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Sample records for net present risk

  1. Application of Risk within Net Present Value Calculations for Government Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandl, Paul R.; Youngblood, Alisha D.; Componation, Paul; Gholston, Sampson

    2007-01-01

    In January 2004, President Bush announced a new vision for space exploration. This included retirement of the current Space Shuttle fleet by 2010 and the development of new set of launch vehicles. The President's vision did not include significant increases in the NASA budget, so these development programs need to be cost conscious. Current trade study procedures address factors such as performance, reliability, safety, manufacturing, maintainability, operations, and costs. It would be desirable, however, to have increased insight into the cost factors behind each of the proposed system architectures. This paper reports on a set of component trade studies completed on the upper stage engine for the new launch vehicles. Increased insight into architecture costs was developed by including a Net Present Value (NPV) method and applying a set of associated risks to the base parametric cost data. The use of the NPV method along with the risks was found to add fidelity to the trade study and provide additional information to support the selection of a more robust design architecture.

  2. Changing Health Behaviors to Improve Health Outcomes after Angioplasty: A Randomized Trial of Net Present Value versus Future Value Risk Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlson, M. E.; Peterson, J. C.; Boutin-Foster, C.; Briggs, W. M.; Ogedegbe, G. G.; McCulloch, C. E.; Hollenberg, J.; Wong, C.; Allegrante, J. P.

    2008-01-01

    Patients who have undergone angioplasty experience difficulty modifying at-risk behaviors for subsequent cardiac events. The purpose of this study was to test whether an innovative approach to framing of risk, based on "net present value" economic theory, would be more effective in behavioral intervention than the standard "future value approach"…

  3. Estimating net present value variability for deterministic models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Groenendaal, W.J.H.

    1995-01-01

    For decision makers the variability in the net present value (NPV) of an investment project is an indication of the project's risk. So-called risk analysis is one way to estimate this variability. However, risk analysis requires knowledge about the stochastic character of the inputs. For large,

  4. Average Costs versus Net Present Value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. van der Laan (Erwin); R.H. Teunter (Ruud)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWhile the net present value (NPV) approach is widely accepted as the right framework for studying production and inventory control systems, average cost (AC) models are more widely used. For the well known EOQ model it can be verified that (under certain conditions) the AC approach gives

  5. Fuzzy net present value for engineering analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nazeri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cash flow analysis is one of the most popular methods for investigating the outcome of an economical project. The costs and benefits of a construction project are often involved with uncertainty and it is not possible to find a precise value for a particular project. In this paper, we present a simple method to calculate the net present value of a cash flow when both costs and benefits are given as triangular numbers. The proposed model of this paper uses Delphi method to figure out the fair values of all costs and revenues and then using fizzy programming techniques, it calculates the fuzzy net present value. The implementation of the proposed model is demonstrated using a simple example.

  6. Uncertainty in Forest Net Present Value Estimations

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    Ilona Pietilä

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainty related to inventory data, growth models and timber price fluctuation was investigated in the assessment of forest property net present value (NPV. The degree of uncertainty associated with inventory data was obtained from previous area-based airborne laser scanning (ALS inventory studies. The study was performed, applying the Monte Carlo simulation, using stand-level growth and yield projection models and three alternative rates of interest (3, 4 and 5%. Timber price fluctuation was portrayed with geometric mean-reverting (GMR price models. The analysis was conducted for four alternative forest properties having varying compartment structures: (A a property having an even development class distribution, (B sapling stands, (C young thinning stands, and (D mature stands. Simulations resulted in predicted yield value (predicted NPV distributions at both stand and property levels. Our results showed that ALS inventory errors were the most prominent source of uncertainty, leading to a 5.1–7.5% relative deviation of property-level NPV when an interest rate of 3% was applied. Interestingly, ALS inventory led to significant biases at the property level, ranging from 8.9% to 14.1% (3% interest rate. ALS inventory-based bias was the most significant in mature stand properties. Errors related to the growth predictions led to a relative standard deviation in NPV, varying from 1.5% to 4.1%. Growth model-related uncertainty was most significant in sapling stand properties. Timber price fluctuation caused the relative standard deviations ranged from 3.4% to 6.4% (3% interest rate. The combined relative variation caused by inventory errors, growth model errors and timber price fluctuation varied, depending on the property type and applied rates of interest, from 6.4% to 12.6%. By applying the methodology described here, one may take into account the effects of various uncertainty factors in the prediction of forest yield value and to supply the

  7. Net present biodiversity value and the design of biodiversity offsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Jacob McC; Stephens, R T Theo; Ferrier, Simon

    2013-02-01

    There is an urgent need to develop sound theory and practice for biodiversity offsets to provide a better basis for offset multipliers, to improve accounting for time delays in offset repayments, and to develop a common framework for evaluating in-kind and out-of-kind offsets. Here, we apply concepts and measures from systematic conservation planning and financial accounting to provide a basis for determining equity across type (of biodiversity), space, and time. We introduce net present biodiversity value (NPBV) as a theoretical and practical measure for defining the offset required to achieve no-net-loss. For evaluating equity in type and space we use measures of biodiversity value from systematic conservation planning. Time discount rates are used to address risk of non-repayment, and loss of utility. We illustrate these concepts and measures with two examples of biodiversity impact-offset transactions. Considerable further work is required to understand the characteristics of these approaches.

  8. Possibilistic Fuzzy Net Present Value Model and Application

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    S. S. Appadoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The cash flow values and the interest rate in the net present value (NPV model are usually specified by either crisp numbers or random variables. In this paper, we first discuss some of the recent developments in possibility theory and find closed form expressions for fuzzy possibilistic net present value (FNPV. Then, following Carlsson and Fullér (2001, we discuss some of the possibilistic moments related to FNPV model along with an illustrative numerical example. We also give a unified approach to find higher order moments of FNPV by using the moment generating function introduced by Paseka et al. (2011.

  9. 75 FR 45563 - Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Final Netting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... 31 CFR Part 50 RIN 1505-AC24 Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Final Netting AGENCY: Departmental... (``Treasury'') is issuing this proposed rule as part of its implementation of Title I of the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act of 2002 (``TRIA'' or ``the Act''), as amended by the Terrorism Risk Insurance Extension Act of...

  10. Application of growing nested Petri nets for modeling robotic systems operating under risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, E. V.; Senkov, A. V.

    2017-10-01

    The paper studies the peculiarities of modeling robotic systems engaged in mining. Existing modeling mechanisms are considered, which are based on nested Petri nets, and a new formalism of growing Petri nets is presented that allows modeling robotic systems operating under risk. Modeling is provided both for the regular operation mode and for non-standard modes in which individual elements of the system can perform uncharacteristic functions. The example shows growing Petri nets that are used for modeling extraction of flat coal seams by a robotic system consisting of several different-type autonomous robots.

  11. Automation of Presentation Record Production Based on Rich-Media Technology Using SNT Petri Nets Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Martiník

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rich-media describes a broad range of digital interactive media that is increasingly used in the Internet and also in the support of education. Last year, a special pilot audiovisual lecture room was built as a part of the MERLINGO (MEdia-rich Repository of LearnING Objects project solution. It contains all the elements of the modern lecture room determined for the implementation of presentation recordings based on the rich-media technologies and their publication online or on-demand featuring the access of all its elements in the automated mode including automatic editing. Property-preserving Petri net process algebras (PPPA were designed for the specification and verification of the Petri net processes. PPPA does not need to verify the composition of the Petri net processes because all their algebraic operators preserve the specified set of the properties. These original PPPA are significantly generalized for the newly introduced class of the SNT Petri process and agent nets in this paper. The PLACE-SUBST and ASYNC-PROC algebraic operators are defined for this class of Petri nets and their chosen properties are proved. The SNT Petri process and agent nets theory were significantly applied at the design, verification, and implementation of the programming system ensuring the pilot audiovisual lecture room functionality.

  12. Automation of Presentation Record Production Based on Rich-Media Technology Using SNT Petri Nets Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martiník, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Rich-media describes a broad range of digital interactive media that is increasingly used in the Internet and also in the support of education. Last year, a special pilot audiovisual lecture room was built as a part of the MERLINGO (MEdia-rich Repository of LearnING Objects) project solution. It contains all the elements of the modern lecture room determined for the implementation of presentation recordings based on the rich-media technologies and their publication online or on-demand featuring the access of all its elements in the automated mode including automatic editing. Property-preserving Petri net process algebras (PPPA) were designed for the specification and verification of the Petri net processes. PPPA does not need to verify the composition of the Petri net processes because all their algebraic operators preserve the specified set of the properties. These original PPPA are significantly generalized for the newly introduced class of the SNT Petri process and agent nets in this paper. The PLACE-SUBST and ASYNC-PROC algebraic operators are defined for this class of Petri nets and their chosen properties are proved. The SNT Petri process and agent nets theory were significantly applied at the design, verification, and implementation of the programming system ensuring the pilot audiovisual lecture room functionality.

  13. Evaluation of Cyber Security and Modelling of Risk Propagation with Petri Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Szpyrka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a new method of risk propagation among associated elements. On thebasis of coloured Petri nets, a new class called propagation nets is defined. This class providesa formal model of a risk propagation. The proposed method allows for model relations betweennodes forming the network structure. Additionally, it takes into account the bidirectional relationsbetween components as well as relations between isomorphic, symmetrical components in variousbranches of the network. This method is agnostic in terms of use in various systems and it canbe adapted to the propagation model of any systems’ characteristics; however, it is intentionallyproposed to assess the risk of critical infrastructures. In this paper, as a proof of concept example, weshow the formal model of risk propagation proposed within the project Cyberspace Security ThreatsEvaluation System of the Republic of Poland. In the article, the idea of the method is presented aswell as its use case for evaluation of risk for cyber threats. With the adaptation of Petri nets, it ispossible to evaluate the risk for the particular node and assess the impact of this risk for all relatednodes including hierarchic relations of components as well as isomorphism of elements.

  14. The present condition and projection of construction of railway net of the Danube-Morava corridor

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    Vemić Mirčeta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The railway net of the Danube-Morava corridor, together with the road net represent the central section of the Pan-European transport corridor X. According to the traffic and economic standards, the railway net represents the second main traffic direction of this corridor as the area-functioning system of the territory of Serbia. Main railway lines have favourable positions as they are located along prominent geographical features, namely river valleys thus enabling considerable flow of goods, passengers and information. The paper presents some characteristics of the present condition of the railway net, its functioning and safety, with certain ideas of its future construction and expected exploitation till 2015. Traffic infrastructure represents the initial factor of overall development of a state and its connection with the surrounding countries. It is considered to be of strategic importance for a country to built railway net. Improvement and additional construction of railway lines is of the greatest priority for the purpose of enlargement of overall mobility and quality of life of population, to make urban areas closer, to improve connections, functions efficiency and level of services of railway system, reduction of negative influence on other economic systems and human environment, better safety etc.

  15. MODIFIED NET PRESENT VALUE AS A USEFUL TOOL FOR SYNERGY VALUATION IN BUSINESS COMBINATIONS

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    Kenneth G. McClure

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is a modified net present value, and how it could be a useful tool for synergy valuation in the process of business combination. Every successful acquisition has to result in synergy in the post acquisition value. In the process of valuation each company has three components that must be taken into account for an efficient valuation (assets, earning power and firm uniqueness. The process of analyzing business combination could be divided in three interdependent analyses: (1 An analyst must start by applying traditional capital budgeting analyses; (2 followed by identifying various flexibility options; and finally, (3 an analyst must determinate the present value of other strategic options along with the overall certainty of exercising them, together with the added certainty value of these options on traditional present value of business combination. Traditional capital budgeting analyses of business combination is based on net present value techniques. These techniques result with inadequate present value if the post-acquisition reinvestment rate is different from the post-acquisition cost of capital. In these cases, the analyst can apply modified net present value method.

  16. Simulation of Net Infiltration for Present-Day and Potential Future Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Levitt

    2004-11-09

    The purpose of this model report is to document the infiltration model used to estimate upper-bound, mean, and lower-bound spatially-distributed average annual net infiltration rates for present-day and potential future climates at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Net infiltration is the component of infiltrated precipitation, snowmelt, or surface water run-on that has percolated below the zone of evapotranspiration as defined by the depth of the effective root zone. The estimates of net infiltration are primarily used for defining the upper boundary condition for the site-scale three-dimensional unsaturated zone (UZ) model. The UZ flow model is one of several process models abstracted by the total system performance assessment (TSPA) model used to evaluate performance of the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The net-infiltration model is important for assessing repository-system performance because output from this model provides the upper boundary condition for the UZ flow model used to generate flow fields; water percolating downward from the UZ will be the principal means by which radionuclides are potentially released to the saturated zone (SZ). The SZ is the principal pathway to the biosphere where the reasonably maximally exposed individual (RMEI) is exposed to radionuclides.

  17. The economic value of an investment in physiotherapy education: a net present value analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Rivers

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Questions: What is the economic value for an individual to invest in physiotherapy undergraduate education in Australia? How is this affected by increased education costs or decreased wages? Design: A cost-benefit analysis using a net present value (NPV approach was conducted and reported in Australian dollars. In relation to physiotherapy education, the NPV represents future earnings as a physiotherapist minus the direct and indirect costs in obtaining the degree. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to consider varying levels of experience, public versus private sector, and domestic versus international student fees. Comparable calculations were made for educational investments in medicine and nursing/midwifery. Results: Assuming an expected discount rate of 9.675%, investment in education by domestic students with approximately 34 years of average work experience yields a NPV estimated at $784,000 for public sector physiotherapists and $815,000 for private sector therapists. In relation to international students, the NPV results for an investment and career as a physiotherapist is estimated at $705,000 in the public sector and $736,000 in the private sector. Conclusion: With an approximate payback period of 4 years, coupled with strong and positive NPV values, physiotherapy education in Australia is a financially attractive prospect and a viable value proposition for those considering a career in this field. [Rivers G, Foo J, Ilic D, Nicklen P, Reeves S, Walsh K, Maloney S (2015 The economic value of an investment in physiotherapy education: a net present value analysis. Journal of Physiotherapy 61: 148–154

  18. Migration and risk: net migration in marginal ecosystems and hazardous areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sherbinin, Alex; Levy, Marc; Adamo, Susana; MacManus, Kytt; Yetman, Greg; Mara, Valentina; Razafindrazay, Liana; Goodrich, Benjamin; Srebotnjak, Tanja; Aichele, Cody; Pistolesi, Linda

    2012-12-01

    The potential for altered ecosystems and extreme weather events in the context of climate change has raised questions concerning the role that migration plays in either increasing or reducing risks to society. Using modeled data on net migration over three decades from 1970 to 2000, we identify sensitive ecosystems and regions at high risk of climate hazards that have seen high levels of net in-migration and out-migration over the time period. This paper provides a literature review on migration related to ecosystems, briefly describes the methodology used to develop the estimates of net migration, then uses those data to describe the patterns of net migration for various ecosystems and high risk regions. The study finds that negative net migration generally occurs over large areas, reflecting its largely rural character, whereas areas of positive net migration are typically smaller, reflecting its largely urban character. The countries with largest population such as China and India tend to drive global results for all the ecosystems found in those countries. Results suggest that from 1970 to 2000, migrants in developing countries have tended to move out of marginal dryland and mountain ecosystems and out of drought-prone areas, and have moved towards coastal ecosystems and areas that are prone to floods and cyclones. For North America results are reversed for dryland and mountain ecosystems, which saw large net influxes of population in the period of record. Uncertainties and potential sources of error in these estimates are addressed.

  19. The economic value of an investment in physiotherapy education: a net present value analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, George; Foo, Jonathan; Ilic, Dragan; Nicklen, Peter; Reeves, Scott; Walsh, Kieran; Maloney, Stephen

    2015-07-01

    What is the economic value for an individual to invest in physiotherapy undergraduate education in Australia? How is this affected by increased education costs or decreased wages? A cost-benefit analysis using a net present value (NPV) approach was conducted and reported in Australian dollars. In relation to physiotherapy education, the NPV represents future earnings as a physiotherapist minus the direct and indirect costs in obtaining the degree. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to consider varying levels of experience, public versus private sector, and domestic versus international student fees. Comparable calculations were made for educational investments in medicine and nursing/midwifery. Assuming an expected discount rate of 9.675%, investment in education by domestic students with approximately 34 years of average work experience yields a NPV estimated at $784,000 for public sector physiotherapists and $815,000 for private sector therapists. In relation to international students, the NPV results for an investment and career as a physiotherapist is estimated at $705,000 in the public sector and $736,000 in the private sector. With an approximate payback period of 4 years, coupled with strong and positive NPV values, physiotherapy education in Australia is a financially attractive prospect and a viable value proposition for those considering a career in this field. Copyright © 2015 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Diet-dependent net acid load and risk of incident hypertension in United States women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luxia; Curhan, Gary C; Forman, John P

    2009-10-01

    Animal and human studies suggest a potential link between acid-base status and blood pressure. Contemporary Western diets yield a daily systemic acid load of varying amounts, yet the association with hypertension has never been explored. We prospectively examined the association between the diet-dependent net acid load (also known as the estimated net endogenous acid production) and the risk of incident hypertension among 87 293 women without a history of hypertension in the Nurses' Health Study II. We also used the ratio of animal protein intake to potassium intake as an alternative evaluation of diet-dependent net acid load. We identified 15 385 incident cases of hypertension during 995 239 person-years of follow-up. After adjusting for potential confounders, women in the top decile of estimated diet-dependent net acid load had an increased risk of hypertension (relative risk: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.05 to 1.24; P for trend=0.01) compared with women in the bottom decile. To test whether the association between estimated diet-dependent net acid load and hypertension is independent of its individual components, an additional adjustment for intakes of protein and potassium was made and resulted in a relative risk of 1.23 (95% CI: 1.08 to 1.41; P for trend=0.003) for the top decile of estimated diet-dependent net acid load. Results of the ratio of animal protein intake to potassium intake were similar with those of estimated diet-depend net acid load. In conclusion, a high diet-dependent net acid load is independently associated with a higher risk of incident hypertension.

  1. Independent Review of Simulation of Net Infiltration for Present-Day and Potential Future Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Review Panel: Soroosh Sorooshian, Ph.D., Panel Chairperson, University of California, Irvine; Jan M. H. Hendrickx, Ph.D., New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology; Binayak P. Mohanty, Ph.D., Texas A& M University; Scott W. Tyler, Ph.D., University of Nevada, Reno; Tian-Chyi Jim Yeh, Ph.D., University of Arizona -- ORISE Review Facilitators: Robert S. Turner, Ph.D., Technical Review Group Manager, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education; Brian R. Herndon, Project Manager, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education; Russ Manning, Technical Writer/Editor, Haselwood Enterprises, Inc.

    2008-08-30

    The DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) tasked Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) with providing an independent expert review of the documented model and prediction results for net infiltration of water into the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. The specific purpose of the model, as documented in the report MDL-NBS-HS-000023, Rev. 01, is “to provide a spatial representation, including epistemic and aleatory uncertainty, of the predicted mean annual net infiltration at the Yucca Mountain site ...” (p. 1-1) The expert review panel assembled by ORISE concluded that the model report does not provide a technically credible spatial representation of net infiltration at Yucca Mountain. Specifically, the ORISE Review Panel found that: • A critical lack of site-specific meteorological, surface, and subsurface information prevents verification of (i) the net infiltration estimates, (ii) the uncertainty estimates of parameters caused by their spatial variability, and (iii) the assumptions used by the modelers (ranges and distributions) for the characterization of parameters. The paucity of site-specific data used by the modeling team for model implementation and validation is a major deficiency in this effort. • The model does not incorporate at least one potentially important hydrologic process. Subsurface lateral flow is not accounted for by the model, and the assumption that the effect of subsurface lateral flow is negligible is not adequately justified. This issue is especially critical for the wetter climate periods. This omission may be one reason the model results appear to underestimate net infiltration beneath wash environments and therefore imprecisely represent the spatial variability of net infiltration. • While the model uses assumptions consistently, such as uniform soil depths and a constant vegetation rooting depth, such assumptions may not be appropriate for this net infiltration simulation because they

  2. Present and Future of Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net) in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, N.; Nakagawa, S.; Sakai, S.; Honda, R.; Kimura, H.; Panayotopoulos, Y.; Kano, M.

    2015-12-01

    Tokyo and its vicinity are most seismically risky areas in the world. To prepare for the seismic disaster we have started a series of integrated Tokyo Metropolitan projects for disaster mitigation since 2002.The current Tokyo Metropolitan Project (Phase III) has started in 2012 with a new project name as "Special Project for Reducing Vulnerability for Urban Mega-earthquake Disasters" to use MeSO-net data for constructing 3-D velocity and Q structure beneath the greater Tokyo. We aim to collect data for regional characterization to access seismic hazard produced by subduction of Philippine Sea and Pacific plates. The data from MeSO-net are continuously collected at the data management center in the Earthquake Research Institute (ERI), the University of Tokyo, with a sampling rate of 200 Hz. The data are 3-componnent accelerogram with a full scale of +/- 1,500 gal for horizontal and +/-500 gal for vertical component and the effective dynamic range is 135dB at 40Hz. Available frequency range is from 0.05 to 85 Hz, which is good for travel time analysis of body waves to ambient noise analysis for surface waves. We have successfully operated MeSO-net for about 7 years without serious malfunction. We collect more than 150 TB continuous ground motion data with more than 100K earthquakes including the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake and all its aftershocks. The data are used many studies (e.g., Nakagawa et al., 2010,2015; Ishibe et al., 2015; Denolle et al., 2014) and currently prepared for disclosing both in continues and event-by-event format. We are developing a fully automatic earthquake detection/location system for local earthquakes beneath MeSO-net. A numerical system to estimate ground motions at an arbitrary location without MeSO-net station is under developing (Kano et al., 2015).We also install a sensor system in a building for monitoring motion and damages by a large earthquake (Nakashima et al., 2015). Those studies are eventually integrated to develop an advanced

  3. Clinical presentation and risk factors of osteoradionecrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chronopoulos, Aristeidis

    2015-03-26

    Introduction: Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of the jaws is defined as exposed irradiated bone that fails to heal over a period of 3 months without the evidence of a persisting or recurrent tumor. In the previous decades, numerous factors were associated with the risk of ORN development and severity. Aims: The purposes of this study were to present the data of the patients that were treated for ORN in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Munich (LMU), to detect factors that contributed to the onset of ORN, to identify risk factors associated with the severity of ORN and finally, to delineate and correlate these factors with the personal, health and treatment characteristics of the patients. Material and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted during the period from January 2003 until December 2012 that included all ORN cases having been treated in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Munich (LMU). The total sample was categorized in three groups according to stage and several variables were evaluated in an attempt to identify possible correlations between them and the necrosis severity. Results: One hundred and fifty three cases of ORN were documented. Among them, 23 (15.1%) cases were stage I, 31 (20.2%) were stage II and 99 (64.7%) were stage III and all localised in the mandible. There was a predominance of the disease in the posterior region when compared to the anterior region. The majority of cases was addicted to alcohol and tobacco abuse and was suffering from Diabetes Mellitus (DM). All cases were treated with RT and 80.4% of them with concomitant chemotherapy. The initial tumor was predominantly located in the floor of the mouth, the tongue and the pharynx. Approximately two thirds of the cases occured either after dental treatment or due to a local pathological condition. Logistic regression analysis identified Diabetes Mellitus (OR: 4.955, 95% Cl: 1.965-12.495), active smoking (OR: 13.542, 95% Cl: 2.085-87.947), excessive

  4. Using alternative statistical formats for presenting risks and risk reductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akl, Elie A; Oxman, Andrew D; Herrin, Jeph; Vist, Gunn E; Terrenato, Irene; Sperati, Francesca; Costiniuk, Cecilia; Blank, Diana; Schünemann, Holger

    2011-03-16

    The success of evidence-based practice depends on the clear and effective communication of statistical information. To evaluate the effects of using alternative statistical presentations of the same risks and risk reductions on understanding, perception, persuasiveness and behaviour of health professionals, policy makers, and consumers. We searched Ovid MEDLINE (1966 to October 2007), EMBASE (1980 to October 2007), PsycLIT (1887 to October 2007), and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library, 2007, Issue 3). We reviewed the reference lists of relevant articles, and contacted experts in the field. We included randomized and non-randomized controlled parallel and cross-over studies. We focused on four comparisons: a comparison of statistical presentations of a risk (eg frequencies versus probabilities) and three comparisons of statistical presentation of risk reduction: relative risk reduction (RRR) versus absolute risk reduction (ARR), RRR versus number needed to treat (NNT), and ARR versus NNT. Two authors independently selected studies for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We contacted investigators to obtain missing information. We graded the quality of evidence for each outcome using the GRADE approach. We standardized the outcome effects using adjusted standardized mean difference (SMD). We included 35 studies reporting 83 comparisons. None of the studies involved policy makers. Participants (health professionals and consumers) understood natural frequencies better than probabilities (SMD 0.69 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.45 to 0.93)). Compared with ARR, RRR had little or no difference in understanding (SMD 0.02 (95% CI -0.39 to 0.43)) but was perceived to be larger (SMD 0.41 (95% CI 0.03 to 0.79)) and more persuasive (SMD 0.66 (95% CI 0.51 to 0.81)). Compared with NNT, RRR was better understood (SMD 0.73 (95% CI 0.43 to 1.04)), was perceived to be larger (SMD 1.15 (95% CI 0.80 to 1.50)) and was more

  5. Use of the NetBeans Platform for NASA Robotic Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabey, Nickolas J.

    2014-01-01

    The latest Java and JavaFX technologies are very attractive software platforms for customers involved in space mission operations such as those of NASA and the US Air Force. For NASA Robotic Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis (CARA), the NetBeans platform provided an environment in which scalable software solutions could be developed quickly and efficiently. Both Java 8 and the NetBeans platform are in the process of simplifying CARA development in secure environments by providing a significant amount of capability in a single accredited package, where accreditation alone can account for 6-8 months for each library or software application. Capabilities either in use or being investigated by CARA include: 2D and 3D displays with JavaFX, parallelization with the new Streams API, and scalability through the NetBeans plugin architecture.

  6. The impact of two pharmaceutical risk-sharing agreements on pricing, promotion, and net health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaric, Gregory S; Xie, Bin

    2009-01-01

    Health insurers are increasingly making use of risk-sharing agreements with drug manufacturers to manage uncertainties regarding the costs and effectiveness of new drugs. Several risk-sharing models exist including those based on sales volume, achievement of clinical thresholds, and achievement of cost-effectiveness thresholds. The objective of this article is to compare two risk-sharing arrangements and to investigate conditions under which each is preferable from the perspective of the payer and the manufacturer. We develop two two-period models to compare two risk-sharing arrangements between a payer and a drug manufacturer in which there is uncertainty about the effectiveness of the new drug. In the first risk-sharing agreement, the drug is listed on a formulary in the first period but delisted in the second period if the net monetary benefit in the first period is negative. In the second risk-sharing agreement, the manufacturer pays a rebate in each period if the net monetary benefit in that period is negative. We show that the relative performance of the two arrangements depends on several factors and that neither arrangement is always preferred. Additionally, we are able to identify situations in which a payer and a manufacturer would prefer the same plan and other situations in which the two parties would disagree on which plan was most desirable. Because neither risk-sharing arrangement is always preferred, payers and manufacturers must carefully consider the characteristics of their individual situation when entering into such contracts.

  7. The relation between well spacing and Net Present Value in fluvial Hot Sedimentary Aquifer geothermal doublets : a West Netherlands Basin case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, C.J.L.; Goense, T.; Maghami Nick, Hamidreza M.; Bruhn, D.F.

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relation between well spacing and Net Present Value of a Hot Sedimentary Aquifer geothermal doublet. First, a sensitivity analysis is carried out to evaluate the effect of uncertainty of geological and production parameters on the Net present Value. Second a finite-element

  8. Pro WPF in C# 2010 Windows Presentation Foundation in NET 40

    CERN Document Server

    MacDonald, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Microsoft's Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF) provides the foundation for building applications and high-quality user experiences for the Windows operating system. It blends the application user interface, documents, and media content, while exploiting the full power of your computer's operating system. Its functionality extends to the support for Tablet PCs and other forms of input device, and it provides a more modern imaging and printing pipeline, accessibility and UI automation infrastructure, data-driven UIs and visualization, and integration points for weaving the application experie

  9. Pro WPF 4.5 in C# Windows Presentation Foundation in .NET 4.5

    CERN Document Server

    MacDonald, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Microsoft's Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF) provides you with a development framework for building high-quality user experiences for the Windows operating system. It blends together rich content from a wide range of sources and allows you unparalleled access to the processing power of your Windows computer. Pro WPF 4.5 in C# provides a thorough, authoritative guide to how WPF really works. Packed with no-nonsense examples and practical advice you'll learn everything you need to know in order to use WPF in a professional setting. The book begins by building a firm foundation of elementary

  10. Risk exposure data : recommendations for collection and exploitation. SafetyNet, Building the European Road Safety Observatory, Workpackage 2, Deliverable 2.5.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duchamp, G. Treny, V. Hemdorff, S. Haddak, M. Holló, P. Cardoso, J. Papadimitriou, E. Yannis, G. Chaziris, A. Bijleveld, F. Bjørnskau, T. & Leiner, T.

    2009-01-01

    The present deliverable, as the last of work package 2 of SafetyNet dealing with risk exposure data, is the conclusion of four years work. In the light of the progress made from the State of the art to the common framework, including the practical case of the pilot study, its aim is to give

  11. Dietary Protein and Potassium, Diet–Dependent Net Acid Load, and Risk of Incident Kidney Stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Ernest I.; Curhan, Gary C.; Gambaro, Giovanni; Taylor, Eric N.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Protein and potassium intake and the resulting diet–dependent net acid load may affect kidney stone formation. It is not known whether protein type or net acid load is associated with risk of kidney stones. Design, setting, participants, & measurements We prospectively examined intakes of protein (dairy, nondairy animal, and vegetable), potassium, and animal protein-to-potassium ratio (an estimate of net acid load) and risk of incident kidney stones in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (n=42,919), the Nurses’ Health Study I (n=60,128), and the Nurses’ Health Study II (n=90,629). Multivariable models were adjusted for age, body mass index, diet, and other factors. We also analyzed cross-sectional associations with 24-hour urine (n=6129). Results During 3,108,264 person-years of follow-up, there were 6308 incident kidney stones. Dairy protein was associated with lower risk in the Nurses’ Health Study II (hazard ratio for highest versus lowest quintile, 0.84; 95% confidence interval, 0.73 to 0.96; P value for trend <0.01). The hazard ratios for nondairy animal protein were 1.15 (95% confidence interval, 0.97 to 1.36; P value for trend =0.04) in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study and 1.20 (95% confidence interval, 0.99 to 1.46; P value for trend =0.06) in the Nurses’ Health Study I. Potassium intake was associated with lower risk in all three cohorts (hazard ratios from 0.44 [95% confidence interval, 0.36 to 0.53] to 0.67 [95% confidence interval, 0.57 to 0.78]; P values for trend <0.001). Animal protein-to-potassium ratio was associated with higher risk (P value for trend =0.004), even after adjustment for animal protein and potassium. Higher dietary potassium was associated with higher urine citrate, pH, and volume (P values for trend <0.002). Conclusions Kidney stone risk may vary by protein type. Diets high in potassium or with a relative abundance of potassium compared with animal protein could represent a means of

  12. Dietary Protein and Potassium, Diet-Dependent Net Acid Load, and Risk of Incident Kidney Stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Mandel, Ernest I; Curhan, Gary C; Gambaro, Giovanni; Taylor, Eric N

    2016-10-07

    Protein and potassium intake and the resulting diet-dependent net acid load may affect kidney stone formation. It is not known whether protein type or net acid load is associated with risk of kidney stones. We prospectively examined intakes of protein (dairy, nondairy animal, and vegetable), potassium, and animal protein-to-potassium ratio (an estimate of net acid load) and risk of incident kidney stones in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (n=42,919), the Nurses' Health Study I (n=60,128), and the Nurses' Health Study II (n=90,629). Multivariable models were adjusted for age, body mass index, diet, and other factors. We also analyzed cross-sectional associations with 24-hour urine (n=6129). During 3,108,264 person-years of follow-up, there were 6308 incident kidney stones. Dairy protein was associated with lower risk in the Nurses' Health Study II (hazard ratio for highest versus lowest quintile, 0.84; 95% confidence interval, 0.73 to 0.96; P value for trend <0.01). The hazard ratios for nondairy animal protein were 1.15 (95% confidence interval, 0.97 to 1.36; P value for trend =0.04) in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study and 1.20 (95% confidence interval, 0.99 to 1.46; P value for trend =0.06) in the Nurses' Health Study I. Potassium intake was associated with lower risk in all three cohorts (hazard ratios from 0.44 [95% confidence interval, 0.36 to 0.53] to 0.67 [95% confidence interval, 0.57 to 0.78]; P values for trend <0.001). Animal protein-to-potassium ratio was associated with higher risk (P value for trend =0.004), even after adjustment for animal protein and potassium. Higher dietary potassium was associated with higher urine citrate, pH, and volume (P values for trend <0.002). Kidney stone risk may vary by protein type. Diets high in potassium or with a relative abundance of potassium compared with animal protein could represent a means of stone prevention. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  13. Presenting risk information in sexual and reproductive health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Anna L; Akintomide, Hannat

    2016-07-01

    Presenting risk information to patients is an important part of clinical encounters. Good risk communication improves patient satisfaction with their care and the decisions they make. In sexual and reproductive healthcare (SRH), women frequently need to make decisions based on their perceived risk. Risk perception can be altered by how actual risk is presented to patients. Databases were searched using MeSH terms combined with a keyword search for articles relevant to SRH; the search was limited to English language. Personalised risk communication where a risk score is provided, increases knowledge and slightly increases uptake of screening tests. Decision aids improve a patient's knowledge of the options, create realistic expectations of their benefits and harms, reduce difficulty with decision-making, and increase participation in the process. The most effective way to present risks uses a range of structured, tailored presentation styles; interactive formats are best. Framing the information improves patient understanding. Most people understand natural frequencies or event rates better than probability formats with varying denominators. Expressing changes in risk as an absolute risk reduction or relative risk reduction with baseline risk formats improves understanding. Descriptive terms such as 'low risk' or 'high risk' should be quantified as a frequency rather than a percentage. Using a consistent denominator to portray risk is recommended. Using the 'number needed to treat' and visual aids puts benefits or risks into perspective. The duration of risk should be presented. Presenting risk information to patients can be optimised using a number of strategies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. The E-net model for the Risk Analysis and Assessment System for the Information Security of Communication and Information Systems ("Defining" Subsystem)

    OpenAIRE

    Stoianov, Nikolai; Aleksandrova, Veselina

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents one suggestion that comprises the authors' experience in development and implementation of systems for information security in the Automated Information Systems of the Bulgarian Armed Forces. The architecture of risk analysis and assessment system for the communication and information system's information security (CIS IS) has been presented. E-net model of "Defining" Subsystem as a tool that allows to examine the subsystems is proposed as well. Such approach can be applie...

  15. The application of Petri nets in a model based risk analysis framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braathe, Christian Andre; Kolstad, Kristian; Thunem, Atoosa P-J.

    2005-09-15

    In January 2001 a project called CORAS was started under the Information Society Technologies (IST) Programme. The main objective for the CORAS project was to develop a practical framework for a precise, unambiguous and effective risk analysis of security critical computerised systems. CORAS aimed to adapt, refine, extend and combine methods for risk analysis and methods for object oriented modelling together with a computerized tool to build a framework for model-based risk analysis (MBRA) of security critical systems. In very general terms, the CORAS framework uses system models created by using the Unified Modelling Language (herby known as UML) notation to analyse the systems' functionality. However, UML is not the only modelling language available, and it is not the best language for detailed system modelling, as it can become very large and therefore difficult to manage. Another possibility is to complement UML modelling with modelling by means of Petri nets (herby known as PN), which is a relative powerful modelling language. One of the great advantages of PNs is that it allows the modelling of concurrency, synchronization and resource sharing behaviour of systems. PNs also provide the possibility of a formal verification and it is also useful for detection and performance analysis because the corresponding models can be simulated. Yet, the question with respect to this work is: is it possible to improve the risk analysis process suggested by the CORAS framework when using PNs on the basis of the UML models? Accordingly, the main objective of the work is to investigate whether PNs can help us to improve the risk analysis process by supporting the system modelling activity. (Author)

  16. Malaria risk factors in North West Tanzania: the effect of spraying, nets and wealth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippa A West

    Full Text Available Malaria prevalence remains high in many African countries despite massive scaling-up of insecticide treated nets (ITN and indoor residual spraying (IRS. This paper evaluates the protective effect of pyrethroid IRS and ITNs in relation to risk factors for malaria based on a study conducted in North-West Tanzania, where IRS has been conducted since 2007 and universal coverage of ITNs has been carried out recently. In 2011 community-based cross-sectional surveys were conducted in the two main malaria transmission periods that occur after the short and long rainy seasons. These included 5,152 and 4,325 children aged 0.5-14 years, respectively. Data on IRS and ITN coverage, household demographics and socio-economic status were collected using an adapted version of the Malaria Indicator Survey. Children were screened for malaria by rapid diagnostic test. In the second survey, haemoglobin density was measured and filter paper blood spots were collected to determine age-specific sero-prevalence in each community surveyed. Plasmodium falciparum infection prevalence in children 0.5-14 years old was 9.3% (95%CI:5.9-14.5 and 22.8% (95%CI:17.3-29.4 in the two surveys. Risk factors for infection after the short rains included households not being sprayed (OR = 0.39; 95%CI:0.20-0.75; low community net ownership (OR = 0.45; 95%CI:0.21-0.95; and low community SES (least poor vs. poorest tertile: OR = 0.13, 95%CI:0.05-0.34. Risk factors after the long rains included household poverty (per quintile increase: OR = 0.89; 95%CI:0.82-0.97 and community poverty (least poor vs. poorest tertile: OR = 0.26, 95%CI:0.15-0.44; household IRS or high community ITN ownership were not protective. Despite high IRS coverage and equitable LLIN distribution, poverty was an important risk factor for malaria suggesting it could be beneficial to target additional malaria control activities to poor households and communities. High malaria prevalence in some clusters

  17. The impact of reduction of doublet well spacing on the Net Present Value and the life time of fluvial Hot Sedimentary Aquifer doublets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willems, C. J. L.; Nick, H. M.; Goense, T.

    2017-01-01

    This paper evaluates the impact of reduction of doublet well spacing, below the current West Netherlands Basin standard of 1000 - 1500 m, on the Net Present Value (NPV) and the life time of fluvial Hot Sedimentary Aquifer (HSA) doublets. First, a sensitivity analysis is used to show the possible ...

  18. The impact of reduction of doublet well spacing on the Net Present Value and the life time of fluvial Hot Sedimentary Aquifer doublets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, C.J.L.; Maghami Nick, Hamidreza M.; Bruhn, D.F.

    This paper evaluates the impact of reduction of doublet well spacing, below the current West Netherlands Basin standard of 1000 to 1500 m, on the Net Present Value (NPV) and the life time of fluvial Hot Sedimentary Aquifer (HSA) doublets. First, a sensitivity analysis is used to show the possible

  19. Risk factors for neonatal jaundice in babies presenting at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case notes of babies admitted from January 2006 to December 2008 were retrieved and information on biodata, gestational age, anthropometric values, potential risk factors, level of serum bilirubin at presentation and discharge, mode of treatment and outcome were extracted. Results: Of the 1784 babies admitted during ...

  20. Risk factors for placenta praevia presenting with severe vaginal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    previa who developed severe bleeding and 180 women with normal delivery. The risk factors were studied. Variables of interest: Socio demographic characteristics, social and family history, gynaecological operations, blood transfusion, medical conditions, past and present obstetric performance and HIV status. Results: ...

  1. Pattern of Presentation and Risk Factors of Acute Respiratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    70% of the subjects were between 3 and 5 years old. The prevalence of Acute Respiratory Infection was 52.9% with peak prevalence in the age range 4 to 5 years. Cough was present in 61.1% of the subjects while coryza was the most frequent symptom with a prevalence of 95%. The risk factors identified included contract ...

  2. Typhoid fever in children: Clinical presentation and risk factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The diagnosis of typhoid fever based on widal test is on the rise despite its set back. We prospectively reviewed over one year period, cases of typhoid fever admitted in our centre to document the pattern of clinical presentation, risk factors and the reliability of Widal test in its diagnosis. Methods: This was a ...

  3. The 2007 flood in the Sahel: causes, characteristics and its presentation in the media and FEWS NET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Samimi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available During the rainy season in 2007, reports about exceptional rains and floodings in the Sahel were published in the media, especially in August and September. Institutions and organizations like the World Food Programme (WFP and FEWS NET put the events on the agenda and released alerts and requested help. The partly controversial picture was that most of the Sahel faced a crisis caused by widespread floodings. Our study shows that the rainy season in 2007 was exceptional with regard to rainfall amount and return periods. In many areas the event had a return period between 1 and 50 yr with high spatial heterogeneity, with the exception of the Upper Volta basin, which yielded return periods of up to 1200 yr. Despite the strong rainfall, the interpretation of satellite images show that the floods were mainly confined to lakes and river beds. However, the study also proves the difficulties in assessing the meteorological processes and the demarcation of flooded areas in satellite images without ground truthing. These facts and the somewhat vague and controversial reports in the media and FEWS NET demonstrate that it is crucial to thoroughly analyze such events at a regional and local scale involving the local population.

  4. The risks of opioid treatment: Perspectives of primary care practitioners and patients from safety-net clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurstak, Emily E; Kushel, Margot; Chang, Jamie; Ceasar, Rachel; Zamora, Kara; Miaskowski, Christine; Knight, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    Patients with a history of substance use are more likely than those without substance use to experience chronic noncancer pain (CNCP), to be prescribed opioids, and to experience opioid misuse or overdose. Primary care practitioners (PCPs) in safety-net settings care for low-income patients with CNCP and substance use, usually without specialist consultation. To inform communication related to opioid risk, we explored PCPs' and patients' perceptions of the risks of chronic opioid therapy. We conducted semistructured interviews with 23 PCPs and 46 of their patients, who had a history of CNCP and substance use. We recruited from 6 safety-net health care settings in the San Francisco Bay Area. We transcribed interviews verbatim and analyzed transcripts using grounded theory methodology. (1) PCPs feared harming patients and the community by opioid prescribing. PCPs emphasized fear of opioid overdose. (2) Patients did not highlight concerns about the adverse health consequences of opioids, except for addiction. (3) Both patients and PCPs were concerned about PCPs' medicolegal risks related to opioid prescribing. (4) Patients reported feeling stigmatized by policies aimed at reducing opioid misuse. We identified differences in how clinicians and patients perceive opioid risk. To improve the informed consent process for opioid therapy, patients and PCPs need to have a shared understanding of the risks of opioids and engage in discussions that promote patient autonomy and safety. As clinics implement opioid prescribing policies, clinicians must develop effective communication strategies in order to educate patients about opioid risks and decrease patients' experiences of stigma and discrimination.

  5. Wandering spleen: 'presentation in adolescent with high thrombotic risk'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchidjou, Hyppolite K; Castelluzzo, Maria A; Messia, Virginia; Luciani, Matteo; Monti, Lidia; Grimaldi, Chiara; Bernardi, Stefania; D'Argenio, Patrizia

    2014-07-01

    The term 'wandering spleen' refers to an abnormal hypermobility of the spleen, which may be congenital or acquired. The absence or abnormal laxity of splenic ligaments combined with an abnormally long and mobile vascular pedicle predispose to complications such as torsion of the splenic pedicle, infarction and splenic vein thrombosis. The clinical presentation of such disease is highly variable. In this case, we describe an asymptomatic case of wandering spleen in high thrombotic risk patients with cavernoma of splenic vein and infarction of the spleen. Physical examination was normal except the enlarged and no tender consistency spleen palpable at left iliac fossa. Ultrasonography revealed enlarged spleniform mass below its normal position suggesting vascular impairment and subsequently has been confirmed by colour Doppler ultrasound and computed tomography. The family history was positive for ischemic thrombotic vascular diseases and the screening for thrombotic risk has revealed hyperhomocysteinemia, thrombophilic homozygous gene mutations for factor V (H1299R) and MTHFR (C677T). For high thrombotic risk, prophylaxis postsplenectomy was suggested according to the international recommendations with subcutaneous low molecular weight heparin, associated with a preventive treatment with acetyl salicylic acid and folic acid along with B-vitamin. This case report may be helpful for clinicians involved in the care of splenectomized patients, because it has shown the importance of an appropriate pre and postoperative antithrombotic management to reduce as soon as possible the risk of thrombotic events in such patients after splenectomy.

  6. Perinatal arterial ischemic stroke: presentation, risk factors, evaluation, and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Laura L; Rivkin, Michael J

    2014-12-01

    Perinatal arterial ischemic stroke is as common as large vessel arterial ischemic stroke in adults and leads to significant morbidity. Perinatal arterial ischemic stroke is the most common identifiable cause of cerebral palsy and can lead to cognitive and behavioral difficulties that are amortized over a lifetime. The literature on perinatal arterial ischemic stroke was reviewed and analyzed. Risk factors for perinatal arterial ischemic stroke include those that are maternal, neonatal, and placental. The most common clinical signs at presentation are seizures and hemiparesis. Evaluation should begin with thorough history acquisition and physical examination followed by magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, with consideration of magnetic resonance angiography of the head and neck, echocardiogram, and thrombophilia evaluation. Treatment beginning early to include physical, speech, and occupational therapies including constraint-induced movement therapy and close cognitive and developmental follow-up may be beneficial. Future treatments may include transcranial magnetic stimulation, hypothermia, and erythropoietin. Perinatal arterial ischemic stroke comprises a group of arterial ischemic injuries that can occur in the prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal periods in term and preterm infants with different types of perinatal arterial ischemic stroke having different clinical presentations, risk factors, and long-term outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Applying the net-benefit framework for analyzing and presenting cost-effectiveness analysis of a maternal and newborn health intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hounton, Sennen; Newlands, David

    2012-01-01

    Coverage of maternal and newborn health (MNH) interventions is often influenced by important determinants and decision makers are often concerned with equity issues. The net-benefit framework developed and applied alongside clinical trials and in pharmacoeconomics offers the potential for exploring how cost-effectiveness of MNH interventions varies at the margin by important covariates as well as for handling uncertainties around the ICER estimate. We applied the net-benefit framework to analyze cost-effectiveness of the Skilled Care Initiative and assessed relative advantages over a standard computation of incremental cost effectiveness ratios. Household and facility surveys were carried out from January to July 2006 in Ouargaye district (where the Skilled Care Initiative was implemented) and Diapaga (comparison site) district in Burkina Faso. Pregnancy-related and perinatal mortality were retrospectively assessed and data were collected on place of delivery, education, asset ownership, place, and distance to health facilities, costs borne by households for institutional delivery, and cost of standard provision of maternal care. Descriptive and regression analyses were performed. There was a 30% increase in institutional births in the intervention district compared to 10% increase in comparison district, and a significant reduction of perinatal mortality rates (OR 0.75, CI 0.70-0.80) in intervention district. The incremental cost for achieving one additional institutional delivery in Ouargaye district compared to Diapaga district was estimated to be 170 international dollars and varied significantly by covariates. However, the joint probability distribution (net-benefit framework) of the effectiveness measure (institutional delivery), the cost data and covariates indicated distance to health facilities as the single most important determinant of the cost-effectiveness analysis with implications for policy making. The net-benefit framework, the application of which

  8. A weighted fuzzy Petri-net based approach for security risk assessment in the chemical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Jianfeng; Reniers, Genserik; Zhang, Laobing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: As large amounts of hazardous chemicals are handled in the petrochemical industries, the plants in these industries are attractive for terrorists because they can cause great losses and have important social impact. Security risk assessment is important to determine the risk level of a plant in order to take targeted measures to reduce the security risk. Based on Security Risk Factor Table (SRFT) which covers the essential elements for the security risk assessment, a weighted fuzzy ...

  9. Risk factors for asthma exacerbation in patients presenting to an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Asthma exacerbations are caused by a variety of risk factors. Reducing exposure to these risk factors improves the control of asthma and reduces medication needs. Knowledge of the particular risk factors is essential in formulating controlling and treatment protocols. This study set out to determine the risk ...

  10. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) MMSA Prevalence Data (2011 to Present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to present. BRFSS SMART MMSA Prevalence combined land line and cell phone data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral...

  11. BANK’S RISK MANAGEMENT REGARDING RISK OF MISCONDUCT AT THE PRESENT STAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Liuft

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes such operational banking risk as the risk of opportunistic (unfair behavior on borrowers’ and bank staff’s part. It describes current situation of bank’s risk management as regards to dealing with unfair behavior. Also it describes every risk-forming factor of this type of risk, including a degree of threat generalization (the risk of misconduct is put into multiple risks, its mechanism, objects of potential threat (monetary funds, capital issues, bank information, including credit assessment methods, bank property and potential bank profit, individuals who are involved in the risk and consequences. The particular attention is paid to a participation of a bank staff and financial agents - loan brokers in the implementation of misconduct facts, as on statistical data the presence of these sides of the risk precisely causes maximum harm. Classification of the events’ types that entailed losses, related to the unfair behavior and examples of manifestations of unfair behavior are given in the article on basis of regulatory documentation of The Committee on Banking Supervision of the Bank for international Settlements. The author gives the concept of unfair client of lending agency. The article presents the data of maximum loss received as the result of implementation of the unfair behavior’s fact involving bank staff. The most obvious examples demonstrating the facts of misconduct are given in the article. The author forms the final definition of the opportunistic behavior risk, based on considered characteristics and guidelines for work with risk regarding alteration in legal texts: The Criminal Code of the Russian Federation (hereinafter referred to as CC RF and the regulations of The Bank of Russia № 254-P.

  12. Risks of thromboembolism and bleeding with thromboprophylaxis in patients with atrial fibrillation: A net clinical benefit analysis using a 'real world' nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jonas Bjerring; Lip, Gregory Y H; Lindhardsen, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    . There was a neutral or positive net clinical benefit (ischaemic stroke vs. intracranial haemorrhage) with VKA alone in patients with a CHADS2 score of = 0, and CHA2DS2-VASc score of = 1. This large cohort study confirms the efficacy of VKA and no effect of ASA treatment on the risk of stroke/thromboembolism. Also......, the risk of bleeding was increased with both VKA and ASA treatment, but the net clinical benefit was clearly positive, in favour of VKA in patients with increased risk of stroke/thromboembolism....

  13. Acalculous cholecystitis presenting in an outpatient with no risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Goodier

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC is recognised to occur in patients with serious co-morbid illnesses such as after major surgery, severe trauma, burns, multi-organ failure, systemic sepsis and prolonged intravenous hyperalimentation. The development of AAC in outpatients with none of the traditional risk factors appears to be increasing. The incidence of this form of AAC in South Africa has not yet been established. Prompt recognition of this condition and appropriate surgical management is necessary to minimise morbidity and mortality. This report describes a 52-year-old man who developed AAC in the absence of the usual risk factors.

  14. An Investigation of Network Enterprise Risk Management Techniques to Support Military Net-Centric Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Risk Management IATF Information Assurance Technical Framework IDS Intrusion Detection System IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers...alternatives to measure parameters It is built within the DoD’s Information Assurance Technical Framework ( IATF ), which is what the DoD has developed as the

  15. Risk factors for neonatal jaundice in babies presenting at the

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Ezechukwu

    2012-03-13

    Mar 13, 2012 ... drogenase enzyme deficiencies, use of native herbs and contact with naphthalene balls contaminated clothes have been identified for neonatal jaundice. Objective: To determine the risk factors for neonatal jaundice at Uni- versity of Benin Teaching Hospital,. Benin City. Methods: This retrospective study.

  16. Formulation and Presentation of Risk Assessments to Address Risk Targets for Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmot, R.D. [Galson Sciences Ltd, Oakham (United Kingdom)

    2002-10-01

    The Swedish regulators have been active in the field of performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal facilities for many years and have developed sophisticated approaches to the development of scenarios and other aspects of assessments. These assessments have generally used dose as the assessment end-point. Regulations recently established in Sweden (SSI FS 1998:1) have introduced a risk criterion for radioactive waste disposal: the annual risk of harmful effects after closure of a disposal facility should not exceed 10{sup -6} for a representative individual in the group exposed to the greatest risk. This report evaluates different approaches to the definition and use of probabilities in the context of risk assessments, and examines the presentation of the results of risk assessments in safety cases to meet risk targets. The report illustrates the strengths and weaknesses of different possible approaches to risk assessment by reference to assessments in other countries, and provides suggestions for future activity and development in this area by the Swedish regulators. The review of experience in other countries has led to a number of key observations relevant to the conduct of regulatory work on risk assessments and preparations for review. These highlight the importance of developing a protocol for conducting calculations, and linking such a protocol to the requirements of risk assessment calculations and to existing code and model capabilities. There are a number of decisions and assumptions required in developing a risk assessment methodology that could potentially affect the calculated results. These assumptions are independent of the analysis of performance, and relate to issues such as the expectation value of risk, risk dilution, the definition of probability density functions and achieving convergence. A review of a proponent's risk assessment should address these issues in determining the appropriateness and validity of the results presented

  17. Risk factors for neonatal jaundice in babies presenting at the

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Ezechukwu

    2012-03-13

    Mar 13, 2012 ... older age (6.08 ± 5.19 days) than in. -born babies (2.47 ± 2.48 days). The mean serum bilirubin value in out-born babies (14.00 ± 4.58 mg/. dL) was significantly higher than that observed among the in-born babies (9.35 ± 4.38 mg/dL: p = 0.000). The risk factors identified were use of mentholatum, naphtha-.

  18. MORM--a Petri net based model for assessing OH&S risks in industrial processes: modeling qualitative aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernez, David; Buchs, Didier R; Pierrehumbert, Guillaume E; Besrour, Adel

    2004-12-01

    Because of the increase in workplace automation and the diversification of industrial processes, workplaces have become more and more complex. The classical approaches used to address workplace hazard concerns, such as checklists or sequence models, are, therefore, of limited use in such complex systems. Moreover, because of the multifaceted nature of workplaces, the use of single-oriented methods, such as AEA (man oriented), FMEA (system oriented), or HAZOP (process oriented), is not satisfactory. The use of a dynamic modeling approach in order to allow multiple-oriented analyses may constitute an alternative to overcome this limitation. The qualitative modeling aspects of the MORM (man-machine occupational risk modeling) model are discussed in this article. The model, realized on an object-oriented Petri net tool (CO-OPN), has been developed to simulate and analyze industrial processes in an OH&S perspective. The industrial process is modeled as a set of interconnected subnets (state spaces), which describe its constitutive machines. Process-related factors are introduced, in an explicit way, through machine interconnections and flow properties. While man-machine interactions are modeled as triggering events for the state spaces of the machines, the CREAM cognitive behavior model is used in order to establish the relevant triggering events. In the CO-OPN formalism, the model is expressed as a set of interconnected CO-OPN objects defined over data types expressing the measure attached to the flow of entities transiting through the machines. Constraints on the measures assigned to these entities are used to determine the state changes in each machine. Interconnecting machines implies the composition of such flow and consequently the interconnection of the measure constraints. This is reflected by the construction of constraint enrichment hierarchies, which can be used for simulation and analysis optimization in a clear mathematical framework. The use of Petri nets

  19. Participation of low-income women in genetic cancer risk assessment and BRCA 1/2 testing: the experience of a safety-net institution

    OpenAIRE

    Komenaka, Ian K.; Nodora, Jesse N.; Madlensky, Lisa; Lisa M. Winton; Heberer, Meredith A.; Schwab, Richard B; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Martinez, Maria Elena

    2015-01-01

    Some communities and populations lack access to genetic cancer risk assessment (GCRA) and testing. This is particularly evident in safety-net institutions, which serve a large segment of low-income, uninsured individuals. We describe the experience of a safety-net clinic with limited resources in providing GCRA and BRCA1/2 testing. We compared the proportion and characteristics of high-risk women who were offered and underwent GCRA and genetic testing. We also provide a description of the mut...

  20. Evaluation of Cases with Rabies Risk Presenting to Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fevzi Yilmaz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: All around the world 10-12 million people/year receive rabies prophylaxis. Rabies is an acute fatal central nervous system viral enfection. The virus can infect all warm-blooded animals and almost in all cases the enfection results with fatal encephalitis. The aim of this study is to determine the demographic characteristics of cases with rabies risk exposures and behind this to emphasise the significance of cooperation between the institutions to perform effective and accurate treatment. Material and Method: This study was performed with retrospective analysis of 1429 cases who attended to Emergency Department of Diyarbakir Goverment Hospital between January 2007-2010 for animal bites and exposures with the risk of rabies. Statistical analysis of data was performed SPSS V16 pocket programme. Data were defined as frequency and %. For statistical analysis Chi-Square and Fischer exact test was used. A value of P<0.05 was accepted statistically significant. Results: A total of 1055 (73.8% were male, 374 (26.2% were female and the mean age was 21.75 ± 16.9 (6 months-87 years. The major group in children was 6-11 years old and 651 (% 45.5 of the cases attended to hospital were under 18 years old. The vast majority (39.3% in adults were between 19-49 years. In our study 808 (56.5% of the cases  were bitten, 597 (41.8% of the cases  were scrabbled by the animal and 24 (1.7%of them  had indirect contact with the animal Both of them were taken into prophylactic vaccination programme (p<0.05. The vast majority of animal bites were dog (67%  and cat (28%. 3 doses of Human diploid cell vaccine-HDCV were administered to 1001 (70% of the patients and 5 doses to 428 (30% of patients. Human rabies immune globulin-HRIG were administered to 475 (33,3% of the patients in addition to vaccine. Discussion:  In our region rabies risk exposure is an important public health problem. Public oriented education should be given about attending to health care

  1. Risk factors, pre-presentation management and clinical state of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-08-23

    Aug 23, 2017 ... 64.82%) first presented at Patent. Medicine Stores and 38 or 70.37% had some oral fluids. ... are largely mismanaged at patent medicine stores before presenta- tion at hospital. Provision of pota- .... age range affected and the gender distribution are both expected.4. Almost three quarters of the respondents.

