WorldWideScience

Sample records for net production imports

  1. Forest cockchafer larvae as methane production hotspots in soils and their importance for net soil methane fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görres, Carolyn-Monika; Kammann, Claudia; Murphy, Paul; Müller, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    Certain groups of soil invertebrates, namely scarab beetles and millipedes, are capable of emitting considerable amounts of methane due to methanogens inhabiting their gut system. It was already pointed out in the early 1990's, that these groups of invertebrates may represent a globally important source of methane. However, apart from termites, the importance of invertebrates for the soil methane budget is still unknown. Here, we present preliminary results of a laboratory soil incubation experiment elucidating the influence of forest cockchafer larvae (Melolontha hippocastani FABRICIUS) on soil methane cycling. In January/February 2016, two soils from two different management systems - one from a pine forest (extensive use) and one from a vegetable field (intensive use) - were incubated for 56 days either with or without beetle larvae. Net soil methane fluxes and larvae methane emissions together with their stable carbon isotope signatures were quantified at regular intervals to estimate gross methane production and gross methane oxidation in the soils. The results of this experiment will contribute to testing the hypothesis of whether methane production hotspots can significantly enhance the methane oxidation capacity of soils. Forest cockchafer larvae are only found in well-aerated sandy soils where one would usually not suspect relevant gross methane production. Thus, besides quantifying their contribution to net soil methane fluxes, they are also ideal organisms to study the effect of methane production hotspots on overall soil methane cycling. Funding support: Reintegration grant of the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) (#57185798).

  2. Relative importance of climate changes at different time scales on net primary productivity-a case study of the Karst area of northwest Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiyu; Zhang, Mingyang; Lin, Zhenshan

    2017-10-05

    Climate changes are considered to significantly impact net primary productivity (NPP). However, there are few studies on how climate changes at multiple time scales impact NPP. With MODIS NPP product and station-based observations of sunshine duration, annual average temperature and annual precipitation, impacts of climate changes at different time scales on annual NPP, have been studied with EEMD (ensemble empirical mode decomposition) method in the Karst area of northwest Guangxi, China, during 2000-2013. Moreover, with partial least squares regression (PLSR) model, the relative importance of climatic variables for annual NPP has been explored. The results show that (1) only at quasi 3-year time scale do sunshine duration and temperature have significantly positive relations with NPP. (2) Annual precipitation has no significant relation to NPP by direct comparison, but significantly positive relation at 5-year time scale, which is because 5-year time scale is not the dominant scale of precipitation; (3) the changes of NPP may be dominated by inter-annual variabilities. (4) Multiple time scales analysis will greatly improve the performance of PLSR model for estimating NPP. The variable importance in projection (VIP) scores of sunshine duration and temperature at quasi 3-year time scale, and precipitation at quasi 5-year time scale are greater than 0.8, indicating important for NPP during 2000-2013. However, sunshine duration and temperature at quasi 3-year time scale are much more important. Our results underscore the importance of multiple time scales analysis for revealing the relations of NPP to changing climate.

  3. HANPP Collection: Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity (NPP) portion of the Human Appropriation of Net Primary...

  4. HANPP Collection: Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) as a Percentage of Net Primary Product (NPP) portion of the HANPP Collection represents a map identifying...

  5. Global Patterns in Human Consumption of Net Primary Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, Marc L.; Bounoua, Lahouari; Ricketts, Taylor; Loucks, Colby; Harriss, Robert; Lawrence William T.

    2004-01-01

    The human population and its consumption profoundly affect the Earth's ecosystems. A particularly compelling measure of humanity's cumulative impact is the fraction of the planet's net primary production that we appropriate for our Net primary production-the net amount of solar energy converted to plant organic matter through photosynthesis-can be measured in units of elemental carbon and represents the primary food energy source for the world's ecosystems. Human appropriation of net primary production, apart from leaving less for other species to use, alters the composition of the atmosphere, levels of biodiversity, flows within food webs and the provision of important primary production required by humans and compare it to the total amount generated on the landscape. We then derive a spatial ba!mce sheet of net primary production supply and demand for the world. We show that human appropriation of net primary production varies spatially from almost zero to many times the local primary production. These analyses reveal the uneven footprint of human consumption and related environmental impacts, indicate the degree to which human populations depend on net primary production "imports" and suggest policy options for slowing future growth of human appropriation of net primary production.

  6. EVo: Net Shape RTM Production Line

    OpenAIRE

    Sven Torstrick; Felix Kruse; Martin Wiedemann

    2016-01-01

    EVo research platform is operated by the Center for Lightweight-Production-Technology of the German Aerospace Center in Stade. Its objective is technology demonstration of a fully automated RTM (Resin Transfer Molding) production line for composite parts in large quantities. Process steps include cutting and ply handling, draping, stacking, hot-forming, preform-trimming to net shape, resin injection, curing and demolding.

  7. HANPP Collection: Global Patterns in Net Primary Productivity (NPP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Patterns in Net Primary Productivity (NPP) portion of the Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) Collection maps the net amount of solar...

  8. EVo: Net Shape RTM Production Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Torstrick

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available EVo research platform is operated by the Center for Lightweight-Production-Technology of the German Aerospace Center in Stade. Its objective is technology demonstration of a fully automated RTM (Resin Transfer Molding production line for composite parts in large quantities. Process steps include cutting and ply handling, draping, stacking, hot-forming, preform-trimming to net shape, resin injection, curing and demolding.

  9. Isotopic tracers for net primary productivity for a terrestrial esocystem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The coupling effect of vapour release and CO2 uptake during photosynthesis plays an important role in the carbon and hydrologic cycles. The water use efficiency (WUE) for transpiration was used in calculating the net primary productivity (NPP) for terrestrial ecosystem. Three parameters were used in calculating the water ...

  10. HANPP Collection: Global Patterns in Net Primary Productivity (NPP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Patterns in Net Primary Productivity (NPP) portion of the HANPP Collection maps the net amount of solar energy converted to plant organic matter through...

  11. Variations of Terrestrial Net Primary Productivity in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangmin Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the heterogeneity and complexity of terrestrial ecosystems of East Asia, a better understanding of relationships between climate change and net primary productivity (NPP distribution is important to predict future carbon dynamics. The objective of this study is to analyze the temporal-spatial patterns of NPP in East Asia (10°S - 55°N, 60 - 155°E from 1982 to 2006 using the process-based Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS model. Prior to the regional simulation, the annual simulated NPP was validated using field observed NPP demonstrating the ability of BEPS to simulate NPP in different ecosystems of East Asia.

  12. Net carbon flux in organic and conventional olive production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeid Mohamad, Ramez; Verrastro, Vincenzo; Bitar, Lina Al; Roma, Rocco; Moretti, Michele; Chami, Ziad Al

    2014-05-01

    Agricultural systems are considered as one of the most relevant sources of atmospheric carbon. However, agriculture has the potentiality to mitigate carbon dioxide mainly through soil carbon sequestration. Some agricultural practices, particularly fertilization and soil management, can play a dual role in the agricultural systems regarding the carbon cycle contributing to the emissions and to the sequestration process in the soil. Good soil and input managements affect positively Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) changes and consequently the carbon cycle. The present study aimed at comparing the carbon footprint of organic and conventional olive systems and to link it to the efficiency of both systems on carbon sequestration by calculating the net carbon flux. Data were collected at farm level through a specific and detailed questionnaire based on one hectare as a functional unit and a system boundary limited to olive production. Using LCA databases particularly ecoinvent one, IPCC GWP 100a impact assessment method was used to calculate carbon emissions from agricultural practices of both systems. Soil organic carbon has been measured, at 0-30 cm depth, based on soil analyses done at the IAMB laboratory and based on reference value of SOC, the annual change of SOC has been calculated. Substracting sequestrated carbon in the soil from the emitted on resulted in net carbon flux calculation. Results showed higher environmental impact of the organic system on Global Warming Potential (1.07 t CO2 eq. yr-1) comparing to 0.76 t CO2 eq. yr-1 in the conventional system due to the higher GHG emissions caused by manure fertilizers compared to the use of synthetic foliar fertilizers in the conventional system. However, manure was the main reason behind the higher SOC content and sequestration in the organic system. As a resultant, the organic system showed higher net carbon flux (-1.7 t C ha-1 yr-1 than -0.52 t C ha-1 yr-1 in the conventional system reflecting higher efficiency as a

  13. Divisia decomposition method and its application to changes of net oil import intensity

    OpenAIRE

    Hua Liao; Zhao-Yi; Ce Wang

    2013-01-01

    The existing oil import dependence index cannot exactly measure the economic cost or scales, and it is difficult to describe the economical aspect of oil security. To measure the foreign dependence of one country's economy and reflect its oil economic security, this paper defines the net oil import intensity as the ratio of net import cost to GDP. By using Divisia Index Decomposition, the change of net oil import intensity in five industrialized countries and five newly industrialized countri...

  14. Fermentative biohydrogen production: Evaluation of net energy gain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perera, Karnayakage Rasika J.; Ketheesan, Balachandran; Nirmalakhandan, Nagamany [Civil Engineering Department, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88011 (United States); Gadhamshetty, Venkataramana [Civil and Environmental Engineering Dept., Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Most dark fermentation (DF) studies had resorted to above-ambient temperatures to maximize hydrogen yield, without due consideration of the net energy gain. In this study, literature data on fermentative hydrogen production from glucose, sucrose, and organic wastes were compiled to evaluate the benefit of higher fermentation temperatures in terms of net energy gain. This evaluation showed that the improvement in hydrogen yield at higher temperatures is not justified as the net energy gain not only declined with increase of temperature, but also was mostly negative when the fermentation temperature exceeded 25 C. To maximize the net energy gain of DF, the following two options for recovering additional energy from the end products and to determine the optimal fermentation temperature were evaluated: methane production via anaerobic digestion (AD); and direct electricity production via microbial fuel cells (MFC). Based on net energy gain, it is concluded that DF has to be operated at near-ambient temperatures for the net energy gain to be positive; and DF + MFC can result in higher net energy gain at any temperature than DF or DF + AD. (author)

  15. Net ecosystem calcification and net primary production in two Hawaii back-reef systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiili, S.; Colbert, S.; Hart, K.

    2016-02-01

    Back-reef systems have complex carbon cycling, driven by dominant benthic communities that change with environmental conditions and display characteristic patterns of net primary production (NP) and net ecosystem calcification (G). The G/NP ratio provides a fundamental community-level assessment to compare systems spatially and to evaluate temporal changes in carbon cycling. Carbon dynamics were examined at leeward Hōnaunau and windward Waíōpae, Hawaíi Island. Both locations discharge brackish groundwater, including geothermal water at Waíōpae. The change in total CO2 (TCO2) and total alkalinity (TA) between morning and afternoon was measured to calculate the G/NP ratio along a salinity gradient. At both sites, aragonite saturation (ΩAr) was lower than open ocean conditions, and increased with salinity. Between the morning and afternoon, ΩAr increased by at least 1 as photosynthesis consumed CO2. At Waíōpae, water was corrosive to aragonite due to the input of acidic groundwater, but not at Honaunau, demonstrating the importance of local watershed characteristics on ΩAr. Across the salinity gradient, TA and TCO2 decreased between morning and afternoon. At Hōnaunau, G/NP increased from 0.11 to 0.31 with salinity, consistent with an offshore increase in coral cover. But at Waíōpae, G/NP decreased from 0.49 to 0.0 with salinity, despite an increase in coral cover with salinity. Low G may be caused by benthic processes, including coral bleaching or high rates of carbonate dissolution in interstitial waters between tide pools. Broader environmental conditions than just salinity, including pH of fresh groundwater inputs, shape the carbon cycling in the back-reef system. Examining the G/NP ratio of a back-reef system allows for a simple method to establish community level activity, and possibly indicate changes in a dynamic system.

  16. HANPP Collection: Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) by Country and Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Patterns in Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) portion of the HANPP Collection represents a digital map of human appropriation of net...

  17. Global climate change and terrestrial net primary production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melillo, Jerry M.; Mcguire, A. D.; Kicklighter, David W.; Moore, Berrien, III; Vorosmarty, Charles J.; Schloss, Annette L.

    1993-01-01

    A process-based model was used to estimate global patterns of net primary production and soil nitrogen cycling for contemporary climate conditions and current atmospheric CO2 concentration. Over half of the global annual net primary production was estimated to occur in the tropics, with most of the production attributable to tropical evergreen forest. The effects of CO2 doubling and associated climate changes were also explored. The responses in tropical and dry temperate ecosystems were dominated by CO2, but those in northern and moist temperate ecosystems reflected the effects of temperature on nitrogen availability.

  18. Water use efficiency of net primary production in global terrestrial ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Water use efficiency; global terrestrial ecosystems; MODIS; net primary production; evapotranspiration;. Köppen–Geiger climate classification. ... Terrestrial plants fix or trap carbon dioxide via photosynthesis to produce the material ...... S W 2007 Evaluating water stress controls on primary production in biogeochemical and ...

  19. Net Farm Income Analysis of Maize Production in Gwagwalada Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined net farm income of maize production in Gwagwalada Area Council of Federal Capital Territory. The specific objectives are to: identify the socio-economic characteristics of maize farmers in the study area, evaluate the costs and returns of maize production in the study area, and evaluate factors affecting ...

  20. Decreases in net primary production and net ecosystem production along a repeated-fires induced forest/grassland gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, C. H.; Huang, Y. H.; Chung-Yu, L.; Menyailo, O.

    2016-12-01

    Fire is one of the most important disturbances in ecosystems. Fire rapidly releases stored carbon into atmosphere and also plays critical roles on soil properties, light and moisture regimes, and plant structures and communities. With the interventions of climate change and human activities, fire regimes become more severe and frequent. In many parts of world, forest fire regimes can be further altered by grass invasion because the invasive grasses create a positive feedback cycle through their rapid recovery after fires and their high flammability during dry periods and allow forests to be burned repeatedly in a relatively short time. For such invasive grass-fire cycle, a great change of native vegetation community can occur. In this study, we examined a C4 invasive grass () fire-induced forest/grassland gradient to quantify the changes of net primary production (NPP) and net ecosystem production (NEP) from an unburned forest to repeated fire grassland. Our results demonstrated negative effects of repeated fires on NPP and NEP. Within 4 years of the onset of repeated fires on the unburned forest, NPP declined by 14%, mainly due to the reduction in aboveground NPP but offset by increase of belowground NPP. Subsequent fires cumulatively caused reductions in both aboveground and belowground NPP. A total of 40% reduction in the long-term repeated fire induced grassland was found. Soil respiration rate were not significantly different along the forest/grassland gradient. Thus, a great reduction in NEP were shown in grassland, which shifted from 4.6 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 in unburnt forest to -2.6 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. Such great losses are critical within the context of forest carbon cycling and long-term sustainability. Forest management practices that can effectively reduce the likelihood of repeated fires and consequent likelihood of establishment of the grass fire cycle are essential for protecting the forest.

  1. Spatial scaling of net primary productivity using subpixel landcover information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X. F.; Chen, Jing M.; Ju, Wei M.; Ren, L. L.

    2008-10-01

    Gridding the land surface into coarse homogeneous pixels may cause important biases on ecosystem model estimations of carbon budget components at local, regional and global scales. These biases result from overlooking subpixel variability of land surface characteristics. Vegetation heterogeneity is an important factor introducing biases in regional ecological modeling, especially when the modeling is made on large grids. This study suggests a simple algorithm that uses subpixel information on the spatial variability of land cover type to correct net primary productivity (NPP) estimates, made at coarse spatial resolutions where the land surface is considered as homogeneous within each pixel. The algorithm operates in such a way that NPP obtained from calculations made at coarse spatial resolutions are multiplied by simple functions that attempt to reproduce the effects of subpixel variability of land cover type on NPP. Its application to a carbon-hydrology coupled model(BEPS-TerrainLab model) estimates made at a 1-km resolution over a watershed (named Baohe River Basin) located in the southwestern part of Qinling Mountains, Shaanxi Province, China, improved estimates of average NPP as well as its spatial variability.

  2. HANPP Collection: Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) by Country and Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) by Country and Product portion of the HANPP Collection contains tabular data on carbon-equivalents of...

  3. Relationships between net primary productivity and forest stand age in U.S. forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liming He; Jing M. Chen; Yude Pan; Richard Birdsey; Jens. Kattge

    2012-01-01

    Net primary productivity (NPP) is a key flux in the terrestrial ecosystem carbon balance, as it summarizes the autotrophic input into the system. Forest NPP varies predictably with stand age, and quantitative information on the NPP-age relationship for different regions and forest types is therefore fundamentally important for forest carbon cycle modeling. We used four...

  4. Impacts of climate change on net primary productivity of grasslands in Inner Mongolia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Q.; Tuo Debao,; Zhang, L.; Wei, X.; Wei, Y.; Yang, N.; Xu, Y.; Anten, N.P.R.; Pan, X.

    2014-01-01

    Net primary productivity (NPP) of grasslands is a key variable for characterising carbon cycles in grassland ecosystems. The prediction of NPP in Inner Mongolia is important for adaptation to future climate change, food security and sustainable use of the grassland resources. The output from two

  5. Net Ecosystem Production and Actionable Negative Emissions Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCicco, J. M.; Heo, J.

    2016-12-01

    Negative emissions strategies, designed to increase the rate at which carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases are removed from the atmosphere, are an important aspect of broader strategies for mitigating climate change. Not only is CO2 the dominant greenhouse gas and the one most intimately tied to existing commercial energy use, but it is also part of the global carbon cycle. On the order of 200 PgC•yr-1 circulates between the atmosphere and the major carbon stocks of the terrestrial biosphere, oceans and geosphere. Anthropogenic flows of roughly 10 PgC•yr-1 from fossil fuel use and 1 PgC•yr-1 from land-use change significantly exceed the Earth's natural carbon sink, and this imbalance causes the buildup of carbon in the atmosphere. In addition to strategies for reducing CO2 emissions, increasing negative emissions through carbon dioxide removal (CDR) is crucial for reducing carbon cycle imbalance in the near term as well as meeting long-term goals such as a 2°C limit. Terrestrial carbon management is important for both reducing emissions and enhancing sinks. Photosynthesis in terrestrial ecosystems is the form of CDR that is now most actionable, referring to mechanisms that can be economically implemented at meaningful scales without technology breakthroughs. Net ecosystem production (NEP) is a crucial metric for guiding CDR involving the terrestrial biosphere, including options such as bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) and other forms of bio-based mitigation. We derive the necessary conditions for effective implementation of this category of negative emissions measures, emphasizing the importance of NEP measurement, baselines and appropriate methods of carbon accounting. We present a method for quantitative spatio-temporal analysis of land-use and land-cover changes for estimating landscape-scale NEP; provide a preliminary baseline NEP estimate for the continental United States; apply the method to reveal a cautionary tale

  6. Daily variation in net primary production and net calcification in coral reef communities exposed to elevated pCO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeau, Steeve; Edmunds, Peter J.; Lantz, Coulson A.; Carpenter, Robert C.

    2017-07-01

    The threat represented by ocean acidification (OA) for coral reefs has received considerable attention because of the sensitivity of calcifiers to changing seawater carbonate chemistry. However, most studies have focused on the organismic response of calcification to OA, and only a few have addressed community-level effects, or investigated parameters other than calcification, such as photosynthesis. Light (photosynthetically active radiation, PAR) is a driver of biological processes on coral reefs, and the possibility that these processes might be perturbed by OA has important implications for community function. Here we investigate how CO2 enrichment affects the relationships between PAR and community net O2 production (Pnet), and between PAR and community net calcification (Gnet), using experiments on three coral communities constructed to match (i) the back reef of Mo'orea, French Polynesia, (ii) the fore reef of Mo'orea, and (iii) the back reef of O'ahu, Hawaii. The results were used to test the hypothesis that OA affects the relationship between Pnet and Gnet. For the three communities tested, pCO2 did not affect the Pnet-PAR relationship, but it affected the intercept of the hyperbolic tangent curve fitting the Gnet-PAR relationship for both reef communities in Mo'orea (but not in O'ahu). For the three communities, the slopes of the linear relationships between Pnet and Gnet were not affected by OA, although the intercepts were depressed by the inhibitory effect of high pCO2 on Gnet. Our result indicates that OA can modify the balance between net calcification and net photosynthesis of reef communities by depressing community calcification, but without affecting community photosynthesis.

  7. Daily variation in net primary production and net calcification in coral reef communities exposed to elevated pCO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Comeau

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The threat represented by ocean acidification (OA for coral reefs has received considerable attention because of the sensitivity of calcifiers to changing seawater carbonate chemistry. However, most studies have focused on the organismic response of calcification to OA, and only a few have addressed community-level effects, or investigated parameters other than calcification, such as photosynthesis. Light (photosynthetically active radiation, PAR is a driver of biological processes on coral reefs, and the possibility that these processes might be perturbed by OA has important implications for community function. Here we investigate how CO2 enrichment affects the relationships between PAR and community net O2 production (Pnet, and between PAR and community net calcification (Gnet, using experiments on three coral communities constructed to match (i the back reef of Mo'orea, French Polynesia, (ii the fore reef of Mo'orea, and (iii the back reef of O'ahu, Hawaii. The results were used to test the hypothesis that OA affects the relationship between Pnet and Gnet. For the three communities tested, pCO2 did not affect the Pnet–PAR relationship, but it affected the intercept of the hyperbolic tangent curve fitting the Gnet–PAR relationship for both reef communities in Mo'orea (but not in O'ahu. For the three communities, the slopes of the linear relationships between Pnet and Gnet were not affected by OA, although the intercepts were depressed by the inhibitory effect of high pCO2 on Gnet. Our result indicates that OA can modify the balance between net calcification and net photosynthesis of reef communities by depressing community calcification, but without affecting community photosynthesis.

  8. Photosynthetic behavior, growth and essential oil production of Melissa officinalis L. cultivated under colored shade nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziele C Oliveira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The modulation of light is of importance during cultivation of medicinal plants to obtain desirable morphological and physiological changes associated with the maximum production of active principles. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the light spectrum transmitted by colored shade nets on growth, essential oil production and photosynthetic behavior in plants of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L. Plants were cultivated in pots for 4-mo under black, red, and blue nets with 50% shading, and full sunlight exposure. Biometric and anatomical variables, essential oil yield, global solar radiation, photon flux density, chlorophyll content, and gas exchange parameters were measured in M. officinalis leaves. The results showed that despite being considered a partial shade plant, this species is able to adapt to full sunlight conditions without increasing biomass production. The spectral changes provided by colored shade nets did not caused any noticeable change in leaf anatomy of M. officinalis. However, the use of blue net resulted in increments of 116% in plant height, 168% in leaf area, 42% in chlorophyll content and 30% in yield of essential oil in lemon balm plants. These plant's qualities make the use of blue net a cultivation practice suitable for commercial use.

  9. [Net energy analysis for annual 200 000 ton cassava ethanol production at Guangxi COFCO].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Guojun; Sun, Zhenjiang; Shen, Naidong

    2015-02-01

    Guangxi COFCO innovates its annual 200 000 ton cassava ethanol production in recent years. To evaluate the energy input/output of the production process, we used the domestic life cycle model. The calculation results show that the net energy value was 9.56 MJ/L ethanol. Energy input for ethanol production was 51.3% of the total. 61.5% of energy input for ethanol production was used for steam input in ethanol distillation. Energy produced from by-product was 5.03 MJ/L ethanol. Hence, efficient use of raw materials is an important measure to improve the energy efficiency in Guangxi COFCO and energy compensation from byproducts has key impact on the net energy saving.

  10. UV sensitivity of planktonic net community production in ocean surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regaudie-de-Gioux, Aurore; Agustí, Susana; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2014-05-01

    The net plankton community metabolism of oceanic surface waters is particularly important as it more directly affects the partial pressure of CO2 in surface waters and thus the air-sea fluxes of CO2. Plankton communities in surface waters are exposed to high irradiance that includes significant ultraviolet blue (UVB, 280-315 nm) radiation. UVB radiation affects both photosynthetic and respiration rates, increase plankton mortality rates, and other metabolic and chemical processes. Here we test the sensitivity of net community production (NCP) to UVB of planktonic communities in surface waters across contrasting regions of the ocean. We observed here that UVB radiation affects net plankton community production at the ocean surface, imposing a shift in NCP by, on average, 50% relative to the values measured when excluding partly UVB. Our results show that under full solar radiation, the metabolic balance shows the prevalence of net heterotrophic community production. The demonstration of an important effect of UVB radiation on NCP in surface waters presented here is of particular relevance in relation to the increased UVB radiation derived from the erosion of the stratospheric ozone layer. Our results encourage design future research to further our understanding of UVB effects on the metabolic balance of plankton communities.

  11. Net ecosystem productivity, net primary productivity and ecosystem carbon sequestration in a Pinus radiata plantation subject to soil water deficit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arneth, A.; Kelleher, F. M. [Lincoln Univ., Soil Sience Dept., Lincoln, (New Zealand); McSeveny, T. M. [Manaaki Whenua-Landcare Research, Lincoln, (New Zealand); Byers, J. N. [Almuth Arneth Landcare Research, Lincoln (New Zealand)

    1998-12-01

    Tree carbon uptake (net primary productivity excluding fine root turnover, NPP`) in pine trees growing in a region of New Zealand subject to summer soil water deficit was investigated jointly with canopy assimilation (A{sub c}) and ecosystem-atmosphere carbon exchange rate (net ecosystem productivity, NEP). Canopy assimilation and NEP were used to drive a biochemically-based and environmentally constrained model validated by seasonal eddy covariance measurements. Over a three year period with variable rainfall annual NPP` and NEP showed significant variations. At the end of the growing season, carbon was mostly allocated to wood, with nearly half to stems and about a quarter to coarse roots. On a biweekly basis NPP` lagged behind A{sub c}, suggesting the occurrence of intermediate carbon storage. On an annual basis, however the NPP`/A{sub c} ratio indicated a conservative allocation of carbon to autotrophic respiration. The combination of data from measurements with canopy and ecosystem carbon fluxes yielded an estimate of heterotrophic respiration (NPP`-NEP) of approximately 30 per cent of NPP` and 50 per cent NEP. The annual values of NEP and NPP` can also be used to derive a `best guess` estimate of the annual below-ground carbon turnover rate, assuming that the annual changes in the soil carbon content is negligible. 46 refs., 7 figs.

  12. HANPP Collection: Global Patterns in Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Patterns in Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) portion of the HANPP Collection represents a digital map of human appropriation of net...

  13. Net community production in the bottom of first-year sea ice over the Arctic spring bloom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, K.; Mundy, C. J.; Gosselin, M.; Landy, J. C.; Delaforge, A.; Rysgaard, S.

    2017-09-01

    The balance of photosynthesis and respiration by organisms like algae and bacteria determines whether sea ice is net heterotrophic or autotrophic. In turn this clarifies the influence of microbes on atmosphere-ice-ocean gas fluxes and their contribution to the trophic system. In this study we define two phases of the spring bloom based on bottom ice net community production and algal growth. Phase I was characterized by limited algal accumulation and low productivity, which at times resulted in net heterotrophy. Greater productivity in Phase II drove rapid algal accumulation that consistently produced net autotrophic conditions. The different phases were associated with seasonal shifts in light availability and species dominance. Results from this study demonstrate the importance of community respiration on spring productivity, as respiration rates can maintain a heterotrophic state independent of algal growth. This challenges previous assumptions of a fully autotrophic sea ice community during the ice-covered spring.

  14. Ozone and haze pollution weakens net primary productivity in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xu; Unger, Nadine; Harper, Kandice; Xia, Xiangao; Liao, Hong; Zhu, Tong; Xiao, Jingfeng; Feng, Zhaozhong; Li, Jing

    2017-05-01

    Atmospheric pollutants have both beneficial and detrimental effects on carbon uptake by land ecosystems. Surface ozone (O3) damages leaf photosynthesis by oxidizing plant cells, while aerosols promote carbon uptake by increasing diffuse radiation and exert additional influences through concomitant perturbations to meteorology and hydrology. China is currently the world's largest emitter of both carbon dioxide and short-lived air pollutants. The land ecosystems of China are estimated to provide a carbon sink, but it remains unclear whether air pollution acts to inhibit or promote carbon uptake. Here, we employ Earth system modeling and multiple measurement datasets to assess the separate and combined effects of anthropogenic O3 and aerosol pollution on net primary productivity (NPP) in China. In the present day, O3 reduces annual NPP by 0.6 Pg C (14 %) with a range from 0.4 Pg C (low O3 sensitivity) to 0.8 Pg C (high O3 sensitivity). In contrast, aerosol direct effects increase NPP by 0.2 Pg C (5 %) through the combination of diffuse radiation fertilization, reduced canopy temperatures, and reduced evaporation leading to higher soil moisture. Consequently, the net effects of O3 and aerosols decrease NPP by 0.4 Pg C (9 %) with a range from 0.2 Pg C (low O3 sensitivity) to 0.6 Pg C (high O3 sensitivity). However, precipitation inhibition from combined aerosol direct and indirect effects reduces annual NPP by 0.2 Pg C (4 %), leading to a net air pollution suppression of 0.8 Pg C (16 %) with a range from 0.6 Pg C (low O3 sensitivity) to 1.0 Pg C (high O3 sensitivity). Our results reveal strong dampening effects of air pollution on the land carbon uptake in China today. Following the current legislation emission scenario, this suppression will be further increased by the year 2030, mainly due to a continuing increase in surface O3. However, the maximum technically feasible reduction scenario could drastically relieve the current level of NPP damage by 70 % in 2030

  15. Seasonal shift in net ecosystem production in a tropical estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ram, A.S.P.; Nair, S.; Chandramohan, D.

    ) and community respiration (R). Measurements of these variables are a prerequisite to assess the trophic status of aquatic ecosystems. Del Giorgio et al. (1997) suggested that metabolic balance depends on the primary productivity of the system. The rate... of plankton growth efficiency and respiration are important factors that determine the fate of primary production. Recently, hetero- trophy has been reported from euphotic layers of the sub- tropical Northeast Atlantic (Duarte et al. 2001; Hoppe et al. 2002...

  16. Scaling net ecosystem production and net biome production over a heterogeneous region in the western United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Turner

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Bottom-up scaling of net ecosystem production (NEP and net biome production (NBP was used to generate a carbon budget for a large heterogeneous region (the state of Oregon, 2.5×105 km2 in the western United States. Landsat resolution (30 m remote sensing provided the basis for mapping land cover and disturbance history, thus allowing us to account for all major fire and logging events over the last 30 years. For NEP, a 23-year record (1980–2002 of distributed meteorology (1 km resolution at the daily time step was used to drive a process-based carbon cycle model (Biome-BGC. For NBP, fire emissions were computed from remote sensing based estimates of area burned and our mapped biomass estimates. Our estimates for the contribution of logging and crop harvest removals to NBP were from the model simulations and were checked against public records of forest and crop harvesting. The predominately forested ecoregions within our study region had the highest NEP sinks, with ecoregion averages up to 197 gC m−2 yr−1. Agricultural ecoregions were also NEP sinks, reflecting the imbalance of NPP and decomposition of crop residues. For the period 1996–2000, mean NEP for the study area was 17.0 TgC yr−1, with strong interannual variation (SD of 10.6. The sum of forest harvest removals, crop removals, and direct fire emissions amounted to 63% of NEP, leaving a mean NBP of 6.1 TgC yr−1. Carbon sequestration was predominantly on public forestland, where the harvest rate has fallen dramatically in the recent years. Comparison of simulation results with estimates of carbon stocks, and changes in carbon stocks, based on forest inventory data showed generally good agreement. The carbon sequestered as NBP, plus accumulation of forest products in slow turnover pools, offset 51% of the annual emissions of fossil fuel CO2 for the state. State-level NBP dropped below zero in 2002

  17. Scaling net ecosystem production and net biome production over a heterogeneous region in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, D. P.; Ritts, W. D.; Law, B. E.; Cohen, W. B.; Yang, Z.; Hudiburg, T.; Campbell, J. L.; Duane, M.

    2007-08-01

    Bottom-up scaling of net ecosystem production (NEP) and net biome production (NBP) was used to generate a carbon budget for a large heterogeneous region (the state of Oregon, 2.5×105 km2) in the western United States. Landsat resolution (30 m) remote sensing provided the basis for mapping land cover and disturbance history, thus allowing us to account for all major fire and logging events over the last 30 years. For NEP, a 23-year record (1980-2002) of distributed meteorology (1 km resolution) at the daily time step was used to drive a process-based carbon cycle model (Biome-BGC). For NBP, fire emissions were computed from remote sensing based estimates of area burned and our mapped biomass estimates. Our estimates for the contribution of logging and crop harvest removals to NBP were from the model simulations and were checked against public records of forest and crop harvesting. The predominately forested ecoregions within our study region had the highest NEP sinks, with ecoregion averages up to 197 gC m-2 yr-1. Agricultural ecoregions were also NEP sinks, reflecting the imbalance of NPP and decomposition of crop residues. For the period 1996-2000, mean NEP for the study area was 17.0 TgC yr-1, with strong interannual variation (SD of 10.6). The sum of forest harvest removals, crop removals, and direct fire emissions amounted to 63% of NEP, leaving a mean NBP of 6.1 TgC yr-1. Carbon sequestration was predominantly on public forestland, where the harvest rate has fallen dramatically in the recent years. Comparison of simulation results with estimates of carbon stocks, and changes in carbon stocks, based on forest inventory data showed generally good agreement. The carbon sequestered as NBP, plus accumulation of forest products in slow turnover pools, offset 51% of the annual emissions of fossil fuel CO2 for the state. State-level NBP dropped below zero in 2002 because of the combination of a dry climate year and a large (200 000 ha) fire. These results highlight

  18. MODIS/Terra Net Primary Production Yearly L4 Global 500m SIN Grid V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MOD17A3H Version 6 product provides information about annual (yearly) Net Primary Production at 500 meter pixel resolution. Annual NPP is derived from the sum of...

  19. MODIS/Aqua Net Primary Production Yearly L4 Global 500m SIN Grid V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MYD17A3H Version 6 product provides information about annual (yearly) Net Primary Production at 500 meter pixel resolution. Annual NPP is derived from the sum of...

  20. Why Net Domestic Product Should Replace Gross Domestic Product as a Measure of Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Roland Spant

    2003-01-01

    In the third article, Roland Spant, a Swedish trade union economist, argues that Net Domestic Product (NDP) should replace GDP as a measure of economic growth for a number of purposes. The key difference between GDP and NDP is depreciation. With the shift in investment toward information technology assets with relatively short service lives, the share of depreciation in GDP has increased in most OECD countries and GDP growth now exceeds NDP growth. Spant points out that this means that the us...

  1. Assessing the impact of urbanization on regional net primary productivity in Jiangyin County, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C; Liu, M; An, S; Chen, J M; Yan, P

    2007-11-01

    Urbanization is one of the most important aspects of global change. The process of urbanization has a significant impact on the terrestrial ecosystem carbon cycle. The Yangtze Delta region has one of the highest rates of urbanization in China. In this study, carried out in Jiangyin County as a representative region within the Yangtze Delta, land use and land cover changes were estimated using Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery. With these satellite data and the BEPS process model (Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator), the impacts of urbanization on regional net primary productivity (NPP) and annual net primary production were assessed for 1991 and 2002. Landsat-based land cover maps in 1991 and 2002 showed that urban development encroached large areas of cropland and forest. Expansion of residential areas and reduction of vegetated areas were the major forms of land transformation in Jiangyin County during this period. Mean NPP of the total area decreased from 818 to 699 gCm(-2)yr(-1) during the period of 1991 to 2002. NPP of cropland was only reduced by 2.7% while forest NPP was reduced by 9.3%. Regional annual primary production decreased from 808 GgC in 1991 to 691 GgC in 2002, a reduction of 14.5%. Land cover changes reduced regional NPP directly, and the increasing intensity and frequency of human-induced disturbance in the urbanized areas could be the main reason for the decrease in forest NPP.

  2. Effects of climate change and shifts in forest composition on forest net primary production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyh-Min Chiang; Louts [Louis] R. Iverson; Anantha Prasad; Kim J. Brown

    2008-01-01

    Forests are dynamic in both structure and species composition, and these dynamics are strongly influenced by climate. However, the net effects of future tree species composition on net primary production (NPP) are not well understood. The objective of this work was to model the potential range shifts of tree species (DISTRIB Model) and predict their impacts on NPP (...

  3. Egypt risks to become net importer of energy toward the year 2000 according to the World Bank. L'Egypte risque de devenir importateur net d'energie vers l'an 2000 selon la banque mondiale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1994-05-01

    Petroleum exports were about the two-third of the whole goods exports of Egypt in the eighties years, but this part is getting under 50%, because a lower growth of exported volume and because of the reduction of prices. As these kinds of things are continuing during the nineties years and the local petroleum consumption is increasing, Egypt could become a net importer of petroleum products at the end of the century.

  4. Quantifying and mapping the human appropriation of net primary production in earth's terrestrial ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberl, Helmut; Erb, K Heinz; Krausmann, Fridolin; Gaube, Veronika; Bondeau, Alberte; Plutzar, Christoph; Gingrich, Simone; Lucht, Wolfgang; Fischer-Kowalski, Marina

    2007-07-31

    Human appropriation of net primary production (HANPP), the aggregate impact of land use on biomass available each year in ecosystems, is a prominent measure of the human domination of the biosphere. We present a comprehensive assessment of global HANPP based on vegetation modeling, agricultural and forestry statistics, and geographical information systems data on land use, land cover, and soil degradation that localizes human impact on ecosystems. We found an aggregate global HANPP value of 15.6 Pg C/yr or 23.8% of potential net primary productivity, of which 53% was contributed by harvest, 40% by land-use-induced productivity changes, and 7% by human-induced fires. This is a remarkable impact on the biosphere caused by just one species. We present maps quantifying human-induced changes in trophic energy flows in ecosystems that illustrate spatial patterns in the human domination of ecosystems, thus emphasizing land use as a pervasive factor of global importance. Land use transforms earth's terrestrial surface, resulting in changes in biogeochemical cycles and in the ability of ecosystems to deliver services critical to human well being. The results suggest that large-scale schemes to substitute biomass for fossil fuels should be viewed cautiously because massive additional pressures on ecosystems might result from increased biomass harvest.

  5. COST OF PRODUCTION, GROSS RETURN AND NET PROFIT IN COMMERCIAL EGG PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farooq, Zahoor-ul-Haq1, M.A. Mian, F.R. Durrani and M. Syed

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in Chakwal, Pakistan by collecting data from randomly selected 109 flocks to investigate cost of production, gross return and net profit per layer. Majority of the buildings in the study area were rented therefore, rent per layer was added to the total cost of production instead of depreciation on building and equipments. Overall total cost of production, gross return and net profit per layer was Rs. 393.88 ± 5.36, 432.14 ± 8.01 and 38.26 ± 6.66, respectively. Rate of return over the invested capital was 27%. Mean feed cost per layer was Rs. 302.23 ± 5.01, including Rs. 10.27 ± 0.24, 29.19 ± 0.42 and 262.77 ± 5.08 for starter, grower and layer ration, respectively. Feed cost was the major component contributing 76.73% to the total cost of production. Average cost of labor, day-old chick, building rent, vaccination, therapy, miscellaneous item, electricity, bedding material and transportation was Rs. 19.90 ± 0.45, 19.75 ± 0.05, 16.25 ± 0.26, 12.80 ± 0.10, 10.90 ± 2.32, 4.35 ± 0.09, 3.15 ± 0.07, 2.65 ± 0.09 and 1.90 ± 0.08, respectively, contributing 5.05, 5.01, 4.13, 3.25, 2.77, 1.10, 0.80, 0.67 and 0.48 % to the total cost of production. Gross return from the sale of marketable eggs, culled eggs, spent/culled bird, empty bags and manure was Rs. 388.84 ± 7.91, 3.85 ± 0.01, 35.80 ± 0.23, 2.20 ± 0.04 and 1.45 ± 0.01, respectively, contributing 89.98, 0.89, 8.28, 0.51 and 0.34% to the total return. Determining the effect of different parameters on the cost of production and net profit, large flocks, Hisex strain, brood-grow and lay system of rearing, good hygienic conditions of the farm, normal stocking rate and cage system of housing wee found to give maximum gross return as well as net profit.

  6. Residence time control on hot moments of net nitrate production and uptake in the hyporheic zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Martin A.; Lautz, Laura K.; Hare, Danielle K.

    2014-01-01

    The retention capacity for biologically available nitrogen within streams can be influenced by dynamic hyporheic zone exchange, a process that may act as either a net source or net sink of dissolved nitrogen. Over 5 weeks, nine vertical profiles of streambed chemistry (NO3- and NH4+) were collected above two beaver dams along with continuous high-resolution vertical hyporheic flux data. The results indicate a non-linear relation of net NO3- production followed by net uptake in the hyporheic zone as a function of residence time. This Lagrangian-based relation is consistent through time and across varied morphology (bars, pools, glides) above the dams, even though biogeochemical and environmental factors varied. The empirical continuum between net NO3- production and uptake and residence time is useful for identifying two crucial residence time thresholds: the transition to anaerobic respiration, which corresponds to the time of peak net nitrate production, and the net sink threshold, which is defined by a net uptake in NO3- relative to streamwater. Short-term hyporheic residence time variability at specific locations creates hot

  7. Seed Potato Production and Its Importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdoğan ÖZTÜRK

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Our country has different agricultural regions showed different ecological properties in terms of climate and soil characteristics increase the plant variety. Within this variety the potato is one of the most important plants for agriculture and economic of our country, also it is an important food source for human. It is important to use productive and quality seed for healthy agricultural production. With the using of good quality seed, can be obtained about 20% increase in yield. Certified seeds are produced by certain institute, under controlled conditions within a specific program, it is the best guarantee of yield. The certified seeds should be renewed every 2 or 4 yearly periods because the seed yield can reduce if they are used every year. 200-600 kg seed amount used per hectare and it can change depending on purpose, the variety, ecological conditions, the size of tubers and planting density. Seed costs are the most important item in production inputs. In Turkey the amount of certified seed production has increased and consequently there has been an increase in meeting the need of seed amount, in recent years. Turkey certified seed production was 175,397 tons and the needed amount was 230,819 tons in 2015. It has met 76% the need amount. In our country, the seed potato sector is commonly worked marketing of reproduced seed of the imported rootstocks stage within the country. in the event of insufficient seed Certified production, as producers are forced to use their seed, procured from their own products or obtained from each other. This practice, in addition to decrease in yield, it also causes the spread of many pathogens that threated the sustainability of our potato production.

  8. Important motivators for buying green products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamyar Kianpour

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To addresses the main motivators that influence customers to buy green products as well as well as profiling the decisions that shape their behavior. Design/methodology/approach: The authors have conducted a review of the major research related to consumers to identify motivational factors, to draw conclusions about their impact on buying green products.   Factor analysis is conducted on the collected data to find the underlying factors that motivate consumers to buy green products and most importantly motivational factors were identified by T test. Findings: Results show that 1 Environmental Concern, Perceived Consumer Effectiveness, Consumer Knowledge 2 Laws and regulation and 3 Promotional Tools’ were the most important of motivators. Practical implications: The results could help companies, authorities, governments, producers, sellers to know what motivate customers to buy green products and persuade the customers for buying them. Social implications: Furthermore this research will indirectly contribute to increase the customers and public intention for buying green products which in turn will help to solve some of environmental issues and make less environmental side effect caused by products. It is notable that motivated consumers for buying green product will finally expect to have healthy life and clean environment which leads to a healthy and clean society. Originality/value: This article contributes to the literature on the customers’ intention for buying green products by filling the gap in the concrete issues of the customers’ motivation.

  9. Impacts of tropospheric ozone and climate change on net primary productivity and net carbon exchange of China’s forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei Ren; Hanqin Tian; Bo Tao; Art Chappelka; Ge Sun; et al

    2011-01-01

    Aim We investigated how ozone pollution and climate change/variability have interactively affected net primary productivity (NPP) and net carbon exchange (NCE) across China’s forest ecosystem in the past half century. Location Continental China. Methods Using the dynamic land ecosystem model (DLEM) in conjunction with 10-km-resolution gridded historical data sets (...

  10. Net energy production and emissions mitigation of domestic wastewater treatment system: a comparison of different biogas-sludge use alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaoqing; Chen, Bin

    2013-09-01

    Wastewater treatment systems are increasingly designed for the recovery of valuable chemicals and energy in addition to waste stream disposal. Herein, the life-cycle energy production and emissions mitigation of a typical domestic wastewater treatment system were assessed, in which different combinations of biogas use and sludge processing lines for industrial or household applications were considered. The results suggested that the reuse of biogas and sludge was so important in the system's overall energy balance and environmental performance that it may offset the cost in the plant's installation and operation. Combined heat and power and household utilization were two prior options for net energy production, provided an ideal power conversion efficiency and biogas production. The joint application of household biogas use and sludge nutrient processing achieved both high net energy production and significant environmental remediation across all impact categories, representing the optimal tradeoff for domestic wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Importance of baseline specification in evaluating conservation interventions and achieving no net loss of biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, J W; Gordon, A; Law, E A; Suttle, K B; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2014-06-01

    There is an urgent need to improve the evaluation of conservation interventions. This requires specifying an objective and a frame of reference from which to measure performance. Reference frames can be baselines (i.e., known biodiversity at a fixed point in history) or counterfactuals (i.e., a scenario that would have occurred without the intervention). Biodiversity offsets are interventions with the objective of no net loss of biodiversity (NNL). We used biodiversity offsets to analyze the effects of the choice of reference frame on whether interventions met stated objectives. We developed 2 models to investigate the implications of setting different frames of reference in regions subject to various biodiversity trends and anthropogenic impacts. First, a general analytic model evaluated offsets against a range of baseline and counterfactual specifications. Second, a simulation model then replicated these results with a complex real world case study: native grassland offsets in Melbourne, Australia. Both models showed that achieving NNL depended upon the interaction between reference frame and background biodiversity trends. With a baseline, offsets were less likely to achieve NNL where biodiversity was decreasing than where biodiversity was stable or increasing. With a no-development counterfactual, however, NNL was achievable only where biodiversity was declining. Otherwise, preventing development was better for biodiversity. Uncertainty about compliance was a stronger determinant of success than uncertainty in underlying biodiversity trends. When only development and offset locations were considered, offsets sometimes resulted in NNL, but not across an entire region. Choice of reference frame determined feasibility and effort required to attain objectives when designing and evaluating biodiversity offset schemes. We argue the choice is thus of fundamental importance for conservation policy. Our results shed light on situations in which biodiversity offsets may

  12. Net primary production of a temperate deciduous forest exhibits a threshold response to increasing disturbance severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart-Haëntjens, Ellen J; Curtis, Peter S; Fahey, Robert T; Vogel, Christoph S; Gough, Christopher M

    2015-09-01

    The global carbon (C) balance is vulnerable to disturbances that alter terrestrial C storage. Disturbances to forests occur along a continuum of severity, from low-intensity disturbance causing the mortality or defoliation of only a subset of trees to severe stand- replacing disturbance that kills all trees; yet considerable uncertainty remains in how forest production changes across gradients of disturbance intensity. We used a gradient of tree mortality in an upper Great Lakes forest ecosystem to: (1) quantify how aboveground wood net primary production (ANPP,) responds to a range of disturbance severities; and (2) identify mechanisms supporting ANPPw resistance or resilience following moderate disturbance. We found that ANPPw declined nonlinearly with rising disturbance severity, remaining stable until >60% of the total tree basal area senesced. As upper canopy openness increased from disturbance, greater light availability to the subcanopy enhanced the leaf-level photosynthesis and growth of this formerly light-limited canopy stratum, compensating for upper canopy production losses and a reduction in total leaf area index (LAI). As a result, whole-ecosystem production efficiency (ANPPw/LAI) increased with rising disturbance severity, except in plots beyond the disturbance threshold. These findings provide a mechanistic explanation for a nonlinear relationship between ANPPw, and disturbance severity, in which the physiological and growth enhancement of undisturbed vegetation is proportional to the level of disturbance until a threshold is exceeded. Our results have important ecological and management implications, demonstrating that in some ecosystems moderate levels of disturbance minimally alter forest production.

  13. Assessment of net community production and calcification of a coral reef using a boundary layer approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Yuichiro; McGillis, Wade; Briggs, Ellen M.; Carter, Amanda L.; Donham, Emily M.; Martz, Todd R.; Price, Nichole N.; Smith, Jennifer E.

    2016-08-01

    Coral reefs are threatened worldwide, and there is a need to develop new approaches to monitor reef health under natural conditions. Because simultaneous measurements of net community production (NCP) and net community calcification (NCC) are used as important indicators of reef health, tools are needed to assess them in situ. Here we present the Benthic Ecosystem and Acidification Measurement System (BEAMS) to provide the first fully autonomous approach capable of sustained, simultaneous measurements of reef NCP and NCC under undisturbed, natural conditions on time scales ranging from tens of minutes to weeks. BEAMS combines the chemical and velocity gradient in the benthic boundary layer to quantify flux from the benthos for a variety of parameters to measure NCP and NCC. Here BEAMS was used to measure these rates from two different sites with different benthic communities on the western reef terrace at Palmyra Atoll for 2 weeks in September 2014. Measurements were made every ˜15 min. The trends in metabolic rates were consistent with the benthic communities between the two sites with one dominated by fleshy organisms and the other dominated by calcifiers (degraded and healthy reefs, respectively). This demonstrates the potential utility of BEAMS as a reef health monitoring tool. NCP and NCC were tightly coupled on time scales of minutes to days, and light was the primary driver for the variability of daily integrated metabolic rates. No correlation between CO2 levels and daily integrated NCC was observed, indicating that NCC at these sites were not significantly affected by CO2.

  14. Importance of Baseline Specification in Evaluating Conservation Interventions and Achieving No Net Loss of Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, J W; Gordon, A; Law, E A; Suttle, K B; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2014-01-01

    There is an urgent need to improve the evaluation of conservation interventions. This requires specifying an objective and a frame of reference from which to measure performance. Reference frames can be baselines (i.e., known biodiversity at a fixed point in history) or counterfactuals (i.e., a scenario that would have occurred without the intervention). Biodiversity offsets are interventions with the objective of no net loss of biodiversity (NNL). We used biodiversity offsets to analyze the effects of the choice of reference frame on whether interventions met stated objectives. We developed 2 models to investigate the implications of setting different frames of reference in regions subject to various biodiversity trends and anthropogenic impacts. First, a general analytic model evaluated offsets against a range of baseline and counterfactual specifications. Second, a simulation model then replicated these results with a complex real world case study: native grassland offsets in Melbourne, Australia. Both models showed that achieving NNL depended upon the interaction between reference frame and background biodiversity trends. With a baseline, offsets were less likely to achieve NNL where biodiversity was decreasing than where biodiversity was stable or increasing. With a no-development counterfactual, however, NNL was achievable only where biodiversity was declining. Otherwise, preventing development was better for biodiversity. Uncertainty about compliance was a stronger determinant of success than uncertainty in underlying biodiversity trends. When only development and offset locations were considered, offsets sometimes resulted in NNL, but not across an entire region. Choice of reference frame determined feasibility and effort required to attain objectives when designing and evaluating biodiversity offset schemes. We argue the choice is thus of fundamental importance for conservation policy. Our results shed light on situations in which biodiversity offsets may

  15. Estimation of livestock appropriation of net primary productivity in Texas Drylands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Washington-Allen; Jody Fitzgerald; Stephanie Grounds; Faisar Jihadi; John Kretzschmar; Kathryn Ramirez; John Mitchell

    2009-01-01

    The ecological state of US Drylands is unknown. This research is developing procedures to determine the impact of the ecological footprint of grazing livestock on the productive capacity of US Drylands. A pilot geodatabase was developed for the state of Texas that includes 2002 data for county boundaries, net primary productivity (NPP) derived from the Moderate...

  16. Net ecosystem productivity of temperate grasslands in northern China: An upscaling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Guo, Huadong; Jia, Gensuo; Wylie, Bruce; Gilmanov, Tagir; Howard, Daniel M.; Ji, Lei; Xiao, Jingfeng; Li, Jing; Yuan, Wenping; Zhao, Tianbao; Chen, Shiping; Zhou, Guangsheng; Kato, Tomomichi

    2014-01-01

    Grassland is one of the widespread biome types globally, and plays an important role in the terrestrial carbon cycle. We examined net ecosystem production (NEP) for the temperate grasslands in northern China from 2000 to 2010. We combined flux observations, satellite data, and climate data to develop a piecewise regression model for NEP, and then used the model to map NEP for grasslands in northern China. Over the growing season, the northern China's grassland had a net carbon uptake of 158 ± 25 g C m−2 during 2000–2010 with the mean regional NEP estimate of 126 Tg C. Our results showed generally higher grassland NEP at high latitudes (northeast) than at low latitudes (central and west) because of different grassland types and environmental conditions. In the northeast, which is dominated by meadow steppes, the growing season NEP generally reached 200–300 g C m−2. In the southwest corner of the region, which is partially occupied by alpine meadow systems, the growing season NEP also reached 200–300 g C m−2. In the central part, which is dominated by typical steppe systems, the growing season NEP generally varied in the range of 100–200 g C m−2. The NEP of the northern China's grasslands was highly variable through years, ranging from 129 (2001) to 217 g C m−2 growing season−1 (2010). The large interannual variations of NEP could be attributed to the sensitivity of temperate grasslands to climate changes and extreme climatic events. The droughts in 2000, 2001, and 2006 reduced the carbon uptake over the growing season by 11%, 29%, and 16% relative to the long-term (2000–2010) mean. Over the study period (2000–2010), precipitation was significantly correlated with NEP for the growing season (R2 = 0.35, p-value < 0.1), indicating that water availability is an important stressor for the productivity of the temperate grasslands in semi-arid and arid regions in northern China. We conclude that northern temperate grasslands have the potential to

  17. Organisms Composing an Experimental Coral Reef Community from Mo'orea, French Polynesia, Exhibit Taxon-Specific Net Production: Net Calcification Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coulson A. Lantz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Current research on coral reefs seeks to link the responses to anthropogenic stressors (such as global warming and ocean acidification [OA] among differing functional levels of biological organization. While experimental studies have identified ex situ taxon-specific responses to OA and global warming, isolating and connecting these effects in situ at the community-level has proved difficult. The difficulties arise from the large number of naturally varying parameters affecting corals reefs, such as light intensity and seawater residence time that affect net community production and calcification. To control variation in seawater residence time and allow light intensity to vary naturally, experimental outer reef (17-m depth benthic communities composed of calcified algae, corals, and reef pavement were constructed in large outdoor flumes in Mo'orea, French Polynesia. Net community production (P, net community calcification (G, the ratio of P/G (P/Gratio, and slope of P regressed on G (P/Gslope were calculated for the communities, and concurrently for the constituent members under the same temperature, light, and flow conditions. P and G, for both the communities and constituent members, were correlated positively with light intensity, whereas P/Gratio and P/Gslope were unaffected by light intensity. P/Gratios and P/Gslopes exhibited values that were specific to each community member. These results suggest that the P/Gratio and P/Gslope may be unaffected by natural variability in light intensity and could serve as useful metrics to relate responses at the taxon and community level, which is an important step in assessing the effects of environmental changes on coral reefs.

  18. Increased light-use efficiency sustains net primary productivity of shaded coffee plants in agroforestry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonnier, Fabien; Roupsard, Olivier; le Maire, Guerric; Guillemot, Joannès; Casanoves, Fernando; Lacointe, André; Vaast, Philippe; Allinne, Clémentine; Audebert, Louise; Cambou, Aurélie; Clément-Vidal, Anne; Defrenet, Elsa; Duursma, Remko A; Jarri, Laura; Jourdan, Christophe; Khac, Emmanuelle; Leandro, Patricia; Medlyn, Belinda E; Saint-André, Laurent; Thaler, Philippe; Van Den Meersche, Karel; Barquero Aguilar, Alejandra; Lehner, Peter; Dreyer, Erwin

    2017-08-01

    In agroforestry systems, shade trees strongly affect the physiology of the undergrown crop. However, a major paradigm is that the reduction in absorbed photosynthetically active radiation is, to a certain extent, compensated by an increase in light-use efficiency, thereby reducing the difference in net primary productivity between shaded and non-shaded plants. Due to the large spatial heterogeneity in agroforestry systems and the lack of appropriate tools, the combined effects of such variables have seldom been analysed, even though they may help understand physiological processes underlying yield dynamics. In this study, we monitored net primary productivity, during two years, on scales ranging from individual coffee plants to the entire plot. Absorbed radiation was mapped with a 3D model (MAESPA). Light-use efficiency and net assimilation rate were derived for each coffee plant individually. We found that although irradiance was reduced by 60% below crowns of shade trees, coffee light-use efficiency increased by 50%, leaving net primary productivity fairly stable across all shade levels. Variability of aboveground net primary productivity of coffee plants was caused primarily by the age of the plants and by intraspecific competition among them (drivers usually overlooked in the agroforestry literature) rather than by the presence of shade trees. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Annual nitrate drawdown observed by SOCCOM profiling floats and the relationship to annual net community production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kenneth S.; Plant, Joshua N.; Dunne, John P.; Talley, Lynne D.; Sarmiento, Jorge L.

    2017-08-01

    Annual nitrate cycles have been measured throughout the pelagic waters of the Southern Ocean, including regions with seasonal ice cover and southern hemisphere subtropical zones. Vertically resolved nitrate measurements were made using in situ ultraviolet spectrophotometer (ISUS) and submersible ultraviolet nitrate analyzer (SUNA) optical nitrate sensors deployed on profiling floats. Thirty-one floats returned 40 complete annual cycles. The mean nitrate profile from the month with the highest winter nitrate minus the mean profile from the month with the lowest nitrate yields the annual nitrate drawdown. This quantity was integrated to 200 m depth and converted to carbon using the Redfield ratio to estimate annual net community production (ANCP) throughout the Southern Ocean south of 30°S. A well-defined, zonal mean distribution is found with highest values (3-4 mol C m-2 yr-1) from 40 to 50°S. Lowest values are found in the subtropics and in the seasonal ice zone. The area weighted mean was 2.9 mol C m-2 yr-1 for all regions south of 40°S. Cumulative ANCP south of 50°S is 1.3 Pg C yr-1. This represents about 13% of global ANCP in about 14% of the global ocean area.Plain Language SummaryThis manuscript reports on 40 annual cycles of nitrate observed by chemical sensors on SOCCOM profiling floats. The annual drawdown in nitrate concentration by phytoplankton is used to assess the spatial variability of annual net community production in the Southern Ocean. This ANCP is a key component of the global carbon cycle and it exerts an important control on atmospheric carbon dioxide. We show that the results are consistent with our prior understanding of Southern Ocean ANCP, which has required decades of observations to accumulate. The profiling floats now enable annual resolution of this key process. The results also highlight spatial variability in ANCP in the Southern Ocean.

  20. The production of Physalis spp. seedlings grown under different-colored shade nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fernandes da Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the production of seedlings of Physalis L. species under different-colored shade nets. Four shade nets individually stained white, blue, red and black, all with 50% shading, were used in this study, and an additional  treatment (control was used in which seedlings were grown in full sun. The study examined four species of Physalis, namely, P. peruviana, P. pubescens, P. minima and P. ixocarpa. The experiment followed a randomized block design with three blocks and 25 seeds per plot. The species were sown in styrofoam trays. Germination was monitored daily to calculate the Emergency Velocity Index (EVI and stabilize the overall percentage of emergence. Height, stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf area index and dry mass of seedlings were assessed at 50 days after sowing. The study found that these species react differently to changes in the light spectrum. Seedlings of P. peruviana should be grown under a white or red shade net; of P. pubescens under a white or black shade net; of P. minima under a white, red or black shade net; and of P. ixocarpa under a white shade net. For all species, 50% shade should be used.

  1. Aboveground Net Primary Productivity in a Riparian Wetland Following Restoration of Hydrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Melissa; Lundberg, Christopher; Lane, Robert; Day, John; Pezeshki, Reza

    2016-02-04

    This research presents the initial results of the effects of hydrological restoration on forested wetlands in the Mississippi alluvial plain near Memphis, Tennessee. Measurements were carried out in a secondary channel, the Loosahatchie Chute, in which rock dikes were constructed in the 1960s to keep most flow in the main navigation channel. In 2008-2009, the dikes were notched to allow more flow into the secondary channel. Study sites were established based on relative distance downstream of the notched dikes. Additionally, a reference site was established north of the Loosahatchie Chute where the dikes remained unnotched. We compared various components of vegetation composition and productivity at sites in the riparian wetlands for two years. Salix nigra had the highest Importance Value at every site. Species with minor Importance Values were Celtis laevigata, Acer rubrum, and Plantanus occidentalis. Productivity increased more following the introduction of river water in affected sites compared to the reference. Aboveground net primary productivity was highest at the reference site (2926 ± 458.1 g·m(-2)·year(-1)), the intact site; however, there were greater increase at the sites in the Loosahatchie Chute, where measurements ranged from 1197.7 ± 160.0 g m(-2)·year(-1)·to 2874.2 ± 794.0 g·m(-2)·year(-1). The site furthest from the notching was the most affected. Pulsed inputs into these wetlands may enhance forested wetland productivity. Continued monitoring will quantify impacts of restored channel hydrology along the Mississippi River.

  2. Aboveground Net Primary Productivity in a Riparian Wetland Following Restoration of Hydrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Koontz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This research presents the initial results of the effects of hydrological restoration on forested wetlands in the Mississippi alluvial plain near Memphis, Tennessee. Measurements were carried out in a secondary channel, the Loosahatchie Chute, in which rock dikes were constructed in the 1960s to keep most flow in the main navigation channel. In 2008–2009, the dikes were notched to allow more flow into the secondary channel. Study sites were established based on relative distance downstream of the notched dikes. Additionally, a reference site was established north of the Loosahatchie Chute where the dikes remained unnotched. We compared various components of vegetation composition and productivity at sites in the riparian wetlands for two years. Salix nigra had the highest Importance Value at every site. Species with minor Importance Values were Celtis laevigata, Acer rubrum, and Plantanus occidentalis. Productivity increased more following the introduction of river water in affected sites compared to the reference. Aboveground net primary productivity was highest at the reference site (2926 ± 458.1 g·m−2·year−1, the intact site; however, there were greater increase at the sites in the Loosahatchie Chute, where measurements ranged from 1197.7 ± 160.0 g m−2·year−1·to 2874.2 ± 794.0 g·m−2·year−1. The site furthest from the notching was the most affected. Pulsed inputs into these wetlands may enhance forested wetland productivity. Continued monitoring will quantify impacts of restored channel hydrology along the Mississippi River.

  3. Net primary productivity of subalpine meadows in Yosemite National Park in relation to climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Peggy E.; Van Wagtendonk, Jan W.; Yee, Julie L.; McClaran, Mitchel P.; Cole, David N.; McDougald, Neil K.; Brooks, Matthew L.

