WorldWideScience

Sample records for net positive responses

  1. Dynamic response of the thermometric net radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. D. Wilson; W. J. Massman; G. E. Swaters

    2009-01-01

    We computed the dynamic response of an idealized thermometric net radiometer, when driven by an oscillating net longwave radiation intended roughly to simulate rapid fluctuations of the radiative environment such as might be expected during field use of such devices. The study was motivated by curiosity as to whether non-linearity of the surface boundary conditions...

  2. Net foreign asset (com)position : Does financial development matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Robert; de Haan, Jakob

    We investigate the relationship between a country's domestic financial development and the (composition of its) net foreign asset position using a pooled mean group estimator and data for 50 countries for the 1970-2007 period. The results show that financial development reduces a country's long-run

  3. Diffusion of Clostridium perfringens NetB positive strains in healthy and diseased chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Bano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available For over 30 years α toxin was considered the key virulence factor responsible for the appearance of necrotic enteritis (NE in chickens but, recently, a new toxin related to the occurrence of NE, called NetB, has been described. The aim of this work was to evaluate the CP toxin-type and the NetB gene presence in strains collected from chickens affected or not by enteric diseases. 107 strains were tested: 30 isolated from chickens affected by NE, 54 from subjects affected by other enteric pathologies and 22 from healthy animals. All strains resulted toxin-type A and 26.17% of these was positive also for β2 toxin gene. No strains were positive for cpe gene. 27% (29/107 of CP was NetB positive and 93% (27/29 of these was isolated from birds affected by intestinal disorders. 16 NetB positive strains were obtained from chickens affected by NE (16/30, 9 from animals affected by other intestinal disorders (9/54 and 4 from healthy animals (4/22. A significant difference between the number of NetB positive strains isolated from animals affected by NE and healthy chickens has been observed (P=0.014. However, the finding that the 17.4% of strains isolated from healthy chickens was also positive for NetB, confirm that other virulence factors could play an important role on NE appearance.

  4. Urbanization has a positive net effect on soil carbon stocks: modelling outcomes for the Moscow region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasenev, Viacheslav; Stoorvogel, Jetse; Leemans, Rik; Valentini, Riccardo

    2016-04-01

    Urbanization is responsible for large environmental changes worldwide. Urbanization was traditionally related to negative environmental impacts, but recent research highlights the potential to store soil carbon (C) in urban areas. The net effect of urbanization on soil C is, however, poorly understood. Negative influences of construction and soil sealing can be compensated by establishing of green areas. We explored possible net effects of future urbanization on soil C-stocks in the Moscow Region. Urbanization was modelled as a function of environmental, socio-economic and neighbourhood factors. This yielded three alternative scenarios: i) including neighbourhood factors; ii) excluding neighbourhood factors and focusing on environmental drivers; and iii) considering the New Moscow Project, establishing 1500km2 of new urbanized area following governmental regulation. All three scenarios showed substantial urbanization on 500 to 2000km2 former forests and arable lands. Our analysis shows a positive net effect on SOC stocks of 5 to 11 TgC. The highest increase occurred on the less fertile Orthic Podzols and Eutric Podzoluvisols, whereas C-storage in Orthic Luvisols, Luvic Chernozems, Dystric Histosols and Eutric Fluvisols increased less. Subsoil C-stocks were much more affected with an extra 4 to 10 TgC than those in the topsoils. The highest increase of both topsoil and subsoil C stocks occurred in the New Moscow scenario with the highest urbanization. Even when the relatively high uncertainties of the absolute C-values are considered, a clear positive net effect of urbanization on C-stocks is apparent. This highlights the potential of cities to enhance C-storage. This will progressively become more important in the future following the increasing world-wide urbanization.

  5. 31 CFR 356.13 - When must I report my net long position and how do I calculate it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When must I report my net long position and how do I calculate it? 356.13 Section 356.13 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating... net long position and how do I calculate it? (a) Net long position reporting threshold. (1) If you are...

  6. Prevalence of netF-positive Clostridium perfringens in foals in southwestern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Abigail; Gohari, Iman Mehdizadeh; Parreira, Valeria R; Abrahams, Miranda; Staempfli, Henry R; Prescott, John F

    2016-07-01

    NetF-producing Clostridium perfringens have recently been identified as a cause of necrotizing enteritis in neonatal foals, but little is known about its prevalence in clinically normal foals. Foals (n = 88) ranging in age from perfringens. Of the foals that tested positive, 5 isolates (n = 675) were examined for the netF and enterotoxin (cpe) genes. Colonization by C. perfringens was most marked in foals perfringens does not colonize young foals with any detectable frequency in Ontario and this organism is not likely to be adapted to the intestine of the horse.

  7. Hysteresis response of daytime net ecosystem exchange during drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Pingintha

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Continuous measurements of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE using the eddy-covariance method were made over an agricultural ecosystem in the southeastern US. During optimum environmental conditions, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR was the primary driver controlling daytime NEE, accounting for as much as 67 to 89% of the variation in NEE. However, soil water content became the dominant factor limiting the NEE-PAR response during the peak growth stage. NEE was significantly depressed when high PAR values coincided with very low soil water content. The presence of a counter-clockwise hysteresis of daytime NEE with PAR was observed during periods of water stress. This is a result of the stomatal closure control of photosynthesis at high vapor pressure deficit and enhanced respiration at high temperature. This result is significant since this hysteresis effect limits the range of applicability of the Michaelis-Menten equation and other related expressions in the determination of daytime NEE as a function of PAR. The systematic presence of hysteresis in the response of NEE to PAR suggests that the gap-filling technique based on a non-linear regression approach should take into account the presence of water-limited field conditions. Including this step is therefore likely to improve current evaluation of ecosystem response to increased precipitation variability arising from climatic changes.

  8. Characterisation and testing of the KM3NeT acoustic positioning system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viola S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In underwater neutrino telescopes, the search of point-like sources through the Cherenkov detection technique requires a precise knowledge of the positions of thousands of optical sensors, spread in a volume of a few cubic kilometres. In KM3NeT the optical sensors are hosted in 700 m high semi-rigid structures, called detection units, which move under the effects of underwater currents. These movements are continuously monitored through an underwater positioning system based on acoustic emitters and receivers. In this work, the tests performed on the key elements of the positioning system are presented.

  9. AN ECONOMETRICAL APPROACH OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INNOVATION AND NET OUTWARD INVESTMENT POSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorela IACOVOIU

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the theory of the Investment Development Path (IDP and competitive advantages, this study presents an econometrical approach of the relationship between net outward investment position, given by the net outward investment per capita (NOI, and innovation capabilities, reflected by the global innovation index (GII. The results of the analysis carried out for the worldwide economies, in the year 2013, using five models demonstrate that there is no significant correlation between NOI, as dependent variable, and GII as independent one. Thus, the highest coefficient of determination value was .201 (cubic model, reflecting the fact that only 20.1% of the variation in the NOI is explained by GII. Therefore, the level of country’s innovation capacities is not one of the main forces that determine its NOI position.

  10. Responses in live weight change to net energy intake in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte; Østergaard, Søren; Bertilsson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    or multiparous. Feed ration energy values were recalculated by use of NorFor to obtain consistent energy expression in all trials as opposed to the varying feed evaluation systems used in original analysis of trials. Regression analysis with linear and quadratic effects were performed on live weight......The objective of this analysis was to estimate the effect of increased energy intake on daily live weight changes during the first 100 days of lactation of primiparous and multiparous cows. A data set with 78 observations (treatment means) was compiled from 6 production trials from Denmark, Norway...... change were made by linear mixed effects model with trial as random factor. For both primiparous and multiparous cows there was an increasing curvilinear response at a decreasing rate to increased net energy intake and the daily live weight change at day 30 was negative and at day 90 it was positive...

  11. [Influence of indium net position on 253.7 nm resonance spectra line of electrodeless discharge lamps].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jin-Yang; Zhang, Gui-Xin; Wang, Chang-Quan; Zou, Jun; Zhao, Ting

    2012-09-01

    As a kind of new electric light source, electrodeless discharge lamps (EDL) are based on high-frequency electromagnetic induction and nonpolar gas discharge. Visible light is emitted as a result of Hg 253.7 nm resonance spectrum line inspiring phosphor. The influence of indium net position on the Hg 253. 7 nm resonance spectral line was studied experimentally by atomic emission spectral analysis. It was found that the relative intensity of Hg 253.7 nm resonance spectral line is strongest when the indium net is located at both ends of coupling coil, weaker at middle and weakest when far away from coupling coil. It was inferred that there is an optimum indium net position for EDL, and the corresponding lighting effect is maximal. The results were qualitatively analyzed from the standpoint of gas discharge theory, combined with the finite element simulation of Maxwell 3D, which has instructive value for pattern design and parametric optimization of EDL.

  12. Legal nature of the positive constitutional responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Bobrova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the paper is theoretical justification of legal nature of positive constitutionalresponsibility legal institute. The evolution of views on the institution of positive constitutionalresponsibility from the first works on it (S.A. Avak`yan, Yu.P. Eremenko, F.M. Rudinsky, N.A. Bobrova to the present time is analyzed.The purpose is to clarify its role in establishment and maintaining the regime of constitutionallegality.The results, scope of application. Doubts about the legal nature of positive constitutionalresponsibility up to its complete denial are identical with doubts about the legal nature ofmany constitutional norms, the denial of their direct action. These disputes will last forever.Direct service of constitutional and legal responsibility to the quality of governance is a featureof this type of legal responsibility along with its pronounced political character, as wellas the specific guilt of the subject of constitutional tort (liability not only for their acts butfor the acts of their subordinates.The emphasis on positive moral aspect to the detriment of "sanction" (retrospective aspectof the constitutional responsibility does not meet the challenges of the new time.Proponents of affirmative responsibility had good purpose to build its high creative andeducational role from the positive side of the legal liability. However, this good purpose inpractice has not led to optimistic results.The authors come to the conclusion the legal regulation of mechanisms of responsibilityenforcement in Russia is necessary.

  13. Whole-body cortisol response of zebrafish to acute net handling stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, J.M.; Feist, G.W.; Varga, Z.M.; Westerfield, M.; Kent, M.L.; Schreck, C.B.

    2009-01-01

    Zebrafish, Danio rerio, are frequently handled during husbandry and experimental procedures in the laboratory, yet little is known about the physiological responses to such stressors. We measured the whole-body cortisol levels of adult zebrafish subjected to net stress and air exposure at intervals over a 24 h period; cortisol recovered to near control levels by about 1 h post-net-stress (PNS). We then measured cortisol at frequent intervals over a 1 h period. Cortisol levels were more than 2-fold higher in net stressed fish at 3 min PNS and continued to increase peaking at 15 min PNS, when cortisol levels were 6-fold greater than the control cortisol. Mean cortisol declined from 15 to 60 min PNS, and at 60 min, net-stressed cortisol was similar to control cortisol. Because the age of fish differed between studies, we examined resting cortisol levels of fish of different ages (3, 7, 13, and 19 months). The resting cortisol values among tanks with the same age fish differed significantly but there was no clear effect of age. Our study is the first to report the response and recovery of cortisol after net handling for laboratory-reared zebrafish. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  14. Positive Legal Responsibility in the Family Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel A. Matveev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article author bases on the analysis of doctrinal and normative sources attempt to substantiate the existence of positive legal responsibility. Author defines the specificity of positive familial liability in the mechanism of self- identity of lawful behavior. Considering the nature of family legal liability, author proves independence of family-legal responsibility; it differs from civil, criminal and administrative responsibility. Author gives own definition of family-legal responsibility, gives characteristic features of this type of liability and justifies own view of the concept of responsibility in the modern family. Author substantiates view that family liability is expressed in multiple sanctions fixable current family law. Author notes that measures of family - legal responsibility are: annulment of the marriage, deprivation and restriction of parental rights, abolition of adoption, custody, guardianship, termination of child in a foster family placement, deprivation of the right to communicate with the child, taking away a child, termination or limitation of the obligation to subject the material contents of family relationship to other entities. Justifying own views, author relies on the opinions of scholars, experts, as well as a number of other competent persons.

  15. A critique of positive responsibility in computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieb, James A

    2008-06-01

    It has been claimed that (1) computer professionals should be held responsible for an undisclosed list of "undesirable events" associated with their work and (2) most if not all computer disasters can be avoided by truly understanding responsibility. Programmers, software developers, and other computer professionals should be defended against such vague, counterproductive, and impossible ideals because these imply the mandatory satisfaction of social needs and the equation of ethics with a kind of altruism. The concept of social needs is debatable with no one possessing the authority to impose their version of them. Similarly, the notion of "positive responsibility" is difficult to apply, does not effectively change computing practice, and confuses good (i.e., efficient) computer engineering with good (i.e. moral) computer engineering.

  16. The positive net radiative greenhouse gas forcing of increasing methane emissions from a thawing boreal forest-wetland landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbig, Manuel; Chasmer, Laura E; Kljun, NatasCha; Quinton, William L; Treat, Claire C; Sonnentag, Oliver

    2017-06-01

    At the southern margin of permafrost in North America, climate change causes widespread permafrost thaw. In boreal lowlands, thawing forested permafrost peat plateaus ('forest') lead to expansion of permafrost-free wetlands ('wetland'). Expanding wetland area with saturated and warmer organic soils is expected to increase landscape methane (CH4 ) emissions. Here, we quantify the thaw-induced increase in CH4 emissions for a boreal forest-wetland landscape in the southern Taiga Plains, Canada, and evaluate its impact on net radiative forcing relative to potential long-term net carbon dioxide (CO2 ) exchange. Using nested wetland and landscape eddy covariance net CH4 flux measurements in combination with flux footprint modeling, we find that landscape CH4 emissions increase with increasing wetland-to-forest ratio. Landscape CH4 emissions are most sensitive to this ratio during peak emission periods, when wetland soils are up to 10 °C warmer than forest soils. The cumulative growing season (May-October) wetland CH4 emission of ~13 g CH4  m-2 is the dominating contribution to the landscape CH4 emission of ~7 g CH4  m-2 . In contrast, forest contributions to landscape CH4 emissions appear to be negligible. The rapid wetland expansion of 0.26 ± 0.05% yr-1 in this region causes an estimated growing season increase of 0.034 ± 0.007 g CH4  m-2  yr-1 in landscape CH4 emissions. A long-term net CO2 uptake of >200 g CO2  m-2  yr-1 is required to offset the positive radiative forcing of increasing CH4 emissions until the end of the 21st century as indicated by an atmospheric CH4 and CO2 concentration model. However, long-term apparent carbon accumulation rates in similar boreal forest-wetland landscapes and eddy covariance landscape net CO2 flux measurements suggest a long-term net CO2 uptake between 49 and 157 g CO2  m-2  yr-1 . Thus, thaw-induced CH4 emission increases likely exert a positive net radiative greenhouse gas forcing through the 21st century.

  17. Response to commentators of "a critique of positive responsibility".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieb, James A

    2009-03-01

    It has been claimed that (1) computer professionals should be held responsible for an undisclosed list of "undesirable events" associated with their work and (2) most if not all computer disasters can be avoided by truly understanding responsibility. Commentators of "A Critique of Positive Responsibility in Computing" argue that this is not Donald Gotterbarn's view (Gotterbarn, JSEE 14(2):235-239, 2008) but that a critique of the view nevertheless raises significant moral issues within computing such as the ethical goals of a computing profession, the appropriate ethical stance toward bugs, and the public good with respect to computing (Miller, JSEE 14(2):245-249, 2008). Commentators also argue that "A Critique"'s "profitable misreading" demonstrates the "moral ecology" of organizations "dedicated narrowly to financial success" and that other "moral ecologies" that are customer or quality driven can be shown to be more important or preeminent (Huff, JSEE 14(2):241-244, 2008). It is argued here that (1) the hyper-inflated reading of Gotterbarn's and Ladd's views on positive responsibility persists despite Gotterbarn's explicit rejection of it, and that (2) such a reading of positive responsibility cannot be placed within a single moral ecology, nor can a single moral ecology be shown to be any more important or preeminent than others.

  18. Breastfeeding is positively associated with child intelligence even net of parental IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2015-12-01

    Some previous reviews conclude that breastfeeding is not significantly associated with increased intelligence in children once mother's IQ is statistically controlled. The conclusion may potentially have both theoretical and methodological problems. The National Child Development Study allows the examination of the effect of breastfeeding on intelligence in two consecutive generations of British children. The analysis of the first generation shows that the effect of breastfeeding on intelligence increases from Age 7 to 16. The analysis of the second generation shows that each month of breastfeeding, net of parental IQ and other potential confounds, is associated with an increase of .16 IQ points. Further analyses suggest that some previous studies may have failed to uncover the effect of breastfeeding on child intelligence because of their reliance on one IQ test. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Energy balance of maize production in Brazil: the energetic constraints of a net positive outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Luis Henrique de Barros; Alves, Bruno Jose Rodrigues; Urquiaga, Segundo

    2008-07-01

    Among the factors used to analyze and to establish the sustainability of a whole agricultural production system, the energy balance is one of the most powerful and robust. The maize production in Brazil is surely the reflex of an energy intensive system that demands many field operations and heavy fertilizer applications, notably nitrogen in urea form. This work presents an energy balance of this major crop adjusted to the Brazilian conditions of cultivation. The input components were grouped based on their energy contents, and the possible improvements in the agricultural practices that could improve energy balance and net energy withdrawn from the farming were considered. The replacement of N synthetic fertilizer by biological nitrogen fixation, whether the process is directly carried out by endophytic diazotroph bacteria or by means of a N{sub 2}- fixing legume culture planted before the main crop as a green-manure is also discussed. (author)

  20. Experimental induction of necrotic enteritis in chickens by a netB-positive Japanese isolate of Clostridium perfringens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Ho; Suzuki, Takayuki; Kawahara, Fumiya; Uetsuka, Koji; Nagai, Shinya; Nunoya, Tetsuo

    2017-02-28

    Necrotic enteritis (NE) is one of the most important bacterial diseases in terms of economic losses. Clostridium perfringens necrotic enteritis toxin B, NetB, was recently proposed as a new key virulent factor for the development of NE. The goal of this work was to develop a necrotic enteritis model in chickens by using a Japanese isolate of C. perfringens. The Japanese isolate has been found to contain netB gene, which had the same nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences as those of prototype gene characterized in Australian strain EHE-NE18, and also expressed in vitro a 33-kDa protein identified as NetB toxin by nano-scale liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry. In the challenge experiment, broiler chickens fed a commercial chicken starter diet for 14 days post-hatch were changed to a high protein feed mixed 50:50 with fishmeal for 6 days. At day 21 of age, feed was withheld for 24 hr, and each chicken was orally challenged twice daily with 2 ml each of C. perfringens culture (10 9 to 10 10 CFU) on 5 consecutive days. The gross necrotic lesions were observed in 90 and 12.5% of challenged and control chickens, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first study that demonstrated that a netB-positive Japanese isolate of C. perfringens is able to induce the clinical signs and lesions characteristic of NE in the experimental model, which may be useful for evaluating the pathogenicity of field isolates, the efficacy of a vaccine or a specific drug against NE.

  1. A Novel Approach to Head positioning using Fixed Center Interpolation Net with Weight Elimination Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud Z. Iskandarani

    2011-01-01

    A reliable algorithm for head movements inside a vehicle is designed. The proposed algorithm allowed the adjustment of basic functions such as indicators, mirrors and reverse lights based on the driver final head position. The algorithm system mapped a predefined coordinates for drivers head that resulted in a computable geometry via a sensory system which is fed to the vehicle actuating system. Problem statement: Head position recognition is one of the most common problem...

  2. Net radiative forcing and air quality responses to regional CO emission reductions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Fry

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO emissions influence global and regional air quality and global climate change by affecting atmospheric oxidants and secondary species. We simulate the influence of halving anthropogenic CO emissions globally and individually from 10 regions on surface and tropospheric ozone, methane, and aerosol concentrations using a global chemical transport model (MOZART-4 for the year 2005. Net radiative forcing (RF is then estimated using the GFDL (Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory standalone radiative transfer model. We estimate that halving global CO emissions decreases global annual average concentrations of surface ozone by 0.45 ppbv, tropospheric methane by 73 ppbv, and global annual net RF by 36.1 mW m−2, nearly equal to the sum of changes from the 10 regional reductions. Global annual net RF per unit change in emissions and the 100 yr global warming potential (GWP100 are estimated as −0.124 mW m−2 (Tg CO−1 and 1.34, respectively, for the global CO reduction, and ranging from −0.115 to −0.131 mW m−2 (Tg CO−1 and 1.26 to 1.44 across 10 regions, with the greatest sensitivities for regions in the tropics. The net RF distributions show widespread cooling corresponding to the O3 and CH4 decreases, and localized positive and negative net RFs due to changes in aerosols. The strongest annual net RF impacts occur within the tropics (28° S–28° N followed by the northern midlatitudes (28° N–60° N, independent of reduction region, while the greatest changes in surface CO and ozone concentrations occur within the reduction region. Some regional reductions strongly influence the air quality in other regions, such as East Asia, which has an impact on US surface ozone that is 93% of that from North America. Changes in the transport of CO and downwind ozone production clearly exceed the direct export of ozone from each reduction region. The small variation in CO GWPs among world regions suggests that future international

  3. NETS FOR PEACH PROTECTED CULTIVATION

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    Evelia Schettini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the radiometric properties of coloured nets used to protect a peach cultivation. The modifications of the solar spectral distribution, mainly in the R and FR wavelength band, influence plant photomorphogenesis by means of the phytochrome and cryptochrome. The phytochrome response is characterized in terms of radiation rate in the red wavelengths (R, 600-700 nm to that in the farred radiation (FR, 700-800 nm, i.e. the R/FR ratio. The effects of the blue radiation (B, 400-500 nm is investigated by the ratio between the blue radiation and the far-red radiation, i.e. the B/FR ratio. A BLUE net, a RED net, a YELLOW net, a PEARL net, a GREY net and a NEUTRAL net were tested in Bari (Italy, latitude 41° 05’ N. Peach trees were located in pots inside the greenhouses and in open field. The growth of the trees cultivated in open field was lower in comparison to the growth of the trees grown under the nets. The RED, PEARL, YELLOW and GREY nets increased the growth of the trees more than the other nets. The nets positively influenced the fruit characteristics, such as fruit weight and flesh firmness.

  4. A methodological approach for using high-level Petri Nets to model the immune system response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennisi, Marzio; Cavalieri, Salvatore; Motta, Santo; Pappalardo, Francesco

    2016-12-22

    Mathematical and computational models showed to be a very important support tool for the comprehension of the immune system response against pathogens. Models and simulations allowed to study the immune system behavior, to test biological hypotheses about diseases and infection dynamics, and to improve and optimize novel and existing drugs and vaccines. Continuous models, mainly based on differential equations, usually allow to qualitatively study the system but lack in description; conversely discrete models, such as agent based models and cellular automata, permit to describe in detail entities properties at the cost of losing most qualitative analyses. Petri Nets (PN) are a graphical modeling tool developed to model concurrency and synchronization in distributed systems. Their use has become increasingly marked also thanks to the introduction in the years of many features and extensions which lead to the born of "high level" PN. We propose a novel methodological approach that is based on high level PN, and in particular on Colored Petri Nets (CPN), that can be used to model the immune system response at the cellular scale. To demonstrate the potentiality of the approach we provide a simple model of the humoral immune system response that is able of reproducing some of the most complex well-known features of the adaptive response like memory and specificity features. The methodology we present has advantages of both the two classical approaches based on continuous and discrete models, since it allows to gain good level of granularity in the description of cells behavior without losing the possibility of having a qualitative analysis. Furthermore, the presented methodology based on CPN allows the adoption of the same graphical modeling technique well known to life scientists that use PN for the modeling of signaling pathways. Finally, such an approach may open the floodgates to the realization of multi scale models that integrate both signaling pathways (intra

  5. Nonlinear Site Response Validation Studies Using KIK-net Strong Motion Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimaki, D.; Shi, J.

    2014-12-01

    Earthquake simulations are nowadays producing realistic ground motion time-series in the range of engineering design applications. Of particular significance to engineers are simulations of near-field motions and large magnitude events, for which observations are scarce. With the engineering community slowly adopting the use of simulated ground motions, site response models need to be re-evaluated in terms of their capabilities and limitations to 'translate' the simulated time-series from rock surface output to structural analyses input. In this talk, we evaluate three one-dimensional site response models: linear viscoelastic, equivalent linear and nonlinear. We evaluate the performance of the models by comparing predictions to observations at 30 downhole stations of the Japanese network KIK-Net that have recorded several strong events, including the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. Velocity profiles are used as the only input to all models, while additional parameters such as quality factor, density and nonlinear dynamic soil properties are estimated from empirical correlations. We quantify the differences of ground surface predictions and observations in terms of both seismological and engineering intensity measures, including bias ratios of peak ground response and visual comparisons of elastic spectra, and inelastic to elastic deformation ratio for multiple ductility ratios. We observe that PGV/Vs,30 — as measure of strain— is a better predictor of site nonlinearity than PGA, and that incremental nonlinear analyses are necessary to produce reliable estimates of high-frequency ground motion components at soft sites. We finally discuss the implications of our findings on the parameterization of nonlinear amplification factors in GMPEs, and on the extensive use of equivalent linear analyses in probabilistic seismic hazard procedures.

  6. Net root growth and nutrient acquisition in response to predicted climate change in two contrasting heathland species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndal, M.F.; Merrild, M.P.; Michelsen, A.

    2013-01-01

    colonization, and fine root N and P uptake by root assay of Deschampsia flexuosa and Calluna vulgaris.Net root growth increased under elevated CO2, warming and drought, with additive effects among the factors. Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization increased in response to elevated CO2, while ericoid mycorrhizal...

  7. Poweo half-year 2006 earnings. Positive net income, implementation of the 1. steps of the industrial plan; Poweo resultats du 1. semestre 2006. Resultat net positif, mise en oeuvre des 1. etapes du plan industriel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-09-15

    POWEO, the leading independent energy operator in France, presents in this document its key financial data and highlights for the first half of 2006: - Half-year revenue amounts to euro 119.4 m, multiplied by 3.4 compared to the same period last year; - The Energy Management activity has achieved a net margin of euro 34.3 m; - EBIT amounts to euro 6.2 m, compared to euro -2.9 m in the first half of 2005; - Net income amounts to euro 8.9 m, compared to euro -2.9 m in the first half of 2005; - Completion of the preliminary steps to the building of a first thermal power plant (CCGT) is close at hand, two other projects launched; - Strengthening of internal structures in view of the residential market opening up; - Outlook for 2006: total sales expected to reach euro 220 m and positive EBITDA; - LNG terminal building project in Le Havre.

  8. Three-dimensional site response at KiK-net downhole arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Eric M.; Tanaka, Yasuo; Baise, Laurie G.; Kayen, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    Ground motions at two Kiban-Kyoshin Network (KiK-net) strong motion downhole array sites in Hokkaido, Japan (TKCH08 in Taiki and TKCH05 in Honbetsu) illustrate the importance of three-dimensional (3D) site effects. These sites recorded the M8.0 2003 Tokachi-Oki earthquake, with recorded accelerations above 0.4 g at both sites as well as numerous ground motions from smaller events. Weak ground motions indicate that site TKCH08 is well modeled with the assumption of plane SH waves traveling through a 1D medium (SH1D), while TKCH05 is characteristic of a poor fit to the SH1D theoretical response. We hypothesized that the misfit at TKCH05results from the heterogeneity of the subsurface. To test this hypothesis, we measured four S-wave velocity profiles in the vicinity (spatial heterogeneity because the 3D effects are negligible. The Tokachi-Oki time history at TKCH05 includes both nonlinear and 3D site effects. Comparisons of the accuracy of the SH1D model predictions of these surface time histories from the downhole time histories indicates that the 3D site effects are at least as important as nonlinear effects in this case. The errors associated with the assumption of a 1D medium and 1D wave propagation will be carried into a nonlinear analysis that relies on these same assumptions. Thus, the presence of 3D effects should be ruled out prior to a 1D nonlinear analysis. The SH1D residuals show that 3D effects can be mistaken for nonlinear effects.

  9. Sea State Estimation Using Vessel Response in Dynamic Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    H. Brodtkorb, Astrid; Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; J. Sørensen, Asgeir

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for estimating the sea state parameters based on the heave, roll and pitch response of a vessel in dynamic positioning (DP), i.e., without forward speed. The algorithm finds the wave spectrum estimate from the response measurements by directly solving a set...

  10. Stretching the safety net to serve undocumented immigrants: community responses to health needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiti, Andrea B; Hurley, Robert E; Katz, Aaron

    2006-02-01

    A small but increasing proportion of immigrants to the United States is undocumented. Because most undocumented immigrants lack health insurance, they primarily rely on safety net providers for care. Communities with more developed safety nets and historically large numbers of immigrants appear more adept at caring for both legal and undocumented immigrants, according to Center for Studying Health System Change's (HSC) 2005 site visits to 12 nationally representative communities. Communities with less experience caring for immigrant populations and less-developed safety nets face challenges caring for this population, but many are taking steps to improve their ability to meet immigrant needs. As the number of immigrants in the U.S. grows, the need to develop community health care capacity for immigrants will intensify.

  11. Global and Regional Climate Responses Solar Radiation Management: Results from a climateprediction.net Geoengineering Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricke, Katharine; Allen, Myles; Ingram, William; Keith, David; Granger Morgan, M.

    2010-05-01

    To date modeling studies suggest that, while significant hydrological anomalies could result from the artificial addition of reflecting aerosols in the stratosphere for the purpose of solar radiation management (SRM), even at the regional level such a geoengineered world would bear a much closer resemblance to a low CO2 world, than to an unmodified high CO2 world. These previous modeling studies have generally compared one or two SRM forcing scenarios to various business-as-usual controls. However, such approaches cannot provide much information about regional sensitivities to the levels of SRM that might realistically result. Should engaging in SRM every be seriously contemplated, such regional analysis of a range of realistic scenarios will be an essential input to any process of geopolitical decision-making. Here we present the results from a large-ensemble experiment that used the HadCM3L GCM, implemented through climateprediction.net. The analysis examines 135 globally-uniform stratospheric optical depth modification scenarios designed to stabilize global temperatures under SRES A1B. Scenarios were tested using ten-member subensembles which made small perturbations to initial conditions. All simulations use identical standard settings of model physics parameters and are initiated from historically-forced runs from 1920-2005. A total of 7,331 simulations of the years 2000-2080 were performed for this experiment using computing resources donated by the general public. Our analysis of regional temperature and precipitation anomalies, normalized to account for variability, shows that SRM compensations for anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing do generally return regional climates closer to their baseline climate states than the no-geoengineering, business-as-usual scenarios. However, we find that the magnitudes and sensitivities of regional responses to this type of activity, as modeled in HadCM3L, are highly variable. As the amount of SRM increases to compensate

  12. Net photosynthesis in Sphagnum mosses has increased in response to the last century's 100 ppm increase in atmospheric CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serk, Henrik; Nilsson, Mats; Schleucher, Jurgen

    2017-04-01

    Peatlands store >25% of the global soil C pool, corresponding to 1/3 of the contemporary CO2-C in the atmosphere. The majority of the accumulated peat is made up by remains of Sphagnum peat mosses. Thus, understanding how various Sphagnum functional groups respond, and have responded, to increasing atmospheric CO2 and temperature constitutes a major challenge for our understanding of the role of peatlands under a changing climate. We have recently demonstrated (Ehlers et al., 2015, PNAS) that the abundance ratio of two deuterium isotopomers (molecules carrying D at specific intramolecular positions, here D6R/S) of photosynthetic glucose reflects the ratio of oxygenation to carboxylation metabolic fluxes at Rubisco. The photosynthetic glucose is prepared from various plant carbohydrates including cellulose. This finding has been established in CO2 manipulation experiments and observed in carbohydrate derived glucose isolated from herbarium samples of all investigated C-3 species. The isotopomer ratio is connected to specific enzymatic processes thus allowing for mechanistic implicit interpretations. Here we demonstrate a clear increase in net photosynthesis of Sphagnum fuscum in response to the increase of 100 ppm CO2 during the last century as deduced from analysis on S. fuscum remains from peat cores. The D6R/S ratio declines from bottom to top in peat cores, indicating CO2-driven reduction of photorespiration in contemporary moss biomass. In contrast to the hummock-forming S. fuscum, hollow-growing species, e.g. S. majus did not show this response or gave significantly weaker response, suggesting important ecological consequences of rising CO2 on peatland ecosystem services. We hypothesize that photosynthesis in hollow-growing species under water saturation is fully or partly disconnected from the atmospheric CO2 partial pressure and thus showing weaker or no response to increased atmospheric CO2. To further test the field observations we grow both hummock and

  13. Seasonal hysteresis of net ecosystem exchange in response to temperature change: Patterns and causes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niu, S.; Luo, Y.; Montagnani, L.; Janssens, I.A.; Gielen, B.; Rambal, S.; Moors, E.J.; Matteucci, G.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how net ecosystem exchange (NEE) changes with temperature is central to the debate on climate change-carbon cycle feedbacks, but still remains unclear. Here, we used eddy covariance measurements of NEE from 20 FLUXNET sites (203 site-years of data) in mid- and high-latitude forests to

  14. Response of phytoplankton to an experimental fish culture in net cages in a subtropical reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartozek, E C R; Bueno, N C; Feiden, A; Rodrigues, L C

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate nutrients concentration and spatial-temporal changes in phytoplankton biovolume during an experimental fish culture in net cages in a lateral arm of Salto Caxias reservoir, Brazil. Two sampling stations were placed in the affected lateral arm and other two in a cageless lateral arm. Neither abiotic variables nor phytoplankton biovolume presented significant differences between the treatments. Only temporal changes were confirmed by the analysis performed. Both lateral arms were classified as oligotrophic, reflecting low influence of the net cages. Phytoplankton growth seems to be limited by nitrogen. Biovolume values were, in general, low and five major functional groups were recognized (E, F, G, K and P). In summer higher biovolume values were observed and representatives of Chlorophyceae and Cyanobacteria belonging to the functional groups F and K, respectively, were the most important. In winter phytoplankton was mainly composed by Bacillariophyceae taxa from P group. G group was also restricted to winter and E group occurred in winter and summer. The variations recorded in phytoplankton structure appear to have been mainly influenced by seasonal changes in temperature, precipitation and nutrients availability. The effects of net cages on the abiotic variables and phytoplankton biovolume appear to have been small, probably due to the small number of net cages employed and the system dilution capacity. However, a permanent monitoring of phytoplankton is recommended, since this environment has a carrying capacity, from which the trophic state may increase.

