequency 119 GHz receiver. Two auto-correlators and one acousto-optical spectrometer serve as backends. This article gives an overview over the processing of

  5. Forbedret diagnostik af osteomyelitis hos børn?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzelius, Pia; Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl

    Osteomyelitis er en alvorlig sygdom. Tidlig diagnose og påbegyndelse af behandlingen er vigtigt for at forhindre sygdomsudviklingen og for at reducere potentielt alvorlige komplikationer. Konventionel røntgenundersøgelse udført tidligt i forløbet kan ikke udelukke akut osteomyelitis. MRI......, knogleskintigrafi og CT er centrale billeddiagnostiske metoder til diagnostik af akut osteomyelitis hos børn. MRI betragtes ofte som værende den bedste billeddannende metode, men er ikke altid tilgængelig og kræver anæstesi af små børn. Knogleskintigrafi påviser osteoblastaktivitet og anses for at være yderst...... sensitiv men er ikke særlig specifik. 18F-fluordeoxyglucose (FDG) PET har måske den højeste diagnostiske nøjagtighed for bekræftelse/udelukkelse af kronisk osteomyelitis sammenlignet med knogleskintigrafi, MRI og leukocytskintigrafi. Imidlertid har de fleste studier kun anvendt 18F-FDG PET ved mistanke om...

  6. Design and Development of the SMAP Microwave Radiometer Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; Medeiros, James J.; Horgan, Kevin A.; Brambora, Clifford K.; Estep, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    The SMAP microwave radiometer will measure land surface brightness temperature at L-band (1413 MHz) in the presence of radio frequency interference (RFI) for soil moisture remote sensing. The radiometer design was driven by the requirements to incorporate internal calibration, to operate synchronously with the SMAP radar, and to mitigate the deleterious effects of RFI. The system design includes a highly linear super-heterodyne microwave receiver with internal reference loads and noise sources for calibration and an innovative digital signal processor and detection system. The front-end comprises a coaxial cable-based feed network, with a pair of diplexers and a coupled noise source, and radiometer front-end (RFE) box. Internal calibration is provided by reference switches and a common noise source inside the RFE. The RF back-end (RBE) downconverts the 1413 MHz channel to an intermediate frequency (IF) of 120 MHz. The IF signals are then sampled and quantized by high-speed analog-to-digital converters in the radiometer digital electronics (RDE) box. The RBE local oscillator and RDE sampling clocks are phase-locked to a common reference to ensure coherency between the signals. The RDE performs additional filtering, sub-band channelization, cross-correlation for measuring third and fourth Stokes parameters, and detection and integration of the first four raw moments of the signals. These data are packetized and sent to the ground for calibration and further processing. Here we discuss the novel features of the radiometer hardware particularly those influenced by the need to mitigate RFI.

  7. Predictors of Success and Failure for ADN Students on the NCLEX-RN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benefiel, Diane

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to: 1) analyze the relationship of preprogram and nursing program variables on National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN) success and failure, and 2) develop a model to predict success and failure on the NCLEX-RN. The convenience sample was comprised of 245 spring, summer, and fall midterm…

  8. FcRn: an IgG receptor on phagocytes with a novel role in phagocytosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vidarsson, Gestur; Stemerding, Annette M.; Stapleton, Nigel M.; Spliethoff, Suzanne E.; Janssen, Hans; Rebers, Frank E.; de Haas, Masja; van de Winkel, Jan G.

    2006-01-01

    Here, we report that the MHC class I-related neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) is expressed within azurophilic and specific granules of neutrophils and relocates to phagolysosomes on phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized bacteria. We found FcRn to enhance phagocytosis in a pH-dependent manner which was

  9. Forskning i musikterapi - børn med en Autisme Spektrum Forstyrrelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    Der er forskningsmæssig evidens for, at musikterapi med børn med en autisme spektrum forstyrrelse (ASF) har en signifikant effekt. Cochrane reviews påviser, at musikterapi fremmer verbal og navnlig nonverbal kommunikation hos børn med ASF. En RCT-undersøgelse viser endvidere en signifikant effekt...

  10. Intervention rettet mod sproget hos børn med autisme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brynskov, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Sprogniveauet hos børn med autisme er afgørende for deres muligheder for udfoldelse og udvikling, og sproget er et udviklingsområde, der er meget modtageligt for intensiv intervention. Imidlertid modtager danske børn med autisme kun sjældent intensiv intervention rettet mod sproget. De intensive...

  11. Southern African Treatment Resistance Network (SATuRN) RegaDB HIV drug resistance and clinical management database: supporting patient management, surveillance and research in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasa, Justen; Lessells, Richard; Rossouw, Theresa; Naidu, Kevindra; Van Vuuren, Cloete; Goedhals, Dominique; van Zyl, Gert; Bester, Armand; Skingsley, Andrew; Stott, Katharine; Danaviah, Siva; Chetty, Terusha; Singh, Lavanya; Moodley, Pravi; Iwuji, Collins; McGrath, Nuala; Seebregts, Christopher J; de Oliveira, Tulio

    2014-01-01

    Substantial amounts of data have been generated from patient management and academic exercises designed to better understand the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic and design interventions to control it. A number of specialized databases have been designed to manage huge data sets from HIV cohort, vaccine, host genomic and drug resistance studies. Besides databases from cohort studies, most of the online databases contain limited curated data and are thus sequence repositories. HIV drug resistance has been shown to have a great potential to derail the progress made thus far through antiretroviral therapy. Thus, a lot of resources have been invested in generating drug resistance data for patient management and surveillance purposes. Unfortunately, most of the data currently available relate to subtype B even though >60% of the epidemic is caused by HIV-1 subtype C. A consortium of clinicians, scientists, public health experts and policy markers working in southern Africa came together and formed a network, the Southern African Treatment and Resistance Network (SATuRN), with the aim of increasing curated HIV-1 subtype C and tuberculosis drug resistance data. This article describes the HIV-1 data curation process using the SATuRN Rega database. The data curation is a manual and time-consuming process done by clinical, laboratory and data curation specialists. Access to the highly curated data sets is through applications that are reviewed by the SATuRN executive committee. Examples of research outputs from the analysis of the curated data include trends in the level of transmitted drug resistance in South Africa, analysis of the levels of acquired resistance among patients failing therapy and factors associated with the absence of genotypic evidence of drug resistance among patients failing therapy. All these studies have been important for informing first- and second-line therapy. This database is a free password-protected open source database available on

  12. La plataforma .NET

    OpenAIRE

    Fornas Estrada, Miquel

    2008-01-01

    L'aparició de la plataforma .NET Framework ha suposat un canvi molt important en la forma de crear i distribuir aplicacions, degut a que incorpora una sèrie d'innovacions tècniques i productives que simplifiquen molt les tasques necessàries per desenvolupar un projecte. La aparición de la plataforma. NET Framework ha supuesto un cambio muy importante en la forma de crear y distribuir aplicaciones, debido a que incorpora una serie de innovaciones técnicas y productivas que simplifican mucho...

  13. Biological Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Wingender, E

    2011-01-01

    It was suggested some years ago that Petri nets might be well suited to modeling metabolic networks, overcoming some of the limitations encountered by the use of systems employing ODEs (ordinary differential equations). Much work has been done since then which confirms this and demonstrates the usefulness of this concept for systems biology. Petri net technology is not only intuitively understood by scientists trained in the life sciences, it also has a robust mathematical foundation and provides the required degree of flexibility. As a result it appears to be a very promising approach to mode

  14. Net recharge vs. depth to groundwater relationship in the Platte River Valley of Nebraska, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, Jozsef; Zlotnik, Vitaly A; Jozsa, Janos

    2013-01-01

    One-km resolution MODIS-based mean annual evapotranspiration (ET) estimates in combination with PRISM precipitation rates were correlated with depth to groundwater (d) values in the wide alluvial valley of the Platte River in Nebraska for obtaining a net recharge (Rn) vs. d relationship. MODIS cells with irrigation were excluded, yielding a mixture of predominantly range, pasture, grass, and riparian forest covers on sandy soils with a shallow groundwater table. The transition depth (dt ) between negative and positive values of the net groundwater recharge was found to be at about 2 (±1) m. Within 1 (±1) m of the surface and at a depth larger than about 7 to 8 (±1) m, the mean annual net recharge became independent of d at a level of about -4 (±12)% and 13 (±10)%, respectively, of the mean annual precipitation rate. The obtained Rn(d) relationship is based on a calibration-free ET estimation method and may help in obtaining the net recharge in shallow groundwater areas of negligible surface runoff where sufficient groundwater-depth data exist. © 2012, The Author(s). Groundwater © 2012, National Ground Water Association.

  15. Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) L-Band Microwave Radiometer Post-Launch Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jinzheng; Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; Misra, Sidharth; Dinnat, Emmanuel P.; Hudson, Derek; Le Vine, David M.; De Amici, Giovanni; Mohammed, Priscilla N.; Yueh, Simon H.; Meissner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The SMAP microwave radiometer is a fully-polarimetric L-band radiometer flown on the SMAP satellite in a 6 AM/ 6 PM sun-synchronous orbit at 685 km altitude. Since April, 2015, the radiometer is under calibration and validation to assess the quality of the radiometer L1B data product. Calibration methods including the SMAP L1B TA2TB (from Antenna Temperature (TA) to the Earth's surface Brightness Temperature (TB)) algorithm and TA forward models are outlined, and validation approaches to calibration stability/quality are described in this paper including future work. Results show that the current radiometer L1B data satisfies its requirements.

  16. Underlying Surface Remote Sensing by the Microwave Radiometer with High Measurement Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubaichin Anton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a new approach to microwave radiometer design. The approach implies simultaneous using both modified zero measurement method and multi-receiver technique. Simultaneous using increases the operating characteristics of airborne microwave radiometers for aircrafts with self-contained power supply. The block diagram of the onboard Earth remote sensing microwave radiometric system is presented. The block diagram and operating timing diagrams of the designed radiometer are shown. An original technique to design a fiducial noise source for transfer characteristics is discussed. The advantages of the designed radiometer in comparison with the state of the art zero-type microwave radiometer are described.

  17. Wind direction over the ocean determined by an airborne, imaging, polarimetric radiometer system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Brian; Skou, Niels

    2001-01-01

    The speed and direction of winds over the ocean can be determined by polarimetric radiometers. This has been established by theoretical work and demonstrated experimentally using airborne radiometers carrying out circle flights and thus measuring the full 360° azimuthal response from the sea...... surface. An airborne experiment, with the aim of measuring wind direction over the ocean using an imaging polarimetric radiometer, is described. A polarimetric radiometer system of the correlation type, measuring all four Stokes brightness parameters, is used. Imaging is achieved using a 1-m aperture...... in the radiometer imagery....

  18. Petri Nets-Applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 9. Petri Nets - Applications. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 9 September 1999 pp 44-52. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/09/0044-0052. Author Affiliations. Y Narahari ...

  19. Safety nets or straitjackets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Does regulation of working hours at national and sector level impose straitjackets, or offer safety nets to employees seeking working time flexibility? This article compares legislation and collective agreements in the metal industries of Denmark, Germany and the USA. The industry has historically...

  20. Coloured Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. This book introduces the constructs of the CPN modelling language and presents the related analysis methods. It provides a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN.

  1. Boom Booom Net Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Yong, Louisa; Dobie, Ian

    1999-01-01

    of an existing Internet radio station; Boom Booom Net Radio. Whilst necessity dictates some use of technology-related terminology, wherever possible we have endeavoured to keep such jargon to a minimum and to either explain it in the text or to provide further explanation in the appended glossary....

  2. Game Theory .net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Mikhael

    2003-01-01

    States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of GameTheory.net is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…

  3. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism...

  4. Evaluating Creative Thinking of Rn-Bsn Students in the Course of Clinical Case Study and Practicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Ya-Lie

    2015-01-01

    This case study evaluated creative thinking of RN-BSN students in the course of clinical case study and practicum. Study design used quantitative and qualitative evaluations of creative thinking of RN-BSN students by triangulation method in the course of clinical case study and practicum. Sixty RN-BSN students self-perceived the changing levels of…

  5. DESIGN OF MEDICAL RADIOMETER FRONT-END FOR IMPROVED PERFORMANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemetsen, Ø.; Birkelund, Y.; Jacobsen, S. K.; Maccarini, P. F.; Stauffer, P. R.

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the possibility of building a singleband Dicke radiometer that is inexpensive, small-sized, stable, highly sensitive, and which consists of readily available microwave components. The selected frequency band is at 3.25–3.75 GHz which provides a reasonable compromise between spatial resolution (antenna size) and sensing depth for radiometry applications in lossy tissue. Foreseen applications of the instrument are non-invasive temperature monitoring for breast cancer detection and temperature monitoring during heating. We have found off-the-shelf microwave components that are sufficiently small (radiometers have been realized: one is a conventional design with the Dicke switch at the front-end to select either the antenna or noise reference channels for amplification. The second design places a matched pair of low noise amplifiers in front of the Dicke switch to reduce system noise figure. Numerical simulations were performed to test the design concepts before building prototype PCB front-end layouts of the radiometer. Both designs provide an overall power gain of approximately 50 dB over a 500 MHz bandwidth centered at 3.5 GHz. No stability problems were observed despite using triple-cascaded amplifier configurations to boost the thermal signals. The prototypes were tested for sensitivity after calibration in two different water baths. Experiments showed superior sensitivity (36% higher) when implementing the low noise amplifier before the Dicke switch (close to the antenna) compared to the other design with the Dicke switch in front. Radiometer performance was also tested in a multilayered phantom during alternating heating and radiometric reading. Empirical tests showed that for the configuration with Dicke switch first, the switch had to be locked in the reference position during application of microwave heating to avoid damage to the active components (amplifiers and power meter). For the configuration with a low noise amplifier up front

  6. The RN-BSN student: developing a model of empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrell, J D; McGinn, A; Black, E; Holloway, N; Ney, P

    1996-03-01

    Nursing practice is being redefined. Today's graduating nurse is practicing in a tomorrow full of unknowns. The relevancy of traditional nursing education is being questioned in today's health care climate of crisis. In an attempt to prepare the graduating RN-BSN student to cope with these changes, nurse educators developed a process of empowerment. The framework for this effort was derived from the curriculum revolution, adult learning theory and empowerment research. The faculty defined empowerment as both an interpersonal process and an outcome. A graphic model has been created consisting of the four elements of empowerment: collegiality, communication, autonomy and accountability. Learning experiences are selected based upon these four elements. Teaching strategies are identified. Positive changes in student behavior have been reported anecdotally. The faculty are beginning the next phase: designing a research project to investigate behavior changes related to this empowerment model.

  7. Closing the RN engagement gap: which drivers of engagement matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Reynaldo R; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J; Boyle, Suzanne M

    2011-06-01

    This study focused on the relationship between RNs' perceptions of drivers of engagement and their workplace engagement. In multiple studies, mostly not in healthcare, researchers found that employees engaged in their work are in the minority. This phenomenon is referred to as the engagement gap. Drivers of engagement and levels of nurse engagement were measured among 510 RNs from a large urban academic university center. The greatest difference between engaged and not-engaged nurses was in the manager action index; the smallest difference was in the salary and benefits index. The passion-for-nursing index was the only significant driver related to RN levels of engagement when controlling for all the other drivers. Nurse managers play a critical role in promoting employee engagement. The nurses' passion for nursing is an important dimension of engagement. Salary and benefits were not primary drivers in employee engagement. Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

  8. Role transition during RN-to-FNP education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Susan H; McLaughlin, Diana G; Hyde, Roberta S; Brown, Rosemary H; Burman, Mary E

    2008-10-01

    This study examines the role transition that occurs during RN-to-family nurse practitioner (FNP) education, described in an earlier qualitative study that identified a role transition framework of influential positive forces and obstacles. The purposes of the study were to validate the educational phase of the original framework and explore other role transition issues. The study used a descriptive correlational design by asking all FNPs in two rural western states to participate by answering a questionnaire. Findings evidenced a stronger level of agreement with the positive forces than with the obstacles. In addition, two significant relationships were found between the positive forces and obstacles and personal life circumstances. These included personal support systems, which were significant for those who had to travel to class, and personal sacrifices, which were significant for those who had children at home. Further research will focus on testing across nurse practitioner specialties nationally.

  9. [sup 222]Rn dosimetry in the dog lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harley, N.H.; Meyers, O.A.; Robbins, E.S.

    1991-01-01

    The alpha dose to cells in bronchial airways in the beagle dog during historical exposures to [sup 222]Rn decay products is calculated using updated information on airway morphometry, call nucleus depth, mucus thickness, physical dosimetry and atmospheric characteristics. The alpha dose per unit exposure to basal call nuclei in the upper airways ranges from 2 to 7 mGy WLM[sup [minus]1] (excluding the trachea) depending upon the exposure protocol used. The dose to alveolar tissue is 3 mGy WLM[sup [minus]1]. In the human lung, the dose factor for the bronchial airways is 9 mGy WLM[sub [minus]1] and for the pulmonary parenchyma 0.5 mGy WLM[sup [minus]1] The human tumors appear primarily in the first few branching airway generations while the only tumors observed in the animals were in the bronchioloalveolar region suggesting a difference in cell sensitivity to alpha radiation.

  10. {sup 222}Rn dosimetry in the dog lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harley, N.H.; Meyers, O.A.; Robbins, E.S.

    1991-12-31

    The alpha dose to cells in bronchial airways in the beagle dog during historical exposures to {sup 222}Rn decay products is calculated using updated information on airway morphometry, call nucleus depth, mucus thickness, physical dosimetry and atmospheric characteristics. The alpha dose per unit exposure to basal call nuclei in the upper airways ranges from 2 to 7 mGy WLM{sup {minus}1} (excluding the trachea) depending upon the exposure protocol used. The dose to alveolar tissue is 3 mGy WLM{sup {minus}1}. In the human lung, the dose factor for the bronchial airways is 9 mGy WLM{sub {minus}1} and for the pulmonary parenchyma 0.5 mGy WLM{sup {minus}1} The human tumors appear primarily in the first few branching airway generations while the only tumors observed in the animals were in the bronchioloalveolar region suggesting a difference in cell sensitivity to alpha radiation.

  11. Socialt udsatte børn i dagtilbud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Cathrine

    evner og dermed gøre dem parate til skolegang og til at indgå i sociale fællesskaber med andre. I USA er der en lang tradition for at anvende systematiske og afprøvede programmer i indsatser over for socialt udsatte børn – noget som endnu stort set er fraværende i Danmark. Rapporten opridser, hvordan...... udenlandske studier kan inspirere fremtidig dansk forskning på området, fx omkring effektmåling, og den formulerer tre undersøgelsestemaer for den videre forskning. Undersøgelsen er igangsat og finansieret af Ministeriet for Familie- og Forbrugeranliggender....

  12. A writing intensive introductory course for RN to BSN students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesh, Anita S; Hyde, Yolanda M; Kautz, Donald D

    2014-01-01

    This article describes learning strategies used with RN to BSN students in their 1st nursing course to successfully learn how to write formal papers using the American Psychological Association (APA) format. This 1st nursing course, a writing intensive, requires 4 short papers with self, peer, and teacher critiques and opportunities to rewrite. Students learn the style of professional nursing discourse, mastery of APA format, and development of additional skills in following directions and in critiquing their own work. An additional benefit is to enhance learning about professional nursing topics. By mastering writing skills in this initial course, students are able to successfully complete writing assignments in future courses and, in some cases, move on to publication.

  13. Radionuclide fistulogram (RnF) in hemodialysis patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, I.S.; Sy, W.M.; Heneghan, W.; Manoli, A.; Gozum, M.

    1984-01-01

    Prosthetic graft A-V fistulae (AVf) (10 adults) and internal AVf (14 adults) as avenues of hemodialysis were created surgically in the limbs of 24 renal failure patients. AVf can malfunction or become obstructed and to date only contrast fistulography (CnF) is used to document such problems. Thirty-three RnF's were performed in 24 patients and CnF's in seven patients. Eleven had clinical features of AVf malfunction and 13 were asymptomatic. 99mTc compounds, TcO/sup -//sub 4/ or MDP (20 mCi) were injected into the AVf through a 19-gauge butterfly. 2 sec. dynamic images (qualitative data) and simultaneous computer acquisition in 64 x 64 byte mode with 0.5 sec/frame for 120 frames (quantitative data) were obtained. Normal qualitative and quantitative criteria were established. 10/11 symptomatic and 2/13 asymptomatic patients showed abnormal scintigraphic features and time activity curves indicating AVf malfunction. All 12 patients demonstrated abnormal collateral formation; 8/12 had stenosis, 3/12 showed equivocal stenosis and in 1/12 no stenosis was shown. In these 12 patients the S/sub 2/ (second circulation)/S/sub 1/ (initial circulation) ratio was below 10%. In 5/12 whose S/sub 2//S/sub 1/ ratio was less than 1%, the CnF and surgical repair confirmed the presence of stenosis. RnF appears to be a simple, benign, and accurate imaging procedure in the evaluation of AVf malfunction.

  14. Monitoring for thorium intakes by means of thoron (RN-220) in breath measurement; Inkorporationsueberwachung auf Thorium mittels RN-220-Exhalationsanalyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenmenger, A.; Riedel, W. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Universitaetsklinikum Benjamin Franklin; Brose, J.; Scheler, R. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Berlin (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    Thoron (Rn-220) in Breath Measurement is a sensitive method for routine monitoring of inhaled thorium intakes. Decay products of exhaled thoron (Po-216 and Pb-212), emanating from Thorium body burdens, are collected electrostatically and their progeny (esp. Po-212) are measured subsequently by alpha-spectrometry. The method has been optimized in respect to chamber volume, collection head geometry and position, supplied high voltage, breathing rate, humidity and counting time. Actually the method is capable to detect Th-228 in the lungs at a level as high as 3% of an Annual Limit on Intake, corresponding to 6 Bq of inhaled Th-228 (class W), as required by the German radiation protection monitoring guidelines. First measurements at occupationally exposed subjects in germany showed burdens up to 7,4 Bq Thorium in lungs derived from an exhalation rate of 3,7%. The amount of Th-232 results from the ratio of Th-228/Th-232 of the handeled material. Corresponding urine excretion analysis showed similar results. With in-vivo measurements no result above detection limit was found at all. (orig.) [Deutsch] Rn-220 Exhalationsmessungen sind eine sensible Methode zur Routineueberwachung von (inhalativen) Thoriuminkorporationen. Zerfallsprodukte des aus Thoriumkoerperdepots abgeatmeten Rn-220 (Po-216 und Pb-212) werden elektrostatisch gesammelt und deren Folgeprodukte dann alpha-spektrometrisch gemessen (spez. Po-212). Die Methode wurde in bezug auf das Sammelkammervolumen, die Sammelkopfgeometrie und -position, die angelegte Hochspannung, die Atemrate, die Atemfeuchtigkeit und die Messzeit optimiert. Derzeit ist es moeglich, mit dieser Methode 3% einer Jahresaktivitaetszufuhr ueber Inhalation in Bezug auf Th-228, entsprechend 6 Bq (Klasse W), nachzuweisen. Erste Messungen an beruflich Exponierten der Thorium-verarbeitenden Industrie in Deutschland zeigten Ergebnisse von bis 7,4 Bq Th-228 Lungendepots bei einer zugrunde gelegten Abatemrate von 3.7%. Der Th-232 Anteil ergibt sich

  15. Rotating shadowband radiometer development and analysis of spectral shortwave data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalsky, J.; Harrison, L.; Min, Q. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    Our goals in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program are improved measurements of spectral shortwave radiation and improved techniques for the retrieval of climatologically sensitive parameters. The multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) that was developed during the first years of the ARM program has become a workhorse at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site, and it is widely deployed in other climate programs. We have spent most of our effort this year developing techniques to retrieve column aerosol, water vapor, and ozone from direct beam spectral measurements of the MFRSR. Additionally, we have had some success in calculating shortwave surface diffuse spectral irradiance. Using the surface albedo and the global irradiance, we have calculated cloud optical depths. From cloud optical depth and liquid water measured with the microwave radiometer, we have calculated effective liquid cloud particle radii. The rest of the text will provide some detail regarding each of these efforts.

  16. Transmission of radiometer data from the Synchronous Meteorological Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    The Synchronous Meteorological Satellite uses a spin scanner radiometer which generates eight visual signals and two infrared signals. These signals are multiplexed and converted into a 28-Mbps data stream. This signal is transmitted to ground by quadriphase modulation at 1686.1 MHz. On the ground, the digital signal is reconstructed to an analog signal. To conserve bandwidth, an analog-to-digital converter with a nonlinear transfer function was used for the visual signals. The size of the quantization step was made proportional to the noise output of the scanner photomultiplier tube which increases as the square root of incident light. The radiometer data transmission link was simulated on a digital computer to determine the transfer function. Some results of the simulation are shown.