    2013-01-01

    Subalpine meadows are some of the most ecologically important components of mountain landscapes, and primary productivity is important to the maintenance of meadow functions. Understanding how changes in primary productivity are associated with variability in moisture and temperature will become increasingly important with current and anticipated changes in climate. Our objective was to describe patterns and variability in aboveground live vascular plant biomass in relation to climatic factors. We harvested aboveground biomass at peak growth from four 64-m2 plots each in xeric, mesic, and hydric meadows annually from 1994 to 2000. Data from nearby weather stations provided independent variables of spring snow water content, snow-free date, and thawing degree days for a cumulative index of available energy. We assembled these climatic variables into a set of mixed effects analysis of covariance models to evaluate their relationships with annual aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP), and we used an information theoretic approach to compare the quality of fit among candidate models. ANPP in the xeric meadow was negatively related to snow water content and thawing degree days and in the mesic meadow was negatively related to snow water content. Relationships between ANPP and these 2 covariates in the hydric meadow were not significant. Increasing snow water content may limit ANPP in these meadows if anaerobic conditions delay microbial activity and nutrient availability. Increased thawing degree days may limit ANPP in xeric meadows by prematurely depleting soil moisture. Large within-year variation of ANPP in the hydric meadow limited sensitivity to the climatic variables. These relationships suggest that, under projected warmer and drier conditions, ANPP will increase in mesic meadows but remain unchanged in xeric meadows because declines associated with increased temperatures would offset the increases from decreased snow water content.

  4. Estimating Net Primary Production of Turfgrass in an Urban-Suburban Landscape with QuickBird Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jindong Wu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation is a basic component of urban-suburban environments with significant area coverage. As a major vegetation type in US cities, urban turfgrass provides a range of important ecological services. This study examined the biological carbon fixation of turfgrass in a typical residential neighborhood by linking ground-based measurements, high resolution satellite remote sensing, and ecological modeling. The spatial distribution of turfgrass and its vegetative conditions were mapped with QuickBird satellite imagery. The significant amount of shadows existing in the imagery were detected and removed by taking advantage of the high radiometric resolution of the data. A remote sensing-driven production efficiency model was developed and parameterized with field biophysical measurements to estimate annual net primary production of turfgrass. The results indicated that turfgrass accounted for 38% of land cover in the study area. Turfgrass assimilated 0–1,301 g∙C∙m−2∙yr−1 depending on vegetative conditions and management intensity. The average annual net primary production per unit turfgrass cover by golf course grass (1,100.5 g∙C∙m−2 was much higher than that by regular lawn grass (771.2 g∙C∙m−2. However, lawn grass contributed more to the total net primary production than golf course grass due to its larger area coverage, although with higher spatial variability.

  5. Renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and economic growth: Evidence from MENA Net Oil Importing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kahia, Montassar; Ben Aissa, Mohamed Safouane

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we use panel cointegration techniques to explore the relationship between renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and economic growth in a sample of 11 MENA Net Oil Importing Countries covering the period 1980–2012. The Pedroni (1999, 2004), Kao(1999) as well as Westerlund(2007) panel cointegration tests indicate that there is a long-run equilibrium relationship between real GDP, renewable energy consumption, non-renewable energy consumption, real gross fixed capital for...

  6. Winter respiratory C losses provide explanatory power for net ecosystem productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haeni, M.; Zweifel, R.; Eugster, W.; Gessler, A.; Zielis, S.; Bernhofer, C.; Carrara, A.; Grünwald, T.; Havránková, K.; Heinesch, B.; Marek, M.; Moors, E.; Schelhaas, M.J.; Buchmann, N.

    2017-01-01

    Accurate predictions of net ecosystem productivity (NEPc) of forest ecosystems are essential for climate change decisions and requirements in the context of national forest growth and greenhouse gas inventories. However, drivers and underlying mechanisms determining NEPc

  7. Estimating climate change effects on net primary production of rangelands in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew C. Reeves; Adam L. Moreno; Karen E. Bagne; Steven W. Running

    2014-01-01

    The potential effects of climate change on net primary productivity (NPP) of U.S. rangelands were evaluated using estimated climate regimes from the A1B, A2 and B2 global change scenarios imposed on the biogeochemical cycling model, Biome-BGC from 2001 to 2100. Temperature, precipitation, vapor pressure deficit, day length, solar radiation, CO2 enrichment and nitrogen...

  8. Improved estimates of net primary productivity from MODIS satellite data at regional and local scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yude Pan; Richard Birdsey; John Hom; Kevin McCullough; Kenneth Clark

    2006-01-01

    We compared estimates of net primary production (NPP) from the MODIS satellite with estimates from a forest ecosystem process model (PnET-CN) and forest inventory and analysis (FIA) data for forest types of the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. The regional means were similar for the three methods and for the dominant oak? hickory forests in the region. However...

  9. On the spatial heterogeneity of net ecosystem productivity in complex landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan E. Emanuel; Diego A. Riveros-Iregui; Brian L. McGlynn; Howard E. Epstein

    2011-01-01

    Micrometeorological flux towers provide spatially integrated estimates of net ecosystem production (NEP) of carbon over areas ranging from several hectares to several square kilometers, but they do so at the expense of spatially explicit information within the footprint of the tower. This finer-scale information is crucial for understanding how physical and biological...

  10. Disturbance and net ecosystem production across three climatically distinct forest landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    John L. Campbell; O.J. Sun; B.E. Law

    2004-01-01

    Biometric techniques were used to measure net ecosystem production (NEP) across three climatically distinct forest chronosequences in Oregon. NEP was highly negative immediately following stand-replacing disturbance in all forests and recovered to positive values by 10, 20, and 30 years of age for the mild mesic Coast Range, mesic West Cascades, and semi-arid East...

  11. Estimating Green Net National Product for Puerto Rico: An Economic Measure of Sustainability (Journal article)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents the data sources and methodology used to estimate Green Net National Product (GNNP), an economic metric of sustainability, for Puerto Rico. Using the change in GNNP as a one-sided test of weak sustainability (i.e., positive growth in GNNP is not enough to show...

  12. Effects of precipitation changes on aboveground net primary production and soil respiration in a switchgrass field

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study attempted to test whether switchgrass aboveground net primary production (ANPP) responds to precipitation (PPT) changes in a double asymmetry pattern as framed by Knapp et al. (2016), and whether it is held true for other ecosystem processes such as soil respiration (SR). Data were colle...

  13. The importance of biomass net uptake for a trace metal budget in a forest stand in north-eastern France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandois, L. [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, INP, EcoLab - Laboratoire d' ecologie fonctionnelle, ENSAT, Avenue de l' Agrobiopole, F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); CNRS, EcoLab, F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); Nicolas, M. [ONF, Direction technique RENECOFOR, Bd de Constance 77300 Fontainebleau (France); VanderHeijden, G. [INRA, centre de Nancy, Equipe BEF, 54280 Champenoux (France); Probst, A., E-mail: anne.probst@ensat.fr [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, INP, EcoLab -Laboratoire d' ecologie fonctionnelle, ENSAT, Avenue de l' Agrobiopole, F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); CNRS, EcoLab, F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France)

    2010-11-01

    The trace metal (TM: Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) budget (stocks and annual fluxes) was evaluated in a forest stand (silver fir, Abies alba Miller) in north-eastern France. Trace metal concentrations were measured in different tree compartments in order to assess TM partitioning and dynamics in the trees. Inputs included bulk deposition, estimated dry deposition and weathering. Outputs were leaching and biomass exportation. Atmospheric deposition was the main input flux. The estimated dry deposition accounted for about 40% of the total trace metal deposition. The relative importance of leaching (estimated by a lumped parameter water balance model, BILJOU) and net biomass uptake (harvesting) for ecosystem exportation depended on the element. Trace metal distribution between tree compartments (stem wood and bark, branches and needles) indicated that Pb was mainly stored in the stem, whereas Zn and Ni, and to a lesser extent Cd and Cu, were translocated to aerial parts of the trees and cycled in the ecosystem. For Zn and Ni, leaching was the main output flux (> 95% of the total output) and the plot budget (input-output) was negative, whereas for Pb the biomass net exportation represented 60% of the outputs and the budget was balanced. Cadmium and Cu had intermediate behaviours, with 18% and 30% of the total output relative to biomass exportation, respectively, and the budgets were negative. The net uptake by biomass was particularly important for Pb budgets, less so for Cd and Cu and not very important for Zn and Ni in such forest stands.

  14. Impacts of China's Three Gorges Dam Project on net primary productivity in the reservoir area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xibao; Tan, Yan; Yang, Guishan; Li, Hengpeng; Su, Weizhong

    2011-10-15

    China's Three Gorges Dam Project (TGP) is the world's largest hydroelectric power project, and as a consequence the reservoir area is at risk of ecological degradation. This study uses net primary productivity (NPP) as an important indicator of the reservoir ecosystem's productivity to estimate the impacts of the TGP in the local resettlement region of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) over the 2000-2010 period. The modeling method is based upon the Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach (CASA) terrestrial carbon model and uses Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) remote sensing data for modeling simulation. The results demonstrate that total NPP in the resettlement region decreased by 8.0% (632.8Gg) from 2000 to 2010. The impact of the TGP on NPP is mainly mediated by land-use change brought about by the large-scale inundation of land and subsequent massive resettlement of both rural and urban residents. Nearby resettlement, land inundation, and relocation of old urban centers and affiliated urban dwellers are responsible for 54.3%, 28.0%, and 5.8% respectively of total NPP reduction in the resettlement region over the study period. The major national ecological projects implemented in the TGRA since 1998 have played a key role in offsetting the negative impacts of the TGP on NPP in the region. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Travel-related imported infections in Europe, EuroTravNet 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odolini, S; Parola, P; Gkrania-Klotsas, E; Caumes, E; Schlagenhauf, P; López-Vélez, R; Burchard, G-D; Santos-O'Connor, F; Weld, L; von Sonnenburg, F; Field, V; de Vries, P; Jensenius, M; Loutan, L; Castelli, F

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate travel-associated morbidity in European travellers in 2009 in comparison with 2008, with a particular emphasis on emerging infectious diseases with the potential for introduction into Europe. Diagnoses with demographic, clinical and travel-related predictors of disease from ill returning travelers presenting to 12 core EuroTravNet sites from January to December 2009 were analysed. A total of 6392 patients were seen at EuroTravNet core sites in 2009, as compared with 6957 in 2008. As compared with 2008, there was a marked increase in the number of travellers exposed in North America and western Europe. Respiratory illnesses, in particular pandemic A(H1N1) influenza, influenza-like syndromes, and tuberculosis, were also observed more frequently. A significant increase in reported dengue cases in 2009 as compared with 2008 was observed (n = 172, 2.7% vs. n = 131, 1.90%) (p 0.002). The numbers of malaria and chikungunya cases were also increasing, although not significantly. Two deaths were recorded: visceral leishmaniasis and sepsis in a Sudanese migrant, and Acinetobacter sp. pneumonia in a patient who had visited Spain. This is the most comprehensive study of travel-related illness in Europe in 2009 as compared with 2008. A significant increase in travel-related respiratory and vector-borne infections was observed, highlighting the potential risk for introduction of these diseases into Europe, where competent vectors are present. The number of traveller deaths is probably underestimated. The possible role of the travellers in the emergence of infectious diseases of public health concern is highlighted. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2011 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  16. Net community production and calcification from 7 years of NOAA Station Papa Mooring measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassbender, Andrea J.; Sabine, Christopher L.; Cronin, Meghan F.

    2016-02-01

    Seven years of near-continuous observations from the Ocean Station Papa (OSP) surface mooring were used to evaluate drivers of marine carbon cycling in the eastern subarctic Pacific. Processes contributing to mixed layer carbon inventory changes throughout each deployment year were quantitatively assessed using a time-dependent mass balance approach in which total alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon were used as tracers. By using two mixed layer carbon tracers, it was possible to isolate the influences of net community production (NCP) and calcification. Our results indicate that the annual NCP at OSP is 2 ± 1 mol C m-2 yr-1 and the annual calcification is 0.3 ± 0.3 mol C m-2 yr-1. Piecing together evidence for potentially significant dissolved organic carbon cycling in this region, we estimate a particulate inorganic carbon to particulate organic carbon ratio between 0.15 and 0.25. This is at least double the global average, adding to the growing evidence that calcifying organisms play an important role in carbon export at this location. These results, coupled with significant seasonality in the NCP, suggest that carbon cycling near OSP may be more complex than previously thought and highlight the importance of continuous observations for robust assessments of biogeochemical cycling.

  17. Net energy production associated with pathogen inactivation during mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemba, Christopher; Peccia, Jordan

    2011-10-15

    The potential for anaerobic digester energy production must be balanced with the sustainability of reusing the resultant biosolids for land application. Mesophilic, thermophilic, temperature-phased, and high temperature (60 or 70 °C) batch pre-treatment digester configurations have been systematically evaluated for net energy production and pathogen inactivation potential. Energy input requirements and net energy production were modeled for each digester scheme. First-order inactivation rate coefficients for Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and bacteriophage MS-2 were measured at each digester temperature and full-scale pathogen inactivation performance was estimated for each indicator organism and each digester configuration. Inactivation rates were found to increase dramatically at temperatures above 55 °C. Modeling full-scale performance using retention times based on U.S. EPA time and temperature constraints predicts a 1-2 log inactivation in mesophilic treatment, and a 2-5 log inactivation in 50-55 °C thermophilic and temperature-phased treatments. Incorporating a 60 or 70 °C batch pre-treatment phase resulted in dramatically higher potency, achieving MS-2 inactivation of 14 and 16 logs respectively, and complete inactivation (over 100 log reduction) of E. coli and E. faecalis. For temperatures less than 70 °C, viability staining of thermally-treated E. coli showed significantly reduced inactivation relative to standard culture enumeration. Due to shorter residence times in thermophilic reactors, the net energy production for all digesters was similar (less than 20% difference) with the 60 or 70 °C batch treatment configurations producing the most net energy and the mesophilic treatment producing the least. Incorporating a 60 or 70 °C pre-treatment phase can dramatically increase pathogen inactivation performance without decreasing net energy capture from anaerobic digestion. Energy consumption is not a significant barrier against

  18. 78 FR 54971 - Limitations on the Importation of Net Built-In Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... tax in the hands of the transferor, the first condition for classification as importation property is... condition for classification as importation property is satisfied. Property is importation property only if... property to corporations that are subject to Federal income tax. The proposed regulations affect the...

  19. Timing of the compensation of winter respiratory carbon losses provides explanatory power for net ecosystem productivity of forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haeni, M.; Zweifel, R.; Eugster, W.

    2017-01-01

    Accurate predictions of net ecosystem productivity (NEPc) of forest ecosystems are essential for climate change decisions and requirements in the context of national forest growth and greenhouse gas inventories. However, drivers and underlying mechanisms determining NEPc (e.g. climate, nutrients......DOY depended on the integration method for NEPc, forest type, and whether the site had a distinct winter net respiratory carbon loss or not. The integration methods starting in autumn led to better predictions of NEPc from cDOY then the classical calendar method starting at January 1. Limited explanatory power...... of cDOY for NEPc was found for warmer sites with no distinct winter respiratory loss period. Our findings highlight the importance of the influence of winter processes and the delayed responses of previous seasons’ climatic conditions on current year's NEPc. Such carry-over effects may contain...

  20. Biomass rather than growth rate determines variation in net primary production by giant kelp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Daniel C; Rassweiler, Andrew; Arkema, Katie K

    2008-09-01

    Net primary production (NPP) is influenced by disturbance-driven fluctuations in foliar standing crop (FSC) and resource-driven fluctuations in rates of recruitment and growth, yet most studies of NPP have focused primarily on factors influencing growth. We quantified NPP, FSC, recruitment, and growth rate for the giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, at three kelp forests in southern California, U.S.A., over a 54-month period and determined the relative roles of FSC, recruitment, and growth rate in contributing to variation in annual NPP. Net primary production averaged between 0.42 and 2.38 kg dry mass x m(-2) x yr(-1) at the three sites. The initial FSC present at the beginning of the growth year and the recruitment of new plants during the year explained 63% and 21% of the interannual variation observed in NPP, respectively. The previous year's NPP and disturbance from waves collectively accounted for 80% of the interannual variation in initial FSC. No correlation was found between annual growth rate (i.e., the amount of new kelp mass produced per unit of existing kelp mass) and annual NPP (i.e., the amount of new kelp mass produced per unit area of ocean bottom), largely because annual growth rate was consistent compared to initial FSC and recruitment, which fluctuated greatly among years and sites. Although growth rate was a poor predictor of variation in annual NPP, it was principally responsible for the high mean values observed for NPP by Macrocystis. These high mean values reflected rapid growth (average of approximately 2% per day) of a relatively small standing crop (maximum annual mean = 444 g dry mass/m2) that replaced itself approximately seven times per year. Disturbance-driven variability in FSC may be generally important in explaining variation in NPP, yet it is rarely examined because cycles of disturbance and recovery occur over timescales of decades or more in many systems. Considerable insight into how variation in FSC drives variation in NPP may

  1. Impact of U.S. forest products consumption, imports, and exports on foreign timber harvests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irene Durbak; Ken. Skog

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. has historically been a net importer of wood and paper products. During the 1990’s, the U.S. trade deficit widened, implying an increasing U.S. impact on timber harvests in foreign supply regions. An analysis was made of historical and projected trends in U.S. consumption and trade in terms of the roundwood volume required to make products consumed and traded...

  2. 9 CFR 327.11 - Receipts to importers for import product samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Receipts to importers for import..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS § 327.11 Receipts to importers for import...

  3. Air pollution causes health effects and net national product of a country decreases: a theoretical framework

    OpenAIRE

    Mohajan, Haradhan

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with green accounting and accounts the health effects of air pollution. It shows that due to air pollution human capital can not be utilized properly and net national product of a country decreases. The willing to pay system among workers is beneficial to the government, factory owners and workers of a country. The marginal cost-benefit rule for an optimal level of air pollution creates negative health effects. The air pollution cause both direct disutility and indirect welfar...

  4. Predicting global oceanic net primary productivity with reduced-dimension, linear dynamical spatiotemporal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, F.; Barton, A.; Stock, C. A.

    2016-02-01

    Oceanic net primary production (NPP) accounts for roughly half of biological carbon fixation at the global scale, determining upper bounds for fisheries and export production. Assessing our ability to predict changes in NPP has thus major implications for the analysis of climate change impacts and for the management of living marine resources. Here, we fitted a series of reduced-dimension, linear dynamical spatiotemporal models to estimates of NPP derived from 18 years of remote sensing data and from simulations of a fully coupled, ocean-atmosphere Earth System Model (ESM). The method projects the evolution of NPP anomalies at the global scale from the time decay and interactions among a reduced set of major NPP modes of variability. This approach allowed us to assess potential limits to the predictability of NPP at the seasonal scale, and to assess the agreement in regional patterns of predictability based on remote sensing and ESM NPP estimates at large scales. The models are able to anticipate changes in NPP at lead times up to 24 months, especially in subtropical latitudes. Predictability was dominated by the decay of major modes at short time scales, with a prevalence of slow moving modes related to El Niño-Southern Oscillation and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. This decay dominated short-term predictions in both remote sensing and ESM NPP, although the modes prevailed for a longer time in ESM simulations. The dominance of short time persistence declined gradually at longer lead times as interactions between modes became more important for predicting NPP changes. These interactions were related to the propagation of major climate modes. Our approach provides a novel set of diagnostics to assess the performance of ESMs, and allowed us to identify potential regions where the prediction of NPP might lead to an improved management of living marine resources.

  5. Controls of vegetation structure and net primary production in restored grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Seth M.; Lauenroth, William K.

    2014-01-01

    1. Vegetation structure and net primary production (NPP) are fundamental properties of ecosystems. Understanding how restoration practices following disturbance interact with environmental factors to control these properties can provide insight on how ecosystems recover and guide management efforts. 2. We assessed the relative contribution of environmental and restoration factors in controlling vegetation structure, above- and below-ground investment in production across a chronosequence of semiarid Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) fields recovering from dryland wheat cropping relative to undisturbed grassland. Importantly, we determined the role of plant diversity and how seeding either native or introduced perennial grasses influenced the recovery of vegetation properties. 3. Plant basal cover increased with field age and was highest in CRP fields seeded with native perennial grasses. In contrast, fields seeded with introduced perennial grasses had tall-growing plants with relatively low basal cover. These vegetation structural characteristics interacted with precipitation, but not soil characteristics, to influence above-ground NPP (ANPP). Fields enrolled in the CRP program for >7 years supported twice as much ANPP as undisturbed shortgrass steppe in the first wet year of the study, but all CRP fields converged on a common low amount of ANPP in the following dry year and invested less than half as much as the shortgrass steppe in below-ground biomass. 4. ANPP in CRP fields seeded with native perennial grasses for more than 7 years was positively related to species richness, whereas ANPP in CRP fields seeded with introduced perennial grasses were controlled more by dominant species. 5. Synthesis and applications. Seeding with introduced, instead of native, perennial grasses had a strong direct influence on vegetation structure, including species richness, which indirectly affected NPP through time. However, the effects of restoring either native or introduced

  6. Creating a Regional MODIS Satellite-Driven Net Primary Production Dataset for European Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Neumann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Net primary production (NPP is an important ecological metric for studying forest ecosystems and their carbon sequestration, for assessing the potential supply of food or timber and quantifying the impacts of climate change on ecosystems. The global MODIS NPP dataset using the MOD17 algorithm provides valuable information for monitoring NPP at 1-km resolution. Since coarse-resolution global climate data are used, the global dataset may contain uncertainties for Europe. We used a 1-km daily gridded European climate data set with the MOD17 algorithm to create the regional NPP dataset MODIS EURO. For evaluation of this new dataset, we compare MODIS EURO with terrestrial driven NPP from analyzing and harmonizing forest inventory data (NFI from 196,434 plots in 12 European countries as well as the global MODIS NPP dataset for the years 2000 to 2012. Comparing these three NPP datasets, we found that the global MODIS NPP dataset differs from NFI NPP by 26%, while MODIS EURO only differs by 7%. MODIS EURO also agrees with NFI NPP across scales (from continental, regional to country and gradients (elevation, location, tree age, dominant species, etc.. The agreement is particularly good for elevation, dominant species or tree height. This suggests that using improved climate data allows the MOD17 algorithm to provide realistic NPP estimates for Europe. Local discrepancies between MODIS EURO and NFI NPP can be related to differences in stand density due to forest management and the national carbon estimation methods. With this study, we provide a consistent, temporally continuous and spatially explicit productivity dataset for the years 2000 to 2012 on a 1-km resolution, which can be used to assess climate change impacts on ecosystems or the potential biomass supply of the European forests for an increasing bio-based economy. MODIS EURO data are made freely available at ftp://palantir.boku.ac.at/Public/MODIS_EURO.

  7. The new automotive 42V PowerNet. Preparing for mass production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, A. (ed.)

    2001-07-01

    A number of international auto makers have set themselves the target of getting an automobile with a dual 12V/42V PowerNet into mass production by the year 2005. Reports on practical experience of current projects at leading international auto makers and suppliers allow the reader to get a picture of the status of introduction of the 42V PowerNet and of the problems associated with translating development work into mass production, providing them with an idea of the opportunities for structuring their own company or organizing company activities. The book gives an overview of the problems of introducing the 42V PowerNet into automotive engineering. The basic question here is not 'Why 42V?' but rather 'How can a 42V system be introduced into mass production alongside an existing 12V system?''. It provides information from the standpoint of the engineer and the businessman on: The problems of introduction as seen by the auto maker - Proposed solutions to detailed problems such as short circuits and sparking-System reviews, such as Intelligent Power Management - Suggestions for individual components, such as individual semiconductors - Suggested solutions involving new materials - Solution variants and verification by simulation. (orig.)

  8. Ozone flux over a Norway spruce forest and correlation with net ecosystem production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapletal, Milos, E-mail: milos.zapletal@ekotoxa.cz [Ekotoxa s.r.o. - Centre for Environment and Land Assessment, Oticka 37, 746 01 Opava (Czech Republic); Silesian University at Opava, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Masarykova 37, 746 01 Opava (Czech Republic); Cudlin, Pavel [Institute of Systems Biology and Ecology of the AS CR, v.v.i., Na Sadkach 7, 37005 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Chroust, Petr [Ekotoxa s.r.o. - Centre for Environment and Land Assessment, Oticka 37, 746 01 Opava (Czech Republic); Urban, Otmar; Pokorny, Radek [Institute of Systems Biology and Ecology of the AS CR, v.v.i., Porici 3b, 60300 Brno (Czech Republic); Edwards-Jonasova, Magda [Institute of Systems Biology and Ecology of the AS CR, v.v.i., Na Sadkach 7, 37005 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Czerny, Radek; Janous, Dalibor; Taufarova, Klara [Institute of Systems Biology and Ecology of the AS CR, v.v.i., Porici 3b, 60300 Brno (Czech Republic); Vecera, Zbynek; Mikuska, Pavel [Institute of Analytical Chemistry of the AS CR, v.v.i., Veveri 97, 60200 Brno (Czech Republic); Paoletti, Elena [Institute of Plant Protection, National Research Council of Italy, via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2011-05-15

    Daily ozone deposition flux to a Norway spruce forest in Czech Republic was measured using the gradient method in July and August 2008. Results were in good agreement with a deposition flux model. The mean daily stomatal uptake of ozone was around 47% of total deposition. Average deposition velocity was 0.39 cm s{sup -1} and 0.36 cm s{sup -1} by the gradient method and the deposition model, respectively. Measured and modelled non-stomatal uptake was around 0.2 cm s{sup -1}. In addition, net ecosystem production (NEP) was measured by using Eddy Covariance and correlations with O{sub 3} concentrations at 15 m a.g.l., total deposition and stomatal uptake were tested. Total deposition and stomatal uptake of ozone significantly decreased NEP, especially by high intensities of solar radiation. - Highlights: > We estimate ozone deposition flux to a Norway spruce forest using the gradient method and model. > The mean stomatal uptake of ozone is approximately 47% of the total deposition. > We measure net ecosystem production (NEP) using Eddy Covariance. > We test whether elevated total deposition and stomatal uptake of O{sub 3} imply a reduction of NEP. > Deposition and stomatal uptake of O{sub 3} decrease NEP, especially by high intensities of solar radiation. - Net ecosystem production of a Norway spruce forest decreases with increasing deposition and stomatal uptake of ozone.

  9. China as a net food importer: opportunity or threat for global food partnerships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. van Dijk (Meine Pieter)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractGood health and food safety are important for Chinese people. The 1.5 billion Chinese wants to be sure that their food meets international quality standards. Business advice and know-how to upgrade national food industry is welcomed as well as innovative ways to avoid inflation because

  10. Seasonal distribution of dissolved inorganic carbon and net community production on the Bering Sea shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. T. Mathis

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the current state of net community production (NCP in the southeastern Bering Sea, we measured the spatio-temporal distribution and controls on dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC concentrations in spring and summer of 2008 across six shelf domains defined by differing biogeochemical characteristics. DIC concentrations were tightly coupled to salinity in spring and ranged from ~1900 μmoles kg−1 over the inner shelf to ~2400 μmoles kg−1 in the deeper waters of the Bering Sea. In summer, DIC concentrations were lower due to dilution from sea ice melt, terrestrial inputs, and primary production. Concentrations were found to be as low ~1800 μmoles kg−1 over the inner shelf. We found that DIC concentrations were drawn down 30–150 μmoles kg−1 in the upper 30 m of the water column due to primary production and calcium carbonate formation between the spring and summer occupations. Using the seasonal drawdown of DIC, estimated rates of NCP on the inner, middle, and outer shelf averaged 28 ± 9 mmoles C m−2 d−1. However, higher rates of NCP (40–47 mmoles C m−2 d−1 were observed in the "Green Belt" where the greatest confluence of nutrient-rich basin water and iron-rich shelf water occurs. We estimated that in 2008, total NCP across the shelf was on the order of ~96 Tg C yr−1. Due to the paucity of consistent, comparable productivity data, it is impossible at this time to quantify whether the system is becoming more or less productive. However, as changing climate continues to modify the character of the Bering Sea, we have shown that NCP can be an important indicator of how the ecosystem is functioning.

  11. Optimum Temperatures for Net Primary Productivity of Three Tropical Seagrass Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Catherine J; Ow, Yan X; Langlois, Lucas; Uthicke, Sven; Johansson, Charlotte L; O'Brien, Katherine R; Hrebien, Victoria; Adams, Matthew P

    2017-01-01

    Rising sea water temperature will play a significant role in responses of the world's seagrass meadows to climate change. In this study, we investigated seasonal and latitudinal variation (spanning more than 1,500 km) in seagrass productivity, and the optimum temperatures at which maximum photosynthesis and net productivity (for the leaf and the whole plant) occurs, for three seagrass species (Cymodocea serrulata, Halodule uninervis, and Zostera muelleri). To obtain whole plant net production, photosynthesis, and respiration rates of leaves and the root/rhizome complex were measured using oxygen-sensitive optodes in closed incubation chambers at temperatures ranging from 15 to 43°C. The temperature-dependence of photosynthesis and respiration was fitted to empirical models to obtain maximum metabolic rates and thermal optima. The thermal optimum (Topt) for gross photosynthesis of Z. muelleri, which is more commonly distributed in sub-tropical to temperate regions, was 31°C. The Topt for photosynthesis of the tropical species, H. uninervis and C. serrulata, was considerably higher (35°C on average). This suggests that seagrass species are adapted to water temperature within their distributional range; however, when comparing among latitudes and seasons, thermal optima within a species showed limited acclimation to ambient water temperature (Topt varied by 1°C in C. serrulata and 2°C in H. uninervis, and the variation did not follow changes in ambient water temperature). The Topt for gross photosynthesis were higher than Topt calculated from plant net productivity, which includes above- and below-ground respiration for Z. muelleri (24°C) and H. uninervis (33°C), but remained unchanged at 35°C in C. serrulata. Both estimated plant net productivity and Topt are sensitive to the proportion of below-ground biomass, highlighting the need for consideration of below- to above-ground biomass ratios when applying thermal optima to other meadows. The thermal optimum

  12. Optimum Temperatures for Net Primary Productivity of Three Tropical Seagrass Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine J. Collier

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Rising sea water temperature will play a significant role in responses of the world's seagrass meadows to climate change. In this study, we investigated seasonal and latitudinal variation (spanning more than 1,500 km in seagrass productivity, and the optimum temperatures at which maximum photosynthesis and net productivity (for the leaf and the whole plant occurs, for three seagrass species (Cymodocea serrulata, Halodule uninervis, and Zostera muelleri. To obtain whole plant net production, photosynthesis, and respiration rates of leaves and the root/rhizome complex were measured using oxygen-sensitive optodes in closed incubation chambers at temperatures ranging from 15 to 43°C. The temperature-dependence of photosynthesis and respiration was fitted to empirical models to obtain maximum metabolic rates and thermal optima. The thermal optimum (Topt for gross photosynthesis of Z. muelleri, which is more commonly distributed in sub-tropical to temperate regions, was 31°C. The Topt for photosynthesis of the tropical species, H. uninervis and C. serrulata, was considerably higher (35°C on average. This suggests that seagrass species are adapted to water temperature within their distributional range; however, when comparing among latitudes and seasons, thermal optima within a species showed limited acclimation to ambient water temperature (Topt varied by 1°C in C. serrulata and 2°C in H. uninervis, and the variation did not follow changes in ambient water temperature. The Topt for gross photosynthesis were higher than Topt calculated from plant net productivity, which includes above- and below-ground respiration for Z. muelleri (24°C and H. uninervis (33°C, but remained unchanged at 35°C in C. serrulata. Both estimated plant net productivity and Topt are sensitive to the proportion of below-ground biomass, highlighting the need for consideration of below- to above-ground biomass ratios when applying thermal optima to other meadows. The

  13. THE IMPORTANCE OF MYCOTOXINS IN DAIRY PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    TAHMAS KAHYAOĞLU, Deren

    2017-01-01

    In suitablemoisture and temperature conditions some fungus such as Aspergillus,Penicillium, Fusarium, Alternaria, Claviceps synthesis the mycotoxins whichhave toxic and carcinogenic properties are fungal metabolites that have lowmolecular weights. Aflatoxin, ochratoxin, trichothecene, zearalenone, patulinand fumonisin are the most common mycotoxins. Aflatoxins, one ofthe mostimportant mycotoxins, are heat- resistant, toxic, immunosuppressive, mutagenic,teratogenic secondary metabolic products...

  14. Gross nitrous oxide production drives net nitrous oxide fluxes across a salt marsh landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wendy H; Silver, Whendee L

    2016-06-01

    Sea level rise will change inundation regimes in salt marshes, altering redox dynamics that control nitrification - a potential source of the potent greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2 O) - and denitrification, a major nitrogen (N) loss pathway in coastal ecosystems and both a source and sink of N2 O. Measurements of net N2 O fluxes alone yield little insight into the different effects of redox conditions on N2 O production and consumption. We used in situ measurements of gross N2 O fluxes across a salt marsh elevation gradient to determine how soil N2 O emissions in coastal ecosystems may respond to future sea level rise. Soil redox declined as marsh elevation decreased, with lower soil nitrate and higher ferrous iron in the low marsh compared to the mid and high marshes (P < 0.001 for both). In addition, soil oxygen concentrations were lower in the low and mid-marshes relative to the high marsh (P < 0.001). Net N2 O fluxes differed significantly among marsh zones (P = 0.009), averaging 9.8 ± 5.4 μg N m(-2)  h(-1) , -2.2 ± 0.9 μg N m(-2)  h(-1) , and 0.67 ± 0.57 μg N m(-2)  h(-1) in the low, mid, and high marshes, respectively. Both net N2 O release and uptake were observed in the low and high marshes, but the mid-marsh was consistently a net N2 O sink. Gross N2 O production was highest in the low marsh and lowest in the mid-marsh (P = 0.02), whereas gross N2 O consumption did not differ among marsh zones. Thus, variability in gross N2 O production rates drove the differences in net N2 O flux among marsh zones. Our results suggest that future studies should focus on elucidating controls on the processes producing, rather than consuming, N2 O in salt marshes to improve our predictions of changes in net N2 O fluxes caused by future sea level rise. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. 9 CFR 327.4 - Imported products; foreign certificates required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... foreign meat-inspection certificate shall be in both the English language and the language of the foreign... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS § 327.4 Imported products; foreign... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Imported products; foreign...

  16. UV sensitivity of planktonic net community production in ocean surface waters

    OpenAIRE

    Regaudie de Gioux, Aurore; Agustí, Susana; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2014-01-01

    The net plankton community metabolism of oceanic surface waters is particularly important as it more directly affects the partial pressure of CO2 in surface waters and thus the air-sea fluxes of CO2. Plankton communities in surface waters are exposed to high irradiance that includes significant ultraviolet blue (UVB, 280-315 nm) radiation. UVB radiation affects both photosynthetic and respiration rates, increase plankton mortality rates, and other metabolic and chemical processes. Here we tes...

  17. A new net primary production estimating model using NOAA-AVHRR applied to the Haihe Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xingang; Wu, Bingfang; Li, Qiangzi; Meng, Jihua; Zhang, Fengli

    2006-10-01

    Terrestrial net primary production (NPP), as an important component of carbon cycle on land, not only indicates directly the production level of vegetation community on land, but also shows the status of terrestrial ecosystem. What's more, NPP is also a determinant of carbon sinks on land and a key regulator of ecological processes, including interactions among tropic levels. In the study, three existing models are combined with each other to assess net primary production in Haihe Basin, China. The photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) model of Monteith is used for the calculation of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR), the light utilization efficiency model of Potter et al. is used for determining the light utilization efficiency, and the surface energy balance system (SEBS) of Su is used into Potter's model to describe water stress in land wetness conditions. To assess NPP, We use NOAA-AVHRR data from November 2003 to September 2004 and the corresponding daily data of temperature and hours of sunshine obtained from meteorological stations in Haihe Basin, China. After atmospheric, geometrical and radiant corrections, every ten days NOAA data are processed to become an image of NDVI by means of the maximal value composition method (MVC) in order to eliminate some noises. Using these data, we compute NPP in spring season and spring season of 2004 in Haihe Basin, China. The result shows, in Haihe Basin, NPP for spring season is averaged to 336.10gC•m -2, and 709.16 gC•m -2 for autumn season. In spatial distribution, NPP is greater in both ends than in middle for spring season, and decrease increasingly from north to south for autumn season. Future work should rely on the integration of high and low resolution images to assess net primary production, which will probably have more accurately estimation.

  18. 21 CFR 123.12 - Special requirements for imported products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements for imported products. This section sets forth specific requirements for imported fish and fishery... fish or fishery products being offered for import; (B) Obtaining either a continuing or lot-by-lot... that the imported fish or fishery product is or was processed in accordance with the requirements of...

  19. Impact of the diet on net endogenous acid production and acid-base balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poupin, Nathalie; Calvez, Juliane; Lassale, Camille; Chesneau, Caroline; Tomé, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Net acid production, which is composed of volatile acids (15,000 mEq/day) and metabolic acids (70-100 mEq/day) is relatively small compared to whole-body H⁺ turnover (150,000 mEq/day). Metabolic acids are ingested from the diet or produced as intermediary or end products of endogenous metabolism. The three commonly reported sources of net acid production are the metabolism of sulphur amino acids, the metabolism or ingestion of organic acids, and the metabolism of phosphate esters or dietary phosphoproteins. Net base production occurs mainly as a result of absorption of organic anions from the diet. To maintain acid-base balance, ingested and endogenously produced acids are neutralized within the body by buffer systems or eliminated from the body through the respiratory (excretion of volatile acid in the form of CO₂) and urinary (excretion of fixed acids and remaining H⁺) pathways. Because of the many reactions involved in the acid-base balance, the direct determination of acid production is complex and is usually estimated through direct or indirect measurements of acid excretion. However, indirect approaches, which assess the acid-forming potential of the ingested diet based on its composition, do not take all the acid-producing reactions into account. Direct measurements therefore seem more reliable. Nevertheless, acid excretion does not truly provide information on the way acidity is dealt with in the plasma and this measurement should be interpreted with caution when assessing acid-base imbalance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  20. Visual Studio 2010 and NET 4 Six-in-One

    CERN Document Server

    Novak, Istvan; Granicz, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Complete coverage of all key .NET 4 and Visual Studio 2010 languages and technologies. .NET 4 is Microsoft's latest version of their core programming platform, and Visual Studio 2010 is the toolset that helps write .NET 4 applications. This comprehensive resource offers one-stop shopping for all you need to know to get productive with .NET 4. Experienced author and .NET guru Mitchel Sellers reviews all the important new features of .NET 4, including .NET charting and ASP.NET charting, ASP.NET dynamic data and jQuery, and the addition of F# as a supported package language. The expansive coverag

  1. Cholesterol oxidation products and their biological importance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulig, Waldemar; Cwiklik, Lukasz; Jurkiewicz, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    and precisely regulated level, with an excess of cholesterol. Like cholesterol, many oxysterols are hydrophobic and hence confined to cell membranes. However, small chemical differences between the sterols can significantly affect how they interact with other membrane components, and this in turn can have...... a substantial effect on membrane properties. In this spirit, this review describes the biological importance and the roles of oxysterols in the human body. We focus primarily on the effect of oxysterols on lipid membranes, but we also consider other issues such as enzymatic and nonenzymatic synthesis processes...

  2. Relationships between net primary productivity and forest stand age in U.S. forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Liming; Chen, Jing M.; Pan, Yude; Birdsey, Richard; Kattge, Jens

    2012-09-01

    Net primary productivity (NPP) is a key flux in the terrestrial ecosystem carbon balance, as it summarizes the autotrophic input into the system. Forest NPP varies predictably with stand age, and quantitative information on the NPP-age relationship for different regions and forest types is therefore fundamentally important for forest carbon cycle modeling. We used four terms to calculate NPP: annual accumulation of live biomass, annual mortality of aboveground and belowground biomass, foliage turnover to soil, and fine root turnover in soil. For U.S. forests the first two terms can be reliably estimated from the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data. Although the last two terms make up more than 50% of total NPP, direct estimates of these fluxes are highly uncertain due to limited availability of empirical relationships between aboveground biomass and foliage or fine root biomass. To resolve this problem, we developed a new approach using maps of leaf area index (LAI) and forest age at 1 km resolution to derive LAI-age relationships for 18 major forest type groups in the USA. These relationships were then used to derive foliage turnover estimates using species-specific trait data for leaf specific area and longevity. These turnover estimates were also used to derive the fine root turnover based on reliable relationships between fine root and foliage turnover. This combination of FIA data, remote sensing, and plant trait information allows for the first empirical and reliable NPP-age relationships for different forest types in the USA. The relationships show a general temporal pattern of rapid increase in NPP in the young ages of forest type groups, peak growth in the middle ages, and slow decline in the mature ages. The predicted patterns are influenced by climate conditions and can be affected by forest management. These relationships were further generalized to three major forest biomes for use by continental-scale carbon cycle models in conjunction with

  3. The CAFE model: A net production model for global ocean phytoplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silsbe, Greg M.; Behrenfeld, Michael J.; Halsey, Kimberly H.; Milligan, Allen J.; Westberry, Toby K.

    2016-12-01

    The Carbon, Absorption, and Fluorescence Euphotic-resolving (CAFE) net primary production model is an adaptable framework for advancing global ocean productivity assessments by exploiting state-of-the-art satellite ocean color analyses and addressing key physiological and ecological attributes of phytoplankton. Here we present the first implementation of the CAFE model that incorporates inherent optical properties derived from ocean color measurements into a mechanistic and accurate model of phytoplankton growth rates (μ) and net phytoplankton production (NPP). The CAFE model calculates NPP as the product of energy absorption (QPAR), and the efficiency (ϕμ) by which absorbed energy is converted into carbon biomass (CPhyto), while μ is calculated as NPP normalized to CPhyto. The CAFE model performance is evaluated alongside 21 other NPP models against a spatially robust and globally representative set of direct NPP measurements. This analysis demonstrates that the CAFE model explains the greatest amount of variance and has the lowest model bias relative to other NPP models analyzed with this data set. Global oceanic NPP from the CAFE model (52 Pg C m-2 yr-1) and mean division rates (0.34 day-1) are derived from climatological satellite data (2002-2014). This manuscript discusses and validates individual CAFE model parameters (e.g., QPAR and ϕμ), provides detailed sensitivity analyses, and compares the CAFE model results and parameterization to other widely cited models.

  4. MISR Level 3 Component Global Land product in netCDF format covering a day V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MISR Level 3 Component Global Land Product in netCDF contains a daily statistical summary of directional hemispherical reflectance (DHR), photosynthetically...

  5. MISR Level 3 Component Global Land product in netCDF format covering a year V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MISR Level 3 Yearly Component Global Land Product in netCDF contains a yearly statistical summary of directional hemispherical reflectance (DHR),...

  6. MISR Level 3 Component Global Land product in netCDF format covering a month V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MISR Level 3 Monthly Component Global Land Product in netCDF contains a monthly statistical summary of directional hemispherical reflectance (DHR),...

  7. MISR Level 3 FIRSTLOOK Global Albedo product in netCDF format covering a day V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MISR Level 3 FIRSTLOOK Component Global Albedo Product in netCDF covering a day contains a statistical summary of column albedo 555 nanometer optical depth, and...

  8. MISR Level 3 FIRSTLOOK Global Albedo product in netCDF format covering a month V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MISR Level 3 FIRSTLOOK Component Global Albedo Product in netCDF format covering a month contains a statistical summary of column albedo 555 nanometer optical...

  9. MISR Level 3 FIRSTLOOK Global Aerosol product in netCDF format covering a day V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MISR Level 3 FIRSTLOOK Global Aerosol Product in netCDF format covering a day contains a statistical summary of column aerosol 555 nanometer optical depth, and a...

  10. Worldwide estimates and bibliography of net primary productivity derived from pre-1982 publications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esser, G. [Justus-Liebig-Univ., Giessen (Germany). Inst. for Plant Ecology; Lieth, H.F.H. [Univ. of Osnabrueck (Germany). Systems Research Group; Scurlock, J.M.O.; Olson, R.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-10-01

    An extensive compilation of more than 700 field estimates of net primary productivity of natural and agricultural ecosystems worldwide was synthesized in Germany in the 1970s and early 1980s. Although the Osnabrueck data set has not been updated since the 1980s, it represents a wealth of information for use in model development and validation. This report documents the development of this data set, its contents, and its recent availability on the Internet from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center for Biogeochemical Dynamics. Caution is advised in using these data, which necessarily include assumptions and conversions that may not be universally applicable to all sites.

  11. Modeling and Optimizing Energy Utilization of Steel Production Process: A Hybrid Petri Net Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The steel industry is responsible for nearly 9% of anthropogenic energy utilization in the world. It is urgent to reduce the total energy utilization of steel industry under the huge pressures on reducing energy consumption and CO2 emission. Meanwhile, the steel manufacturing is a typical continuous-discrete process with multiprocedures, multiobjects, multiconstraints, and multimachines coupled, which makes energy management rather difficult. In order to study the energy flow within the real steel production process, this paper presents a new modeling and optimization method for the process based on Hybrid Petri Nets (HPN in consideration of the situation above. Firstly, we introduce the detailed description of HPN. Then the real steel production process from one typical integrated steel plant is transformed into Hybrid Petri Net model as a case. Furthermore, we obtain a series of constraints of our optimization model from this model. In consideration of the real process situation, we pick the steel production, energy efficiency and self-made gas surplus as the main optimized goals in this paper. Afterwards, a fuzzy linear programming method is conducted to obtain the multiobjective optimization results. Finally, some measures are suggested to improve this low efficiency and high whole cost process structure.

  12. Decreasing Net Primary Productivity in Response to Urbanization in Liaoning Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional ecosystems have been greatly affected by the rapid expansion of urban areas. In order to explore the impact of land use change on net primary productivity (NPP in rapidly developing cities during the current urbanization process, we quantified land use change in Liaoning province between 2000 and 2010 using net primary productivity as an indicator of ecosystem productivity and health. The Carnegie–Ames–Stanford Approach model was used to estimate NPP by region and land use. We used a unit circle-based evaluation model to quantify local urbanization effects on NPP around eight representative cities. The dominant land use types were farmland, woodland and urban, with urban rapidly replacing farmland. Mean annual NPP and total NPP decreased faster from 2005 to 2010 than from 2000 to 2005, reflecting increasing urbanization rates. The eastern, primarily woodland part of Liaoning province had the greatest reduction in NPP, while the western part, which was primarily farmland and grassland, had the lowest reduction.

  13. Net primary productivity of forest stands in New Hampshire estimated from Landsat and MODIS satellite data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genovese Vanessa

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A simulation model that relies on satellite observations of vegetation cover from the Landsat 7 sensor and from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS was used to estimate net primary productivity (NPP of forest stands at the Bartlett Experiment Forest (BEF in the White Mountains of New Hampshire. Results Net primary production (NPP predicted from the NASA-CASA model using 30-meter resolution Landsat inputs showed variations related to both vegetation cover type and elevational effects on mean air temperatures. Overall, the highest predicted NPP from the NASA-CASA model was for deciduous forest cover at low to mid-elevation locations over the landscape. Comparison of the model-predicted annual NPP to the plot-estimated values showed a significant correlation of R2 = 0.5. Stepwise addition of 30-meter resolution elevation data values explained no more than 20% of the residual variation in measured NPP patterns at BEF. Both the Landsat 7 and the 250-meter resolution MODIS derived mean annual NPP predictions for the BEF plot locations were within ± 2.5% of the mean of plot estimates for annual NPP. Conclusion Although MODIS imagery cannot capture the spatial details of NPP across the network of closely spaced plot locations as well as Landsat, the MODIS satellite data as inputs to the NASA-CASA model does accurately predict the average annual productivity of a site like the BEF.

  14. Future supply and demand of net primary production in the Sahel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallaba, Florian; Olin, Stefan; Engström, Kerstin; Abdi, Abdulhakim M.; Boke-Olén, Niklas; Lehsten, Veiko; Ardö, Jonas; Seaquist, Jonathan W.

    2017-12-01

    In the 21st century, climate change in combination with increasing demand, mainly from population growth, will exert greater pressure on the ecosystems of the Sahel to supply food and feed resources. The balance between supply and demand, defined as the annual biomass required for human consumption, serves as a key metric for quantifying basic resource shortfalls over broad regions.Here we apply an exploratory modelling framework to analyse the variations in the timing and geography of different NPP (net primary production) supply-demand scenarios, with distinct assumptions determining supply and demand, for the 21st century Sahel. We achieve this by coupling a simple NPP supply model forced with projections from four representative concentration pathways with a global, reduced-complexity demand model driven by socio-economic data and assumptions derived from five shared socio-economic pathways.For the scenario that deviates least from current socio-economic and climate trends, we find that per capita NPP begins to outstrip supply in the 2040s, while by 2050 half the countries in the Sahel experience NPP shortfalls. We also find that despite variations in the timing of the onset of NPP shortfalls, demand cannot consistently be met across the majority of scenarios. Moreover, large between-country variations are shown across the scenarios, in which by the year 2050 some countries consistently experience shortage or surplus, while others shift from surplus to shortage. At the local level (i.e. grid cell), hotspots of total NPP shortfall consistently occur in the same locations across all scenarios but vary in size and magnitude. These hotspots are linked to population density and high demand. For all scenarios, total simulated NPP supply doubles by 2050 but is outpaced by increasing demand due to a combination of population growth and the adoption of diets rich in animal products. Finally, variations in the timing of the onset and end of supply shortfalls stem from

  15. Net primary productivity of subalpine meadows in Yosemite National Park in relation to climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peggy E. Moore; Jan W. van Wagtendonk; Julie L. Yee; Mitchel P. McClaran; David N. Cole; Neil K. McDougald; Matthew L. Brooks

    2013-01-01

    Subalpine meadows are some of the most ecologically important components of mountain landscapes, and primary productivity is important to the maintenance of meadow functions. Understanding how changes in primary productivity are associated with variability in moisture and temperature will become increasingly important with current and anticipated changes in climate....

  16. Disturbance, complexity, and succession of net ecosystem production in North America’s temperate deciduous forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gough, Christopher; Curtis, Peter; Hardiman, Brady; Scheuermann, Cynthia; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin

    2016-06-29

    Century-old forests in the U.S. upper Midwest and Northeast power much of North Amer- ica’s terrestrial carbon (C) sink, but these forests’ production and C sequestration capacity are expected to soon decline as fast-growing early successional species die and are replaced by slower growing late successional species. But will this really happen? Here we marshal empirical data and ecological theory to argue that substantial declines in net ecosystem production (NEP) owing to reduced forest growth, or net primary production (NPP), are not imminent in regrown temperate deciduous forests over the next several decades. Forest age and production data for temperate deciduous forests, synthesized from published literature, suggest slight declines in NEP and increasing or stable NPP during middle successional stages. We revisit long-held hypotheses by EP Odum and others that suggest low-severity, high-frequency disturbances occurring in the region’s aging forests will, against intuition, maintain NEP at higher-than- expected rates by increasing ecosystem complexity, sustaining or enhancing NPP to a level that largely o sets rising C losses as heterotrophic respiration increases. This theoretical model is also supported by biological evidence and observations from the Forest Accelerated Succession Experiment in Michigan, USA. Ecosystems that experience high-severity disturbances that simplify ecosystem complexity can exhibit substantial declines in production during middle stages of succession. However, observations from these ecosystems have exerted a disproportionate in uence on assumptions regarding the trajectory and magnitude of age-related declines in forest production. We conclude that there is a wide ecological space for forests to maintain NPP and, in doing so, lessens the declines in NEP, with signi cant implications for the future of the North American carbon sink. Our intellectual frameworks for understanding forest C cycle dynamics and resilience need to

  17. Effects of vegetation heterogeneity and surface topography on spatial scaling of net primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. M.; Chen, X.; Ju, W.

    2013-07-01

    Due to the heterogeneous nature of the land surface, spatial scaling is an inevitable issue in the development of land models coupled with low-resolution Earth system models (ESMs) for predicting land-atmosphere interactions and carbon-climate feedbacks. In this study, a simple spatial scaling algorithm is developed to correct errors in net primary productivity (NPP) estimates made at a coarse spatial resolution based on sub-pixel information of vegetation heterogeneity and surface topography. An eco-hydrological model BEPS-TerrainLab, which considers both vegetation and topographical effects on the vertical and lateral water flows and the carbon cycle, is used to simulate NPP at 30 m and 1 km resolutions for a 5700 km2 watershed with an elevation range from 518 m to 3767 m in the Qinling Mountain, Shanxi Province, China. Assuming that the NPP simulated at 30 m resolution represents the reality and that at 1 km resolution is subject to errors due to sub-pixel heterogeneity, a spatial scaling index (SSI) is developed to correct the coarse resolution NPP values pixel by pixel. The agreement between the NPP values at these two resolutions is improved considerably from R2 = 0.782 to R2 = 0.884 after the correction. The mean bias error (MBE) in NPP modelled at the 1 km resolution is reduced from 14.8 g C m-2 yr-1 to 4.8 g C m-2 yr-1 in comparison with NPP modelled at 30 m resolution, where the mean NPP is 668 g C m-2 yr-1. The range of spatial variations of NPP at 30 m resolution is larger than that at 1 km resolution. Land cover fraction is the most important vegetation factor to be considered in NPP spatial scaling, and slope is the most important topographical factor for NPP spatial scaling especially in mountainous areas, because of its influence on the lateral water redistribution, affecting water table, soil moisture and plant growth. Other factors including leaf area index (LAI) and elevation have small and additive effects on improving the spatial scaling

  18. Effects of vegetation heterogeneity and surface topography on spatial scaling of net primary productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Chen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the heterogeneous nature of the land surface, spatial scaling is an inevitable issue in the development of land models coupled with low-resolution Earth system models (ESMs for predicting land-atmosphere interactions and carbon-climate feedbacks. In this study, a simple spatial scaling algorithm is developed to correct errors in net primary productivity (NPP estimates made at a coarse spatial resolution based on sub-pixel information of vegetation heterogeneity and surface topography. An eco-hydrological model BEPS-TerrainLab, which considers both vegetation and topographical effects on the vertical and lateral water flows and the carbon cycle, is used to simulate NPP at 30 m and 1 km resolutions for a 5700 km2 watershed with an elevation range from 518 m to 3767 m in the Qinling Mountain, Shanxi Province, China. Assuming that the NPP simulated at 30 m resolution represents the reality and that at 1 km resolution is subject to errors due to sub-pixel heterogeneity, a spatial scaling index (SSI is developed to correct the coarse resolution NPP values pixel by pixel. The agreement between the NPP values at these two resolutions is improved considerably from R2 = 0.782 to R2 = 0.884 after the correction. The mean bias error (MBE in NPP modelled at the 1 km resolution is reduced from 14.8 g C m−2 yr−1 to 4.8 g C m−2 yr−1 in comparison with NPP modelled at 30 m resolution, where the mean NPP is 668 g C m−2 yr−1. The range of spatial variations of NPP at 30 m resolution is larger than that at 1 km resolution. Land cover fraction is the most important vegetation factor to be considered in NPP spatial scaling, and slope is the most important topographical factor for NPP spatial scaling especially in mountainous areas, because of its influence on the lateral water redistribution, affecting water table, soil moisture and plant growth. Other factors including leaf area index (LAI and elevation have small and additive effects on improving

  19. Relationships among net primary productivity, nutrients and climate in tropical rain forest: A pan-tropical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Cory C.; Townsend, Alan R.; Taylor, Philip; Alvarez-Clare, Silvia; Bustamante, Mercedes M.C.; Chuyong, George; Dobrowski, Solomon Z.; Grierson, Pauline; Harms, Kyle E.; Houlton, Benjamin Z.; Marklein, Alison; Parton, William; Porder, Stephen; Reed, Sasha C.; Sierra, Carlos A.; Silver, Whendee L.; Tanner, Edmund V.J.; Wieder, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Tropical rain forests play a dominant role in global biosphere-atmosphere CO2 exchange. Although climate and nutrient availability regulate net primary production (NPP) and decomposition in all terrestrial ecosystems, the nature and extent of such controls in tropical forests remain poorly resolved. We conducted a meta-analysis of carbon-nutrient-climate relationships in 113 sites across the tropical forest biome. Our analyses showed that mean annual temperature was the strongest predictor of aboveground NPP (ANPP) across all tropical forests, but this relationship was driven by distinct temperature differences between upland and lowland forests. Within lowland forests (forests, but more importantly, underscores the need for a series of large-scale nutrient manipulations – especially in lowland forests – to elucidate the most important nutrient interactions and controls.

  20. Comparing the Net Ecosystem Exchange of Two Cropping Systems for Dairy Feed Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, M. F.; Wagner-Riddle, C.; Brown, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    A three-year study was conducted from 2012 to 2014 to determine the net CO2 fluxes from corn and hay, the two main feed crops used in dairy production. The aim of this study is to better understand the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) in annual and perennial cropping systems used in dairy production to benefit greenhouse gas emission model developments and the life cycle analysis of dairy production. The study was conducted on two 4-ha plots where one plot was a 5-year old hayfield and the other plot was planted in a continuous cycle corn. All plots were continuously monitored using the flux-gradient method deployed with a tunable diode laser trace gas analyzer and sonic anemometers. All plots received dairy manure as fertilizer applied according to common practice. The cumulative NEE for the three years of the study was -873.15 g C m-2 for corn and -409.36 g C m-2 for hay. Differences in respiration between the two cropping systems was found to be the larger factor compared to differences in gross ecosystem production (GEP) that resulted in the contrasting cumulative NEE where cumulative respiration for the three years for hay was 3094.23 g C m-2 as opposed to 2078.11 g C m-2 for corn. Cumulative GEP for the three years was 3503.60 and 2951.31 g C m-2 for hay and corn respectively. Inter-annual and inter-crop variability of the NEE, GEP and respiration will be discussed in relation to biomass production, climatic conditions and crop physiological characteristics.

  1. Estimating crop net primary production using inventory data and MODIS-derived parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandaru, Varaprasad; West, Tristram O.; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.

    2013-06-03

    National estimates of spatially-resolved cropland net primary production (NPP) are needed for diagnostic and prognostic modeling of carbon sources, sinks, and net carbon flux. Cropland NPP estimates that correspond with existing cropland cover maps are needed to drive biogeochemical models at the local scale and over national and continental extents. Existing satellite-based NPP products tend to underestimate NPP on croplands. A new Agricultural Inventory-based Light Use Efficiency (AgI-LUE) framework was developed to estimate individual crop biophysical parameters for use in estimating crop-specific NPP. The method is documented here and evaluated for corn and soybean crops in Iowa and Illinois in years 2006 and 2007. The method includes a crop-specific enhanced vegetation index (EVI) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), shortwave radiation data estimated using Mountain Climate Simulator (MTCLIM) algorithm and crop-specific LUE per county. The combined aforementioned variables were used to generate spatially-resolved, crop-specific NPP that correspond to the Cropland Data Layer (CDL) land cover product. The modeling framework represented well the gradient of NPP across Iowa and Illinois, and also well represented the difference in NPP between years 2006 and 2007. Average corn and soybean NPP from AgI-LUE was 980 g C m-2 yr-1 and 420 g C m-2 yr-1, respectively. This was 2.4 and 1.1 times higher, respectively, for corn and soybean compared to the MOD17A3 NPP product. Estimated gross primary productivity (GPP) derived from AgI-LUE were in close agreement with eddy flux tower estimates. The combination of new inputs and improved datasets enabled the development of spatially explicit and reliable NPP estimates for individual crops over large regional extents.

  2. Targeting International Food Aid Programmes: The Case of Productive Safety Net Programme in Tigray, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Azadi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ethiopia has experienced more than five major droughts in the past three decades, leading to high dependency on international food aids. Nevertheless, studies indicate that asset depletion has not been prevented; neither did food insecurity diminish. Since 2004/5, the Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP has been implemented to improve food security in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Critics point out that the implementation of food aid programmes can have negative impacts as well as positive outcomes for local communities. Accordingly, this survey study aimed to analyse the distribution and allocation of food aids in the Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP in Tigray. Results of 479 interviews revealed that targeting different households in the PSNP has been considerably linked to socio-demographic attributes among which age and size of family were decisive factors to receive food aids. Furthermore, older households with smaller family size received more direct support. Inequality between genders was another major finding of this study. When combined with the marital status, there was also a big difference in the percentage of married or unmarried women receiving food aids. These findings could provide fundamental information for policy intervention to correct food security programmes at household level and reduce hunger. Given that, socio-demographic factors can help to identify particular and usually different requirements, vulnerabilities and coping strategies of the members of the food aid programme, so that they can be much more addressed when an emergency happens.

  3. Energy balance of maize production in Brazil: the energetic constraints of a net positive outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Luis Henrique de Barros; Alves, Bruno Jose Rodrigues; Urquiaga, Segundo

    2008-07-01

    Among the factors used to analyze and to establish the sustainability of a whole agricultural production system, the energy balance is one of the most powerful and robust. The maize production in Brazil is surely the reflex of an energy intensive system that demands many field operations and heavy fertilizer applications, notably nitrogen in urea form. This work presents an energy balance of this major crop adjusted to the Brazilian conditions of cultivation. The input components were grouped based on their energy contents, and the possible improvements in the agricultural practices that could improve energy balance and net energy withdrawn from the farming were considered. The replacement of N synthetic fertilizer by biological nitrogen fixation, whether the process is directly carried out by endophytic diazotroph bacteria or by means of a N{sub 2}- fixing legume culture planted before the main crop as a green-manure is also discussed. (author)

  4. Genetic parameters of estimated net energy efficiencies for milk production, maintenance, and body weight change in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttazzoni, L; Mao, I L

    1989-03-01

    Net efficiencies of converting intake energy into energy for maintenance, milk production, and body weight change in a lactation were estimated for each of 79 Holstein cows by a two-stage multiple regression model. Cows were from 16 paternal half-sib families, which each had members in at least two of the six herds. Each cow was recorded for milk yield, net energy intake, and three efficiency traits. These were analyzed in a multitrait model containing the same 14 fixed subclasses of herd by season by parity and a random factor of sires for each of the five traits. Restricted maximum likelihood estimates of sire and residual (co)variance components were obtained by an expectation maximization algorithm with canonical transformations. Between milk yield and net energy intake, net energy efficiencies for milk yield, maintenance, and body weight change, the estimated phenotypic correlations were .36, -.02, .08, and -.06, while the genetic correlations were .92, .56, .02, and -.32, respectively. Both genetic and phenotypic correlations were zero between net energy efficiency of maintenance and that of milk yield and .17 between net energy efficiency of body weight change and that of milk yield. The estimated genetic correlation between net efficiency for lactation and milk yield is approximately 60% of that between gross efficiency and milk yield. With a heritability of .32 equivalent.49, net energy efficiency for milk yield may be worth consideration for genetic selection in certain dairy cattle populations.