  15. Effects of light, temperature and canopy position on net photosynthesis and isoprene emission from sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, P.; Guenther, A.; Zimmerman, P.

    1996-01-01

    In June 1993, net photosynthetic rates, stomatal conductance and isoprene emission rates of sweetgum leaves (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) were measured at the top of the forest canopy (sun leaves) and within the canopy at a height of 8-10 m above ground level (shade leaves). Large differences in net photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance were found between sun and shade leaves. Mean rates of isoprene emission, expressed on a leaf area basis, were significantly lower in shade leaves than in sun leaves (4.1 versus 17.1 nmol m(-2) s(-1)); however, because specific leaf area of sun leaves was lower than that of shade leaves (0.0121 versus 0.0334 m(2) g(-1)), the difference between sun and shade leaves was less, though still significant, when isoprene emissions were expressed on a dry mass basis (45.5 versus 29.0 micro g C g(-1) h(-1)). Saturation of both net photosynthesis and isoprene emission occurred at lower PPFDs in shade leaves than in sun leaves. The effect of leaf temperature on isoprene emissions also differed between sun and shade leaves. Sun leaves lost a significantly greater percentage of fixed carbon as isoprene than shade leaves. The leaf-level physiological measurements were used to derive parameters for a canopy-level isoprene flux model. The importance of incorporating differences between sun- and shade-leaf properties into existing models is discussed.

  16. Ocean Acidification Disrupts Prey Responses to Predator Cues but Not Net Prey Shell Growth in Concholepas concholepas (loco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manríquez, Patricio H.; Jara, María Elisa; Mardones, María Loreto; Navarro, Jorge M.; Torres, Rodrigo; Lardies, Marcos A.; Vargas, Cristian A.; Duarte, Cristian; Widdicombe, Stephen; Salisbury, Joseph; Lagos, Nelson A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Most research on Ocean Acidification (OA) has largely focused on the process of calcification and the physiological trade-offs employed by calcifying organisms to support the building of calcium carbonate structures. However, there is growing evidence that OA can also impact upon other key biological processes such as survival, growth and behaviour. On wave-swept rocky shores the ability of gastropods to self-right after dislodgement, and rapidly return to normal orientation, reduces the risk of predation. Methodology/Principal Findings The impacts of OA on this self-righting behaviour and other important parameters such as growth, survival, shell dissolution and shell deposition in Concholepas concholepas (loco) were investigated under contrasting pCO2 levels. Although no impacts of OA on either growth or net shell calcification were found, the results did show that OA can significantly affect self-righting behaviour during the early ontogeny of this species with significantly faster righting times recorded for individuals of C. concholepas reared under increased average pCO2 concentrations (± SE) (716±12 and 1036±14 µatm CO2) compared to those reared at concentrations equivalent to those presently found in the surface ocean (388±8 µatm CO2). When loco were also exposed to the predatory crab Acanthocyclus hassleri, righting times were again increased by exposure to elevated CO2, although self-righting times were generally twice as fast as those observed in the absence of the crab. Conclusions and Significance These results suggest that self-righting in the early ontogeny of C. concholepas will be positively affected by pCO2 levels expected by the end of the 21st century and beginning of the next one. However, as the rate of self-righting is an adaptive trait evolved to reduce lethal predatory attacks, our result also suggest that OA may disrupt prey responses to predators in nature. PMID:23844231

  17. SteinerNet: a web server for integrating 'omic' data to discover hidden components of response pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncbag, Nurcan; McCallum, Scott; Huang, Shao-Shan Carol; Fraenkel, Ernest

    2012-07-01

    High-throughput technologies including transcriptional profiling, proteomics and reverse genetics screens provide detailed molecular descriptions of cellular responses to perturbations. However, it is difficult to integrate these diverse data to reconstruct biologically meaningful signaling networks. Previously, we have established a framework for integrating transcriptional, proteomic and interactome data by searching for the solution to the prize-collecting Steiner tree problem. Here, we present a web server, SteinerNet, to make this method available in a user-friendly format for a broad range of users with data from any species. At a minimum, a user only needs to provide a set of experimentally detected proteins and/or genes and the server will search for connections among these data from the provided interactomes for yeast, human, mouse, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. More advanced users can upload their own interactome data as well. The server provides interactive visualization of the resulting optimal network and downloadable files detailing the analysis and results. We believe that SteinerNet will be useful for researchers who would like to integrate their high-throughput data for a specific condition or cellular response and to find biologically meaningful pathways. SteinerNet is accessible at http://fraenkel.mit.edu/steinernet.

  18. Response of silicon position sensitive detectors to heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Read, P.M.; Rotberg, V.H. (UKAEA Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell. Nuclear Physics Div.); Tolfree, D.W.L.; Groves, J. (Science Research Council, Daresbury (UK). Daresbury Lab.)

    1983-01-15

    The pulse height response characteristics of surface barrier and ion implanted position sensitive detectors have been measured. Surface barrier detectors with junctions formed using oxidation by potassium dichromate exhibit small heavy ion pulse height defects indicating thin entrance windows. Ion implanted detectors give considerably larger defects because of penetrating tails in the distribution of implanted ions and electrically active defects.

  19. The response of silicon position sensitive detectors to heavy ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, P. M.; Rotberg, V. H.; Tolfree, D. W. L.; Groves, J.

    1983-01-01

    The pulse height response characteristics of surface barrier and ion implanted position sensitive detectors have been measured. Surface barrier detectors with junctions formed using oxidation by potassium dichromate exhibit small heavy ion pulse height defects indicating thin entrance windows. Ion implanted detectors give considerably larger defects because of penetrating tails in the distribution of implanted ions and electrically active defects.

  20. Vantage sensitivity: individual differences in response to positive experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluess, Michael; Belsky, Jay

    2013-07-01

    The notion that some people are more vulnerable to adversity as a function of inherent risk characteristics is widely embraced in most fields of psychology. This is reflected in the popularity of the diathesis-stress framework, which has received a vast amount of empirical support over the years. Much less effort has been directed toward the investigation of endogenous factors associated with variability in response to positive influences. One reason for the failure to investigate individual differences in response to positive experiences as a function of endogenous factors may be the absence of adequate theoretical frameworks. According to the differential-susceptibility hypothesis, individuals generally vary in their developmental plasticity regardless of whether they are exposed to negative or positive influences--a notion derived from evolutionary reasoning. On the basis of this now well-supported proposition, we advance herein the new concept of vantage sensitivity, reflecting variation in response to exclusively positive experiences as a function of individual endogenous characteristics. After distinguishing vantage sensitivity from theoretically related concepts of differential-susceptibility and resilience, we review some recent empirical evidence for vantage sensitivity featuring behavioral, physiological, and genetic factors as moderators of a wide range of positive experiences ranging from family environment and psychotherapy to educational intervention. Thereafter, we discuss genetic and environmental factors contributing to individual differences in vantage sensitivity, potential mechanisms underlying vantage sensitivity, and practical implications. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  1. Transforming the Structure of the Military: Combat Decisions -- Rank, Responsibility, or Frontline Position?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    West, Bing

    2007-01-01

    .... This study examines the opposite postulate -- that net-centric capabilities allow a commander to control operations and his own rear-based command staff from a forward-based position that enables him...

  2. Smolt Responses to Hydrodynamic Conditions in Forebay Flow Nets of Surface Flow Outlets, 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Hedgepeth, J. B.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Anderson, Michael G.; Deng, Zhiqun; Khan, Fenton; Mueller, Robert P.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Sather, Nichole K.; Serkowski, John A.; Steinbeck, John R.

    2009-04-01

    This study provides information on juvenile salmonid behaviors at McNary and The Dalles dams that can be used by the USACE, fisheries resource managers, and others to support decisions on long-term measures to enhance fish passage. We researched smolt movements and ambient hydrodynamic conditions using a new approach combining simultaneous acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) and acoustic imaging device (AID) measurements at surface flow outlets (SFO) at McNary and The Dalles dams on the Columbia River during spring and summer 2007. Because swimming effort vectors could be computed from the simultaneous fish and flow data, fish behavior could be categorized as passive, swimming against the flow (positively rheotactic), and swimming with the flow (negatively rheotactic). We present bivariate relationships to provide insight into fish responses to particular hydraulic variables that engineers might consider during SFO design. The data indicate potential for this empirical approach of simultaneous water/fish measurements to lead to SFO design guidelines in the future.

  3. Decreasing Net Primary Productivity in Response to Urbanization in Liaoning Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional ecosystems have been greatly affected by the rapid expansion of urban areas. In order to explore the impact of land use change on net primary productivity (NPP in rapidly developing cities during the current urbanization process, we quantified land use change in Liaoning province between 2000 and 2010 using net primary productivity as an indicator of ecosystem productivity and health. The Carnegie–Ames–Stanford Approach model was used to estimate NPP by region and land use. We used a unit circle-based evaluation model to quantify local urbanization effects on NPP around eight representative cities. The dominant land use types were farmland, woodland and urban, with urban rapidly replacing farmland. Mean annual NPP and total NPP decreased faster from 2005 to 2010 than from 2000 to 2005, reflecting increasing urbanization rates. The eastern, primarily woodland part of Liaoning province had the greatest reduction in NPP, while the western part, which was primarily farmland and grassland, had the lowest reduction.

  4. Clinical nutrition management position: responsibilities and skill development strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, S S; Messersmith, A M

    1995-10-01

    To determine the duties of clinical nutrition managers, the factors associated with the performance of the duties, the job specifications for the position, and the skill development strategies used by clinical nutrition managers. Clinical nutrition managers from 700 randomly selected, acute-care hospitals in the United States (with 300 or more beds) received a survey questionnaire. Respondents were asked to indicate performance or nonperformance, perceived importance, and methods used to develop skills for 54 duties related to clinical nutrition management. We requested additional information about position requirements, position characteristics, and demographic information. An 82% response rate with 67% usable responses (n = 472) was achieved. Frequencies for performance and nonperformance, mean importance, and frequencies for methods of skill development were determined for each duty. chi 2 Analysis with P skill development were continuing education, networking, work experience in clinical dietetics, work experience in management dietetics, and their present job. These results can be used by clinical nutrition managers to assess the characteristics of their current position and develop a plan for enhancing their scope of responsibility. The identification of duties actually performed by clinical nutrition managers can also be used to develop standards of practice with performance indicators and recommended thresholds. Information regarding the skill development strategies of clinical nutrition managers can be used by practitioners to enhance their current skills and knowledge and by others to prepare for career opportunities in clinical nutrition management.

  5. Neratinib after trastuzumab-based adjuvant therapy in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer (ExteNET)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Arlene; Delaloge, Suzette; Holmes, Frankie A

    2016-01-01

    breast cancer and had completed neoadjuvant and adjuvant trastuzumab therapy up to 2 years before randomisation. Inclusion criteria were amended on Feb 25, 2010, to include patients with stage 2-3 HER2-positive breast cancer who had completed trastuzumab therapy up to 1 year previously. Patients were...... randomly assigned (1:1) to receive oral neratinib 240 mg per day or matching placebo. The randomisation sequence was generated with permuted blocks stratified by hormone receptor status (hormone receptor-positive [oestrogen or progesterone receptor-positive or both] vs hormone receptor-negative [oestrogen...

  6. Applicability of energy-positive net-zero water management in Alaska: technology status and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tingting; Englehardt, James D; Guo, Tianjiao; Gassie, Lucien; Dotson, Aaron

    2017-11-22

    Challenges of water and wastewater management in Alaska include the potential need for above-grade and freeze-protected piping, high unit energy costs and, in many rural areas, low population density and median annual income. However, recently developed net-zero water (NZW), i.e., nearly closed-loop, direct potable water reuse systems, can retain the thermal energy in municipal wastewater, producing warm treated potable water without the need for substantial water re-heating, heat pumping or transfer, or additional energy conversion. Consequently, these systems are projected to be capable of saving more energy than they use in water treatment and conveyance, in the temperate USA. In this paper, NZW technology is reviewed in terms of potential applicability in Alaska by performing a hypothetical case study for the city of Fairbanks, Alaska. Results of this paper study indicate that in municipalities of Alaska with local engineering and road access, the use of NZW systems may provide an energy-efficient water service option. In particular, case study modeling suggests hot water energy savings are equivalent to five times the energy used for treatment, much greater savings than in mid-latitudes, due largely to the substantially higher energy needed for heating water from a conventional treatment system and lack of need for freeze-protected piping. Further study of the applicability of NZW technology in cold regions, with expanded evaluation in terms of system-wide lifecycle cost, is recommended.

  7. Net primary production of a temperate deciduous forest exhibits a threshold response to increasing disturbance severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart-Haëntjens, Ellen J; Curtis, Peter S; Fahey, Robert T; Vogel, Christoph S; Gough, Christopher M

    2015-09-01

    The global carbon (C) balance is vulnerable to disturbances that alter terrestrial C storage. Disturbances to forests occur along a continuum of severity, from low-intensity disturbance causing the mortality or defoliation of only a subset of trees to severe stand- replacing disturbance that kills all trees; yet considerable uncertainty remains in how forest production changes across gradients of disturbance intensity. We used a gradient of tree mortality in an upper Great Lakes forest ecosystem to: (1) quantify how aboveground wood net primary production (ANPP,) responds to a range of disturbance severities; and (2) identify mechanisms supporting ANPPw resistance or resilience following moderate disturbance. We found that ANPPw declined nonlinearly with rising disturbance severity, remaining stable until >60% of the total tree basal area senesced. As upper canopy openness increased from disturbance, greater light availability to the subcanopy enhanced the leaf-level photosynthesis and growth of this formerly light-limited canopy stratum, compensating for upper canopy production losses and a reduction in total leaf area index (LAI). As a result, whole-ecosystem production efficiency (ANPPw/LAI) increased with rising disturbance severity, except in plots beyond the disturbance threshold. These findings provide a mechanistic explanation for a nonlinear relationship between ANPPw, and disturbance severity, in which the physiological and growth enhancement of undisturbed vegetation is proportional to the level of disturbance until a threshold is exceeded. Our results have important ecological and management implications, demonstrating that in some ecosystems moderate levels of disturbance minimally alter forest production.

  8. Positive interaction of social comparison and personal responsibility for outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grygolec, Jaroslaw; Coricelli, Giorgio; Rustichini, Aldo

    2012-01-01

    We formulate and test a model that allows sharp separation between two different ways in which environment affects evaluation of outcomes, by comparing social vs. private and personal responsibility vs. chance. In the experiment, subjects chose between two lotteries, one low-risk and one high-risk. They could then observe the outcomes. By varying the environment between private (they could observe the outcome of the chosen lottery and the outcome of the lottery they had not chosen) and social (they could observe the outcome of the lottery chosen by another subject) we can differentiate the response and brain activity following the feedback in social and private settings. The evidence suggests that envy and pride are significant motives driving decisions and outcomes evaluation, stronger than private emotions like regret and rejoice, with ventral striatum playing a key role. When we focus on the outcome evaluation stage we demonstrate that BOLD signal in ventral striatum is increasing in the difference between obtained and counterfactual payoffs. For a given difference in payoffs, striatal responses are more pronounced in social than in private environment. Moreover, a positive interaction (complementarity) between social comparison and personal responsibility is reflected in the pattern of activity in the ventral striatum. At decision stage we observe getting ahead of the Joneses effect in ventral striatum with subjective value of risk larger in social than in private environment.

  9. Positive Interaction of Social Comparison and Personal Responsibility for Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslaw eGrygolec

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We formulate and test a model that allows a sharp separation between social versus private and personal responsibility versus chance in the evaluation of outcomes. In the experiment, subjects choose between two lotteries, one low-risk and one high-risk. They could then observe the outcomes. By varying the environment between private (in which they could only observe the outcome of the lottery they had not chosen and social (they could observe the outcome of the lottery chosen by another subject we can differentiate the response and brain activity following the feedback in social and private settings. The evidence suggests that envy and pride are significant motives driving decisions and outcomes evaluation, stronger than private emotions like regret and rejoice, with ventral striatum playing a key role. Focusing on outcomes evaluation stage we demonstrate that BOLD signal in ventral striatum is increasing in the difference between obtained and counterfactual payoffs. For a given difference in payoffs, striatal responses are more pronounced in social than in private environment. Moreover, a positive interaction (complementarity between social comparison and personal responsibility is reflected in the pattern of activity in the ventral striatum. At decision stage we observe getting ahead of the Joneses effect in ventral striatum with subjective value of risk larger in social than in private environment.

  10. Casting a Statewide Strategic Performance Net: Interlaced Data and Responsive Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layland, Allison; Redding, Sam

    2017-01-01

    The pivot point for educational change is now firmly placed with the district, rebalancing the position of the state and the school relative to the local education agency (LEA). The state education agency (SEA) has been shifting its emphasis for decades, from a compliance-focused authority to a change agent equipped with systems, processes,…

  11. Divergence in Forest-Type Response to Climate and Weather: Evidence for Regional Links Between Forest-Type Evenness and Net Primary Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Climate change is altering long-term climatic conditions and increasing the magnitude of weather fluctuations. Assessing the consequences of these changes for terrestrial ecosystems requires understanding how different vegetation types respond to climate and weather. This study examined 20 years of regional-scale remotely sensed net primary productivity (NPP) in forests of the northern Lake States to identify how the relationship between NPP and climate or weather differ among forest types, and if NPP patterns are influenced by landscape-scale evenness of forest-type abundance. These results underscore the positive relationship between temperature and NPP. Importantly, these results indicate significant differences among broadly defined forest types in response to both climate and weather. Essentially all weather variables that were strongly related to annual NPP displayed significant differences among forest types, suggesting complementarity in response to environmental fluctuations. In addition, this study found that forest-type evenness (within 8 ?? 8 km2 areas) is positively related to long-term NPP mean and negatively related to NPP variability, suggesting that NPP in pixels with greater forest-type evenness is both higher and more stable through time. This is landscape- to subcontinental-scale evidence of a relationship between primary productivity and one measure of biological diversity. These results imply that anthropogenic or natural processes that influence the proportional abundance of forest types within landscapes may influence long-term productivity patterns. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC (outside the USA).

  12. Nonlinearities in the Response of Beam Position Monitors

    CERN Document Server

    Assmann, R W; Matheson, B; Prochnow, J

    2000-01-01

    At the LEP e+/e- collider at CERN, Geneva, a Spectrometer is used to determine the beam energy with a relative accuracy of 10-4. The Spectrometer measures the change in bending angle in a dipole magnet, the beam trajectory being obtained using beam position monitors (BPMs), which must have an accuracy close to 1 micron in order to achieve the desired precision. The BPMs used feature an aluminium block with an elliptical aperture and capacitive pickup electrodes. The response depends on the electrode geometry and also on the shape of the monitor aperture. In addition, the size of the beam itself contributes if the beam is off-centre. The beam size varies according to the beta and dispersion functions at the Spectrometer, so that each BPM may exhibit a systematic shift of the measured beam position. We have investigated the implications of such shifts on the performance of the Spectrometer. We present analytical results, a computer model of the BPM response, and comparison with measurements. The model suggest...

  13. Modeled dosage-response relationship on the net photosynthetic rate for the sensitivity to acid rain of 21 plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shihuai; Gou, Shuzhen; Sun, Baiye; Lv, Wenlin; Li, Yuanwei; Peng, Hong; Xiao, Hong; Yang, Gang; Wang, Yingjun

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the sensitivity of plant species to acid rain based on the modeled dosage-response relationship on the net photosynthetic rate (P (N)) of 21 types of plant species, subjected to the exposure of simulated acid rain (SAR) for 5 times during a period of 50 days. Variable responses of P (N) to SAR occurred depending on the type of plant. A majority (13 species) of the dosage-response relationship could be described by an S-shaped curve and be fitted with the Boltzmann model. Model fitting allowed quantitative evaluation of the dosage-response relationship and an accurate estimation of the EC(10), termed as the pH of the acid rain resulting in a P (N) 10 % lower than the reference value. The top 9 species (Camellia sasanqua, Cinnamomum camphora, etc. EC(10) ≤ 3.0) are highly endurable to very acid rain. The rare, relict plant Metasequoia glyptostroboides was the most sensitive species (EC(10) = 5.1) recommended for protection.

  14. A meta-analysis of milk production responses to increased net energy intake in Scandinavian dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte; Østergaard, Søren; Schei, Ingunn

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this analysis were to develop empirical prediction models for milk yield based on cow characteristics and dry matter intake (DMI) or net energy intake (NEL) and to evaluate the effect of breed, parity, stage of lactation and the additional prediction value of using NEL estimates...... versus DMI estimates for incorporation in future economical optimization models of the energy level in dairy cow rations. Previous Danish response models are outdated due to higher yield capacity of cows and the use of the new Nordic feed evaluation system NorFor since 2011. A data set with 195 treatment...... weighted by number of cows in each treatment mean. Best fit model was by use of linear and natural log transformation of NEL intake rather than DMI in the regression, especially when also including the ration concentration of the individual nutrients (g/MJ NEL), neutral detergent fibre, amino acids...

  15. A novel mechanistic interpretation of instantaneous temperature responses of leaf net photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Jörg; Alfarraj, Saleh; Rennenberg, Heinz; Adams, Mark

    2016-07-01

    Steady-state rates of leaf CO2 assimilation (A) in response to incubation temperature (T) are often symmetrical around an optimum temperature. A/T curves of C3 plants can thus be fitted to a modified Arrhenius equation, where the activation energy of A close to a low reference temperature is strongly correlated with the dynamic change of activation energy to increasing incubation temperature. We tested how [CO2] light, or [CO2] at 800 µmol mol(-1) and variable light affect parameters that describe A/T curves, and how these parameters are related to known properties of temperature-dependent thylakoid electron transport. Variation of light intensity and substomatal [CO2] had no influence on the symmetry of A/T curves, but significantly affected their breadth. Thermodynamic and kinetic (physiological) factors responsible for (i) the curvature in Arrhenius plots and (ii) the correlation between parameters of a modified Arrhenius equation are discussed. We argue that the shape of A/T curves cannot satisfactorily be explained via classical concepts assuming temperature-dependent shifts between rate-limiting processes. Instead the present results indicate that any given A/T curve appears to reflect a distinct flux mode, set by the balance between linear and cyclic electron transport, and emerging from the anabolic demand for ATP relative to that for NADPH.

  16. Brain response to prosodic boundary cues depends on boundary position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eHolzgrefe

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Prosodic information is crucial for spoken language comprehension and especially for syntactic parsing, because prosodic cues guide the hearer’s syntactic analysis. The time course and mechanisms of this interplay of prosody and syntax are not yet well understood. In particular, there is an ongoing debate whether local prosodic cues are taken into account automatically or whether they are processed in relation to the global prosodic context in which they appear. The present study explores whether the perception of a prosodic boundary is affected by its position within an utterance. In an event-related potential (ERP study we tested if the brain response evoked by the prosodic boundary differs when the boundary occurs early in a list of three names connected by conjunctions (i.e., after the first name as compared to later in the utterance (i.e., after the second name. A closure positive shift (CPS — marking the processing of a prosodic phrase boundary — was elicited only for stimuli with a late boundary, but not for stimuli with an early boundary. This result is further evidence for an immediate integration of prosodic information into the parsing of an utterance. In addition, it shows that the processing of prosodic boundary cues depends on the previously processed information from the preceding prosodic context.

  17. Human antibody response to Anopheles gambiae saliva: an immuno-epidemiological biomarker to evaluate the efficacy of insecticide-treated nets in malaria vector control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drame, Papa M; Poinsignon, Anne; Besnard, Patrick; Le Mire, Jacques; Dos-Santos, Maria A; Sow, Cheikh S; Cornelie, Sylvie; Foumane, Vincent; Toto, Jean-Claude; Sembene, Mbacké; Boulanger, Denis; Simondon, François; Fortes, Filomeno; Carnevale, Pierre; Remoue, Franck

    2010-07-01

    For the fight against malaria, the World Health Organization (WHO) has emphasized the need for indicators to evaluate the efficacy of vector-control strategies. This study investigates a potential immunological marker, based on human antibody responses to Anopheles saliva, as a new indicator to evaluate the efficacy of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). Parasitological, entomological, and immunological assessments were carried out in children and adults from a malaria-endemic region of Angola before and after the introduction of ITNs. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels to An. gambiae saliva were positively associated with the intensity of An. gambiae exposure and malaria infection. A significant decrease in the anti-saliva IgG response was observed after the introduction of ITNs, and this was associated with a drop in parasite load. This study represents the first stage in the development of a new indicator to evaluate the efficacy of malaria vector-control strategies, which could apply in other arthropod vector-borne diseases.

  18. Teaching Tennis for Net Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Bryce

    1989-01-01

    A program for teaching tennis to beginners, NET (Net Easy Teaching) is described. The program addresses three common needs shared by tennis students: active involvement in hitting the ball, clearing the net, and positive reinforcement. A sample lesson plan is included. (IAH)

  19. Wyoming: "A Net Positive Session"

    OpenAIRE

    Schuhmann, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Wyoming’s general legislative session concluded March 6, 2015 with the passage of 185 bills and nearly $285 million in new spending.[1] Because this was a general session rather than a budget session, very few budget issues were addressed. However, key budgetary matters this year included: (1) addressing a $222 million shortfall brought about by falling oil prices and (2) several new capital construction projects spread across the state and at the University of Wyoming. Wyoming democrats in t...

  20. Net Locality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Gordon, Eric

    Provides an introduction to the new theory of Net Locality and the profound effect on individuals and societies when everything is located or locatable. Describes net locality as an emerging form of location awareness central to all aspects of digital media, from mobile phones, to Google Maps...... of emerging technologies, from GeoCities to GPS, Wi-Fi, Wiki Me, and Google Android....

  1. Net Neutrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej

    2017-01-01

    Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else.......Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else....

  2. A bacterial cytotoxin identifies the RhoA exchange factor Net1 as a key effector in the response to DNA damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Guerra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exposure of adherent cells to DNA damaging agents, such as the bacterial cytolethal distending toxin (CDT or ionizing radiations (IR, activates the small GTPase RhoA, which promotes the formation of actin stress fibers and delays cell death. The signalling intermediates that regulate RhoA activation and promote cell survival are unknown. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrate that the nuclear RhoA-specific Guanine nucleotide Exchange Factor (GEF Net1 becomes dephosphorylated at a critical inhibitory site in cells exposed to CDT or IR. Expression of a dominant negative Net1 or Net1 knock down by iRNA prevented RhoA activation, inhibited the formation of stress fibers, and enhanced cell death, indicating that Net1 activation is required for this RhoA-mediated responses to genotoxic stress. The Net1 and RhoA-dependent signals involved activation of the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase p38 and its downstream target MAPK-activated protein kinase 2. SIGNIFICANCE: Our data highlight the importance of Net1 in controlling RhoA and p38 MAPK mediated cell survival in cells exposed to DNA damaging agents and illustrate a molecular pathway whereby chronic exposure to a bacterial toxin may promote genomic instability.

  3. Effects of permethrin-treated bed nets on immunity to malaria in western Kenya II. Antibody responses in young children in an area of intense malaria transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kariuki, Simon K.; Lal, Altaf A.; Terlouw, Dianne J.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Ong'echa, John M. O.; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A.; Orago, Alloys S. S.; Kolczak, Margarette S.; Hawley, William A.; Nahlen, Bernard L.; Shi, Ya Ping

    2003-01-01

    As part of a large community-based trial on the impact of insecticide (permethrin)-treated bed nets (ITNs) on childhood morbidity and mortality in an area of intense perennial malaria transmission in western Kenya, we assessed the effects of ITNs on malaria-specific humoral responses in young

  4. Accounting for False Positive HIV Tests: Is Visceral Leishmaniasis Responsible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Shanks

    Full Text Available Co-infection with HIV and visceral leishmaniasis is an important consideration in treatment of either disease in endemic areas. Diagnosis of HIV in resource-limited settings relies on rapid diagnostic tests used together in an algorithm. A limitation of the HIV diagnostic algorithm is that it is vulnerable to falsely positive reactions due to cross reactivity. It has been postulated that visceral leishmaniasis (VL infection can increase this risk of false positive HIV results. This cross sectional study compared the risk of false positive HIV results in VL patients with non-VL individuals.Participants were recruited from 2 sites in Ethiopia. The Ethiopian algorithm of a tiebreaker using 3 rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs was used to test for HIV. The gold standard test was the Western Blot, with indeterminate results resolved by PCR testing. Every RDT screen positive individual was included for testing with the gold standard along with 10% of all negatives. The final analysis included 89 VL and 405 non-VL patients. HIV prevalence was found to be 12.8% (47/ 367 in the VL group compared to 7.9% (200/2526 in the non-VL group. The RDT algorithm in the VL group yielded 47 positives, 4 false positives, and 38 negatives. The same algorithm for those without VL had 200 positives, 14 false positives, and 191 negatives. Specificity and positive predictive value for the group with VL was less than the non-VL group; however, the difference was not found to be significant (p = 0.52 and p = 0.76, respectively.The test algorithm yielded a high number of HIV false positive results. However, we were unable to demonstrate a significant difference between groups with and without VL disease. This suggests that the presence of endemic visceral leishmaniasis alone cannot account for the high number of false positive HIV results in our study.

  5. Accounting for False Positive HIV Tests: Is Visceral Leishmaniasis Responsible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, Leslie; Ritmeijer, Koert; Piriou, Erwan; Siddiqui, M Ruby; Kliescikova, Jarmila; Pearce, Neil; Ariti, Cono; Muluneh, Libsework; Masiga, Johnson; Abebe, Almaz

    2015-01-01

    Co-infection with HIV and visceral leishmaniasis is an important consideration in treatment of either disease in endemic areas. Diagnosis of HIV in resource-limited settings relies on rapid diagnostic tests used together in an algorithm. A limitation of the HIV diagnostic algorithm is that it is vulnerable to falsely positive reactions due to cross reactivity. It has been postulated that visceral leishmaniasis (VL) infection can increase this risk of false positive HIV results. This cross sectional study compared the risk of false positive HIV results in VL patients with non-VL individuals. Participants were recruited from 2 sites in Ethiopia. The Ethiopian algorithm of a tiebreaker using 3 rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) was used to test for HIV. The gold standard test was the Western Blot, with indeterminate results resolved by PCR testing. Every RDT screen positive individual was included for testing with the gold standard along with 10% of all negatives. The final analysis included 89 VL and 405 non-VL patients. HIV prevalence was found to be 12.8% (47/ 367) in the VL group compared to 7.9% (200/2526) in the non-VL group. The RDT algorithm in the VL group yielded 47 positives, 4 false positives, and 38 negatives. The same algorithm for those without VL had 200 positives, 14 false positives, and 191 negatives. Specificity and positive predictive value for the group with VL was less than the non-VL group; however, the difference was not found to be significant (p = 0.52 and p = 0.76, respectively). The test algorithm yielded a high number of HIV false positive results. However, we were unable to demonstrate a significant difference between groups with and without VL disease. This suggests that the presence of endemic visceral leishmaniasis alone cannot account for the high number of false positive HIV results in our study.