  2. Predicting the Risk of Adverse Drug Reactions in Older Inpatients: External Validation of the GerontoNet ADR Risk Score Using the CRIME Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovic, Mirko; Tangiisuran, Balamurugan; Rajkumar, Chakravarthi; van der Cammen, Tischa; Onder, Graziano

    2017-02-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in older people are often preventable, indicating that screening and prevention programs aimed at reducing their rate are needed in this population. The aim of this study was to externally validate the GerontoNet ADR risk score and to assess its validity in specific subpopulations of older inpatients. Data from the prospective CRIteria to assess appropriate Medication use among Elderly complex patients (CRIME) cohort were used. Dose-dependent and predictable ADRs were classified as type A, probable or definite ADRs were defined according to the Naranjo algorithm, and diagnostic accuracy was tested using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for a cut-off point of 4. The mean age of the 1075 patients was 81.4 years (standard deviation 7.4) and the median number of drugs was 10 (range 7-13). At least one ADR was observed in 70 patients (6.5%); ADRs were classified as type A in 50 patients (4.7%) and defined as probable or definite in 41 patients (3.8%). Fair diagnostic accuracy to predict both type A and probable or definite ADRs was found in subpopulations aged 18.5 kg/m2) and a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of >24/30 points, as well as in patients with osteoarthritis. The cut-off point of 4 points yielded very good sensitivity but poor specificity results in these subpopulations. This study suggests that the GerontoNet ADR risk score might represent a pragmatic approach to identifying specific subpopulations of older inpatients at increased risk of an ADR with a fair to good diagnostic accuracy.

  3. Risk factors, pre-presentation management and clinical state of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most of the children (35 or 64.82%) first presented at Patent Medicine Stores and 38 or 70.37% had some oral fluids. While 9 (16.67%) had dysentery 31(57.41) had anti-microbials and 18 (33.33%) had anti-emetics. Twelve (33.33%) of the children had severe dehydration and 2(3.70%) had extrapyramidal crisis from use of ...

  4. Use of net reclassification improvement (NRI method confirms the utility of combined genetic risk score to predict type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia H T Tam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS identified more than 70 novel loci for type 2 diabetes (T2D, some of which have been widely replicated in Asian populations. In this study, we investigated their individual and combined effects on T2D in a Chinese population. METHODOLOGY: We selected 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in T2D genes relating to beta-cell function validated in Asian populations and genotyped them in 5882 Chinese T2D patients and 2569 healthy controls. A combined genetic score (CGS was calculated by summing up the number of risk alleles or weighted by the effect size for each SNP under an additive genetic model. We tested for associations by either logistic or linear regression analysis for T2D and quantitative traits, respectively. The contribution of the CGS for predicting T2D risk was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis and net reclassification improvement (NRI. RESULTS: We observed consistent and significant associations of IGF2BP2, WFS1, CDKAL1, SLC30A8, CDKN2A/B, HHEX, TCF7L2 and KCNQ1 (8.5×10(-18risk, which yielded odds ratios ranging from 1.07 to 2.09. The 8 significant SNPs exhibited joint effect on increasing T2D risk, fasting plasma glucose and use of insulin therapy as well as reducing HOMA-β, BMI, waist circumference and younger age of diagnosis of T2D. The addition of CGS marginally increased AUC (2% but significantly improved the predictive ability on T2D risk by 11.2% and 11.3% for unweighted and weighted CGS, respectively using the NRI approach (P<0.001. CONCLUSION: In a Chinese population, the use of a CGS of 8 SNPs modestly but significantly improved its discriminative ability to predict T2D above and beyond that attributed to clinical risk factors (sex, age and BMI.

  5. Red and processed meat intake and cancer risk: Results from the prospective NutriNet-Santé cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, Abou; Deschasaux, Mélanie; Latino-Martel, Paule; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Fassier, Philippine; Allès, Benjamin; Guéraud, Françoise; Pierre, Fabrice H; Touvier, Mathilde

    2018-01-15

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (WHO-IARC) classified red meat and processed meat as probably carcinogenic and carcinogenic for humans, respectively. These conclusions were mainly based on studies concerning colorectal cancer, but scientific evidence is still limited for other cancer locations. In this study, we investigated the prospective associations between red and processed meat intakes and overall, breast, and prostate cancer risk. This prospective study included 61,476 men and women of the French NutriNet-Santé cohort (2009-2015) aged ≥35 y and who completed at least three 24 hrs dietary records during the first year of follow-up. The risk of developing cancer was compared across sex-specific quintiles of red and processed meat intakes by multivariable Cox models. 1,609 first primary incident cancer cases were diagnosed during follow-up, among which 544 breast cancers and 222 prostate cancers. Red meat intake was associated with increased risk of overall cancers [HRQ5vs.Q1 =1.31 (1.10-1.55), ptrend  = 0.01) and breast cancer (HRQ5vs.Q1  = 1.83 (1.33-2.51), ptrend  = 0.002]. The latter association was observed in both premenopausal [HRQ5vs.Q1 =2.04 (1.03-4.06)] and postmenopausal women [HRQ5vs.Q1 =1.79 (1.26-2.55)]. No association was observed between red meat intake and prostate cancer risk. Processed meat intake was relatively low in this study (cut-offs for the 5th quintile = 46 g/d in men and 29 g/d in women) and was not associated with overall, breast or prostate cancer risk. This large cohort study suggested that red meat may be involved carcinogenesis at several cancer locations (other than colon-rectum), in particular breast cancer. These results are consistent with mechanistic evidence from experimental studies. © 2017 UICC.

  6. Net Locality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Gordon, Eric

    Provides an introduction to the new theory of Net Locality and the profound effect on individuals and societies when everything is located or locatable. Describes net locality as an emerging form of location awareness central to all aspects of digital media, from mobile phones, to Google Maps...... of emerging technologies, from GeoCities to GPS, Wi-Fi, Wiki Me, and Google Android....

  7. Net Neutrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej

    2017-01-01

    Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else.......Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else....

  8. Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Vicente

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present edition of Significação – Scientific Journal for Audiovisual Culture and in the others to follow something new is brought: the presence of thematic dossiers which are to be organized by invited scholars. The appointed subject for the very first one of them was Radio and the invited scholar, Eduardo Vicente, professor at the Graduate Course in Audiovisual and at the Postgraduate Program in Audiovisual Media and Processes of the School of Communication and Arts of the University of São Paulo (ECA-USP. Entitled Radio Beyond Borders the dossier gathers six articles and the intention of reuniting works on the perspectives of usage of such media as much as on the new possibilities of aesthetical experimenting being build up for it, especially considering the new digital technologies and technological convergences. It also intends to present works with original theoretical approach and original reflections able to reset the way we look at what is today already a centennial media. Having broadened the meaning of “beyond borders”, four foreign authors were invited to join the dossier. This is the first time they are being published in this country and so, in all cases, the articles where either written or translated into Portuguese.The dossier begins with “Radio is dead…Long live to the sound”, which is the transcription of a thought provoking lecture given by Armand Balsebre (Autonomous University of Barcelona – one of the most influential authors in the world on the Radio study field. It addresses the challenges such media is to face so that it can become “a new sound media, in the context of a new soundscape or sound-sphere, for the new listeners”. Andrew Dubber (Birmingham City University regarding the challenges posed by a Digital Era argues for a theoretical approach in radio studies which can consider a Media Ecology. The author understands the form and discourse of radio as a negotiation of affordances and

  9. Serious and actionable risks, plus disclosure: Investigating an alternative approach for presenting risk information in prescription drug television advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Kevin R; Boudewyns, Vanessa; Aikin, Kathryn J; Squire, Claudia; Dolina, Suzanne; Hayes, Jennifer J; Southwell, Brian G

    2017-08-02

    Broadcast direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug ads that present product claims are required to also present the product's major risks. Debate exists regarding how much information should be included in these major risk statements. Some argue that such statements expose people to unnecessary amounts of information, while others argue that they leave out important information. Examine the impact of type of risk statement (unedited versus serious and actionable risks only) and a disclosure indicating that not all risks are presented on consumers' ability to remember the important risks and benefits of a drug following exposure to a DTC television advertisement (ad). Risk and benefit perceptions, ad-prompted actions, recognition of the disclosure statement, and evaluations of both the disclosure and risk statement were also examined. A web-based experiment was conducted in which US adults who self-reported as having depression (N = 500), insomnia (N = 500), or high cholesterol (N = 500) were randomly assigned to view one of four versions of the television ad, and then complete a questionnaire. The type of risk statement had a significant effect on risk recall and recognition, benefit recognition, perceived risk severity (depression condition only), and perceived benefit magnitude (high cholesterol condition only). Disclosure recognition (using bias-corrected scores) ranged from 63% to 70% across the three illness samples. The revised risk statement improved overall processing of the television ad, as evidenced by improved risk recall and recognition and improved benefit recognition. Further, the presence of the disclosure did not adversely affect consumers' processing of drug risk and benefit information. Therefore, limiting the risks presented in DTC television ads and including a disclosure alerting consumers that not all risks are presented may be an effective strategy for communicating product risks. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Net clinical benefit of warfarin in individuals with atrial fibrillation across stroke risk and across primary and secondary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Victoria; Banerjee, Amitava; Shah, Anoop Dinesh; Patel, Riyaz; Denaxas, Spiros; Casas, Juan-Pablo; Hemingway, Harry

    2017-02-01

    To investigate net clinical benefit (NCB) of warfarin in individuals with atrial fibrillation (AF) across stroke risk and across primary and secondary care. We conducted a linked electronic health record cohort study of 70 206 individuals with initial record of diagnosis of AF in primary (n=29 568) or secondary care (n=40 638) in England (1998-2010). We defined stroke risk according to the CHA2DS2-VASc score, and followed individuals over a median 2.2 years for 7005 ischaemic strokes (IS) and for 906 haemorrhagic strokes (HS). We calculated incidence rates (IRs) and 95% CIs per 100 person-years (PYs) (IR (95% CI)/100 PY) of IS and HS, with and without use of warfarin, and the NCB (ie, number of IS avoided) per 100 PYs of warfarin use (NCB (95% CI)/100 PY). Compared with individuals with initial record of diagnosis in secondary care, those in primary care had lower scores of IS risk (CHA2DS2-VASc≤2: 30.8% vs 20.6%), and lower overall incidence of IS (IR (95% CI)/100 PY: 2.3 (2.2 to 2.4) vs 4.3 (4.2 to 4.4), p value=0.00); however among individuals with CHA2DS2-VASc=0, 1 or 2 there were no differences in IS rate between those with initial record of diagnosis in primary care or secondary care (IR (95% CI)/100 PY: 0.2 (0.1 to 0.3) vs 0.3 (0.2 to 0.5), p value=0.16), (IR (95% CI)/100 PY: 0.6 (0.4 to 0.7) vs 0.7 (0.6 to 0.9), p value=0.08) and (IR (95% CI)/100 PY: 1.1 (1.00 to 1.3) vs 1.4 (1.2 to 1.6), p value=0.05), respectively. For CHA2DS2-VASc=0, 1 and 2, IRs of IS with versus without warfarin were (IR (95% CI)/100 PY: 0.4 (0.2 to 0.8) vs 0.2 (0.1 to 0.3), p value=0.16), (IR (95% CI)/100 PY: 0.4 (0.3 to 0.7) vs 0.7 (0.6 to 0.8), p value=0.03) and (IR (95% CI)/100 PY: 0.8 (0.7 to 1.0) vs 1.4 (1.3 to 1.6), p value=0.00), respectively. We found a significant positive NCB of warfarin from CHA2DS2-VASc≥2 in men (NCB (95% CI)/100 PY: 0.5 (0.1 to 0.9)) and from CHA2DS2-VASc≥3 in women (NCB (95% CI)/100 PY: 1.5 (1.1 to 1.9)). CHA2DS2-VASc

  11. Adolescents' self-presentation on a teen dating web site: a risk-content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujazon-Zazik, Melissa A; Manasse, Stephanie M; Orrell-Valente, Joan K

    2012-05-01

    To analzye adolescents' profiles on MyLol.net, a teen dating Web site, for risk content. We hypothesized that risk content would vary by age and gender. We selected and coded 752 publicly viewable profiles of adolescents aged 14-18 years for the following five risks: sex, alcohol, drugs, cigarettes, and violence. Of the total profiles, 27.7% contained risk-related content: 15.8% sexual behavior, 13.8% alcohol use, 1.6% drug use, 6.8% cigarette smoking, and .9% violence activity. Being female, "single" relationship status, and use of profanity (p < .05) were associated with risk content. Females' profiles were most likely to include risky content, especially sexual content. Adolescent females who have internalized social norms that place a high value on female sexuality may reflect this in their online profiles. Online mention of interest/involvement in risky behavior may have negative consequences (e.g., cyberbullies and sexual predators). Stronger universal Internet policies and education are needed to help protect adolescents. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. RESTful NET

    CERN Document Server

    Flanders, Jon

    2008-01-01

    RESTful .NET is the first book that teaches Windows developers to build RESTful web services using the latest Microsoft tools. Written by Windows Communication Foundation (WFC) expert Jon Flanders, this hands-on tutorial demonstrates how you can use WCF and other components of the .NET 3.5 Framework to build, deploy and use REST-based web services in a variety of application scenarios. RESTful architecture offers a simpler approach to building web services than SOAP, SOA, and the cumbersome WS- stack. And WCF has proven to be a flexible technology for building distributed systems not necessa

  13. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Associate Professor of. Computer Science and. Automation at the Indian. Institute of Science,. Bangalore. His research interests are broadly in the areas of stochastic modeling and scheduling methodologies for future factories; and object oriented modeling. GENERAL I ARTICLE. Petri Nets. 1. Overview and Foundations.

  14. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 8. Petri Nets - Overview and Foundations. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 8 August 1999 pp ... Author Affiliations. Y Narahari1. Department ot Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  15. Participation of low-income women in genetic cancer risk assessment and BRCA 1/2 testing: the experience of a safety-net institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komenaka, Ian K; Nodora, Jesse N; Madlensky, Lisa; Winton, Lisa M; Heberer, Meredith A; Schwab, Richard B; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Martinez, Maria Elena

    2016-07-01

    Some communities and populations lack access to genetic cancer risk assessment (GCRA) and testing. This is particularly evident in safety-net institutions, which serve a large segment of low-income, uninsured individuals. We describe the experience of a safety-net clinic with limited resources in providing GCRA and BRCA1/2 testing. We compared the proportion and characteristics of high-risk women who were offered and underwent GCRA and genetic testing. We also provide a description of the mutation profile for affected women. All 125 patients who were offered GCRA accepted to undergo GCRA. Of these, 72 % had a breast cancer diagnosis, 70 % were Hispanic, 52.8 % were non-English speakers, and 66 % did not have health insurance. Eighty four (67 %) were offered genetic testing and 81 (96 %) agreed. Hispanic women, those with no medical insurance, and those with a family history of breast cancer were significantly more likely to undergo testing (p > 0.01). Twelve of 81 (15 %) patients were found to have deleterious mutations, seven BRCA1, and five BRCA2. Our experience shows that it is possible to offer GCRA and genetic testing even in the setting of limited resources for these services. This is important given that a large majority of the low-income women in our study agreed to undergo counseling and testing. Our experience could serve as a model for similar low-resource safety-net health settings.

  16. Implementing reduced-risk integrated pest management in fresh-market cabbage: improved net returns via scouting and timing of effective control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkness, Eric C; Hutchison, W D

    2008-04-01

    During 1998-2001, field studies were done to assess the efficacy of an integrated pest management (IPM) program using an action threshold and "reduced-risk" insecticides. The IPM program was compared with a conventional grower-based program. Program performance was evaluated based on management of Trichoplusia ni (Hiibner), Pieris (=Artogeia) rapae (L.), and Plutella xylostella (L.), as well as the economic impact of each program on net returns. The action threshold used in the IPM program consisted of 10% plants infested with T. ni larvae, based on previous small-plot experiment station trials. In all years of the study, the IPM program resulted in significantly lower percentages of plants infested than the conventional program or untreated check. The mean reduction in insecticide applications for the IPM program compared with the conventional program was 23.5%, whereas, on average, the costs of the IPM program were 46.0% higher than the conventional program. Pest reduction in the IPM program resulted in an average of 10.5% higher marketable yields than the conventional program. Percentages of marketable heads in the IPM program ranged from 82 to 99% and from 63 to 96% in the conventional program. Mean net returns for the IPM program exceeded the conventional program by $984.20/ha. These results indicated that the IPM program reduced insecticide use overall, even though costs of the IPM program, with either spinosad or indoxacarb, were sometimes higher. Overall, net returns of the IPM program were higher due to active pest scouting, improved application timing, and increases in marketable yield. Given the potential decrease in insecticide applications and increases in net profit resulting from this IPM program, additional analyses should be conducted to quantify the economic risk, or consistency of the results, to fully evaluate the benefits of the IPM program compared with a conventional program.

  17. Travel-associated infection presenting in Europe (2008-12): an analysis of EuroTravNet longitudinal, surveillance data, and evaluation of the effect of the pre-travel consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlagenhauf, Patricia; Weld, Leisa; Goorhuis, Abraham; Gautret, Philippe; Weber, Rainer; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Lopez-Vélez, Rogelio; Jensenius, Mogens; Cramer, Jakob P; Field, Vanessa K; Odolini, Silvia; Gkrania-Klotsas, Effrossyni; Chappuis, Francois; Malvy, Denis; van Genderen, Perry J J; Mockenhaupt, Frank; Jauréguiberry, Stéphane; Smith, Catherine; Beeching, Nicholas J; Ursing, Johan; Rapp, Christophe; Parola, Philippe; Grobusch, Martin P

    2015-01-01

    Travel is important in the acquisition and dissemination of infection. We aimed to assess European surveillance data for travel-related illness to profile imported infections, track trends, identify risk groups, and assess the usefulness of pre-travel advice. We analysed travel-associated morbidity in ill travellers presenting at EuroTravNet sites during the 5-year period of 2008-12. We calculated proportionate morbidity per 1000 ill travellers and made comparisons over time and between subgroups. We did 5-year trend analyses (2008-12) by testing differences in proportions between subgroups using Pearson's χ(2) test. We assessed the effect of the pre-travel consultation on infection acquisition and outcome by use of proportionate morbidity ratios. The top diagnoses in 32 136 patients, ranked by proportionate morbidity, were malaria and acute diarrhoea, both with high proportionate morbidity (>60). Dengue, giardiasis, and insect bites had high proportionate morbidity (>30) as well. 5-year analyses showed increases in vector borne infections with significant peaks in 2010; examples were increased Plasmodium falciparum malaria (χ(2)=37·57, ptravel consultation was associated with significantly lower proportionate morbidity ratios for P falciparum malaria and also for acute hepatitis and HIV/AIDS. The pattern of travel-related infections presenting in Europe is complex. Trend analyses can inform on emerging infection threats. Pre-travel consultation is associated with reduced malaria proportionate morbidity ratios and less severe illness. These findings support the importance and effectiveness of pre-travel advice on malaria prevention, but cast doubt on the effectiveness of current strategies to prevent travel-related diarrhoea. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, University Hospital Institute Méditerranée Infection, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the International Society of Travel Medicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd

  18. Committee to evaluate Sandia`s risk expertise: Final report. Volume 1: Presentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudley, E.C.

    1998-05-01

    On July 1--2, 1997, Sandia National Laboratories hosted the External Committee to Evaluate Sandia`s Risk Expertise. Under the auspices of SIISRS (Sandia`s International Institute for Systematic Risk Studies), Sandia assembled a blue-ribbon panel of experts in the field of risk management to assess their risk programs labs-wide. Panelists were chosen not only for their own expertise, but also for their ability to add balance to the panel as a whole. Presentations were made to the committee on the risk activities at Sandia. In addition, a tour of Sandia`s research and development programs in support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission was arranged. The panel attended a poster session featuring eight presentations and demonstrations for selected projects. Overviews and viewgraphs from the presentations are included in Volume 1 of this report. Presentations are related to weapons, nuclear power plants, transportation systems, architectural surety, environmental programs, and information systems.

  19. When does cardiovascular risk start? Past and present socioeconomic circumstances and risk factors in adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Brunner, E; Shipley, M J; Blane, D; Smith, G.D.; Marmot, M. G.

    1999-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: To compare associations of childhood and adult socioeconomic position with cardiovascular risk factors measured in adulthood. To estimate the effects of adult socioeconomic position after adjustment for childhood circumstances. DESIGN: Cross sectional survey, using the relative index of inequality method to compare socioeconomic differences at different life stages. SETTING: The Whitehall II longitudinal study of men and women employed in London offices of the Civil S...

  20. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) MMSA Age-adjusted Prevalence Data (2011 to Present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to present. BRFSS SMART MMSA age-adjusted prevalence combined land line and cell phone data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the...

  1. Implementing an Early Intervention Program for Residential Students Who Present with Suicide Risk: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Estela M.; Cimini, M. Dolores; Bernier, Joseph E.; Stanley, Judith A.; Murray, Andrea D.; Anderson, Drew A.; Wright, Heidi R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This case study examined the effects of an early intervention program designed to respond to residential college students demonstrating risk for suicide. Participants: Participants were 108 undergraduates at a large northeastern public university referred to an early intervention program subsequent to presenting with risk factors for…

  2. Risk Management in Companies –A Questionnaire as an Instrument for Analysing the Present Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stiller Diana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The topic risk management receives new impulses in the context of the financial and economic crisis in the years 2007 until 2011 as well as the question whether companies took consequences. The article briefly describes the importance of risk management and then explained the theoretical principles of empirical methods. Excerpts from developed questionnaire will be presented.

  3. Presentation and analysis of a general algorithm for risk-assessment on secondary poisoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn CAFM; Luttik R; van de Meent D; Slooff W; Canton JH

    1991-01-01

    The study in this report was carried out in the frame of the project "Evaluation system for new chemical substances". The aim of the study was to present a general algorithm for risk-assessment on secondary poisoning of birds and mammals. Risk-assessment on secondary poisoning can be an

  4. Actualization the risks local payment systems on the present stage of the national payment system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobeinikova Olga Mikhailovna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article presented and estimated systematically possibilities of minimization the general and specific risks local payment systems and their participants, which actualized due to the activation of formation of national payment system in Russia amid increasing global political and financial risks and the need for economic security.

  5. Risk for hand eczema in employees with past or present atopic dermatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenraads, PJ; Diepgen, TL

    Persons with atopic dermatitis run a considerable risk of developing hand eczema when exposed to occupational agents that are a burden to the skin. This also pertains to those with a history of skin atopy in childhood. This review presents estimates of the risk of developing hand eczema and examines

  6. Helminth.net: expansions to Nematode.net and an introduction to Trematode.net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, John; Rosa, Bruce A.; Ozersky, Philip; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Zhang, Xu; Bhonagiri-Palsikar, Veena; Tyagi, Rahul; Wang, Qi; Choi, Young-Jun; Gao, Xin; McNulty, Samantha N.; Brindley, Paul J.; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2015-01-01

    Helminth.net (http://www.helminth.net) is the new moniker for a collection of databases: Nematode.net and Trematode.net. Within this collection we provide services and resources for parasitic roundworms (nematodes) and flatworms (trematodes), collectively known as helminths. For over a decade we have provided resources for studying nematodes via our veteran site Nematode.net (http://nematode.net). In this article, (i) we provide an update on the expansions of Nematode.net that hosts omics data from 84 species and provides advanced search tools to the broad scientific community so that data can be mined in a useful and user-friendly manner and (ii) we introduce Trematode.net, a site dedicated to the dissemination of data from flukes, flatworm parasites of the class Trematoda, phylum Platyhelminthes. Trematode.net is an independent component of Helminth.net and currently hosts data from 16 species, with information ranging from genomic, functional genomic data, enzymatic pathway utilization to microbiome changes associated with helminth infections. The databases’ interface, with a sophisticated query engine as a backbone, is intended to allow users to search for multi-factorial combinations of species’ omics properties. This report describes updates to Nematode.net since its last description in NAR, 2012, and also introduces and presents its new sibling site, Trematode.net. PMID:25392426

  7. Sub-optimal Testing and Awareness of HCV and HBV Among High Risk Individuals at an Underserved Safety-Net Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Robert J; Campbell, Brendan; Liu, Benny; Baden, Rachel; Bhuket, Taft

    2017-06-24

    Sub-optimal screening for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) among high risk groups delays diagnosis and treatment. We aimed to evaluate overall rates of HCV and HBV screening and patient knowledge of their testing result. Adults age ≥18 years undergoing elective outpatient endoscopy at a large, urban safety-net hospital from July 2015 to July 2016 were prospectively evaluated to determine rates of HCV and HBV testing, the results of those completed tests, and patient knowledge of test results among high risk individuals (as determined by U.S. Preventative Services Task Force). Among 1125 patients (52.3% male, 70.4% foreign-born), 66.5% were high risk for chronic HCV; only 30.9% received prior testing. 14.7% had positive chronic HCV infection. Patients born in the 1945-1965 cohort were more likely to have received prior HCV testing compared to those born outside of this cohort (32.7 vs. 16.9%, p = 0.01). Among patients who received HCV screening, 29.3% were aware of test results. Overall, 61.6% were high risk for chronic HBV; only 25.1% received prior testing. 4.1% were positive for chronic HBV. Compared to Caucasians, Asians (19.0 vs. 44.4%, p HBV testing. Among patients who received prior HBV screening, 18.4% were aware of test results. Less than one-third of high risk patients received HCV and HBV screening among an ethnically diverse safety-net population. Equally low rates of patient knowledge of testing results were observed.

  8. The impact of numeracy on reactions to different graphic risk presentation formats: An experimental analogue study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Alison J; Whitwell, Sophia C L; Takeichi, Chika; Hankins, Matthew; Marteau, Theresa M

    2009-02-01

    Numeracy, the ability to process basic mathematical concepts, may affect responses to graphical displays of health risk information. Displays of probabilistic risk information using grouped dots are easier to understand than displays using dispersed dots. However, dispersed dots may better convey the randomness with which health threats occur, so increasing perceived susceptibility. We hypothesized that low numeracy participants would better understand risks presented using grouped dot displays, while high numeracy participants would have good understanding, regardless of display type. Moreover, we predicted that dispersed dot displays, in contrast to grouped dot displays, would increase risk perceptions and worry only for highly numerate individuals. One hundred and forty smokers read vignettes asking them to imagine being at risk of Crohn's disease, in a 2(display type: dispersed/grouped dots) x 3(risk magnitude: 3%/6%/50%) x 2(numeracy: high/low) design. They completed measures of risk comprehension, perceived susceptibility and worry. More numerate participants had better objective risk comprehension, but this effect was not moderated by display type. There was marginally significant support for the predicted numeracy x display type interaction for worry about Crohn's disease, but not for perceived susceptibility to the condition. Dispersed dot displays somewhat increase worry in highly numerate individuals, but only numeracy influenced objective risk comprehension. The most effective display type for communicating risk information will depend on the numeracy of the population and the goal(s) of the communication.

  9. Travel characteristics and yellow fever vaccine usage among US Global TravEpiNet travelers visiting countries with risk of yellow fever virus transmission, 2009-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jentes, Emily S; Han, Pauline; Gershman, Mark D; Rao, Sowmya R; LaRocque, Regina C; Staples, J Erin; Ryan, Edward T

    2013-05-01

    Yellow fever (YF) vaccine-associated serious adverse events and changing YF epidemiology have challenged healthcare providers to vaccinate only travelers whose risk of YF during travel is greater than their risk of adverse events. We describe the travel characteristics and YF vaccine use among US travelers visiting Global TravEpiNet clinics from January of 2009 to March of 2011. Of 16,660 travelers, 5,588 (34%) had itineraries to areas with risk of YF virus transmission. Of those travelers visiting one country with YF risk (N = 4,517), 71% were vaccinated at the visit, and 20% were presumed to be immune from prior vaccination. However, travelers visiting friends and relatives (odds ratio [OR] = 2.57, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.27-5.22) or going to Nigeria (OR = 3.01, 95% CI = 1.37-6.62) were significantly more likely to decline vaccination. To optimize YF vaccine use, clinicians should discuss an individual's risk-benefit assessment of vaccination and close knowledge gaps regarding vaccine use among at-risk populations.

  10. Misperceptions about the risks of abortion in women presenting for abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Ellen R; Littman, Lisa; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Moshier, Erin L

    2014-03-01

    Misinformation about the risks and sequelae of abortion is widespread. The purpose of this study was to examine whether women having an abortion who believe that there should be restrictions to abortion (i.e., that some other women should not be allowed to have an abortion) also believe this misinformation about the health risks associated with abortion. We carried out a cross-sectional survey of women presenting consecutively for an abortion at an urban abortion clinic in Vancouver, British Columbia, between February and September 2012. Of 1008 women presenting for abortion, 978 completed questionnaires (97% response rate), and 333 of these (34%) favoured abortion restrictions. More women who favoured restrictions believed that the health risk of an abortion was the same as or greater than the health risk of childbirth (84.2% vs. 65.6%, P abortion caused mental health problems (39.1% vs. 28.3%, P abortion caused infertility (41.7% vs. 21.9%, P abortion should not be restricted was found to be a significantly correlated with correct answers about health risks, mental health problems, and infertility. Misinformed beliefs about the risks of abortion are common among women having an abortion. Women presenting for abortion who favoured restrictions to abortion have more misperceptions about abortion risks than women who favour no restrictions.

  11. Non-valvular atrial fibrillation patients with none or one additional risk factor of the CHA2DS2-VASc score. A comprehensive net clinical benefit analysis for warfarin, aspirin, or no therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lip, Gregory Y H; Skjøth, Flemming; Nielsen, Peter B; Larsen, Torben Bjerregaard

    2015-10-01

    Oral anticoagulation (OAC) to prevent stroke has to be balanced against the potential harm of serious bleeding, especially intracranial haemorrhage (ICH). We determined the net clinical benefit (NCB) balancing effectiveness and safety of no antithrombotic therapy, aspirin and warfarin in AF patients with none or one stroke risk factor. Using Danish registries, we determined NCB using various definitions intrinsic to our cohort (Danish weights at 1 and 5 year follow-up), with risk weights which were derived from the hazard ratio (HR) of death following an event, relative to HR of death after ischaemic stroke. When aspirin was compared to no treatment, NCB was neutral or negative for both risk strata. For warfarin vs no treatment, NCB using Danish weights was neutral where no risk factors were present and using five years follow-up. For one stroke risk factor, NCB was positive for warfarin vs no treatment, for one year and five year follow-up. For warfarin vs aspirin use in patients with no risk factors, NCB was positive with one year follow-up, but neutral with five year follow-up. With one risk factor, NCB was generally positive for warfarin vs aspirin. In conclusion, we show a positive overall advantage (i.e. positive NCB) of effective stroke prevention with OAC, compared to no therapy or aspirin with one additional stroke risk factor, using Danish weights. 'Low risk' AF patients with no additional stroke risk factors (i.e.CHA2DS2-VASc 0 in males, 1 in females) do not derive any advantage (neutral or negative NCB) with aspirin, nor with warfarin therapy in the long run.

  12. Travel Characteristics and Yellow Fever Vaccine Usage Among US Global TravEpiNet Travelers Visiting Countries with Risk of Yellow Fever Virus Transmission, 2009–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jentes, Emily S.; Han, Pauline; Gershman, Mark D.; Rao, Sowmya R.; LaRocque, Regina C.; Staples, J. Erin; Ryan, Edward T.

    2013-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF) vaccine-associated serious adverse events and changing YF epidemiology have challenged healthcare providers to vaccinate only travelers whose risk of YF during travel is greater than their risk of adverse events. We describe the travel characteristics and YF vaccine use among US travelers visiting Global TravEpiNet clinics from January of 2009 to March of 2011. Of 16,660 travelers, 5,588 (34%) had itineraries to areas with risk of YF virus transmission. Of those travelers visiting one country with YF risk (N = 4,517), 71% were vaccinated at the visit, and 20% were presumed to be immune from prior vaccination. However, travelers visiting friends and relatives (odds ratio [OR] = 2.57, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.27–5.22) or going to Nigeria (OR = 3.01, 95% CI = 1.37–6.62) were significantly more likely to decline vaccination. To optimize YF vaccine use, clinicians should discuss an individual's risk–benefit assessment of vaccination and close knowledge gaps regarding vaccine use among at-risk populations. PMID:23458961

  13. The equivalency between logic Petri workflow nets and workflow nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue

    2015-01-01

    Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented.

  14. Second International MELODI Workshop on Low Dose Risk Research - Slides of the presentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repussard, J.; Weiss, W.; Quintana Trias, O.; Rosario Perez, M. del; Andersen, M.; Rudiger Trott, K.; Ottolenghi, A.; Smyth, V.; Graw, J.; Little, M.P.; Yonai, S.; Barcellos-Hoff, M.H.; Bouffler, S.; Chevillard, S.; Jeggo, P.; Sabatier, L.; Baatout, S.; Niwa, O.; Oesch, F.; Atkinson, M.; Averbeck, D.; Lloyd, D.; O' Neill, P.

    2011-07-01

    The MELODI (Multidisciplinary European Low Dose Initiative) mission is to impulse low dose risk research in Europe through a strategic research agenda (SRA) and road-map of priorities. The last presentation is dedicated to the SRA and its preference research programs. The other presentations deal principally with the low-dose exposure in medical uses of ionizing radiations, radiosensitivity, radiation-induced cataracts, or epidemiology and radiobiology of cardiovascular disease. This document is composed of the slides of the presentations

  15. A three-gene expression-based risk score can refine the European LeukemiaNet AML classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilop, Stefan; Chou, Wen-Chien; Jost, Edgar; Crysandt, Martina; Panse, Jens; Chuang, Ming-Kai; Brümmendorf, Tim H; Wagner, Wolfgang; Tien, Hwei-Fang; Kharabi Masouleh, Behzad

    2016-09-01

    Risk stratification based on cytogenetics of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains imprecise. The introduction of novel genetic and epigenetic markers has helped to close this gap and increased the specificity of risk stratification, although most studies have been conducted in specific AML subpopulations. In order to overcome this limitation, we used a genome-wide approach in multiple AML populations to develop a robust prediction model for AML survival. We conducted a genome-wide expression analysis of two data sets from AML patients enrolled into the AMLCG-1999 trial and from the Tumor Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) to develop a prognostic score to refine current risk classification and performed a validation on two data sets of the National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH) and an independent AMLCG cohort. In our training set, using a stringent multi-step approach, we identified a small three-gene prognostic scoring system, named Tri-AML score (TriAS) which highly correlated with overall survival (OS). Multivariate analysis revealed TriAS to be an independent prognostic factor in all tested training and additional validation sets, even including age, current cytogenetic-based risk stratification, and three other recently developed expression-based scoring models for AML. The Tri-AML score allows robust and clinically practical risk stratification for the outcome of AML patients. TriAS substantially refined current ELN risk stratification assigning 44.5 % of the patients into a different risk category.

  16. Coloured Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. This book introduces the constructs of the CPN modelling language and presents the related analysis methods. It provides a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN.

  17. Chronic disease risk factors, healthy days and medical claims in South African employees presenting for health risk screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolbe-Alexander Tracy L

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-communicable diseases (NCD accounts for more than a third (37% of all deaths in South Africa. However, this burden of disease can be reduced by addressing risk factors. The aim of this study was to determine the health and risk profile of South African employees presenting for health risk assessments and to measure their readiness to change and improve lifestyle behaviour. Methods Employees (n = 1954 from 18 companies were invited to take part in a wellness day, which included a health-risk assessment. Self-reported health behaviour and health status was recorded. Clinical measures included cholesterol finger-prick test, blood pressure and Body Mass Index (BMI. Health-related age was calculated using an algorithm incorporating the relative risk for all case mortality associated with smoking, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, BMI and cholesterol. Medical claims data were obtained from the health insurer. Results The mean percentage of participation was 26% (n = 1954 and ranged from 4% in transport to 81% in the consulting sector. Health-related age (38.5 ± 12.9 years was significantly higher than chronological age (34.9 ± 10.3 yrs (p Conclusion SA employees' health and lifestyle habits are placing them at increased risk for NCD's, suggesting that they may develop NCD's earlier than expected. Inter-sectoral differences for health-related age might provide insight into those companies which have the greatest need for interventions, and may also assist in predicting future medical expenditure. This study underscores the importance of determining the health and risk status of employees which could assist in identifying the appropriate interventions to reduce the risk of NCD's among employees.

  18. Homelessness: patterns of emergency department use and risk factors for re-presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, G; Gerdtz, M F; Hepworth, G; Manias, E

    2011-05-01

    To describe patterns of service use and to predict risk factors for re-presentation to a metropolitan emergency department (ED) among people who are homeless. A retrospective cohort analysis was undertaken over a 24-month period from a principal referral hospital in Melbourne, Australia. All ED visits relating to people classified as homeless were included. A predictive model for risk of re-presentation was developed using logistic regression with random effects. Rates of re-presentation, defined as the total number of visits to the same ED within 28 days of discharge, were measured. The study period was 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2004. The re-presentation rate for homeless people was 47.8% (3199/6689) of ED visits and 45.5% (725/1595) of the patients. The final predictive model included risk factors, which incorporated both hospital and community service use. Those characteristics that resulted in significantly increased odds of re-presentation were leaving hospital at own risk (OR 1.31; 95% CI 1.10 to 1.56), treatment in another hospital (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.72) and being in receipt of community-based case management (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.54) or pension (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.62). The predictive model identified nine risk factors of re-presentation to the ED for people who are homeless. Early identification of these factors among homeless people may alert clinicians to the complexity of issues influencing an individual ED visit. This information can be used at admission and discharge by ensuring that homeless people have access to services commensurate with their health needs. Improved linkage between community and hospital services must be underscored by the capacity to provide safe and secure housing.

  19. Contribution of Congenital Anomalies to Preterm Birth Risk in the Netherlands: poster presentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohangoo1, A.; Lanting, C.; Bennebroek Gravenhorst, J.; Verloove-Vanhorick, P.; Buitendijk, S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To asses the extents to which congenital anomalies affect risk of preterm birth. Methods: For the present study, we analysed data on 1,972,058 newborns registered in the Netherlands Perinatal Registry database (inclusion criteria 16 weeks of gestation). Logistic regression techniques were

  20. Attitude Change When Presenting Science Museum Visitors with Risk-Benefit Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Siëlle; Specht, Inga; Schnotz, Wolfgang; Lewalter, Doris

    2017-01-01

    Visitors to modern science museums are likely to encounter exhibitions presenting conflicting information, such as risks and benefits of new scientific developments. Such exhibitions encourage visitors to reflect upon different sides of a story and to form or adjust their attitudes toward the topic on display. However, there is very little…

  1. Presenting Social Issues with Videotape [and] Teaming Up to Take a Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosta, Diana; Jackson, Dick

    1991-01-01

    Two articles discuss the use of media in schools. One describes the use of videotapes to present social issues; the second describes the use of an integrated learning system with ninth and tenth grade at-risk students to improve their rate of attendance, academic achievement, and self-esteem. (LRW)

  2. Chronic disease risk factors, healthy days and medical claims in South African employees presenting for health risk screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L; Buckmaster, Chris; Nossel, Craig; Dreyer, Liezel; Bull, Fiona; Noakes, Timothy D; Lambert, Estelle V

    2008-07-04

    Non-communicable diseases (NCD) accounts for more than a third (37%) of all deaths in South Africa. However, this burden of disease can be reduced by addressing risk factors. The aim of this study was to determine the health and risk profile of South African employees presenting for health risk assessments and to measure their readiness to change and improve lifestyle behaviour. Employees (n = 1954) from 18 companies were invited to take part in a wellness day, which included a health-risk assessment. Self-reported health behaviour and health status was recorded. Clinical measures included cholesterol finger-prick test, blood pressure and Body Mass Index (BMI). Health-related age was calculated using an algorithm incorporating the relative risk for all case mortality associated with smoking, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, BMI and cholesterol. Medical claims data were obtained from the health insurer. The mean percentage of participation was 26% (n = 1954) and ranged from 4% in transport to 81% in the consulting sector. Health-related age (38.5 +/- 12.9 years) was significantly higher than chronological age (34.9 +/- 10.3 yrs) (p < 0.001). Both chronological and risk-related age were significantly different between the sectors (P < 0.001), with the manufacturing sector being the oldest and finance having the youngest employees. Health-related age was significantly associated with number of days adversely affected by mental and physical health, days away from work and total annual medical costs (p < 0.001). Employees had higher rates of overweight, smoking among men, and physical inactivity (total sample) when compared the general SA population. Increased health-related expenditure was associated with increased number of risk factors, absenteeism and reduced physical activity. SA employees' health and lifestyle habits are placing them at increased risk for NCD's, suggesting that they may develop NCD's earlier than expected. Inter-sectoral differences

  3. A novel risk prediction score in atrial fibrillation for a net clinical outcome from the ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanola, Christina L; Giugliano, Robert P; Ruff, Christian T; Trevisan, Marco; Nordio, Francesco; Mercuri, Michele F; Antman, Elliott M; Braunwald, Eugene

    2017-03-21

    The choice between initiating a non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant (NOAC) and a vitamin K antagonist (VKA) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) may be challenging. To assist in this decision, we developed a risk score to identify patients for whom a therapeutic benefit of NOACs over VKA is predicted. ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 was a randomized clinical trial of edoxaban vs. warfarin in 21 105 patients with AF. Cox proportional hazard models identified factors associated with a serious net clinical outcome (NCO) of disabling stroke, life-threatening bleeding, and all-cause mortality in VKA naïve patients from the warfarin arm. These were used to develop an integer risk score. Performance was assessed by C-indices and validation by bootstrapping. Kaplan-Meier analyses were stratified by three score categories and treatment arm. Over a median of 2.7 years, 457 NCO events occurred in 2898 patients with a total person-time of 7549.5 years (6.05%/year). The risk prediction model (C = 0.693) for the NCO was translated into a 17-point integer score, with annualized event rates for the low, intermediate, and high-risk categories in the warfarin arm of 3.5%, 9.9%, and 20.8%, respectively. Therapeutic benefit of higher- and lower-dose edoxaban over warfarin was demonstrated in the high- and intermediate-risk, with equal benefit in the low-risk categories (P-interaction 0.008 and 0.014, respectively). In VKA naive patients with AF, the TIMI-AF score can assist in the prediction of a poor composite outcome and guide selection of anticoagulant therapy by identifying a differential clinical benefit with a NOAC or VKA.

  4. Chest pain presenting to the Emergency Department--to stratify risk with GRACE or TIMI?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Richard; Morris, Andrew Conway; Caesar, David; Gray, Sarah; Gray, Alasdair

    2007-07-01

    There is a need to stratify risk rapidly in patients presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) with undifferentiated chest pain. The Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) and the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) scoring systems predict outcome of adverse coronary events in patients admitted to specialist cardiac units. This study evaluates the relationship between GRACE score and outcome in patients presenting to the ED with undifferentiated chest pain and establishes whether GRACE is preferential to TIMI in stratifying risk in patients in the ED setting. Descriptive study of a consecutive sample of 1000 ED patients with undifferentiated chest pain presenting to Edinburgh Royal Infirmary, Scotland. GRACE and TIMI scores were calculated for each patient and outcomes noted at 30 days. Outcomes included ST and non-ST myocardial infarction, cardiac arrest, revascularisation, unstable angina with myocardial damage and all cause mortality at 30 days. Score and outcome were compared using receiver operator characteristic curves (AUC-ROC). The GRACE score stratifies risk accurately in patients presenting to the ED with undifferentiated chest pain (AUC-ROC 0.80 (95% CI 0.75-0.85), see Table 1). The TIMI score was found to be similarly accurate in stratifying risk in the study cohort with an AUC-ROC of 0.79 (95% CI 0.74-0.85). It was only possible to calculate a complete GRACE score in 76% (n=760) cases as not all the data variables were measured routinely in the ED. GRACE and TIMI are both effective in accurately stratifying risk in patients presenting to the ED with undifferentiated chest pain. The GRACE score is more complex than the TIMI score and in the ED setting TIMI may be the preferred scoring method.

  5. Analysis of present and future potential compound flooding risk along the European coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevacqua, Emanuele; Maraun, Douglas; Voukouvalas, Evangelos; Vousdoukas, Michalis I.; Widmann, Martin; Manning, Colin; Vrac, Mathieu

    2017-04-01

    The coastal zone is the natural border between the sea and the mainland, and it is constantly under the influence of marine and land-based natural and human-induced pressure. Compound floods are extreme events occurring in coastal areas where the interaction of joint high sea level and large amount of precipitation causes extreme floodings. Typically the risk of flooding in coastal areas is defined analysing either sea level or precipitation driven floodings, however compound floods should be considered to avoid an underestimation of the risk. In the future, the human pressure at the coastal zone is expected to increase, urging for a comprehensive analysis of the compound flooding risk under different climate change scenarios. In this study we introduce the concept of "potential risk" as we investigate how often large amount of precipitation and high sea level may co-occur, and not the effective impact due to the interaction of these two hazards. The effective risk of compound flooding in a specific place depends also on the local orography and on the existing protections. The estimation of the potential risk of compound flooding is useful to individuate places where an effective risk of compound flooding may exist, and where further studies would be useful to get more precise information on the local risk. We estimate the potential risk of compound flooding along the European coastal zone incorporating the ERA-Interim meteorological reanalysis for the past and present state, and the future projections from two RCP scenarios (namely the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios) as derived from 8 CMIP5 models of the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Sea level data are estimated by forcing the hydrodynamic model Delft3D-Flow with 6-hourly wind and atmospheric pressure fields. Based on sea level (storm surge and astronomical tide) and precipitation joint occurrence analysis, a map of the potential compound flooding risk along the European

  6. Timing of Incident Stroke Risk After Cervical Artery Dissection Presenting Without Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Nicholas A; Merkler, Alexander E; Gialdini, Gino; Kamel, Hooman

    2017-03-01

    Cervical artery dissection is a common cause of stroke in young people. The temporal profile of stroke risk after cervical artery dissection presenting without ischemia remains uncertain. We performed a crossover cohort study using administrative claims data on all emergency department visits and acute care hospitalizations from 2005 to 2011 in CA, 2006 to 2013 in NY, and 2005 to 2013 in FL. Using previously validated International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes, we identified patients with a cervical artery dissection and no previous or concurrent stroke or transient ischemic attack diagnosis. We compared the risk of stroke in successive 2-week periods during the 12 weeks after dissection versus the corresponding 2-week period 1 year later. Absolute risk increases were calculated using McNemar test for matched data. In a sensitivity analysis, we limited our population to patients presenting with typical symptoms of cervical artery dissection. We identified 2791 patients with dissection without ischemia. The absolute increase in stroke risk was 1.25% (95% confidence interval, 0.84-1.67%) in the first 2 weeks after dissection compared with the same time period 1 year later. The absolute risk increase was 0.18% (95% confidence interval, 0.02-0.34%) during weeks 3 to 4 and was no longer significant during the remainder of the 12-week postdissection period. Our findings were similar in a sensitivity analysis identifying patients who presented with typical symptoms of acute dissection. The risk of stroke after cervical artery dissection unaccompanied by ischemia at time of diagnosis seems to be limited to the first 2 weeks. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Present-day foreign directions of researches of risk factors of unlawful behavior among minors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martynova I.R.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the problem of the study of the predictive and structured risk assessment of illegal behavior among minors in foreign psychology. Problems, which prevent unlawful behavior among adolescents in the Russian Federation, have been analyzed. It is shown how the interest to the various methods of prediction of illegal behavior emerged. The existing of the main currently existing approaches to risk assessment (clinical, actuarial and dynamic have been made. Numerous statistical studies aimed to identify predictors of unlawful behavior among minors were covered in present review. The escort at different stages of rehabilitation of teenagers committed various offenses was described on the example of the probation system. The possible development of an integrated system of juvenile justice in the Russian Federation was described in the context of the «National Action Strategy for Children for 2012-2017». The possibility of inclusion of structured risk assessment techniques.

  8. Presenting quantitative information about decision outcomes: a risk communication primer for patient decision aid developers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevena, Lyndal J; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J; Edwards, Adrian; Gaissmaier, Wolfgang; Galesic, Mirta; Han, Paul K J; King, John; Lawson, Margaret L; Linder, Suzanne K; Lipkus, Isaac; Ozanne, Elissa; Peters, Ellen; Timmermans, Danielle; Woloshin, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Making evidence-based decisions often requires comparison of two or more options. Research-based evidence may exist which quantifies how likely the outcomes are for each option. Understanding these numeric estimates improves patients' risk perception and leads to better informed decision making. This paper summarises current "best practices" in communication of evidence-based numeric outcomes for developers of patient decision aids (PtDAs) and other health communication tools. An expert consensus group of fourteen researchers from North America, Europe, and Australasia identified eleven main issues in risk communication. Two experts for each issue wrote a "state of the art" summary of best evidence, drawing on the PtDA, health, psychological, and broader scientific literature. In addition, commonly used terms were defined and a set of guiding principles and key messages derived from the results. The eleven key components of risk communication were: 1) Presenting the chance an event will occur; 2) Presenting changes in numeric outcomes; 3) Outcome estimates for test and screening decisions; 4) Numeric estimates in context and with evaluative labels; 5) Conveying uncertainty; 6) Visual formats; 7) Tailoring estimates; 8) Formats for understanding outcomes over time; 9) Narrative methods for conveying the chance of an event; 10) Important skills for understanding numerical estimates; and 11) Interactive web-based formats. Guiding principles from the evidence summaries advise that risk communication formats should reflect the task required of the user, should always define a relevant reference class (i.e., denominator) over time, should aim to use a consistent format throughout documents, should avoid "1 in x" formats and variable denominators, consider the magnitude of numbers used and the possibility of format bias, and should take into account the numeracy and graph literacy of the audience. A substantial and rapidly expanding evidence base exists for risk

  9. A STUDY OF INCIDENCE, CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH ECTOPIC PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarada Bai

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past two decades the incidence of ectopic pregnancy has been increasing dramatically worldwide. AIM: The aim of present study is to know the incidence, risk factors, clinical presentation of Ectopic pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHOD S: Three year stud y of 192 cases of diagnosed ectopic pregnancy from 2011 December to November 2014 was conducted in the department of Obstetrics and gynaecology, King George hospital, Visakhapatnam. Factors like age, parity, risk factors like smoking, pelvic inflammatory d iseases, h/o Tubectomy, treatment for infertility, previous abortion, IUCD (Intra Uterine Contraceptive Device usage, H/o previous ectopic pregnancy, dilatation and curettage, surgeries, clinical presentations and treatment were included and analyzed. Excl usive criterion is intra uterine pregnancy. RESULTS: Incidence of ectopic pregnancy in present study is 1 in 88 pregnancies. Out of 192 cases 34.37% belonged to 26 - 30 years, 31.28% in 21 - 25 years, 40% were multipara, 33.5% were associated with failed tubectomy. 21% had previous abortion, 10.9% were treated for infertility, 2.3% had previous ectopic pregnancy. Almost all the patients presented with abdominal pain, 39% presented in shock, and 78.1% had anaemia. Culdocentesis was positive in 46.9%. The most common site was ampullary part of tube. Least common s ite was interstitial part of tube. In 85.1% of cases had haemoperitoneum was more than 250 ml. In 62.5% of the cases were presented with right sided ectopic pregnancy. 96.8% required blood transfusion. Post - operative period was uneventful in all cases. Con clusion: The incidence of ectopic pregnancy has been increasing especially after the year 2000. The risk increases with tubectomy, IUCD users, Infertility, Previous abortion and D&C, PID. On other hand oral contraceptive pills has got very good protection against ectopic pregnancy

  10. Risks control at the Cea: presentation of the third annual evaluation; Maitrise des risques au CEA: presentation du troisieme bilan annuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This presentation aims to define the main topics of the risks control which some evolutions occurred in 2005. It concerns the environmental impact, the occupational risks, the hazardous materials transport, the site and installations protection, the installation safety, the emergency situations and, the audits and the juridical protection. (A.L.B.)

  11. Escherichia coli Mutators Present an Enhanced Risk for Emergence of Antibiotic Resistance during Urinary Tract Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Keith; O'Neill, Alexander John; Chopra, Ian

    2004-01-01

    Mutators may present an enhanced risk for the emergence of antibiotic resistance in bacteria during chemotherapy. Using Escherichia coli mutators as a model, we evaluated their ability to develop resistance to antibiotics routinely used for the treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs). Under conditions that simulate therapeutic drug concentrations in humans, low-level resistance to trimethoprim, gentamicin, and cefotaxime emerged more frequently in mutators than normal strains. Resistance...

  12. When pacemakers fail: an analysis of clinical presentation and risk in 120 patients with failed devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanthakumar, K; Dorian, P; Ham, M; Lam, P; Lau, C; Nishimura, S; Newman, D

    1998-01-01

    Although pacemaker recalls are common, the optimal mechanism for risk assessment and triage of patients at risk for sudden loss of device system function is unknown. A retrospective chart review of 120 patients with factory proven failed devices was performed. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine clinical correlates of emergency room versus outpatient clinic presentation at time of device failure. Twenty-two patients (18%) presented to emergency and 98 (82%) to clinic. Sixty-three devices had no device output at the time of presentation. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that antiarrhythmic drug use (odds ratio: 7.4, 95% CI: 2.0-28.0), atrioventricular nodal disease as an indication for pacing (odds ratio: 2.8, 95% CI: 1.2-3.0), and female gender (odds ratio: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.0-4.5) were the only significant correlates of emergency room presentations. Pacemaker dependency (escape heart rate < 40 beats/min) did not correlate with location of presentation even though no device output at the time of presentation was associated with emergency room presentation (odds ratio: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.1-5.8). Neither the presence of structural heart disease nor symptoms at the time of device implantation (syncope or presyncope) were correlated with location of presentation upon unexpected device failure. Although there were no deaths in the 120 failed devices studied, there were 26 deaths in the total group of 227 patients with recalled devices that could not be studied. Antiarrhythmic drug use, electrocardiographic pacing indication, and female gender may be more sensitive predictors of emergency room presentation and significant symptoms in the event of unanticipated pacemaker failure. The inability of any retrospective analysis to accurately assess mortality in the setting of pacemaker system failure underscores the need for prospective databases in recall situations.

  13. Earth Observations for Early Detection of Agricultural Drought in Countries at Risk: Contributions of the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdin, J. P.; Rowland, J.; Senay, G. B.; Funk, C. C.; Budde, M. E.; Husak, G. J.; Jayanthi, H.

    2013-12-01

    The Group on Earth Observations' Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) implementation plan emphasizes the information needs of countries at risk of food insecurity emergencies. Countries in this category are often vulnerable to disruption of agricultural production due to drought, while at the same time they lack well developed networks of in-situ observations to support early drought detection. Consequently, it is vital that Earth observations by satellites supplement those available from surface stations. The USGS, in its role as a FEWS NET implementing partner, has recently developed a number of new applications of satellite observations for this purpose. (1) In partnership with the University of California, Santa Barbara, a 30+ year time series of gridded precipitation estimates (CHIRPS) has been developed by blending NOAA GridSat B1 geostationary thermal infrared imagery with station observations using robust geostatistical methods. The core data set consists of pentadal (5-daily) accumulations from 1981-2013 at 0.05 degree spatial resolution between +/- 50 degrees latitude. Validation has been recently completed, and applications for gridded crop water balance calculations and mapping the Standardized Precipitation Index are in development. (2) Actual evapotranspiration (ETa) estimates using MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) data at 1-km have been successfully demonstrated using the operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance model with 8-day composites from the LPDAAC. A new, next-day latency implementation using daily LST swath data from the NASA LANCE server is in development for all the crop growing regions of the world. This ETa processing chain follows in the footsteps of (3) the expedited production of MODIS 250-meter NDVI images every five days at USGS EROS, likewise using LANCE daily swath data as input since 2010. Coverage includes Africa, Central Asia, the Middle East, Central America, and the Caribbean. (4) A surface water point monitoring

  14. Prospective association between consumption frequency of organic food and body weight change, risk of overweight or obesity: results from the NutriNet-Santé Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Baudry, Julia; Assmann, Karen E; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lairon, Denis

    2017-01-01

    A lower BMI has been reported among consumers of organic foods, but this relationship has never been examined in a prospective design study. Our aim was to prospectively investigate the association between frequency of organic food consumption and weight change. We analysed data from 62 224 participants of the NutriNet-Santé cohort (78 % women, mean age=45 years) with information on consumption frequency of organic foods, dietary intake and repeated anthropometric data. For sixteen products, participants reported their consumption frequency of labelled organic foods (never, occasionally, most of the time). An organic score (OS) with a maximum of thirty-two points was computed. The associations of the OS (modeled as quartiles (Q)) with change in BMI during follow-up (on average 3·1 years) and with the risk of overweight and obesity were estimated by ANCOVA and multivariable logistic regression. A lower BMI increase was observed across quartiles of the OS (mean difference Q4 v. Q1=-0·16 (95 % CI -0·32, -0·01). An increase in the OS was associated with a lower risk of overweight and obesity (among non-overweight and non-obese participants at inclusion): OR for Q4 v. Q1 were 0·77 (95 % CI 0·68, 0·86) and 0·69 (95 % CI 0·58, 0·82), respectively. Concerning obesity risk, the association was stronger among participants with higher adherence to nutritional guidelines. This study supports a strong protective role of consumption frequency of organic foods with regard to the risk of overweight and obesity that depends on overall dietary quality. Upon confirmation, these results may contribute to fine-tune nutritional guidelines by accounting for farming practices in food production.