  5. Analysis of spatial and temporal patterns of aboveground net primary productivity in the Eurasian steppe region from 1982 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Cuicui; Yu, Guirui; Ge, Jianping; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Chi; He, Nianpeng; Chen, Zhi; Hu, Zhongmin

    2017-07-01

    To explore the importance of the Eurasian steppe region (EASR) in global carbon cycling, we analyzed the spatiotemporal dynamics of the aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) of the entire EASR from 1982 to 2013. The ANPP in the EASR was estimated from the Integrated ANPPNDVI model, which is an empirical model developed based on field-observed ANPP and long-term normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data. The optimal composite period of NDVI data was identified by considering spatial heterogeneities across the study area in the Integrated ANPPNDVI model. EASR's ANPP had apparent zonal patterns along hydrothermal gradients, and the mean annual value was 43.78 g C m(-2) yr(-1), which was lower than the global grasslands average. Compared to other important natural grasslands, EASR's ANPP was lower than the North American, South American, and African grasslands. The total aboveground net primary productivity (TANPP) was found to be 378.97 Tg C yr(-1), which accounted for 8.18%-36.03% of the TANPP for all grasslands. In addition, EASR's TANPP was higher than that of the grasslands in North America, South America, and Africa. The EASR's TANPP increased in a fluctuating manner throughout the entire period of 1982-2013. The increasing trend was greater than that for North American and South American and was lower than that for African grasslands over the same period. The years 1995 and 2007 were two turning points at which trends in EASR's TANPP significantly changed. Our analysis demonstrated that the EASR has been playing a substantial and progressively more important role in global carbon sequestration. In addition, in the development of empirical NDVI-based ANPP models, the early-middle growing season averaged NDVI, the middle-late growing season averaged NDVI and the annual maximum NDVI are recommended for use for semi-humid regions, semi-arid regions, and desert vegetation in semi-arid regions, respectively.

  6. Inventory-based estimation of aboveground net primary production in Japan's forests from 1980 to 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies based on remote sensing and carbon process models have revealed that terrestrial net primary production (NPP in the middle and high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere has increased significantly; this is crucial for explaining the increased terrestrial carbon sink in the past several decades. Regional NPP estimation based on significant field data, however, has been rare. In this study, we estimated the long-term changes in aboveground NPP (ANPP for Japan's forests from 1980 to 2005 using forest inventory data, direct field measurements, and an allometric method. The overall ANPP for all forest types averaged 10.5 Mg ha−1 yr−1, with a range of 9.6 to 11.5 Mg ha−1 yr−1, and ANPP for the whole country totaled 249.1 Tg yr−1 (range: 230.0 to 271.4 Tg yr−1 during the study period. Over the 25 years, the net effect of increased ANPP in needle-leaf forests and decreased ANPP in broadleaf forests has led to an increase of 1.9 Mg ha−1 yr−1 (i.e., 0.79 % yr−1. This increase may be mainly due to the establishment of plantations and the rapid early growth of these planted forests.

  7. China's exporters and importers: firms, products, and trade partners

    OpenAIRE

    Kalina Manova; Zhiwei Zhang

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses newly available data on Chinese trade flows to establish novel and confirm existing stylized facts about firm heterogeneity in trade. First, the bulk of exports and imports are captured by a few multi-product firms that transact with a large number of countries. Second, the average importer imports more products than the average exporter exports, but exporters trade with more countries than importers do. Third, compared to private domestic firms, foreign affiliates and joint v...

  8. Net primary productivity of some aquatic macrophytes in sewage-sullage mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanungo, V K; Sinha, S; Naik, M L

    2001-07-01

    Sewage-sullage mixture from Raipur city is spread over a vast area surrounding the city. This mixture has a pH always above neutrality with high turbidity. Transparency was nil with the absence of phenolphthalein alkalinity and dissolved oxygen. Hardness was high with low nitrogen and phosphorus concentration. Human consumable. acquatic macrophytes are cultivated in such waste water. Net primary productivity of three macrophytes: Ipomoea aquatica, Marsilea quadrifolia and Nelumbo nucifera were evaluated while being cultivated in such sewage-sullage mixture. Productivity was determined either with periodic biomass removal (I. aquatica and M. quadrifolia) or through removing the biomass only once at the time of growing season (N. nucifera). Growing season productivity of up to 27.48. 19.81 and 9.49 g m(-2) and day(-1) and extrapolated productivity of up to 100.30, 72.31 and 34.64 mt. ha(-1) yr(-1) was recorded for I. aquatica. M. quadrifolia and N. nucifera respectively. Thus, these macrophytes are yielding a high amount of human consumable biomass from an area which neither be a useless wetland.

  9. Net mineralization of N at deeper soil depths as a potential mechanism for sustained forest production under elevated [CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iversen, Colleen M [ORNL; Hooker, Toby [Utah State University (USU); Classen, Aimee T [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Norby, Richard J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Elevated atmospheric [CO2] is projected to increase forest production, which could increase ecosystem carbon (C) storage. However, sustained forest production will depend on the nutrient balance of the forested ecosystem. Our aim was to examine the causes and consequences of increased fine-root production and mortality throughout the soil profile under elevated CO2 with respect to potential gross nitrogen (N) cycling rates. Our study was conducted in a CO2-enriched sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) plantation in Oak Ridge, TN, USA. We used isotope pool dilution methodology to measure potential gross N cycling rates in laboratory incubations of soil from four depth increments to 60 cm. Our objectives were two-fold: (1) determine whether N is available for root acquisition in deeper soil, and (2) determine whether increased inputs of labile C from greater fine-root mortality at depth under elevated [CO2] had altered N cycling rates. While gross N fluxes declined with soil depth, we found that N is potentially available for roots to access, especially below 15 cm depth where microbial consumption of mineral N was reduced. Overall, up to 60% of potential gross N mineralization, and 100% of potential net N mineralization, occurred below 15-cm depth at this site. This finding was supported by in situ measurements from ion-exchange resins, where total inorganic N availability at 55 cm depth was equal to or greater than N availability at 15 cm depth. While it is likely that trees grown under elevated [CO2] are accessing a larger pool of inorganic N by mining deeper soil, we found no effect of elevated [CO2] on potential gross or net N cycling rates. Thus, increased root exploration of the soil volume under elevated [CO2] may be more important than changes in potential gross N cycling rates in sustaining forest responses to rising atmospheric CO2.

  10. Estimating Net Primary Production of Swedish Forest Landscapes by Combining Mechanistic Modeling and Remote Sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tagesson, Håkan Torbern; Smith, Benjamin; Løfgren, Anders

    2009-01-01

    and the Beer-Lambert law. LAI estimates were compared with satellite-extrapolated field estimates of LAI, and the results were generally acceptable. NPP estimates directly from the dynamic vegetation model and estimates obtained by combining the model estimates with remote sensing information were, on average......The aim of this study was to investigate a combination of satellite images of leaf area index (LAI) with processbased vegetation modeling for the accurate assessment of the carbon balances of Swedish forest ecosystems at the scale of a landscape. Monthly climatologic data were used as inputs...... in a dynamic vegetation model, the Lund Potsdam Jena-General Ecosystem Simulator. Model estimates of net primary production (NPP) and the fraction of absorbed photosynthetic active radiation were constrained by combining them with satellite-based LAI images using a general light use efficiency (LUE) model...

  11. Environmental evidence for net methane production and oxidation in putative ANaerobic MEthanotrophic (ANME) archaea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lloyd, Karen; Teske, Andreas; Alperin, Marc J.

    2011-01-01

    Uncultured ANaerobic MEthanotrophic (ANME) archaea are often assumed to be obligate methanotrophs that are incapable of net methanogenesis, and are therefore used as proxies for anaerobic methane oxidation in many environments in spite of uncertainty regarding their metabolic capabilities...... versus methane production in sediments from the White Oak River estuary, North Carolina. ANME-1 consistently transcribe 16S rRNA and mRNA of methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA), the key gene for methanogenesis, up to 45 cm into methanogenic sediments. CARD-FISH shows that ANME-1 exist as single rod....... These results, along with a re-assessment of the published Iiterature, change the perspective to ANME-1 as methanogens that are also capable of methane oxidation....

  12. On Productions of Net-Baryons in Central Au-Au Collisions at RHIC Energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Hui Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The transverse momentum and rapidity distributions of net-baryons (baryons minus antibaryons produced in central gold-gold (Au-Au collisions at 62.4 and 200 GeV are analyzed in the framework of a multisource thermal model. Each source in the model is described by the Tsallis statistics to extract the effective temperature and entropy index from the transverse momentum distribution. The two parameters are used as input to describe the rapidity distribution and to extract the rapidity shift and contribution ratio. Then, the four types of parameters are used to structure some scatter plots of the considered particles in some three-dimensional (3D spaces at the stage of kinetic freeze-out, which are expected to show different characteristics for different particles and processes. The related methodology can be used in the analyses of particle production and event holography, which are useful for us to better understand the interacting mechanisms.

  13. The SeaDataNet data products: regional temperature and salinity historical data collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoncelli, Simona; Coatanoan, Christine; Bäck, Orjan; Sagen, Helge; Scoy, Serge; Myroshnychenko, Volodymyr; Schaap, Dick; Schlitzer, Reiner; Iona, Sissy; Fichaut, Michele

    2016-04-01

    Temperature and Salinity (TS) historical data collections covering the time period 1900-2013 were created for each European marginal sea (Arctic Sea, Baltic Sea, Black Sea, North Sea, North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea) within the framework of SeaDataNet2 (SDN) EU-Project and they are now available as ODV collections through the SeaDataNet web catalog at http://sextant.ifremer.fr/en/web/seadatanet/. Two versions have been published and they represent a snapshot of the SDN database content at two different times: V1.1 (January 2014) and V2 (March 2015). A Quality Control Strategy (QCS) has been developped and continuously refined in order to improve the quality of the SDN database content and to create the best product deriving from SDN data. The QCS was originally implemented in collaboration with MyOcean2 and MyOcean Follow On projects in order to develop a true synergy at regional level to serve operational oceanography and climate change communities. The QCS involved the Regional Coordinators, responsible of the scientific assessment, the National Oceanographic Data Centers (NODC) and the data providers that, on the base of the data quality assessment outcome, checked and eventually corrected anomalies in the original data. The QCS consists of four main phases: 1) data harvesting from the central CDI; 2) file and parameter aggregation; 3) quality check analysis at regional level; 4) analysis and correction of data anomalies. The approach is iterative to facilitate the upgrade of SDN database content and it allows also the versioning of data products with the release of new regional data collections at the end of each QCS loop. SDN data collections and the QCS will be presented and the results summarized.

  14. Model estimates of net primary productivity, evaportranspiration, and water use efficiency in the terrestrial ecosystems of the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanqin Tian; Guangsheng Chen; Mingliang Liu; Chi Zhang; Ge Sun; Chaoqun Lu; Xiaofeng Xu; Wei Ren; Shufen Pan; Arthur. Chappelka

    2010-01-01

    The effects of global change on ecosystem productivity and water resources in the southern United States (SUS), a traditionally ‘water-rich’ region and the ‘timber basket’ of the country, are not well quantified. We carried out several simulation experiments to quantify ecosystem net primary productivity (NPP), evapotranspiration (ET)...

  15. Experimental on-line platform for product conceptual design: OpenDesigNet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Magal-Royo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the need for using specialised on-line collaborative environments by designers and product engineers who increasingly use Web 2.0 technology to search for information. Although there are professional channels and networks, there is no specific platform which helps during a new product’s conceptualisation phase. Open communication must thus be promoted and encouraged amongst design professionals and companies to form working groups thereby allowing them to work collaboratively in the most open and creative phase of product design, i.e. conceptualisation. The OpenDesigNet (ODN experimental platform has been developed so that designers and small- or medium-sized companies (SMC can access on-line collaborative tools to support the creation and promotion of new on-line products and assess their immediate social impact. This article presents some of the results obtained during the validation phase involving a platform satisfaction survey of design engineering students and has led to a first-hand assessment of the new platform’s potential impact on their professional future.

  16. Urban expansion brought stress to food security in China: Evidence from decreased cropland net primary productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chunyang; Liu, Zhifeng; Xu, Min; Ma, Qun; Dou, Yinyin

    2017-01-15

    Cropland net primary productivity (CNPP) is a crucial indicator of grain productivity and food security. However, assessments of the impact of urban expansion on the CNPP in China have been inadequate owing to data limitations. In this paper, our objective was to assess the impact of urban expansion on the CNPP in China from 1992 to 2015 in a spatially explicit manner. We first obtained the CNPP before urban expansion between 1992 and 2015 in China using the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA) model. We then assessed the impact of urban expansion on the CNPP from 1992 to 2015 at multiple scales (the whole country, agricultural zones, and urban expansion hotspots) by combining the CNPP before urban expansion with the urban land coverage time series extracted from multi-source remotely sensed data. We found that the total loss of the CNPP due to urban expansion from 1992 to 2015 was 13.77TgC, which accounts for 1.88% of the CNPP before urban expansion in China. This CNPP loss resulted in a 12.45-million-ton decrease in grain production in China, corresponding to a reduction in the mean annual grain self-sufficiency rate of 2%. Therefore, we concluded that rapid urban expansion from 1992 to 2015 caused stress to China's food security. We suggest that it is still vital for China to effectively protect cropland to improve the urbanization level to 60% by 2020. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessing the Importance of Design Through Product Archaeology

    OpenAIRE

    Karl T. Ulrich; Scott Pearson

    1998-01-01

    This paper assesses the importance of design in determining product costs by measuring the variation in design performance among a set of competing design efforts. This assessment is completed for a set of functionally similar products in a single product category: automatic drip coffee makers. The approach of this study is to measure the manufacturing content---the attributes of the design that drive cost---through analysis of the physical products themselves, and to estimate how variation i...

  18. Assessment of net primary productivity over India using Indian geostationary satellite (INSAT-3A) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goroshi, S. K.; Singh, R. P.; Pradhan, R.; Parihar, J. S.

    2014-11-01

    Polar orbiting satellites (MODIS and SPOT) have been commonly used to measure terrestrial Net Primary Productivity (NPP) at regional/global scale. Charge Coupled Device (CCD) instrument on geostationary INSAT-3A platform provides a unique opportunity for continuous monitoring of ecosystem pattern and process study. An improved Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (iCASA) model is one of the most expedient and precise ecosystem models to estimate terrestrial NPP. In this paper, an assessment of terrestrial NPP over India was carried out using the iCASA ecosystem model based on the INSAT CCD derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) with multisource meteorological data for the year 2009. NPP estimated from the INSAT CCD followed the characteristic growth profile of most of the vegetation types in the country. NPP attained maximum during August and September, while minimum in April. Annual NPP for different vegetation types varied from 1104.55 gC m-2 year-1 (evergreen broadleaf forest) to 231.9 gC m-2 year-1 (grassland) with an average NPP of 590 gC m-2 year-1. We estimated 1.9 PgC of net carbon fixation over Indian landmass in 2009. Biome level comparison between INSAT derived NPP and MODIS NPP indicated a good agreement with the Willmott's index of agreement (d) ranging from 0.61 (Mixed forest) to 0.99 (Open Shrubland). Our findings are consistent with the earlier NPP studies in India and indicate that INSAT derived NPP has the capability to detect spatial and temporal variability of terrestrial NPP over a wide range of terrestrial ecosystems in India. Thus INSAT-3A data can be used as one of the potential satellite data source for accurate biome level carbon estimation in India.

  19. The Central Logic Board for the KM3NeT detector: Design and production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musico, P., E-mail: Paolo.Musico@ge.infn.it

    2016-07-11

    The KM3NeT deep sea neutrino observatory will include a very large number of multi-Photomultiplier (PMT) optical modules (DOM) to detect the Cherenkov light generated by secondary particles produced in neutrino interactions. The Central Logic Board (CLB) has been developed to acquire timing and amplitude information from the PMT signals, implementing time-to-digital conversion (TDC) with time over threshold (TOT) technique. The board is also used to configure all the DOM subsystems, to assist in the DOM position and orientation, calibration and to monitor temperature and humidity in the DOM itself. All the collected data are transmitted to shore using a wide-bandwidth optical network. Moreover, through the optical network, all the DOMs are kept synchronized in time within 1 ns precision using the White Rabbit (WR) Precision Time Protocol (PTP) over an Ethernet connection. A large Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) has been adopted to implement all the specifications witht the requested performances. The CLB will be also used in the base container of the detection unit (DU) to set-up and monitor all the requested functionalities: in this scenario a dedicated firmware and software will be deployed on board. The design has been started in early 2013 and several prototypes have been developed. After deep test carried on in different EU laboratories, the final mass production batch of 600 boards has been ordered and built: all the CLB are now ready for integration in the DOMs and base containers. The first two KM3NeT DU will be deployed in summer 2015 and all other units are in advanced stage of integration.

  20. Flood effects on efflux and net production of nitrous oxide in river floodplain soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Muhammad; Bruderer, Christian; Niklaus, Pascal A.; Luster, Jörg

    2016-04-01

    Floodplain soils are often rich in nutrients and exhibit high spatial heterogeneity in terms of geomorphology, soil environmental conditions and substrate availability for processes involved in carbon and nutrient cycling. In addition, fluctuating water tables lead to temporally changing redox conditions. In such systems, there are ideal conditions for the occurrence of hot spots and moments of nitrous oxide emissions, a potent greenhouse gas. The factors that govern the spatial heterogeneity and dynamics of N2O formation in floodplain soils and the surface efflux of this gas are not fully understood. A particular issue is the contribution of N2O formation in the subsoil to surface efflux. We studied this question in the floodplain of a restored section of the Thur river (NE Switzerland) which is characterized by a flashy flow regime. As a consequence, the floodplain soils are unsaturated most of the time. We showed earlier that saturation during flood pulses leads to short phases of generally anoxic conditions followed by a drying phase with anoxic conditions within aggregates and oxic conditions in larger soil pores. The latter conditions are conducive for spatially closely-coupled nitrification-denitrification and related hot moments of nitrous oxide formation. In a floodplain zone characterized by about one meter of young, sandy sediments, that are mostly covered by the tall grass Phalaris arundinacea, we measured at several time points before and after a small flood event N2O surface efflux with the closed-chamber method, and assessed N2O concentrations in the soil air at four different depths using gas-permeable tubings. In addition, we calculated the N2O diffusivity in the soil from Radon diffusivity. The latter was estimated in-situ from the recovery of Radon concentration in the gas-permeable tubings after purging with ambient air. All these data were then used to calculate net N2O production rates at different soil depths with the gradient method. In

  1. Interannual variability in net community production at the Western Antarctic Peninsula region (1997-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuchuan; Cassar, Nicolas; Huang, Kuan; Ducklow, Hugh; Schofield, Oscar

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we examined the interannual variability of net community production (NCP) in the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) using in situ O2/Ar-NCP estimates (2008-2014) and satellite data (SeaWiFS and MODIS-Aqua) from 1997 to 2014. We found that NCP generally first peaks offshore and follows sea-ice retreat from offshore to inshore. Annually integrated NCP (ANCP) displays an onshore-to-offshore gradient, with coastal and shelf regions up to 8 times more productive than offshore regions. We examined potential drivers of interannual variability in the ANCP using an Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis. The EOF's first mode explains ˜50% of the variance, with high interannual variability observed seaward of the shelf break. The first principal component is significantly correlated with the day of sea-ice retreat (R = -0.58, p Oscillation (ENSO) climate indices in austral spring. Although the most obvious pathway by which the day of sea-ice retreat influences NCP is by controlling light availability early in the growing season, we found that the effect of day of sea-ice retreat on NCP persists throughout the growing season, suggesting that additional controls, such as iron availability, are preconditioned or correlated to the day of sea-ice retreat.

  2. Climate change imposes phenological trade-offs on forest net primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duveneck, Matthew J.; Thompson, Jonathan R.

    2017-09-01

    Climate warming is expected to lengthen growing seasons of temperate forest ecosystems and increase gross primary productivity. Simultaneously, warming is expected to increase summer ecosystem respiration, which could offset gains accrued from longer growing seasons. These responses have been observed during anomalously warm years, but the role of future climate change on phenological trade-offs and how they affect net primary productivity (NPP) at regional scales in temperate forests remain unexplored. We simulated scenarios of climate change on monthly forest NPP throughout 18 million hectares of temperate forests in New England, USA, through year 2100. Using an ecophysiological model coupled to a forest landscape model, we simulated scenarios of climate change on monthly NPP. A high emission scenario (RCP 8.5), resulted in longer growing seasons that offset midsummer ecosystem respiration costs and produced greater annual NPP throughout the study landscape compared to simulations using the current climate. In spring and autumn months, temperature was positively associated with greater NPP; in summer months, the relationship was negative. Spatially, the greatest increase in NPP occurred in the warmer southern region under a warm climate scenario with increased precipitation. Under a warm scenario with drier conditions, the greatest increase in NPP occurred in the cooler northern region. Phenological trade-offs will affect NPP of future forests and their potential to serve as a negative feedback to climate change. Barring other limitations, longer growing seasons will offset greater respiratory demands and contribute to increases in NPP throughout the temperate forests of New England in the future.

  3. Development of net energy ratio and emission factor for biohydrogen production pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Md Ruhul; Kumar, Amit

    2011-10-01

    This study investigates the energy and environmental aspects of producing biohydrogen for bitumen upgrading from a life cycle perspective. Three technologies are studied for biohydrogen production; these include the Battelle Columbus Laboratory (BCL) gasifier, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) gasifier, and fast pyrolysis. Three different biomass feedstocks are considered including forest residue (FR), whole forest (WF), and agricultural residue (AR). The fast pyrolysis pathway includes two cases: truck transport of bio-oil and pipeline transport of bio-oil. The net energy ratios (NERs) for nine biohydrogen pathways lie in the range of 1.3-9.3. The maximum NER (9.3) is for the FR-based pathway using GTI technology. The GHG emissions lie in the range of 1.20-8.1 kg CO₂ eq/kg H₂. The lowest limit corresponds to the FR-based biohydrogen production pathway using GTI technology. This study also analyzes the intensities for acid rain precursor and ground level ozone precursor. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Contrasting net primary productivity and carbon distribution between neighbouring stands of Quercus robur and Pinus sylvestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuste, J. C.; Konopka, B.; Janssens, I. A.; Coenen, K.; Xiao, C. W.; Ceulemans, R. [University of Antwerp, Dept. of Biology, Research Group of Plant and Vegetation Ecology, Wilrijk (Belgium)

    2005-06-01

    Complete net primary production (NPP) estimates for two species (a 67 year-old pendulate oak stand and a neighbouring 74 year-old Scotch pine stand) with contrasting vegetation types, growing within the Belgian Campine region, are reported. Although tree density and tree height were lower in the oak stand, standing biomass was slightly higher than in the pine stand, indicating that individual oak trees contained more biomass than pine trees of similar diameter. A higher rate of soil organic matter accumulation was confirmed under pine trees than under oaks, suggesting an age-related decline in productivity due to nutrient limitation. The poor decomposition of pine litter resulting in the accumulation of organic matter, coupled with the already nutrient-poor soil conditions, resulted in a decrease in total NPP over time. In the oak stand, litter was quicker to decay, soil acidity was less severe, therefore, organic matter did not accumulate and nutrients were recycled. This explains the higher NPP in the oak stand. 48 refs., 5 tabs., 7 figs.

  5. Climatic and oceanic forcing of new, net, and diatom production in the North Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Jean-Eric; Gratton, Yves; Fauchot, Juliette; Price, Neil M.

    New, net, and diatom production in the North Water were estimated during May to July 1998 from in vitro measurements of nitrate uptake and mesoscale temporal changes in the inventories of nitrate, silicate, oxygen, and inorganic carbon (DIC). Sampling stations were divided into two domains according to the position of the dominant water types: the silicate-rich Arctic water (SRAW) and Baffin Bay Water (BBW). BBW dominated in the southeast and was associated with relatively shallow upper mixed layers (UMLs) and weak horizontal advection. A phytoplankton bloom started in late April in BBW and grew slowly over 7 weeks, during which time the build-up of particulate organic nitrogen and carbon accounted for ca. 80% of the nitrate and DIC deficit, respectively. Over half of the new production (1.37 g C m -2 d -1) during this period was attributed to wind-driven replenishment of nitrate in the euphotic zone. The bloom culminated when seasonally declining winds and rising temperatures severed the UML from the deep nutrient reservoir. The same change in weather induced ice melt, stratification, and bloom development in northern SRAW, which had previously been characterized by deep UMLs. Collectively, the results imply that the timing and magnitude of blooms in the North Water are controlled by a succession of oceanic and climatic forcings. New C production in the North Water during April to July (1.11 g C m -2 d -1) was an order of magnitude higher than in adjacent waters and up to 8 times higher than in the Northeast Water polynya. As much as 80% of this production was mediated by diatoms >5 μm, suggesting potentially high and efficient C transfer to the herbivorous food web and deep waters.

  6. Petri Net Modeling and Decomposition Method for Solving Production Scheduling Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    NISHI, Tatsushi; MAENO, Ryota

    2007-01-01

    Considering the need to develop general scheduling problem solver, the recent integration of Petri Nets as modeling tools into effective optimization methods for scheduling problems is very promising...

  7. 77 FR 70714 - Electronic Import Inspection Application and Certification of Imported Products and Foreign...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... and Inspection Service (FSIS) is proposing to amend the meat, poultry, and egg products import.... Instructions: All items submitted by mail or electronic mail must include the Agency name and docket number...: Background The Federal Meat Inspection Act (FMIA) (21 U.S.C. 620) and the Poultry Products Inspection Act...

  8. Impacts of Sugar Import Policy on Sugar Production in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Suryantoro, Agustinus; Susilo, Albertus Magnus; Supriyono, Supriyono

    2013-01-01

    Production of sugar unful lled consumption of Indonesia society. The lack of consumption and productionhave ful lled by import. Assumption national consumption 2,7 million ton, Indonesia will import sugar in 2013predicted about 300.000 ton (Tempo.co, August, 21, 2012).The aims in general of this research are to understand the impact of sugar import policy on sugar production.Especially (1) to understand the factors that in uence sugar import price, (2) to understand impact of sugarimport pric...

  9. La plataforma .NET

    OpenAIRE

    Fornas Estrada, Miquel

    2008-01-01

    L'aparició de la plataforma .NET Framework ha suposat un canvi molt important en la forma de crear i distribuir aplicacions, degut a que incorpora una sèrie d'innovacions tècniques i productives que simplifiquen molt les tasques necessàries per desenvolupar un projecte. La aparición de la plataforma. NET Framework ha supuesto un cambio muy importante en la forma de crear y distribuir aplicaciones, debido a que incorpora una serie de innovaciones técnicas y productivas que simplifican mucho...

  10. Knowledge Production, Urban Locations and the Importance of Local Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytt-Larsen, Christine Benna; Winther, Lars

    2015-01-01

    research on knowledge production, however, reveals that knowledge productive networks are significant for both the competitiveness and location of KIBS. Thus, to understand the urban location of industrial design, it is important to analyse how knowledge production is organized within the industry....... Industrial design is concentrated in urban locations, but most of its clients are located elsewhere. Hence, it seems that industrial design firms concentrate in urban locations mainly because their knowledge networks include specific types of formal and informal local social networks....

  11. Improved assessment of gross and net primary productivity of Canada's landmass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsamo, Alemu; Chen, Jing M.; Price, David T.; Kurz, Werner A.; Liu, Jane; Boisvenue, Céline; Hember, Robbie A.; Wu, Chaoyang; Chang, Kuo-Hsien

    2013-12-01

    assess Canada's gross primary productivity (GPP) and net primary productivity (NPP) using boreal ecosystem productivity simulator (BEPS) at 250 m spatial resolution with improved input parameter and driver fields and phenology and nutrient release parameterization schemes. BEPS is a process-based two-leaf enzyme kinetic terrestrial ecosystem model designed to simulate energy, water, and carbon (C) fluxes using spatial data sets of meteorology, remotely sensed land surface variables, soil properties, and photosynthesis and respiration rate parameters. Two improved key land surface variables, leaf area index (LAI) and land cover type, are derived at 250 m from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer sensor. For diagnostic error assessment, we use nine forest flux tower sites where all measured C flux, meteorology, and ancillary data sets are available. The errors due to input drivers and parameters are then independently corrected for Canada-wide GPP and NPP simulations. The optimized LAI use, for example, reduced the absolute bias in GPP from 20.7% to 1.1% for hourly BEPS simulations. Following the error diagnostics and corrections, daily GPP and NPP are simulated over Canada at 250 m spatial resolution, the highest resolution simulation yet for the country or any other comparable region. Total NPP (GPP) for Canada's land area was 1.27 (2.68) Pg C for 2008, with forests contributing 1.02 (2.2) Pg C. The annual comparisons between measured and simulated GPP show that the mean differences are not statistically significant (p > 0.05, paired t test). The main BEPS simulation error sources are from the driver fields.

  12. Impact of Icebergs on Net Primary Productivity in the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuang-Ye; Hou, Shugui

    2017-04-01

    Productivity in the Southern Ocean (SO) is iron-limited, and supply of iron dissolved from aeolian dust is believed to be the main source from outside the marine environment. However, recent studies show that icebergs could provide comparable amount of bioavailable iron to the SO as aeolian dust. In addition, small scale areal studies suggest increased concentrations of chlorophyll, krill, and seabirds surrounding icebergs. Based on previous research, this study aims to examine whether iceberg occurrence has a significant impact on marine productivity at the scale of the SO, using remote sensing data of iceberg occurrences and ocean net primary productivity (NPP) covering the period 2002-2014. The impacts of both large and small icebergs are examined in four major ecological zones of the SO: the continental shelf zone (CSZ), the seasonal ice zone (SIZ), the permanent open ocean zone (POOZ) and the polar front zone (PFZ). We found that both large and small icebergs have an observable positive impact on NPP, but their impacts vary in different zones. Small icebergs on average increase NPP in most iron deficient zones: by 21% for the SIZ, 16% for the POOZ, and 12% for the PFZ, but have relatively small effect in the CSZ where iron is supplied from melt water and sediment input from the continent. Large icebergs on average increase the NPP by about 10%. Their impacts are stronger at higher latitudes, where they are more concentrated. From 1992-2014, there is a significant increasing trend for both small and large icebergs. The increase was most rapid in the early 2000s, and has levelled off since then. As the climate continues to warm, the Antarctic Ice Sheet is expected to experience increased mass loss as a whole, which could lead to more icebergs in the region. Based on our study, this could result in higher level of NPP in the SO as a whole, providing a negative feedback for global warming.

  13. Evaluation of modelled net primary production using MODIS and landsat satellite data fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Steven; Potter, Christopher; Crabtree, Robert; Genovese, Vanessa; Weiss, Daniel J; Kraft, Maggi

    2016-12-01

    To improve estimates of net primary production for terrestrial ecosystems of the continental United States, we evaluated a new image fusion technique to incorporate high resolution Landsat land cover data into a modified version of the CASA ecosystem model. The proportion of each Landsat land cover type within each 0.004 degree resolution CASA pixel was used to influence the ecosystem model result by a pure-pixel interpolation method. Seventeen Ameriflux tower flux records spread across the country were combined to evaluate monthly NPP estimates from the modified CASA model. Monthly measured NPP data values plotted against the revised CASA model outputs resulted in an overall R(2) of 0.72, mainly due to cropland locations where irrigation and crop rotation were not accounted for by the CASA model. When managed and disturbed locations are removed from the validation, the R(2) increases to 0.82. The revised CASA model with pure-pixel interpolated vegetation index performed well at tower sites where vegetation was not manipulated or managed and had not been recently disturbed. Tower locations that showed relatively low correlations with CASA-estimated NPP were regularly disturbed by either human or natural forces.

  14. Methodology for the estimation of terrestrial net primary production from remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruimy, A.; Saugier, B.; Dedieu, G.

    1994-03-01

    Kumar and Monteith's (1981) model for the remote sensing of crop growth has been used to estimate continental net primary productivity (NPP) as well as its seasonal and spatial variations. The model assumes a decomposition of NPP into independent parameters such as incident solar radiation (S0), radiation absorption efficiency by canopies (ƒ), and conversion efficiency of absorbed radiation into organic dry matter (e). The precision on some of the input parameters has been improved, compared to previous uses of this model at a global scale: remote sensing data used to derive ƒ have been calibrated, corrected of some atmospheric effects, and filtered; e has been considered as biome-dependent and derived from literature data. The resulting global NPP (approximatively 60 GtC per year) is within the range of values given in the literature. However, mean NPP estimates per biome do not agree with the literature (in particular, the estimation for tropical rain forests NPP is much lower and for cultivations much higher than field estimates), which results in zonal and seasonal variations of continental NPP giving more weight to the temperate northern hemisphere than to the equatorial zone.

  15. Estimating Green Net National Product for Puerto Rico: An Economic Measure of Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shanshan; Heberling, Matthew T

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the data sources and methodology used to estimate Green Net National Product (GNNP), an economic metric of sustainability, for Puerto Rico. Using the change in GNNP as a one-sided test of weak sustainability (i.e., positive growth in GNNP is not enough to show the economy is sustainable), we measure the movement away from sustainability by examining the change in GNNP from 1993 to 2009. In order to calculate GNNP, we require both economic and natural capital data, but limited data for Puerto Rico require a number of simplifying assumptions. Based on the environmental challenges faced by Puerto Rico, we include damages from air emissions and solid waste, the storm protection value of mangroves and the value of extracting crushed stone as components in the depreciation of natural capital. Our estimate of GNNP also includes the value of time, which captures the effects of technological progress. The results show that GNNP had an increasing trend over the 17 years studied with two periods of negative growth (2004-2006 and 2007-2008). Our additional analysis suggests that the negative growth in 2004-2006 was possibly due to a temporary economic downturn. However, the negative growth in 2007-2008 was likely from the decline in the value of time, suggesting the island of Puerto Rico was moving away from sustainability during this time.

  16. Energy intensity ratios as net energy measures of United States energy production and expenditures

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, C. W.

    2010-10-01

    In this letter I compare two measures of energy quality, energy return on energy invested (EROI) and energy intensity ratio (EIR) for the fossil fuel consumption and production of the United States. All other characteristics being equal, a fuel or energy system with a higher EROI or EIR is of better quality because more energy is provided to society. I define and calculate the EIR for oil, natural gas, coal, and electricity as measures of the energy intensity (units of energy divided by money) of the energy resource relative to the energy intensity of the overall economy. EIR measures based upon various unit prices for energy (e.g. /Btu of a barrel of oil) as well as total expenditures on energy supplies (e.g. total dollars spent on petroleum) indicate net energy at different points in the supply chain of the overall energy system. The results indicate that EIR is an easily calculated and effective proxy for EROI for US oil, gas, coal, and electricity. The EIR correlates well with previous EROI calculations, but adds additional information on energy resource quality within the supply chain. Furthermore, the EIR and EROI of oil and gas as well as coal were all in decline for two time periods within the last 40 years, and both time periods preceded economic recessions.

  17. Evaluation of modelled net primary production using MODIS and landsat satellite data fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Jay

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To improve estimates of net primary production for terrestrial ecosystems of the continental United States, we evaluated a new image fusion technique to incorporate high resolution Landsat land cover data into a modified version of the CASA ecosystem model. The proportion of each Landsat land cover type within each 0.004 degree resolution CASA pixel was used to influence the ecosystem model result by a pure-pixel interpolation method. Results Seventeen Ameriflux tower flux records spread across the country were combined to evaluate monthly NPP estimates from the modified CASA model. Monthly measured NPP data values plotted against the revised CASA model outputs resulted in an overall R2 of 0.72, mainly due to cropland locations where irrigation and crop rotation were not accounted for by the CASA model. When managed and disturbed locations are removed from the validation, the R2 increases to 0.82. Conclusions The revised CASA model with pure-pixel interpolated vegetation index performed well at tower sites where vegetation was not manipulated or managed and had not been recently disturbed. Tower locations that showed relatively low correlations with CASA-estimated NPP were regularly disturbed by either human or natural forces.

  18. Assessing sulfate and carbon controls on net methylmercury production in peatlands: An in situ mesocosm approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Carl P.J. [Department of Geography, University of Toronto at Mississauga, 3359 Mississauga Road North, Mississauga, Ontario L5L 1C6 (Canada)], E-mail: mitchellc@si.edu; Branfireun, Brian A. [Department of Geography, University of Toronto at Mississauga, 3359 Mississauga Road North, Mississauga, Ontario L5L 1C6 (Canada); Kolka, Randall K. [Northern Research Station, US Department of Agriculture Forest Service, 1831 Highway 169 East, Grand Rapids, MN 55744 (United States)

    2008-03-15

    The transformation of atmospherically deposited inorganic Hg to the toxic, organic form methylmercury (MeHg) is of serious ecological concern because MeHg accumulates in aquatic biota, including fish. Research has shown that the Hg methylation reaction is dependent on the availability of SO{sub 4} (as an electron acceptor) because SO{sub 4}-reducing bacteria (SRB) mediate the biotic methylation of Hg. Much less research has investigated the possible organic C limitations to Hg methylation (i.e. from the perspective of the electron donor). Although peatlands are long-term stores of organic C, the C derived from peatland vegetation is of questionable microbial lability. This research investigated how both SO{sub 4} and organic C control net MeHg production using a controlled factorial addition design in 44 in situ peatland mesocosms. Two levels of SO{sub 4} addition and energetic-equivalent additions (i.e. same number of electrons) of a number of organic C sources were used including glucose, acetate, lactate, coniferous litter leachate, and deciduous litter leachate. This study supports previous research demonstrating the stimulation of MeHg production from SO{sub 4} input alone ({approx}200 pg/L/day). None of the additions of organic C alone resulted in significant MeHg production. The combined addition of SO{sub 4} and some organic C sources resulted in considerably more MeHg production ({approx}500 pg/L/day) than did the addition of SO{sub 4} alone, demonstrating that the highest levels of MeHg production can be expected only where fluxes of both SO{sub 4} and organic C are delivered concurrently. When compared to a number of pore water samples taken from two nearby peatlands, MeHg concentrations resulting from the combined addition of SO{sub 4} and organic C in this study were similar to MeHg 'hot spots' found near the upland-peatland interface. The formation of MeHg 'hot spots' at the upland-peatland interface may be dependent on concurrent

  19. A Timed Colored Petri Net Simulation-Based Self-Adaptive Collaboration Method for Production-Logistics Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengang Guo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Complex and customized manufacturing requires a high level of collaboration between production and logistics in a flexible production system. With the widespread use of Internet of Things technology in manufacturing, a great amount of real-time and multi-source manufacturing data and logistics data is created, that can be used to perform production-logistics collaboration. To solve the aforementioned problems, this paper proposes a timed colored Petri net simulation-based self-adaptive collaboration method for Internet of Things-enabled production-logistics systems. The method combines the schedule of token sequences in the timed colored Petri net with real-time status of key production and logistics equipment. The key equipment is made ‘smart’ to actively publish or request logistics tasks. An integrated framework based on a cloud service platform is introduced to provide the basis for self-adaptive collaboration of production-logistics systems. A simulation experiment is conducted by using colored Petri nets (CPN Tools to validate the performance and applicability of the proposed method. Computational experiments demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the event-driven method in terms of reductions of waiting time, makespan, and electricity consumption. This proposed method is also applicable to other manufacturing systems to implement production-logistics collaboration.

  20. Annual Net Ecosystem Productivity of Wetlands: A Comparison of Automated and Manual Chamber Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, E. H.; Bubier, J. L.; Mosedale, A.; Crill, P. M.

    2001-05-01

    Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) of carbon dioxide (CO2) was measured in a minerotrophic poor fen in southeastern New Hampshire during the 2000 growing season using two types of chamber methods. Instantaneous CO2 flux was measured with transparent lexan and teflon static climate controlled chambers by calculating the change in headspace CO2 concentration in the chamber over time. Once per week the flux was sampled from ten manually operated chambers using a LI-COR 6200 portable photosynthesis system, which included a LI-6250 infrared gas analyzer, connected to the chambers. Ten automated chambers were installed in May of 2000, sampling CO2 flux every three hours over the diurnal cycle using a LI-COR 6262 infrared gas analyzer. The chambers and collars were placed throughout the fen in order to sample the range of plant communities. The manual sampling was done during the middle of the day, but the rate of photosynthesis changes depending on the amount of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). In order to simulate varying light levels, shrouds blocking different amounts of light were placed over each manual chamber. An opaque shroud was used to measure respiration. NEE ranged from -13.0 to 12.5 μ mol CO2/m2/s in the manual chambers and -16.2 to 11.8 μ mol CO2/m2/s in the automated chambers for the mid-summer growing season. Manual respiration fluxes were measured under higher temperature regimes and the response of respiration to temperature will be factored in when comparing the two chamber techniques. Research during the summer of 2001 will also include diurnal measurements. Growing season net ecosystem productivity (NEP) will be estimated and compared for the two chamber systems. Several models will be used to estimate the flux when the manual chambers were not being sampled. The models will be based on biomass and dominant species in each chamber, and various environmental factors including water table, pH, relative humidity, PAR, air and peat temperature

  1. Net ecosystem production in a Little Ice Age moraine: the role of plant functional traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varolo, E.; Zanotelli, D.; Tagliavini, M.; Zerbe, S.; Montagnani, L.

    2015-07-01

    Current glacier retreat allows vast mountain ranges available for vegetation establishment and growth. Little is known about the effective carbon (C) budget of these new ecosystems and how the presence of different vegetation communities, characterized by their specific physiology and life forms influences C fluxes. In this study, using a comparative analysis of the C fluxes of two contrasting vegetation types, we intend to evaluate if the different physiologies of the main species have an effect on Ecosystem Respiration (Reco), Gross Primary Production (GPP), annual cumulated Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE), and long-term carbon accumulation in soil. The NEE of two plant communities present on a Little Ice Age moraine in the Matsch glacier forefield (Alps, Italy) was measured over two growing seasons. They are a typical C3 grassland, dominated by Festuca halleri All. and a community dominated by CAM rosettes Sempervivum montanum L. on rocky soils. Using transparent and opaque chambers, we extrapolated the ecophysiological responses to the main environmental drivers and performed the partition of NEE into Reco and GPP. Soil samples were collected from the same site to measure long-term C accumulation in the ecosystem. The two communities showed contrasting GPP but similar Reco patterns and as a result significantly different in NEE. The grassland acted mainly as a carbon sink with a total cumulated value of -46.4 ± 35.5 g C m-2 NEE while the plots dominated by the CAM rosettes acted as a source with 31.9 ± 22.4 g C m-2. In spite of the NEE being different in the two plant communities, soil analysis did not reveal significant differences in carbon accumulation. Grasslands showed 1.76 ± 0.12 kg C m-2, while CAM rosettes showed 2.06 ± 0.23 kg C m-2. This study demonstrates that carbon dynamics of two vegetation communities can be distinct even though the growing environment is similar. The physiological traits of the dominant species determine large differences in

  2. Green Net Regional Product for the San Luis Basin, Colorado: an economic measure of regional sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberling, Matthew T; Templeton, Joshua J; Wu, Shanshan

    2012-11-30

    This paper presents the data sources and methodology used to estimate Green Net Regional Product (GNRP), a green accounting approach, for the San Luis Basin (SLB). We measured the movement away from sustainability by examining the change in GNRP over time. Any attempt at green accounting requires both economic and natural capital data. However, limited data for the Basin requires a number of simplifying assumptions and requires transforming economic data at the national, state, and county levels to the level of the SLB. Given the contribution of agribusiness to the SLB, we included the depletion of both groundwater and soil as components in the depreciation of natural capital. We also captured the effect of the consumption of energy on climate change for future generations through carbon dioxide (CO(2)) emissions. In order to estimate the depreciation of natural capital, the shadow price of water for agriculture, the economic damages from soil erosion due to wind, and the social cost of carbon emissions were obtained from the literature and applied to the SLB using benefit transfer. We used Colorado's total factor productivity for agriculture to estimate the value of time (i.e., to include the effects of exogenous technological progress). We aggregated the economic data and the depreciation of natural capital for the SLB from 1980 to 2005. The results suggest that GNRP had a slight upward trend through most of this time period, despite temporary negative trends, the longest of which occurred during the period 1985-86 to 1987-88. However, given the upward trend in GNRP and the possibility of business cycles causing the temporary declines, there is no definitive evidence of moving away from sustainability. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Estimation of net primary productivity using a process-based model in Gansu Province, Northwest China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peijuan; Xie, Donghui; Zhou, Yuyu; E, Youhao; Zhu, Qijiang

    2014-01-16

    The ecological structure in the arid and semi-arid region of Northwest China with forest, grassland, agriculture, Gobi, and desert, is complex, vulnerable, and unstable. It is a challenging and sustaining job to keep the ecological structure and improve its ecological function. Net primary productivity (NPP) modeling can help to improve the understanding of the ecosystem, and therefore, improve ecological efficiency. The boreal ecosystem productivity simulator (BEPS) model provides the possibility of NPP modeling in terrestrial ecosystem, but it has some limitations for application in arid and semi-arid regions. In this paper we improve the BEPS model, in terms of its water cycle by adding the processes of infiltration and surface runoff, to be applicable in arid and semi-arid regions. We model the NPP of forest, grass, and crop in Gansu Province as an experimental area in Northwest China in 2003 using the improved BEPS model, parameterized with moderate resolution remote sensing imageries and meteorological data. The modeled NPP using improved BEPS agrees better with the ground measurements in Qilian Mountain than that with original BEPS, with a higher R2 of 0.746 and lower root mean square error (RMSE) of 46.53 gC/m2 compared to R2 of 0.662 and RMSE of 60.19 gC/m2 from original BEPS. The modeled NPP of three vegetation types using improved BEPS show evident differences compared to that using original BEPS, with the highest difference ratio of 9.21% in forest and the lowest value of 4.29% in crop. The difference ratios between different vegetation types lie on the dependence on natural water sources. The modeled NPP in five geographic zones using improved BEPS are higher than those with original BEPS, with higher difference ratio in dry zones and lower value in wet zones.

  4. Changes of net primary productivity in China during recent 11 years detected using an ecological model driven by MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yibo; Ju, Weimin; He, Honglin; Wang, Shaoqiang; Sun, Rui; Zhang, Yuandong

    2013-03-01

    Net primary productivity (NPP) is an important component of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Accurately mapping the spatial-temporal variations of NPP in China is crucial for global carbon cycling study. In this study the process-based Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) was employed to study the changes of NPP in China's ecosystems for the period from 2000 to 2010. The BEPS model was first validated using gross primary productivity (GPP) measured at typical flux sites and forest NPP measured at different regions. Then it was driven with leaf area index (LAI) inversed from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) reflectance and land cover products and meteorological data interpolated from observations at 753 national basic meteorological stations to simulate NPP at daily time steps and a spatial resolution of 500 m from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2010. Validations show that BEPS is able to capture the seasonal variations of tower-based GPP and the spatial variability of forest NPP in different regions of China. Estimated national total of annual NPP varied from 2.63 to 2.84Pg C·yr-1, averaging 2.74 Pg C·yr-1 during the study period. Simulated terrestrial NPP shows spatial patterns decreasing from the east to the west and from the south to the north, in association with land cover types and climate. South-west China makes the largest contribution to the national total of NPP while NPP in the North-west account for only 3.97% of the national total. During the recent 11 years, the temporal changes of NPP were heterogamous. NPP increased in 63.8% of China's landmass, mainly in areas north of the Yangtze River and decreased in most areas of southern China, owing to the low temperature freezing in early 2008 and the severe drought in late 2009.

  5. Page 1 Net Production Relations of Five Important Tree Species 29 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    entering Banda District and then in a south-eastern direction to river Maha- nadi. Below this limit, it occupies the entire Indian Peninsula upto Cape. Comerin. Teak is a large deciduous tree with a round elliptic canopy. Maximum height in Dangs is 30 m and elsewhere in India (Allapalli range of Chanda. Division in Central ...

  6. Automation of Presentation Record Production Based on Rich-Media Technology Using SNT Petri Nets Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Martiník

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rich-media describes a broad range of digital interactive media that is increasingly used in the Internet and also in the support of education. Last year, a special pilot audiovisual lecture room was built as a part of the MERLINGO (MEdia-rich Repository of LearnING Objects project solution. It contains all the elements of the modern lecture room determined for the implementation of presentation recordings based on the rich-media technologies and their publication online or on-demand featuring the access of all its elements in the automated mode including automatic editing. Property-preserving Petri net process algebras (PPPA were designed for the specification and verification of the Petri net processes. PPPA does not need to verify the composition of the Petri net processes because all their algebraic operators preserve the specified set of the properties. These original PPPA are significantly generalized for the newly introduced class of the SNT Petri process and agent nets in this paper. The PLACE-SUBST and ASYNC-PROC algebraic operators are defined for this class of Petri nets and their chosen properties are proved. The SNT Petri process and agent nets theory were significantly applied at the design, verification, and implementation of the programming system ensuring the pilot audiovisual lecture room functionality.

  7. Automation of Presentation Record Production Based on Rich-Media Technology Using SNT Petri Nets Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martiník, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Rich-media describes a broad range of digital interactive media that is increasingly used in the Internet and also in the support of education. Last year, a special pilot audiovisual lecture room was built as a part of the MERLINGO (MEdia-rich Repository of LearnING Objects) project solution. It contains all the elements of the modern lecture room determined for the implementation of presentation recordings based on the rich-media technologies and their publication online or on-demand featuring the access of all its elements in the automated mode including automatic editing. Property-preserving Petri net process algebras (PPPA) were designed for the specification and verification of the Petri net processes. PPPA does not need to verify the composition of the Petri net processes because all their algebraic operators preserve the specified set of the properties. These original PPPA are significantly generalized for the newly introduced class of the SNT Petri process and agent nets in this paper. The PLACE-SUBST and ASYNC-PROC algebraic operators are defined for this class of Petri nets and their chosen properties are proved. The SNT Petri process and agent nets theory were significantly applied at the design, verification, and implementation of the programming system ensuring the pilot audiovisual lecture room functionality.

  8. Ice melt influence on summertime net community production along the Western Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eveleth, R.; Cassar, N.; Sherrell, R. M.; Ducklow, H.; Meredith, M. P.; Venables, H. J.; Lin, Y.; Li, Z.

    2017-05-01

    The Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) is a highly productive marine environment that is undergoing rapid change, with consequences for productivity and total ecosystem carbon cycling. We present continuous underway O2/Ar estimates of net community production (NCPO2Ar) in austral summer 2012, 2013 and 2014 at sub-kilometer horizontal resolution within the Palmer Long-Term Ecological Research (Pal-LTER) grid region of the WAP. Substantial spatial variability is observed with NCPO2Ar ranging from 0 to 790 mmol O2 m-2 d-1 and considerable interannual variability with mean values in the grid region of 54.4±48.5, 44.6±40.5, and 85.6±75.9 mmol O2 m-2 d-1 in 2012, 2013 and 2014 respectively. Based on a strong correlation (r2=0.83) between residence time integrated NCPO2Ar and NCPDIC derived from seasonal DIC drawdown, we find the observed NCPO2Ar spatial and interannual variability to be consistent with the December-January NCPDIC magnitude. Seeking to explain the mechanistic drivers of NCP in the WAP, we observe a linear relationship between NCPO2Ar and meteoric water content derived from δ18O and salinity. This correlation may be due to Fe supply from glacial melt and/or strengthening of stratification and relief of light limitation. Elevated surface Fe availability, as indicated by Fv/Fm and measurements of surface water dissolved Fe and Mn (a rough proxy for recent potential Fe availability), and shallower, more stable mixed layers are present where meteoric water and/or sea ice melt is high near the coast. Light limitation is evident in the WAP when mixed layer depths are greater than 40 m. Additionally we document hotspots of NCP associated with submarine canyons along the WAP. While it is difficult to predict how the physical-biological system might evolve under changing climatic conditions, it is evident that NCP, and potentially carbon flux out of the mixed layer, along the WAP will be sensitive to shifts in meltwater input and timing.

  9. THE IMPORTANCE OF BACTERIOCINS IN MEAT AND MEAT PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem SERDAROĞLU

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing consumer demand for food products which are free of chemical additives, reduced in salt and processed as little as possible. These minimally processed foods require special application to assure their microbiological safety. The use of microorganisms and enzymes for food preservatives is called biopreservation. The most important group of microorganisms with antimicrobial effect used in the production of foods is the lactic acid bacteria. In meats although lactic acid bacteria constitue apart of the initial microflora, they become dominant during the processing of meats. In this research bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria and their usage in meat and meat products for biopreservation are discussed.

  10. An Evaluation of the NetBeans Module System as a Product line Implementation Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mærsk-Møller, Hans Martin; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2011-01-01

    Variability is one of the key concepts of software reuse in software product line engineering (SPLE). Rich client platforms (RCPs) have been designed to facilitate development of modern client applications. They facilitate this with concepts, structures and pre-made functionality which support...... the development and conceptualization of flexible and modular applications. These characteristics make them interesting in the context of SPLE. Despite the fact that modularity, extensibility and flexibility are characteristics, which in general are even more important to software product lines (SPLs) than...

  11. Prediction of the Export and Fate of Global Ocean Net Primary Production: The EXPORTS Science Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Siegel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ocean ecosystems play a critical role in the Earth’s carbon cycle and the quantification of their impacts for both present conditions and for predictions into the future remains one of the greatest challenges in oceanography. The goal of the EXport Processes in the Ocean from Remote Sensing (EXPORTS Science Plan is to develop a predictive understanding of the export and fate of global ocean net primary production (NPP and its implications for present and future climates. The achievement of this goal requires a quantification of the mechanisms that control the export of carbon from the euphotic zone as well as its fate in the underlying twilight zone where some fraction of exported carbon will be sequestered in the ocean’s interior on time scales of months to millennia. Here we present a measurement / synthesis / modeling framework aimed at quantifying the fates of upper ocean NPP and its impacts on the global carbon cycle based upon the EXPORTS Science Plan. The proposed approach will diagnose relationships among the ecological, biogeochemical and physical oceanographic processes that control carbon cycling across a range of ecosystem and carbon cycling states leading to advances in satellite diagnostic and numerical prognostic models. To collect these data, a combination of ship and robotic field sampling, satellite remote sensing and numerical modeling is proposed which enables the sampling of the many pathways of NPP export and fates. This coordinated, process-oriented approach has the potential to foster new insights on ocean carbon cycling that maximizes its societal relevance through the achievement of research goals of many international research agencies and will be a key step towards our understanding of the Earth as an integrated system.

  12. A new framework for evaluating the impacts of drought on net primary productivity of grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Tianjie; Wu, Jianjun; Li, Xiaohan; Geng, Guangpo; Shao, Changliang; Zhou, Hongkui; Wang, Qianfeng; Liu, Leizhen

    2015-12-01

    This paper presented a valuable framework for evaluating the impacts of droughts (single factor) on grassland ecosystems. This framework was defined as the quantitative magnitude of drought impact that unacceptable short-term and long-term effects on ecosystems may experience relative to the reference standard. Long-term effects on ecosystems may occur relative to the reference standard. Net primary productivity (NPP) was selected as the response indicator of drought to assess the quantitative impact of drought on Inner Mongolia grassland based on the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and BIOME-BGC model. The framework consists of six main steps: 1) clearly defining drought scenarios, such as moderate, severe and extreme drought; 2) selecting an appropriate indicator of drought impact; 3) selecting an appropriate ecosystem model and verifying its capabilities, calibrating the bias and assessing the uncertainty; 4) assigning a level of unacceptable impact of drought on the indicator; 5) determining the response of the indicator to drought and normal weather state under global-change; and 6) investigating the unacceptable impact of drought at different spatial scales. We found NPP losses assessed using the new framework were more sensitive to drought and had higher precision than the long-term average method. Moreover, the total and average losses of NPP are different in different grassland types during the drought years from 1961-2009. NPP loss was significantly increased along a gradient of increasing drought levels. Meanwhile, NPP loss variation under the same drought level was different in different grassland types. The operational framework was particularly suited for integrative assessing the effects of different drought events and long-term droughts at multiple spatial scales, which provided essential insights for sciences and societies that must develop coping strategies for ecosystems for such events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessing the impacts of droughts on net primary productivity in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Fengsong; Li, Xia; Liu, Xiaoping; Lao, Chunhua

    2013-01-15

    Frequency and severity of droughts were projected to increase in many regions. However, their effects of temporal dynamics on the terrestrial carbon cycle remain uncertain, and hence deserve further investigation. In this paper, the droughts that occurred in China during 2001-2010 were identified by using the standardized precipitation index (SPI). Standardized anomaly index (SAI), which has been widely employed in reflecting precipitation, was extended to evaluate the anomalies of net primary productivity (NPP). In addition, influences of the droughts on vegetation were explored by examining the temporal dynamics of SAI-NPP along with area-weighted drought intensity at different time scales (1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months). Year-to-year variability of NPP with several factors, including droughts, NDVI, radiation and temperature, was analyzed as well. Consequently, the droughts in the years 2001, 2006 and 2009 were well reconstructed. This indicates that SPI could be applied to the monitoring of the droughts in China during the past decade (2001-2010) effectively. Moreover, strongest correlations between droughts and NPP anomalies were found during or after the drought intensities reached their peak values. In addition, some droughts substantially reduced the countrywide NPP, whereas the others did not. These phenomena can be explained by the regional diversities of drought intensity, drought duration, areal extents of the droughts, as well as the cumulative and lag responses of vegetation to the precipitation deficits. Besides the drought conditions, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), radiation and temperature also contribute to the interannual variability of NPP. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of UVB radiation on net community production in the upper global ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Garcia-Corral, Lara S.

    2016-08-31

    Aim Erosion of the stratospheric ozone layer together with oligotrophication of the subtropical ocean is leading to enhanced exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation in ocean surface waters. The impact of increased exposure to UVB on planktonic primary producers and heterotrophs is uncertain. Here we test the null hypothesis that net community production (NCP) of plankton communities in surface waters of the tropical and subtropical ocean is not affected by ambient UVB radiation and extend this test to the global ocean, including the polar oceans and the Mediterranean Sea using previous results. Location We conducted experiments with 131 surface communities sampled during a circumnavigation cruise along the tropical and subtropical ocean and combined these results with 89 previous reports encompassing the Atlantic, Pacific, Arctic and Southern Oceans and the Mediterranean Sea. Methods The use of quartz (transparent to UVB radiation) and borosilicate glass materials (opaque to most UVB) for incubations allowed us to compare NCP between communities where UVB is excluded and those receiving natural UVB radiation. Results We found that NCP varies when exposed to natural UVB radiation compared to those where UVB was removed. NCP of autotrophic communities tended to decrease under natural UVB radiation, whereas the NCP of heterotrophic communities tended to increase. However, these variations showed the opposite trend under higher levels of UVB radiation. Main conclusions Our results suggest that earlier estimates of NCP for surface communities, which were hitherto derived using materials blocking UVB radiation were biased, with the direction and magnitude of this bias depending on the metabolic status of the communities and the underwater penetration of UVB radiation.

  15. Net community production at Ocean Station Papa observed with nitrate and oxygen sensors on profiling floats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Joshua N.; Johnson, Kenneth S.; Sakamoto, Carole M.; Jannasch, Hans W.; Coletti, Luke J.; Riser, Stephen C.; Swift, Dana D.

    2016-06-01

    Six profiling floats equipped with nitrate and oxygen sensors were deployed at Ocean Station P in the Gulf of Alaska. The resulting six calendar years and 10 float years of nitrate and oxygen data were used to determine an average annual cycle for net community production (NCP) in the top 35 m of the water column. NCP became positive in February as soon as the mixing activity in the surface layer began to weaken, but nearly 3 months before the traditionally defined mixed layer began to shoal from its winter time maximum. NCP displayed two maxima, one toward the end of May and another in August with a summertime minimum in June corresponding to the historical peak in mesozooplankton biomass. The average annual NCP was determined to be 1.5 ± 0.6 mol C m-2 yr-1 using nitrate and 1.5 ± 0.7 mol C m-2 yr-1 using oxygen. The results from oxygen data proved to be quite sensitive to the gas exchange model used as well as the accuracy of the oxygen measurement. Gas exchange models optimized for carbon dioxide flux generally ignore transport due to gas exchange through the injection of bubbles, and these models yield NCP values that are two to three time higher than the nitrate-based estimates. If nitrate and oxygen NCP rates are assumed to be related by the Redfield model, we show that the oxygen gas exchange model can be optimized by tuning the exchange terms to reproduce the nitrate NCP annual cycle.

  16. The influence of iron and light on net community production in the Subantarctic and Polar Frontal Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Cassar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The roles of iron and light in controlling biomass and primary productivity are clearly established in the Southern Ocean. However, their influence on net community production (NCP and carbon export remains to be quantified. To improve our understanding of NCP and carbon export production in the Subantarctic Zone (SAZ and the northern reaches of the Polar Frontal Zone (PFZ, we conducted continuous onboard determinations of NCP as part of the Sub-Antarctic Sensitivity to Environmental Change (SAZ-Sense study, which occurred in January–February 2007. Biological O2 supersaturation was derived from measuring O2/Ar ratios by equilibrator inlet mass spectrometry. Based on these continuous measurements, NCP during the austral summer 2007 in the Australian SAZ was approximately 43 mmol O2 m−2 d−1. NCP showed significant spatial variability, with larger values near the Subtropical front, and a general southward decrease. For shallower mixed layers (<50 m, dissolved Fe concentrations and Fe sufficiency, estimated from variable fluorescence, correlated strongly with NCP. The strong correlation between NCP and dissolved Fe may be difficult to interpret because of the correlation of dissolved Fe to MLD and because the concentration of iron may not be a good indicator of its availability. At stations with deeper mixed layers, NCP was consistently low, regardless of iron sufficiency, consistent with light availability also being an important control of NCP. Our new observations provide independent evidence for the critical roles of iron and light in mediating carbon export from the Southern Ocean mixed layer.