  6. Reconciling catch differences from multiple fishery independent gill net surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Richard T.; Vandergoot, Christopher; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Rogers, Mark W.; Cook, H. Andrew; Brenden, Travis O.

    2017-01-01

    Fishery independent gill net surveys provide valuable demographic information for population assessment and resource management, but relative to net construction, the effects of ancillary species, and environmental variables on focal species catch rates are poorly understood. In response, we conducted comparative deployments with three unique, inter-agency, survey gill nets used to assess walleye Sander vitreus in Lake Erie. We used an information-theoretic approach with Akaike’s second-order information criterion (AICc) to evaluate linear mixed models of walleye catch as a function of net type (multifilament and two types of monofilament netting), mesh size (categorical), Secchi depth, temperature, water depth, catch of ancillary species, and interactions among selected variables. The model with the greatest weight of evidence showed that walleye catches were positively associated with potential prey and intra-guild predators and negatively associated with water depth and temperature. In addition, the multifilament net had higher average walleye catches than either of the two monofilament nets. Results from this study both help inform decisions about proposed gear changes to stock assessment surveys in Lake Erie, and advance our understanding of how multispecies associations explain variation in gill net catches. Of broader interest to fishery-independent gill net studies, effects of abiotic variables and ancillary species on focal specie’s catch rates were small in comparison with net characteristics of mesh size or twine type.

  7. Analysis of K-net and Kik-net data: implications for ground motion prediction - acceleration time histories, response spectra and nonlinear site response; Analyse des donnees accelerometriques de K-net et Kik-net: implications pour la prediction du mouvement sismique - accelerogrammes et spectres de reponse - et la prise en compte des effets de site non-lineaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pousse, G

    2005-10-15

    This thesis intends to characterize ground motion during earthquake. This work is based on two Japanese networks. It deals with databases of shallow events, depth less than 25 km, with magnitude between 4.0 and 7.3. The analysis of K-net allows to compute a spectral ground motion prediction equation and to review the shape of the Eurocode 8 design spectra. We show the larger amplification at short period for Japanese data and bring in light the soil amplification that takes place at large period. In addition, we develop a new empirical model for simulating synthetic stochastic nonstationary acceleration time histories. By specifying magnitude, distance and site effect, this model allows to produce many time histories, that a seismic event is liable to produce at the place of interest. Furthermore, the study of near-field borehole records of the Kik-net allows to explore the validity domain of predictive equations and to explain what occurs by extrapolating ground motion predictions. Finally, we show that nonlinearity reduces the dispersion of ground motion at the surface. (author)

  8. RESTful NET

    CERN Document Server

    Flanders, Jon

    2008-01-01

    RESTful .NET is the first book that teaches Windows developers to build RESTful web services using the latest Microsoft tools. Written by Windows Communication Foundation (WFC) expert Jon Flanders, this hands-on tutorial demonstrates how you can use WCF and other components of the .NET 3.5 Framework to build, deploy and use REST-based web services in a variety of application scenarios. RESTful architecture offers a simpler approach to building web services than SOAP, SOA, and the cumbersome WS- stack. And WCF has proven to be a flexible technology for building distributed systems not necessa

  9. Market segmentation and positioning: matching creativity with fiscal responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiener, M E

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to continuing professional education (CPE) program development in nursing within a university environment that utilizes the concepts of market segmentation and positioning. Use of these strategies enables the academic CPE enterprise to move beyond traditional needs assessment practices to create more successful and better-managed CPE programs.

  10. Discovery of, and response to husbands' HIV positive status: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This situation warrants a lot of questions that do not have answers and for many people it leaves them with ambivalent feelings towards the spouse. The present study was conducted to explore the emotions that women experience when the husband tests HIV positive. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six ...

  11. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Associate Professor of. Computer Science and. Automation at the Indian. Institute of Science,. Bangalore. His research interests are broadly in the areas of stochastic modeling and scheduling methodologies for future factories; and object oriented modeling. GENERAL I ARTICLE. Petri Nets. 1. Overview and Foundations.

  12. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 8. Petri Nets - Overview and Foundations. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 8 August 1999 pp ... Author Affiliations. Y Narahari1. Department ot Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  13. Regional Climate Responses To Planetary-Scale Geoengineering Activities, as Modeled Using climateprediction.net/HadCM3L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricke, K.

    2009-12-01

    Concerns that climate mitigation is occurring too slowly, or that there may be a rapid "climate surprise," have lead to renewed dialogue within the scientific community about cooling the planet through geoengineering, specifically stratospheric albedo modification (SAM). There is little consensus about regional hydrological effects of such activities despite a recent spate of climate modeling studies looking at its potential impacts. Here we present the results from one large-ensemble experiment that used Hadley Centre Coupled Model, version 3 with reduced resolution over the ocean (HadCM3L), implemented through climateprediction.net. The analysis examines 54 globally-uniform stratospheric optical depth modification scenarios designed to stabilize global temperatures under SRES A1B. We present normalized regional temperature anomalies versus normalized regional precipitation and subsurface runoff anomalies (for example, see Figure 1) and the results of regression analyses to quantify the relationships between level of stratospheric optical property modification (i.e., geoengineering) and regional hydrology. Results show that while such shortwave compensations for longwave anthropogenic forcings does generally return regional climates to closer to their baseline climate states than the no-geoengineering, business-as-usual scenarios, the magnitudes and sensitivities of regional responses to this type of activity, as modeled in HadCM3L, are highly variable. Regions, such as Eastern China and India, migrate away from their baseline climate states in different ways, illustrating the impossibility of simultaneous stabilization of regional climates. The linearity of the effect of incrementally increasing stratospheric optical depth also varies regionally. Figure 1: Normalized regional temperature and precipitation anomalies (- and -) in units of baseline standard deviations for each region). Each grayscale point in-series near the origin represents data from 60

  14. Positive and negative emotional responses to work-related trauma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, nurses tend to deny the negative impact of secondary trauma which leads to the silencing response and subsequent burnout. This article explores and describes the presence of these emotions and the relationships between them. A quantitative approach with a non-probability sampling method was used.

  15. Modelling the limits on the response of net carbon exchange to fertilization in a south-eastern pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun-Tai. Lai; G. Katul; J. Butnor; M. Siqueira; D. Ellsworth; C. Maier; Kurt Johnsen; S. Mickeand; R. Oren

    2002-01-01

    Using a combination of model simulations and detailed measurements at a hierarchy of scales conducted at a sandhills forest site, the effect of fertilization on net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and its components in 6-year-old Pinus taeda stands was quantified. The detailed measurements, collected over a 20-d period in September and October, included gas...

  16. Fish community and bioassessment responses to stream network position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitt, N.P.; Angermeier, P.L.

    2011-01-01

    If organisms move beyond the boundaries of local sampling units, regional metacommunity dynamics could undermine the ability of bioassessment studies to characterize local environmental quality. We tested the prediction that fish dispersal influences local fish community structure and bioassessment metrics as a function of site position within stream networks. We evaluated fish community data from the US Environmental Protection Agency's Regional Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program in West Virginia, USA, to compare the influences of stream network position, ecoregion, basin, and stream size on local fish community composition. We assigned sites to 1 of 3 stream network positions: 1) main channels (MC, n  =  12) encompassed streams with upstream catchment areas >200 km2, 2) mainstem tributaries (MT, n  =  43) flowed into MC-sized confluences within 15 fluvial km, 3) headwater tributaries (HT, n  =  31) lacked such riverine confluences within 15 fluvial km. MT and HT sites had similar upstream catchment sizes and landuse gradients, but species richness was greater in MT sites than HT sites, whereas MT and MC sites were not different in this regard. Three bioassessment metrics were greater in MT sites than HT sites (intolerant species richness, cyprinid species richness, benthic species richness), but a multimetric index of biotic integrity did not differ among stream network positions. Ordinations revealed that fish community composition was organized primarily by zoogeographic basin (Monongahela River basin, New River basin, Ohio River basin), ecoregion (Central Appalachian Plateau, Western Appalachian Plateau, Ridge and Valley), and stream size. Riverine specialists were more abundant in MT than HT sites and were more abundant in basins connected to the Ohio River than in basins isolated from the Ohio River by a large waterfall (New River). Our results suggest that contemporary dispersal among streams influences fish community composition

  17. Analytical expression for position sensitivity of linear response beam position monitor having inter-electrode cross talk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Mukesh, E-mail: mukeshk@rrcat.gov.in [Beam Diagnostics Section, Indus Operations, Beam Dynamics & Diagnostics Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, 452013 MP (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400 094 (India); Ojha, A.; Garg, A.D.; Puntambekar, T.A. [Beam Diagnostics Section, Indus Operations, Beam Dynamics & Diagnostics Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, 452013 MP (India); Senecha, V.K. [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400 094 (India); Ion Source Lab., Proton Linac & Superconducting Cavities Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, 452013 MP (India)

    2017-02-01

    According to the quasi electrostatic model of linear response capacitive beam position monitor (BPM), the position sensitivity of the device depends only on the aperture of the device and it is independent of processing frequency and load impedance. In practice, however, due to the inter-electrode capacitive coupling (cross talk), the actual position sensitivity of the device decreases with increasing frequency and load impedance. We have taken into account the inter-electrode capacitance to derive and propose a new analytical expression for the position sensitivity as a function of frequency and load impedance. The sensitivity of a linear response shoe-box type BPM has been obtained through simulation using CST Studio Suite to verify and confirm the validity of the new analytical equation. Good agreement between the simulation results and the new analytical expression suggest that this method can be exploited for proper designing of BPM.

  18. Positive net movements of amino acids in the hindlimb after overnight food deprivation contribute to sustaining the elevated anabolism of neonatal pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the neonatal period, high protein breakdown rate is a metabolic process inherent to elevated rates of protein accretion in skeletal muscle. To determine the relationship between hindlimb net movements of essential and nonessential amino acids in the regulation of hindlimb protein breakdown du...

  19. Positive response of Indian summer rainfall to Middle East dust

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Qinjian

    2014-06-02

    Using observational and reanalyses data, we investigated the impact of dust aerosols over the Middle East and the Arabian Sea (AS) on the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) rainfall. Satellite and aerosol reanalysis data show extremely heavy aerosol loading, mainly mineral dust, over the Middle East and AS during the ISM season. Multivariate empirical orthogonal function analyses suggest an aerosol-monsoon connection. This connection may be attributed to dust-induced atmospheric heating centered over the Iranian Plateau (IP), which enhances the meridional thermal contrast and strengthens the ISM circulation and rainfall. The enhanced circulation further transports more dust to the AS and IP, heating the atmosphere (positive feedback). The aerosols over the AS and the Arabian Peninsula have a significant correlation with rainfall over central and eastern India about 2 weeks later. This finding highlights the nonlocal radiative effect of dust on the ISM circulation and rainfall and may improve ISM rainfall forecasts. © 2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Interrelationship of rainfall, temperature and reference evapotranspiration trends and their net response to the climate change in Central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Sananda; Khare, Deepak; Mondal, Arun

    2017-11-01

    The monthly rainfall data from 1901 to 2011 and maximum and minimum temperature data from 1901 to 2005 are used along with the reference evapotranspiration (ET0) to analyze the climate trend of 45 stations of Madhya Pradesh. ET0 is calculated by the Hargreaves method from 1901 to 2005 and the computed data is then used for trend analysis. The temporal variation and the spatial distribution of trend are studied for seasonal and annual series with the Mann-Kendall (MK) test and Sen's estimator of slope. The percentage of change is used to find the rate of change in 111 years (rainfall) and 105 years (temperatures and ET0). Interrelationships among these variables are analyzed to see the dependency of one variable on the other. The results indicate a decreasing rainfall and increasing temperatures and ET0 trend. A similar pattern is noticeable in all seasons except for monsoon season in temperature and ET0 trend analysis. The highest increase of temperature is noticed during post-monsoon and winter. Rainfall shows a notable decrease in the monsoon season. The entire state of Madhya Pradesh is considered as a single unit, and the calculation of overall net change in the amount of the rainfall, temperatures (maximum and minimum) and ET0 is done to estimate the total loss or gain in monthly, seasonal and annual series. The results show net loss or deficit in the amount of rainfall and the net gain or excess in the temperature and ET0 amount.

  1. MercNet: A national monitoring network to assess responses to changing mercury emissions in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeltz, D.; Evers, D.C.; Driscoll, C.T.; Artz, R.; Cohen, M.; Gay, D.; Haeuber, R.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Mason, R.; Morris, K.; Wiener, J.G.

    2011-01-01

    A partnership of federal and state agencies, tribes, industry, and scientists from academic research and environmental organizations is establishing a national, policy-relevant mercury monitoring network, called MercNet, to address key questions concerning changes in anthropogenic mercury emissions and deposition, associated linkages to ecosystem effects, and recovery from mercury contamination. This network would quantify mercury in the atmosphere, land, water, and biota in terrestrial, freshwater, and coastal ecosystems to provide a national scientific capability for evaluating the benefits and effectiveness of emission controls. Program development began with two workshops, convened to establish network goals, to select key indicators for monitoring, to propose a geographic network of monitoring sites, and to design a monitoring plan. MercNet relies strongly on multi-institutional partnerships to secure the capabilities and comprehensive data that are needed to develop, calibrate, and refine predictive mercury models and to guide effective management. Ongoing collaborative efforts include the: (1) development of regional multi-media databases on mercury in the Laurentian Great Lakes, northeastern United States, and eastern Canada; (2) syntheses and reporting of these data for the scientific and policy communities; and (3) evaluation of potential monitoring sites. The MercNet approach could be applied to the development of other monitoring programs, such as emerging efforts to monitor and assess global mercury emission controls. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC (outside the USA).

  2. What good are positive emotions for treatment? Trait positive emotionality predicts response to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Charles T; Knapp, Sarah E; Bomyea, Jessica A; Ramsawh, Holly J; Paulus, Martin P; Stein, Murray B

    2017-06-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is empirically supported for the treatment of anxiety disorders; however, not all individuals achieve recovery following CBT. Positive emotions serve a number of functions that theoretically should facilitate response to CBT - they promote flexible patterns of information processing and assimilation of new information, encourage approach-oriented behavior, and speed physiological recovery from negative emotions. We conducted a secondary analysis of an existing clinical trial dataset to test the a priori hypothesis that individual differences in trait positive emotions would predict CBT response for anxiety. Participants meeting diagnostic criteria for panic disorder (n = 28) or generalized anxiety disorder (n = 31) completed 10 weekly individual CBT sessions. Trait positive emotionality was assessed at pre-treatment, and severity of anxiety symptoms and associated impairment was assessed throughout treatment. Participants who reported a greater propensity to experience positive emotions at pre-treatment displayed the largest reduction in anxiety symptoms as well as fewer symptoms following treatment. Positive emotions remained a robust predictor of change in symptoms when controlling for baseline depression severity. Initial evidence supports the predictive value of trait positive emotions as a prognostic indicator for CBT outcome in a GAD and PD sample. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Neratinib after trastuzumab-based adjuvant therapy in HER2-positive breast cancer (ExteNET): 5-year analysis of a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Miguel; Holmes, Frankie A; Ejlertsen, Bent; Delaloge, Suzette; Moy, Beverly; Iwata, Hiroji; von Minckwitz, Gunter; Chia, Stephen K L; Mansi, Janine; Barrios, Carlos H; Gnant, Michael; Tomašević, Zorica; Denduluri, Neelima; Šeparović, Robert; Gokmen, Erhan; Bashford, Anna; Ruiz Borrego, Manuel; Kim, Sung-Bae; Jakobsen, Erik Hugger; Ciceniene, Audrone; Inoue, Kenichi; Overkamp, Friedrich; Heijns, Joan B; Armstrong, Anne C; Link, John S; Joy, Anil Abraham; Bryce, Richard; Wong, Alvin; Moran, Susan; Yao, Bin; Xu, Feng; Auerbach, Alan; Buyse, Marc; Chan, Arlene

    2017-12-01

    ExteNET showed that 1 year of neratinib, an irreversible pan-HER tyrosine kinase inhibitor, significantly improves 2-year invasive disease-free survival after trastuzumab-based adjuvant therapy in women with HER2-positive breast cancer. We report updated efficacy outcomes from a protocol-defined 5-year follow-up sensitivity analysis and long-term toxicity findings. In this ongoing randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, eligible women aged 18 years or older (≥20 years in Japan) with stage 1-3c (modified to stage 2-3c in February, 2010) operable breast cancer, who had completed neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy plus trastuzumab with no evidence of disease recurrence or metastatic disease at study entry. Patients who were eligible patients were randomly assigned (1:1) via permuted blocks stratified according to hormone receptor status (hormone receptor-positive vs hormone receptor-negative), nodal status (0 vs 1-3 vs or ≥4 positive nodes), and trastuzumab adjuvant regimen (given sequentially vs concurrently with chemotherapy), then implemented centrally via an interactive voice and web-response system, to receive 1 year of oral neratinib 240 mg/day or matching placebo. Treatment was given continuously for 1 year, unless disease recurrence or new breast cancer, intolerable adverse events, or consent withdrawal occurred. Patients, investigators, and trial funder were masked to treatment allocation. The predefined endpoint of the 5-year analysis was invasive disease-free survival, analysed by intention to treat. ExteNET is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00878709, and is closed to new participants. Between July 9, 2009, and Oct 24, 2011, 2840 eligible women with early HER2-positive breast cancer were recruited from community-based and academic institutions in 40 countries and randomly assigned to receive neratinib (n=1420) or placebo (n=1420). After a median follow-up of 5·2 years (IQR 2·1-5·3), patients in the neratinib

  4. Developmental switching in Physarum polycephalum: Petri net analysis of single cell trajectories of gene expression indicates responsiveness and genetic plasticity of the Waddington quasipotential landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werthmann, Britta; Marwan, Wolfgang

    2017-11-01

    The developmental switch to sporulation in Physarum polycephalum is a phytochrome-mediated far-red light-induced cell fate decision that synchronously encompasses the entire multinucleate plasmodial cell and is associated with extensive reprogramming of the transcriptome. By repeatedly taking samples of single cells after delivery of a light stimulus pulse, we analysed differential gene expression in two mutant strains and in a heterokaryon of the two strains all of which display a different propensity for making the cell fate decision. Multidimensional scaling of the gene expression data revealed individually different single cell trajectories eventually leading to sporulation. Characterization of the trajectories as walks through states of gene expression discretized by hierarchical clustering allowed the reconstruction of Petri nets that model and predict the observed behavior. Structural analyses of the Petri nets indicated stimulus- and genotype-dependence of both, single cell trajectories and of the quasipotential landscape through which these trajectories are taken. The Petri net-based approach to the analysis and decomposition of complex cellular responses and of complex mutant phenotypes may provide a scaffold for the data-driven reconstruction of causal molecular mechanisms that shape the topology of the quasipotential landscape.

  5. Responses to Positive Affect Predict Mood Symptoms in Children under Conditions of Stress: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijttebier, Patricia; Raes, Filip; Vasey, Michael W.; Feldman, Gregory C.

    2012-01-01

    Rumination to negative affect has been linked to the onset and maintenance of mood disorders in adults as well as children. Responses to positive affect have received far less attention thus far. A few recent studies in adults suggest that responses to positive affect are involved in the development of both depressive and hypomanic symptoms, but…

  6. Associations of positive personality characteristics with psychophysiological response to stressors: literature review.

    OpenAIRE

    Šmitas, Andrius

    2017-01-01

    Positive personality characteristics (e.g. hardiness) are important predictors of lower stress. However, it is not clear how positive personality characteristics affect physiological response to stressors. The purpose of this study is to review the existing evidence about how different positive personality characteristics, such as optimism, affect physiological response to psychosocial and physiological stressors in humans. Systemic analysis of empirical articles published 1996-20...

  7. Modeling Net Growth of Phaeocystis antarctica Based on Physiological and Optical Responses to Light and Temperature Co-limitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany A. Moisan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Temperature and light are fundamental environmental variables which regulate phytoplankton growth rates when nutrients are in excess. For polar coastal oceans that are undergoing changes in sea ice cover and warming, light, and temperature are particularly important for bloom dynamics. Using colonial Phaeocystis antarctica cultures grown at steady-state, we assessed the combined effect of these two environmental controls on net growth rate (μn, chlorophyll-specific absorption of light (aph* (λ, and quantum yields for growth (ϕμ. Specific net growth rates (μn varied from 0.04 to 0.34 day−1 within a matrix of light and temperature ranging from 14 to 542 μmol quanta m−2 s−1 and −1.5 to 4°C. Values of aph* (λ varied significantly with light but only slightly with temperature. Values of ϕμ ranged from 0.003 to 0.09 mol C (mol quanta absorbed−1 with highest values at low light and 4°C. For excess irradiances or low temperatures where growth rate is inhibited, quantum yields were low. The low ϕμ values are attributed both to increased absorption by photoprotective pigments compared to photosynthetic pigments and thermodynamic control of dark reaction enzymes. The systematic changes in photophysiological properties of P. antarctica in relation to temperature and light were used to develop a series of nested light- and temperature-dependent models for μn, aph* (λ, and ϕμ. A model for aph* (300–700 nm was developed that takes into account the systematic changes in aph* (λ due to pigment packaging effects and cellular concentrations of chlorophylls and photoprotective pigments. Also, a model for ϕμ was developed based on a cumulative one-hit Poisson probability function. These model parameterizations for absorption and quantum yield are combined into an overall model of net growth that can be applied easily to P. antarctica bloom dynamics using remote sensing data for temperature, light, and chlorophyll a. Furthermore

  8. N-acetylgalactosamine positive perineuronal nets in the saccade-related-part of the cerebellar fastigial nucleus do not maintain saccade gain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Mueller

    Full Text Available Perineuronal nets (PNNs accumulate around neurons near the end of developmental critical periods. PNNs are structures of the extracellular matrix which surround synaptic contacts and contain chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. Previous studies suggest that the chondroitin sulfate chains of PNNs inhibit synaptic plasticity and thereby help end critical periods. PNNs surround a high proportion of neurons in the cerebellar nuclei. These PNNs form during approximately the same time that movements achieve normal accuracy. It is possible that PNNs in the cerebellar nuclei inhibit plasticity to maintain the synaptic organization that produces those accurate movements. We tested whether or not PNNs in a saccade-related part of the cerebellar nuclei maintain accurate saccade size by digesting a part of them in an adult monkey performing a task that changes saccade size (long term saccade adaptation. We use the enzyme Chondroitinase ABC to digest the glycosaminoglycan side chains of proteoglycans present in the majority of PNNs. We show that this manipulation does not result in faster, larger, or more persistent adaptation. Our result indicates that intact perineuronal nets around saccade-related neurons in the cerebellar nuclei are not important for maintaining long-term saccade gain.

  9. A Psychometric Evaluation of the Dutch Version of the Responses to Positive Affect Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Raes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In 698 respondents selected from the community, the authors examined the psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the Responses to Positive Affect questionnaire (RPA; Feldman, Joormann, & Johnson, 2008 which measures ruminative and dampening thoughts in response to positive affect. In a first sample ('n' = 170, exploratory factor analyses largely replicated the 3-factor model obtained by Feldman et al. (2008 with the following factors: Dampening, Self-focused positive rumination, and Emotion-focused positive rumination. The 3-factor model revealed in the first sample was confirmed using confirmatory factor analyses in a second independent sample of 528 respondents. All subscales showed adequate internal consistency and evidence of convergent and incremental validity with concurrent measures of depressive rumination, depressive symptoms, trait hypomania, and positive and negative affect. Results underscore the value of assessing responses to positive as well as negative affect in the study of mood disorders.

  10. Demand effects on positive response distortion by police officer applicants on the Revised NEO Personality Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detrick, Paul; Chibnall, John T; Call, Cynthia

    2010-09-01

    Understanding and detecting response distortion is important in the high-demand circumstances of personnel selection. In this article, we describe positive response distortion on the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R; Costa & McCrae, 1992) among police officer applicants under high and low demand conditions. Positive response distortion primarily reflected denial/minimization of Neuroticism and accentuation of traits associated with moralistic bias (Agreeableness and Conscientiousness). Validity of the NEO PI-R research validity scale, Positive Presentation Management, was weakly supported with respect to the Neuroticism domain only. Results will be useful in interpreting personality inventory results in the police personnel selection process.

  11. Response to pediatric physical therapy in infants with positional preference and skull deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, R.M. van; Pelsma, M.; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, C.G.; IJzerman, M.J.; Vlimmeren, L.A. van; Boere-Boonekamp, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pediatric physical therapy seems to reduce skull deformation in infants with positional preference. However, not all infants show improvement. OBJECTIVE: The study objective was to determine which infant and parent characteristics were related to responses to pediatric physical therapy

  12. Does the Position of Response Options in Multiple-Choice Tests Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohensinn, Christine; Baghaei, Purya

    2017-01-01

    In large scale multiple-choice (MC) tests alternate forms of a test may be developed to prevent cheating by changing the order of items or by changing the position of the response options. The assumption is that since the content of the test forms are the same the order of items or the positions of the response options do not have any effect on…

  13. Linking and Psychological Functioning in a Chinese Sample: The Multiple Mediation of Response to Positive Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongfei; Li, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the associations between linking, response to positive affect, and psychological functioning in Chinese college students. The results of conducting multiple mediation analyses indicated that emotion- and self-focused positive rumination mediated the relationship between linking and psychological functioning, whereas…

  14. Social responsibility of higher education institution as manifestation of Positive Organizational Scholarship

    OpenAIRE

    Marcin Geryk

    2011-01-01

    Every organization searches for best conditions for development. Higher education institutions, based on the significance of a human factor, undertake many social responsibility activities. Finding the key to create a positive organization which is a motivator for employees would be a good example of applying the Positive Organizational Scholarship idea in practice. An additional consequence of the positive influence would be the perception of the higher education institution as an example of...

  15. Revised response criteria for myelofibrosis: International Working Group-Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Research and Treatment (IWG-MRT) and European LeukemiaNet (ELN) consensus report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefferi, Ayalew; Cervantes, Francisco; Mesa, Ruben; Passamonti, Francesco; Verstovsek, Srdan; Vannucchi, Alessandro M; Gotlib, Jason; Dupriez, Brigitte; Pardanani, Animesh; Harrison, Claire; Hoffman, Ronald; Gisslinger, Heinz; Kröger, Nicolaus; Thiele, Juergen; Barbui, Tiziano; Barosi, Giovanni

    2013-08-22

    The current document is a revision of the International Working Group-Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Research and Treatment (IWG-MRT) criteria for treatment response in myelofibrosis (MF) and represents a collaborative effort by the IWG-MRT and the European LeukemiaNet to objectively assess the value of new drugs in inducing morphologic remission or improvement in MF-associated symptomatic burden (MF-SB). Some of the changes in the current revision include stricter definitions of red cell transfusion dependency and independency and consideration of the Myeloproliferative Neoplasm Symptom Assessment Form as a tool to quantify meaningful changes in disease-related symptoms. Six response categories are listed: complete remission (CR) and partial remission signify treatment effects that are consistent with disease modification, whereas drug-induced improvements in MF-SB were annotated as clinical improvement, anemia response, spleen response, or symptoms response. Additional criteria are provided for progressive disease, stable disease, and relapse. The document also includes recommendations for assessing cytogenetic and molecular remissions, without mandating their inclusion for CR assignment.

  16. TRI Reporting Failures from No. Canaan, Conn. Companies Nets Emergency Response Equipment for Local Fire Departments under EPA Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    An EPA settlement with two North Canaan mineral processing companies for the companies' alleged failure to file required toxic release inventory information requires that two local emergency response units be provided with $28,700 of equipment...

  17. Pro asynchronous programming with .NET

    CERN Document Server

    Blewett, Richard; Ltd, Rock Solid Knowledge

    2014-01-01

    Pro Asynchronous Programming with .NET teaches the essential skill of asynchronous programming in .NET. It answers critical questions in .NET application development, such as: how do I keep my program responding at all times to keep my users happy how do I make the most of the available hardware how can I improve performanceIn the modern world, users expect more and more from their applications and devices, and multi-core hardware has the potential to provide it. But it takes carefully crafted code to turn that potential into responsive, scalable applications.With Pro Asynchronous Programming

  18. The response of aboveground net primary productivity of desert vegetation to rainfall pulse in the temperate desert region of northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Zhao, Wenzhi; Liu, Hu

    2013-01-01

    Rainfall events can be characterized as "pulses", which are discrete and variable episodes that can significantly influence the structure and function of desert ecosystems, including shifts in aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP). To determine the threshold and hierarchical response of rainfall event size on the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, a proxy for ANPP) and the difference across a desert area in northwestern China with two habitats - dune and desert - we selected 17 independent summer rainfall events from 2005 to 2012, and obtained a corresponding NDVI dataset extracted from MODIS images. Based on the threshold-delay model and statistical analysis, the results showed that the response of NDVI to rainfall pulses began at about a 5 mm event size. Furthermore, when the rainfall event size was more than 30 mm, NDVI rapidly increased 3- to 6-fold compared with the response to events of less than 30 mm, suggesting that 30 mm was the threshold for a large NDVI response. These results revealed the importance of the 5 mm and 30 mm rainfall events for plant survival and growth in desert regions. There was an 8- to 16-day lag time between the rainfall event and the NDVI response, and the response duration varied with rainfall event size, reaching a maximum of 32 days. Due to differences in soil physical and mineralogical properties, and to biodiversity structure and the root systems' abilities to exploit moisture, dune and desert areas differed in precipitation responses: dune habitats were characterized by a single, late summer productivity peak; in contrast, deserts showed a multi-peak pattern throughout the growing season.

  19. Negative, but not positive emotional images modulate the startle response independent of conscious awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagh, Zachariah M; Knight, David C

    2013-08-01

    The emotional response to a threat is influenced by the valence of other stimuli in the environment. This emotional modulation of the threat-elicited response occurs even when negative valence stimuli are not consciously perceived. Relatively little prior research has investigated whether nonconsciously perceived positive valence stimuli modify the response to a threat, and the work that has been completed is in need of additional rigorous testing of stimulus and valence perception. The current study presented images of negative, neutral, and positive valence (1,000 ms and 17 ms durations), followed by a mask. A startle probe (100 dB whitenoise) was presented during 33% of each trial type while eyeblink electromyography (EMG) and skin conductance response (SCR) were measured. During the study, participants rated the emotional content of each image to assess valence perception. Participants accurately classified the valence of 1,000 ms images, but not 17 ms images. Further, participants performed at chance levels on an independent postexperimental forced-choice perception task using 17 ms masked images, indicating they were unable to perceive the valence and content of these images. Greater EMG and SCR were elicited by the startle probe during perceived and unperceived negative images compared to perceived and unperceived positive and neutral images. In addition, perceived, but not unperceived positive images diminished startle responses. The current findings suggest that images of negative valence potentiate the startle response in the absence of conscious stimulus perception. However, the attenuation of the startle response by positive images appears to require perception of the emotional valence of an image. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Positive Allosteric Modulator of GABA Lowers BOLD Responses in the Cingulate Cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna A Walter

    Full Text Available Knowledge about the neural underpinnings of the negative blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD responses in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is still limited. We hypothesized that pharmacological GABAergic modulation attenuates BOLD responses, and that blood concentrations of a positive allosteric modulator of GABA correlate inversely with BOLD responses in the cingulate cortex. We investigated whether or not pure task-related negative BOLD responses were co-localized with pharmacologically modulated BOLD responses. Twenty healthy adults received either 5 mg diazepam or placebo in a double blind, randomized design. During fMRI the subjects performed a working memory task. Results showed that BOLD responses in the cingulate cortex were inversely correlated with diazepam blood concentrations; that is, the higher the blood diazepam concentration, the lower the BOLD response. This inverse correlation was most pronounced in the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex and the anterior mid-cingulate cortex. For subjects with diazepam plasma concentration > 0.1 mg/L we observed negative BOLD responses with respect to fixation baseline. There was minor overlap between cingulate regions with task-related negative BOLD responses and regions where the BOLD responses were inversely correlated with diazepam concentration. We interpret that the inverse correlation between the BOLD response and diazepam was caused by GABA-related neural inhibition. Thus, this study supports the hypothesis that GABA attenuates BOLD responses in fMRI. The minimal overlap between task-related negative BOLD responses and responses attenuated by diazepam suggests that these responses might be caused by different mechanisms.

  1. Seismic site-response characterization of high-velocity sites using advanced geophysical techniques: application to the NAGRA-Net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggi, V.; Burjanek, J.; Michel, C.; Fäh, D.