  15. Net technical assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Wegmann, David G.

    1989-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The present and near term military balance of power between the U.S. and the Soviet Union can be expressed in a variety of net assessments. One can examine the strategic nuclear balance, the conventional balance in Europe, the maritime balance, and many others. Such assessments are essential not only for policy making but for arms control purposes and future force structure planning. However, to project the future military balance, on...

  16. Clinical Presentation, Risk Factors, and Treatment Modalities of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Single Tertiary Care Center Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljumah, Abdulrahman A; Kuriry, Hadi; AlZunaitan, Mohammed; Al Ghobain, Mohammed; Al Muaikeel, Mohamed; Al Olayan, Ashwaq; Azzumeea, Fahad; Almutairi, Bader; AlAlwan, Abduljaleel; AlGhamdi, Hamdan

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the risk factors, clinical characteristics, treatment modalities, and outcomes in Saudi patients with HCC and propose points for early detection of the disease. Methods. Patients were stratified according to underlying risk factors for the development of HCC. Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) was used for cancer staging. Treatment was classified into surgical resection/liver transplantation; locoregional ablation therapy; transarterial embolization; systemic chemotherapy; and best supportive care. Results. A total of 235 patients were included. Males had higher tumor size and incidence of portal vein thrombosis. Viral hepatitis was a risk factor in 75.7%. The most common BCLC stages were B (34.5%) and A (33.6%), and the most common radiological presentation was a single nodule of less than 5 cm. Metastases were present in 13.2%. Overall, 77 patients (32.8%) underwent a potentially curative treatment as the initial therapy. The most commonly utilized treatment modality was chemoembolization with 113 sessions in 71 patients. The overall median survival was 15.97 ± 27.18 months. Conclusion. HCC in Saudi Arabia is associated with high prevalence of HCV. Potentially curative therapies were underutilized in our patients. Cancer stage BCLC-B was the most frequent (34.5%) followed by BCLC-A (33.6%). The overall median survival was shorter than other studies.

  17. Emerging contaminants: presentations at the 2009 Toxicology and Risk Assessment Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murnyak, George; Vandenberg, John; Yaroschak, Paul J; Williams, Larry; Prabhakaran, Krishnan; Hinz, John

    2011-07-15

    A session entitled "Emerging Contaminants" was held in April 2009 in Cincinnati, OH at the 2009 Toxicology and Risk Assessment Conference. The purpose of the session was to share information on both programmatic and technical aspects associated with emerging contaminants. Emerging contaminants are chemicals or materials that are characterized by a perceived or real threat to human health or environment, a lack of published health standards or an evolving standard. A contaminant may also be "emerging" because of the discovery of a new source, a new pathway to humans, or a new detection method or technology. The session included five speakers representing the Department of Defense (DoD), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and each of the military services. The DoD created the Emerging Contaminant Directorate to proactively address environmental, health, and safety concerns associated with emerging contaminants. This session described the scan-watch-action list process, impact assessment methodology, and integrated risk management concept that DoD has implemented to manage emerging contaminants. EPA presented emerging trends in health risk assessment. Researchers made technical presentations on the status of some emerging contaminates in the assessment process (i.e. manganese, RDX, and naphthalene). Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Presenting quantitative information about decision outcomes: a risk communication primer for patient decision aid developers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Making evidence-based decisions often requires comparison of two or more options. Research-based evidence may exist which quantifies how likely the outcomes are for each option. Understanding these numeric estimates improves patients’ risk perception and leads to better informed decision making. This paper summarises current “best practices” in communication of evidence-based numeric outcomes for developers of patient decision aids (PtDAs) and other health communication tools. Method An expert consensus group of fourteen researchers from North America, Europe, and Australasia identified eleven main issues in risk communication. Two experts for each issue wrote a “state of the art” summary of best evidence, drawing on the PtDA, health, psychological, and broader scientific literature. In addition, commonly used terms were defined and a set of guiding principles and key messages derived from the results. Results The eleven key components of risk communication were: 1) Presenting the chance an event will occur; 2) Presenting changes in numeric outcomes; 3) Outcome estimates for test and screening decisions; 4) Numeric estimates in context and with evaluative labels; 5) Conveying uncertainty; 6) Visual formats; 7) Tailoring estimates; 8) Formats for understanding outcomes over time; 9) Narrative methods for conveying the chance of an event; 10) Important skills for understanding numerical estimates; and 11) Interactive web-based formats. Guiding principles from the evidence summaries advise that risk communication formats should reflect the task required of the user, should always define a relevant reference class (i.e., denominator) over time, should aim to use a consistent format throughout documents, should avoid “1 in x” formats and variable denominators, consider the magnitude of numbers used and the possibility of format bias, and should take into account the numeracy and graph literacy of the audience. Conclusion A substantial and

  19. Risk factors and clinical presentation of craniocervical arterial dissection: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Lucy C

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Craniocervical arterial dissection is a major cause of ischaemic stroke in young adults. The pathogenesis is not fully understood but is thought to be related to a combination of an intrinsic weakness in the arterial wall and an external trigger. Intrinsic susceptibility is thought to be a generalised arteriopathy, vascular anomaly or genetic predisposition. Proposed extrinsic factors include recent viral infection and minor mechanical trauma to the neck, including neck manipulation, which has raised concerns amongst manual practitioners in particular as to the appropriate screening of patients and avoidance of more vigorous therapeutic techniques. The presenting features of dissection may mimic a musculoskeletal presentation, creating a diagnostic dilemma for primary care practitioners. Early recognition is critical so that appropriate management can be commenced. The aims of this study are to prospectively investigate young patients ≤55 years admitted to hospital with radiologically diagnosed craniocervical arterial dissection compared to matched controls with stroke but not dissection, to identify risk factors and early presenting clinical features, so these may be more readily identified by primary care practitioners. Methods Patients ≤ 55 years presenting to hospital with craniocervical arterial dissection and controls will have their medical records reviewed and be interviewed and questioned about possible risk factors, preceding events to admission such as recent neck trauma, and presenting clinical features including any preceding transient ischaemic features. Clinical assessment will include a connective tissue screening examination to identify subclinical connective tissue disorders. Radiology and blood screening will be reviewed for typical features and inflammatory markers. Functional outcome will be reviewed to determine the burden of the stroke. Discussion This study will provide descriptive and

  20. Egypt risks to become net importer of energy toward the year 2000 according to the World Bank. L'Egypte risque de devenir importateur net d'energie vers l'an 2000 selon la banque mondiale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1994-05-01

    Petroleum exports were about the two-third of the whole goods exports of Egypt in the eighties years, but this part is getting under 50%, because a lower growth of exported volume and because of the reduction of prices. As these kinds of things are continuing during the nineties years and the local petroleum consumption is increasing, Egypt could become a net importer of petroleum products at the end of the century.

  1. Corneal Melt after Boston Keratoprosthesis: Clinical Presentation, Management, Outcomes and Risk Factor Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhout, Soumaya; Robert, Marie-Claude; Deli, Sousans; Harissi-Dagher, Mona

    2017-01-12

    To determine the presentation, risk factors, and outcomes of keratolysis after Boston type I keratoprosthesis (B-KPro). Retrospective chart review. A total of 16 (14%) of the 110 eyes (96 patients) which underwent B-KPro implantation developed keratolysis at an average 20 ± 11 months. Retroprosthetic membrane (RPM), infectious keratitis, and corneal dellen were identified in 31%, 25%, and 13% of corneal melts, respectively. Five eyes had keratolysis without a readily identifiable cause. RPM (odds-ratio, OR = 4.4, p = 0.02) and infectious keratitis (OR = 17.6, p<0.0005) were confirmed as significant risk factors. Retinal detachment (p = 0.001) and choroidal detachment (p = 0.003) were more common in eyes with keratolysis. Management included B-KPro removal or exchange (n = 7), amniotic membrane transplantation (n = 1), tectonic corneal transplantation (n = 2), medical treatment (n = 4), and observation (n = 2). The risk of keratolysis following B-Kpro increases with the development of RPM and infectious keratitis. Patients with keratolysis had higher complication rates and should receive rigorous monitoring.

  2. The effect of different cardiovascular risk presentation formats on intentions, understanding and emotional affect: a randomised controlled trial using a web-based risk formatter (protocol).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waldron, C.A.; Gallacher, J.; Weijden, G.D.E.M. van der; Newcombe, R.; Elwyn, G.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The future risk of heart disease can be predicted with increasing precision. However, more research is needed into how this risk is conveyed and presented. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of presenting cardiovascular risk in different formats on individuals' intention to

  3. Lung cancer in symptomatic patients presenting in primary care: a systematic review of risk prediction tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Hansen, Mia; Berendse, Sabine; Hamilton, Willie; Baldwin, David R

    2017-06-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths. Around 70% of patients first presenting to specialist care have advanced disease, at which point current treatments have little effect on survival. The issue for primary care is how to recognise patients earlier and investigate appropriately. This requires an assessment of the risk of lung cancer. The aim of this study was to systematically review the existing risk prediction tools for patients presenting in primary care with symptoms that may indicate lung cancer DESIGN AND SETTING: Systematic review of primary care data. Medline, PreMedline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and ISI Proceedings (1980 to March 2016) were searched. The final list of included studies was agreed between two of the authors, who also appraised and summarised them. Seven studies with between 1482 and 2 406 127 patients were included. The tools were all based on UK primary care data, but differed in complexity of development, number/type of variables examined/included, and outcome time frame. There were four multivariable tools with internal validation area under the curves between 0.88 and 0.92. The tools all had a number of limitations, and none have been externally validated, or had their clinical and cost impact examined. There is insufficient evidence for the recommendation of any one of the available risk prediction tools. However, some multivariable tools showed promising discrimination. What is needed to guide clinical practice is both external validation of the existing tools and a comparative study, so that the best tools can be incorporated into clinical decision tools used in primary care. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  4. Low back pain risk factors associated with persistence, recurrence and delayed presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melloh, Markus; Elfering, Achim; Stanton, Tasha R; Barz, Thomas; Aghayev, Emin; Röder, Christoph; Theis, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    There is little knowledge in the literature on the role of time-related variables for the prognosis of acute and subacute low back pain (LBP). The aim of this study was to estimate the relationship between time-related LBP characteristics and prognostic factors for acute/subacute LBP. We performed a prospective inception cohort study of 315 patients attending a health practitioner for acute/subacute LBP or recurrent LBP. One-tailed correlations were conducted between patient characteristics and time-related variables. The pattern of correlation between risk factors for and resources against persistent LBP differed between three time-related variables. 'Subacute LBP' and 'delayed presentation' were positively associated with psychological factors. Both indicators were negatively correlated with resources against development of persistent LBP. Moreover, 'delayed presentation' was related positively with occupational stressors. In contrast, 'recurrent LBP' was only related to more impaired health-related factors. Patients with current LBP waiting longer until seeking help in primary care have a more disadvantageous profile of occupational and psychological risk factors and lower resource levels. A similar but less pronounced pattern occurred in those with subacute LBP compared to those with acute LBP. Consideration of time characteristics of LBP may help to better understand LBP.

  5. Estrogenic endocrine disruptors present in sports supplements. A risk assessment for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotan, Monika; Elliott, Christopher T; Frizzell, Caroline; Connolly, Lisa

    2014-09-15

    Sports supplements are becoming a regular dietary addition for consumers who view such products as a means of improving their health and performance. Previously estrogenic endocrine disruptors (EDs) were detected in 80% of 116 sports supplements investigated by biological in vitro reporter gene assays (RGAs). The aim of this study was to quantify the hormonal activity in 50 of these sports supplement samples using a validated estrogen RGA and perform an exposure and risk assessment for human health. Results showed that 17β-estradiol equivalent levels were higher than those reported as being present in the typical human omnivore diet in 33 of the sports supplements and higher than the acceptable daily intake (ADI) in 13 of these products. The highest activity samples presented a potential to influence the human daily exposure to 17β-estradiol like activity in various risk groups with a predicted hormonal impact of greatest concern in young boys and postmenopausal women. In conclusion, consumers of sports supplements may be exposed to high levels of estrogenic EDs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A multisite view of psychosocial risks in patients presenting for bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofey, Dana L; Zeller, Meg H; Brode, Cassie; Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Mikhail, Carmen; Washington, Gia; Baughcum, Amy E; Peugh, James; Austin, Heather; Jenkins, Todd M; Courcoulas, Anita P

    2015-06-01

    The psychosocial health of adolescents with severe obesity (BMI ≥ 120% for age and gender) has only recently been the focus of empirical work. This multisite study-an ancillary to a prospective longitudinal observational study documenting health in adolescents having weight loss surgery (WLS)-presents preoperative/baseline data from 141 WLS adolescents and 83 nonsurgical comparisons (NSComps). Self-report data from adolescent and caregiver dyads characterize adolescent psychopathology and potential correlates. One in three adolescents reported internalizing symptoms, and one in five endorsed externalizing symptoms in the clinical range. Generalized linear model analysis demonstrated that increased risk of psychopathology for adolescents with severe obesity was associated with family dysfunction, eating pathology, family composition, and seeking behavioral intervention (versus WLS), whereas better quality of life (QOL) was associated with lower psychopathology. While psychopathology rates are comparable to national samples, there is a subgroup of youth who present for behavioral weight loss services and are at greater risk for psychopathology relative to national adolescent base rates. Adolescents who achieve candidacy for WLS may be a highly selective population of youth with severe obesity and may have lower base rates of psychopathology compared to NSComps. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  7. Risk factors associated with the presentation of brucellosis in the spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Aceves Pérez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to describe the risk factors associated with the presentation of brucellosis on the spine, and determine the strength of association between these factors. METHODS: The medical records of patients with brucellosis on the spine were analyzed and a spreadsheet was created to compile the following data: age, sex, place of origin and residence, risk factors (exposure at work, consumption of unpasteurized products and comorbidities, clinical presentation (lumbar pain, anorexia, headache, myalgia, fatigue, paresthesia, dysesthesia, muscle weakness, weight loss, fever, affected spine level, presence of abscesses, disease duration (acute, subacute, chronic, laboratory studies (erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, serology, blood culture, Rose Bengal test, histopathological reports, imaging studies (x-rays, MRI, bone gammagraphy, established treatment (medical and/or surgical, therapeutic failure and sequelae. RESULTS: A total of 17 patients, 10 women (58.8% and seven men (41.2%, were reviewed from January 2007 to January 2011. The group had a mean age of 57.8 years with a standard deviation of +13.91 and age range between 16-74 years. CONCLUSIONS: There is no significant difference between the groups compared with respect to age and sex, however, improvement of the neurological deficit was observed in eight patients who underwent surgical procedure.

  8. Protein crystallization image classification with elastic net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Jeffrey; Collins, John; Weldetsion, Mehari; Newland, Oliver; Chiang, Eric; Guerrero, Steve; Okada, Kazunori

    2014-03-01

    Protein crystallization plays a crucial role in pharmaceutical research by supporting the investigation of a protein's molecular structure through X-ray diffraction of its crystal. Due to the rare occurrence of crystals, images must be manually inspected, a laborious process. We develop a solution incorporating a regularized, logistic regression model for automatically evaluating these images. Standard image features, such as shape context, Gabor filters and Fourier transforms, are first extracted to represent the heterogeneous appearance of our images. Then the proposed solution utilizes Elastic Net to select relevant features. Its L1-regularization mitigates the effects of our large dataset, and its L2- regularization ensures proper operation when the feature number exceeds the sample number. A two-tier cascade classifier based on naïve Bayes and random forest algorithms categorized the images. In order to validate the proposed method, we experimentally compare it with naïve Bayes, linear discriminant analysis, random forest, and their two-tier cascade classifiers, by 10-fold cross validation. Our experimental results demonstrate a 3-category accuracy of 74%, outperforming other models. In addition, Elastic Net better reduces the false negatives responsible for a high, domain specific risk. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to apply Elastic Net to classifying protein crystallization images. Performance measured on a large pharmaceutical dataset also fared well in comparison with those presented in the previous studies, while the reduction of the high-risk false negatives is promising.

  9. Petri Nets in Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A process language for security protocols is presented together with a semantics in terms of sets of events. The denotation of process is a set of events, and as each event specifies a set of pre and postconditions, this denotation can be viewed as a Petri net. By means of an example we illustrate...... how the Petri-net semantics can be used to prove security properties....

  10. Antioxidant intake from diet and supplements and risk of digestive cancers in middle-aged adults: results from the prospective NutriNet-Santé cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egnell, Manon; Fassier, Philippine; Lécuyer, Lucie; Gonzalez, Rebeca; Zelek, Laurent; Vasson, Marie-Paule; Hercberg, Serge; Latino-Martel, Paule; Galan, Pilar; Druesne-Pecollo, Nathalie; Deschasaux, Mélanie; Touvier, Mathilde

    2017-10-01

    Experimental studies suggest beneficial effects of antioxidants in digestive cancer prevention. However, epidemiological results are contrasting and few studies quantitatively assessed supplemental intake. This study aimed at investigating the associations between antioxidant intakes (dietary, supplemental and total) and digestive cancer risk. This prospective study included 38 812 middle-aged subjects (≥45 years) from the NutriNet-Santé cohort (2009-2016). Dietary data were collected using repeated 24 h records. A specific questionnaire assessed dietary supplement use over a 12-month period. A composition database of about 8000 dietary supplements was developed. Associations between continuous and sex-specific quartiles of vitamins C and E, β-carotene and Se intakes and digestive cancer risk were characterised using multivariable Cox proportional hazard models. A total of 167 incident digestive cancers (120 colorectal, twenty-six pancreatic, nine oesophagus, seven stomach and five liver) were diagnosed during follow-up investigation. Dietary (hazard ratios (HR)Q4 v. Q1=0·56; 95 % CI 0·34, 0·91, P trend=0·01) and total (HRQ4 v. Q1=0·51; 95 % CI 0·30, 0·84, P trend=0·008) vitamin C intakes, dietary (HRQ4 v. Q1=0·56; 95 % CI 0·34, 0·92, P trend=0·005) and total (HRQ4 v. Q1=0·58; 95 % CI 0·36, 0·94, P trend=0·003) vitamin E intakes, and dietary (HRfor an increment of 10 µg/d=0·92; 95 % CI 0·85, 1·00, P=0·04) and total (HRfor an increment of 10 µg/d=0·92; 95 % CI 0·86, 0·99, P=0·03) Se intakes were associated with a decreased digestive cancer risk. Statistically significant interactions were observed between dietary and total Se intakes and alcohol consumption as well as between total vitamin E intake and smoking status. This prospective cohort study with quantitative assessment of supplemental intakes suggests a potential protective effect of several antioxidants (vitamins C and E and Se) on digestive cancer risk, and a modulation of some

  11. Stroke Mortality, Clinical Presentation and Day of Arrival: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily C. O'Brien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent studies report that acute stroke patients who present to the hospital on weekends have higher rates of 28-day mortality than similar patients who arrive during the week. However, how this association is related to clinical presentation and stroke type has not been systematically investigated. Methods and Results. We examined the association between day of arrival and 28-day mortality in 929 validated stroke events in the ARIC cohort from 1987–2004. Weekend arrival was defined as any arrival time from midnight Friday until midnight Sunday. Mortality was defined as all-cause fatal events from the day of arrival through the 28th day of followup. The presence or absence of thirteen stroke signs and symptoms were obtained through medical record review for each event. Binomial logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (OR; 95% CI for the association between weekend arrival and 28-day mortality for all stroke events and for stroke subtypes. The overall risk of 28-day mortality was 9.6% for weekday strokes and 10.1% for weekend strokes. In models controlling for patient demographics, clinical risk factors, and event year, weekend arrival was not associated with 28-day mortality (0.87; 0.51, 1.50. When stratified by stroke type, weekend arrival was not associated with increased odds of mortality for ischemic (1.17, 0.62, 2.23 or hemorrhagic (0.37; 0.11, 1.26 stroke patients. Conclusions. Presence or absence of thirteen signs and symptoms was similar for weekday patients and weekend patients when stratified by stroke type. Weekend arrival was not associated with 28-day all-cause mortality or differences in symptom presentation for strokes in this cohort.

  12. Incidence and risk factors for developing infection in patients presenting with uninfected diabetic foot ulcers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limin Jia

    Full Text Available There is a paucity of research on patients presenting with uninfected diabetic foot ulcers (DFU that go on to develop infection. We aimed to investigate the incidence and risk factors for developing infection in a large regional cohort of patients presenting with uninfected DFUs.We performed a secondary analysis of data collected from a validated prospective state-wide clinical diabetic foot database in Queensland (Australia. Patients presenting for their first visit with an uninfected DFU to a Diabetic Foot Service in one of thirteen Queensland regions between January 2012 and December 2013 were included. Socio-demographic, medical history, foot disease history, DFU characteristics and treatment variables were captured at the first visit. Patients were followed until their DFU healed, or if their DFU did not heal for 12-months, to determine if they developed a foot infection in that period.Overall, 853 patients were included; mean(standard deviation age 62.9(12.8 years, 68.0% male, 90.9% type 2 diabetes, 13.6% indigenous Australians. Foot infection developed in 342 patients for an overall incidence of 40.1%; 32.4% incidence in DFUs healed <3 months, 55.9% in DFUs healed between 3-12 months (p<0.05. Independent risk factors (Odds Ratio (95% confidence interval for developing infection were: DFUs healed between 3-12 months (2.3 (1.6-3.3, deep DFUs (2.2 (1.2-3.9, peripheral neuropathy (1.8 (1.1-2.9, previous DFU history (1.7 (1.2-2.4, foot deformity (1.4 (1.0-2.0, female gender (1.5 (1.1-2.1 and years of age (0.98 (0.97-0.99 (all p<0.05.A considerable proportion of patients presenting with an uninfected DFU will develop an infection prior to healing. To prevent infection clinicians treating patients with uninfected DFUs should be particularly vigilant with those presenting with deep DFUs, previous DFU history, peripheral neuropathy, foot deformity, younger age, female gender and DFUs that have not healed by 3 months after presentation.

  13. Do free-living amoebae in treated drinking water systems present an emerging health risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jacqueline M; Ashbolt, Nicholas J

    2011-02-01

    There is an expanding body of evidence that free-living amoebae (FLA) increase both the numbers and virulence of water-based, human-pathogenic, amoeba-resisting microorganisms (ARM). Legionella spp., Mycobacterium spp., and other opportunistic human pathogens are known to be both ARM and also the etiologic agents of potentially fatal human lung infections. However, comparatively little is known about the FLA that may facilitate ARM growth in drinking water. This review examines the available literature on FLA in treated drinking water systems; in total 26 studies from 18 different countries. FLA were reported to breakthrough the water treatment barrier and enter distribution systems, in addition to the expected post-treatment system ingress. Once in the distribution system there is evidence of FLA colonization and regrowth especially in reservoirs and in-premise plumbing storage tanks. At the point of use the average FLA detection rate was 45% but highly variable (n = 16, σ = 31) due to both differences in both assay methods and the type of water systems examined. This review reveals that FLA are consistently detected in treated drinking water systems around the world and present a yet unquantified emerging health risk. However, more research is urgently required before accurate risks assessments can be undertaken to assess the impacts on human health, in households and institutions, due to exposure to FLA facilitated pathogenic ARM.

  14. Phenobarbitone-induced haematological abnormalities in idiopathic epileptic dogs: prevalence, risk factors, clinical presentation and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersan, E; Volk, H A; Ros, C; De Risio, L

    2014-09-13

    The aim of this retrospective study was to assess prevalence, risk factors, clinical presentation and outcome of phenobarbitone induced haematological abnormalities (PBIHA) in dogs. The medical records of two veterinary referral institutions were searched for dogs diagnosed with idiopathic epilepsy and treated with PB as monotherapy or polytherapy between March 2003 and September 2010. Sixteen dogs had PBIHA; the median age at diagnosis was 69.5 months. Phenobarbitone was administered at a median dose of 3 mg/kg twice a day for a median period of 100.5 days and the median serum phenobarbitone level was 19 μg/ml. Two dogs had neutropenia, three had anaemia and thrombocytopenia, two had anaemia and neutropenia; the remaining nine had pancytopenia. All dogs were referred for non-specific clinical signs. Phenobarbitone was discontinued after diagnosis, and the median time to resolution of PBIHA was 17 days. The prevalence and risk factors for PBIHA were evaluated from a questionnaire survey of referring practices to obtain more detailed follow-up on cases diagnosed with idiopathic epilepsy. The prevalence rate of PBIHA was 4.2%, and the condition occurred in dogs treated with standard therapeutic doses often within the first three months after starting treatment. Serial haematological evaluations should be therefore considered from the beginning of phenobarbitone therapy to allow early diagnosis and treatment of PBIHA. British Veterinary Association.

  15. Psychosocial Assessment of Self-Harm Patients and Risk of Repeat Presentation: An Instrumental Variable Analysis Using Time of Hospital Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Robert; Metcalfe, Chris; Steeg, Sarah; Davies, Neil M; Cooper, Jayne; Kapur, Nav; Gunnell, David

    2016-01-01

    Clinical guidelines have recommended psychosocial assessment of self-harm patients for years, yet estimates of its impact on the risk of repeat self-harm vary. Assessing the association of psychosocial assessment with risk of repeat self-harm is challenging due to the effects of confounding by indication. We analysed data from a cohort study of 15,113 patients presenting to the emergency departments of three UK hospitals to investigate the association of psychosocial assessment with risk of repeat hospital presentation for self-harm. Time of day of hospital presentation was used as an instrument for psychosocial assessment, attempting to control for confounding by indication. Conventional regression analysis suggested psychosocial assessment was not associated with risk of repeat self-harm within 12 months (Risk Difference (RD) 0.00 95% confidence interval (95%CI) -0.01 to 0.02). In contrast, IV analysis suggested risk of repeat self-harm was reduced by 18% (RD -0.18, 95%CI -0.32 to -0.03) in those patients receiving a psychosocial assessment. However, the instrument of time of day did not remove all potential effects of confounding by indication, suggesting the IV effect estimate may be biased. We found that psychosocial assessments reduce risk of repeat self-harm. This is in-line with other non-randomised studies based on populations in which allocation to assessment was less subject to confounding by indication. However, as our instrument did not fully balance important confounders across time of day, the IV effect estimate should be interpreted with caution.

  16. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Rosener, B. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host ``na-net.ornl.gov`` at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message ``send index`` to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user`s perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  17. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Rosener, B. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host na-net.ornl.gov'' at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message send index'' to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user's perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  18. Incidence and risk factors for developing infection in patients presenting with uninfected diabetic foot ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Limin; Parker, Christina N; Parker, Tony J; Kinnear, Ewan M; Derhy, Patrick H; Alvarado, Ann M; Huygens, Flavia; Lazzarini, Peter A

    2017-01-01

    There is a paucity of research on patients presenting with uninfected diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) that go on to develop infection. We aimed to investigate the incidence and risk factors for developing infection in a large regional cohort of patients presenting with uninfected DFUs. We performed a secondary analysis of data collected from a validated prospective state-wide clinical diabetic foot database in Queensland (Australia). Patients presenting for their first visit with an uninfected DFU to a Diabetic Foot Service in one of thirteen Queensland regions between January 2012 and December 2013 were included. Socio-demographic, medical history, foot disease history, DFU characteristics and treatment variables were captured at the first visit. Patients were followed until their DFU healed, or if their DFU did not heal for 12-months, to determine if they developed a foot infection in that period. Overall, 853 patients were included; mean(standard deviation) age 62.9(12.8) years, 68.0% male, 90.9% type 2 diabetes, 13.6% indigenous Australians. Foot infection developed in 342 patients for an overall incidence of 40.1%; 32.4% incidence in DFUs healed infection were: DFUs healed between 3-12 months (2.3 (1.6-3.3)), deep DFUs (2.2 (1.2-3.9)), peripheral neuropathy (1.8 (1.1-2.9)), previous DFU history (1.7 (1.2-2.4)), foot deformity (1.4 (1.0-2.0)), female gender (1.5 (1.1-2.1)) and years of age (0.98 (0.97-0.99)) (all pinfection prior to healing. To prevent infection clinicians treating patients with uninfected DFUs should be particularly vigilant with those presenting with deep DFUs, previous DFU history, peripheral neuropathy, foot deformity, younger age, female gender and DFUs that have not healed by 3 months after presentation.

  19. Clinical Presentation and Frequency of Risk Factors in Patients with Breast Carcinoma in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Zahid Ali; Qurrat-ul-Ain; Khan, Ruba; Raza, Natasha; Noor, Tooba

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is known to be one of the most prevalent cancers among women in both developing and developed countries .The incidence of breast cancer in Pakistan has increased dramatically within the last few years and is the second country after Israel in Asia to have highest proportional cases of breast cancer. However, there are limited data for breast cancer available in the literature from Pakistan. The study was conducted to bring to light the common clinical presentation of breast cancer and to evaluate the frequency of established risk factors in breast carcinoma patients and furthermore to compare the findings between premenopausal and postmenopausal women in Pakistan. A 6 months (from July 2012 to Dec 2012) cross sectional survey was conducted in Surgical and Oncology Units of Civil Hospital, Karachi. Data were collected though a well developed questionnaire from 105 female patients diagnosed with carcinoma of breast and analyzed using SPSS version 17. Institutional ethical approval was obtained prior to data collection. Out of 105 patients, 43 were premenopausal and 62 were postmenopausal, 99 being married. Mean age at diagnosis was 47.8 ± 12.4 years. A painless lump was the most frequent symptom, notived by 77.1%(n=81). Some 55.2% (n=58) patients had a lump in the right breast and 44.8%(n=47) in the left breast. In the majority of cases, the lump was present in upper outer quadrant 41.9% (n=44). Mean period of delay from appearance of symptoms to consulting a doctor was 5.13 ± 4.8 months, from the shortest 1 month to the longest 36 months. Long delay (> 3 months) was the most frequent figure 41.9%. Considering overall risk factors most frequent were first pregnancy after 20 years of age (41%), physical breast trauma (28.6%), lack of breast feeding(21.9%), and early menarche breast cancer or any other cancer in first degree relatives (9.5% and 13.3%, respectively). Some of the less common factors were late menopause >54 years (8.6%), use of oral

  20. Individual and Combined Effects of Dietary Factors on Risk of Incident Hypertension: Prospective Analysis From the NutriNet-Santé Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelong, Helene; Blacher, Jacques; Baudry, Julia; Adriouch, Solia; Galan, Pilar; Fezeu, Leopold; Hercberg, Serge; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2017-10-01

    Dietary intake is pointed as one of the major determinants in hypertension development. Data in the area are mostly obtained from cross-sectional studies. We aimed to investigate the prospective association between (1) individual nutritional factors and (2) adherence to the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension and the risk of incident hypertension in a large cohort study. We prospectively examined the incidence of hypertension among 80 426 French adults participating in the NutriNet-Santé cohort study. Self-reported sociodemographic, lifestyle health questionnaires and dietary consumption assessed by three 24-hour records were completed at baseline and yearly thereafter. Associations between quartiles (Q) of nutrients and food groups and adherence to Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension diet and hypertension risk were assessed by multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. During a mean follow-up of 3.4±2.1 years, 2413 cases of incident hypertension were documented. Dietary intakes of sodium (Q4 versus Q1): hazard ratio (HR)=1.17 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.35), potassium: HR=0.82 (95% CI, 0.72-0.94), animal protein: HR=1.26 (95% CI, 1.11-1.43), vegetable protein: HR=0.85 (95% CI, 0.75-0.95), fiber: HR =0.81 (95% CI, 0.71-0.93), magnesium: HR=0.77 (95% CI, 0.67-0.89), fruit and vegetables: HR=0.85 (95% CI, 0.74-0.97), whole grain: HR=0.84(95% CI, 0.76-0.93), nuts: HR=0.72 (95% CI, 0.63-0.83), and red and processed meat: HR=1.25 (95% CI, 1.11-0.42) were associated with risk of hypertension. Besides, adherence to the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension was strongly inversely associated with incident hypertension: (Q4 versus Q1) HR=0.66 (95% CI, 0.58-0.75). Our results confirmed the association of several nutritional factors intake and incident hypertension and highlighted that adopting a global healthy diet could strongly contribute to the prevention of hypertension. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Understanding Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salom, Jaume; Widén, Joakim; Candanedo, José

    2011-01-01

    Although several alternative definitions exist, a Net-Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) can be succinctly described as a grid-connected building that generates as much energy as it uses over a year. The “net-zero” balance is attained by applying energy conservation and efficiency measures...... and by incorporating renewable energy systems. While based on annual balances, a complete description of a Net ZEB requires examining the system at smaller time-scales. This assessment should address: (a) the relationship between power generation and building loads and (b) the resulting interaction with the power grid....... This paper presents and categorizes quantitative indicators suitable to describe both aspects of the building’s performance. These indicators, named LMGI - Load Matching and Grid Interaction indicators, are easily quantifiable and could complement the output variables of existing building simulation tools...

  2. Emergency Medicine Myths: Ectopic Pregnancy Evaluation, Risk Factors, and Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Jennifer J; Long, Brit; Koyfman, Alex

    2017-12-01

    Ectopic pregnancy (EP) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in females of reproductive age. Proper diagnosis and treatment are critical, as complications such as rupture, hemorrhagic shock, and even death can occur. EP is a condition emergency physicians are trained to detect, yet there are multiple myths concerning its evaluation and diagnosis. This article reviews several of these myths in order to improve emergency department (ED) evaluation and diagnosis. EP is a difficult diagnosis and may be missed on initial ED visit. While the diagnosis is often delayed simply due to very early presentations, it can also be missed because patients may not have all the same risk factors or demonstrate the same symptoms. They may also not demonstrate the same serum B-human chorionic gonadotropin levels and trends or have the same ultrasound findings at equivalent gestational ages. Some patients with early EP may have positive ultrasound findings with serum β-hCG levels under a defined discriminatory zone (DZ). On the other hand, some patients with an early viable intrauterine pregnancy may have no visible findings on initial ultrasound, but have serum β-hCG (quantitative) levels well above the DZ. Although rare, EP has even been demonstrated in women with negative urine β-hCG tests or low serum β-hCG levels. While EP may be a challenging diagnosis, understanding the myths surrounding EP may help emergency physicians consider it, even when patient risk factors, symptoms, or ED laboratory or imaging studies do not initially or easily define the diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Risks identification and ranking using AHP and group decision making technique: Presenting “R index”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safar Fazli

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary concerns in project development is to detect all sorts of risks associated with a particular project. The main objective of this article is to identify the risks in the construction project and to grade them based on their importance on the project. The designed indicator in this paper is the combinational model of the Analytical Hierarchal Process (AHP method and the group decision – making applied for risks measurement and ranking. This indicator is called "R" which includes three main steps: creating the risks broken structure (RBS, obtaining each risk weight and efficacy, and finally performing the model to rank the risks. A questionnaire is used for gathering data. Based on the results of this survey, there are important risks associated with construction projects. There we need to use some guidelines to reduce the inherent risks including recognition of the common risks beside the political risks; suggestion of a simple, understandable, and practical model; and using plenty of the experts and specialists' opinions through applying step. After analyzing data, the final result from applying R index showed that the risk “economic changes / currency rate and inflation change" has the most importance for the analysis. In the other words, if these risks occur, the project may face with the more threats and it is suggested that an organization should centralize its equipment, personnel, cost, and time on the risk more than ever. The most obvious issue in this paper is a tremendous difference between an importance of the financial risks and the other risks.

  4. Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux is defined as the year-over-year change in Total Ecosystem Carbon Stock, or the net rate of carbon exchange between an ecosystem and the...

  5. Pediatric Keratoconus in a Tertiary Referral Center: Incidence, Presentation, Risk Factors, and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khoury, Sylvain; Abdelmassih, Youssef; Hamade, Adib; Slim, Elise; Cherfan, Carole G; Chelala, Elias; Bleik, Jamal; Jarade, Elias F

    2016-08-01

    To report the incidence, clinical presentation, risk factors, and treatment outcome of pediatric keratoconus in a tertiary referral eye hospital in Beirut, Lebanon. In this retrospective study, the authors evaluated all patients with keratoconus 14 years or younger newly diagnosed at the Beirut Eye Specialist Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon, between January 2010 and December 2014. The incidence of pediatric keratoconus among all pediatric patients and among patients with keratoconus of all ages was assessed. Patients with pediatric keratoconus were evaluated for keratoconus stage, initial presentation, uncorrected distance visual acuity, corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), corneal topography, and pachymetry. Patients were classified according to different treatment regimen groups and different follow-up visits were evaluated. During 5 years, 16,808 patients were examined, of whom 2,972 were 14 years or younger. A total of 541 patients were diagnosed as having keratoconus; of those, 16 were 14 years or younger at the time of diagnosis. Hence, the incidence of keratoconus was 0.53% among pediatric patients and 3.78% among adult patients (> 14 years). Initial presentation was during routine checkup (1 of 16) for allergic conjunctivitis (3 of 16), reduced vision (10 of 16), and corneal hydrops (mimicking keratitis) (2 of 16). Except for 2 patients lost to follow-up, all eyes received corneal cross-linking treatment and 16 eyes received additional intracorneal ring segment implantation. The incidence of pediatric keratoconus indicates that increased awareness for keratoconus among children is needed, mainly in cases of family history of keratoconus, ocular allergy/pruritus, poor CDVA, corneal hydrops, and/or high astigmatism. [J Refract Surg. 2016;32(8):534-541.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. The effect of different cardiovascular risk presentation formats on intentions, understanding and emotional affect: a randomised controlled trial using a web-based risk formatter (protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newcombe Robert

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The future risk of heart disease can be predicted with increasing precision. However, more research is needed into how this risk is conveyed and presented. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of presenting cardiovascular risk in different formats on individuals' intention to change behaviour to reduce risk, understanding of risk information and emotional affect. Methods/design A randomised controlled trial comprising four arms, with a between subjects design will be performed. There will be two intervention groups and two control groups. The first control comprises a pre-intervention questionnaire and presents risk in a bar graph format. The second control presents risk in a bar graph format without pre-intervention questionnaire. These two control groups are to account for the potential Hawthorne effect of thinking about cardiovascular risk before viewing actual risk. The two intervention groups comprise presenting risk in either a pictogram or metonym format (image depicting seriousness of having a myocardial infarction. 800 individuals' aged between 45 and 64 years, who have not been previously diagnosed with heart disease and have access to a computer with internet, will be given a link to a website comprising a risk calculator and electronic questionnaires. 10-year risk of having a coronary heart disease event will be assessed and presented in one of the three formats. A post-intervention questionnaire will be completed after viewing the risk format. Main outcome measures are (i intention to change behaviour, (ii understanding of risk information, (iii emotional affect and (iv worry about future heart disease. Secondary outcomes are the sub-components of the theory of planned behaviour: attitudes, perceived behavioural control and subjective norms. Discussion Having reviewed the literature, we are not aware of any other studies which have used the assessment of actual risk, in a trial to compare different

  7. Mass-gathering Medicine: Risks and Patient Presentations at a 2-Day Electronic Dance Music Event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Adam; Turris, Sheila A

    2015-06-01

    Music festivals, including electronic dance music events (EDMEs), increasingly are common in Canada and internationally. Part of a US $4.5 billion industry annually, the target audience is youth and young adults aged 15-25 years. Little is known about the impact of these events on local emergency departments (EDs). Drawing on prospective data over a 2-day EDME, the authors of this study employed mixed methods to describe the case mix and prospectively compared patient presentation rate (PPR) and ambulance transfer rate (ATR) between a first aid (FA) only and a higher level of care (HLC) model. There were 20,301 ticketed attendees. Seventy patient encounters were recorded over two days. The average age was 19.1 years. Roughly 69% were female (n=48/70). Forty-six percent of those seen in the main medical area were under the age of 19 years (n=32/70). The average length of stay in the main medical area was 70.8 minutes. The overall PPR was 4.09 per 1,000 attendees. The ATR with FA only would have been 1.98; ATR with HLC model was 0.52. The presence of an on-site HLC team had a significant positive effect on avoiding ambulance transfers. Twenty-nine ambulance transfers and ED visits were avoided by the presence of an on-site HLC medical team. Reduction of impact to the public health care system was substantial. Electronic dance music events have predictable risks and patient presentations, and appropriate on-site health care resources may reduce significantly the impact on the prehospital and emergency health resources in the host community.

  8. Influences on anticipated time to ovarian cancer symptom presentation in women at increased risk compared to population risk of ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Stephanie; Boivin, Jacky; Menon, Usha; Brain, Kate

    2017-12-04

    In the absence of routine ovarian cancer screening, promoting help-seeking in response to ovarian symptoms is a potential route to early diagnosis. The factors influencing women's anticipated time to presentation with potential ovarian cancer symptoms were examined. Cross-sectional questionnaires were completed by a sample of women at increased familial risk (n = 283) and population risk (n = 1043) for ovarian cancer. Measures included demographic characteristics, symptom knowledge, anticipated time to symptom presentation, and health beliefs (perceived susceptibility, worry, perceived threat, confidence in symptom detection, benefits and barriers to presentation). Structural equation modelling was used to identify determinants of anticipated time to symptomatic presentation in both groups. Associations between health beliefs and anticipated symptom presentation differed according to risk group. In increased risk women, high perceived susceptibility (r = .35***), ovarian cancer worry (r = .98**), perceived threat (r = -.18**), confidence (r = .16**) and perceiving more benefits than barriers to presentation (r = -.34**), were statistically significant in determining earlier anticipated presentation. The pattern was the same for population risk women, except ovarian cancer worry (r = .36) and perceived threat (r = -.03) were not statistically significant determinants. Associations between underlying health beliefs and anticipated presentation differed according to risk group. Women at population risk had higher symptom knowledge and anticipated presenting in shorter time frames than the increased risk sample. The cancer worry component of perceived threat was a unique predictor in the increased risk group. In increased risk women, the worry component of perceived threat may be more influential than susceptibility aspects in influencing early presentation behaviour, highlighting the need for ovarian symptom awareness interventions

  9. Professional Enterprise NET

    CERN Document Server

    Arking, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Comprehensive coverage to help experienced .NET developers create flexible, extensible enterprise application code If you're an experienced Microsoft .NET developer, you'll find in this book a road map to the latest enterprise development methodologies. It covers the tools you will use in addition to Visual Studio, including Spring.NET and nUnit, and applies to development with ASP.NET, C#, VB, Office (VBA), and database. You will find comprehensive coverage of the tools and practices that professional .NET developers need to master in order to build enterprise more flexible, testable, and ext

  10. How did media present the radiation risks after the Fukushima accident: a content analysis of newspapers in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkiv, Yevgeniya; Perko, Tanja; Oughton, Deborah H; Prezelj, Iztok; Cantone, Marie C; Gallego, Eduardo

    2016-06-06

    Any activity that might result in exposure of a population to contaminants requires communication of the associated risks. This communication is complicated by several factors including public perceptions, distrust, uncertainties in risk assessment and news media. These factors are especially prominent in communication of risks from ionizing radiation. A number of guidelines about the communication of risks related to radiation exposures have been made by national and international authorities and other stakeholders. The present paper investigates whether those guidelines were followed and evaluates how the radiation risk related information was presented in European newspapers and Russia in the aftermath of the Fukushima accident. It examines the use of measurement units and risk comparisons, the quality of the statements on radiation risk related issues and the use of visual materials in 1340 newspaper articles from Belgium, Italy, Norway, Russia, Slovenia and Spain. Our results indicated several misinterpretations and misrepresentations of radiological risks in the newspaper articles. We also show an inconsistency in the information that was reported with advice provided to risk communicators (e.g. authorities and experts) in the guidelines. The results suggest that risk communicators should improve their communication practices regarding radiological risks, in order to improve emergency management response.

  11. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    studies that illustrate the practical use of CPN modelling and validation for design, specification, simulation, verification and implementation in various application domains. Their presentation primarily aims at readers interested in the practical use of CPN. Thus all concepts and constructs are first......Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism...... and the immense number of possible execution sequences. In this textbook, Jensen and Kristensen introduce the constructs of the CPN modelling language and present the related analysis methods in detail. They also provide a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN by showcasing selected industrial case...

  12. Experiments and simulation of a net closing mechanism for tether-net capture of space debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, Inna; Thomsen, Benjamin; Botta, Eleonora M.; Misra, Arun K.

    2017-10-01

    This research addresses the design and testing of a debris containment system for use in a tether-net approach to space debris removal. The tether-net active debris removal involves the ejection of a net from a spacecraft by applying impulses to masses on the net, subsequent expansion of the net, the envelopment and capture of the debris target, and the de-orbiting of the debris via a tether to the chaser spacecraft. To ensure a debris removal mission's success, it is important that the debris be successfully captured and then, secured within the net. To this end, we present a concept for a net closing mechanism, which we believe will permit consistently successful debris capture via a simple and unobtrusive design. This net closing system functions by extending the main tether connecting the chaser spacecraft and the net vertex to the perimeter and around the perimeter of the net, allowing the tether to actuate closure of the net in a manner similar to a cinch cord. A particular embodiment of the design in a laboratory test-bed is described: the test-bed itself is comprised of a scaled-down tether-net, a supporting frame and a mock-up debris. Experiments conducted with the facility demonstrate the practicality of the net closing system. A model of the net closure concept has been integrated into the previously developed dynamics simulator of the chaser/tether-net/debris system. Simulations under tether tensioning conditions demonstrate the effectiveness of the closure concept for debris containment, in the gravity-free environment of space, for a realistic debris target. The on-ground experimental test-bed is also used to showcase its utility for validating the dynamics simulation of the net deployment, and a full-scale automated setup would make possible a range of validation studies of other aspects of a tether-net debris capture mission.

  13. Comparison of risk scoring systems for patients presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanley, Adrian J; Laine, Loren; Dalton, Harry R

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the predictive accuracy and clinical utility of five risk scoring systems in the assessment of patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. DESIGN: International multicentre prospective study. SETTING: Six large hospitals in Europe, North America, Asia, and Oceania...

  14. Application and Theory of Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 13th International Conference onApplication and Theory of Petri Nets, held in Sheffield, England, in June 1992. The aim of the Petri net conferences is to create a forum for discussing progress in the application and theory of Petri nets. Typically....... Balbo and W. Reisig, 18 submitted papers, and seven project papers. The submitted papers and project presentations were selectedby the programme committee and a panel of referees from a large number of submissions....

  15. Are You Neutral About Net Neutrality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-20

    Information Resources Management College National Defense University Are You Neutral About Net Neutrality ? A presentation for Systems & Software...author uses Verizon FiOS for phone, TV, and internet service 3 Agenda Net Neutrality —Through 2 Lenses Who Are the Players & What Are They Saying...Medical Treatment Mini-Case Studies Updates Closing Thoughts 4 Working Definitions of Net Neutrality "Network Neutrality" is the concept that

  16. Flood Risk Management Policy in Scotland: Research Questions Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Mark; Hastings, Emily; MacDonald, Jannette

    2016-04-01

    Scotland's Centre of Expertise for Waters (CREW) delivers accessible research and expert opinion to support the Scottish Government and its delivery partners in the development and implementation of water policy. It was established in 2011 by the Scottish Government (Rural and Environmental Science and Analytical Services) in recognition of a gap in the provision of short term advice and research to policy (development and implementation). Key policy areas include the Water Framework Directive, Floods Directive, Drinking Water Directive, Habitats Directive and Scotland's Hydro Nation Strategy. CREW is unique in its demand-driven and free service for policy makers and practitioners, managing the engagement between scientists, policy makers and practitioners to work effectively across this interface. The users of CREW are the Scottish Government, Scottish Environment Protection Agency, Scottish Natural Heritage and Scottish Water. CREW has funded around 100 projects relating to water policy since its inception in 2011. Of these, a significant number relate to flood risk management policy. Based on a review of work to date, this poster will give an overview of these projects and a forward look at the challenges that remain. From learning from community led flood risk management to surface water flood forecasting for urban communities, links will be made between sustainable and traditional flood risk management while considering the perceptions of stakeholders to flood risk management. How can we deliver fully integrated flood risk management options? How policy makers, scientists and land managers can better work together will also be explored.

  17. WaveNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Coastal Inlets Research Program WaveNet WaveNet is a web-based, Graphical-User-Interface ( GUI ) data management tool developed for Corps coastal...generates tabular and graphical information for project planning and design documents. The WaveNet is a web-based GUI designed to provide users with a...data from different sources, and employs a combination of Fortran, Python and Matlab codes to process and analyze data for USACE applications

  18. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes how Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets) have been developed — from being a promising theoretical model to being a full-fledged language for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems (and other systems in which human beings and...... use of CP-nets — because it means that the function representation and the translations (which are a bit mathematically complex) no longer are parts of the basic definition of CP-nets. Instead they are parts of the invariant method (which anyway demands considerable mathematical skills...

  19. Game Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of game coloured Petri nets. This allows the modeler to explicitly model what parts of the model comprise the modeled system and what parts are the environment of the modeled system. We give the formal definition of game coloured Petri nets, a means of reachability...... analysis of this net class, and an application of game coloured Petri nets to automatically generate easy-to-understand visualizations of the model by exploiting the knowledge that some parts of the model are not interesting from a visualization perspective (i.e. they are part of the environment...

  20. Programming NET Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Alex

    2007-01-01

    Web services are poised to become a key technology for a wide range of Internet-enabled applications, spanning everything from straight B2B systems to mobile devices and proprietary in-house software. While there are several tools and platforms that can be used for building web services, developers are finding a powerful tool in Microsoft's .NET Framework and Visual Studio .NET. Designed from scratch to support the development of web services, the .NET Framework simplifies the process--programmers find that tasks that took an hour using the SOAP Toolkit take just minutes. Programming .NET

  1. Annotating Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Bo; Wells, Lisa Marie

    2002-01-01

    -net. An example of such auxiliary information is a counter which is associated with a token to be able to do performance analysis. Modifying colour sets and arc inscriptions in a CP-net to support a specific use may lead to creation of several slightly different CP-nets – only to support the different uses...... a method which makes it possible to associate auxiliary information, called annotations, with tokens without modifying the colour sets of the CP-net. Annotations are pieces of information that are not essential for determining the behaviour of the system being modelled, but are rather added to support...

  2. Presenting quantitative information about decision outcomes: a risk communication primer for patient decision aid developers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trevena, L.J.; Zikmund-Fisher, B.J.; Edwards, A.; Gaissmaier, W.; Galesic, M.; Han, P.K.J.; King, J.; Lawson, M.L.; Linder, S.K.; Lipkus, I.; Ozanne, E.; Peters, E.; Timmermans, D.R.M.; Woloshin, S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Making evidence-based decisions often requires comparison of two or more options. Research-based evidence may exist which quantifies how likely the outcomes are for each option. Understanding these numeric estimates improves patients' risk perception and leads to better informed decision

  3. Enterprise Risk Management Can Be a Strategic Opportunity. Perspectives…Presenting Thought Leaders' Points of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Declining resources, new delivery models for education, questions regarding the value of research, issues surrounding athletics, physical security threats, and slowing demand for college graduates represent only a few of the risks on the horizon for colleges and universities. Higher education is transforming rapidly, creating both opportunities…

  4. Women at high risk of breast cancer: Molecular characteristics, clinical presentation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleibl, Zdenek; Kristensen, Vessela N

    2016-08-01

    The presence of breast cancer in any first-degree female relative in general nearly doubles the risk for a proband and the risk gradually increases with the number of affected relatives. Current advances in molecular oncology and oncogenetics may enable the identification of high-risk individuals with breast-cancer predisposition. The best-known forms of hereditary breast cancer (HBC) are caused by mutations in the high-penetrance genes BRCA1 and BRCA2. Other genes, including PTEN, TP53, STK11/LKB1, CDH1, PALB2, CHEK2, ATM, MRE11, RAD50, NBS1, BRIP1, FANCA, FANCC, FANCM, RAD51, RAD51B, RAD51C, RAD51D, and XRCC2 have been described as high- or moderate-penetrance breast cancer-susceptibility genes. The majority of breast cancer-susceptibility genes code for tumor suppressor proteins that are involved in critical processes of DNA repair pathways. This is of particular importance for those women who, due to their increased risk of breast cancer, may be subjected to more frequent screening but due to their repair deficiency might be at the risk of developing radiation-induced malignancies. It has been proven that cancers arising from the most frequent BRCA1 gene mutation carriers differ significantly from the sporadic disease of age-matched controls in their histopathological appearances and molecular characteristics. The increased depth of mutation detection brought by next-generation sequencing and a better understanding of the mechanisms through which these mutations cause the disease will bring novel insights in terms of oncological prevention, diagnostics, and therapeutic options for HBC patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Net Children Go Mobile:Initial findings from Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    O'Neill, Brian; Dinh, Thuy

    2014-01-01

    Net Children Go Mobile is a two-year research project funded under the European Commission’s Safer Internet Programme. Seven countries participate: Demark, Italy, Romania, United Kingdom, Ireland, Portugal and Belgium. The project uses quantitative and qualitative methodologies to investigate access and use, risks and opportunities of mobile internet use. This report presents the initial findings of the survey of children and young people’s use of mobile internet technologies in Ireland. 5...

  6. Towards a Standard for Modular Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart; Petrucci, Laure

    2009-01-01

    When designing complex systems, mechanisms for structuring, composing, and reusing system components are crucial. Today, there are many approaches for equipping Petri nets with such mechanisms. In the context of defining a standard interchange format for Petri nets, modular PNML was defined....... Moreover, we present and discuss some more advanced features of modular Petri nets that could be included in the standard. This way, we provide a formal foundation and a basis for a discussion of features to be included in the upcoming standard of a module concept for Petri nets in general and for high...

  7. Lipid Metabolism and Cardiovascular Risk in HIV-1 Infection and HAART: Present and Future Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Melzi

    2010-01-01

    use of statins and fibrates in HIV-1 infected subjects, and finally the switch strategies, that balance effectiveness and toxicity to move the decision to change HIV drugs. Early treatment might reduce the negative effect of HIV on overall cardiovascular risk but may also evidence the impact of drugs, and the final balance (reduction or increase in CHD and lipid abnormalities is not known up to date.

  8. Subclinical Hypothyroidism in PCOS: Impact on Presentation, Insulin Resistance, and Cardiovascular Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of Study. To assess status of thyroid function and thyroid disorders particularly subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH in subjects with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS and impact of SCH on various clinical and biochemical parameters and cardiovascular risk in PCOS. Methods. Hundred females diagnosed with PCOS as per Rotterdam criteria and 100 normal controls were recruited and were subjected to elaborate anthropometric, clinical, and biochemical assessment. Results. Notable findings included significantly higher frequency of subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism (p=0.0002, autoimmune thyroiditis (p<0.001, and goitre (p=0.02 in polycystic ovarian syndrome subjects compared to control subjects. Further SCH PCOS subjects were found to harbor significantly higher HOMA-IR (p<0.05 and frequency of subjects with dyslipidemia (p<0.05 compared to both euthyroid PCOS and euthyroid control subjects. Though frequency of subjects with cardiovascular risk factors was higher in SCH PCOS group than euthyroid PCOS group, it failed to reach statistical significance. Conclusion. We concluded that PCOS is associated with high incidence of SCH and AIT compared to normal population and SCH poses increased risk of cardiovascular disorder in PCOS.