  17. Switching from monoculture to polyculture farming benefits birds in oil palm production landscapes: Evidence from mist netting data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, Muhammad S; Syafiq, Muhamad; Ashton-Butt, Adham; Ghazali, Amal; Asmah, Siti; Azhar, Badrul

    2017-08-01

    Monoculture farming is pervasive in industrial oil palm agriculture, including those RSPO plantations certified as sustainably managed. This farming practice does not promote the maintenance of farmland biodiversity. However, little scientific attention has been given to polyculture farming in oil palm production landscapes. Polyculture farming is likely to increase the floristic diversity and stand structural complexity that underpins biodiversity. Mist nets were used to sample birds at 120 smallholdings in Peninsular Malaysia. At each site, 12 vegetation structure characteristics were measured. We compared bird species richness, abundance, and composition between monoculture and polyculture smallholdings and used predictive models to examine the effects of habitat quality on avian biodiversity. Bird species richness was significantly greater in polyculture than that of monoculture smallholdings. The number of fallen and standing, dead oil palms were also important positive predictors of species richness. Bird abundance was also strongly increased by standing and dead oil palms and decreased with oil palm stand height. Our results indicate that polyculture farming can improve bird species richness in oil palm production landscapes. In addition, key habitat variables that are closely associated with farming practices, such as the removal of dead trees, should and can be managed by oil palm growers in order to promote biodiversity. To increase the sustainability of oil palm agriculture, it is imperative that stakeholders modify the way oil palms are currently planted and managed. Our findings can guide policy makers and certification bodies to promote oil palm production landscapes that will function more sustainably and increase existing biodiversity of oil palm landscapes.

  18. 7 CFR 1230.11 - Imported pork and pork products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Imported pork and pork products. 1230.11 Section 1230... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order...

  19. 158 economic importance of farmed parkland products to livelihood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tersor

    being farmed as well as land lying fallow, and does .... Result on gender of the respondents indicates that (38.75%) of the respondents were male farmers, while (61.25%). ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF FARMED PARKLAND PRODUCTS TO LIVELIHOOD SUSTENANCE IN LAU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA TARABA ...

  20. The Economic Importance of Forest Products in Enugu State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the economic importance of exploiting forest products in Enugu State, Nigeria using 120 respondents. The study showed that most of the household heads were males aged between 31 and 50 years, and engaged in different forestry activities such as gathering, processing and marketing. Lack of ...

  1. Dynamics of Carbon-dioxide production and its economic importance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dynamics of Carbon-dioxide production and its economic importance. I A Musa. Abstract. No Abstract. GJPAS Vol. 13 (4) 2007: pp.517-521. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Article Metrics. No metrics found. Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

  2. Simulating Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Sichuan Grassland Net Primary Productivity Using the CASA Model and In Situ Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanjiang Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Net primary productivity (NPP is an important indicator for grassland resource management and sustainable development. In this paper, the NPP of Sichuan grasslands was estimated by the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA model. The results were validated with in situ data. The overall precision reached 70%; alpine meadow had the highest precision at greater than 75%, among the three types of grasslands validated. The spatial and temporal variations of Sichuan grasslands were analyzed. The absorbed photosynthetic active radiation (APAR, light use efficiency (ε, and NPP of Sichuan grasslands peaked in August, which was a vigorous growth period during 2011. High values of APAR existed in the southwest regions in altitudes from 2000 m to 4000 m. Light use efficiency (ε varied in the different types of grasslands. The Sichuan grassland NPP was mainly distributed in the region of 3000–5000 m altitude. The NPP of alpine meadow accounted for 50% of the total NPP of Sichuan grasslands.

  3. Effect of Glucagon on Net Splanchnic Cyclic AMP Production in Normal and Diabetic Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljenquist, John E.; Bomboy, James D.; Lewis, Stephen B.; Sinclair-Smith, Bruce C.; Felts, Philip W.; Lacy, William W.; Crofford, Oscar B.; Liddle, Grant W.

    1974-01-01

    Glucagon activates hepatic adenylate cyclase, thereby increasing acutely the liver content of cyclic AMP (cAMP) as well as the release of cAMP into the hepatic vein. Insulin, on the other hand, antagonizes this glucagon-mediated cAMP production, thus providing a hypothetical mechanism through which insulin might correct some of the metabolic abnormalities of diabetes. To study this hormonal interaction in man, net splanchnic cAMP production (NScAMPP) was investigated in normal and insulin-dependent diabetic men under basal conditions and in response to intravenous glucagon, 50 ng/kg/min for 2 h. In normals (n=19), basal hepatic vein cAMP concentration was 23.6±1.1 nM and NScAMPP was 1.7±0.6 nmol/min. Glucagon stimulated NScAMPP in four normal subjects to a peak of 99.6±43 nmol/min at 25 min with a subsequent fall to 12.4±5.1 nmol/min by 90 min despite continuing glucagon infusion. Endogenous insulin secretion was stimulated as indicated by rising levels of immunoreactive insulin and C-peptide (connecting peptide) immunoreactivity, raising the possibility that endogenous insulin might be responsible for the fall in NScAMPP that followed the initial spike. In the diabetics (n=8), basal hepatic vein cAMP concentration was 24.7±1.2 nM and NScAMPP was undetectable. Glucagon stimulated NScAMPP in five diabetics to a peak of 169.9±42.6 with a subsequent fall to 17.4±3.9 nmol/min by 90 min even though endogenous insulin secretion was not stimulated (no rise in C-peptide immunoreactivity). Although the mean increase in NScAMPP was greater in the diabetics, the two groups did not differ significantly. Conclusions. In normal resting man the liver is a significant source of circulating cAMP. Diabetics do not release abnormally large amounts of hepatic cAMP under basal conditions. Glucagon markedly enhances hepatic cAMP release with a spike-decline pattern in both normal and diabetic men. The decline in hepatic cAMP release despite continuing glucagon stimulation is due

  4. Globally sourced mineral commodities used in U.S. Navy SEAL gear—An illustration of U.S. net import reliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, Jamie; Nassar, Nedal T.; Gambogi, Joseph; Baker, Michael S.; Jarvis, Michael T.

    2018-01-25

    A U.S. Navy SEAL (an acronym for sea, air, land) carries gear containing at least 23 nonfuel mineral commodities for which the United States is greater than 50 percent net import reliant. The graphics display the leading world producers of selected nonfuel mineral commodities used to manufacture U.S. Navy SEAL gear. SEALs are members of the U.S. Navy's special operations forces.

  5. Estimating Damage Cost of Net Primary Production due to Climate Change and Ozone(O3) Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. H.; Lee, D. K.; Park, C.; Sung, S.; Kim, H. G.; Mo, Y.; Kim, S.; Kil, S.

    2016-12-01

    Forests are absorbing and storing carbon dioxide (CO2) through photosynthesis. The forests are not only preventing global warming but also influencing temperature, precipitation and humidity (Costanza et al., 1997; de Groot et al., 2002). Also the forests are recognized as a carbon sink internationally (van Kooten, 2009). The Korean Government supports the economic activity such as carbon offset projects in accordance with 'ACT ON THE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT OF CARBON SINK' Article27 (Korea Forest Service, 2013) and aims to make a policy which improves the CO2 capacity of forest for Paris Agreement discussed in UNFCCC COP21, December 2015 (Korea Forest Service, 2015). However, the social-economic activities make to increase aerosols as well as greenhouse gases significantly since the industrial revolution, as a result, the chemical composition of the atmosphere has changed significantly. According to the resent studies, not only CO2 but atmospheric chemistries such as ozone (O3), aerosol and black carbon can be an important factor causing climate change (Hansen et al., 2007; IPCC, 2007). In the past, acid rain affected on forest, but in these days, O3, nitrogen oxide (NOX) and sulfur oxide (SOX) are the most threatening factors on forest ecosystem (Lee et al, 2011). In particular, O3accounts for most of the photochemical products and causes a direct significant impact or damage on the plant because of high toxicity (Han et al., 2006). The research questions of this study are "How does O3 effects on forest productivity in the present and future? " What is the damage cost by the O3 effect in the future? In this study, we developed a statistical model using the parameters which effect on the forest productivity. We estimated the forest productivity using on the derived model in the present and future on a SSP scenarios. Lastly, we evaluated the economic effect or damage cost of O3effect by introducing the concept of climate insurance. The average forest

  6. Net primary productivity (NPP) and associated parameters for the U.S. outer continental shelf waters, 1998-2009 (NODC Accession 0071184)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession consists of monthly net primary productivity (NPP) estimates for 1998-2009 derived from the Vertically Generalized Production Model (VGPM) for the 26...

  7. Efficiency And Import Penetration On The Productivity Of Textile Industry And Textile Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catur B Rakhmawan, Djoni Hartono, Agni A Awirya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Although textile industry and textile products belong to the strategic sub sector of manufacturing industry in Indonesia, they are facing pro-blems on the availability of energy, old production machines, and the flooding of imported products into the domestic market. This study is aimed to analyze the efficiency and productivity as performance indicators and how the efficiency and import penetration affect the productivity of textile industry and textile products. The methods of data analysis used in this research are divided in two phases. The first phase, the non-metric approach of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA is applied to measure the efficiency and productivity. Secondly, the fixed effect model of econometric regression approach is used to find out the effects of efficiency and import penetration on the productivity of textile industry and textile products. The result shows that the average level of efficiency of textile industry and textile products during the period of 2004 – 2008 is about 40 percent with a growth rate of average productivity increases 2.4 percent. Whereas, the econometric estimation results indicate that the increase of efficiency will positively and significantly affect the productivity of textile industry and textile products. On the other hand, the increase of import penetration will negatively affect the productivity of this industry.Keywords:Efficiency, Productivity, Import Penetration, DEA, Fixed Effect

  8. Drought dominates the interannual variability in global terrestrial net primary production by controlling semi-arid ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Ling Huang; Bin He; Aifang Chen; Haiyan Wang; Junjie Liu; Aifeng Lű; Ziyue Chen

    2016-01-01

    Drought is a main driver of interannual variation in global terrestrial net primary production. However, how and to what extent drought impacts global NPP variability is unclear. Based on the multi-timescale drought index SPEI and a satellite-based annual global terrestrial NPP dataset, we observed a robust relationship between drought and NPP in both hemispheres. In the Northern Hemisphere, the annual NPP trend is driven by 19-month drought variation, whereas that in the Southern Hemisphere ...

  9. Quantifying Human Appropriated Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) in a Ghanaian Cocoa System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, A.; Adu-Bredu, S.; Adu Sasu, M.; Ashley Asare, R.; Boyd, E.; Hirons, M. A.; Malhi, Y.; Mason, J.; Norris, K.; Robinson, E. J. Z.; McDermott, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    Ghana is the second largest producer of cocoa (Theobroma cacoa), exporting approximately 18 percent of global volumes. These cocoa farms are predominantly small-scale, ranging in size from 2-4 hectares (ha). Traditionally, the model of cocoa expansion in Ghana relied on clearing new areas of forest and establishing a farm under remnant forest trees. This is increasingly less practical due to few unprotected forest areas remaining and management practices favoring close to full sun cocoa to maximize short-term yields. This study is part of a larger project, ECOLMITS, which is an interdisciplinary, ESPA-funded[1] initiative exploring the ecological limits of ecosystem system services (ESS) for alleviating poverty in small-scale agroforestry systems. The ecological study plots are situated within and around the Kakum National Forest, a well-protected, moist-evergreen forest of the Lower Guinea Forest region. Net primary productivity (NPP) is a measure of the rate at which carbon dioxide (CO2) is incorporated into plant tissues (e.g. canopy, stem and root). For this study, NPP was monitored in situ using methods developed by the Global Environmental Monitoring Network (GEM, http://gem.tropicalforests.ox.ac.uk/). By comparing NPP measured in intact forest and farms, the human appropriated NPP (HANPP) of this system can be estimated. The forest measures provide the "potential" NPP of the region, and then the reduction in NPP for farm plots is calculated for both land-cover change (HANPPLUC) and cocoa harvesting (HANPPHARV). The results presented are of the first year of NPP measurements across the cocoa landscape, including measurements from intact forest, logged forest and cocoa farms across a shade gradient and located at varying distances from the forest edge (e.g. 100 m, 500 m, 1 km and 5 km). These measures will have implications for carbon sequestration potential over the region and long-term sustainability of the Ghanaian cocoa sector. [1] Ecosystem Services for

  10. Disentangling the Relationships between Net Primary Production and Precipitation in Southern Africa Savannas Using Satellite Observations from 1982 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Southworth

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To obtain a better understanding of the variability in net primary production (NPP in savannas is important for the study of the global carbon cycle and the management of this particular ecosystem. Using satellite and precipitation data sets, we investigated the variations in NPP in southern African savannas from 1982 to 2010, and disentangled the relationships between NPP and precipitation by land cover classes and mean annual precipitation (MAP gradients. Specifically, we evaluate the utility of the third generation Global Inventory Monitoring and Modeling System (GIMMS3g normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI dataset, in comparison with Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS derived NPP products, and find strong relationships between the overlapping data periods (2000–2010, such that we can apply our model to derive NPP estimates to the full 29-year NDVI time-series. Generally, the northern portion of the study area is characterized by high NPP and low variability, whereas the southern portion is characteristic of low NPP and high variability. During the period 1982 through 2010, NPP has reduced at a rate of −2.13 g∙C∙m−2∙yr−1 (p < 0.1, corresponding to a decrease of 6.7% over 29 years, and about half of bush and grassland savanna has experienced a decrease in NPP. There is a significant positive relationship between mean annual NPP and MAP in bush and grassland savannas, but no significant relationship is observed in tree savannas. The relationship between mean annual NPP and MAP varies with increases in MAP, characterized as a linear relationship that breaks down when MAP exceeding around 850–900 mm.

  11. Monthly Variation in Plant Biomass and Net Primary Productivity of a Mixed Deciduous Forest at Foothills of Kumaun Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Chandra PANT

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Variation in plant biomass and net primary productivity of a forest grazing land vegetation was analyzed in Tarai of Kumaun Himalaya near Kashipur. The vegetation was studied at monthly intervals from April 2007 to April 2008. Aboveground green biomass, dead biomass, litter biomass and belowground biomass were recorded as 216.93±42.42 g•m-2, 15.30±8.65 g•m-2, 5.52±2.31 g•m-2 and 132.91±41.70 g•m-2 respectively. Average total plant biomass was 365.15±70.23 g•m-2. The aboveground, belowground and litter production were 372.33 g•m-2, 339.70 g•m-2 and 13.91 g•m-2 respectively. Total net primary production was 712.03±23.07 g•m-2. The turnover rates were 1.17, 1.20 and 1.47 for aboveground, litter and belowground parts respectively. Based on system transfer function, the net surplus of organic material as the rate of disappearance was moderately half than the rate of dry matter accumulation.

  12. Modeling of Carbon Sequestration on Eucalyptus Plantation in Brazililian Cerrado Region for Better Characterization of Net Primary Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverri, J. D.; Siqueira, M. B.

    2013-05-01

    Managed Forests have important roles in climate change due to their contribution to CO2 sequestration stored in their biomass, soils and products therefrom. Terrestrial net primary production (NPP, kgC/m2), equal to gross primary production minus autotrophic respiration, represents the carbon available for plant allocation to leaves, stems, roots, defensive compounds, and reproduction and is the basic measure of biological productivity. Tree growth, food production, fossil fuel production, and atmospheric CO2 levels are all strongly controlled by NPP. Accurate quantification of NPP at local to global scales is therefore central topic for carbon cycle researchers, foresters, land and resource managers, and politicians. For recent or current NPP estimates, satellite remote sensing can be used but for future climate scenarios, simulation models are required. There is an increasing trend to displace natural Brazilian Cerrado to Eucalyptus for paper mills and energy conversion from biomass. The objective of this research exercise is to characterize NPP from managed Eucalyptus plantation in the Brazilian Cerrado. The models selected for this study were the 3-PG and Biome-BGC. The selection of these models aims to cover a range of complexity that allow the evaluation of the processes modeled as to its relevance to a best estimate of productivity in eucalyptus forests. 3-PG model is the simplest of the models chosen for this exercise. Its main purpose is to estimate productivity of forests in timber production. The model uses the relationship of quantum efficiency in the transformation of light energy into biomass for vegetative growth calculations in steps in time of one month. Adverse weather conditions are treated with reduction factors applied in the top efficiency. The second model is the Biome-BGC that uses biology and geochemistry principles to estimate leaf-level photosynthesis based on limiting factors such as availability of light and nutrient constraints. The

  13. Zoonotic viruses associated with illegally imported wildlife products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine M Smith

    Full Text Available The global trade in wildlife has historically contributed to the emergence and spread of infectious diseases. The United States is the world's largest importer of wildlife and wildlife products, yet minimal pathogen surveillance has precluded assessment of the health risks posed by this practice. This report details the findings of a pilot project to establish surveillance methodology for zoonotic agents in confiscated wildlife products. Initial findings from samples collected at several international airports identified parts originating from nonhuman primate (NHP and rodent species, including baboon, chimpanzee, mangabey, guenon, green monkey, cane rat and rat. Pathogen screening identified retroviruses (simian foamy virus and/or herpesviruses (cytomegalovirus and lymphocryptovirus in the NHP samples. These results are the first demonstration that illegal bushmeat importation into the United States could act as a conduit for pathogen spread, and suggest that implementation of disease surveillance of the wildlife trade will help facilitate prevention of disease emergence.

  14. Biodiversity of Aspergillus species in some important agricultural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrone, Giancarlo; Susca, A.,; Cozzi, G.

    2007-01-01

    . flavus and A. parasiticus, and ochratoxinogenic A. niger, A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius species are frequently encountered in agricultural products. Studies on the biodiversity of toxigenic Aspergillus species is useful to clarify molecular, ecological and biochemical characteristics of the different...... species in relation to their different adaptation to environmental and geographical conditions, and to their potential toxigenicity. Here we analyzed the biodiversity of ochratoxin producing species occurring on two important crops: grapes and coffee, and the genetic diversity of A. flavus populations...

  15. Efficiency and Import Penetrationon the Productivity of Textile Industry and Textile Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catur Basuki Rakhmawan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although textile industry and textile products belong to the strategic sub-sector of manufacturing industry in Indonesia, they are facing problems on the availability of energy, old production machines, and the flooding of imported products into the domestic market. This study is aimed to analyze the efficiency and productivity as performance indicators and how the efficiency and import penetration affect the productivity of textile industry and textile products. The methods of data analysis used in this research are divided in two phases. The first phase, the non-metric approach of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA is applied to measure the efficiency and productivity. Secondly, the fixed effect model of econometric regression approach is used to find out the effects of efficiency and import penetration on the productivity of textile industry and textile products. The result shows that the ave-rage level of efficiency of textile industry and textile products during the period of 2004 – 2008 is about 40 percent with a growth rate of average productivity increases 2.4 percent. Whereas, the econometric estimation results indicate that the increase of efficiency will positively and significantly affect the productivity of textile industry and textile products. On the other hand, the increase of import penetration will negatively affect the productivity of this industry.

  16. Efficiency and Import Penetration on the Productivity of Textile Industry and Textile Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catur Basuki Rakhmawan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although textile industry and textile products belong to the strategic sub-sector of manufacturing industry in Indonesia, they are facing problems on the availability of energy, old production machines, and the flooding of imported products into the domestic market. This study is aimed to analyze the efficiency and productivity as performance indicators and how the efficiency and import penetration affect the productivity of textile industry and textile products. The methods of data analysis used in this research are divided in two phases. The first phase, the non-metric approach of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA is applied to measure the efficiency and productivity. Secondly, the fixed effect model of econometric regression approach is used to find out the effects of efficiency and import penetration on the productivity of textile industry and textile products. The result shows that the average level of efficiency of textile industry and textile products during the period of 2004 – 2008 is about 40 percent with a growth rate of average productivity increases 2.4 percent. Whereas, the econometric estimation results indicate that the increase of efficiency will positively and significantly affect the productivity of textile industry and textile products. On the other hand, the increase of import penetration will negatively affect the productivity of this industry.

  17. WegenerNet climate station network region Feldbach/Austria: From local measurements to weather and climate data products at 1 km-scale resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabas, T.; Leuprecht, A.; Bichler, C.; Kirchengast, G.

    2010-12-01

    MapServer is used to import spatial data by its database interface and to generate images of static geographic formats. However, a Java applet is additionally needed to display these images on the users local host. Furthermore, station data are visualized as time series by the scripting language PHP. Since February 2010, the visualization of gridded data products is a first step to a new data portal based on OpenLayers. In this GIS framework, all geographic information (e.g., OpenStreetMap) is displayed with MapServer. Furthermore, the visualization of all meteorological parameters are generated on the fly by a Python CGI script and transparently overlayed on the maps. Hence, station data and gridded data are visualized and further prepared for download in common data formats (csv, NetCDF). In conclusion, measured data and generated data products are provided with a data latency less than 1-2 hours in standard operation (near real time). Following an introduction of the processing system along the lines above, resulting data products are presented online at the WegenerNet data portal.

  18. Exploring Estimates of Net Community Production and Export Along the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP), 1993-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducklow, H. W.; Stukel, M. R.; Bowman, J. S.; Kim, H.; Cassar, N.; Eveleth, R.; Li, Z.; Doney, S. C.; Sailley, S. F.; Jickells, T. D.; Baker, A. R.; Chance, R.

    2016-12-01

    In this presentation, we will compare different estimates of net community production (NCP) and export production (EP), including both traditional (changes in nutrient inventories and biological incubations) and newer measurements (Oxygen-Argon ratio, Thorium-234 disequilibrium, Iodide accumulation). Palmer Long Term Ecological Research (PAL-LTER) has been conducting observations of core biogeochemical (nutrient and carbon inventories, sediment trap flux) and ecological (standing stocks, production and grazing rates) processes along the WAP since 1993. Datasets include both temporally-intensive (semiweekly, Oct-April) observations in two nearshore locations at Palmer Station, and regionally-extensive observations over a 200 x 700 km grid of stations extending across the shelf into deep ocean water (>3000 m) each January. These observations provide a long term temporal and spatial context for more recent and focused measurements of net NCP and EP from the euphotic zone. For example, long-term net drawdown of nitrate averaged 415 mmol N m-2 season-1 (33 gC m-2 Season-1) at Palmer Station and 557 mmol N m-2 Season-1 (45 gC m-2 Season-1) over the regional grid. In comparison, discrete bottle-based O2/Ar estimates of NCP averaged 44 mmol O2 m-2 d-1 (0.37 gC m-2 d-1) regionally in January 2008-11. Th234 export was 684 dpm-2 d-1 (0.15 gC m-2 d-1) in January 2012, sourced from 15NO3 uptake-based new production of 4.1 mmol N m-2 d-1 (0.37 gC m-2 d-1). Intercomparison of these estimates is not straightforward. Measurements are based on several elemental currencies (C, N, O2, Th). We do not fully understand the processes each method claims to address. Is NCP the same as new production? Different processes and their measurements proceed over timescales of hours (new and net PP) to weeks (O2/Ar, 234Th) to months (inventory drawdowns). As implied above, assignment of time duration of net drawdown processes is uncertain for changes in water column inventories. Models provide

  19. Estimates of Global Rangeland Net Primary Productivity and its Consumption Based on Climate and Livestock Distribution Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrar, G.; Wolf, J.; Rafique, R.; West, T. O.; Ogle, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    Rangelands play an important role in providing ecosystem services such as food, forage, and fuels in many parts of the world. The net primary productivity (NPP), a difference between CO2 fixed by plants and CO2 lost to autotrophic respiration, is a good indicator of the productivity of rangeland ecosystems, and their contribution to the cycling of carbon in the Earth system. In this study, we estimated the NPP of global rangelands, the consumption thereof by grazing livestock, and associated uncertainties, to better understand and quantify the contribution of rangelands to land-based carbon storage. We estimated rangeland NPP using mean annual precipitation data from Climate Research Unit (CRU), and a regression model based on global observations (Del Grosso et al., 2008). Spatial distributions of annual livestock consumption of rangeland NPP (Wolf et al., 2015) were combined with gridded annual rangeland NPP for the years 2000 - 2011. The uncertainty analysis of these estimates was conducted using a Monte Carlo approach. The rangeland NPP estimates with associated uncertainties were also compared with the total modeled GPP estimates obtained from vegetation dynamic model simulations. Our results showed that mean above-ground NPP of rangelands is 1017.5 MgC/km2, while mean below-ground NPP is 847.6 MgC/km2. The total rangeland NPP represents a significant portion of the total NPP of the terrestrial ecosystem. The livestock area requirements used to geographically distribute livestock spatially are based on optimal pasturage and are low relative to area requirements on less productive land. Even so, ca. 90% of annual livestock consumption of rangeland NPP were met with no adjustment of livestock distributions. Moreover, the results of this study allowed us to explicitly quantify the temporal and spatial variations of rangeland NPP under different climatic conditions. Uncertainty analysis was helpful in identifying the strength and weakness of the methods used to

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF IMPORT-SUBSTITUTING TECHNOLOGIES FOR BUILDING MATERIAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Berezovsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of investigations on rational usage of mineral resources. In particular, it has shown the possibility to increase a period of raw material serviceability and its application for production of building products depending on chemical and mineralogical composition of the waste. Analysis of the executed investigations shows that import substitution of anthracite, lignite and black coal for local fuels (milled peat and its sub-standard product is possible in the production technology of porous building materials.A mathematical model for drying process has been developed in the paper. Technology for thermal performance of a sintering machine with calculation of its length at the given pallet speed has been proposed on the basis of the developed model. Once-through circulation of flue gases and heated materials is the main specific feature of belt sintering machines being used in production. In such a case the whole drying process can be divided into two periods: a period of constant drying rate and a period of falling drying rate. Calculations have shown that the drying rate depends on moisture content but it does not depend on heat exchange Bio-criteria, however, heating rate is a function of temperature and Biq. A mechanism of moisture transfer using various drying methods is the same as in an environment with constant temperature and so in an environment with variable temperature. Application of the mathematical model provides the possibility to save significantly power resources expended for drying process.The paper gives description of methodology for calculation of technologically important optimum parameters for sintering processes of agglomeration while using milled peat.

  1. IMPORT PRICES AND HARD CURRENCY CONSTRAINTS IN EASTERN EUROPE: IMPLICATIONS FOR COARSE GRAIN IMPORTS AND PRODUCTION OF MEAT

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Roberto J.; Miljkovic, Dragan; Gomez, Miguel I.

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (a) to determine the degree to which hard currency earnings constrained overall imports and coarse grain imports in command economies; (b) to measure the importance of import prices on grain imports and to trace the link of grain availability to meat production; and (c) to determine how economic and political reforms in the selected countries may have affected the hard currency constraint, the importance of import prices, and grain imports and meat production...

  2. Timing of the compensation of winter respiratory carbon losses provides explanatory power for net ecosystem productivity of forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haeni, M.; Zweifel, R.; Eugster, W.

    2017-01-01

    , and Australia, using different NEPc integration methods. We found cDOY to be a particularly powerful predictor for NEPc of temperate evergreen needle-leaf forests (R2 = 0.58) and deciduous broadleaf forests (R2 = 0.68). In general, the latest cDOY correlated with the lowest NEPc. The explanatory power of c......Accurate predictions of net ecosystem productivity (NEPc) of forest ecosystems are essential for climate change decisions and requirements in the context of national forest growth and greenhouse gas inventories. However, drivers and underlying mechanisms determining NEPc (e.g. climate, nutrients......) are not entirely understood yet, particularly when considering the influence of past periods. Here we explored the explanatory power of the compensation day (cDOY) —defined as the day of year when winter net carbon losses are compensated by spring assimilation— for NEPc in 26 forests in Europe, North America...

  3. Optimizing Photosynthetic and Respiratory Parameters Based on the Seasonal Variation Pattern in Regional Net Ecosystem Productivity Obtained from Atmospheric Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z.; Chen, J.; Zheng, X.; Jiang, F.; Zhang, S.; Ju, W.; Yuan, W.; Mo, G.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we explore the feasibility of optimizing ecosystem photosynthetic and respiratory parameters from the seasonal variation pattern of the net carbon flux. An optimization scheme is proposed to estimate two key parameters (Vcmax and Q10) by exploiting the seasonal variation in the net ecosystem carbon flux retrieved by an atmospheric inversion system. This scheme is implemented to estimate Vcmax and Q10 of the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) to improve its NEP simulation in the Boreal North America (BNA) region. Simultaneously, in-situ NEE observations at six eddy covariance sites are used to evaluate the NEE simulations. The results show that the performance of the optimized BEPS is superior to that of the BEPS with the default parameter values. These results have the implication on using atmospheric CO2 data for optimizing ecosystem parameters through atmospheric inversion or data assimilation techniques.

  4. Collaborative Product/Service-Systems – On conceptualisation of PSS offerings and business nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mougaard, Krestine; Neugebauer, Line Maria; McAloone, Tim C.

    2012-01-01

    Collaborative PSS development and operation, where multiple stakeholders are involved, is an emerging research area. This articles looks at the intra and inter-organisational company considerations in the industry case of company collaboration in the maritime branch. Initial steps are taken towar...... a framework that aligns service strategies and their unique value proposition with a set of business nets that seeks lights on the value-logic and management mechanisms to design and control each network....

  5. Net primary production and seasonal CO2 and CH4 fluxes in a Trapa natans L. meadow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco BARTOLI

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The main hypothesis of this work is that Trapa natans L. and similar floating leaved macrophytes are only temporary sinks of atmospheric carbon dioxide and that they favour water hypoxia and large methane efflux from sediment to the atmosphere, due to their shading effect and scarce ability to transfer oxygen to submerged tissues. For this purpose, from April to August 2005, T. natans production, dissolved O2, CO2 and CH4 concentrations in the water column and CO2 and CH4 fluxes across the wateratmosphere interface were measured in an oxbow lake (Lanca di Po, Northern Italy where a monospecific floating mat of water chestnut develops. Net primary production by T. natans was determined via biomass harvesting while gas fluxes were determined via short-term incubations of light and dark floating chambers. From July onwards, when the water surface of the oxbow lake was entirely colonized by the plant, the dense canopy resulted in a physical barrier for light and water reareation. As a consequence of sediment and plant respiration, persistent hypoxia and often anoxia, and CO2 and CH4 supersaturation occurred in the water column. Net primary production of T. natans, calculated at peak biomass, was 13.05 ± 0.32 mol CO2 m-2. The T. natans mat was a net sink for atmospheric CO2 from mid June to mid August, with an uptake peak measured at the beginning of July (229 mmol m-2 d-1; estimated net ecosystem metabolism was ≤10.09 ± 1.90 mol CO2 m-2. Contextually, during the vegetative period of T. natans, the oxbow lake was a net source of methane (9.52 ± 2.10 mol m-2, and the resulting CH4 to CO2 flux ratio across the water-atmosphere interface was ≥0.94. The large methane release was probably due to the persistent hypoxia and anoxia induced by the T. natans meadow, which uncoupled methane production from methane oxidation.

  6. Annual Net Community Production in the Western Subtropical North Pacific Determined from Argo-O2 Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, B.; Emerson, S. R.; Bushinsky, S. M.

    2016-02-01

    Export of organic carbon from the surface ocean to depth (the biological pump) helps maintain the pCO2 of the atmosphere and the O2 content of the oxygen minimum zones of the ocean. In the upper ocean, at steady state over a seasonal cycle the net organic carbon export is equal to the Annual Net Community Production (ANCP). The geographic distribution of this quantity determined by satellite-predicted Net Primary Production (NPP) and the recycling efficiency in the euphotic zone is more heterogeneous than the limited experimental estimates of ANCP. We evaluate the relationship between these two estimates of ANCP in the subtropical Western North Pacific Ocean ( 165o E and 20o N) using oxygen measurements on Argo Floats. In January of 2015 we deployed four floats with Anderaa oxygen sensors attached to a 60 cm stick on top of the float end cap, which can be readily calibrated against atmospheric pO2. We present data from these floats and air-sea oxygen flux calculations. The degree of oxygen supersaturation in summer is 1-2 percent, and in winter it fluctuates between being over and undersaturated. Evaluating the role of bubbles in winter is critical to an accurate determination of the annual flux. While there is not a full year of data at the time of writing this abstract, there will be when the Ocean Science meeting is held. So far, after nine months of measurements, there is a net flux of oxygen to the atmosphere, indicating that photosynthesis exceeds respiration. In February we will present a full annual cycle of air-sea oxygen flux and an estimate of ANCP in this very rarely studied region of the ocean.

  7. [Parameter sensitivity of simulating net primary productivity of Larix olgensis forest based on BIOME-BGC model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li-hong; Wang, Hai-yan; Lei, Xiang-dong

    2016-02-01

    Model based on vegetation ecophysiological process contains many parameters, and reasonable parameter values will greatly improve simulation ability. Sensitivity analysis, as an important method to screen out the sensitive parameters, can comprehensively analyze how model parameters affect the simulation results. In this paper, we conducted parameter sensitivity analysis of BIOME-BGC model with a case study of simulating net primary productivity (NPP) of Larix olgensis forest in Wangqing, Jilin Province. First, with the contrastive analysis between field measurement data and the simulation results, we tested the BIOME-BGC model' s capability of simulating the NPP of L. olgensis forest. Then, Morris and EFAST sensitivity methods were used to screen the sensitive parameters that had strong influence on NPP. On this basis, we also quantitatively estimated the sensitivity of the screened parameters, and calculated the global, the first-order and the second-order sensitivity indices. The results showed that the BIOME-BGC model could well simulate the NPP of L. olgensis forest in the sample plot. The Morris sensitivity method provided a reliable parameter sensitivity analysis result under the condition of a relatively small sample size. The EFAST sensitivity method could quantitatively measure the impact of simulation result of a single parameter as well as the interaction between the parameters in BIOME-BGC model. The influential sensitive parameters for L. olgensis forest NPP were new stem carbon to new leaf carbon allocation and leaf carbon to nitrogen ratio, the effect of their interaction was significantly greater than the other parameter' teraction effect.

  8. Sensitivity of boreal forest regional water flux and net primary production simulations to sub-grid-scale land cover complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, J. S.; Running, S. W.; Saatchi, S. S.

    1999-11-01

    We use a general ecosystem process model (BIOME-BGC) coupled with remote sensing information to evaluate the sensitivity of boreal forest regional evapotranspiration (ET) and net primary production (NPP) to land cover spatial scale. Simulations were conducted over a 3 year period (1994-1996) at spatial scales ranging from 30 to 50 km within the BOREAS southern modeling subarea. Simulated fluxes were spatially complex, ranging from 0.1 to 3.9 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 and from 18 to 29 cm yr-1. Biomass and leaf area index heterogeneity predominantly controlled this complexity, while biophysical differences between deciduous and coniferous vegetation were of secondary importance. Spatial aggregation of land cover characteristics resulted in mean monthly NPP estimation bias from 25 to 48% (0.11-0.20 g C m-2 d-1) and annual estimation errors from 2 to 14% (0.04-0.31 Mg C ha-1 yr-1). Error was reduced at longer time intervals because coarse scale overestimation errors during spring were partially offset by underestimation of fine scale results during summer and winter. ET was relatively insensitive to land cover spatial scale with an average bias of less than 5% (0.04 kg m-2 d-1). Factors responsible for differences in scaling behavior between ET and NPP included compensating errors for ET calculations and boreal forest spatial and temporal NPP complexity. Careful consideration of landscape spatial and temporal heterogeneity is necessary to identify and mitigate potential error sources when using plot scale information to understand regional scale patterns. Remote sensing data integrated within an ecological process model framework provides an efficient mechanism to evaluate scaling behavior, interpret patterns in coarse resolution data, and identify appropriate scales of operation for various processes.

  9. The Importance of Seedlings Quality in Timber and Bio-energy Production on marginal lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkiskakis, Nikitas; Kiourtsis, Fotios; Keramitzis, Dimitrios; Papatheodorou, Ioannis; Georgiadou, Margarita; Repmann, Frank; Gerwin, Werner

    2017-04-01

    One of the main issues that the forest sector is facing is to achieve a balance between the demand for biomass &wood production and the need to preserve the sustainability and biodiversity of forest ecosystems. The purposes of the new approaches are to ensure more efficient management of ecosystems and implement intensive forestry that will increase biomass production & timber yields. To achieve this, we need to determine the macroeconomic potential of the various options available, including the use of biotechnology and genetics. The success of the forests plantations capacity may be solved through forest certification, based on: a) Stabilization of the forests and soils structure. b) Hierarchy of biomass production in the forest's management process. c) Οrganization and implementation of effective plantation on marginal lands. d) Maintenance or increase of forest productivity by introducing new items as and when they are required. It is important to evaluate of the influence of factors such as the quality of soils of plantation areas, the utilization of the genetic resources and the management of forest operations with the environmental economic criteria such as net present value of benefits (NPV) and the corresponding flow annuities (EACF).The existing evaluations studies showed that the quality of the plantation areas has the most influence and through validated quality seed production can generate an increase in the NPV up to 73%. The importance of seedlings quality in timber and bio-energy production on marginal lands based on the literature it is estimated according to the heredity of the characteristics of the wood structure (except shrinkage). This clearly indicate that seedlings with the appropriate morphological characteristics can significantly improve the growth performance and help to support the development of biomass plantations oriented in tailor-made timber and bio-energy production.

  10. Characterizing Spatial Variability of Ice Algal Chlorophyll a and Net Primary Production between Sea Ice Habitats Using Horizontal Profiling Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A. Lange

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the role of sea ice algal biomass and primary production for polar ecosystems remains challenging due to the strong spatio-temporal variability of sea ice algae. Therefore, the spatial representativeness of sea ice algal biomass and primary production sampling remains a key issue in large-scale models and climate change predictions of polar ecosystems. To address this issue, we presented two novel approaches to up-scale ice algal chl a biomass and net primary production (NPP estimates based on profiles covering distances of 100 to 1,000 s of meters. This was accomplished by combining ice core-based methods with horizontal under-ice spectral radiation profiling conducted in the central Arctic Ocean during summer 2012. We conducted a multi-scale comparison of ice-core based ice algal chl a biomass with two profiling platforms: a remotely operated vehicle and surface and under ice trawl (SUIT. NPP estimates were compared between ice cores and remotely operated vehicle surveys. Our results showed that ice core-based estimates of ice algal chl a biomass and NPP do not representatively capture the spatial variability compared to the remotely operated vehicle-based estimates, implying considerable uncertainties for pan-Arctic estimates based on ice core observations alone. Grouping sea ice cores based on region or ice type improved the representativeness. With only a small sample size, however, a high risk of obtaining non-representative estimates remains. Sea ice algal chl a biomass estimates based on the dominant ice class alone showed a better agreement between ice core and remotely operated vehicle estimates. Grouping ice core measurements yielded no improvement in NPP estimates, highlighting the importance of accounting for the spatial variability of both the chl a biomass and bottom-ice light in order to get representative estimates. Profile-based measurements of ice algae chl a biomass identified sea ice ridges as an underappreciated

  11. Comparison of Aerial and Terrestrial Remote Sensing Techniques for Quantifying Forest Canopy Structural Complexity and Estimating Net Primary Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, R. T.; Tallant, J.; Gough, C. M.; Hardiman, B. S.; Atkins, J.; Scheuermann, C. M.

    2016-12-01

    Canopy structure can be an important driver of forest ecosystem functioning - affecting factors such as radiative transfer and light use efficiency, and consequently net primary production (NPP). Both above- (aerial) and below-canopy (terrestrial) remote sensing techniques are used to assess canopy structure and each has advantages and disadvantages. Aerial techniques can cover large geographical areas and provide detailed information on canopy surface and canopy height, but are generally unable to quantitatively assess interior canopy structure. Terrestrial methods provide high resolution information on interior canopy structure and can be cost-effectively repeated, but are limited to very small footprints. Although these methods are often utilized to derive similar metrics (e.g., rugosity, LAI) and to address equivalent ecological questions and relationships (e.g., link between LAI and productivity), rarely are inter-comparisons made between techniques. Our objective is to compare methods for deriving canopy structural complexity (CSC) metrics and to assess the capacity of commonly available aerial remote sensing products (and combinations) to match terrestrially-sensed data. We also assess the potential to combine CSC metrics with image-based analysis to predict plot-based NPP measurements in forests of different ages and different levels of complexity. We use combinations of data from drone-based imagery (RGB, NIR, Red Edge), aerial LiDAR (commonly available medium-density leaf-off), terrestrial scanning LiDAR, portable canopy LiDAR, and a permanent plot network - all collected at the University of Michigan Biological Station. Our results will highlight the potential for deriving functionally meaningful CSC metrics from aerial imagery, LiDAR, and combinations of data sources. We will also present results of modeling focused on predicting plot-level NPP from combinations of image-based vegetation indices (e.g., NDVI, EVI) with LiDAR- or image-derived metrics of

  12. Near-Net-Shape Production of Hollow Titanium Alloy Components via Electrochemical Reduction of Metal Oxide Precursors in Molten Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Di; Xiao, Wei; Chen, George Z.

    2013-04-01

    Metal oxide precursors (ca. 90 wt pct Ti, 6 wt pct Al, and 4 wt pct V) were prepared with a hollow structure in various shapes such as a sphere, miniature golf club head, and cup using a one-step solid slip-casting process. The precursors were then electro-deoxidized in molten calcium chloride [3.2 V, 1173 K (900 °C)] against a graphite anode. After 24 hours of electrolysis, the near-net-shape Ti-6Al-4V product maintained its original shape with controlled shrinkage. Oxygen contents in the Ti-6Al-4V components were typically below 2000 ppm. The maximum compressive stress and modulus of electrolytic products obtained in this work were approximately 243 MPa and 14 GPa, respectively, matching with the requirement for medical implants. Further research directions are discussed for mechanical improvement of the products via densification during or after electrolysis. This simple, fast, and energy-efficient near-net-shape manufacturing method could allow titanium alloy components with desired geometries to be prepared directly from a mixture of metal oxides, promising an innovative technology for the low-cost production of titanium alloy components.

  13. Global Human Appropriation of Net Primary Production for Biomass Consumption in the European Union, 1986–2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, Karl‐Heinz; Haberl, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Summary The ongoing globalization process strengthens the connections between different geographic regions through trade. Biomass products, such as food, fiber, or bioenergy, are increasingly traded globally, thereby leading to telecouplings between distant, seemingly unrelated regions. For example, restrictions for agricultural production or changes in bioenergy demand in Europe or the United States might contribute to deforestation in Latin America or Sub‐Saharan Africa. One approach to analyze trade‐related land‐use effects of the global socioeconomic biomass metabolism is the “embodied human appropriation of net primary production” or eHANPP. eHANPP accounts allocate to any product the entire amount of the human appropriation of net primary production (HANPP) that emerges throughout its supply chain. This allows consumption‐based accounts to move beyond simple area‐demand approaches by taking differences in natural productivity as well as in land‐use intensity into account, both across land‐use types as well as across world regions. In this article, we discuss the eHANPP related to the European Union's (EU) consumption of biomass products in the period 1986–2007, based on a consistent global trade data set derived from bilateral data. We find a considerable dependency of the EU on the appropriation of biological productivity outside its own boundaries, with increasing reliance on Latin America as a main supplier. By using the EU as an illustrative example, we demonstrate the usefulness of eHANPP for assessing land‐use impacts caused by nations’ socioeconomic activities and conclude that the eHANPP approach can provide useful information to better manage ecosystems globally in the face of an increasingly interconnected world. PMID:27524879

  14. High-resolution view of the spring bloom initiation and net community production in the Subantarctic Southern Ocean using glider data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thomalla, Sandy J

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available physics highlighting sensitivities of different bloom detection methods to different environmental processes. Model results show that in early spring (September to mid-November) increased rates of net community production (NCP) are strongly affected...

  15. Net primary productivity collected from New Horizon in Gulf of California and North Pacific Ocean from 2004-07-14 to 2008-08-06 (NCEI Accession 0130076)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Net primary productivity determined from 13C-labeled in situ incubations. Water collected via Niskin bottle was incubated with labeled bicarbonate for 24 hours at...

  16. Analysis to determine the maximum dimensions of flexible apertures in sensored security netting products.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murton, Mark; Bouchier, Francis A.; vanDongen, Dale T.; Mack, Thomas Kimball; Cutler, Robert P; Ross, Michael P.

    2013-08-01

    Although technological advances provide new capabilities to increase the robustness of security systems, they also potentially introduce new vulnerabilities. New capability sometimes requires new performance requirements. This paper outlines an approach to establishing a key performance requirement for an emerging intrusion detection sensor: the sensored net. Throughout the security industry, the commonly adopted standard for maximum opening size through barriers is a requirement based on square inchestypically 96 square inches. Unlike standard rigid opening, the dimensions of a flexible aperture are not fixed, but variable and conformable. It is demonstrably simple for a human intruder to move through a 96-square-inch opening that is conformable to the human body. The longstanding 96-square-inch requirement itself, though firmly embedded in policy and best practice, lacks a documented empirical basis. This analysis concluded that the traditional 96-square-inch standard for openings is insufficient for flexible openings that are conformable to the human body. Instead, a circumference standard is recommended for these newer types of sensored barriers. The recommended maximum circumference for a flexible opening should be no more than 26 inches, as measured on the inside of the netting material.

  17. Energy self-reliance, net-energy production and GHG emissions in Danish organic cash crop farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halberg, Niels; Dalgaard, Randi; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2008-01-01

    -energy production were modeled. Growing rapeseed on 10% of the land could produce bio-diesel to replace 50-60% of the tractor diesel used on the farm. Increasing grass-clover area to 20% of the land and using half of this yield for biogas production could change the cash crop farm to a net energy producer......Organic farming (OF) principles include the idea of reducing dependence of fossil fuels, but little has been achieved on this objective so far in Danish OF. Energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from an average 39 ha cash crop farm were calculated and alternative crop rotations for bio......, and reduce GHG emissions while reducing the overall output of products only marginally. Increasing grass-clover area would improve the nutrient management on the farm and eliminate dependence on conventional pig slurry if the biogas residues were returned to cash crop fields...

  18. Relationships between net primary productivity and forest stand age derived from Forest Inventory and Analysis data and remote sensing imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, L.; Chen, J. M.; Pan, Y.; Birdsey, R.

    2010-12-01

    Forest net primary productivity (NPP) varies greatly with stand age, and quantitative information on NPP-age relationship is therefore fundamentally important for forest carbon cycle modeling. We may use four terms to calculate NPP: annual accumulation of live biomass, annual mortality of aboveground and belowground biomass, foliage turnover to soil, and fine root turnover in soil. To derive NPP-age relationships for US forests, the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data are used to estimate the first two terms. The last two terms make up more than 50% of total NPP, but their estimates are highly uncertain based on limited available empirical relationships between aboveground biomass and foliage or fine root biomass. These estimates are mostly confounded by unknown variations of the turnover rates (TR) related to stand age because such field information is rare. To resolve this problem, we developed a new approach by using a leaf area index (LAI) map and a forest age map at 1 km resolution to derive LAI-age relationships for 18 major forest species groups in the USA. These relationships are then used to derive foliage TR using species-specific leaf longevity values. These relationships are also used for estimating the fine root TR based on reliable relationships between fine root and foliage TR. This combination of FIA and remote sensing data allows us for the first time to derive reliable NPP-age relationships for different forest types in USA (Figure 1). The derived relationships show a general temporal pattern of rapid increase in NPP in early ages, peak growth in mid-ages, and slow decline in old ages. The patterns are subjected to climate conditions, and can also be influenced by forest management. These relationships are further generalized for three major forest biomes for continental-scale carbon cycle modeling in conjunction with remotely sensed land cover types. The NPP relationships derived here may have many uses for analysis of management and climate

  19. Topographical effects of climate dataset and their impacts on the estimation of regional net primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L. Qing; Feng, Feng X.

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we first built and compared two different climate datasets for Wuling mountainous area in 2010, one of which considered topographical effects during the ANUSPLIN interpolation was referred as terrain-based climate dataset, while the other one did not was called ordinary climate dataset. Then, we quantified the topographical effects of climatic inputs on NPP estimation by inputting two different climate datasets to the same ecosystem model, the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS), to evaluate the importance of considering relief when estimating NPP. Finally, we found the primary contributing variables to the topographical effects through a series of experiments given an overall accuracy of the model output for NPP. The results showed that: (1) The terrain-based climate dataset presented more reliable topographic information and had closer agreements with the station dataset than the ordinary climate dataset at successive time series of 365 days in terms of the daily mean values. (2) On average, ordinary climate dataset underestimated NPP by 12.5% compared with terrain-based climate dataset over the whole study area. (3) The primary climate variables contributing to the topographical effects of climatic inputs for Wuling mountainous area were temperatures, which suggest that it is necessary to correct temperature differences for estimating NPP accurately in such a complex terrain.

  20. Impacts of climate and land use change on ecosystem hydrology and net primary productivity: Linking water availability to food security in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangal, S. R. S.; Tian, H.; Pan, S.; Zhang, B.; Yang, J.

    2015-12-01

    The nexus approach to food, water and energy security in Asia is extremely important and relevant as the region has to feed two-third of the world's population and accounts for 59% of the global water consumption. The distribution pattern of food, water and energy resources have been shaped by the legacy effect of both natural and anthropogenic disturbances and therefore are vulnerable to climate change and human activities including land use/cover change (LUCC) and land management (irrigation and nitrogen fertilization). In this study, we used the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM) to examine the effects of climate change, land use/cover change, and land management practices (irrigation and nitrogen fertilization) on the spatiotemporal trends and variability in water availability and its role in limiting net primary productivity (NPP) and food security in the 20th and early 21st centuries. Our specific objectives are to quantify how climate change, LUCC and other environmental changes have interactively affected carbon and water dynamics across the Asian region. In particular, we separated the Asian region into several sub-region based on the primary limiting factor - water, food and energy. We then quantified how changes in environmental factors have altered the water and food resources during the past century. We particularly focused on Net Primary Productivity (NPP) and water cycle (Evapotranspiration, discharge, and runoff) as a measure of available food and water resources, respectively while understanding the linkage between food and water resources in Asia.

  1. Mesozooplankton production, grazing and respiration in the Bay of Bengal: Implications for net heterotrophy

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, V.; Ramaiah, N.

    with the Arabian Sea. Contrary to the conventional belief, mesozooplankton grazing impact was up to 83% on primary production (PP). Low PP coupled with very high zooplankton production (70% of PP) along with abundant bacterial production (50% of the PP; Ramaiah et...

  2. Asymmetric warming significantly affects net primary production, but not ecosystem carbon balances of forest and grassland ecosystems in northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hongxin; Feng, Jinchao; Axmacher, Jan C; Sang, Weiguo

    2015-03-13

    We combine the process-based ecosystem model (Biome-BGC) with climate change-scenarios based on both RegCM3 model outputs and historic observed trends to quantify differential effects of symmetric and asymmetric warming on ecosystem net primary productivity (NPP), heterotrophic respiration (Rh) and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of six ecosystem types representing different climatic zones of northern China. Analysis of covariance shows that NPP is significant greater at most ecosystems under the various environmental change scenarios once temperature asymmetries are taken into consideration. However, these differences do not lead to significant differences in NEP, which indicates that asymmetry in climate change does not result in significant alterations of the overall carbon balance in the dominating forest or grassland ecosystems. Overall, NPP, Rh and NEP are regulated by highly interrelated effects of increases in temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentrations and precipitation changes, while the magnitude of these effects strongly varies across the six sites. Further studies underpinned by suitable experiments are nonetheless required to further improve the performance of ecosystem models and confirm the validity of these model predictions. This is crucial for a sound understanding of the mechanisms controlling the variability in asymmetric warming effects on ecosystem structure and functioning.

  3. Quantitative Assessment of the Human Appropriation of Net Primary Production (HANPP in the Coastal Areas of Jiangsu, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangyi Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Global increases in population and consumption have raised concerns regarding the sustainability of the current and future use of natural resources. The human appropriation of net primary production (HANPP provides a useful measure for determining human-derived alterations in the amount of biomass that is available in ecosystems each year. HANPP was calculated based on vegetation modelling, agricultural statistics, and remote sensing data on land use and land cover to assess the human impacts on ecosystems in the coastal areas of Jiangsu, China. The results showed that HANPP increased from 332 g·C/m2/year in 2000 to 442 g·C/m2/year in 2010, with an average annual increase of 2.9%. The proportion of appropriated net primary production increased from 50.3% to 71.0% of NPPpot, mainly driven by HANPPharv (harvested NPP with an increase from 45.2% to 61.3% of NPPpot. Additionally, the spatial variation in average HANPP was striking among counties in the observed period with the lowest and highest values of 21.8% and 63.8% of NPPpot, respectively. Further analysis showed that observed levels of HANPP are high due to a high level of biomass harvest from cropland and the increases in fertilizer use, farmland irrigation rate and population and economic growth explain the trends in HANPP in the coastal areas of Jiangsu.

  4. BUGS in the analysis of biodiversity experiments: species richness and composition are of similar importance for grassland productivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Hector

    Full Text Available The idea that species diversity can influence ecosystem functioning has been controversial and its importance relative to compositional effects hotly debated. Unfortunately, assessing the relative importance of different explanatory variables in complex linear models is not simple. In this paper we assess the relative importance of species richness and species composition in a multilevel model analysis of net aboveground biomass production in grassland biodiversity experiments by estimating variance components for all explanatory variables. We compare the variance components using a recently introduced graphical Bayesian ANOVA. We show that while the use of test statistics and the R² gives contradictory assessments, the variance components analysis reveals that species richness and composition are of roughly similar importance for primary productivity in grassland biodiversity experiments.

  5. Relationships between net primary productivity and stand age for several forest types and their influence on China's carbon balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaoqiang; Zhou, Lei; Chen, Jingming; Ju, Weimin; Feng, Xianfeng; Wu, Weixing

    2011-06-01

    Affected by natural and anthropogenic disturbances such as forest fires, insect-induced mortality and harvesting, forest stand age plays an important role in determining the distribution of carbon pools and fluxes in a variety of forest ecosystems. An improved understanding of the relationship between net primary productivity (NPP) and stand age (i.e., age-related increase and decline in forest productivity) is essential for the simulation and prediction of the global carbon cycle at annual, decadal, centurial, or even longer temporal scales. In this paper, we developed functions describing the relationship between national mean NPP and stand age using stand age information derived from forest inventory data and NPP simulated by the BEPS (Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator) model in 2001. Due to differences in ecobiophysical characteristics of different forest types, NPP-age equations were developed for five typical forest ecosystems in China (deciduous needleleaf forest (DNF), evergreen needleleaf forest in tropic and subtropical zones (ENF-S), deciduous broadleaf forest (DBF), evergreen broadleaf forest (EBF), and mixed broadleaf forest (MBF)). For DNF, ENF-S, EBF, and MBF, changes in NPP with age were well fitted with a common non-linear function, with R(2) values equal to 0.90, 0.75, 0.66, and 0.67, respectively. In contrast, a second order polynomial was best suitable for simulating the change of NPP for DBF, with an R(2) value of 0.79. The timing and magnitude of the maximum NPP varied with forest types. DNF, EBF, and MBF reached the peak NPP at the age of 54, 40, and 32 years, respectively, while the NPP of ENF-S maximizes at the age of 13 years. The highest NPP of DBF appeared at 122 years. NPP was generally lower in older stands with the exception of DBF, and this particular finding runs counter to the paradigm of age-related decline in forest growth. Evaluation based on measurements of NPP and stand age at the plot-level demonstrates the reliability

  6. Importance of Closed Loop Supply Chain Relationships for Product Remanufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Östlin, Johan; Sundin, Erik; BJÖRKMAN, Mats,

    2008-01-01

    Remanufacturing is an industrial process where used products are restored (remanufactured) to useful life. In comparison to manufacturing, remanufacturing has some general characteristics that complicate the supply chain and production system. For example, a company must collect the used products from the customers, and thus the timing and quality of the used products are usually unknown. Remanufacturing companies are dependent on customers to return used products (cores). In this paper, seve...

  7. Calculating net primary productivity of forest ecosystem with G4M model: case study on South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, S.; Forsell, N.; Kindermann, G.; Lee, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    Net primary productivity (NPP) is considered as an important indicator for forest ecosystem since the role of forest is highlighted as a stepping stone for mitigating climate change. Especially rapidly urbanizing countries which have high carbon dioxide emission have large interest in calculating forest NPP under climate change. Also maximizing carbon sequestration in forest sector has became a global goal to minimize the impacts of climate change. Therefore, the objective of this research is estimating carbon stock change under the different climate change scenarios by using G4M (Global Forestry Model) model in South Korea. We analyzed four climate change scenarios in different Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP). In this study we used higher resolution data (1kmx1km) to produce precise estimation on NPP from regionalized four climate change scenarios in G4M model. Finally, we set up other environmental variables for G4M such as water holding capacity, soil type and elevation. As a result of this study, temperature showed significant trend during 2011 to 2100. Average annual temperature increased more than 5℃ in RCP 8.5 scenario while 1℃ increased in RCP 2.6 scenario. Each standard deviation of the annual average temperature showed similar trend. Average annual precipitation showed similarity within four scenarios. However the standard deviation of average annual precipitation is higher in RCP8.5 scenario which indicates the ranges of precipitation is wider in RCP8.5 scenario. These results present that climate indicators such as temperature and precipitation have uncertainties in climate change scenarios. NPP has changed from 5-13tC/ha/year in RCP2.6 scenario to 9-21 tC/ha/year in RCP8.5 scenario in 2100. In addition the spatial distribution of NPP presented different trend among the scenarios. In conclusion we calculated differences in temperature and precipitation and NPP change in different climate change scenarios. This study can be applied for

  8. Climatic variability, hydrologic anomaly, and methane emission can turn productive freshwater marshes into net carbon sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Housen; Gottgens, Johan F; Chen, Jiquan; Sun, Ge; Desai, Ankur R; Ouyang, Zutao; Shao, Changliang; Czajkowski, Kevin

    2015-03-01

    Freshwater marshes are well-known for their ecological functions in carbon sequestration, but complete carbon budgets that include both methane (CH4 ) and lateral carbon fluxes for these ecosystems are rarely available. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first full carbon balance for a freshwater marsh where vertical gaseous [carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and CH4 ] and lateral hydrologic fluxes (dissolved and particulate organic carbon) have been simultaneously measured for multiple years (2011-2013). Carbon accumulation in the sediments suggested that the marsh was a long-term carbon sink and accumulated ~96.9 ± 10.3 (±95% CI) g C m(-2)  yr(-1) during the last ~50 years. However, abnormal climate conditions in the last 3 years turned the marsh to a source of carbon (42.7 ± 23.4 g C m(-2)  yr(-1) ). Gross ecosystem production and ecosystem respiration were the two largest fluxes in the annual carbon budget. Yet, these two fluxes compensated each other to a large extent and led to the marsh being a CO2 sink in 2011 (-78.8 ± 33.6 g C m(-2)  yr(-1) ), near CO2 -neutral in 2012 (29.7 ± 37.2 g C m(-2)  yr(-1) ), and a CO2 source in 2013 (92.9 ± 28.0 g C m(-2)  yr(-1) ). The CH4 emission was consistently high with a three-year average of 50.8 ± 1.0 g C m(-2)  yr(-1) . Considerable hydrologic carbon flowed laterally both into and out of the marsh (108.3 ± 5.4 and 86.2 ± 10.5 g C m(-2)  yr(-1) , respectively). In total, hydrologic carbon fluxes contributed ~23 ± 13 g C m(-2)  yr(-1) to the three-year carbon budget. Our findings highlight the importance of lateral hydrologic inflows/outflows in wetland carbon budgets, especially in those characterized by a flow-through hydrologic regime. In addition, different carbon fluxes responded unequally to climate variability/anomalies and, thus, the total carbon budgets may vary drastically among years. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Assessment of the importance of neutron multiplication for tritium production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiovaro, P.; Di Maio, P. A.

    2017-01-01

    One of the major requirements for a fusion power plant in the future is tritium self-sufficiency. For this reason the scientific community has dedicated a lot of effort to research activity on reactor tritium breeding blankets. In the framework of the international project DEMO, many concepts of breeding blanket have been taken into account and some of them will be tested in the experimental reactor ITER by means of appropriate test blanket modules (TBMs). All the breeding blanket concepts rely on the adoption of binary systems composed of a material acting as neutronic multiplier and another as a breeder. This paper addresses a neutronic feature of these kinds of systems. In particular, attention has been focused on the assessment of the importance of neutrons coming from multiplication reactions for the production of tritium. A theoretical framework has been set up and a procedure to evaluate the performance of the multiplier-breeder systems, under the aforementioned point of view, has been developed. Moreover, the model set up has been applied to helium cooled lithium lead and helium cooled pebble bad TBMs under irradiation in ITER and the results have been critically discussed.

  10. MISR Level 3 Cloud Motion Vector monthly Product in netCDF format V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MISR Level 3 Monthly Cloud Motion Vector Product contains retrievals of cloud motion determined by geometrically triangulating the position and motion of cloud...

  11. MISR Level 3 Cloud Motion Vector yearly Product in netCDF format V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MISR Level 3 Yearly Cloud Motion Vector Product contains retrievals of cloud motion determined by geometrically triangulating the position and motion of cloud...

  12. Excess heat production of future net zero energy buildings within district heating areas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steffen; Möller, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    buildings in Denmark are connected to electricity grids and around half are connected to districtheating (DH) systems. Connecting buildings to larger energy systems enables them to send and receive energy from these systems. This paper’s objective is to examine how excess heat production from NZEBs...... excess heat production from solar thermal collectors. The main findings are that the excess heat from NZEBs can benefit DH systems by decreasing the production from production units utilizing combustible fuels. In DH areas where the heat demand in summer months is already covered by renewable energy......Denmark’s long-term energy goal is to develop an energy system solely based on renewable energy sources by 2050. To reach this goal, energy savings in buildings is essential. Therefore, the focus on energy efficient measures in buildings and netzeroenergybuildings (NZEBs) has increased. Most...

  13. ISLSCP II GPPDI, Net Primary Productivity (NPP) Class B Point Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Primary Production Data Initiative (GPPDI) was set up as a Focus 1 activity of the IGBP Data and Information System, a coordinated international program...

  14. ISLSCP II GPPDI, Net Primary Productivity (NPP) Class B Point Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The Global Primary Production Data Initiative (GPPDI) was set up as a Focus 1 activity of the IGBP Data and Information System, a coordinated international...

  15. The effect of cannibalism intensity on the net primary production and the dynamics of trophic links in the aquatic ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirobokova, I.; Pechurkin, N.

    The aim of the work was to construct a mathematical model of the effect of cannibalism intensity on the dynamic behavior and functional characteristics of simple aquatic ecosystems. A mathematical model of an aquatic ecosystem has been constructed, with the following principal trophic links: limiting nutrient concentration, producers (phytoplankton), predators of the first order, and predators of the second order. The model takes into account the age structure of the second-order predator and includes two age groups (the young and adults). The adult predators of the second order are cannibals feeding on both first-order predators and their own young, which consume phytoplankton. The model was used to investigate the effect of cannibalism intensity on the net primary production and the dynamics of trophic links in the aquatic ecosystem characterized by cannibalism at the upper trophic level or by the emergence of a third-order predator in the system. It has been found that when cannibalism increases above a certain level, the concentrations of both adults and the young of the 2nd-order predators decrease. At the same time, the concentrations of the 1st-order predators and of nutrients increase, while the biomass of producers decreases. When the cannibalism intensity is low, the net primary production of the system increases to a certain level with the increase in cannibalism intensity and drops sharply when the level of consumption of the young is high. The emergence of the 3rd-order predator in the system leads to a change in the dynamics of links in conformity with the "bottom-up" and "top-down" control. Thus, cannibalism of a certain magnitude can lead to an increase in integrated parameters of aquatic ecosystems: the amount of energy used by the ecosystem and the productivity in the photosynthesis link.