  17. An improved outdoor calibration procedure for broadband ultraviolet radiometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancillo, M L; Serrano, A; Antón, M; García, J A; Vilaplana, J M; de la Morena, B

    2005-01-01

    This article aims at improving the broadband ultraviolet radiometer's calibration methodology. For this goal, three broadband radiometers are calibrated against a spectrophotometer of reference. Three different one-step calibration models are tested: ratio, first order and second order. The latter is proposed in order to adequately reproduce the high dependence on the solar zenith angle shown by the other two models and, therefore, to improve the calibration performance at high solar elevations. The proposed new second-order model requires no additional information and, thus, keeps the operational character of the one-step methodology. The models are compared in terms of their root mean square error and the most qualified is subsequently validated by comparing its predictions with the spectrophotometer measurements within an independent validation data subset. Results show that the best calibration is achieved by the second-order model, with a mean bias error and mean absolute bias error lower than 2.2 and 6.7%, respectively.

  18. Quantitative Analysis of Spectral Impacts on Silicon Photodiode Radiometers: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, D. R.

    2011-04-01

    Inexpensive broadband pyranometers with silicon photodiode detectors have a non-uniform spectral response over the spectral range of 300-1100 nm. The response region includes only about 70% to 75% of the total energy in the terrestrial solar spectral distribution from 300 nm to 4000 nm. The solar spectrum constantly changes with solar position and atmospheric conditions. Relative spectral distributions of diffuse hemispherical irradiance sky radiation and total global hemispherical irradiance are drastically different. This analysis convolves a typical photodiode response with SMARTS 2.9.5 spectral model spectra for different sites and atmospheric conditions. Differences in solar component spectra lead to differences on the order of 2% in global hemispherical and 5% or more in diffuse hemispherical irradiances from silicon radiometers. The result is that errors of more than 7% can occur in the computation of direct normal irradiance from global hemispherical irradiance and diffuse hemispherical irradiance using these radiometers.

  19. Accurate antenna reflector loss measurements for radiometer calibration budget

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels

    1996-01-01

    Antenna reflector losses may play an important role in the calibration budget for a microwave radiometer. If the losses are small they are difficult to measure by traditional means. However, they can be assessed directly by radiometric means using the sky brightness temperature as incident radiat...... radiation. The paper describes how such measurements are carried out as well as a suitable experimental set-up. The main reflector of the European Space Agency's MIMR system is used to demonstrate the principle...

  20. Analysis of Anechoic Chamber Testing of the Hurricane Imaging Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenigstein, David; Ruf, Chris; James, Mark; Simmons, David; Miller, Timothy; Buckley, Courtney

    2010-01-01

    The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer System (HIRAD) is a new airborne passive microwave remote sensor developed to observe hurricanes. HIRAD incorporates synthetic thinned array radiometry technology, which use Fourier synthesis to reconstruct images from an array of correlated antenna elements. The HIRAD system response to a point emitter has been measured in an anechoic chamber. With this data, a Fourier inversion image reconstruction algorithm has been developed. Performance analysis of the apparatus is presented, along with an overview of the image reconstruction algorithm

  1. Water Quality Models with Different Functions of Exotech Radiometer Bands

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, K. R.; Krishnan, R.; Chakraborty, A. K.; Deekshatulu, B. L.

    1981-01-01

    Surveillance of water quality by remote sensing technique can be pursued with advantage. An attempt has been made in this paper to obtain regional models of water quality of inland tanks and lakes. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis between water quality parameters and several functions of Exotech radiometer band reflectance values, namely, bands alone, bands and their ratios, and, bands and their products are evaluated with respect to performance of the regression parameters. It is...

  2. A filter-wheel solar radiometer for atmospheric transmission studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, G. E.; Peck, R. L.; Allen, G. R.

    1973-01-01

    A filter-wheel solar radiometer has been developed for monitoring the atmospheric optical depth at multiple narrow-wavelength intervals in the visible and near IR regions of the spectrum. Measurements of the direct solar radiations are converted to a digital format and stored in punched tape for eventual analysis by a computer. During stable clear weather condition, the instrument is capable of providing monochromatic optical depths to an estimated rms accuracy of 0.005.

  3. Ozone profiles above Kiruna from two ground-based radiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Niall J.; Walker, Kaley A.; Raffalski, Uwe; Kivi, Rigel; Gross, Jochen; Manney, Gloria L.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents new atmospheric ozone concentration profiles retrieved from measurements made with two ground-based millimetre-wave radiometers in Kiruna, Sweden. The instruments are the Kiruna Microwave Radiometer (KIMRA) and the Millimeter wave Radiometer 2 (MIRA 2). The ozone concentration profiles are retrieved using an optimal estimation inversion technique, and they cover an altitude range of ˜ 16-54 km, with an altitude resolution of, at best, 8 km. The KIMRA and MIRA 2 measurements are compared to each other, to measurements from balloon-borne ozonesonde measurements at Sodankylä, Finland, and to measurements made by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) aboard the Aura satellite. KIMRA has a correlation of 0.82, but shows a low bias, with respect to the ozonesonde data, and MIRA 2 shows a smaller magnitude low bias and a 0.98 correlation coefficient. Both radiometers are in general agreement with each other and with MLS data, showing high correlation coefficients, but there are differences between measurements that are not explained by random errors. An oscillatory bias with a peak of approximately ±1 ppmv is identified in the KIMRA ozone profiles over an altitude range of ˜ 18-35 km, and is believed to be due to baseline wave features that are present in the spectra. A time series analysis of KIMRA ozone for winters 2008-2013 shows the existence of a local wintertime minimum in the ozone profile above Kiruna. The measurements have been ongoing at Kiruna since 2002 and late 2012 for KIMRA and MIRA 2, respectively.

  4. Fusion of synthetic aperture radiometer and noise waveform SAR images

    OpenAIRE

    Lukin, Konstantin A.; Kudriashov, V. V.

    2014-01-01

    Noise waveform SAR generates 2D SAR images of a scene. Advanced radiometric SAR imaging provides information on the objects thermal radiation, angular coordinates and even range. The brightness temperatures of rough and smooth surfaces are different. An active, noise waveform, operating mode of bistatic radiometer, based on antennae with beam synthesis, is considered with respect to the roughness criteria. The optimal and quasi-optimal algorithms for fusion of radiometric and SAR images are p...

  5. Jason Microwave Radiometer On Orbit Calibration, Validation and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, C. S.; Brown, S. T.; Keihm, S. J.; Kitiyakara, A.

    2002-12-01

    The Jason Microwave Radiometer (JMR) on the Jason-1 altimeter satellite measures radiometric brightness temperature (TB) at 18.7, 23.8, and 34.0 GHz in the nadir direction, from which is estimated the excess path delay (PD) through the atmosphere experienced by the Jason radar altimeter signal due to water vapor and suspended cloud liquid water. JMR is an improved follow-on to the TOPEX Microwave Radiometer (TMR) on the earlier TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter satellite. Early work calibrating JMR and validating its performance during the first six months of the mission will be presented. Placement of Jason-1 into a virtually identical orbit with TOPEX/Poseidon, with approximately 70 s time displacement, has afforded unprecedented accuracy in the intercalibration of two satellite radiometers. The virtual elimination of spatial and temporal decorrelation errors between JMR and TMR TBs and PDs allows intercomparison fine tuning at a much more precise level, and with greatly reduced data averaging requirements, relative to the earlier TMR comparisons with other satellite instruments (SSM/I, ERS-1,2), island radiosondes, GPS, and ground-based water vapor radiometers. Calibration of the JMR TBs has been evaluated at the low end of its on-orbit range by comparing the differences between vicarious cold reference TBs of it and adjacent TMR channels with those predicted by theory. At the high end of the TB range, comparisons are made with TMR TBs over suitable regions of the Sahara desert and Amazon rain forest. Characterization of JMR performance at intermediate TB levels is possible using a variety of statistical intercomparison techniques.

  6. Application of pylon radon daughter standard for calibration of radiometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chruścielewski, Wojciech; Olszewski, Jerzy; Bogusz, Malgorzata

    2002-01-01

    Radiometers for measurements of radon daughter potential energy used in the surveillance of the work environment need a systematic calibration. This paper presents how a commercially available device produced by the Pylon Company can be applied. This device allows to produce, simply and directly, standard sources of radon daughters, corresponding with the energy, geometry and properties of radiation originated from an air sample. The calibration yielded the results that proved to be in agreement with those obtained previously by means of radon chamber.

  7. Ocean Color Inferred from Radiometers on Low-Flying Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churnside, James H; Wilson, James J

    2008-02-08

    The color of sunlight reflected from the ocean to orbiting visible radiometers hasprovided a great deal of information about the global ocean, after suitable corrections aremade for atmospheric effects. Similar ocean-color measurements can be made from a lowflyingaircraft to get higher spatial resolution and to obtain measurements under clouds.A different set of corrections is required in this case, and we describe algorithms to correctfor clouds and sea-surface effects. An example is presented and errors in the correctionsdiscussed.

  8. Solar occultation sounding of pressure and temperature using narrowband radiometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J H; Russell Iii, J M; Smith, M A

    1980-07-01

    A technique for simultaneously retrieving pressure and temperature profiles using satellite-based narrow-band radiometer measurements of absorption in the CO(2) 4.3-microm band is described. Pressure and temperature profiles for earth's upper atmosphere on a global scale can be obtained with errors <3% and 3 K, respectively. The p - T information can be used not only for improving the accuracy of inverted gas concentrations in the same absorption experiment but also for investigating the upper atmosphere circulation.

  9. Development and application of an automated precision solar radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Gang-gang; Li, Xin; Zhang, Quan; Zheng, Xiao-bing; Yan, Jing

    2016-10-01

    Automated filed vicarious calibration is becoming a growing trend for satellite remote sensor, which require a solar radiometer have to automatic measure reliable data for a long time whatever the weather conditions and transfer measurement data to the user office. An automated precision solar radiometer has been developed. It is used in measuring the solar spectral irradiance received at the Earth surface. The instrument consists of 8 parallel separate silicon-photodiode-based channels with narrow band-pass filters from the visible to near-IR regions. Each channel has a 2.0° full-angle Filed of View (FOV). The detectors and filters are temperature stabilized using a Thermal Energy Converter at 30+/-0.2°. The instrument is pointed toward the sun via an auto-tracking system that actively tracks the sun within a +/-0.1°. It collects data automatically and communicates with user terminal through BDS (China's BeiDou Navigation Satellite System) while records data as a redundant in internal memory, including working state and error. The solar radiometer is automated in the sense that it requires no supervision throughout the whole process of working. It calculates start-time and stop-time every day matched with the time of sunrise and sunset, and stop working once the precipitation. Calibrated via Langley curves and simultaneous observed with CE318, the different of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) is within 5%. The solar radiometer had run in all kinds of harsh weather condition in Gobi in Dunhuang and obtain the AODs nearly eight months continuously. This paper presents instrument design analysis, atmospheric optical depth retrievals as well as the experiment result.

  10. Experimental measurements and noise analysis of a cryogenic radiometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, S. M.; Woods, S. I.; Jung, T. M.; Carter, A. C.; Datla, R. U. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), 100 Bureau Drive, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    A cryogenic radiometer device, intended for use as part of an electrical-substitution radiometer, was measured at low temperature. The device consists of a receiver cavity mechanically and thermally connected to a temperature-controlled stage through a thin-walled polyimide tube which serves as a weak thermal link. With the temperature difference between the receiver and the stage measured in millikelvin and the electrical power measured in picowatts, the measured responsivity was 4700 K/mW and the measured thermal time constant was 14 s at a stage temperature of 1.885 K. Noise analysis in terms of Noise Equivalent Power (NEP) was used to quantify the various fundamental and technical noise contributions, including phonon noise and Johnson-Nyquist noise. The noise analysis clarifies the path toward a cryogenic radiometer with a noise floor limited by fundamental phonon noise, where the magnitude of the phonon NEP is 6.5 fW/√(Hz) for the measured experimental parameters.

  11. Advanced modelling of the Planck-LFI radiometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglia, P [Thales Alenia Space Italia S.p.A., S.S. Padana Superiore 290, 20090 Vimodrone (Italy); Franceschet, C; Bersanelli, M; Maino, D; Mennella, A [Universita di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via G. Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Zonca, A [INAF-IASF Milano, Via E. Bassini 15, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Butler, R C; Mandolesi, N [INAF-IASF Bologna, Via P. Gobetti, 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); D' Arcangelo, O; Platania, P [IFP-CNR, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Davis, R J [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Galeotta, S [INAF-OATs, Via G.B. Tiepolo 11, I-34131, Trieste (Italy); Guzzi, P [Numonyx, R and D Technology Center, Via C. Olivetti 2, 20041 Agrate Brianza (Italy); Hoyland, R [Instituto de AstrofIsica de Canarias, C/ Via Lactea S/N, E-38200, La Laguna (Tenerife) (Spain); Hughes, N; Jukkala, P [DA-Design Oy Jokioinen (Finland); Kettle, D [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester, M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Laaninen, M [Ylinen Electronics Oy Kauniainen (Finland); Leonardi, R; Meinhold, P, E-mail: paola.battaglia@thalesaleniaspace.co [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    The Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) is a radiometer array covering the 30-70 GHz spectral range on-board the ESA Planck satellite, launched on May 14th, 2009 to observe the cosmic microwave background (CMB) with unprecedented precision. In this paper we describe the development and validation of a software model of the LFI pseudo-correlation receivers which enables to reproduce and predict all the main system parameters of interest as measured at each of the 44 LFI detectors. These include system total gain, noise temperature, band-pass response, non-linear response. The LFI Advanced RF Model (LARFM) has been constructed by using commercial software tools and data of each radiometer component as measured at single unit level. The LARFM has been successfully used to reproduce the LFI behavior observed during the LFI ground-test campaign. The model is an essential element in the database of LFI data processing center and will be available for any detailed study of radiometer behaviour during the survey.

  12. Neonatal phototherapy radiometers: current performance characteristics and future requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, Douglas McG; Nicol, Ruth; Chapman, Phillip

    2014-04-01

    Hand held radiometers provide a convenient means of monitoring the output of neonatal phototherapy treatment devices as part of planned programs of device maintenance and output monitoring. It was considered appropriate to determine the wavelength and angular response of a selection of such meters and compare their indicated values with that derived from spectral analysis of phototherapy light sources. This was undertaken using a Bentham DMc150 double grating spectroradiometer and a series of 10nm band pass optical filters in the range 400-640 nm used in conjunction with a fiber optic light source. Specific meters investigated included a GE Biliblanket Light Meter II, a NeoBLUE radiometer and a Bio-TEK radiometer 74345 device. Comparisons were made of measurements made using the hand held meters and the Bentham DMc 150 system for a range of neonatal phototherapy treatment devices. The use of such meters is discussed in relation to applicable equipment standards and recommendations of intensive phototherapy from clinical groups such as the American Academy of Pediatrics and a specification for a spectroradiometer based measurement system is proposed. Copyright © 2013 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A horizontal vane radiometer: Experiment, theory, and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, David; Larraza, Andres, E-mail: larraza@nps.edu [Department of Physics, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California 93940 (United States); Garcia, Alejandro [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Jose State University, San Jose, California 95152 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    The existence of two motive forces on a Crookes radiometer has complicated the investigation of either force independently. The thermal creep shear force in particular has been subject to differing interpretations of the direction in which it acts and its order of magnitude. In this article, we provide a horizontal vane radiometer design which isolates the thermal creep shear force. The horizontal vane radiometer is explored through experiment, kinetic theory, and the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. The qualitative agreement between the three methods of investigation is good except for a dependence of the force on the width of the vane even when the temperature gradient is narrower than the vane which is present in the DSMC method results but not in the theory. The experimental results qualitatively resemble the theory in this regard. The quantitative agreement between the three methods of investigation is better than an order of magnitude in the cases examined. The theory is closer to the experimental values for narrow vanes and the simulations are closer to the experimental values for the wide vanes. We find that the thermal creep force acts from the hot side to the cold side of the vane. We also find the peak in the radiometer’s angular speed as a function of pressure is explained as much by the behavior of the drag force as by the behavior of the thermal creep force.

  14. Food Safety Nets:

    OpenAIRE

    Haggblade, Steven; Diallo, Boubacar; Staatz, John; Theriault, Veronique; Traoré, Abdramane

    2013-01-01

    Food and social safety nets have a history as long as human civilization. In hunter gatherer societies, food sharing is pervasive. Group members who prove unlucky in the short run, hunting or foraging, receive food from other households in anticipation of reciprocal consideration at a later time (Smith 1988). With the emergence of the first large sedentary civilizations in the Middle East, administrative systems developed specifically around food storage and distribution. The ancient Egyptian...

  15. Net technical assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Wegmann, David G.

    1989-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The present and near term military balance of power between the U.S. and the Soviet Union can be expressed in a variety of net assessments. One can examine the strategic nuclear balance, the conventional balance in Europe, the maritime balance, and many others. Such assessments are essential not only for policy making but for arms control purposes and future force structure planning. However, to project the future military balance, on...

  16. Hepatic FcRn regulates albumin homeostasis and susceptibility to liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyzik, Michal; Rath, Timo; Kuo, Timothy T; Win, Sanda; Baker, Kristi; Hubbard, Jonathan J; Grenha, Rosa; Gandhi, Amit; Krämer, Thomas D; Mezo, Adam R; Taylor, Zachary S; McDonnell, Kevin; Nienaber, Vicki; Andersen, Jan Terje; Mizoguchi, Atsushi; Blumberg, Laurence; Purohit, Shalaka; Jones, Susan D; Christianson, Greg; Lencer, Wayne I; Sandlie, Inger; Kaplowitz, Neil; Roopenian, Derry C; Blumberg, Richard S

    2017-04-04

    The neonatal crystallizable fragment receptor (FcRn) is responsible for maintaining the long half-life and high levels of the two most abundant circulating proteins, albumin and IgG. In the latter case, the protective mechanism derives from FcRn binding to IgG in the weakly acidic environment contained within endosomes of hematopoietic and parenchymal cells, whereupon IgG is diverted from degradation in lysosomes and is recycled. The cellular location and mechanism by which FcRn protects albumin are partially understood. Here we demonstrate that mice with global or liver-specific FcRn deletion exhibit hypoalbuminemia, albumin loss into the bile, and increased albumin levels in the hepatocyte. In vitro models with polarized cells illustrate that FcRn mediates basal recycling and bidirectional transcytosis of albumin and uniquely determines the physiologic release of newly synthesized albumin into the basal milieu. These properties allow hepatic FcRn to mediate albumin delivery and maintenance in the circulation, but they also enhance sensitivity to the albumin-bound hepatotoxin, acetaminophen (APAP). As such, global or liver-specific deletion of FcRn results in resistance to APAP-induced liver injury through increased albumin loss into the bile and increased intracellular albumin scavenging of reactive oxygen species. Further, protection from injury is achieved by pharmacologic blockade of FcRn-albumin interactions with monoclonal antibodies or peptide mimetics, which cause hypoalbuminemia, biliary loss of albumin, and increased intracellular accumulation of albumin in the hepatocyte. Together, these studies demonstrate that the main function of hepatic FcRn is to direct albumin into the circulation, thereby also increasing hepatocyte sensitivity to toxicity.

  17. Using WordNet for Building WordNets

    CERN Document Server

    Farreres, X; Farreres, Xavier; Rodriguez, Horacio; Rigau, German

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarises a set of methodologies and techniques for the fast construction of multilingual WordNets. The English WordNet is used in this approach as a backbone for Catalan and Spanish WordNets and as a lexical knowledge resource for several subtasks.

  18. The multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) - precision infrared radiometer (PIR) platform in Fairbanks: Scientific objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamnes, K.; Leontieva, E. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) and precision infrared radiometer (PIR) have been employed at the Geophysical Institute in Fairbanks to check their performance under arctic conditions. Drawing on the experience of the previous measurements in the Arctic, the PIR was equipped with a ventilator to prevent frost and moisture build-up. We adopted the Solar Infrared Observing Sytem (SIROS) concept from the Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) to allow implementation of the same data processing software for a set of radiation and meteorological instruments. To validate the level of performance of the whole SIROS prior to its incorporation into the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) Cloud and Radiation Testbed Site instrumental suite for flux radiatin measurements, the comparison between measurements and model predictions will be undertaken to assess the MFRSR-PIR Arctic data quality.

  19. Online {sup 222}Rn removal by cryogenic distillation in the XENON100 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aprile, E.; Anthony, M.; De Perio, P.; Gao, F.; Goetzke, L.W.; Greene, Z.; Lin, Q.; Messina, M.; Plante, G.; Rizzo, A.; Zhang, Y. [Columbia University, Physics Department, New York, NY (United States); Aalbers, J.; Breur, P.A.; Brown, A.; Colijn, A.P.; Decowski, M.P.; Hogenbirk, E.; Tiseni, A. [Nikhef and the University of Amsterdam, Science Park, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Agostini, F. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso and Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); University of Bologna, Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Bologna (Italy); INFN-Bologna (Italy); Alfonsi, M.; Geis, C.; Grignon, C.; Oberlack, U.; Scheibelhut, M.; Schindler, S. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik and Exzellenzcluster PRISMA, Mainz (Germany); Amaro, F.D.; Cardoso, J.M.R.; Lopes, J.A.M.; Orrigo, S.E.A.; Santos, J.M.F. dos; Silva, M. [University of Coimbra, Department of Physics, Coimbra (Portugal); Arneodo, F.; Benabderrahmane, M.L.; Di Giovanni, A.; Maris, I. [New York University Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Barrow, P.; Baudis, L.; Franco, D.; Galloway, M.; Kessler, G.; Kish, A.; Mayani, D.; Pakarha, P.; Piastra, F.; Wei, Y.; Wulf, J. [University of Zurich, Physik-Institut, Zurich (Switzerland); Bauermeister, B. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik and Exzellenzcluster PRISMA, Mainz (Germany); Stockholm University, AlbaNova, Department of Physics, Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm (Sweden); Berger, T.; Brown, E.; Piro, M.C. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Troy, NY (United States); Bruenner, S.; Cichon, D.; Eurin, G.; Hasterok, C.; Lindner, M.; Undagoitia, T.M.; Pizzella, V.; Rauch, L.; Rupp, N.; Schreiner, J.; Simgen, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Bruno, G.; Gallo Rosso, A.; Molinario, A. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso and Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Budnik, R.; Duchovni, E.; Itay, R.; Landsman, H.; Lellouch, D.; Levinson, L.; Manfredini, A.; Priel, N. [Weizmann Institute of Science, Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Rehovot (Israel); Buetikofer, L.; Coderre, D.; Kaminsky, B.; Schumann, M.; Sivers, M. v. [Universitaet Freiburg, Physikalisches Institut, Freiburg (Germany); Calven, J.; Conrad, J.; Ferella, A.D.; Pelssers, B. [Stockholm University, AlbaNova, Department of Physics, Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm (Sweden); Cervantes, M.; Lang, R.F.; Masson, D.; Pienaar, J.; Reichard, S.; Reuter, C. [Purdue University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Cussonneau, J.P.; Diglio, S.; Le Calloch, M.; Masbou, J.; Micheneau, K.; Persiani, R.; Thers, D. [Universite de Nantes, SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, CNRS/In2p3, Nantes (France); Di Gangi, P.; Garbini, M.; Massoli, F.V.; Sartorelli, G.; Selvi, M. [University of Bologna, Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Bologna (Italy); INFN, Bologna (Italy); Fei, J.; Ni, K.; Ye, J. [University of California, Department of Physics, San Diego, CA (United States); Fieguth, A.; Murra, M.; Rosendahl, S.; Weinheimer, C. [Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Muenster (Germany); Fulgione, W. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso and Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); INFN-Torino (Italy); Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Turin (Italy); Grandi, L.; Saldanha, R.; Shockley, E.; Upole, N. [University of Chicago, Department of Physics and Kavli Institute of Cosmological Physics, Chicago, IL (United States); Lindemann, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Universitaet Freiburg, Physikalisches Institut, Freiburg (Germany); Meng, Y.; Stein, A.; Wang, H. [University of California, Physics and Astronomy Department, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Miguez, B.; Trinchero, G. [INFN-Torino (Italy); Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Turin (Italy); Naganoma, J.; Shagin, P. [Rice University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Houston, TX (United States); Lavina, L.S. [LPNHE, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, Paris (France); Tunnell, C. [Nikhef and the University of Amsterdam, Science Park, Amsterdam (Netherlands); University of Chicago, Department of Physics and Kavli Institute of Cosmological Physics, Chicago, IL (United States); Cristescu, I. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Collaboration: XENON Collaboration

    2017-06-15

    We describe the purification of xenon from traces of the radioactive noble gas radon using a cryogenic distillation column. The distillation column was integrated into the gas purification loop of the XENON100 detector for online radon removal. This enabled us to significantly reduce the constant {sup 222}Rn background originating from radon emanation. After inserting an auxiliary {sup 222}Rn emanation source in the gas loop, we determined a radon reduction factor of R > 27 (95% C.L.) for the distillation column by monitoring the {sup 222}Rn activity concentration inside the XENON100 detector. (orig.)