    2017-08-01

    The Swiss Seismological Service (SED) has recently finalised the installation of ten new seismological broadband stations in northern Switzerland. The project was led in cooperation with the National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (Nagra) and Swissnuclear to monitor micro seismicity at potential locations of nuclear-waste repositories. To further improve the quality and usability of the seismic recordings, an extensive characterization of the sites surrounding the installation area was performed following a standardised investigation protocol. State-of-the-art geophysical techniques have been used, including advanced active and passive seismic methods. The results of all analyses converged to the definition of a set of best-representative 1-D velocity profiles for each site, which are the input for the computation of engineering soil proxies (traveltime averaged velocity and quarter-wavelength parameters) and numerical amplification models. Computed site response is then validated through comparison with empirical site amplification, which is currently available for any station connected to the Swiss seismic networks. With the goal of a high-sensitivity network, most of the NAGRA stations have been installed on stiff-soil sites of rather high seismic velocity. Seismic characterization of such sites has always been considered challenging, due to lack of relevant velocity contrast and the large wavelengths required to investigate the frequency range of engineering interest. We describe how ambient vibration techniques can successfully be applied in these particular conditions, providing practical recommendations for best practice in seismic site characterization of high-velocity sites.

  2. Positive and negative ionospheric responses to the March 2015 geomagnetic storm from BDS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shuanggen; Jin, Rui; Kutoglu, H.

    2017-06-01

    The most intense geomagnetic storm in solar cycle 24 occurred on March 17, 2015, and the detailed ionospheric storm morphologies are difficultly obtained from traditional observations. In this paper, the Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) observations of BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) are for the first time used to investigate the ionospheric responses to the geomagnetic storm. Using BDS GEO and GIMs TEC series, negative and positive responses to the March 2015 storm are found at local and global scales. During the main phase, positive ionospheric storm is the main response to the geomagnetic storm, while in the recovery phase, negative phases are pronounced at all latitudes. Maximum amplitudes of negative and positive phases appear in the afternoon and post-dusk sectors during both main and recovery phases. Furthermore, dual-peak positive phases in main phase and repeated negative phase during the recovery are found from BDS GEO observations. The geomagnetic latitudes corresponding to the maximum disturbances during the main and recovery phases show large differences, but they are quasi-symmetrical between southern and northern hemispheres. No clear zonal propagation of traveling ionospheric disturbances is detected in the GNSS TEC disturbances at high and low latitudes. The thermospheric composition variations could be the dominant source of the observed ionospheric storm effect from GUVI [O]/[N2] ratio data as well as storm-time electric fields. Our study demonstrates that the BDS (especially the GEO) observations are an important data source to observe ionospheric responses to the geomagnetic storm.

  3. Using Learning Labs for Culturally Responsive Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Aydin; Schrader, Elizabeth M.; Afacan, Kemal; Mawene, Dian

    2016-01-01

    Culturally responsive positive behavioral interventions and supports (CRPBIS) is a statewide research project designed to renovate behavioral support systems to become more inclusive, adaptive, and supportive for all. The CRPBIS methodology, called "learning lab," provides a research-based process to bring together local stakeholders and…

  4. Increasing Humidity Blocks Continuous Positive Airflow-induced Apnea Responses in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ting Tan

    2010-07-01

    Conclusion: Laryngeal cold dry air stimulation triggered an apneic response, which could be eliminated by humidification but not by the heating of air. These results suggest that using continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP with humidified air decreases CPAP-induced apnea.

  5. Luminous Impulse Response of Positive- and Negative-Contrast Stimuli in Different Spatial Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Shi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available An interesting question is whether positive- and negative-contrast stimulations have temporally different visual responses. Luminous impulse response functions (IRF were measured to investigate this question. The IRF represents a theoretical response to a flash of infinitely short duration. It can be estimated from detection thresholds of double-pulses divided by various inter-stimuli-intervals (ISI. Each threshold was measured independently 5 times included 20∼30 trials each, controlled by a psi method combined with a spatial 4-alternative-forced-choice (4AFC method. The stimulus, which has a water-wave-like structure in terms of luminance with one of various spatial frequency configurations (0 cpd, 1 cpd, 2 cpd, 4 cpd, 8 cpd, and 16 cpd, was presented on a 10 cd/m2 background (equal-energy-white. About 135,000 trials were measured for five observers. The results show that; (1 thresholds of positive contrast detection were significantly higher than that of negative contrast detection except a part of spatial frequencies on two observers; (2 there was no significant difference between positive and negative contrast IRFs. These results suggest that the responses for positive- and negative-contrast stimulations are the same in terms of IRF.

  6. Culturally Responsive Pyramid Model Practices: Program-Wide Positive Behavior Support for Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Rosemarie; Steed, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    This conceptual article reviews current research on racial disparities in disciplinary practices in early childhood education and work to address these issues within a positive behavior support (PBS) framework. Building largely on the Pyramid Model, recommendations and a culturally responsive approach are suggested for use within a program-wide…

  7. High accuracy position response calibration method for a micro-channel plate ion detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, R., E-mail: hongran@uw.edu [Department of Physics and Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Leredde, A. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Bagdasarova, Y. [Department of Physics and Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Fléchard, X. [Normandie Univ, ENSICAEN, UNICAEN, CNRS/IN2P3, LPC Caen, 14000 Caen (France); García, A. [Department of Physics and Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Müller, P. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Knecht, A. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Liénard, E. [Normandie Univ, ENSICAEN, UNICAEN, CNRS/IN2P3, LPC Caen, 14000 Caen (France); Kossin, M. [Department of Physics, Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Sternberg, M.G.; Swanson, H.E.; Zumwalt, D.W. [Department of Physics and Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    We have developed a position response calibration method for a micro-channel plate (MCP) detector with a delay-line anode position readout scheme. Using an in situ calibration mask, an accuracy of 8 µm and a resolution of 85 µm (FWHM) have been achieved for MeV-scale α particles and ions with energies of ∼10 keV. At this level of accuracy, the difference between the MCP position responses to high-energy α particles and low-energy ions is significant. The improved performance of the MCP detector can find applications in many fields of AMO and nuclear physics. In our case, it helps reducing systematic uncertainties in a high-precision nuclear β-decay experiment.

  8. High accuracy position response calibration method for a micro-channel plate ion detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, R.; Leredde, A.; Bagdasarova, Y.; Fléchard, X.; García, A.; Müller, P.; Knecht, A.; Liénard, E.; Kossin, M.; Sternberg, M. G.; Swanson, H. E.; Zumwalt, D. W.

    2016-11-01

    We have developed a position response calibration method for a micro-channel plate (MCP) detector with a delay-line anode position readout scheme. Using an in situ calibration mask, an accuracy of 8 μm and a resolution of 85 μm (FWHM) have been achieved for MeV-scale α particles and ions with energies of ∼10 keV. At this level of accuracy, the difference between the MCP position responses to high-energy α particles and low-energy ions is significant. The improved performance of the MCP detector can find applications in many fields of AMO and nuclear physics. In our case, it helps reducing systematic uncertainties in a high-precision nuclear β-decay experiment.

  9. Suspicion of Motives Predicts Minorities’ Responses to Positive Feedback in Interracial Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Brenda; Kunstman, Jonathan W.; Malta, Brenna D.; Sawyer, Pamela J.; Townsend, Sarah S. M.; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2015-01-01

    Strong social and legal norms in the United States discourage the overt expression of bias against ethnic and racial minorities, increasing the attributional ambiguity of Whites’ positive behavior to ethnic minorities. Minorities who suspect that Whites’ positive overtures toward minorities are motivated more by their fear of appearing racist than by egalitarian attitudes may regard positive feedback they receive from Whites as disingenuous. This may lead them to react to such feedback with feelings of uncertainty and threat. Three studies examined how suspicion of motives relates to ethnic minorities’ responses to receiving positive feedback from a White peer or same-ethnicity peer (Experiment 1), to receiving feedback from a White peer that was positive or negative (Experiment 2), and to receiving positive feedback from a White peer who did or did not know their ethnicity (Experiment 3). As predicted, the more suspicious Latinas were of Whites’ motives for behaving positively toward minorities in general, the more they regarded positive feedback from a White peer who knew their ethnicity as disingenuous and the more they reacted with cardiovascular reactivity characteristic of threat/avoidance, increased feelings of stress, heightened uncertainty, and decreased self-esteem. We discuss the implications for intergroup interactions of perceptions of Whites’ motives for nonprejudiced behavior. PMID:26688594

  10. Suspicion of Motives Predicts Minorities' Responses to Positive Feedback in Interracial Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Brenda; Kunstman, Jonathan W; Malta, Brenna D; Sawyer, Pamela J; Townsend, Sarah S M; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2016-01-01

    Strong social and legal norms in the United States discourage the overt expression of bias against ethnic and racial minorities, increasing the attributional ambiguity of Whites' positive behavior to ethnic minorities. Minorities who suspect that Whites' positive overtures toward minorities are motivated more by their fear of appearing racist than by egalitarian attitudes may regard positive feedback they receive from Whites as disingenuous. This may lead them to react to such feedback with feelings of uncertainty and threat. Three studies examined how suspicion of motives relates to ethnic minorities' responses to receiving positive feedback from a White peer or same-ethnicity peer (Experiment 1), to receiving feedback from a White peer that was positive or negative (Experiment 2), and to receiving positive feedback from a White peer who did or did not know their ethnicity (Experiment 3). As predicted, the more suspicious Latinas were of Whites' motives for behaving positively toward minorities in general, the more they regarded positive feedback from a White peer who knew their ethnicity as disingenuous and the more they reacted with cardiovascular reactivity characteristic of threat/avoidance, increased feelings of stress, heightened uncertainty, and decreased self-esteem. We discuss the implications for intergroup interactions of perceptions of Whites' motives for nonprejudiced behavior.

  11. Amygdala responses to unpleasant pictures are influenced by task demands and positive affect trait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Arruda Sanchez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of attention in emotional processing is still the subject of debate. Recent studies have found that high positive affect in approach motivation narrows attention. Furthermore, the positive affect trait has been suggested as an important component for determining human variability in threat reactivity. We employed fMRI to investigate whether different states of attention control would modulate amygdala responses to highly unpleasant pictures relative to neutral and whether this modulation would be influenced by the positive affect trait. Participants (n=22, 12 male were scanned while viewing neutral (people or unpleasant pictures (mutilated bodies flanked by two peripheral bars. They were instructed to (a judge the picture content as unpleasant or neutral or (b to judge the difference in orientation between the bars in an easy condition (0º or 90º orientation difference or (c in a hard condition (0º or 6º orientation difference. Whole brain analysis revealed a task main effect of brain areas related to the experimental manipulation of attentional control, including the amygdala, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex. ROI analysis showed an inverse correlation (r = -0.51, p < 0.01 between left amygdala activation and positive affect level when participants viewed unpleasant stimuli and judged bar orientation in the easy condition. This result suggests that subjects with high positive affect exhibit lower amygdala reactivity to distracting unpleasant pictures. In conclusion, the current study suggests that positive affect modulates attention effect on unpleasant pictures, therefore attenuating emotional responses.

  12. Effect of positive ionisation of inspired air on the response of asthmatic children to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipin, I; Gur, I; Amitai, Y; Amirav, I; Godfrey, S

    1984-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of positive ionisation of inspired air on bronchial reactivity, 12 asthmatic children were twice challenged by exercise in random order. During one test positively ionised air (5-10 X 10(5) ions/cm) was breathed. All challenges were matched in terms of basal lung function and exercise tests were matched in terms of ventilation and respiratory heat loss. Exercise induced asthma was significantly aggravated by exposure to positively ionised air, the postexercise fall in FEV1 (delta FEV1) being 24.7% (SEM and 5.3%) and 35.3% (5%) after the control and ionised air tests respectively (p less than 0.04). It is concluded that positive ionisation aggravates the bronchial response to exercise. PMID:6474386

  13. Stress and anxiety effects on positive skin test responses in young adults with allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffner, Kathi L; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K; Glaser, Ronald; Malarkey, William B; Marshall, Gailen D

    2014-07-01

    Anxiety and psychological stress affect allergy-related immune function. How these relations influence the evaluations of patients with allergic rhinitis is unknown. To examine whether anxiety and stress exposure affect skin prick test (SPT) responses to common allergens for which patients with atopy showed no prior positive SPT response. Patients with allergic rhinitis, evidenced by clinical history and SPT results, were admitted twice to a hospital research unit for 4 hours. In a crossover design, SPT wheals were assessed before and after the Trier Social Stress Test and then the following morning; for comparison, SPT wheals were assessed before and after a laboratory session without a stressor. Analyses focused on wheal responses for common allergens that tested negative (wheal size wheal responses for allergens previously testing negative were enhanced after a stressor. Histamine (positive control) or saline (negative control) SPT responses were not affected. A laboratory stressor affected allergen SPT responses in more anxious patients with allergic rhinitis. In addition to clinical history, assessment of anxiety and current stress at the time of the SPT may provide valuable information about a patient's allergic status and aid in clinical decision making. Copyright © 2014 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Rosener, B. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host ``na-net.ornl.gov`` at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message ``send index`` to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user`s perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  15. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Rosener, B. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host na-net.ornl.gov'' at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message send index'' to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user's perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  16. Synergistic dual positive feedback loops established by molecular sequestration generate robust bimodal response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturelli, Ophelia S; El-Samad, Hana; Murray, Richard M

    2012-11-27

    Feedback loops are ubiquitous features of biological networks and can produce significant phenotypic heterogeneity, including a bimodal distribution of gene expression across an isogenic cell population. In this work, a combination of experiments and computational modeling was used to explore the roles of multiple feedback loops in the bimodal, switch-like response of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae galactose regulatory network. Here, we show that bistability underlies the observed bimodality, as opposed to stochastic effects, and that two unique positive feedback loops established by Gal1p and Gal3p, which both regulate network activity by molecular sequestration of Gal80p, induce this bimodality. Indeed, systematically scanning through different single and multiple feedback loop knockouts, we demonstrate that there is always a concentration regime that preserves the system's bimodality, except for the double deletion of GAL1 and the GAL3 feedback loop, which exhibits a graded response for all conditions tested. The constitutive production rates of Gal1p and Gal3p operate as bifurcation parameters because variations in these rates can also abolish the system's bimodal response. Our model indicates that this second loss of bistability ensues from the inactivation of the remaining feedback loop by the overexpressed regulatory component. More broadly, we show that the sequestration binding affinity is a critical parameter that can tune the range of conditions for bistability in a circuit with positive feedback established by molecular sequestration. In this system, two positive feedback loops can significantly enhance the region of bistability and the dynamic response time.

  17. Assessment of nonlinear site response at ocean bottom seismograph sites based on S-wave horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratios: a study at the Sagami Bay area K-NET sites in Japan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dhakal, Yadab P; Aoi, Shin; Kunugi, Takashi; Suzuki, Wataru; Kimura, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    ...) sites of K-NET located in the Sagami Bay area of Japan for nonlinear site responses. The degree of nonlinearity was computed by comparing the S-H/V spectral ratios for strong motions (PGA ≥ 20 cm/s2...

  18. Accentuate the positive: Counteracting psychogenic responses to media health messages in the age of the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Fiona; Petrie, Keith J

    2015-09-01

    The Internet has expanded the scope for creating health scares and increased the risk of nocebo responding in individuals exposed to misinformation about threats to personal health posed by aspects of modern life, such as exposure to new technologies. It was the aim of this experiment to investigate whether the delivery of positive expectations might reduce or reverse symptoms triggered by negative expectations formed from such misinformation. In the context of a study investigating symptoms during exposure to windfarm sound, 64 volunteers assessed their symptomatic experiences during two discrete sessions, throughout which they listened to wind turbine sound containing audible and sub-audible (infrasound) components. Participants were randomly assigned to watch either positive or negative information about the health effects of infrasound prior to their first infrasound exposure session. They were then shown the alternate information and exposed to infrasound during their second session. Participants receiving negative expectations were less symptomatic during exposure if they had previously received positive expectations about infrasound. Further, participants given positive expectations after the earlier delivery of negative expectations exhibited a placebo response, reversing the nocebo response exhibited in their first exposure session. Results suggest accessing positively framed health information may reverse or dilute the effect of negative expectations formed from exposure to media warnings about health risks posed by new technologies, such as wind turbines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Differential responses of net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide to light and temperature between spring and neap tides in subtropical mangrove forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Lu, Weizhi; Chen, Hui; Luo, Yiqi; Lin, Guanghui

    2014-01-01

    The eddy flux data with field records of tidal water inundation depths of the year 2010 from two mangroves forests in southern China were analyzed to investigate the tidal effect on mangrove carbon cycle. We compared the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and its responses to light and temperature, respectively, between spring tide and neap tide inundation periods. For the most time of the year 2010, higher daytime NEE values were found during spring tides than during neap tides at both study sites. Regression analysis of daytime NEE to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) using the Landsberg model showed increased sensitivity of NEE to PAR with higher maximum photosynthetic rate during spring tides than neap tides. In contrast, the light compensation points acquired from the regression function of the Landsberg model were smaller during spring tides than neap tides in most months. The dependence of nighttime NEE on soil temperature was lower under spring tide than under neap tides. All these results above indicated that ecosystem carbon uptake rates of mangrove forests were strengthened, while ecosystem respirations were inhibited during spring tides in comparison with those during neap tides, which needs to be considered in modeling mangrove ecosystem carbon cycle under future sea level rise scenarios.

  20. Differential Responses of Net Ecosystem Exchange of Carbon Dioxide to Light and Temperature between Spring and Neap Tides in Subtropical Mangrove Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The eddy flux data with field records of tidal water inundation depths of the year 2010 from two mangroves forests in southern China were analyzed to investigate the tidal effect on mangrove carbon cycle. We compared the net ecosystem exchange (NEE and its responses to light and temperature, respectively, between spring tide and neap tide inundation periods. For the most time of the year 2010, higher daytime NEE values were found during spring tides than during neap tides at both study sites. Regression analysis of daytime NEE to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR using the Landsberg model showed increased sensitivity of NEE to PAR with higher maximum photosynthetic rate during spring tides than neap tides. In contrast, the light compensation points acquired from the regression function of the Landsberg model were smaller during spring tides than neap tides in most months. The dependence of nighttime NEE on soil temperature was lower under spring tide than under neap tides. All these results above indicated that ecosystem carbon uptake rates of mangrove forests were strengthened, while ecosystem respirations were inhibited during spring tides in comparison with those during neap tides, which needs to be considered in modeling mangrove ecosystem carbon cycle under future sea level rise scenarios.

  1. Net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide and evapotranspiration response of a high elevation Rocky Mountain (Wyoming, USA) forest to a bark beetle epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, J. M.; Massman, W. J.; Ewers, B. E.

    2011-12-01

    Bark beetle epidemics have caused major disturbance in the forests of western North America where significant tree mortality alters the balance of ecosystem photosynthesis, carbon balance, and water exchange. In this study we investigate the change in the growing-season light-response of net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide (NEE) and evapotranspiration (ET) in a high elevation Rocky Mountain forest over the three years preceding and three years following a bark beetle outbreak. The GLEES AmeriFlux site (southeastern Wyoming, USA) is located in a high elevation subalpine forest dominated by Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) and recently experienced an epidemic of spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis). The peak beetle outbreak occurred in 2008, and has impacted 35% of the stems and 90% of the basal area of Engelmann spruce, which accounts for 30% of the trees and 70% of the basal area of the forest. Two semi-empirical light response curves for eddy-covariance carbon flux were compared, with a logistic sigmoid performing better because of residual bias than a rectangular hyperbola (Michaelis-Menten) at estimating the quantum yield of photosynthesis. In the first two years after the peak beetle outbreak the original quantum yield of 0.015 mol mol-1 was reduced by 25%. By the third year it was reduced by a half, which was composed of declines of 45% in the ecosystem's responses to diffuse radiation and 60% to direct radiation. The light-saturated rate of photosynthesis decreased by 10% in the first two years post outbreak, and fell by 40% in the third year. After the peak outbreak, the cumulative NEE over the growing season was reduced by over a half from a sink of 185 gC m-2 to 80 gC m-2, and by the third year it was reduced to near zero, or carbon neutral. The change in the ET response to light was similar in all years after the peak outbreak where the slope of the response curve was decreased by 25%. This led to a

  2. A no hydrotropic response Root Mutant that Responds Positively to Gravitropism in Arabidopsis1[w

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eapen, Delfeena; Barroso, María Luisa; Campos, María Eugenia; Ponce, Georgina; Corkidi, Gabriel; Dubrovsky, Joseph G.; Cassab, Gladys I.

    2003-01-01

    For most plants survival depends upon the capacity of root tips to sense and move towards water and other nutrients in the soil. Because land plants cannot escape environmental stress they use developmental solutions to remodel themselves in order to better adapt to the new conditions. The primary site for perception of underground signals is the root cap (RC). Plant roots have positive hydrotropic response and modify their growth direction in search of water. Using a screening system with a water potential gradient, we isolated a no hydrotropic response (nhr) semi-dominant mutant of Arabidopsis that continued to grow downwardly into the medium with the lowest water potential contrary to the positive hydrotropic and negative gravitropic response seen in wild type-roots. The lack of hydrotropic response of nhr1 roots was confirmed in a system with a gradient in air moisture. The root gravitropic response of nhr1 seedlings was significantly faster in comparison with those of wild type. The frequency of the waving pattern in nhr1 roots was increased compared to those of wild type. nhr1 seedlings had abnormal root cap morphogenesis and reduced root growth sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA) and the polar auxin transport inhibitor N-(1-naphtyl)phtalamic acid (NPA). These results showed that hydrotropism is amenable to genetic analysis and that an ABA signaling pathway participates in sensing water potential gradients through the root cap. PMID:12586878

  3. Response to pediatric physical therapy in infants with positional preference and skull deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Renske M; Pelsma, Maaike; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Catharina G M; IJzerman, Maarten J; van Vlimmeren, Leo A; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M

    2014-09-01

    Pediatric physical therapy seems to reduce skull deformation in infants with positional preference. However, not all infants show improvement. The study objective was to determine which infant and parent characteristics were related to responses to pediatric physical therapy in infants who were 2 to 4 months old and had positional preference, skull deformation, or both. This was a prospective cohort study. Infants who were 2 to 4 months old and had positional preference, skull deformation, or both were recruited by pediatric physical therapists at the start of pediatric physical therapy. The primary outcome was a good response or a poor response (moderate or severe skull deformation) at 4.5 to 6.5 months of age. Potential predictors for responses to pediatric physical therapy were assessed at baseline with questionnaires, plagiocephalometry, and the Alberta Infant Motor Scale. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses with a stepwise backward elimination method were performed. A total of 657 infants participated in the study. At follow-up, 364 infants (55.4%) showed a good response to therapy, and 293 infants (44.6%) showed a poor response. Multiple logistic regression analysis resulted in the identification of several significant predictors for a poor response to pediatric physical therapy at baseline: starting therapy after 3 months of age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=1.50, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]=1.04-2.17), skull deformation (plagiocephaly [aOR=2.64, 95% CI=1.67-4.17] or brachycephaly [aOR=3.07, 95% CI=2.09-4.52]), and a low parental satisfaction score (aOR=2.64, 95% CI=1.67-4.17). A low parental satisfaction score indicates low parental satisfaction with the infant's head shape. Information about pediatric physical therapy was collected retrospectively and included general therapy characteristics. Because data were collected retrospectively, no adjustment in therapy for individual participants could be made. Several predictors for responses

  4. Human infant faces provoke implicit positive affective responses in parents and non-parents alike.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Paolo Senese

    Full Text Available Human infants' complete dependence on adult caregiving suggests that mechanisms associated with adult responsiveness to infant cues might be deeply embedded in the brain. Behavioural and neuroimaging research has produced converging evidence for adults' positive disposition to infant cues, but these studies have not investigated directly the valence of adults' reactions, how they are moderated by biological and social factors, and if they relate to child caregiving. This study examines implicit affective responses of 90 adults toward faces of human and non-human (cats and dogs infants and adults. Implicit reactions were assessed with Single Category Implicit Association Tests, and reports of childrearing behaviours were assessed by the Parental Style Questionnaire. The results showed that human infant faces represent highly biologically relevant stimuli that capture attention and are implicitly associated with positive emotions. This reaction holds independent of gender and parenthood status and is associated with ideal parenting behaviors.

  5. Ideophones in Japanese modulate the P2 and late positive complex responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Gwilym; Tuomainen, Jyrki

    2015-01-01

    Sound-symbolism, or the direct link between sound and meaning, is typologically and behaviorally attested across languages. However, neuroimaging research has mostly focused on artificial non-words or individual segments, which do not represent sound-symbolism in natural language. We used EEG to compare Japanese ideophones, which are phonologically distinctive sound-symbolic lexical words, and arbitrary adverbs during a sentence reading task. Ideophones elicit a larger visual P2 response than arbitrary adverbs, as well as a sustained late positive complex. Our results and previous literature suggest that the larger P2 may indicate the integration of sound and sensory information by association in response to the distinctive phonology of ideophones. The late positive complex may reflect the facilitated lexical retrieval of arbitrary words in comparison to ideophones. This account provides new evidence that ideophones exhibit similar cross-modal correspondences to those which have been proposed for non-words and individual sounds. PMID:26191031

  6. Switching from Negative to Positive Photoconductivity toward Intrinsic Photoelectric Response in InAs Nanowire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yuxiang; Fu, Mengqi; Tang, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Xiao; Ji, Xianghai; Wang, Xiaoye; Lin, Weijian; Yang, Tao; Chen, Qing

    2017-01-25

    Negative photoconductivity (NPC) and positive photoconductivity (PPC) are observed in the same individual InAs nanowires grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. NPC displays under weak light illumination due to photoexcitation scattering centers charged with hot carrier in the native oxide layer. PPC is observed under high light intensity. Through removing the native oxide layer and passivating the nanowire with HfO2, we eliminate the NPC effect and realize intrinsic photoelectric response in InAs nanowire.

  7. Range position and climate sensitivity: The structure of among-population demographic responses to climatic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amburgey, Staci M; Miller, David A W; Campbell Grant, Evan H; Rittenhouse, Tracy A G; Benard, Michael F; Richardson, Jonathan L; Urban, Mark C; Hughson, Ward; Brand, Adrianne B; Davis, Christopher J; Hardin, Carmen R; Paton, Peter W C; Raithel, Christopher J; Relyea, Rick A; Scott, A Floyd; Skelly, David K; Skidds, Dennis E; Smith, Charles K; Werner, Earl E

    2018-01-01

    Species' distributions will respond to climate change based on the relationship between local demographic processes and climate and how this relationship varies based on range position. A rarely tested demographic prediction is that populations at the extremes of a species' climate envelope (e.g., populations in areas with the highest mean annual temperature) will be most sensitive to local shifts in climate (i.e., warming). We tested this prediction using a dynamic species distribution model linking demographic rates to variation in temperature and precipitation for wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) in North America. Using long-term monitoring data from 746 populations in 27 study areas, we determined how climatic variation affected population growth rates and how these relationships varied with respect to long-term climate. Some models supported the predicted pattern, with negative effects of extreme summer temperatures in hotter areas and positive effects on recruitment for summer water availability in drier areas. We also found evidence of interacting temperature and precipitation influencing population size, such as extreme heat having less of a negative effect in wetter areas. Other results were contrary to predictions, such as positive effects of summer water availability in wetter parts of the range and positive responses to winter warming especially in milder areas. In general, we found wood frogs were more sensitive to changes in temperature or temperature interacting with precipitation than to changes in precipitation alone. Our results suggest that sensitivity to changes in climate cannot be predicted simply by knowing locations within the species' climate envelope. Many climate processes did not affect population growth rates in the predicted direction based on range position. Processes such as species-interactions, local adaptation, and interactions with the physical landscape likely affect the responses we observed. Our work highlights the need to

  8. Range position and climate sensitivity: The structure of among-population demographic responses to climatic variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amburgey, Staci M.; Miller, David A. W.; Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Rittenhouse, Tracy A. G.; Benard, Michael F.; Richardson, Jonathan L.; Urban, Mark C.; Hughson, Ward; Brand, Adrianne B,; Davis, Christopher J.; Hardin, Carmen R.; Paton, Peter W. C.; Raithel, Christopher J.; Relyea, Rick A.; Scott, A. Floyd; Skelly, David K.; Skidds, Dennis E.; Smith, Charles K.; Werner, Earl E.

    2018-01-01

    Species’ distributions will respond to climate change based on the relationship between local demographic processes and climate and how this relationship varies based on range position. A rarely tested demographic prediction is that populations at the extremes of a species’ climate envelope (e.g., populations in areas with the highest mean annual temperature) will be most sensitive to local shifts in climate (i.e., warming). We tested this prediction using a dynamic species distribution model linking demographic rates to variation in temperature and precipitation for wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) in North America. Using long-term monitoring data from 746 populations in 27 study areas, we determined how climatic variation affected population growth rates and how these relationships varied with respect to long-term climate. Some models supported the predicted pattern, with negative effects of extreme summer temperatures in hotter areas and positive effects on recruitment for summer water availability in drier areas. We also found evidence of interacting temperature and precipitation influencing population size, such as extreme heat having less of a negative effect in wetter areas. Other results were contrary to predictions, such as positive effects of summer water availability in wetter parts of the range and positive responses to winter warming especially in milder areas. In general, we found wood frogs were more sensitive to changes in temperature or temperature interacting with precipitation than to changes in precipitation alone. Our results suggest that sensitivity to changes in climate cannot be predicted simply by knowing locations within the species’ climate envelope. Many climate processes did not affect population growth rates in the predicted direction based on range position. Processes such as species-interactions, local adaptation, and interactions with the physical landscape likely affect the responses we observed. Our work highlights the

  9. Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux is defined as the year-over-year change in Total Ecosystem Carbon Stock, or the net rate of carbon exchange between an ecosystem and the...

  10. Positional synchronization affects physical and physiological responses to preseason in professional football (soccer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folgado, Hugo; Gonçalves, Bruno; Sampaio, Jaime

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to identify changes in tactical, physical and physiological performances in large-sided games during the preseason of elite footballers. Thirty professional football players participated in several GK+8vs.8+GK large-sided games across the first four weeks of the season. Players were monitored by GPS units and heart rate monitors to quantify physical, physiological and tactical performances. The variables were compared according to the preseason period, players' positioning and professional experience. The training situation promoted similar physiological responses during the first and the last training period. However, players were revealed to have higher levels of positional synchronization during the last preseason period, indicating an improved tactical performance. Tactical variables seem to reflect the improvement of players' performance during the preseason, measured in large-sided games situation, while affecting both physical and physiological demands. These results highlight the potential of positioning derived variables, concurrently to physical and physiological variables, for football training optimization.

  11. Infant Pupil Diameter Changes in Response to Others' Positive and Negative Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geangu, Elena; Hauf, Petra; Bhardwaj, Rishi; Bentz, Wolfram

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that infants resonate emotionally to others' positive and negative affect displays, and that these responses become stronger towards emotions with negative valence around the age of 12-months. In this study we measured 6- and 12-month-old infants' changes in pupil diameter when presented with the image and sound of peers experiencing happiness, distress and an emotionally neutral state. For all participants the perception of another's distress triggered larger pupil diameters. Perceiving other's happiness also induced larger pupil diameters but for shorter time intervals. Importantly, we also found evidence for an asymmetry in autonomous arousal towards positive versus negative emotional displays. Larger pupil sizes for another's distress compared to another's happiness were recorded shortly after stimulus onset for the older infants, and in a later time window for the 6-month-olds. These findings suggest that arousal responses for negative as well as for positive emotions are present in the second half of the first postnatal year. Importantly, an asymmetry with stronger responses for negative emotions seems to be already present at this age. PMID:22110605

  12. Tilt angles and positive response of head-up tilt test in children with orthostatic intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jing; Wang, Yuli; Ochs, Todd; Tang, Chaoshu; Du, Junbao; Jin, Hongfang

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at examining three tilt angle-based positive responses and the time to positive response in a head-up tilt test for children with orthostatic intolerance, and the psychological fear experienced at the three angles during head-up tilt test. A total of 174 children, including 76 boys and 98 girls, aged from 4 to 18 years old (mean 11.3±2.8 years old), with unexplained syncope, were randomly divided into three groups, to undergo head-up tilt test at the angles of 60°, 70° and 80°, respectively. The diagnostic rates and times were analysed, and Wong-Baker face pain rating scale was used to access the children's psychological fear. There were no significant differences in diagnostic rates of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome and vasovagal syncope at different tilt angles during the head-up tilt test (p>0.05). There was a significant difference, however, in the psychological fear at different tilt angles utilising the Kruskal-Wallis test (χ2=36.398, pvasovagal syncope children. There was no significant difference in the time to positive response, at different tilt angles during the head-up tilt test for vasovagal syncope or for postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome. Hence, it is suggested that a tilt angle of 60° and head-up tilt test time of 45 minutes should be suitable for children with vasovagal syncope.