  16. Dairy goat production and the importance of gastrointestinal strongyle parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Laura; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Cringoli, Giuseppe

    2007-08-01

    In recent years, demand for goat products has increased in both developing and developed countries. Goat production (particularly dairy), however, is negatively affected by several factors, including infectious and parasitic diseases. Among the latter, gastrointestinal strongyle infection remains one of the main constraints to dairy goat production. In this mini-review, we emphasize the negative influence of these parasites, associated with subclinical production losses and depressive impacts upon long-term animal productivity, as well as the scarcity of studies on this topic. Finally, the necessity of reducing the use of anthelminthics and thus minimizing residues in food and the environment is stressed.

  17. Grassland and cropland net ecosystem production of the U.S. Great Plains: Regression tree model development and comparative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Bruce K.; Howard, Daniel; Dahal, Devendra; Gilmanov, Tagir; Ji, Lei; Zhang, Li; Smith, Kelcy

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology and results of two ecological-based net ecosystem production (NEP) regression tree models capable of up scaling measurements made at various flux tower sites throughout the U.S. Great Plains. Separate grassland and cropland NEP regression tree models were trained using various remote sensing data and other biogeophysical data, along with 15 flux towers contributing to the grassland model and 15 flux towers for the cropland model. The models yielded weekly mean daily grassland and cropland NEP maps of the U.S. Great Plains at 250 m resolution for 2000–2008. The grassland and cropland NEP maps were spatially summarized and statistically compared. The results of this study indicate that grassland and cropland ecosystems generally performed as weak net carbon (C) sinks, absorbing more C from the atmosphere than they released from 2000 to 2008. Grasslands demonstrated higher carbon sink potential (139 g C·m−2·year−1) than non-irrigated croplands. A closer look into the weekly time series reveals the C fluctuation through time and space for each land cover type.

  18. Importance of systems biology in engineering microbes for biofuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Redding, Alyssa M.; Rutherford, Becky J.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2009-12-02

    Microorganisms have been rich sources for natural products, some of which have found use as fuels, commodity chemicals, specialty chemicals, polymers, and drugs, to name a few. The recent interest in production of transportation fuels from renewable resources has catalyzed numerous research endeavors that focus on developing microbial systems for production of such natural products. Eliminating bottlenecks in microbial metabolic pathways and alleviating the stresses due to production of these chemicals are crucial in the generation of robust and efficient production hosts. The use of systems-level studies makes it possible to comprehensively understand the impact of pathway engineering within the context of the entire host metabolism, to diagnose stresses due to product synthesis, and provides the rationale to cost-effectively engineer optimal industrial microorganisms.

  19. The Importance of Phytoplankton Biomolecule Availability for Secondary Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina T. Peltomaa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The growth and reproduction of animals is affected by their access to resources. In aquatic ecosystems, the availability of essential biomolecules for filter-feeding zooplankton depends greatly on phytoplankton. Here, we analyzed the biochemical composition, i.e., the fatty acid, sterol and amino acid profiles and concentrations as well as protein, carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus content of 17 phytoplankton monocultures representing the seven most abundant phytoplankton classes in boreal and sub-arctic lakes. To examine how the differences in the biochemical composition between phytoplankton classes affect their nutritional quality for consumers, we assessed the performance of Daphnia, on these diets. Furthermore, we defined the most important biomolecules regulating the somatic growth and reproduction of Daphnia, expecting that higher concentrations of certain biomolecules are needed for reproduction than for growth. Finally, we combined these results with phytoplankton field data from over 900 boreal and sub-arctic lakes in order to estimate whether the somatic growth of Daphnia is sterol-limited when the natural phytoplankton communities are cyanobacteria-dominated. Our analysis shows that Daphnia grows best with phytoplankton rich in sterols, ω-3 fatty acids, protein, and amino acids. Their reproduction follows food sterol and ω-3 concentration as well as C:P-ratio being two times higher in Daphnia feeding on cryptophytes than any other diet. Interestingly, we found that a high dietary ω-6 fatty acid concentration decreases both somatic growth and reproduction of Daphnia. When combined with phytoplankton community composition field data, our results indicate that zooplankton is constantly limited by sterols in lakes dominated by cyanobacteria (≥40% of total phytoplankton biomass, and that the absence of cryptophytes can severely hinder zooplankton production in nature.

  20. Performance of free-range chickens reared in production modules enriched with shade net and perches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJB Santos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of environmental enrichment in a free-range chicken production system on live performance as a function of microclimate, physiological parameters, and performance parameters. Four production modules were divided into four pens with 10 birds each, totaling 60 birds. The following treatments were applied: access to a paddock (TEST, access to a paddock with perches (PER, access to a paddock with artificial shade (SHA, and access to the paddock with perches and artificial shade (PESH. The PESH production module presented the best globe temperature (Tbg,ºC and enthalpy (h, kJ/kg, and thereby, the best thermal environmental conditions, which ensured the longest permanence time of the birds in the paddock. The SHA and PESH modules promoted the lowest respiratory rate and shank and comb temperatures. Live performance was influenced by the presence of environmental enrichment (modules SHA and PESH, with the highest live weight (LW and weight gain (WG and the lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR and metabolizable energy intake (MEI. Parts yield, such as giblets, were not influenced by production modules, except for PESH, which promoted higher offal weight. In general, chickens reared in enriched production modules presented greatest performance and comfort results and were considered close to optimal rearing conditions.

  1. Importance of stability study of continuous systems for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz Astudillo, Isabel Cristina; Cardona Alzate, Carlos Ariel

    2011-01-10

    Fuel ethanol industry presents different problems during bioreactors operation. One of them is the unexpected variation in the output ethanol concentration from the bioreactor or a drastic fall in the productivity. In this paper, a compilation of concepts and relevant results of several experimental and theoretical studies about dynamic behavior of fermentation systems for bioethanol production with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis is done with the purpose of understanding the stability phenomena that could affect the productivity of industries producing fuel ethanol. It is shown that the design of high scale biochemical processes for fuel ethanol production must be done based on stability studies. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Reduction of net primary productivity in southern China caused by abnormal low-temperature freezing in winter of 2008 detected by a remote sensing-driven ecosystem model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, W.; Liu, Y.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, G.

    2011-12-01

    Terrestrial carbon cycle is an important determinant of global climate change and affected by various factors, including climate, CO2 concentration, atmospheric nitrogen deposition and human activities. Extreme weather events can significantly regulate short-term even long-term carbon exchanges between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. During the period from the middle January to the middle February 2008, Southern China was seriously hit by abnormal low-temperature freezing, which caused serous damages to forests and crops. However, the reduction of net primary productivity (NPP) of terrestrial ecosystems caused by this extremely abnormal weather event has not been quantitatively investigated. In this study, the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) model was employed to assess the reduction of NPP in Southern China caused by the abnormal low-temperature freezing. Prior to the regional simulation, the BEPS model was validated using measured NPP in different ecosystems, demonstrating the ability of this model to simulate NPP reliably in China. Then, it was forced using meteorological data interpolated from observations of weather stations and leaf area index inversed from MODIS reflectance data to simulate national wide NPP at a 500 m resolution for the period from 2003 to 2008. The departures of NPP in 2008 from the means during 2003-2007 were used as the indicator of NPP reduction caused by the low-temperature freezing. It was found out that NPP in 2008 decreased significantly in forests of Southern China, especially in Guangdong, Fujian, Zhejiang, Guangxi, Jiangxi, and Hunan Provinces, in which the low-temperature freeing was more serious. The annul reduction of NPP was above 150 g C/m^2/yr in these areas. Key words: Net Primary Productivity, low-temperature freezing, BEPS model, MODIS Correspondence author: Weimin Ju Email:juweimin@nju.edu.cn

  3. Import Substitution in Regional Industrial Production: Theoretical and Practical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgeniy Georgievich Animitsa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article proves the important role of import substitution in the economic security protection of state and its regions, especially in times of crisis, geopolitical and economical instability. The authors argue that the problem of import substitution is not modern, trendy scientific stream. The issue of displacement of import goods by domestic ones was brought up in famous classic theories of mercantilists. The particular emphasis is placed on the analysis and systematization of different scientific approaches, which are utilized by native and foreign scientists to bring out the matter of “import substitution,” to determine its essential characteristics. The authors suggest their own interpretation of the import substitution notion. In the article, the most significant pro and contra arguments in import substitution policy are defined. The regional aspects in the import substitution are approved: case study — organization of industrial import substitution in the Sverdlovsk region. In the article, the authors analyze the subject matter of the Program “Development of Intraregional Industrial Cooperation and Implementation of an Import Substitution in Branches of Industry in the Sverdlovsk Region.” It is resumed, that active policy of import substitution in the industry may become the driver of regional economic development.

  4. The production of subjectivities in the Net: Following the trail of a division of applied psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Leal Ferreira, Arthur Arruda; Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; Foureaux, Bruno; Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil; Torres Brandão, Julia; Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil; Ruthes Sodré, Karoline; Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil; Barbosa Verly Miguel, Marcus Vinicius; Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil; Barbosa Pereira, Natalia; Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to bring to the stage the different modes of production of subjectivities engendered by clinical psychological practices and modes of translation and coordination between them. Such research is based on the conceptual Political Epistemology of Stengers and Despret and the Actor-Network Theory of Latour and Law. For these authors, scientific knowledge is produced not as a representation of reality through well-formed sentences, but as modes of articulation between researchers ...

  5. The importance of forest structure to biodiversity–productivity relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    While various relationships between productivity and biodiversity are found in forests, the processes underlying these relationships remain unclear and theory struggles to coherently explain them. In this work, we analyse diversity–productivity relationships through an examination of forest structure (described by basal area and tree height heterogeneity). We use a new modelling approach, called ‘forest factory’, which generates various forest stands and calculates their annual productivity (above-ground wood increment). Analysing approximately 300 000 forest stands, we find that mean forest productivity does not increase with species diversity. Instead forest structure emerges as the key variable. Similar patterns can be observed by analysing 5054 forest plots of the German National Forest Inventory. Furthermore, we group the forest stands into nine forest structure classes, in which we find increasing, decreasing, invariant and even bell-shaped relationships between productivity and diversity. In addition, we introduce a new index, called optimal species distribution, which describes the ratio of realized to the maximal possible productivity (by shuffling species identities). The optimal species distribution and forest structure indices explain the obtained productivity values quite well (R2 between 0.7 and 0.95), whereby the influence of these attributes varies within the nine forest structure classes. PMID:28280550

  6. Salinity influences on aboveground and belowground net primary productivity in tidal wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierfelice, Kathryn N.; Graeme Lockaby, B.; Krauss, Ken W.; Conner, William H.; Noe, Gregory; Ricker, Matthew C.

    2017-01-01

    Tidal freshwater wetlands are one of the most vulnerable ecosystems to climate change and rising sea levels. However salinification within these systems is poorly understood, therefore, productivity (litterfall, woody biomass, and fine roots) were investigated on three forested tidal wetlands [(1) freshwater, (2) moderately saline, and (3) heavily salt-impacted] and a marsh along the Waccamaw and Turkey Creek in South Carolina. Mean aboveground (litterfall and woody biomass) production on the freshwater, moderately saline, heavily salt-impacted, and marsh, respectively, was 1,061, 492, 79, and 0  g m−2 year−1 versus belowground (fine roots) 860, 490, 620, and 2,128  g m−2 year−1. Litterfall and woody biomass displayed an inverse relationship with salinity. Shifts in productivity across saline sites is of concern because sea level is predicted to continue rising. Results from the research reported in this paper provide baseline data upon which coupled hydrologic/wetland models can be created to quantify future changes in tidal forest functions.

  7. SPECIAL FEATURES OF THE EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT THROUGH THE NET INTERACTION OF EDUCATION AND PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda V. Silkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to explore the features of the educational environment which are observed in educational networking of organization with manufacturing companies.Methods. Theoretical methods: comparison and synthesis of theoretical studies of the Russian and foreign scientists on the concepts of «networking» and «educational environment»; study of regulatory documents of the leaders of the railway industry networking companies with educational organizations; simulation method of educational environment in the networking. Empirical: pedagogical observation, study the experience of networking with other educational institutions and industrial enterprises inRussiaand abroad.Scientific novelty. The authors attempt to fill the gaps in the methodological approach to the study of networking characteristics of the educational environment, emerging as a result of networking and educational organization of production. Definitions of «networking», «educational environment» are proposed, scientific knowledge about networking «educational organization – production» and its impact on the educational environment on the example of railway transport are expanded. The authors propose to consider the concept «networking» as mutually beneficial interaction network association of organizations whose cooperation can meet the challenges of each organization, the subject of networking, in the pursuit of social goals. The «educational environment» is considered by the authors as the area of networking of educational and production systems to facilitate the achievement of the required quality of training by the employer, and includes specially created production – pedagogical conditions. The forms of networking of educational organizations and enterprises are identified by an example of the railway branch.Results. The interpretation of the concepts of «network», «networking», «educational environment» are considered; networking functions (value

  8. Tracing trade-related telecouplings in the global land-system using the embodied human appropriation of net primary production framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberl, H.; Kastner, T.; Schaffartzik, A.; Erb, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    Global land-system change is influenced by a complex set of drivers that transcend spatial, institutional and temporal scales. The notion of "telecouplings" is gaining importance in Land System Science as a framework to address that complexity of drivers. One of them is the trade in land-based products, which forges connections between different geographic regions. Trade in land-based products is growing rapidly, thereby creating an increasing spatial disconnect between the locations where primary products (e.g. crops, fodder or timber) are grown and harvested and where the related environmental pressures occur, and the locations where final products (e.g. food, fiber or bioenergy) are consumed. Governing land-related sustainability issues such as GHG emissions or pressures on biodiversity and ecosystems related with land-use changes requires information on trade-related telecouplings, e.g. in order to avoid leakage effects. However, tracing land use (change) related with flows of traded products is challenging, among others due to (a) the lack of easily implementable metrics to account for differences in land quality and land-use intensity, and (b) the lack of satisfactory methods to allocate land to products that are traded and consumed. Drawing from a database derived from FAO statistics that allows tracing bilateral trade flows between ~200 countries at a resolution of ~500 products for the time period 1986-2006, this presentation will discuss how the framework of embodied human appropriation of net primary production (eHANPP) can help tackling these difficult issues. The HANPP framework allows to consistently represent important aspects of land quality and land-use intensity, e.g. natural productivity potential or land-use efficiency. In terms of allocation of land to products, eHANPP is a factor-based approach, and the presentation will discuss differences to alternative methods such as environmentally extended input-output analysis. We will use the available

  9. The Economic Impact of Productive Safety Net Program on Poverty: Microeconometrics Analysis, Tigrai National Regional State, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibrah Hagos Gebresilassie

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at evaluating the impact of productive safety net program on poverty using primary data from randomly selected 600 households in central zone of Tigrai National Regional State, Ethiopia. Propensity Score Matching and Foster-Greer-Thorbecke were used to evaluate impact of the program and poverty, respectively. The paper revealed that the program has positive and significant effect on consumption, livestock holdings, and productive assets. Moreover, impact of the program on total consumption expenditure per adult equivalent was found to be positive and significant. Using total poverty line, poverty rate was lowest among program participants (30.33% than non-participants (31.1%. Highest poverty rate was found among households headed by women (38.42% while households headed by men (23.1%. The study also revealed that the program has positive and significant effect on poverty reduction and protecting productive assets. Finally, it was recommended that female headed program participants based programs should be provided to help boost their agricultural output and reduce endemic poverty.

  10. Microbial Community Dynamics, Community Respiration, and Net Community Production in Monterey Bay, a Nearshore Upwelling Kelp Forest Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J.; Litvin, S. Y.; Beman, M.

    2016-02-01

    Upwelling ecosystems, and the extensive kelp forests that can be found in such environments, are extremely productive, supporting extensive food webs and active biogeochemical cycling. However, variation in microbial community dynamics and metabolism—typically a key component of oceanic biogeochemical cycles—are poorly understood within and outside kelp forests. We examined variation in microbial community diversity and composition, planktonic community respiration (CR), net community production (NCP), and gross primary production (GPP) as a function of proximity to kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) and other variables (i.e. depth, temperature, time, size fractionation) through lab-based and in situ bottle incubations in Monterey Bay, CA. Microbial alpha diversity tended to be higher at shallower depths and inside the kelp forest than outside it, while non-dimensional scaling revealed that variations in beta diversity were driven primarily by date and depth. CR and NCP varied with depth, date, and with proximity to kelp. CR was lower within the kelp forest than outside it, but kelp forest samples exhibited less variation. Inside the kelp forest, a relatively constant rate of CR led to variations in NCP driven by variable GPP, while CR alone appeared to control NCP outside the kelp forest across multiple depths. Taken together, these results speak to the variable nature of the nearshore environment in both space and time, and demonstrate how kelp forests may influence microbial communities and moderate changes in biogeochemical cycling over time.

  11. Estimation and Analysis of Spatiotemporal Dynamics of the Net Primary Productivity Integrating Efficiency Model with Process Model in Karst Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Estimates of regional net primary productivity (NPP are useful in modeling regional and global carbon cycles, especially in karst areas. This work developed a new method to study NPP characteristics and changes in Chongqing, a typical karst area. To estimate NPP accurately, the model which integrated an ecosystem process model (CEVSA with a light use efficiency model (GLOPEM called GLOPEM-CEVSA was applied. The fraction of photosynthetically active radiation (fPAR was derived from remote sensing data inversion based on moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer atmospheric and land products. Validation analyses showed that the PAR and NPP values, which were simulated by the model, matched the observed data well. The values of other relevant NPP models, as well as the MOD17A3 NPP products (NPP MOD17, were compared. In terms of spatial distribution, NPP decreased from northeast to southwest in the Chongqing region. The annual average NPP in the study area was approximately 534 gC/m2a (Std. = 175.53 from 2001 to 2011, with obvious seasonal variation characteristics. The NPP from April to October accounted for 80.1% of the annual NPP, while that from June to August accounted for 43.2%. NPP changed with the fraction of absorbed PAR, and NPP was also significantly correlated to precipitation and temperature at monthly temporal scales, and showed stronger sensitivity to interannual variation in temperature.

  12. Product Lifecycle Management: CERN to host an important international conference

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    CERN designs, builds and operates machines that contain millions of items of many types, such as software, electronics, and electrical, mechanical and chemical components. It is a challenge to maintain a coherent configuration of everything that has been developed and installed. To do this, CERN developed the EDMS system – an integrated Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) platform that enables management of all the information related to the entire lifecycle of each single component. On 5 and 6 September CERN will host an international PLM conference at which participants will exchange experience and address how best to apply PLM in their organisations.   Pictogram representation of a typical product lifecycle. Picture by the National Institute of Standards and Technology’s Manufacturing Engineering via Wikimedia Commons [Public domain]. PLM is the activity of managing, in the most effective way, an organisation’s products all the way through their lifecycles: from th...

  13. 158 economic importance of farmed parkland products to livelihood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tersor

    it sustains the farmers livelihood in Lau Local Government Area of Taraba State, Nigeria.A total of ... 37.5% respondents retained parkland trees as source of food for their families, while 35% retained parkland products as ... of the tree are used for different purposes. Both ..... farmers how to integrate fast growing species with.

  14. Socio-Economic Importance of Fuelwood Production in Gambari ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fuelwood will continue to be indispensible for a variety of local industries and craft: restaurants, bakeries, curing tobacco, brick burning and barbecue, to name few. Keywords: Non-timber forest products, fuelwood, economic assessment, livelihood. Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR) Vol. 11, No. 1, 2011 ...

  15. Culturally and economically important nontimber forest products of northern Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle J. Baumflek; Marla R. Emery; Clare. Ginger

    2010-01-01

    Nontimber forest products (NTFPs) gathered for food, medicine, craft, spiritual, aesthetic, and utilitarian purposes make substantial contributions to the economic viability and cultural vitality of communities. In the St. John River watershed of northern Maine, people identifying with cultural groups including Acadian, Maliseet, Mi'kmaq, Scotch-Irish, and Swedish...

  16. 16 CFR 1009.3 - Policy on imported products, importers, and foreign manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... modern technology has brought air transport and containerized freight for rapid handling and distribution... against the customs broker even though his or her name may appear as the importer of record. However, the... and enforcement by exempting a customs broker from the coverage of the law merely because of his or...

  17. Divergence in Forest-Type Response to Climate and Weather: Evidence for Regional Links Between Forest-Type Evenness and Net Primary Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Climate change is altering long-term climatic conditions and increasing the magnitude of weather fluctuations. Assessing the consequences of these changes for terrestrial ecosystems requires understanding how different vegetation types respond to climate and weather. This study examined 20 years of regional-scale remotely sensed net primary productivity (NPP) in forests of the northern Lake States to identify how the relationship between NPP and climate or weather differ among forest types, and if NPP patterns are influenced by landscape-scale evenness of forest-type abundance. These results underscore the positive relationship between temperature and NPP. Importantly, these results indicate significant differences among broadly defined forest types in response to both climate and weather. Essentially all weather variables that were strongly related to annual NPP displayed significant differences among forest types, suggesting complementarity in response to environmental fluctuations. In addition, this study found that forest-type evenness (within 8 ?? 8 km2 areas) is positively related to long-term NPP mean and negatively related to NPP variability, suggesting that NPP in pixels with greater forest-type evenness is both higher and more stable through time. This is landscape- to subcontinental-scale evidence of a relationship between primary productivity and one measure of biological diversity. These results imply that anthropogenic or natural processes that influence the proportional abundance of forest types within landscapes may influence long-term productivity patterns. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC (outside the USA).

  18. Iron fertilization enhanced net community production but not downward particle flux during the Southern Ocean iron fertilization experiment LOHAFEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Patrick; van der Loeff, Michiel Rutgers; Cassar, Nicolas; Vandromme, Pieter; d'Ovidio, Francesco; Stemmann, Lars; Rengarajan, R.; Soares, Melena; González, Humberto E.; Ebersbach, Friederike; Lampitt, Richard S.; Sanders, Richard; Barnett, Bruce A.; Smetacek, Victor; Naqvi, S. Wajih A.

    2013-09-01

    closed eddy core in the Subantarctic Atlantic Ocean was fertilized twice with two tons of iron (as FeSO4), and the 300 km2 fertilized patch was studied for 39 days to test whether fertilization enhances downward particle flux into the deep ocean. Chlorophyll a and primary productivity doubled after fertilization, and photosynthetic quantum yield (FV/FM) increased from 0.33 to ≥0.40. Silicic acid (artificially fertilized bloom with very low diatom biomass. Net community production (NCP) inside the patch, estimated from O2:Ar ratios, averaged 21 mmol POC m-2 d-1, probably ±20%. 234Th profiles implied constant export of 6.3 mmol POC m-2 d-1 in the patch, similar to unfertilized waters. The difference between NCP and 234Th-derived export partly accumulated in the mixed layer and was partly remineralized between the mixed layer and 100 m. Neutrally buoyant sediment traps at 200 and 450 m inside and outside the patch caught mostly fertilization. Our data thus indicate intense flux attenuation between 100 and 200 m, and probably between the mixed layer and 100 m. We attribute the lack of fertilization-induced export to silicon limitation of diatoms and reprocessing of sinking particles by detritus feeders. Our data are consistent with the view that nitrate-rich but silicate-deficient waters are not poised for enhanced particle export upon iron addition.

  19. 9 CFR 327.25 - Disposition procedures for product condemned or ordered destroyed under import inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS § 327.25 Disposition procedures for product condemned or ordered destroyed under import inspection. (a... condemned or ordered destroyed under import inspection. 327.25 Section 327.25 Animals and Animal Products...

  20. Net ecosystem production in the arid land in northwest China from 1982 to 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shunli; Shi, Qingdong

    2009-06-01

    This study constructs a soil respiration model, which includes three variables: air temperature, precipitation and soil character using a semi-mechanistic-empirically statistical model by James W. Raich. The soil characteristics are variables introduced into the model in the study, including soil texture, soil depth, PH and soil organic carbon. Then the model was used to estimate the gross and illustrate spatial-temporal patterns of soil respiration based on the data obtained monthly across the arid land in northwest China from 1961 to 2001. The solar energy efficiency model was used to survey NPP, and the NEP on 20 years scale from 1982 to 2001. Thus, the following conclusions can be come up with: (1) from 1961 to 2001, the temperature and wetness had an increasing trend in the arid land in northwest China, while the range of precipitation variation was greater than before. Such climate change accelerated NPP and soil respiration, and declined NEP on a total level. The carbon sink function of arid land of Northwest China was weakening. (2) Under the background of increasing temperature and wetness, human cultivation accelerated soil respiration of the oasis. Thus, NEP of the oasis was declined. Thereby, the carbon sink function of oasis was weakening and soil degradation happened. 3) Moisture is a more important factor than temperature in the main processes of terrestrial carbon cycle in the arid areas in Northwest China. More attention should be paid to the precipitation in modeling dominant processes of the carbon cycle process in the arid areas.

  1. An efficient system for the production of the medicinally important ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An in vitro cultivation protocol was developed for Asparagus cochinchinensis a species threatened by over collection due to its importance as a medicinal plant in China. Adventitious shoot induction was most successful by using hypocotyls as explants for propagation on Murashige and Skoog (Murashige et al., 1962) ...

  2. The importance of opinion leaders in agricultural production among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper makes an assessment of the importance of opinion leaders in farming in three rural villages of Uganda. The basic premise is that peasant farmers in Uganda, particularly the women farmers do not have adequate access to extension services due to, amongst others, the wide change agent to client ratio. In view of ...

  3. THE IMPORTANCE OF COAGULATION BATH IN ACRYLIC FIBER PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail TİYEK

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available In the production of acrylic fibers using wet-spinning method, fiber formation takes places in the coagulation bath. Therefore, physical properties of the fibers, produced by the wet-spinning method, is affected by coagulation bath conditions. For this reason, coagulation bath parameters have to be checked very well. In this paper, both the physical events such as diffusion and phase transition, occured in the coagulation bath, and some coagulation bath parameters that affect these physical events are studied. Furthermore, it is tried to express their affects on the physical characteristics of the fibers.

  4. The importance of price for the sale of ecological products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Kirkeby; Sørensen, Hans Christian

    1993-01-01

    reductions produced considerable changes in customer choices and hence in the estimated market share. The change for tomatoes entails a doubling of the market share at a price reduction of DKK 2.00. For potatoes one could observe a 10% increase per DKK 1.30 price reduction. The ecological market share...... increase for milk can be estimated at about 6% at a DKK 1.00 price reduction. 4. In general, if prices are lowered, it seems that the market shares will increase noticably, with between 3 and 8% increased market shares per 1.00 DKK reduction depending on the present price level and product type. 5. However...

  5. Net Locality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Gordon, Eric

    Provides an introduction to the new theory of Net Locality and the profound effect on individuals and societies when everything is located or locatable. Describes net locality as an emerging form of location awareness central to all aspects of digital media, from mobile phones, to Google Maps...... of emerging technologies, from GeoCities to GPS, Wi-Fi, Wiki Me, and Google Android....

  6. Net Neutrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej

    2017-01-01

    Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else.......Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else....

  7. Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of Simple One Machine-Two Product System Using Petri Nets = Basit Bir Makine-İki Ürün Sisteminin Petri Ağları Kullanılarak Modellenmesi, Analizi ve Simulasyonu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür ARMANERİ

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available As in many engineering fields, the design of manufacturing systems can be carried out using models. Petri nets have been used extensively to model and analyze manufacturing systems. Petri Nets, as graphical and mathematical tools, provide a uniform environment for modeling, format analysis and design of discrete event systems. The modeling, simulation and analysis of simple one machine-two product systems using Petri nets will be presented in this paper. Behavioral and structural properties of the Petri net model will be considered in details. Then, the Petri net model of one machine-two product system will be simulated using a simulation program.

  8. Cacao diseases: important threats to chocolate production worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploetz, Randy C

    2007-12-01

    ABSTRACT Theobroma cacao, cacao, is an ancient, neotropical domesticate. It is now grown throughout the humid, lowland tropics and is the basis of a multibillion dollar confectionary trade. Diverse diseases impact production of the crop. They reduce yields by ca. 20%, but could cause far greater losses if certain highly damaging diseases were to become more widely distributed. Among the most potentially dangerous of these diseases are frosty pod, caused by Moniliophthora roreri, and witches' broom, caused by M. perniciosa (previously Crinipellis perniciosa). These two diseases occur only in the Western Hemisphere, and severe losses would follow their introduction to West Africa and Asia, where ca. 86% of all cacao production occurs. Elsewhere, Cacao swollen shoot virus and the damaging black pod agent, Phytophthora megakarya, are found in Western Africa; whereas vascular streak dieback, caused by Oncobasidium theobromae, is present only in Asia. Breeding programs are challenged by minimal resistance to some of the diseases. Progress that has been made is threatened by the "emergence" of other serious diseases, such as Ceratocystis wilt (Ceratocystis cacaofunesta). During this symposium, new insights are discussed on the biology, origins, pathology and phylogeny of the pathogens; as well as the biological, chemical and genetic management of the diseases that they cause.

  9. Variation and Trends of Landscape Dynamics, Land Surface Phenology and Net Primary Production of the Appalachian Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yeqiao; Zhao, Jianjun; Zhou, Yuyu; Zhang, Hongyan

    2012-12-15

    The gradients of the Appalachian Mountains in elevations and latitudes provide a unique regional perspective of landscape variations in the eastern United States and a section of the southeastern Canada. This study reveals patterns and trends of landscape dynamics, land surface phenology and ecosystem production along the Appalachian Mountains using time series data from Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) and AVHRR Global Production Efficiency Model (GloPEM) datasets. We analyzed the spatial and temporal patterns of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), length of growing season (LOS) and net primary production (NPP) of selected ecoregions along the Appalachian Mountains regions. We compared the results out of the Appalachian Mountains regions in different spatial contexts including the North America and the Appalachian Trail corridor area. To reveal latitudinal variations we analyzed data and compared the results between 30°N-40°N and 40°N-50°N latitudes. The result revealed significant decreases in annual peak NDVI in the Appalachian Mountains regions. The trend for the Appalachian Mountains regions was -0.0018 (R2=0.55, P<0.0001) NDVI unit decrease per year during 25 years between 1982 and 2006. The LOS had prolonged 0.3 day yr-1 during 25 years over the Appalachian Mountains regions. The NPP increased by 2.68 gC m-2yr-2 in Appalachian Mountains regions from 1981 to 2000. The comparison with the North America reveals the effects of topography and ecosystem compositions of the Appalachian Mountains. The comparison with the Appalachian Trail corridor area provides a regional mega-transect view of the measured variables.

  10. Estimating Trends and Variation of Net Biome Productivity in India for 1980-2012 Using a Land Surface Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahlot, Shilpa; Shu, Shijie; Jain, Atul K.; Baidya Roy, Somnath

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we explore the trend in net biome productivity (NBP) over India for the period 1980-2012 and quantify the impact of different environmental factors, including atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]), land use and land cover change, climate, and nitrogen deposition on carbon fluxes using a land surface model, Integrated Science Assessment Model. Results show that terrestrial ecosystems of India have been a carbon sink for this period. Driven by a strong CO2 fertilization effect, magnitude of NBP increased from 27.17 TgC/yr in the 1980s to 34.39 TgC/yr in the 1990s but decreased to 23.70 TgC/yr in the 2000s due to change in climate. Adoption of forest conservation, management, and reforestation policies in the past decade has promoted carbon sequestration in the ecosystems, but this effect has been offset by loss of carbon from ecosystems due to rising temperatures and decrease in precipitation.

  11. Spatial and seasonal characterization of net primary productivity and climate variables in southeastern China using MODIS data*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Dai-liang; Huang, Jing-feng; Huete, Alfredo R.; Yang, Tai-ming; Gao, Ping; Chen, Yan-chun; Chen, Hui; Li, Jun; Liu, Zhan-yu

    2010-01-01

    We developed a sophisticated method to depict the spatial and seasonal characterization of net primary productivity (NPP) and climate variables. The role of climate variability in the seasonal variation of NPP exerts delayed and continuous effects. This study expands on this by mapping the seasonal characterization of NPP and climate variables from space using geographic information system (GIS) technology at the pixel level. Our approach was developed in southeastern China using moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. The results showed that air temperature, precipitation and sunshine percentage contributed significantly to seasonal variation of NPP. In the northern portion of the study area, a significant positive 32-d lagged correlation was observed between seasonal variation of NPP and climate (Pair temperature, precipitation, and sunshine percentage, respectively (Pair temperature and precipitation on NPP lasted for 48 d or 64 d, while sunshine influence on NPP only persisted for 16 d. Due to complex topography and vegetation distribution in the southern part of the study region, the spatial patterns of vegetation-climate relationship became complicated and diversiform, especially for precipitation influences on NPP. In the northern part of the study area, all vegetation NPP had an almost similar response to seasonal variation of air temperature except for broad crops. The impacts of seasonal variation of precipitation and sunshine on broad and cereal crop NPP were slightly different from other vegetation NPP. PMID:20349524

  12. Assessing the impact of the urbanization process on net primary productivity in China in 1989-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Guangjin; Qiao, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Urban development affects the material circulation and energy flow of ecosystems, thereby affecting the Net Primary Productivity (NPP). The loss of NPP due to urban expansion was calculated integrating GLO-PEM with remote sensing and GIS techniques in China during the period of 1989-2000. Using urban expansion and the mean NPP for the different land use types in the fourteen regions, the total loss of NPP was calculated as 0.95 Tg C, which accounted for 0.03% of the national NPP of 1989. The total loss of NPP due to the transformation from cropland to urban land accounted for 91.93%, followed by forest (7.17%) and grassland (0.69%). However, the conversion from unused land, industrial and construction land, and water bodies to urban land resulted in an increase in the NPP. The regions locating in eastern China and middle China had large reductions in the total NPP due to urban expansion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Drought dominates the interannual variability in global terrestrial net primary production by controlling semi-arid ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ling; He, Bin; Chen, Aifang; Wang, Haiyan; Liu, Junjie; Lű, Aifeng; Chen, Ziyue

    2016-04-19

    Drought is a main driver of interannual variation in global terrestrial net primary production. However, how and to what extent drought impacts global NPP variability is unclear. Based on the multi-timescale drought index SPEI and a satellite-based annual global terrestrial NPP dataset, we observed a robust relationship between drought and NPP in both hemispheres. In the Northern Hemisphere, the annual NPP trend is driven by 19-month drought variation, whereas that in the Southern Hemisphere is driven by 16-month drought variation. Drought-dominated NPP, which mainly occurs in semi-arid ecosystems, explains 29% of the interannual variation in global NPP, despite its 16% contribution to total global NPP. More surprisingly, drought prone ecosystems in the Southern Hemisphere, which only account for 7% of the total global NPP, contribute to 33% of the interannual variation in global NPP. Our observations support the leading role of semi-arid ecosystems in interannual variability in global NPP and highlight the great impacts of long-term drought on the global carbon cycle.

  14. Variations in Vegetation Net Primary Production in the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau, China, from 1982 to 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piao, S.; Fang, J.; He, J. [Department of Ecology, College of Environmental Science, and Key Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes of the Ministry of Education, Peking University, Beijing, 100871 (China)

    2006-01-15

    Vegetation net primary production (NPP) derived from a carbon model (Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach, CASA) and its interannual change in the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibetan) Plateau were investigated in this study using 1982-1999 time series data sets of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and paired ground-based information on vegetation, climate, soil, and solar radiation. The 18-year averaged annual NPP over the plateau was 125 g C m-2 yr-1, decreasing from the southeast to the northwest, consistent with precipitation and temperature patterns. Total annual NPP was estimated between 0.183 and 0.244 Pg C over the 18 years, with an average of 0.212 Pg C (1 Pg = 1015 g). Two distinct periods (1982-1990 and 1991-1999) of NPP variation were observed, separated by a sharp reduction during 1990-1991. From 1982 to 1990, annual NPP did not show a significant trend, while from 1991 to 1999 a marked increase of 0.007 Pg C yr-2 was observed. NPP trends for most vegetation types resembled that of the whole plateau. The largest annual NPP increase during 1991-1999 appeared in alpine meadows, accounting for 32.3% of the increment of the whole region. Changes in solar radiation and temperature significantly influenced NPP variation, suggesting that solar radiation may be one of the major factors associated with changes in NPP.

  15. Effect of shading nets on the production and quality of blueberry fruit (Vaccinium corymbosum L. cv. Brigitta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Marcelo Rodríguez Beraud

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Growth, development and fruit quality blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. variety Brigitta under different shade nets were evaluated. Assays were performed in plants 7 years in a commercial orchard Collipulli, Araucanía Region, Chile. Treatments were a control without shading and four types of screens: a red 40% and 18% shade; aluminized mesh with 40% shade and a black mesh 35% shade. In fruits shade of red mesh 40% greater equatorial and polar diameter were observed and three weeks later harvested the fruits of treatment without mesh. In growing shade 40% aluminized mesh phenological stages extension lag and the maximum weekly production two weeks over control was observed. The highest yields were observed in plants of treatment and control shade of red mesh 40%, with 11008 kg ha-1 and 10461 kg ha-1, respectively, while the lowest was in red mesh 18% with 9668 kg ha-1. The fruits grown under shade of red mesh 18% showed the highest number of fruits per plant with 1806 berries per plant, fruit weight less than 1.69 g with the strongest with 3.76 N mm-1 module deformability. Therefore, the largest weight berry fruits observed in non-mesh screen and 40% red shading, together with the increased size and performance.

  16. Life cycle assessment and sustainable engineering in the context of near net shape grown components: striving towards a sustainable way of future production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämpfer, Christoph; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Beger, Anna-Lena; Jacobs, Georg; Löwer, Manuel; Moser, Franziska; Reimer, Julia; Trautz, Martin; Usadel, Björn; Wormit, Alexandra; Hollert, Henner

    2017-01-01

    Technical product harvesting (TEPHA) is a newly developing interdisciplinary approach in which bio-based production is investigated from a technical and ecological perspective. Society's demand for ecologically produced and sustainably operable goods is a key driver for the substitution of conventional materials like metals or plastics through bio-based alternatives. Technical product harvesting of near net shape grown components describes the use of suitable biomass for the production of technical products through influencing the natural shape of plants during their growth period. The use of natural materials may show positive effects on the amount of non-renewable resource consumption. This also increases the product recyclability at the end of its life cycle. Furthermore, through the near net shape growth of biomass, production steps can be reduced. As a consequence such approaches may save energy and the needed resources like crude oil, coal or gas. The derived near net shape grown components are not only considered beneficial from an environmental point of view. They can also have mechanical advantages through an intrinsic topology optimization in contrast to common natural materials, which are influenced in their shape after harvesting. In order to prove these benefits a comprehensive, interdisciplinary scientific strategy is needed. Here, both mechanical investigations and life cycle assessment as a method of environmental evaluation are used.

  17. Reliability ensemble averaging of 21st century projections of terrestrial net primary productivity reduces global and regional uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exbrayat, Jean-François; Bloom, A. Anthony; Falloon, Pete; Ito, Akihiko; Smallman, T. Luke; Williams, Mathew

    2018-02-01

    Multi-model averaging techniques provide opportunities to extract additional information from large ensembles of simulations. In particular, present-day model skill can be used to evaluate their potential performance in future climate simulations. Multi-model averaging methods have been used extensively in climate and hydrological sciences, but they have not been used to constrain projected plant productivity responses to climate change, which is a major uncertainty in Earth system modelling. Here, we use three global observationally orientated estimates of current net primary productivity (NPP) to perform a reliability ensemble averaging (REA) method using 30 global simulations of the 21st century change in NPP based on the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP) business as usual emissions scenario. We find that the three REA methods support an increase in global NPP by the end of the 21st century (2095-2099) compared to 2001-2005, which is 2-3 % stronger than the ensemble ISIMIP mean value of 24.2 Pg C y-1. Using REA also leads to a 45-68 % reduction in the global uncertainty of 21st century NPP projection, which strengthens confidence in the resilience of the CO2 fertilization effect to climate change. This reduction in uncertainty is especially clear for boreal ecosystems although it may be an artefact due to the lack of representation of nutrient limitations on NPP in most models. Conversely, the large uncertainty that remains on the sign of the response of NPP in semi-arid regions points to the need for better observations and model development in these regions.

  18. 77 FR 29914 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products AGENCY... live bovines and products derived from bovines with regard to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. This... products to revise the conditions for the importation of live bovines and products derived from bovines...

  19. 9 CFR 112.9 - Biological products imported for research and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biological products imported for... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PACKAGING AND LABELING § 112.9 Biological products imported for research and evaluation. A biological...

  20. NOy production, ozone loss and changes in net radiative heating due to energetic particle precipitation in 2002–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sinnhuber

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the impact of energetic particle precipitation on the stratospheric nitrogen budget, ozone abundances and net radiative heating using results from three global chemistry-climate models considering solar protons and geomagnetic forcing due to auroral or radiation belt electrons. Two of the models cover the atmosphere up to the lower thermosphere, the source region of auroral NO production. Geomagnetic forcing in these models is included by prescribed ionization rates. One model reaches up to about 80 km, and geomagnetic forcing is included by applying an upper boundary condition of auroral NO mixing ratios parameterized as a function of geomagnetic activity. Despite the differences in the implementation of the particle effect, the resulting modeled NOy in the upper mesosphere agrees well between all three models, demonstrating that geomagnetic forcing is represented in a consistent way either by prescribing ionization rates or by prescribing NOy at the model top.Compared with observations of stratospheric and mesospheric NOy from the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS instrument for the years 2002–2010, the model simulations reproduce the spatial pattern and temporal evolution well. However, after strong sudden stratospheric warmings, particle-induced NOy is underestimated by both high-top models, and after the solar proton event in October 2003, NOy is overestimated by all three models. Model results indicate that the large solar proton event in October 2003 contributed about 1–2 Gmol (109 mol NOy per hemisphere to the stratospheric NOy budget, while downwelling of auroral NOx from the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere contributes up to 4 Gmol NOy. Accumulation over time leads to a constant particle-induced background of about 0.5–1 Gmol per hemisphere during solar minimum, and up to 2 Gmol per hemisphere during solar maximum. Related negative anomalies of ozone are predicted by

  1. De-coupling of net community production and new production in the euphotic zone of the equatorial Pacific: A model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiujun; Murtugudde, Ragu; Busalacchi, Antonio J.; Le Borgne, Robert

    2005-11-01

    A physical-biogeochemical model is employed to estimate rates of nitrogen based primary production (PP*), net community production (NCP*), and new production (NP) in the equatorial Pacific. The model reproduces observed vertical differences between ammonium regeneration and uptake: uptake > regeneration above 40 m and uptake < regeneration below 40 m. As a result, NCP* exceeds NP in the upper 40 m, but decreases more rapidly with depth than NP. High surface NCP* appears across the entire upwelling region whereas high surface NP is found in the eastern equatorial Pacific with a much stronger spatial and temporal variability in NCP* relative to NP. The NCP*/PP* ratio shows a larger range (0.1-0.4) than the f-ratio (i.e., the NP/PP* ratio) (0.1-0.3). The zonal and vertical de-coupling between NCP* and NP is caused by the time lag between biological uptake and regeneration, and the advection of organic and inorganic nitrogen. The excess of NCP* over NP in the upper euphotic zone suggests the possibility of carbon over-consumption in the upper ocean of the equatorial Pacific with implications for predicting sinks/sources of CO2.

  2. Criterion 6, indicator 32 : exports as a share of wood and wood products production and imports as a share of wood and wood products production

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Howard; Rebecca Westby; Kenneth E. Skog

    2010-01-01

    The United States has become progressively more reliant on imports to meet consumption needs. In roundwood equivalents, imports of wood and paper products as a share of consumption increased from 13% to 30% between 1965 and 2005. This increase is due largely to increased softwood lumber import share, which increased from 15% in 1965 to 38% in 2006. The import share for...

  3. Biogenic carbon fluxes from global agricultural production and consumption: Gridded, annual estimates of net ecosystem carbon exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, J.; West, T. O.; le Page, Y.; Thomson, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Quantification of biogenic carbon fluxes from agricultural lands is needed to generate globally consistent bottom-up estimates for carbon monitoring and model input. We quantify agricultural carbon fluxes associated with annual (starting in 1961) crop net primary productivity (NPP), harvested biomass, and human and livestock consumption and emissions, with estimates of uncertainty, by applying region- and species-specific carbon parameters to annual crop, livestock, food and trade inventory data, and generate downscaled, gridded (0.05 degree resolution) representations of these fluxes. In 2011, global crop NPP was 5.25 ± 0.46 Pg carbon (excluding root exudates), of which 2.05 ± 0.051 Pg carbon was harvested as primary crops; an additional 0.54 Pg of crop residue carbon was collected for livestock fodder. In 2011, total livestock feed intake was 2.42 ± 0.21 Pg carbon, of which 2.31 ± 0.21 Pg carbon was emitted as carbon dioxide and 0.072 ± 0.005 Pg carbon was emitted as methane. We estimate that livestock grazed 1.18 Pg carbon from non-crop lands in 2011, representing 48.5 % of global total feed intake. In 2009, the latest available data year, we estimate global human food intake (excluding seafood and orchard fruits and nuts) at 0.52 ± 0.03 Pg carbon, with an additional 0.24 ± 0.01 Pg carbon of food supply chain losses. Trends in production and consumption of agricultural carbon between 1961 and recent years, such as increasing dominance of oilcrops and decreasing percent contribution of pasturage to total livestock feed intake, are discussed, and accounting of all agricultural carbon was done for the years 2005 and 2009. Gridded at 0.05 degree resolution, these quantities represent local uptake and release of agricultural biogenic carbon (e.g. biomass production and removal, residue and manure inputs to soils) and may be used with other gridded data to help estimate current and future changes in soil organic carbon.

  4. Modelling the dynamics of total precipitation and aboveground net primary production of fescue-feather grass steppe at Askania Nova according to global climate change scenariosModelling the dynamics of total precipitation and aboveground net primary production of fescue-feather grass steppe at Askania Nova according to global climate change scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Belyakov

    2017-01-01

    were found to be 350–400 mm during AWSP with ANPP at 350 g/m2. On the basis of the regression model and current forecasts of changes in precipitation rates we made a forecast of net primary production of plant communities for four climate change scenarios (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6, and RCP8.5 described in the Fifth Assessment of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC. For this purpose, bioclimate projections of 10 major climate models (The Community Climate System Model Version 4 (CCSM4, GISS-E2-R, HadGEM2-AO, HadGEM2-ES, IPSL-CM5A-LR, MIROC-ESM-CHEM, MIROC-ESM, MIROC5, MRI-CGCM3, NorESM1-M, used for preparation of the IPCC report, were analyzed and imported to the geographical information system package QGIS. QGIS modelling software was used for geoanalysis and calculation of GIS-layers for Askania-Nova and adjacent arid grasslands. The results of modelling with the 10 climate models were compared and analyzed for each of the four IPCC scenarios, depending on predicted CO2 levels. The presented modelling results showed a trend to growth in AWSP precipitation and NPP for all scenarios up to 2040–2060. The scenarios RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6 predicted the optimum precipitation zone for current plant diversity for the period of 2040–2060 and scenario RCP8.5 predicted an optimum zone peak after 2080. The study confirmed the importance of monitoring the productivity of herbaceous communities in dry steppe ecosystems ofUkraine.

  5. Distribution of Salmonella in Humans, Production Animal Operations and a Watershed in a FoodNet Canada Sentinel Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flockhart, L; Pintar, K; Cook, A; McEwen, S; Friendship, R; Kelton, D; Pollari, F

    2017-02-01

    Salmonella is an important human pathogen, and production animals as well as water are known potential sources. This study helped provide insight into the epidemiology of Salmonella by comparing Salmonella strains found in humans to those detected in production animals and water in the same geographic area and time frame. Salmonella was found in 55% of broiler, 30% of swine, 13% of dairy, and 10% of beef manure samples and 23% of water samples. At the farm level, Salmonella was found on 93% of broiler, 81% of swine, 32% of beef and 30% of dairy farms. Salmonella strains of importance to public health were found in all sources tested; however, they appeared to be more common in the broilers. A number of the farms in this study were mixed farms, in that they had more than one production animal species on the farm. At both the sample and farm levels, beef-only farms had a significantly lower Salmonella prevalence (5% and 7%, respectively) than beef farms with additional production animal species (e.g. poultry) (12% and 42%, respectively) (P ≤ 0.05). Additionally, a number of mixed farms had more than one commodity sampled for this study and similar Salmonella strains by phage type and PFGE were found in the poultry and the other sampled commodity on the farm. This information can help inform the evidence base needed to help target interventions and modify best practices in production agriculture. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Evaluating spatial-temporal dynamics of net primary productivity of different forest types in northeastern China based on improved FORCCHN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfang Zhao

    Full Text Available An improved individual-based forest ecosystem carbon budget model for China (FORCCHN was applied to investigate the spatial-temporal dynamics of net primary productivity of different forest types in northeastern China. In this study, the forests of northeastern China were categorized into four ecological types according to their habitats and generic characteristics (evergreen broadleaf forest, deciduous broadleaf forest, evergreen needleleaf forest and deciduous needleleaf forest. The results showed that distribution and change of forest NPP in northeastern China were related to the different forest types. From 1981 to 2002, among the forest types in northeastern China, per unit area NPP and total NPP of deciduous broadleaf forest were the highest, with the values of 729.4 gC/(m(2•yr and 106.0 TgC/yr, respectively, followed by mixed broadleaf- needleleaf forest, deciduous needleleaf forest and evergreen needleleaf forest. From 1981 to 2002, per unit area NPP and total NPP of different forest types in northeastern China exhibited significant trends of interannual increase, and rapid increase was found between the 1980s and 1990s. The contribution of the different forest type's NPP to total NPP in northeastern China was clearly different. The greatest was deciduous broadleaf forest, followed by mixed broadleaf- needleleaf forest and deciduous needleleaf forest. The smallest was evergreen needleleaf forest. Spatial difference in NPP between different forest types was remarkable. High NPP values of deciduous needleleaf forest, mixed broadleaf- needleleaf forest and deciduous broadleaf forest were found in the Daxing'anling region, the southeastern of Xiaoxing'anling and Jilin province, and the Changbai Mountain, respectively. However, no regional differences were found for evergreen needleleaf NPP. This study provided not only an estimation NPP of different forest types in northeastern China but also a useful methodology for estimating forest

  7. Temporal variability and drivers of net ecosystem production of a Turkey oak forest in Italy under coppice management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belelli Marchesini, Luca; Rey, Ana; Papale, Dario; Valentini, Riccardo

    2010-05-01

    The progress in the understanding of the carbon exchange between forests and the atmosphere has been dramatic over the last few years, yet largely based on observations of middle-aged or mature stands in the temperate and boreal region while quite a few studies report on the temporal dynamics of carbon balance in forest stand chronosequences taking into account the effect of forest management (Law et al., 2003; Kowalski et al., 2003; Kolari et al, 2004; Zha et al., 2009). In order to quantify the temporal variability of CO2 fluxes at ecosystem level following coppicing, we analyze eddy covariance data of a deciduous oak (Quercus cerris L.) coppice forest in central Italy (Roccarespampani, VT) collected over two differently aged forest stands in the period 2000-2006 and covering most of the rotation period (0-6; 11-15 years). Data processing was performed evenly for whole data-set according to the CarboEurope database standard (Papale et al., 2006). The inter-annual variability and seasonal dynamics of net ecosystem exchange (NEE), partitioned into ecosystem respiration (Reco) and gross primary production (GPP), were analyzed looking at the relationships with the main structural (biomass) and environmental drivers (air and soil temperature, precipitation, soil water content, vapour pressure deficit, global radiation) to understand which factors control the carbon dynamics of these intensively managed forests After harvesting the forest acted as a carbon source of 69 gC m-2, while in the following years NEE ranged from -18.9 (stand age: 2 years) to -1077.9 g C m-2yr-1 (stand age: 15 years). Evidently the ecosystem promptly recovers its carbon sink capacity already in the years shortly after the harvest and increases its carbon sequestration capacity with stand age (R2= 0.75, P

  8. Instant Lucene.NET

    CERN Document Server

    Heydt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A step-by-step guide that helps you to index, search, and retrieve unstructured data with the help of Lucene.NET.Instant Lucene.NET How-to is essential for developers new to Lucene and Lucene.NET who are looking to get an immediate foundational understanding of how to use the library in their application. It's assumed you have programming experience in C# already, but not that you have experience with search techniques such as information retrieval theory (although there will be a l

  9. Regional-Scale High Spatial Resolution Mapping of Aboveground Net Primary Productivity (ANPP from Field Survey and Landsat Data: A Case Study for the Country of Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma J. Tebbs

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an alternative approach for high spatial resolution vegetation productivity mapping at a regional scale, using a combination of Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI imagery and widely distributed ground-based Above-ground Net Primary Production (ANPP estimates. Our method searches through all available single-date NDVI imagery to identify the images which give the best NDVI–ANPP relationship. The derived relationships are then used to predict ANPP values outside of field survey plots. This approach enables the use of the high spatial resolution (30 m Landsat 8 sensor, despite its low revisit frequency that is further reduced by cloud cover. This is one of few studies to investigate the NDVI–ANPP relationship across a wide range of temperate habitats and strong relationships were observed (R2 = 0.706, which increased when only grasslands were considered (R2 = 0.833. The strongest NDVI–ANPP relationships occurred during the spring “green-up” period. A reserved subset of 20% of ground-based ANPP estimates was used for validation and results showed that our method was able to estimate ANPP with a RMSE of 15–21%. This work is important because we demonstrate a general methodological framework for mapping of ANPP from local to regional scales, with the potential to be applied to any temperate ecosystems with a pronounced green up period. Our approach allows spatial extrapolation outside of field survey plots to produce a continuous surface product, useful for capturing spatial patterns and representing small-scale heterogeneity, and well-suited for modelling applications. The data requirements for implementing this approach are also discussed.

  10. Different Perspectives Between Product and Marketing Division towards Product Critical Success Factors and Its Strategic Importance in Telecommunication Sectors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rachmi Rida Utami; Reza Ashari Nasution

    2013-01-01

    .... An analysis of critical success factors that determine product’s strategic importance acts as a good introduction to review and manage the product portfolio as well as to seek ways to develop the product...

  11. Food Import Demand: Meat, Dairy Products, Eggs and Live Animals in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Chomo

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available To develop effective food import policies, it is necessary to understand the responsiveness of consumers to factors affecting import demand. These factors include consumer response to changes in import prices and income. In this study the authors develop economic models of import demand for three main product groups in Oman: meats, dairy and eggs, and live animals. These product groups have been identified as major sources of protein for the Omani population. In addition, these products have a history of domestic production and potential for reducing dependence on food imports. The results indicate that the estimated price elasticity of demand for meat products is elastic, which implies that an increase in price Will result in a decrease in revenues for meat import businesses However, the estimated price elasticity for imported dairy and egg products is inelastic. This implies that an increase in import price will result in an increase in revenues for dairy and egg import businesses. The estimated income elasticities for meat products and dairy and egg products were found to be less than one, suggesting that they are normal goods. A one percent increase in per capita incomes Will result in a less than one percent increase in demand for imported meat, dairy, and egg products These results have economic implications for growth and development of businesses in these important food import sectors.

  12. An Analysis of the U.S. Wood Products Import Sector: Prospects for Tropical Wood Products Exporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.A.R.T.W. Bandara

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. has dramatically altered its wood product imports and exports during the past few years,and at present, it is the second largest wood product importer in the world. Hence, an understanding ofmarket structures, factors in selecting foreign suppliers, and the emphasis placed on environmentalissues/certification are critical to understand from the perspective of wood products importers in the U.S.This study provides an analysis of the U.S. wood products import sector with special emphasis on currentand future opportunities for tropical wood products exporters to the U.S. market.In this study, 158 wood products importers in the U.S. were surveyed using a mailingquestionnaire. The adjusted response rate was 40.6 percent. Results indicated that most of the respondentswere small to medium scale firms, but major importers of wood products. According to respondents,wood products to the U.S. mainly come from Brazil, Chile, and China. From the importers’ perspective,Brazilian wood products ranked first for its quality followed by wood products from Chile and Finland.Product quality, long term customer relationships, on-time delivery of orders, fair prices, and supplierreputation were the factors deemed important in selecting overseas suppliers. Majority of respondentswere importing certified wood products. FSC, SFI, and ISO 14000 were the mostly accepted certificationprograms. However, certification was not a major factor in foreign supplier selection criteria. Whenconsidered the U.S. wood products importers’ tendency to diversify their products and species imported,attractive opportunities exist for wood products suppliers from tropical countries.

  13. Biomass Accumulation and Net Primary Production during the Early Stage of Secondary Succession after a Severe Forest Disturbance in Northern Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomotsugu Yazaki

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative evaluations of biomass accumulation after disturbances in forests are crucially important for elucidating and predicting forest carbon dynamics in order to understand the carbon sink/source activities. During early secondary succession, understory vegetation often affects sapling growth. However, reports on biomass recovery in naturally-regenerating sites are limited in Japan. Therefore, we traced annual or biennial changes in plant species, biomass, and net primary production (NPP in a naturally regenerating site in Japan after windthrow and salvage-logging plantation for nine years. The catastrophic disturbance depleted the aboveground biomass (AGB from 90.6 to 2.7 Mg·ha−1, changing understory dominant species from Dryopteris spp. to Rubus idaeus. The mean understory AGB recovered to 4.7 Mg·ha−1 in seven years with the dominant species changing to invasive Solidago gigantea. Subsequently, patches of deciduous trees (mainly Betula spp. recovered whereas the understory AGB decreased. Mean understory NPP increased to 272 g·C·m−2·year−1 within seven years after the disturbance, but decreased thereafter to 189 g·C·m−2·year−1. Total NPP stagnated despite increasing overstory NPP. The biomass accumulation is similar to that of naturally regenerating sites without increase of trees in boreal and temperate regions. Dense ground vegetation and low water and nutrient availability of the soil in the study site restrict the recovery of canopy-forming trees and eventually influence the biomass accumulation.

  14. Seasonal and Topographic Variation in Net Primary Productivity and Water Use Efficiency in a Southwest Sky Island Fores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, P.; Minor, R. L.; Sanchez-Canete, E. P.; Potts, D. L.; Barron-Gafford, G.

    2016-12-01

    Western North American Forests represent an uncertain sink for atmospheric carbon. While understanding of the physical drivers of productivity in these forests has grown in the last decade, the relative influence of topographic position in the complex terrain of montane systems remains understudied. The high-latitude mixed conifer forest ecosystems of the southern Arizona Madrean Sky Islands are characterized by low precipitation, high annual variation in temperature, and heterogeneous topography. Eddy covariance measurements these forests show distinct seasonal trends due to temperature and bi-modal precipitation patterns, but these measurements are unable to resolve potential differences in physiological function on opposing north and south aspects within the footprint of the tower. Most of the year, north aspects receive less energy input due to the oblique angle of incoming solar radiation, leading to a divergence in soil moistures and temperatures. However, overall movement of energy and material is much higher on these north aspects on an annual basis. The implications of these differences for net primary productivity (NPP) and water use efficiency (WUE) are poorly addressed in the literature. We evaluated the relative control that topography has on the physical environment (soil moisture and temperature) and how these factors affect water stress, NPP, and WUE. We combined leaf-level measurements of photosynthesis and transpiration with other physiological and meteorological measurements to determine how the dominant vegetation functions as a result of microclimatic conditions. Initial results from the spring and summer measurement periods suggest topographical differences in microclimate, resulting in differences in NPP in the spring, but not the summer. Also, each of the three species on the same aspect responded differently to the same microclimatic conditions, underscoring interspecific variation at the site. How might these patterns change throughout an

  15. An Analysis of the U.S. Wood Products Import Sector: Prospects for Tropical Wood Products Exporters

    OpenAIRE

    W.A.R.T.W. Bandara; R.P. Vlosky

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. has dramatically altered its wood product imports and exports during the past few years,and at present, it is the second largest wood product importer in the world. Hence, an understanding ofmarket structures, factors in selecting foreign suppliers, and the emphasis placed on environmentalissues/certification are critical to understand from the perspective of wood products importers in the U.S.This study provides an analysis of the U.S. wood products import sector with special emphas...

  16. Simulation of production lines involving unreliable machines:the importance of machine position and breakdown statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Ilar, Torbjörn; Powell, John; Kaplan, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the importance of choosing the correct statistical distributions for breakdown frequency and duration when simulating production line productivity. Statistical distributions with a wide range tend to reduce the productivity of the line. Also, it is demonstrated that the productivity of a production line can be improved simply by re-arranging the order of unreliable machines in the line. If the line consists of similar or exchangeable machines, productivity can improved...

  17. RESTful NET

    CERN Document Server

    Flanders, Jon

    2008-01-01

    RESTful .NET is the first book that teaches Windows developers to build RESTful web services using the latest Microsoft tools. Written by Windows Communication Foundation (WFC) expert Jon Flanders, this hands-on tutorial demonstrates how you can use WCF and other components of the .NET 3.5 Framework to build, deploy and use REST-based web services in a variety of application scenarios. RESTful architecture offers a simpler approach to building web services than SOAP, SOA, and the cumbersome WS- stack. And WCF has proven to be a flexible technology for building distributed systems not necessa

  18. 7 CFR 1230.608 - Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products... AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.608 Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products. The term Imported porcine animals...

  19. STUDY REGARDING THE LEGISLATIVE CONDITIONS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION IMPORT FOR FRESH MEAT AND MEAT PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Stanciu, S

    2013-01-01

    The European Union is by far the biggest importer of food worldwide. Import rulesfor meat and meat products are fully harmonized and the European Commissionacts as the competent authority on behalf of the 25 Member States. The EUCommission is the sole negotiating partner for all non-EU countries in questionsrelated to import conditions for meat and meat products.

  20. 77 FR 31026 - Requirements for Importing Food and Drug Administration Regulated Products Into the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... respect to importing pharmaceutical products, medical devices, food products, as well as technology which applies to brokers and forwarders. Date and Time: The meeting will be held on July 18, 2012, from 8:30 a.m...

  1. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Associate Professor of. Computer Science and. Automation at the Indian. Institute of Science,. Bangalore. His research interests are broadly in the areas of stochastic modeling and scheduling methodologies for future factories; and object oriented modeling. GENERAL I ARTICLE. Petri Nets. 1. Overview and Foundations.