  20. Indoor {sup 22}Rn and {sup 222}Rn concentration measurements inside the Teotihuacan pyramids using NTD and E-PERM methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa, G. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: espinosa@fisica.unam.mx; Golzarri, J.I. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Martinez, T. [Facultad de Quimica, UNAM, Edificio D, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Navarrete, M. [Facultad de Quimica, UNAM, Edificio D, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Bogard, J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6480 (United States); Martinez, G. [Coordinacion Nacional de Conservacion del Patrimonio Cultural, Xicotencatl y General Anaya s/n, 04120 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Juarez, F. [Instituto de Geofisica, UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-11-15

    Measurements of {sup 22}Rn (Thoron) and {sup 222}Rn (Radon) concentrations, inside the Sun and Moon pyramids of Teotihuacan's archeological zone in Mexico, are reported in this work. Two well-established methods, nuclear track detectors (NTDs), using open-close end cups with internal and external detectors of CR-39 polymer, and electret-passive environmental radon monitoring (E-PERM) were used for the measurements. This experiment had two objectives: to obtain better confidence in the {sup 22}Rn and {sup 222}Rn measurements inside the archeological tunnels, and to compare the data obtained in each one of the two methods. This experiment is specially interesting because of the very peculiar conditions where the measurements are made: high humidity, labyrinths with air currents, but almost constant temperature inside of the pyramid tunnels and galleries, notwithstanding of the temperature changes between the day and the night outside of the pyramid body. The {sup 222}Rn concentrations found in both the pyramids were lower than the action level proposed by the ICRP-65. These tunnels are not open to the public, but researchers from the Anthropology Institutions spend part of their time working there, in periods varying from 3 to 5 months.

  1. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL1RN) is associated with suppression of early carcinogenic events in human oral malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiiba, Masashi; Saito, Kengo; Yamagami, Hitomi; Nakashima, Dai; Higo, Morihiro; Kasamatsu, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Yosuke; Ogawara, Katsunori; Uzawa, Katsuhiro; Takiguchi, Yuichi; Tanzawa, Hideki

    2015-05-01

    Inflammatory abnormalities have been implicated in the pathogenesis of various human diseases, including cancer. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL1RN) is a potent anti-inflammatory molecule that modulates the biological activity of the proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of IL1RN in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs), and to determine its clinical significance. Expression levels of IL1RN in matched normal and tumor specimens from 39 OSCCs were evaluated using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods, and immunohistochemical analysis. Protein expression of IL1RN was also examined in 18 oral premalignant lesions (OPLs). Expression of IL1RN mRNA was significantly downregulated in OSCCs compared with normal tissues. Decreased expression of IL1RN protein was also observed in OPLs and OSCCs. The IL1RN expression level was lower in the OPL cases with severe dysplasia compared to those with mild/moderate dysplasia. Significantly downregulated IL1RN expression was observed in all OSCC lesion sites examined when compared with the matched normal tissues. However, the decreased level of IL1RN expression did not correspond with tumor progression. Noteworthy, IL1RN expression was higher in the advanced OSCC cases (T3/T4) compared to early cases (T1/T2). Among OSCC samples, relatively higher IL1RN expression was associated with active tumor development in the OSCCs occurring in the buccal mucosa, oral floor, fauces and gingiva, but not the tongue. These data suggest that IL1RN may exhibit opposing characteristics in oral malignancies depending on the stage of cancer development, suppressing early carcinogenic events, yet promoting tumor development in some lesion sites. Thus, IL1RN could represent a reliable biomarker for the early diagnosis of OSCCs. Furthermore, IL1RN may possess unknown and complex functions in the developed OSCC.

  2. Proof nets for lingusitic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moot, R.C.A.

    2002-01-01

    This book investigates the possible linguistic applications of proof nets, redundancy free representations of proofs, which were introduced by Girard for linear logic. We will adapt the notion of proof net to allow the formulation of a proof net calculus which is soundand complete for the

  3. Teaching Tennis for Net Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Bryce

    1989-01-01

    A program for teaching tennis to beginners, NET (Net Easy Teaching) is described. The program addresses three common needs shared by tennis students: active involvement in hitting the ball, clearing the net, and positive reinforcement. A sample lesson plan is included. (IAH)

  4. Net4Care Ecosystem Website

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius; Rasmussen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    is a tele-monitoring scenario in which Net4Care clients are deployed in a gateway in private homes. Medical devices then connect to these gateways and transmit their observations to a Net4Care server. In turn the Net4Care server creates valid clinical HL7 documents, stores them in a national XDS repository...

  5. Master Robotic Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Lipunov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the MASTER-Net project is to produce a unique fast sky survey with all sky observed over a single night down to a limiting magnitude of 19-20. Such a survey will make it possible to address a number of fundamental problems: search for dark energy via the discovery and photometry of supernovae (including SNIa, search for exoplanets, microlensing effects, discovery of minor bodies in the Solar System, and space-junk monitoring. All MASTER telescopes can be guided by alerts, and we plan to observe prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts synchronously in several filters and in several polarization planes.

  6. Art/Net/Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik; Lindstrøm, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    The seminar Art|Net|Work deals with two important changes in our culture. On one side, the network has become essential in the latest technological development. The Internet has entered a new phase, Web 2.0, including the occurrence of as ‘Wiki’s’, ‘Peer-2-Peer’ distribution, user controlled...... the praxis of the artist. We see different kinds of interventions and activism (including ‘hacktivism’) using the network as a way of questioning the invisible rules that govern public and semi-public spaces. Who ‘owns’ them? What kind of social relationships do they generate? On what principle...

  7. Særlige dagtilbud til børn efter §32

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Steen; Heidemann, Julie; Jensen, Tina Gudrun

    I denne rapport kortlægges de særlige dagtilbud til børn efter Servicelovens § 32. Tilbuddene retter sig mod børn med betydelig og varigt nedsat fysisk eller psykisk funktionsevne, som har behov for hjælp eller særlig støtte. Kortlægningen viser, at mellem 2.000 og 3.000 børn befinder sig i et...... dagtilbud efter § 32, og langt de fleste er mellem 3 og 7 år. Børnene går som oftest i enten en specialbørnehave eller i en specialgruppe, som er integreret i en almindelig børnehave. De fleste institutioner tager børn ind med meget forskellige typer handicap, og både specialbørnehaver og integrerede...

  8. Cape Point GAW Station Rn-222 detector: factors affecting sensitivity and accuracy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brunke, EG

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Specific factors of a baseline Rn-222 detector installed at Cape Point, South Africa, were studied with the aim of improving its performance. Direct sunlight caused air turbulence within the instrument, resulting in 13.6% variability...

  9. An existence theorem for parabolic equations on $R^N$ with discontinuous nonlinearity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Simon

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove existence of solutions for parabolic initial value problems $\\partial_t u = \\Delta u + f(u$ on $R^N$ , where $f : R \\rightarrow R$ is a bounded, but possibly discontinuous function.

  10. Behavior of 222Rn and its progeny in high-rise buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, J K; Tso, M Y; Ho, C W

    1998-09-01

    Unlike detached or semi-detached houses, the main source of indoor radon in high-rise buildings is the building material. Radon released from the building material will be removed by ventilation, either forced or natural, so that its concentration, its progeny's concentration, and the equilibrium between the two will be different for different types of buildings and environmental factors. A number of surveys were carried out in buildings throughout the territory to look at the seasonal variation of indoor 222Rn levels; the dependence of indoor 222Rn concentration on the living environment; the indoor gamma dose rate and its relation to indoor 222Rn concentration; and the dependence of 222Rn progeny concentration and equilibrium factor on the environment in high-rise buildings.

  11. Behavior of {sup 222}Rn and its progeny in high-rise buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, J.K.C.; Tso, M.Y.W.; Ho, C.W. [Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong). Radioisotope Unit

    1998-09-01

    Unlike detached or semi-detached houses, the main source of indoor radon in high-rise buildings is the building material. Radon released from the building material will be removed by ventilation, either forced or natural, so that its concentration, its progeny`s concentration, and the equilibrium between the two will be different for different types of buildings and environmental factors. A number of surveys were carried out in buildings throughout the territory to look at the seasonal variation of indoor {sup 222}Rn levels; the dependence of indoor {sup 222}Rn concentration on the living environment; the indoor gamma dose rate and its relation to indoor {sup 222}Rn concentration; and the dependence of {sup 222}Rn progeny concentration and equilibrium factor on the environment in high-rise buildings.

  12. Continuous measurements of outdoor {sup 222}Rn concentrations for three years at one location in Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borak, T.B.; Baynes, S.A. [Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Radiological Health Sciences

    1999-04-01

    Measurements were made of {sup 222}Rn concentrations outdoors in Ft. Collins, Colorado, using a continuously sampling scintillation flask between January 1993 and December 1995. These data were analyzed for hourly, daily, and seasonal variations. The average {sup 222}Rn concentration at 1 m above the ground was 18 {+-} 10 Bq m{sup {minus}3} with a geometric mean of 15 Bq m{sup {minus}3} and a geometric standard deviation of 1.7. Hourly averaged data indicated a diurnal pattern with the outdoor {sup 222}Rn concentration reaching a maximum in the early morning between 4:00 a.m. and 6:00 a.m. and a broad minimum between 1:00 p.m. and 4:00 p.m. in the afternoon. An analysis also indicated that the outdoor {sup 222}Rn concentrations were consistently lowest during the spring (March and April) and highest during the late summer (July--September).

  13. Assessment of Effective Dose Equivalent from Internal Exposure to 222Rn in Ramsar City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyeb Allahverdi Pourfallah

    2015-05-01

    It is clear that the annual effective dose from internal exposure to 222Rn in areas of Ramsar with high levels of natural radiation was significantly higher than the maximum annual effective dose permissible for public.

  14. Helminth.net: expansions to Nematode.net and an introduction to Trematode.net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, John; Rosa, Bruce A.; Ozersky, Philip; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Zhang, Xu; Bhonagiri-Palsikar, Veena; Tyagi, Rahul; Wang, Qi; Choi, Young-Jun; Gao, Xin; McNulty, Samantha N.; Brindley, Paul J.; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2015-01-01

    Helminth.net (http://www.helminth.net) is the new moniker for a collection of databases: Nematode.net and Trematode.net. Within this collection we provide services and resources for parasitic roundworms (nematodes) and flatworms (trematodes), collectively known as helminths. For over a decade we have provided resources for studying nematodes via our veteran site Nematode.net (http://nematode.net). In this article, (i) we provide an update on the expansions of Nematode.net that hosts omics data from 84 species and provides advanced search tools to the broad scientific community so that data can be mined in a useful and user-friendly manner and (ii) we introduce Trematode.net, a site dedicated to the dissemination of data from flukes, flatworm parasites of the class Trematoda, phylum Platyhelminthes. Trematode.net is an independent component of Helminth.net and currently hosts data from 16 species, with information ranging from genomic, functional genomic data, enzymatic pathway utilization to microbiome changes associated with helminth infections. The databases’ interface, with a sophisticated query engine as a backbone, is intended to allow users to search for multi-factorial combinations of species’ omics properties. This report describes updates to Nematode.net since its last description in NAR, 2012, and also introduces and presents its new sibling site, Trematode.net. PMID:25392426

  15. A new beaded carbon molecular sieve sorbent for 222Rn monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpitta, S C

    1996-05-01

    A new commercially available beaded carbon molecular sieve sorbent, Carboxen-564 (20/45 mesh), was tested and compared to Calgon-PCB (40/80) activated carbon for its adsorptive and desorptive characteristics under controlled conditions of temperature (25 degrees C) and relative humidity (RH). The amount of water vapor adsorbed by the beaded carbon molecular sieve material was typically a factor of 4 lower than the activated carbon, with a concomitant fourfold increase in the 222Rn adsorption coefficient, K(Rn). The maximum K(Rn) value for a thin layer of Carboxen-564, following a 2-d exposure at 40% RH, was 7.2 Bq kg(-1) per Bq m(-3). The K(Rn) or a 1-cm bed, following a 2-d exposure was 5.5 Bq m(-3), a 25% reduction. Under dynamic sampling conditions, where 0.4 g of the beaded carbon molecular sieve was contained in a 6 cm x 0.4 cm diameter tube, the maximum K(Rn) value was 6.5 Bq m(-3) after 2.5 h of sampling at 29% RH when the input flow rate was 4.2 x 10(-3) m3 h-1. Kinetic studies were also conducted under passive sampling conditions. The data show that the 222Rn buildup time-constant for a thin layer of the beaded carbon molecular sieve material was 1.3 h, whereas that of a 1 cm bed was 13 h. The 222Rn desorption time-constants, from gram amounts of the beaded carbon molecular sieve material into air and into a commercially available toluene based liquid scintillation cocktail, were 2 h and 3 h, respectively. Carboxen's high 222Rn adsorbing capacity, rapid kinetics, hydrophobicity and physical properties makes it an attractive alternative to other commercially available activated carbon used in passive and dynamic sampling devices.

  16. rn og unge anbragt i slægten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lajla

    unge oftere anbringes i slægtspleje i deres mors end i deres fars familie. Halvdelen af de slægtsanbragte børn og unge er i pleje hos deres bedsteforældre, mens en tredjedel er i pleje hos deres forældres søskende. Slægtspleje anvendes dog mindre hyppigt end traditionel familiepleje til børn, der har...

  17. Sårbare børn og unge i tandplejeregi i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldum, Birgitte; Christensen, Hanne Nødgaard; Haubek, Dorte

    2016-01-01

    Hvorledes identificeres sårbare børn og unge i tandplejeregi i Danmark? I denne artikel sættes fokus på danske sårbare børn og unge i tandplejeregi og på udviklingen I Danmark siden 2009. En dansk spørgeskemaundersøgelse om tandplejens erfaring fra 2008 omtales kort. Der lægges vægt på det odonto...

  18. Tværprofessionelt samarbejde ud fra børn og unges perspektiver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartz, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Pædagogik er et fag, der har til opgave at understøtte, at børn og unge får greb om deres nutidige og fremtidige livsmuligheder. Det er et grundlæggende dilemma i pædagogik, at professionelle sætter mål for børn og unge, idet det kun er børnene og de unge selv, der kan leve deres liv. Dette dilem...

  19. Efterværn - støtte til tidligere anbragte unge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Turf Böcker; Cecilie Norn Hammen, Ida; Steen, Lena

    Denne rapport er en midtvejsevaluering af 10 kommunale forsøg med efterværn iværksat for sats-puljemidler i 2007 under regeringens handlingsprogram ’Lige muligheder’. Hovedformålet med efterværn er at ruste unge, der har været anbragt uden for hjemmet, til at stå på egne ben. Forsøgene viser sig ...

  20. rn, unge og sociale netværkssider. Hvad ved vi?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Malene Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    været. Herefter skal vi se på, hvordan børn og unge selv begrunder deres brug af sociale netværkssider, og hvilke motiver der ligger bag deres mange timer foran skærmen. Dernæst sætter kapitlet fokus på børn og unges venskaber på sociale netværkssider, hvad der karakteriserer et venskab i dag, og...

  1. Hvilken evidens er der for medikamentel behandling af depression hos børn og unge?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Per Hove; Sørensen, Merete Juul

    2007-01-01

    Depression hos børn og unge er relativt hyppigt forekommende og kan have svære konsekvenser. Den specifikke antidepressive behandling kan være psykoterapeutisk eller medikamentel. I artiklen gennemgås på baggrund af systematisk litteratursøgning den videnskabelige evidens for medikamentel...... behandling af depression hos børn og unge med hovedvægten lagt på de mest veldokumenterede medikamenter: selektive serotoningenoptagelseshæmmere....

  2. Reverse Engineering: Strategy to Teach Evidence-Based Practice to Online RN-to-BSN Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, Jodie C; Hudson, Cindy E

    2016-01-01

    This article describes an innovative approach to introducing RN-to-BSN students to nursing research and evidence-based practice (EBP). Reverse engineering updates an existing EBP project to better emphasize the role of research and evidence to practicing RNs enrolled in an RN-to-BSN program. Reverse engineering of a nursing practice guideline offers a method for teaching an appreciation of research and supporting nursing practice with best evidence.

  3. NETS FOR PEACH PROTECTED CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelia Schettini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the radiometric properties of coloured nets used to protect a peach cultivation. The modifications of the solar spectral distribution, mainly in the R and FR wavelength band, influence plant photomorphogenesis by means of the phytochrome and cryptochrome. The phytochrome response is characterized in terms of radiation rate in the red wavelengths (R, 600-700 nm to that in the farred radiation (FR, 700-800 nm, i.e. the R/FR ratio. The effects of the blue radiation (B, 400-500 nm is investigated by the ratio between the blue radiation and the far-red radiation, i.e. the B/FR ratio. A BLUE net, a RED net, a YELLOW net, a PEARL net, a GREY net and a NEUTRAL net were tested in Bari (Italy, latitude 41° 05’ N. Peach trees were located in pots inside the greenhouses and in open field. The growth of the trees cultivated in open field was lower in comparison to the growth of the trees grown under the nets. The RED, PEARL, YELLOW and GREY nets increased the growth of the trees more than the other nets. The nets positively influenced the fruit characteristics, such as fruit weight and flesh firmness.

  4. Update of the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Rn-222 comparison of activity measurements for the radionuclide {sup 222}Rn to include the LNE-LNHB, France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michotte, C.; Ratel, G. [Bureau International de Poids et Mesures, Pavillon de Breteuil, F-92312 Sevres cedex (France); Cassette, P. [Bureau International de Poids et Mesures, Pavillon de Breteuil, F-92312 Sevres cedex (France); Laboratoire national de metrologie et d' essais -Laboratoire national Henri Becquerel, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)

    2012-02-15

    In 2007, the Laboratoire national de metrologie et d'essais - Laboratoire national Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB), France submitted a sample of known activity of {sup 222}Rn to the International Reference System (SIR) for comparison. The value of the activity submitted was about 90 kBq. This key comparison result joins that of Switzerland and Germany in the key comparison database that now contains three results, identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Rn-222. Consequently, the KCRV has been updated and the degrees of equivalence with the KCRV have been evaluated. (authors)

  5. Ground registration of data from an airborne Multifrequency Microwave Radiometer (MfMR). [Colby, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The agricultural soil moisture experiment was conducted near Colby, Kansas, in July and August 1978. A portion of the data collected was taken with a five band microwave radiometer. A method of locating the radiometer footprints with respect to a ground based coordinate system is documented. The procedure requires that the airplane's flight parameters along with aerial photography be acquired simultaneously with the radiometer data. The software which documented reads in data from the precision radiation thermometer (PRT Model 5) and attaches the scene temperature to the corresponding multifrequency microwave radiometer data. Listings of the programs used in the registration process are included.

  6. Radiometer Calibration and Characterization (RCC) User's Manual: Windows Version 4.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreas, Afshin M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wilcox, Stephen M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-29

    The Radiometer Calibration and Characterization (RCC) software is a data acquisition and data archival system for performing Broadband Outdoor Radiometer Calibrations (BORCAL). RCC provides a unique method of calibrating broadband atmospheric longwave and solar shortwave radiometers using techniques that reduce measurement uncertainty and better characterize a radiometer's response profile. The RCC software automatically monitors and controls many of the components that contribute to uncertainty in an instrument's responsivity. This is a user's manual and guide to the RCC software.

  7. Nimbus-3 Medium-Resolution Infrared Radiometer (MRIR) Level 1 Meteorological Radiation Data V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nimbus-3 Medium-Resolution Infrared Radiometer (MRIR) Level 1 Meteorological Radiance Data contain radiances expressed as equivalent blackbody temperatures along...

  8. Calibration approach and plan for the sea and land surface temperature radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David L.; Nightingale, Tim J.; Mortimer, Hugh; Middleton, Kevin; Edeson, Ruben; Cox, Caroline V.; Mutlow, Chris T.; Maddison, Brian J.; Coppo, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The sea and land surface temperature radiometer (SLSTR) to be flown on the European Space Agency's (ESA) Sentinel-3 mission is a multichannel scanning radiometer that will continue the 21 year dataset of the along-track scanning radiometer (ATSR) series. As its name implies, measurements from SLSTR will be used to retrieve global sea surface temperatures to an uncertainty of planning for the on-orbit monitoring and calibration activities to ensure that the calibration is maintained. These activities include vicarious calibration techniques that have been developed through previous missions and the deployment of ship-borne radiometers.

  9. Effect of curing-tip diameter on the accuracy of dental radiometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, D L; Charlton, D G; Hilton, T J

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of four commercially available radiometers when curing tips of different diameters were used. A visible-light curing unit (Optilux 500) with a new 80-watt quartz-halogen bulb (OptiBulb) was used as the light source for all measurements. The unit's irradiance value was measured using three hand-held radiometers (Demetron model #100, Cure-Rite model #644726, and Coltolux Light Meter) and a built-in visible-light curing unit radiometer (Optilux 500). Measurements were made with four curing tips of diameters 4 mm, 7.5 mm, 10.5 mm, and 12 mm. For each tip, trials were made with five radiometers of each model. Student's t-tests at the 0.05 level of significance were used to compare the mean irradiance measured by each model of radiometer, to the irradiance value measured by a laboratory-grade power meter. A one-way analysis of variance at the 0.05 level of significance was used to compare the irradiance values among the five samples of each commercially available radiometer model. Except for the Optilux 500 built-in radiometer with the 10.5-mm tip, all the commercially available radiometers exhibited irradiance values significantly different from those of the laboratory-grade power meter. There were no statistically significant differences among the five samples of each commercially available radiometer model.

  10. Superhigh-frequency radiometer with post-detector pulse-duration modulation

    CERN Document Server

    Filatov, A V

    2002-01-01

    Paper describes a superhigh-frequency radiometer with extra pulse-duration modulation of reference signal by low frequency. Pulse-duration modulation is realized due to various coefficients of reference signal sharing in resistive attenuators of a low-frequency unit. Design of radiometer makes use of modification of zero measurement method when automatic control is realized by variation of pulse-duration signal duration. Radiometer switching to zero balance in a low-frequency section enables to use high-frequency units of any modulating radiometer with symmetry modulation

  11. A New Approach for Radiometric Cross Calibration of Satellite-borne Radiometers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Qu, John J; Hao, Xianjun; Hauss, Bruce; Wang, Chunming; Privette, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    Approaches for establishing the absolute calibration of a newly deployed, satellite-borne radiometer have varied from aircraft under flights with previously calibrated sensors to vicarious calibration...

  12. The effects of RN staffing hours on nursing home quality: a two-stage model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyang Yuol; Blegen, Mary A; Harrington, Charlene

    2014-03-01

    Based on structure-process-outcome approach, this study examined the association of registered nurse (RN) staffing hours and five quality indicators, including two process measures (catheter use and antipsychotic drug use) and three outcome measures (pressure ulcers, urinary tract infections, and weight loss). We used data on resident assessments, RN staffing, organizational characteristics, and market factors to examine the quality of 195 nursing homes operating in a rural state of United States - Colorado. Two-stage least squares regression models were performed to address the endogenous relationships between RN staffing and the outcome-related quality indicators, and ordinary least squares regression was used for the process-related ones. This analysis focused on the relationship of RN staffing to nursing home quality indicators, controlling for organizational characteristics, resources, resident casemix, and market factors with clustering to control for geographical differences. Higher RN hours were associated with fewer pressure ulcers, but RN hours were not related to the other quality indicators. The study finding shows the importance of understanding the role of 'nurse staffing' under nursing home care, as well as the significance of associated/contextual factors with nursing home quality even in a small rural state. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Octupole collectivity in $^{220}$Rn and $^{224}$Ra

    CERN Document Server

    Gaffney, Liam Paul

    Collective properties of the radioactive nuclei $^{220}$Rn and $^{224}$Ra have been studied via Coulomb excitation of a 2.8$\\,$A.MeV radioactive ion beam (RIB) incident upon $^{60}$Ni, $^{112,114}$Cd and $^{120}$Sn targets. The experiments took place at the REX-ISOLDE RIB facility, CERN. De-excitation $\\gamma$-ray yields following multiple-step Coulomb excitation were detected in coincidence with recoiling target nuclei in the Miniball spectrometer. For the first time, B(E3;3$^+ \\rightarrow 0^+$) values have been directly measured with a radioactive ion beam. In the process, $^{224}$Ra becomes the heaviest post-accelerated RIB to date at ISOLDE (with the possible exception of the quasi-stable $^{238}$U). The measurements presented in this thesis represent a tripling of the number of nuclei around Z$\\simeq88$ and N$\\simeq134$, for which direct measurements of the octupole collectivity have been performed. The only previous measurements being for the relatively long-lived $^{226}$Ra. The $\\gamma$-ray yields, in...