  9. Effect of Bleeding Risk on Type of Stent Used in Patients Presenting With Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alraies, M Chadi; Lee, Sang Yeub; Lipinski, Michael J; Buchanan, Kyle; Steinvil, Arie; Rogers, Toby; Koifman, Edward; Gai, Jiaxiang; Torguson, Rebecca; Ben-Dor, Itsik; Satler, Lowell F; Pichard, Augusto D; Waksman, Ron

    2017-10-15

    Patients at high bleeding risk (HBR) are at increased risk of bleeding following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents (DES) due to the need for longer dual antiplatelet duration. We sought to evaluate the likelihood of receiving DES during PCI in HBR populations and to characterize DES utilization trends over time. Consecutive patients who underwent PCI from April 2003 to September 2015 were identified. HBR is defined as patients fulfilling 1 or more of the HBR criteria: age ≥75 years, anticoagulation use at discharge, history of stroke, cancer in previous 3 years, glucocorticoid use, hemoglobin (Hgb) HBR definition. When adjusting for known risk factors, HBR patients were less likely to receive a DES compared with non-HBR patients (odds ratio [OR] 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.54 to 0.62, p HBR patients, having 3 or more HBR criteria versus HBR criteria had lower likelihood of receiving a DES (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.57, p HBR has a significant impact upon the decision to use DES. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Net zero water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lindeque, M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Is it possible to develop a building that uses a net zero amount of water? In recent years it has become evident that it is possible to have buildings that use a net zero amount of electricity. This is possible when the building is taken off...

  11. SolNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Ulrike; Vajen, Klaus; Bales, Chris

    2014-01-01

    SolNet, founded in 2006, is the first coordinated International PhD education program on Solar Thermal Engineering. The SolNet network is coordinated by the Institute of Thermal Engineering at Kassel University, Germany. The network offers PhD courses on solar heating and cooling, conference...

  12. Kunstige neurale net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørning, Annette

    1994-01-01

    Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse.......Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse....

  13. Do women with fibromyalgia present higher cardiovascular disease risk profile than healthy women? The al-Ándalus project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Manzano, Pedro; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Estévez-López, Fernando; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Borges-Cosic, Milkana; Gavilán-Carrera, Blanca; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Aparicio, Virginia A

    2017-01-01

    To analyse the cardiovascular disease risk profile of women with fibromyalgia and compare it with control women; and to test whether physical activity is associated with the cardiovascular disease risk profile in this population. This cross-sectional study comprised 436 women with fibromyalgia (51.4±7.5 years old) and 217 controls (48.4±9.6 years old) from Andalusia, Spain. Clinical data, waist circumference, body fat percentage, resting heart rate, blood pressure and cardiorespiratory fitness were assessed. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was objectively assessed with accelerometry. A clustering of individual cardiovascular disease risk factors was represented by the number of cigarettes/day, adiposity, mean arterial pressure, resting heart rate and cardiorespiratory fitness. Women with fibromyalgia presented higher waist circumference and body fat percentage, greater number of cigarettes/day consumption and lower levels of cardiorespiratory fitness after controlling for age, marital status, educational level, occupational status, medication for cholesterol and monthly regular menstruation (all, pfibromyalgia showed higher clustered cardiovascular disease risk than control women after controlling for the potential confounders described above (pfibromyalgia who did not meet moderate-to-vigorous physical activity recommendations showed increased clustered cardiovascular disease risk after adjusting for the potential confounders described above (pfibromyalgia may present higher risk of cardiovascular disease than controls. Inadequate levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity may play a significant role as an additional predisposing factor for cardiovascular disease risk in this population.

  14. SOCIAL NET: A CASE STUDY OF THE UNIVERSITY NET OF POPULAR COOPERATIVES TECHNOLOGICAL INCUBATORS (PCTIS NET FROM THE INTERACTION AMONG THE INCUBATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Matos Pereira Lopes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this assignment was to identify if the University Net of Popular Cooperatives Technological Incubators (PCTIs Net is a social net. The research was an exploratory nature study with descriptive character, the technical procedure of the present research was the case study. The questionnaire was applied in 82% of the incubators belonging to the PCTIs Net, and interviews. The information acquired through the questionnaire was gathered and tabulated to compose the characterization of the net incubators and the social analyzer. With the Pajek program was created the social analyzer and the centralizing box. Was performed to compare the results with previous work Rennó et al. (2010 proposed that the same goal using a different approach. Ending the analysis guided by the characteristics of a social net, it was observed that the PCTIs Net is a social net, however it was emphasized that the existing communication is a point where the net needs to be fortified.

  15. Asynchronous stream processing with S-Net

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grelck, C.; Scholz, S.-B.; Shafarenko, A.

    2010-01-01

    We present the rationale and design of S-Net, a coordination language for asynchronous stream processing. The language achieves a near-complete separation between the application code, written in any conventional programming language, and the coordination/communication code written in S-Net. Our

  16. Risk factors and outcomes for late presentation for HIV-positive persons in europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocroft, Amanda; Lundgren, Jens D; Sabin, Miriam Lewis

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have monitored late presentation (LP) of HIV infection over the European continent, including Eastern Europe. Study objectives were to explore the impact of LP on AIDS and mortality.......Few studies have monitored late presentation (LP) of HIV infection over the European continent, including Eastern Europe. Study objectives were to explore the impact of LP on AIDS and mortality....

  17. Correlates of depressive symptoms among at-risk youth presenting to the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranney, Megan L; Walton, Maureen; Whiteside, Lauren; Epstein-Ngo, Quyen; Patton, Rikki; Chermack, Stephen; Blow, Fred; Cunningham, Rebecca M

    2013-01-01

    The study's objective was to identify correlates of depressive symptoms among at-risk youth in an urban emergency department (ED). A systematic sample of adolescents (ages 14-18) in the ED were recruited as part of a larger study. Participants reporting past-year alcohol use and peer aggression self-administered a survey assessing: demographics, depressive symptoms and risk/protective factors. Logistic regression identified factors associated with depressive symptoms. Among 624 adolescents (88% response rate) meeting eligibility criteria, 22.8% (n=142) screened positive for depressive symptoms. In logistic regression, depressive symptoms were positively associated with female gender [odds ratio (OR): 2.84, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.78-4.51], poor academic performance (OR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.01-2.44), binge drinking (OR: 1.88, 95% CI: 1.21-2.91), community violence exposure (OR: 2.25, 95% CI: 1.59-3.18) and dating violence (OR: 2.14, 95% CI: 1.36-3.38) and were negatively associated with same-sex mentorship (OR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.29-0.91) and older age (OR: 0.55, 95% CI 0.34-0.89). Including gender interaction terms did not significantly change findings. Screening and intervention approaches for youth in the urban ED should address the co-occurrence of depressive symptoms with peer and dating violence, alcohol and nonmarijuana illicit drug use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Hypernatremia in Children With Diarrhea: Presenting Features, Management, Outcome, and Risk Factors for Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisti, Mohammad Jobayer; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Ahmed, A M Shamshir; Sarker, Shafiqul Alam; Faruque, Abu Syed Golam; Islam, Md Munirul; Huq, Sayeeda; Shahrin, Lubaba; Bardhan, Pradip Kumar; Salam, Mohammed Abdus

    2016-06-01

    We sought to investigate the magnitude, clinical features, treatment, and outcome of children suffering from hypernatremic diarrhea and to identify risk factors for fatal outcome among them. We reviewed 2 data sets of children hypernatremia (serum sodium ≥150 mmol/L): (a) March 2001 to March 2002 (n = 371) and (b) March 2009 to August 2011 (n = 360). We reviewed their records and collected relevant information for analyses. The prevalence of hypernatremia was 5.1% (371/7212) and 2.4% (360/15 219), case fatality rate was 15% and 19%, respectively. In logistic regression analysis, the risk for death significantly increased in association with serum sodium ≥170 mmol/L, nutritional edema, hypoglycemia, respiratory distress, and absent peripheral pulses and reduced with the sole use of oral rehydration salts (ORS) or ORS following intravenous fluid, if indicated (for all, P hypernatremia using only ORS or ORS following intravenous fluid may help reduce the number of deaths. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Prevalence Pattern of Risk Factors for Coronary Artery Disease among Patients Presenting for Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeeva Rivikath Pieris

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To identify the pattern of prevalence of risk factors in patients presenting for coronary artery bypass grafting at a single center in Oman. Methods: All patients who had coronary artery bypass grafting between March 2008 to March 2010 were included and data were obtained from history and laboratory investigations. The prevalence rates of eight conventional risk factors are presented as a retrospective single center observational study. Results: Out of 146 total patients, 107 (73.29% were male. The age ranged from 31 to 87 years old. The mean age was 58.18 ± 10.08 years (males = 56.81 ± 10.42, females = 61.95 ± 7.97. Hypertension was present in 119 patients (81.51%, 115 patients (78.77% had dyslipidemia, 107 patients (73.29% were male, 79 patients (54.11% had diabetes mellitus, 70 patients (47.95% were over the age of 60 years, 41 patients (28.08% gave a history of smoking, 31 patients (21.23% were obese, and 19 patients (13.01% gave a positive family history. Conclusions: The most common risk factor was hypertension, followed by dyslipidemia, male gender, diabetes mellitus, old age, smoking, obesity and positive family history; 87.7% had three or more risk factors. The females in this study were older than the males and had more risk factors at presentation. The most common combination of factors seen together was diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and male gender.

  20. Presenting the model of risk, disability and hard-to-reach families to inform early intervention services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoenix, Michelle; Rosenbaum, Peter

    2017-09-29

    Several concepts - risk, resilience, disability and hard-to-reach families in early intervention services - are talked and written about in many ways. Family Stress Theory can be usefully applied to explore these issues systematically. The relationship between risk and disability is complex, and the role of resilience is not fully understood. The idea of "hard-to-reach families" is not well defined, thus presenting challenges to service providers and policy makers. Reflection: This paper presents the Model of Risk, Disability and Hard-to-Reach Families and uses the model to: (1) define the groups of high risk families and families of children with disabilities and explore the concept of resilience within these groups; (2) describe services offered to these groups; and (3) reflect on service use and so-called "hard-to-reach families". Each section includes suggested applications for service providers that may inform the work done with young children and their families who experience risk or disability. Service providers can apply the Model of Risk, Disability and Hard-to-Reach Families to consider each family's unique strengths and challenges, and use those individual elements to influence service recommendations and anticipate service use. Implications for rehabilitation The concepts of risk, resilience, and hard-to-reach families are poorly defined in the literatures, but have important implications with respect to early childhood intervention services. Family Stress Theory can help to identify high-risk families and account for family resilience It is important for clinicians, researchers and policy makers to consider the relationship between disability and risk with respect to services offered to families and the potential barriers to service use. Clinicians and policy makers have a role in promoting accessible early childhood services.

  1. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) Age-Adjusted Prevalence Data (2011 to present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to present. BRFSS combined land line and cell phone age-adjusted prevalence data. The BRFSS is a continuous, state-based surveillance system that collects...

  2. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) Prevalence Data (2011 to present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to present. BRFSS combined land line and cell phone prevalence data. BRFSS is a continuous, state-based surveillance system that collects information about...

  3. NASA Net Zero Energy Buildings Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless, S.; Scheib, J.; Torcellini, P.; Hendron, B.; Slovensky, M.

    2014-10-01

    In preparation for the time-phased net zero energy requirement for new federal buildings starting in 2020, set forth in Executive Order 13514, NASA requested that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a roadmap for NASA's compliance. NASA detailed a Statement of Work that requested information on strategic, organizational, and tactical aspects of net zero energy buildings. In response, this document presents a high-level approach to net zero energy planning, design, construction, and operations, based on NREL's first-hand experience procuring net zero energy construction, and based on NREL and other industry research on net zero energy feasibility. The strategic approach to net zero energy starts with an interpretation of the executive order language relating to net zero energy. Specifically, this roadmap defines a net zero energy acquisition process as one that sets an aggressive energy use intensity goal for the building in project planning, meets the reduced demand goal through energy efficiency strategies and technologies, then adds renewable energy in a prioritized manner, using building-associated, emission- free sources first, to offset the annual energy use required at the building; the net zero energy process extends through the life of the building, requiring a balance of energy use and production in each calendar year.

  4. Phenomenon of psychological risks in education as presented in several foreign studies at the beginning of the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlova O.V.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article regards the phenomenon of a psychological risk in education as exemplified by modern scholars abroad. The article introduces the detailed analysis and thorough review of approaches and techniques used for solution of tight situations in which adolescents and senior schoolchildren may get into. The article presents data received in course of fundamental and applied studies in order to disclose the current state of events and look for the way of overcoming the factors of psychological risks in education as they are presented in scientific literature abroad.

  5. Emerging pollutants in the environment: present and future challenges in biomonitoring, ecological risks and bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilescu, Maria; Demnerová, Kateřina; Aamand, Jens; Agathos, Spiros; Fava, Fabio

    2015-01-25

    Emerging pollutants reach the environment from various anthropogenic sources and are distributed throughout environmental matrices. Although great advances have been made in the detection and analysis of trace pollutants during recent decades, due to the continued development and refinement of specific techniques, a wide array of undetected contaminants of emerging environmental concern need to be identified and quantified in various environmental components and biological tissues. These pollutants may be mobile and persistent in air, water, soil, sediments and ecological receptors even at low concentrations. Robust data on their fate and behaviour in the environment, as well as on threats to ecological and human health, are still lacking. Moreover, the ecotoxicological significance of some emerging micropollutants remains largely unknown, because satisfactory data to determine their risk often do not exist. This paper discusses the fate, behaviour, (bio)monitoring, environmental and health risks associated with emerging chemical (pharmaceuticals, endocrine disruptors, hormones, toxins, among others) and biological (bacteria, viruses) micropollutants in soils, sediments, groundwater, industrial and municipal wastewaters, aquaculture effluents, and freshwater and marine ecosystems, and highlights new horizons for their (bio)removal. Our study aims to demonstrate the imperative need to boost research and innovation for new and cost-effective treatment technologies, in line with the uptake, mode of action and consequences of each emerging contaminant. We also address the topic of innovative tools for the evaluation of the effects of toxicity on human health and for the prediction of microbial availability and degradation in the environment. Additionally, we consider the development of (bio)sensors to perform environmental monitoring in real-time mode. This needs to address multiple species, along with a more effective exploitation of specialised microbes or enzymes

  6. Pro NET Best Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, Stephen D

    2011-01-01

    Pro .NET Best Practices is a practical reference to the best practices that you can apply to your .NET projects today. You will learn standards, techniques, and conventions that are sharply focused, realistic and helpful for achieving results, steering clear of unproven, idealistic, and impractical recommendations. Pro .NET Best Practices covers a broad range of practices and principles that development experts agree are the right ways to develop software, which includes continuous integration, automated testing, automated deployment, and code analysis. Whether the solution is from a free and

  7. Getting to Net Zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-01

    The technology necessary to build net zero energy buildings (NZEBs) is ready and available today, however, building to net zero energy performance levels can be challenging. Energy efficiency measures, onsite energy generation resources, load matching and grid interaction, climatic factors, and local policies vary from location to location and require unique methods of constructing NZEBs. It is recommended that Components start looking into how to construct and operate NZEBs now as there is a learning curve to net zero construction and FY 2020 is just around the corner.

  8. Instant Lucene.NET

    CERN Document Server

    Heydt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A step-by-step guide that helps you to index, search, and retrieve unstructured data with the help of Lucene.NET.Instant Lucene.NET How-to is essential for developers new to Lucene and Lucene.NET who are looking to get an immediate foundational understanding of how to use the library in their application. It's assumed you have programming experience in C# already, but not that you have experience with search techniques such as information retrieval theory (although there will be a l

  9. Does Risk for Malnutrition in Patients Presenting With Fractures Predict Lower Quality Measures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James H; Hutzler, Lorraine H; Shulman, Brandon S; Karia, Raj J; Egol, Kenneth A

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if nutritional screening could be used as a predictor for the development of complications and hospital readmissions. A variation of the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) score was collected for all inpatients with orthopaedic trauma on admission to our hospital from 2009 to 2011. We retrospectively compared each patient's MUST score with the subsequent development of infection, venous thromboembolism, respiratory failure, ulceration, or readmission. Finally, a chart review was performed to collect comorbidity data and evaluate Charlson comorbidity indexes to estimate the overall health of each patient with an available MUST. Of the 796 consecutive patients in our total cohort, 57.7% (n = 459) were of normal nutritional status and 42.3% (n = 337) exhibited at least 1 sign of malnutrition. In patients with normal nutrition, 2.8% developed at least one of the specified complications, and we observed a complication-to-patient ratio of 0.033. In patients with signs of malnutrition, 8.0% developed at least 1 complication with a complication-to-patient ratio of 0.101. This difference was significant (P = 0.001). Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that each additional point in a patient's nutrition score corresponded to a 49.5% increase in the odds of developing a complication when controlling for other factors (odds ratio = 1.495, confidence interval = 1.120-1.997, P = 0.006). Charlson comorbidity indexes were not significantly associated with total complications when MUST scores used were a covariant. Patients treated for fractures and dislocations with any sign of malnutrition according to the MUST score were more than twice as likely to acquire some combination of infection, venous thromboembolism, respiratory failure, or other reason for readmission than those of normal nutritional status. Increasing levels of malnourishment corresponded with increasing risk for developing complications, whereas these

  10. Assessing risks from drought and heat stress in productive grasslands under present and future climatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calanca, Pierluigi; Mosimann, Eric; Meisser, Marco; Deléglise, Claire

    2014-05-01

    Grasslands cover the majority of the world's agricultural area, provide the feedstock for animal production, contribute to the economy of farms, and deliver a variety of ecological and societal services. Assessing responses of grassland ecosystems to climate change, in particular climate-related risks, is therefore an important step toward identifying adaptation options necessary to secure grassland functioning and productivity. Of particular concern are risks in relation to drought and extreme temperatures, on the one hand because grasslands are very sensitive to water stress, on the other hand also because global warming is expected to increase the occurrence and intensity of these events in many agricultural areas of the world. In this contribution we review findings of ongoing experimental and modelling activities that aim at examining the implications of climate extremes and climate change for grassland vegetation dynamics and herbage productivity. Data collected at the Jura foot in western Switzerland indicate that water scarcity and associated anomalous temperatures slowed plant development in relation to both the summer drought of 2003 as well as the spring drought of 2011, with decline in annual yields of up to 40%. Further effects of drought found from the analysis of recent field trials explicitly designed to study the effects of different water management regimes are changes in the functional composition and nutritive value of grasslands. Similar responses are disclosed by simulations with a process based grassland ecosystem model that was originally developed for the simulation of mixed grass/clover swards. Simulations driven with historical weather records from the Swiss Plateau suggest that drought and extreme temperature could represent one of the main reasons for the observed yield variability in productive systems. Simulations with climate change scenarios further reveal important changes in ecosystem dynamics for the current century. The results

  11. Planning long lasting insecticide treated net campaigns: should households' existing nets be taken into account?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukich, Joshua; Bennett, Adam; Keating, Joseph; Yukich, Rudy K; Lynch, Matt; Eisele, Thomas P; Kolaczinski, Kate

    2013-06-14

    Mass distribution of long-lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLINs) has led to large increases in LLIN coverage in many African countries. As LLIN ownership levels increase, planners of future mass distributions face the challenge of deciding whether to ignore the nets already owned by households or to take these into account and attempt to target individuals or households without nets. Taking existing nets into account would reduce commodity costs but require more sophisticated, and potentially more costly, distribution procedures. The decision may also have implications for the average age of nets in use and therefore on the maintenance of universal LLIN coverage over time. A stochastic simulation model based on the NetCALC algorithm was used to determine the scenarios under which it would be cost saving to take existing nets into account, and the potential effects of doing so on the age profile of LLINs owned. The model accounted for variability in timing of distributions, concomitant use of continuous distribution systems, population growth, sampling error in pre-campaign coverage surveys, variable net 'decay' parameters and other factors including the feasibility and accuracy of identifying existing nets in the field. Results indicate that (i) where pre-campaign coverage is around 40% (of households owning at least 1 LLIN), accounting for existing nets in the campaign will have little effect on the mean age of the net population and (ii) even at pre-campaign coverage levels above 40%, an approach that reduces LLIN distribution requirements by taking existing nets into account may have only a small chance of being cost-saving overall, depending largely on the feasibility of identifying nets in the field. Based on existing literature the epidemiological implications of such a strategy is likely to vary by transmission setting, and the risks of leaving older nets in the field when accounting for existing nets must be considered. Where pre-campaign coverage

  12. Planning long lasting insecticide treated net campaigns: should households’ existing nets be taken into account?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Mass distribution of long-lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLINs) has led to large increases in LLIN coverage in many African countries. As LLIN ownership levels increase, planners of future mass distributions face the challenge of deciding whether to ignore the nets already owned by households or to take these into account and attempt to target individuals or households without nets. Taking existing nets into account would reduce commodity costs but require more sophisticated, and potentially more costly, distribution procedures. The decision may also have implications for the average age of nets in use and therefore on the maintenance of universal LLIN coverage over time. Methods A stochastic simulation model based on the NetCALC algorithm was used to determine the scenarios under which it would be cost saving to take existing nets into account, and the potential effects of doing so on the age profile of LLINs owned. The model accounted for variability in timing of distributions, concomitant use of continuous distribution systems, population growth, sampling error in pre-campaign coverage surveys, variable net ‘decay’ parameters and other factors including the feasibility and accuracy of identifying existing nets in the field. Results Results indicate that (i) where pre-campaign coverage is around 40% (of households owning at least 1 LLIN), accounting for existing nets in the campaign will have little effect on the mean age of the net population and (ii) even at pre-campaign coverage levels above 40%, an approach that reduces LLIN distribution requirements by taking existing nets into account may have only a small chance of being cost-saving overall, depending largely on the feasibility of identifying nets in the field. Based on existing literature the epidemiological implications of such a strategy is likely to vary by transmission setting, and the risks of leaving older nets in the field when accounting for existing nets must be considered

  13. RadNet Air Data From Little Rock, AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Little Rock, AR from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  14. RadNet Air Data From Pittsburgh, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Pittsburgh, PA from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  15. RadNet Air Data From Montgomery, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Montgomery, AL from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  16. RadNet Air Data From Toledo, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Toledo, OH from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  17. RadNet Air Data From Honolulu, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Honolulu, HI from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  18. Isolated native tricuspid valve endocarditis presenting as PUO in a young adult male without any risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyush Ranjan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 28-year-old male presented to our hospital with high-grade fever and weight loss for 4 months. Clinical examination was non-contributory and there was no history of any high-risk behavior or prolonged skin or dental infections. Native tricuspid-valve endocarditis may rarely present in these settings and high index of suspicion is essential for early diagnosis.

  19. Risk Factors and Effects of Potential Substances Present in Indoor Air on Occupants' Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina CIOACA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Polluting emissions from building materials are among the construction “problems”, but when they occur along with other factors (particle allergens, cigarette smoke, gas exhaust, electromagnetic fields, etc. together can lead to so-called syndrome “sick-building”. Why should we so intensely interested in the hazards present in our houses? The answer is: because the highest dose of exposure to toxic substances is right here in our houses or in the spaces in which we work.

  20. Pressure ulcer development in trauma patients with suspected spinal injury; the influence of risk factors present in the Emergency Department

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, H. W (Wietske); Schoonhoven, Lisette; Schuurmans, M. (Marieke) J; Leenen, L. (Luke) P H

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To explore the influence of risk factors present at Emergency Department admission on pressure ulcer development in trauma patients with suspected spinal injury, admitted to the hospital for evaluation and treatment of acute traumatic injuries. Design Prospective cohort study setting

  1. Elderly women with metabolic syndrome present higher cardiovascular risk and lower relative muscle strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Darlan Lopes; Tibana, Ramires Alsamir; Teixeira, Tatiane Gomes; Vieira, Denis César Leite; Tarja, Vitor; Nascimento, Dahan da Cunha; Silva, Alessandro de Oliveira [Universidade Católica de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Funghetto, Silvana Schwerz [Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Coura, Maritza Alves de Sousa; Valduga, Renato [Universidade Católica de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Karnikowski, Margô Gomes de Oliveira [Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Prestes, Jonato [Universidade Católica de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    To compare the metabolic, anthropometric, arterial blood pressure, and muscle strength parameters of elderly women with and without metabolic syndrome. A case-control study with 27 (67.3±4.8 years of age, 31.0±5.0kg/m{sup 2}) elderly women with metabolic syndrome and 33 (68.8±5.6 years of age, 27.2±5.3kg/m{sup 2}) sedentary control elderly women. They were submitted to an evaluation of body composition by means of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and muscle strength testing with 10 maximal repetitions of knee extension. When compared to the elderly women without metabolic syndrome, those with the metabolic syndrome had higher levels for body mass (72.2±13.5 versus 63.4±14.6kg, p=0.03), body mass index (31.0±5.0 versus 27.2±5.3kg/m{sup 2,} p=0.007), fat mass (30.9±9.9 versus 24.4±8.5kg, p=0.01), systolic arterial pressure (125.1±8.2 versus 119.3±8.7mmHg, p=0.01), diastolic arterial pressure (75.5±6.9 versus 71.4±6.7mmHg, p=0.03), mean arterial pressure (92.5±6.2 versus 87.1±6.7mmHg, p=0.004), blood glucose (103.8±19.1 versus 91.1±5.9mg/dL, p=0.001), triglycerides (187.1±70.2 versus 116.3±36.7mg/dL, p=0.001), and creatine kinase (122.6±58.6 versus 89.8±32.5U/L, p=0.01); lower levels were found for fat-free mass (55.9±5.8 versus 59.3±6.7%; p=0.05), HDL-C (40.7±5.0 versus 50.5±10.1mg/dL, p=0.001), and relative muscle strength (0.53±0.14 versus 0.62±0.12, p=0.01). Elderly women with metabolic syndrome have a higher cardiovascular risk and less relative muscle strength when compared to those without metabolic syndrome. Relative muscle strength may be related to the cardiovascularr risk factors of the metabolic syndrome.

  2. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Musall, Eike

    2010-01-01

    and identify possible renewable energy supply options which may be considered in calculations. Finally, the gap between the methodology proposed by each organisation and their respective national building code is assessed; providing an overview of the possible changes building codes will need to undergo......The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...... parameters used in the calculations are discussed and the various renewable supply options considered in the methodologies are summarised graphically. Thus, the paper helps to understand different existing approaches to calculate energy balance in Net ZEBs, highlights the importance of variables selection...

  3. PhysioNet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The PhysioNet Resource is intended to stimulate current research and new investigations in the study of complex biomedical and physiologic signals. It offers free...

  4. NetSig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Heiko; Lawrence, Michael S; Chouinard, Candace R

    2018-01-01

    Methods that integrate molecular network information and tumor genome data could complement gene-based statistical tests to identify likely new cancer genes; but such approaches are challenging to validate at scale, and their predictive value remains unclear. We developed a robust statistic (Net......Sig) that integrates protein interaction networks with data from 4,742 tumor exomes. NetSig can accurately classify known driver genes in 60% of tested tumor types and predicts 62 new driver candidates. Using a quantitative experimental framework to determine in vivo tumorigenic potential in mice, we found that Net......Sig candidates induce tumors at rates that are comparable to those of known oncogenes and are ten-fold higher than those of random genes. By reanalyzing nine tumor-inducing NetSig candidates in 242 patients with oncogene-negative lung adenocarcinomas, we find that two (AKT2 and TFDP2) are significantly amplified...

  5. Risks Associated To Present Geomorphologic Processes In The Stemnic (Buda River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojoagă Ioan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the main geomorphologic processes in the Stemnic (Buda river basin, conditioned by the joint action of several factors, among which are the lithological peculiarities and the nature of superficial deposits, morphometric characteristics, climate, vegetation type and structure, properties of the soil cover etc. The Stemnic river basin with an area of 15662.52 ha is characterized by its elongated shape (the maximum length is of 30.5 km, maximum width of 8.5 km, its relative lithological homogeneity, but also by a variety of superficial deposits (eluvium, diluvium, colluvium and proluvium, alluvium and by a relief energy of significant values between 136 m and 10 m (mean value of 73 m. Under these conditions, study area is characterized by a high degree of susceptibility to the occurrence of geomorphologic risk processes. For the morphometric and morphological analysis, we applied the method of the digital terrain model (DTM with vectorisation of the contour lines on topographic maps with a scale of 1:5,000. In this paper we used indicators that highlight the particular frequency of landslides, especially in the upper and middle sectors, but the rather reduced frequency of deep erosion. Due to the satisfactory coverage of the ground with vegetation, the erosion reaction is differentiated, as it depends on the use of the land and the concentration of liquid flow on the slopes. Consequently, landslides of different ages, types and forms hold large surfaces in the basin (approx. 8%, while surface erosion affects most areas of the slopes, but with different intensities depending on their use and on agricultural technologies.

  6. TideNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    query tide data sources in a desired geographic region of USA and its territories (Figure 1). Users can select a tide data source through the Google Map ...select data sources according to the desired geographic region. It uses the Google Map interface to display data from different sources. Recent...Coastal Inlets Research Program TideNet The TideNet is a web-based Graphical User Interface (GUI) that provides users with GIS mapping tools to

  7. Building Neural Net Software

    OpenAIRE

    Neto, João Pedro; Costa, José Félix

    1999-01-01

    In a recent paper [Neto et al. 97] we showed that programming languages can be translated on recurrent (analog, rational weighted) neural nets. The goal was not efficiency but simplicity. Indeed we used a number-theoretic approach to machine programming, where (integer) numbers were coded in a unary fashion, introducing a exponential slow down in the computations, with respect to a two-symbol tape Turing machine. Implementation of programming languages in neural nets turns to be not only theo...

  8. Interaction Nets in Russian

    OpenAIRE

    Salikhmetov, Anton

    2013-01-01

    Draft translation to Russian of Chapter 7, Interaction-Based Models of Computation, from Models of Computation: An Introduction to Computability Theory by Maribel Fernandez. "In this chapter, we study interaction nets, a model of computation that can be seen as a representative of a class of models based on the notion of 'computation as interaction'. Interaction nets are a graphical model of computation devised by Yves Lafont in 1990 as a generalisation of the proof structures of linear logic...

  9. Programming NET 35

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Bestselling author Jesse Liberty and industry expert Alex Horovitz uncover the common threads that unite the .NET 3.5 technologies, so you can benefit from the best practices and architectural patterns baked into the new Microsoft frameworks. The book offers a Grand Tour" of .NET 3.5 that describes how the principal technologies can be used together, with Ajax, to build modern n-tier and service-oriented applications. "

  10. Improved cancer risk stratification and diagnosis via quantitative phase microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Uttam, Shikhar; Pham, Hoa V.; Hartman, Douglas J.

    2017-02-01

    Pathology remains the gold standard for cancer diagnosis and in some cases prognosis, in which trained pathologists examine abnormality in tissue architecture and cell morphology characteristic of cancer cells with a bright-field microscope. The limited resolution of conventional microscope can result in intra-observer variation, missed early-stage cancers, and indeterminate cases that often result in unnecessary invasive procedures in the absence of cancer. Assessment of nanoscale structural characteristics via quantitative phase represents a promising strategy for identifying pre-cancerous or cancerous cells, due to its nanoscale sensitivity to optical path length, simple sample preparation (i.e., label-free) and low cost. I will present the development of quantitative phase microscopy system in transmission and reflection configuration to detect the structural changes in nuclear architecture, not be easily identifiable by conventional pathology. Specifically, we will present the use of transmission-mode quantitative phase imaging to improve diagnostic accuracy of urine cytology and the nuclear dry mass is progressively correlate with negative, atypical, suspicious and positive cytological diagnosis. In a second application, we will present the use of reflection-mode quantitative phase microscopy for depth-resolved nanoscale nuclear architecture mapping (nanoNAM) of clinically prepared formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections. We demonstrated that the quantitative phase microscopy system detects a gradual increase in the density alteration of nuclear architecture during malignant transformation in animal models of colon carcinogenesis and in human patients with ulcerative colitis, even in tissue that appears histologically normal according to pathologists. We evaluated the ability of nanoNAM to predict "future" cancer progression in patients with ulcerative colitis.

  11. The effect of revascularization in patients with anatomically significant atherosclerotic renovascular disease presenting with high-risk clinical features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassallo, Diana; Ritchie, James; Green, Darren; Chrysochou, Constantina; Kalra, Philip A

    2017-03-23

    Patients with atherosclerotic renovascular disease (ARVD) and high-risk clinical presentations have largely been excluded from randomized controlled trials comparing renal revascularization and optimal medical therapy. Here, we explore the effect of revascularization on death, progression to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) and cardiovascular events (CVE) in a highly selected cohort of patients with ARVD. All patients with a radiological diagnosis of ARVD referred to our tertiary centre have been recruited into a single-centre cohort study between 1986 and 2014. Patients with ≥70% unilateral or bilateral ARVD together with one or more of the following putative high-risk presentations were designated 'high-risk': flash pulmonary oedema (FPE), severe hypertension, rapidly deteriorating renal function. The effect of revascularization on clinical outcomes in high-risk patients, patients with bilateral severe ARVD and those with Revascularization was associated with a reduced risk of progression to ESKD, CVE and all combined events in patients with rapidly deteriorating renal function [ESKD: hazard ratio (HR) 0.47 (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.25-0.85), P = 0.01; CVE: HR 0.51 (95% CI 0.29-0.91), P = 0.02; Any: HR 0.51 (95% CI 0.29-0.90), P = 0.02]. High-risk patients with bilateral ≥70% RAS and those with revascularization when compared with controls. Our results indicate that revascularization may be of benefit in patients with anatomically significant RAS who present with rapidly deteriorating renal function, especially in the presence of severe bilateral ARVD or <1 g/day proteinuria.

  12. Threat driven modeling framework using petri nets for e-learning system

    OpenAIRE

    Khamparia, Aditya; Pandey, Babita

    2016-01-01

    Vulnerabilities at various levels are main cause of security risks in e-learning system. This paper presents a modified threat driven modeling framework, to identify the threats after risk assessment which requires mitigation and how to mitigate those threats. To model those threat mitigations aspects oriented stochastic petri nets are used. This paper included security metrics based on vulnerabilities present in e-learning system. The Common Vulnerability Scoring System designed to provide a...

  13. Clinical Presentation of Pediatric Patients at Risk for Sudden Cardiac Arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Aarti; Czosek, Richard J; Kovach, Joshua; von Alvensleben, Johannes C; Valdes, Santiago; Etheridge, Susan P; Ackerman, Michael J; Auld, Debbie; Huckaby, Jeryl; McCracken, Courtney; Campbell, Robert

    2016-10-01

    To identify the clinical presentation of children and adolescents affected by 1 of 4 cardiac conditions predisposing to sudden cardiac arrest: hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, long QT syndrome (LQTS), catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT), and anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the right sinus of Valsalva (ALCA-R). This was a retrospective review of newly diagnosed pediatric patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, LQTS, CPVT, and ALCA-R referred for cardiac evaluation at 6 US centers from 2008 to 2014. A total of 450 patients (257 male/193 female; median age 10.1 years [3.6-13.8 years, 25th-75th percentiles]) were enrolled. Patient age was ≤13 years for 70.4% of the cohort (n = 317). Sudden cardiac arrest was the initial presentation in 7%; others were referred on the basis of abnormal or suspicious family history, personal symptoms, or physical findings. Patients with LQTS and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were referred most commonly because of family history concerns. ALCA-R was most likely to have abnormal signs or symptoms (eg, exercise chest pain, syncope, or sudden cardiac arrest). Patients with CPVT had a high incidence of syncope and the greatest incidence of sudden cardiac arrest (45%); 77% exhibited exercise syncope or sudden cardiac arrest. This study demonstrated that suspicious or known family history plays a role in identification of many patients ultimately affected by 1 of the 3 genetic disorders (hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, LQTS, CPVT). Important patient and family history and physical examination findings may allow medical providers to identify many pediatric patients affected by 4 cardiac disorders predisposing to sudden cardiac arrest. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Single-compound and cumulative risk assessment of mycotoxins present in breakfast cereals consumed by children from Lisbon region, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Ricardo; Vasco, Elsa; Nunes, Baltazar; Loureiro, Susana; Martins, Carla; Alvito, Paula

    2015-12-01

    Humans can be exposed to multiple chemicals, but current risk assessment is usually carried out on one chemical at a time. Mycotoxins are commonly found in a variety of foods including those intended to consumption by children namely breakfast cereals. The present study aims to perform, the risk assessment of single and multiple mycotoxins present in breakfast cereals consumed by children (1-3 years old) from Lisbon region, Portugal. Daily exposure of children to ochratoxin A, fumonisins and trichothecenes showed no health risks to the children population considering individual mycotoxins, while exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) suggested a potential health concern for the high percentiles of intake (P90, P95 and P99). The combined exposure to fumonisins and trichothecenes are not expected to be of health concern. The combined margin of exposure (MoET) for the aflatoxins group could constitute a potential health concern and AFB1 was the main contributor for MoET. Legal limits and control strategies regarding the presence of multiple mycotoxins in foodstuffs is an urgent need. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time a cumulative risk assessment was performed on multiple mycotoxins present in breakfast cereals consumed by children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. What Risk Factors and Characteristics Are Associated With Late-presenting Dislocations of the Hip in Infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulpuri, Kishore; Schaeffer, Emily K; Andrade, Janice; Sankar, Wudbhav N; Williams, Nicole; Matheney, Travis H; Mubarak, Scott J; Cundy, Peter J; Price, Charles T

    2016-05-01

    Most infants with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) are diagnosed within the first 3 months of life. However, late-presenting DDH (defined as a diagnosis after 3 months of age) does occur and often results in more complex treatment and increased long-term complications. Specific risk factors involved in late-presenting DDH are poorly understood, and clearly defining an associated set of factors will aid in screening, detection, and prevention of this condition. Using a multicenter database of patients with DDH, we sought to determine whether there were differences in (1) risk factors or (2) the nature of the dislocation (laterality and joint laxity) when comparing patients with early versus late presentation. A retrospective review of prospectively collected data from a multicenter database of patients with dislocated hips was conducted from 2010 to 2014. Baseline demographics for fetal presentation (cephalic/breech), birth presentation (vaginal/cesarean), birth weight, maternal age, maternal parity, gestational age, family history, and swaddling history of patients were compared among nine different sites for patients who were enrolled at age younger than 3 months and those enrolled between 3 and 18 months of age. A total of 392 patients were enrolled at baseline between 0 and 18 months of age with at least one dislocated hip. Of that group, 259 patients were younger than 3 months of age and 133 were 3 to 18 months of age. The proportion of patients with DDH who were enrolled and followed at the nine participating centers was 98%. A univariate/multivariate analysis was performed comparing key baseline demographics between early- and late-presenting patients. After controlling for relevant confounding variables, two variables were identified as risk factors for late-presenting DDH as compared with early-presenting: cephalic presentation at birth and swaddling history. Late-presenting patients were more likely to have had a cephalic presentation than early-presenting

  16. If exposure to aluminium in antiperspirants presents health risks, its content should be reduced.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineau, Alain; Fauconneau, Bernard; Sappino, André-Pascal; Deloncle, Roger; Guillard, Olivier

    2014-04-01

    Since aluminium (Al) pervades our environment, the scientific community has for many years raised concerns regarding its safety in humans. Al is present in numerous cosmetics such as antiperspirants, lipsticks and sunscreens. Al chlorohydrate is the active antiperspirant agent in underarm cosmetics and may constitute for Al a key exposure route to the human body and a potential source of damage. An in vitro study has demonstrated that Al from antiperspirant can be absorbed through viable human stripped skin. The potential toxicity of Al has been clearly shown and recent works convincingly argue that Al could be involved in cancerogenic processes. Nowadays, for example, Al is suspected of being involved in breast cancer. Recent work in cells in culture has lent credence to the hypothesis that this metal could accumulate in the mammary gland and selectively interfere with the biological properties of breast epithelial cells, thereby promoting a cascade of alterations reminiscent of the early phases of malignant transformation. In addition, several studies suggest that the presence of Al in human breast could influence metastatic process. As a consequence, given that the toxicity of Al has been widely recognized and that it is not a physiological component in human tissues, reducing the concentration of this metal in antiperspirants is a matter of urgency. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Gram-negative diabetic foot osteomyelitis: risk factors and clinical presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón-Sánchez, Javier; Lipsky, Benjamin A; Lázaro-Martínez, Jose L

    2013-03-01

    Osteomyelitis frequently complicates infections in the feet of patients with diabetes. Gram-positive cocci, especially Staphylococcus aureus, are the most commonly isolated pathogens, but gram-negative bacteria also cause some cases of diabetic foot osteomyelitis (DFO). These gram-negatives require different antibiotic regimens than those commonly directed at gram-positives. There are, however, few data on factors related to their presence and how they influence the clinical picture. We conducted a retrospective study to determine the variables associated with the isolation of gram-negative bacteria from bone samples in cases of DFO and the clinical presentation of these infections. Among 341 cases of DFO, 150 had a gram-negative isolate (alone or combined with a gram-positive isolate) comprising 44.0% of all patients and 50.8% of those with a positive bone culture. Compared with gram-positive infections, wounds with gram-negative organisms more often had a fetid odor, necrotic tissue, signs of soft tissue infection accompanying osteomyelitis, and clinically severe infection. By multivariate analysis, the predictive variables related to an increased likelihood of isolating gram-negatives from bone samples were glycated hemoglobin gram-negatives had a statistically significantly higher prevalence of leukocytosis and higher white blood cell counts than those without gram-negatives. In conclusion, gram-negative organisms were isolated in nearly half of our cases of DFO and were associated with more severe infections, higher white blood cell counts, lower glycated hemoglobin levels, and wounds of traumatic etiology.

  18. The Net Reclassification Index (NRI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pepe, Margaret S.; Fan, Jing; Feng, Ziding

    2015-01-01

    The Net Reclassification Index (NRI) is a very popular measure for evaluating the improvement in prediction performance gained by adding a marker to a set of baseline predictors. However, the statistical properties of this novel measure have not been explored in depth. We demonstrate the alarming...... marker is proven to erroneously yield a positive NRI. Some insight into this phenomenon is provided. Since large values for the NRI statistic may simply be due to use of poorly fitting risk models, we suggest caution in using the NRI as the basis for marker evaluation. Other measures of prediction...

  19. Analysis of technologies for natural gas transportation in Brazil: results comparison of the application of payback and NPV (Net Present Value) methods; Analise de tecnologias de transporte de gas natural no Brasil: comparacao dos resultados da aplicacao dos metodos 'payback' e VPL (Valor Presente Liquido)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baioco, Juliana Souza; Santarem, Clarissa Andrade [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo; Bone, Rosemarie Broeker; Ferreira Filho, Virgilio Jose Martins [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Industrial

    2008-07-01

    The increased demand for natural gas leads to global integration of markets, leading to decisions that cover the various technologies of transportation, noting the specific locations. The transport of natural gas considered more traditional (Liquefied Natural Gas and Pipeline) often unviable economically areas of operation due to cost. In this case, there are alternative technologies to reduce those costs. The article is to compare the technologies of transport, using the methodology of the Net Present Value (VPL) to identify one that has more positive VPL, which is the most profitable. Thus, in search of validate the results of SUBERO et al. (2004) for gas transport by Pipelines, Liquefied Natural Gas and Compressed Natural Gas. In addition, they are compared these results with the method of VPL and with the economic analysis presented in using the payback period of CHANG (2001) and SANTAREM et al. (2007). It was found that the results obtained in Brazil were identical to those obtained by CHANG (2001) and SUBERO et al. (2007), saving only some differences in magnitude due to the specific characteristics of the Brazilian economy. In other words, for the Brazilian case, the technology of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) was the most economically viable with the method of VPL, followed by technology, Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), regardless of the interest rates of 10% and 6.5% and periods of 20 and 30 years. The contribution of this work is to show that despite of the method, payback or VPL, the various alternatives for transporting natural gas to Brazil have the same ranking and economic viability. (author)

  20. Analysis of risk factors, presentation, and in-hospital events of very young patients presenting with ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward L. Callachan

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: Among young adults who use tobacco, there is a need for improved screening for risk factors. Earlier detection and treatment of dyslipidemia and hypertension could prevent acute cardiac events among individuals aged <40 years with multiple risk factors.

  1. Present and potential future distribution of common vampire bats in the Americas and the associated risk to cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana N Lee

    Full Text Available Success of the cattle industry in Latin America is impeded by the common vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus, through decreases in milk production and mass gain and increased risk of secondary infection and rabies. We used ecological niche modeling to predict the current potential distribution of D. rotundus and the future distribution of the species for the years 2030, 2050, and 2080 based on the A2, A1B, and B1 climate scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. We then combined the present day potential distribution with cattle density estimates to identify areas where cattle are at higher risk for the negative impacts due to D. rotundus. We evaluated our risk prediction by plotting 17 documented outbreaks of cattle rabies. Our results indicated highly suitable habitat for D. rotundus occurs throughout most of Mexico and Central America as well as portions of Venezuela, Guyana, the Brazilian highlands, western Ecuador, northern Argentina, and east of the Andes in Peru, Bolivia, and Paraguay. With future climate projections suitable habitat for D. rotundus is predicted in these same areas and additional areas in French Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela and Columbia; however D. rotundus are not likely to expand into the U.S. because of inadequate 'temperature seasonality.' Areas with large portions of cattle at risk include Mexico, Central America, Paraguay, and Brazil. Twelve of 17 documented cattle rabies outbreaks were represented in regions predicted at risk. Our present day and future predictions can help authorities focus rabies prevention efforts and inform cattle ranchers which areas are at an increased risk of cattle rabies because it has suitable habitat for D. rotundus.

  2. Present and potential future distribution of common vampire bats in the Americas and the associated risk to cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dana N; Papeş, Monica; Van den Bussche, Ronald A

    2012-01-01

    Success of the cattle industry in Latin America is impeded by the common vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus, through decreases in milk production and mass gain and increased risk of secondary infection and rabies. We used ecological niche modeling to predict the current potential distribution of D. rotundus and the future distribution of the species for the years 2030, 2050, and 2080 based on the A2, A1B, and B1 climate scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. We then combined the present day potential distribution with cattle density estimates to identify areas where cattle are at higher risk for the negative impacts due to D. rotundus. We evaluated our risk prediction by plotting 17 documented outbreaks of cattle rabies. Our results indicated highly suitable habitat for D. rotundus occurs throughout most of Mexico and Central America as well as portions of Venezuela, Guyana, the Brazilian highlands, western Ecuador, northern Argentina, and east of the Andes in Peru, Bolivia, and Paraguay. With future climate projections suitable habitat for D. rotundus is predicted in these same areas and additional areas in French Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela and Columbia; however D. rotundus are not likely to expand into the U.S. because of inadequate 'temperature seasonality.' Areas with large portions of cattle at risk include Mexico, Central America, Paraguay, and Brazil. Twelve of 17 documented cattle rabies outbreaks were represented in regions predicted at risk. Our present day and future predictions can help authorities focus rabies prevention efforts and inform cattle ranchers which areas are at an increased risk of cattle rabies because it has suitable habitat for D. rotundus.

  3. State of the art report on risk and exposure data. SafetyNet, Building the European Road Safety Observatory, Workpackage 2, Deliverable D2.1.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yannis, G. Papadimitriou, E. Lejeune, P. Treny, V. Hemdorff, S. Bergel, R. Haddak, M. Holló, P. Cardoso, J. Bijleveld, F. Houwing, S. & Bjørnskau, T.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this Report is the analysis of the state-of-the-art in risk and exposure data availability, collection methodologies and use in the European Union. More specifically, the analysis aims to explore the concepts of exposure and risk, as well as the theoretical properties of the various

  4. When performance and risk taking are related: Working for rewards is related to risk taking when the value of rewards is presented briefly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veling, Harm; Bijleveld, Erik

    2015-12-01

    Valuable monetary rewards can boost human performance on various effortful tasks even when the value of the rewards is presented too briefly to allow for strategic decision making. However, the mechanism by which briefly-presented reward information influences performance has remained unclear. One possibility is that performance after briefly-presented reward information is primarily boosted via activation of the dopamine reward system, whereas performance after very visible reward information is driven more by strategic processes. To examine this hypothesis, we first presented participants with a task in which they could earn rewards of relatively low (1 cent) or high (10 cents) value, and the value information was presented either briefly (17 ms) or for an extended duration (300 ms). Furthermore, responsiveness of the dopamine system was indirectly estimated with a measure of risk taking, the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART). Results showed that performance after high- compared to low-value rewards was indeed related to the BART scores only when reward information was presented briefly. These results are suggestive of the possibility that brief presentation of reward information boosts performance directly via activating the dopamine system, whereas extended presentation of reward information leads to more strategic reward-driven behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluating risk communication: examining target audience perceptions about four presentation formats for fish consumption health advisory information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, N A; Knuth, B A

    1998-10-01

    Information format can influence the extent to which target audiences understand and respond to risk-related information. This study examined four elements of risk information presentation format. Using printed materials, we examined target audience perceptions about: (a) reading level; (b) use of diagrams vs. text; (c) commanding versus cajoling tone; and (d) use of qualitative vs. quantitative information presented in a risk ladder. We used the risk communication topic of human health concerns related to eating noncommercial Great Lakes fish affected by chemical contaminants. Results from the comparisons of specific communication formats indicated that multiple formats are required to meet the needs of a significant percent of anglers for three of the four format types examined. Advisory text should be reviewed to ensure the reading level is geared to abilities of the target audience. For many audiences, a combination of qualitative and quantitative information, and a combination of diagrams and text may be most effective. For most audiences, a cajoling rather than commanding tone better provides them with the information they need to make a decision about fish consumption. Segmenting audiences regarding information needs and communication formats may help clarify which approaches to take with each audience.

  6. An adjusted bed net coverage indicator with estimations for 23 African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderelst, Dieter; Speybroeck, Niko

    2013-12-20

    Many studies have assessed the level of bed net coverage in populations at risk of malaria infection. These revealed large variations in bed net use across countries, regions and social strata. Such studies are often aimed at identifying populations with low access to bed nets that should be prioritized in future interventions. However, often spatial differences in malaria endemicity are not taken into account. By ignoring variability in malaria endemicity, these studies prioritize populations with little access to bed nets, even if these happen to live in low endemicity areas. Conversely, populations living in regions with high malaria endemicity will receive a lower priority once a seizable proportion is protected by bed nets. Adequately assigning priorities requires accounting for both the current level of bed net coverage and the local malaria endemicity. Indeed, as shown here for 23 African countries, there is no correlation between the level of bed net coverage and the level of malaria endemicity in a region. Therefore, the need for future interventions can not be assessed based on current bed net coverage alone. This paper proposes the Adjusted Bed net Coverage (ABC) statistic as a measure taking into account both local malaria endemicity and the level of bed net coverage. The measure allows setting priorities for future interventions taking into account both local malaria endemicity and bed net coverage. A mathematical formulation of the ABC as a weighted difference of bed net coverage and malaria endemicity is presented. The formulation is parameterized based on a model of malaria epidemiology (Smith et al. Trends Parasitol 25:511-516, 2009). By parameterizing the ABC based on this model, the ABC as used in this paper is proxy for the steady-state malaria burden given the current level of bed net coverage. Data on the bed net coverage in under five year olds and malaria endemicity in 23 Sub-Saharan countries is used to show that the ABC prioritizes

  7. Net Neutrality: Media Discourses and Public Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Quail

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes media and public discourses surrounding net neutrality, with particular attention to public utility philosophy, from a critical perspective. The article suggests that further public education about net neutrality would be beneficial. The first portion of this paper provides a survey of the existing literature surrounding net neutrality, highlighting the contentious debate between market-based and public interest perspectives. In order to contextualize the debate, an overview of public utility philosophy is provided, shedding light on how the Internet can be conceptualized as a public good. Following this discussion, an analysis of mainstream media is presented, exploring how the media represents the issue of net neutrality and whether or not the Internet is discussed through the lens of public utility. To further examine how the net neutrality debate is being addressed, and to see the potential impacts of media discourses on the general public, the results of a focus group are reported and analyzed. Finally, a discussion assesses the implications of the net neutrality debate as presented through media discourses, highlighting the future of net neutrality as an important policy issue.

  8. La plataforma .NET

    OpenAIRE

    Fornas Estrada, Miquel

    2008-01-01

    L'aparició de la plataforma .NET Framework ha suposat un canvi molt important en la forma de crear i distribuir aplicacions, degut a que incorpora una sèrie d'innovacions tècniques i productives que simplifiquen molt les tasques necessàries per desenvolupar un projecte. La aparición de la plataforma. NET Framework ha supuesto un cambio muy importante en la forma de crear y distribuir aplicaciones, debido a que incorpora una serie de innovaciones técnicas y productivas que simplifican mucho...

  9. Biological Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Wingender, E

    2011-01-01

    It was suggested some years ago that Petri nets might be well suited to modeling metabolic networks, overcoming some of the limitations encountered by the use of systems employing ODEs (ordinary differential equations). Much work has been done since then which confirms this and demonstrates the usefulness of this concept for systems biology. Petri net technology is not only intuitively understood by scientists trained in the life sciences, it also has a robust mathematical foundation and provides the required degree of flexibility. As a result it appears to be a very promising approach to mode

  10. Trace Metal Levels in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Cultured in Net Cages in a Reservoir and Evaluation of Human Health Risks from Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varol, Memet; Kaya, Gülderen Kurt; Alp, Sumru Anık; Sünbül, Muhammet Raşit

    2017-09-19

    Although fish consumption has positive health effects, metals accumulated in fish can cause human health risks. In this study, the levels of ten metals in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) farmed in the Keban Dam Reservoir, which has the biggest rainbow trout production capacity in Turkey, were determined and compared with the maximum permissible levels (MPLs). Also, human health risks associated with rainbow trout consumption were assessed. The metal concentrations in rainbow trout were found below the MPLs. The estimated daily intake of each metal was much lower than the respective tolerable daily intake. The target hazard quotient (THQ) for individual metal and total THQ for combined metals did not exceed 1, indicating no health risk for consumers. The cancer risk (CR) value for inorganic arsenic was within the acceptable lifetime risk range of 10-6 and 10-4. For carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects, the maximum allowable fish consumption rates were high enough to ensure the human health. According to these results, the consumption of rainbow trout farmed in the Keban Dam Reservoir does not pose a risk on human health.

  11. Prospective validation of a predictive model that identifies homeless people at risk of re-presentation to the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Gaye; Hepworth, Graham; Weiland, Tracey; Manias, Elizabeth; Gerdtz, Marie Frances; Kelaher, Margaret; Dunt, David

    2012-02-01

    To prospectively evaluate the accuracy of a predictive model to identify homeless people at risk of representation to an emergency department. A prospective cohort analysis utilised one month of data from a Principal Referral Hospital in Melbourne, Australia. All visits involving people classified as homeless were included, excluding those who died. Homelessness was defined as living on the streets, in crisis accommodation, in boarding houses or residing in unstable housing. Rates of re-presentation, defined as the total number of visits to the same emergency department within 28 days of discharge from hospital, were measured. Performance of the risk screening tool was assessed by calculating sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and likelihood ratios. Over the study period (April 1, 2009 to April 30, 2009), 3298 presentations from 2888 individuals were recorded. The homeless population accounted for 10% (n=327) of all visits and 7% (n=211) of all patients. A total of 90 (43%) homeless people re-presented to the emergency department. The predictive model included nine variables and achieved 98% (CI, 0.92-0.99) sensitivity and 66% (CI, 0.57-0.74) specificity. The positive predictive value was 68% and the negative predictive value was 98%. The positive likelihood ratio 2.9 (CI, 2.2-3.7) and the negative likelihood ratio was 0.03 (CI, 0.01-0.13). The high emergency department re-presentation rate for people who were homeless identifies unresolved psychosocial health needs. The emergency department remains a vital access point for homeless people, particularly after hours. The risk screening tool is key to identify medical and social aspects of a homeless patient's presentation to assist early identification and referral. Copyright © 2012 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Performance Analysis using Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wells, Lisa Marie

    an explicit separation between modelling the behaviour of a system and monitoring the behaviour of the model. As a result, cleaner and more understandable models can be created. The third paper presents a novel method for adding auxiliary information to coloured Petri net models. Coloured Petri nets models...... in a very limited and predictable manner, and it is easy to enable and disable the auxiliary information. The fourth paper is a case study in which the performance of a web server was analysed using coloured Petri nets. This case study has shown that it is relatively easy to analyse the performance...

  13. The KM3NeT project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, U.F., E-mail: katz@physik.uni-erlangen.d [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics (ECAP), University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2011-01-21

    The KM3NeT research infrastructure in the deep Mediterranean Sea will host a multi-cubic-kilometre neutrino telescope and provide connectivity for continuous, long-term measurements of earth and sea sciences, such as geology, marine biology and oceanography. The KM3NeT neutrino telescope will complement the IceCube telescope currently being installed at the South Pole in its field of view and surpass its sensitivity by a substantial factor. In this document the major aspects of the KM3NeT technical design are described and the expected physics sensitivity is discussed. Finally, the expected time line towards construction is presented.

  14. The net neutrality debate on Twitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf J. Schünemann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The internet has been seen as a medium that empowers individual political actors in relation to established political elites and media gatekeepers. The present article discusses this “net empowerment hypothesis” and tests it empirically by analysing Twitter communication on the regulation of net neutrality. We extracted 503.839 tweets containing #NetNeutrality posted between January and March 2015 and analysed central developments and the network structure of the debate. The empirical results show that traditional actors from media and politics still maintain a central role.