  2. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 8. Petri Nets - Overview and Foundations. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 8 August 1999 pp ... Author Affiliations. Y Narahari1. Department ot Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  3. Assessment Impacts of Weather and Land Use/Land Cover (LULC Change on Urban Vegetation Net Primary Productivity (NPP: A Case Study in Guangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiantie Zeng

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Net primary productivity (NPP can indicate vegetation ecosystem services ability and reflect variation response to climate change and human activities. This study applied MODIS-1 km NPP products to investigate the NPP variation from 2001 to 2006, a fast urban expansion and adjustment period in Guangzhou, China, and quantify the impacts of weather and land use/land cover (LULC changes, respectively. The results showed that the NPP mean value increased at a rate of 11.6 g∙C∙m−2∙yr−1 during the initial three years and decreased at an accelerated rate of 31.0 g∙C∙m−2∙yr−1 during the final three years, resulting in a total NPP loss of approximately 167 × 106 g∙C. The spatiotemporal of NPP varied obviously in the central area, suburb and exurb of Guangzhou driven by three patterns of weather and LULC changes. By the interactive effects and the weather variation dominated effects, NPP of most areas changed slightly with dynamic index less than 5% of NPP mean value in the central area and the suburb. The LULC change dominated effects caused obvious NPP reduction, by more than 15% of the NPP mean value, which occurred in some areas of the suburb and extended to the exurb with the outward urban sprawl. Importantly, conversion from wood grassland, shrublands and even forests to croplands occupied by urban landscapes proved to be a main process in the conversion from high-NPP coverage to low-NPP coverage, thereby leading to the rapid degradation of urban carbon stock capacity in urban fringe areas. It is helpful for government to monitor urban ecological health and safety and make relevant policies.

  4. The response of aboveground net primary productivity of desert vegetation to rainfall pulse in the temperate desert region of northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Zhao, Wenzhi; Liu, Hu

    2013-01-01

    Rainfall events can be characterized as "pulses", which are discrete and variable episodes that can significantly influence the structure and function of desert ecosystems, including shifts in aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP). To determine the threshold and hierarchical response of rainfall event size on the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, a proxy for ANPP) and the difference across a desert area in northwestern China with two habitats - dune and desert - we selected 17 independent summer rainfall events from 2005 to 2012, and obtained a corresponding NDVI dataset extracted from MODIS images. Based on the threshold-delay model and statistical analysis, the results showed that the response of NDVI to rainfall pulses began at about a 5 mm event size. Furthermore, when the rainfall event size was more than 30 mm, NDVI rapidly increased 3- to 6-fold compared with the response to events of less than 30 mm, suggesting that 30 mm was the threshold for a large NDVI response. These results revealed the importance of the 5 mm and 30 mm rainfall events for plant survival and growth in desert regions. There was an 8- to 16-day lag time between the rainfall event and the NDVI response, and the response duration varied with rainfall event size, reaching a maximum of 32 days. Due to differences in soil physical and mineralogical properties, and to biodiversity structure and the root systems' abilities to exploit moisture, dune and desert areas differed in precipitation responses: dune habitats were characterized by a single, late summer productivity peak; in contrast, deserts showed a multi-peak pattern throughout the growing season.

  5. Natural and socioeconomic determinants of the embodied human appropriation of net primary production and its relation to other resource use indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberl, Helmut; Steinberger, Julia K; Plutzar, Christoph; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Gaube, Veronika; Gingrich, Simone; Krausmann, Fridolin

    2012-12-01

    Indicators of resource use such as material and energy flow accounts, emission data and the ecological footprint inform societies about their performance by evaluating resource use efficiency and the effectiveness of sustainability policies. The human appropriation of net primary production (HANPP) is an indicator of land-use intensity on each nation's territory used in research as well as in environmental reports. 'Embodied HANPP' (eHANPP) measures the HANPP anywhere on earth resulting from a nation's domestic biomass consumption. The objectives of this article are (i) to study the relation between eHANPP and other resource use indicators and (ii) to analyse socioeconomic and natural determinants of global eHANPP patterns in the year 2000. We discuss a statistical analysis of >140 countries aiming to better understand these relationships. We found that indicators of material and energy throughput, fossil-energy related CO2 emissions as well as the ecological footprint are highly correlated with each other as well as with GDP, while eHANPP is neither correlated with other resource use indicators nor with GDP, despite a strong correlation between final biomass consumption and GDP. This can be explained by improvements in agricultural efficiency associated with GDP growth. Only about half of the variation in eHANPP can be explained by differences in national land-use systems, suggesting a considerable influence of trade on eHANPP patterns. eHANPP related with biomass trade can largely be explained by differences in natural endowment, in particular the availability of productive area. We conclude that eHANPP can deliver important complimentary information to indicators that primarily monitor socioeconomic metabolism.

  6. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Musall, Eike

    2010-01-01

    and identify possible renewable energy supply options which may be considered in calculations. Finally, the gap between the methodology proposed by each organisation and their respective national building code is assessed; providing an overview of the possible changes building codes will need to undergo......The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...... parameters used in the calculations are discussed and the various renewable supply options considered in the methodologies are summarised graphically. Thus, the paper helps to understand different existing approaches to calculate energy balance in Net ZEBs, highlights the importance of variables selection...

  7. A carbon budget for the Amundsen Sea Polynya, Antarctica: Estimating net community production and export in a highly productive polar ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PL Yager

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Polynyas, or recurring areas of seasonally open water surrounded by sea ice, are foci for energy and material transfer between the atmosphere and the polar ocean. They are also climate sensitive, with both sea ice extent and glacial melt influencing their productivity. The Amundsen Sea Polynya (ASP is the greenest polynya in the Southern Ocean, with summertime chlorophyll a concentrations exceeding 20 µg L−1. During the Amundsen Sea Polynya International Research Expedition (ASPIRE in austral summer 2010–11, we aimed to determine the fate of this high algal productivity. We collected water column profiles for total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and nutrients, particulate and dissolved organic matter, chlorophyll a, mesozooplankton, and microbial biomass to make a carbon budget for this ecosystem. We also measured primary and secondary production, community respiration rates, vertical particle flux and fecal pellet production and grazing. With observations arranged along a gradient of increasing integrated dissolved inorganic nitrogen drawdown (ΔDIN; 0.027–0.74 mol N m−2, changes in DIC in the upper water column (ranging from 0.2 to 4.7 mol C m−2 and gas exchange (0–1.7 mol C m−2 were combined to estimate early season net community production (sNCP; 0.2–5.9 mol C m−2 and then compared to organic matter inventories to estimate export. From a phytoplankton bloom dominated by Phaeocystis antarctica, a high fraction (up to ∼60% of sNCP was exported to sub-euphotic depths. Microbial respiration remineralized much of this export in the mid waters. Comparisons to short-term (2–3 days drifting traps and a year-long moored sediment trap capturing the downward flux confirmed that a relatively high fraction (3–6% of the export from ∼100 m made it through the mid waters to depth. We discuss the climate-sensitive nature of these carbon fluxes, in light of the changing sea ice cover and melting ice sheets in the region.

  8. Satellite tagging highlights the importance of productive Mozambican coastal waters to the ecology and conservation of whale sharks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Anthony J.; Jaine, Fabrice R. A.; Bennett, Michael B.; Weeks, Scarla J.; Cliff, Geremy; Robinson, David P.; Reeve-Arnold, Katie E.; Pierce, Simon J.

    2018-01-01

    The whale shark Rhincodon typus is an endangered, highly migratory species with a wide, albeit patchy, distribution through tropical oceans. Ten aerial survey flights along the southern Mozambican coast, conducted between 2004–2008, documented a relatively high density of whale sharks along a 200 km stretch of the Inhambane Province, with a pronounced hotspot adjacent to Praia do Tofo. To examine the residency and movement of whale sharks in coastal areas around Praia do Tofo, where they may be more susceptible to gill net entanglement, we tagged 15 juveniles with SPOT5 satellite tags and tracked them for 2–88 days (mean = 27 days) as they dispersed from this area. Sharks travelled between 10 and 2,737 km (mean = 738 km) at a mean horizontal speed of 28 ± 17.1 SD km day−1. While several individuals left shelf waters and travelled across international boundaries, most sharks stayed in Mozambican coastal waters over the tracking period. We tested for whale shark habitat preferences, using sea surface temperature, chlorophyll-a concentration and water depth as variables, by computing 100 random model tracks for each real shark based on their empirical movement characteristics. Whale sharks spent significantly more time in cooler, shallower water with higher chlorophyll-a concentrations than model sharks, suggesting that feeding in productive coastal waters is an important driver of their movements. To investigate what this coastal habitat choice means for their conservation in Mozambique, we mapped gill nets during two dedicated aerial surveys along the Inhambane coast and counted gill nets in 1,323 boat-based surveys near Praia do Tofo. Our results show that, while whale sharks are capable of long-distance oceanic movements, they can spend a disproportionate amount of time in specific areas, such as along the southern Mozambique coast. The increasing use of drifting gill nets in this coastal hotspot for whale sharks is likely to be a threat to regional

  9. Net Surface Shortwave Radiation from GOES Imagery—Product Evaluation Using Ground-Based Measurements from SURFRAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand K. Inamdar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Earth’s surface net radiation controls the energy and water exchanges between the Earth’s surface and the atmosphere, and can be derived from satellite observations. The ability to monitor the net surface radiation over large areas at high spatial and temporal resolution is essential for many applications, such as weather forecasting, short-term climate prediction or water resources management. The objective of this paper is to derive the net surface radiation in the shortwave domain at high temporal (half-hourly and spatial resolution (~1 km using visible imagery from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES. The retrieval algorithm represents an adaptation to GOES data of a standard algorithm initially developed for the NASA-operated Clouds and Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES scanner. The methodology relies on: (1 the estimation of top of atmosphere shortwave radiation from GOES spectral measurements; and (2 the calculation of net surface shortwave (SW radiation accounting for atmospheric effects. Comparison of GOES-retrieved net surface shortwave radiation with ground-measurements at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA Surface Radiation (SURFRAD stations yields very good agreement with average bias lower than 5 W·m−2 and root mean square difference around 70 W·m−2. The algorithm performance is usually higher over areas characterized by low spatial variability in term of land cover type and surface biophysical properties. The technique does not involve retrieval and assessment of cloud properties and can be easily adapted to other meteorological satellites around the globe.

  10. Effect of different crop management systems on net primary productivity and relative carbon allocation coefficients for corn (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khorramdel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of different crop management practices on corn (Zea mays L. net primary productivity (NPP and relative carbon allocation coefficients, a field experiment was conducted based on a completely randomized block design with four replications in the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran during two growing season 2008-2009 and 2009-2010. Treatments including two low input management systems based on application of cow manure and compost municipal made from house-hold waste, a medium input system and a high input system. Application of inputs and management practices were based on a basic assumption made prior to the start of the experiment. On the other words, for each of the management system the particular set of inputs were allocated. In this respect, for low input system 30 t.ha-1 cow manure or 30 t.ha-1 compost municipal made from house-hold waste, twice hand weeding were used. In medium management system, 15 t.ha-1 compost municipal made from house-hold waste, 150 kg.ha-1 urea, two seed bed operations, 1.5 l.ha-1 2, 4-D herbicide applied at five-leaf stage and one time hand weeding were used. In high input system, the inputs were two seed bed operations, 2 l.ha-1 Paraquat herbicide used after seeding and 1.5 l.ha-1 2, 4-D applied at five-leaf stage. Results showed that the effect of different crop management practices on the shoot biomass, seed weight, root biomass, total biomass, shoot biomass: root biomass (S:R, SRL and HI were significant (p≥0.01. High input management system enhanced total biomass and S:R and decreased seed weight, root biomass and SRL. The highest and the lowest total biomass observed in high input (18.3 kg.m-2.yr-1 and low input with using compost (10.3 kg.m-2.yr-1, respectively. The maximum SRL observed in low input based on cow manure application (19.8 cm.cm-3 soil and the minimum SRL was in high input (1.3 cm.cm-3 soil. Range of relative carbon allocation

  11. [Effects of lead stress on net photosynthetic rate, SPAD value and ginsenoside production in Ginseng (Panax ginseng)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yao; Jiang, Xiao-Li; Yang, Fen-Tuan; Cao, Qing-Jun; Li, Gang

    2014-08-01

    The paper aimed to evaluate the effects of lead stress on photosynthetic performance and ginsenoside content in ginseng (Panax ginseng). To accomplish this, three years old ginseng were cultivated in pot and in phytotron with different concentrations of lead, ranging from 0 to 1000 mg x kg(-1) soil for a whole growth period (about 150 days). The photosynthetic parameters in leaves and ginsenoside content in roots of ginseng were determined in green fruit stage and before withering stage, respectively. In comparison with the control, net photosynthetic rate and SPAD value in ginseng leaves cultivated with 100 and 250 mg x kg(-1) of lead changed insignificantly, however, ginseng supplied with 500 and 1 000 mg x kg(-1) of lead showed a noticeably decline in the net rate of photosynthesis and SPAD value (P lead, with decline of 57.8%,11.0%, respectively. Total content of ginsenoside in ginseng roots cultivated with 100 mg x kg(-1) of lead showed insignificantly change compared to the control, but the content increased remarkably in treatments supplied with 250, 500, 1 000 mg x kg(-1) of lead (P lead. The net photosynthetic rate and SPAD value in leaves of ginseng both showed significantly negative linear correlations with lead stress level (P lead concentration was also observed (P lead negatively affects photosynthetic performance in ginseng leaves, but benefits for accumulation of secondary metabolism (total content of ginsenoside) in ginseng root.

  12. The Relationship Between Renewable Energy Production and Energy Imports Among Countries in the European Economic Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unbehaun, Sarah J.

    Most European countries must import fossil fuels due to a lack of domestic supplies but, in the interest of having a secure energy supply that is not susceptible to disruptions, would like to decrease their dependence on imports. It is possible that increasing renewable energy production could achieve this objective, in addition to providing environmental benefits. This analysis examines whether there is a relationship between renewable energy production and non-renewable energy imports, using data on European Union member countries and Norway from 1990-2014. Previous literature on the relationship between renewables and imports is scarce but provides suggestive evidence that production of renewables could lower import dependence, even if it cannot fully substitute for fossil fuels. However, the results of this analysis provide no evidence to support this position. Instead, I find that as renewable energy production increases, fossil fuel imports also increase.

  13. ON THE ISSUE OF IMPORT SUBSTITUTION OF DEEP PROCESSING PRODUCTS FROM GRAIN AND POTATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. Andreev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The analysis of structure of starch containing raw materials processing in Russia Federation is provided in the article. There was noted an increase in volumes of corn and wheat processing, however the share of processed potato is still low (below 4%. It was established that Russian starch products and starch sweeteners are on the same level on quality as best European samples and they are very competitive. Market demand in crystalline glucose for food and medical purposes (over 30 thous. tons is fully covered by import. The volume of import of modified starches exceeds 80 % of total consumption. The biggest volume of import among native starches belongs to potato starch – over 60 %. The article provides suggestions on import substitution of mentioned starch products. The growth of starch production in Russia was accompanied by concentration of production at large enterprises. So, in 2013 over 90 % of glucose syrup was produced at six enterprises, over 80 % of dry starch – at five enterprises. Efficiency of corn and wheat processing into starch and starch products is achieved by production and selling of co-products (dry gluten, gluten, corn germ or corn oil, corn extract, feed products.Development of starch sweeteners production from starch could be achieved by expanding the consumption areas of different kinds of glucose syrup and production of glucose-fructose syrups as full substitute of sugar, providing import substitution of sugar, crystalline glucose of food and medicine purpose, deep processing of glucose into polyols (sorbit, maltit, polylactites, aminoacids.

  14. THE LEGISLATIVE CONDITIONS IN EUROPEAN UNION IMPORT FOR SEAFOOD AND OTHER FISHERY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. STANCIU

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is by far the world’s biggest importer of fish, seafood andaquaculture products. Import rules for these products are harmonized, meaning thatthe same rules apply in all EU countries. For non-EU countries the EuropeanCommission is the negotiating partner that defines import conditions andcertification requirements. Also, for most countries with existing trade, the EuropeanCommission negotiates on behalf of the 27 Member States.

  15. The importance of phytoplankton production for carbon budgets in a semiarid floodplain wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez-Cobelas, Miguel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton production (PP in wetlands is not measured as often as that of macrophytes. A three year-study during a period of sustained high flooding was undertaken in a central Spanish floodplain wetland (Las Tablas de Daimiel National Park to determine net PP, its spatial heterogeneity and controlling factors, and compare it with primary production in macrophyte communities. This enabled us to estimate carbon budgets for each community. All PP variables showed high spatial and temporal variability among sites, resulting in low coherence even when flooding connected all sites. Net PP corresponded to 25- 36% of submerged plant production and 3-10% of helophyte production. Net PP was controlled by different size fractions of phytoplankton biomass at different wetland sites. Neither nutrients nor zooplankton affected net PP or productivity. A high spatiotemporal variability of PP in wetlands occurs arising from complex processes that affect the underwater light field. Carbon budgets of phytoplankton often exceeded those of submerged macrophytes and attained between 4 and 37% of helophyte budgets. Although usually considered to be marginal, our study shows that PP in the open water of wetlands should be taken into account for determining accurate wetland carbon budgets, mostly in periods of high flooding, which often result in changing the carbon budget of primary producers.

    La producción de fitoplancton (PF en los humedales no se mide tan a menudo como la de los macrófitos. En este estudio se lleva a cabo un trabajo de tres años durante un periodo de gran inun dación en un humedal de llanura de inundación (Parque Nacional de Las Tablas de Daimiel a fin de determinar la producción neta del fitoplancton, su heterogeneidad espacial y los factores que la controlan. También comparamos la PF con la producción primaria de las comunidades de macrófitos, lo cual nos permite estimar las cantidades de carbono que fija cada comunidad vegetal

  16. 40 CFR 82.116 - Compliance by manufacturers or importers incorporating products manufactured with controlled...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... being imported. (c) Contractual obligations. An importer's contractual relationship with its supplier... supplier, is not required to pass through and incorporate the labeling information that accompanies such... reasonable belief. The importer of a product purchased or obtained from a foreign manufacturer or supplier...

  17. International Clean Energy System Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET). subtask 4. Development of hydrogen production technology; Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). subtask 4. Suiso seizo gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This paper describes development of hydrogen production technology as a part of the WE-NET project. For the solid polymer water electrolysis method higher in efficiency and lower in cost than the previous methods, 5 companies have developed element technologies for improving electrolysis cells and synthesis technologies of hot solid polymer electrolyte based on each proper catalyst electrode production method. In fiscal 1996, the initial study on large-scale systems by middle laboratory cells was made as well as improvement of electrolysis performance by small laboratory cells and endurance tests. Among the previous methods such as a hot press method (bonding of an ion exchange membrane to an electrode), an electroless plating method (preparation of porous surface onto a membrane electrode assembly), a zero gap method (preparation of high-efficiency high-current density cells), and a sintered porous electrode method (carrying of the mixture of catalytic powder and ion exchange resin-dissipated solution onto sintered metallic porous electrode surface), the former two methods were adopted for development of bench-scale cells as effective promising methods. 192 refs., 183 figs., 108 tabs.

  18. Radiological control of food importation products; Control radiologico de productos alimenticios de importacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguirre G, J. [CNSNS, Dr. Barragan 779, 03020 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: jaguirre@cnsns.gob.mx

    2003-07-01

    Nowadays exists the possibility of marketing products possibly polluted with radioactive isotopes, by that some countries like Mexico, they have been given to the task of creating legal bases and the necessary infrastructure with the end of carrying out the radiological surveillance of nutritious import products. In this work the legal bases that our country has established for the radiological control are presented besides the results of this radiological control carried out through the gamma spectroscopy analysis of nutritious import products sent to our country through diverse companies that import foods produced mainly in European countries. (Author)

  19. Importance and condition of forage crops seed production in agriculture of the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đokić Dragoslav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For contemporary and economical livestock production, especially cattle and sheep raising, it is necessary to achieve high production of livestock feed while reducing production costs. Improving the production of perennial grasses and legumes creates a good basis for the development of livestock production in different agro-ecological conditions of Serbia. It also establishes a link between farming and animal husbandry, which is of particular importance for the preservation and higher fertility of arable land and the protection of agro-ecosystems. An important factor for the cheaper production of livestock feed is the possibility to provide sufficient quantities of quality seeds at affordable prices. Production of quality seeds of local varieties of perennial legumes is possible to obtain sufficient amounts of good quality forage. Current situation in forage crop seed production of the Republic of Serbia is unsatisfactory because the seed of perennial grasses are mostly imported. Domestic production of alfalfa, red clover and birdsfoot trefoil met domestic needs only in some years. Seed of imported varieties are often not satisfactory because those varieties are not adapted to our local agro-ecological conditions. The present results provide the basis and direction for further researches that may provide solutions to increase seed yields and which will be widely accepted in practice, which will make the production more cost-effective. Institute for forage crops Kruševac is making a significant contribution to the development of technology of seed productions, especially alfalfa, red clover and perennial grasses. Therefore the role of the Institute is very important and necessary link between production, processing and trading seeds of perennial legumes and grasses in Serbia.

  20. Projecting the CO2 and Climatic Change Effects on the Net Primary Productivity of the Urban Ecosystems in Phoenix, AZ in the 21st Century under Multiple RCP (Representative Concentration Pathway) Scenarios

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chunbo Chen; Chi Zhang

    2017-01-01

    .... As a key indicator of ecological health, net primary productivity (NPP) provides valuable information about the performance of urban ecosystem in response to the changes in urban climate and atmosphere in the 21st century...

  1. Exploring the Determinants of Consumer Behavior in West Bank, Towards Domestic and Imported Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Maitah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate factors influencing the purchasing behavior of Palestinian customers towards domestic and imported dairy products (Israeli and foreign. The secondary data were obtained from the competent authorities. On the other hand, primary data were gathered by utilizing personal interviews and questionnaires. 450 questionnaires were distributed to all governorates of the West Bank. It has been concluded from statistical results that middle-income households concern mainly about quality, image and product validity period. In contrast, low-income households consider mainly product price. The consumer was satisfied with Israeli products that meet his needs. On the other hand, local consumer highly considered price and personal knowledge when purchasing local dairy products. Advertising negatively affected the consumer purchasing behavior of Israeli and foreign dairy products, in contrast it positively affected his behavior when purchasing local dairy products. Period of validity was the most influential factor on the purchasing decision for domestic and imported dairy products. It has been found that consumer expenditures on Israeli dairy products were the highest followed by local and foreign products. Recommendations are as follows: i producers should develop products that could meet the needs and desires of consumers, ii draw effective marketing policies, depending on technologists specialized in dairy industry, iii take into account consumer awareness when developing advertising strategy, and iv quality control should be adjusted in accordance with product specifications and standards.

  2. The effect of changing cow production and fitness traits on net income and greenhouse gas emissions from Australian dairy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, M J; Eckard, R J; Haile-Mariam, M; Pryce, J E

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of changing a range of biological traits on farm net income and greenhouse gas emissions (expressed in carbon dioxide equivalents, CO2-eq.) in the Australian dairy cow population. An average cow was modeled, using breed-average information for Holsteins and Jerseys from the Australian Dairy Herd Improvement Scheme. A Markov chain approach was used to describe the steady-state herd structure, as well as estimate the CO2-eq. emissions per cow and per kilogram of milk solids. The effects of a single unit change in herd milk volume, fat and protein yields, live weight, survival, dry matter intake, somatic cell count, and calving interval were assessed. With the traits studied, the only single-unit change that would bring about a desirable increase in both net income and reduced emissions intensity per cow and per kilogram of milk solids in Australian dairy herds would be an increase in survival and reductions in milk volume, live weight, DMI, SCC, and calving interval. The models developed can be used to assess lifetime dairy system abatement options by breeding, feeding, and management. Selective breeding and appropriate management can both improve health, fertility, and feed utilization of Australian dairy systems and reduce its environmental impact. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The equivalency between logic Petri workflow nets and workflow nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue

    2015-01-01

    Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented.

  4. Estimating agro-ecosystem carbon balance of northern Japan, and comparing the change in carbon stock by soil inventory and net biome productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xi, E-mail: icy124@hotmail.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500 (China); Graduate school of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Kita 9 Nishi 9, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8589 (Japan); Toma, Yo [Faculty of Agriculture, Ehime University, 3-5-7, Tarumi, Matsuyama 790-8566, Ehime (Japan); Yeluripati, Jagadeesh [The James Hutton Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH, Scotland (United Kingdom); Iwasaki, Shinya [Graduate school of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Kita 9 Nishi 9, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8589 (Japan); Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko D. [Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research, Institute of Land Use Systems (Germany); Jones, Edward O. [Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Hatano, Ryusuke [Graduate school of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Kita 9 Nishi 9, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8589 (Japan)

    2016-06-01

    Soil C sequestration in croplands is deemed to be one of the most promising greenhouse gas mitigation options for agriculture. We have used crop-level yields, modeled heterotrophic respiration (Rh) and land use data to estimate spatio-temporal changes in regional scale net primary productivity (NPP), plant C inputs, and net biome productivity (NBP) in northern Japan's arable croplands and grasslands for the period of 1959–2011. We compared the changes in C stocks derived from estimated NBP and using repeated inventory datasets for each individual land use type from 2005 to 2011. For the entire study region of 2193 ha, overall annual plant C inputs to the soil constituted 37% of total region NPP. Plant C inputs in upland areas (excluding bush/fallow) could be predicted by climate variables. Overall NBP for all land use types increased from − 1.26 Mg C ha{sup −1} yr{sup −1} in 1959–0.26 Mg C ha{sup −1} yr{sup −1} in 2011. However, upland and paddy fields showed a decreased in NBP over the period of 1959–2011, under the current C input scenario. From 1988, an increase in agricultural abandonment (bush/fallow) and grassland cover caused a slow increase in the regional C pools. The comparison of carbon budgets using the NBP estimation method and the soil inventory method indicated no significant difference between the two methods. Our results showed C loss in upland crops, paddy fields and sites that underwent land use change from paddy field to upland sites. We also show C gain in grassland from 2005 to 2011. An underestimation of NBP or an overestimation of repeated C inventories cannot be excluded, but either method may be suitable for tracking absolute changes in soil C, considering the uncertainty associated with these methods. - Highlights: • We compared C stocks change by two methods: (i) net biome productivity (NBP) and (ii) soil inventory. • Variation in net primary productivity (NPP), plant C input, NBP can be predicted by climate

  5. An optimization methodology for the design of renewable energy systems for residential net zero energy buildings with on-site heat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milan, Christian; Bojesen, Carsten; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2011-01-01

    energy supply systems for residential NZEB involving on-site production of heat and electricity in combination with electricity exchanged with the public grid. The model is based on linear programming and determines the optimal capacities for each relevant supply technology in terms of the overall system......The concept of net zero energy buildings (NZEB) has received increased attention throughout the last years. A well adapted and optimized design of the energy supply system is crucial for the performance of such buildings. This paper aims at developing a method for the optimal sizing of renewable...

  6. 78 FR 73993 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, and 98 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Corrections In rule document 2013-28228 appearing on...

  7. 77 FR 20319 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Correction In proposed rule document...

  8. IMPACT OF MARKET-DETERMINED EXCHANGE RATES ON RICE PRODUCTION AND IMPORT IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliyu Aishat Ammani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice is an economically important food security crop, cultivated in almost all of Nigeria’s 36 States. Nigeria spends more than 356 billion naira (2.24 billion US dollars annually on rice import. This paper set out to analyze the trend in rice production, productivity, import, value of import and consumption that follows the adoption of the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP in Nigeria, with emphasis on the effects of exchange rate (ER deregulation on domestic rice production and rice imports over the period 1986-2010. Relevant time series data were collected and used. A semi-log growth rate model and 2simple linear regression models were developed and estimated. Highlights of the findings include (i accelerated rate of growth in rice production (Instantaneous Growth Rate (IGR 2.2%; Cumulative Growth Rate (CGR 2.2%; rice hectarage (IGR 3.7%; CGR 3.8%; rice importation (IGR 8.5%; CGR8.9%; expenditure on rice importation (IGR 10.6%; CGR 11.2% and rice consumption (IGR 3.4%; CGR 3.5% alongside a significant deceleration in rice yield (IGR -1.4%; CGR -201.4% (ii The observed significant increase in domestic rice production cannot be confidently attributed to ER deregulation alone because it does not lead to a decrease in rice importation into Nigeria. (iii The significant increase in domestic rice importation as observed contradicts a priori expectation that ER deregulation will lead to significant decrease in rice importation. The study concluded that free market approach alone cannot stimulate local agricultural production in countries where farmers producing under low-technology-agriculture are put in direct competition with farmers from advancedtechnology-agriculture; hence governments need to restrict importation to protect local producers.

  9. Imported Input Varieties and Product Innovation : Evidence from Five Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Marijke; Vannoorenberghe, Gonzague

    We examine how access to imported intermediate inputs affects firm-level product innovation in five developing counties. We combine trade data with survey data on innovation and develop a method to determine whether new inputs were essential for the product innovation. We find evidence that the

  10. An analysis of tropical hardwood product importation and consumption in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul M. Smith; Michael P. Haas; William G. Luppold; William G. Luppold

    1995-01-01

    The consumption of forest products emanating from tropical rainforests is an issue that is receiving increasing attention in the United States. This attention stems from concerns over the sustainability of tropical ecosystems. However, trade statistics show the United States imported only 4.0 percent of all tropical timber products traded globally in 1989. In addition...

  11. The importance of job control for workers with decreased work ability to remain productive at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.I.J. van den Berg (Tilja); S.J.W. Robroek (Suzan); J.F. Plat (Jan); M.A. Koopmanschap (Marc); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Workers with decreased work ability are at greater risk of reduced productivity at work. We hypothesized that work-related characteristics play an important role in supporting workers to remain productive despite decreased work ability. Methods: The study population consisted of

  12. 7 CFR 1230.110 - Assessments on imported pork and pork products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Pork and pork products Article description Assessment Cents/lb Cents/kg 0203 Meat of swine, fresh... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessments on imported pork and pork products. 1230... PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1230.110...

  13. Increase in hospital purchase of hand hygiene products: The importance of focusing on the right product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Manisha; Prasad, Amber; Dhaliwal, Navneet; Gupta, A K; Taneja, Neelam

    2015-07-01

    Alcohol-based handrub (AHR) consumption is positively correlated with increases in hand hygiene (HH) compliance. In our 2,000-bed hospital in India, multiple awareness drives have been conducted to promote HH. This study aimed to determine the quantitative effect of these campaigns on use of HH products (soap and AHR) in the hospital. Over the last 6 years, bar soap consumption has increased by 389.15%, whereas that of AHR increased by 146.7%. We also evaluated microbial contamination of 99 bar soap and 60 liquid soap samples in our hospital for a year. Of the samples, 61 (61.6%) of the bar soaps and 2 (3.3%) of the liquid soaps were found to be contaminated with various organisms (P < .0002). To conclude, the focus should be to increase the right kind of HH product so that hospitals in developing countries procure liquid soaps instead of bar soaps for handwashing purposes. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Annual net primary productivity of a cyanobacteria-dominated biological soil crust in the Gulf Savannah, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büdel, Burkhard; Williams, Wendy J.; Reichenberger, Hans

    2018-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are a common element of the Queensland (Australia) dry savannah ecosystem and are composed of cyanobacteria, algae, lichens, bryophytes, fungi and heterotrophic bacteria. Here we report how the CO2 gas exchange of the cyanobacteria-dominated biocrust type from Boodjamulla National Park in the north Queensland Gulf Savannah responds to the pronounced climatic seasonality and on their quality as a carbon sink using a semi-automatic cuvette system. The dominant cyanobacteria are the filamentous species Symplocastrum purpurascens together with Scytonema sp. Metabolic activity was recorded between 1 July 2010 and 30 June 2011, during which CO2 exchange was only evident from November 2010 until mid-April 2011, representative of 23.6 % of the 1-year recording period. In November at the onset of the wet season, the first month (November) and the last month (April) of activity had pronounced respiratory loss of CO2. The metabolic active period accounted for 25 % of the wet season and of that period 48.6 % was net photosynthesis (NP) and 51.4 % dark respiration (DR). During the time of NP, net photosynthetic uptake of CO2 during daylight hours was reduced by 32.6 % due to water supersaturation. In total, the biocrust fixed 229.09 mmol CO2 m-2 yr-1, corresponding to an annual carbon gain of 2.75 g m-2 yr-1. Due to malfunction of the automatic cuvette system, data from September and October 2010 together with some days in November and December 2010 could not be analysed for NP and DR. Based on climatic and gas exchange data from November 2010, an estimated loss of 88 mmol CO2 m-2 was found for the 2 months, resulting in corrected annual rates of 143.1 mmol CO2 m-2 yr-1, equivalent to a carbon gain of 1.7 g m-2 yr-1. The bulk of the net photosynthetic activity occurred above a relative humidity of 42 %, indicating a suitable climatic combination of temperature, water availability and light intensity well above 200 µmol photons m-2 s-1

  15. A meta-analysis of milk production responses to increased net energy intake in Scandinavian dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte; Østergaard, Søren; Schei, Ingunn

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this analysis were to develop empirical prediction models for milk yield based on cow characteristics and dry matter intake (DMI) or net energy intake (NEL) and to evaluate the effect of breed, parity, stage of lactation and the additional prediction value of using NEL estimates...... versus DMI estimates for incorporation in future economical optimization models of the energy level in dairy cow rations. Previous Danish response models are outdated due to higher yield capacity of cows and the use of the new Nordic feed evaluation system NorFor since 2011. A data set with 195 treatment...... weighted by number of cows in each treatment mean. Best fit model was by use of linear and natural log transformation of NEL intake rather than DMI in the regression, especially when also including the ration concentration of the individual nutrients (g/MJ NEL), neutral detergent fibre, amino acids...

  16. Importance And Role Of Competence In Professional Career Of Product Develop Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miltenović, Aleksandar; Banić, Milan; Miltenović, Vojislav

    2015-07-01

    Product development is a creative task where is systematically created a new product, which makes possible to firms to offer attractive, innovative and market oriented products. In conditions of fierce competition and saturated markets, companies that do not innovate are stagnating and disappear from the market. Innovation is therefore every intervention which can reduce production costs, enables optimum utilization of available human, energy and material resources, improve product quality, improve the placement, which leads to an increase in competitiveness. A prerequisite for fulfillment of the above-mentioned tasks is that the companies have engineers with the appropriate competencies, which are able to, through creativity, innovation and fascinating technique of creating new or improving existing products and lunch it on the market. The paper discusses the role and importance of the competences that are necessary for a successful professional career of product development engineers.

  17. EXAMINING THE THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK OF THE IMPORTANCE OF RECYCLING IN THE PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanifi AYBOĞA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the development of technology and increasing competition, producing goods or services of the business is not enough today. Production forms of business and their pers- pectives on the environment during the production of goods and services are also monitored by the clients. Today, in the matter of ensuring the sustainability of products and hence the company, recycling has come into prominence. With these grounds, in the product life cycle costing in this study, the importance of recycling have been studied in a theoretical framework. For this purpose, basic concepts are primarily explained and product life cycle is compared with traditional costing. Then, employing the importance of recycling and its advantages are described. The presence of shortages of raw materials, the risk of extinction of natural resources and in today’s world where the cost rises, using recycled products decreases operating costs and so customers turn to recycled products with the environmental awareness. Hereat, competitiveness of enterprises, their product sales and market share have increased. In terms of environment, air and water pollution decrease and logging is prevented. During recent years, the creation of renewable resources by recycling will ensure sustainable production and bring a new dimension to the production systems.

  18. 19 CFR 12.91 - Electronic products offered for importation under the Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., the entry shall be accepted only if the owner or importer of record gives a bond on Customs Form 301... Form 4647), liquidated damages shall be assessed in the full amount of a bond if it is a single entry... Human Services. Electronic products offered for importation into the customs territory of the United...

  19. 9 CFR 381.198 - Importer to make application for inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.198 Importer to make application for inspection of... or other poultry product shall make application for inspection to the import supervisor of the import...

  20. Import of grey electricity from Germany. The impact of taking over the German E.ON-grid on wind energy in the Netherlands; Import Duitse grijze stroom niet opeens gemakkelijker. Overname Duits net vooralsnog neutraal voor windenergie in Nederland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, P.

    2010-03-15

    At the end of 2009 the Dutch Transmission System Operator TenneT took over the German E.ON grid. The question that arises: will the take-over result in lower prices for electricity in the Netherlands? According to experts, the main determining factor is still the market and the effect of the take-over on grey and green electricity is neutral. However, the transport cost will increase due to investments in improvement of the grid. [Dutch] Eind 2009 nam de Nederlandse Transmission System Operator TenneT het Duitse E.ON-net over. De vraag is of de overname leidt tot lagere prijzen voor elektriciteit in Nederland. Volgens deskundigen is vooralsnog de markt bepalend en is de overname neutraal voor groene en grijze stroom. Wel zullen de transportkosten stijgen vanwege investeringen voor verbeteringen van het netwerk.

  1. Important Non-Wood Forest Products in Turkey: An Econometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kurt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Wood resources obtained from forest and non-wood forest products (NWFP have gained great importance recently as their economic values keeps increasing by the day. In this study, forecasting of Turkish Non-Wood Forest Products such as thyme, bay leaves, salvia and pine nut export amounts was carried out using a linear regression analysis method for the next fifteen years based on the data for the years between 1990 and 2009. Moreover, estimated import values and actual import values from the last years were compered and analyzed. Finally, predictions on future trends were made.

  2. 9 CFR 327.6 - Products for importation; program inspection, time and place; application for approval of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS... inspection, time and place; application for approval of facilities as official import inspection... facilities as official import inspection establishment; refusal or withdrawal of approval; official numbers...

  3. Consumer evaluation of imported organic food products in emerging economies in Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Thøgersen, John

    of organic food products to these markets from countries, where the organic markets are more established and able to provide consumers with safe products. It is well-known that consumers are more willing to buy products originating from some countries than others and that they perceive some favourite brand...... & Romeo, 1992). Country of origin (COO) has consistently been found among the extrinsic cues consumers use in product evaluations, along with price and brand name (Dekhili & Achabou, 2014; Essoussi & Zahaf, 2009; Liu & Johnson, 2005; Mauracher, Tempesta, & Vecchiato, 2013), shaping consumers’ perceptions...... products from Thailand – especially if they were a part of the ”Thai Royal Project”. In both Thailand and China many of the consumers perceived products’ COO as important, but price, brands and familiarity with the product also influenced their decision. COO was especially considered when evaluating...

  4. INNOVATIONS AS AN IMPORTANT FACTOR INFLUENCING LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY IN THE MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Bušelić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic science has long recognized labour productivity as an important factor of economic growth. In the uncertain conditions of increasingly fierce and complex competition, it becomes one of the key prerequisites for an adequate response to global challenges. The development of labour productivity has to be observed as a multi-dimensional process including numerous interconnected quantitative and qualitative factors, in particular human factors and technological advancement realized through investments in research and development (innovations. The analysis of labour productivity in the manufacturing industry of the selected countries, Germany and China, is performed in the context of an important influential factor – innovations, and interdependently with the economic growth of the selected countries. The research results and the conducted regression analyses indicate a superiority of German labour productivity in the manufacturing industry, which is strongly affected by considerable investments in research and development. However, the technological convergence of China as the upcoming power is increasingly important, which shows that the gap in labour productivity is decreasing, making developed countries face new challenges posed by globalization. The analysis of the interdependence of economic growth (GDP and labour productivity in the manufacturing industry points to a positive link and the conclusion that the elasticity of the GDP to changes in labour productivity is greater in China than in Germany.

  5. Isolating and Quantifying the Effects of Climate and CO2 Changes (1980–2014 on the Net Primary Productivity in Arid and Semiarid China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Fang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the net primary productivity (NPP of arid/semiarid ecosystem is generally thought to be controlled by precipitation, other factors like CO2 fertilization effect and temperature change may also have important impacts, especially in the cold temperate areas of the northern China, where significant warming was reported in the recent decades. However, the impacts of climate and atmospheric CO2 changes to the NPP dynamics in the arid and semiarid areas of China (ASA-China is still unclear, hindering the development of climate adaptation strategy. Based on numeric experiments and factorial analysis, this study isolated and quantified the effects of climate and CO2 changes between 1980–2014 on ASA-China’s NPP, using the Arid Ecosystem Model (AEM that performed well in predicting ecosystems’ responses to climate/CO2 change according to our evaluation based on 21 field experiments. Our results showed that the annual variation in NPP was dominated by changes in precipitation, which reduced the regional NPP by 10.9 g·C/(m2·year. The precipitation-induced loss, however, has been compensated by the CO2 fertilization effect that increased the regional NPP by 14.9 g·C/(m2·year. The CO2 fertilization effect particularly benefited the extensive croplands in the Northern China Plain, but was weakened in the dry grassland of the central Tibetan Plateau due to suppressed plant activity as induced by a drier climate. Our study showed that the climate change in ASA-China and the ecosystem’s responses were highly heterogeneous in space and time. There were complex interactive effects among the climate factors, and different plant functional types (e.g., phreatophyte vs. non-phreatophyte could have distinct responses to similar climate change. Therefore, effective climate-adaptive strategies should be based on careful analysis of local climate pattern and understanding of the characteristic responses of the dominant species. Particularly, China

  6. Neural network-based estimates of Southern Ocean net community production from in situ O2 / Ar and satellite observation: a methodological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C.-H.; Johnson, N. C.; Cassar, N.

    2014-06-01

    Southern Ocean organic carbon export plays an important role in the global carbon cycle, yet its basin-scale climatology and variability are uncertain due to limited coverage of in situ observations. In this study, a neural network approach based on the self-organizing map (SOM) is adopted to construct weekly gridded (1° × 1°) maps of organic carbon export for the Southern Ocean from 1998 to 2009. The SOM is trained with in situ measurements of O2 / Ar-derived net community production (NCP) that are tightly linked to the carbon export in the mixed layer on timescales of one to two weeks and with six potential NCP predictors: photosynthetically available radiation (PAR), particulate organic carbon (POC), chlorophyll (Chl), sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height (SSH), and mixed layer depth (MLD). This nonparametric approach is based entirely on the observed statistical relationships between NCP and the predictors and, therefore, is strongly constrained by observations. A thorough cross-validation yields three retained NCP predictors, Chl, PAR, and MLD. Our constructed NCP is further validated by good agreement with previously published, independent in situ derived NCP of weekly or longer temporal resolution through real-time and climatological comparisons at various sampling sites. The resulting November-March NCP climatology reveals a pronounced zonal band of high NCP roughly following the Subtropical Front in the Atlantic, Indian, and western Pacific sectors, and turns southeastward shortly after the dateline. Other regions of elevated NCP include the upwelling zones off Chile and Namibia, the Patagonian Shelf, the Antarctic coast, and areas surrounding the Islands of Kerguelen, South Georgia, and Crozet. This basin-scale NCP climatology closely resembles that of the satellite POC field and observed air-sea CO2 flux. The long-term mean area-integrated NCP south of 50° S from our dataset, 17.9 mmol C m-2 d-1, falls within the range of 8.3 to 24 mmol

  7. Neural network-based estimates of Southern Ocean net community production from in-situ O2 / Ar and satellite observation: a methodological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C.-H.; Johnson, N. C.; Cassar, N.

    2013-10-01

    Southern Ocean organic carbon export plays an important role in the global carbon cycle, yet its basin-scale climatology and variability are uncertain due to limited coverage of in situ observations. In this study, a neural network approach based on the self-organizing map (SOM) is adopted to construct weekly gridded (1° × 1°) maps of organic carbon export for the Southern Ocean from 1998 to 2009. The SOM is trained with in situ measurements of O2 / Ar-derived net community production (NCP) that are tightly linked to the carbon export in the mixed layer on timescales of 1-2 weeks, and six potential NCP predictors: photosynthetically available radiation (PAR), particulate organic carbon (POC), chlorophyll (Chl), sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height (SSH), and mixed layer depth (MLD). This non-parametric approach is based entirely on the observed statistical relationships between NCP and the predictors, and therefore is strongly constrained by observations. A thorough cross-validation yields three retained NCP predictors, Chl, PAR, and MLD. Our constructed NCP is further validated by good agreement with previously published independent in situ derived NCP of weekly or longer temporal resolution through real-time and climatological comparisons at various sampling sites. The resulting November-March NCP climatology reveals a pronounced zonal band of high NCP roughly following the subtropical front in the Atlantic, Indian and western Pacific sectors, and turns southeastward shortly after the dateline. Other regions of elevated NCP include the upwelling zones off Chile and Namibia, Patagonian Shelf, Antarctic coast, and areas surrounding the Islands of Kerguelen, South Georgia, and Crozet. This basin-scale NCP climatology closely resembles that of the satellite POC field and observed air-sea CO2 flux. The long-term mean area-integrated NCP south of 50° S from our dataset, 14 mmol C m-2 d-1, falls within the range of 8.3-24 mmol C m-2 d-1 from other model

  8. The significance of food safety in trade and banning the importation of GMO products into Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh. Aghaiypour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to legislation in Iran, the importation of transgenic products should be banned due to the lack of strong evidence for the safety of genetically modified foods. Therefore, the detection of genetically modified on importing products should perform by food control laboratories. In this study, specific primers were designed for 35S promoter (500 bp, NOS terminator (253 bp, NPT (470 bp and GUS (443 bp for the detection of GMO in 134 imported samples by Polymerase chain reaction. The results showed the identification of GMO in food has become an important issue in food control, and Iranian Government has not adopted to import any GMO products into Iran. Therefore, this could indicate the significance of food safety and low confidence of people on the safety of these products in Iran. In fact, this protocol can be used for detection of GM products and for the labeling GM samples in order to ensure human health safety and protect the environment.

  9. Validation databases for simulation models: aboveground biomass and net primary productive, (NPP) estimation using eastwide FIA data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer C. Jenkins; Richard A. Birdsey

    2000-01-01

    As interest grows in the role of forest growth in the carbon cycle, and as simulation models are applied to predict future forest productivity at large spatial scales, the need for reliable and field-based data for evaluation of model estimates is clear. We created estimates of potential forest biomass and annual aboveground production for the Chesapeake Bay watershed...

  10. Reduction of Net Sulfide Production Rate by Nitrate in Wastewater Bioreactors. Kinetics and Changes in the Microbial Community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villahermosa, Desiree; Corzo, Alfonso; Gonzalez, J M

    2013-01-01

    Nitrate addition stimulated sulfide oxidation by increasing the activity of nitrate-reducing sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB), decreasing the concentration of dissolved H2S in the water phase and, consequently, its release to the atmosphere of a pilot-scale anaerobic bioreactor. The effect...... of four different concentrations of nitrate (0.12, 0.24, 0.50, and 1.00 mM) was investigated for a period of 3 days in relation to sulfide concentration in two bioreactors set up at Guadalete wastewater treatment plant (Jerez de la Frontera, Spain). Physicochemical variables were measured in water and air......, and the activity of bacteria implicated in the sulfur and nitrogen cycles was analyzed in the biofilms and in the water phase of the bioreactors. Biofilms were a net source of sulfide for the water and gas phases (7.22 ± 5.3 μmol s−1) in the absence of nitrate dosing. Addition of nitrate resulted in a quick...

  11. Evaluation of a dipstick test for the rapid diagnosis of imported malaria among patients presenting within the network TropNetEurop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jelinek, T.; Grobusch, M. P.; Harms, G.

    2001-01-01

    Lack of experience on the part of involved laboratory personnel frequently complicates swift diagnosis of imported falciparum malaria in non-endemic areas. Diagnostic tools based on the dipstick principle for the detection of plasmodial histidine-rich protein 2 have been marketed for several years

  12. Sentinel surveillance of imported dengue via travellers to Europe 2012 to 2014: TropNet data from the DengueTools Research Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumayr, Andreas; Muñoz, Jose; Schunk, Mirjam; Bottieau, Emmanuel; Cramer, Jakob; Calleri, Guido; López-Vélez, Rogelio; Angheben, Andrea; Zoller, Thomas; Visser, Leo; Serre-Delcor, Núria; Genton, Blaise; Castelli, Francesco; Van Esbroeck, Marjan; Matteelli, Alberto; Rochat, Laurence; Sulleiro, Elena; Kurth, Florian; Gobbi, Federico; Norman, Francesca; Torta, Ilaria; Clerinx, Jan; Poluda, David; Martinez, Miguel; Calvo-Cano, Antonia; Sanchez-Seco, Maria Paz; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Hatz, Christoph; Franco, Leticia

    2017-01-05

    We describe the epidemiological pattern and genetic characteristics of 242 acute dengue infections imported to Europe by returning travellers from 2012 to 2014. The overall geographical pattern of imported dengue (South-east Asia > Americas > western Pacific region > Africa) remained stable compared with 1999 to 2010. We isolated the majority of dengue virus genotypes and epidemic lineages causing outbreaks and epidemics in Asia, America and Africa during the study period. Travellers acted as sentinels for four unusual dengue outbreaks (Madeira, 2012-13; Luanda, 2013; Dar es Salaam, 2014; Tokyo, 2014). We were able to characterise dengue viruses imported from regions where currently no virological surveillance data are available. Up to 36% of travellers infected with dengue while travelling returned during the acute phase of the infection (up to 7 days after symptom onset) or became symptomatic after returning to Europe, and 58% of the patients with acute dengue infection were viraemic when seeking medical care. Epidemiological and virological data from dengue-infected international travellers can add an important layer to global surveillance efforts. A considerable number of dengue-infected travellers are viraemic after arrival back home, which poses a risk for dengue introduction and autochthonous transmission in European regions where suitable mosquito vectors are prevalent. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  13. The importance of modular product design in the sustainable development of enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorkapić Miloš D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is shown importance of modular architecture in the sustainable development of enterprises. The application of modular design enables the development of the production program based on the results of its own development. At the illustrated example, the production of transmitters it was concluded that modular architecture enables the production of independent entities, provides the realization of products in inaccessible places, enables to precisely defined technical documentation of modules, enabling easy maintenance, repair and improvement. This paper describes an algorithm for material reuse which indicates the importance of the customer in a closed material flow. In this connection, PLC includes protection of the environment as a strategic decision in the sustainable development of enterprises.

  14. Reliability-Based and Cost-Oriented Product Optimization Integrating Fuzzy Reasoning Petri Nets, Interval Expert Evaluation and Cultural-Based DMOPSO Using Crowding Distance Sorting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoxi Hong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In reliability-based and cost-oriented product optimization, the target product reliability is apportioned to subsystems or components to achieve the maximum reliability and minimum cost. Main challenges to conducting such optimization design lie in how to simultaneously consider subsystem division, uncertain evaluation provided by experts for essential factors, and dynamic propagation of product failure. To overcome these problems, a reliability-based and cost-oriented product optimization method integrating fuzzy reasoning Petri net (FRPN, interval expert evaluation and cultural-based dynamic multi-objective particle swarm optimization (DMOPSO using crowding distance sorting is proposed in this paper. Subsystem division is performed based on failure decoupling, and then subsystem weights are calculated with FRPN reflecting dynamic and uncertain failure propagation, as well as interval expert evaluation considering six essential factors. A mathematical model of reliability-based and cost-oriented product optimization is established, and the cultural-based DMOPSO with crowding distance sorting is utilized to obtain the optimized design scheme. The efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed method are demonstrated by the numerical example of the optimization design for a computer numerically controlled (CNC machine tool.

  15. Consumer evaluation of imported organic food products in emerging economies in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Susanne; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Thøgersen, John

    2017-01-01

    Consumer evaluation of imported organic food products in emerging economies in Asia Introduction Consumers in emerging economies such as Thailand and China have started to demand organic food products – mainly due to food safety reasons (Ortega, Wang, Wu, & Hong, 2015; Roitner-Schobesberger, Darnhofer, Somsook, & Vogl, 2008; C. L. Wang, Li, Barnes, & Ahn, 2012; O. Wang, De Steur, Gellynck, & Verbeke, 2015). However, since the domestic organic markets are still not well-establi...

  16. MISR Level 3 Global Cloud public Product in netCDF format covering a year V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Level 3 Yearly Component Global Cloud Product is a global summary of the Level 1 and Level 2 cloud parameters of interest averaged over a year and reported on a...

  17. Sub-canopy light conditions only allow low annual net productivity of epiphytic algae on kelp Laminaria hyperborea

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Morten Foldager; Nejrup, Lars Brammer; Pedersen, Troels Møller; Fredriksen, Stein

    2014-01-01

    The stipes of older Laminaria hyperborea individuals are heavily covered by epiphytic assemblages that are dominated by macroalgae, and we hypothesized that the production of these algae may contribute significantly to total primary production of the kelp forest ecosystem. The epiphytic assemblages on the stipes of Laminaria were dominated by potentially fast-growing red algae with total biomass ranging from 25 to 120 g dry weight (DW) m-2 seafloor depending on season and site. Sub-canopy lig...

  18. Studying Imports of Wood, Paper and their Products in the World and Iran from 1998 to 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Bayat kashkuli

    2011-01-01

    Important importers of wood, paper and their products were identified in this study. Identification of these countries is important for the trade of wood and paper products. The main questions now are: how is imports situation of wood, paper and their products in the world? And which countries are important here? Average values and percentages of imports were calculated to rank regions on the basis of FAO stats from 1998 to 2007. The annual rates of change in imports were calculated by single...

  19. Phosphorus plays an important role in enhancing biodiesel productivity of Chlorella vulgaris under nitrogen deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Fei-Fei; Chu, Pei-Na; Cai, Pei-Jie; Li, Wen-Wei; Lam, Paul K S; Zeng, Raymond J

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the role of phosphorus in lipid production under nitrogen starvation conditions, five types of media possessing different nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations or their combination were prepared to culture Chlorella vulgaris. It was found that biomass production under nitrogen deficient condition with sufficient phosphorus supply was similar to that of the control (with sufficient nutrition), resulting in a maximum lipid productivity of 58.39 mg/L/day. Meanwhile, 31P NMR showed that phosphorus in the medium was transformed and accumulated as polyphosphate in cells. The uptake rate of phosphorus in cells was 3.8 times higher than the uptake rate of the control. This study demonstrates that phosphorus plays an important role in lipid production of C. vulgaris under nitrogen deficient conditions and implies a potential to combine phosphorus removal from wastewater with biodiesel production via microalgae. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Re-assessment of net energy production and greenhouse gas emissions avoidance after 40 years of photovoltaics development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwen, Atse; van Sark, Wilfried G. J. H. M.; Faaij, André P. C.; Schropp, Ruud E. I.

    2016-12-01

    Since the 1970s, installed solar photovoltaic capacity has grown tremendously to 230 gigawatt worldwide in 2015, with a growth rate between 1975 and 2015 of 45%. This rapid growth has led to concerns regarding the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of photovoltaics production. We present a review of 40 years of photovoltaics development, analysing the development of energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions associated with photovoltaics production. Here we show strong downward trends of environmental impact of photovoltaics production, following the experience curve law. For every doubling of installed photovoltaic capacity, energy use decreases by 13 and 12% and greenhouse gas footprints by 17 and 24%, for poly- and monocrystalline based photovoltaic systems, respectively. As a result, we show a break-even between the cumulative disadvantages and benefits of photovoltaics, for both energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, occurs between 1997 and 2018, depending on photovoltaic performance and model uncertainties.

  1. Sub-canopy light conditions only allow low annual net productivity of epiphytic algae on kelp Laminaria hyperborea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Foldager; Nejrup, Lars Brammer; Pedersen, Troels Møller

    2014-01-01

    The stipes of older Laminaria hyperborea individuals are heavily covered by epiphytic assemblages that are dominated by macroalgae, and we hypothesized that the production of these algae may contribute significantly to total primary production of the kelp forest ecosystem. The epiphytic assemblages...... on the stipes of Laminaria were dominated by potentially fast-growing red algae with total biomass ranging from 25 to 120 g dry weight (DW) m-2 seafloor depending on season and site. Sub-canopy light conditions were poor and averaged only ~10% of the surface irradiance in summer. Photosynthetic profiles...

  2. DOSoReMI.hu: collection of countrywide DSM products partly according to GSM.net specifications, partly driven by specific user demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pásztor, László; Laborczi, Annamária; Takács, Katalin; Szatmári, Gábor; Illés, Gábor; Bakacsi, Zsófia; Szabó, József

    2017-04-01

    Due to former soil surveys and mapping activities significant amount of soil information has accumulated in Hungary. In traditional soil mapping the creation of a new map was troublesome and laborious. As a consequence, robust maps were elaborated and rather the demands were fitted to the available map products. Until recently spatial soil information demands have been serviced with the available datasets either in their actual form or after certain specific and often enforced, thematic and spatial inference. Considerable imperfection may occur in the accuracy and reliability of the map products, since there might be significant discrepancies between the available data and the expected information. The DOSoReMI.hu (Digital, Optimized, Soil Related Maps and Information in Hungary) project was started intentionally for the renewal of the national soil spatial infrastructure in Hungary. During our activities we have significantly extended the potential, how soil information requirements could be satisfied. Soil property, soil type as well as functional soil maps were targeted. The set of the applied digital soil mapping techniques has been gradually broadened incorporating and eventually integrating geostatistical, data mining and GIS tools. Soil property maps have been compiled partly according to GSM.net specifications, partly by slightly or more strictly changing some of their predefined parameters (depth intervals, pixel size, property etc.) according to the specific demands on the final products. The elaborated primary maps were further processed, since even DOSoReMI.hu intended to take steps for the regionalization of higher level soil information (processes, functions, and services) involving crop models in the spatial modelling. The framework of DOSoReMI.hu also provides opportunity for the elaboration of goal specific soil maps, with the prescription of the parameters (thematic, resolution, accuracy, reliability etc.) characterizing the map product. As a

  3. Evaluating European imports of Asian aquaculture products using statistically supported life cycle assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henriksson, Patrik John Gustav

    2015-01-01

    This thesis aims to evaluate the environmental sustainability of European imports of farmed aquatic food products from Asia, using life cycle assessment (LCA). Farming of Asian tiger prawn, whiteleg shrimp, freshwater prawn, tilapia and pangasius catfish in Bangladesh, China, Thailand and Vietnam

  4. 78 FR 6803 - Notice of Request for a New Information Collection; Import of Undenatured Inedible Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... free electronic mail subscription service for industry, trade groups, consumer interest groups, health...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food Safety and Inspection Service Notice of Request for a New Information Collection; Import of Undenatured Inedible Product AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION...

  5. PRODUCTION OF MASSIVE PROFILE SLUGS AND WEAR-RESISTANT CASTINGS FOR DETAILS OF IMPORTANT ASSIGNMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Saikov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The peculiarities of production of massive wearresisting castings and profile slugs for the details of important assignment are studied. It is offered to use economdoped antifriction cast irons and the ways of casting with intensive heat-exchange for creation of such castings.

  6. Health and Safety Concerns Over U.S. Imports of Chinese Products: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-22

    Chinese standards.8 However, they have CRS-4 8 (...continued) dried apricots, frozen chicken, pork products, pacemakers, soybeans, frozen potato slices...Japan reportedly became ill from eating dumplings imported from China that contained pesticide. In addition, hundreds of cancer patients in China were

  7. Supply chain configuration with co-ordinated product, process and logistics decisions : an approach based on Petri nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Lianfeng (Linda); You, Xiao; Jiao, Jianxin (Roger); Helo, Petri

    2009-01-01

    Supply chain configuration lends itself to be an effective means to deal with product differentiation and customisation throughout a supply chain network. It essentially entails the instantiation of a generic supply chain network to specific supply chains in accordance with diverse customer

  8. Re-assessment of net energy production and greenhouse gas emissions avoidance after 40 years of photovoltaics development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwen, Atse|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/375268456; Van Sark, Wilfried G J H M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074628526; Faaij, André P C; Schropp, Ruud E I|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072502584

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1970s, installed solar photovoltaic capacity has grown tremendously to 230 gigawatt worldwide in 2015, with a growth rate between 1975 and 2015 of 45%. This rapid growth has led to concerns regarding the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of photovoltaics production. We

  9. [Periodic fluctuation features of air temperature, precipitation, and aboveground net primary production of alpine meadow ecosystem on Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fa-wei; Li, Hong-qin; Li, Ying-nian; Li, Yi-kang; Lin, Li

    2009-03-01

    With Mexican Hat function as mother function, a wavelet analysis was conducted on the periodic fluctuation features of air temperature, precipitation, and aboveground net primary production (ANPP) in the Alpine Meadow Ecosystem Research Station, Chinese Academy of Sciences from 1980 to 2007. The results showed that there was a main period of 13 years for the annual fluctuations of air temperature, precipitation, and ANPP. A secondary period of 2 years for the annual fluctuations of air temperature and ANPP had lesser influence, whereas that of 4 years for the annual fluctuation of precipitation had greater effect. Lagged correlation analysis indicated that the annual fluctuation of ANNP was mainly controlled by the air temperature in a 20 years scale and had a weak 5-9 years lag effect, but there was a less correlation between ANPP and precipitation.

  10. The importance of the wholesale markets for trade in agricultural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzman Boris

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is based on the importance of wholesale markets as special market institutions in trade in agro-industrial products. Based on communication knowledge about the retail market operations (wholesale gross markets, on the domestic market, as well as the importance given to wholesale markets in the developed countries from the aspect of trade, it is concluded that even domestic trade can increase selling these type of products at wholesale markets. The subject of research of this paper is concept of building wholesale markets as a substitute for retail trade (quantitative or wholesale gross markets for agro-industrial products. This paper aims to achieve such a level of knowledge that will enable making quality decisions starting from the interests of businesses, traders and customers (consumers.