  14. RN to FNP: a qualitative study of role transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitz, Laura J; Steiner, Susan H; Burman, Mary E

    2004-09-01

    Registered nurses who return to school in a nurse practitioner program undergo role transition throughout the educational process and into the postgraduate period. This study examined the role transition that occurs in family nurse practitioner (FNP) students. A descriptive, qualitative design was used with in-depth telephone interviews of 9 female FNPs who had recently graduated. A conceptual model was generated that described the role transition from RN to FNP. Two phases of role transition occurred and were depicted by the central categories that emerged: extrinsic obstacles, intrinsic obstacles, turbulence, positive extrinsic forces, positive intrinsic forces, and role development. Although the central categories were found to be the same in Phase I and Phase II, the defining characteristics differed. This study has implications for FNPs, students, and educators regarding role transition. It presents new findings not identified in prior research: personal commitments and sacrifices were identified as specific obstacles encountered during the educational process, and differences were found between inexperienced and experienced RNs in relation to the FNP role transition during the educational period.

  15. Boreal Inundation Mapping with SMAP Radiometer Data for Methane Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungbum; Brisco, Brian; Poncos, Valentin

    2017-04-01

    Inundation and consequent anoxic condition induce methane release, which is one of the most potent greenhouse gases. Boreal regions contain large amounts of organic carbon, which is a potentially major methane emission source under climatic warming conditions. Boreal wetlands in particular are one of the largest sources of uncertainties in global methane budget. Wetland spatial extent together with the gas release rate remains highly unknown. Characterization of the existing inundation database is poor, because of the inundation under clouds and dense vegetation. In this work, the inundation extent is derived using brightness temperature data acquired by the L-band Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite, which offers the L-band capabilities to penetrate clouds and vegetation at 3-day revisit. The fidelity of the SMAP watermask is assessed as a first step in this investigation by comparing with the following data sets: 3-m resolution maps derived using Radarsat synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data in northern Canada and multi-sensor climatology over Siberia. Because Radarsat coverages are limited despite its high spatial resolution, at the time and location where Radarsats are not available, we also compare with 3-km resolution SMAP SAR data that are concurrent with the SMAP radiometer data globally until July 2015. Inundation extents were derived with Radarsat, SMAP SAR, and SMAP radiometer over the 60 km x 60km area at Peace Athabasca Delta (PAD), Canada on 6 days in spring and summer 2015. The SMAP SAR results match the locations of Radarsat waterbodies. However, the SMAP SAR underestimates the water extent, mainly over mixed pixels that have subpixel land presence. The threshold value (-3 dB) applied to the SMAP SAR was determined previously over the global domain. The threshold is dependent on the type of local landcover within a mixed pixel. Further analysis is needed to locally optimize the threshold. The SMAP radiometer water fraction over Peace

  16. Compositional Ground Truth of Diviner Lunar Radiometer Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhagen, B. T.; Thomas, I. R.; Bowles, N. E.; Allen, C. C.; Donaldson Hanna, K. L.; Foote, E. J.; Paige, D. A.

    2012-01-01

    The Moon affords us a unique opportunity to "ground truth" thermal infrared (i.e. 3 to 25 micron) observations of an airless body. The Moon is the most accessable member of the most abundant class of solar system bodies, which includes Mercury, astroids, and icy satellites. The Apollo samples returned from the Moon are the only extraterrestrial samples with known spatial context. And the Diviner Lunar Radiometer (Diviner) is the first instrument to globally map the spectral thermal emission of an airless body. Here we compare Diviner observations of Apollo sites to compositional and spectral measurements of Apollo lunar soil samples in simulated lunar environment (SLE).

  17. The Diviner Lunar Radiometer Compositional Data Products: Description and Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhagen, B. T.; Lucey, P. G.; Bandfield, J. L.; Hayne, P. O.; William, J. P.; Paige, D. A.

    2011-01-01

    The Diviner lunar radiometer has made the first direct global measurements of silicate mineralogy of the lunar surface using multispectral thermal emission mapping. By mid-March, 2011, the first derived compositional data products (level 3) will be released into the Planetary Data System (PDS) Geosciences Node. These products describe the Diviner Science Team's best efforts to determine the position of the Christiansen feature (CF), which is directly related to silicate mineralogy of lunar soils. The initial release of these products include data from the mission's primary mapping phase between 9/17/09 and 9/16/10. This work describes at a high level the creation of Diviner's compositional data products.

  18. COBE DMR results and implications. [Differential Microwave Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoot, George F.

    1992-01-01

    This lecture presents early results obtained from the first six months of measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) by Differential Microwave Radiometers (DMR) aboard COBE and discusses significant cosmological implications. The DMR maps show the dipole anisotropy and some galactic emission but otherwise a spatially smooth early universe. The measurements are sufficiently precise that we must pay careful attention to potential systematic errors. Maps of galactic and local emission such as those produced by the FIRAS and DIRBE instruments will be needed to identify foregrounds from extragalactic emission and thus to interpret the results in terms of events in the early universe. The current DMR results are significant for Cosmology.

  19. Aquarius Radiometer Performance: Early On-Orbit Calibration and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; LeVine, David M.; Yueh, Simon H.; Wentz, Frank; Ruf, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The Aquarius/SAC-D observatory was launched into a 657-km altitude, 6-PM ascending node, sun-synchronous polar orbit from Vandenberg, California, USA on June 10, 2011. The Aquarius instrument was commissioned two months after launch and began operating in mission mode August 25. The Aquarius radiometer meets all engineering requirements, exhibited initial calibration biases within expected error bars, and continues to operate well. A review of the instrument design, discussion of early on-orbit performance and calibration assessment, and investigation of an on-going calibration drift are summarized in this abstract.

  20. Ocean Color Inferred from Radiometers on Low-Flying Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Wilson

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The color of sunlight reflected from the ocean to orbiting visible radiometers hasprovided a great deal of information about the global ocean, after suitable corrections aremade for atmospheric effects. Similar ocean-color measurements can be made from a lowflyingaircraft to get higher spatial resolution and to obtain measurements under clouds.A different set of corrections is required in this case, and we describe algorithms to correctfor clouds and sea-surface effects. An example is presented and errors in the correctionsdiscussed.

  1. The equivalency between logic Petri workflow nets and workflow nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue

    2015-01-01

    Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented.

  2. A study of the directional response of ultraviolet radiometers: I. Practical evaluation and implications for ultraviolet measurement standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pye, S D; Martin, C J

    2000-09-01

    The directional responses of a range of ultraviolet radiometers commonly used for irradiance measurements of UVB and UVC have been studied. Radiometers with 24 diffuser/filter combinations were assessed using a deuterium source, and three different diffuser/filter designs were assessed using a monochromatic source. The directional responses of the radiometers have been calculated and expressed in terms of figures of merit similar to those described for (photopic) illuminance meters in BS 667 and CIE 69. Those radiometers that performed best for the measurement of both small and extended sources of UVB and UVC had raised PTFE diffusers. We conclude that UV radiometers with a directional response error f2 radiometer.

  3. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    studies that illustrate the practical use of CPN modelling and validation for design, specification, simulation, verification and implementation in various application domains. Their presentation primarily aims at readers interested in the practical use of CPN. Thus all concepts and constructs are first......Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism...... and the immense number of possible execution sequences. In this textbook, Jensen and Kristensen introduce the constructs of the CPN modelling language and present the related analysis methods in detail. They also provide a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN by showcasing selected industrial case...

  4. Distribution Log Normal of {sup 222} Rn in the state of Zacatecas, Mexico; Distribucion Log Normal de {sup 222} Rn en el estado de Zacatecas, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, M.L.; Mireles, F.; Quirino, L.; Davila, I.; Rios, C.; Pinedo, J.L. [Universidad de Zacatecas, Cipres 10, Frac. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)]. e-mail: mluisagb@hotmail.com

    2006-07-01

    In this work the evaluation of the concentration of {sup 222} Rn in air for Zacatecas is shown. The Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors were used as the technique for the realization of the measurements in large scale with cellulose nitrate LR-115, type 2, in open chambers of {sup 222} Rn. The measurements were carried out during three months in different times of the year. In the results it is presented the log normal distribution, arithmetic mean and geometric media for the concentration at indoor and outdoor of residence constructions, the concentration at indoor of occupational constructions and in the 57 municipal heads of the state of Zacatecas. The statistics of the values in the concentration showed variation according to the time of the year, obtaining high quantities in winter seasons for both cases. The distribution of the concentration of {sup 222} Rn is presented in the state map for each one of the municipalities, representing the measurement places in the entire state of Zacatecas. Finally the places where the values in the concentration of {sup 222} Rn in air are near to the one limit settled down by the EPA of 148 Bq/m{sup 3} are presented. (Author)

  5. Generalized pustular psoriasis in infant with heterozygous mutation in the IL36RN gene successfully treated with infliximab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glerup, Mia; Herlin, Troels; Veirum, Jens Erik

    or DITRA genetic testing for IL1RN and IL36RN gene mutations was initiated. The girl was found to be heterozygous for a mutation in the IL36RN gene (exon 5, c 338C>T p Ser113Leu) whereas the IL1RN gene (mutated in DIRA patients) was normal. Additionally, a heterozygous mutation in the NLRP3 gene was also......Generalized pustular psoriasis in infant with heterozygous mutation in the IL36RN gene successfully treated with infliximab.M. Glerup1, J.E. Veirum1, L. Iversen2, M. Christiansen3, T. Herlin1.Departments of 1Pediatrics and 2Dermatology, and 3Clinical Immunology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark...... Background: Homozygous missense mutation in the IL36RN gene resulting in deficiency of interleukin-36-receptor antagonist (DITRA) is phenotypically presented as severe generalized pustular psoriasis starting in early childhood. Compound heterozygous cases have been described with the same DITRA phenotype...

  6. Modeling the frequency response of microwave radiometers with QUCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonca, A.; Roucaries, B.; Williams, B.; Rubin, I.; D'Arcangelo, O.; Meinhold, P.; Lubin, P.; Franceschet, C.; Jahn, S.; Mennella, A.; Bersanelli, M.

    2010-12-01

    Characterization of the frequency response of coherent radiometric receivers is a key element in estimating the flux of astrophysical emissions, since the measured signal depends on the convolution of the source spectral emission with the instrument band shape. Laboratory Radio Frequency (RF) measurements of the instrument bandpass often require complex test setups and are subject to a number of systematic effects driven by thermal issues and impedance matching, particularly if cryogenic operation is involved. In this paper we present an approach to modeling radiometers bandpasses by integrating simulations and RF measurements of individual components. This method is based on QUCS (Quasi Universal Circuit Simulator), an open-source circuit simulator, which gives the flexibility of choosing among the available devices, implementing new analytical software models or using measured S-parameters. Therefore an independent estimate of the instrument bandpass is achieved using standard individual component measurements and validated analytical simulations. In order to automate the process of preparing input data, running simulations and exporting results we developed the Python package python-qucs and released it under GNU Public License. We discuss, as working cases, bandpass response modeling of the COFE and Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) radiometers and compare results obtained with QUCS and with a commercial circuit simulator software. The main purpose of bandpass modeling in COFE is to optimize component matching, while in LFI they represent the best estimation of frequency response, since end-to-end measurements were strongly affected by systematic effects.

  7. Modeling the frequency response of microwave radiometers with QUCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zonca, A; Williams, B; Rubin, I; Meinhold, P; Lubin, P [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Roucaries, B [Universite Paris-Est, Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussees, 75732 Paris (France); D' Arcangelo, O [IFP-CNR, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Franceschet, C; Mennella, A; Bersanelli, M [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Jahn, S, E-mail: zonca@deepspace.ucsb.edu [Infineon Technologies AG, Am Campeon 1-12, 85579 Neubiberg, Munich (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    Characterization of the frequency response of coherent radiometric receivers is a key element in estimating the flux of astrophysical emissions, since the measured signal depends on the convolution of the source spectral emission with the instrument band shape. Laboratory Radio Frequency (RF) measurements of the instrument bandpass often require complex test setups and are subject to a number of systematic effects driven by thermal issues and impedance matching, particularly if cryogenic operation is involved. In this paper we present an approach to modeling radiometers bandpasses by integrating simulations and RF measurements of individual components. This method is based on QUCS (Quasi Universal Circuit Simulator), an open-source circuit simulator, which gives the flexibility of choosing among the available devices, implementing new analytical software models or using measured S-parameters. Therefore an independent estimate of the instrument bandpass is achieved using standard individual component measurements and validated analytical simulations. In order to automate the process of preparing input data, running simulations and exporting results we developed the Python package python-qucs and released it under GNU Public License. We discuss, as working cases, bandpass response modeling of the COFE and Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) radiometers and compare results obtained with QUCS and with a commercial circuit simulator software. The main purpose of bandpass modeling in COFE is to optimize component matching, while in LFI they represent the best estimation of frequency response, since end-to-end measurements were strongly affected by systematic effects.

  8. Aquarius Radiometer RFI Detection, Mitigation, and Impact Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, Christopher; Chen, David; Le Vine, David; de Matthaeis, Paolo; Piepmeier, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    The Aquarius/SAC-D satellite was launched on 10 June 2011 into a sun-synchronous polar orbit and the Aquarius microwave radiometers [1] became operational on 25 August 2011. Since that time, it has been measuring brightness temperatures at 1.4 GHz with vertical, horizontal and 3rd Stokes polarizations . Beginning well before the launch, there has been the concern that Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) could have an appreciable presence. This concern was initiated by, among other things, its prevalence in both early [2] and more recent [3,4] aircraft field experiments using 1.4 GHz radiometers, as well as by the strong RFI environment encountered during the recent ESA SMOS mission, also at 1.4 GHz [5]. As a result, a number of methods for RFI detection and mitigation have been developed and tested. One in particular, "glitch detection" and "pulse blanking" mitigation has been adapted for use by Aquarius [6, 7]. The early on-orbit performance of the Aquarius RFI detection and mitigation algorithm is presented here, together with an assessment of the global RFI environment at 1.4 GHz which can be derived from the Aquarius results.

  9. First national intercomparison of solar ultraviolet radiometers in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Diémoz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A blind intercomparison of ground-based ultraviolet (UV instruments has been organized for the first time in Italy. The campaign was coordinated by the Environmental Protection Agency of Aosta Valley (ARPA Valle d'Aosta and took place in Saint-Christophe (45.8° N, 7.4° E, 570 m a.s.l., in the Alpine region, from 8 to 23 June 2010. It involved 8 institutions, 10 broadband radiometers, 2 filter radiometers and 2 spectroradiometers. Synchronized measurements of downward global solar UV irradiance at the ground were collected and the raw series were then individually processed by the respective operators on the base of their own procedures and calibration data. A radiative transfer model was successfully applied as an interpretative tool. The input parameters and output results are described in detail. The comparison was performed in terms of global solar UV Index and integrated UV-A irradiance against a well-calibrated double monochromator spectroradiometer as reference. An improved algorithm for comparing broadband data and spectra has been developed and is discussed in detail. For some instruments, we found average deviations ranging from −16 % up to 20 % relative to the reference and diurnal variations as large as 15 % even in clear days. Remarkable deviations were found for the instruments calibrated in the manufacturers' facilities and never involved in field intercomparison. Finally, some recommendations to the UV operators based on the campaign results are proposed.

  10. Physical, biological, and chemical data from radiometer, profiling reflectance radiometer, and CTD casts in a world-wide distribution as part of the SeaWiFS/SIMBIOS project from 13 September 1981 to 16 December 1999 (NODC Accession 0000632)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, biological, and chemical data were collected using radiometer, profiling reflectance radiometer, and CTD casts in a world-wide distribution from 13...

  11. QUALIDADE AMBIENTAL DO RESERVATÓRIO CAJÁ, TABOLEIRO GRANDE (RN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ericardo do Nascimento

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available O reservatório Cajá é o manancial responsável por abastecer a cidade de Taboleiro Grande mas, atualmente, sofre com alguns problemas relacionados ao uso e ocupação do entorno, além da diminuição do volume em função da baixa precipitação pluviométrica na região do Alto Oeste Potiguar. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar uma análise da qualidade ambiental do reservatório Cajá, localizado no município de Taboleiro Grande (RN. A metodologia de abordagem consistiu em leitura de parâmetros de qualidade de água com aparelho multiparâmetro, levantamento pontuais de impactos ambientais, e entrevistas com a população local sobre questões relacionadas ao uso e qualidade das águas do reservatório, tendo como principal foco a percepção ambiental dos munícipes. Os parâmetros utilizados para analisar a qualidade das águas foram: Temperatura, pH, Oxigênio Dissolvido e Condutividade Elétrica. Estabeleceram-se dois pontos no reservatório, onde as leituras foram realizadas em dois períodos sazonais, isto é, na estação seca e chuvosa. O resultado das análises mostrou que o OD e CE não apresentaram os índices estabelecidos pelo CONAMA 357/2005 para o consumo da água para o ser humano. Foram identificadas também algumas fontes que contribuem para a degradação da qualidade da água do manancial

  12. Unbiased stereological estimation of d-dimensional volume in Rn from an isotropic random slice through a fixed point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Eva B. Vedel; Kiêu, K

    1994-01-01

    Unbiased stereological estimators of d-dimensional volume in R(n) are derived, based on information from an isotropic random r-slice through a specified point. The content of the slice can be subsampled by means of a spatial grid. The estimators depend only on spatial distances. As a fundamental ...... lemma, an explicit formula for the probability that an isotropic random r-slice in R(n) through 0 hits a fixed point in R(n) is given....

  13. Pla(y)cefully – når børn finder sted gennemt transformationer af institutionelle konstruktioner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Rikke Toft; Toft, Herdis

    2014-01-01

    , designere, kunstnere, pædagoger og forældre understøtte, at børn finder sted som mennesker i verden? Et svar kunne være, at vi, snarere end at indplacere børn i ’satte’ institutionelle kontekster, lader børn ’sætte’ deres eget sted, fx ved at lade dem ’pla(y)cefully’ transformere, hvad et gulv i en...

  14. Technique for Radiometer and Antenna Array Calibration with a Radiated Noise Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Karthik; Limaye, Ashutosh; Laymon, Charles; Meyer, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new technique to calibrate a microwave radiometer and antenna array system. This calibration technique uses a radiated noise source in addition to two calibration sources internal to the radiometer. The method accurately calibrates antenna arrays with embedded active devices (such as amplifiers) which are used extensively in active phased array antennas.

  15. A simple method to minimize orientation effects in a profiling radiometer

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, T.; Talaulikar, M.; Desa, E.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; SrinivasaKumar, T.; Lotlikar, A.

    -fall radiometer is found to be a better option for measuring underwater light parameters as it avoids the effects of ship shadow and is easy to operate, the measurements demand profiling the radiometer vertical in water with minimum tilt. Here we present...

  16. Spaceborne L-band Radiometers: Push-broom or Synthetic Aperture?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels

    2004-01-01

    L-band radiometers can measure ocean salinity and soil moisture from space. A synthetic aperture radiometer system, SMOS, is under development by ESA for launch in 2007. A real aperture push-broom system, Aquarius, has been approved by NASA for launch in 2008. Pros et cons of the two fundamentally...

  17. Challenges in application of Active Cold Loads for microwave radiometer calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl; Balling, Jan E.; Skou, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Two Active Cold Loads (ACLs) for microwave radiometer calibration, operating at X-band, are evaluated with respect to important stability parameters. Using a stable radiometer system as test bed, absolute levels of 77 K and 55 K are found. This paper identifies and summarizes potential challenges...

  18. A spaceborne synthetic aperture radiometer simulated by the TUD demonstration model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Brian; Skou, Niels

    1994-01-01

    The TUD synthetic aperture radiometer demonstration model consists of a 2-channel X-band correlation radiometer with two horn antennas and an antenna mounting structure enabling the horns to be mounted in relevant positions within a certain aperture. The cross correlation of the signals from the 2...

  19. CAROLS: A New Airborne L-Band Radiometer for Ocean Surface and Land Observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zribi, Mehrez; Parde, Mickael; Boutin, Jacquline

    2011-01-01

    on board a dedicated French ATR42 research aircraft, in conjunction with other airborne instruments (C-Band scatterometer-STORM, the GOLD-RTR GPS system, the infrared CIMEL radiometer and a visible wavelength camera). Following initial laboratory qualifications, three airborne campaigns involving 21......The "Cooperative Airborne Radiometer for Ocean and Land Studies" (CAROLS) L-Band radiometer was designed and built as a copy of the EMIRAD II radiometer constructed by the Technical University of Denmark team. It is a fully polarimetric and direct sampling correlation radiometer. It is installed...... flights were carried out over South West France, the Valencia site and the Bay of Biscay (Atlantic Ocean) in 2007, 2008 and 2009, in coordination with in situ field campaigns. In order to validate the CAROLS data, various aircraft flight patterns and maneuvers were implemented, including straight...

  20. Intercomparison of 51 radiometers for determining global horizontal irradiance and direct normal irradiance measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habte, Aron; Sengupta, Manajit; Andreas, Afshin; Wilcox, Stephen; Stoffel, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Accurate solar radiation measurements require properly installed and maintained radiometers with calibrations traceable to the World Radiometric Reference. This study analyzes the performance of 51 commercially available and prototype radiometers used for measuring global horizontal irradiances or direct normal irradiances. These include pyranometers, pyrheliometers, rotating shadowband radiometers, and a pyranometer with an internal shading mask deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. The radiometers in this study were deployed for one year (from April 1, 2011, through March 31, 2012), and their measurements were compared under clear-sky, partly cloudy, and mostly cloudy conditions to reference values of low estimated measurement uncertainties. The intent of this paper is to present a general overview of each radiometer's performance based on the instrumentation and environmental conditions available at NREL.

  1. Ability of four dental radiometers to measure the light output from nine curing lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimokawa, Carlos Alberto Kenji; Harlow, Jessie Eudora; Turbino, Míriam Lacalle; Price, Richard Bengt

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of four dental radiometers when measuring the output from nine light curing units (LCUs). The light output from nine light-emitting diode LCUs was measured with a laboratory-grade power meter (PowerMax-Pro 150 HD) and four dental radiometers (Bluephase Meter II, SDI LED Radiometer, Kerr LED Radiometer, and LEDEX CM4000). Ten measurements were made of each LCU with each radiometer. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey tests (α=0.05) were used to determine if there was a difference between the calculated irradiance values from the power meter and those from the radiometers. Where applicable, the LCUs were ranked according to their power and irradiance values. The emission spectra from the LCUs was measured using an integrating sphere attached to a fiber-optic spectrometer (N=10). The beam profile of the LCUs was measured with a beam profiler camera. Of the dental radiometers, only the Bluephase Meter II could measure power. ANOVA showed no significant difference between power values measured with the laboratory-grade meter and the Bluephase Meter II (p=0.527). The difference between the mean irradiance reported by the various radiometers for the same LCU was up to 479mW/cm 2 . The ranking of the power values obtained using the laboratory-grade meter was the same for the Bluephase Meter II. When compared to the calculated irradiance values from the laboratory-grade power meter, the Bluephase Meter II provided the most accurate data. Considering the great variation between the irradiance values provided by radiometers and their overall inaccuracy when compared to a laboratory-grade meter, dentists should not place too much faith in the absolute irradiance value. However, hand-held radiometers can be used to monitor changes in the light output of LCUs over time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Handicap som risikofaktor? Et udviklingspsykopatologisk perspektiv på børn med handicap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammeyer, Jesper Herup; Bøttcher, Louise

    2010-01-01

    rn med handicap er generelt i større risiko for at udvikle psykopatologi. Men risikoen for fejludvikling er ikke enkelt forbundet med graden af handicappet. F.eks. oplever børn med hørehandicap næsten fire gange så hyppigt psykosociale vanskeligheder sammenlignet med hørende børn, men det er ikke...... psykopatologi etableres. I artiklen vil vi præsentere en almen model til forståelse af mennesker med handicap og deres udviklingsmuligheder – en handicappsykologisk udviklingsmodel ud fra et dialektisk kultur-historisk perspektiv (Vygotsky, (1924-31) 1993). Ved hjælp af empiriske studier vil vi eksemplificere...... forskellige typiske udviklingsmæssige problemer, der ofte opstår blandt børn med forskellige typer af handicap. At studere børn med handicap og deres psykiske udvikling kan være et vigtigt forskningsmæssigt vindue til at forstå udviklingspsykopatologi generelt....