  15. Transit time distributions to assess present and future contamination risk of karst aquifers over Europe and the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Andreas; Gleeson, Tom; Wada, Yoshihide; Wagener, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    Karst develops through the dissolution of carbonate rock. Karst groundwater in Europe is a major source of fresh water contributing up to half of the total drinking water supply in some countries. Climate model projections suggest that in the next 100 years, karst regions will experience a strong increase in temperature and a serious decrease of precipitation - especially in the Mediterranean region. Previous work showed that the karstic preferential recharge processes result in enhanced recharge rates and future climate sensitivity. But as there is fast water flow form the surface to the aquifer, there is also an enhanced risk of groundwater contamination. In this study we will assess the contamination risk of karst aquifers over Europe and the Mediterranean using simulated transit time distributions. Using a new type of semi-distributed model that considers the spatial heterogeneity of the karst system by distribution functions we simulated a range of spatially variable pathways of karstic groundwater recharge. The model is driven by the bias-corrected 5 GCMs of the ISI-MIP project (RCP8.5). Transit time distributions are calculated by virtual tracer experiments. These are repeated several times in the present (1991-2010) and the future (2080-2099). We can show that regions with larger fractions of preferential recharge show higher risks of contamination and that spatial patterns of contamination risk change towards the future.

  16. Community awareness about risk factors, presentation and prevention and obstetric fistula in Nabitovu village, Iganga district, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasamba, Nassar; Kaye, Dan K; Mbalinda, Scovia N

    2013-12-10

    Obstetric fistula is a worldwide problem that is devastating for women in developing countries. The cardinal cause of obstetric fistula is prolonged obstructed labour and delay in seeking emergency obstetric care. Awareness about obstetric fistula is still low in developing countries. The objective was to assess the awareness about risk factors of obstetric fistulae in rural communities of Nabitovu village, Iganga district, Eastern Uganda. A qualitative study using focus group discussion for males and females aged 18-49 years, to explore and gain deeper understanding of their awareness of existence, causes, clinical presentation and preventive measures for obstetric fistula. Data was analyzed by thematic analysis. The majority of the women and a few men were aware about obstetric fistula, though many had misconceptions regarding its causes, clinical presentation and prevention. Some wrongly attributed fistula to misuse of family planning, having sex during the menstruation period, curses by relatives, sexually transmitted infections, rape and gender-based violence. However, others attributed the fistula to delays to access medical care, induced abortions, conception at an early age, utilization of traditional birth attendants at delivery, and some complications that could occur during surgical operations for difficult deliveries. Most of the community members interviewed were aware of the risk factors of obstetric fistula. Some respondents, predominantly men, had misconceptions/myths about risk factors of obstetric fistula as being caused by having sex during menstrual periods, poor usage of family planning, being a curse.

  17. Prevalence and impact of cardiovascular risk factors among patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome in the middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Menyar, Ayman; Zubaid, Mohammad; Shehab, Abdullah; Bulbanat, Bassam; Albustani, Nizar; Alenezi, Fahad; Al-Motarreb, Ahmed; Singh, Rajvir; Asaad, Nidal; Al Suwaidi, Jassim

    2011-01-01

    The authors explored the prevalence and impact of the cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). During a five-month period in 2007, six adjacent Middle Eastern countries participated in the Gulf Registry of acute coronary events. CVRFs were identified on admission. Patients' characteristics and in-hospital outcomes were analyzed across the types of ACS. Among 6704 consecutive patients with ACS, 61% had non-ST elevation ACS (NSTEACS) and 39% had ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Female sex, old age, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and obesity were more prevalent in NSTEACS patients. STEMI patients were more likely to be smokers and less likely to be taking aspirin prior to the index admission. Chronic renal failure (CRF) and diabetes mellitus were independent predictors of in-hospital heart failure in NSTEACS, while CRF and hypertension were predictors of STEMI. Female sex and CRF were independent predictors of mortality in STEMI (odds ratio, 2.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.19-3.13 and odds ratio, 5.0; 95% confidence interval, 3.47-7.73, respectively). Assessment of the prevalence of CVRF in the acute coronary presentation is of important prognostic value for in-hospital morbidity and mortality. CVRF and its impact may differ according to ACS type, age, and sex. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. To achieve a significant reduction in the prevalence of CHD, it is essential to adopt effective preventive strategies with adequate awareness of the epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs).1 CVRFs include traditional and nontraditional factors. However, the US Preventive Services Task Force concluded that the evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of using nontraditional risk factors.2,3 The World Health Organization has recognized obesity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and smoking among the top10

  18. Petri Nets-Applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 9. Petri Nets - Applications. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 9 September 1999 pp 44-52. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/09/0044-0052. Author Affiliations. Y Narahari ...

  19. Safety nets or straitjackets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Does regulation of working hours at national and sector level impose straitjackets, or offer safety nets to employees seeking working time flexibility? This article compares legislation and collective agreements in the metal industries of Denmark, Germany and the USA. The industry has historically...

  20. Boom Booom Net Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Yong, Louisa; Dobie, Ian

    1999-01-01

    of an existing Internet radio station; Boom Booom Net Radio. Whilst necessity dictates some use of technology-related terminology, wherever possible we have endeavoured to keep such jargon to a minimum and to either explain it in the text or to provide further explanation in the appended glossary....

  1. Game Theory .net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Mikhael

    2003-01-01

    States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of GameTheory.net is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…

  2. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism...

  3. Cytomorphology review of 100 newly diagnosed lower-risk MDS patients in the European LeukemiaNet MDS (EUMDS) registry reveals a high inter-observer concordance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Swart, Louise; Smith, Alex; MacKenzie, Marius; Symeonidis, Argiris; Neukirchen, Judith; Mikulenková, Dana; Vallespí, Teresa; Zini, Gina; Paszkowska-Kowalewska, Malgorzata; Kruger, Anton; Saft, Leonie; Fenaux, Pierre; Bowen, David; Hellström-Lindberg, Eva; Čermák, Jaroslav; Stauder, Reinhard; Tatic, Aurelia; Holm, Mette Skov; Malcovati, Luca; Mądry, Krzysztof; Droste, Jackie; Blijlevens, Nicole; de Witte, Theo; Germing, Ulrich

    2017-07-01

    The European LeukemiaNet MDS (EUMDS) registry is collecting data of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients belonging to the IPSS low or intermediate-1 category, newly diagnosed by local cytologists. The diagnosis of MDS can be challenging, and some data report inter-observer variability with regard to the assessment of the MDS subtype. In order to ensure that correct diagnoses were made by the participating centres, blood and bone marrow slides of 10% of the first 1000 patients were reviewed by an 11-person panel of cytomorphologists. All slides were rated by at least 3 panel members (median 8 panel members; range 3-9). Marrow slides from 98 out of 105 patients were of good quality and therefore could be rated properly according to the WHO 2001 classification, including assessment of dysplastic lineages. The agreement between the reviewers whether the diagnosis was MDS or non-MDS was strong with an intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.85. Six cases were detected not to fit the entry criteria of the registry, because they were diagnosed uniformly as CMML or AML by the panel members. The agreement by WHO 2001 classification was strong as well (ICC = 0.83). The concordance of the assessment of dysplastic lineages was substantial for megakaryopoiesis and myelopoiesis and moderate for erythropoiesis. Our data show that in general, the inter-observer agreement was high and a very low percentage of misdiagnosed cases had been entered into the EUMDS registry. Further studies including histomorphology are warranted.

  4. High risk human papilloma viruses (HPVs) are present in benign prostate tissues before development of HPV associated prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Wendy K; Ngan, Christopher C; Amos, Timothy G; Edwards, Richard J; Swift, Joshua; Lutze-Mann, Louise; Shang, Fei; Whitaker, Noel J; Lawson, James S

    2017-01-01

    Although high risk HPVs are associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer it is not known if they have a causal role. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential role of human papilloma viruses (HPVs) in prostate cancer. The aims are (i) to investigate the presence and confirm the identity of high risk HPVs in benign prostate tissues prior to the development of HPV positive prostate cancer in the same patients, and (ii) to determine if HPVs are biologically active. We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify HPVs in specimens from 52 Australian men with benign prostate biopsies who 1 to 10 years later developed prostate cancer. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to assess the expression of HPV E7 oncoproteins, cytokeratin and prostate specific antigen (PSA). We used RNASeq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) to identify possible HPV RNA sequences in prostate cancer. HPV screening using standard PCR was conducted on 28 of the 52 sets of benign and later prostate cancers. HPV L1 genes were identified in 13 (46%) benign and 8 (29%) of 28 later prostate cancers in the same patients. HPV E7 genes were identified in 23 (82%) benign and 19 (68%) of 28 subsequent prostate cancers in the same patients. The same HPV types were present in both the benign and subsequent prostate cancers in 9 sets of specimens. HPV type 16 was identified in 15% of benign and 3% of prostate cancers. HPV type 18 was identified in 26% of benign and 16% of prostate cancers. Small numbers of HPV types 45, 47, 76 and 115 were also identified. High confidence RNA-Seq evidence for high risk HPV types 16 and 18 was identified in 12 (2%) of the 502 TCGA prostate cancer transcriptomes. High risk HPV E7 oncoprotein was positively expressed in 23 (82%) of 28 benign prostate specimens but only in 8 (29%) of 28 of the later prostate cancer specimens. This difference is statistically significant (p = 0.001). Prostate specific antigen (PSA) was more highly expressed in 26

  5. Ethnicity and acute myocardial infarction: risk profile at presentation, access to hospital management, and outcome in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelnoor M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available M Abdelnoor,1,2 J Eritsland,2 C Brunborg,1 S Halvorsen21Unit of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, 2Department of Cardiology, Oslo University Hospital Ullevaal, Oslo, NorwayBackground: Previous studies in North America have shown ethnic variation in the presentation of acute myocardial infarction (AMI, and sex and racial differences in the management and outcome of AMI. In the present study, our aim was to investigate the risk profile of AMI for patients with minority background compared with indigenous Norwegians, at hospital presentation, and to investigate racial differences in hospital care and outcomes.Patients and methods: A dual-design study was adopted: a cross-sectional study to examine ethnic differences of risk prevalence at hospital presentation and a cohort study to estimate access to angiography, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI, and hospital and long-term mortality. From a study population of 3105 patients with AMI presenting at Oslo University Hospital between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2007, we identified 147 cases of AMI in patients with minority background and selected a random sample of 588 indigenous Norwegians with AMI as controls. Prognostic and explanatory strategies were used in the analysis.Results: Compared with indigenous Norwegians with AMI, AMI patients with minority background suffered their AMI 10 years younger, were generally male, were twice as likely to be smokers, three times as likely to have type 2 diabetes, had lower high-density lipoprotein levels. This group also had 50% less history of hypertension. In terms of hospital care, AMI patients with minority background had shorter times from onset of symptoms to PCI and the same frequency of access to angiography and acute PCI as indigenous Norwegians when adjusting for the confounding effect of age, sex, and nature of myocardial infarction with or without ST elevation.Conclusion: At presentation to hospital, patients with minority background had a

  6. Identification of a 24-gene prognostic signature that improves the European LeukemiaNet risk classification of acute myeloid leukemia: an international collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zejuan; Herold, Tobias; He, Chunjiang; Valk, Peter J M; Chen, Ping; Jurinovic, Vindi; Mansmann, Ulrich; Radmacher, Michael D; Maharry, Kati S; Sun, Miao; Yang, Xinan; Huang, Hao; Jiang, Xi; Sauerland, Maria-Cristina; Büchner, Thomas; Hiddemann, Wolfgang; Elkahloun, Abdel; Neilly, Mary Beth; Zhang, Yanming; Larson, Richard A; Le Beau, Michelle M; Caligiuri, Michael A; Döhner, Konstanze; Bullinger, Lars; Liu, Paul P; Delwel, Ruud; Marcucci, Guido; Lowenberg, Bob; Bloomfield, Clara D; Rowley, Janet D; Bohlander, Stefan K; Chen, Jianjun

    2013-03-20

    To identify a robust prognostic gene expression signature as an independent predictor of survival of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and use it to improve established risk classification. Four independent sets totaling 499 patients with AML carrying various cytogenetic and molecular abnormalities were used as training sets. Two independent patient sets composed of 825 patients were used as validation sets. Notably, patients from different sets were treated with different protocols, and their gene expression profiles were derived using different microarray platforms. Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier methods were used for survival analyses. A prognostic signature composed of 24 genes was derived from a meta-analysis of Cox regression values of each gene across the four training sets. In multivariable models, a higher sum value of the 24-gene signature was an independent predictor of shorter overall (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) in both training and validation sets (P classification of AML, and patients in three new risk groups classified by the integrated risk classification showed significantly (P classification incorporating this gene signature provides a better framework for risk stratification and outcome prediction than the ELN classification.

  7. [The present state of the clinical and epidemiologic research on chemical and carcinogenic risks in the metalworking industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piolatto, Pier Giorgio; Catalani, Simona

    2011-01-01

    In this report several publications on clinical-epidemiologic patterns are presented regarding chemical and oncogenic risk in the metalworking industry. Sources of information were mainly PubMed and TOXNET. As far as cancer is concerned the body of the epidemiological data is difficult to interpret, mainly due to the fact that even the most recent papers and reviews refer to past exposure to MWF. Moreover, the great number of cancer sites are hardly explainable as to the biological plausibility. However, it is likely that current problems might be overcome by the almost total elimination of PAH and some additives. Moreover, cancer risk for welders and painters should be considered according to the different techniques used. Several studies reported repeated outbreaks of Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis, especially in US, most probably caused by mycobacterial antigens present in water-based oils. In Italy this disease is probably misdiagnosed or underreported. Some cross-sectional studies on respiratory disease and hearing loss, caused by the interaction of noise and chemical agent (mainly solvents), provided limited information because of the nature itself of this type of studies. Dermal pathologies still affect MWF exposed workers. Some antigens present in compounds, which are now gradually substituted, have been identified for allergic dermatitis (ADC).

  8. Time trend in the risk of delivery-related perinatal and neonatal death associated with breech presentation at term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasupathy, Dharmintra; Wood, Angela M; Pell, Jill P; Fleming, Michael; Smith, Gordon C S

    2009-04-01

    To determine the factors associated with the risk of delivery-related perinatal and neonatal death among term infants presenting by the breech and the effect of changes in the mode of delivery on the overall rates of perinatal and neonatal mortality associated with breech presentation. We studied 32,776 singleton term infants presenting breech excluding anomalous and antepartum losses in Scotland between 1985 and 2004, using linked Scottish national registries of pregnancy outcome data and perinatal death data. The event was delivery-related perinatal and neonatal death (i.e. intrauterine fetal death during labour or death of infant in the first 4 weeks of life), subdivided according to intrapartum anoxia or mechanical cause of death. Analysis was by multivariate logistic regression. During the study period, the risk of delivery-related perinatal and neonatal death decreased by 72% (95% CI -1% to 93%), due to a 90% (95% CI 33-99%) reduction in anoxic or mechanical deaths. Both intrapartum (OR 0.16, 95% CI 0.02-0.75) and planned (OR 0.01, 95% CI 0.00-0.09) caesarean delivery were protective against anoxic or mechanical deaths and increased use of planned caesarean delivery accounted for 16% of the decline in anoxic and mechanical deaths over the study period. Increased use of planned caesarean delivery only partly explains the decline in delivery-related perinatal and neonatal death between 1985 and 2004 in Scotland.

  9. Synthetic drought event sets: thousands of meteorological drought events for risk-based management under present and future conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillod, Benoit P.; Massey, Neil; Otto, Friederike E. L.; Allen, Myles R.; Jones, Richard; Hall, Jim W.

    2016-04-01

    Droughts and related water scarcity can have large impacts on societies and consist of interactions between a number of natural and human factors. Meteorological conditions are usually the first natural trigger of droughts, and climate change is expected to impact these and thereby the frequency and intensity of the events. However, extreme events such as droughts are, by definition, rare, and accurately quantifying the risk related to such events is therefore difficult. The MaRIUS project (Managing the Risks, Impacts and Uncertainties of drought and water Scarcity) aims at quantifying the risks associated with droughts in the UK under present and future conditions. To do so, a large number of drought events, from climate model simulations downscaled at 25km over Europe, are being fed into hydrological models of various complexity and used for the estimation of drought risk associated with human and natural systems, including impacts on the economy, industry, agriculture, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and socio-cultural aspects. Here, we present the hydro-meteorological drought event set that has been produced by weather@home [1] for MaRIUS. Using idle processor time on volunteers' computers around the world, we have run a very large number (10'000s) of Global Climate Model (GCM) simulations, downscaled at 25km over Europe by a nested Regional Climate Model (RCM). Simulations include the past 100 years as well as two future horizons (2030s and 2080s), and provide a large number of sequences of spatio-temporally consistent weather, which are consistent with the boundary forcing such as the ocean, greenhouse gases and solar forcing. The drought event set for use in impact studies is constructed by extracting sequences of dry conditions from these model runs, leading to several thousand drought events. In addition to describing methodological and validation aspects of the synthetic drought event sets, we provide insights into drought risk in the UK, its

  10. TBI risk stratification at presentation: a prospective study of the incidence and timing of radiographic worsening in the Parkland Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Herb A; Eastman, Alexander L; Madden, Christopher J; Aldy, Kim; Berne, John D; Norwood, Scott H; Scott, William W; Bernstein, Ira H; Pruitt, Jeffrey; Butler, Gordon; Rogers, Lowery; Minei, Joseph P

    2012-08-01

    We have created a theoretical algorithm for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis after traumatic brain injury (TBI) known as the Parkland Protocol, which stratifies patients into low-, medium-, and high-risk categories for spontaneous progression of hemorrhage. This prospective study characterizes the incidence and timing of radiographic progression of the TBI patterns in these categories. Inclusion criterion was presentation with intracranial blood between February 2010 and March 2011; exclusion was receipt of only one computed tomographic scan of the head during the inpatient stay or preinjury warfarin. At admission, all patients were preliminarily categorized per the Parkland Protocol as follows: low risk (LR), patients meeting the modified Berne-Norwood criteria; moderate risk (MR), injuries larger than the modified Berne-Norwood criteria without requiring a neurosurgical procedure; high risk (HR), any patient with a craniotomy/monitor. A total of 245 patients with intracranial hemorrhage were enrolled during the 13-month study period. Of patients preliminarily classified as LR at admission (n = 136), progression was seen in 25.0%. Spontaneous worsening was seen in 7.4% of LR patients at 24 hours after injury, and no LR patients progressed at 72 hours after injury. In patients initially classified as MR at admission (n = 42), progression was seen in 42.9%, with 91.5% of patients demonstrating stable computed tomographic head scans at 72 hours after injury. In patients initially classified as HR (n = 67), 64.2% demonstrated spontaneous progression of their TBI patterns, with 10.5% continuing to progress at 72 hours after injury. Most repeat scans were performed as routinely scheduled studies (81-91%). Increases in the incidence of spontaneous worsening were seen as severities of injury progressed from the Parkland Protocol's LR to MR to HR arms. The time frames for these spontaneous worsenings seem to be such that the protocol's theoretical recommendations for

  11. Racial/Ethnic Variations in Colorectal Cancer Screening Self-Efficacy, Fatalism and Risk Perception in a Safety-Net Clinic Population: Implications for Tailored Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkins, Cy; Cupertino, P; Young, K; Daley, C; Yeh, Hw; Greiner, Ka

    2013-01-25

    Ethnic and racial minority groups in the U.S. receive fewer colorectal cancer (CRC) screening tests and are less likely to be up-to-date with CRC screening than the population as a whole. Access, limited awareness of CRC and barriers may, in part, be responsible for inhibiting widespread adoption of CRC screening among racial and ethnic minority groups. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of self-efficacy, fatalism and CRC risk perception across racial and ethnic groups in a diverse sample. This study was a cross-sectional analysis from baseline measures gathered on a group of patients recruited into a trial to track colorectal cancer screening in underserved adults over 50. Out of 470 Participants, 42% were non-Hispanic; 27% Hispanic and 28% non-Hispanic White. Hispanic and non-Hispanic Blacks were more likely to have fatalistic beliefs about CRC than non-Hispanic Whites. Non-Hispanic Blacks perceived higher risk of getting colon cancer. Self-efficacy for completing CRC screening was higher among Non-Hispanic Blacks than among Hispanics. Racial and ethnic differences in risk perceptions, fatalism and self-efficacy should be taken into consideration in future CRC interventions with marginalized and uninsured populations.

  12. Assessing risk factors, presentation, and management of portomesenteric vein thrombosis after sleeve gastrectomy: a multicenter case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Rena C; Ghanem, Muhammad; Teixeira, Andre F; De La Cruz-Munoz, Nestor; Young, Meredith K; Domkowski, Patrick; Radecke, Jason; Boyce, Stephen G; Rosenthal, Raul; Menzo, Emmanuel Lo; Blanco, David Gutierrez; Funes, David R; Jawad, Muhammad A

    2017-10-26

    Portomesenteric vein thrombosis (PMVT) is a rare complication of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. To identify incidence, patient factors, diagnosis, and treatment of PMVT after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy in a large administrative data registry. Academic Hospitals and Private Practices, United States. A retrospective chart review of 5538 sleeve gastrectomy patients between January 1, 2008 and September 30, 2016 was performed at 5 bariatric centers in the United States. A total of 11 patients were identified as developing PMVT, and 3 controls for each patient were selected by matching age, sex, preoperative body mass index, and center. After adjusting for confounding variables, 2 patient factors significantly impacted the risk of PMVT after sleeve gastrectomy including personal history of malignancy (odds ratio 62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-99.9), and type 2 diabetes (odds ratio 12.7, 95% CI 1.2-137.3) compared with controls. Mean period from laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy to presentation of PMVT was 19.3 ± 15.11 days (range, 8-62). All patients except 1 complained of abdominal pain as the main presenting symptom. Other complaints included nausea and vomiting, no bowel movement, decreased appetite, diarrhea, and dehydration, and leukocytosis was present in 45.5% of the patients. All diagnoses were made by using computed tomography. All initial treatments were anticoagulation, heparin drip being the most common method (90.9%). Of patients, 9 (81.8%) required a secondary anticoagulation therapy, and 1 (9.1%) patient required a reoperation. Incidence of PMVT is low after sleeve gastrectomy. A personal history of malignancy and type 2 diabetes increase the risk of PMVT. Increasing abdominal pain in a context of dehydration is common presenting symptoms with diagnosis confirmed by computed tomography. Anticoagulation is the standard treatment. There was no mortality associated with the occurrence of PMVT in this cohort. Copyright © 2017 American Society for

  13. Software for predictive microbiology and risk assessment: a description and comparison of tools presented at the ICPMF8 Software Fair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenhaus-Aziza, Fanny; Ellouze, Mariem

    2015-02-01

    The 8th International Conference on Predictive Modelling in Food was held in Paris, France in September 2013. One of the major topics of this conference was the transfer of knowledge and tools between academics and stakeholders of the food sector. During the conference, a "Software Fair" was held to provide information and demonstrations of predictive microbiology and risk assessment software. This article presents an overall description of the 16 software tools demonstrated at the session and provides a comparison based on several criteria such as the modeling approach, the different modules available (e.g. databases, predictors, fitting tools, risk assessment tools), the studied environmental factors (temperature, pH, aw, etc.), the type of media (broth or food) and the number and type of the provided micro-organisms (pathogens and spoilers). The present study is a guide to help users select the software tools which are most suitable to their specific needs, before they test and explore the tool(s) in more depth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Food Safety Nets:

    OpenAIRE

    Haggblade, Steven; Diallo, Boubacar; Staatz, John; Theriault, Veronique; Traoré, Abdramane

    2013-01-01

    Food and social safety nets have a history as long as human civilization. In hunter gatherer societies, food sharing is pervasive. Group members who prove unlucky in the short run, hunting or foraging, receive food from other households in anticipation of reciprocal consideration at a later time (Smith 1988). With the emergence of the first large sedentary civilizations in the Middle East, administrative systems developed specifically around food storage and distribution. The ancient Egyptian...

  15. Reachability Trees for High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Jensen, Arne M.; Jepsen, Leif Obel

    1986-01-01

    High-level Petri nets have been introduced as a powerful net type by which it is possible to handle rather complex systems in a succinct and manageable way. The success of high-level Petri nets is undebatable when we speak about description, but there is still much work to be done to establish...... the necessary analysis methods. In other papers it is shown how to generalize the concept of place- and transition invariants from place/transition nets to high-level Petri nets. Our present paper contributes to this with a generalization of reachability trees, which is one of the other important analysis...

  16. Identifying women at risk for delayed presentation of breast cancer: a cross-sectional study in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innos, Kaire; Padrik, Peeter; Valvere, Vahur; Eelma, Evelyn; Kütner, Riina; Lehtsaar, Jaak; Tekkel, Mare

    2013-10-09

    Survival from breast cancer remains lower in Estonia than in most other European countries. More advanced stage and larger tumors that have impact on survival may be a result of delay in seeking help for breast cancer symptoms. The aim of this study was to identify determinants of delayed presentation among breast cancer patients in Estonia. The study population included women with primary breast cancer diagnosed in Estonia in 2008-2010. All data were collected using structured personal interviews carried out by trained nurses in the hospital setting. Only patients with self-discovered symptoms were included in this analysis. Patient delay was measured as time elapsing from symptom self-discovery to first medical consultation. The effect of different factors on the likelihood of prolonged delay (>90 days) was evaluated using logistic regression. Among 703 eligible patients, median patient delay was 16 days (interquartile range 5-54 days). Seventeen percent of the patients had their first medical consultation more than three months after self-detection of symptoms. In multivariate analysis, the risk of prolonged delay was significantly associated with age 65 years and over (OR 2.27, 95% CI 1.23-4.20), current smoking (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.21-3.61), symptoms other than painless breast lump or breast pain (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.08-3.16), no history of mammograms (OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.13-2.95), having received no information on breast cancer during past year (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.05-2.99), and previous benign breast problems (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.01-2.67). Non-significant risk increase was seen with lower education. This study provides evidence that factors associated with delayed presentation of breast cancer in Eastern Europe are similar to those observed in Western countries. The results suggest that educational messages to general population should aim at increasing awareness of "non-lump" symptoms of breast cancer and encouraging women of all ages to present in a timely manner

  17. Using WordNet for Building WordNets

    CERN Document Server

    Farreres, X; Farreres, Xavier; Rodriguez, Horacio; Rigau, German

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarises a set of methodologies and techniques for the fast construction of multilingual WordNets. The English WordNet is used in this approach as a backbone for Catalan and Spanish WordNets and as a lexical knowledge resource for several subtasks.

  18. Assessing the risk of type 1 allergy to enzymes present in laundry and cleaning products: evidence from the clinical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarlo, Katherine; Kirchner, Donald B; Troyano, Esperanza; Smith, Larry A; Carr, Gregory J; Rodriguez, Carlos

    2010-05-27

    Microbial enzymes have been used in laundry detergent products for several decades. These enzymes have also long been known to have the potential to give rise to occupational type 1 allergic responses. A few cases of allergy among consumers using dusty enzyme detergents were reported in the early 1970s. Encapsulation of the enzymes along with other formula changes were made to ensure that consumer exposure levels were sufficiently low that the likelihood of either the induction of IgE antibody (sensitization) or the elicitation of clinical symptoms be highly improbable. Understanding the consumer exposure to enzymes which are used in laundry and cleaning products is a key step to the risk management process. Validation of the risk assessment conclusions and the risk management process only comes with practical experience and evidence from the marketplace. In the present work, clinical data from a range of sources collected over the past 40 years have been analysed. These include data from peer reviewed literature and enzyme specific IgE antibody test results in detergent manufacturers' employees and from clinical study subjects. In total, enzyme specific IgE antibody data were available on 15,765 individuals. There were 37 individuals with IgE antibody. The majority of these cases were from the 1970s where 23 of 4687 subjects (0.49%) were IgE positive and 15 of the 23 were reported to have symptoms of allergy. The remaining 14 cases were identified post-1977 for a prevalence of 0.126% (14/11,078). No symptoms were reported and no relationship to exposure to laundry and cleaning products was found. There was a significant difference between the pre- and post-1977 cohorts in that the higher rates of sensitization with symptoms were associated with higher exposure to enzyme. The clinical testing revealed that the prevalence of enzyme specific IgE in the population is very rare (0.126% since 1977). This demonstrates that exposure to these strong respiratory allergens

  19. Body mass, cardiovascular risk and metabolic characteristics of young persons presenting for mental healthcare in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Elizabeth M; Hermens, Daniel F; White, Django; Naismith, Sharon L; GeHue, Jeanne; Whitwell, Bradley G; Glozier, Nick; Hickie, Ian B

    2015-03-27

    To determine the body mass, cardiovascular and metabolic characteristics of young people presenting for mental healthcare. Cross-sectional assessments of body mass, cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors. Two primary-care based sites in Sydney, Australia for young people in the early stages of mental disorders. A clinical sample of young people (12-30 years) with mental health problems. Daily smoking rates, body mass index (BMI), blood glucose and lipids, blood pressure (BP) and pulse rate. Of 1005 young people who had their BMI determined (62% female; 19.0±3.5 years), three quarters (739/1005) also had BP recordings and one-third (298/1005) had blood sampling. Clinically, 775 were assigned to one of three diagnostic categories (anxious-depression: n=541; mania-fatigue, n=104; developmental-psychotic n=130). The profile of BMI categories approximated that of the comparable segments of the Australian population. Older age, lower levels of social functioning and higher systolic BP were all associated with high BMI. In a subset (n=129), current use of any psychotropic medication was associated (psmoking rates are increased among young people presenting for mental healthcare. However, these young people do not demonstrate adverse cardiometabolic profiles. The high levels of smoking, and association of BMI with adverse social circumstances, suggest that risk factors for chronic disease are already present and likely to be compounded by medication and social disadvantage. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Pressure ulcer development in trauma patients with suspected spinal injury; the influence of risk factors present in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, H W Wietske; Schoonhoven, L Lisette; Schuurmans, M Marieke J; Leenen, L Luke P H

    2017-01-01

    To explore the influence of risk factors present at Emergency Department admission on pressure ulcer development in trauma patients with suspected spinal injury, admitted to the hospital for evaluation and treatment of acute traumatic injuries. Prospective cohort study setting level one trauma center in the Netherlands participants adult trauma patients transported to the Emergency Department on a backboard, with extrication collar and headblocks and admitted to the hospital for treatment or evaluation of their injuries. Between January and December 2013, 254 trauma patients were included. The following dependent variables were collected: Age, Skin color and Body Mass Index, and Time in Emergency Department, Injury Severity Score, Mean Arterial Pressure, hemoglobin level, Glasgow Coma Score, and admission ward after Emergency Department. Pressure ulcer development during admission was associated with a higher age (p 0.00, OR 1.05) and a lower Glasgow Coma Scale score (p 0.00, OR 1.21) and higher Injury Severity Scores (p 0.03, OR 1.05). Extra nutrition decreases the probability of PU development during admission (p 0.04, OR 0.20). Pressure ulcer development within the first 48h of admission was positively associated with a higher age (p 0.01, OR 1.03) and a lower Glasgow Coma Scale score (p 0.01, OR 1.16). The proportion of patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit and Medium Care Unit was higher in patients with pressure ulcers. The pressure ulcer risk during admission is high in patients with an increased age, lower Glasgow Coma Scale and higher Injury Severity Score in the Emergency Department. Pressure ulcer risk should be assessed in the Emergency Department to apply preventive interventions in time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. TET2 mutations improve the new European LeukemiaNet risk classification of acute myeloid leukemia: a Cancer and Leukemia Group B study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzeler, Klaus H; Maharry, Kati; Radmacher, Michael D; Mrózek, Krzysztof; Margeson, Dean; Becker, Heiko; Curfman, John; Holland, Kelsi B; Schwind, Sebastian; Whitman, Susan P; Wu, Yue-Zhong; Blum, William; Powell, Bayard L; Carter, Thomas H; Wetzler, Meir; Moore, Joseph O; Kolitz, Jonathan E; Baer, Maria R; Carroll, Andrew J; Larson, Richard A; Caligiuri, Michael A; Marcucci, Guido; Bloomfield, Clara D

    2011-04-01

    To determine the frequency of TET2 mutations, their associations with clinical and molecular characteristics and outcome, and the associated gene- and microRNA-expression signatures in patients with primary cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML). Four-hundred twenty-seven patients with CN-AML were analyzed for TET2 mutations by polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing and for established prognostic gene mutations. Gene- and microRNA-expression profiles were derived using microarrays. TET2 mutations, found in 23% of patients, were associated with older age (P classification in primary CN-AML because of their adverse prognostic impact in an otherwise favorable-risk patient subset. Our data suggest that these patients may be candidates for alternative therapies.

  2. Heterogeneous associations between smoking and a wide range of initial presentations of cardiovascular disease in 1937360 people in England: lifetime risks and implications for risk prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujades-Rodriguez, Mar; George, Julie; Shah, Anoop Dinesh; Rapsomaniki, Eleni; Denaxas, Spiros; West, Robert; Smeeth, Liam; Timmis, Adam; Hemingway, Harry

    2015-02-01

    It is not known how smoking affects the initial presentation of a wide range of chronic and acute cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), nor the extent to which associations are heterogeneous. We estimated the lifetime cumulative incidence of 12 CVD presentations, and examined associations with smoking and smoking cessation. Cohort study of 1.93 million people aged ≥30years, with no history of CVD, in 1997-2010. Individuals were drawn from linked electronic health records in England, covering primary care, hospitalizations, myocardial infarction (MI) registry and cause-specific mortality (the CALIBER programme). During 11.6 million person-years of follow-up, 114859 people had an initial non-fatal or fatal CVD presentation. By age 90 years, current vs never smokers' lifetime risks varied from 0.4% vs 0.2% for subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), to 8.9% vs 2.6% for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Current smoking showed no association with cardiac arrest or sudden cardiac death [hazard ratio (HR)=1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91-1.19).The strength of association differed markedly according to disease type: stable angina (HR=1.08, 95% CI 1.01-1.15),transient ischaemic attack (HR=1.41, 95% CI 1.28-1.55), unstable angina (HR=1.54, 95% CI 1.38-1.72), intracerebral haemorrhage (HR=1.61, 95% CI 1.37-1.89), heart failure (HR=1.62, 95% CI 1.47-1.79), ischaemic stroke (HR=1.90, 95% CI 1.72-2.10), MI (HR=2.32, 95% CI 2.20-2.45), SAH (HR= 2.70, 95% CI 2.27-3.21), PAD (HR=5.16, 95% CI 4.80-5.54) and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) (HR=5.18, 95% CI 4.61-5.82). Population-attributable fractions were lower for women than men for unheralded coronary death, ischaemic stroke, PAD and AAA. Ten years after quitting smoking, the risks of PAD, AAA (in men) and unheralded coronary death remained increased (HR=1.36, 1.47 and 2.74, respectively). The heterogeneous associations of smoking with different CVD presentations suggests different underlying mechanisms and have important

  3. Proof nets for lingusitic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moot, R.C.A.

    2002-01-01

    This book investigates the possible linguistic applications of proof nets, redundancy free representations of proofs, which were introduced by Girard for linear logic. We will adapt the notion of proof net to allow the formulation of a proof net calculus which is soundand complete for the

  4. Teaching Tennis for Net Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Bryce

    1989-01-01

    A program for teaching tennis to beginners, NET (Net Easy Teaching) is described. The program addresses three common needs shared by tennis students: active involvement in hitting the ball, clearing the net, and positive reinforcement. A sample lesson plan is included. (IAH)

  5. Net4Care Ecosystem Website

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius; Rasmussen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    is a tele-monitoring scenario in which Net4Care clients are deployed in a gateway in private homes. Medical devices then connect to these gateways and transmit their observations to a Net4Care server. In turn the Net4Care server creates valid clinical HL7 documents, stores them in a national XDS repository...

  6. The prevalence of at-risk development in children 30 to 60 months old presenting with disruptive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepaniak, Dorota; McHenry, Megan S; Nutakki, Kavitha; Bauer, Nerissa S; Downs, Stephen M

    2013-10-01

    This study assessed the prevalence of failed developmental screens in 30- to 60-month-old children who presented with a behavioral complaint of disruptive behavior to a referral clinic. A retrospective chart review was performed in a specialty behavioral pediatric clinic. Outcome measures were obtained from children referred to the clinic with parental concern of disruptive behavior. Out of 151 patients, 66% (99/151) had been screened for developmental delays with a formal screening instrument. Of these, 71% (70/99) failed developmental screening in one or more domains. Preschoolers referred to a behavioral clinic for parental concerns of disruptive behaviors were more than 4 times more likely to be at risk for developmental delays than the general population, with a majority of suspected delays in communication and problem-solving domains. This finding suggests that developmental screening should be a part of the initial workup for children with disruptive behaviors.

  7. Modification of the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction risk score for patients presenting with chest pain to the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Jaimi H; Chung, Kimberly; Parsonage, William A; Hawkins, Tracey; Than, Martin; Pickering, John W; Cullen, Louise

    2017-12-12

    To develop a modified Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) score to effectively risk stratify patients presenting to the ED with chest pain. A prospective observational study was conducted at two metropolitan EDs. Data were obtained during patient interview. The primary outcome was major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) within 30 days of presentation. Two separate modifications of the TIMI score were developed. These scores were compared to the original TIMI in terms of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and diagnostic accuracy statistics (sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values). Of 1760 patients, 364 (20.7%) experienced 30 day MACE. The first modified TIMI score was a simplified TIMI (s-TIMI) including four variables: age ≥65 years, three or more risk factors, high-sensitivity troponin (hs-cTnI) and electrocardiogram changes. The second score included the same four variables plus two Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) variables (systolic blood pressure and estimated glomerular filtration rate). This score was termed the GRACE TIMI (g-TIMI). s-TIMI had a lower sensitivity compared to the original TIMI score (93.41 and 96.98%), but higher specificity (45.49 and 24.50%). The g-TIMI had a sensitivity of 98.90% and specificity of 14.90%. Attempts to modify the TIMI score yielded two scores with added predictive utility in comparison to the original TIMI model. The addition of GRACE variables (g-TIMI) increased sensitivity for MACE, but decreased the specificity of the model. The s-TIMI score yielded good specificity but had sensitivity that would not be acceptable by emergency physicians. The s-TIMI may be useful as part of an accelerated chest pain protocol. © 2017 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  8. Randomized controlled trial of a coordinated care intervention to improve risk factor control after stroke or transient ischemic attack in the safety net: Secondary stroke prevention by Uniting Community and Chronic care model teams Early to End Disparities (SUCCEED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towfighi, Amytis; Cheng, Eric M; Ayala-Rivera, Monica; McCreath, Heather; Sanossian, Nerses; Dutta, Tara; Mehta, Bijal; Bryg, Robert; Rao, Neal; Song, Shlee; Razmara, Ali; Ramirez, Magaly; Sivers-Teixeira, Theresa; Tran, Jamie; Mojarro-Huang, Elizabeth; Montoya, Ana; Corrales, Marilyn; Martinez, Beatrice; Willis, Phyllis; Macias, Mireya; Ibrahim, Nancy; Wu, Shinyi; Wacksman, Jeremy; Haber, Hilary; Richards, Adam; Barry, Frances; Hill, Valerie; Mittman, Brian; Cunningham, William; Liu, Honghu; Ganz, David A; Factor, Diane; Vickrey, Barbara G

    2017-02-06

    Recurrent strokes are preventable through awareness and control of risk factors such as hypertension, and through lifestyle changes such as healthier diets, greater physical activity, and smoking cessation. However, vascular risk factor control is frequently poor among stroke survivors, particularly among socio-economically disadvantaged blacks, Latinos and other people of color. The Chronic Care Model (CCM) is an effective framework for multi-component interventions aimed at improving care processes and outcomes for individuals with chronic disease. In addition, community health workers (CHWs) have played an integral role in reducing health disparities; however, their effectiveness in reducing vascular risk among stroke survivors remains unknown. Our objectives are to develop, test, and assess the economic value of a CCM-based intervention using an Advanced Practice Clinician (APC)-CHW team to improve risk factor control after stroke in an under-resourced, racially/ethnically diverse population. In this single-blind randomized controlled trial, 516 adults (≥40 years) with an ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack or intracerebral hemorrhage within the prior 90 days are being enrolled at five sites within the Los Angeles County safety-net setting and randomized 1:1 to intervention vs usual care. Participants are excluded if they do not speak English, Spanish, Cantonese, Mandarin, or Korean or if they are unable to consent. The intervention includes a minimum of three clinic visits in the healthcare setting, three home visits, and Chronic Disease Self-Management Program group workshops in community venues. The primary outcome is blood pressure (BP) control (systolic BP control of other vascular risk factors including lipids and hemoglobin A1c, (3) inflammation (C reactive protein [CRP]), (4) medication adherence, (5) lifestyle factors (smoking, diet, and physical activity), (6) estimated relative reduction in risk for recurrent stroke or myocardial

  9. Master Robotic Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Lipunov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the MASTER-Net project is to produce a unique fast sky survey with all sky observed over a single night down to a limiting magnitude of 19-20. Such a survey will make it possible to address a number of fundamental problems: search for dark energy via the discovery and photometry of supernovae (including SNIa, search for exoplanets, microlensing effects, discovery of minor bodies in the Solar System, and space-junk monitoring. All MASTER telescopes can be guided by alerts, and we plan to observe prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts synchronously in several filters and in several polarization planes.

  10. Art/Net/Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik; Lindstrøm, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    The seminar Art|Net|Work deals with two important changes in our culture. On one side, the network has become essential in the latest technological development. The Internet has entered a new phase, Web 2.0, including the occurrence of as ‘Wiki’s’, ‘Peer-2-Peer’ distribution, user controlled...... the praxis of the artist. We see different kinds of interventions and activism (including ‘hacktivism’) using the network as a way of questioning the invisible rules that govern public and semi-public spaces. Who ‘owns’ them? What kind of social relationships do they generate? On what principle...

  11. Report: Self-Insurance for Companies With Multiple Cleanup Liabilities Presents Financial and Environmental Risks for EPA and the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #18-P-0059, December 22, 2017. The EPA's ability to oversee self-insurance instruments is impaired, leaving the agency and taxpayers vulnerable to billions of dollars in financial risk and the public vulnerable to environmental risk.

  12. Sociodemographic, Epidemiological, and Clinical Risk Factors for Childhood Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Severely Malnourished Children Presenting With Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammod Jobayer Chisti MBBS, MMed, PhD

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate sociodemographic, epidemiological, and clinical risk factors for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB in children presenting with severe acute malnutrition (SAM and pneumonia. Children aged 0 to 59 months with SAM and radiologic pneumonia from April 2011 to July 2012 were studied in Bangladesh. Children with confirmed PTB (by culture and/or X-pert MTB/RIF (cases = 27 and without PTB (controls = 81; randomly selected from 378 children were compared. The cases more often had the history of contact with active PTB patient (P < .01 and exposure to cigarette smoke (P = .04 compared with the controls. In logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for potential confounders, the cases were independently associated with working mother (P = .05 and positive tuberculin skin test (TST; P = .02. Thus, pneumonia in SAM children is a common presentation of PTB and further highlights the importance of the use of simple TST and/or history of contact with active TB patients in diagnosing PTB in such children, especially in resource-limited settings.

  13. Using Patient Flow Information to Determine Risk of Hospital Presentation: Protocol for a Proof-of-Concept Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Christopher M; McLeod, Adam; Patrick, Jon; Boyle, Douglas; Shearer, Marianne; Eustace, Paula; Pearce, Mary Catherine

    2016-12-20

    Every day, patients are admitted to the hospital with conditions that could have been effectively managed in the primary care sector. These admissions are expensive and in many cases are possible to avoid if early intervention occurs. General practitioners are in the best position to identify those at risk of imminent hospital presentation and admission; however, it is not always possible for all the factors to be considered. A lack of shared information contributes significantly to the challenge of understanding a patient's full medical history. Some health care systems around the world use algorithms to analyze patient data in order to predict events such as emergency presentation; however, those responsible for the design and use of such systems readily admit that the algorithms can only be used to assess the populations used to design the algorithm in the first place. The United Kingdom health care system has contributed data toward algorithm development, which is possible through the unified health care system in place there. The lack of unified patient records in Australia has made building an algorithm for local use a significant challenge. Our objective is to use linked patient records to track patient flow through primary and secondary health care in order to develop a tool that can be applied in real time at the general practice level. This algorithm will allow the generation of reports for general practitioners that indicate the relative risk of patients presenting to an emergency department. A previously designed tool was used to deidentify the general practice and hospital records of approximately 100,000 patients. Records were pooled for patients who had attended emergency departments within the Eastern Health Network of hospitals and general practices within the Eastern Health Network catchment. The next phase will involve development of a model using a predictive analytic machine learning algorithm. The model will be developed iteratively, testing

  14. NETS FOR PEACH PROTECTED CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelia Schettini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the radiometric properties of coloured nets used to protect a peach cultivation. The modifications of the solar spectral distribution, mainly in the R and FR wavelength band, influence plant photomorphogenesis by means of the phytochrome and cryptochrome. The phytochrome response is characterized in terms of radiation rate in the red wavelengths (R, 600-700 nm to that in the farred radiation (FR, 700-800 nm, i.e. the R/FR ratio. The effects of the blue radiation (B, 400-500 nm is investigated by the ratio between the blue radiation and the far-red radiation, i.e. the B/FR ratio. A BLUE net, a RED net, a YELLOW net, a PEARL net, a GREY net and a NEUTRAL net were tested in Bari (Italy, latitude 41° 05’ N. Peach trees were located in pots inside the greenhouses and in open field. The growth of the trees cultivated in open field was lower in comparison to the growth of the trees grown under the nets. The RED, PEARL, YELLOW and GREY nets increased the growth of the trees more than the other nets. The nets positively influenced the fruit characteristics, such as fruit weight and flesh firmness.

  15. Active Risk Management and Banking Stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva Buston, C.F.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This paper analyzes the net impact of two opposing effects of active risk management at banks on their stability: higher risk-taking incentives and better isolation of credit supply from varying economic conditions. We present a model where banks actively manage their portfolio risk by

  16. Petri net methodology for solving healthcare management issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushk Abdul Rauf

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Various approaches of Petri nets can be achieved as system security and information flow in the healthcare recording system inside any medical or health-related business. Petri net system formal modeling is essential as well as important to track down the records and secure information inside a preformed health organization. In this paper, we mainly focused on the formal model Petri net which security mechanism is controlled by public key encryption where PN based modeling is preferred. This Petri net is a mathematical modeling to solve graphical notation for step by step processes that include choice, repetition, and circumstantial execution. Petri nets offer widely mathematical applications of discrete and continuous event execution semiotics, with an efficient mathematical analysis processing theory. We sure that our formal model will lay a solid foundation to minimize the risks and overcome the security risks in the healthcare industry.

  17. Linking a domain thesaurus to WordNet and conversion to WordNet-LMF

    OpenAIRE

    Toral, Antonio; Monachini, Monica; Soria, Claudia; Cuadros Oller, Montserrat; Rigau Claramunt, German; Bosma, Wauter; Vossen, Piek

    2010-01-01

    We present a methodology to link domain thesauri to general-domain lexica. This is applied in the framework of the KYOTO project to link the Species2000 thesaurus to the synsets of the English WordNet. Moreover, we study the formalisation of this thesaurus according to the ISO LMF standard and its dialect WordNet-LMF. This conversion will allow Species2000 to communicate with the other resources available in the KYOTO architecture. Peer Reviewed

  18. NET READINESS OF SME ENTERPRISES FROM WEST POMERANIAN VOIVODESHIP

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasz Ordysiñski

    2012-01-01

    The article presents results of the Net Readiness research of SME enterprises from West Pomeranian voivodeship as the preparation level to e-business. There is described Net Readiness method (invented by CISCO). The main part presents general Internet readiness card and indexes for micro, small and medium enterprises. The final part contains conclusions and the direction of further research.

  19. PETRI NET MODELING OF COMPUTER VIRUS LIFE CYCLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    ABSTRACT. Virus life cycle, which refers to the stages of development of a computer virus, is presented as a suitable area for the application of Petri nets. Petri nets a powerful modeling tool in the field of dynamic system analysis is applied to model the virus life cycle. Simulation of the derived model is also presented.

  20. Petri Net Modeling of Computer Virus Life Cycle | Ikekonwu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Virus life cycle, which refers to the stages of development of a computer virus, is presented as a suitable area for the application of Petri nets. Petri nets a powerful modeling tool in the field of dynamic system analysis is applied to model the virus life cycle. Simulation of the derived model is also presented. The intention of ...

  1. Clinical presentation and cardiovascular risk profiles in patients with left main coronary artery disease in a middle eastern country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehani, A A; El-Menyar, Ayman; Elgendy, Islam; Abuzaid, Ahmed; Ahmed, Emad; Haque, Saiful

    2013-04-01

    We evaluated the prevalence and clinical profile of patients with left main coronary artery disease (LMCA) in Qatar between 2006 and 2010. Patients were divided into 2 groups: patients with LMCA and patients without LMCA but had severe 3-vessel disease (VeD) eligible for surgical revascularization. Among 7000 patients who underwent coronary angiography, 210 patients had significant LMCA and 200 patients with severe 3VeD were matched for age and sex. Diabetes mellitus and hypertension were comparable in the 2 groups. Presentations with myocardial infarction or heart failure were comparable in both groups. Isolated LMCA was 4-fold higher in women (P = .02). Dyslipidemia and smoking were more prevalent in patients with distal and proximal lesions, respectively. Renal failure was independent predictor of LMCA (adjusted odds ratio: 2.6; 95% confidence interval: 1.43-4.69). One-year mortality was higher in LMCA (P = .01). The LMCA carries high mortality. Certain cardiovascular risk factors were important predictors of stenosis site.

  2. Can postponement of an adverse outcome be used to present risk reductions to a lay audience? A population survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiansen Ivar

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For shared decision making doctors need to communicate the effectiveness of therapies such that patients can understand it and discriminate between small and large effects. Previous research indicates that patients have difficulties in understanding risk measures. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that lay people may be able to discriminate between therapies when their effectiveness is expressed in terms of postponement of an adverse disease event. Methods In 2004 a random sample of 1,367 non-institutionalized Danes aged 40+ was interviewed in person. The participants were asked for demographic information and asked to consider a hypothetical preventive drug treatment. The respondents were randomized to the magnitude of treatment effectiveness (heart attack postponement of 1 month, 6 months, 12 months, 2 years, 4 years and 8 years and subsequently asked whether they would take such a therapy. They were also asked whether they had hypercholesterolemia or had experienced a heart attack. Results In total 58% of the respondents consented to the hypothetical treatment. The proportions accepting treatment were 39%, 52%, 56%, 64%, 67% and 73% when postponement was 1 month, 6 months, 12 months, 2 years, 4 years and 8 years respectively. Participants who thought that the effectiveness information was difficult to understand, were less likely to consent to therapy (p = 0.004. Conclusion Lay people can discriminate between levels of treatment effectiveness when they are presented in terms of postponement of an adverse event. The results indicate that such postponement is a comprehensible measure of effectiveness.

  3. Can postponement of an adverse outcome be used to present risk reductions to a lay audience? A population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Rasmus; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; Kristiansen, Ivar Sønbø; Nexøe, Jørgen; Bo Nielsen, Jesper

    2007-03-29

    For shared decision making doctors need to communicate the effectiveness of therapies such that patients can understand it and discriminate between small and large effects. Previous research indicates that patients have difficulties in understanding risk measures. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that lay people may be able to discriminate between therapies when their effectiveness is expressed in terms of postponement of an adverse disease event. In 2004 a random sample of 1,367 non-institutionalized Danes aged 40+ was interviewed in person. The participants were asked for demographic information and asked to consider a hypothetical preventive drug treatment. The respondents were randomized to the magnitude of treatment effectiveness (heart attack postponement of 1 month, 6 months, 12 months, 2 years, 4 years and 8 years) and subsequently asked whether they would take such a therapy. They were also asked whether they had hypercholesterolemia or had experienced a heart attack. In total 58% of the respondents consented to the hypothetical treatment. The proportions accepting treatment were 39%, 52%, 56%, 64%, 67% and 73% when postponement was 1 month, 6 months, 12 months, 2 years, 4 years and 8 years respectively. Participants who thought that the effectiveness information was difficult to understand, were less likely to consent to therapy (p = 0.004). Lay people can discriminate between levels of treatment effectiveness when they are presented in terms of postponement of an adverse event. The results indicate that such postponement is a comprehensible measure of effectiveness.

  4. Modest net autotrophy in the oligotrophic ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letscher, Robert T.; Moore, J. Keith

    2017-04-01

    The metabolic state of the oligotrophic subtropical ocean has long been debated. Net community production (NCP) represents the balance of autotrophic carbon fixation with heterotrophic respiration. Many in vitro NCP estimates based on oxygen incubation methods and the corresponding scaling relationships used to predict the ecosystem metabolic balance have suggested the ocean gyres to be net heterotrophic; however, all in situ NCP methods find net autotrophy. Reconciling net heterotrophy requires significant allochthonous inputs of organic carbon to the oligotrophic gyres to sustain a preponderance of respiration over in situ production. Here we use the first global ecosystem-ocean circulation model that contains representation of the three allochthonous carbon sources to the open ocean, to show that the five oligotrophic gyres exhibit modest net autotrophy throughout the seasonal cycle. Annually integrated rates of NCP vary in the range 1.5-2.2 mol O2 m-2 yr-1 across the five gyre systems; however, seasonal NCP rates are as low as 1 ± 0.5 mmol O2 m-2 d-1 for the North Atlantic. Volumetric NCP rates are heterotrophic below the 10% light level; however, they become net autotrophic when integrated over the euphotic zone. Observational uncertainties when measuring these modest autotrophic NCP rates as well as the metabolic diversity encountered across space and time complicate the scaling up of in vitro measurements to the ecosystem scale and may partially explain the previous reports of net heterotrophy. The oligotrophic ocean is autotrophic at present; however, it could shift toward seasonal heterotrophy in the future as rising temperatures stimulate respiration.

  5. Bed net ownership in Kenya: the impact of 3.4 million free bed nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vulule John

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In July and September 2006, 3.4 million long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs were distributed free in a campaign targeting children 0-59 months old (CU5s in the 46 districts with malaria in Kenya. A survey was conducted one month after the distribution to evaluate who received campaign LLINs, who owned insecticide-treated bed nets and other bed nets received through other channels, and how these nets were being used. The feasibility of a distribution strategy aimed at a high-risk target group to meet bed net ownership and usage targets is evaluated. Methods A stratified, two-stage cluster survey sampled districts and enumeration areas with probability proportional to size. Handheld computers (PDAs with attached global positioning systems (GPS were used to develop the sampling frame, guide interviewers back to chosen households, and collect survey data. Results In targeted areas, 67.5% (95% CI: 64.6, 70.3% of all households with CU5s received campaign LLINs. Including previously owned nets, 74.4% (95% CI: 71.8, 77.0% of all households with CU5s had an ITN. Over half of CU5s (51.7%, 95% CI: 48.8, 54.7% slept under an ITN during the previous evening. Nearly forty percent (39.1% of all households received a campaign net, elevating overall household ownership of ITNs to 50.7% (95% CI: 48.4, 52.9%. Conclusions The campaign was successful in reaching the target population, families with CU5s, the risk group most vulnerable to malaria. Targeted distribution strategies will help Kenya approach indicator targets, but will need to be combined with other strategies to achieve desired population coverage levels.

  6. Almanac 2012: Cardiovascular risk scores. The national society journals present selected research that has driven recent advances in clinical cardiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill P. Pell

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Global risk scores use individual level information on non-modifiable risk factors (such as age, sex, ethnicity and family history and modifiable risk factors (such as smoking status and blood pressure to predict an individual’s absolute risk of an adverse event over a specified period of time in the future. Cardiovascular risk scores have two major uses in practice. First, they can be used to dichotomise people into a group whose baseline risk, and therefore potential absolute benefit, is sufficiently high to justify the costs and risks associated with an intervention (whether treatment or prevention and a group with a lower absolute risk to whom the intervention is usually denied. Second, they can be used to assess the effectiveness of an intervention (such as smoking cessation or antihypertensive treatment at reducing an individual’s risk of future adverse events. In this context, they can be helpful in informing patients, motivating them to change their lifestyle, and reinforcing the importance of continued compliance.

  7. -Net Approach to Sensor -Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusco Giordano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensors rely on battery power, and in many applications it is difficult or prohibitive to replace them. Hence, in order to prolongate the system's lifetime, some sensors can be kept inactive while others perform all the tasks. In this paper, we study the -coverage problem of activating the minimum number of sensors to ensure that every point in the area is covered by at least sensors. This ensures higher fault tolerance, robustness, and improves many operations, among which position detection and intrusion detection. The -coverage problem is trivially NP-complete, and hence we can only provide approximation algorithms. In this paper, we present an algorithm based on an extension of the classical -net technique. This method gives an -approximation, where is the number of sensors in an optimal solution. We do not make any particular assumption on the shape of the areas covered by each sensor, besides that they must be closed, connected, and without holes.