  13. Infant pupil diameter changes in response to others' positive and negative emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geangu, Elena; Hauf, Petra; Bhardwaj, Rishi; Bentz, Wolfram

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that infants resonate emotionally to others' positive and negative affect displays, and that these responses become stronger towards emotions with negative valence around the age of 12-months. In this study we measured 6- and 12-month-old infants' changes in pupil diameter when presented with the image and sound of peers experiencing happiness, distress and an emotionally neutral state. For all participants the perception of another's distress triggered larger pupil diameters. Perceiving other's happiness also induced larger pupil diameters but for shorter time intervals. Importantly, we also found evidence for an asymmetry in autonomous arousal towards positive versus negative emotional displays. Larger pupil sizes for another's distress compared to another's happiness were recorded shortly after stimulus onset for the older infants, and in a later time window for the 6-month-olds. These findings suggest that arousal responses for negative as well as for positive emotions are present in the second half of the first postnatal year. Importantly, an asymmetry with stronger responses for negative emotions seems to be already present at this age.

  14. Does prone or supine position influence pain responses in preterm infants at 32 weeks gestational age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunau, Ruth Eckstein; Linhares, Maria Beatriz Martins; Holsti, Liisa; Oberlander, Tim F; Whitfield, Michael F

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of prone and supine position in preterm infants during acute pain of blood collection. Level III Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Thirty-eight preterm infants (birthweight 1339 [590-2525] g, GA 29 [25- 32] wks) were in 2 groups depending on their position in the isolette prior to and during heel lance at 32 weeks post-conceptional age. The study design was a comparison between groups (Prone, Supine) during 2 events (Baseline, Heel lance). Pain measures were multidimensional, including behavioral (sleep-wake state and facial activity) and physiological (heart rate) responses measured continuously prior to (Baseline) and during blood collection (Lance). Both groups of infants displayed statistically significant shifts in sleep-wake state to greater arousal, and increased facial activity and heart rate, from Baseline to Lance. Prone position was associated with significantly more deep sleep during Baseline, compared with Supine position, but there were no differences in sleep-wake state during Lance. Minor increased facial activity was shown in some time segments of Baseline for infants in Supine compared with Prone, but did not differ overall between positions. Prone and Supine position did not affect heart rate significantly during Baseline or Lance events. Prone position promotes deep sleep in preterm neonates at 32 weeks post-conceptional age when they are undisturbed. However, placement in prone position is not a sufficient environmental comfort intervention for painful invasive procedures such as heel lance for blood sampling in the NICU. Neonates require other environmental supports to promote coping with this stressful event.

  15. Carbon cycle responses of semi-arid ecosystems to positive asymmetry in rainfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverd, Vanessa; Ahlström, Anders; Smith, Benjamin; Canadell, Josep G

    2017-02-01

    Recent evidence shows that warm semi-arid ecosystems are playing a disproportionate role in the interannual variability and greening trend of the global carbon cycle given their mean lower productivity when compared with other biomes (Ahlström et al. 2015 Science, 348, 895). Using multiple observations (land-atmosphere fluxes, biomass, streamflow and remotely sensed vegetation cover) and two state-of-the-art biospheric models, we show that climate variability and extremes lead to positive or negative responses in the biosphere, depending on vegetation type. We find Australia to be a global hot spot for variability, with semi-arid ecosystems in that country exhibiting increased carbon uptake due to both asymmetry in the interannual distribution of rainfall (extrinsic forcing), and asymmetry in the response of gross primary production (GPP) to rainfall change (intrinsic response). The latter is attributable to the pulse-response behaviour of the drought-adapted biota of these systems, a response that is estimated to be as much as half of that from the CO 2 fertilization effect during 1990-2013. Mesic ecosystems, lacking drought-adapted species, did not show an intrinsic asymmetric response. Our findings suggest that a future more variable climate will induce large but contrasting ecosystem responses, differing among biomes globally, independent of changes in mean precipitation alone. The most significant changes are occurring in the extensive arid and semi-arid regions, and we suggest that the reported increased carbon uptake in response to asymmetric responses might be contributing to the observed greening trends there. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Distinct genes related to drug response identified in ER positive and ER negative breast cancer cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kui Shen

    Full Text Available Breast cancer patients have different responses to chemotherapeutic treatments. Genes associated with drug response can provide insight to understand the mechanisms of drug resistance, identify promising therapeutic opportunities, and facilitate personalized treatment. Estrogen receptor (ER positive and ER negative breast cancer have distinct clinical behavior and molecular properties. However, to date, few studies have rigorously assessed drug response genes in them. In this study, our goal was to systematically identify genes associated with multidrug response in ER positive and ER negative breast cancer cell lines. We tested 27 human breast cell lines for response to seven chemotherapeutic agents (cyclophosphamide, docetaxel, doxorubicin, epirubicin, fluorouracil, gemcitabine, and paclitaxel. We integrated publicly available gene expression profiles of these cell lines with their in vitro drug response patterns, then applied meta-analysis to identify genes related to multidrug response in ER positive and ER negative cells separately. One hundred eighty-eight genes were identified as related to multidrug response in ER positive and 32 genes in ER negative breast cell lines. Of these, only three genes (DBI, TOP2A, and PMVK were common to both cell types. TOP2A was positively associated with drug response, and DBI was negatively associated with drug response. Interestingly, PMVK was positively associated with drug response in ER positive cells and negatively in ER negative cells. Functional analysis showed that while cell cycle affects drug response in both ER positive and negative cells, most biological processes that are involved in drug response are distinct. A number of signaling pathways that are uniquely enriched in ER positive cells have complex cross talk with ER signaling, while in ER negative cells, enriched pathways are related to metabolic functions. Taken together, our analysis indicates that distinct mechanisms are involved in

  17. Response of net ecosystem CO2 exchange and evapotranspiration of boreal forest ecosystems to projected future climate changes: results of a modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olchev, Alexander; Kurbatova, Julia

    2014-05-01

    It is presented the modeling results describing the possible response of net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE), gross (GPP) and net (NPP) primary production, as well as evapotranspiration (ET) of spruce forest ecosystems situated at central part of European part of Russia at the southern boundary of boreal forest community to projected future changes of climatic conditions and forest species composition. A process-based MixFor-SVAT model (Olchev et al 2002, 2008, 2009) has been used to describe the CO2 and H2O fluxes under present and projected future climate conditions. The main advantage of MixFor-SVAT is its ability not only to describe seasonal and daily dynamics of total CO2 and H2O fluxes at an ecosystem level, but also to adequately estimate the contributions of soil, forest understorey, and various tree species in overstorey into total ecosystem fluxes taking into account their individual responses to changes in environmental conditions as well as the differences in structure and biophysical properties. Results of modeling experiments showed that projected changes of climate conditions (moderate scenario A1B IPCC) and forest species composition at the end of 21 century can lead to small increase of annual evapotranspiration as well as to growth of NEE, GPP and NPP of the forests in case if the projected increase in temperature and elevated CO2 in the atmosphere in future will be strictly balanced with growth of available nutrients and water in plant and soil. It is obvious that any deficit of e.g. nitrogen in leaves (due to reduced transpiration, nitrogen availability in soil, etc.) may lead to decreases in the photosynthesis and respiration rates of trees and, as a consequence, to decreases in the GPP and NEE of entire forest ecosystem. Conducted modeling experiments have demonstrated that a 20% reduction of available nitrogen in tree leaves in a monospesific spruce forest stand may result in a 14% decrease in NEE, a 8% decrease in NPP, and a 4% decrease in

  18. Professional Enterprise NET

    CERN Document Server

    Arking, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Comprehensive coverage to help experienced .NET developers create flexible, extensible enterprise application code If you're an experienced Microsoft .NET developer, you'll find in this book a road map to the latest enterprise development methodologies. It covers the tools you will use in addition to Visual Studio, including Spring.NET and nUnit, and applies to development with ASP.NET, C#, VB, Office (VBA), and database. You will find comprehensive coverage of the tools and practices that professional .NET developers need to master in order to build enterprise more flexible, testable, and ext

  19. Granulocyte maturation determines ability to release chromatin NETs and loss of DNA damage response; these properties are absent in immature AML granulocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukášová, Emilie; Kořistek, Zdeněk; Klabusay, Martin; Ondřej, Vladan; Grigoryev, Sergei; Bačíková, Alena; Řezáčová, Martina; Falk, Martin; Vávrová, Jiřina; Kohútová, Viera; Kozubek, Stanislav

    2013-03-01

    Terminally-differentiated cells cease to proliferate and acquire specific sets of expressed genes and functions distinguishing them from less differentiated and cancer cells. Mature granulocytes show lobular structure of cell nuclei with highly condensed chromatin in which HP1 proteins are replaced by MNEI. These structural features of chromatin correspond to low level of gene expression and the loss of some important functions as DNA damage repair, shown in this work and, on the other hand, acquisition of a new specific function consisting in the release of chromatin extracellular traps in response to infection by pathogenic microbes. Granulocytic differentiation is incomplete in myeloid leukemia and is manifested by persistence of lower levels of HP1γ and HP1β isoforms. This immaturity is accompanied by acquisition of DDR capacity allowing to these incompletely differentiated multi-lobed neutrophils of AML patients to respond to induction of DSB by γ-irradiation. Immature granulocytes persist frequently in blood of treated AML patients in remission. These granulocytes contrary to mature ones do not release chromatin for NETs after activation with phorbol myristate-12 acetate-13 and do not exert the neutrophil function in immune defence. We suggest therefore the detection of HP1 expression in granulocytes of AML patients as a very sensitive indicator of their maturation and functionality after the treatment. Our results show that the changes in chromatin structure underlie a major transition in functioning of the genome in immature granulocytes. They show further that leukemia stem cells can differentiate ex vivo to mature granulocytes despite carrying the translocation BCR/ABL. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Lipoproteins of Gram-Positive Bacteria: Key Players in the Immune Response and Virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh Thu; Götz, Friedrich

    2016-09-01

    Since the discovery in 1973 of the first of the bacterial lipoproteins (Lpp) in Escherichia coli, Braun's lipoprotein, the ever-increasing number of publications indicates the importance of these proteins. Bacterial Lpp belong to the class of lipid-anchored proteins that in Gram-negative bacteria are anchored in both the cytoplasmic and outer membranes and in Gram-positive bacteria are anchored only in the cytoplasmic membrane. In contrast to the case for Gram-negative bacteria, in Gram-positive bacteria lipoprotein maturation and processing are not vital. Physiologically, Lpp play an important role in nutrient and ion acquisition, allowing particularly pathogenic species to better survive in the host. Bacterial Lpp are recognized by Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) of the innate immune system. The important role of Lpp in Gram-positive bacteria, particularly in the phylum Firmicutes, as key players in the immune response and pathogenicity has emerged only in recent years. In this review, we address the role of Lpp in signaling and modulating the immune response, in inflammation, and in pathogenicity. We also address the potential of Lpp as promising vaccine candidates. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. [Brazilian teenagers and beer advertising: relationship between exposure, positive response, and alcohol consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendrame, Alan; Pinsky, Ilana; Faria, Roberta; Silva, Rebeca

    2009-02-01

    Brazilian teenagers report problematic patterns of alcohol consumption. Alcohol advertising strategies are one of the main factors influencing adolescents' alcohol consumption. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between positive responses to TV beer commercials, exposure, and alcohol consumption. Thirty-two recent TV commercials were shown to 133 high school students from public schools in São Bernardo do Campo, São Paulo State, Brazil. The subjects recorded how well they liked the ads and how often they had already watched each commercial. The teenagers also reported their alcohol consumption rates. The ten commercials analyzed in this article were the five most popular and the five least popular. The analysis showed that subjects had already seen the five most popular ads, but not the five least popular. In addition, the five most popular ads received higher scores from teenagers that reported having consumed beer during the previous month. The study found a positive relationship between enjoying beer advertising and exposure to beer ads, as well as between alcohol consumption and positive responses to alcohol commercials.

  2. Mothers’ amygdala response to positive or negative infant affect is modulated by personal relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lane eStrathearn

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding, prioritizing and responding to infant affective cues is a key component of motherhood, with long-term implications for infant socio-emotional development. This important task includes identifying unique characteristics of one’s own infant, as they relate to differences in affect valence—happy or sad—while monitoring one’s own level of arousal. The amygdala has traditionally been understood to respond to affective valence; in the present study, we examined the potential effect of personal relevance on amygdala response, by testing whether mothers’ amygdala response to happy and sad infant face cues would be modulated by infant identity. We used functional MRI to measure amygdala activation in 39 first-time mothers, while they viewed happy, neutral and sad infant faces of both their own and a matched unknown infant. Emotional arousal to each face was rated using the Self Assessment Manikin Scales. Mixed-effects linear regression models were used to examine significant predictors of amygdala response. Overall, both arousal ratings and amygdala activation were greater when mothers viewed their own infant’s face compared with unknown infant faces. Sad faces were rated as more arousing than happy faces, regardless of infant identity. However, within the amygdala, a highly significant interaction effect was noted between infant identity and valence. For own-infant faces, amygdala activation was greater for happy than sad faces, whereas the opposite trend was seen for unknown-infant faces. Our findings suggest that the amygdala response to positive and negative valenced cues is modulated by personal relevance. Positive facial expressions from one’s own infant may play a particularly important role in eliciting maternal responses and strengthening the mother-infant bond.

  3. Positive responses of coastal dune plants to soil conditioning by the invasive Lupinus nootkatensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanslin, Hans Martin; Kollmann, Johannes

    2016-11-01

    Invasive nitrogen-fixing plants drive vegetation dynamics and may cause irreversible changes in nutrient-limited ecosystems through increased soil resources. We studied how soil conditioning by the invasive alien Lupinus nootkatensis affected the seedling growth of co-occurring native plant species in coastal dunes, and whether responses to lupin-conditioned soil could be explained by fertilisation effects interacting with specific ecological strategies of the native dune species. Seedling performance of dune species was compared in a greenhouse experiment using field-collected soil from within or outside coastal lupin stands. In associated experiments, we quantified the response to nutrient supply of each species and tested how addition of specific nutrients affected growth of the native grass Festuca arundinacea in control and lupin-conditioned soil. We found that lupin-conditioned soil increased seedling biomass in 30 out of 32 native species; the conditioned soil also had a positive effect on seedling biomass of the invasive lupin itself. Increased phosphorus mobilisation by lupins was the major factor driving these positive seedling responses, based both on growth responses to addition of specific elements and analyses of plant available soil nutrients. There were large differences in growth responses to lupin-conditioned soil among species, but they were unrelated to selected autecological indicators or plant strategies. We conclude that Lupinus nootkatensis removes the phosphorus limitation for growth of native plants in coastal dunes, and that it increases cycling of other nutrients, promoting the growth of its own seedlings and a wide range of dune species. Finally, our study indicates that there are no negative soil legacies that prevent re-establishment of native plant species after removal of lupins.

  4. Ethylene positively regulates cold tolerance in grapevine by modulating the expression of ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR 057.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoming; Zhao, Tingting; Gan, Shuheng; Ren, Xiaodie; Fang, Linchuan; Karungo, Sospeter Karanja; Wang, Yi; Chen, Liang; Li, Shaohua; Xin, Haiping

    2016-04-04

    Ethylene (ET) is a gaseous plant hormone that plays essential roles in biotic and abiotic stress responses in plants. However, the role of ET in cold tolerance varies in different species. This study revealed that low temperature promotes the release of ET in grapevine. The treatment of exogenous 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate increased the cold tolerance of grapevine. By contrast, the application of the ET biosynthesis inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine reduced the cold tolerance of grapevine. This finding suggested that ET positively affected cold stress responses in grapevine. The expression of VaERF057, an ET signaling downstream gene, was strongly induced by low temperature. The overexpression of VaERF057 also enhanced the cold tolerance of Arabidopsis. Under cold treatment, malondialdehyde content was lower and superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase activities were higher in transgenic lines than in wild-type plants. RNA-Seq results showed that 32 stress-related genes, such as CBF1-3, were upregulated in VaERF057-overexpressing transgenic line. Yeast one-hybrid results further demonstrated that VaERF057 specifically binds to GCC-box and DRE motifs. Thus, VaERF057 may directly regulate the expression of its target stress-responsive genes by interacting with a GCC-box or a DRE element. Our work confirmed that ET positively regulates cold tolerance in grapevine by modulating the expression of VaERF057.

  5. Cognitive responses to positively and negatively framed health messages: a thought-listing study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mark G; Gold, Ron S

    2014-01-01

    This study compared spontaneous cognitive responses to a positively vs. negatively framed health message. Deakin University students (n = 51) read one of two versions of a message concerning a type of heart disease. In the negative condition, the message focused on the prospect of experiencing heart disease; in the positive condition, it focused on the prospect of avoiding heart disease. Participants completed a thought-listing task, reporting any thought that occurred to them while they were reading the message. Consistent with hypotheses derived from Prospect Theory, the negative condition prompted more extensive processing and more defensive processing. Participants in the negative condition were also more likely to consider taking protective action. Findings are discussed in the context of the health-framing literature.

  6. The role of storm scale, position and movement in controlling urban flood response

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Veldhuis, Marie-claire; Zhou, Zhengzheng; Yang, Long; Liu, Shuguang; Smith, James

    2018-01-01

    The impact of spatial and temporal variability of rainfall on hydrological response remains poorly understood, in particular in urban catchments due to their strong variability in land use, a high degree of imperviousness and the presence of stormwater infrastructure. In this study, we analyze the effect of storm scale, position and movement in relation to basin scale and flow-path network structure on urban hydrological response. A catalog of 279 peak events was extracted from a high-quality observational dataset covering 15 years of flow observations and radar rainfall data for five (semi)urbanized basins ranging from 7.0 to 111.1 km2 in size. Results showed that the largest peak flows in the event catalog were associated with storm core scales exceeding basin scale, for all except the largest basin. Spatial scale of flood-producing storm events in the smaller basins fell into two groups: storms of large spatial scales exceeding basin size or small, concentrated events, with storm core much smaller than basin size. For the majority of events, spatial rainfall variability was strongly smoothed by the flow-path network, increasingly so for larger basin size. Correlation analysis showed that position of the storm in relation to the flow-path network was significantly correlated with peak flow in the smallest and in the two more urbanized basins. Analysis of storm movement relative to the flow-path network showed that direction of storm movement, upstream or downstream relative to the flow-path network, had little influence on hydrological response. Slow-moving storms tend to be associated with higher peak flows and longer lag times. Unexpectedly, position of the storm relative to impervious cover within the basins had little effect on flow peaks. These findings show the importance of observation-based analysis in validating and improving our understanding of interactions between the spatial distribution of rainfall and catchment variability.

  7. The Implicit Positive And Negative Affect Test: validity and relationship with cardiovascular stress-responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie M. Van Der Ploeg

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Self-report, i.e. explicit, measures of affect cannot fully explain the cardiovascular (CV responses to stressors. Measuring affect beyond self-report, i.e. using implicit measures, could add to our understanding of stress-related CV activity. The Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test (IPANAT was administered in two studies to test its ecological validity and relation with CV responses and self-report measures of affect. In study 1 students (N = 34 viewed four film clips inducing anger, happiness, fear, or no emotion, and completed the IPANAT and the Positive And Negative Affect Scale at baseline and after each clip. Implicit negative affect (INA was higher and implicit positive affect (IPA was lower after the anger inducing clip and vice versa after the happiness inducing clip. In study 2 students performed a stressful math task with (n = 14 or without anger harassment (n = 15 and completed the IPANAT and a Visual Analogue Scale as an explicit measure afterwards. Systolic (SBP, diastolic (DBP blood pressure, heart rate (HR, heart rate variability (HRV and total peripheral resistance (TPR were recorded throughout. SBP and DBP were higher and TPR was lower in the harassment condition during the task with a prolonged effect on SBP and DBP during recovery. As expected, explicit negative affect (ENA was higher and explicit positive affect (EPA lower after harassment, but ENA and EPA were not related to CV activity. Although neither INA nor IPA differed between the tasks, during both tasks higher INA was related to higher SBP, lower HRV and lower TPR and to slower recovery of DBP after both tasks. Low IPA was related to slower recovery of SBP and DBP after the tasks. Implicit affect was not related to recovery of HR, HRV and TPR. In conclusion, the IPANAT seems to respond to film clip-induced negative and positive affect and was related to CV activity during and after stressful tasks. These findings support the theory that implicitly measured

  8. The Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test: Validity and Relationship with Cardiovascular Stress-Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ploeg, Melanie M.; Brosschot, Jos F.; Thayer, Julian F.; Verkuil, Bart

    2016-01-01

    Self-report, i.e., explicit, measures of affect cannot fully explain the cardiovascular (CV) responses to stressors. Measuring affect beyond self-report, i.e., using implicit measures, could add to our understanding of stress-related CV activity. The Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test (IPANAT) was administered in two studies to test its ecological validity and relation with CV responses and self-report measures of affect. In Study 1 students (N = 34) viewed four film clips inducing anger, happiness, fear, or no emotion, and completed the IPANAT and the Positive And Negative Affect Scale at baseline and after each clip. Implicit negative affect (INA) was higher and implicit positive affect (IPA) was lower after the anger inducing clip and vice versa after the happiness inducing clip. In Study 2 students performed a stressful math task with (n = 14) or without anger harassment (n = 15) and completed the IPANAT and a Visual Analog Scale as an explicit measure afterwards. Systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were recorded throughout. SBP and DBP were higher and TPR was lower in the harassment condition during the task with a prolonged effect on SBP and DBP during recovery. As expected, explicit negative affect (ENA) was higher and explicit positive affect (EPA) lower after harassment, but ENA and EPA were not related to CV activity. Although neither INA nor IPA differed between the tasks, during both tasks higher INA was related to higher SBP, lower HRV and lower TPR and to slower recovery of DBP after both tasks. Low IPA was related to slower recovery of SBP and DBP after the tasks. Implicit affect was not related to recovery of HR, HRV, and TPR. In conclusion, the IPANAT seems to respond to film clip-induced negative and positive affect and was related to CV activity during and after stressful tasks. These findings support the theory that implicitly measured affect

  9. Nano-Position Sensors with Superior Linear Response to Position and Dynamic Range from Sub-nm to Centimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sheng-Chiang; Peters, Randall

    2010-03-01

    Commercial nano-positioners have achieved direct position measurements at the scale of 0.01 nm with capacitive sensing metrology. However, the commercial sensors have small dynamic ranges (up to only a few hundred μm) and are relatively large in size (centimeters in the transverse directions), which is necessary for healthy signal detections but making it difficult to use on smaller devices. The small dynamic range also limits its applications in which large materials (on the scale of centimeters or greater) are handled with needs of sub-nm resolutions. What has been done in the past is to combine the fine and coarse position sensors with different dynamic ranges to cover the required dynamic range. In this paper, we present a novel capacitive position sensing metrology with ultra-wide dynamic range from sub-nm to literally any practically desired length for a translation stage. This sensor will greatly simplify the task and enhance the performance of direct metrology in a hybrid translational stage covering translation tasks from sub-nm to centimeters.

  10. Cue-induced positive motivational implicit response in young adults with Internet gaming addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Ju-Yu; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Tang, Tze-Chun; Huang, Tzu-Hui; Ko, Chih-Hung

    2011-12-30

    This study evaluated the positive motivational implicit response to Internet gaming cues (i.e., screenshots of popular online games) to identify potential mechanisms of dyscontrolled Internet use in young adults with Internet gaming addiction (IGA). The final analysis included 64 young adults with IGA and 71 control subjects. The subjects completed the implicit association task to test their reaction to congruent pairing (Internet gaming screenshot paired with liked words) and incongruent pairing (Internet gaming screenshot paired with disliked words). The results demonstrated that, compared to the control group, the IGA group reacted faster to congruent pairing. It suggests that the IGA group had a positive motivational implicit response to screenshots of online games. Implicit cognition is an important mechanism of dyscontrolled substance use, such as alcohol dependence. This result suggests that implicit cognition might also be associated with dyscontrolled online gaming. The findings also demonstrate the important role of implicit cognition in dyscontrolled Internet use in young adults with IGA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Positive Emotional Responses to Hybridised Writing about a Socio-Scientific Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas, Louisa; Ritchie, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand better the role of affect in learning about socio-scientific issues (SSI), this study investigated Year 12 students' emotional arousal as they participated in an online writing-to-learn science project about the socio-scientific issue of biosecurity. Students wrote a series of hybridised scientific narratives, or BioStories, that integrate scientific information about biosecurity with narrative storylines, and uploaded these to a dedicated website. Throughout their participation in the project, students recorded their emotional responses to the various activities ( N = 50). Four case students were also video recorded during selected science lessons as they researched, composed and uploaded their BioStories for peer review. Analysis of these data, as well as interview data obtained from the case students, revealed that pride, strength, determination, interest and alertness were among the positive emotions most strongly elicited by the project. These emotions reflected students' interest in learning about a new socio-scientific issue, and their enhanced feelings of self-efficacy in successfully writing hybridised scientific narratives in science. The results of this study suggest that the elicitation of positive emotional responses as students engage in hybridised writing about SSI with strong links to environmental education, such as biosecurity, can be valuable in engaging students in education for sustainability.

  12. Ideophones in Japanese modulate the P2 and late positive complex responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwilym eLockwood

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sound-symbolism, or the direct link between sound and meaning, is typologically and behaviorally attested across languages. However, neuroimaging research has mostly focused on artificial non-words or individual segments, which do not represent sound-symbolism in natural language. We used EEG to compare Japanese ideophones, which are phonologically distinctive sound-symbolic lexical words, and arbitrary adverbs during a sentence reading task. Ideophones elicit a larger visual P2 response and a sustained late positive complex in comparison to arbitrary adverbs. These results and previous literature suggest that the larger P2 may indicate the integration of sound and sensory information by association in response to the distinctive phonology of ideophones. The late positive complex may reflect the facilitated lexical retrieval of ideophones in comparison to arbitrary words. This account provides new evidence that ideophones exhibit similar cross-modal correspondences to those which have been proposed for non-words and individual sounds, and that these effects are detectable in natural language.

  13. WaveNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Coastal Inlets Research Program WaveNet WaveNet is a web-based, Graphical-User-Interface ( GUI ) data management tool developed for Corps coastal...generates tabular and graphical information for project planning and design documents. The WaveNet is a web-based GUI designed to provide users with a...data from different sources, and employs a combination of Fortran, Python and Matlab codes to process and analyze data for USACE applications

  14. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes how Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets) have been developed — from being a promising theoretical model to being a full-fledged language for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems (and other systems in which human beings and...... use of CP-nets — because it means that the function representation and the translations (which are a bit mathematically complex) no longer are parts of the basic definition of CP-nets. Instead they are parts of the invariant method (which anyway demands considerable mathematical skills...

  15. Game Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of game coloured Petri nets. This allows the modeler to explicitly model what parts of the model comprise the modeled system and what parts are the environment of the modeled system. We give the formal definition of game coloured Petri nets, a means of reachability...... analysis of this net class, and an application of game coloured Petri nets to automatically generate easy-to-understand visualizations of the model by exploiting the knowledge that some parts of the model are not interesting from a visualization perspective (i.e. they are part of the environment...

  16. Programming NET Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Alex

    2007-01-01

    Web services are poised to become a key technology for a wide range of Internet-enabled applications, spanning everything from straight B2B systems to mobile devices and proprietary in-house software. While there are several tools and platforms that can be used for building web services, developers are finding a powerful tool in Microsoft's .NET Framework and Visual Studio .NET. Designed from scratch to support the development of web services, the .NET Framework simplifies the process--programmers find that tasks that took an hour using the SOAP Toolkit take just minutes. Programming .NET

  17. Annotating Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Bo; Wells, Lisa Marie

    2002-01-01

    -net. An example of such auxiliary information is a counter which is associated with a token to be able to do performance analysis. Modifying colour sets and arc inscriptions in a CP-net to support a specific use may lead to creation of several slightly different CP-nets – only to support the different uses...... a method which makes it possible to associate auxiliary information, called annotations, with tokens without modifying the colour sets of the CP-net. Annotations are pieces of information that are not essential for determining the behaviour of the system being modelled, but are rather added to support...

  18. Macrozooplankton rather than Calanus are responsible for autumn DVM in Arctic fjords and pack ice: Backscatter contribution by net samples compared with acoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berge, J.; Cottier, F.; Varpe, Øystein

    2011-01-01

    times of the year. Herein we report on an autumn sampling campaign at four different locations around Svalbard using a combination of net sampling and 36 hr mooring deployments with 300kHz ADCPs. DVM patterns were strong but differed among the locations in terms of both backscatter strength...

  19. Nitrite is a positive modulator of the Frank-Starling response in the vertebrate heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelone, Tommaso; Gattuso, Alfonsina; Imbrogno, Sandra; Mazza, Rosa; Tota, Bruno

    2012-06-01

    Evidence from both mammalian and nonmammalian vertebrates indicates that intracardiac nitric oxide (NO) facilitates myocardial relaxation, ventricular diastolic distensibility, and, consequently, the Frank-Starling response, i.e., the preload-induced increase of cardiac output. Since nitrite ion (NO(2)(-)), the major storage pool of bioactive NO, recently emerged as a cardioprotective endogenous modulator, we explored its influence on the Frank-Starling response in eel, frog, and rat hearts, used as paradigms of fish, amphibians, and mammals, respectively. We demonstrated that, like NO, exogenous nitrite improves the Frank-Starling response in all species, as indicated by an increase of stroke volume and stroke work (eel and frog) and of left ventricular (LV) pressure and LVdP/dt max (rat), used as indexes of inotropism. Unlike in frog and rat, in eel, the positive influence of nitrite appeared to be dependent on NO synthase inhibition. In all species, the effect was sensitive to NO scavengers, independent on nitroxyl anion, and mediated by a cGMP/PKG-dependent pathway. Moreover, the nitrite treatment increased S-nitrosylation of lower-molecular-weight proteins in cytosolic and membrane fractions. These results suggest that nitrite acts as a physiological source of NO, modulating through different species-specific mechanisms, the stretch-induced intrinsic regulation of the vertebrate heart.

  20. Nurse-Administered, Gut-Directed Hypnotherapy in IBS: Efficacy and Factors Predicting a Positive Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lövdahl, Jenny; Ringström, Gisela; Agerforz, Pia; Törnblom, Hans; Simrén, Magnus

    2015-07-01

    Hypnotherapy is an effective treatment in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). It is often delivered by a psychotherapist and is costly and time consuming. Nurse-administered hypnotherapy could increase availability and reduce costs. In this study the authors evaluate the effectiveness of nurse-administered, gut-directed hypnotherapy and identify factors predicting treatment outcome. Eighty-five patients were included in the study. Participants received hypnotherapy by a nurse once/week for 12 weeks. Patients reported marked improvement in gastrointestinal (GI) and extra-colonic symptoms after treatment, as well as a reduction in GI-specific anxiety, general anxiety, and depression. Fifty-eight percent were responders after the 12 weeks treatment period, and of these 82% had a favorable clinical response already at week 6. Women were more likely than men to respond favorably to the treatment. Nurse-administered hypnotherapy is an effective treatment for IBS. Being female and reporting a favorable response to treatment by week 6 predicted a positive treatment response at the end of the 12 weeks treatment period.

  1. Emergency Preparedness and Response in the School Setting--The Role of the School Nurse. Position Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, Christine M.; Haynie, Kathey; Davis, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse) provides leadership in all phases of emergency preparedness and response. School nurses are a vital part of the school team responsible for developing emergency response procedures for the…

  2. NASA Net Zero Energy Buildings Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless, S.; Scheib, J.; Torcellini, P.; Hendron, B.; Slovensky, M.

    2014-10-01

    In preparation for the time-phased net zero energy requirement for new federal buildings starting in 2020, set forth in Executive Order 13514, NASA requested that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a roadmap for NASA's compliance. NASA detailed a Statement of Work that requested information on strategic, organizational, and tactical aspects of net zero energy buildings. In response, this document presents a high-level approach to net zero energy planning, design, construction, and operations, based on NREL's first-hand experience procuring net zero energy construction, and based on NREL and other industry research on net zero energy feasibility. The strategic approach to net zero energy starts with an interpretation of the executive order language relating to net zero energy. Specifically, this roadmap defines a net zero energy acquisition process as one that sets an aggressive energy use intensity goal for the building in project planning, meets the reduced demand goal through energy efficiency strategies and technologies, then adds renewable energy in a prioritized manner, using building-associated, emission- free sources first, to offset the annual energy use required at the building; the net zero energy process extends through the life of the building, requiring a balance of energy use and production in each calendar year.