  3. Vold og seksuelle overgreb mod børn og unge med handicap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, Helle; Christoffersen, Mogens; Poulsen, Maria Hedemark

    Formålet med denne rapport er at styrke vidensgrundlaget om vold og seksuelle overgreb mod børn og unge med handicap. Til det formål belyses omfanget af overgreb, ofrenes karakteristik, risiko- og beskyttelsesfaktorer samt fagfolks arbejde med mistanke, opsporing og handling. Undersøgelsens analyse...... består af tre dele: Første del belyser omfanget af vold og seksuelle overgreb mod børn og unge med handicap, baseret på oplysninger om politianmeldte sager og registeroplysninger. Anden del belyser børn og unges egne oplevelser med overgreb, baseret på eksisterende spørgeskemadata fra henholdsvis...... Børneforløbsundersøgelsen og Forløbsundersøgelsen af anbragte børn. Tredje del belyser fagpersoners daglige arbejde på området om opsporing og forebyggelse af ovegreb med børn og unge med handicap, baseret på en mindre spørgeskemaundersøgelse til fagpersoner på specialområdet samt enkelte interview med videnspersoner...

  4. rn på YouTube – nydelse og nørderi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv

    2017-01-01

    Mange børn og unge bruger dagligt adskillige timer på videodelingsplatformen YouTube. Her kan de dyrke deres individuelle interesser, deres ’guilty pleasures’ og følge med i youtuberes dagligliv. For mange børn og unge er muligheden for selv at producere indhold ligeledes en relevant del af...... attraktionen ved YouTube. På baggrund af en igangværende, kvalitativ undersøgelse præsenteres i denne artikel en række relevante perspektiver ved børn og unges brug af YouTube. Et væsentligt aspekt er, at voksne sjældent involverer sig i børn og unges brug af YouTube. Men hvis man ønsker at tage aktivt del...... børn og unges (digitale) dannelsesprocesser kan det godt betale sig at holde øje med, hvad de laver på YouTube – og forsøge at forstå, hvad de får ud af det....

  5. Linear Logic on Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn

    This article shows how individual Petri nets form models of Girard's intuitionistic linear logic. It explores questions of expressiveness and completeness of linear logic with respect to this interpretation. An aim is to use Petri nets to give an understanding of linear logic and give some apprai...

  6. Reference Guide Microsoft.NET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee M van der; Verspaij GJ; Rosbergen S; IMP; NMD

    2003-01-01

    Developers, administrators and managers can get more understanding of the .NET technology with this report. They can also make better choices how to use this technology. The report describes the results and conclusions of a study of the usability for the RIVM of this new generation .NET development

  7. Net neutrality and audiovisual services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.; Nikoltchev, S.

    2011-01-01

    Net neutrality is high on the European agenda. New regulations for the communication sector provide a legal framework for net neutrality and need to be implemented on both a European and a national level. The key element is not just about blocking or slowing down traffic across communication

  8. A Small Universal Petri Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A. Zaitsev

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A universal deterministic inhibitor Petri net with 14 places, 29 transitions and 138 arcs was constructed via simulation of Neary and Woods' weakly universal Turing machine with 2 states and 4 symbols; the total time complexity is exponential in the running time of their weak machine. To simulate the blank words of the weakly universal Turing machine, a couple of dedicated transitions insert their codes when reaching edges of the working zone. To complete a chain of a given Petri net encoding to be executed by the universal Petri net, a translation of a bi-tag system into a Turing machine was constructed. The constructed Petri net is universal in the standard sense; a weaker form of universality for Petri nets was not introduced in this work.

  9. Global ultraviolet spectra derived directly from observations with multichannel radiometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuenzalida, H A

    1998-11-20

    Some general features of multichannel filter radiometers operating in the UV region of the solar spectrum are reviewed with emphasis on calibration problems that are due to incomplete knowledge of responsivity in the UV-B region. An alternative calibration procedure that is able to generate a full UV spectrum obtained by a constrained inversion method is presented. Accuracy of such spectra is assessed with simulated and with real data. A comparison between customary calibration and an alternative procedure is made in terms of monochromatic UV-B irradiance and CIE dose rate (CIE is the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage) and indicates that irradiances are estimated within 8% accuracy with solar zenith angles as great as 60 degrees and that dose rates are within 6% for any solar zenith angle. The advantage of having an additional channel in the UV-B region is considered.

  10. The infrared imaging radiometer for PICASSO-CENA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlay, Gilles; Arnolfo, Marie-Christine; Bret-Dibat, Thierry; Lifferman, Anne; Pelon, Jacques

    2017-11-01

    Microbolometers are infrared detectors of an emerging technology mainly developed in US and few other countries for few years. The main targets of these developments are low performing and low cost military and civilian applications like survey cameras. Applications in space are now arising thanks to the design simplification and the associated cost reduction allowed by this new technology. Among the four instruments of the payload of PICASSO-CENA, the Imaging Infrared Radiometer (IIR) is based on the microbolometer technology. An infrared camera in development for the IASI instrument is the core of the IIR. The aim of the paper is to recall the PICASSO-CENA mission goal, to describe the IIR instrument architecture and highlight its main features and performances and to give the its development status.

  11. Carbon monoxide mixing ratio inference from gas filter radiometer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallio, H. A.; Reichle, H. G., Jr.; Casas, J. C.; Saylor, M. S.; Gormsen, B. B.

    1983-01-01

    A new algorithm has been developed which permits, for the first time, real time data reduction of nadir measurements taken with a gas filter correlation radiometer to determine tropospheric carbon monoxide concentrations. The algorithm significantly reduces the complexity of the equations to be solved while providing accuracy comparable to line-by-line calculations. The method is based on a regression analysis technique using a truncated power series representation of the primary instrument output signals to infer directly a weighted average of trace gas concentration. The results produced by a microcomputer-based implementation of this technique are compared with those produced by the more rigorous line-by-line methods. This algorithm has been used in the reduction of Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites, Shuttle, and aircraft data.

  12. Data processing for the DMSP microwave radiometer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigone, J. L.; Stogryn, A. P.

    1977-01-01

    A software program was developed and tested to process microwave radiometry data to be acquired by the microwave sensor (SSM/T) on the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program spacecraft. The SSM/T 7-channel microwave radiometer and systems data will be data-linked to Air Force Global Weather Central (AFGWC) where they will be merged with ephemeris data prior to product processing for use in the AFGWC upper air data base (UADB). The overall system utilizes an integrated design to provide atmospheric temperature soundings for global applications. The fully automated processing at AFGWC was accomplished by four related computer processor programs to produce compatible UADB soundings, evaluate system performance, and update the a priori developed inversion matrices. Tests with simulated data produced results significantly better than climatology.

  13. Calibrating ground-based microwave radiometers: Uncertainty and drifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küchler, N.; Turner, D. D.; Löhnert, U.; Crewell, S.

    2016-04-01

    The quality of microwave radiometer (MWR) calibrations, including both the absolute radiometric accuracy and the spectral consistency, determines the accuracy of geophysical retrievals. The Microwave Radiometer Calibration Experiment (MiRaCalE) was conducted to evaluate the performance of MWR calibration techniques, especially of the so-called Tipping Curve Calibrations (TCC) and Liquid Nitrogen Calibrations (LN2cal), by repeatedly calibrating a fourth-generation Humidity and Temperature Profiler (HATPRO-G4) that measures downwelling radiance between 20 GHz and 60 GHz. MiRaCalE revealed two major points to improve MWR calibrations: (i) the necessary repetition frequency for MWR calibration techniques to correct drifts, which ensures stable long-term measurements; and (ii) the spectral consistency of control measurements of a well known reference is useful to estimate calibration accuracy. Besides, we determined the accuracy of the HATPRO's liquid nitrogen-cooled blackbody's temperature. TCCs and LN2cals were found to agree within 0.5 K when observing the liquid nitrogen-cooled blackbody with a physical temperature of 77 K. This agreement of two different calibration techniques suggests that the brightness temperature of the LN2 cooled blackbody is accurate within at least 0.5 K, which is a significant reduction of the uncertainties that have been assumed to vary between 0.6 K and 1.5 K when calibrating the HATPRO-G4. The error propagation of both techniques was found to behave almost linearly, leading to maximum uncertainties of 0.7 K when observing a scene that is associated with a brightness temperature of 15 K.

  14. Radon transport modelling: User's guide to RnMod3d

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Erik

    2000-01-01

    RnMod3d is a numerical computer model of soil-gas and radon transport in porous media. It can be used, for example, to study radon entry from soil into houses in response to indoor-outdoor pressure differences or changes in atmospheric pressure. It canalso be used for flux calculations of radon...... be anisotropic. This guide includes benchmark tests based on simpleproblems with known solutions. RnMod3d has also been part of an international model intercomparison exercise based on more complicated problems without known solutions. All tests show that RnMod3d gives results of good quality....... from the soil surface or to model radon exhalation from building materials such as concrete. The finite-volume model is a technical research tool, and it cannot be used meaningfully without good understandingof the involved physical equations. Some understanding of numerical mathematics...

  15. Indsats for forældre til børn med ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neubert, Katja

    2012-01-01

    Et nyt review, udarbejdet af forskergruppen omkring Morris Zwi, undersøger om interventionsprogrammer til forældre til børn med ADHD er effektive, når det gælder reducering af børnenes ADHD-relaterede adfærd og associerede problemer som eksempelvis indlæringsproblemer. Reviewet peger på, at en...... indsats til forældre til børn med ADHD kan have en gavnlig effekt på børnenes adfærd. Interventionen kan også være med til at sænke stressniveauet hos forældre til disse børn, og forbedre forældrenes selvtillid....

  16. A Matérn model of the spatial covariance structure of point rain rates

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying

    2014-07-15

    It is challenging to model a precipitation field due to its intermittent and highly scale-dependent nature. Many models of point rain rates or areal rainfall observations have been proposed and studied for different time scales. Among them, the spectral model based on a stochastic dynamical equation for the instantaneous point rain rate field is attractive, since it naturally leads to a consistent space–time model. In this paper, we note that the spatial covariance structure of the spectral model is equivalent to the well-known Matérn covariance model. Using high-quality rain gauge data, we estimate the parameters of the Matérn model for different time scales and demonstrate that the Matérn model is superior to an exponential model, particularly at short time scales.

  17. Does Prior RN Clinical Experience Predict Academic Success in Graduate Nurse Practitioner Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Banna, Majeda M; Briggs, Linda A; Leslie, Mayri Sagady; Athey, Erin K; Pericak, Arlene; Falk, Nancy L; Greene, Jessica

    2015-05-01

    There is limited evidence on whether prior RN clinical experience is predictive of academic success in graduate nurse practitioner (NP) programs. The purpose of this study was to explore whether the frequently held assumption that more prior clinical experience is associated with better academic success in The George Washington University online NP programs. Applications (n = 106) for clinical NP students entering from 2008-2010 were examined along with data on academic performance. No relationship was found between years of prior RN clinical experience and three educational outcome variables (cumulative grade point average [GPA], clinical course GPA, and having failed any courses or been put on probation). However, students with the most prior RN clinical experience were less likely to graduate in 4 years, compared with those with the least experience. These findings serve as a building block of empirical evidence for admissions committees as they consider entry requirements for NP programs. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Measurements of octupole collectivity in Rn and Ra nuclei using Coulomb excitation

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to exploit the unique capability of HIE-ISOLDE to provide post-accelerated $^{221,222}$Rn and $^{222,226,228}$Ra ion beams for the study of octupole collectivity in these nuclei. We will measure E3 transition moments in $^{222}$Rn and $^{222,226,228}$Ra in order to fully map out the variation in E3 strength in the octupole mass region with Z$\\thicksim$88 and N$\\thicksim$134. This will validate model calculations that predict different behaviour as a function of N. We will also locate the position of the parity doublet partner of the ground state in $^{221}$Rn, in order to test the suitability of odd-A radon isotopes for EDM searches.

  19. The Influence of Nursing Unit Characteristics on RN Vacancies in Specialized Hospice and Palliative Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, Lisa C; Mixer, Sandra J; Cozad, Melanie J

    2016-07-01

    The nursing shortage is projected to intensify in the United States. Organizations providing specialized hospice and palliative care will be particularly hard hit. The purpose of our study was to examine the influence of the nursing unit on registered nurse (RN) vacancies and test the moderating role of recruitment strategies in perinatal hospices. We estimated the association between the nursing unit and RN vacancies and tested the interaction effects of recruitment strategies (signing bonus and recruitment bonus). Our findings showed that increasing RN unit size and nursing leadership directly affected vacancies and that recruitment bonuses had stronger influence on reducing vacancies than signing bonuses. The findings offer critical insights for hospice administrators in attracting nurses among specialized hospice and palliative care providers. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Indoor Rn-222 concentrations in the vicinity of a Turkish coal-fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaprak, G. [Ege University, Izmir (Turkey). Inst. of Nuclear Science

    1999-10-01

    Coal, like most materials found in nature, contains natural radionuclides and their products in small quantities. Therefore, depending on their concentration in the coal, a coal-fired power plant might potentially contaminate the environment. Indoor Rn-222 concentration in 100 houses located in the vicinity of Yatagan coal-fired power plant in the southwestern part of Turkey were measured using solid state nuclear track detectors. The time-integrated Rn-222 concentrations in the houses ranged from 10 to 120 Bq m{sup -3}. This corresponds to an annual effective dose equivalent ranging from 0.6 to 7/3 mSv. In 96% of the homes, an Rn-222 concentration of 100 Bq m{sup -3} (taken as the limit for future buildings, recommended by ICRP) was not exceeded.

  1. Exhalation of {sup 222}Rn from phosphogypsum piles located at the Southwest of Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duenas, C. [Department of Applied Physics I, Faculty of Science, University of Malaga, Campus de Teatinos, 29071 Malaga (Spain)]. E-mail: mcduenas@uma.es; Liger, E. [Department of Applied Physics II, Technical College of Informatic Engineering, University of Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Canete, S. [Department of Applied Physics I, Faculty of Science, University of Malaga, Campus de Teatinos, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Perez, M. [Department of Applied Physics I, Faculty of Science, University of Malaga, Campus de Teatinos, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Bolivar, J.P. [Department of Applied Physics, EPS, University of Huelva, 21819 Huelva (Spain)

    2007-06-15

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is a waste product of the phosphoric acid production process and contains, generally, high activity concentrations of uranium series radionuclides. It is stored in piles formed over the last 40 years close to the town of Huelva (Southwest of Spain). The very broad expanse of the PG piles (about 1200 ha) produces a local, but unambiguous, radioactive impact to their surroundings. In 1992, the regional government of Andalusia restored an area of 400 ha by covering it with a 25-cm thick layer of natural soil and, currently, there is an additional zone of 400 ha in course of restoration (unrestored) and the same area of active PG stacks. Due to the high activity concentration of {sup 226}Ra in active PG stacks (average 647 Bq kg{sup -1}), a significant exhalation of {sup 222}Rn could be produced from the surface of the piles. Measurements have been made of {sup 222}Rn exhalation from active PG stacks and from restored and unrestored zones. The {sup 222}Rn exhalation from unrestored zones is half of that of the active PG stacks. Following restoration, the {sup 222}Rn exhalation is approximately eight times lower than the active PG stacks. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides ({sup 226}Ra, {sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th) in the mentioned zones have been determined. This study was also conducted to determine the effect of {sup 226}Ra activity concentration on the {sup 222}Rn exhalation, and a good correlation was obtained between the {sup 222}Rn exhalation and {sup 226}Ra activity, porosity and density of soil.

  2. High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    High-level Petri nets are now widely used in both theoretical analysis and practical modelling of concurrent systems. The main reason for the success of this class of net models is that they make it possible to obtain much more succinct and manageable descriptions than can be obtained by means...... of low-level Petri nets - while, on the other hand, they still offer a wide range of analysis methods and tools. The step from low-level nets to high-level nets can be compared to the step from assembly languages to modern programming languages with an elaborated type concept. In low-level nets...... there is only one kind of token and this means that the state of a place is described by an integer (and in many cases even by a boolean). In high-level nets each token can carry a complex information/data - which, e.g., may describe the entire state of a process or a data base. Today most practical...

  3. The Impact of Indoor and Outdoor Radiometer Calibration on Solar Measurements: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habte, Aron; Sengupta, Manajit; Andreas, Afshin; Reda, Ibrahim; Robinson, Justin

    2016-07-01

    Accurate solar radiation data sets are critical to reducing the expenses associated with mitigating performance risk for solar energy conversion systems, and they help utility planners and grid system operators understand the impacts of solar resource variability. The accuracy of solar radiation measured by radiometers depends on the instrument performance specification, installation method, calibration procedure, measurement conditions, maintenance practices, location, and environmental conditions. This study addresses the effect of calibration methodologies and the resulting calibration responsivities provided by radiometric calibration service providers such as the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and manufacturers of radiometers. Some of these radiometers are calibrated indoors, and some are calibrated outdoors. To establish or understand the differences in calibration methodology, we processed and analyzed field-measured data from these radiometers. This study investigates calibration responsivities provided by NREL's broadband outdoor radiometer calibration (BORCAL) and a few prominent manufacturers. The reference radiometer calibrations are traceable to the World Radiometric Reference. These different methods of calibration demonstrated 1% to 2% differences in solar irradiance measurement. Analyzing these values will ultimately assist in determining the uncertainties of the radiometer data and will assist in developing consensus on a standard for calibration.

  4. Metodeudvikling af hjælp til familier med børn med handicap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Kirsten; Nørregård, Birgitte

    2000-01-01

    Et undersøgelses- og metodeudviklingsprojekt i relation til forældre til børn med handicap, der passer deres barn i hjemmet. Projektet var finansieret af satspuljemidler. projektet bestod af en række delprojekter, hvis resultater samt anbefalinger til Socialministeriet er samlet i denne evaluerin......Et undersøgelses- og metodeudviklingsprojekt i relation til forældre til børn med handicap, der passer deres barn i hjemmet. Projektet var finansieret af satspuljemidler. projektet bestod af en række delprojekter, hvis resultater samt anbefalinger til Socialministeriet er samlet i denne...

  5. The Multivariate Müntz-Szasz Problem in Weighted Banach Space on Rn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangdong Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to give an extension of Müntz-Szasz theorems to multivariable weighted Banach space. Denote by {λk=(λk1,λk2,...,λkn}k=1∞ a sequence of real numbers in R+n. The completeness of monomials {tλk} in Cα is investigated, where Cα is the weighted Banach spaces which consist of complex continuous functions f defined on Rn with f(t exp(-α(t vanishing at infinity in the uniform norm.

  6. rn- og Ungepolitikken i kommunen; mellem intention og realitet,

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anette

    2014-01-01

    Med udgangspunkt i forskningsprojektet "Børn- og Ungepolitikken i kommunen; mellem intention og realitet har jeg udarbejdet en artikel, der fremdrager principper ved implementering af politik på forskellige niveauer i kommunen og ud fra disse principper giver bud på en refleksionsmodel i forbinde......Med udgangspunkt i forskningsprojektet "Børn- og Ungepolitikken i kommunen; mellem intention og realitet har jeg udarbejdet en artikel, der fremdrager principper ved implementering af politik på forskellige niveauer i kommunen og ud fra disse principper giver bud på en refleksionsmodel i...

  7. Implementing a writing course in an online RN-BSN program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Carol J; D'Angelo, Barbara; Rennell, Nathalie; Muzyka, Diann; Pannabecker, Virginia; Maid, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Scholarly writing is an essential skill for nurses to communicate new research and evidence. Written communication directly relates to patient safety and quality of care. However, few online RN-BSN programs integrate writing instruction into their curricula. Nurses traditionally learn how to write from instructor feedback and often not until midway into their baccalaureate education. Innovative strategies are needed to help nurses apply critical thinking skills to writing. The authors discuss a collaborative project between nursing faculty and technical communication faculty to develop and implement a writing course that is 1 of the 1st courses the students take in the online RN-BSN program.

  8. Pro asynchronous programming with .NET

    CERN Document Server

    Blewett, Richard; Ltd, Rock Solid Knowledge

    2014-01-01

    Pro Asynchronous Programming with .NET teaches the essential skill of asynchronous programming in .NET. It answers critical questions in .NET application development, such as: how do I keep my program responding at all times to keep my users happy how do I make the most of the available hardware how can I improve performanceIn the modern world, users expect more and more from their applications and devices, and multi-core hardware has the potential to provide it. But it takes carefully crafted code to turn that potential into responsive, scalable applications.With Pro Asynchronous Programming

  9. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André

    2017-08-01

    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  10. Evaluation of Radiometers Deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habte, Aron; Wilcox, Stephen; Stoffel, Thomas

    2015-12-23

    This study analyzes the performance of various commercially available radiometers used for measuring global horizontal irradiances and direct normal irradiances. These include pyranometers, pyrheliometers, rotating shadowband radiometers, and a pyranometer with fixed internal shading and are all deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. Data from 32 global horizontal irradiance and 19 direct normal irradiance radiometers are presented. The radiometers in this study were deployed for one year (from April 1, 2011, through March 31, 2012) and compared to measurements from radiometers with the lowest values of estimated measurement uncertainties for producing reference global horizontal irradiances and direct normal irradiances.

  11. Sünteetiline lähenemine on edu pant / Tamara Luuk, Olga Pärn, Priit Pärn ; intervjueerinud Reet Varblane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Luuk, Tamara, 1952-

    2011-01-01

    Brügges kuni jaanuari lõpuni 2011 eksponeeritud belgia kunstniku Luc Tuymansi kureeritud näitusest "Madalaima tasandi reaalsus. Visioon Kesk-Euroopast" ("The Reality of the Lowest Rank. A Vision of Central Europe"). Osalema oli kutsutud 43 kunstnikku üle maailma. Priit Pärn Eestist esines söejoonistuste ja filmilõikudega näitusel ning eraldi filmiprogrammiga

  12. Radio Frequency Interference Mitigation for the Planned SMAP Radar and Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Michael; Chan, Samuel; Belz, Eric; Piepmeier, Jeffrey; Mohammed, Priscilla; Kim, Edward; Johnson, Joel T.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's planned SMAP mission will utilize a radar operating in a band centered on 1.26 GHz and a co-observing radiometer operating at 1.41 GHz to measure surface soil moisture. Both the radar and radiometer sub-systems are susceptible to radio frequency interference (RFI). Any significant impact of such interference requires mitigation in order to avoid degradation in the SMAP science products. Studies of RFT detection and mitigation methods for both the radar and radiometer are continuing in order to assess the risk to mission products and to refine the performance achieved.

  13. Filter-radiometer-based realization of candela and establishment of photometric scale at UME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samedov, Farhad; Durak, Murat; Bazkır, Özcan

    2005-11-01

    The luminous intensity unit of candela was realized based on filter-radiometer, which is traceable to detector-based primary standard electrical substitution cryogenic radiometer (ESCR). In that realization the traditional Osram Wi41/G-type incandescent lamp and filter-radiometer consisting of an aperture, a V(λ) filter and a silicon photodiode based trap detector were used as light source and detection element, respectively. Measurement techniques of effective aperture area, spectral transmittance of V(λ) filter and absolute responsivity of trap detector are also presented.

  14. Spectral Power and Irradiance Responsivity Calibration of InSb Working-Standard Radiometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppeldauer, G; Rácz, M

    2000-11-01

    New, improved-performance InSb power-irradiance meters have been developed and characterized to maintain the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) spectral responsivity scale between 2 and 5.1 mum. The InSb radiometers were calibrated against the transfer-standard cryogenic bolometer that is tied to the primary-standard cryogenic radiometer of the NIST. The InSb radiometers serve as easy-to-use working standards for routine spectral power and irradiance responsivity calibrations. The spectral irradiance responsivities were derived from the spectral power responsivities by use of the measured area of the apertures in front of the InSb detectors.

  15. Characterization and calibration of ultraviolet broadband radiometers measuring erythemally weighted irradiance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hülsen, Gregor; Gröbner, Julian

    2007-08-10

    An ultraviolet calibration center has been established in Davos, Switzerland. It provides a laboratory for characterizing the spectral and angular response of broadband radiometers. The absolute calibration of these instruments is performed through the comparison to the reference spectroradiometer QASUME. We present what we believe to be a novel calibration methodology that explicitly includes the information of the angular and spectral response functions. From the results of the latest broadband intercomparison campaign, the typical uncertainties of these instruments could be obtained. Most radiometers have an expanded uncertainty of approximately 7%. The angular response introduces an uncertainty of 0.9%-7.2%, depending on the cosine error of the radiometer.

  16. Measurement of Ocean Wind Vector by an Airborne, Imaging Polarimetric Radiometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels; Laursen, Brian

    1998-01-01

    Airborne measurements of the sea surface have been carried out with an imaging polarimetric 16-GHz radiometer system, aimed at determining the wind direction. The radiometer system features a high-speed digital correlator, and it measures all four parameters of the brightness temperature Stokes...... vector simultaneously. Preliminary experiments have confirmed the directional signatures of the sea brightness temperature as reported by other researchers and have led to development of improved instrumentation with the intention of determining the wind vector pixel by pixel in the radiometer imagery....