  11. Estimating agro-ecosystem carbon balance of northern Japan, and comparing the change in carbon stock by soil inventory and net biome productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi; Toma, Yo; Yeluripati, Jagadeesh; Iwasaki, Shinya; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko D; Jones, Edward O; Hatano, Ryusuke

    2016-06-01

    Soil C sequestration in croplands is deemed to be one of the most promising greenhouse gas mitigation options for agriculture. We have used crop-level yields, modeled heterotrophic respiration (Rh) and land use data to estimate spatio-temporal changes in regional scale net primary productivity (NPP), plant C inputs, and net biome productivity (NBP) in northern Japan's arable croplands and grasslands for the period of 1959-2011. We compared the changes in C stocks derived from estimated NBP and using repeated inventory datasets for each individual land use type from 2005 to 2011. For the entire study region of 2193 ha, overall annual plant C inputs to the soil constituted 37% of total region NPP. Plant C inputs in upland areas (excluding bush/fallow) could be predicted by climate variables. Overall NBP for all land use types increased from -1.26MgCha(-1)yr(-1) in 1959-0.26 Mg Cha(-1)yr(-1) in 2011. However, upland and paddy fields showed a decreased in NBP over the period of 1959-2011, under the current C input scenario. From 1988, an increase in agricultural abandonment (bush/fallow) and grassland cover caused a slow increase in the regional C pools. The comparison of carbon budgets using the NBP estimation method and the soil inventory method indicated no significant difference between the two methods. Our results showed C loss in upland crops, paddy fields and sites that underwent land use change from paddy field to upland sites. We also show C gain in grassland from 2005 to 2011. An underestimation of NBP or an overestimation of repeated C inventories cannot be excluded, but either method may be suitable for tracking absolute changes in soil C, considering the uncertainty associated with these methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Energy indicators for electricity production : comparing technologies and the nature of the indicators Energy Payback Ratio (EPR), Net Energy Ratio (NER) and Cumulative Energy Demand (CED). [Oestfoldforskning AS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raadal, Hanne Lerche [Ostfold research, Fredrikstad (Norway); Modahl, Ingunn Saur [Ostfold research, Fredrikstad (Norway); Bakken, Tor Haakon [SINTEF Energy, Trondheim (Norway)

    2012-11-01

    CEDREN (Centre for Environmental Design of Renewable Energy) is founded by The Research Council of Norway and energy companies and is one of eight centres that were part of the scheme Centre for Environment-friendly Energy Research (FME) when the scheme was launched in 2009. The main objective of CEDREN is to develop and communicate design solutions for transforming renewable energy sources to the desired energy products, and at the same time address the environmental and societal challenges at local, regional, national and global levels. CEDREN's board initiated in 2011 a pilot project on the topics 'Energy Pay-back Ratio (EPR)', 'Ecosystem services' and 'multi-criteria analysis (MCA)' in order to investigate the possible use of these concepts/indices in the management of regulated river basins and as tools to benchmark strategies for the development of energy projects/resources. The energy indicator part (documented in this report) has aimed at reviewing the applicability of different energy efficiency indicators, as such, in the strategic management and development of energy resources, and to compare and benchmark technologies for production of electricity. The main findings from this pilot study is also reported in a policy memo (in Norwegian), that is available at www.cedren.no. The work carried out in this project will be continued in the succeeding research project EcoManage, which was granted by the Research Council of Norway's RENERGI programme in December 2011. Energy indicators: Several energy indicators for extraction and delivery of an energy product (e.g. transport fuel, heat, electricity etc.) exist today. The main objective of such indicators is to give information about the energy efficiency of the needed extraction and transforming processes throughout the value chain related to the delivered energy product. In this project the indicators Energy Payback Ratio (EPR), Net Energy Ration (NER) and Cumulative

  13. The ecologic products and the importance of their consumption for the human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Constanța Sîrbu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study intends to analyze the perception of young people regarding the ecologic products, their consumption and implicitly the awareness of their effect on the human health. The geographic area where we realized the study wasTimisoaraby distributing a questionnaire in different places: universities, super-markets, mall. After analyzing the results, we noticed that 80% of the young people consider that the food is very important for a healthy life. The majority of the young people questioned, even knowing the characteristics of the bio products, consumed fruits and vegetables bought from stores specialized in ecologic products. From our study, we can say that the young people are interested in the ecologic products sold inTimisoaraand they are aware about their impact on the human health.

  14. Aboveground Net Primary Productivity in Grazed and Ungrazed pastures: Grazing Optimisation Hypothesis or Local Extinction of Vegetation Species

    OpenAIRE

    Silvanus G. Otieno; Njoka, Jesse T.; Young, Truman P; Mureithi, Stephen M.; Ngugi, Robinson K

    2009-01-01

    The controversy that has surrounded herbivory studies in the last few decades prompted our investigation to establish the extent to which herbivore optimisation hypothesis or compensatory growth evidence is real. We used the traditional movable cage method to collect primary productivity data on herbage, functional groups and key individual grass species in various controlled large herbivore treatments in an east African savanna. The herbivore treatments in triplicate blocks included cattle, ...

  15. Economic Impact of Net Carbon Payments and Bioenergy Production in Fertilized and Non-Fertilized Loblolly Pine Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prativa Shrestha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sequestering carbon in forest stands and using woody bioenergy are two potential ways to utilize forests in mitigating emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs. Such forestry related strategies are, however, greatly influenced by carbon and bioenergy markets. This study investigates the impact of both carbon and woody bioenergy markets on land expectation value (LEV and rotation age of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L. forests in the southeastern United States for two scenarios—one with thinning and no fertilization and the other with thinning and fertilization. Economic analysis was conducted using a modified Hartman model. The amount of carbon dioxide (CO2 emitted during various activities such as management of stands, harvesting, and product decay was included in the model. Sensitivity analysis was conducted with a range of carbon offset, wood for bioenergy, and forest product prices. The results showed that LEV increased in both management scenarios as the price of carbon and wood for bioenergy increased. However, the results indicated that the management scenario without fertilizer was optimal at low carbon prices and the management scenario with fertilizer was optimal at higher carbon prices for medium and low forest product prices. Carbon payments had a greater impact on LEV than prices for wood utilized for bioenergy. Also, increase in the carbon price increased the optimal rotation age, whereas, wood prices for bioenergy had little impact. The management scenario without fertilizer was found to have longer optimal rotation ages.

  16. Simulated Vegetation Response to Climate Change in California: The Importance of Seasonal Production Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. B.; Pitts, B.

    2013-12-01

    summarized MC1 outputs under the four climate change projections also by computing statistics by EPA Level 3 Ecoregions. MC1 predicts the greatest shift of vegetation types for the drier biomes of California, including the Sonoran Desert and the Eastern Cascade Slopes and Foothills. Strong shifts are predicted for forest biomes, including the Sierra Nevada (42-74%), and the Coast Range (24-40%). The simulated shifts in vegetation types are mediated by simultaneous changes in live vegetation carbon, which in turn are driven by simulated net primary production (NPP) at a monthly time step. MC1's poor skill in reproducing seasonal variations of NPP when compared to MODIS monthly GPP values suggests that the resulting vegetation type shifts are likely inaccurately predicted by MC1. Improving MC1's algorithm for NPP to more closely track seasonal variations in MODIS GPP should result in more reliable predictions of vegetation response to climate change.

  17. Demand and willingness-to-pay for bed nets in Tanzania: results from a choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingrich, Chris D; Ricotta, Emily; Kahwa, Amos; Kahabuka, Catherine; Koenker, Hannah

    2017-07-14

    Universal coverage campaigns for long-lasting insecticide-treated nets do not always reach the goal of one net for every two household members, and even when ownership of at least one net per household is high, many households may not own enough nets. The retail market provides these households options for replacing or increasing the number of nets they own with products that best fit their needs since a variety of net shapes, sizes, and colours are available. Hence, it is important to understand the factors affecting private net demand. This study explores private demand for nets in Tanzania using a discrete choice experiment. The experiment provides participants the option to buy nets with their own money, and thus should prove more accurate than a hypothetical survey of net preferences. Nearly 800 participants sampled in two regions showed an overall strong demand for nets, with 40% choosing to buy a net across all seven combinations of net prices and characteristics such as size, shape, and insecticide treatment. Only 8% of all participants chose not to buy a single net. A key factor influencing demand was whether a participant's household currently owned sufficient nets for all members, with rural participants showing lower net coverage and greater demand than urban participants. Both poor and less poor households showed strong evidence of making purchase decisions based on more than price alone. Mean willingness-to-pay values for a net started at US$1.10 and grew by US$0.50-1.40 for various attributes such as rectangular shape, large size, and insecticide treatment. The impact of price on demand was negative but small, with elasticity values between -0.25 and -0.45. The results suggest that private demand for nets in Tanzania could potentially supplement future coverage campaigns. Net manufacturers and retailers should advertise and promote consumers' preferred net attributes to improve sales and further expand net access and coverage. To overcome household

  18. Net nitrogen mineralization in natural ecosystems across the conterminous US

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeeAnna Y. Chapman; Steven G. McNulty; Ge Sun; Yang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen is the primary nutrient limiting ecosystem productivity over most of the US. Although soil nitrogen content is important, knowledge about its spatial extent at the continental scale is limited. The objective of this study was to estimate net nitrogen mineralization for the conterminous US (CONUS) using an empirical modeling approach by scaling up site level...

  19. METABOLIC ENGINEERING OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA FOR THE PRODUCTION OF INDUSTRIALLY IMPORTANT COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Papagianni

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are receiving increased attention for use as cell factories for the production of metabolites with wide use by the food and pharmaceutical industries. The availability of efficient tools for genetic modification of LAB during the past decade permitted the application of metabolic engineering strategies at the levels of both the primary and the more complex secondary metabolism. The recent developments in the area with a focus on the production of industrially important metabolites will be discussed in this review.

  20. The United States (U.S. Steel import crisis and the global production overcapacity till 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. H. Popescu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research is to examine and evaluate the swift growth in surplus steel production capacity and international supply chain integration, the effects of steel manufacturing on U.S. employment, raising imports of unfairly traded steel and steel goods, and the global steel sector’s structural overcapacity. This paper contributes to the literature by providing evidence on the mechanisms forming the foundation of the first-rate productivity growth in the U.S. steel industry, models of growth in the international steel supply chains, and the advantages of adequate trade remedy implementation for the U.S. steel sector.

  1. Metabolic engineering of lactic acid bacteria for the production of industrially important compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Papagianni

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are receiving increased attention for use as cell factories for the production of metabolites with wide use by the food and pharmaceutical industries. The availability of efficient tools for genetic modification of LAB during the past decade permitted the application of metabolic engineering strategies at the levels of both the primary and the more complex secondary metabolism. The recent developments in the area with a focus on the production of industrially important metabolites will be discussed in this review.

  2. Overcoming limits set by scarce resources - role of local food production and food imports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porkka, Miina; Guillaume, Joseph H. A.; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Siebert, Stefan; Gerten, Dieter; Kummu, Matti

    2017-04-01

    There is a fundamental tension between population growth and carrying capacity, i.e. the population that could potentially be supported using the resources and technologies available at a given time. This makes the assessments of resource use and agricultural productivity central to the debate on future food security. Local carrying capacity can be increased by expanding (e.g. through land conversion and irrigation infrastructure) or intensifying (e.g. through technologies and practices that increase efficiency) the resource use in agriculture. Food imports can be considered another way of overcoming current local limits and continuing growth beyond the local human-carrying capacity. Focusing on water as the key limiting resource, we performed a global assessment of the capacity for food self-sufficiency at sub-national and national scale for 1961-2009, taking into account the availability of both green and blue water as well as technology and management practices affecting water productivity at a given time, and using the hydrology and agriculture model LPJmL as our primary tool. Furthermore, we examined the use of food imports as a strategy to increase carrying capacity in regions where the potential for food self-sufficiency was limited by water availability and productivity. We found that the capacity for food self-sufficiency reduced notably during the study period due to the rapid population growth that outpaced the substantial improvements in water productivity. In 2009 more than a third (2.2 billion people) of the world's population lived in areas where sufficient food production to meet the needs of the population was not possible, and some 800 million people more were approaching this threshold. Food imports have nearly universally been used to overcome these local limits to growth, though the success of this strategy has been highly dependent on economic purchasing power. In the unsuccessful cases, increases in imports and local productivity have not

  3. Waterscape determinants of net mercury methylation in a tropical wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro, Wilkinson L; Díez, Sergi; da Silva, Carolina J; Ignácio, Áurea R A; Guimarães, Jean R D

    2016-10-01

    The periphyton associated with freshwater macrophyte roots is the main site of Hg methylation in different wetland environments in the world. The aim of this study was to test the use of connectivity metrics of water bodies, in the context of patches, in a tropical waterscape wetland (Guapore River, Amazonia, Brazil) as a predictor of potential net methylmercury (MeHg) production by periphyton communities. We sampled 15 lakes with different patterns of lateral connectivity with the main river channel, performing net mercury methylation potential tests in incubations with local water and Eichhornia crassipes root-periphyton samples, using (203)HgCl2 as a tracer. Physico-chemical variables, landscape data (morphological characteristics, land use, and lateral connection type of water bodies) using GIS resources and field data were analyzed with Generalized Additive Models (GAM). The net Me(203)Hg production (as % of total added (203)Hg) was expressive (6.2-25.6%) showing that periphyton is an important matrix in MeHg production. The model that best explained the variation in the net Me(203)Hg production (76%) was built by the variables: connection type, total phosphorus and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in water (AICc=48.324, p=0.001). Connection type factor was the best factor to model fit (r(2)=0.32; p=0.008) and temporarily connected lakes had higher rates of net mercury methylation. Both DOC and total phosphorus showed positive significant covariation with the net methylation rates (r(2)=0.26; p=0.008 and r(2)=0.21; p=0.012 respectively). Our study suggests a strong relationship between rates of net MeHg production in this tropical area and the type of water body and its hydrological connectivity within the waterscape. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Microcystin quota, cell division and microcystin net production of precultured Microcystis aeruginosa CYA 228 (Chroococcales, Cyanophyceae) under field conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyck, S.; Christoffersen, K.

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between the specific cell division rate (mu(c)), the specific microcystin (mcyst) production rate (mu(mcyst)) and the cellular content of mcyst (Q(mcyst)) was investigated during growth of Microcystis aeruginosa strain CYA 228 cells in the field (microcosms), and the results were...... compared with previous data obtained from batch cultures. Growth of an easily recognizable unicellular culture alga in the field made it possible to evaluate different ways of expressing mcyst field data as the ratio of mcyst to dry weight, protein or chlorophyll a (Chl a) against the mcyst quota....... The population of CYA 228 cells increased from day 1 to day 7, but decreased from day 7 to day 17. More than a threefold variation was observed in Q(mcyst) of M. aeruginosa cells under field conditions, which indicates that the relationship between mu(c) and mu(mcyst) was not strictly linear. The data from...

  5. Seasonal evolution of net and regenerated silica production around a natural Fe-fertilized area in the Southern Ocean estimated from Si isotopic approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closset, I.; Lasbleiz, M.; Leblanc, K.; Quéguiner, B.; Cavagna, A.-J.; Elskens, M.; Navez, J.; Cardinal, D.

    2014-05-01

    A massive diatom-bloom is observed each year in the surface waters of the naturally Fe fertilized Kerguelen Plateau (Southern Ocean). We measured biogenic silica production and dissolution fluxes in the mixed layer in the vicinity of the Kerguelen Plateau during austral spring 2011 (KEOPS-2 cruise). We compare results from a High-Nutrient Low-Chlorophyll reference station and stations with different degrees of iron enrichment and bloom conditions. Above the Plateau biogenic silica production fluxes are among the highest reported so far in the Southern Ocean (up to 47.9 mmol m-2 d-1). Although significant (10.2 mmol m-2 d-1 in average), silica dissolution rates were generally much lower than production rates. Uptake ratios (Si:C and Si:N) confirm that diatoms strongly dominate the primary production in this area. At the bloom onset, decreasing dissolution to production ratios (D:P) indicate that the remineralization of silica could sustained most of the low silicon uptake and that the system progressively shifts toward a silica production regime which must be mainly supported by new source of silicic acid. Moreover, by comparing results from the two KEOPS-expeditions (spring 2011 and summer 2005), we suggest that there is a seasonal evolution on the processes decoupling Si and N cycles in the area. Indeed, the consumption of H4SiO4 standing stocks occurs only during the growing stage of the bloom when strong net silica production is observed, contributing to a higher H4SiO4 depletion relative to NO3-. Then, the decoupling between H4SiO4 and NO3- is mainly controlled by the more efficient nitrogen recycling relative to Si. Gross-Si:N uptake ratios were higher in the Fe-rich regions compared to the HNLC area, likely due to different diatoms communities. This suggests that the diatom responses to natural Fe fertilization are more complex than previously thought, and that natural iron fertilization over long time scales does not necessarily decrease Si:N uptake ratios

  6. The Importance of Geographical Proximity for New Product Development Activities within Inter-firm Linkages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgren, Johan Henrich

    important as a resource and where collaboration partners are important. Hypotheses are tested by means of a quantitative analysis of a data set containing information about 4842 domestic and international inter-firm linkages of Danish firms in manufacturing industries. The findings in this analysis exhibit......This paper takes an economic approach to investigate the role of geographical proximity for organizing new product development (NPD) activities within inter-firm linkages. Product development theory and the resource-based view is discussed from an inter-firm perspective and contrasted to arguments...... in the literature on geographical economics. The approach in this paper assumes that geographical proximity is crucial for inter-firm learning, knowledge transfer and creation of capabilities to a higher extent in inter-firm linkages with a high level of interaction, in industries where knowledge is relatively more...

  7. Nitrogen supply is an important driver of sustainable microalgae biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peccia, Jordan; Haznedaroglu, Berat; Gutierrez, James; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2013-03-01

    Favorable growth characteristics continue to generate interest in using triacylglycerides (TAGs) produced from microalgae for biodiesel feedstocks. In this opinion article, we suggest that due to the energy consumption associated with the production of external nitrogen fertilizers, the manner in which nitrogen is supplied to microalgae biorefineries will be an important driver of energy yields, sustainability, and commercial success. Schemes including the reuse of urban wastewater represent improvements on the overall energy balance, but will not allow for significant production of biofuels unless the nitrogen from the non-TAG portions of microalgae is recycled. Approaches to recycling nitrogen require an improved understanding of the tradeoffs between the different potential uses of the non-TAG microalgal portion (i.e., energy production via anaerobic digestion or thermal catalytic processes), and the development of nitrogen separation technologies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Reappraisal of the production and import of organic carbon in the western Wadden Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadée, G. C.

    Annual phytoplankton primary production in the tidal channels of the western Wadden Sea cannot be estimated more precise than 150 ± 50 g C · m -2 · a -1, because of large spatial and short-term temporal variations. This implies that year-to-year variations and possibly long term trends have to be very pronounced to be measurable even with a weekly sampling program. Short-term temporal variation in primary production of microphytobenthos living on the tidal flats is less pronounced but spatial variation is large. Primary production on high tidal flats is larger than on flats lower in the tidal zone. Year-to-year variation on a tidal flat station occupied now for 12 years is large. This variation cannot be explained by year-to-year variations in nutrients, light or temperature, but probably by year-to-year variations in grazing. Macrophytobenthic primary production plays a subordinate role in the western Wadden Sea. It is difficult to give one figure for annual primary production for an "average" tidal flat for reasons mentioned. Tentatively microphytobenthic plus macrophytobenthic plus phytoplanktonic primary production on and above an average tidal flat is estimated at 150 ± 50 g C · m -2 · a -1, i.e. the same as given for phytoplankton production in the tidal channels. The western Wadden Sea receives a considerable amount of particulate organic carbon from outside the area, estimated at 240 g C · m -2 · a -1. Formerly the North Sea was thought to be the only source. New data also indicate an important input from the IJsselmeer. This import of organic carbon, particulate plus dissolved, surpasses in situ primary production. IJsselmeer DOC is probably not used to a considerable extent in the Wadden Sea. IJsselmeer POC, however, consisting for 50% on average of living phytoplankton cells, may form a suitable food source for Wadden Sea invertebrates. Cell counts of the freshwater alga Scenedesmus showed that at least part of the IJsselmeer POC is retained in

  9. Rhinovirus stimulated IFN-? production: how important are plasmacytoid DCs, monocytes and endosomal pH?

    OpenAIRE

    Xi, Yang; Finlayson, Arvid; White, Oliva J; Carroll, Melanie L.; Upham, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Human rhinovirus (HRV) infection is a major cause of asthma exacerbations, which appears to be linked to a defective innate immune response to infection. Although the type I interferons (IFN-? and IFN-?) have a critical role in protecting against most viral infections, the cells responsible for IFN production in response to HRV and the relative importance of pattern recognition receptors located in endosomes has not been fully elucidated. In the current study we demonstrate that, using intrac...

  10. Activity and biological effects of neem products against arthropods of medical and veterinary importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulla, M S; Su, T

    1999-06-01

    Botanical insecticides are relatively safe and degradable, and are readily available sources of biopesticides. The most prominent phytochemical pesticides in recent years are those derived from neem trees, which have been studied extensively in the fields of entomology and phytochemistry, and have uses for medicinal and cosmetic purposes. The neem products have been obtained from several species of neem trees in the family Meliaceae. Six species in this family have been the subject of botanical pesticide research. They are Azadirachta indica A. Juss, Azadirachta excelsa Jack, Azadirachta siamens Valeton, Melia azedarach L., Melia toosendan Sieb. and Zucc., and Melia volkensii Gürke. The Meliaceae, especially A. indica (Indian neem tree), contains at least 35 biologically active principles. Azadirachtin is the predominant insecticidal active ingredient in the seed, leaves, and other parts of the neem tree. Azadirachtin and other compounds in neem products exhibit various modes of action against insects such as antifeedancy, growth regulation, fecundity suppression and sterilization, oviposition repellency or attractancy, changes in biological fitness, and blocking development of vector-borne pathogens. Some of these bioactivity parameters of neem products have been investigated at least in some species of insects of medical and veterinary importance, such as mosquitoes, flies, triatomines, cockroaches, fleas, lice, and others. Here we review, synthesize, and analyze published information on the activity, modes of action, and other biological effects of neem products against arthropods of medical and veterinary importance. The amount of information on the activity, use, and application of neem products for the control of disease vectors and human and animal pests is limited. Additional research is needed to determine the potential usefulness of neem products in vector control programs.

  11. Agricultural waste from the tequila industry as substrate for the production of commercially important enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huitron, C; Perez, R; Sanchez, A E; Lappe, P; Rocha Zavaleta, L

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 1 million tons of Agave tequilana plants are processed annually by the Mexican Tequila industry generating vast amounts of agricultural waste. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential use of Agave tequilana waste as substrate for the production of commercially important enzymes. Two strains of Aspergillus niger (CH-A-2010 and CH-A-2016), isolated from agave fields, were found to grow and propagate in submerged cultures using Agave tequilana waste as substrate. Isolates showed simultaneous extracellular inulinase, xylanase, pectinase, and cellulase activities. Aspergillus CH-A-2010 showed the highest production of inulinase activity (1.48 U/ml), whereas Aspergillus niger CH-A-2016 produced the highest xylanase (1.52 U/ml) and endo-pectinase (2.7U/ml) activities. In both cases production of enzyme activities was significantly higher on Agave tequilana waste than that observed on lemon peel and specific polymeric carbohydrates. Enzymatic hydrolysis of raw A. tequilana stems and leaves, by enzymes secreted by the isolates yielded maximum concentrations of reducing sugars of 28.2 g/l, and 9.9 g/l respectively. In conclusion, Agave tequilana waste can be utilized as substrate for the production of important biotechnological enzymes.

  12. Illegal import of bushmeat and other meat products into Switzerland on commercial passenger flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, H; Dürr, S; Hauser, R; Wood, K; Tenger, B; Lörtscher, M; Schüpbach-Regula, G

    2013-12-01

    Illegal imports of meat can present substantial risks to public and animal health. Several European countries have reported considerable quantities of meat imported on commercial passenger flights. The objective of this study was to estimate the quantity of meat illegally imported into Switzerland, with a separate estimation for bushmeat. Data were obtained by participation in intervention exercises at Swiss international airports and by analysing data on seizures during the four-year period 2008 to 2011. The study revealed that a wide array of animal species was imported into Switzerland. From the database, the average annual weight of meat seized during the period analysed was 5.5 tonnes, of which 1.4% was bushmeat. However, in a stochastic model the total annual inflow of illegal meat imports was estimated at 1,013 tonnes (95% CI 226 to 4,192) for meat and 8.6 tonnes (95% CI 0.8 to 68.8) for bushmeat. Thus, even for a small European country such as Switzerland the quantities of illegally imported meat and meat products are substantial and the consequences for public and animal health could be high. To reduce the risk, it is essential that surveillance at European airports is harmonised and that passenger information campaigns clarify the consequences of the illegal import of meat, particularly bushmeat.

  13. Climatic and Socioeconomic Determinants of the Supply and Demand of Net Primary Production in sub-Saharan Drylands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, A.

    2015-12-01

    Around two-thirds of Africa's inhabitants live in drylands and rely on multifaceted livelihoods involving rain-fed agriculture, cash crops, pastoralism, and livestock production. A large portion of dryland sub-Saharan Africa is under the influence of global climatic teleconnections that produces variability in the Earth's climate. Areas where the vegetation has a strong response to climatic variability clearly exhibit the relationship between human well-being and the climate system. We define NPP supply as the annual amount of carbon that plants remove from the atmosphere through photosynthesis and store as biomass, and NPP demand is the annual amount of carbon required for food, feed and fuel and it drives land use changes such as the expansion of cropland, wood fuel extraction and pasture creation. In this poster, we present preliminary evidence to show that global climatic teleconnections regulate the NPP supply in Africa, while NPP demand increase as a function of demographic growth. Our results point to a scenario whereby the demand for NPP could outpace available supply. Increased climatic variability and extreme events could potentialy tilt this balance further by reducing NPP supply through intense droughts and floods.

  14. Seasonal evolution of net and regenerated silica production around a natural Fe-fertilized area in the Southern Ocean estimated with Si isotopic approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closset, I.; Lasbleiz, M.; Leblanc, K.; Quéguiner, B.; Cavagna, A.-J.; Elskens, M.; Navez, J.; Cardinal, D.

    2014-10-01

    A massive diatom bloom is observed each year in the surface waters of the naturally Fe-fertilized Kerguelen Plateau (Southern Ocean). We measured biogenic silica production and dissolution fluxes (ρSi and ρDiss, respectively) in the mixed layer in the vicinity of the Kerguelen Plateau during austral spring 2011 (KEOPS-2 cruise). We compare results from a high-nutrient low-chlorophyll reference station and stations with different degrees of iron enrichment and bloom conditions. Above the plateau biogenic ρSi are among the highest reported so far in the Southern Ocean (up to 47.9 mmol m-2 d-1). Although significant (10.2 mmol m-2 d-1 on average), ρDiss were generally much lower than production rates. Uptake ratios (ρSi : ρC and ρSi : ρN) confirm that diatoms strongly dominate primary production in this area. At the bloom onset, decreasing dissolution-to-production ratios (D : P) indicate that the remineralization of silica could sustain most of the low silicon uptake and that the system progressively shifts toward a silica production regime which must be mainly supported by new source of silicic acid. Moreover, by comparing results from the two KEOPS expeditions (spring 2011 and summer 2005), we suggest that there is a seasonal evolution of the processes decoupling Si and N cycles in the area. Indeed, the consumption of H4SiO4 standing stocks occurs only during the growing stage of the bloom when strong net silica production is observed, contributing to higher H4SiO4 depletion relative to NO3-. Then, the decoupling of H4SiO4 and NO3- is mainly controlled by the more efficient nitrogen recycling relative to Si. Gross Si : N uptake ratios were higher in the Fe-rich regions compared to the high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) area, likely due to different diatom communities. This suggests that the diatom responses to natural Fe fertilization are more complex than previously thought, and that natural iron fertilization over long timescales does not necessarily

  15. The effect of sea-ice dynamics on Net Community Production (NCP) at the western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Cassar, N.; Huang, K.; Ducklow, H. W.; Schofield, O.

    2016-02-01

    The WAP in the Southern Ocean has experienced a decrease in sea-ice extent ( 40%) over the last three decades, which has been associated with changes in the ecosystems. In this study, we examined the effect of sea-ice dynamics on the interannual variability of satellite-derived Annually-integrated NCP (ANCP). We derived a time series of NCP (1997-2014) using satellite observations of chlorophyll a concentration ([Chl]) and a regression between in situ [Chl] and O2/Ar-derived NCP measurements. Overall, our results are consistent with sea-ice dynamics influencing interannual ecosystem variability in the WAP region. ANCP displays an onshore to offshore gradient. Coastal/shelf regions and more specifically submarine canyons are up to eight times more productive than offshore regions. NCP peaks around January (November) when sea ice retreats and is consistently high (low) for the rest of the growing season in the shelf (southern and middle Southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current Front (SACCF)) region. We examined potential drivers of interannual variability in the ANCP through Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis. The EOF's first mode explains 50% of the variance, with High Temporal Variability (HTV) observed in the southern and middle SACCF regions. The first principal component of ANCP is significantly correlated with the day of sea-ice retreat (R=-0.58, pMode (SAM) (R=0.63, p<0.01, in austral spring) and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) (R=-0.52, p<0.05, in austral spring). Although the most obvious pathway by which day of sea-ice retreat influences NCP is through alleviation of light limitation, we found that the effect persists throughout the growing season, suggesting additional controls such as the influence of sea ice on stratification or iron availability.

  16. Biological Importance of Cotton By-Products Relative to Chemical Constituents of the Cotton Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary A. Egbuta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although cultivated for over 7000 years, mainly for production of cotton fibre, the cotton plant has not been fully explored for potential uses of its other parts. Despite cotton containing many important chemical compounds, limited understanding of its phytochemical composition still exists. In order to add value to waste products of the cotton industry, such as cotton gin trash, this review focuses on phytochemicals associated with different parts of cotton plants and their biological activities. Three major classes of compounds and some primary metabolites have been previously identified in the plant. Among these compounds, most terpenoids and their derivatives (51, fatty acids (four, and phenolics (six, were found in the leaves, bolls, stalks, and stems. Biological activities, such as anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory activities, are associated with some of these phytochemicals. For example, β-bisabolol, a sesquiterpenoid enriched in the flowers of cotton plants, may have anti-inflammatory product application. Considering the abundance of biologically active compounds in the cotton plant, there is scope to develop a novel process within the current cotton fibre production system to separate these valuable phytochemicals, developing them into potentially high-value products. This scenario may present the cotton processing industry with an innovative pathway towards a waste-to-profit solution.

  17. Biological Importance of Cotton By-Products Relative to Chemical Constituents of the Cotton Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbuta, Mary A; McIntosh, Shane; Waters, Daniel L E; Vancov, Tony; Liu, Lei

    2017-01-06

    Although cultivated for over 7000 years, mainly for production of cotton fibre, the cotton plant has not been fully explored for potential uses of its other parts. Despite cotton containing many important chemical compounds, limited understanding of its phytochemical composition still exists. In order to add value to waste products of the cotton industry, such as cotton gin trash, this review focuses on phytochemicals associated with different parts of cotton plants and their biological activities. Three major classes of compounds and some primary metabolites have been previously identified in the plant. Among these compounds, most terpenoids and their derivatives (51), fatty acids (four), and phenolics (six), were found in the leaves, bolls, stalks, and stems. Biological activities, such as anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory activities, are associated with some of these phytochemicals. For example, β-bisabolol, a sesquiterpenoid enriched in the flowers of cotton plants, may have anti-inflammatory product application. Considering the abundance of biologically active compounds in the cotton plant, there is scope to develop a novel process within the current cotton fibre production system to separate these valuable phytochemicals, developing them into potentially high-value products. This scenario may present the cotton processing industry with an innovative pathway towards a waste-to-profit solution.

  18. The Importance of Barley Varieties in terms of Production, Marketing and Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Taşcı

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is aimed to investigate the criteria affecting the marketing of barley in the stages of barley production, marketing and processing in Konya province. In the study; survey results were used which get from mixed feed (37 items and malt factory (1 item, traders (50 items purchasing and selling barley, and agricultural enterprises (107 items including barley production in agricultural activities operating in Konya province. It was determined that barley varieties were not an important criterion in the selling price, while the hectoliter and other plant species do not mix into barley are the main criteria considered by agricultural enterprises to affect the sale of barley. The most important criteria that traders keep in mind when buying barley is hectoliter of barley, which is followed by moisture, colour and foreign matter confusion rate of barley. The most important criteria that factories take into consideration when purchasing barley is determined as the moisture content of the barley, followed by the hectoliter of barley and the rate of foreign matter contamination. For the malt industry; Barley variety is a very important factor in the purchase criteria, followed by barley humidity and colour.

  19. Development of import subtituting technologies for increasing productivity of sintering machines and strength of agglomerates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. Л. Трушко

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A problem of industrial fluxed agglomerates self-destruction in the process of cooling after sintering has been examined. It has been revealed that the main reason of strength degradation is polymorphism of dicalcium silicate Ca2SiO4 (or short designation С2S: β-Ca2SiO4 ® γ-Ca2SiO4. Ways for increasing the  agglomerate  strength by physical and crystal-chemical stabilization of the high temperature modification of C2S have been proposed and tested. Physical stabilization of C2S agglomerate is increased with its structure reinforcement due to thickening of walls between large pores that is achieved by increasing height of the sintered layer through improvement of its gas permeability. The task is addressed by substituting the previously used import sintering ore with the  polydisperse ore from the Yakovlevo field, which improves the charge  pelletizing by 3-4 times and helps to bring the  height of the sintered layer and the strength of the domestic agglomerate up to the international best practice standards, while eliminating a need to purchase import high-vacuum   exhausters. In practice crystal-chemical stabilization of C2S within iron-ore  agglomerate is ensured by adding an  opti- mal multicomponent additive in the form of the    waste product  generated in production  of alumina  from bauxites, i.e. the red mud, to the initial sinter charge. Thus mechanical strength of agglomerates and pellets is increased by 5-10 % and their hot strength improves by 20-40 %. The productivity of sintering machines and blast furnaces improves by 5-10 %. Specific coke consumption reduces by 2-2.5 %. In production of iron-ore pellets red mud is substituting the import  bentonite.

  20. Net analyte signal based statistical quality control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skibsted, E.T.S.; Boelens, H.F.M.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Smilde, A.K.; Broad, N.W.; Rees, D.R.; Witte, D.T.

    2005-01-01

    Net analyte signal statistical quality control (NAS-SQC) is a new methodology to perform multivariate product quality monitoring based on the net analyte signal approach. The main advantage of NAS-SQC is that the systematic variation in the product due to the analyte (or property) of interest is

  1. 27 CFR 7.27 - Net contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net contents. 7.27 Section 7.27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... the net contents are displayed by having the same blown, branded, or burned in the container in...

  2. Carbon sequestration in croplands is mainly driven by management leading to increased net primary production - evidence from long-term field experiments in Northern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kätterer, Thomas; Bolinder, Martin Anders; Börjesson, Gunnar; Kirchmann, Holger; Poeplau, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Sustainable intensification of agriculture in regions with high production potential is a prerequisite for providing services for an increasing human population, not only food, animal feed, fiber and biofuel but also to promote biodiversity and the beauty of landscapes. We investigated the effect of different management practices on soil fertility and carbon sequestration in long-term experiments, mainly from Northern Europe. In addition, a meta-analysis on the effect of catch crops was conducted. Improved management of croplands was found to be a win-win strategy resulting in both increased soil fertility and carbon sequestration. We quantified the effect of different management practices such as N fertilization, organic amendments, catch crops and ley-arable rotations versus continuous annual cropping systems on soil carbon stocks. Increasing net primary productivity (NPP) was found to be the main driver for higher soil carbon storage. Mineral N fertilization increased soil carbon stocks by 1-2 kg C ha-1 for each kg of N applied to cropland. Ley-arable rotations, being a combination of annual and perennial crops, are expected to have C stocks intermediate between those of continuous grass- and croplands. A summary of data from 15 long-term sites showed that on average 0.5 Mg ha-1 yr-1 (range 0.3 to 1.1; median 0.4 Mg ha-1 yr-1) more carbon was retained in soils in ley-arable compared to exclusively annual systems, depending on species composition, management, soil depth and the duration of the studies. The annual C accumulation rate for catch crops determined in the meta-analysis was well within that range (0.32±0.08 Mg C ha-1 yr-1). Retention factors calculated for straw, manure, sawdust, peat, sewage sludge and composted household waste varied widely in a decadal time scale. Retention of root and rhizodeposit carbon was higher than for above-ground crop residues. We conclude that NPP is the major driver for C sequestration and emphasize that increased soil

  3. Art/Net/Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik; Lindstrøm, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    The seminar Art|Net|Work deals with two important changes in our culture. On one side, the network has become essential in the latest technological development. The Internet has entered a new phase, Web 2.0, including the occurrence of as ‘Wiki’s’, ‘Peer-2-Peer’ distribution, user controlled...... the praxis of the artist. We see different kinds of interventions and activism (including ‘hacktivism’) using the network as a way of questioning the invisible rules that govern public and semi-public spaces. Who ‘owns’ them? What kind of social relationships do they generate? On what principle...

  4. Importance of seep primary production to Lophelia pertusa and associated fauna in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Erin L.; Cordes, Erik E.; Macko, Stephen A.; Fisher, Charles R.

    2009-05-01

    To investigate the importance of seep primary production to the nutrition of Lophelia pertusa and associated communities and examine local trophic interactions, we analyzed stable carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur compositions in seven quantitative L. pertusa community collections. A significant seep signature was only detected in one of the 35 species tested ( Provanna sculpta, a common seep gastropod) despite the presence of seep fauna at the three sample sites. A potential predator of L. pertusa was identified ( Coralliophila sp.), and a variety of other trophic interactions among the fauna occupying the coral framework were suggested by the data, including the galatheid crab Munidopsis sp. 2 feeding upon hydroids and the polychaete Eunice sp. feeding upon the sabellid polychaete Euratella sp. Stable carbon abundances were also determined for different sections of L. pertusa skeleton representing different stages in the growth and life of the aggregation. There was no temporal trend detected in the skeleton isotope values, suggesting that L. pertusa settles in these areas only after seepage has largely subsided. Isotope values of individual taxa that were collected from both L. pertusa and vestimentiferan habitats showed decreasing reliance upon seep primary production with average age of the vestimentiferan aggregation, and finally, no seep signature was detected in the coral collections. Together our data suggest that it is the presence of authigenic carbonate substrata, a product of past seep microbial activity, as well as hydrodynamic processes that drive L. pertusa occurrence at seep sites in the Gulf of Mexico, not nutritional dependence upon primary production by seep microbes.

  5. Development of New Carbon Resources: Production of Important Chemicals from Algal Residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Sho; Kawada, Yuuki; Yuge, Hidetaka; Tanaka, Kan; Imamura, Sousuke

    2017-04-12

    Algal biomass has received attention as an alternative carbon resource owing not only to its high oil production efficiency but also, unlike corn starch, to its lack of demand in foods. However, algal residue is commonly discarded after the abstraction of oil. The utilization of the residue to produce chemicals will therefore increase the value of using algal biomass instead of fossil fuels. Here, we report the use of algal residue as a new carbon resource to produce important chemicals. The application of different homogeneous catalysts leads to the selective production of methyl levulinate or methyl lactate. These results demonstrate the successful development of new carbon resources as a solution for the depletion of fossil fuels.

  6. Importance of Photobacterium phosphoreum in relation to spoilage of modified atmosphere-packed fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Paw; Mejlholm, Ole; Christiansen, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    products and the organism is likely to be of importance for spoilage of several modified atmosphere-packed (MAP) marine fish species when stored at chill temperatures. Some microbiological methods recommended for control of fish products by national and international authorities are inappropriate......Occurrence and growth of Photobacterium phosphoreum were studied in 20 experiments with fresh fish from Denmark, Iceland and Greece. The organism was detected in all marine fish species but not in fish from fresh water. Growth of P. phosphoreum to high levels (>10(7) cfu g(-1)) was observed in most...... for detection of psychrotolerant and heat-labile micro-organisms like P. phosphoreum. These methods have been used in many previous studies of MAP fish and this could explain why, contrary to the findings in the present study, P. phosphoreum in general was not detected previously in spoiled MAP fish....

  7. Radioactivity inspection of Taiwan for food products imported from Japan after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Huang-Sheng; Huang, Ping-Ji; Wuu, Jyi-Lan; Wang, Jeng-Jong

    2013-11-01

    The 3-11 Earthquake occurred in Japan last year had greatly damaged the lives and properties and also caused the core meltdown accident in the Fukushima nuclear power plant followed by the leakage of radioactive materials into biosphere. In order to protect against the detriment of radiation from foods which were imported from Japan, the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) in Taiwan started to conduct radioactivity inspection of food products from Japan after the accident. A total of about 20,000 samples had been tested from March 24 2011 to March 31 2012. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Importance of copper for nitrification in biological rapid sand filters for drinking water production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Florian Benedikt

    , the reaction rate is sometimes not high enough. This results in incomplete nitrification, with residual ammonium and nitrite concentrations in the finished water, which are problematic for the biological stability of the drinking water. In Denmark, 11 % of the larger water works (>350,000 m3/year) fail......When anoxic groundwater is treated to produce drinking water, ammonium is commonly removed through nitrification in rapid sand filters. Nitrification is a biological process, and is mediated by chemoautotrophic microorganisms. Ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) oxidize ammonium...... were the main active ammonium oxidizers during the dosing. This PhD project revealed that copper is of vital importance for efficient nitrification in biological rapid sand filters for drinking water production. The results of this study have important practical implications for biofilters currently...

  9. 75 FR 38070 - Implementation of Fish and Fish Product Import Provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Fish Product Import Provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection Act AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... for imports of fish and fish products. On April 30, 2010, NMFS published the advance notice of...: Director, Office of International Affairs, Attn: MMPA Fish Import Provisions, NMFS, F/IA, 1315 East-West...

  10. 75 FR 22731 - Implementation of Fish and Fish Product Import Provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ...-AY15 Implementation of Fish and Fish Product Import Provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection Act... of the Marine Mammal Protection Act for imports of fish and fish products. NMFS is seeking advance... International Affairs, Attn: MMPA Fish Import Provisions, NMFS, F/IA, 1315 East-West Highway, Silver Spring, MD...

  11. 9 CFR 327.5 - Importer to make application for inspection of products for entry; information required...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... establishments, an official of the Canadian meat inspection system shall contact the participating Import Field... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS § 327.5 Importer to make application for inspection of...

  12. 9 CFR 94.11 - Restrictions on importation of meat and other animal products from specified regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on importation of meat and other animal products from specified regions. 94.11 Section 94.11 Animals and Animal Products... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE...

  13. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Rosener, B. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host ``na-net.ornl.gov`` at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message ``send index`` to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user`s perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  14. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Rosener, B. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host na-net.ornl.gov'' at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message send index'' to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user's perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  15. Net sea–air CO2 flux uncertainties in the Bay of Biscay based on the choice of wind speed products and gas transfer parameterizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Otero

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of sea–air CO2 fluxes is largely dependent on wind speed through the gas transfer velocity parameterization. In this paper, we quantify uncertainties in the estimation of the CO2 uptake in the Bay of Biscay resulting from the use of different sources of wind speed such as three different global reanalysis meteorological models (NCEP/NCAR 1, NCEP/DOE 2 and ERA-Interim, one high-resolution regional forecast model (HIRLAM-AEMet, winds derived under the Cross-Calibrated Multi-Platform (CCMP project, and QuikSCAT winds in combination with some of the most widely used gas transfer velocity parameterizations. Results show that net CO2 flux estimations during an entire seasonal cycle (September 2002–September 2003 may vary by a factor of ~ 3 depending on the selected wind speed product and the gas exchange parameterization, with the highest impact due to the last one. The comparison of satellite- and model-derived winds with observations at buoys advises against the systematic overestimation of NCEP-2 and the underestimation of NCEP-1. In the coastal region, the presence of land and the time resolution are the main constraints of QuikSCAT, which turns CCMP and ERA-Interim in the preferred options.

  16. Evaluating renewable natural resources flow and net primary productivity with a GIS-Emergy approach: A case study of Hokkaido, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengdong; Zhang, Shenyan; Yan, Wanglin; Wang, Renqing; Liu, Jian; Wang, Yutao

    2016-11-18

    Renewable natural resources, such as solar radiation, rainfall, wind, and geothermal heat, together with ecosystem services, provide the elementary supports for the sustainable development of human society. To improve regional sustainability, we studied the spatial distributions and quantities of renewable natural resources and net primary productivity (NPP) in Hokkaido, which is the second largest island of Japan. With the help of Geographic Information System (GIS) software, distribution maps for each type of renewable natural resource were generated by kriging interpolation based on statistical records. A composite map of the flow of all types of renewable natural resources was also generated by map layer overlapping. Additionally, we utilized emergy analysis to convert each renewable flow with different attributes into a unified unit (i.e., solar equivalent joules [sej]). As a result, the spatial distributions of the flow of renewable natural resources of the Hokkaido region are presented in the form of thematic emergy maps. Thus, the areas with higher renewable emergy can be easily visualized and identified. The dominant renewable flow in certain areas can also be directly distinguished. The results can provide useful information for regional sustainable development, environmental conservation and ecological management.

  17. Evaluating renewable natural resources flow and net primary productivity with a GIS-Emergy approach: A case study of Hokkaido, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengdong; Zhang, Shenyan; Yan, Wanglin; Wang, Renqing; Liu, Jian; Wang, Yutao

    2016-11-01

    Renewable natural resources, such as solar radiation, rainfall, wind, and geothermal heat, together with ecosystem services, provide the elementary supports for the sustainable development of human society. To improve regional sustainability, we studied the spatial distributions and quantities of renewable natural resources and net primary productivity (NPP) in Hokkaido, which is the second largest island of Japan. With the help of Geographic Information System (GIS) software, distribution maps for each type of renewable natural resource were generated by kriging interpolation based on statistical records. A composite map of the flow of all types of renewable natural resources was also generated by map layer overlapping. Additionally, we utilized emergy analysis to convert each renewable flow with different attributes into a unified unit (i.e., solar equivalent joules [sej]). As a result, the spatial distributions of the flow of renewable natural resources of the Hokkaido region are presented in the form of thematic emergy maps. Thus, the areas with higher renewable emergy can be easily visualized and identified. The dominant renewable flow in certain areas can also be directly distinguished. The results can provide useful information for regional sustainable development, environmental conservation and ecological management.

  18. Energy potential, energy ratios, and the amount of net energy in Finnish field crop production; Peltobioenergian tuotanto Suomessa. Potentiaali, energiasuhteet ja nettoenergia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkola, H.

    2012-11-01

    Energy potential, energy ratios, and the amount of net energy in Finnish field crop production were studied in this thesis. Special attention was paid to indirect energy inputs and how to treat them in energy analysis. Manufacturing of machines and agrochemicals and production of seeds are examples of indirect energy inputs.The bioenergy potential of the Finnish field crop production could be as large as 12 - 22 TWh, or 3 - 5% of the total energy consumption in Finland in 2008. The major part of this energy would originate from straw and biomass like reed canary grass cultivated for energy use. However, only 0.5 TWh of the potential is utilized. The output/input energy ratios of the studied field crops varied from 3 to 18, being highest (18) for reed canary grass and second highest (7) for sugar beet and grass cultivated for silage. The energy ratio of cereals and oil seed crops varied from 3 to 5 if only the yield of seeds was considered. If the yield of straw and stems was also taken into account the energy ratios would have been almost twofold. The energy ratios for Finnish wheat and barley were as high as those gained in Italian and Spanish conditions, respectively. However, the energy ratios of maize, elephant grass and giant reed were even over 50 in Central and Southern Europe. Plants that use the C4 photosynthesis pathway and produce high biomass yields thrive best in warm and sunny climate conditions. They use nitrogen and water more sparingly than C3 plants typically thriving in the cooler part of the temperate zone. When evaluating energy ratios for field crops it should be kept in mind that the maximal energy potential of the energy crop is the heating value of the dry matter at the field gate. Transportation of the crop and production of liquid fuels and electricity from biomass lowers the energy ratio. A comparison of field energy crops to a reforested field suggested that fast growing trees, as hybrid aspen and silver birch, would yield almost as

  19. Light Intensity is Important for Hydrogen Production in NaHSO3-Treated Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lanzhen; Yi, Jing; Wang, Lianjun; Huang, Tingting; Gao, Fudan; Wang, Quanxi; Ma, Weimin

    2017-03-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a unicellular green alga that can use light energy to produce H2 from H2O in the background of NaHSO3 treatment. However, the role of light intensity in such H2 production remains elusive. Here, light intensity significantly affected the yield of H2 production in NaHSO3-treated C. reinhardtii, which was consistent with its effects on the content of O2 and the expression and activity of hydrogenase. Further, NaHSO3 was found to be able to remove O2 via a reaction of bisulfite with superoxide anion produced at the acceptor side of PSI, and light intensity affected the reaction rate significantly. Accordingly, high light and strong light but not low light can create an anaerobic environment, which is important to activate hydrogenase and produce H2. Based on the above results, we conclude that light intensity plays an important role in removing O2 and consequently activating hydrogenase and producing H2 in NaHSO3-treated C. reinhardtii. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Studying Imports of Wood, Paper and their Products in the World and Iran from 1998 to 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bayat kashkuli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Important importers of wood, paper and their products were identified in this study. Identification of these countries is important for the trade of wood and paper products. The main questions now are: how is imports situation of wood, paper and their products in the world? And which countries are important here? Average values and percentages of imports were calculated to rank regions on the basis of FAO stats from 1998 to 2007. The annual rates of change in imports were calculated by single payment formula and the positive correlation of import prices was determined by coefficient of determination. Our results showed that imports of products frequently had increasing trends in the study period, and they had stable markets with low fluctuations. China and Germany were the most important countries with France, Italy, Japan, Canada, Belgium, Holland, Austria, South Korea, Mexico and Denmark ranking next for these products. Wood and paper products of Asian countries were developing faster than other continents. Import efficiency of paper and wood products of Iran is low due to their high added value. Political developments after 2001 and increasing energy prices resulted in increase in products price worldwide with trends being increasing with high coefficients of determination (R2.

  1. Comparing global models of terrestrial net primary productivity (NPP): Analysis of the seasonal behaviour of NPP, LAI, FPAR along climatic gradients across ecotones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondeau, A. [Potsdam-Institut fuer Klimafolgenforschung (PIK), Potsdam (Germany); Kaduk, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Kicklighter, D.W. [Marine Biological Lab., Woods Hale, MA (United States). Ecosystems Center

    1997-10-01

    Spatial and seasonal variations of net primary production (NPP), fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR) and leaf area index (LAI) simulated by eleven global biospheric models are analysed using two transects covering a temperature and a precipitation gradient. The temperature transect crosses biomes such as tundra, boreal forest, temperate mixed forest, and temperate deciduous forest in North America. The precipitation transect crosses arid shrublands, savannas, and tropical forests in Africa. Two sites have been chosen from each of the two transects to examine the relationship between seasonal variations in NPP, FPAR and LAI in more detail, through the computation of the monthly absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR) and monthly light use efficiency (LUE). Seasonal variations in the climatic variables drive the seasonality of NPP, and depending if the simulated canopy responds to unfavourable periods or not, the seasonal NPP is determined by the seasonal APAR or the seasonal LUE. For the satellite-driven Production Efficiency Models (PEMs) using a standard climatology, the smooth seasonal variations are generally explained by the satellite observations, but the different strategies for processing the satellite data generate significant variability between models. Canopy Models differ widely, in particular with respect to LAI. This is visible over the evergreen forest s, though only a small part of the variability of the NPP seasonal profiles between models is explained by the LAI. Models disagree most on the description of the vegetation structure in savannas, where seasonal NPP is strongly dependent on the description of the canopy through both APAR and LUE. (orig./KW)

  2. Empirical and model-based estimates of spatial and temporal variations in net primary productivity in semi-arid grasslands of Northern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengwei Zhang

    Full Text Available Spatiotemporal variations in net primary productivity (NPP reflect the dynamics of water and carbon in the biosphere, and are often closely related to temperature and precipitation. We used the ecosystem model known as the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA to estimate NPP of semiarid grassland in northern China counties between 2001 and 2013. Model estimates were strongly linearly correlated with observed values from different counties (slope = 0.76 (p < 0.001, intercept = 34.7 (p < 0.01, R2 = 0.67, RMSE = 35 g C·m-2·year-1, bias = -0.11 g C·m-2·year-1. We also quantified inter-annual changes in NPP over the 13-year study period. NPP varied between 141 and 313 g C·m-2·year-1, with a mean of 240 g C·m-2·year-1. NPP increased from west to east each year, and mean precipitation in each county was significantly positively correlated with NPP-annually, and in summer and autumn. Mean precipitation was positively related to NPP in spring, but not significantly so. Annual and summer temperatures were mostly negatively correlated with NPP, but temperature was positively correlated with spring and autumn NPP. Spatial correlation and partial correlation analyses at the pixel scale confirmed precipitation is a major driver of NPP. Temperature was negatively correlated with NPP in 99% of the regions at the annual scale, but after removing the effect of precipitation, temperature was positively correlated with the NPP in 77% of the regions. Our data show that temperature effects on production depend heavily on recent precipitation. Results reported here have significant and far-reaching implications for natural resource management, given the enormous size of these grasslands and the numbers of people dependent on them.

  3. The relative importance of total factor productivity and factors of production in income per worker: Evidence from the Brazilian states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lízia de Figueiredo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Income per worker gap in different regions of Brazil is stunning. To assess the relative importance of factor of production and total factor productivity (TFP in those income per worker disparities, development accounting exercises were carried out for the 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000 and 2010 years. In 1970, both types of capital stocks and TPF gaps were associated with the Brazilian states lower relative income in comparison to São Paulo state. Over the decades up to the year 2000, the Brazilian states have experienced a relevant capital deepening process, which account for income per work catching-up. However, the TFP gaps in relation to the reference state remain almost stable and their reduction is fundamental to the maintenance of the Brazilians states income per worker catching-up process. The conclusions remain similar when the analysis is conducted by means of distinct proxies of physical capital. When considering the human capital qualitative aspect, we noticed a greater human capital gap among the Brazilian states in relation to São Paulo State and, as a consequence, a reduction in the TFP relative gap.

  4. Product or waste? Importation and end-of-life processing of computers in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahhat, Ramzy; Williams, Eric

    2009-08-01

    This paper considers the importation of used personal computers (PCs) in Peru and domestic practices in their production, reuse, and end-of-life processing. The empirical pillars of this study are analysis of government data describing trade in used and new computers and surveys and interviews of computer sellers, refurbishers, and recyclers. The United States is the primary source of used PCs imported to Peru. Analysis of shipment value (as measured by trade statistics) shows that 87-88% of imported used computers had a price higher than the ideal recycle value of constituent materials. The official trade in end-of-life computers is thus driven by reuse as opposed to recycling. The domestic reverse supply chain of PCs is well developed with extensive collection, reuse, and recycling. Environmental problems identified include open burning of copper-bearing wires to remove insulation and landfilling of CRT glass. Distinct from informal recycling in China and India, printed circuit boards are usually not recycled domestically but exported to Europe for advanced recycling or to China for (presumably) informal recycling. It is notable that purely economic considerations lead to circuit boards being exported to Europe where environmental standards are stringent, presumably due to higher recovery of precious metals.

  5. D.NET case study

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    lremy

    developing products, marketing tools and building capacity of the grass root telecentre workers. D.Net recognized that it had several ideas worth developing into small interventions that would make big differences, but resource constraints were a barrier for scaling-up these initiatives. More demands, limited resources.

  6. Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux is defined as the year-over-year change in Total Ecosystem Carbon Stock, or the net rate of carbon exchange between an ecosystem and the...

  7. Ecosystem CO2 production during winter in a Swedish subarctic region: the relative importance of climate and vegetation type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grogan, Paul; Jonasson, Sven Evert

    2006-01-01

    in these predictions, we know relatively little about the plot and landscape-level controls on tundra biogeochemical cycling in wintertime as compared to summertime. We investigated the relative influence of vegetation type and climate on CO2 production rates and total wintertime CO2 release in the Scandinavian...... in northern Sweden. Both climate and vegetation type were strong interactive controls on ecosystem CO2 production rates during winter. Of all variables tested, soil temperature explained by far the largest amount of variation in respiration rates (41-75%). Our results indicate that vegetation type only....... At the end of winter, within several days of snowmelt, gross ecosystem photosynthesis rates were of a similar magnitude to ecosystem respiration, resulting in significant net carbon gain in some instances. Finally, climate and vegetation type were also strong interactive controls on total wintertime...

  8. Pesticide risk assessment in flower greenhouses in Argentina: the importance of manipulating concentrated products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Andrea P; Berenstein, Giselle A; Hughes, Enrique A; Zalts, Anita; Montserrat, Javier M

    2011-05-15

    An evaluation of the Potential Dermal Exposure of workers to endosulfan and procymidone at the mix/load and application stages was done in small floricultural production units in Argentina. Seven experiments were performed with different operators under typical greenhouse conditions, based on the whole body dosimetry methodology. These results indicate that the mean Potential Dermal Exposure of the application step was 45.0 ± 55.0 mL h(-1) with the highest proportion on torso, head, arms and hands. When the mix/load and application stages were compared, the first was found to contribute the most to the total exposure. Also, the Margin of Safety for the different operations was calculated, and a pesticide surrogate was developed and used to make comparative evaluations of hand exposure for different groups of operators. These results emphasize the importance of the mix/load stage in the exposure process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Wheat forecast economics effect study. [value of improved information on crop inventories, production, imports and exports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, R. K.; Rouhani, R.; Jones, S.; Schick, I.

    1980-01-01

    A model to assess the value of improved information regarding the inventories, productions, exports, and imports of crop on a worldwide basis is discussed. A previously proposed model is interpreted in a stochastic control setting and the underlying assumptions of the model are revealed. In solving the stochastic optimization problem, the Markov programming approach is much more powerful and exact as compared to the dynamic programming-simulation approach of the original model. The convergence of a dual variable Markov programming algorithm is shown to be fast and efficient. A computer program for the general model of multicountry-multiperiod is developed. As an example, the case of one country-two periods is treated and the results are presented in detail. A comparison with the original model results reveals certain interesting aspects of the algorithms and the dependence of the value of information on the incremental cost function.

  10. Microbial Competition in Polar Soils: A Review of an Understudied but Potentially Important Control on Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles W. Greer

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Intermicrobial competition is known to occur in many natural environments, and can result from direct conflict between organisms, or from differential rates of growth, colonization, and/or nutrient acquisition. It has been difficult to extensively examine intermicrobial competition in situ, but these interactions may play an important role in the regulation of the many biogeochemical processes that are tied to microbial communities in polar soils. A greater understanding of how competition influences productivity will improve projections of gas and nutrient flux as the poles warm, may provide biotechnological opportunities for increasing the degradation of contaminants in polar soil, and will help to predict changes in communities of higher organisms, such as plants.

  11. Compressed ethylene phase states and their importance for the production of low density polyethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoiljković Dragoslav

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last three decades the authors have published papers on the concept of the supra-molecular organization and the phase state of compressed ethylene gas and their effects on the mechanism and kinetics of free-radical ethylene polymerization. The effects on the macromolecular structure of low density polyethylene (LDPE were also explained. The importance of the phase state of compressed ethylene on the industrial process of LDPE production are presented in this paper: The start-up of polymerization, the peak in the polymerization rate curve, the stability of the reaction, the structure and properties of LDPE, the separation of unreacted ethylene and polyethylene and ethylene compression are discussed.

  12. Pesticide risk assessment in flower greenhouses in Argentina: The importance of manipulating concentrated products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Andrea P.; Berenstein, Giselle A.; Hughes, Enrique A.; Zalts, Anita [Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento (UNGS), J.M. Gutierrez 1150, (B1613GSX) Los Polvorines, Prov. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Montserrat, Javier M., E-mail: jmontser@ungs.edu.ar [Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento (UNGS), J.M. Gutierrez 1150, (B1613GSX) Los Polvorines, Prov. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Investigaciones en Ingenieria Genetica y Biologia Molecular (CONICET), Vuelta de Obligado 2490, 2o piso, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-05-15

    An evaluation of the Potential Dermal Exposure of workers to endosulfan and procymidone at the mix/load and application stages was done in small floricultural production units in Argentina. Seven experiments were performed with different operators under typical greenhouse conditions, based on the whole body dosimetry methodology. These results indicate that the mean Potential Dermal Exposure of the application step was 45.0 {+-} 55.0 mL h{sup -1} with the highest proportion on torso, head, arms and hands. When the mix/load and application stages were compared, the first was found to contribute the most to the total exposure. Also, the Margin of Safety for the different operations was calculated, and a pesticide surrogate was developed and used to make comparative evaluations of hand exposure for different groups of operators. These results emphasize the importance of the mix/load stage in the exposure process.

  13. Investigating impacts of economic growth on the environment using remote sensing tools: A case study of gross domestic product and net primary production in China from 2001 to 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Naizhuo

    Pursuing sustainable co-development of economy and environment has been established as a basic national policy by the present Chinese government. However, studies regarding actual outcomes of the co-development policy at the whole Chinese scale are still limited. Detecting China's economic growth and changes of environmental quality will not only contribute to evaluation of outcomes of the co-development policy but more importantly is an opportunity to examine the suitability of the IPAT model and improve our understanding of human-environment interactions. The core of the IPAT theory is an equation where I=PxAxT that models human impact on the environment as a function of changes to population (P), affluence ( A), and technology (T). The IPAT theory emphasizes that economic growth will inevitably produce negative impacts on the environment. Thus, if China's environmental quality declined while economic growth occurred, then the IPAT theory will be substantiated. Otherwise, the suitability of the IPAT theory will be called into question and its tenets must be reconsidered. In this dissertation research I selected gross domestic product (GDP) and net primary production (NPP) as indicators to evaluate production of social and ecological systems respectively. The main study objectives are (1) to develop a methodology to facilitate integration of the two indicators derived from demographic data sources and satellite imagery at different geographic scales, (2) to jointly explore changing patterns of China's economic and ecological production (i.e., spatially and temporally coincident patterns of change in GDP and NPP) across different spatial scales, (3) to analyze whether economic growth has produced negative impacts on ecosystem production and whether the impacts correlate to the economic growth, and finally (4) to discuss whether the IPAT theory is suitable for explaining the joint changes of GDP and NPP in China or if it is in need of modification. To fulfill the

  14. The human right to water: the importance of domestic and productive water rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ralph P; Van Koppen, Barbara; Van Houweling, Emily

    2014-12-01

    The United Nations (UN) Universal Declaration of Human Rights engenders important state commitments to respect, fulfill, and protect a broad range of socio-economic rights. In 2010, a milestone was reached when the UN General Assembly recognized the human right to safe and clean drinking water and sanitation. However, water plays an important role in realizing other human rights such as the right to food and livelihoods, and in realizing the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. These broader water-related rights have been recognized but have not yet been operationalized. This paper unravels these broader water-related rights in a more holistic interpretation of existing international human rights law. By focusing on an emerging approach to water services provision--known as 'domestic-plus' services--the paper argues how this approach operationalizes a comprehensive range of socio-economic rights in rural and peri-urban areas. Domestic-plus services provide water for domestic and productive uses around homesteads, which challenges the widespread practice in the public sector of planning and designing water infrastructure for a single-use. Evidence is presented to show that people in rural communities are already using their water supplies planned for domestic uses to support a wide range of productive activities. Domestic-plus services recognize and plan for these multiple-uses, while respecting the priority for clean and safe drinking water. The paper concludes that domestic-plus services operationalize the obligation to progressively fulfill a comprehensive range of indivisible socio-economic rights in rural and peri-urban areas.