  3. Topographic position modulates the mycorrhizal response of oak trees to interannual rainfall variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querejeta, José I; Egerton-Warburton, Louise M; Allen, Michael F

    2009-03-01

    California coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia) forms tripartite symbiotic associations with arbuscular (AMF) and ectomycorrhizal (EMF) fungi. We selected oak individuals differing in topographic position and depth to groundwater (mesic valley vs. xeric hill sites) to investigate changes of tree mycorrhizal status in response to interannual rainfall variability. EMF root colonization, as well as hyphal abundance and viability in upper rhizosphere soil (0-30 cm), were negatively affected by severe multi-year drought, although not to the same extent in each topographic location. Oak trees growing in hill sites showed EMF colonization levels drought. By contrast, oaks in valley sites maintained much higher EMF colonization (>19%) in upper roots during drought. EMF root colonization increased sharply at both topographic positions during the ensuing wet year (78% in valley, 49% in hill), which indicates that the mycorrhizal status of roots in upper rhizosphere soil is highly responsive to interannual rainfall variability. Across sites and years, percentage EMF colonization and soil hyphal density and viability were strongly positively correlated with soil moisture potential, but percentage AMF root colonization was not. Interestingly, changes in percentage EMF root colonization and density of viable hyphae between a wet and a dry year were proportionally much greater in xeric hill sites than in mesic valley sites. The mycorrhizal status of oak trees was particularly responsive to changes in soil moisture at the hill sites, where roots in upper rhizosphere soil shifted from almost exclusively AMF during severe drought to predominantly EMF during the ensuing wet year. By contrast, the mycorrhizal status of oaks in the valley sites was less strongly coupled to current meteorological conditions, as roots in upper soil layers remained predominantly EMF during both a dry and a wet year. Canopy shading and hydraulic lift by oaks in valley sites likely contributed to maintain the

  4. Measuring Responsible Gambling amongst Players: Development of the Positive Play Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Richard T A; Wohl, Michael J A; Tabri, Nassim; Philander, Kahlil

    2017-01-01

    The modern gambling industry has, by-in-large, assumed a duty of care to minimize the risks associated with gambling, which has manifested in responsible gambling (RG) programming (e.g., educating players about the odds of success). The current study fills a void in gambling operators, regulators, and researchers ability to measure RG beliefs and behavior in their player-base, with the development and validation of the Positive Play Scale (PPS). In Study 1, we reviewed the literature and consulted 30 players as well as 10 RG experts to help generate a definition of RG beliefs and behavior that helped guide item generation. In Study 2, regular players (N = 1,551) of a Canadian provincial gambling operator completed a positive play survey. Four components from a principal components analysis (PCA) were extracted: Honesty and Control, Pre-commitment, Personal Responsibility, and Gambling Literacy. The PPS subscales were either not associated with gambling frequency or had small-to-moderate negative relationships with frequency of play for games most often associated with disordered gambling (e.g., electronic games). In Study 3 (N = 413), the factor structure of the PPS was confirmed and refined in a new sample of players. Moreover, a 1-month follow-up session demonstrated that the PPS has high test-retest reliability. The PPS is the first validated scale that reliably assesses the extent to which a consumer base has positive beliefs about gambling and gambles in a positive manner. The PPS can be used by the gambling industry to objectively assess the efficacy of their RG strategy, pinpoint specific areas for future focus, as well as examine the utility of new RG initiatives that aim to promote healthy patterns of gambling consumption. Furthermore, by examining the PPS scores for different player segments (e.g., sex, age, games played) it becomes possible to tailor RG strategy to the needs of specific players. In this way, RG strategy can be optimized by focusing

  5. Measuring Responsible Gambling amongst Players: Development of the Positive Play Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Richard T. A.; Wohl, Michael J. A.; Tabri, Nassim; Philander, Kahlil

    2017-01-01

    The modern gambling industry has, by-in-large, assumed a duty of care to minimize the risks associated with gambling, which has manifested in responsible gambling (RG) programming (e.g., educating players about the odds of success). The current study fills a void in gambling operators, regulators, and researchers ability to measure RG beliefs and behavior in their player-base, with the development and validation of the Positive Play Scale (PPS). In Study 1, we reviewed the literature and consulted 30 players as well as 10 RG experts to help generate a definition of RG beliefs and behavior that helped guide item generation. In Study 2, regular players (N = 1,551) of a Canadian provincial gambling operator completed a positive play survey. Four components from a principal components analysis (PCA) were extracted: Honesty and Control, Pre-commitment, Personal Responsibility, and Gambling Literacy. The PPS subscales were either not associated with gambling frequency or had small-to-moderate negative relationships with frequency of play for games most often associated with disordered gambling (e.g., electronic games). In Study 3 (N = 413), the factor structure of the PPS was confirmed and refined in a new sample of players. Moreover, a 1-month follow-up session demonstrated that the PPS has high test-retest reliability. The PPS is the first validated scale that reliably assesses the extent to which a consumer base has positive beliefs about gambling and gambles in a positive manner. The PPS can be used by the gambling industry to objectively assess the efficacy of their RG strategy, pinpoint specific areas for future focus, as well as examine the utility of new RG initiatives that aim to promote healthy patterns of gambling consumption. Furthermore, by examining the PPS scores for different player segments (e.g., sex, age, games played) it becomes possible to tailor RG strategy to the needs of specific players. In this way, RG strategy can be optimized by focusing

  6. Triangle and concave pentagon electrodes for an improved broadband frequency response of stripline beam position monitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Shobuda

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The frequency domain performance of a stripline beam position monitor depends largely on the longitudinal shape of its electrode. Some shapes other than a conventional rectangle have been proposed and tested. To attain a good impedance matching along the electrode, they need to be precisely bent down toward their downstream in proportion to their width. This is a considerable task, and a failure to comply with it will result in a large distortion of the frequency-domain transfer function from the ideal one due to unwanted signal reflections. In this report, we first propose a triangle electrode for easy fabrication and setup: it only requires that a triangularly cut flat electrode will be placed in a chamber while being obliquely inclined toward the downstream port. Theoretical and simulation results show that the simple triangle electrode has a remarkably flatter frequency response than the rectangle one. The frequency response, in particular at high frequencies, can be further improved by attaching an “apron” plate, perpendicular to the upstream edge of the electrode. The overshooting of the frequency response at low frequency can be eliminated by replacing the straight sidelines of the triangle by three-point polylines (with a result that the triangle is transformed to a concave pentagon. The concave pentagon electrode needs to be bent only once at the middle point of the polylines for a good impedance matching and thus its fabrication and setup remain to be easy. Rf measurements for the various electrode shapes have been carried out. We found that the concave pentagon electrode achieves a wide and flat frequency response up to about 4 GHz for the J-PARC Main Ring (MR.

  7. PAC₁ receptors mediate positive chronotropic responses to PACAP-27 and VIP in isolated mouse atria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Donald B; Girard, Beatrice M; Hoover, Jeffrey L; Parsons, Rodney L

    2013-08-05

    PACAP and VIP have prominent effects on cardiac function in several species, but little is known about their influence on the murine heart. Accordingly, we evaluated the expression of PACAP/VIP receptors in mouse heart and the response of isolated atria to peptide agonists. Quantitative PCR demonstrated that PAC₁, VPAC₁, and VPAC₂ receptor mRNAs are present throughout the mouse heart. Expression of all three receptor transcripts was low, PAC₁ being the lowest. No regional differences in expression were detected for individual receptor mRNAs after normalization to L32. Pharmacological effects of PACAP-27, VIP, and the selective PAC₁ agonist maxadilan were evaluated in isolated, spontaneously beating atria from C57BL/6 mice of either sex. Incremental additions of PACAP-27 at 1 min intervals caused a concentration-dependent tachycardia with a logEC₅₀=-9.08 ± 0.15 M (n=7) and a maximum of 96.3 ± 5.9% above baseline heart rate. VIP and maxadilan also caused tachycardia but their potencies were about two orders of magnitude less. Increasing the dosing interval to 5 min caused a leftward shift of the concentration-response curve to maxadilan but no changes in the curves for PACAP-27 or VIP. Under this condition, neither the potency nor the efficacy of maxadilan differed from those of PACAP-27. Neither PACAP-27 nor maxadilan caused tachyphylaxis, and maximal responses to maxadilan were maintained for at least 2 h. We conclude that all three VIP/PACAP family receptors are expressed by mouse cardiac tissue, but only PAC₁ receptors mediate positive chronotropic responses to PACAP-27 and VIP. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Perceived responsiveness during an initial social interaction with a stranger predicts a positive memory bias one week later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Evan M; Kashdan, Todd B; Monfort, Samuel S; Machell, Kyla A; Goodman, Fallon R

    2015-01-01

    Prior research has found that perceiving positive responses from others following self-disclosures enhances social bonds and plays a role in the maintenance of romantic relationships. We sought to extend this effect by exploring perceived responsiveness to good news in the context of initial social interactions with a stranger. In this study, unacquainted college students (n = 106) participated in a 45-minute semi-structured social interaction, and information on their emotions and behaviours was collected immediately after and one week later. We found that the receipt of supportive reactions to self-disclosure attempts during the social interaction was associated with immediate positivity and a more positive memory of the event (remembered enjoyment and positive emotions) one week later. This effect could not be attributed to how positively the event was experienced immediately afterwards, suggesting that perceived responsiveness during an initial social interaction facilitates a positive memory bias. These results offer new insights into how friendships might develop and be maintained.

  9. GeoNet's `Felt Rapid': Collecting What Is Needed, When You Need It, No More, No Less. Rapid, Volumous Data For Response Versus Detailed, Precise Data For Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, C. L.; McBride, S.; Balfour, N.

    2016-12-01

    New Zealand's geohazard monitoring agency, GeoNet, recently implemented `Felt Rapid': earthquake felt reporting that is quick and simple. GeoNet locates 20,000 earthquakes each year with hundreds of those reported as being felt. Starting in the late 1800s, the New Zealand public has become adept at completing felt reports but feedback since the Canterbury Earthquake Sequence suggested that traditional felt reporting was not meeting researchers' or the public's needs. GeoNet required something rapid, adaptable and robust. The solution was Felt Rapid, a mobile app and website where respondents simply pick from 6 cartoon images - representing Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI) 3-8 - that best aligned to what they felt. For the last decade, felt reporting has been conducted via the GeoNet website, with additional targeted surveys after damaging earthquakes. The vast majority of the submitted felt reports were for earthquakes too small to cause damage, as these are by far the most frequent. Reports from small events are of little interest to researchers who are only concerned with damaging, MMI6 and above. However, we found that when damaging earthquakes did occur, such as Christchurch's M6.3, they were only sparsely reported (3,776 reports). Understandably, sitting at a computer and completing a lengthy online form wasn't a priority for people after a devastating earthquake. With Felt Rapid, reporting has to be completed within an hour of an earthquake, the use of GeoNet's automatically compiled felt reporting maps had evolved; their main purpose is immediate assessment of an earthquake's impact on populations, and is used by Civil Defence agencies. Reports are immediately displayed on an interactive map via the website and mobile app. With over 250,000 users this provides rapid and robust information regarding the experienced shaking. When a damaging earthquake occurs and researchers want to collect important and rare damaging felt reports, a separate in-depth survey

  10. Net zero water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lindeque, M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Is it possible to develop a building that uses a net zero amount of water? In recent years it has become evident that it is possible to have buildings that use a net zero amount of electricity. This is possible when the building is taken off...

  11. SolNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Ulrike; Vajen, Klaus; Bales, Chris

    2014-01-01

    SolNet, founded in 2006, is the first coordinated International PhD education program on Solar Thermal Engineering. The SolNet network is coordinated by the Institute of Thermal Engineering at Kassel University, Germany. The network offers PhD courses on solar heating and cooling, conference...

  12. Kunstige neurale net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørning, Annette

    1994-01-01

    Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse.......Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse....

  13. Poweo positive net income of 7.4 million euro in 2006. First time in the black since the company's creation; Poweo benefice net de 7,4 millions euro en 2006. 1. exercice beneficiaire depuis la creation de Poweo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-15

    POWEO, leading independent operator of electricity and gas, presents in this document the principal elements of its consolidated results and its highlights for 2006: - Sales turnover reaches 244.4 M euro, multiplied by 2.2 compared to 2005; - Operational result amounts to 9.3 M euro, against a loss of 8.4 M euro in 2005; - Consolidated net income group share reaches 7.4 M euro, against a loss of 4.9 M euro in 2005. The 2006 consolidated revenue amounted to 244.4 million euro against 243.7 million euro announced on January 31, taking into account a revaluation of 0.7 million euro of the Energy Management's performance. The number of transferred customer sites amounted to 80,300 as at December 31, 2006, in progression of 23% compared to the end of 2005. Gross margin reached 33.6 euro million, in strong progression compared to 2005, reflecting the effectiveness of the Energy Management activity which has allowed to very appreciably reduce the cost price for POWEO of the energy delivered to its customers, within the framework of its global sourcing strategy. Operating costs increased in line with the development plan, under the effect in particular of the strengthening of operational teams, the Group head-count having reached 90 people as at December 31, 2006. EBITDA reached 8.1 million euro in 2006, against a negative amount of 5.3 million euro in 2005, allowing POWEO to meet its objective of a positive EBITDA as announced in September 2006. The EBIT amounted to 9.3 million euro, taking into account a profit of dilution of 7.6 million euro related to the issuance premium recognized on POWEO Production by Verbund, the Austrian national electricity operator and reference shareholder of POWEO, within the framework of the partnership announced in January 2006. With a consolidated net income group share of 7.4 million euro, 2006 thus constitutes the first fiscal year in the black since the Company's creation in 2002. The consolidated net equity amounted to 103

  14. Response to "The Iris Hypothesis: A Negative or Positive Cloud Feedback?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ming-Dah; Lindzen, Richard S.; Hou, Arthur Y.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Based on radiance measurements of Japan's Geostationary Meteorological Satellite, Lindzen et al. found that the high-level cloud cover averaged over the tropical western Pacific decreases with increasing sea surface temperature. They further found that the response of high-level clouds to the sea surface temperature had an effect of reducing the magnitude of climate change, which is referred as a negative climate feedback. Lin et al. reassessed the results found by Lindzen et al. by analyzing the radiation and clouds derived from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System measurements. They found a weak positive feedback between high-level clouds and the surface temperature. We have found that the approach taken by Lin et al. to estimating the albedo and the outgoing longwave radiation is incorrect and that the inferred climate sensitivity is unreliable.

  15. Responsiveness of the active wrist joint position sense test after distal radius fracture intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannopoulos, Christos; Sitler, Michael; Michlovitz, Susan; Tucker, Carole; Tierney, Ryan

    Prospective cohort study. The active wrist joint position sense (JPS) test has been determined to be a clinically useful test for assessing wrist sensorimotor (SM) status after distal radius fracture (DRF). Its responsiveness is yet to be determined. Primary study aim was to determine the active wrist JPS test responsiveness to detect change in wrist SM status at 8 and 12 weeks after DRF treatment intervention. Secondary aims were to compare group (nonsurgical, surgical, high, and low pain) test responsiveness; compare pain-level group participants test scores; determine the relationship between test minimal clinically important difference (MCID) value and function; compare functional outcomes across assessment times; and determine the Patient Global Impression of Change Scale intrarater reliability. A total of 33 male and female participants were tested at baseline, 8, and 12 weeks after nonsurgical (n = 13) and surgical (n = 20) DRF treatment interventions. Distribution-based analysis encompassed both group- (ie, effect size, standardized response mean) and individual-based (ie, minimum detectable change) statistical indices. Anchor-based analysis determined the MCID value by linking test scores to the Patient Global Impression of Change Scale. The active wrist JPS test is highly responsive based on effect size (8 weeks = 1.53 and 12 weeks = 2.36) and standardized response mean (8 weeks = 1.57 and 12 weeks = 2.14). Statistically significant minimum detectable change values were 4.28° and 4.94° at 8 and 12 weeks, respectively. Clinically meaningful MCID values were 5.00° and 7.09° at 8 and 12 weeks, respectively. Between treatment type and pain-level group responsiveness levels were not significantly different. High-pain participants demonstrated significantly greater JPS deficit. Test MCID values and function were significantly associated. This is the first study to determine the active wrist JPS test responsiveness as reflected by its group- and

  16. GEM2Net: from gene expression modeling to -omics networks, a new CATdb module to investigate Arabidopsis thaliana genes involved in stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaag, Rim; Tamby, Jean Philippe; Guichard, Cécile; Tariq, Zakia; Rigaill, Guillem; Delannoy, Etienne; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Balzergue, Sandrine; Mary-Huard, Tristan; Aubourg, Sébastien; Martin-Magniette, Marie-Laure; Brunaud, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    CATdb (http://urgv.evry.inra.fr/CATdb) is a database providing a public access to a large collection of transcriptomic data, mainly for Arabidopsis but also for other plants. This resource has the rare advantage to contain several thousands of microarray experiments obtained with the same technical protocol and analyzed by the same statistical pipelines. In this paper, we present GEM2Net, a new module of CATdb that takes advantage of this homogeneous dataset to mine co-expression units and decipher Arabidopsis gene functions. GEM2Net explores 387 stress conditions organized into 18 biotic and abiotic stress categories. For each one, a model-based clustering is applied on expression differences to identify clusters of co-expressed genes. To characterize functions associated with these clusters, various resources are analyzed and integrated: Gene Ontology, subcellular localization of proteins, Hormone Families, Transcription Factor Families and a refined stress-related gene list associated to publications. Exploiting protein-protein interactions and transcription factors-targets interactions enables to display gene networks. GEM2Net presents the analysis of the 18 stress categories, in which 17,264 genes are involved and organized within 681 co-expression clusters. The meta-data analyses were stored and organized to compose a dynamic Web resource. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  17. Operant serial feature-positive conditional discrimination with composite features and different topography responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L.O. Bueno

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In a serial feature-positive conditional discrimination procedure the properties of a target stimulus A are defined by the presence or not of a feature stimulus X preceding it. In the present experiment, composite features preceded targets associated with two different topography operant responses (right and left bar pressing; matching and non-matching-to-sample arrangements were also used. Five water-deprived Wistar rats were trained in 6 different trials: X-R®Ar and X-L®Al, in which X and A were same modality visual stimuli and the reinforcement was contingent to pressing either the right (r or left (l bar that had the light on during the feature (matching-to-sample; Y-R®Bl and Y-L®Br, in which Y and B were same modality auditory stimuli and the reinforcement was contingent to pressing the bar that had the light off during the feature (non-matching-to-sample; A- and B- alone. After 100 training sessions, the animals were submitted to transfer tests with the targets used plus a new one (auditory click. Average percentages of stimuli with a response were measured. Acquisition occurred completely only for Y-L®Br+; however, complex associations were established along training. Transfer was not complete during the tests since concurrent effects of extinction and response generalization also occurred. Results suggest the use of both simple conditioning and configurational strategies, favoring the most recent theories of conditional discrimination learning. The implications of the use of complex arrangements for discussing these theories are considered.

  18. Process coupling and control over the response of net ecosystem CO2 exchange to climate variability and insect disturbance in subalpine forests of the Western US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, R. K.; Moore, D. J.; Trahan, N. A.; Scott-Denton, L.; Burns, S. P.; Hu, J.; Bowling, D. R.

    2011-12-01

    Following ten years of studies in subalpine forest ecosystems of the Western US, we have concluded that the tight coupling between gross primary productivity (GPP) and the autotrophic component of soil respiration (Ra) drives responses of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) to climate variability and insect disturbance. This insight has been gained through long-term eddy flux observations, manipulative plot experiments, analyses of dynamics in the stable isotope compositions of CO2 and H2O, and chamber gas-exchange measurements. Using past observations from these studies, we deployed model-data assimilation techniques and forecast weather/climate modeling to estimate how the coupling between GPP and Ra is likely to affect future (Year 2100) dynamics in NEE. The amount of winter snow and its melting dynamics in the spring represents the dominant control over interannual variation in GPP. Using the SIPNET ecosystem process model, combined with knowledge about the stable isotope content of different water sources, we estimated that approximately 75% of growing season GPP is coupled to the use of snowmelt water, whereas approximately 25% is coupled to summer rain. The tight coupling between GPP and winter snow pack drives a similar tight coupling between soil respiration (Rs) and winter snow pack. Manipulation of snow pack on forest plots has shown that Rs increases with increased snow pack, and this effect disappears when trees are girdled, which stops the transfer of GPP to roots and the soil rhizosphere. Higher-than-normal winter snowpacks cause the carbon isotope ratios of soil-respired CO2 to be depleted in 13C, reflecting a signal of lower photosynthetic water-use efficiency in the GPP that is transferred to the soil rhizosphere. Large-scale forest disturbance due to catastrophic tree mortality from mountain pine beetle attack causes an initial (2-3 year) reduction in Rs, which is attributable to the loss of GPP and its effect on Ra. This near-term reduction in Rs

  19. Is desire to eat in response to positive emotions an 'obese' eating style: Is Kummerspeck for some people a misnomer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Strien, Tatjana; Donker, Marianne H; Ouwens, Machteld A

    2016-05-01

    Is desire to eat in response to positive emotions an 'obese' eating style: a style more prevalent in people with obesity? In other words: Is Kummerspeck (German: sorrow-fat) for some people a misnomer? This question was addressed in three studies on women. Study 1 (n = 188) tested the moderator effect of subjective well-being on the association of BMI with the scale on desire to eat in response to negative emotions (DEBQ-E). Study 2 tested in women (n = 832) whether items on desire to eat in response to positive emotions loaded on the same factor as those in response to negative emotions and body mass. Study 3 assessed in the total sample (n = 203) and an overweight subsample (n = 40) a) whether self-reported desire to eat in response to positive emotions predicted actual food intake and b) whether this also held true over and above self-reported desire to eat in response to negative emotions. Study 1 showed only for women with low positive affect a significant positive association of BMI with DEBQ-E. In Study 2, only items on desire to eat in response to negative emotions loaded on the same factor as BMI. Study 3: In the total sample, the significant effect on food intake of the scale on desire to eat in response to positive emotions disappeared when a scale on desire to eat in response to negative emotions was added to the model. In the overweight-subsample there was only an effect on food intake for desire to eat in response to negative emotions. It is concluded that only desire to eat in response to negative emotions is an 'obese' eating style, suggesting that Kummerspeck is not a misnomer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. How and When Retailers’ Sustainability Efforts Translate into Positive Consumer Responses: The Interplay Between Personal and Social Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofenk, D.; Birgelen, M.J.H. van; Bloemer, J.M.M.; Semeijn, J.

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to address how (through which mechanisms) and when (under which conditions) retailers’ sustainability efforts translate into positive consumer responses. Hypotheses are developed and tested through a scenario-based experiment among 672 consumers. Retailers’ assortment sustainability

  1. Pro NET Best Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, Stephen D

    2011-01-01

    Pro .NET Best Practices is a practical reference to the best practices that you can apply to your .NET projects today. You will learn standards, techniques, and conventions that are sharply focused, realistic and helpful for achieving results, steering clear of unproven, idealistic, and impractical recommendations. Pro .NET Best Practices covers a broad range of practices and principles that development experts agree are the right ways to develop software, which includes continuous integration, automated testing, automated deployment, and code analysis. Whether the solution is from a free and

  2. Getting to Net Zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-01

    The technology necessary to build net zero energy buildings (NZEBs) is ready and available today, however, building to net zero energy performance levels can be challenging. Energy efficiency measures, onsite energy generation resources, load matching and grid interaction, climatic factors, and local policies vary from location to location and require unique methods of constructing NZEBs. It is recommended that Components start looking into how to construct and operate NZEBs now as there is a learning curve to net zero construction and FY 2020 is just around the corner.

  3. Instant Lucene.NET

    CERN Document Server

    Heydt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A step-by-step guide that helps you to index, search, and retrieve unstructured data with the help of Lucene.NET.Instant Lucene.NET How-to is essential for developers new to Lucene and Lucene.NET who are looking to get an immediate foundational understanding of how to use the library in their application. It's assumed you have programming experience in C# already, but not that you have experience with search techniques such as information retrieval theory (although there will be a l

  4. Theory and Practice of Positive Feminist Therapy: A Culturally Responsive Approach to Divorce Therapy with Chinese Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzou, Jean Yuh-Jin; Kim, Eunha; Waldheim, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Positive Feminist Therapy (PFT) is a strength-based culturally responsive therapy model specifically designed for helping Chinese women facing marital conflicts and divorce, integrating Empowerment Feminist Therapy, systems theory, and positive psychology. To help clients become change agents, PFT uses clients' existing strengths to develop…

  5. Slight hypercalcemia is not associated with positive responses in the Comet Assay in male rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Anette; Hamel, Annie; Schaefer, Katrien; Cardoso, Renato; Beilstein, Paul

    2017-08-01

    Maintenance of physiological levels of intracellular and extracellular calcium is essential for life. Increased intracellular calcium levels are involved in cell death (apoptosis and necrosis) and are associated with positive responses in the Comet assay in vitro. In addition, high calcium and vitamin D intakes were reported to induce apoptosis in adipose tissue in obese mice and to increase DNA-migration in the Comet assay. To investigate increased serum concentration of calcium as a potential confounding factor in the regulatory Comet assay in vivo, we induced mild hypercalcemia in male Wistar rats by 3-day continuous intravenous infusion of calcium gluconate and performed the Comet assay in the liver in line with regulatory guidelines. The results of the study showed that mild increases in serum calcium concentration (up to 1.4 times above the concurrent control) and increased urinary calcium concentration (up to 27.8 times above the concurrent control) results in clinical signs like mild tremor, faster respiration rate and decreased activity in a few animals. However, under the conditions of the study, no increase in the %Tail DNA in the Comet assay and no indication of liver damage as determined by histopathological means were observed. Thus, mild increases in plasma calcium did not lead to positive results in a genotoxicity assessment by the Comet assay in the rat liver. This result is important as it confirms the reliability of this assay for regulatory evaluation of safety. Copyright © 2017 DSM Nutritional Products AG. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Observations of ocean tidal load response in South America from subdaily GPS positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Hilary R.; Simons, Mark; Owen, Susan; Rivera, Luis

    2016-06-01

    We explore Earth's elastic deformation response to ocean tidal loading (OTL) using kinematic Global Positioning System (GPS) observations and forward-modelled predictions across South America. Harmonic coefficients are extracted from up to 14 yr of GPS-inferred receiver locations, which we estimate at 5 min intervals using precise point positioning. We compare the observed OTL-induced surface displacements against predictions derived from spherically symmetric, non-rotating, elastic and isotropic (SNREI) Earth models. We also compare sets of modelled predictions directly for various ocean-tide and Earth-model combinations. The vector differences between predicted displacements computed using separate ocean-tide models reveal uniform-displacement components common to all stations in the South America network. Removal of the network-mean OTL-induced displacements from each site substantially reduces the vector differences between observed and predicted displacements. We focus on the dominant astronomical tidal harmonics from three distinct frequency bands: semidiurnal (M2), diurnal (O1) and fortnightly (Mf). In each band, the observed OTL-induced surface displacements strongly resemble the modelled displacement-response patterns, and the residuals agree to about 0.3 mm or better. Even with the submillimetre correspondence between observations and predictions, we detect regional-scale spatial coherency in the final set of residuals, most notably for the M2 harmonic. The spatial coherency appears relatively insensitive to the specific choice of ocean-tide or SNREI-Earth model. Varying the load model or 1-D elastic structure yields predicted OTL-induced displacement differences of order 0.1 mm or less for the network. Furthermore, estimates of the observational uncertainty place the noise level below the magnitude of the residual displacements for most stations, supporting our interpretation that random errors cannot account for the entire misfit. Therefore, the

  7. Approximation methods for stochastic petri nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungnitz, Hauke Joerg

    1992-01-01

    Stochastic Marked Graphs are a concurrent decision free formalism provided with a powerful synchronization mechanism generalizing conventional Fork Join Queueing Networks. In some particular cases the analysis of the throughput can be done analytically. Otherwise the analysis suffers from the classical state explosion problem. Embedded in the divide and conquer paradigm, approximation techniques are introduced for the analysis of stochastic marked graphs and Macroplace/Macrotransition-nets (MPMT-nets), a new subclass introduced herein. MPMT-nets are a subclass of Petri nets that allow limited choice, concurrency and sharing of resources. The modeling power of MPMT is much larger than that of marked graphs, e.g., MPMT-nets can model manufacturing flow lines with unreliable machines and dataflow graphs where choice and synchronization occur. The basic idea leads to the notion of a cut to split the original net system into two subnets. The cuts lead to two aggregated net systems where one of the subnets is reduced to a single transition. A further reduction leads to a basic skeleton. The generalization of the idea leads to multiple cuts, where single cuts can be applied recursively leading to a hierarchical decomposition. Based on the decomposition, a response time approximation technique for the performance analysis is introduced. Also, delay equivalence, which has previously been introduced in the context of marked graphs by Woodside et al., Marie's method and flow equivalent aggregation are applied to the aggregated net systems. The experimental results show that response time approximation converges quickly and shows reasonable accuracy in most cases. The convergence of Marie's method and flow equivalent aggregation are applied to the aggregated net systems. The experimental results show that response time approximation converges quickly and shows reasonable accuracy in most cases. The convergence of Marie's is slower, but the accuracy is generally better. Delay

  8. Evolution of motif variants and positional bias of the cyclic-AMP response element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Famili A Fazel

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcription factors regulate gene expression by interacting with their specific DNA binding sites. Some transcription factors, particularly those involved in transcription initiation, always bind close to transcription start sites (TSS. Others have no such preference and are functional on sites even tens of thousands of base pairs (bp away from the TSS. The Cyclic-AMP response element (CRE binding protein (CREB binds preferentially to a palindromic sequence (TGACGTCA, known as the canonical CRE, and also to other CRE variants. CREB can activate transcription at CREs thousands of bp away from the TSS, but in mammals CREs are found far more frequently within 1 to 150 bp upstream of the TSS than in any other region. This property is termed positional bias. The strength of CREB binding to DNA is dependent on the sequence of the CRE motif. The central CpG dinucleotide in the canonical CRE (TGACGTCA is critical for strong binding of CREB dimers. Methylation of the cytosine in the CpG can inhibit binding of CREB. Deamination of the methylated cytosines causes a C to T transition, resulting in a functional, but lower affinity CRE variant, TGATGTCA. Results We performed genome-wide surveys of CREs in a number of species (from worm to human and showed that only vertebrates exhibited a CRE positional bias. We performed pair-wise comparisons of human CREs with orthologous sequences in mouse, rat and dog genomes and found that canonical and TGATGTCA variant CREs are highly conserved in mammals. However, when orthologous sequences differ, canonical CREs in human are most frequently TGATGTCA in the other species and vice-versa. We have identified 207 human CREs showing such differences. Conclusion Our data suggest that the positional bias of CREs likely evolved after the separation of urochordata and vertebrata. Although many canonical CREs are conserved among mammals, there are a number of orthologous genes that have canonical CREs in

  9. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Musall, Eike

    2010-01-01

    and identify possible renewable energy supply options which may be considered in calculations. Finally, the gap between the methodology proposed by each organisation and their respective national building code is assessed; providing an overview of the possible changes building codes will need to undergo......The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...... parameters used in the calculations are discussed and the various renewable supply options considered in the methodologies are summarised graphically. Thus, the paper helps to understand different existing approaches to calculate energy balance in Net ZEBs, highlights the importance of variables selection...

  10. PhysioNet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The PhysioNet Resource is intended to stimulate current research and new investigations in the study of complex biomedical and physiologic signals. It offers free...

  11. NetSig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Heiko; Lawrence, Michael S; Chouinard, Candace R

    2018-01-01

    Methods that integrate molecular network information and tumor genome data could complement gene-based statistical tests to identify likely new cancer genes; but such approaches are challenging to validate at scale, and their predictive value remains unclear. We developed a robust statistic (Net......Sig) that integrates protein interaction networks with data from 4,742 tumor exomes. NetSig can accurately classify known driver genes in 60% of tested tumor types and predicts 62 new driver candidates. Using a quantitative experimental framework to determine in vivo tumorigenic potential in mice, we found that Net......Sig candidates induce tumors at rates that are comparable to those of known oncogenes and are ten-fold higher than those of random genes. By reanalyzing nine tumor-inducing NetSig candidates in 242 patients with oncogene-negative lung adenocarcinomas, we find that two (AKT2 and TFDP2) are significantly amplified...

  12. TideNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    query tide data sources in a desired geographic region of USA and its territories (Figure 1). Users can select a tide data source through the Google Map ...select data sources according to the desired geographic region. It uses the Google Map interface to display data from different sources. Recent...Coastal Inlets Research Program TideNet The TideNet is a web-based Graphical User Interface (GUI) that provides users with GIS mapping tools to

  13. Building Neural Net Software

    OpenAIRE

    Neto, João Pedro; Costa, José Félix

    1999-01-01

    In a recent paper [Neto et al. 97] we showed that programming languages can be translated on recurrent (analog, rational weighted) neural nets. The goal was not efficiency but simplicity. Indeed we used a number-theoretic approach to machine programming, where (integer) numbers were coded in a unary fashion, introducing a exponential slow down in the computations, with respect to a two-symbol tape Turing machine. Implementation of programming languages in neural nets turns to be not only theo...