  17. Digital processor breadboard for RFI detection and mitigation in spaceborne radiometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Steen Savstrup; Skou, Niels; Kovanen, Arhippa

    2014-01-01

    The increasing problem with Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) in protected radiometer frequency bands has inspired the development and implementation of methods for detecting RFI. With increasing demands for next generation spaceborne radiometers, it becomes necessary to include RFI detection...... in such systems. Since input to these methods require much more data than traditional radiometer data, and since the downlink capacity for spaceborne systems are limited, RFI detection and mitigation must be implemented on-board thereby maintaining the low downlink data rate. The development of such a system...

  18. Anagramme und andere Sprachspiele – zum Werk von Unica Zürn Anagrams and Other Language Games—On the Work of Unica Zürn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Vojta

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Unica Zürn (geb. 1916, 1970 Selbstmord in Paris wurde in der Forschung kaum als eigenständige Künstlerin rezipiert. Sie wird als die Lebensgefährtin von Hans Bellmer angesehen. In diesem Kontext fungiert sie als seine Muse, als die lebendige Verkörperung seiner Puppenmodelle. Helga Lutz plädiert in ihrer Dissertation für eine Auseinandersetzung mit den Arbeiten von Unica Zürn, „losgelöst aus dem Koordinatensystem des Biographischen und der Prämisse des Wahnsinns“. (S. 169Unica Zürn (born in 1916; suicide in Paris in 1970 has rarely been received in scholarship as an independent artist. She is seen as Hans Bellmer’s companion. She functions as a muse in this context, as a living embodiment of his dolls. In her dissertation, Helga Lutz pleads for an examination of Utica Zorn’s work, “removed from the coordinate plane of the biography and the premises of insanity” (169.

  19. A Concise Synthesis of Three Branches Derived from Polysaccharide RN1 and Anti-Pancreatic Cancer Activity Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deqin Cai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available RN1, a polysaccharide from flowers of Panax pseudo-ginsieng Wall. Var. notoginseng (Burkill Hoo & Tseng, is a potential multi-targeting drug candidate for pancreatic cancer treatment. However, the active targeting domain of RN1 is still unknown. Herein, three RN1 derived branches were synthesized via [3+2] or [2+2] strategies, efficiently. Two pentasaccharides, 18 and 27, showed similar inhibition effect on pancreatic cancer BxPC-3 cells to that of RN1 at same concentration. Interestingly, tetrasaccharide 21 potently inhibited gemcitabineresistant cell line Panc-1 at high concentration. These suggest that the branches of RN1 might be the active targeting domain and tetrasaccharide 21 might be a potential leading compound for pancreatic cancer with gemcitabine resistance.

  20. Petri Net Tool Overview 1986

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Feldbrugge, Frits

    1987-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the characteristics of all currently available net based tools. It is a compilation of information provided by tool authors or contact persons. A concise one page overview is provided as well....

  1. Understanding Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salom, Jaume; Widén, Joakim; Candanedo, José

    2011-01-01

    Although several alternative definitions exist, a Net-Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) can be succinctly described as a grid-connected building that generates as much energy as it uses over a year. The “net-zero” balance is attained by applying energy conservation and efficiency measures...... and by incorporating renewable energy systems. While based on annual balances, a complete description of a Net ZEB requires examining the system at smaller time-scales. This assessment should address: (a) the relationship between power generation and building loads and (b) the resulting interaction with the power grid....... This paper presents and categorizes quantitative indicators suitable to describe both aspects of the building’s performance. These indicators, named LMGI - Load Matching and Grid Interaction indicators, are easily quantifiable and could complement the output variables of existing building simulation tools...

  2. PolicyNet Publication System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The PolicyNet Publication System project will merge the Oracle-based Policy Repository (POMS) and the SQL-Server CAMP system (MSOM) into a new system with an Oracle...

  3. KM3NeT

    CERN Multimedia

    KM3NeT is a large scale next-generation neutrino telescope located in the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea, optimized for the discovery of galactic neutrino sources emitting in the TeV energy region.

  4. Net Neutrality: Background and Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilroy, Angele A

    2006-01-01

    .... The move to place restrictions on the owners of the networks that compose and provide access to the Internet, to ensure equal access and nondiscriminatory treatment, is referred to as "net neutrality...

  5. Petri Nets in Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A process language for security protocols is presented together with a semantics in terms of sets of events. The denotation of process is a set of events, and as each event specifies a set of pre and postconditions, this denotation can be viewed as a Petri net. By means of an example we illustrate...... how the Petri-net semantics can be used to prove security properties....

  6. The Economics of Net Neutrality

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, Robert W.; Wallsten, Scott

    2006-01-01

    This essay examines the economics of "net neutrality" and broadband Internet access. We argue that mandating net neutrality would be likely to reduce economic welfare. Instead, the government should focus on creating competition in the broadband market by liberalizing more spectrum and reducing entry barriers created by certain local regulations. In cases where a broadband provider can exercise market power the government should use its antitrust enforcement authority to police anticompetitiv...

  7. 26 CFR 1.904(f)-3 - Allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation of net operating losses and net....904(f)-3 Allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses. For rules relating to the allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses, see § 1.904(g)-3T. ...

  8. 29 CFR 4204.13 - Net income and net tangible assets tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Net income and net tangible assets tests. 4204.13 Section....13 Net income and net tangible assets tests. (a) General. The criteria under this section are that either— (1) Net income test. The purchaser's average net income after taxes for its three most recent...

  9. Effect of IL-1β and IL-1RN polymorphisms in carcinogenesis of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of IL-1β and IL-1RN polymorphisms in carcinogenesis of the gastric mucosa in patients infected with Helicobacter pylori in Algeria. Amine El-Mokhtar Drici, Soraya Moulessehoul, Abdelkarim Tifrit, Mustapha Diaf, Douidi Kara Turki, Meryem Bachir, Abdenacer Tou ...

  10. Implementing a standardized testing program: preparing students for the NCLEX-RN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Phyllis; Koehn, Mary L

    2006-01-01

    The undergraduate nursing faculty of a large Midwestern university initiated a program of standardized computerized testing for two purposes: to provide students experience with standardized computerized testing prior to taking the National Council Licensure Exam for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN) and to increase the students' NCLEX-RN passing rate. This article chronicles the process of implementing a comprehensive testing program developed by the Assessment Technologies Institute (Overland Park, KS). Although the first class of students to have taken the entire testing package has just graduated, midprogram results have demonstrated potential as key indicators for identifying at-risk students. The trends in scores on standardized computerized tests, grades in prerequisite science courses, and grades in medical-surgical courses are used to identify students who are at risk for failure in the program and on the NCLEX-RN. Faculty advisors meet with these students to develop individual plans of study and to provide additional resources. The testing process is going on smoothly, and faculty members are learning to use the extensive information on students' test scores to further assist them in passing the NCLEX-RN.

  11. Using Adobe Connect to Deliver Online Library Instruction to the RN to BSN Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    This paper takes a look at how one academic health sciences librarian brought mediated literature searching to the distance RN to BSN nursing students. It takes a look at why Adobe Connect was the webinar software that was selected to deliver online instruction to the students. The article explains how students participated in a pre-class survey…

  12. Nurse forecasting in Europe (RN4CAST): Rationale, design and methodology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sermeus, W.; Aiken, L.H.; Heede, K. Van den; Rafferty, A.M.; Griffiths, P.; Moreno-Casbas, M.T.; Busse, R.; Lindqvist, R.; Scott, A.P.; Bruyneel, L.; Brzostek, T.; Kinnunen, J.; Schubert, M.; Schoonhoven, L.; Zikos, D.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current human resources planning models in nursing are unreliable and ineffective as they consider volumes, but ignore effects on quality in patient care. The project RN4CAST aims innovative forecasting methods by addressing not only volumes, but quality of nursing staff as well as

  13. Predictors for Success on the NCLEX-RN for Associate Degree Nursing Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Katrina C.

    2012-01-01

    The nursing shortage is a national issue that has ignited an increasing demand to address the importance of preparing students to be successful on the initial National Council of Licensure Examination for Registered Nursing (NCLEX-RN). Nursing programs are charged by the Board of Nursing to prepare graduates to be successful on the initial…

  14. Personal Transformation in RNs Who Recently Graduated from an RN to BSN Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Annette L.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore experiences of personal transformation and development of self-authorship in registered nurses (RNs) who recently completed an RN to bachelor of science in nursing (BSN) program. A content analysis was performed on the qualitative data obtained from semistructured interviews with 14 RNs. Experiences of…

  15. Developments in the RN first assistant role during the Korean War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallquist, Deborah L

    2005-10-01

    During times of war, demand for health care providers has stimulated increased employment of nurses and broadened the dimensions of the scope of nursing practice in the surgical arena. This article examines how the work of army nurses during the Korean War helped develop the role of the RN first assistant.

  16. NCLEX-RN Examination Performance by BSN Graduates of Four Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesney, Anita M.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative multiple-case study research explored and described differences as well as NCLEX-RN preparation strategies used by Historically Black College and University (HBCU) baccalaureate nursing programs with consistent NCLEX pass rates versus those with inconsistent pass rates. Two of the four selected programs had a history of consistent…

  17. Hydrochemistry and 222Rn Concentrations in Spring Waters in the Arid Zone El Granero, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marusia Rentería-Villalobos

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Water in arid and semi-arid environments is characterized by the presentation of complex interactions, where dissolved chemical species in high concentrations have negative effects on the water quality. Radon is present in areas with a high uranium and radium content, and it is the main contributor of the annual effective dose received by humans. The objective of this study was to evaluate concentrations of 222Rn and the water quality of spring waters. Water was classified as calcium sulfated and sodium sulfated. Most of the water samples with high radon concentrations presented higher concentrations of sulfates, fluorides, and total dissolved solids. 222Rn concentrations may be attributed to possible enhancement of 226Ra due to temperature and salinity of water, as well as evaporation rate. In 100% of the sampled spring waters the 222Rn levels exceeded the maximum acceptable limit which is proposed by international institutions. Aridity increases radiological risk related to 222Rn dose because spring waters are the main supply source for local populations. The implementation of environmental education, strategies, and technologies to remove the contaminants from the water are essential in order to reduce the health risk for local inhabitants.

  18. Frankfurt ja tema mitu külge / Björn Koop

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koop, Björn, 1982-

    2012-01-01

    2007. aastast Kia Euroopa disainikeskuses töötav Eesti Kunstiakadeemia lõpetanud autodisainer Björn Koop Frankfurdist, linna ja lähiümbrusesse koondunud autodisaini büroodest. Autodisaini stuudiote funktsioonidest. Eesti disainist Frankfurdis

  19. The Violence of Merging: Unica Zürn's Writing (on the Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Rupprecht

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the work of German Surrealist Unica Zürn (1916-1970, known for her autobiographical text about madness, Der Mann im Jasmin: Eindrücke einer Geisteskrankheit (1977. The problem with Zürn's text, as this article demonstrates, is that it becomes nearly impossible to be distinguished from the author's life. Unlike conventional autobiographies, this text raises doubt oyer the sanity of the author who was not only diagnosed with schizophrenia but also made madness the subject of her writing. Zürn's companion, the artist Hans Bellmer, accused her of indulging in madness for the sake of being able to write about it; she herself wrote that it was the act of writing that drove her insane. Looking closely at the text, which plays with the differentiation between author, narrator, and character, and with the reader's expectations about the difference between reality and representation, it is not a symptom of mental illness but rather a carefully constructed work of art. Designed to convey the impression that its author is mentally ill, it explores the connection between madness and artistic production to raise questions of interpretation: How true to life is the work of art? How does art mediate or even create our understanding of life?— As this article concludes, Zürn contradicts the postmodern assumption that everything is a text by making extra-textual reality part of her writing, yet she also suggests that texts may become disturbingly real.

  20. Højkvalitetspasning for små børn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Henrik

    2014-01-01

    tidlig delt emotionel intentionalitet mellem barn og tilknytningsobjekter. Disse processer fordrer dog kvaliteter hos pædagogen, der arbejder med de mindste børn og det fordrer pædagogisk tænkning og pædagogiske valg, der kan tilgodese alle elementer og er i harmoni med den menneskelige natur (Hansen...

  1. Behandlerblikket. Risiko og refleksion i socialt arbejde med familier og børn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Maria Appel

    2006-01-01

    Artiklen er et omskrevet forsvar for ph.d.-afhandlingen "Behandlerblikket" (Nissen 2005). Artiklen viser, at socialt arbejde med familier og børn konstituerer forskellige Behandlerblikke, som er sammenlignelige, når det drejer sig om forudsætninger for at løse sociale problemer. Med udgangspunkt i...

  2. Multifilmionu on tehtuga rahul / Priit Pärn ; interv. Rünno Saaremäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pärn, Priit, 1946-

    2001-01-01

    Priit Pärn eesti animafilmi olukorrast, oma tööst, 2. nov. Rakvere Keslinna galeriis avatud isikunäitusest "Pärna maailm" (30. novembrini näidatakse Rakveres Virma Dragon House'is iga päev kell 16 tema animafilme). Ottawa filmifestivalil anti Priit Pärnale ASIFA Special Award elutöö eest

  3. Fractional Brownian motion, the Matérn process, and stochastic modeling of turbulent dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilly, Jonathan M.; Sykulski, Adam M.; Early, Jeffrey J.; Olhede, Sofia C.

    2017-08-01

    Stochastic processes exhibiting power-law slopes in the frequency domain are frequently well modeled by fractional Brownian motion (fBm), with the spectral slope at high frequencies being associated with the degree of small-scale roughness or fractal dimension. However, a broad class of real-world signals have a high-frequency slope, like fBm, but a plateau in the vicinity of zero frequency. This low-frequency plateau, it is shown, implies that the temporal integral of the process exhibits diffusive behavior, dispersing from its initial location at a constant rate. Such processes are not well modeled by fBm, which has a singularity at zero frequency corresponding to an unbounded rate of dispersion. A more appropriate stochastic model is a much lesser-known random process called the Matérn process, which is shown herein to be a damped version of fractional Brownian motion. This article first provides a thorough introduction to fractional Brownian motion, then examines the details of the Matérn process and its relationship to fBm. An algorithm for the simulation of the Matérn process in O(NlogN) operations is given. Unlike fBm, the Matérn process is found to provide an excellent match to modeling velocities from particle trajectories in an application to two-dimensional fluid turbulence.

  4. INDOOR 222RN IN TENNESSEE VALLEY HOUSES: SEASONAL, BUILDING AND GEOLOGICAL FACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A two-season survey of indoor 222Rn concentrations was conducted in 226 occupied houses in Roane County, TN, during 1985 and 1986. A similar survey of 86 houses in Madison County, AL, was conducted in 1988 and 1989. Alpha track detectors were placed in each of the houses for thre...

  5. Uscire di minorità: una proposta radicale di Björn Brembs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Pievatolo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Björn Brembs, in un articolo importante, si chiede se i ricercatori possano davvero considerarsi soltanto vittime dell’attuale malattia della comunicazione scientifica – la privatizzazione dei suoi archivi e del suo sistema di valutazione – o se non ci sia anche...

  6. GPM GROUND VALIDATION ADVANCED MICROWAVE PRECIPITATION RADIOMETER (AMPR) MC3E V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) instrument played a key role in the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E). The AMPR...

  7. A satellite-based multichannel infrared radiometer to sound the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esplin, Roy W.; Batty, J. Clair; Jensen, Mark; McLain, Dave; Jensen, Scott; Stauder, John; Stump, Charles W.; Roettker, William A.; Vanek, Michael D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a 12-channel infrared radiometer with the acronym SABER (Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission radiometry) that has been selected by NASA to fly on the TIMED (Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics) mission.

  8. Deconvolution of wide field-of-view radiometer measurements of earth-emitted radiation. I - Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G. L.; Green, R. N.

    1981-01-01

    The theory of deconvolution of wide field-of-view (WFOV) radiometer measurements of earth-emitted radiation provides a technique by which the resolution of such measurements can be enhanced to provide radiant exitance at the top of the atmosphere with a finer resolution than the field of view. An analytical solution for the earth-emitted radiant exitance in terms of WFOV radiometer measurements is derived for the nonaxisymmetric (or regional) case, in which the measurements and radiant exitance are considered to be functions of both latitude and longitude. This solution makes it possible to deconvolve a set of WFOV radiometer measurements of earth-emitted radiation and obtain information with a finer resolution than the instantaneous field of view of the instrument. It is shown that there are tradeoffs involved in the selection between WFOV and scanning radiometers.

  9. GPM GROUND VALIDATION CONICAL SCANNING MILLIMETER-WAVE IMAGING RADIOMETER (COSMIR) GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Conical Scanning Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (CoSMIR) dataset for the GPM Cold-season Precipitation Experiment (GCPEx) plays the role as an airborne...

  10. GPM GROUND VALIDATION CONICAL SCANNING MILLIMETER-WAVE IMAGING RADIOMETER (COSMIR) MC3E V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Conical Scanning Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (CoSMIR) dataset for the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) plays the role as an...

  11. GPM GROUND VALIDATION CONICAL SCANNING MILLIMETER-WAVE IMAGING RADIOMETER (COSMIR) IPHEx V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Conical Scanning Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (CoSMIR) IPHEx dataset includes data gathered during the Integrated Precipitation and...

  12. GPM GROUND VALIDATION ADVANCED MICROWAVE PRECIPITATION RADIOMETER (AMPR) IPHEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) IPHEx dataset was acquired by the AMPR instrument during the IPHEx field campaign in...

  13. GPM GROUND VALIDATION ADVANCED MICROWAVE PRECIPITATION RADIOMETER (AMPR) IPHEX V2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) IPHEx dataset was acquired by the AMPR instrument during the IPHEx field campaign in...

  14. AVHRR Orbital Segment = NOAA's Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Files: 1992 - 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data set is comprised of data collected by the AVHRR sensor and held in the archives of the USGS Earth Resources...

  15. Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) Monthly Mean Integrated Water Vapor (IWV) By Prabhakara

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SMMR_IWV_PRABHAKARA data are Special Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) Monthly Mean Integrated Water Vapor (IWV) data by Prabhakara.The Scanning Multichannel...

  16. Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) Monthly Mean Atmospheric Liquid Water (ALW) By Prabhakara

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SMMR_ALW_PRABHAKARA data are Special Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) Monthly Mean Atmospheric Liquid Water (ALW) data by Prabhakara.The Prabhakara Scanning...

  17. SMAP L2 Radiometer Half-Orbit 36 km EASE-Grid Soil Moisture V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Passive soil moisture estimates onto a 36-km global Earth-fixed grid, based on radiometer measurements acquired when the SMAP spacecraft is travelling from North to...

  18. Nimbus-2 Level 2 Medium Resolution Infrared Radiometer (MRIR) V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nimbus II Medium Resolution Infrared Radiometer (MRIR) was designed to measure electromagnetic radiation emitted and reflected from the earth and its atmosphere...

  19. AVHRR Composites = Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer U.S. Alaska: 1989 - Present

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) Composites are produced from multiple Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) daily observations that have...

  20. NPP Visible Infrared Imager-Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Quasi-Analytical Algorithm (GSM) Global Mapped Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Visible and Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is a multi-disciplinary instrument that is being flown on the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) series of...

  1. NPP Visible Infrared Imager-Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Quasi-Analytical Algorithm (GSM) Global Binned Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Visible and Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is a multi-disciplinary instrument that is being flown on the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) series of...

  2. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Cloud Mask Environmental Data Record (EDR) from NDE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains a high quality Environmental Data Record (EDR) of cloud masks from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument onboard...

  3. Realization of photometric base unit of candela traceable to cryogenic radiometer at UME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samedov, F.; Bazkır, Ö.

    2005-06-01

    At National Metrology Institute of Turkey (UME, Ulusal Metroloji Enstitüsü), luminous intensity unit of candela was realized using detector-based approach and photometric scale was re-established depending on this new realization. Candela was measured on photometric bench using interferometric distance measurement system and filter-radiometer traceable to UME primary level electrical-substitution cryogenic radiometer. Thermally stabilized filter radiometer, which has been designed for spectral irradiance measurements, is consists of trap detector, filter housing and precision aperture. Different measurement techniques were used to fully characterize each parameter of filter-radiometer; like effective aperture area, spectral transmittance of V(λ) filter and responsivity of trap detector.

  4. Optimizing Performance of a Microwave Salinity Mapper: STARRS L-Band Radiometer Enhancements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burrage, Derek M; Wesson, Joel C; Goodberlet, Mark A; Miller, Jerry L

    2007-01-01

    Airborne microwave radiometers for salinity remote sensing have advanced to a point where operational surveys can be conducted over the inner continental shelf to observe the evolution of freshwater...

  5. NPP Visible Infrared Imager-Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Remote-Sensing Reflectance (RRS) Global Mapped Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Visible and Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is a multi-disciplinary instrument that is being flown on the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) series of...

  6. Intersatellite Calibration of Polar-orbiting Radiometers using the SNO/SCO Method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cao, Changyong; Weng, Fuzhong; Goldberg, Mitch; Wu, Xiangqian; Xu, Hui; Ciren, Pubu

    2005-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for intercalibrating the polar-orbiting radiometers on different satellites to achieve the consistency and traceability required for long-term climate studies with the 25...

  7. Compact Front-end Prototype for Next Generation RFI-rejecting Polarimetric L-band Radiometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Brian Sveistrup; Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl; Skou, Niels

    2009-01-01

    Realizing the need for lower noise figure and smaller physical size in todays higly sensitive radiometers, this paper presents a new compact analog front-end (AFE) for use with the existing L-band (1400-1427 MHz) radiometer designed and operated by the Technical University of Denmark. Using...... subharmonic sampling to sample directly at the RF-frequency, this radiometer obtains a fully polarimetric response and enables detection and removal of radio frequency interference (RFI). A more compact AFE will enable various desired features, as for example the ability to use the front-end with antenna...... arrays needing one receiver per antenna (Synthetic Aperture Radiometer, SARad), reduced weight for airborne missions and an easy temperature stabilization, i.e. improved instrument stability. The new front-end possesses an improved system noise temperature of only 76 K (roughly 40 K improvement) measured...

  8. Analysis of Radiometer Data from the Volga SA-2 Static Firing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Emery, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    ...) Test Area 5 on September 15, 1999. Signatures were measured using a non-imaging radiometer and a suite of imaging instruments ranging from the ultraviolet through long wave infrared, as well as laser backscatter and transmission measurements...

  9. A multipoint correction method for environmental temperature changes in airborne double-antenna microwave radiometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian; Zhao, Kai; Jiang, Tao

    2014-04-29

    This manuscript describes a new type Ka-band airborne double-antenna microwave radiometer (ADAMR) designed for detecting atmospheric supercooled water content (SCWC). The source of the measurement error is investigated by analyzing the model of the system gain factor and the principle of the auto-gain compensative technique utilized in the radiometer. Then, a multipoint temperature correction method based on the two-point calibration method for this radiometer is proposed. The multipoint temperature correction method can eliminate the effect of changes in environmental temperature by establishing the relationship between the measurement error and the physical temperatures of the temperature-sensitive units. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of the correction method, the long-term outdoor temperature experiment is carried out. The multipoint temperature correction equations are obtained by using the least square regression method. The comparison results show that the measuring accuracy of the radiometer can be increased more effectively by using the multipoint temperature correction method.

  10. Experimental and Computational Study of Area and Perimeter Contributions to Radiometer Forces (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Selden, N. P; Muntz, E. P; Gimelshein, S. F; Alexeenko, A; Ketsdever, A. D

    2008-01-01

    .... Gas pressure was varied from .006 to 6 Pa, which was a broad enough range to observe the characteristic peak force production of a radiometer in the transition regime, where the peak occurs at Kn approximately 0.1...

  11. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Aerosol Detection Environmental Data Record (EDR) from NDE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a high quality operational Environmental Data Record (EDR) of suspended matter from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS)...

  12. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Snow Cover Environmental Data Record (EDR) from NDE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a high quality operational Environmental Data Record (EDR) of snow cover from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument...

  13. An optical scanning subsystem for a UAS-enabled hyperspectral radiometer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A hyperspectral visible radiometer instrument system has been developed for use on UAS platforms.  It has been successfully flown on three previous UAS field...

  14. NPP Visible Infrared Imager-Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Chlorophyll (CHL) Global Mapped Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Visible and Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is a multi-disciplinary instrument that is being flown on the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) series of...

  15. CAMEX-4 CONICALLY-SCANNING TWO-LOOK AIRBORNE RADIOMETER (C-STAR) V1a

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Conically-Scanning Two-look Airborne Radiometer (C-STAR) was deployed during the Fourth Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-4). C-STAR data were collected...

  16. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Smoothed Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from NDE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Smoothed Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from NDE is a weekly product derived from the VIIRS...

  17. GPM Ground Validation Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) OLYMPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) OLYMPEX dataset was collected by the AMPR instrument flown on the high altitude ER-2...

  18. GPM Ground Validation Conical Scanning Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (CoSMIR) OLYMPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Conical Scanning Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (CoSMIR) OLYMPEX dataset consists of brightness temperatures from 9 channels as...