  8. Serum Fas/FasL levels in dependence on clinical presentations of coronary disease and their relationship with risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Tatjana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Ischemic heart disease is mostly a consequence of atherosclerosis. Besides the inflammation, the Fas/Fas ligand (FasL/caspase death pathway is documented to be activated in atherosclerotic lesions. The aim of this study was to compare the values of soluble forms of Fas and FasL in patients with different presentations of coronary disease and to correlate Fas/FasL with risk factors. Methods. We studied 30 patients with chronic stable angina pectoris (SAP, 27 with non-stable angina pectoris (NSAP, and 39 with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI and 27 age-matched healthy volunteers (the control group. Serum Fas/APO1 and FasL concentrations were determined using a commercially available enzymelinked immunoassays (ELISA. Results. Fas/APO-1 levels in the STEMI patients (6.981 ± 2.689 ng/mL were significantly higher than Fas levels in the controls (5.092 ± 1.252 ng/mL, p < 0.01, but not significantly higher than Fas values in the SAP (5.952 ± 2.069 ng/mL and the USAP patients (5.627±2.270 ng/ml. Levels of FasL did not show any significant difference among the studied groups. In the SAP patients Fas/APO1 showed a significant positive correlation with high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP (p < 0.05 and a negative correlation with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C (p < 0.05, while FasL showed a significant positive correlation with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C (p < 0.05. Fas levels between the patients having cholesterol within normal range and those whose cholesterol was above the normal range showed a significant difference (p < 0.05 only in the NSAP patients. Fas and FasL levels between the patients with hsCRP lower than 3.0 mg/L and those with hsCRP higher than 3.0 mg/L of the SAP group showed a significant differences (p < 0.001, p < 0.05, respectively. Strong correlation between Fas concentration and diabetes mellitus (p < 0.05 and FasL concentrations and both cholesterol (p < 0.01 and

  9. Presenting risk information--a review of the effects of "framing" and other manipulations on patient outcomes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edwards, A.; Elwyn, G.; Covey, J.; Matthews, E.; Pill, R.

    2001-01-01

    Discussing risks and benefits of treatments or care options is becoming an increasingly important part of modern health care. This paper reviews the literature about manipulations of risk and benefit information in the clinical setting. There is a paucity of evidence in this field, particularly when

  10. Automating Ontological Annotation with WordNet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Chappell, Alan R.; Whitney, Paul D.; Posse, Christian; Paulson, Patrick R.; Baddeley, Bob L.; Hohimer, Ryan E.; White, Amanda M.

    2006-01-22

    Semantic Web applications require robust and accurate annotation tools that are capable of automating the assignment of ontological classes to words in naturally occurring text (ontological annotation). Most current ontologies do not include rich lexical databases and are therefore not easily integrated with word sense disambiguation algorithms that are needed to automate ontological annotation. WordNet provides a potentially ideal solution to this problem as it offers a highly structured lexical conceptual representation that has been extensively used to develop word sense disambiguation algorithms. However, WordNet has not been designed as an ontology, and while it can be easily turned into one, the result of doing this would present users with serious practical limitations due to the great number of concepts (synonym sets) it contains. Moreover, mapping WordNet to an existing ontology may be difficult and requires substantial labor. We propose to overcome these limitations by developing an analytical platform that (1) provides a WordNet-based ontology offering a manageable and yet comprehensive set of concept classes, (2) leverages the lexical richness of WordNet to give an extensive characterization of concept class in terms of lexical instances, and (3) integrates a class recognition algorithm that automates the assignment of concept classes to words in naturally occurring text. The ensuing framework makes available an ontological annotation platform that can be effectively integrated with intelligence analysis systems to facilitate evidence marshaling and sustain the creation and validation of inference models.

  11. Ontological Annotation with WordNet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Chappell, Alan R.; Whitney, Paul D.; Posse, Christian; Paulson, Patrick R.; Baddeley, Bob; Hohimer, Ryan E.; White, Amanda M.

    2006-06-06

    Semantic Web applications require robust and accurate annotation tools that are capable of automating the assignment of ontological classes to words in naturally occurring text (ontological annotation). Most current ontologies do not include rich lexical databases and are therefore not easily integrated with word sense disambiguation algorithms that are needed to automate ontological annotation. WordNet provides a potentially ideal solution to this problem as it offers a highly structured lexical conceptual representation that has been extensively used to develop word sense disambiguation algorithms. However, WordNet has not been designed as an ontology, and while it can be easily turned into one, the result of doing this would present users with serious practical limitations due to the great number of concepts (synonym sets) it contains. Moreover, mapping WordNet to an existing ontology may be difficult and requires substantial labor. We propose to overcome these limitations by developing an analytical platform that (1) provides a WordNet-based ontology offering a manageable and yet comprehensive set of concept classes, (2) leverages the lexical richness of WordNet to give an extensive characterization of concept class in terms of lexical instances, and (3) integrates a class recognition algorithm that automates the assignment of concept classes to words in naturally occurring text. The ensuing framework makes available an ontological annotation platform that can be effectively integrated with intelligence analysis systems to facilitate evidence marshaling and sustain the creation and validation of inference models.

  12. Increased risks of malaria due to limited residual life of insecticide and outdoor biting versus protection by combined use of nets and indoor residual spraying on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley John

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is endemic on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea, with year-round transmission. In 2004 an intensive malaria control strategy primarily based on indoor residual spraying (IRS was launched. The limited residual life of IRS poses particular challenges in a setting with year-round transmission, such as Bioko. Recent reports of outdoor biting by Anopheles gambiae are an additional cause for concern. In this study, the effect of the short residual life of bendiocarb insecticide and of children spending time outdoors at night, on malaria infection prevalence was examined. Methods Data from the 2011 annual malaria indicator survey and from standard WHO cone bioassays were used to examine the relationship between time since IRS, mosquito mortality and prevalence of infection in children. How often children spend time outside at night and the association of this behaviour with malaria infection were also examined. Results Prevalence of malaria infection in two to 14 year-olds in 2011 was 18.4%, 21.0% and 28.1% in communities with median time since IRS of three, four and five months respectively. After adjusting for confounders, each extra month since IRS corresponded to an odds ratio (OR of 1.44 (95% CI 1.15–1.81 for infection prevalence in two to 14 year-olds. Mosquito mortality was 100%, 96%, 81% and 78%, at month 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively after spraying. Only 4.1% of children spent time outside the night before the survey between the hours of 22.00 and 06.00 and those who did were not at a higher risk of infection (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.50–1.54. Sleeping under a mosquito net provided additive protection (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.54–0.86. Conclusions The results demonstrate the epidemiological impact of reduced mosquito mortality with time since IRS. The study underscores that in settings of year-round transmission there is a compelling need for longer-lasting IRS insecticides, but that in the interim, high coverage of long

  13. Fishing with bed nets on Lake Tanganyika: a randomized survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Kate A; Byanaku, Aisha; Kubikonse, Augustine; Tshowe, Vincent; Katensi, Said; Lehman, Amy G

    2014-10-07

    Malaria is among the most common causes of death along Lake Tanganyika, a problem which many aid organizations have attempted to combat through the distribution of free mosquito bed nets to high-risk communities. The Lake Tanganyika Floating Health Clinic (LTFHC), a health-based non-governmental organization (NGO), has observed residents of the Lake Tanganyika basin using bed nets to fish small fry near the shoreline, despite a series of laws that prohibit bed net use and other fine-gauge nets for fishing, implemented to protect the near-shore fish ecology. The LTFHC sought to quantify the sources of bed nets and whether they were being used for fishing. The LTFHC conducted a survey of seven lakeside villages in Lagosa Ward, Tanzania. The government has divided each village into two to six pre-existing geographic sub-villages depending on population size. Seven households per sub-village were chosen at random for survey administration. The survey consisted of 23 questions regarding mosquito bed net practices, including the use of bed nets for fishing, as well as questions pertaining to any perceived changes to the fish supply. A total of 196 surveys were administered over a four-week period with a 100% response rate. Over 87% of households surveyed have used a mosquito bed net for fishing at some point. The majority of respondents reported receiving their bed net for free (96.4%), observing "many" residents of their village using bed nets for fishing (97.4%), and noticing a subjective decrease in the fish supply over time (64.9%). The findings of this study raise concerns that the use of free malaria bed nets for fishing is widespread along Lake Tanganyika, and that this dynamic will have an adverse effect on fish ecology. Further studies are indicated to fully define the scope of bed net misuse and the effects of alternative vector control strategies in water-based communities.

  14. Threat driven modeling framework using petri nets for e-learning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamparia, Aditya; Pandey, Babita

    2016-01-01

    Vulnerabilities at various levels are main cause of security risks in e-learning system. This paper presents a modified threat driven modeling framework, to identify the threats after risk assessment which requires mitigation and how to mitigate those threats. To model those threat mitigations aspects oriented stochastic petri nets are used. This paper included security metrics based on vulnerabilities present in e-learning system. The Common Vulnerability Scoring System designed to provide a normalized method for rating vulnerabilities which will be used as basis in metric definitions and calculations. A case study has been also proposed which shows the need and feasibility of using aspect oriented stochastic petri net models for threat modeling which improves reliability, consistency and robustness of the e-learning system.

  15. .net core application lifecycle on Openshift

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    # .net core application lifecycle on Openshift I will show an example of a lifecycle of an OpenShift application with an emphasis on the continuous integration and deployment. The application compatible with [.net Standard](https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/dotnet/standard/net-standard) can be easily deployed on OpenShift using [Source2Image](https://docs.openshift.com/enterprise/3.0/architecture/core_concepts/builds_and_image_streams.html#source-build) functionality, which doesn't require developers to maintain docker images of the application. I will also present how to efficiently integrate this feature into GitLab pipelines with an automated deployment of the "review" environment, as one its parts.

  16. Application and Theory of Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 13th International Conference onApplication and Theory of Petri Nets, held in Sheffield, England, in June 1992. The aim of the Petri net conferences is to create a forum for discussing progress in the application and theory of Petri nets. Typically......, the conferences have 150-200 participants, one third of these coming from industry and the rest from universities and research institutions. The 1992 conference was organized by the School of Computing and Management Sciences at Sheffield City Polytechnic, England. The volume contains twoinvited papers, by G....... Balbo and W. Reisig, 18 submitted papers, and seven project papers. The submitted papers and project presentations were selectedby the programme committee and a panel of referees from a large number of submissions....

  17. Regular Event Structures and Finite Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M.; Thiagarajan, P.S.

    2002-01-01

    We present the notion of regular event structures and conjecture that they correspond exactly to finite 1-safe Petri nets. We show that the conjecture holds for the conflict-free case. Even in this restricted setting, the proof is non-trivial and involves a natural subclass of regular event...

  18. State Space Methods for Timed Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren; Jensen, Kurt; Mailund, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    We present two recently developed state space methods for timed Petri nets. The two methods reconciles state space methods and time concepts based on the introduction of a global clock and associating time stamps to tokens. The first method is based on an equivalence relation on states which makes...

  19. Complete molar pregnancy in adolescents from North and South America: Clinical presentation and risk of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Renan Rocha; Maestá, Izildinha; Colón, José; Braga, Antonio; Salazar, Aleydah; Charry, Rafael Cortés; Sun, Sue Yazaki; Goldstein, Donald P; Berkowitz, Ross S

    2016-09-01

    To compare complete hydatidiform mole (CHM) clinical presentation and risk factors associated with GTN development between North American and South American adolescents. This non-concurrent cohort study was undertaken including adolescents with CHM referred to centers in North America (New England Trophoblastic Disease Center, Harvard University, USA), and South America (Botucatu Trophoblastic Disease Center-São Paulo State University, Brazil; Trophoblastic Unit of Central University of Venezuela and Maternidad Concepcion Palacios of Caracas, Venezuela) between 1990 and 2012. Data were obtained from medical records and pathology reports. Study participants were allocated into 2 groups: North America (NA) and South America (SA). In NA and SA, 13.1% and 30.9% of patients with hydatidiform mole were adolescents, respectively. Of these, 77.6% in NA and 86.1% in SA had pathologic diagnosis of CHM (p=0.121). Vaginal bleeding (SA=69% vs NA=51%; p=0.020), anemia (SA=48% vs NA=18%; pgestational age at diagnosis (SA=12weeks, NA=11weeks; p=0.030) differed whereas GTN development rate (SA=20%, NA=27%; p=0.282) showed no significant difference between groups. Compared to NA, medical complications and clinical factors associated with post-molar GTN were more frequent among SA adolescents. Medical complications and clinical factors associated with GTN development were more frequent in SA than in NA adolescents with CHM, suggesting that, in South America, awareness about the importance of diagnosing molar pregnancy early and considering CHM in the differential diagnosis in adolescents suspected to be pregnant should be raised. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The present global financial and economic crisis poses an additional risk factor for mental health problems on the employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avčin, Bojana Avguštin; Kučina, Andrea Užmah; Sarotar, Brigita Novak; Radovanović, Mirjana; Plesničar, Blanka Kores

    2011-09-01

    The global financial and economic crisis starting in 2007 led to a deterioration of several socio-economic determinants of mental health. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the impact of the present economic crisis on the depression and anxiety levels of the employed in the private and public sector in Slovenia. Altogether 1592 employees completed an internet based self-reported questionnaire. Data about perceived impact of the economic crisis, several socio-demographic, socioeconomic, and health parameters were collected. Depression symptoms were assessed by the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale and anxiety symptoms by the Spielberger State-Inventory. Regression models were used 1) to explore the associations of the economic crisis with the level of depression and anxiety symptoms while controlling for some sociodemographic and work characteristic variables, and 2) to understand the relationship between some potentially important socioeconomic variables and the perception of the economic crisis. Depressive and anxiety scores were significantly increased among 590 (46.6%) employees being affected by the economic crisis. The level of depressive symptoms was significantly associated with perceived impact by the crisis, recent sick leave, reported injuries sustained at work, benzodiazepine and analgesic use, the lack of emotional support, and trust in crisis telephone lines. The level of anxiety symptoms yielded the robust association with the level of depression symptoms, reported injuries sustained on the way to work and education. The economic crisis poses an additional risk factor for mental health problems which clinicians should internalize and become more aware of them. Symptoms of depression and anxiety can be masked in high-utilizers of medical care with physical complaints or psychoactive drug use.

  1. Issues in Exploiting GermaNet as a Resource in Real Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Kunze, Manuela; Roesner, Dietmar

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports about experiments with GermaNet as a resource within domain specific document analysis. The main question to be answered is: How is the coverage of GermaNet in a specific domain? We report about results of a field test of GermaNet for analyses of autopsy protocols and present a sketch about the integration of GermaNet inside XDOC. Our remarks will contribute to a GermaNet user's wish list.

  2. Maternal use of insecticide-treated nets in the prevention of Malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Insecticide treated nets (ITNs) have been proved as one of the most effective ways of reducing malaria morbidity and mortality in children and pregnant women. Proper use and care of insecticide treated nets reduce malaria health risk to children. Objective: To determine maternal use of insecticide treated nets ...

  3. Criteria for Definition of Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sartori, Igor; Napolitano, Assunta; Marszal, Anna Joanna

    2010-01-01

    without a clear understanding and countries are enacting policies and national targets based on the concept without a clear definition in place. This paper presents a harmonised framework for describing the relevant characteristics of Net ZEBs in a series of criteria. Evaluation of the criteria......The idea of a Net Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) is understood conceptually, as it is understood that the way a Net ZEB is defined affects significantly the way it is designed in order to achieve the goal. However, little agreement exists on a common definition; the term is used commercially...... and selection of the related options becomes a methodology for elaborating sound Net ZEB definitions in a formal, systematic and comprehensive way, creating the basis for legislations and action plans to effectively achieve the political targets. The common denominator for the different possible Net ZEB...

  4. Reports of long-lasting insecticidal bed nets catching on fire: a threat to bed net users and to successful malaria control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egrot, Marc; Houngnihin, Roch; Baxerres, Carine; Damien, Georgia; Djènontin, Armel; Chandre, Fabrice; Pennetier, Cédric; Corbel, Vincent; Remoué, Franck

    2014-06-28

    One of the control tools to reduce malaria transmission is the use of LLINs. However, several studies show that household bed net use is quite low. A study was developed to better understand the cultural factors that might explain these gaps in Benin. One reason mentioned is that bed nets can catch on fire and cause harm. This paper presents a summary of these findings, their analysis and the ensuing issues. This anthropological study is based on an inductive qualitative approach, including 91 semi-structured interviews conducted from July 2011 to March 2012 in a health district in Southern Benin. Fifty-six persons stated that bed nets can catch on fire but do not always refer to specific facts. However, 34 of the 56 people narrate specific events they heard or experienced. 39 accounts were geographically located and situated in time, with various details. In 27 situations, people were burned, for which 12 people reportedly died. The disparity between these results and the dearth of bibliographic documentation in the initial search prompted a more in-depth literature review: 16 contributions between 1994 and 2013 were found. Bed net fires were noted in 10 countries, but it is impossible to ascertain the frequency of such events. Moreover, bodily harm can be significant, and several cases of death attributed to bed net fires were noted. Indisputably, the use of bed nets to reduce the impact of this terrible disease is an optimal control method. However, the perception that LLINs have a potentially negative effect hinders the use rate in the real world, at least for some. If some people fear the risk of fires, this possibility must be addressed during information and prevention sessions on malaria, with a communication strategy tailored to specific social contexts. Moreover, all possible measures should be taken to limit the harm suffered by individuals and their families.

  5. Application of Coloured Petri Nets in System Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lars Michael; Jørgensen, Jens Bæk; Jensen, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets or CPNs) and their supporting computer tools have been used in a wide range of application areas such as communication protocols, software designs, and embedded systems. The practical application of CP-nets has also covered many phases of system development ranging from...... requirements to design, validation, and implementation. This paper presents four case studies where CP-nets and their supporting computer tools have been used in system development projects with industrial partners. The case studies have been selected such that they illustrate different application areas of CP...

  6. Comprehensive Environmental Assessment Applied to Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Flame-Retardant Coatings in Upholstery Textiles: A Case Study Presenting Priority Research Gaps for Future Risk Assessments (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In September 2013, EPA announced the availability of the final report, Comprehensive Environmental Assessment Applied to Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Flame-Retardant Coatings in Upholstery Textiles: A Case Study Presenting Priority Research Gaps for Future Risk Assessments...

  7. Linear Logic on Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn

    This article shows how individual Petri nets form models of Girard's intuitionistic linear logic. It explores questions of expressiveness and completeness of linear logic with respect to this interpretation. An aim is to use Petri nets to give an understanding of linear logic and give some apprai...

  8. Reference Guide Microsoft.NET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee M van der; Verspaij GJ; Rosbergen S; IMP; NMD

    2003-01-01

    Developers, administrators and managers can get more understanding of the .NET technology with this report. They can also make better choices how to use this technology. The report describes the results and conclusions of a study of the usability for the RIVM of this new generation .NET development

  9. Net neutrality and audiovisual services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.; Nikoltchev, S.

    2011-01-01

    Net neutrality is high on the European agenda. New regulations for the communication sector provide a legal framework for net neutrality and need to be implemented on both a European and a national level. The key element is not just about blocking or slowing down traffic across communication

  10. Lameness in dairy heifers; impacts of hoof lesions present around first calving on future lameness, milk yield and culling risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, L V; Green, M J; Chagunda, M G G; Mason, C; Green, L E; Huxley, J N

    2016-10-01

    The importance of lameness in primiparous dairy heifers is increasingly recognised. Although it is accepted that clinical lameness in any lactation increases the risk of future lameness, the impact of foot lesions during the first lactation on long-term lameness risk is less clear. This retrospective cohort study aimed to investigate the impacts of foot lesions occurring around the time of first calving in heifers on future lameness risk, daily milk yield and survival within a dairy herd. Records were obtained for 158 heifers from one UK dairy herd. Heifers were examined in 2 month blocks from 2 months pre-calving through to 4 months post-calving. Sole lesions and white line lesions were scored on a zero to 10 scale and digital dermatitis on a zero to 3 scale. Outcomes investigated were; lameness risk based on weekly locomotion scores, average daily milk yield and culling risk. Mixed effect models were used to investigate associations between maximum lesion scores and outcomes. Lesion scores in the highest score categories for claw horn lesions (sole lesions and white line lesions) in the 2 to 4 month post-calving period were associated with an increased risk of future lameness; heifers with white line lesion scores ≥3 compared with scores zero to 1 and heifers with sole lesion scores ≥4 compared with score 2, at this time point, had a predicted increased risk of future lameness of 1.6 and 2.6 respectively. Sole lesions ≥4 were also associated with a reduction in average daily milk yield of 2.68kg. Managing heifers to reduce claw horn lesions during this time period post-calving may provide health, welfare and production benefits for the long-term future of those animals. A novel finding from the study was that mild lesion scores compared with scores zero to 1, were associated with a reduced risk of future lameness for white line lesions and sole lesions occurring in the pre-calving or 2 to 4 months post-calving periods respectively. Mild sole lesions in the

  11. A Small Universal Petri Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A. Zaitsev

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A universal deterministic inhibitor Petri net with 14 places, 29 transitions and 138 arcs was constructed via simulation of Neary and Woods' weakly universal Turing machine with 2 states and 4 symbols; the total time complexity is exponential in the running time of their weak machine. To simulate the blank words of the weakly universal Turing machine, a couple of dedicated transitions insert their codes when reaching edges of the working zone. To complete a chain of a given Petri net encoding to be executed by the universal Petri net, a translation of a bi-tag system into a Turing machine was constructed. The constructed Petri net is universal in the standard sense; a weaker form of universality for Petri nets was not introduced in this work.

  12. Candidate gene analysis of the human natural killer-1 carbohydrate pathway and perineuronal nets in schizophrenia: B3GAT2 is associated with disease risk and cortical surface area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kähler, Anna K; Djurovic, Srdjan; Rimol, Lars M

    2011-01-01

    The Human Natural Killer-1 carbohydrate (HNK-1) is involved in neurodevelopment and synaptic plasticity. Extracellular matrix structures called perineuronal nets, condensed around subsets of neurons and proximal dendrites during brain maturation, regulate synaptic transmission and plasticity....

  13. Assembling traces, or the conservation of net art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, A.

    2014-01-01

    Net art is built and distributed through a complex, intricate, and interrelated system of networks that presents an assemblage of art, technology, politics, and social relations ‐ all merged and related to form a variable entity. In the last decade a discussion on how to conserve net art emerged in

  14. RadNet Air Data From Salt Lake City, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Salt Lake City, UT from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  15. PETRI NET MODELING OF COMPUTER VIRUS LIFE CYCLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    Virus life cycle, which refers to the stages of development of a computer virus, is presented as a suitable area for the application of Petri ... used to derive anti-viral programs based on the Petri net framework. Keywords: Virus lifecycle, Petri nets, ... are often disguised as images, joke software or anti-virus software. We have ...

  16. Insecurity on the Net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, D. Scott

    1998-01-01

    Examines Internet security risks and how users can protect themselves. Discusses inadvertent bugs in software; programming problems with Common Gateway Interface (CGI); viruses; tracking of Web users; and preventing access to selected Web pages and filtering software. A glossary of Internet security-related terms is included. (AEF)

  17. Translating Colored Control Flow Nets into Readable Java via Annotated Java Workflow Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; Tjell, Simon

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method for developing Java applications from Colored Control Flow Nets (CCFNs), which is a special kind of Colored Petri Nets (CPNs) that we introduce. CCFN makes an explicit distinction between the representation of: The system, the environment of the system, and the ......In this paper, we present a method for developing Java applications from Colored Control Flow Nets (CCFNs), which is a special kind of Colored Petri Nets (CPNs) that we introduce. CCFN makes an explicit distinction between the representation of: The system, the environment of the system......, and the interface between the system and the environment. Our translation maps CCFNs into Anno- tated Java Workflow Nets (AJWNs) as an intermediate step, and these AJWNs are finally mapped to Java. CCFN is intended to enforce the modeler to describe the system in an imperative manner which makes the subsequent...... translation to Java easier to define. The translation to Java preserves data dependencies and control-flow aspects of the source CCFN. This paper contributes to the model-driven software development paradigm, by showing how to model a system, environment, and their interface, as a CCFN and presenting a fully...

  18. 40 CFR 26.405 - Observational research involving greater than minimal risk but presenting the prospect of direct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Observational research involving... SUBJECTS Observational Research: Additional Protections for Children Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.405 Observational research involving greater than minimal risk...

  19. Peritoneal sclerosis in chronic peritoneal dialysis patients: analysis of clinical presentation, risk factors, and peritoneal transport kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, P. M.; Ho-Dac-Pannekeet, M. M.; van Gulik, T. M.; Struijk, D. G.; Phoa, S. S.; Sie, L.; Kox, C.; Krediet, R. T.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze clinical features of peritoneal sclerosis (PS) in a group of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients, and to compare potential risk factors and peritoneal transport characteristics with a control group matched for duration of PD. DESIGN: Study 1: Retrospective study of 16 PD patients

  20. Diagnostic Methods, Risk Factors, Prevention, and Management of Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema: Past, Present, and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayegh, Hoda E; Asdourian, Maria S; Swaroop, Meyha N; Brunelle, Cheryl L; Skolny, Melissa N; Salama, Laura; Taghian, Alphonse G

    2017-06-01

    Breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) is a chronic, adverse, and much feared complication of breast cancer treatment, which affects approximately 20% of patients following breast cancer treatment. BCRL has a tremendous impact on breast cancer survivors, including physical impairments and significant psychological consequences. The intent of this review is to discuss recent studies and analyses regarding the risk factors, diagnosis, prevention through early screening and intervention, and management of BCRL. Highly-evidenced risk factors for BCRL include axillary lymph node dissection, lack of reconstruction, radiation to the lymph nodes, high BMI at diagnosis, weight fluctuations during and after treatment, subclinical edema within and beyond 3 months after surgery, and cellulitis in the at-risk arm. Avoidance of potential risk factors can serve as a method of prevention. Through establishing a screening program by which breast cancer patients are measured pre-operatively and at follow-ups, are objectively assessed through a weight-adjusted analysis, and are clinically assessed for signs and symptoms, BCRL can be tracked accurately and treated effectively. Management of BCRL is done by a trained professional, with research mounting towards the use of compression bandaging as a first line intervention against BCRL. Finally, exercise is safe for breast cancer patients with and without BCRL and does not incite or exacerbate symptoms of BCRL. Recent research has shed light on BCRL risk factors, diagnosis, prevention, and management. We hope that education on these aspects of BCRL will promote an informed, consistent approach and encourage additional research in this field to improve patient outcomes and quality of life in breast cancer survivors.

  1. High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    High-level Petri nets are now widely used in both theoretical analysis and practical modelling of concurrent systems. The main reason for the success of this class of net models is that they make it possible to obtain much more succinct and manageable descriptions than can be obtained by means...... of low-level Petri nets - while, on the other hand, they still offer a wide range of analysis methods and tools. The step from low-level nets to high-level nets can be compared to the step from assembly languages to modern programming languages with an elaborated type concept. In low-level nets...... there is only one kind of token and this means that the state of a place is described by an integer (and in many cases even by a boolean). In high-level nets each token can carry a complex information/data - which, e.g., may describe the entire state of a process or a data base. Today most practical...

  2. 6 CFR 27.205 - Determination that a chemical facility “presents a high level of security risk.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination that a chemical facility âpresents... SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Chemical Facility Security Program § 27.205 Determination that a chemical facility “presents a high level of security risk.” (a...

  3. Risk profile and in-hospital prognosis in elderly patients presenting for acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction in the Tunisian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Jomaa

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: In the Tunisian context, elderly patients presenting with STEMI have higher prevalence of risk factors and a worse in-hospital course in comparison to younger patients. Clinical presentation on-admission has a strong impact on in-hospital prognosis.

  4. Does present use of cardiovascular medication reflect elevated cardiovascular risk scores estimated ten years ago? A population based longitudinal observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straand Jørund

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is desirable that those at highest risk of cardiovascular disease should have priority for preventive measures, eg. treatment with prescription drugs to modify their risk. We wanted to investigate to what extent present use of cardiovascular medication (CVM correlates with cardiovascular risk estimated by three different risk scores (Framingham, SCORE and NORRISK ten years ago. Methods Prospective logitudinal observational study of 20 252 participants in The Hordaland Health Study born 1950-57, not using CVM in 1997-99. Prescription data obtained from The Norwegian Prescription Database in 2008. Results 26% of men and 22% of women aged 51-58 years had started to use some CVM during the previous decade. As a group, persons using CVM scored significantly higher on the risk algorithms Framingham, SCORE and NORRISK compared to those not treated. 16-20% of men and 20-22% of women with risk scores below the high-risk thresholds for the three risk scores were treated with CVM, while 60-65% of men and 25-45% of women with scores above the high-risk thresholds received no treatment. Among women using CVM, only 2.2% (NORRISK, 4.4% (SCORE and 14.5% (Framingham had risk scores above the high-risk values. Low education, poor self-reported general health, muscular pains, mental distress (in females only and a family history of premature cardiovascular disease correlated with use of CVM. Elevated blood pressure was the single factor most strongly predictive of CVM treatment. Conclusion Prescription of CVM to middle-aged individuals by large seems to occur independently of estimated total cardiovascular risk, and this applies especially to females.

  5. Pro asynchronous programming with .NET

    CERN Document Server

    Blewett, Richard; Ltd, Rock Solid Knowledge

    2014-01-01

    Pro Asynchronous Programming with .NET teaches the essential skill of asynchronous programming in .NET. It answers critical questions in .NET application development, such as: how do I keep my program responding at all times to keep my users happy how do I make the most of the available hardware how can I improve performanceIn the modern world, users expect more and more from their applications and devices, and multi-core hardware has the potential to provide it. But it takes carefully crafted code to turn that potential into responsive, scalable applications.With Pro Asynchronous Programming

  6. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André

    2017-08-01

    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  7. Prevalence and risk factors of Hepatitis C among individuals presenting to HIV testing centers, Hawassa city, Southern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisay Zufan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV, either alone or in combination with Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV, constitutes a major public health concern. This study was conducted to describe the prevalence and risk factors for HCV infection in people with and without HIV infection. Methods Blood samples and data on socio-demographic and risk factors for HCV infection were collected from consecutive 400 HIV- positive and 400 HIV- negative individuals attending HIV testing centers in Hawassa city, from October to December, 2008. All sera were tested for antibody to HCV infection (anti-HCV using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Sera positive for anti-HCV were further tested for viral ribonucleic acid (RNA levels using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results The rate of anti-HCV positivity was 10.5% in the HIV- infected individuals compared with 6% in the HIV negative group (p = 0.002. HCV-RNA was detected in 9.1% of anti-HCV positive samples and rates were comparable between HIV- infected and HIV- non-infected individuals. There was no significant difference in odds of HCV infection in participants with and without HCV risk factors in either HIV sero-group. Conclusion HIV infected individuals had significantly higher rate of anti-HCV although most of them showed no evidence of viraemia. Hence, while priority should be given for HIV infected patients, testing those with anti-HCV for HCV-RNA remains important.

  8. Optimizing sampling design to deal with mist-net avoidance in Amazonian birds and bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Tiago Marques

    Full Text Available Mist netting is a widely used technique to sample bird and bat assemblages. However, captures often decline with time because animals learn and avoid the locations of nets. This avoidance or net shyness can substantially decrease sampling efficiency. We quantified the day-to-day decline in captures of Amazonian birds and bats with mist nets set at the same location for four consecutive days. We also evaluated how net avoidance influences the efficiency of surveys under different logistic scenarios using re-sampling techniques. Net avoidance caused substantial declines in bird and bat captures, although more accentuated in the latter. Most of the decline occurred between the first and second days of netting: 28% in birds and 47% in bats. Captures of commoner species were more affected. The numbers of species detected also declined. Moving nets daily to minimize the avoidance effect increased captures by 30% in birds and 70% in bats. However, moving the location of nets may cause a reduction in netting time and captures. When moving the nets caused the loss of one netting day it was no longer advantageous to move the nets frequently. In bird surveys that could even decrease the number of individuals captured and species detected. Net avoidance can greatly affect sampling efficiency but adjustments in survey design can minimize this. Whenever nets can be moved without losing netting time and the objective is to capture many individuals, they should be moved daily. If the main objective is to survey species present then nets should still be moved for bats, but not for birds. However, if relocating nets causes a significant loss of netting time, moving them to reduce effects of shyness will not improve sampling efficiency in either group. Overall, our findings can improve the design of mist netting sampling strategies in other tropical areas.

  9. Optimizing sampling design to deal with mist-net avoidance in Amazonian birds and bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, João Tiago; Ramos Pereira, Maria J; Marques, Tiago A; Santos, Carlos David; Santana, Joana; Beja, Pedro; Palmeirim, Jorge M

    2013-01-01

    Mist netting is a widely used technique to sample bird and bat assemblages. However, captures often decline with time because animals learn and avoid the locations of nets. This avoidance or net shyness can substantially decrease sampling efficiency. We quantified the day-to-day decline in captures of Amazonian birds and bats with mist nets set at the same location for four consecutive days. We also evaluated how net avoidance influences the efficiency of surveys under different logistic scenarios using re-sampling techniques. Net avoidance caused substantial declines in bird and bat captures, although more accentuated in the latter. Most of the decline occurred between the first and second days of netting: 28% in birds and 47% in bats. Captures of commoner species were more affected. The numbers of species detected also declined. Moving nets daily to minimize the avoidance effect increased captures by 30% in birds and 70% in bats. However, moving the location of nets may cause a reduction in netting time and captures. When moving the nets caused the loss of one netting day it was no longer advantageous to move the nets frequently. In bird surveys that could even decrease the number of individuals captured and species detected. Net avoidance can greatly affect sampling efficiency but adjustments in survey design can minimize this. Whenever nets can be moved without losing netting time and the objective is to capture many individuals, they should be moved daily. If the main objective is to survey species present then nets should still be moved for bats, but not for birds. However, if relocating nets causes a significant loss of netting time, moving them to reduce effects of shyness will not improve sampling efficiency in either group. Overall, our findings can improve the design of mist netting sampling strategies in other tropical areas.

  10. Integrating phenotype ontologies with PhenomeNET

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez-Garcia, Miguel Angel

    2017-12-19

    Background Integration and analysis of phenotype data from humans and model organisms is a key challenge in building our understanding of normal biology and pathophysiology. However, the range of phenotypes and anatomical details being captured in clinical and model organism databases presents complex problems when attempting to match classes across species and across phenotypes as diverse as behaviour and neoplasia. We have previously developed PhenomeNET, a system for disease gene prioritization that includes as one of its components an ontology designed to integrate phenotype ontologies. While not applicable to matching arbitrary ontologies, PhenomeNET can be used to identify related phenotypes in different species, including human, mouse, zebrafish, nematode worm, fruit fly, and yeast. Results Here, we apply the PhenomeNET to identify related classes from two phenotype and two disease ontologies using automated reasoning. We demonstrate that we can identify a large number of mappings, some of which require automated reasoning and cannot easily be identified through lexical approaches alone. Combining automated reasoning with lexical matching further improves results in aligning ontologies. Conclusions PhenomeNET can be used to align and integrate phenotype ontologies. The results can be utilized for biomedical analyses in which phenomena observed in model organisms are used to identify causative genes and mutations underlying human disease.

  11. Petri Net Tool Overview 1986

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Feldbrugge, Frits

    1987-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the characteristics of all currently available net based tools. It is a compilation of information provided by tool authors or contact persons. A concise one page overview is provided as well....

  12. PolicyNet Publication System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The PolicyNet Publication System project will merge the Oracle-based Policy Repository (POMS) and the SQL-Server CAMP system (MSOM) into a new system with an Oracle...

  13. KM3NeT

    CERN Multimedia

    KM3NeT is a large scale next-generation neutrino telescope located in the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea, optimized for the discovery of galactic neutrino sources emitting in the TeV energy region.

  14. Net Neutrality: Background and Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilroy, Angele A

    2006-01-01

    .... The move to place restrictions on the owners of the networks that compose and provide access to the Internet, to ensure equal access and nondiscriminatory treatment, is referred to as "net neutrality...

  15. Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer > Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors Request Permissions Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors Approved by the Cancer.Net ... f t k e P Types of Cancer Salivary Gland Cancer Guide Cancer.Net Guide Salivary Gland Cancer ...

  16. The Economics of Net Neutrality

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, Robert W.; Wallsten, Scott

    2006-01-01

    This essay examines the economics of "net neutrality" and broadband Internet access. We argue that mandating net neutrality would be likely to reduce economic welfare. Instead, the government should focus on creating competition in the broadband market by liberalizing more spectrum and reducing entry barriers created by certain local regulations. In cases where a broadband provider can exercise market power the government should use its antitrust enforcement authority to police anticompetitiv...

  17. A diagnostic dilemma following risk-reducing surgery for BRCA1 mutation – a case report of primary papillary serous carcinoma presenting as sigmoid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nash Guy F

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women that carry germ-line mutations for BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes are at an increased risk of developing breast, ovarian and peritoneal cancer. Primary peritoneal carcinoma is a rare tumour histologically identical to papillary serous ovarian carcinoma. Risk-reducing surgery in the form of mastectomy and oophorectomy in premenopausal women has been recommended to prevent breast and ovarian cancer occurrence and decrease the risk of developing primary peritoneal cancer. Case presentation We present a case report of a woman with a strong family history of breast cancer who underwent risk-reducing surgery in the form of bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy following a mastectomy for a right-sided breast tumour. Following the finding of a BRCA1 mutation, a prophylactic left-sided mastectomy was performed. After remaining well for twenty-seven years, she presented with rectal bleeding and altered bowel habit, and was found to have a secondary cancer of the sigmoid colon. She was finally diagnosed with primary papillary serous carcinoma of the peritoneum (PSCP. Conclusion PSCP can present many years after risk-reducing surgery and be difficult to detect. Surveillance remains the best course of management for patients with known BRCA mutations.

  18. Parkinson’s Disease and Its Management: Part 1: Disease Entity, Risk Factors, Pathophysiology, Clinical Presentation, and Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    DeMaagd, George; Philip, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    This article—the first of a five-part series—discusses possible causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and goals for treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Identifying diseases that have similar presentations is an important component of the diagnostic process.

  19. AREVA net income: 649 million euros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-15

    This document presents the financial statements for 2006 of Areva group: net income: 649 million euros; backlog up by 24.6% to 25.6 billion euros; steady growth of sales revenue: + 7.3%1 to 10.863 billion euros; operating income of 407 million euros: excellent divisional performance and constitution of a significant provision for the OL3 project in Finland; dividend proposed to Annual General Meeting of Shareholders: 8.46 euros per share.

  20. The  Practitioner's guide to Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lars Michael; Christensen, Søren; Jensen, Kurt

    1998-01-01

    four hundred commercial companies. It is available free of charge, also for commercial use. This paper provides a comprehensive road map to the practical use of CP-nets and the Design/CPN tool. We give an informal introduction to the basic concepts and ideas underliying CP-nets. The key components......, hardware design, embedded systems, software system designs, and busness process-engineering. Design/CPN is a graphical computer tool supporting the practial use of CP-nets. The tool supports the construction, simulation, and functional and performance analysis of CPN models. the tool is used by more than...... and facilities of the Design/CPN tool are presented and their use illustrated. The paper is self-contained and does not assume any prior kowledge of Petri nets and CP-nets nor any experience with the Design/CPN tool...

  1. An Introduction to the Theoretical Aspects of Coloured Petri nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the basic theoretical aspects of Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets or CPN). CP-nets have been developed, from being a promising theoretical model, to being a full-fledged language for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems (and...... of data types and the manipulation of their data values. The paper does not assume that the reader has any prior knowledge of Petri nets — although such knowledge will, of course, be a help....... other systems in which human beings and/or computers communicate by means of some more or less formal rules). The paper contains the formal definition of CP-nets and their basic concepts (e.g., the different dynamic properties such as liveness and fairness). The paper also contains a short introduction...

  2. 26 CFR 1.904(f)-3 - Allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation of net operating losses and net....904(f)-3 Allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses. For rules relating to the allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses, see § 1.904(g)-3T. ...

  3. 29 CFR 4204.13 - Net income and net tangible assets tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Net income and net tangible assets tests. 4204.13 Section....13 Net income and net tangible assets tests. (a) General. The criteria under this section are that either— (1) Net income test. The purchaser's average net income after taxes for its three most recent...

  4. Robots arm motion representation in Petri NETS using sequent calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Uzair Ahmad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There are many sort of motion in robots structure. Such as the robot locomotion robot jumps robots picking and so on but all are presented through Petri NETS. The one motion which is also the important one and most worthy motion of the robots is the robots arm motion. Which till yet not represented through Petri NETS. In this paper we are going to represent the motion of the robot arm in different angles and different aspect, such as up, down, circular, back and front moment of the robot arm, through Petri net we can present the complex form of motions into simplex paths.

  5. Document analysis with neural net circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Hans Peter

    1994-01-01

    Document analysis is one of the main applications of machine vision today and offers great opportunities for neural net circuits. Despite more and more data processing with computers, the number of paper documents is still increasing rapidly. A fast translation of data from paper into electronic format is needed almost everywhere, and when done manually, this is a time consuming process. Markets range from small scanners for personal use to high-volume document analysis systems, such as address readers for the postal service or check processing systems for banks. A major concern with present systems is the accuracy of the automatic interpretation. Today's algorithms fail miserably when noise is present, when print quality is poor, or when the layout is complex. A common approach to circumvent these problems is to restrict the variations of the documents handled by a system. In our laboratory, we had the best luck with circuits implementing basic functions, such as convolutions, that can be used in many different algorithms. To illustrate the flexibility of this approach, three applications of the NET32K circuit are described in this short viewgraph presentation: locating address blocks, cleaning document images by removing noise, and locating areas of interest in personal checks to improve image compression. Several of the ideas realized in this circuit that were inspired by neural nets, such as analog computation with a low resolution, resulted in a chip that is well suited for real-world document analysis applications and that compares favorably with alternative, 'conventional' circuits.

  6. [A preliminary mapping methodology for occupational hazards and biomechanical risk evaluation: presentation of a simple, computerized tool kit for ergonomic hazards identification and risk assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombini, Daniela; Occhipinti, E; Di Leone, G

    2011-01-01

    During the last Congress of the International Ergonomics Association (IEA), Beijing, August 2009, an international group was founded with the task of developing a "toolkit for MSD prevention" under the IEA and in collaboration with the World Health Organization. The possible users of toolkits are: members of health and safety committees; health and safety representatives; line supervisors; foremen; workers; government representatives; health workers providing basic occupational health services; occupational health and safety specialists. According to the ISO standard 11228 series and the new Draft CD ISO 12259-2009: Application document guides for the potential user, our group developed a preliminary "mapping" methodology of occupational hazards in the craft industry, supported by software (Excel). The proposed methodology, using specific key enters and quick assessment criteria, allows a simple ergonomics hazards identification and risk estimation to be made. It is thus possible to decide for which occupational hazards a more exhaustive risk assessment will be necessary and which occupational consultant should be involved (occupational physician, safety engineer, industrial hygienist, etc.).

  7. Study of differences in presentation, risk factors and management in diabetic and nondiabetic patients with acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Kumar Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare clinical characteristics, treatment, and utilization of evidence-based medicines at discharge from hospital in acute coronary syndrome (ACS patients with or without diabetes at a tertiary care cardiac center in India. Methods: We performed an observational study in consecutive patients discharged following management of ACS. We obtained demographic details, comorbid conditions, and cardiovascular risk factors, physical and biochemical parameters, and management. Descriptive statistics are reported. Results: We enrolled 100 patients (diabetics = 28 with mean age of 59.0 ± 10.8 years (diabetics 59.3 ± 11.6, nondiabetics 58.9 ± 8.5. Forty-nine patients had ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI (diabetics = 14, 28.7% while 51 had nonSTEMI/unstable angina (diabetics = 14, 27.4% (P = nonsignificant. Among diabetics versus nondiabetics there was greater prevalence (% of hypertension (78.6% vs. 44.4%, obesity (25.0% vs. 8.3%, abdominal obesity (85.7% vs. 69.4% and sedentary activity (89.2% vs. 77.8%, and lower prevalence of smoking/tobacco use (10.7% vs. 25.0% (P < 0.05. In STEMI patients 28 (57.1% were thrombolysed (diabetes 17.8% vs. 31.9%, percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI was in 67.8% diabetics versus 84.7% nondiabetics and coronary bypass surgery in 21.4% versus 8.3%. At discharge, in diabetics versus nondiabetics, there was similar use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (67.9% vs. 69.4% and statins (100.0% vs. 98.6% while use of dual antiplatelet therapy (85.7% vs. 95.8% and beta-blockers (64.3% vs. 73.6% was lower (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Diabetic patients with ACS have greater prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors (obesity, abdominal obesity, and hypertension as compared to nondiabetic patients. Less diabetic patients undergo PCIs and receive lesser dual anti-platelet therapy and beta-blockers.

  8. Adipose tissue fatty acids present in dairy fat and risk of stroke: the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Anne Sofie Dam; Dahm, Christina Catherine; Johnsen, Søren Paaske

    2018-01-01

    of adipose tissue biopsies was determined by gas chromatography and specific fatty acids were expressed as percentage of total fatty acids. Stroke cases were identified in the Danish National Patient Registry and the diagnoses were individually verified. We recorded 2108 stroke cases of which 1745 were......The role of dairy fat for the risk of stroke is not yet clear. Adipose tissue reflects long-term fatty acid intake and metabolism. We, therefore, investigated associations for percentages of adipose tissue fatty acids, for which dairy products are a major source (12:0, 14:0, 14:1 cis-9, 15:0, 17......:0, 18:1 trans-11 and 18:2 cis-9, trans-11), with incident total stroke and stroke subtypes. We conducted a case-cohort study within the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort, including all incident stroke cases (n = 2108) and a random sample of the total cohort (n = 3186). The fatty acid composition...

  9. Frequency and correlates of late presentation for HIV infection in France: older adults are a risk group - results from the ANRS-VESPA2 Study, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kayigan d'Almeida; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Aubrière, Cindy; Hamelin, Christine; Spire, Bruno; Lert, France

    2014-01-01

    Correlates of late presentation (LP) for HIV infection in Metropolitan France and French overseas departments (FODs) were assessed among HIV-infected patients recently diagnosed, using data from a large cross-sectional survey, representative of the French HIV-infected population, conducted in 2011. LP was defined as presentation with either clinical AIDS events within the calendar year of diagnosis or CD4 France and FODs. In Metropolitan France, 47.7% of participants were late presenters and 29.3% presented with advanced disease. LP was more frequent among male and female migrants from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA; 58.5% and 56.4%) and non-African heterosexual males (61.8%) than among men who have sex with men (34.8%). In FODs, 53.2% of participants were late presenters and 36.8% presented with an advanced disease. LP was more frequent among men than women (60.6% vs. 45.3%) and among those with a lower level of education (56.6% vs. 47.5%). A consistent positive association was found in adjusted analyses between LP/PAD and increasing age at diagnosis among all subpopulations, in both settings. In Metropolitan France, among men who have sex with men, those self-declaring as bisexual were at higher risk of LP/PAD; among non-African heterosexual males and females, religiosity was associated with increased risk of LP/PAD; and among SSA migrants, those diagnosed within the year following their arrival in France were at higher risk of LP/PAD. Older age at diagnosis is a major risk factor for LP/PAD independently of any other socio-demographic characteristics. Promotion of HIV testing should be renewed to target each subgroup at risk while paying a particular attention to middle-aged or older adults whose attitudes and beliefs towards HIV/AIDS might prevent them from seeking testing.

  10. Identifying weak points of urban drainage systems by means of VulNetUD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möderl, M; Kleidorfer, M; Sitzenfrei, R; Rauch, W

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the development and application of the software tool VulNetUD. VulNetUD is a tool for GIS-based identification of vulnerable sites of urban drainage systems (UDS) using hydrodynamic simulations undertaken using EPA SWMM. The benefit of the tool is the output of different vulnerability maps rating sewer surcharging, sewer flooding, combined sewer overflow (CSO) efficiency and CSO emissions. For this, seven predefined performance indicators are used to evaluate urban drainage systems under abnormal, critical and future conditions. The application on a case study highlights the capability of the tool to identify weak points of the urban drainage systems. Thereby it is possible to identify urban drainage system components which cause the highest performance decrease across the entire system. The application of the method on a real world case study shows for instance that a reduction of catchment areas which are located upstream of CSOs with relatively less capacity in the downstream sewers achieves the highest increases efficiency of the system. Finally, the application of VulNetUD is seen as a valuable tool for managers and operators of waste water utilities to improve the efficiency of their systems. Additionally vulnerability maps generated by VulNetUD support risk management e.g. decision making in urban development planning or the development of rehabilitation strategies.

  11. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    informally introduced through examples and then followed by formal definitions (which may be skipped). The book is ideally suitable for a one-semester course at an advanced undergraduate or graduate level, and through its strong application examples can also serve for self-study. It features an accompanying...... studies that illustrate the practical use of CPN modelling and validation for design, specification, simulation, verification and implementation in various application domains. Their presentation primarily aims at readers interested in the practical use of CPN. Thus all concepts and constructs are first...

  12. Multi-net optimization of VLSI interconnect

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseev, Konstantin; Wimer, Shmuel

    2015-01-01

    This book covers layout design and layout migration methodologies for optimizing multi-net wire structures in advanced VLSI interconnects. Scaling-dependent models for interconnect power, interconnect delay and crosstalk noise are covered in depth, and several design optimization problems are addressed, such as minimization of interconnect power under delay constraints, or design for minimal delay in wire bundles within a given routing area. A handy reference or a guide for design methodologies and layout automation techniques, this book provides a foundation for physical design challenges of interconnect in advanced integrated circuits.  • Describes the evolution of interconnect scaling and provides new techniques for layout migration and optimization, focusing on multi-net optimization; • Presents research results that provide a level of design optimization which does not exist in commercially-available design automation software tools; • Includes mathematical properties and conditions for optimal...

  13. AstroNet-II International Final Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Masdemont, Josep

    2016-01-01

    These are the proceedings of the "AstroNet-II International Final Conference". This conference was one of the last milestones of the Marie-Curie Research Training Network on Astrodynamics "AstroNet-II", that has been funded by the European Commission under the Seventh Framework Programme. The aim of the conference, and thus this book, is to communicate work on astrodynamics problems to an international and specialised audience. The results are presented by both members of the network and invited specialists. The topics include: trajectory design and control, attitude control, structural flexibility of spacecraft and formation flying. The book addresses a readership across the traditional boundaries between mathematics, engineering and industry by offering an interdisciplinary and multisectorial overview of the field.

  14. Outcome and Risk Factors Presented in Old Patients Above 80 Years of Age Versus Younger Patients After Ischemic Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Line; Christensen, Louisa; Christensen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    . METHODS: The analysis was based on consecutive patients admitted within 6 hours after stroke onset and discharged with ischemic stroke, surviving at least 3 months after ictus. To prevent bias, the analysis was based on a registry from before implementation of tissue plasminogen activator treatment; all...... of age or older presented with significantly more severe strokes than younger patients, median Scandinavian Stroke Scale score 39 vs 42 (P = .003). Median mRS score before stroke was significantly higher in patients aged 80 years or older (P ictus (P...

  15. Prediction of subsequent miscarriage risk in women who present with a viable pregnancy at the first early pregnancy scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatopoulos, Nicole; Lu, Chuan; Casikar, Ishwari; Reid, Shannon; Mongelli, Max; Hardy, Nigel; Condous, George

    2015-10-01

    To generate and evaluate a new prediction model for miscarriage in women who present with a viable intrauterine pregnancy (IUP) at the primary early pregnancy scan and to compare this new model to a previously published model. Data were collected prospectively from women presenting to the early pregnancy unit with a viable IUP between November 2006 and January 2013. More than 30 historical, clinical and ultrasonographic variables were recorded on a standardised datasheet at the first visit. Women were followed until the final outcome was known at the end of the first trimester: viable IUP or miscarriage. A new multinomial logistic regression model was developed retrospectively on training cases and tested prospectively on test cases. The performance of the new prediction model was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and compared to a previously published model. After removing cases with missing values for the model of Oates, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was also calculated for the new model and the Oates model. A total of 1115 consecutive first-trimester women presented to the early pregnancy unit. Eight hundred and sixty-two women with a viable IUP at the first scan whose outcome was known at the end of the first trimester were included in the final analysis. Five hundred and sixty-six women were included in the training set and 296 in the test set. 92.1% were viable and 7.9% had miscarried at the end of the first trimester. The most significant independent prognostic variables for the logistic regression model were as follows: maternal age, embryonic heart rate (EHR), logarithm [gestational sac (GS) volume/crown-rump length (CRL)], CRL and the presence or absence of clots per vagina (PV) at presentation. The performance of the new model compared with the Oates model gave an AUC of 0.870 vs 0.847 for the training set and 0.783 vs 0.744 for the test set. After removing cases with missing values for the model of Oates 2013, the

  16. Safety, risk, and aggression: Health professionals' experiences of caring for people affected by methamphetamine when presenting for emergency care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Kim; Jackson, Debra; Woods, Cindy; Sayers, Jan; Kornhaber, Rachel; Cleary, Michelle

    2017-10-01

    The crystalline form of methamphetamine, commonly known as crystal meth (crystal methamphetamine) or ICE, is a highly-addictive and powerful stimulant. Users of crystal meth often require emergency care, and are associated with a substantial burden of care by emergency care providers. The aim of the present qualitative study was to explore health professionals' experiences of providing care for patients affected by ICE who presented to the emergency department (ED). Nine semistructured interviews were conducted. The major theme, 'staying safe', was revealed, in which participants described their experiences of being exposed to potentially unsafe situations, and their responses to challenging behaviours, including aggression. The findings highlight the need for ED staff to understand the nature of ICE use and its adverse impact on the mental and physical health of users. Furthermore, it is clear that establishing and maintaining safety in the emergency care setting is of utmost importance, and should be a priority for health-care managers. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  17. TimeNET Optimization Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Bodenstein

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a novel tool for simulation-based optimization and design-space exploration of Stochastic Colored Petri nets (SCPN is introduced. The working title of this tool is TimeNET Optimization Environment (TOE. Targeted users of this tool are people modeling complex systems with SCPNs in TimeNET who want to find parameter sets that are optimal for a certain performance measure (fitness function. It allows users to create and simulate sets of SCPNs and to run different optimization algorithms based on parameter variation. The development of this tool was motivated by the need to automate and speed up tests of heuristic optimization algorithms to be applied for SCPN optimization. A result caching mechanism is used to avoid recalculations.

  18. Knotting the Net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revellino, Silvana; Mouritsen, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Research on megaprojects points out the crucial role of politics in managing major infrastructure projects. Politics is often here presented as misrepresentation by the project maker who manipulates everyone else. This is where power is concentrated in the hands of the few. However, this approach...... may overlook another lateral version of politics by which power is plural and ubiquitous, and which, through Latour's notion of Dingpolitics, combines the questions ‘who has to be taken into account’ and ‘what has to be taken into account’. This brings the analysis further than stakeholder theory...... with its focus on abstract structural interests, towards articulated concerns about the objects that matter to people. Through analysis of the Italian system for stakeholder management—the so-called Conferenza di Servizi, which was organised according to stakeholder theory with an emphasis...

  19. Breast Cancer Suspicion in a Transgender Male-to-Female Patient on Hormone Replacement Therapy Presenting with Right Breast Mass: Breast Cancer Risk Assessment and Presentation of a Rare Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystina Tongson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increasing use of hormonal therapy among male-to-female (MtF transgender individuals. This long-term hormone replacement therapy (HRT renders MtF individuals a unique patient subgroup in terms of breast cancer risk. This case describes a MtF transgender who presented with a breast lesion concerning for malignancy following hormonal replacement therapy. The patient additionally had a strong family history of breast cancer. Final pathology revealed lobular hyperplasia in the setting of gynecomastia and pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH. Both pathology findings are rare in biological females, let alone in the setting of hormone replacement therapy in a MtF individual. While the number of reported cases of suspicious breast lesions in this population remains scarce, it presents both a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge due to the nature of the treatment course and the lack of research in this recently growing subgroup of patients.

  20. Energy Dependence of Moments of Net-Proton, Net-Kaon, and Net-Charge Multiplicity Distributions at STAR

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2016-01-01

    One of the main goals of the RHIC Beam Energy Scan (BES) program is to study the QCD phase structure, which includes the search for the QCD critical point, over a wide range of chemical potential. Theoretical calculations predict that fluctuations of conserved quantities, such as baryon number (B), charge (Q), and strangeness (S), are sensitive to the correlation length of the dynamical system. Experimentally, higher moments of multiplicity distributions have been utilized to search for the QCD critical point in heavy-ion collisions. In this paper, we report recent efficiency-corrected cumulants and cumulants ratios of the net- proton, net-kaon, and net-charge multiplicity distributions in Au+Au collisions at 7.7, 11.5, 14.5, 19.6, 27, 39, 62.4, and 200 GeV collected in the years 2010, 2011, and 2014 with STAR at RHIC. The centrality and energy dependence of the cumulants up to the fourth order, as well as their ratios, are presented. Furthermore, the comparisons with baseline calculations (Poisson) and non-c...