  14. Interaction Nets in Russian

    OpenAIRE

    Salikhmetov, Anton

    2013-01-01

    Draft translation to Russian of Chapter 7, Interaction-Based Models of Computation, from Models of Computation: An Introduction to Computability Theory by Maribel Fernandez. "In this chapter, we study interaction nets, a model of computation that can be seen as a representative of a class of models based on the notion of 'computation as interaction'. Interaction nets are a graphical model of computation devised by Yves Lafont in 1990 as a generalisation of the proof structures of linear logic...

  15. Programming NET 35

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Bestselling author Jesse Liberty and industry expert Alex Horovitz uncover the common threads that unite the .NET 3.5 technologies, so you can benefit from the best practices and architectural patterns baked into the new Microsoft frameworks. The book offers a Grand Tour" of .NET 3.5 that describes how the principal technologies can be used together, with Ajax, to build modern n-tier and service-oriented applications. "

  16. Age-related affective modulation of the startle eyeblink response: older adults startle most when viewing positive pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Michelle C; Courtney, Christopher G; Mather, Mara; Dawson, Michael E; Davison, Gerald C

    2011-09-01

    Previous studies reveal age by valence interactions in attention and memory, such that older adults focus relatively more on positive and relatively less on negative stimuli than younger adults. In the current study, eyeblink startle response was used to measure differences in emotional reactivity to images that were equally arousing to both age groups. Viewing positive and negative pictures from the International Affective Picture System had opposite effects on startle modulation for older and younger adults. Younger adults showed the typical startle blink pattern, with potentiated startle when viewing negative pictures compared to positive pictures. Older adults, on the other hand, showed the opposite pattern, with potentiated startle when viewing positive pictures compared to viewing negative and neutral pictures. Potential underlying mechanisms for this interaction are evaluated. This pattern suggests that, compared with younger adults, older adults are more likely to spontaneously suppress responses to negative stimuli and process positive stimuli more deeply.

  17. Ventilatory response to added dead space and position in preterm infants at high risk age for SIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Tolulope; Hannam, Simon; Rafferty, Gerrard F; Milner, Anthony D; Greenough, Anne

    2011-03-01

    The vulnerability of prematurely born infants to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in the prone position might be explained by a reduced ability to respond to a stress, such as hypercarbia, in that position; our objective, therefore, was to further explore the influence of position on the response to a stress. The ability of prematurely born infants to respond to added dead space in the prone compared to the supine position would be impaired at the high risk age for SIDS. Twenty infants, median gestational age of 30 (range 24-32) weeks were studied at a median postmenstrual age (PMA) of 45 weeks. In addition, comparisons were made to the results of 25 infants studied at 36 weeks PMA. Infants were studied supine and prone. Breath by breath minute volume was measured at baseline and after a dead space was incorporated into the breathing circuit; the time constant of the response was calculated. The pressure generated in the first 100 msec of an occlusion (P0.1 ), the maximum inspiratory pressure during an airway occlusion and functional residual capacity (FRC) were also measured in both positions. The median time constant was longer (38 (range 15-85) vs. 26 (range 2-40) sec (P = 0.002)). P0.1 lower (P = 0.003) and FRC higher (P = 0.031) in the prone compared to the supine position. In the prone position, the time constant correlated with PMA (P = 0.047), that is, the rate of response to added dead space was significantly damped with increasing postnatal age up to the critical age for SIDS. The dampened rate of response to added dead space in the prone compared to the supine position lends support to the hypothesis that a poorer response to a stress may contribute to prematurely born infants increased risk of SIDS in the prone position. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. C'mon get happy: reduced magnitude and duration of response during a positive-affect induction in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Michelle S; Siegle, Greg J; Schwartz, Robert M; Price, Rebecca B; Haggerty, Agnes E; Collier, Amanda; Friedman, Edward S

    2014-11-01

    Depression involves decreased positive affect. Whether this is due to a failure to achieve or maintain positive emotion in response to discrete stimuli is unclear. Understanding the nature of decreased positive affect could help to address how to intervene in the phenomenon, for example, how to structure interventions using positive and rewarding stimuli in depression. Thus, we examined the time course of affect following exposure to positive stimuli in depressed and healthy individuals. Seventy-one adults with major depressive disorder and thirty-four never-depressed controls read a self-generated highly positive script and continuously rated their affect for 7 min. Both groups quickly achieved increased positive affect, however, compared to controls, depressed participants did not achieve the same level of positive affect, did not maintain their positive affect, spent less time rating their affect as happy, and demonstrated larger drops in mood. These data indicate that depressed and nondepressed individuals can generate positive reactions to happy scripts, but depressed individuals cannot achieve or sustain equivalent levels of positive affect. Interventions for depression might fruitfully focus on increasing depressed individuals' ability to maintain initial engagement with positive stimuli over a sustained period of time. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The Net Reclassification Index (NRI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pepe, Margaret S.; Fan, Jing; Feng, Ziding

    2015-01-01

    The Net Reclassification Index (NRI) is a very popular measure for evaluating the improvement in prediction performance gained by adding a marker to a set of baseline predictors. However, the statistical properties of this novel measure have not been explored in depth. We demonstrate the alarming...... marker is proven to erroneously yield a positive NRI. Some insight into this phenomenon is provided. Since large values for the NRI statistic may simply be due to use of poorly fitting risk models, we suggest caution in using the NRI as the basis for marker evaluation. Other measures of prediction...

  20. Positive prolactin response to bromocriptine in 2 patients with cabergoline-resistant prolactinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Pallavi; Molitch, Mark E

    2011-01-01

    To describe a positive prolactin response to bromocriptine treatment in 2 patients with cabergoline-resistant prolactinomas. We report the patients' clinical presentations, laboratory test results, imaging findings, and clinical courses. Patient 1 had a 5-mm pituitary microadenoma that was initially diagnosed at age 30 years. After initial diagnosis, she was treated with transvaginal bromocriptine for 9 years and then subsequently went untreated for 2 years. After developing symptoms of amenorrhea, decreased libido, and hyperprolactinemia, oral cabergoline, 0.5 mg twice weekly, was initiated. Her prolactin concentration remained elevated at 80 ng/mL while taking cabergoline. Her prolactin concentration decreased to 13 ng/mL after her regimen was switched to bromocriptine, 5 mg daily. Patient 2 had a 17-mm pituitary macroadenoma that was initially diagnosed at age 15 years. Oral cabergoline was started at 0.5 mg twice weekly and increased to 1 mg 3 times weekly when prolactin levels continued to rise to 340 ng/mL over 18 months. After visual field defects developed, transsphenoidal surgery was performed. One year after surgery, magnetic resonance imaging showed a 6- to 7-mm pituitary adenoma, and there was a gradual rise in serum prolactin. Her serum prolactin concentration continued to rise to 212 ng/mL with increasing tumor size over 3 years. Cabergoline was discontinued and oral bromocriptine was initiated at a dosage of 10 mg daily. After 4.5 months of bromocriptine therapy, her serum prolactin concentration decreased to 133 ng/mL. However, after 2 months, the macroadenoma continued to increase in size and a visual field defect developed, so another transsphenoidal operation was performed. Although cabergoline is generally preferred to bromocriptine for the treatment of patients with prolactinomas because of its better tolerance profile and greater effectiveness, in patients with cabergoline-resistant prolactinomas, a bromocriptine trial should be considered a

  1. Push net fishing seems to be responsible for injuries and post fishing mortality in glass eel in the Vilaine estuary (France in 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briand C.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Post fishing mortality of the glass eel was monitored in 2007 in the Vilaine estuary. The mortality of the glass eels varied from 2 to 82% (mean 42% in the two days following the fishing. The mortality of samples collected by hand nets or from the trapping ladder was null. Alterations of the skin mucus were analyzed by the use of Indigo carmine. The mortality was significantly correlated with body injuries, but not to other environmental factors. The presence of a large injury on the body systematically led to the death of the glass eels, and among these dead glass eels, only 3.5% had no external injury. These results are discussed, along with the results from other estuaries, with a view to transport glass eels across Europe, with the objective of restoring the eel stock.

  2. RTE results 2002: positive net income (+112 million euros), in keeping with forecasts, at the end of a year placed under the sign of quality; Bilan RTE 2002: un resultat net positif (+112 M d'euros), conforme aux previsions, au terme d'une annee placee sous le signe de la qualite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-01

    The results of RTE, the French Transmission System Operator, confirm the company's sound financial position at the end of a year placed under the sign of quality. RTE announces a net income after taxes for 2002 that is in keeping with its forecasts: +112 million euros (versus 250 million euros in 2001) for 3,657 million euros in sales revenue. 616 million euros were devoted to investments for the development and replacement of the company's transmission and interconnection networks. RTE also continued the reduction of its debt by 99 million euros. The year 2001 had experienced a cold spell at year-end, bringing with it higher-than-average revenue (+80 million euros). 2002, which was exceptionally mild at the end of the year, saw revenue fall off by 40 million euros compared with a normal year. In all, the climatic impact goes to explain a drop of 120 million euros in 2002. This drop is partially offset by additional revenue since the adoption on 1/11/02 of the network access tariff (about 30 million euros). This tariff is now substituted for the transitional price scale which was unfavourable to RTE. Operating expenses rose from 3,089 million euros to 3,316 million euros. The most significant increases are to be attributed in particular to: - the contribution of 68 million euros to the 'ETSO Fund', ETSO being the Association of European Transmission System Operators which, since 1/03/02, has ensured the compensation for network utilisation costs related to international transfers, - the gaining in momentum, with more than 80 million euros, of the network mechanical security enhancement programme decided in the wake of the storms of 1999, which aims at adapting RTE infrastructures to the new technical requirements for wind resistance. More than 720 km of power lines were erected or replaced while 12 electrical substations were connected to the RTE network in 2002. Among these projects, mention should be made of the following: the commissioning of

  3. Responding to emotional scenes: effects of response outcome and picture repetition on reaction times and the late positive potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thigpen, Nina N; Keil, Andreas; Freund, Alexandra M

    2016-12-06

    Processing the motivational relevance of a visual scene and reacting accordingly is crucial for survival. Previous work suggests the emotional content of naturalistic scenes affects response speed, such that unpleasant content slows responses whereas pleasant content accelerates responses. It is unclear whether these effects reflect motor-cognitive processes, such as attentional orienting, or vary with the function/outcome of the motor response itself. Four experiments manipulated participants' ability to terminate the picture (offset control) and, thereby, the response's function and motivational value. Attentive orienting was manipulated via picture repetition, which diminishes orienting. A total of N = 81 participants completed versions of a go/no-go task, discriminating between distorted versus intact pictures drawn from six content categories varying in positive, negative, or neutral valence. While all participants responded faster with repetition, only participants without offset control exhibited slower responses to unpleasant and accelerated responses to pleasant content. Emotional engagement, measured by the late positive potential, was not modulated by attentional orienting (repetition), suggesting that the interaction between repetition and offset control is not due to altered emotional engagement. Together, results suggest that response time changes as a function of emotional content and sensitivity to attention orienting depends on the motivational function of the motor response.

  4. Spring Hydrology Determines Summer Net Carbon Uptake in Northern Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yonghong; Kimball, John; Reichle, Rolf H.

    2014-01-01

    Increased photosynthetic activity and enhanced seasonal CO2 exchange of northern ecosystems have been observed from a variety of sources including satellite vegetation indices (such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index; NDVI) and atmospheric CO2 measurements. Most of these changes have been attributed to strong warming trends in the northern high latitudes (greater than or equal to 50N). Here we analyze the interannual variation of summer net carbon uptake derived from atmospheric CO2 measurements and satellite NDVI in relation to surface meteorology from regional observational records. We find that increases in spring precipitation and snow pack promote summer net carbon uptake of northern ecosystems independent of air temperature effects. However, satellite NDVI measurements still show an overall benefit of summer photosynthetic activity from regional warming and limited impact of spring precipitation. This discrepancy is attributed to a similar response of photosynthesis and respiration to warming and thus reduced sensitivity of net ecosystem carbon uptake to temperature. Further analysis of boreal tower eddy covariance CO2 flux measurements indicates that summer net carbon uptake is positively correlated with early growing-season surface soil moisture, which is also strongly affected by spring precipitation and snow pack based on analysis of satellite soil moisture retrievals. This is attributed to strong regulation of spring hydrology on soil respiration in relatively wet boreal and arctic ecosystems. These results document the important role of spring hydrology in determining summer net carbon uptake and contrast with prevailing assumptions of dominant cold temperature limitations to high-latitude ecosystems. Our results indicate potentially stronger coupling of boreal/arctic water and carbon cycles with continued regional warming trends.

  5. Primary immunization-like response without hepatitis following transfusion of HBeAg-positive blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Aldershvile, J; Kryger, P

    1983-01-01

    An accidental transfusion of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positive whole blood was given to a 19-yr-old male, bleeding after tonsillectomy. Serum obtained from the patient before the transfusion revealed no hepatitis B antigens or antibodies. After...... the transfusion the patient became HBsAg-positive, cleared this antigen and developed antibodies to both HBsAg and HBeAg. The transfusion blood was positive for total antibody and IgM antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg). The patient's blood became positive for these antibodies after the transfusion...

  6. La plataforma .NET

    OpenAIRE

    Fornas Estrada, Miquel

    2008-01-01

    L'aparició de la plataforma .NET Framework ha suposat un canvi molt important en la forma de crear i distribuir aplicacions, degut a que incorpora una sèrie d'innovacions tècniques i productives que simplifiquen molt les tasques necessàries per desenvolupar un projecte. La aparición de la plataforma. NET Framework ha supuesto un cambio muy importante en la forma de crear y distribuir aplicaciones, debido a que incorpora una serie de innovaciones técnicas y productivas que simplifican mucho...

  7. Biological Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Wingender, E

    2011-01-01

    It was suggested some years ago that Petri nets might be well suited to modeling metabolic networks, overcoming some of the limitations encountered by the use of systems employing ODEs (ordinary differential equations). Much work has been done since then which confirms this and demonstrates the usefulness of this concept for systems biology. Petri net technology is not only intuitively understood by scientists trained in the life sciences, it also has a robust mathematical foundation and provides the required degree of flexibility. As a result it appears to be a very promising approach to mode

  8. Age-related Affective Modulation of the Startle Eyeblink Response: Older Adults Startle Most When Viewing Positive Pictures

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Michelle C.; Courtney, Christopher G.; Mather, Mara; Dawson, Michael E.; Davison, Gerald C.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies reveal age by valence interactions in attention and memory, such that older adults focus relatively more on positive and relatively less on negative stimuli than younger adults. In the current study, eyeblink startle response was used to measure differences in emotional reactivity to images that were equally arousing to both age groups. Viewing positive and negative pictures from the International Affective Picture System had opposite effects on startle modulation for older a...

  9. A novel methodology for the angular position identification of the unbalance force on asymmetric rotors by response polar plot analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colín Ocampo, Jorge; Gutiérrez Wing, Enrique S.; Ramírez Moroyoqui, Félix J.; Abúndez Pliego, Arturo; Blanco Ortega, Andrés; Mayén, Jan

    2017-10-01

    It is well known that some mechanical systems, as a two pole generator, exhibit two different stiffness on the main inertial axis of its transverse section, which leads to complex vibration modes and complicates the determination of the angular position of the unbalance force and, consequently, the balancing process by conventional methods. Therefore, a methodology for the angular position identification of the unbalance force, based on a two-degrees-of-freedom mathematical simplified model of a rotor with unequal principal moments of inertia of the shaft transverse section, is proposed in this work. The methodology requires the analysis of the response polar plots of the rotor, as well as the information of the vibration response of at least four points from the response polar plot: vibration amplitude, phase angle and the angular velocity of the rotor. The identification of the unbalance force angular position was numerically and experimentally validated using the response polar plots experimentally acquired from a Jeffcott type rotor, which exhibits unequal principal moments of inertia of shaft transverse section and two inertial disks, which were analyzed for several unbalance force angular positions. The results showed slight differences between the identified and the experimental angular positions.

  10. Nasal Oxytocin Treatment Biases Dogs’ Visual Attention and Emotional Response toward Positive Human Facial Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanni Somppi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The neuropeptide oxytocin plays a critical role in social behavior and emotion regulation in mammals. The aim of this study was to explore how nasal oxytocin administration affects gazing behavior during emotional perception in domestic dogs. Looking patterns of dogs, as a measure of voluntary attention, were recorded during the viewing of human facial expression photographs. The pupil diameters of dogs were also measured as a physiological index of emotional arousal. In a placebo-controlled within-subjects experimental design, 43 dogs, after having received either oxytocin or placebo (saline nasal spray treatment, were presented with pictures of unfamiliar male human faces displaying either a happy or an angry expression. We found that, depending on the facial expression, the dogs’ gaze patterns were affected selectively by oxytocin treatment. After receiving oxytocin, dogs fixated less often on the eye regions of angry faces and revisited (glanced back at more often the eye regions of smiling (happy faces than after the placebo treatment. Furthermore, following the oxytocin treatment dogs fixated and revisited the eyes of happy faces significantly more often than the eyes of angry faces. The analysis of dogs’ pupil diameters during viewing of human facial expressions indicated that oxytocin may also have a modulatory effect on dogs’ emotional arousal. While subjects’ pupil sizes were significantly larger when viewing angry faces than happy faces in the control (placebo treatment condition, oxytocin treatment not only eliminated this effect but caused an opposite pupil response. Overall, these findings suggest that nasal oxytocin administration selectively changes the allocation of attention and emotional arousal in domestic dogs. Oxytocin has the potential to decrease vigilance toward threatening social stimuli and increase the salience of positive social stimuli thus making eye gaze of friendly human faces more salient for dogs. Our

  11. Counterbalancing Regulation in Response Memory of a Positively Autoregulated Two-Component System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Rong; Godfrey, Katherine A; Sufian, Mahir A; Stock, Ann M

    2017-09-15

    Fluctuations in nutrient availability often result in recurrent exposures to the same stimulus conditions. The ability to memorize the past event and use the "memory" to make adjustments to current behaviors can lead to a more efficient adaptation to the recurring stimulus. A short-term phenotypic memory can be conferred via carryover of the response proteins to facilitate the recurrent response, but the additional accumulation of response proteins can lead to a deviation from response homeostasis. We used the Escherichia coli PhoB/PhoR two-component system (TCS) as a model system to study how cells cope with the recurrence of environmental phosphate (Pi) starvation conditions. We discovered that "memory" of prior Pi starvation can exert distinct effects through two regulatory pathways, the TCS signaling pathway and the stress response pathway. Although carryover of TCS proteins can lead to higher initial levels of transcription factor PhoB and a faster initial response in prestarved cells than in cells not starved, the response enhancement can be overcome by an earlier and greater repression of promoter activity in prestarved cells due to the memory of the stress response. The repression counterbalances the carryover of the response proteins, leading to a homeostatic response whether or not cells are prestimulated. A computational model based on sigma factor competition was developed to understand the memory of stress response and to predict the homeostasis of other PhoB-regulated response proteins. Our insight into the history-dependent PhoBR response may provide a general understanding of how TCSs respond to recurring stimuli and adapt to fluctuating environmental conditions. IMPORTANCE Bacterial cells in their natural environments experience scenarios that are far more complex than are typically replicated in laboratory experiments. The architectures of signaling systems and the integration of multiple adaptive pathways have evolved to deal with such complexity

  12. Petri Nets-Applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 9. Petri Nets - Applications. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 9 September 1999 pp 44-52. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/09/0044-0052. Author Affiliations. Y Narahari ...

  13. Safety nets or straitjackets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Does regulation of working hours at national and sector level impose straitjackets, or offer safety nets to employees seeking working time flexibility? This article compares legislation and collective agreements in the metal industries of Denmark, Germany and the USA. The industry has historically...

  14. Coloured Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. This book introduces the constructs of the CPN modelling language and presents the related analysis methods. It provides a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN.

  15. Boom Booom Net Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Yong, Louisa; Dobie, Ian

    1999-01-01

    of an existing Internet radio station; Boom Booom Net Radio. Whilst necessity dictates some use of technology-related terminology, wherever possible we have endeavoured to keep such jargon to a minimum and to either explain it in the text or to provide further explanation in the appended glossary....

  16. Game Theory .net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Mikhael

    2003-01-01

    States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of GameTheory.net is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…

  17. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism...

  18. Data indicating temperature response of Ti–6Al–4V thin-walled structure during its additive manufacture via Laser Engineered Net Shaping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrett J. Marshall

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An OPTOMEC Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS™ 750 system was retrofitted with a melt pool pyrometer and in-chamber infrared (IR camera for nondestructive thermal inspection of the blown-powder, direct laser deposition (DLD process. Data indicative of temperature and heat transfer within the melt pool and heat affected zone atop a thin-walled structure of Ti–6Al–4V during its additive manufacture are provided. Melt pool temperature data were collected via the dual-wavelength pyrometer while the dynamic, bulk part temperature distribution was collected using the IR camera. Such data are provided in Comma Separated Values (CSV file format, containing a 752×480 matrix and a 320×240 matrix of temperatures corresponding to individual pixels of the pyrometer and IR camera, respectively. The IR camera and pyrometer temperature data are provided in blackbody-calibrated, raw forms. Provided thermal data can aid in generating and refining process-property-performance relationships between laser manufacturing and its fabricated materials.

  19. Data indicating temperature response of Ti-6Al-4V thin-walled structure during its additive manufacture via Laser Engineered Net Shaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Garrett J; Thompson, Scott M; Shamsaei, Nima

    2016-06-01

    An OPTOMEC Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS(™)) 750 system was retrofitted with a melt pool pyrometer and in-chamber infrared (IR) camera for nondestructive thermal inspection of the blown-powder, direct laser deposition (DLD) process. Data indicative of temperature and heat transfer within the melt pool and heat affected zone atop a thin-walled structure of Ti-6Al-4V during its additive manufacture are provided. Melt pool temperature data were collected via the dual-wavelength pyrometer while the dynamic, bulk part temperature distribution was collected using the IR camera. Such data are provided in Comma Separated Values (CSV) file format, containing a 752×480 matrix and a 320×240 matrix of temperatures corresponding to individual pixels of the pyrometer and IR camera, respectively. The IR camera and pyrometer temperature data are provided in blackbody-calibrated, raw forms. Provided thermal data can aid in generating and refining process-property-performance relationships between laser manufacturing and its fabricated materials.

  20. Differential Effects of Positive versus Negative Self-Involving Counselor Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, Pam; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Investigated the effects of positive and negative counselor disclosure using typescripts of hypothetical counseling interviews. Results indicated impact of condition was mixed, with each having some desirable effects. (PAS)

  1. Biomarkers of Environmental Enteropathy are Positively Associated with Immune Responses to an Oral Cholera Vaccine in Bangladeshi Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ikhtear Uddin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental enteropathy (EE is a poorly understood condition that refers to chronic alterations in intestinal permeability, absorption, and inflammation, which mainly affects young children in resource-limited settings. Recently, EE has been linked to suboptimal oral vaccine responses in children, although immunological mechanisms are poorly defined. The objective of this study was to determine host factors associated with immune responses to an oral cholera vaccine (OCV. We measured antibody and memory T cell immune responses to cholera antigens, micronutrient markers in blood, and EE markers in blood and stool from 40 Bangladeshi children aged 3-14 years who received two doses of OCV given 14 days apart. EE markers included stool myeloperoxidase (MPO and alpha anti-trypsin (AAT, and plasma endotoxin core antibody (EndoCab, intestinal fatty acid binding protein (i-FABP, and soluble CD14 (sCD14. We used multiple linear regression analysis with LASSO regularization to identify host factors, including EE markers, micronutrient (nutritional status, age, and HAZ score, predictive for each response of interest. We found stool MPO to be positively associated with IgG antibody responses to the B subunit of cholera toxin (P = 0.03 and IgA responses to LPS (P = 0.02; plasma sCD14 to be positively associated with LPS IgG responses (P = 0.07; plasma i-FABP to be positively associated with LPS IgG responses (P = 0.01 and with memory T cell responses specific to cholera toxin (P = 0.01; stool AAT to be negatively associated with IL-10 (regulatory T cell responses specific to cholera toxin (P = 0.02, and plasma EndoCab to be negatively associated with cholera toxin-specific memory T cell responses (P = 0.02. In summary, in a cohort of children 3-14 years old, we demonstrated that the majority of biomarkers of environmental enteropathy were positively associated with immune responses after vaccination with an OCV.

  2. Effects of prone and supine positions on sleep state and stress responses in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarus, T; Bart, O; Rabinovich, G; Sadeh, A; Bloch, L; Dolfin, T; Litmanovitz, I

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of the study is to assess the influence of prone or supine position on sleep states and on withdrawal and approach reactions of preterm infants. Thirty-two preterm infants from Meir Medical Center, Israel, mean post menstrual age 30.37±2.57, mean birth weight 1250g±313.86, participated in the study. Infants were studied during 48h. Positions (prone and supine) were alternated every 3-4h after feedings. Sleep states were assessed by Actigraph measurement and by two daily 30-min Naturalistic Observations of Newborn Behavior (NONB) to confirm sleep states and for recording the behavioral reactions (approach and withdrawal). In the prone position there were more approach reactions as compared to withdrawal reactions (pposition, the approach and withdrawal reactions were comparable. In the prone position more sleep patterns (deep sleep, light sleep, drowsy) were observed as opposed to more awake patterns (quiet awake, active awake and agitated fussy) that were seen in the supine position. Clinical implications encourage placing the preterm infant in the prone position while in the NICU. This enables important achievements such as longer periods of quality sleep, and production of adaptive self-regulatory reactions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. When compliments fail to flatter: American individualism and responses to positive stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siy, John Oliver; Cheryan, Sapna

    2013-01-01

    Five studies show that being the target of a positive stereotype is a negative interpersonal experience for those from individualistic cultures because positive stereotypes interfere with their desire to be seen as individuals separate from their groups. U.S.-born Asian Americans and women who heard a positive stereotype about their group in an intergroup interaction (e.g., "Asians are good at math," "women are nurturing") derogated their partner and experienced greater negative emotions than those who heard no stereotype. Negative reactions were mediated by a sense of being depersonalized, or "lumped together" with others in one's group, by the positive stereotype (Studies 1-3). Cross-cultural differences (Study 4) and an experimental manipulation of cultural self-construal (Study 5) demonstrated that those with an independent self-construal reacted more negatively to positive stereotypes than those with an interdependent self-construal. By bringing together research on stereotypes from the target's perspective with research on culture, this work demonstrates how cultural self-construals inform the way people interpret and respond to being the target of positive stereotypes.

  4. Acquisition of Appropriate Social Behaviors in a Fourth Grade Student through the Use of Positive Reinforcement and Response Cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, David

    A 10-year-old boy with inappropriate social behavior was placed in a program of positive reinforcement and response cost. The boy earned plastic coins for good behavior and lost coins for inappropriate behavior. Rewards for given levels of earnings included extra recess time and field trips. Inappropriate behaviors decreased from a mean of 6.8…

  5. Response of Vocational Students to Supervision: Effects of Reinforcing Positive and Negative Attitudes Toward Different Supervisory Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stogdill, Ralph M.; And Others

    This study was designed to determine whether student response to supervision would be affected by the reinforcement of positive (or negative) attitudes toward five patterns of supervisory behavior as shown in motion pictures. For one group of vocational high school students, attitudes toward the supervisory roles "Consideration" and "Tolerance of…

  6. Is desire to eat in response to positive emotions an 'obese' eating style : Is Kummerspeck for some people a misnomer?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Strien, T.; Donker, Marianne H; Ouwens, Machteld A

    2016-01-01

    Is desire to eat in response to positive emotions an 'obese' eating style: a style more prevalent in people with obesity? In other words: Is Kummerspeck (German: sorrow-fat) for some people a misnomer? This question was addressed in three studies on women. Study 1 (n = 188) tested the moderator

  7. Is desire to eat in response to positive emotions an 'obese' eating style: Is Kummerspeck for some people a misnomer?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strien, T. van; Donker, M.H.; Ouwens, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Is desire to eat in response to positive emotions an 'obese' eating style: a style more prevalent in people with obesity? In other words: Is Kummerspeck (German: sorrow-fat) for some people a misnomer? This question was addressed in three studies on women. Study 1 (n = 188) tested the moderator

  8. Impact of Extended Education/Training in Positive Behaviour Support on Staff Knowledge, Causal Attributions and Emotional Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Peter; Bradshaw, Jill; Hughes, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Background: This study sought to gather information about the impact of extended training in positive behaviour support on staff knowledge, causal attributions and emotional responses. Methods: Students completed questionnaires at the beginning, middle and end of a University Diploma course to measure changes in their knowledge of challenging…

  9. Effect of supine, prone and kangaroo care (KC Positions on diminishing the pain response in term neonates during venopuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mozhgan Saki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Saki M¹, Mohsenzade A², Tarrahi MJ³, Saki M4 1. Instructor, Department of Health, Faculty of Health, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences 2. Assistant Professor, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences 3. Instructor, Department of Health, Faculty of Health, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences 4. Instructor, Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences Abstract Background: Neonates expose to painful procedures even when come to birth healthy. Pain reduction is a definite right for each living creature during medical intervention. It has bee proved by many studies that painful experiences during babyhood, besides the early complications such as tachycardia, tachypnea and increase of body metabolic needs, can intensify individual’s physiologic and behavioral responses to pain in next stages of life. The purpose of this study is to examine the efficacy of supine, prone and kangaroo care (KC positions on diminishing the pain response of term neonates during acute pain of venopuncture. Materials and methods: In this clinical trial study, 50 healthy neonates between 39 to 40 weeks of gestational age with physiologic icter requiring bilirubin estimation were assigned to receive a venous puncture and assessed for their responses to the pain of venopuncture performed in a standard manner. Blood sampling was performed by an expert nurse in charge of each neonate in three positions including supine, kangaroo care (KC at a 24-hour interval during 3 days. The place and condition of sampling were equal for all neonates. Pain responses were assessed using DAN scale, then the gathered data were analyzed using SPSS software and statistical tests. Results: According to the obtained results there was no significant differences between pain score in supine and prone positions. Limb movements score in supine position was significantly higher than two other

  10. Biological response to hormonal manipulation in oestrogen receptor positive ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boland, G P; McKeown, A; Chan, K C; Prasad, R; Knox, W F; Bundred, N J

    2003-01-01

    ...) to reduce local recurrence, despite 50% of lesions being oestrogen receptor (OR) negative. We have investigated the response to hormone manipulation in DCIS by studying changes in epithelial proliferation and progesterone receptor...

  11. Frequency response variation of two offshore wind park transformers with different tap changer positions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arana Aristi, Iván; Holbøll, Joachim; Sørensen, T

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of several sweep frequency response analysis (SFRA) measurements performed on two identical offshore wind farm transformers. A comparison is made between the transformers based on different recommended measurements and procedures, different measurement systems...

  12. Dual channel photoplethysmography studies of cardio-vascular response to the body position changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erts, R.; Kukulis, I.; Spigulis, J.; Kere, L.

    2005-08-01

    The dual-channel photoplethysmography studies of physiological responses during 3-stage orthostatic test were performed. Clear differences in heartbeat rate, pulse wave transit time and blood pressure variations of healthy volunteers and diabetic patients have been observed.

  13. Corporate Social Responsibility, Organizational Justice and Positive Employee Attitudes: In the Context of Korean Employment Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heung-Jun Jung

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a noticeable increase in scholarly interest in corporate social responsibility and its impact on employee attitudes. We intend to add to this literature by introducing unique explanatory and contextual variables. The study explains the impact of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR on employee attitudes through justice within the context of cooperative employee relations. We argue that the concept of justice, which is implied in both socially responsible organizational policies and cooperative employee-employer relations, may be an important addition as a mediating variable. In essence, the study explores the mediating effects of the two primary types of justice, i.e., distributive and procedural, on the relationship between perceived corporate social responsibility, and job satisfaction, and affective commitment. Additionally, we introduce ethics-based psychological foundations, i.e., heuristic and deontic fairness theories to explain the studied relationship. The study also examines the moderated mediation effects of the cooperative industrial relations climate on perceived corporate social responsibility and justice perceptions. Our analysis supports the mediating role of both distributive and procedural justice perceptions. However, a moderated mediation role of the industrial relations climate was only found in the relationship between perceived corporate social responsibility, procedural justice, and employee attitudes. Implications of the study are discussed.

  14. Breast or bottle? HIV-positive women's responses to global health policy on infant feeding in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hollen, Cecilia

    2011-12-01

    This article describes how local responses to global health initiatives on infant feeding for HIV-positive mothers reflect and transform sociocultural values in Tamil Nadu, India. Drawing from ethnographic research conducted from 2002 to 2008, the article compares guidelines for counseling HIV-positive mothers established by UNICEF and WHO with decision-making processes and perceptions of HIV-positive mothers. In addition to the financial considerations, three factors are identified as impinging on this decision: (1) a strong sociocultural value in favor of breastfeeding linked to historical traditions and contemporary state and international development discourses, (2) constructions of class identity, (3) the influence of a rights-based discourse in HIV/AIDS advocacy. This wide range of factors points to the difficulty of implementing the international protocols. This is the first study of its kind to closely examine the complex determinants in HIV-positive women's decisions and evaluations of infant feeding methods in India.