  19. Evaluating Solar Resource Data Obtained from Multiple Radiometers Deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Andreas, A.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.

    2014-09-01

    Solar radiation resource measurements from radiometers are used to predict and evaluate the performance of photovoltaic and concentrating solar power systems, validate satellite-based models for estimating solar resources, and advance research in solar forecasting and climate change. This study analyzes the performance of various commercially available radiometers used for measuring global horizontal irradiances (GHI) and direct normal irradiances (DNI). These include pyranometers, pyrheliometers, rotating shadowband irradiometers, and a pyranometer with a shading ring deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL). The radiometers in this study were deployed for one year (from April 1, 2011, through March 31, 2012) and compared to measurements from radiometers with the lowest values of estimated measurement uncertainties for producing reference GHI and DNI.

  20. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Sensor Data Record (SDR) from IDPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sensor Data Records (SDRs), or Level 1b data, from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) are the calibrated and geolocated radiance and reflectance...

  1. The TSI Radiometer Facility: absolute calibrations for total solar irradiance instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Greg; Heuerman, Karl; Harber, Dave; Drake, Ginger

    2007-09-01

    The total solar irradiance (TSI) climate data record includes overlapping measurements from 10 spaceborne radiometers. The continuity of this climate data record is essential for detecting potential long-term solar fluctuations, as offsets between different instruments generally exceed the stated instrument uncertainties. The risk of loss of continuity in this nearly 30-year record drives the need for future instruments with solar power levels to these needed accuracy levels. The new TSI Radiometer Facility (TRF) is intended to provide such calibrations. Based on a cryogenic radiometer with a uniform input light source of solar irradiance power levels, the TRF allows direct comparisons between a TSI instrument and a reference cryogenic radiometer viewing the same light beam in a common vacuum system. We describe here the details of this facility designed to achieve 0.01% absolute accuracy.

  2. Shortwave Radiometer Calibration Methods Comparison and Resulting Solar Irradiance Measurement Differences: A User Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habte, Aron; Sengupta, Manajit; Andreas, Afshin; Reda, Ibrahim; Robinson, Justin

    2016-11-21

    Banks financing solar energy projects require assurance that these systems will produce the energy predicted. Furthermore, utility planners and grid system operators need to understand the impact of the variable solar resource on solar energy conversion system performance. Accurate solar radiation data sets reduce the expense associated with mitigating performance risk and assist in understanding the impacts of solar resource variability. The accuracy of solar radiation measured by radiometers depends on the instrument performance specification, installation method, calibration procedure, measurement conditions, maintenance practices, location, and environmental conditions. This study addresses the effect of different calibration methods provided by radiometric calibration service providers, such as NREL and manufacturers of radiometers, on the resulting calibration responsivity. Some of these radiometers are calibrated indoors and some outdoors. To establish or understand the differences in calibration methodology, we processed and analyzed field-measured data from these radiometers. This study investigates calibration responsivities provided by NREL's broadband outdoor radiometer calibration (BORCAL) and a few prominent manufacturers. The BORCAL method provides the outdoor calibration responsivity of pyranometers and pyrheliometers at 45 degree solar zenith angle, and as a function of solar zenith angle determined by clear-sky comparisons with reference irradiance. The BORCAL method also employs a thermal offset correction to the calibration responsivity of single-black thermopile detectors used in pyranometers. Indoor calibrations of radiometers by their manufacturers are performed using a stable artificial light source in a side-by-side comparison between the test radiometer under calibration and a reference radiometer of the same type. In both methods, the reference radiometer calibrations are traceable to the World Radiometric Reference (WRR). These

  3. Development of a Miniature L-band Radiometer for Education Outreach in Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Lyon B.

    2004-01-01

    Work performed under this grant developed a 1.4-Mhz radiometer for use in soil moisture remote sensing from space. The resulting instrument was integrated onto HuskySat. HuskySat is a 30-kg nanosatellite built under sponsorship from the Air Force Research Laboratory and NASA. This report consists of the interface document for the radiometer (the Science Payload of HuskySat) as detailed in the vehicle design report.

  4. SMOS calibration and validation activities with airborne interferometric radiometer HUT-2D during spring 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kainulainen, J.; Rautiainen, K.; Sievinen, P.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present calibration and validation activities of European Space Agency’s SMOS mission, which utilize airborne interferomentric L-band radiometer system HUT-2D of the Aalto University. During spring 2010 the instrument was used to measure three SMOS validation target areas, one...... in Denmark and two in Germany. We present these areas shortly, and describe the airborne activities. We show some exemplary measurements of the radiometer system and demonstrate the studies using the data....

  5. Results from the 4th WMO Filter Radiometer Comparison for aerosol optical depth measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Kazadzis, Stelios; Kouremeti, Natalia; Diémoz, Henri; Gröbner, Julian; Forgan, Bruce W.; Campanelli, Monica; Estellés, Victor; Lantz, Kathleen; Michalsky, Joseph; Carlund, Thomas; Cuevas, Emilio; Toledano, Carlos; Becker, Ralf; Nyeki, Stephan; Kosmopoulos, Panagiotis G.

    2017-01-01

    This study presents the results of the 4th Filter Radiometer Comparison that was held in Davos, Switzerland, between September 28 and October 16, 2015. Thirty filter radiometers and spectroradiometers from 12 countries participated including reference instruments from global aerosol networks. The absolute differences of all instruments compared to the reference have been based on the WMO criterion defined as 95 % of the measured data has to be within 0.005 ± 0.001/...

  6. The tenth anniversary of the Björn Ekwall memorial foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walum, Eric; Tähti, Hanna; Kolman, Ada

    2011-09-01

    The Björn Ekwall Memorial Foundation (BEMF) was initiated by the Scandinavian Society for Cell Toxicology in 2001, to honour the memory of Dr Björn Ekwall (1940-2000) and to establish a prize, the Björn Ekwall Memorial Award. The prize is awarded to scientists who have significantly contributed to the field of cell toxicology, and whose work is contributing toward the replacement of animal experiments by alternative toxicity tests. Over the past 10 years, the Björn Ekwall Memorial Award has been presented annually. Björn Ekwall, an outstanding Swedish cell toxicologist, was one of the pioneers in the development and application of alternative methods to animal tests in toxicology. All his scientific work was devoted to in vitro toxicology, and in particular, to the use of cultured human cells for the screening of toxic chemicals. In the middle of the 1980s, he initiated the international Multicentre Evaluation of In Vitro Cytotoxicity (MEIC) project, to evaluate the usefulness of in vitro tests for the estimation of human acute systemic toxicity. To prove his "basal cytotoxicity concept", he established the MEMO database, in which data on the acutely toxic human blood concentrations of drugs and chemicals were collated from the literature and from clinical studies. He also initiated another project, Evaluation-Guided Development of In Vitro Toxicity and Toxicokinetic Tests (EDIT). The ideas from the EDIT project, together with those from the MEIC project, became the basis for today's international EU projects, e.g. ACuteTox, Sens-it-iv and ReProTect. In this article, 10 years after the start of the BEMF, the scientific achievements of each of the award winners in the field of in vitro toxicology are presented, together with a brief synopsis of their careers. 2011 FRAME.

  7. A concept for global crop forecasting. [using microwave radiometer satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelace, U. M.; Wright, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    The mission, instrumentation, and design concepts for microwave radiometer satellites for continuous crop condition forecasting and monitoring on a global basis are described. Soil moisture affects both crop growth and the dielectric properties of the soil, and can be quantified by analysis of reflected radiance passively received by orbiting spacecraft. A dedicated satellite reading a swath 200 km across, with 1 km and 1 K temperature resolution, could track the time-varying changes of solid moisture, sea ice, and water surface temperature. Launched by the Shuttle into an interim orbit, a boost would place the satellite in a 400 or 700 km orbit. Resolution requirements indicate a 45-725 m diam antenna, with 70 dB gain, operating at frequencies of 1.08, 2.03, and 4.95 GHz to ensure atmospheric transparency. Alternative structural concepts include either double-layer tetrahedral or single-layer geodesic trusses as the basic structural members. An analysis of the electrostatic positioning of the parabolic antenna membrane is outlined.

  8. Time series inversion of spectra from ground-based radiometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Christensen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Retrieving time series of atmospheric constituents from ground-based spectrometers often requires different temporal averaging depending on the altitude region in focus. This can lead to several datasets existing for one instrument, which complicates validation and comparisons between instruments. This paper puts forth a possible solution by incorporating the temporal domain into the maximum a posteriori (MAP retrieval algorithm. The state vector is increased to include measurements spanning a time period, and the temporal correlations between the true atmospheric states are explicitly specified in the a priori uncertainty matrix. This allows the MAP method to effectively select the best temporal smoothing for each altitude, removing the need for several datasets to cover different altitudes. The method is compared to traditional averaging of spectra using a simulated retrieval of water vapour in the mesosphere. The simulations show that the method offers a significant advantage compared to the traditional method, extending the sensitivity an additional 10 km upwards without reducing the temporal resolution at lower altitudes. The method is also tested on the Onsala Space Observatory (OSO water vapour microwave radiometer confirming the advantages found in the simulation. Additionally, it is shown how the method can interpolate data in time and provide diagnostic values to evaluate the interpolated data.

  9. Regolith Formation Rates and Evolution from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayne, P. O.; Ghent, R. R.; Bandfield, J. L.; Vasavada, A. R.; Williams, J. P.; Siegler, M. A.; Lucey, P. G.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Elder, C. M.; Paige, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Fragmentation and overturn of lunar surface materials produces a layer of regolith, which increases in thickness through time. Experiments on the lunar surface during the Apollo era, combined with remote sensing, found that the upper 10's of cm of regolith exhibit a rapid increase in density and thermal conductivity with depth. This is interpreted to be the signature of impact gardening, which operates most rapidly in the uppermost layers. Gravity data from the GRAIL mission showed that impacts have also extensively fractured the deeper crust. The breakdown and mixing of crustal materials is therefore a central process to lunar evolution and must be understood in order to interpret compositional information from remote sensing and sample analysis. Recently, thermal infrared data from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Diviner radiometer were used to provide the first remote observational constraints on the rate of ejecta breakdown around craters geologic units. We will also discuss several anomalous features that merit further investigation. Reference: Ghent, R. R., Hayne, P. O., Bandfield, J. L., Campbell, B. A., Allen, C. C., Carter, L. M., & Paige, D. A. (2014). Constraints on the recent rate of lunar ejecta breakdown and implications for crater ages. Geology, 42(12), 1059-1062.

  10. Jupiter's global ammonia distribution inferred from Juno Microwave Radiometer Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Ingersoll, Andrew; Ewald, Shawn; Oyafuso, Fabiano; Janssen, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The Juno microwave radiometer (Juno/MWR) has made several observations of Jupiter's atmosphere by measuring the thermal emission from pressure levels down to a few hundred bars. The main objective of Juno/MWR is to determine Jupiter's deep water abundance because water is the key to understand Jovian meteorology that we observe at the cloud level, and because the deep water abundance hints at a giant planet's volatile and heavy element history. Since ammonia is the major opacity source in the Juno/MWR channels, it is especially important to figure out the ammonia distribution before we can conclude anything on the water abundance. At this stage of our analysis, we have inverted a global map (vertical and latitudinal) of ammonia distribution from the observed brightness temperatures at six wavelengths using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique. This method fully calibrates error and explores a wide range of the parameter space to avoid falling into a local minimum. The robustness of the retrieval is explained by matching the features in the ammonia distribution with the features in the microwave spectra. We will also announce the initial result of the retrieval of water abundance using the same technique.

  11. Polarimetric characteristics of a class of hyperspectral radiometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talone, Marco; Zibordi, Giuseppe

    2016-12-10

    The polarimetric characteristics of a class of hyperspectral radiometers commonly applied for above-water radiometry have been investigated by analyzing a sample of sensors. Results indicate polarization sensitivity increasing with wavelength and exhibiting values varying from sensor to sensor. In the case of radiance sensors, the maximum differences increase from approximately 0.4% at 400 nm to 1.3% at 750 nm. In the case of irradiance sensors, due to depolarizing effects of the diffusing collector, the maximum differences between horizontal and vertical polarization sensitivities vary from approximately 0.3% at 400 nm to 0.6% at 750 nm. Application of the previous results to above-water radiometry measurements performed in sediment dominated waters indicates that neglecting polarization effects may lead to uncertainties not exceeding a few tenths of a percent in remote sensing reflectance RRS determined in the 400-570 nm spectral interval. Conversely, uncertainties spectrally increase toward the near infrared, reaching several percent at 750 nm in the case of oligotrophic waters.

  12. [Radiometers performance attenuation and data correction in long-term observation of total radiation and photosynthetically active radiation in typical forest ecosystems in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhi-Lin; Sun, Xiao-Min; Yu, Gui-Rui; Wen, Xue-Fa; Zhang, Yi-Ping; Han, Shi-Jie; Yan, Jun-Hua; Wang, Hui-Min

    2011-11-01

    Based on the total radiation and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) observations with net radiometer (CNR1) and quantum sensor (Li-190SB) in 4 ChinaFLUX forest sites (Changbaishan, Qianyanzhou, Dinghushan, and Xishuangbanna) in 2003-2008, this paper analyzed the uncertainties and the radiometers performance changes in long-term and continuous field observation. The results showed that the 98% accuracy of the total radiation measured with CNR1 (Q(cNR1)) could satisfy the technical criterion for the sites except Xishuangbanna where the Q(CNR1) was averagely about 7% lower than Q(CM11), the radiation measured with high accuracy pyranometer CM11. For most sites, though the temperature had definite effects on the performance of CNR1, the effects were still within the allowable range of the accuracy of the instrument. Besides temperature, the seasonal fog often occurred in tropical rain forests in Xishuangbanna also had effects on the performance of CNR1. Based on the long-term variations of PAR, especially its ratio to total radiation in the 4 sites, it was found that quantum sensor (Li-190SB) had obvious performance attenuation, with the mean annual attenuation rate being about 4%. To correct the observation error caused by Li-190SB, an attempt was made to give a post-correction of the PAR observations, which could basically eliminate the quantum sensor's performance attenuation due to long-term field measurement.

  13. (222)Rn activity in groundwater of the St. Lawrence Lowlands, Quebec, eastern Canada: relation with local geology and health hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinti, Daniele L; Retailleau, Sophie; Barnetche, Diogo; Moreira, Floriane; Moritz, Anja M; Larocque, Marie; Gélinas, Yves; Lefebvre, René; Hélie, Jean-François; Valadez, Arisai

    2014-10-01

    One hundred ninety-eight groundwater wells were sampled to measure the (222)Rn activity in the region between Montreal and Quebec City, eastern Canada. The aim of this study was to relate the spatial distribution of (222)Rn activity to the geology and the hydrogeology of the study area and to estimate the potential health risks associated with (222)Rn in the most populated area of the Province of Quebec. Most of the groundwater samples show low (222)Rn activities with a median value of 8.6 Bq/L. Ninety percent of samples show (222)Rn activity lower than 100 Bq/L, the exposure limit in groundwater recommended by the World Health Organization. A few higher (222)Rn activities (up to 310 Bq/L) have been measured in wells from the Appalachian Mountains and from the magmatic intrusion of Mont-Saint-Hilaire, known for its high level of indoor radon. The spatial distribution of (222)Rn activity seems to be related mainly to lithology differences between U-richer metasediments of the Appalachian Mountains and magmatic intrusions and the carbonaceous silty shales of the St. Lawrence Platform. Radon is slightly enriched in sodium-chlorine waters that evolved at contact with clay-rich formations. (226)Ra, the parent element of (222)Rn could be easily adsorbed on clays, creating a favorable environment for the production and release of (222)Rn into groundwater. The contribution of groundwater radon to indoor radon or by ingestion is minimal except for specific areas near Mont-Saint-Hilaire or in the Appalachian Mountains where this contribution could reach 45% of the total radioactive annual dose. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. TimeNET Optimization Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Bodenstein

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a novel tool for simulation-based optimization and design-space exploration of Stochastic Colored Petri nets (SCPN is introduced. The working title of this tool is TimeNET Optimization Environment (TOE. Targeted users of this tool are people modeling complex systems with SCPNs in TimeNET who want to find parameter sets that are optimal for a certain performance measure (fitness function. It allows users to create and simulate sets of SCPNs and to run different optimization algorithms based on parameter variation. The development of this tool was motivated by the need to automate and speed up tests of heuristic optimization algorithms to be applied for SCPN optimization. A result caching mechanism is used to avoid recalculations.

  15. RulNet: A Web-Oriented Platform for Regulatory Network Inference, Application to Wheat -Omics Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Jonathan; Martre, Pierre; Gouriou, Benjamin; Ravel, Catherine; Dai, Zhanwu; Petit, Jean-Marc; Pailloux, Marie

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing amount of -omics data available, a particular effort has to be made to provide suitable analysis tools. A major challenge is that of unraveling the molecular regulatory networks from massive and heterogeneous datasets. Here we describe RulNet, a web-oriented platform dedicated to the inference and analysis of regulatory networks from qualitative and quantitative -omics data by means of rule discovery. Queries for rule discovery can be written in an extended form of the RQL query language, which has a syntax similar to SQL. RulNet also offers users interactive features that progressively adjust and refine the inferred networks. In this paper, we present a functional characterization of RulNet and compare inferred networks with correlation-based approaches. The performance of RulNet has been evaluated using the three benchmark datasets used for the transcriptional network inference challenge DREAM5. Overall, RulNet performed as well as the best methods that participated in this challenge and it was shown to behave more consistently when compared across the three datasets. Finally, we assessed the suitability of RulNet to analyze experimental -omics data and to infer regulatory networks involved in the response to nitrogen and sulfur supply in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grains. The results highlight putative actors governing the response to nitrogen and sulfur supply in wheat grains. We evaluate the main characteristics and features of RulNet as an all-in-one solution for RN inference, visualization and editing. Using simple yet powerful RulNet queries allowed RNs involved in the adaptation of wheat grain to N and S supply to be discovered. We demonstrate the effectiveness and suitability of RulNet as a platform for the analysis of RNs involving different types of -omics data. The results are promising since they are consistent with what was previously established by the scientific community.

  16. Obituary: Jörn Rossa (1969-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veras, Dimitri

    2009-12-01

    rn Rossa (often spelled Joern Rossa) passed away on September 19, 2009 at the young age of 40 in Mainz, Germany from a virulent fast-acting blood cancer. He was born in that same city on March 17, 1969 to Alfred and Gudrun Rossa, who survive their only child. Joern had a deep, lifelong love of astronomy, as evidenced by the handwritten letters he wrote in his youth to prominent astronomers and astronauts for their perspectives, signatures and reprints, the popular astronomy magazines which he collected for decades, the decision to abandon a career as a locomotive driver and relearn the math and physics required to pursue his passion, the many papers he published himself, and the numerous space shuttle launches he made a point to personally attend at Kennedy Space Center. Since High School, Joern carried out observations using his own telescope, traveled with friends to remote locations to practice "serious" astrophotography, and lectured at a local amateur club. After attaining his undergraduate degree at the University of Heidelberg (Germany) in 1996, Joern continued his education at the Ruhr-University Bochum in Germany, where he worked under the guidance of Ralf-Juergen Dettmar. He received his Ph.D. degree in 2001 with a thesis focusing on extraplanar diffuse ionized gas and dust in the halos of edge-on spiral galaxies. He performed the largest-to-this-day ground-based H-alpha survey of a large number of galaxies, quantified their extraplanar ISM, and correlated its properties with the starburst activity in the galaxy disk. After his graduation, Joern stayed in Bochum for another year as a Postdoctoral Associate. During this time he expanded his interests in the same general subject area through the use of X-ray (XMM, Chandra) and radio observations. His interest in the ISM of nearby galaxies continued through his subsequent postdoctoral career. He analyzed high-spatial resolution Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFPC2 H-alpha data of the edge-on non

  17. Implementing NetScaler VPX

    CERN Document Server

    Sandbu, Marius

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow guide with detailed step-by step-instructions on how to implement the different key components in NetScaler, with real-world examples and sample scenarios.If you are a Citrix or network administrator who needs to implement NetScaler in your virtual environment to gain an insight on its functionality, this book is ideal for you. A basic understanding of networking and familiarity with some of the different Citrix products such as XenApp or XenDesktop is a prerequisite.

  18. Net4Care PHMR Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the SimpleClinicalDocument......The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the Simple...

  19. Pro DLR in NET 4

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Chaur

    2011-01-01

    Microsoft's Dynamic Language Runtime (DLR) is a platform for running dynamic languages such as Ruby and Python on an equal footing with compiled languages such as C#. Furthermore, the runtime is the foundation for many useful software design and architecture techniques you can apply as you develop your .NET applications. Pro DLR in .NET 4 introduces you to the DLR, showing how you can use it to write software that combines dynamic and static languages, letting you choose the right tool for the job. You will learn the core DLR components such as LINQ expressions, call sites, binders, and dynami

  20. Hierarchies in Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Peter; Jensen, Kurt; Shapiro, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    The paper shows how to extend Coloured Petri Nets with a hierarchy concept. The paper proposes five different hierarchy constructs, which allow the analyst to structure large CP-nets as a set of interrelated subnets (called pages). The paper discusses the properties of the proposed hierarchy...... constructs, and it illustrates them by means of two examples. The hierarchy constructs can be used for theoretical considerations, but their main use is to describe and analyse large real-world systems. All of the hierarchy constructs are supported by the editing and analysis facilities in the CPN Palette...

  1. On the sup 2 sup 2 sup 1 Rn -> sup 2 sup 2 sup 1 Fr decay scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Gromov, K Y; Fominykh, V I; Kudrya, S A; Norseev, Y V; Samatov, Z K; Sergienko, V A

    2002-01-01

    The results of investigating the sup 2 sup 2 sup 1 Rn beta sup - - decay and the sup 2 sup 2 sup 5 Ac alpha-decay are compared. It is shown that sup 2 sup 2 sup 1 Fr levels at 145.9 and 393.2 keV are excited at the sup 2 sup 2 sup 1 Rn decay. Intensities and reduced probabilities of the beta sup - - decay to the sup 2 sup 2 sup 1 Fr levels are determined. A conclusion is drawn that the parity of the sup 2 sup 2 sup 1 Rn ground state is positive

  2. Effect of emitted wavelength and light guide type on irradiance discrepancies in hand-held dental curing radiometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameyama, Atsushi; Haruyama, Akiko; Asami, Masako; Takahashi, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine any discrepancies in the outputs of five commercial dental radiometers and also to evaluate the accuracy of these devices using a laboratory-grade spectroradiometer. The power densities of 12 different curing light sources were repeatedly measured for a total of five times using each radiometer in a random order. The emission spectra of all of the curing light sources were also measured using the spectroradiometer, and the integral value of each spectrum was calculated to determine the genuine power densities, which were then compared to the displayed power densities measured by the dental radiometers. The displayed values of power density were various and were dependent on the brand of radiometer, and this may be because each radiometer has a different wavelength sensitivity. These results cast doubt upon the accuracy of commercially available dental radiometers.

  3. LYRA, a solar UV radiometer on Proba2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochedez, J.-F.; Schmutz, W.; Stockman, Y.; Schühle, U.; Benmoussa, A.; Koller, S.; Haenen, K.; Berghmans, D.; Defise, J.-M.; Halain, J.-P.; Theissen, A.; Delouille, V.; Slemzin, V.; Gillotay, D.; Fussen, D.; Dominique, M.; Vanhellemont, F.; McMullin, D.; Kretzschmar, M.; Mitrofanov, A.; Nicula, B.; Wauters, L.; Roth, H.; Rozanov, E.; Rüedi, I.; Wehrli, C.; Soltani, A.; Amano, H.; van der Linden, R.; Zhukov, A.; Clette, F.; Koizumi, S.; Mortet, V.; Remes, Z.; Petersen, R.; Nesládek, M.; D'Olieslaeger, M.; Roggen, J.; Rochus, P.

    LYRA is the solar UV radiometer that will embark in 2006 onboard Proba2, a technologically oriented ESA micro-mission. LYRA is designed and manufactured by a Belgian Swiss German consortium (ROB, PMOD/WRC, IMOMEC, CSL, MPS and BISA) with additional international collaborations. It will monitor the solar irradiance in four UV passbands. They have been chosen for their relevance to Solar Physics, Aeronomy and Space Weather: (1) the 115 125 nm Lyman-α channel, (2) the 200 220 nm Herzberg continuum range, (3) the Aluminium filter channel (17 70 nm) including He II at 30.4 nm and (4) the Zirconium filter channel (1 20 nm). The radiometric calibration will be traceable to synchrotron source standards (PTB and NIST). The stability will be monitored by onboard calibration sources (LEDs), which allow to distinguish between potential degradations of the detectors and filters. Additionally, a redundancy strategy maximizes the accuracy and the stability of the measurements. LYRA will benefit from wide bandgap detectors based on diamond: it will be the first space assessment of a pioneering UV detectors program. Diamond sensors make the instruments radiation-hard and solar-blind: their high bandgap energy makes them insensitive to visible light and, therefore, make dispensable visible light blocking filters, which seriously attenuate the desired ultraviolet signal. Their elimination augments the effective area and hence the signal-to-noise, therefore increasing the precision and the cadence. The SWAP EUV imaging telescope will operate next to LYRA on Proba2. Together, they will establish a high performance solar monitor for operational space weather nowcasting and research. LYRA demonstrates technologies important for future missions such as the ESA Solar Orbiter.