  15. Implementing NetScaler VPX

    CERN Document Server

    Sandbu, Marius

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow guide with detailed step-by step-instructions on how to implement the different key components in NetScaler, with real-world examples and sample scenarios.If you are a Citrix or network administrator who needs to implement NetScaler in your virtual environment to gain an insight on its functionality, this book is ideal for you. A basic understanding of networking and familiarity with some of the different Citrix products such as XenApp or XenDesktop is a prerequisite.

  16. Quarantine treatment of agricultural products for export and import by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Joong Ho; Roh, M.J.; Chung, H.W.; Lee, J.E.; Park, N.Y.; Kwon, Y.J.; Seo, S.J. [Kyungbuk National University, Taegu (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    To pre-establish an alternative technique to the toxic fumigant, methyl bromide which is the current quarantine measure of agricultural products for export and import, some selected agricultural products, such as chestnut, acorn, red bean and mung bean, were subjected to a preliminary study to confirm the comparative effects of gamma irradiation and MBr fumigant on their disinfestation and quality, thereby preparing the basic data for the practical approach. Current quarantine activities were examined and the related limitations were investigated. Quarantine-related pests were investigated on their radiosensitivity and disinfestation effects by both treatments. The pests in chestnut and acorn, Curculio skkimensis Heller, Curculio dentipes Roelofs, and Dichocrocis punctiferalis Guenee showed an increased mortality when exposed to above 0.5 kGy irradiation, resulting in 100% of mortality three weeks later. Callosobruchus chinensis Linne from both red and mung beans revealed a apparent mortality at around 10 days after irradiation of 1 to 3 kGy. Current fumigation was perfect in its disinfesting capability, but it caused the detrimental effects on physical quality of agricultural produce. Whereas, irradiation doses suitable for controlling the pests did not induce any significant changes in the quality of the samples. (author). 53 refs., 74 figs., 138 tabs.

  17. Utilization of agro waste pectin for the production of industrially important polygalacturonase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayyar Jahan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a variety of agro-industrial wastes have been utilized for meaningful purpose to produce valuable biocatalyst. All wastes used were low cost and easily accessible while, some available throughout the year. A number of bacterial strains isolated from rotten fruits and vegetables were screened for the production of industrially important polygalacturonase (PGase using pectin present in these agro-industrial wastes. The strain producing maximum PGase was identified as Bacillus licheniformis KIBE-IB3 on the basis of taxonomic studies and 16S rDNA analysis. Among different agro-industrial wastes studied, high yield of PGase was achieved from fermentation broth having wheat bran (1.0% as a substrate in to the medium supplemented with nitrogen sources in combination of NaNO3 and yeast extract while KH2PO4 was selected as suitable micronutrient. After optimizing fermentation parameters it was noticed that Bacillus licheniformis KIBE-IB3 was capable of producing maximum PGase at 37 °C, pH 7.0 and after 48 h of incubation time. From the current research, wheat bran was proven as a cheap and easily available source throughout the year for hyper production of pectinase. The utilization of the waste will also help to minimize the concerned environmental issues.

  18. Remotely Sensed Estimation of Net Primary Productivity (NPP and Its Spatial and Temporal Variations in the Greater Khingan Mountain Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We improved the CASA model based on differences in the types of land use, the values of the maximum light use efficiency, and the calculation methods of solar radiation. Then, the parameters of the model were examined and recombined into 16 cases. We estimated the net primary productivity (NPP using the NDVI3g dataset, meteorological data, and vegetation classification data from the Greater Khingan Mountain region, China. We assessed the accuracy and temporal-spatial distribution characteristics of NPP in the Greater Khingan Mountain region from 1982 to 2013. Based on a comparison of the results of the 16 cases, we found that different values of maximum light use efficiency affect the estimation more than differences in the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR. However, the FPARmax and the constant Tε2 values did not show marked effects. Different schemes were used to assess different model combinations. Models using a combination of parameters established by scholars from China and the United States produced different results and had large errors. These ideas are meaningful references for the estimation of NPP in other regions. The results reveal that the annual average NPP in the Greater Khingan Mountain region was 760 g C/m2·a in 1982–2013 and that the inter-annual fluctuations were not dramatic. The NPP estimation results of the 16 cases exhibit an increasing trend. In terms of the spatial distribution of the changes, the model indicated that the values in 75% of this area seldom or never increased. Prominent growth occurred in the areas of Taipingling, Genhe, and the Oroqen Autonomous Banner. Notably, NPP decreased in the southeastern region of the Greater Khingan Mountains, the Hulunbuir Pasture Land, and Holingol.

  19. Complex climatic and CO2 controls on net primary productivity of temperate dryland ecosystems over central Asia during 1980-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Ren, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Central Asia covers a large land area of 5 × 106 km2 and has unique temperate dryland ecosystems, with over 80% of the world's temperate deserts, which has been experiencing dramatic warming and drought in the recent decades. How the temperate dryland responds to complex climate change, however, is still far from clear. This study quantitatively investigates terrestrial net primary productivity (NPP) in responses to temperature, precipitation, and atmospheric CO2 during 1980-2014, by using the Arid Ecosystem Model, which can realistically predict ecosystems' responses to changes in climate and atmospheric CO2 according to model evaluation against 28 field experiments/observations. The simulation results show that unlike other middle-/high-latitude regions, NPP in central Asia declined by 10% (0.12 × 1015 g C) since the 1980s in response to a warmer and drier climate. The dryland's response to warming was weak, while its cropland was sensitive to the CO2 fertilization effect (CFE). However, the CFE was inhibited by the long-term drought from 1998 to 2008 and the positive effect of warming on photosynthesis was largely offset by the enhanced water deficit. The complex interactive effects among climate drivers, unique responses from diverse ecosystem types, and intensive and heterogeneous climatic changes led to highly complex NPP changing patterns in central Asia, of which 69% was dominated by precipitation variation and 20% and 9% was dominated by CO2 and temperature, respectively. The Turgay Plateau in northern Kazakhstan and southern Xinjiang in China are hot spots of NPP degradation in response to climate change during the past three decades and in the future.

  20. Higher estimates of daily dietary net endogenous acid production (NEAP) in the elderly as compared to the young in a healthy, free-living elderly population of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Iftikhar; Alam, Ibrar; Paracha, Parvez I; Pawelec, Graham

    2012-01-01

    Dietary intake has been shown to influence the acid–base balance in human subjects; however, this phenomenon is poorly understood and rarely reported for the least well-studied segment of older people in a developing country. The aims of the present study were to: (1) quantify estimates of daily net endogenous acid production (NEAP) (mEq/d) in a sample of otherwise healthy elderly aged 50 years and above; and (2) compare NEAP between the elderly and young to determine the effects of aging, which could contribute to changes in the acid–base balance. Analyses were carried out among 526 elderly and 131 young participants (aged 50–80 and 23–28 years, respectively), all of whom were free of discernible disease, nonsmokers, and not on any chronic medication. Selected anthropometric factors were measured and 24-hour dietary recall was recorded. We used two measures to characterize dietary acid load: (1) NEAP estimated as the dietary potential renal acid load plus organic acid excretion, the latter as a multiple of estimated body surface area; and (2) estimated NEAP based on protein and K. For the young and elderly, the ranges of NEAP were 12.1–67.8 mEq/d and 2.0–78.3 mEq/d, respectively. Regardless of the method used, the mean dietary acid–base balance (NEAP) was significantly higher for the elderly than the young (P = 0.0035 for NEAP [elderly, 44.1 mEq/d versus young 40.1 mEq/d]; and P = 0.0035 for the protein:potassium ratio [elderly, 1.4 mEq/d versus young 1.1 mEq/d]). A positive and significant correlation was found between NEAP and energy, protein, and phosphorus (P elderly. PMID:23271903

  1. Climate change and its impacts on vegetation distribution and net primary productivity of the alpine ecosystem in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qingzhu; Guo, Yaqi; Xu, Hongmei; Ganjurjav, Hasbagen; Li, Yue; Wan, Yunfan; Qin, Xiaobo; Ma, Xin; Liu, Shuo

    2016-06-01

    Changes in climate have caused impacts on ecosystems on all continents scale, and climate change is also projected to be a stressor on most ecosystems even at the rate of low- to medium-range warming scenarios. Alpine ecosystem in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is vulnerable to climate change. To quantify the climate change impacts on alpine ecosystems, we simulated the vegetation distribution and net primary production in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau for three future periods (2020s, 2050s and 2080s) using climate projection for RCPs (Representative Concentration Pathways) RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. The modified Lund-Potsdam-Jena Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (LPJ model) was parameter and test to make it applicable to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Climate projections that were applied to LPJ model in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau showed trends toward warmer and wetter conditions. Results based on climate projections indicated changes from 1.3°C to 4.2°C in annual temperature and changes from 2% to 5% in annual precipitation. The main impacts on vegetation distribution was increase in the area of forests and shrubs, decrease in alpine meadows which mainly replaced by shrubs which dominated the eastern plateau, and expanding in alpine steppes to the northwest dominated the western and northern plateau. The NPP was projected to increase by 79% and 134% under the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. The projected NPP generally increased about 200gC·m(-2)·yr(-1) in most parts of the plateau with a gradual increase from the eastern to the western region of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau at the end of this century. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Emergent climate and CO2sensitivities of net primary productivity in ecosystem models do not agree with empirical data in temperate forests of eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollinson, Christine R; Liu, Yao; Raiho, Ann; Moore, David J P; McLachlan, Jason; Bishop, Daniel A; Dye, Alex; Matthes, Jaclyn H; Hessl, Amy; Hickler, Thomas; Pederson, Neil; Poulter, Benjamin; Quaife, Tristan; Schaefer, Kevin; Steinkamp, Jörg; Dietze, Michael C

    2017-07-01

    Ecosystem models show divergent responses of the terrestrial carbon cycle to global change over the next century. Individual model evaluation and multimodel comparisons with data have largely focused on individual processes at subannual to decadal scales. Thus far, data-based evaluations of emergent ecosystem responses to climate and CO 2 at multidecadal and centennial timescales have been rare. We compared the sensitivity of net primary productivity (NPP) to temperature, precipitation, and CO 2 in ten ecosystem models with the sensitivities found in tree-ring reconstructions of NPP and raw ring-width series at six temperate forest sites. These model-data comparisons were evaluated at three temporal extents to determine whether the rapid, directional changes in temperature and CO 2 in the recent past skew our observed responses to multiple drivers of change. All models tested here were more sensitive to low growing season precipitation than tree-ring NPP and ring widths in the past 30 years, although some model precipitation responses were more consistent with tree rings when evaluated over a full century. Similarly, all models had negative or no response to warm-growing season temperatures, while tree-ring data showed consistently positive effects of temperature. Although precipitation responses were least consistent among models, differences among models to CO 2 drive divergence and ensemble uncertainty in relative change in NPP over the past century. Changes in forest composition within models had no effect on climate or CO 2 sensitivity. Fire in model simulations reduced model sensitivity to climate and CO 2 , but only over the course of multiple centuries. Formal evaluation of emergent model behavior at multidecadal and multicentennial timescales is essential to reconciling model projections with observed ecosystem responses to past climate change. Future evaluation should focus on improved representation of disturbance and biomass change as well as the

  3. Best broiler husbandry system and perceived importance of production aspects by Dutch citizens, poultry farmers and veterinarians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselt, van M.; Ekkel, E.D.; Kemp, B.; Stassen, E.N.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the views of Dutch citizens, poultry farmers and poultry veterinarians regarding: (1) best broiler husbandry systems; (2) the importance of production aspects of broiler production and (3) the relation between best husbandry system and the importance of

  4. Import substitution and food security (at the example of fish products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuranov Yu. F.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of indicators of import and consumption of fish products in Russia and its European part has been made. The basic factors determining the level of food security and consumption of fishery products, their impact on changes in the studied parameters have been considered. Some measures aimed at reducing import dependence and increasing the consumption of fish products in the European part of Russia have been proposed. Проведен анализ показателей импортозамещения и потребления рыбопродукции в России и ее Европейской части. Показаны основные факторы, определяющие уровень продовольственной безопасности и потребления рыбопродукции, их воздействие на изменения исследуемых показателей. Предложены меры, направленные на снижение импортозависимости и повышение потребления рыбопродукции в Европейской части России

  5. Factors associated with mosquito net use by individuals in households owning nets in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graves Patricia M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ownership of insecticidal mosquito nets has dramatically increased in Ethiopia since 2006, but the proportion of persons with access to such nets who use them has declined. It is important to understand individual level net use factors in the context of the home to modify programmes so as to maximize net use. Methods Generalized linear latent and mixed models (GLLAMM were used to investigate net use using individual level data from people living in net-owning households from two surveys in Ethiopia: baseline 2006 included 12,678 individuals from 2,468 households and a sub-sample of the Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS in 2007 included 14,663 individuals from 3,353 households. Individual factors (age, sex, pregnancy; net factors (condition, age, net density; household factors (number of rooms [2006] or sleeping spaces [2007], IRS, women's knowledge and school attendance [2007 only], wealth, altitude; and cluster level factors (rural or urban were investigated in univariate and multi-variable models for each survey. Results In 2006, increased net use was associated with: age 25-49 years (adjusted (a OR = 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.2-1.7 compared to children U5; female gender (aOR = 1.4; 95% CI 1.2-1.5; fewer nets with holes (Ptrend = 0.002; and increasing net density (Ptrend [all nets in HH good] = 1.6; 95% CI 1.2-2.1; increasing net density (Ptrend [per additional space] = 0.6, 95% CI 0.5-0.7; more old nets (aOR [all nets in HH older than 12 months] = 0.5; 95% CI 0.3-0.7; and increasing household altitude (Ptrend Conclusion In both surveys, net use was more likely by women, if nets had fewer holes and were at higher net per person density within households. School-age children and young adults were much less likely to use a net. Increasing availability of nets within households (i.e. increasing net density, and improving net condition while focusing on education and promotion of net use, especially in school-age children

  6. 9 CFR 94.23 - Importation of poultry meat and other poultry products from Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... poultry products from Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico. 94.23 Section 94.23 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico. Notwithstanding any other provisions of this part, poultry meat and other poultry products from the States of Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico, may be imported into the United States...

  7. Professional Enterprise NET

    CERN Document Server

    Arking, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Comprehensive coverage to help experienced .NET developers create flexible, extensible enterprise application code If you're an experienced Microsoft .NET developer, you'll find in this book a road map to the latest enterprise development methodologies. It covers the tools you will use in addition to Visual Studio, including Spring.NET and nUnit, and applies to development with ASP.NET, C#, VB, Office (VBA), and database. You will find comprehensive coverage of the tools and practices that professional .NET developers need to master in order to build enterprise more flexible, testable, and ext

  8. Experiments and simulation of a net closing mechanism for tether-net capture of space debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, Inna; Thomsen, Benjamin; Botta, Eleonora M.; Misra, Arun K.

    2017-10-01

    This research addresses the design and testing of a debris containment system for use in a tether-net approach to space debris removal. The tether-net active debris removal involves the ejection of a net from a spacecraft by applying impulses to masses on the net, subsequent expansion of the net, the envelopment and capture of the debris target, and the de-orbiting of the debris via a tether to the chaser spacecraft. To ensure a debris removal mission's success, it is important that the debris be successfully captured and then, secured within the net. To this end, we present a concept for a net closing mechanism, which we believe will permit consistently successful debris capture via a simple and unobtrusive design. This net closing system functions by extending the main tether connecting the chaser spacecraft and the net vertex to the perimeter and around the perimeter of the net, allowing the tether to actuate closure of the net in a manner similar to a cinch cord. A particular embodiment of the design in a laboratory test-bed is described: the test-bed itself is comprised of a scaled-down tether-net, a supporting frame and a mock-up debris. Experiments conducted with the facility demonstrate the practicality of the net closing system. A model of the net closure concept has been integrated into the previously developed dynamics simulator of the chaser/tether-net/debris system. Simulations under tether tensioning conditions demonstrate the effectiveness of the closure concept for debris containment, in the gravity-free environment of space, for a realistic debris target. The on-ground experimental test-bed is also used to showcase its utility for validating the dynamics simulation of the net deployment, and a full-scale automated setup would make possible a range of validation studies of other aspects of a tether-net debris capture mission.

  9. Pro ASP.NET MVC 4

    CERN Document Server

    Freeman, Adam

    2012-01-01

    The ASP.NET MVC 4 Framework is the latest evolution of Microsoft's ASP.NET web platform. It provides a high-productivity programming model that promotes cleaner code architecture, test-driven development, and powerful extensibility, combined with all the benefits of ASP.NET. ASP.NET MVC 4 contains a number of significant advances over previous versions. New mobile and desktop templates (employing adaptive rendering) are included together with support for jQuery Mobile for the first time. New display modes allow your application to select views based on the browser that's making the request whi

  10. Automatic handling of shade net and irrigation in greenhouse with tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Hahn

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse vegetable production in México and worldwide has become important. Following greenhouses automation, a simple controller was designed to open and close shading nets to reduce incident radiation and excessive evapotranspiration. Irrigation period were radiation controlled and did not turn on the pump with clouds or moon radiation, saving 35% of water. The nets remained closed during the night and were opened during scarce radiation. In the tomato greenhouse experiment, every three months analysis was carried on manual and automatic net control. Maximum incident radiation was achieved in May and August when no shading nets were used. Air temperature increased to 28°C in August decreasing by 50% fruit size. Fruit temperature decreased 2.5°C when nets were used decreasing tomato cracking.

  11. Higher estimates of daily dietary net endogenous acid production (NEAP in the elderly as compared to the young in a healthy, free-living elderly population of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam I

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Iftikhar Alam,1,2 Ibrar Alam,3 Parvez I Paracha,4 Graham Pawelec21Department of Agriculture, Bacha Khan University Charsadda, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK, Pakistan; 2Tübingen Aging and Tumor Immunology Group, Zentrum für Medizinische Forschung, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany; 3Institute of Bio-technology and Genetics Engineering (IBGE, KPK Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan; 4Department of Human Nutrition, KPK Agricultural University, Peshawar, KPK, PakistanAbstract: Dietary intake has been shown to influence the acid–base balance in human subjects; however, this phenomenon is poorly understood and rarely reported for the least well-studied segment of older people in a developing country. The aims of the present study were to: (1 quantify estimates of daily net endogenous acid production (NEAP (mEq/d in a sample of otherwise healthy elderly aged 50 years and above; and (2 compare NEAP between the elderly and young to determine the effects of aging, which could contribute to changes in the acid–base balance. Analyses were carried out among 526 elderly and 131 young participants (aged 50–80 and 23–28 years, respectively, all of whom were free of discernible disease, nonsmokers, and not on any chronic medication. Selected anthropometric factors were measured and 24-hour dietary recall was recorded. We used two measures to characterize dietary acid load: (1 NEAP estimated as the dietary potential renal acid load plus organic acid excretion, the latter as a multiple of estimated body surface area; and (2 estimated NEAP based on protein and K. For the young and elderly, the ranges of NEAP were 12.1–67.8 mEq/d and 2.0–78.3 mEq/d, respectively. Regardless of the method used, the mean dietary acid–base balance (NEAP was significantly higher for the elderly than the young (P = 0.0035 for NEAP [elderly, 44.1 mEq/d versus young 40.1 mEq/d]; and P = 0.0035 for the protein:potassium ratio [elderly, 1.4 mEq/d versus young 1

  12. Using NetMaster to manage IBM networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Guss

    1991-01-01

    After defining a network and conveying its importance to support the activities at the JSC, the need for network management based on the size and complexity of the IBM SNA network at JSC is demonstrated. Network Management consists of being aware of component status and the ability to control resources to meet the availability and service needs of users. The concerns of the user are addressed as well as those of the staff responsible for managing the network. It is explained how NetMaster (a network management system for managing SNA networks) is used to enhance reliability and maximize service to SNA network users through automated procedures. The following areas are discussed: customization, problem and configuration management, and system measurement applications of NetMaster. Also, several examples are given that demonstrate NetMaster's ability to manage and control the network, integrate various product functions, as well as provide useful management information.

  13. Constructing Molecular Complexity and Diversity: Total Synthesis of Natural Products of Biological and Medicinal Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaou, K. C.; Hale, Christopher R. H.; Nilewski, Christian; Ioannidou, Heraklidia A.

    2012-01-01

    The advent of organic synthesis and the understanding of the molecule as they occurred in the nineteenth century and were refined in the twentieth century constitute two of the most profound scientific developments of all time. These discoveries set in motion a revolution that shaped the landscape of the molecular sciences and changed the world. Organic synthesis played a major role in this revolution through its ability to construct the molecules of the living world and others like them whose primary element is carbon. Although the early beginnings of organic synthesis came about serendipitously, organic chemists quickly recognized its potential and moved decisively to advance and exploit it in myriad ways for the benefit of mankind. Indeed, from the early days of the synthesis of urea and the construction of the first carbon-carbon bond, the art of organic synthesis improved to impressively high levels of sophistication. Through its practice, today chemists can synthesize organic molecules—natural and designed—of all types of structural motifs and for all intents and purposes. The endeavor of constructing natural products—the organic molecules of nature—is justly called both a creative art and an exact science. Often called simply total synthesis, the replication of nature’s molecules in the laboratory reflects and symbolizes the state of the art of synthesis in general. In the last few decades a surge in total synthesis endeavors around the world led to a remarkable collection of achievements that covers a wide ranging landscape of molecular complexity and diversity. In this article, we present highlights of some of our contributions in the field of total synthesis of natural products of biological and medicinal importance. For perspective, we also provide a listing of selected examples of additional natural products synthesized in other laboratories around the world over the last few years. PMID:22743704

  14. Minireview: importance of herbicide-tolerant sunflower hybrids in suppressing common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Reisinger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia is the number one weed in Hungary: it covers ca. 5% of the arable land, causing huge losses in row crops, especially in sunflowers. In addition, because of the high allergenicity of its pollen, common ragweed is a heavy burden on the health care system. This minireview discusses the importance of use of herbicide-tolerant sunflower hybrids in eliminating common ragweed from sunflower fields, with special emphasis on the efficacy of common ragweed control of two acetolactate-synthase inhibitor postemergence herbicides (imazamox and tribenuron methyl in several sunflower hybrids that carry the resistance gene against such herbicides. Common ragweed control by these herbicides was excellent: they suppressed the growth of the weed plant until the canopy closure of the crop (8-leaf stage. Common ragweed plants germinating after this date were unable to compete with the crop: although they survived, they remained small (ca. 70% reduction in height, produced ca. 90% less male inflorescences (source of the allergenic pollen, and caused no significant reduction in the crop yield. In order to stop the seed production by the few late-germinating weed plants we recommend a mechanical common measure (row-cultivator in late August.

  15. [Bee diversity in Tecoma stans (L.) Kunth (Bignoniaceae): importance for pollination and fruit production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Cláudia I; Augusto, Solange C; Sofia, Silvia H; Moscheta, Ismar S

    2007-01-01

    Tecoma stans (L.) Kunth is an exotic plant in Brazil, commonly distributed in urban areas, which is considered an invasive species in crop and pasture areas. In this study, the floral biology and the behavior of bees in flowers of T. stans from three urban areas in southeastern Brazil were investigated. In all study sites, T. stans was an important food resource to the Apoidea to 48 species of bees. Centris tarsata Smith and Exomalopsis fulvofasciata Smith (Hymenoptera: Apidae) were the effective pollinators more abundant, while Scaptotrigona depilis Moure (Hymenoptera: Apidae) was the more frequent robber species. The most part of T. stans visitors (87.5%) exploited exclusively nectar, which varied in sugar concentration depending on the day period and flower phase. In all flower stages, higher averages of nectar concentration (26.4% to 32.7%) occurred from 10 am to 2 pm. The presence of osmophore in the petals and protandry were detected. In two urban areas the number of visitors varied significantly during the day. The greatest abundance of pollinators occurred when pollen availability was higher and flowers showed receptive stigma, which could be contributing to the reproductive success of T. stans. The results indicate that the production of fruits increased in plants that received a higher number of effective pollinators.

  16. Importance of spatial and spectral data reduction in the detection of internal defects in food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuechen; Nansen, Christian; Aryamanesh, Nader; Yan, Guijun; Boussaid, Farid

    2015-04-01

    Despite the importance of data reduction as part of the processing of reflection-based classifications, this study represents one of the first in which the effects of both spatial and spectral data reductions on classification accuracies are quantified. Furthermore, the effects of approaches to data reduction were quantified for two separate classification methods, linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and support vector machine (SVM). As the model dataset, reflection data were acquired using a hyperspectral camera in 230 spectral channels from 401 to 879 nm (spectral resolution of 2.1 nm) from field pea (Pisum sativum) samples with and without internal pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum) infestation. We deployed five levels of spatial data reduction (binning) and eight levels of spectral data reduction (40 datasets). Forward stepwise LDA was used to select and include only spectral channels contributing the most to the separation of pixels from non-infested and infested field peas. Classification accuracies obtained with LDA and SVM were based on the classification of independent validation datasets. Overall, SVMs had significantly higher classification accuracies than LDAs (P supports the potential use of reflection-based technologies in the quality control of food products with internal defects, and it highlights that spatial and spectral data reductions can (1) improve classification accuracies, (2) vastly decrease computer constraints, and (3) reduce analytical concerns associated with classifications of large and high-dimensional datasets.

  17. Summaries of important areas for mineral investment and production opportunities of nonfuel minerals in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Stephen G.; King, Trude V.V.; Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations (TFBSO) entered into an agreement with the Afghanistan Geological Survey to study and assess the fuel and nonfuel mineral resources of Afghanistan from October 2009 to September 2011 so that these resources could be economically extracted to expand the economy of Afghanistan. This report summarizes the results of joint studies on 24 important areas of interest (AOIs) of nonfuel mineral resources that were identified for mineral investment and production opportunities in Afghanistan. This report is supported by digital data and archival and non-USGS reports on each AOI, and these data are available from the Afghanistan Geological Survey Data Center in Kabul (http://mom.gov.af/en/ and http://www.bgs.ac.uk/afghanminerals/) and for viewing and download on the USGS public Web site and in a separate viewer at http://mapdss2.er.usgs.gov/.

  18. Summaries and data packages of important areas for mineral investment and production opportunities in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Stephen G.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) of the Department of the Interior and the Task Force for Business and Stability Operations (TFBSO) of the Department of Defense entered into an agreement to study and assess the fuel and nonfuel mineral resources of Afghanistan from October 2009 through September 2011. The work resulted in a report that summarizes new results and interpretations on 24 important Areas of Interest (AOIs) of nonfuel mineral resources that were identified for mineral investment and production opportunities inAfghanistan (Peters and others, 2011). The report is supported by digital data in the form of geographic information system (GIS) databases and by archival and non-USGS reports on each AOI. The data packages contain from 20 to 50 digital layers of data, such as geology, geophysics, and hyperspectral and remotely sensed imagery. Existing reports and maps are mainly from the Afghanistan Geological Survey (AGS) archive and are Soviet-era (1960s and 1970s) reports. These data are available from the AGS Data Center in Kabul (http://mom.gov.af/en; http://www.bgs.ac.uk/afghanminerals/) and also are available for viewing and download from the USGS public Web site (http://afghanistan.cr.usgs.gov/) and from a separate viewer at http://mapdss2.er.usgs.gov.

  19. Importance of new winter pea genotyp in production of the milk on family farms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gordana Županac; Kristina Gršić; Ana Pisačić; Mihaela Blažinkov; Darko Uher

    2009-01-01

    .... Three year field trials (2003-2005) were carried out to determine the effect of seed winter pea inoculation and nitrogen top-dressing on productivity of new winter pea genotype G3 in production of milk on family farms...

  20. Gill net and trammel net selectivity in the northern Aegean Sea, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Saadet Karakulak

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Fishing trials were carried out with gill nets and trammel nets in the northern Aegean Sea from March 2004 to February 2005. Four different mesh sizes for the gill nets and the inner panel of trammel nets (16, 18, 20 and 22 mm bar length were used. Selectivity parameters for the five most economically important species, bogue (Boops boops, annular sea bream (Diplodus annularis, striped red mullet (Mullus surmuletus, axillary sea bream (Pagellus acarne and blotched picarel (Spicara maena, caught by the two gears were estimated. The SELECT method was used to estimate the selectivity parameters of a variety of models. Catch composition and catch proportion of several species were different in gill and trammel nets. The length frequency distributions of the species caught by the two gears were significantly different. The bi-modal model selectivity curve gave the best fit for gill net and trammel net data, and there was little difference between the modal lengths of these nets. However, a clear difference was found in catching efficiency. The highest catch rates were obtained with the trammel net. Given that many discard species and small fish are caught by gill nets and trammel nets with a mesh size of 16 mm, it is clear that these nets are not appropriate for fisheries. Consequently, the best mesh size for multispecies fisheries is 18 mm. This mesh size will considerably reduce the numbers of small sized individuals and discard species in the catch.

  1. Impact of drought and precipitation seasonality on net primary production and plant community composition across a grassland ecotone in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Scott; Thomey, Michell; Brown, Renee; Gehres, Nate; Petrie, Matthew; Vanderbilt, Kristin; Pockman, William

    2015-04-01

    In the southwestern US, climate change will impact the amount, timing and variability of rainfall during the summer monsoon. Changes in amount and seasonality of precipitation are likely to affect plant community dynamics and ecosystem processes, especially along ecotones. In 2012, we established a rainfall manipulation experiment (EDGE-Extreme Drought in Grasslands Experiment) in Chihuahuan Desert grassland (CDG) dominated by black grama and shortgrass steppe (SGS) dominated by blue grama across a grassland ecotone in central New Mexico. EDGE includes two rainfall treatments, chronic drought (~66% reduction in monsoon rainfall) and altered timing of the summer monsoon. Chronic drought is imposed from July through September by rainout shelters with roof panels that cover 66% of the surface area. To alter precipitation seasonality complete rainout shelters are erected in July and August, and all rainfall that occurred during this period is captured, stored, and then reapplied in several large rain events during September and October. Thus, this treatment receives the same amount of precipitation as ambient but differs in seasonality and frequency of rain events. We measured soil moisture, aboveground net primary production (ANPP), and plant species composition in each replicate (n=10) of each treatment at CDG and SGS sites. There were no significant pre-treatment differences in ANPP or plant species richness at either site. In 2013 following an above average monsoon, ambient ANPP was 99.4 g m-2 at CDG and 44.3 g m-2 at SGS. Event size reduction resulted in a 75% reduction in ANPP at CDG but only a 33% reduction in ANPP at SGS. Shifting the monsoon to later in the growing season resulted in a 50% and 43% reduction in ANPP at CDG and SGS, respectively. Thus, ANPP at CDG partially recovered from the mid-summer drought with late season precipitation but SGS did not. Event size reduction also resulted in a decrease in species richness at CDG, but not at SGS. These short

  2. [Effect of climate change on net primary productivity of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) at different successional stages of broad-leaved Korean pine forest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yang; Gao, Lu-Shuang; Zhang, Xue; Guo, Jing; Ma, Zhi-Yuan

    2014-07-01

    Pinus koraiensis in broad-leaved Korean pine forests of Changbai Mountain at different successional stages (secondary poplar-birch forest, secondary coniferous and broad-leaved forest and the primitive Korean pine forest) were selected in this paper as the research objects. In this research, the annual growth of net primary productivity (NPP) (1921-2006) of P. koraiensis was obtained by combining the tree-ring chronology and relative growth formulae, the correlation between NPP of P. koraiensis and climatic factors was developed, and the annual growth of NPP of P. koraiensis at different successional stages in relation to climatic variation within different climate periods were analyzed. The results showed that, in the research period, the correlations between climatic factors and NPP of P. koraiensis at different successional stages were different. With increasing the temperature, the correlations between NPP of P. koraiensis in the secondary poplar-birch forest and the minimum temperatures of previous and current growing seasons changed from being significantly negative to being significantly positive. The positive correlation between NPP of P. koraiensis in the secondary coniferous and broad-leaved forest and the minimum temperature in current spring changed into significantly positive correlation between NPP of P. koraiensis and the temperatures in previous and current growing seasons. The climatic factors had a stronger hysteresis effect on NPP of P. koraiensis in the secondary coniferous and broad-leaved forest, but NPP of P. koraiensis in the primitive Korean pine forest had weaker correlation with temperature but stronger positive correlation with the precipitation of previous growing season. The increases of minimum and mean temperatures were obvious, but no significant variations of the maximum temperature and precipitation were observed at our site. The climatic variation facilitated the increase of the NPP of P. koraiensis in the secondary poplar

  3. Exploring the response of net primary productivity variations to urban expansion and climate change: a scenario analysis for Guangdong Province in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Fengsong; Li, Xia; Liu, Xiaoping; Lao, Chunhua; Xia, Gengrui

    2015-03-01

    Urban land development alters landscapes and carbon cycle, especially net primary productivity (NPP). Despite projections that NPP is often reduced by urbanization, little is known about NPP changes under future urban expansion and climate change conditions. In this paper, terrestrial NPP was calculated by using Biome-BGC model. However, this model does not explicitly address urban lands. Hence, we proposed a method of NPP-fraction to detect future urban NPP, assuming that the ratio of real NPP to potential NPP for urban cells remains constant for decades. Furthermore, NPP dynamics were explored by integrating the Biome-BGC and the cellular automata (CA), a widely used method for modeling urban growth. Consequently, urban expansion, climate change and their associated effects on the NPP were analyzed for the period of 2010-2039 using Guangdong Province in China as a case study. In addition, four scenarios were designed to reflect future conditions, namely baseline, climate change, urban expansion and comprehensive scenarios. Our analyses indicate that vegetation NPP in urban cells may increase (17.63 gC m(-2) year(-1)-23.35 gC m(-2) year(-1)) in the climate change scenario. However, future urban expansion may cause some NPP losses of 241.61 gC m(-2) year(-1), decupling the NPP increase of the climate change factor. Taking into account both climate change and urban expansion, vegetation NPP in urban area may decrease, minimally at a rate of 228.54 gC m(-2) year(-1) to 231.74 gC m(-2) year(-1). Nevertheless, they may account for an overall NPP increase of 0.78 TgC year(-1) to 1.28 TgC year(-1) in the whole province. All these show that the provincial NPP increase from climate change may offset the NPP decrease from urban expansion. Despite these results, it is of great significance to regulate reasonable expansion of urban lands to maintain carbon balance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Root biomass, turnover and net primary productivity of a coffee agroforestry system in Costa Rica: effects of soil depth, shade trees, distance to row and coffee age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defrenet, Elsa; Roupsard, Olivier; Van den Meersche, Karel; Charbonnier, Fabien; Pastor Pérez-Molina, Junior; Khac, Emmanuelle; Prieto, Iván; Stokes, Alexia; Roumet, Catherine; Rapidel, Bruno; de Melo Virginio Filho, Elias; Vargas, Victor J; Robelo, Diego; Barquero, Alejandra; Jourdan, Christophe

    2016-08-21

    In Costa Rica, coffee (Coffea arabica) plants are often grown in agroforests. However, it is not known if shade-inducing trees reduce coffee plant biomass through root competition, and hence alter overall net primary productivity (NPP). We estimated biomass and NPP at the stand level, taking into account deep roots and the position of plants with regard to trees. Stem growth and root biomass, turnover and decomposition were measured in mixed coffee/tree (Erythrina poeppigiana) plantations. Growth ring width and number at the stem base were estimated along with stem basal area on a range of plant sizes. Root biomass and fine root density were measured in trenches to a depth of 4 m. To take into account the below-ground heterogeneity of the agroforestry system, fine root turnover was measured by sequential soil coring (to a depth of 30 cm) over 1 year and at different locations (in full sun or under trees and in rows/inter-rows). Allometric relationships were used to calculate NPP of perennial components, which was then scaled up to the stand level. Annual ring width at the stem base increased up to 2·5 mm yr -1 with plant age (over a 44-year period). Nearly all (92 %) coffee root biomass was located in the top 1·5 m, and only 8 % from 1·5 m to a depth of 4 m. Perennial woody root biomass was 16 t ha -1 and NPP of perennial roots was 1·3 t ha -1 yr -1 Fine root biomass (0-30 cm) was two-fold higher in the row compared with between rows. Fine root biomass was 2·29 t ha -1 (12 % of total root biomass) and NPP of fine roots was 2·96 t ha -1 yr -1 (69 % of total root NPP). Fine root turnover was 1·3 yr -1 and lifespan was 0·8 years. Coffee root systems comprised 49 % of the total plant biomass; such a high ratio is possibly a consequence of shoot pruning. There was no significant effect of trees on coffee fine root biomass, suggesting that coffee root systems are very competitive in the topsoil. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on

  5. Human appropriation of net primary production in the United Kingdom, 1800-2000. Changes in society's impact on ecological energy flows during the agrarian-industrial transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musel, Annabella [Institute of Social Ecology, Alpen-Adria University Klagenfurt - Graz - Wien, Schottenfeldgasse 29, 1070 Vienna (Austria)

    2009-12-15

    This paper presents an empirical analysis of the United Kingdom's society's long-term intervention into the energy flows of domestic terrestrial ecosystems through the human appropriation of aboveground net primary production (aHANPP) covering the period 1800-2000. The depicted aHANPP trajectory and the historical development of its components are discussed in view of a continuously increasing population and the transition process from an agrarian to an industrial socioecological regime. During the 19th century, aHANPP shows a steady decline from its level of 71% in 1800. While even higher levels were reached during the mid 20th century, the trend during the last forty years of the period under investigation again shows a reduction of aHANPP, which lies at 68% in the year 2000. The high values of aHANPP in the United Kingdom are primarily attributable to the limited amount of forest in comparison to large agricultural areas. At the beginning of the studied period, the relative stabilisation or even decrease in aHANPP in comparison to population development was made possible through the area expansion of and productivity increases on cropland and permanent pastures. Later this was made possible through the outsourcing of biomass harvest, by satisfying local nutritional demands by means of overseas imports, and as from the mid 20th century through huge amounts of fossil fuel based inputs into agriculture (e.g. increased amounts of fertilizers and motorized traction) which allowed increases in biomass harvest to be decoupled from HANPP. (author)

  6. A Brief Introduction to Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1997-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets or CPN) is a graphical oriented language for design, specification, simulation and verification of systems. It is in particular well- suited for systems in which communication, synchronisation and resource sharing are important. Typical examples of application areas a...

  7. WaveNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Coastal Inlets Research Program WaveNet WaveNet is a web-based, Graphical-User-Interface ( GUI ) data management tool developed for Corps coastal...generates tabular and graphical information for project planning and design documents. The WaveNet is a web-based GUI designed to provide users with a...data from different sources, and employs a combination of Fortran, Python and Matlab codes to process and analyze data for USACE applications

  8. Exploring long-term trends in land use change and aboveground human appropriation of net primary production in nine European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gingrich, Simone; Niedertscheider, Maria; Kastner, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    European countries (Albania, Austria, Denmark, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Romania, Sweden, and the United Kingdom) since the late 19th to early 20th century, when national statistical publications became available. We then calculated a range of indicators within the "human appropriation of net...

  9. The importance of product definitions in US e-cigarette laws and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempert, Lauren K; Grana, Rachel; Glantz, Stanton A

    2016-04-01

    How electronic cigarettes and similar products (e-cigarettes) are defined affects how they are regulated, particularly whether existing laws for cigarettes apply, including sales and marketing, youth access, smoke-free and taxation laws. We examined the text of 46 bills that define e-cigarettes enacted in 40 states and characterised how e-cigarettes and similar products were defined. States enact laws creating new product categories for e-cigarettes separate from the 'tobacco product' category (eg, 'alternative nicotine product,' 'vapour product,' 'electronic nicotine device'), with four states explicitly excluding e-cigarettes from 'tobacco products.' Twenty-eight states do not include e-cigarettes in their definitions of 'tobacco products' or 'smoking,' eight include e-cigarettes as 'tobacco products,' three include e-cigarettes in 'smoking.' Sixteen states' definitions of e-cigarettes require nicotine, and five states pre-empt more stringent local laws. Tobacco and e-cigarette industry representatives tried to shape laws that benefit their interests. Definitions separating e-cigarettes from other tobacco products are common. Similar to past 'Trojan horse' policies, e-cigarette policies that initially appear to restrict sales (eg, limit youth access) may actually undermine regulation if they establish local pre-emption or create definitions that divide e-cigarettes from other tobacco products. Comparable issues are raised by the European Union Tobacco Products Directive and e-cigarette regulations in other countries. Policymakers should carefully draft legislation with definitions of e-cigarettes that broadly define the products, do not require nicotine or tobacco, do not pre-empt stronger regulations and explicitly include e-cigarettes in smoke-free and taxation laws. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes how Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets) have been developed — from being a promising theoretical model to being a full-fledged language for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems (and other systems in which human beings and...... use of CP-nets — because it means that the function representation and the translations (which are a bit mathematically complex) no longer are parts of the basic definition of CP-nets. Instead they are parts of the invariant method (which anyway demands considerable mathematical skills...

  11. Game Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of game coloured Petri nets. This allows the modeler to explicitly model what parts of the model comprise the modeled system and what parts are the environment of the modeled system. We give the formal definition of game coloured Petri nets, a means of reachability...... analysis of this net class, and an application of game coloured Petri nets to automatically generate easy-to-understand visualizations of the model by exploiting the knowledge that some parts of the model are not interesting from a visualization perspective (i.e. they are part of the environment...

  12. Programming NET Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Alex

    2007-01-01

    Web services are poised to become a key technology for a wide range of Internet-enabled applications, spanning everything from straight B2B systems to mobile devices and proprietary in-house software. While there are several tools and platforms that can be used for building web services, developers are finding a powerful tool in Microsoft's .NET Framework and Visual Studio .NET. Designed from scratch to support the development of web services, the .NET Framework simplifies the process--programmers find that tasks that took an hour using the SOAP Toolkit take just minutes. Programming .NET

  13. Annotating Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Bo; Wells, Lisa Marie

    2002-01-01

    -net. An example of such auxiliary information is a counter which is associated with a token to be able to do performance analysis. Modifying colour sets and arc inscriptions in a CP-net to support a specific use may lead to creation of several slightly different CP-nets – only to support the different uses...... a method which makes it possible to associate auxiliary information, called annotations, with tokens without modifying the colour sets of the CP-net. Annotations are pieces of information that are not essential for determining the behaviour of the system being modelled, but are rather added to support...

  14. Mercury in UK imported fish and shellfish and UK-farmed fish and their products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, T G; Farrington, D; Kestin, S C

    2003-09-01

    Total mercury concentrations were measured in fish and shellfish and their products imported into the UK and also in UK-produced farmed salmon and trout. Three hundred and thirty-six samples were collected using a two-stage sampling plan. The sample plan was weighted to reflect consumption, but with some bias towards fish that might accumulate higher levels of mercury, such as large predatory fish at the top of the food chain. The highest levels of total mercury were found in billfish (swordfish and marlin) and shark. Mercury concentrations in the five samples of fresh/frozen shark ranged from 1.006 to 2.200 mg kg(-1), all above the European Commission limit for the species, and concentrations in 20 samples of fresh/frozen billfish ranged from 0.153 to 2.706 mg kg(-1) with 13 samples above the 1.0 mg kg(-1) limit for the species. One sample of Antarctic ice fish was collected and had a mercury concentration of 0.664 mg kg(-1). The limit for this species was 0.5 mg kg(-1). One sample of fresh/frozen tuna out of the 20 collected had a mercury concentration above the limit of 1.0 mg kg(-1) (1.5 mg kg(-1)), but all other fresh tuna samples were well within the regulatory limit (average 0.4 mg kg(-1)). Mercury concentrations in canned tuna were lower with concentrations on average half that measured in fresh/frozen tuna. Mercury concentrations in UK-farmed salmon and trout were relatively low. The maximum concentration found in 46 samples of fresh/frozen or smoked trout and salmon was 0.103 mg kg(-1).

  15. Importance of winter pea cv. Maksimirski rani in milk production on family farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Uher

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Forage pea (Pisum sativum L. is gaining importance as a forage legume in the Republic of Croatia. Pea seed contains 20-30 percent of protein, it is utilized without thermal treatment in feeding different types and categories of livestock, and with stable yield it provides an appreciable income per hectare. Two-year field trials (2005-2006 were carried out to determine the effect of winter pea seed inoculation and nitrogen top-dressing on the number and mass (g/plant-1 of root nodules and also on the yield and quality of winter pea cv. Maksimirski rani in a mixture with wheat cv. Sana. Just before sowing, pea seeds were inoculated with the strain Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 1001 from the microbial collection of the Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb. The highest number of root nodules (43 nodules/plant, as well as the highest nodule mass (0.219 g/plant-1 were determined in the inoculated variant. The highest number of pods (19.0 and seeds per plant (60 were determined in the inoculated variant as well. The highest 1000-seed mass (132 g and seed mass per plant (7.93 g were also determined in the inoculated variant. Average pea seed yield ranged from 2949 kg ha-1 (control up to 3353 kg ha-1 (inoculation. The conclusion of this research is that the highest seed (3353 kg ha-1 and crude protein yields (833 kg ha-1 were obtained with inoculated forage winter pea cv. Maksimirski rani. Seed inoculation of the studied pea cultivar Maksimirski rani with the strain Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 1001 influenced also higher milk production per hectare compared to the control and the nitrogen top-dressed variant.

  16. Micronutrient mineral and folate content of Australian and imported dried fruit products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Louise E; Singh, Davinder P; Clingeleffer, Peter R

    2011-01-01

    A selection of Australian and imported fresh and dried fruit products, including sultanas, Sunmuscats, Carina currants, Zante currants, apricots, and prunes, were analyzed for selected minerals (Ca, Mg, Na, S, B, Al, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Mo, and Se), folate and vitamin C, and the capacity of dried fruits for dietary provision of these micronutrients evaluated. Micro-nutrients were concentrated by a factor of 3-5 in dried fruits compared with their fresh fruit counterparts and were consequently present in nutritionally significant levels, in contrast to fresh fruit. Australian dried sultanas, Carina currant, Zante currant, apricots, and prunes contained Cu, Fe, K, and Mn at levels of >20% of daily Required Dietary Intake (RDI, taken as the average for adult men and women as nominated by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council) and Sunmuscats contained Cu, Fe, and K at >20% of RDI. All dried fruits studied contained boron in the range of 1.5 to 5.4 mg per 100 g; however, the RDI for boron has not been defined by the NHMRC at the present time. All sultanas and currants studied contained folate at levels of 10-20% of RDI per 100 g. Experimental drying methods significantly affected folate levels with higher folate content in non-ground versus ground-based drying methods. Of the micro-nutrients supplying >20% of RDI, folate represents a particular nutrient for which the mean daily intake of adult Australians is typically inadequate. This study shows that dried fruit consumption, in contrast with fresh fruit, can provide significant proportions of daily requirements of several micronutrients, particularly folate.

  17. NASA Net Zero Energy Buildings Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless, S.; Scheib, J.; Torcellini, P.; Hendron, B.; Slovensky, M.

    2014-10-01

    In preparation for the time-phased net zero energy requirement for new federal buildings starting in 2020, set forth in Executive Order 13514, NASA requested that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a roadmap for NASA's compliance. NASA detailed a Statement of Work that requested information on strategic, organizational, and tactical aspects of net zero energy buildings. In response, this document presents a high-level approach to net zero energy planning, design, construction, and operations, based on NREL's first-hand experience procuring net zero energy construction, and based on NREL and other industry research on net zero energy feasibility. The strategic approach to net zero energy starts with an interpretation of the executive order language relating to net zero energy. Specifically, this roadmap defines a net zero energy acquisition process as one that sets an aggressive energy use intensity goal for the building in project planning, meets the reduced demand goal through energy efficiency strategies and technologies, then adds renewable energy in a prioritized manner, using building-associated, emission- free sources first, to offset the annual energy use required at the building; the net zero energy process extends through the life of the building, requiring a balance of energy use and production in each calendar year.

  18. The importance of structural factors in food safety assurance in the production of school meals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Correia, Maria Joao Frias da Silva; da Rocha, Ada Margarida Correia Nunes

    2012-01-01

    .... Several factors must be considered, such as legal aspects, production technical requirements, architectural and working conditions as well as economic aspects in order to guarantee the correct...

  19. POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZODIOXINS (PCDDs AND FURANS (PCDFs AND THEIR IMPORTANCE IN MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oğuz GÜRSOY

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs and furans (PCDFs, by product of chlorinated chemical compounds production and chemical processes including combustion, are virtually ubiquitous in the environment. Because of this, PCDDs and PCDFs occur potantial risk for human health. PCDDs and PCDFs are known to exist at higher levels in fatty foods such as full-fat milk and dairy products, meat and eggs. They can accumulate in the fatty tissues of animals and humans. In this review, structure, contamination sources, toxic effects of PCDDs and PCDFs, milk, dairy products and mother's milk as contamination source and preventive measures against PCDDs and PCDFs were discussed.

  20. Implications of the South Korea-U.S. Free Trade Agreement on South Korean Dairy Product Imports.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Keithly G.; Blayney, Donald P.

    2012-01-01

    This study empirically estimates the South Korean short-run and long-run import demand parameters for source-based dairy products and assess the impacts of the KORUS FTA on dairy product trade. These estimates were derived using a Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) demand system. The impact of the tariff reductions associated with the free trade agreement was calculated. Based on the results, it appears that the free trade agreements open up the South Korean dairy product markets primarily by...

  1. 9 CFR 94.25 - Restrictions on the importation of live swine, pork, or pork products from certain regions free...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Meat Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) and the regulations in § 327.2 of this title; (2) The pork... live swine, pork, or pork products from certain regions free of classical swine fever. 94.25 Section 94... the importation of live swine, pork, or pork products from certain regions free of classical swine...

  2. Profile of the Illegal Import of Products of Animal Origin to Brazilian Cities at the Border with Argentina and Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, J G; Soares, V M; Santos, E A R; Tadielo, L E; Pellegrini, D C P; Duval, E H; Silva, W P

    2017-10-01

    International food transit is a risk to public and animal health when not subject to legal importation sanitation procedures. Due to the extensive border area, illegal food import in Brazil is a common practice, especially in Rio Grande do Sul (RS), a state that borders with Argentina and Uruguay. The objective of this study was to evaluate the profile of Brazilians living in cities in RS that border with Argentina (BR-AR) or Uruguay (BR-UR) regarding the practice of illegal import of products of animal origin and to determine associations between the population characteristics and illegal import. A questionnaire with information related to the personal profile, habits of acquisition of imported food, and knowledge of health risks deriving from the consumption of the imported products was elaborated. The questionnaire was administered in six cities in RS (three cities bordering Argentina and three cities bordering Uruguay) and responses were obtained from 744 individuals. The variables city, sex, level of education, and knowledge were subjected to the chi-square test to verify the association between these variables and food import. Part of the interviewees admitted to illegally importing products of animal origin at both BR-AR (65.17%) and BR-UR (76.28%) borders. Dairy products were the main imported goods, followed by raw and processed meat. The study revealed that illegal import is common at the frontier region of RS, especially that of products of animal origin, dairy, and raw and processed meat. Although illegal importation occurs at all the cities under study, it was higher at the BR-UR border. Also, knowledge of the health risks influences the decision to import food or not.

  3. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Subtask 4 (hydrogen utilization worldwide clean energy system technology) (WE-NET) (development of hydrogen production technology); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 4 suiso seizo gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    As a WE-NET subtask, a study has been conducted of the solid polyelectrolyte water electrolysis method by which higher efficiency and lower cost hydrogen production is expected than in the conventional hydrogen production method. Production methods of electrode, electrolyte, etc. were studied. In the electroless plating method, the manufacturing process of membrane-electrode assemblies was realized in a large area of 2500 cm{sup 2} by the porous-surfaced method by studying manufacturing conditions for slurry membrane/membrane assembly/electroless plating processes. In the hot-press method, the refining degree and dispersibility of iridium dioxide powder were studied to improve characteristics of anode catalyst. A method was developed to form polyelectrolyte coatings homogeneously on the surface of electrode layer catalytic powder, and a large area of 2500 cm{sup 2} was realized. Beside the performance test using large single cells, FS was conducted to discuss optimum operating conditions and optimum structures of plants. Both methods indicated the performance exceeding the energy conversion efficiency of 90%, a WE-NET target, at current density of 1A/cm{sup 2} and electrolysis temperature of 80degC. A key was found to a bench-scale development (electrode area of 2500 cm{sup 2}, about 5 layers) to be planned in fiscal 1998. 136 figs., 50 tabs.

  4. The Importance of Consumer Trust for the Emergence of a Market for Green products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuttavuthisit, Krittinee; Thøgersen, John

    2017-01-01

    Consumer trust is a key prerequisite for establishing a market for credence goods, such as “green” products, especially when they are premium priced. This article reports research on exactly how, and how much, trust influences consumer decisions to buy new green products. It identifies consumer t...

  5. 9 CFR 381.197 - Imported products; foreign inspection certificates required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... certificates required. 381.197 Section 381.197 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION... Shipping marks (Signature) (Name of official of national foreign government authorized to issue inspection...

  6. The National Biofuels Strategy - Importance of sustainable feedstock production systems in regional-based supply chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Region-based production systems are needed to produce the feedstocks that will be turned into the biofuels required to meet Federal mandated targets. Executive and Legislative actions have put into motion significant government responses designed to advance the development and production of domestic...

  7. An investigation on important factors influencing consumer purchase: A case study of food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Haghighi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effect of five factors on purchasing food product including brand and reputation, being green product producer, quality of packaging, taste of food products and materials used in products. The study designs a questionnaire consists of 20 questions, distributes 440 questionnaires among some consumers who were regular customers of food chains in west part of city of Tehran, Iran and managed to collect 225 properly filled ones. The study uses binomial test to verify five hypothesis of the survey and it has confirmed the effects of four variables including brand and reputation, quality of packaging, taste of food products and materials used in products. In our survey, there are some positive and meaningful correlations among different pairs of five variables of the survey where the highest correlation is between materials used in products and quality of packaging (r=0.606, Sig. = 0.000 and between Quality of packaging and being green product producer (r=0.545, Sig. =0.000.

  8. Thirty-nine years of U.S. wood furniture importing: sources and products

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2011-01-01

    In this study we analyze changes in United States imports of wood furniture over the 39-year period from 1972 to 2010. In 1972, Canada and the former Yugoslavia were the most important sources of imported wood furniture, and Europe accounted for nearly 60 percent of total imports. Shipments of low-cost wood furniture from Taiwan started to increase in the 1970s, and by...

  9. Net zero water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lindeque, M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Is it possible to develop a building that uses a net zero amount of water? In recent years it has become evident that it is possible to have buildings that use a net zero amount of electricity. This is possible when the building is taken off...

  10. SolNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Ulrike; Vajen, Klaus; Bales, Chris

    2014-01-01

    SolNet, founded in 2006, is the first coordinated International PhD education program on Solar Thermal Engineering. The SolNet network is coordinated by the Institute of Thermal Engineering at Kassel University, Germany. The network offers PhD courses on solar heating and cooling, conference...

  11. Kunstige neurale net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørning, Annette

    1994-01-01

    Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse.......Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse....

  12. From deficit to surplus: An econometric analysis of US trade balance in forest products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daowei Zhang; Ying Lin; Jeffrey P. Prestemon

    2017-01-01

    Although the US trade deficit has persisted since 1975, the country changed in 2009 from a net importer to a net exporter of forest products, emerging as the world's largest exporter of forest products. Drawing on recent data, we model the real dollar value of US exports, imports, and the trade balance in forest products to identify factors likely to explain this...

  13. Importance of NDF digestibility of whole crop maize silage for dry matter intake and milk production in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krämer, Monika; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2016-01-01

    source for use in ruminant nutrition. Even though ruminants require forage fibre to maintain rumen function and maximize productivity, excess fibre limits feed intake due to its contribution to physical fill in the rumen. As feed intake is the most important factor for milk production, both a......NDFom concentration and aNDFom digestibility are key determinants of the nutritive value of a diet. Therefore, the importance of maize silage aNDFom digestibility on nutritive value, dry matter (DM) intake (DMI) and milk production was investigated in a literature review across a wide range of studies varying......The importance of maize silage as a feed component in cattle rations and for biogas production has substantially increased. Whole crop maize silage is a forage with a high starch concentration, but also the cell wall fraction, commonly analysed as neutral detergent fibre (aNDFom) is a major energy...

  14. Effects of forest management and climate change on energy biomass and timber production with implications for carbon stocks and net CO{sub 2} exchange in boreal forest ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, A.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of forest management and climate change on energy biomass (wood) and timber production with implications for carbon stocks and net CO{sub 2} exchange in boreal forest ecosystems in Finland. First, the impacts of thinning on growth, timber production and carbon stocks under the current and changing climate were analysed by employing an ecosystem model for the whole of Finland over a 90-year period (Article 1). Concurrently, the potential of energy biomass production with implications for timber production and carbon stocks under varying thinning and climate scenarios was studied (Article 2). Thereafter, a life cycle assessment (LCA) tool for estimating net CO{sub 2} exchange of forest production was developed (Article 3), and it was applied in interaction with ecosystem model based simulations to study the impacts of different management regimes (initial stand density and thinning regimes) on energy biomass production and related CO{sub 2} emissions at a stand level with a rotation length of 80 years (Articles 3 and 4). The results showed that the climate change increased the production potential of energy biomass and timber, and carbon sequestration and stocks over the whole of Finland, but, in a relative sense more in northern than southern Finland (Articles 1 and 2). Decreasing basal area based thinning thresholds compared to the currently recommended ones, increased the harvesting of the annual average amount of timber compared to the annual average growth of stem wood, and reduced carbon stocks in the forest ecosystems (Article 1). On the other hand, the use of increased basal area thinning thresholds concurrently increased energy biomass and timber production, and carbon stocks in the forest ecosystem regardless of climate applied (Article 2). The development of the LCA tool made it also possible to estimate the net carbon exchange of the forest production (Article 3). Based on the use of the LCA tool with

  15. A new variant of Petri net controlled grammars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Nurhidaya Mohamad; Turaev, Sherzod; Fong, Wan Heng; Sarmin, Nor Haniza

    2015-10-01

    A Petri net controlled grammar is a Petri net with respect to a context-free grammar where the successful derivations of the grammar can be simulated using the occurrence sequences of the net. In this paper, we introduce a new variant of Petri net controlled grammars, called a place-labeled Petri net controlled grammar, which is a context-free grammar equipped with a Petri net and a function which maps places of the net to productions of the grammar. The language consists of all terminal strings that can be obtained by parallelly applying multisets of the rules which are the images of the sets of the input places of transitions in a successful occurrence sequence of the Petri net. We study the effect of the different labeling strategies to the computational power and establish lower and upper bounds for the generative capacity of place-labeled Petri net controlled grammars.

  16. How Important is Presenteeism for the Value of Lost Production in Rheumatoid Arthritis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Rikke; Sørensen, Jan; Linde, Louise

    2010-01-01

    , ignoring it would lead to severe underestimations, eg, in cost-of-illness studies. The objective of this study was to assess the empirical significance of absenteeism and presenteeism in terms of production loss using the case of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Selected modules from the Health and Labor......Lost production can be due to individuals’ time lost to work (absenteeism), as well as their time at work with reduced productivity because of ill health (presenteeism). A sound methodological framework for the assessment of presenteeism remains to be established but given its significance...... Questionnaire were applied in a cross-sectional study of 3,704 patients with RA. The costs of absenteeism and presenteeism were estimated using the Human Capital approach, and the impact of including multipliers adjusting for the productivity effect of a workers’ absence or impaired presenteeism on societal...

  17. The importance of interpreting the commercial contract in scheduling the production of a Romanian business operator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laura Muresan (Potincu; Cristian-Romeo Potincu; Vladimir Marascu-Klein

    2015-01-01

    ... its activity in the area of the industrial production. In case the compliance with the contractual obligations raises issues, it is required to interpret the commercial contract according to the provisions of the Romanian Civil Code...

  18. Enhanced production of biomass, pigments and antioxidant capacity of a nutritionally important cyanobacterium Nostochopsis lobatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Usha; Pandey, J

    2008-07-01

    A diazotrophic cyanobacterium Nostochopsis lobatus was evaluated for enhanced production of biomass, pigments and antioxidant capacity. N. lobatus showed potentially high antioxidant capacity (46.12 microM AEAC) with significant improvement under immobilized cell cultures (87.05 microM AEAC). When a mixture of P and Fe was supplemented, biomass, pigments, nutritive value and antioxidant capacity increased substantially at pH 7.8. When considered separately, P appeared to be a better supplement than Fe for the production of biomass, chlorophyll and carotenoids. However, for phycocyanin, phycoerythrin, nutritive value and antioxidant capacity, Fe appeared more effective than P. Our study indicates N. lobatus to be a promising bioresource for enhanced production of nutritionally rich biomass, pigments and antioxidants. The study also suggests that P and Fe are potentially effective supplements for scale-up production for commercial application.

  19. Escherichia coli yjjPB genes encode a succinate transporter important for succinate production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Keita; Nanatani, Kei; Hara, Yoshihiko; Yamakami, Suguru; Yahagi, Daiki; Chinen, Akito; Tokura, Mitsunori; Abe, Keietsu

    2017-09-01

    Under anaerobic conditions, Escherichia coli produces succinate from glucose via the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle. To date, however, no genes encoding succinate exporters have been established in E. coli. Therefore, we attempted to identify genes encoding succinate exporters by screening an E. coli MG1655 genome library. We identified the yjjPB genes as candidates encoding a succinate transporter, which enhanced succinate production in Pantoea ananatis under aerobic conditions. A complementation assay conducted in Corynebacterium glutamicum strain AJ110655ΔsucE1 demonstrated that both YjjP and YjjB are required for the restoration of succinate production. Furthermore, deletion of yjjPB decreased succinate production in E. coli by 70% under anaerobic conditions. Taken together, these results suggest that YjjPB constitutes a succinate transporter in E. coli and that the products of both genes are required for succinate export.

  20. Discrete, continuous, and hybrid petri nets

    CERN Document Server

    David, René

    2004-01-01

    Petri nets do not designate a single modeling formalism. In fact, newcomers to the field confess sometimes to be a little puzzled by the diversity of formalisms that are recognized under this "umbrella". Disregarding some extensions to the theoretical modeling capabilities, and looking at the level of abstraction of the formalisms, Condition/Event, Elementary, Place/Transition, Predicate/Transition, Colored, Object Oriented... net systems are frequently encountered in the literature. On the other side, provided with appropriate interpretative extensions, Controled Net Systems, Marking Diagrams (the Petri net generalization of State Diagrams), or the many-many variants in which time can be explicitly incorporated -Time(d), Deterministic, (Generalized) Stochastic, Fuzzy...- are defined. This represents another way to define practical formalisms that can be obtained by the "cro- product" of the two mentioned dimensions. Thus Petri nets constitute a modeling paradigm, understandable in a broad sense as "the total...