  1. Implementing NetScaler VPX

    CERN Document Server

    Sandbu, Marius

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow guide with detailed step-by step-instructions on how to implement the different key components in NetScaler, with real-world examples and sample scenarios.If you are a Citrix or network administrator who needs to implement NetScaler in your virtual environment to gain an insight on its functionality, this book is ideal for you. A basic understanding of networking and familiarity with some of the different Citrix products such as XenApp or XenDesktop is a prerequisite.

  2. Net4Care PHMR Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the SimpleClinicalDocument......The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the Simple...

  3. Pro DLR in NET 4

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Chaur

    2011-01-01

    Microsoft's Dynamic Language Runtime (DLR) is a platform for running dynamic languages such as Ruby and Python on an equal footing with compiled languages such as C#. Furthermore, the runtime is the foundation for many useful software design and architecture techniques you can apply as you develop your .NET applications. Pro DLR in .NET 4 introduces you to the DLR, showing how you can use it to write software that combines dynamic and static languages, letting you choose the right tool for the job. You will learn the core DLR components such as LINQ expressions, call sites, binders, and dynami

  4. Hierarchies in Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Peter; Jensen, Kurt; Shapiro, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    The paper shows how to extend Coloured Petri Nets with a hierarchy concept. The paper proposes five different hierarchy constructs, which allow the analyst to structure large CP-nets as a set of interrelated subnets (called pages). The paper discusses the properties of the proposed hierarchy...... constructs, and it illustrates them by means of two examples. The hierarchy constructs can be used for theoretical considerations, but their main use is to describe and analyse large real-world systems. All of the hierarchy constructs are supported by the editing and analysis facilities in the CPN Palette...

  5. From intervention to impact: modelling the potential mortality impact achievable by different long-lasting, insecticide-treated net delivery strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okell Lucy C

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current target of universal access to long-lasting, insecticide-treated nets (LLIN is 80% coverage to reduce malaria deaths by 75% by 2015. So far, campaigns have been the main channel for large-scale delivery of LLINs, however the World Health Organization has recommended that equal priority should be given to delivery via routine antenatal care (ANC and immunization systems (EPI to target pregnant women and children from birth. These various channels of LLIN delivery are targeted to children of different ages. Since risk of mortality varies with child age and LLIN effectiveness declines with net age, it was hypothesized that the age at which a child receives a new LLIN, and therefore the delivery channel, is important in optimizing the health impact of a net. Methods A simple dynamic mathematical model was developed of delivery and impact of LLINs among children under five years of age and their household members, incorporating data on age-specific malaria death rates, net use by household structure, and net efficacy over time. Results The presented analysis finds that supplementing a universal mass campaign with extra ANC delivery would achieve a 1.4 times higher mortality reduction than campaign delivery alone, reflecting that children born in the years between campaigns would otherwise have access to old nets or no nets at an age of high risk. The relative advantage of supplementary ANC delivery is still present though smaller if malaria transmission levels are lower or if there is a strong mass effect achieved by mass campaigns. Conclusion These results indicate that LLIN delivery policies must take into account the age of greatest malaria risk. Emphasis should be placed on supporting routine delivery of LLINs to young children as well as campaigns.

  6. State Space Computation and Analysis of Time Petri Nets

    OpenAIRE

    Gardey, Guillaume; Roux, Olivier Henri; Roux, Olivier

    2005-01-01

    The theory of Petri Nets provides a general framework to specify the behaviors of real-time reactive systems and Time Petri Nets were introduced to take also temporal specifications into account. We present in this paper a forward zone-based algorithm to compute the state space of a bounded Time Petri Net: the method is different and more efficient than the classical State Class Graph. We prove the algorithm to be exact with respect to the reachability problem. Furthermore, we propose a trans...

  7. Investigations on the porous resistance coefficients for fishing net structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Hao; Christensen, Erik Damgaard

    2016-01-01

    resistance coefficients were adjusted by fitting the available experimental data. In the present paper, a new approach was proposed to calculate the porous resistance coefficients based on the transformation of Morison type load model. The transformation follows the principle that the total forces acting...... validation cases were carried out to examine the performance of the numerical model. This includes steady current flow through plane net panels and circular fish cages, and wave interaction with plane net panels. A variety of fishing nets with different solidity ratios were used in the validation cases, from...

  8. A framework for quantifying net benefits of alternative prognostic models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapsomaniki, Eleni; White, Ian R; Wood, Angela M

    2012-01-01

    New prognostic models are traditionally evaluated using measures of discrimination and risk reclassification, but these do not take full account of the clinical and health economic context. We propose a framework for comparing prognostic models by quantifying the public health impact (net benefit......) of the treatment decisions they support, assuming a set of predetermined clinical treatment guidelines. The change in net benefit is more clinically interpretable than changes in traditional measures and can be used in full health economic evaluations of prognostic models used for screening and allocating risk...... reduction interventions. We extend previous work in this area by quantifying net benefits in life years, thus linking prognostic performance to health economic measures; by taking full account of the occurrence of events over time; and by considering estimation and cross-validation in a multiple...

  9. Energy performance of windows based on the net energy gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Svend; Kragh, Jesper; Laustsen, Jacob Birck

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a new method to set up energy performance requirements and energy classes for windows of all dimensions and configurations. The net energy gain of windows is the solar gain minus the heat loss integrated over the heating season. The net energy gain can be calculated for one...... orientation or averaged over different orientations. The averaged value may be used for energy labeling of windows of standard size. Requirements in building codes may also be based on the net energy gain instead of the thermal transmittance of the window. The size and the configuration of the window, i.......e. number of glazing units, have a very large effect on the net energy gain. Therefore the energy labeling or the requirements based on the standard size may not give valid information on the energy performance of windows of non-standard size. The paper presents a method to set up requirements and classes...

  10. D.NET case study

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    lremy

    developing products, marketing tools and building capacity of the grass root telecentre workers. D.Net recognized that it had several ideas worth developing into small interventions that would make big differences, but resource constraints were a barrier for scaling-up these initiatives. More demands, limited resources.

  11. Surgery for GEP-NETs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, Ulrich; Hansen, Carsten Palnæs

    2012-01-01

    Surgery is the only treatment that may cure the patient with gastroentero-pancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumours (NET) and neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC) and should always be considered as first line treatment if R0/R1 resection can be achieved. The surgical and interventional procedures for GEP...

  12. Net Neutrality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.

    2014-01-01

    The Netherlands is among the first countries that have put specific net neutrality standards in place. The decision to implement specific regulation was influenced by at least three factors. The first was the prevailing social and academic debate, partly due to developments in the United States. The

  13. Complexity Metrics for Workflow Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; van der Aalst, Wil M.P.

    2009-01-01

    Process modeling languages such as EPCs, BPMN, flow charts, UML activity diagrams, Petri nets, etc.\\ are used to model business processes and to configure process-aware information systems. It is known that users have problems understanding these diagrams. In fact, even process engineers and system...

  14. A novel workflow for seismic net pay estimation with uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Glinsky, Michael E.; Baptiste, Dale; Unaldi, Muhlis; Nagassar, Vishal

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel workflow for seismic net pay estimation with uncertainty. It is demonstrated on the Cassra/Iris Field. The theory for the stochastic wavelet derivation (which estimates the seismic noise level along with the wavelet, time-to-depth mapping, and their uncertainties), the stochastic sparse spike inversion, and the net pay estimation (using secant areas) along with its uncertainty; will be outlined. This includes benchmarking of this methodology on a synthetic model. A...

  15. Quality of claims, references and the presentation of risk results in medical journal advertising: a comparative study in Australia, Malaysia and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Noordin; Vitry, Agnes I; Roughead, Elizabeth E

    2010-05-29

    Journal advertising is used by pharmaceutical companies to disseminate medicine information to doctors. The quality of claims, references and the presentation of risk results in Australia and the US has been questioned in several studies. No recent evidence is available on the quality of claims, references and the presentation of risk results in journal advertising in Australia and the US and no Malaysian data have been published. The aim of this study was to compare the quality of claims, references and the presentation of risk results in journal advertising in these three countries. A consecutive sample of 85 unique advertisements from each country was selected from journal advertising published between January 2004 to December 2006. Claims, references and the presentation of risk results in medical journal advertising were compared between the three countries. Less than one-third of the claims were unambiguous claims (Australia, 30%, Malaysia 17%, US, 23%). In Malaysia significantly less unambiguous claims were provided than in Australia and the US (P Malaysia, 81%, US, 76%) with journal articles being the most commonly cited references in all countries. Data on file were significantly more likely to be cited in the US (17%) than in Australia (2%) and Malaysia (4%) (P journal advertising in these three countries. Evidence from a randomized controlled trial, systematic review or meta- analysis was commonly cited to support claims. However, the more frequent use of data that have not been published and independently reviewed in the US compared to Australia and Malaysia raises questions on the quality of references in the US. The use of relative rather than absolute benefits may overemphasize the benefit of medicines which may leave doctors susceptible to misinterpreting information.

  16. Caught in the Net: Perineuronal Nets and Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Slaker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to drugs of abuse induces plasticity in the brain and creates persistent drug-related memories. These changes in plasticity and persistent drug memories are believed to produce aberrant motivation and reinforcement contributing to addiction. Most studies have explored the effect drugs of abuse have on pre- and postsynaptic cells and astrocytes; however, more recently, attention has shifted to explore the effect these drugs have on the extracellular matrix (ECM. Within the ECM are unique structures arranged in a net-like manner, surrounding a subset of neurons called perineuronal nets (PNNs. This review focuses on drug-induced changes in PNNs, the molecules that regulate PNNs, and the expression of PNNs within brain circuitry mediating motivation, reward, and reinforcement as it pertains to addiction.

  17. Biodiversity offsets and the challenge of achieving no net loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Toby A; VON Hase, Amrei; Brownlie, Susie; Ekstrom, Jonathan M M; Pilgrim, John D; Savy, Conrad E; Stephens, R T Theo; Treweek, Jo; Ussher, Graham T; Ward, Gerri; Ten Kate, Kerry

    2013-12-01

    Businesses, governments, and financial institutions are increasingly adopting a policy of no net loss of biodiversity for development activities. The goal of no net loss is intended to help relieve tension between conservation and development by enabling economic gains to be achieved without concomitant biodiversity losses. biodiversity offsets represent a necessary component of a much broader mitigation strategy for achieving no net loss following prior application of avoidance, minimization, and remediation measures. However, doubts have been raised about the appropriate use of biodiversity offsets. We examined what no net loss means as a desirable conservation outcome and reviewed the conditions that determine whether, and under what circumstances, biodiversity offsets can help achieve such a goal. We propose a conceptual framework to substitute the often ad hoc approaches evident in many biodiversity offset initiatives. The relevance of biodiversity offsets to no net loss rests on 2 fundamental premises. First, offsets are rarely adequate for achieving no net loss of biodiversity alone. Second, some development effects may be too difficult or risky, or even impossible, to offset. To help to deliver no net loss through biodiversity offsets, biodiversity gains must be comparable to losses, be in addition to conservation gains that may have occurred in absence of the offset, and be lasting and protected from risk of failure. Adherence to these conditions requires consideration of the wider landscape context of development and offset activities, timing of offset delivery, measurement of biodiversity, accounting procedures and rule sets used to calculate biodiversity losses and gains and guide offset design, and approaches to managing risk. Adoption of this framework will strengthen the potential for offsets to provide an ecologically defensible mechanism that can help reconcile conservation and development. Balances de Biodiversidad y el Reto de No Obtener P

  18. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Army Net Zero Training Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-20

    sensors were strategically placed throughout the installation by magnetically attaching them to water main valve stems. The sensors check sound...Recycle Wrap  Substitutes for Packaging Materials  Re-Use of Textiles and Linens  Setting Printers to Double-Sided Printing Net Zero Waste...can effectively achieve source reduction. Clean and Re-Use Shop Rags - Shop rags represent a large textile waste stream at many installations. As a

  19. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Net Zero Waste Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-20

    Anaerobic Digesters – Although anaerobic digestion is not a new technology and has been used on a large-scale basis in wastewater treatment , the...technology and has been used on a large-scale basis in wastewater treatment , the use of the technology should be demonstrated with other...approaches can be used for cardboard and cellulose -based packaging materials. This approach is in line with the Net Zero Waste hierarchy in terms of

  20. Chronic kidney disease at presentation is not an independent risk factor for AIDS-defining events or death in HIV-infected persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Tahira P; Wu, Pingsheng; Ikizler, T Alp; Sterling, Timothy R; Stinnette, Samuel E; Rebeiro, Peter F; Ghosh, Suvro; Hulgan, Todd

    2013-02-01

    Studies have documented an association between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and increased risk of end stage renal disease, death and comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome, in the general population. However, there is little data on the relationship between CKD and ADE (AIDS defining event), and to our knowledge, no studies have analyzed death as a competing risk for ADE among HIV-infected persons. An observational cohort study was performed to determine the incidence and risks for developing an ADE or death among HIV-infected persons with and without CKD from 1998 - 2005. CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 using the CKDEpidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation. Log rank test and Cox regression which determined time to development of ADE and/or death as combined and separate outcomes, and competing risk models for ADE versus mortality, were performed. Among the 2,127 persons that contributed to the 5,824 person years of follow-up: 22% were female, 34% African American, 38% on HAART, and 3% had CKD at baseline. ADE occurred in 227 (11%) persons and there were 80 (4%) deaths. CKD was not significantly associated with ADE/death (HR 1.3, 95% CIs: 0.5, 3.2), ADE (HR 1.0, 95% CIs: 0.4, 3.1), or death (HR 1.6, 95% CIs: 0.4, 3.1). Competing risk analyses confirmed no statistically significant associations between CKD and these outcomes. CKD was uncommon in HIV-infected persons presenting for care in this racially diverse cohort, and was not independently associated with risk of developing an ADE or dying during follow-up.

  1. Sex Differences in Demographics, Risk Factors, Presentation, and Noninvasive Testing in Stable Outpatients with Suspected Coronary Artery Disease: Insights from the PROMISE Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemal, Kshipra; Pagidipati, Neha J.; Coles, Adrian; Dolor, Rowena J.; Mark, Daniel B.; Pellikka, Patricia A.; Hoffmann, Udo; Litwin, Sheldon E.; Daubert, Melissa A.; Shah, Svati H.; Ariani, Kevin; Bullock-Palmer, Renee; Martinez, Beth; Lee, Kerry L.; Douglas, Pamela S.

    2016-01-01

    STRUCTURED ABSTRACT Objectives To determine whether presentation, risk assessment, testing choices, and results differ by sex in stable symptomatic outpatients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Background Although established CAD presentations differ by sex, little is known about stable, suspected CAD. Methods Characteristics of 10,003 men and women in the Prospective Multicenter Imaging Study for Evaluation of Chest Pain (PROMISE) trial were compared using chi-square and Wilcoxon rank sum tests. Sex differences in test selection and predictors of test positivity were examined using logistic regression. Results Women were older (62.4 years vs. 59.0) and more likely to be hypertensive (66.6% vs. 63.2%), dyslipidemic (68.9% vs. 66.3%), and to have a family history of premature CAD (34.6% vs. 29.3) (all p-values<0.005). Women were less likely to smoke (45.6% vs. 57.0%; p<0.001), while diabetes prevalence was similar (21.8% vs. 21.0%; p=0.30). Chest pain was the primary symptom in 73.2% of women vs. 72.3% of men (p=0.30) and was characterized as “crushing/pressure/squeezing/tightness” in 52.5% of women vs. 46.2% of men (p<0.001). Compared to men, all risk scores characterized women as lower risk, and providers were more likely to characterize women as having low (<30%) pre-test probability for CAD (40.7% vs. 34.1%; p<0.001). Compared with men, women were more often referred to imaging tests (adjusted OR 1.21; 95% CI 1.01–1.44) than non-imaging tests. Women were less likely to have a positive test (9.7% vs. 15.1%; p<0.001). Although univariate predictors of test positivity were similar, in multivariable models, age, BMI, and Framingham risk score were predictive of a positive test in women, while Framingham and Diamond and Forrester risk scores were predictive in men. Conclusion Patient sex influences the entire diagnostic pathway for possible CAD, from baseline risk factors and presentation to noninvasive test outcomes. These differences highlight the

  2. HANPP Collection: Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity (NPP) portion of the Human Appropriation of Net Primary...

  3. Hydrodynamic characteristics of plane netting used for aquaculture net cages in uniform current

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DONG, SHUCHUANG; HU, FUXIANG; KUMAZAWA, TAISEI; SIODE, DAISUKE; TOKAI, TADASHI

    2016-01-01

      The hydrodynamic characteristics of polyethylene (PE) netting and chain link wire netting with different types of twine diameter and mesh size for aquaculture net cages were examined by experiments in a flume tank...

  4. Generalized Net Model of Brevibacterium flavul 22LD Fermentation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olympia Roeva

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to render the specific peculiarities of the fermentation processes, as well as to avoid the complexity of mathematical description with systems of differential equations, the elaboration of some new methods and approaches for their modelling and control is predetermined. As a new, alternative approach for modelling of fermentation processes, an application of generalized nets is presented in this paper. The theory of generalized nets is applied to the fermentation process of Brevibacterium flavul 22LD for L-lysine production. A generalized net model of considered process is developed. For comparison and completeness, model with differential equations is also provided. The generalized nets model developed for the fed-batch cultivation of Brevibacterium flavul 22LD allows changing the concentration of the feeding solution and the aeration rate. In this way some inhibition effects are prevented and a possibility for optimal carrying out of the considered fermentation process is provided.

  5. Beginning DotNetNuke Skinning and Design

    CERN Document Server

    Hay, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    DotNetNuke is an open source framework built on top of the ASP.Net platform. While this system offers an impressive set of out-of-the-box features for public and private sites, it also includes a compelling story for folks who want to present a unique look and feel to visitors. The skinning engine inside of DotNetNuke has strengthened over the course of several years and hundreds of thousands of registered users. The success of its skin and module developer community is another key indicator of the depth and breadth of this technology. The Core Team responsible for the DotNetNuke brand has gon

  6. Stochastic petri nets for wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lei, Lei; Zhong, Zhangdui

    2015-01-01

    This SpringerBrief presents research in the application of Stochastic Petri Nets (SPN) to the performance evaluation of wireless networks under bursty traffic. It covers typical Quality-of-Service performance metrics such as mean throughput, average delay and packet dropping probability. Along with an introduction of SPN basics, the authors introduce the key motivation and challenges of using SPN to analyze the resource sharing performance in wireless networks. The authors explain two powerful modeling techniques that treat the well-known state space explosion problem: model decomposition and

  7. Changing presentation of complete hydatidiform mole at the New England Trophoblastic Disease Center over the past three decades: does early diagnosis alter risk for gestational trophoblastic neoplasia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sue Yazaki; Melamed, Alexander; Goldstein, Donald P; Bernstein, Marilyn R; Horowitz, Neil S; Moron, Antonio Fernandes; Maestá, Izildinha; Braga, Antonio; Berkowitz, Ross S

    2015-07-01

    To compare the clinical presentation and incidence of postmolar gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) among recent (1994-2013) and historical (1988-1993) cases of complete hydatidiform mole (CHM). This study included two non-concurrent cohorts (1988-1993 versus 1994-2013) of patients from the New England Trophoblastic Disease Center (NETDC). Clinical and pathologic reports of patients diagnosed with CHM between 1994 and 2013 were reviewed. Gestational age at evacuation, features of clinical presentation, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels, and the rate of progression to GTN were compared. In the current cohort (1994 to 2013) the median gestational age at diagnosis continued to decline compared to our prior cohort (1988-1993) (9weeks versus 12weeks). Patients from the current cohort were significantly more likely to be diagnosed prior to the 11th week of gestation (56 versus 41%, p=0.04). Patients in the current cohort were also significantly less likely to present with vaginal bleeding (46 versus 84%, pgestation did not decrease the risk of developing GTN. This study indicates that complete mole continues to be diagnosed progressively earlier resulting in a further decrease in some classical presenting symptoms. However, despite earlier detection, the risk of development of postmolar GTN has not been affected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Isolated unit tests in .Net

    OpenAIRE

    Haukilehto, Tero

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis isolation in unit testing is studied to get a precise picture of the isolation frameworks available for .Net environment. At the beginning testing is discussed in theory with the benefits and the problems it may have been linked with. The theory includes software development in general in connection with testing. Theory of isolation is also described before the actual isolation frameworks are represented. Common frameworks are described in more detail and comparable informa...

  9. Stress cardiac MR imaging compared with stress echocardiography in the early evaluation of patients who present to the emergency department with intermediate-risk chest pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitner, John F; Klem, Igor; Rasheed, Derek; Chandra, Abhinav; Kim, Han W; Van Assche, Lowie M R; Parker, Michele; Judd, Robert M; Jollis, James G; Kim, Raymond J

    2014-04-01

    To compare the utility and efficacy of stress cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and stress echocardiography in an emergency setting in patients with acute chest pain (CP) and intermediate risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). Written informed consent was obtained from all patients. This HIPAA-compliant study was approved by the institutional review board for research ethics. Sixty patients without history of CAD presented to the emergency department with intermediate-risk acute CP and were prospectively enrolled. Patients underwent both stress cardiac MR imaging and stress echocardiography in random order within 12 hours of presentation. Stress imaging results were interpreted clinically immediately (blinded interpretation was performed months later), and coronary angiography was performed if either result was abnormal. CAD was considered significant if it was identified at angiography (narrowing >50% ) or if a cardiac event (death or myocardial infarction) occurred during follow-up (mean, 14 months ± 5 [standard deviation]). McNemar test was used to compare the diagnostic accuracy of techniques. Stress cardiac MR imaging and stress echocardiography had similar specificity, accuracy, and positive and negative predictive values (92% vs 96%, 93% vs 88%, 67% vs 60%, and 100% vs 91%, respectively, for clinical interpretation; 90% vs 92%, 90% vs 88%, 58% vs 56%, and 98% vs 94%, respectively, for blinded interpretation). Stress cardiac MR imaging had higher sensitivity at clinical interpretation (100% vs 38%, P = .025), which did not reach significance at blinded interpretation (88% vs 63%, P = .31). However, multivariable logistic regression analysis showed stress cardiac MR imaging to be the strongest independent predictor of significant CAD (P = .002). In patients presenting to the emergency department with intermediate-risk CP, adenosine stress cardiac MR imaging performed within 12 hours of presentation is safe and potentially has improved performance

  10. Near Net Manufacturing Using Thin Gage Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Jennifer; Potter, David; Holquin, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) and near net spin forming of FSW aluminumn blanks were investigated for large-scale pressure vessel applications. With a specific focus on very thin gage 2xxx and 7xxx aluminum alloys, the program concentrated on the following: the criteria used for material selection, a potential manufacturing flow, and the effectiveness and associated risks of near net spin forming. Discussion will include the mechanical properties of the friction stir welds and the parent material from before and after the spin forming process. This effort was performed under a NASA Space Exploration initiative focused on increasing the affordability, reliability and performance of pressure vessels larger than 10 ft. diameter.

  11. Abstracts presented at the 7th World Alliance for Risk Factor Surveillance (WARFS) Global Conference. October 16-19, 2011. Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The 7th World Alliance for Risk Factor Surveillance (WARFS) Global Conference, hosted by the Public Health Agency of Canada, was held in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, from October 16 to 19, 2011. Previous WARFS conferences were held in USA (1999), Finland (2001), Australia (2003), Uruguay (2005) and Italy (2007, 2009). WARFS is a global working group on surveillance under the International Union for Health Promotion and Education (IUHPE) It supports the development of risk factor surveillance as a tool for evidence-based public health, acknowledging the importance of this source of information to inform, monitor and evaluate disease prevention and health promotion policies and programs. The theme of the 2011 Global Conference was the role of surveillance in the promotion of health. The Global Conference had 146 registered participants, making it the second most attended WARFS conference in its history. Over the three days, participants attended oral and poster presentations from 30 countries. The conference would not have been possible without the hard work of the International Scientific Committee and the Local Organizing Committee. To highlight the importance and the significance of this conference at an international level, Chronic Diseases and Injuries in Canada (CDIC) is pleased to publish this supplementary issue, which contains 70 abstracts presented at the 7th WARFS Global Conference. In the spirit the Global Conference, this collection of abstracts brings together surveillance material on risk factors, chronic diseases, infectious diseases and injuries from around the world. By making these abstracts widely available, CDIC hopes to further the conference objectives through a continued dialogue between those interested in linking risk factor surveillance to health promotion.

  12. Runtime Verification of Pacemaker Functionality Using Hierarchical Fuzzy Colored Petri-nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majma, Negar; Babamir, Seyed Morteza; Monadjemi, Amirhassan

    2017-02-01

    Today, implanted medical devices are increasingly used for many patients and in case of diverse health problems. However, several runtime problems and errors are reported by the relevant organizations, even resulting in patient death. One of those devices is the pacemaker. The pacemaker is a device helping the patient to regulate the heartbeat by connecting to the cardiac vessels. This device is directed by its software, so any failure in this software causes a serious malfunction. Therefore, this study aims to a better way to monitor the device's software behavior to decrease the failure risk. Accordingly, we supervise the runtime function and status of the software. The software verification means examining limitations and needs of the system users by the system running software. In this paper, a method to verify the pacemaker software, based on the fuzzy function of the device, is presented. So, the function limitations of the device are identified and presented as fuzzy rules and then the device is verified based on the hierarchical Fuzzy Colored Petri-net (FCPN), which is formed considering the software limits. Regarding the experiences of using: 1) Fuzzy Petri-nets (FPN) to verify insulin pumps, 2) Colored Petri-nets (CPN) to verify the pacemaker and 3) To verify the pacemaker by a software agent with Petri-network based knowledge, which we gained during the previous studies, the runtime behavior of the pacemaker software is examined by HFCPN, in this paper. This is considered a developing step compared to the earlier work. HFCPN in this paper, compared to the FPN and CPN used in our previous studies reduces the complexity. By presenting the Petri-net (PN) in a hierarchical form, the verification runtime, decreased as 90.61% compared to the verification runtime in the earlier work. Since we need an inference engine in the runtime verification, we used the HFCPN to enhance the performance of the inference engine.

  13. Offset Risk Minimization for Open-loop Optimal Control of Oil Reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capolei, Andrea; Christiansen, Lasse Hjuler; Jørgensen, J. B.

    2017-01-01

    the associated financial risks, the oil literature has used ensemble-based methods to manipulate the net present value (NPV) distribution by optimizing sample estimated risk measures. In general, such methods successfully reduce overall risk. However, as this paper demonstrates, ensemble-based control strategies...

  14. The Prediction of Risk In Syncope using ECG characteristics (PRISE) pilot study: can heart rate variability be used to predict risk in patients presenting to the emergency department with syncope?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonney, M E; Reed, M J; Gray, A J

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted as a feasibility pilot for the Prediction of Risk In Syncope using ECG characteristics (PRISE) study. The secondary aim was to determine whether heart rate variability (HRV) characteristics may be useful to distinguish low and high-risk syncope patients. Adult patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with syncope over a one-month period underwent a 5-minute 12-lead ECG. Study patients were assigned high, medium or low-risk status according to the ED's existing syncope guidelines as well as one of four likely diagnostic categories. ECG signals from all patients were then analysed and time domain HRV characteristics were derived using WelchAllyn's Cardioperfect interpretation software. A control group of patients was also recruited. Over a 4-week period in July 2007, 32 patients were recruited into the study group and 23 into the control group. ECG tracings of five study group patients were not suitable for analysis. According to the ED's existing syncope guidelines there were nine low-risk, 12 medium-risk and six high-risk patients with diagnostic categories as follows: postural hypotension, five; vasovagal, 16; cardiac, five and other, one. Patients with cardiac syncope had greater mean values for all HRV characteristics except NN number and NN minimum; however, with overlapping confidence intervals. Low-risk patients were more likely to be younger than medium and high-risk patients. No HRV parameters showed any significant differences. Measuring HRV in the acute ED setting is feasible. If patients with cardiac and neurocardiogenic syncope have different HRV characteristics then it could be useful to determine a patient's underlying cause of syncope in the ED, which would allow earlier decision-making.

  15. Determinants of the net interest margins in BH banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plakalović Novo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the subject of analysis is influence of certain macroeconomic and microeconomic variables on bank net interest margins in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH for the period from 2008 to 2013 through a multiple linear regression models. The level and dynamics of NIM indicate the efficiency of financial intermediation. The observed period is characterized by the reduction in net interest margins of banks over the previous decade, which was characterized by high GDP growth, bank loans and high-interest rates and high profitability. Therefore, this study examines the factors that affect the level of net interest margins in the domestic banking industry. The main objective of this paper is to determine whether there is interdependence in the movement between the independent and dependent variables through a multiple linear regression. The net interest margin will be observed as a dependent variable, and liquidity risk, operating costs, credit risk, the index of market concentration, funding risk, the growth rate of gross domestic product and consumer price index will be used as independent variables.

  16. Event hierarchies in DanNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bolette Sandford; Nimb, Sanni

    2008-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler udarbejdelsen af et verbumshierarki i det leksikalsk-semantiske ordnet, DanNet.......Artiklen omhandler udarbejdelsen af et verbumshierarki i det leksikalsk-semantiske ordnet, DanNet....

  17. The Uniframe .Net Web Service Discovery Service

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berbeco, Robert W

    2003-01-01

    Microsoft .NET allows the creation of distributed systems in a seamless manner Within NET small, discrete applications, referred to as Web services, are utilized to connect to each other or larger applications...

  18. Long Term RadNet Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This RadNet Quality Data Asset includes all data since initiation and when ERAMS was expanded to become RadNet, name changed to reflect new mission. This includes...

  19. SkyNet: A Modular Nuclear Reaction Network Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippuner, Jonas; Roberts, Luke F.

    2017-12-01

    Almost all of the elements heavier than hydrogen that are present in our solar system were produced by nuclear burning processes either in the early universe or at some point in the life cycle of stars. In all of these environments, there are dozens to thousands of nuclear species that interact with each other to produce successively heavier elements. In this paper, we present SkyNet, a new general-purpose nuclear reaction network that evolves the abundances of nuclear species under the influence of nuclear reactions. SkyNet can be used to compute the nucleosynthesis evolution in all astrophysical scenarios where nucleosynthesis occurs. SkyNet is free and open source, and aims to be easy to use and flexible. Any list of isotopes can be evolved, and SkyNet supports different types of nuclear reactions. SkyNet is modular so that new or existing physics, like nuclear reactions or equations of state, can easily be added or modified. Here, we present in detail the physics implemented in SkyNet with a focus on a self-consistent transition to and from nuclear statistical equilibrium to non-equilibrium nuclear burning, our implementation of electron screening, and coupling of the network to an equation of state. We also present comprehensive code tests and comparisons with existing nuclear reaction networks. We find that SkyNet agrees with published results and other codes to an accuracy of a few percent. Discrepancies, where they exist, can be traced to differences in the physics implementations.

  20. Effect of race/ethnicity on clinical presentation and risk of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia in patients with complete and partial molar pregnancy at a tertiary care referral center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gockley, Allison A; Joseph, Naima T; Melamed, Alexander; Sun, Sue Yazaki; Goodwin, Benjamin; Bernstein, Marilyn; Goldstein, Donald P; Berkowitz, Ross S; Horowitz, Neil S

    2016-09-01

    The reported incidence of molar pregnancy varies widely among different geographic locations. This variation has been attributed, at least in part, to racial/ethnic differences. While the incidence of molar pregnancies is decreasing, certain ethnic groups such as Hispanics, Asians, and American Indians continue to have an increased risk of developing gestational trophoblastic disease across the globe. We sought to describe the potential effect of ethnicity/race on the presentation and clinical course of complete mole and partial mole. All patients followed up for complete mole and partial mole at a single institution referral center from 1994 through 2013 were identified. Variables including age, race, gravidity, parity, gestational age, presenting signs/symptoms, serum human chorionic gonadotropin values, and development of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia were extracted from medical records and patient surveys. Patients with complete mole and partial mole were categorized into race/ethnicity groups defined as white, black, Asian, or Hispanic. Due to low numbers of non-white patients with partial mole in each non-white category, patients with partial mole were grouped as white or non-white. Continuous variables were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test and binary variables were compared using the Fisher exact test. A total of 167 complete mole patients with known race/ethnicity status were included (57.48% white, 14.97% Asian, 14.37% black, 13.17% Hispanic). Hispanics presented at younger age (median 24.5 years) compared to whites (median 32.0 years, P = .04) and Asians (median 31.0 years, P = .03). Blacks had higher gravidity than whites (P gestational age at diagnosis, and preevacuation serum human chorionic gonadotropin level by race/ethnicity. Hispanics were significantly less likely than whites to develop gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (absolute risk difference, 28.6%; 95% confidence interval, 8.1-39.2%; P = .02). A total of 144 patients with

  1. PsychoNet: a psycholinguistc commonsense ontology

    OpenAIRE

    Mohtasseb, Haytham; Ahmed, Amr

    2010-01-01

    Ontologies have been widely accepted as the most advanced knowledge representation model. This paper introduces PsychoNet, a new knowledgebase that forms the link between psycholinguistic taxonomy, existing in LIWC, and its semantic textual representation in the form of commonsense semantic ontology, represented by ConceptNet. The integration of LIWC and ConceptNet and the added functionalities facilitate employing ConceptNet in psycholinguistic studies. Furthermore, it simplifies utilization...

  2. 78 FR 72451 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BL74 Net Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service...). These regulations provide guidance on the computation of net investment income. The regulations affect... lesser of: (A) The individual's net investment income for such taxable year, or (B) the excess (if any...

  3. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net investment. 69.302 Section 69.302... Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B Rural...) Investment in Accounts 2002, 2003 and to the extent such inclusions are allowed by this Commission, Account...

  4. 47 CFR 65.450 - Net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.450 Section 65.450... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.450 Net income. (a) Net income shall consist of all revenues derived from the provision of interstate telecommunications services...

  5. 47 CFR 65.500 - Net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.500 Section 65.500... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Interexchange Carriers § 65.500 Net income. The net income methodology specified in § 65.450 shall be utilized by all interexchange carriers that are...

  6. NetBeans IDE 8 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Salter, David

    2014-01-01

    If you're a Java developer of any level using NetBeans and want to learn how to get the most out of NetBeans, then this book is for you. Learning how to utilize NetBeans will provide a firm foundation for your Java application development.

  7. Characterizing behavioural congruences for Petri nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Priese, Lutz; Sassone, Vladimiro

    1995-01-01

    We exploit a notion of interface for Petri nets in order to design a set of net combinators. For such a calculus of nets, we focus on the behavioural congruences arising from four simple notions of behaviour, viz., traces, maximal traces, step, and maximal step traces, and from the corresponding...

  8. 27 CFR 4.37 - Net contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the volume of wine within the container, except that the following tolerances shall be allowed: (1... THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.37 Net contents. (a) Statement of net contents. The net contents of wine for which a standard of fill is...

  9. NetMOD Version 2.0 Mathematical Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merchant, Bion J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Young, Christopher J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chael, Eric P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    NetMOD ( Net work M onitoring for O ptimal D etection) is a Java-based software package for conducting simulation of seismic, hydroacoustic and infrasonic networks. Network simulations have long been used to study network resilience to station outages and to determine where additional stations are needed to reduce monitoring thresholds. NetMOD makes use of geophysical models to determine the source characteristics, signal attenuation along the path between the source and station, and the performance and noise properties of the station. These geophysical models are combined to simulate the relative amplitudes of signal and noise that are observed at each of the stations. From these signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), the probabilities of signal detection at each station and event detection across the network of stations can be computed given a detection threshold. The purpose of this document is to clearly and comprehensively present the mathematical framework used by NetMOD, the software package developed by Sandia National Laboratories to assess the monitoring capability of ground-based sensor networks. Many of the NetMOD equations used for simulations are inherited from the NetSim network capability assessment package developed in the late 1980s by SAIC (Sereno et al., 1990).

  10. A small-scale field trial of pyriproxyfen-impregnated bed nets against pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae s.s. in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Hitoshi; Dida, Gabriel O; Ohashi, Kazunori; Kawashima, Emiko; Sonye, George; Njenga, Sammy M; Mwandawiro, Charles; Minakawa, Noboru

    2014-01-01

    Pyrethroid resistance is becoming a major problem for vector control programs, because at present, there are few suitable chemical substitutes for pyrethroids, as when used on bed nets the insecticide must have low mammalian toxicity as well as high activity to mosquitoes. Pyriproxyfen (PPF) is one of the most active chemicals among the juvenile hormone mimic (JHM) group. Sterilizing mosquitoes by using PPF could be a potential control measure for pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors. We investigated the sterilizing effects of two types of PPF-impregnated bed nets - a 1% PPF-impregnated net and a 1% PPF +2% permethrin-impregnated net (Olyset Duo) - to pyrethroid-resistant wild population of Anopheles gambiae s.s. in western Kenya. High mortality of blood-fed mosquitos was observed 3 days post-collection, in the houses where PPF-impregnated nets were used, indicating the effect of PPF on the longevity of mosquitos that came in contact with the net. Reduction in the number of ovipositing females, number of eggs, and number of progeny per female were also observed in the houses in which both Olyset Duo and PPF-impregnated nets were used. This is the first field study showing the high sterilizing efficacy of PPF against wild pyrethroid-resistant An. gambiae s.s. population. In addition, we recognized the necessity of combined use of permethrin with PPF, in order to reduce the risk of mosquito bites and provide a level of personal protection. Further studies on wild pyrethroid-resistant mosquito populations such as An. arabiensis and An. funestus s.s. would provide more information on the practical use of the PPF-impregnated bed nets.

  11. A small-scale field trial of pyriproxyfen-impregnated bed nets against pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae s.s. in western Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Kawada

    Full Text Available Pyrethroid resistance is becoming a major problem for vector control programs, because at present, there are few suitable chemical substitutes for pyrethroids, as when used on bed nets the insecticide must have low mammalian toxicity as well as high activity to mosquitoes. Pyriproxyfen (PPF is one of the most active chemicals among the juvenile hormone mimic (JHM group. Sterilizing mosquitoes by using PPF could be a potential control measure for pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors. We investigated the sterilizing effects of two types of PPF-impregnated bed nets - a 1% PPF-impregnated net and a 1% PPF +2% permethrin-impregnated net (Olyset Duo - to pyrethroid-resistant wild population of Anopheles gambiae s.s. in western Kenya. High mortality of blood-fed mosquitos was observed 3 days post-collection, in the houses where PPF-impregnated nets were used, indicating the effect of PPF on the longevity of mosquitos that came in contact with the net. Reduction in the number of ovipositing females, number of eggs, and number of progeny per female were also observed in the houses in which both Olyset Duo and PPF-impregnated nets were used. This is the first field study showing the high sterilizing efficacy of PPF against wild pyrethroid-resistant An. gambiae s.s. population. In addition, we recognized the necessity of combined use of permethrin with PPF, in order to reduce the risk of mosquito bites and provide a level of personal protection. Further studies on wild pyrethroid-resistant mosquito populations such as An. arabiensis and An. funestus s.s. would provide more information on the practical use of the PPF-impregnated bed nets.

  12. Canine tick-borne pathogens and associated risk factors in dogs presenting with and without clinical signs consistent with tick-borne diseases in northern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hii, S F; Traub, R J; Thompson, M F; Henning, J; O'Leary, C A; Burleigh, A; McMahon, S; Rees, R L; Kopp, S R

    2015-03-01

    To estimate the proportion of canine tick-borne disease (CTBD) pathogens in dogs from northern states of Australia presenting with and without clinical signs/laboratory abnormalities suggestive of CTBD and to evaluate associated risk factors. Client-owned dogs presented to a general practice clinic in the Northern Territory (NT; n = 138) and five referral hospitals in south-east Queensland (SEQ; n = 100) were grouped into CTBD-suspect and -control groups based on clinical and laboratory criteria. Blood and sera were screened for haemotropic Mycoplasma spp., Babesia spp., Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. using microscopic examination, in-clinic ELISA testing and PCR assays. Dog-specific risk factors associated with the presence of CTBD pathogens were evaluated. Overall, 24.4% of the suspect group and 12.2% of the control group dogs were infected. The proportions of M. haemocanis, B. vogeli, A. platys, Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum, and C. Mycoplasma haemobos were 7.1%, 5.0%, 3.8%, 1.7% and 0.4%, respectively. Dogs originating from the NT were 3.6-fold (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.51-8.62; P = 0.004) more likely to be infected with CTBD pathogens than those from SEQ. Male dogs were 2.3-fold (95% CI 1.17-4.80, P = 0.024) more likely to be PCR-positive to CTBD pathogens than female dogs. Dogs presenting with clinical signs consistent with CTBD and thrombocytopenia were more likely to be infected by CTBD pathogens (odds ratio 2.85; 95% CI 1.16, 7.02; P = 0.019). Haemotropic mycoplasmas were the most common tick-borne pathogen infecting client-owned dogs. Subclinical cases were common in dogs from the NT. Veterinary practitioners should be aware of the proportion of CTBD pathogens and the presenting features of clinical and subclinical disease in their area. © 2015 Australian Veterinary Association.

  13. NET 40 Generics Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Sudipta

    2012-01-01

    This is a concise, practical guide that will help you learn Generics in .NET, with lots of real world and fun-to-build examples and clear explanations. It is packed with screenshots to aid your understanding of the process. This book is aimed at beginners in Generics. It assumes some working knowledge of C# , but it isn't mandatory. The following would get the most use out of the book: Newbie C# developers struggling with Generics. Experienced C++ and Java Programmers who are migrating to C# and looking for an alternative to other generic frameworks like STL and JCF would find this book handy.

  14. First classification of the EU member states on risk and exposure data. SafetyNet, Building the European Road Safety Observatory, Workpackage 2, Deliverable D2.2.2.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lejeune, P. Treny, V. Duchamp, G. Hemdorff, S. Haddak, M. Hollo, P. Cardoso, J. Arsenio, E. Yannis, G. Papadimitriou, E. Bijleveld, F. Houwing, S. Bjørnskau, T. Rackliff, L. & Angermann, A.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this Report is the analysis of the state-of-the-art in risk and exposure data availability, collection methodologies and use in the European Union. More specifically, the analysis aims to explore the concepts of exposure and risk, as well as the theoretical properties of the various

  15. Effectiveness of insecticide-treated and untreated nets to prevent malaria in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Remoortel, Hans; De Buck, Emmy; Singhal, Maneesh; Vandekerckhove, Philippe; Agarwal, Satya P

    2015-08-01

    India is the most malaria-endemic country in South-East Asia, resulting in a high socio-economic burden. Insecticide-treated or untreated nets are effective interventions to prevent malaria. As part of an Indian first-aid guideline project, we aimed to investigate the magnitude of this effect in India. We searched MEDLINE, Embase and Central to systematically review Indian studies on the effectiveness of treated or untreated vs. no nets. Parasite prevalence and annual parasite incidence served as malaria outcomes. The overall effect was investigated by performing meta-analyses and calculating the pooled risk ratios (RR) and incidence rate ratios. Of 479 articles, we finally retained 16 Indian studies. Untreated nets decreased the risk of parasite prevalence compared to no nets [RR 0.69 (95% CI; 0.55, 0.87) in high-endemic areas, RR 0.49 (95% CI; 0.28, 0.84) in low-endemic areas], as was the case but more pronounced for treated nets [RR 0.35 (95% CI; 0.26, 0.47) in high-endemic areas, risk ratio 0.16 (95% CI; 0.06, 0.44) in low-endemic areas]. Incidence rate ratios showed a similar observation: a significantly reduced rate of parasites in the blood for untreated nets vs. no nets, which was more pronounced in low-endemic areas and for those who used treated nets. The average effect of treated nets (vs. no nets) on parasite prevalence was higher in Indian studies (RR 0.16-0.35) than in non-Indian studies (data derived from a Cochrane systematic review; RR 0.58-0.87). Both treated and untreated nets have a clear protective effect against malaria in the Indian context. This effect is more pronounced there than in other countries. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Tumor risk of children with 45,X/46,XY gonadal dysgenesis in relation to their clinical presentations: Further insights into the gonadal management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Yuk Him; Wong, Yuen Shan; Pang, Kristine Kit Yi; To, Ka Fai; Yiu, Alice Ka Wah; Wong, Hei Yi; Tsui, Siu Yan; Mou, Jennifer Wai Cheung; Chan, Kin Wai; Lee, Kim Hung

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the risk of gonadal germ cell neoplasms (GCN) in children with 45,X/46,XY gonadal dysgenesis and its relation to the clinical presentations. We conducted a retrospective study reviewing the clinical and gonadal features of all consecutive children with 45,X/46,XY gonadal dysgenesis who received gonadal management in a tertiary center from 1985 to 2015. Study subjects were divided into Group I(significant genitalia anomaly), Group II(female phenotype) and Group III(male phenotype). 21 children were studied (Group I=8; Group II=11; Group III=2). All 19 children of Group I and II eventually underwent bilateral gonadectomy. One patient of Group III underwent gonadal biopsy which showed increase in fibrous tissue in the testes without any GCN. 3/8(37.5%) and 6/11(54.5%) of patients in Group I and II respectively had either gonadoblastoma (GB) or carcinoma-in-situ (CIS) or both affecting one or both gonads. Among Group I patients, the 4 dysgenetic testes affected by CIS in 3 patients were intraabdominal (n=1), inguinal (n=1) and scrotal (n=2) in positions. Among Group II patients, 6/20 streak gonads had GB and 2/2 dysgenetic testes had GB or CIS. 45,X/46,XY children with significant genitalia anomaly or female phenotype are both at high risk of gonadal GCN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Sports as a preventive measure of at-risk behavior among urban youth: a presentation of the “Sports 2014 – Multifactorial Environmental Model”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulmatycki Lesław

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to present an original project titled “Sports 2014 – Multifactorial Environmental Model”, designed to reinforce positive behavior and create a sense of community among urban youth. It evolved together with the subsequent phases of an urban health promotion program that began in 1994 in Wrocław, Poland. However, the basis of this model was in creating a health promotion initiative that included elements of the Mandala model of health, an ecological model, and the ‘Your Neighborhood’s Coach’ health promotion and at-risk prevention program, begun in 2003 by the Sports Department of the City of Wrocław and continued to this day. This type of initiative was designed to include measures typical of a prevention program while also promoting an active lifestyle through constructive leisure activities. Its guiding philosophy was the ‘get involved’ rather than ‘dissuade from’ approach, which has found popularity in programs of a similar nature across the world. The presented “Multifactorial Environmental Model” is addressed to active counselors, coaches, psychologists, health promotion figureheads, and policymakers whose goal is to reduce negative and anti-social behavior in today’s youth. It should also find value among the pedagogical community of physical education institutions, as the presented work may serve as a source of experience when deciding on any significant changes in the education of future physical education teachers, coaches, and recreation instructors working with adolescents.

  18. Don't forget the siblings: School-aged siblings of children presenting to mental health services show at-risk patterns of attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowska, Kasia; Elliott, Bronwen

    2017-04-01

    Family therapists understand that children presenting for treatment are often bearers of symptoms signalling relational problems within the family system. Rather than addressing the children's symptoms in isolation, family therapists typically take those relational problems as their starting point in therapy. This study used the School-aged Assessment of Attachment (SAA) to assess the self-protective (attachment) strategies of the siblings of children presenting for psychiatric evaluation and also of the siblings of control children drawn from the normative population. Siblings of children in the clinical group were much more likely than siblings of control children to use at-risk self-protective strategies and to have markers suggestive of unresolved loss or trauma. School-aged siblings were found to use a broad range of strategies, and the pattern of change from first born to later born involved either a reversal of strategy or a shift to a more complex strategy. The study highlights that siblings of children presenting to mental health services are significantly affected by family relational stress. A family systems approach to assessment, one that enquires about the wellbeing of all family members, will ensure that the emotional needs of siblings are also addressed during the therapy process.

  19. Non-compliance with IDSA guidelines for patients presenting with methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus prosthetic joint infection is a risk factor for treatment failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaziz, A; Uçkay, I; Lustig, S; Boibieux, A; Lew, D; Hoffmeyer, P; Neyret, P; Chidiac, C; Ferry, T

    2017-11-06

    The long-term impact of treatment strategies proposed by the IDSA guidelines for patients presenting with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is not well-known. Retrospective (2000-2010) cohort study including patients presenting with MSSA hip or knee PJI. A univariate Cox analysis was performed to determine if the non-compliance with IDSA surgical guidelines was a risk factor for treatment failure. Eighty-nine patients with a mean follow-up of 2.8 years were included. Non-compliance with IDSA surgical guidelines was associated with treatment failure (hazard ratio 2.157; 95% CI [1.022-4.7]). The American Society of Anesthesiologists score, inadequate antimicrobial therapy, and a rifampicin-based regimen did not significantly influence patient outcome. Based on the IDSA guidelines, if a patient presenting with MSSA PJI is not eligible for implant retention, complete implant removal is needed to limit treatment failure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Sociodemographic, Epidemiological, and Clinical Risk Factors for Childhood Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Severely Malnourished Children Presenting With Pneumonia: Observation in an Urban Hospital in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Shahid, Abu S M S B; Shahunja, K M; Bardhan, Pradip Kumar; Faruque, Abu Syeed Golam; Das, Sumon Kumar; Salam, Mohammed Abdus

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate sociodemographic, epidemiological, and clinical risk factors for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in children presenting with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) and pneumonia. Children aged 0 to 59 months with SAM and radiologic pneumonia from April 2011 to July 2012 were studied in Bangladesh. Children with confirmed PTB (by culture and/or X-pert MTB/RIF) (cases = 27) and without PTB (controls = 81; randomly selected from 378 children) were compared. The cases more often had the history of contact with active PTB patient (P importance of the use of simple TST and/or history of contact with active TB patients in diagnosing PTB in such children, especially in resource-limited settings.

  1. Intravascular ultrasound and angiographic demonstration of left main stem thrombus-high-risk presentation in a young adult with anabolic steroid abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Pankaj; Davis, Gershan; Wilson, John Ian; Sivananthan, Mohan

    2010-01-01

    We present a case of acute myocardial infarction in a young adult with a history of anabolic steroid abuse. On diagnostic coronary angiography and intravascular ultrasound, he was found to have a distal left main stem thrombus extending into the proximal left anterior descending artery and a large intermediate vessel. As he was hemodynamically stable and pain-free, he was managed conservatively with triple antiplatelet therapy (aspirin, clopidogrel, and abciximab). This was also to avoid the risk of 'wiring the vessel,' especially if there was underlying dissection. Repeat angiography a few weeks later showed complete thrombus resolution. This is the first reported case of extensive left main stem thrombus in a young patient with anabolic steroid abuse. Management of such cases is not straightforward and our case highlights one approach to both diagnosis and treatment.

  2. Prevalence of risk factors at presentation and early mortality in patients aged 80 years or older with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claussen PA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Peter Andreas Claussen,1,2 Michael Abdelnoor,3 Kristin M Kvakkestad,1,2 Jan Eritsland,1 Sigrun Halvorsen1 1Department of Cardiology, Oslo University Hospital, Ullevaal, Norway; 2Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; 3Centre of Clinical Research: Unit of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Oslo University Hospital, Ullevaal, Norway Background: Elderly patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI are at high risk for complications and early mortality; still, they are underrepresented in clinical trials and observational studies. We studied the risk profiles at presentation and early mortality in elderly (≥80 years versus younger (<80 years STEMI patients. Design: This was a prospective cohort study. Methods: The study population comprised 4,092 consecutive STEMI patients admitted to Oslo University Hospital, Ulleval from 2006 to 2010. Baseline characteristics at admission were recorded, as well as in-hospital mortality. Etiologic strategy was used in the analyses. Results: Patients ≥80 years of age (n=536 were more likely to be women and have prior myocardial infarction, angina, and stroke, but were less likely to be current smokers. The crude in-hospital mortality was 16.2% in patients aged 80 years and older versus 3.5% in those younger than 80 years. The adjusted odds ratio for mortality in patients aged 80 years and older versus those younger than 80 years increased with increasing levels of serum creatinine and total cholesterol. In patients with low levels of serum creatinine and total cholesterol, the odds ratio was 3.01 (95% confidence interval, 1.86–4.93; P=0.0001; increasing to 11.72 (95% confidence interval, 5.26–26.3; P=0.001 in patients with high levels. Conclusion: High levels of serum cholesterol and creatinine were important risk factors for early mortality in elderly patients. Depending on the levels of cholesterol and creatinine, in-hospital mortality in patients aged 80 years and older

  3. Coloured Petri Nets: Basic Concepts, Analysis Methods and Practical Use. Vol 1, Basic Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    This three-volume work presents a coherent description of the theoretical and practical aspects of coloured Petri nets. These CP-nets are shown to be a full-fledged language for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems. The introductory first...... volume contains the formal definition of CP-nets and the mathematical theory behind their analysis methods. It gives a detailed presentation of many small examples and a brief overview of some industrial applications. The purpose of the book is to teach the reader how to construct CP-net models...

  4. Microbial activity in district cooling nets; Mikrobiell Aktivitet i Fjaerrkylenaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordling, Magnus [Swedish Corrosion Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-07-01

    Four district cooling nets with varying water quality have been investigated according to presence of microbially related problems. The aim has been to formulate recommendations regarding the water quality and regarding other procedures that might reduce the risk for biofilm formation and microbial corrosion. The method has consisted of using so called exposure containers, connected to each net. The water has been allowed to flow through the exposure containers where coupons of carbon steel have been exposed. The coupons have been withdrawn at different times, and analysed regarding the presence of biofilm and corrosion attack. Analyses have also been made regarding the amount of a number of different types of micro-organisms in the biofilm and in the district cooling water. The project has been divided in two phases. During the first phase of the project only two nets were investigated, one with municipal water and one with water of district heating quality, i.e. degassed and deionised. Biofilms could be seen on the coupons from both nets, even though the exposure time only had been 1.5 month. Considerable concentrations of micro-organisms were found in the biofilms and in the water for both nets, however much larger amounts for the net with municipal water. During the second phase of the project four nets were investigated, two with mainly municipal water and two with water of district heating quality. Here, on the other hand, it could be seen that the two nets with municipal water had micro-organisms of equivalent or lower concentrations compared to the two nets with water of district heating quality. One explanation to this is that the colouring substance pyranine is added to these two nets. Pyranine is added for the purpose of easily detecting a leakage but is at the same time a carbon compound, and as such a possible nutrient for the micro-organisms. This illustrates the importance of having the district cooling water as free from additives as possible. Other

  5. NETS - Danish participation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsen, S. (Grontmij - Carl Bro, Glostrup (Denmark)); Theel, C. (Baltic Sea Solutions, Holeby (Denmark))

    2008-12-15

    Within the NICe-funded project 'Nordic Environmental Technology Solutions (NETS)' a new type of networking at the Nordic level was organized in order to jointly exploit the rapidly growing market potential in the environmental technology sector. The project aimed at increased and professionalized commercialization of Nordic Cleantech in energy and water business segments through 1) closer cooperation and joint marketing activities, 2) a website, 3) cleantech product information via brochures and publications 4) and participating in relevant trade fairs and other industry events. Facilitating business-to-business activities was another core task for the NETS project partners from Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark with the aim to encourage total solutions for combined Cleantech system offers. The project has achieved to establish a Cleantech register of 600 Nordic Cleantech companies, a network of 86 member enterprises, produced several publications and brochures for direct technology promotion and a website for direct access to company profiles and contact data. The project partners have attended 14 relevant international Cleantech trade fairs and conferences and facilitated business-to-business contacts added by capacity building offers through two company workshops. The future challenge for the project partners and Nordic Cleantech will be to coordinate the numerous efforts within the Nordic countries in order to reach concerted action and binding of member companies for reliable services, an improved visibility and knowledge exchange. With Cleantech's growing market influence and public awareness, the need to develop total solutions is increasing likewise. Marketing efforts should be encouraged cross-sectional and cross-border among the various levels of involved actors from both the public and the private sector. (au)

  6. A novel cardiovascular risk stratification model incorporating ECG and heart rate variability for patients presenting to the emergency department with chest pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heldeweg, Micah Liam Arthur; Liu, Nan; Koh, Zhi Xiong; Fook-Chong, Stephanie; Lye, Weng Kit; Harms, Mark; Ong, Marcus Eng Hock

    2016-01-01

    Background: Risk stratification models can be employed at the emergency department (ED) to evaluate patient prognosis and guide choice of treatment. We derived and validated a new cardiovascular risk stratification model comprising vital signs, heart rate variability (HRV) parameters, and

  7. OK-Net Arable online knowledge platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ilse Ankjær; Jensen, Allan Leck; Jørgensen, Margit Styrbæk

    2017-01-01

    The complexity of organic farming requires farmers to have a very high level of knowledge and skills, but exchange on organic farming management techniques remains limited. The thematic network OK-Net Arable under Horizon 2020 has the aim to improve the exchange of innovative and traditional...... knowledge among farmers, farm advisers and scientists to increase productivity and quality in organic arable cropping in Europe. An online platform for knowledge exchange has been created, offering innovative education and end-user material as well as communication opportunities between actors. A number...... of specific tools – providing information about how to put existing knowledge from research and practice into use – have been chosen. They are presented on the platform with the possibility to find solutions, evaluate them, comment and discuss them or ask questions about them and to suggest new tools...