  4. D.NET case study

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    lremy

    developing products, marketing tools and building capacity of the grass root telecentre workers. D.Net recognized that it had several ideas worth developing into small interventions that would make big differences, but resource constraints were a barrier for scaling-up these initiatives. More demands, limited resources.

  5. Surgery for GEP-NETs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, Ulrich; Hansen, Carsten Palnæs

    2012-01-01

    Surgery is the only treatment that may cure the patient with gastroentero-pancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumours (NET) and neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC) and should always be considered as first line treatment if R0/R1 resection can be achieved. The surgical and interventional procedures for GEP...

  6. Net Neutrality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.

    2014-01-01

    The Netherlands is among the first countries that have put specific net neutrality standards in place. The decision to implement specific regulation was influenced by at least three factors. The first was the prevailing social and academic debate, partly due to developments in the United States. The

  7. Complexity Metrics for Workflow Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; van der Aalst, Wil M.P.

    2009-01-01

    Process modeling languages such as EPCs, BPMN, flow charts, UML activity diagrams, Petri nets, etc.\\ are used to model business processes and to configure process-aware information systems. It is known that users have problems understanding these diagrams. In fact, even process engineers and system...

  8. Evaluation of Radiometers in Full-Time Use at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Solar Radiation Research Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, S. M.; Myers, D. R.

    2008-12-01

    This report describes the evaluation of the relative performance of the complement of solar radiometers deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL).

  9. Calibration factor determination for solid nuclear track detectors CR-39 type exposed to Rn-222; Determinacao do fator de calibracao para detectores solidos de tracos nucleares tipo CR-39 expostos a Rn-222

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazula, Camila Dias; Campos, Marcia Pires de; Mazzilli, Barbara Paci, E-mail: cdcazula@ipen.br, E-mail: mpcampos@ipen.br, E-mail: mazzilli@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    In the detection method with solid nuclear track detector, when a heavy particle rests on the detector surface, causes a breakdown in their molecular structure forming a trace. One of the typical applications of these detectors is the measurement of the concentration of Rn -222 in air, a noble radioactive gas, part of the U-238 series, emitting alpha particles and important in epidemiological studies to protect individuals from natural radiation. To determine the concentration of Rn -222 in the air in a room is necessary to know the density of lines (traces / cm{sup 2}) on the detector surface, the exposure time and the calibration factor. The determination of the calibration factor for CR-39 detectors was taken from the exposure of these to a known concentration of Rn-222. Therefore, the detectors were placed inside a cell of Lucas adapted and subsequently exposed to a concentration of Rn-222 15 kBq / m{sup 3}, by means of the apparatus RN-150 Pylon Electronics Incorporation, which has a source of Ra-226 and releases known concentrations of Rn-222. Six calibration factor determinations were performed, the average value obtained was 0.0534 ±0.0021 (traces / cm{sup 2} per Bq / m{sup 3} day). The results are consistent with literature values for the same type of detector and showed good reproducibility.

  10. A new system for the 222Rn and 226Ra assay of water and results in the B OREXINO project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simgen, H.; Buck, C.; Heusser, G.; Laubenstein, M.; Rau, W.

    2003-02-01

    We describe a very sensitive system for the 222Rn and 226Ra assay of water that we have constructed within the framework of the B OREXINO solar neutrino experiment. The technique that is applied for 222Rn measurements is based on concentration of radon from water samples followed by gas purification and subsequent alpha counting in low-background miniaturized proportional counters. The same technique is applied to measure the 226Ra concentration by determining the amount of 222Rn in equilibrium with the 226Ra in the water. Sensitivities of ˜1 mBq/m 3 for 226Ra and ˜100 μBq/m 3 for 222Rn have been achieved. We present results of measurements illustrating the performance of the system as well as investigations of samples from the B OREXINO water plant and the shielding water of the Counting Test Facility (CTF, a test facility for the B OREXINO detector).

  11. Myopi, retinale karændringer og choroideatykkelse i relation til fysisk aktivitet hos børn og unge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundberg, Kristian

    Foredrag med præsentation af forskningsprojekt med fokus på foreløbige resultater om prævalensen af myopi blandt danske skolebørn og associationen mellem fysisk aktivitet, myopi og choroidal tykkelse....

  12. The predictive ability of critical thinking, nursing GPA, and SAT scores on first-time NCLEX-RN performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Elizabeth M

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the predictability of several variables in achieving first-time success on the NCLEX-RN. Several researchers have attempted to investigate the differences between students who passed the NCLEX-RN the first time and those who failed. No studies used a large enough failure group to have statistical significance. The three specific variables in this study were nursing GPA, SAT combined math and verbal scores, and critical thinking measured on a standardized assessment examination. An ex post facto study design was used to examine data from the records of associate degree nursing graduates during a three-year period. The most significant predictors of NCLEX-RN success were the students' nursing GPA and the overall standardized assessment examination score. The findings of this study could potentially influence the identification of students at risk for NCLEX-RN failure.

  13. Kort og klart: Vold og seksuelle overgreb mod børn og unge med handicap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, Helle; Jørgensen, Trine

    2017-01-01

    Hvor mange børn og unge med handicap udsættes for vold og seksuelle overgreb? Hvilke forhold i børnenes liv gør dem særligt udsatte for overgreb? Og hvilke dilemmaer og udfordringer oplever de fagfolk, der er tæt på børnene, når det gælder mistanke, opsporing og handling omkring overgreb? Det er...... fokus for dette hæfte. Hæftet bygger på undersøgelsen, "Vold og seksuelle overgreb mod børn og unge med handicap", som SFI har udført for Socialstyrelsen. Formålet med undersøgelsen er at styrke fagfolks viden om området og på den måde skabe det bedst mulige grundlag for at forebygge og opspore overgreb....

  14. Indsatsen over for børn med handicap og træningsbehov

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüst, Miriam; Thorsager, Linda; Bengtsson, Steen

    Formålet med denne rapport er at kortlægge den offentlige trænings- og behandlingsindsats over for børn med handicap i førskolealderen, herunder at undersøge forældrenes tilfredshed med indsatsen. Undersøgelsen bygger på en spørgeskemaundersøgelse foretaget i 2007 blandt forældre, fagpersoner i...... daginstitutioner og kommunale sagsbehandlere til i alt 317 børn med handicap. Børnene er alle født i 2001/2002 og har modtaget eller modtager en offentlig hjælpeindsats i forbindelse med deres handicap. Rapporten inddrager endvidere fokusgruppeinterview fra 2008 med bl.a. pædagoger, terapeuter/behandlere, ledelse...

  15. A pilot study of RN-BSN completion students' preferred instructor online classroom caring behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Judith C

    2014-01-01

    Definitions of caring include the global concept of showing concern and empathy of others. This may be especially true in the online classroom in the absence of face to face interactions. This quantitative study focused on RN-BSN completion students' preferred online instructor caring behaviors. Online RN-BSN students (N = 100) were invited to participate in the study. The research question was: What are historically black colleges universities nursing students' preferred instructor caring behaviors in the online classroom? All of the respondents (N = 48) agreed that an instructor can create a caring online learning environment, while the vast majority agreed that the presence of a caring environment influenced their success in the course. As ranked by the respondents the three most important items in creating a caring online learning environment were instructors': 1) attention to detail in organization and clarity, 2) prompt and detailed feedback to assignments, and 3) prompt response to students' questions.

  16. Coulomb excitation of re-accelerated 208Rn and 206Po beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grahn T.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, B(E2; 2+ → 0+ values have been measured in the 208Rn and 206Po nuclei through Coulomb excitation of re-accelerated radioactive beams in inverse kinematics at CERN-ISOLDE. The resulting B(E2; 2+ → 0+ in 208Rn is ∼ 0.08 e2b2. These nuclei lie in, or at the boundary of the region where seniority scheme should persist. However, contributions from collective excitations may be present when moving away from the N = 126 shell closure. To date, surprisingly little is known of the transition probabilities between the low-spin states in this region.

  17. RN-to-BSN programs in the community college setting: challenges and successes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbo, Gerianne; Fought, Sharon; Holk, Minerva; Mulligan, Anne Marie; Perrone, Cheryl

    2013-02-01

    The complexity of health care and the recommendation of the Institute of Medicine to increase the proportion of nurses with a baccalaureate degree to 80% by 2020 requires educators and other stakeholders to consider a range of structures for providing RN-to-BSN programs. Although relatively few RN-to-BSN programs are offered in a community college setting, the concept is generating interest. This article provides a broad analysis of one region's experience with respect to this trend that is influencing nursing education. Facing significant challenges that are associated with planning and implementing the first bachelor's degree to be offered at a community college in Washington State, faculty from both Olympic College's and University of Washington Tacoma's nursing programs joined in a unique and constructive partnership. The faculty team used plans and successful strategies to overcome potential obstacles. The authors outline recommendations for others considering this approach to BSN education. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. A literature review of mentoring for RN-to-FNP transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poronsky, Cathlin Buckingham

    2012-11-01

    Making the transition from RN to family nurse practitioner (FNP) can be challenging and stressful. The transition may begin during graduate school. As FNP students struggle to balance the multitude of academic, personal, and professional demands, they may also struggle with how to make the transition in role and practice. Nurse faculty may aid FNP students by mentoring them. However, information is limited regarding successful mentoring programs and faculty mentoring of FNP students. A literature review of mentoring was conducted, and findings are presented and discussed in this article, including recommendations for additional research. This information may assist faculty, students, and academic institutions seeking to better facilitate the RN-to-FNP transition during graduate school. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. 222Rn concentrations, natural flow rate and the radiation exposure levels in the Nerja Cave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueñas, C.; Fernández, M. C.; Cañete, S.; Carretero, J.; Liger, E.

    222Rn concentrations in the air in Nerja Cave (Spain) have been measured over 4 yr and at four sampling points. Concentrations average 168 Bq m -3 in the spring-summer when the temperature lapse rate provides a stable cave atmosphere. In the autumn-winter, the radon levels decrease to 48 Bq m -3. 222Rn flux has also been measured for soils in the cave, with an average value of 34 × 10 -3 Bq m -2 s -1. The average natural flow rate in the spring-summer is about 0.70 m 3 s -1 and the autumn-winter is approximately 3.6 m 3 s -1 determined over 1992-1995. The radiation exposure levels for workers and tourists represent only a low percentage of the exposure guides for the general population.

  20. On Riemann sums and maximal functions in \\mathbb R^n

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagulyan, Grigorii A.

    2009-04-01

    We investigate problems on a.e. convergence of Riemann sums \\displaystyle R_nf(x)=\\frac1n\\sum_{k=0}^{n-1}f\\biggl(x+\\frac kn\\biggr), \\qquad x\\in\\mathbb T, with the use of classical maximal functions in \\mathbb R^n. A theorem on the equivalence of Riemann and ordinary maximal functions is proved, which allows us to use techniques and results of the theory of differentiation of integrals in \\mathbb R^n in these problems. Using this method we prove that for a certain sequence \\{n_k\\} the Riemann sums R_{n_k}f(x) converge a.e. to f\\in L^p, p>1. Bibliography: 23 titles.

  1. Overview of Hazard Assessment and Emergency Planning Software of Use to RN First Responders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waller, E; Millage, K; Blakely, W F; Ross, J A; Mercier, J R; Sandgren, D J; Levine, I H; Dickerson, W E; Nemhauser, J B; Nasstrom, J S; Sugiyama, G; Homann, S; Buddemeier, B R; Curling, C A; Disraelly, D S

    2008-08-26

    There are numerous software tools available for field deployment, reach-back, training and planning use in the event of a radiological or nuclear (RN) terrorist event. Specialized software tools used by CBRNe responders can increase information available and the speed and accuracy of the response, thereby ensuring that radiation doses to responders, receivers, and the general public are kept as low as reasonably achievable. Software designed to provide health care providers with assistance in selecting appropriate countermeasures or therapeutic interventions in a timely fashion can improve the potential for positive patient outcome. This paper reviews various software applications of relevance to radiological and nuclear (RN) events that are currently in use by first responders, emergency planners, medical receivers, and criminal investigators.

  2. A 'delayed' counting method to determine indoor Rn-222 levels indirectly

    CERN Document Server

    Iannopollo, V; Trimarchi, M; Tripepi, M G; Vermiglio, G

    2001-01-01

    A new indirect and 'delayed' way is presented to determine indoor concentration of Rn-222 by best-fitting methods. If a rapid knowledge of Rn-222 levels is required and if a detection system is not available in situ, it is possible to obtain concentration of radioactive gas by determining of 'delayed' counts of Po-214. The 'delay' time consists of two or three hours. The method is based on the use of cellulose filters for particulate collection and on the analysis of samples by alpha spectroscopy. It is also possible to obtain concentrations of short-lived radon daughters Po-218, Pb-214, Bi-214, which are very important quantities in a medical framework.

  3. Kan adoption hjælpe de glemte børn?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens

    2008-01-01

    Er adoption bedre end opvækst på en moderne døgninstitution eller hos en plejefamilie? I et velfærdssamfund som det danske med lang tradition for fokus på, hvordan det går de anbragte børn, er dette et centralt spørgsmål.......Er adoption bedre end opvækst på en moderne døgninstitution eller hos en plejefamilie? I et velfærdssamfund som det danske med lang tradition for fokus på, hvordan det går de anbragte børn, er dette et centralt spørgsmål....

  4. Commuting to work: RN travel time to employment in rural and urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Marie-Claire; Corcoran, Sean P; Kovner, Christine; Brewer, Carol

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the variation in average daily travel time to work among registered nurses (RNs) living in urban, suburban, and rural areas. We examine how travel time varies across RN characteristics, job setting, and availability of local employment opportunities. Descriptive statistics and linear regression using a 5% sample from the 2000 Census and a longitudinal survey of newly licensed RNs (NLRN). Travel time for NLRN respondents was estimated using geographic information systems (GIS) software. In the NLRN, rural nurses and those living in small towns had significantly longer average commute times. Young married RNs and RNs with children also tended to have longer commute times, as did RNs employed by hospitals. The findings indicate that travel time to work varies significantly across locale types. Further research is needed to understand whether and to what extent lengthy commute times impact RN workforce needs in rural and urban areas.

  5. ANALOG OF AN INEQUALITY OF BOHR FOR INTEGRALS OF FUNCTIONS FROM L p (Rn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Let p ∈ (2, +∞], n ≥ 1 and ∆ = (∆1, . . . , ∆n, ∆k > 0, 1 ≤ k ≤ n. It is proved that for functions γ(t ∈ L p (R n spectrum of which is separated from each of n the coordinate hyperplanes on the distance not less than ∆k, 1 ≤ k ≤ n respectively, the inequality is valid: ∫ Et γ(τ dτ L∞(Rn ≤ C n (q [∏n k=1 1 ∆ 1/q k ] ∥γ(τ ∥Lp(Rn , where t = (t1, . . . , tn ∈ R n , Et = {τ | τ = (τ1, . . . , τn ∈ R n , τj ∈ [0, tj ], if tj ≥ 0, and τj ∈ [tj , 0], if tj 0, 1 p + 1 q = 1 does not depend on γ(τ and vector ∆.

  6. Caught in the Net: Perineuronal Nets and Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Slaker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to drugs of abuse induces plasticity in the brain and creates persistent drug-related memories. These changes in plasticity and persistent drug memories are believed to produce aberrant motivation and reinforcement contributing to addiction. Most studies have explored the effect drugs of abuse have on pre- and postsynaptic cells and astrocytes; however, more recently, attention has shifted to explore the effect these drugs have on the extracellular matrix (ECM. Within the ECM are unique structures arranged in a net-like manner, surrounding a subset of neurons called perineuronal nets (PNNs. This review focuses on drug-induced changes in PNNs, the molecules that regulate PNNs, and the expression of PNNs within brain circuitry mediating motivation, reward, and reinforcement as it pertains to addiction.

  7. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Army Net Zero Training Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-20

    sensors were strategically placed throughout the installation by magnetically attaching them to water main valve stems. The sensors check sound...Recycle Wrap  Substitutes for Packaging Materials  Re-Use of Textiles and Linens  Setting Printers to Double-Sided Printing Net Zero Waste...can effectively achieve source reduction. Clean and Re-Use Shop Rags - Shop rags represent a large textile waste stream at many installations. As a

  8. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Net Zero Waste Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-20

    Anaerobic Digesters – Although anaerobic digestion is not a new technology and has been used on a large-scale basis in wastewater treatment , the...technology and has been used on a large-scale basis in wastewater treatment , the use of the technology should be demonstrated with other...approaches can be used for cardboard and cellulose -based packaging materials. This approach is in line with the Net Zero Waste hierarchy in terms of

  9. Hvilken evidens er der for behandling af depression hos børn og unge med kognitiv terapi?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Merete Juul; Thomsen, Per Hove

    2007-01-01

    Depression hos børn og unge er relativt hyppigt forekommende og kan have svære konsekvenser. Den specifikke antidepressive behandling kan være psykoterapeutisk eller medikamentel. I artiklen gennemgås på baggrund af systematisk litteratursøgning den videnskabelige evidens for effekten af kognitiv...... adfærdsterapi hos børn og unge med depression....

  10. Når børn lærer at svømme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    DVD'en giver svømmeinstruktøren indblik i og viden om, hvordan børn lærer at svømme. DVD'en indeholder kapitler om Kroppen i vand, Vandbasis, Butterfly, Rygcrawl, Brystsvømning, Crawl, Livredning og Aktivitetsjustering. I hvert kapitel tages der udgangspunkt i begyndersvømmerens typiske bevægelser...

  11. rn med handicap på døgninstitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jydebjerg, Camilla

    Det kan væres svært at være forældre til børn på døgninstitution. Forældrene risikerer at miste retten til hjælpemidler og handicapkompenserende ydelser, fordi deres barn ikke længere bor hjemme. Undersøgelsen samler erfaringer og viden om problemet fra 260 forældre og forstandere og afdelingsled...

  12. Når børn lærer sprog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bleses, Dorthe; Højen, Anders

    Når børn lærer sprog, bryder de verdens måske mest komplicerede kode. De ligger lige så stille i vuggen eller sidder på bagsædet af bilen og lytter opmærksomt til de lyde der dannes når andre mennesker sender en luftstrøm forbi taleorganerne. Blot ved at analysere disse lyde udleder de hele sprog...

  13. Bedre kvalitet i dagtilbud med fokus på udsatte børn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente

    2008-01-01

    En analyse og diskussion af projekter som har fået støtte til at arbejde med udsatte børn i dagtilbud. I analysen trækkes på anden forksning, egne tidligere forskning på området og en række problemfelter og udfordringe4r til det pædagogiske arbejde og miljø trækkes frem og perspektiveres...

  14. Shell model description of low-lying states in Po and Rn isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higashiyama Koji

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear structure of the Po and Rn isotopes is theoretically studied in terms of the spherical shell model with the monopole- and quadrupole-pairing plus quadrupole-quadrupole effective interaction. The experimental energy levels of low-lying states are well reproduced. The shell model results are examined in detail in a pair-truncated shell model. The analysis reveals the alignment of two protons in the 0h9/2 orbital at spin 8.

  15. Drænbehandling af recidiverende otitis media hos børn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lous, Jørgen; Trankjær, Christina Ryborg; Thomsen, Janus Laust

    2010-01-01

    I et nyligt publiceret Cochrane-review om effekten af indsættelse af trommehindedræn hos børn med recidiverende akut otitis media (RAOM) fandt man kun to studier, som opfyldte inklusionskriterierne. De inkluderede studier påviste en absolut risikoreduktion for at få AOM på 0,34 på seks måneder. Ved...

  16. Attitudes of RN-to-BSN students regarding teaching strategies utilized in online courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Cathy; Williams, Deborah

    2014-09-01

    In this descriptive study, researchers examined RN-to-BSN students' attitudes regarding different teaching/learning strategies incorporated in courses offered utilizing the online delivery format. A semantic differential scale was used to measure attitudes regarding the use of wikis, podcasts, video capture, talking PowerPoint, and discussion boards. The results indicated that students had the most favorable attitude toward tegrity lectures as a teaching strategy. This was followed by talking PowerPoint lectures and discussion board.

  17. Podocytes use FcRn to clear IgG from the glomerular basement membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Akilesh, Shreeram; Huber, Tobias B.; Wu, Hui; Wang, Gary; Hartleben, Björn; Kopp, Jeffrey B.; Miner, Jeffrey H.; Roopenian, Derry C.; Unanue, Emil. R.; Shaw, Andrey S.

    2008-01-01

    The glomerular filtration barrier prevents large serum proteins from being lost into the urine. It is not known, however, why the filter does not routinely clog with large proteins that enter the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). Here, we provide evidence that an active transport mechanism exists to remove immunoglobulins that accumulate at the filtration barrier. We found that FcRn, an IgG and albumin transport receptor, is expressed in podocytes and functions to internalize IgG from the G...

  18. A sea ice concentration estimation algorithm utilizing radiometer and SAR data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Karvonen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the possibility of combining the high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR segmentation and ice concentration estimated by radiometer brightness temperatures. Here we present an algorithm for mapping a radiometer-based concentration value for each SAR segment. The concentrations are estimated by a multi-layer perceptron (MLP neural network which has the AMSR-2 (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 polarization ratios and gradient ratios of four radiometer channels as its inputs. The results have been compared numerically to the gridded Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI ice chart concentrations and high-resolution AMSR-2 ASI (ARTIST Sea Ice algorithm concentrations provided by the University of Hamburg and also visually to the AMSR-2 bootstrap algorithm concentrations, which are given in much coarser resolution. The differences when compared to FMI daily ice charts were on average small. When compared to ASI ice concentrations, the differences were a bit larger, but still small on average. According to our comparisons, the largest differences typically occur near the ice edge and sea–land boundary. The main advantage of combining radiometer-based ice concentration estimation and SAR segmentation seems to be a more precise estimation of the boundaries of different ice concentration zones.

  19. RN-to-BSN Students' Quality Improvement Knowledge, Skills, Confidence, and Systems Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Peggy; Dolansky, Mary A; DeBrew, Jacqueline Kayler; Petty, Gayle M

    2017-12-01

    Little evidence demonstrates that RN-to-baccalaureate nursing (BSN) graduates have met The Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Practice-specifically, evidence of the graduates' organizational and systems leadership related to quality care and patient safety. This BSN Essentials reflects the QSEN quality improvement (QI) competency. The purpose of this pilot study was to develop and test an assessment strategy to measure RN-to BSN students' QI competence and their perception of QI knowledge and skills. Students (N = 59) from six RN-to-BSN programs participated in a Qualtrics survey e-mailed during the last semester of their program. The majority of students (60%) reported that they did not experience QI content in their program. Scores on QI knowledge, skills, and systems thinking were low, yet the students self-reported that they were confident in their ability to perform QI. This pilot study provides an assessment strategy to measure students' competence related to QI. Nursing education has an opportunity to integrate and measure QI competence to ensure that nurses have the knowledge and skills to continually improve patient care. [J Nurs Educ. 2017;56(12):737-740.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Efficient Mucosal Delivery of Vaccine Using the FcRn-Mediated IgG Transfer Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lilin; Zeng, Rongyu; Bai, Yu; Roopenian, Derry C.; Zhu, Xiaoping

    2011-01-01

    Vaccine strategies to prevent invasive mucosal pathogens are being sought because 80–90% of infectious diseases are initiated at mucosal surfaces. However, our ability to deliver an intact vaccine antigen across a mucosal barrier for induction of effective immunity is limited. The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) mediates the transport of IgG across polarized epithelial cells lining mucosal surfaces. By mimicking IgG transfer at mucosal surfaces, intranasal immunization with a model antigen, herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) glycoprotein gD fused with an IgG Fc fragment, in combination with the adjuvant CpG, resulted in complete protection of wild type, but not FcRn knockout, mice that were intravaginally challenged with virulent HSV-2 186. This immunization strategy induced efficient mucosal and systemic antibody, B and T cell immune responses, including memory immune responses, which remained stable at least 6 months post-vaccination and conferred protection for a majority of animals. These results demonstrate that the FcRn-IgG transcellular transport pathway may represent a novel mucosal vaccine delivery route for a subunit vaccine against abundant mucosal pathogens. PMID:21240266