  8. A Conversation on Zero Net Energy Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torcellini, Paul A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eley, Charles [Consultant; Gupta, Smita [Itron; McHugh, Jon [McHugh Energy Consultants; Lui, Bing [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Higgins, Cathy [New Buildings Institute; Iplikci, Jessica [Energy Trust of Oregon; Rosenberg, Michael [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2017-06-01

    Recently, zero net energy (ZNE) buildings have moved from state-of-the-art small project demonstrations to a more widely adopted approach across the country among various building types and sizes. States such as California set policy goals of all new residential construction to be NZE by 2020 and all commercial buildings to be NZE by 2030. However, the market for designing, constructing, and operating ZNE buildings is still relatively small. We bring together distinguished experts to share their thoughts on making ZNE buildings more widespread and mainstream from a broad perspective, including governments, utilities, energy-efficiency research institutes, and building owners. This conversation also presents the benefits of ZNE and ways to achieve that goal in the design and operation of buildings. The following is a roundtable conducted by ASHRAE Journal and Bing Liu with Charles Eley, Smita Gupta, Cathy Higgins, Jessica Iplikci, Jon McHugh, Michael Rosenberg, and Paul Torcellini.

  9. Access Nets: Modeling Access to Physical Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohardt, Robert; Chang, Bor-Yuh Evan; Sankaranarayanan, Sriram

    Electronic, software-managed mechanisms using, for example, radio-frequency identification (RFID) cards, enable great flexibility in specifying access control policies to physical spaces. For example, access rights may vary based on time of day or could differ in normal versus emergency situations. With such fine-grained control, understanding and reasoning about what a policy permits becomes surprisingly difficult requiring knowledge of permission levels, spatial layout, and time. In this paper, we present a formal modeling framework, called AccessNets, suitable for describing a combination of access permissions, physical spaces, and temporal constraints. Furthermore, we provide evidence that model checking techniques are effective in reasoning about physical access control policies. We describe our results from a tool that uses reachability analysis to validate security policies.

  10. Mass distribution of free insecticide-treated nets do not interfere with continuous net distribution in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, Ikenna C; Kramer, Karen; Msengwa, Amina; Mandike, Renata; Lengeler, Christian

    2014-05-27

    To protect the most vulnerable groups from malaria (pregnant women and infants) the Tanzanian Government introduced a subsidy (voucher) scheme in 2004, on the basis of a public-private partnership. These vouchers are provided to pregnant women at their first antenatal care visit and mothers of infants at first vaccination. The vouchers are redeemed at registered retailers for a long-lasting insecticidal net against the payment of a modest top-up price. The present work analysed a large body of data from the Tanzanian National Voucher Scheme, focusing on interactions with concurrent mass distribution campaigns of free nets. In an ecologic study involving all regions of Tanzania, voucher redemption data for the period 2007-2011, as well as data on potential determinants of voucher redemption were analysed. The four outcome variables were: pregnant woman and infant voucher redemption rates, use of treated bed nets by all household members and by under- five children. Each of the outcomes was regressed with selected determinants, using a generalized estimating equation model and accounting for regional data clustering. There was a consistent improvement in voucher redemption rates over the selected time period, with rates >80% in 2011. The major determinants of redemption rates were the top-up price paid by the voucher beneficiary, the retailer- clinic ratio, and socio-economic status. Improved redemption rates after 2009 were most likely due to reduced top-up prices (following a change in policy). Redemption rates were not affected by two major free net distribution campaigns. During this period, there was a consistent improvement in net use across all the regions, with rates of up to 75% in 2011. The key components of the National Treated Nets Programme (NATNETS) seem to work harmoniously, leading to a high level of net use in the entire population. This calls for the continuation of this effort in Tanzania and for emulation by other countries with endemic malaria.

  11. Texture Based Image Analysis With Neural Nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilovici, Irina S.; Ong, Hoo-Tee; Ostrander, Kim E.

    1990-03-01

    In this paper, we combine direct image statistics and spatial frequency domain techniques with a neural net model to analyze texture based images. The resultant optimal texture features obtained from the direct and transformed image form the exemplar pattern of the neural net. The proposed approach introduces an automated texture analysis applied to metallography for determining the cooling rate and mechanical working of the materials. The results suggest that the proposed method enhances the practical applications of neural nets and texture extraction features.

  12. The Role of Anode Manufacturing Processes in Net Carbon Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Khaji

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon anodes are consumed in electrolysis cells during aluminum production. Carbon consumption in pre-bake anode cells is 400–450 kg C/t Al, considerably higher than the theoretical consumption of 334 kg C/t Al. This excess carbon consumption is partly due to the anode manufacturing processes. Net carbon consumption over the last three years at Emirates Aluminium (EMAL, also known as Emirates Global Aluminium (EGA Al Taweelah was analyzed with respect to anode manufacturing processes/parameters. The analysis indicates a relationship between net carbon consumption and many manufacturing processes, including anode desulfurization during anode baking. Anode desulfurization appears to increase the reaction surface area, thereby helping the Boudouard reaction between carbon and carbon dioxide in the electrolysis zone, as well as reducing the presence of sulfur which could inhibit this reaction. This paper presents correlations noted between anode manufacturing parameters and baked anode properties, and their impact on the net carbon consumption in electrolytic pots. Anode reactivities affect the carbon consumption in the pots during the electrolysis of alumina. Pitch content in anodes, impurities in anodes, and anode desulfurization during baking were studied to find their influence on anode reactivities. The understanding gained through this analysis helped reduce net carbon consumption by adjusting manufacturing processes. For an aluminum smelter producing one million tonnes of aluminum per year, the annual savings could be as much as US $0.45 million for every kg reduction in net carbon consumption.

  13. Entamoeba histolytica induces human neutrophils to form NETs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura-Juarez, J; Campos-Esparza, Mr; Pacheco-Yepez, J; López-Blanco, J A; Adabache-Ortíz, A; Silva-Briano, M; Campos-Rodríguez, R

    2016-08-01

    Entamoeba histolytica invades the intestine and other organs during the pathogenesis of amoebiasis. In the early stages, the host organism responds with an inflammatory infiltrate composed mostly of neutrophils. It has been reported that these immune cells, activated by E. histolytica, exert a protective role by releasing proteolytic enzymes and generating reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) and antimicrobial peptides. It is now known that neutrophils also produce neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which are able to damage and kill pathogens. Studies have shown that intracellular protozoan pathogens, including Toxoplasma gondi, Plasmodium falciparum and Leishmania spp, induce neutrophils to release NETs and are damaged by them. However, the action of this mechanism has not been explored in relation to E. histolytica trophozoites. Through scanning electron, epifluorescence microscopy and viability assays, we show for first time that during in vitro interaction with E. histolytica trophozoites, human neutrophils released NETs that covered amoebas and reduced amoebic viability. These NETs presented histones, myeloperoxidase and decondensed chromatin. The results suggest that NETs participate in the elimination of the parasite. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Factors associated with mosquito net use by individuals in households owning nets in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graves Patricia M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ownership of insecticidal mosquito nets has dramatically increased in Ethiopia since 2006, but the proportion of persons with access to such nets who use them has declined. It is important to understand individual level net use factors in the context of the home to modify programmes so as to maximize net use. Methods Generalized linear latent and mixed models (GLLAMM were used to investigate net use using individual level data from people living in net-owning households from two surveys in Ethiopia: baseline 2006 included 12,678 individuals from 2,468 households and a sub-sample of the Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS in 2007 included 14,663 individuals from 3,353 households. Individual factors (age, sex, pregnancy; net factors (condition, age, net density; household factors (number of rooms [2006] or sleeping spaces [2007], IRS, women's knowledge and school attendance [2007 only], wealth, altitude; and cluster level factors (rural or urban were investigated in univariate and multi-variable models for each survey. Results In 2006, increased net use was associated with: age 25-49 years (adjusted (a OR = 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.2-1.7 compared to children U5; female gender (aOR = 1.4; 95% CI 1.2-1.5; fewer nets with holes (Ptrend = 0.002; and increasing net density (Ptrend [all nets in HH good] = 1.6; 95% CI 1.2-2.1; increasing net density (Ptrend [per additional space] = 0.6, 95% CI 0.5-0.7; more old nets (aOR [all nets in HH older than 12 months] = 0.5; 95% CI 0.3-0.7; and increasing household altitude (Ptrend Conclusion In both surveys, net use was more likely by women, if nets had fewer holes and were at higher net per person density within households. School-age children and young adults were much less likely to use a net. Increasing availability of nets within households (i.e. increasing net density, and improving net condition while focusing on education and promotion of net use, especially in school-age children

  15. Net greenhouse gas emissions at Eastmain-1 reservoir, Quebec, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremblay, Alain; Bastien, Julie; Bonneville, Marie-Claude; del Giorgio, Paul; Demarty, Maud; Garneau, Michelle; Helie, Jean-Francois; Pelletier, Luc; Prairie, Yves; Roulet, Nigel; Strachan, Ian; Teodoru, Cristian

    2010-09-15

    The growing concern regarding the long-term contribution of freshwater reservoirs to atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHG), led Hydro-Quebec, to study net GHG emissions from Eastmain 1 reservoir, which are the emissions related to the creation of a reservoir minus those that would have been emitted or absorbed by the natural systems over a 100-year period. This large study was realized in collaboration with University du Quebec a Montreal, McGill University and Environnement IIlimite Inc. This is a world premiere and the net GHG emissions of EM-1 will be presented in details.

  16. Squaroglitter: A 3,4-Connected Carbon Net

    KAUST Repository

    Prasad, Dasari L. V. K.

    2013-08-13

    Theoretical calculations are presented on a new hypothetical 3,4-connected carbon net (called squaroglitter) incorporating 1,4 cyclohexadiene units. The structure has tetragonal space group P4/mmm (No. 123) symmetry. The optimized geometry shows normal distances, except for some elongated bonds in the cyclobutane ring substructures in the network. Squaroglitter has an indirect bandgap of about 1.0 eV. The hypothetical lattice, whose density is close to graphite, is more stable than other 3,4-connected carbon nets. A relationship to a (4,4)nanotube is explored, as is a potential threading of the lattice with metal needles. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  17. The effect of net foreign assets on saving rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben David Nissim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Observing empirical data we find that many countries try to delay the decision of increasing saving rate in order to avoid a decrease of the living standards. However the delay leads a deterioration of countries financial stability. We present a simple theoretical model that connects between countries' saving rate and their net foreign assets. Using cross section data set of 135 countries in 2010 we estimated the econometric relation between saving rate in 2010 as dependent variable and two explanatory variables: the current account in 2010 and the aggregated current account during 1980-2010. Our findings show that industrial countries in a bad financial state tend to decrease their saving rate as external debt is larger causing to deterioration in external debt while countries with good financial state tend to increase their saving rate and the tendency increase as financial state becomes better. Only in countries with a very large external debt saving rate tends to grow. The results point that gross foreign debt will keep increasing and will worsen world financial state causing increased risk of getting into a world crisis.

  18. Depression as a Risk Factor for the Initial Presentation of Twelve Cardiac, Cerebrovascular, and Peripheral Arterial Diseases: Data Linkage Study of 1.9 Million Women and Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Daskalopoulou

    Full Text Available Depression is associated with coronary heart disease and stroke, but associations with a range of pathologically diverse cardiovascular diseases are not well understood. We examine the risk of 12 cardiovascular diseases according to depression status (history or new onset.Cohort study of 1,937,360 adult men and women, free from cardiovascular disease at baseline, using linked UK electronic health records between 1997 and 2010. The exposures were new-onset depression (a new GP diagnosis of depression and/or prescription for antidepressants during a one-year baseline, and history of GP-diagnosed depression before baseline. The primary endpoint was initial presentation of 12 cardiovascular diseases after baseline. We used disease-specific Cox proportional hazards models with multiple imputation adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors (age, sex, socioeconomic status, smoking, blood pressure, diabetes, cholesterol.Over a median [IQR] 6.9 [2.1-10.5] years of follow-up, 18.9% had a history of depression and 94,432 incident cardiovascular events occurred. After adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, history of depression was associated with: stable angina (Hazard Ratio = 1.38, 95%CI 1.32-1.45, unstable angina (1.70, 1.60-1.82, myocardial infarction (1.21, 1.16-1.27, unheralded coronary death (1.23, 1.14-1.32, heart failure (1.18, 1.13-1.24, cardiac arrest (1.14, 1.03-1.26, transient ischemic attack (1.31, 1.25-1.38, ischemic stroke (1.26, 1.18-1.34, subarachnoid haemorrhage (1.17, 1.01-1.35, intracerebral haemorrhage (1.30, 1.17-1.45, peripheral arterial disease (1.24, 1.18-1.30, and abdominal aortic aneurysm (1.12,1.01-1.24. New onset depression developed in 2.9% of people, among whom 63,761 cardiovascular events occurred. New onset depression was similarly associated with each of the 12 diseases, with no evidence of stronger associations compared to history of depression. The strength of association between depression and these cardiovascular

  19. Pro Agile NET Development with Scrum

    CERN Document Server

    Blankenship, Jerrel; Millett, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Pro Agile .NET Development with SCRUM guides you through a real-world ASP.NET project and shows how agile methodology is put into practice. There is plenty of literature on the theory behind agile methodologies, but no book on the market takes the concepts of agile practices and applies these in a practical manner to an end-to-end ASP.NET project, especially the estimating, requirements and management aspects of a project. Pro Agile .NET Development with SCRUM takes you through the initial stages of a project - gathering requirements and setting up an environment - through to the development a

  20. Pro ASP.NET MVC 4

    CERN Document Server

    Freeman, Adam

    2012-01-01

    The ASP.NET MVC 4 Framework is the latest evolution of Microsoft's ASP.NET web platform. It provides a high-productivity programming model that promotes cleaner code architecture, test-driven development, and powerful extensibility, combined with all the benefits of ASP.NET. ASP.NET MVC 4 contains a number of significant advances over previous versions. New mobile and desktop templates (employing adaptive rendering) are included together with support for jQuery Mobile for the first time. New display modes allow your application to select views based on the browser that's making the request whi

  1. Professional Visual Basic 2010 and .NET 4

    CERN Document Server

    Sheldon, Bill; Sharkey, Kent

    2010-01-01

    Intermediate and advanced coverage of Visual Basic 2010 and .NET 4 for professional developers. If you've already covered the basics and want to dive deep into VB and .NET topics that professional programmers use most, this is your book. You'll find a quick review of introductory topics-always helpful-before the author team of experts moves you quickly into such topics as data access with ADO.NET, Language Integrated Query (LINQ), security, ASP.NET web programming with Visual Basic, Windows workflow, threading, and more. You'll explore all the new features of Visual Basic 2010 as well as all t

  2. Neural system modeling and simulation using Hybrid Functional Petri Net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yin; Wang, Fei

    2012-02-01

    The Petri net formalism has been proved to be powerful in biological modeling. It not only boasts of a most intuitive graphical presentation but also combines the methods of classical systems biology with the discrete modeling technique. Hybrid Functional Petri Net (HFPN) was proposed specially for biological system modeling. An array of well-constructed biological models using HFPN yielded very interesting results. In this paper, we propose a method to represent neural system behavior, where biochemistry and electrical chemistry are both included using the Petri net formalism. We built a model for the adrenergic system using HFPN and employed quantitative analysis. Our simulation results match the biological data well, showing that the model is very effective. Predictions made on our model further manifest the modeling power of HFPN and improve the understanding of the adrenergic system. The file of our model and more results with their analysis are available in our supplementary material.

  3. Calculation Tool for Determining the Net Energy Gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2002-01-01

    for windows are presented. Based on these methods a program has been developed that determines the heat loss coefficient, U, and the total solar energy transmittance, g, for windows compounded of specific window components selected from a database. The program calculates the net energy gain for specific....... A proper and direct way to describe the energy performance of windows is by the net energy gain, E, which expresses the energy balance for the window. It is defined as the solar heat gain transmitted in minus the heat loss transmitted out through the window during the heating season. The net energy gain...... is dependent on both the U-values and the g-values. Beyond this it is dependent on the orientation of the windows and the climate and the actual period. This makes it difficult to choose the glazings and windows that are optimal with regard to energy performance in a given case. These facts have aroused a need...

  4. A Petri Net Definition of a System Description Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1979-01-01

    This paper introduces a language for the description of systems with concurrency, and presents a formal definition of its semantics. The language is based on Delta and the semantic model is an extension of Petri nets with a data part and with expressions attached to transitions and to places....

  5. Factores de riesgo inmunoepidemiológicos en niños con infecciones respiratorias recurrentes Immunoepidemiologic risk factors in children presenting with recurrent respiratory infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Pérez Sánchez

    2011-09-01

    admitted due to this type of infections and came to immunology consultation from January, 2005 to December, 2007 of the "Angel Arturo Aballí" Maternal and Children Hospital. Results: the preschool age, male sex, non-effective breastfeeding, allergy, low birth weight, environmental tobacco smoke, assistance to nurseries and overcrowding were the more frequent risk factors. The more frequent immune response disorders were the cellular immune defect, the humoral immune defect and the phagocyte disorder. Conclusions: the immunoepidemiologic risk factors present in the study sample were: age between 1 to 5 years with predominance of male sex, non-effective breastfeeding, allergy, low birth weight, environmental tobacco smoke, overcrowding and assistance to nurseries. All these are accompanied of immune response defects with predominance of cellular branch.

  6. Sufficient and Necessary Condition to Decide Compatibility for a Class of Interorganizational Workflow Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanjun Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interorganizational Workflow nets (IWF-nets can well model many concurrent systems such as web service composition, in which multiple processes interact via sending/receiving messages. Compatibility of IWF-nets is a crucial criterion for the correctness of these systems. It guarantees that a system has no deadlock, livelock, or dead tasks. In our previous work we proved that the compatibility problem is PSPACE-complete for safe IWF-nets. This paper defines a subclass of IWF-nets that can model many cases about interactions. Necessary and sufficient condition is presented to decide their compatibility, and it depends on the net structures only. Finally, an algorithm is developed based on the condition.

  7. Professional ASP.NET 4.5 in C# and VB

    CERN Document Server

    Gaylord, Jason N; Rastogi, Pranav; Miranda, Todd; Hanselman, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The all-new approach for experienced ASP.NET professionals! ASP.NET is Microsoft's technology for building dynamically generated web pages from database content. Originally introduced in 2002, ASP.NET has undergone many changes in multiple versions and iterations as developers have gained a decade of experience with this popular technology. With that decade of experience, this edition of the book presents a fresh, new overhauled approach. A new focus on how to build ASP.NET sites and applications relying on field-tested reliable methodsIntegration of ""One A

  8. A cost-utility analysis of risk model-guided versus physician's choice antiemetic prophylaxis in patients receiving chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer: a net benefit regression approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavorn, Kednapa; Coyle, Doug; Hoch, Jeffrey S; Vandermeer, Lisa; Mazzarello, Sasha; Wang, Zhou; Dranitsaris, George; Fergusson, Dean; Clemons, Mark

    2017-08-01

    We assessed the cost-effectiveness of a risk model-guided (RMG) antiemetic prophylaxis strategy compared with the physician's choice (PC) strategy in patients receiving chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer. We conducted a cost-utility analysis based on a published randomized controlled trial of 324 patients with early-stage breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy at two Canadian cancer centers. Patients were randomized to receive their antiemetic treatments according to either predefined risk scores or the treating physician's preference. Effectiveness was measured as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. Cost and utility data were obtained from the Canadian published literature. We used generalized estimating equations to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) over a range of willingness-to-pay values. The lower and upper bounds of the 95% CIs were used to characterize the statistical uncertainty for the cost-effectiveness estimates and construct cost-effectiveness acceptability curves. From the health care system's perspective, the RMG strategy was associated with greater QALYs gained (0.0016, 95% CI 0.0009, 0.0022) and higher cost ($49.19, 95% CI $24.87, $73.08) than the PC strategy, resulting in an ICER of $30,864.28 (95% CI $14,718.98, $62,789.04). At the commonly used threshold of $50,000/QALY, the probability that RMG prophylaxis is cost-effective was >94%; this probability increased with greater willingness-to-pay values. The risk-guided antiemetic prophylaxis is an economically attractive option for patients receiving chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer. This information supports the implementation of risk prediction models to guide chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting prophylaxis in clinical practices.

  9. HANPP Collection: Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) as a Percentage of Net Primary Product (NPP) portion of the HANPP Collection represents a map identifying...

  10. Price smarter on the Net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, W; Marn, M; Zawada, C

    2001-02-01

    Companies generally have set prices on the Internet in two ways. Many start-ups have offered untenably low prices in a rush to capture first-mover advantage. Many incumbents have simply charged the same prices on-line as they do off-line. Either way, companies are missing a big opportunity. The fundamental value of the Internet lies not in lowering prices or making them consistent but in optimizing them. After all, if it's easy for customers to compare prices on the Internet, it's also easy for companies to track customers' behavior and adjust prices accordingly. The Net lets companies optimize prices in three ways. First, it lets them set and announce prices with greater precision. Different prices can be tested easily, and customers' responses can be collected instantly. Companies can set the most profitable prices, and they can tap into previously hidden customer demand. Second, because it's so easy to change prices on the Internet, companies can adjust prices in response to even small fluctuations in market conditions, customer demand, or competitors' behavior. Third, companies can use the clickstream data and purchase histories that it collects through the Internet to segment customers quickly. Then it can offer segment-specific prices or promotions immediately. By taking full advantage of the unique possibilities afforded by the Internet to set prices with precision, adapt to changing circumstances quickly, and segment customers accurately, companies can get their pricing right. It's one of the ultimate drivers of e-business success.

  11. Delivery presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is delivered under the pubic bone. After the shoulder, the rest of the body is usually delivered without a problem. Alternative Names Shoulder presentation; Malpresentations; Breech birth; Cephalic presentation; Fetal lie; ...

  12. Risk Factors for Invasive Fungal Infection among Thai Oncologic Patients with Febrile Neutropenia and Cutaneous Presentation: A 5-Year Retrospective Study in Southern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiempanakit, Kumpol; Naorungroj, Surarit; Chiratikarnwong, Kanokphorn; Auepemkiate, Sauvarat; Apinantriyo, Benjawan

    2017-12-29

    Background: Febrile neutropenia (FNP) is a condition defined by fever and neutropenia. There are current only limited data on related cutaneous manifestations. This study aimed to assess cutaneous lesions and their etiologies in a Thai group of FNP patients. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted on 43 non-transplant febrile neutropenic patients with concurrent cutaneous lesions, as determined by dermatopathologic studies at Songklanagarind Hospital in Thailand over a five-year period. Results: The mean age was 39 years (SD: 18.8). Approximately 60% were male. The most common underlying disease was a hematologic neoplasm. Twenty-one of the participants had developed FNP within 7.5±8.7 days after presenting with skin lesions. Twenty-two participants had skin lesions 9.0±11.1 days after FNP diagnosis. Cutaneous manifestations were mostly in the form of multiple lesions (67.4%), of which the most common were nodular skin lesions (37.2%) presenting on the lower extremities of the body (58.1%). The dermatopathologic diagnoses included infections which were almost all fungal and leukemia cutis. The development of skin lesions after FNP proved to be a statistically significant risk factor for fungal infection (OR 8.13, P = 0.009), whereas age (over 40 years) proved to be a statistically significant protective factor (OR 0.20, P = 0.04). Conclusions: There are a variety of cutaneous manifestations in FNP, of which the most common were cutaneous nodular skin lesions in the lower extremities. The most frequent infection was fungal in patients under 40 who had developed skin lesions after FNP. Creative Commons Attribution License

  13. Stone growth patterns and risk for surgery among children presenting with hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia and cystinuria as underlying metabolic causes of urolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu'bi, F; Sidler, M; Harvey, E; Lopes, R I; Hojjat, A; Naoum, N; Pokarowski, M; Lorenzo, A J; Farhat, W A; Papanikolaou, F; Dos Santos, J

    2017-08-01

    Hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia and cystinuria are the most common underlying metabolic stone abnormalities in children. The present study compared stone growth patterns, stone burden, and the risk of stone-related surgery among these underlying metabolic conditions. A retrospective cohort of 356 children with renal stones, followed from 2000 to 2015, was studied. Differences among metabolic groups were determined using Kruskal-Wallis test; the Scheffé-test was used for multiple comparisons to determine differences among single groups. Independent sample t-test was used when adequate, given the sample size, and Chi-squared test was used for categorical variables. Stone growth rates were calculated as differences in diameter divided by time elapsed between U/Ss (mm/year). Logistic regression was performed to assess the effect of initial stone size on the likelihood of surgery. Median stone size at presentation was significantly different among groups, with cystinuria being the group with the largest proportion of stones >10 mm, while patients with stones metabolic workup (P metabolic groups. On the other hand, the rate of new stone formation in cystinuric patients at their first follow-up was 30.4%, which was significantly higher than in patients with hypercalciuria (16.3%) or with a normal metabolic workup (17.2%; P 20 mm stones was almost 16 or 34 times, respectively (P metabolic groups, stones with a higher growth rate were significantly more likely to result in surgical treatment than slower growing stones. Initial stone size, location of largest stone, previous urinary tract infection, and patient's metabolic type significantly influenced the likelihood of a surgical intervention. Better understanding of the natural history ultimately helps surgeons and clinicians defining prognosis, treatment, and prevention plans for pediatric urolithiasis. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 78 FR 72393 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Investment Income Tax; Final and Proposed Rules #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 231 / Monday, December... Parts 1 and 602 RIN 1545-BK44 Net Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury... Investment Income Tax and the computation of Net Investment Income. The regulations affect individuals...

  15. 77 FR 72611 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... December 5, 2012 Part V Department of the Treasury Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 Net Investment... Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking...) the individual's net investment income for such taxable year, or (B) the excess (if any) of (i) the...

  16. Net analyte signal based statistical quality control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skibsted, E.T.S.; Boelens, H.F.M.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Smilde, A.K.; Broad, N.W.; Rees, D.R.; Witte, D.T.

    2005-01-01

    Net analyte signal statistical quality control (NAS-SQC) is a new methodology to perform multivariate product quality monitoring based on the net analyte signal approach. The main advantage of NAS-SQC is that the systematic variation in the product due to the analyte (or property) of interest is

  17. Using the MVC architecture on . NET platform

    OpenAIRE

    Ježek, David

    2011-01-01

    This thesis deals with usage of MVC (Model View Controller) technology in web development on ASP.NET platform from Microsoft. Mainly it deals with latest version of framework ASP.NET MVC 3. First part describes MVC architecture and the second describes usage of MVC in certain parts of web application an comparing with PHP.

  18. Analysis of Petri Nets and Transition Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eike Best

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a stand-alone, no-frills tool supporting the analysis of (labelled place/transition Petri nets and the synthesis of labelled transition systems into Petri nets. It is implemented as a collection of independent, dedicated algorithms which have been designed to operate modularly, portably, extensibly, and efficiently.

  19. 27 CFR 7.27 - Net contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net contents. 7.27 Section 7.27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... the net contents are displayed by having the same blown, branded, or burned in the container in...

  20. Petri nets and other models of concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Sassone, Vladimiro

    1998-01-01

    This paper retraces, collects, and summarises contributions of the authors - in collaboration with others - on the theme of Petri nets and their categorical relationships to other models of concurrency.......This paper retraces, collects, and summarises contributions of the authors - in collaboration with others - on the theme of Petri nets and their categorical relationships to other models of concurrency....

  1. Delta Semantics Defined By Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    This report is identical to an earlier version of May 1978 except that Chapter 5 has been revised. A new paper: "A Petri Net Definition of a System Description Language", DAIMI, April 1979, 20 pages, extends the Petri net model to include a data state representing the program variables. Delta...

  2. Net neutrality and inflation of traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peitz, M.; Schütt, Florian

    Under strict net neutrality Internet service providers (ISPs) are required to carry data without any differentiation and at no cost to the content provider. We provide a simple framework with a monopoly ISP to evaluate the short-run effects of different net neutrality rules. Content differs in its

  3. Net Neutrality and Inflation of Traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peitz, M.; Schütt, F.

    2015-01-01

    Under strict net neutrality Internet service providers (ISPs) are required to carry data without any differentiation and at no cost to the content provider. We provide a simple framework with a monopoly ISP to evaluate different net neutrality rules. Content differs in its sensitivity to delay.

  4. The Net Neutrality Debate: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Rich

    2006-01-01

    Rich Greenfield examines the basics of today's net neutrality debate that is likely to be an ongoing issue for society. Greenfield states the problems inherent in the definition of "net neutrality" used by Common Cause: "Network neutrality is the principle that Internet users should be able to access any web content they choose and…

  5. Dynamic response of the thermometric net radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. D. Wilson; W. J. Massman; G. E. Swaters

    2009-01-01

    We computed the dynamic response of an idealized thermometric net radiometer, when driven by an oscillating net longwave radiation intended roughly to simulate rapid fluctuations of the radiative environment such as might be expected during field use of such devices. The study was motivated by curiosity as to whether non-linearity of the surface boundary conditions...

  6. Teaching and Learning with the Net Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Kassandra; Marateo, Raymond C.; Ferris, S. Pixy

    2007-01-01

    As the Net Generation places increasingly greater demands on educators, students and teachers must jointly consider innovative ways of teaching and learning. In this, educators are supported by the fact that the Net Generation wants to learn. However, these same educators should not fail to realize that this generation learns differently from…

  7. Verification of Timed-Arc Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lasse; Jacobsen, Morten; Møller, Mikael Harkjær

    2011-01-01

    Timed-Arc Petri Nets (TAPN) are an extension of the classical P/T nets with continuous time. Tokens in TAPN carry an age and arcs between places and transitions are labelled with time intervals restricting the age of tokens available for transition firing. The TAPN model posses a number...

  8. A Brief Introduction to Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1997-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets or CPN) is a graphical oriented language for design, specification, simulation and verification of systems. It is in particular well- suited for systems in which communication, synchronisation and resource sharing are important. Typical examples of application areas a...

  9. Gill net and trammel net selectivity in the northern Aegean Sea, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Saadet Karakulak

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Fishing trials were carried out with gill nets and trammel nets in the northern Aegean Sea from March 2004 to February 2005. Four different mesh sizes for the gill nets and the inner panel of trammel nets (16, 18, 20 and 22 mm bar length were used. Selectivity parameters for the five most economically important species, bogue (Boops boops, annular sea bream (Diplodus annularis, striped red mullet (Mullus surmuletus, axillary sea bream (Pagellus acarne and blotched picarel (Spicara maena, caught by the two gears were estimated. The SELECT method was used to estimate the selectivity parameters of a variety of models. Catch composition and catch proportion of several species were different in gill and trammel nets. The length frequency distributions of the species caught by the two gears were significantly different. The bi-modal model selectivity curve gave the best fit for gill net and trammel net data, and there was little difference between the modal lengths of these nets. However, a clear difference was found in catching efficiency. The highest catch rates were obtained with the trammel net. Given that many discard species and small fish are caught by gill nets and trammel nets with a mesh size of 16 mm, it is clear that these nets are not appropriate for fisheries. Consequently, the best mesh size for multispecies fisheries is 18 mm. This mesh size will considerably reduce the numbers of small sized individuals and discard species in the catch.

  10. Discrete, continuous, and hybrid petri nets

    CERN Document Server

    David, René

    2004-01-01

    Petri nets do not designate a single modeling formalism. In fact, newcomers to the field confess sometimes to be a little puzzled by the diversity of formalisms that are recognized under this "umbrella". Disregarding some extensions to the theoretical modeling capabilities, and looking at the level of abstraction of the formalisms, Condition/Event, Elementary, Place/Transition, Predicate/Transition, Colored, Object Oriented... net systems are frequently encountered in the literature. On the other side, provided with appropriate interpretative extensions, Controled Net Systems, Marking Diagrams (the Petri net generalization of State Diagrams), or the many-many variants in which time can be explicitly incorporated -Time(d), Deterministic, (Generalized) Stochastic, Fuzzy...- are defined. This represents another way to define practical formalisms that can be obtained by the "cro- product" of the two mentioned dimensions. Thus Petri nets constitute a modeling paradigm, understandable in a broad sense as "the total...

  11. Net cholesterol efflux capacity of HDL enriched serum and coronary atherosclerosis in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormseth, Michelle J; Yancey, Patricia G; Yamamoto, Suguru; Oeser, Annette M; Gebretsadik, Tebeb; Shintani, Ayumi; Linton, MacRae F; Fazio, Sergio; Davies, Sean S; Roberts, L Jackson; Vickers, Kasey C; Raggi, Paolo; Kon, Valentina; Stein, C Michael

    2016-12-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) risk is increased in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but not fully explained by traditional risk factors such as LDL and HDL cholesterol concentrations. The cholesterol efflux capacity of HDL may be a better CV risk predictor than HDL concentrations. We hypothesized that HDL's cholesterol efflux capacity is impaired and inversely associated with coronary atherosclerosis in patients with RA. We measured the net cholesterol efflux capacity of apolipoprotein B depleted serum and coronary artery calcium score in 134 patients with RA and 76 control subjects, frequency-matched for age, race and sex. The relationship between net cholesterol efflux capacity and coronary artery calcium score and other clinical variables of interest was assessed in patients with RA. Net cholesterol efflux capacity was similar among RA (median [IQR]: 34% removal [28, 41%]) and control subjects (35% removal [27%, 39%]) (P=0.73). In RA, increasing net cholesterol efflux capacity was not significantly associated with decreased coronary calcium score (OR=0.78 (95% CI 0.51-1.19), P=0.24, adjusted for age, race and sex, Framingham risk score and presence of diabetes). Net cholesterol efflux capacity was not significantly associated with RA disease activity score, C-reactive protein, urinary F2-isoprostanes, or degree of insulin resistance in RA. Net cholesterol efflux capacity is not significantly altered in patients with relatively well-controlled RA nor is it significantly associated with coronary artery calcium score.

  12. Net Operating Working Capital, Capital Budgeting, and Cash Budgets: A Teaching Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuner, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Many introductory finance texts present information on the capital budgeting process, including estimation of project cash flows. Typically, estimation of project cash flows begins with a calculation of net income. Getting from net income to cash flows requires accounting for non-cash items such as depreciation. Also important is the effect of…

  13. Coloured Petri Nets: Basic Concepts, Analysis Methods and Practical Use. Vol 1, Basic Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    This three-volume work presents a coherent description of the theoretical and practical aspects of coloured Petri nets. These CP-nets are shown to be a full-fledged language for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems. The introductory first...

  14. MultiNet TCP/P/IP for VAX/VMS update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, L. Stuart

    1991-01-01

    Outlines of device support; DECnet interoperability; installation; MultiNet services; domain name server; Telnet; FTP; SMTP; DECwindows over TCP/IP; BSD r services; remote printing; RPC services and NFS server; NFS client; netcontrol; diagnostics; programming support; and MultiNet features are presented in viewgraph format.

  15. A Forward Reachability Algorithm for Bounded Timed-Arc Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Jacobsen, Lasse; Jacobsen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Timed-arc Petri nets (TAPN) are a well-known time extension of thePetri net model and several translations to networks of timedautomata have been proposed for this model.We present a direct, DBM-basedalgorithm for forward reachability analysis of bounded TAPNs extended with transport arcs...

  16. A Case Study in Coordination Programming: Performance Evaluation of S-Net vs Intel's Concurrent Collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaichenkov, P.; Gijsbers, B.; Grelck, C.; Tveretina, O.; Shafarenko, A.

    2014-01-01

    We present a programming methodology and runtime performance case study comparing the declarative data flow coordination language S-Net with Intel's Concurrent Collections (CnC). As a coordination language S-Net achieves a near-complete separation of concerns between sequential software components

  17. Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barshi, Immanuel

    2016-01-01

    Speaking up, i.e. expressing ones concerns, is a critical piece of effective communication. Yet, we see many situations in which crew members have concerns and still remain silent. Why would that be the case? And how can we assess the risks of speaking up vs. the risks of keeping silent? And once we do make up our minds to speak up, how should we go about it? Our workshop aims to answer these questions, and to provide us all with practical tools for effective risk assessment and effective speaking-up strategies..

  18. Pro visual C++/CLI and the net 35 platform

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Pro Visual C++/CLI and the .NET 3.5 Platform is about writing .NET applications using C++/CLI. While readers are learning the ins and outs of .NET application development, they will also be learning the syntax of C++, both old and new to .NET. Readers will also gain a good understanding of the .NET architecture. This is truly a .NET book applying C++ as its development language not another C++ syntax book that happens to cover .NET.

  19. SkyGlowNet as a Vehicle for STEM Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flurchick, K. M.; Craine, E. R.; Culver, R. B.; Deal, S.; Foster, C.

    2013-06-01

    SkyGlowNet is an emerging network of internet-enabled sky brightness meters (iSBM) that continuously record and log sky brightness at the zenith of each network node site. Also logged are time and weather information. These data are polled at a user-defined frequency, typically about every 45 seconds. The data are uploaded to the SkyGlowNet website, initially to a proprietary area where the data for each institution are embargoed for one or two semesters as students conduct research projects with their data. When released from embargo, the data are moved to another area where they can be accessed by all SkyGlowNet participants. Some of the data are periodically released to a public area on the website. In this presentation we describe the data formats and provide examples of both data content and the structure of the website. Early data from two nodes in the SkyGlowNet have been characterized, both quantitatively and qualitatively, by undergraduate students at NCAT. A summary of their work is presented here. These analyses are of utility in helping those new to looking at these data to understand how to interpret them. In particular, we demonstrate differences between effects on light at night and sky brightness due to astronomical cycles, atmospheric phenomena, and artificial lighting. Quantitative characterization of the data includes statistical analyses of parsed segments of the temporal data stream. An attempt is made to relate statistical metrics to specific types of phenomena.

  20. CATCHY PRESENTATIONS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kaare; Tollestrup, Christian; Ovesen, Nis

    2011-01-01

    and ideas in many areas and avoiding “Death by Powerpoint”. This paper discusses the need and tools for making short presentations and describes the result from a business development project where engineering graduate students in architecture and design used the Pecha Kucha format to present...

  1. Assessment of Transport Projects: Risk Analysis and Decision Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salling, Kim Bang

    2008-01-01

    . Even though vast amounts of money are spent upon preliminary models, environmental investigations, public hearings, etc., the resulting outcome is given by point estimates, i.e. in terms of net present values or benefit-cost rates. This thesis highlights the perspective of risks when assessing...... choosing probability distributions and performing real term data fits. The perspective of this Ph.D. study presents newer and better understanding of assigning risks within assessment of transport projects....

  2. A Comparative Study of Clinical Presentation and Risk Factors for Adverse Outcome in Patients Hospitalised with Acute Respiratory Disease Due to MERS Coronavirus or Other Causes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa A Garbati

    Full Text Available Middle East Respiratory syndrome (MERS first emerged in Saudi Arabia in 2012 and remains a global health concern. The objective of this study was to compare the clinical features and risk factors for adverse outcome in patients with RT-PCR confirmed MERS and in those with acute respiratory disease who were MERS-CoV negative, presenting to the King Fahad Medical City (KFMC in Riyadh between October 2012 and May 2014. The demographics, clinical and laboratory characteristics and clinical outcomes of patients with RT-PCR confirmed MERS-CoV infection was compared with those testing negative MERS-CoV PCR. Health care workers (HCW with MERS were compared with MERS patients who were not health care workers. One hundred and fifty nine patients were eligible for inclusion. Forty eight tested positive for MERS CoV, 44 (92% being hospital acquired infections and 23 were HCW. There were 111 MERS-CoV negative patients with acute respiratory illnesses included in this study as "negative controls". Patient with confirmed MERS-CoV infection were not clinically distinguishable from those with negative MERS-CoV RT-PCR results although diarrhoea was commoner in MERS patients. A high level of suspicion in initiating laboratory tests for MERS-CoV is therefore indicated. Variables associated with adverse outcome were older age and diabetes as a co-morbid illness. Interestingly, co-morbid illnesses other than diabetes were not significantly associated with poor outcome. Health care workers with MERS had a markedly better clinical outcome compared to non HCW MERS patients.

  3. Climatic Forecasting of Net Infiltration at Yucca Montain Using Analogue Meteororological Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Faybishenko

    2006-09-11

    At Yucca Mountain, Nevada, future changes in climatic conditions will most likely alter net infiltration, or the drainage below the bottom of the evapotranspiration zone within the soil profile or flow across the interface between soil and the densely welded part of the Tiva Canyon Tuff. The objectives of this paper are to: (a) develop a semi-empirical model and forecast average net infiltration rates, using the limited meteorological data from analogue meteorological stations, for interglacial (present day), and future monsoon, glacial transition, and glacial climates over the Yucca Mountain region, and (b) corroborate the computed net-infiltration rates by comparing them with the empirically and numerically determined groundwater recharge and percolation rates through the unsaturated zone from published data. In this paper, the author presents an approach for calculations of net infiltration, aridity, and precipitation-effectiveness indices, using a modified Budyko's water-balance model, with reference-surface potential evapotranspiration determined from the radiation-based Penman (1948) formula. Results of calculations show that net infiltration rates are expected to generally increase from the present-day climate to monsoon climate, to glacial transition climate, and then to the glacial climate. The forecasting results indicate the overlap between the ranges of net infiltration for different climates. For example, the mean glacial net-infiltration rate corresponds to the upper-bound glacial transition net infiltration, and the lower-bound glacial net infiltration corresponds to the glacial transition mean net infiltration. Forecasting of net infiltration for different climate states is subject to numerous uncertainties-associated with selecting climate analogue sites, using relatively short analogue meteorological records, neglecting the effects of vegetation and surface runoff and runon on a local scale, as well as possible anthropogenic climate changes.

  4. Principales lesiones bucales y factores de riesgo presentes en población mayor de 60 años Leading oral lesions and risk factors present in a population aged over 60 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Gonzáles Ramos

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuó un estudio descriptivo en la población mayor de 60 años del área de salud de la Policlínica Moncada, que recibieron atención en la Facultad de Estomatología "Raúl González Sánchez", Ciudad de La Habana, durante el año 2006, para determinar los factores de riesgo asociados con la aparición de lesiones bucales, su distribución según edad y sexo, además de identificar el tipo de lesión y su localización anatómica. Se estudiaron 352 ancianos a los que se les aplicó una encuesta para identificar la presencia de factores de riesgo y se realizó un examen físico de la cavidad bucal y el cuello para detectar las lesiones y su localización. Como principales resultados se obtuvo que el 60,7 % de los ancianos presentaron factores de riesgo; los más frecuentes fueron: la ingestión de alimentos condimentados y calientes en un 83,4 %, el hábito de fumar en un 82,1 % seguido del uso de prótesis y el alcoholismo, ambos con 72,4 %. El sexo masculino fue el más afectado en un 58,2 %, el factor de riesgo que predominó fue la ingestión de alcohol en un 75,7 %. En las mujeres el uso de prótesis fue el factor de riesgo que predominó con un 73,3 %, seguido del hábito de fumar; la edad más afectada fue la de más de 80 años en un 41,7 %. El 48,5 % presentaban lesiones, el épulis fisurado fue el más representativo en un 39,1 %, la estomatitis subprotésica con un 35,6 %. La localización anatómica encontrada con mayor afectación fue el paladar duro, encía inferior y mucosa del carrillo. Se evidenció con estos resultados la falta de calidad de las actividades de educación para la salud, ya que predominaron estilos de vida perjudiciales a la salud.A descriptive study was conducted in a population aged over 60 from the health area of "Moncada" polyclinic seen in "Raúl González Sánchez" Stomatology Faculty of Ciudad de La Habana during 2006 to determine the risk factors associated with appearance of oral lesions, its

  5. An analytical method for well-formed workflow/Petri net verification of classical soundness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clempner Julio

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider workflow nets as dynamical systems governed by ordinary difference equations described by a particular class of Petri nets. Workflow nets are a formal model of business processes. Well-formed business processes correspond to sound workflow nets. Even if it seems necessary to require the soundness of workflow nets, there exist business processes with conditional behavior that will not necessarily satisfy the soundness property. In this sense, we propose an analytical method for showing that a workflow net satisfies the classical soundness property using a Petri net. To present our statement, we use Lyapunov stability theory to tackle the classical soundness verification problem for a class of dynamical systems described by Petri nets. This class of Petri nets allows a dynamical model representation that can be expressed in terms of difference equations. As a result, by applying Lyapunov theory, the classical soundness property for workflow nets is solved proving that the Petri net representation is stable. We show that a finite and non-blocking workflow net satisfies the sound property if and only if its corresponding PN is stable, i.e., given the incidence matrix A of the corresponding PN, there exists a Փ strictly positive m vector such that AՓ≤ 0. The key contribution of the paper is the analytical method itself that satisfies part of the definition of the classical soundness requirements. The method is designed for practical applications, guarantees that anomalies can be detected without domain knowledge, and can be easily implemented into existing commercial systems that do not support the verification of workflows. The validity of the proposed method is successfully demonstrated by application examples.

  6. The transport of radioactive materials presents particular risks because the matters circulate at the nearest of public; Le transport de matieres radioactives presente des risques particuliers car les matieres circulent au plus pres du public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The transport of radioactive materials is the object of a particular attention of public authority. The object of this work is to present the approach of deep protection that has been chosen to provide the reliability of these transports. (N.C.)

  7. Nurse-led Early Triage (NET) study of chest pain patients: a long term evaluation study of a service development aimed at improving the management of patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, L; Smith, K; Currie, Pf; Elder, Dhj; Wei, L; Lang, Cc

    2014-06-01

    Patients presenting with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) are at risk of early death. This may be reduced by timely assessment and treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if Nurse-led Early Triage (NET) in the coronary care unit (CCU) can improve time to assessment and management of NSTE-ACS patients. Data on 79 consecutive chest pain patients admitted pre-NET to the acute admissions unit (AAU) and on 103 patients admitted in the first six months of the NET service in CCU, was re-examined and compared to subsequent data obtained on 92 patients admitted via NET five years later, in order to re-evaluate the service. NET resulted in significant improvements in: the number of patients with chest pain who had their 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) performed within 10 min of admission (94% vs 32%, ppatients prescribed clopidogrel (72% vs 42%, ppatients between the NET groups at six months and five years, demonstrating that current triage is as effective as when first introduced. This study demonstrated the positive impact of nurse-led early triage for NSTE-ACS patients and that initial benefits have been sustained.

  8. Scoping study for compact high-field superconducting net energy tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumgaard, R. T.; Greenwald, M.; Freidberg, J. P.; Wolfe, S. M.; Hartwig, Z. S.; Brunner, D.; Sorbom, B. N.; Whyte, D. G.

    2016-10-01

    The continued development and commercialization of high temperature superconductors (HTS) may enable the construction of compact, net-energy tokamaks. HTS, in contrast to present generation low temperature superconductors, offers improved performance in high magnetic fields, higher current density, stronger materials, higher temperature operation, and simplified assembly. Using HTS along with community-consensus confinement physics (H98 =1) may make it possible to achieve net-energy (Q>1) or burning plasma conditions (Q>5) in DIII-D or ASDEX-U sized, conventional aspect ratio tokamaks. It is shown that, by operating at high plasma current and density enabled by the high magnetic field (B>10T), the required triple products may be achieved at plasma volumes under 20m3, major radii under 2m, with external heating powers under 40MW. This is at the scale of existing devices operated by laboratories, universities and companies. The trade-offs in the core heating, divertor heat exhaust, sustainment, stability, and proximity to known plasma physics limits are discussed in the context of the present tokamak experience base and the requirements for future devices. The resulting HTS-based design space is compared and contrasted to previous studies on high-field copper experiments with similar missions. The physics exploration conducted with such HTS devices could decrease the real and perceived risks of ITER exploitation, and aid in quickly developing commercially-applicable tokamak pilot plants and reactors.

  9. KONVERGENSI DALAM PROGRAM NET CITIZEN JOURNALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhafidilla Vebrynda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Di dalam artikel ini, peneliti ingin melihat perkembangan teknologi di Indonesia sebagai sebuah peluang untuk menjalankan sebuah program berita berbasis video kiriman masyarakat. Perkembangan teknologi tersebut adalah teknologi penyiaran, teknologi sosial media dan teknologi dalam proses produksi sebuah video. Di Indonesia, jumlah televisi semakin banyak. Setiap stasiun televisi harus bersaing untuk dapat bertahan hidup. Net TV merupakan sebuah stasiun televisi baru di Indonesia yang harus memiliki berbagai program unggulan baru agar dapat bersaing dengan televisi lainnya yang sudah ada. Net TV menggunakan berbagai platform media untuk menjalankan program Net Citizen Journalism (Net CJ. Penggunaan berbagai platform media dikenal dengan istilah multiplatform dan secara teoritis dikenal dengan istilah konvergensi. Konvergensi yaitu saat meleburnya domain-domain dalam berbagai media komunikasi. Artikel ini menggunakan metode studi kasus untuk melihat bagaimana konvergensi terjadi dalam proses pengelolaan program Net CJ. Teknik pengumpulan data adalah dengan wawancara mendalam, observasi dan studi dokumen. Wawancara mendalam dilakukan dari tiga sudut pandang yaitu dari pengelola program, pengguna/audience dan pengamat media. Penelitian ini menemukan bahwa dengan menggunakan berbagai platform media yang fungsinya berbeda, memiliki satu tujuan yang sama yaitu untuk menjalankan program Net CJ. Adapun berbagai platform dalam proses produksi program yaitu tayangan TV konvensional, streaming TV, website, aplikasi Net CJ, facebook, twitter, instagram dan path. Konvergensi media dijalankan dalam dua proses, yaitu proses produksi dan proses promosi program berita.

  10. Information Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Kritina L.; Thompson, Shelby G.; Sandor, Aniko; McCann, Robert S.; Kaiser, Mary K.; Adelstein, Barnard D.; Begault, Durand R.; Beutter, Brent R.; Stone, Leland S.; Godfroy, Martine

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRP) is to address design questions related to the presentation of information to the crew. In addition to addressing display design issues associated with information formatting, style, layout, and interaction, the Information Presentation DRP is also working toward understanding the effects of extreme environments encountered in space travel on information processing. Work is also in progress to refine human factors-based design tools, such as human performance modeling, that will supplement traditional design techniques and help ensure that optimal information design is accomplished in the most cost-efficient manner. The major areas of work, or subtasks, within the Information Presentation DRP for FY10 are: 1) Displays, 2) Controls, 3) Procedures and Fault Management, and 4) Human Performance Modeling. The poster will highlight completed and planned work for each subtask.

  11. Poster Presentations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2017-01-01

    [...]high index of suspicion was observed when other 4 patients presented with biopsy proven secondary membranous with history of intake of indigenous medications and all were shown to have increased urinary mercury levels...

  12. CERN presentations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    Presentation by CERN (10 minutes each) Rolf Landua - Education and Outreach Salvatore Mele - Open Access Jean-Yves Le Meur - Digital Library in Africa Francois Fluckiger - Open Source/Standards (tbc) Tim Smith - Open Data for Science Tullio Basiglia - tbc

  13. Updates to Information Presented in the Scope and Methods Plans for the Ozone NAAQS Health and Welfare Risk and Exposure Assessments, May 2012 Memo

    Science.gov (United States)

    This memorandum provides an overview of changes to the scope and methods plan, and reasons for them, to inform the CASAC Ozone Panel and the public as they prepare to review the first drafts of the Risk and Exposure Assessments.

  14. Approximation methods for stochastic petri nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungnitz, Hauke Joerg

    1992-01-01

    Stochastic Marked Graphs are a concurrent decision free formalism provided with a powerful synchronization mechanism generalizing conventional Fork Join Queueing Networks. In some particular cases the analysis of the throughput can be done analytically. Otherwise the analysis suffers from the classical state explosion problem. Embedded in the divide and conquer paradigm, approximation techniques are introduced for the analysis of stochastic marked graphs and Macroplace/Macrotransition-nets (MPMT-nets), a new subclass introduced herein. MPMT-nets are a subclass of Petri nets that allow limited choice, concurrency and sharing of resources. The modeling power of MPMT is much larger than that of marked graphs, e.g., MPMT-nets can model manufacturing flow lines with unreliable machines and dataflow graphs where choice and synchronization occur. The basic idea leads to the notion of a cut to split the original net system into two subnets. The cuts lead to two aggregated net systems where one of the subnets is reduced to a single transition. A further reduction leads to a basic skeleton. The generalization of the idea leads to multiple cuts, where single cuts can be applied recursively leading to a hierarchical decomposition. Based on the decomposition, a response time approximation technique for the performance analysis is introduced. Also, delay equivalence, which has previously been introduced in the context of marked graphs by Woodside et al., Marie's method and flow equivalent aggregation are applied to the aggregated net systems. The experimental results show that response time approximation converges quickly and shows reasonable accuracy in most cases. The convergence of Marie's method and flow equivalent aggregation are applied to the aggregated net systems. The experimental results show that response time approximation converges quickly and shows reasonable accuracy in most cases. The convergence of Marie's is slower, but the accuracy is generally better. Delay

  15. Visual Studio 2010 and NET 4 Six-in-One

    CERN Document Server

    Novak, Istvan; Granicz, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Complete coverage of all key .NET 4 and Visual Studio 2010 languages and technologies. .NET 4 is Microsoft's latest version of their core programming platform, and Visual Studio 2010 is the toolset that helps write .NET 4 applications. This comprehensive resource offers one-stop shopping for all you need to know to get productive with .NET 4. Experienced author and .NET guru Mitchel Sellers reviews all the important new features of .NET 4, including .NET charting and ASP.NET charting, ASP.NET dynamic data and jQuery, and the addition of F# as a supported package language. The expansive coverag

  16. EmojiNet: Building a Machine Readable Sense Inventory for Emoji

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijeratne, Sanjaya; Balasuriya, Lakshika; Sheth, Amit; Doran, Derek

    2017-01-01

    Emoji are a contemporary and extremely popular way to enhance electronic communication. Without rigid semantics attached to them, emoji symbols take on different meanings based on the context of a message. Thus, like the word sense disambiguation task in natural language processing, machines also need to disambiguate the meaning or ‘sense’ of an emoji. In a first step toward achieving this goal, this paper presents EmojiNet, the first machine readable sense inventory for emoji. EmojiNet is a resource enabling systems to link emoji with their context-specific meaning. It is automatically constructed by integrating multiple emoji resources with BabelNet, which is the most comprehensive multilingual sense inventory available to date. The paper discusses its construction, evaluates the automatic resource creation process, and presents a use case where EmojiNet disambiguates emoji usage in tweets. EmojiNet is available online for use at http://emojinet.knoesis.org. PMID:28736776

  17. Application and Theory of Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , the conferences have 150-200 participants, one third of these coming from industry and the rest from universities and research institutions. The 1992 conference was organized by the School of Computing and Management Sciences at Sheffield City Polytechnic, England. The volume contains twoinvited papers, by G......This volume contains the proceedings of the 13th International Conference onApplication and Theory of Petri Nets, held in Sheffield, England, in June 1992. The aim of the Petri net conferences is to create a forum for discussing progress in the application and theory of Petri nets. Typically...

  18. Quantifying the yield of risk-bearing IT-portfolios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, R.J.; Verhoef, C.

    2008-01-01

    We proposed a method to quantify the yield of an IT-investment portfolio in an environment of uncertainty and risk. For various common implementation scenarios such as growing demands during implementation without deadline extensions we showed how to monetize their impact on the net present value.

  19. Risk Analysis Applied in Oil Exploration and Production | Mbanugo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analysis in this work is based on the actual field data obtained from Devon Exploration and Production Inc. The Net Present Value (NPV) and the Expected Monetary Value (EMV) were computed using Excel and Visual Basic to determine the viability of these projects. Although the use of risk management techniques ...

  20. Increased trehalose biosynthesis in Hartig net hyphae of ectomycorrhizas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Mónica Fajardo; Männer, Philipp; Willmann, Anita; Hampp, Rüdiger; Nehls, Uwe

    2007-01-01

    To obtain photoassimilates in ectomycorrhizal symbiosis, the fungus has to create a strong sink, for example, by conversion of plant-derived hexoses into fungus-specific compounds. Trehalose is present in large quantities in Amanita muscaria and may thus constitute an important carbon sink. In Amanita muscaria-poplar (Populus tremula x tremuloides) ectomycorrhizas, the transcript abundances of genes encoding key enzymes of fungal trehalose biosynthesis, namely trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS), trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (TPP) and trehalose phosphorylase (TP), were increased. When mycorrhizas were separated into mantle and Hartig net, TPS, TPP and TP expression was specifically enhanced in Hartig net hyphae. Compared with the extraradical mycelium, TPS and TPP expression was only slightly increased in the fungal sheath, while the increase in the expression of TP was more pronounced. TPS enzyme activity was also elevated in Hartig net hyphae, displaying a direct correlation between transcript abundance and turnover rate. In accordance with enhanced gene expression and TPS activity, trehalose content was 2.7 times higher in the Hartig net. The enhanced trehalose biosynthesis at the plant-fungus interface indicates that trehalose is a relevant carbohydrate sink in symbiosis. As sugar and nitrogen supply affected gene expression only slightly, the strongly increased expression of the investigated genes in mycorrhizas is presumably developmentally regulated.