  15. Neratinib after trastuzumab-based adjuvant therapy in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer (ExteNET): a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Arlene; Delaloge, Suzette; Holmes, Frankie A; Moy, Beverly; Iwata, Hiroji; Harvey, Vernon J; Robert, Nicholas J; Silovski, Tajana; Gokmen, Erhan; von Minckwitz, Gunter; Ejlertsen, Bent; Chia, Stephen K L; Mansi, Janine; Barrios, Carlos H; Gnant, Michael; Buyse, Marc; Gore, Ira; Smith, John; Harker, Graydon; Masuda, Norikazu; Petrakova, Katarina; Zotano, Angel Guerrero; Iannotti, Nicholas; Rodriguez, Gladys; Tassone, Pierfrancesco; Wong, Alvin; Bryce, Richard; Ye, Yining; Yao, Bin; Martin, Miguel

    2016-03-01

    Neratinib, an irreversible tyrosine-kinase inhibitor of HER1, HER2, and HER4, has clinical activity in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of 12 months of neratinib after trastuzumab-based adjuvant therapy in patients with early-stage HER2-positive breast cancer. We did this multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial at 495 centres in Europe, Asia, Australia, New Zealand, and North and South America. Eligible women (aged ≥18 years, or ≥20 years in Japan) had stage 1-3 HER2-positive breast cancer and had completed neoadjuvant and adjuvant trastuzumab therapy up to 2 years before randomisation. Inclusion criteria were amended on Feb 25, 2010, to include patients with stage 2-3 HER2-positive breast cancer who had completed trastuzumab therapy up to 1 year previously. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive oral neratinib 240 mg per day or matching placebo. The randomisation sequence was generated with permuted blocks stratified by hormone receptor status (hormone receptor-positive [oestrogen or progesterone receptor-positive or both] vs hormone receptor-negative [oestrogen and progesterone receptor-negative]), nodal status (0, 1-3, or ≥4), and trastuzumab adjuvant regimen (sequentially vs concurrently with chemotherapy), then implemented centrally via an interactive voice and web-response system. Patients, investigators, and trial sponsors were masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was invasive disease-free survival, as defined in the original protocol, at 2 years after randomisation. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00878709. Between July 9, 2009, and Oct 24, 2011, we randomly assigned 2840 women to receive neratinib (n=1420) or placebo (n=1420). Median follow-up time was 24 months (IQR 20-25) in the neratinib group and 24 months (22-25) in the placebo group. At 2 year follow-up, 70

  16. Externalizing Shame Responses in Children: The Role of Fragile-Positive Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaes, Sander; Stegge, Hedy; Olthof, Tjeert

    2007-01-01

    When faced with shame, children can either respond in submissive ways to withdraw from their environment or in externalizing ways to oppose their environment. This study tested the hypothesis that fragile-positive views of self predispose children to respond in externalizing ways to shame situations. Narcissism, actual and perceived social…

  17. Externalizing shame responses in children: The role of fragile positive self-esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomaes, Sander|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/303776528

    2007-01-01

    When faced with shame, children can either respond in submissive ways to withdraw from their environment or in externalizing ways to oppose their environment. This study tested the hypothesis that fragile-positive views of self predispose children to respond in externalizing ways to shame

  18. Externalizing shame responses in children: The role of fragile-positive self-esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomaes, S.; Stegge, G.T.M.; Olthof, T.

    2007-01-01

    When faced with shame, children can either respond in submissive ways to withdraw from their environment or in externalizing ways to oppose their environment. This study tested the hypothesis that fragile-positive views of self predispose children to respond in externalizing ways to shame

  19. Differences in immune response between HCV positive, HIV negative haemophilia A and B patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, K; Smid, WM; Verspiek, SPJ; Smit, JW; van der Meer, J

    We measured numbers of lymphocytes and subsets in seven HIV negative, HCV positive severe haemophilia B patients, before and after substitution was changed from prothrombin complex concentrate to monoclonally purified concentrate. Data were compared with controls and our previous findings in

  20. A wearable textile for respiratory monitoring: Feasibility assessment and analysis of sensors position on system response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Presti, D; Massaroni, C; Saccomandi, P; Caponero, M A; Formica, D; Schena, E

    2017-07-01

    The interest on wearable textiles to monitor vital signs is growing in the research field and clinical scenario related to the increasing demands of long-term monitoring. Despite several smart textile-based solutions have been proposed for assessing the respiratory status, only a limited number of devices allow the respiratory monitoring in a harsh environment or in different positions of the human body. In this paper, we investigated the performances of a smart textile for respiratory rate monitoring characterized by 12 fiber optic sensors (i.e., fiber Bragg grating) placed on specific landmarks for compartmental analysis of the chest wall movements during quiet breathing. We focused on the analysis of the influence of sensor position on both peak-to-peak amplitude of sensors output and accuracy of respiratory rate measurements. This analysis was performed on two participants, who wore the textile in two positions (i.e., standing and supine). Bland-Altman analysis on respiratory rate showed promising results (better than 0.3 breaths per minute). Referring to the peak-to-peak output amplitude, the abdomen compartment showed the highest excursions in both the enrolled participants and positions. Our findings open up new approaches to design and develop smart textile for respiratory rate monitoring.

  1. Position Paper for Guiding Response to Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasking, Penelope A.; Heath, Nancy L.; Kaess, Michael; Lewis, Stephen P.; Plener, Paul L.; Walsh, Barent W.; Whitlock, Janis; Wilson, Marc S.

    2016-01-01

    Around the world, school staff are increasingly expressing concern about nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and how best to address this behavior in the school setting. However, there is a notable lack of informed guidance for schools, and clear inconsistencies in the practices school staff adopt. In this position paper we draw on our collective…

  2. Responsible Use of Live Animals and Dissection in the Science Classroom. NSTA Position Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Science Teachers Association (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) has revised a position statement published in June 2005. This revised statement examines the issues surrounding the integration of animals into the K-12 science curriculum and highlights key considerations that should be addressed when deciding to introduce live animals in the classroom and involve…

  3. Food Safety Nets:

    OpenAIRE

    Haggblade, Steven; Diallo, Boubacar; Staatz, John; Theriault, Veronique; Traoré, Abdramane

    2013-01-01

    Food and social safety nets have a history as long as human civilization. In hunter gatherer societies, food sharing is pervasive. Group members who prove unlucky in the short run, hunting or foraging, receive food from other households in anticipation of reciprocal consideration at a later time (Smith 1988). With the emergence of the first large sedentary civilizations in the Middle East, administrative systems developed specifically around food storage and distribution. The ancient Egyptian...

  4. Net technical assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Wegmann, David G.

    1989-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The present and near term military balance of power between the U.S. and the Soviet Union can be expressed in a variety of net assessments. One can examine the strategic nuclear balance, the conventional balance in Europe, the maritime balance, and many others. Such assessments are essential not only for policy making but for arms control purposes and future force structure planning. However, to project the future military balance, on...

  5. Exploring the response of net primary productivity variations to urban expansion and climate change: a scenario analysis for Guangdong Province in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Fengsong; Li, Xia; Liu, Xiaoping; Lao, Chunhua; Xia, Gengrui

    2015-03-01

    Urban land development alters landscapes and carbon cycle, especially net primary productivity (NPP). Despite projections that NPP is often reduced by urbanization, little is known about NPP changes under future urban expansion and climate change conditions. In this paper, terrestrial NPP was calculated by using Biome-BGC model. However, this model does not explicitly address urban lands. Hence, we proposed a method of NPP-fraction to detect future urban NPP, assuming that the ratio of real NPP to potential NPP for urban cells remains constant for decades. Furthermore, NPP dynamics were explored by integrating the Biome-BGC and the cellular automata (CA), a widely used method for modeling urban growth. Consequently, urban expansion, climate change and their associated effects on the NPP were analyzed for the period of 2010-2039 using Guangdong Province in China as a case study. In addition, four scenarios were designed to reflect future conditions, namely baseline, climate change, urban expansion and comprehensive scenarios. Our analyses indicate that vegetation NPP in urban cells may increase (17.63 gC m(-2) year(-1)-23.35 gC m(-2) year(-1)) in the climate change scenario. However, future urban expansion may cause some NPP losses of 241.61 gC m(-2) year(-1), decupling the NPP increase of the climate change factor. Taking into account both climate change and urban expansion, vegetation NPP in urban area may decrease, minimally at a rate of 228.54 gC m(-2) year(-1) to 231.74 gC m(-2) year(-1). Nevertheless, they may account for an overall NPP increase of 0.78 TgC year(-1) to 1.28 TgC year(-1) in the whole province. All these show that the provincial NPP increase from climate change may offset the NPP decrease from urban expansion. Despite these results, it is of great significance to regulate reasonable expansion of urban lands to maintain carbon balance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Using WordNet for Building WordNets

    CERN Document Server

    Farreres, X; Farreres, Xavier; Rodriguez, Horacio; Rigau, German

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarises a set of methodologies and techniques for the fast construction of multilingual WordNets. The English WordNet is used in this approach as a backbone for Catalan and Spanish WordNets and as a lexical knowledge resource for several subtasks.

  7. Teaching and Assessing Ethics and Social Responsibility in Undergraduate Science: A Position Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Madeleine

    2014-01-01

    Institutional graduate capabilities and discipline threshold learning outcomes require science students to demonstrate ethical conduct and social responsibility. However, the teaching and assessment of these concepts are not straightforward. Australian chemistry academics participated in a workshop in 2013 to discuss and develop teaching and…

  8. Subjective response to foot-fall noise, including localization of the source position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunskog, Jonas; Hwang, Ha Dong; Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2011-01-01

    annoyance, using simulated binaural room impulse responses, with sources being a moving point source or a non-moving surface source, and rooms being a room with a reverberation time of 0.5 s or an anechoic room. The paper concludes that no strong effect of the source localization on the annoyance can...

  9. Prefrontal serotonin transporter availability is positively associated with the cortisol awakening response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frokjaer, Vibe Gedsoe; Erritzoe, David; Holst, Klaus Kähler

    2013-01-01

    binding in brain regions considered relevant to modify the cortisol awakening response. Methods: thirty-two healthy volunteers underwent in vivo SERT imaging with [11C]DASB-Positron Emission Tomography (PET), genotyping, and performed home-sampling of saliva to assess CAR. Results: CAR, defined...

  10. The effect of netting solidity ratio and inclined angle on the hydrodynamic characteristics of knotless polyethylene netting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hao; Hu, Fuxiang; Xu, Liuxiong; Dong, Shuchuang; Zhou, Cheng; Wang, Xuefang

    2017-10-01

    Knotless polyethylene (PE) netting has been widely used in aquaculture cages and fishing gears, especially in Japan. In this study, the hydrodynamic coefficient of six knotless PE netting panels with different solidity ratios were assessed in a flume tank under various attack angles of netting from 0° (parallel to flow) to 90° (perpendicular to flow) and current speeds from 40 cm s-1 to 130 cm s-1. It was found that the drag coefficient was related to Reynolds number, solidity ratio and attack angle of netting. The solidity ratio was positively related with drag coefficient for netting panel perpendicular to flow, whereas when setting the netting panel parallel to the flow the opposite result was obtained. For netting panels placed at an angle to the flow, the lift coefficient reached the maximum at an attack angle of 50° and then decreased as the attack angle further increased. The solidity ratio had a dual influence on drag coefficient of inclined netting panels. Compared to result in the literature, the normal drag coefficient of knotless PE netting measured in this study is larger than that of nylon netting or Dyneema netting.

  11. Primary immunization-like response without hepatitis following transfusion of HBeAg-positive blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Aldershvile, J; Kryger, P

    1983-01-01

    An accidental transfusion of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positive whole blood was given to a 19-yr-old male, bleeding after tonsillectomy. Serum obtained from the patient before the transfusion revealed no hepatitis B antigens or antibodies. After the tra......, but with declining titres. Liver tests were normal through the entire follow-up. The serological and clinical course suggests immunisation to passively transferred antigens without hepatitis....

  12. Impact of shoulder position and fatigue on the flexion-relaxation response in cervical spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimbarte, Ashish D; Zreiqat, Majed; Ning, Xiaopeng

    2014-03-01

    Neck pain is common among general population with a high prevalence among the people who are routinely exposed to prolonged use of static head-neck postures. Prolonged static loading can cause localized muscle fatigue which may impact the stability of the cervical spine. In this study, flexion-relaxation phenomenon was used to study the post fatigue changes in the stability of cervical spine by evaluating the synergistic load sharing between muscles and viscoelastic elements. Thirteen male participants were recruited for data collection. The variables that influence cervical flexion-relaxation were studied pre- and post-fatigue using neutral and shrugged shoulder postures. The Sorensen protocol was used to induce neck extensor fatigue. Surface electromyography and optical motion capture systems were used to record neck muscle activation and head posture, respectively. Findings The flexion-relaxation phenomenon was observed only in the neutral shoulder position pre- and post-fatigue. The flexion relaxation ratio decreased significantly post-fatigue in neutral shoulder position but remained unchanged in shrugged shoulder position. The onset and offset angles and the corresponding durations of the silence period were significantly affected by the fatigue causing a post-fatigue expansion of silence period. Interpretation The muscular fatigue of neck extensors and shoulder position was found to modulate the cervical flexion-relaxation phenomenon. Early shifting of load sharing under fatigued condition indicates increased demands on the passive tissues to stabilize the cervical spine. Shrugging of shoulder seems to alter muscular demands of neck extensors and make cervical flexion-relaxation phenomenon disappear due to continuous activation of the neck extensors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Emotion, stress, and cardiovascular response: an experimental test of models of positive and negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, Haulie; Zautra, Alex; Hogan, Michael

    2010-09-01

    The nature of the relationship between positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) has been a topic of debate for some time. In particular, there are gaps in our knowledge of the independent effects of PA and NA on health under stress. The study examined the effects of a laboratory-induced stressor on the experience of PA and NA, and the effects of affect on cardiovascular (CV) reactivity and recovery. A sample of 56 female college students was randomly assigned to a public speaking (stress) task or a silent reading (control) task. Pre- and posttask PA and NA were measured using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS Watson J Pers Soc Psychol 54:1,063-1,070, 1988). Baseline, task, and posttask cardiovascular measures were also recorded. The results indicated that PA and NA responded differently to the stressor and contributed independently to the prediction of both CV reactivity and recovery. Of particular interest was the finding that higher levels of both PA and NA predicted greater CV recovery. Results are discussed in light of the debate concerning the (in)dependence of positive and negative emotions and the importance of understanding the dynamics of emotions, stress, and health.

  14. -Net Approach to Sensor -Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusco Giordano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensors rely on battery power, and in many applications it is difficult or prohibitive to replace them. Hence, in order to prolongate the system's lifetime, some sensors can be kept inactive while others perform all the tasks. In this paper, we study the -coverage problem of activating the minimum number of sensors to ensure that every point in the area is covered by at least sensors. This ensures higher fault tolerance, robustness, and improves many operations, among which position detection and intrusion detection. The -coverage problem is trivially NP-complete, and hence we can only provide approximation algorithms. In this paper, we present an algorithm based on an extension of the classical -net technique. This method gives an -approximation, where is the number of sensors in an optimal solution. We do not make any particular assumption on the shape of the areas covered by each sensor, besides that they must be closed, connected, and without holes.

  15. The position of localized soil compaction determines root and subsequent shoot growth responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagu, K D; Conroy, J P; Atwell, B J

    2001-11-01

    Plants growing in soils typically experience a mixture of loose and compact soil. The hypothesis that the proportion of a root system exposed to compact soil and/or the timing at which this exposure occurs determines shoot growth responses was tested. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica cv. Greenbelt) seedlings were grown in pot experiments with compact, loose and localized soil compaction created by either horizontal (compact subsoils 75 or 150 mm below loose topsoil) or vertical (adjacent compact and loose columns of soil) configurations of loose (1.2 Mg m(-3)) and compact (1.8 Mg m(-3)) soil. Entirely compact soil reduced leaf area by up to 54%, relative to loose soil. When compaction was localized, only the vertical columns of compact and loose soil reduced leaf area (by 30%). Neither the proportion of roots in compact soil nor the timing of exposure could explain the differing shoot growth responses to localized soil compaction. Instead, the strong relationship between total root length and leaf area (r(2)=0.92) indicated that localized soil compaction reduced shoot growth only when it suppressed total root length. This occurred when isolated root axes of the same plant were exposed to vertical columns of compact and loose soil. When a single root axis grew through loose soil into either a shallow or deep compact subsoil, compensatory root growth in the loose soil maintained total root length and thus shoot growth was unaffected. These contrasting root systems responses to localized soil compaction may explain the variable shoot growth responses observed under heterogeneous conditions.

  16. Proof nets for lingusitic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moot, R.C.A.

    2002-01-01

    This book investigates the possible linguistic applications of proof nets, redundancy free representations of proofs, which were introduced by Girard for linear logic. We will adapt the notion of proof net to allow the formulation of a proof net calculus which is soundand complete for the

  17. Net4Care Ecosystem Website

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius; Rasmussen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    is a tele-monitoring scenario in which Net4Care clients are deployed in a gateway in private homes. Medical devices then connect to these gateways and transmit their observations to a Net4Care server. In turn the Net4Care server creates valid clinical HL7 documents, stores them in a national XDS repository...

  18. Whipple’s Disease-Associated Pulmonary Hypertension with Positive Vasodilator Response Despite Severe Hemodynamic Derangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Najm

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary hypertension (PH associated with Whipple’s disease (WD-PH is extremely rare, and the underlying pathophysiological processes are incompletely understood. Alterations in hemodynamics can be severe, with right ventricular (RV dysfunction being common. A case involving a 23-year-old man with WD-PH who exhibited a dramatic vasodilator response during right heart catheterization despite severely altered pulmonary hemodynamics and concomitant RV dysfunction is reported. While the patient’s symptoms responded poorly to treatment with nifedipine and sildenafil, significant improvement in dyspnea, RV dysfunction and pulmonary pressures were noted following antibiotic therapy. The present report highlights that despite severely elevated pulmonary artery pressures and RV dysfunction in WD-PH patients, a highly significant vasodilator response and dramatic improvement with antibiotic therapy may be observed. Furthermore, the case highlights the phenomenon of PH in the setting of inflammation, suggesting that adequate control of the inflammatory response can be accompanied by a marked improvement in hemodynamics in certain types of PH.

  19. Chitosan nanoparticles: A positive modulator of innate immune responses in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Swarnendu; Chakraborty, Nilanjan; Dasgupta, Adhiraj; Sarkar, Joy; Panda, Koustubh; Acharya, Krishnendu

    2015-01-01

    The immunomodulatory role of the natural biopolymer, chitosan, has already been demonstrated in plants, whilst its nanoparticles have only been examined for biomedical applications. In our present study, we have investigated the possible ability and mechanism of chitosan nanoparticles (CNP) to induce and augment immune responses in plants. CNP-treatment of leaves produced significant improvement in the plant’s innate immune response through induction of defense enzyme activity, upregulation of defense related genes including that of several antioxidant enzymes as well as elevation of the levels of total phenolics. It is also possible that the extracellular localization of CNP may also play a role in the observed upregulation of defense response in plants. Nitric oxide (NO), an important signaling molecule in plant defense, was also observed to increase following CNP treatment. However, such CNP-mediated immuno-stimulation was significantly mitigated when NO production was inhibited, indicating a possible role of NO in such immune induction. Taken together, our results suggest that CNP may be used as a more effective phytosanitary or disease control agent compared to natural chitosan for sustainable organic cultivation. PMID:26471771

  20. Chitosan nanoparticles: A positive modulator of innate immune responses in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Swarnendu; Chakraborty, Nilanjan; Dasgupta, Adhiraj; Sarkar, Joy; Panda, Koustubh; Acharya, Krishnendu

    2015-10-01

    The immunomodulatory role of the natural biopolymer, chitosan, has already been demonstrated in plants, whilst its nanoparticles have only been examined for biomedical applications. In our present study, we have investigated the possible ability and mechanism of chitosan nanoparticles (CNP) to induce and augment immune responses in plants. CNP-treatment of leaves produced significant improvement in the plant’s innate immune response through induction of defense enzyme activity, upregulation of defense related genes including that of several antioxidant enzymes as well as elevation of the levels of total phenolics. It is also possible that the extracellular localization of CNP may also play a role in the observed upregulation of defense response in plants. Nitric oxide (NO), an important signaling molecule in plant defense, was also observed to increase following CNP treatment. However, such CNP-mediated immuno-stimulation was significantly mitigated when NO production was inhibited, indicating a possible role of NO in such immune induction. Taken together, our results suggest that CNP may be used as a more effective phytosanitary or disease control agent compared to natural chitosan for sustainable organic cultivation.

  1. HapX positively and negatively regulates the transcriptional response to iron deprivation in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Hee Jung

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans is a major cause of illness in immunocompromised individuals such as AIDS patients. The ability of the fungus to acquire nutrients during proliferation in host tissue and the ability to elaborate a polysaccharide capsule are critical determinants of disease outcome. We previously showed that the GATA factor, Cir1, is a major regulator both of the iron uptake functions needed for growth in host tissue and the key virulence factors such as capsule, melanin and growth at 37°C. We are interested in further defining the mechanisms of iron acquisition from inorganic and host-derived iron sources with the goal of understanding the nutritional adaptation of C. neoformans to the host environment. In this study, we investigated the roles of the HAP3 and HAPX genes in iron utilization and virulence. As in other fungi, the C. neoformans Hap proteins negatively influence the expression of genes encoding respiratory and TCA cycle functions under low-iron conditions. However, we also found that HapX plays both positive and negative roles in the regulation of gene expression, including a positive regulatory role in siderophore transporter expression. In addition, HapX also positively regulated the expression of the CIR1 transcript. This situation is in contrast to the negative regulation by HapX of genes encoding GATA iron regulatory factors in Aspergillus nidulans and Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Although both hapX and hap3 mutants were defective in heme utilization in culture, only HapX made a contribution to virulence, and loss of HapX in a strain lacking the high-affinity iron uptake system did not cause further attenuation of disease. Therefore, HapX appears to have a minimal role during infection of mammalian hosts and instead may be an important regulator of environmental iron uptake functions. Overall, these results indicated that C. neoformans employs multiple strategies for iron acquisition during infection.

  2. Analysis of the positive ionospheric response to a moderate geomagnetic storm using a global numerical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Namgaladze

    Full Text Available Current theories of F-layer storms are discussed using numerical simulations with the Upper Atmosphere Model, a global self-consistent, time dependent numerical model of the thermosphere-ionosphere-plasmasphere-magnetosphere system including electrodynamical coupling effects. A case study of a moderate geomagnetic storm at low solar activity during the northern winter solstice exemplifies the complex storm phenomena. The study focuses on positive ionospheric storm effects in relation to thermospheric disturbances in general and thermospheric composition changes in particular. It investigates the dynamical effects of both neutral meridional winds and electric fields caused by the disturbance dynamo effect. The penetration of short-time electric fields of magnetospheric origin during storm intensification phases is shown for the first time in this model study. Comparisons of the calculated thermospheric composition changes with satellite observations of AE-C and ESRO-4 during storm time show a good agreement. The empirical MSISE90 model, however, is less consistent with the simulations. It does not show the equatorward propagation of the disturbances and predicts that they have a gentler latitudinal gradient. Both theoretical and experimental data reveal that although the ratio of [O]/[N2] at high latitudes decreases significantly during the magnetic storm compared with the quiet time level, at mid to low latitudes it does not increase (at fixed altitudes above the quiet reference level. Meanwhile, the ionospheric storm is positive there. We conclude that the positive phase of the ionospheric storm is mainly due to uplifting of ionospheric F2-region plasma at mid latitudes and its equatorward movement at low latitudes along geomagnetic field lines caused by large-scale neutral wind circulation and the passage of travelling atmospheric disturbances (TADs. The calculated zonal electric field disturbances also help

  3. Analysis of the positive ionospheric response to a moderate geomagnetic storm using a global numerical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Namgaladze

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Current theories of F-layer storms are discussed using numerical simulations with the Upper Atmosphere Model, a global self-consistent, time dependent numerical model of the thermosphere-ionosphere-plasmasphere-magnetosphere system including electrodynamical coupling effects. A case study of a moderate geomagnetic storm at low solar activity during the northern winter solstice exemplifies the complex storm phenomena. The study focuses on positive ionospheric storm effects in relation to thermospheric disturbances in general and thermospheric composition changes in particular. It investigates the dynamical effects of both neutral meridional winds and electric fields caused by the disturbance dynamo effect. The penetration of short-time electric fields of magnetospheric origin during storm intensification phases is shown for the first time in this model study. Comparisons of the calculated thermospheric composition changes with satellite observations of AE-C and ESRO-4 during storm time show a good agreement. The empirical MSISE90 model, however, is less consistent with the simulations. It does not show the equatorward propagation of the disturbances and predicts that they have a gentler latitudinal gradient. Both theoretical and experimental data reveal that although the ratio of [O]/[N2] at high latitudes decreases significantly during the magnetic storm compared with the quiet time level, at mid to low latitudes it does not increase (at fixed altitudes above the quiet reference level. Meanwhile, the ionospheric storm is positive there. We conclude that the positive phase of the ionospheric storm is mainly due to uplifting of ionospheric F2-region plasma at mid latitudes and its equatorward movement at low latitudes along geomagnetic field lines caused by large-scale neutral wind circulation and the passage of travelling atmospheric disturbances (TADs. The calculated zonal electric field disturbances also help to create the positive ionospheric

  4. Positive responses to televised beer advertisements associated with drinking and problems reported by 18 to 29-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyllie, A; Zhang, J F; Casswell, S

    1998-05-01

    To examine the nature of the relationships between responses to alcohol advertisements and drinking behaviour and related problems. To examine the role of positive and negative beliefs about drinking as intervening variables. Survey utilizing a CATI (computer-assisted telephone interviewing) system, involving interviews with 1012 randomly selected respondents. Respondents were randomly selected from throughout New Zealand. Eighteen to twenty-nine-year-old New Zealanders. Response to specific alcohol advertisements was measured by recalled exposure (how often they recalled having seen the advertisements) and liking (a measure of positive response). An exploratory non-recursive structural equation model, based on 791 drinkers provided tentative support for the hypothesis that positive responses to televised beer advertisements (as measured by liking) contributed to the quantity of alcohol consumed on drinking occasions, which in turn contributed to the level of alcohol-related problems. The model, which provided a good fit to the data, was consistent with the hypothesis that liking of beer advertisements had both a direct influence on quantities of alcohol consumed and an indirect influence, via its influence on positive beliefs. These effects were present after controlling for reciprocal effects, none of which were significant. The data did not support the hypothesis that the quantities of alcohol consumed would influence the respondent's liking of beer advertisements. Recalled exposure was not a significant influence on the quantities consumed. The results are consistent with a number of theoretical perspectives and with a growing body of research that are suggestive of alcohol advertising having some influence on the consumption of younger people.

  5. Clinical and electrocardiographic predictors of positive response to the intravenous sodium channel blockers in patients suspected of the Brugada syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrzad, Shahab; Khoramshahi, Maryam; Aslani, Amir; Fazelifar, Amir Farjam; Haghjoo, Majid

    2013-05-10

    Sodium channel blockers are used to unmask the diagnostic ECG pattern of the Brugada syndrome (BrS) in case of a non-diagnostic baseline ECG. The aim of the study was to determine clinical and ECG predictors of a positive challenge test in patients suspected to the BrS. A total of 106 consecutive patients (91 men; mean age, 35 ± 12 years) suspected of the BrS underwent the intravenous sodium channel blocker challenge test with procainamide or flecainide. Of the 106 patients, positive tests were detected in 20 (19%) patients. During test, a transient episode of a second-degree atrioventricular block and isolated ventricular ectopies were observed in 1 (0.9%) and 2 (1.9%) patients, respectively. A QRS prolongation ≥ 30% was observed in 4 (3.8%) patients. Baseline QRS duration in V1 ≥ 110 ms had a sensitivity of 70% and a specificity of 80% for a positive response. An ST-segment elevation ≥ 0.17 mV in V2 had a sensitivity of 60% and a specificity of 82% for a positive response. Of the multiple clinical and ECG variables entered into a binary logistic regression analysis, a history of syncope (P=0.001), previous cardiac arrest (P=0.001), baseline QRS duration in V1 ≥ 110 ms (P=0.001), and baseline ST-segment elevation in V2 ≥ 0.17 mV (P=0.012) emerged as the independent predictors of a positive response to the intravenous challenge with sodium channel blockers. The results of the sodium channel blocker challenge test can be predicted by clinical presentation and baseline ECG features. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Nanoposition sensors with superior linear response to position and unlimited travel ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sheng-Chiang; Peters, Randall D.

    2009-04-01

    With the advancement in nanotechnology, the ability of positioning/measuring at subnanometer scale has been one of the most critical issues for the nanofabrication industry and researchers using scanning probe microscopy. Commercial nanopositioners have achieved direct measurements at the scale of 0.01 nm with capacitive sensing metrology. However, the commercial sensors have small dynamic ranges (up to only a few hundred micrometers) and are relatively large in size (centimeters in the transverse directions to the motion), which is necessary for healthy signal detections but making it difficult to use on smaller devices. This limits applications in which large materials (on the scale of centimeters or greater) are handled with needs of subnanometer resolutions. What has been done in the past is to combine the fine and coarse translation stages with different dynamic ranges to simultaneously achieve long travel range and high spatial resolution. In this paper, we present a novel capacitive position sensing metrology with ultrawide dynamic range from subnanometer to literally any practically desired length for a translation stage. This sensor will greatly simplify the task and enhance the performance of direct metrology in a hybrid translational stage covering translation tasks from subnanometer to centimeters.

  7. Effects of pressure-controlled and volume-controlled ventilation on respiratory mechanics and systemic stress response during prone position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Oznur; Bakan, Mefkur; Umutoglu, Tarik; Aydın, Nurdan; Toptas, Mehmet; Akkoc, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Prone position during general anesthesia for special surgical operations may be related with increased airway pressure, decreased pulmonary and thoracic compliance that may be explained by restriction of chest expansion and compression of abdomen. The optimum ventilation mode for anesthetized patients on prone position was not described and studies comparing volume-controlled ventilation (VCV) and pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) during prone position are limited. We hypothesized that PCV instead of VCV during prone position could achieve lower airway pressures and reduce the systemic stress response. In this study, we aimed to compare the effects of PCV and VCV modes during prone position on respiratory mechanics, oxygenation, and hemodynamics, as well as blood cortisol and insulin levels, which has not been investigated before. Fifty-four ASA I-II patients, 18-70 years of age, who underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy on prone position, were randomly selected to receive either the PCV (Group PC, n = 27) or VCV (Group VC, n = 27) under general anesthesia with sevoflurane and fentanyl. Blood sampling was made for baseline arterial blood gases (ABG), cortisol, insulin, and glucose levels. After anesthesia induction and endotracheal intubation, patients in Group PC were given pressure support to form 8 mL/kg tidal volume and patients in Group VC was maintained at 8 mL/kg tidal volume calculated using predicted body weight. All patients were maintained with 5 cmH2O PEEP. Respiratory parameters were recorded during supine and prone position. Assessment of ABG and sampling for cortisol, insulin and glucose levels were repeated during surgery and 60 min after extubation. P-peak and P-plateau levels during supine and prone positions were significantly higher and P-mean and compliance levels during prone position were significantly lower in Group VC when compared with Group PC. Postoperative PaO2 level was significantly higher in Group PC compared with Group

  8. Numerical investigation of the effect of optical pulse position on the response of an unbiased BGMSM photodetector using ADI method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosallanejad, V.; Mashayekhi, H. R.; Menbari, E.

    2012-07-01

    A numerical method for describing the electrical response of a Back-Gated Metal-Semiconductor- Metal Photodetector (BGMSM-PD) to an impinging optical pulse on the active region of the device is presented. In the absence of external voltage, the main mechanism for the transport of photo-generated carriers is diffusion mechanism. Two nonlinear differential equations describe the behavior of photocarriers' densities in the device medium with respect to time and position. Having linearized the parabolic partial differential equations, the time evolution of carrier densities is calculated using the Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI) method. The numerical results show good agreement with the experimental data. Both experimental and numerical findings confirm that the electrical response of the device to optical pulses with spatial FWHM comparable with the width of the active region is dependent on pulse position on the active region. This feature of the device makes it to be a good candidate as position sensors in places where micro-positioning is required.

  9. Arabidopsis thaliana RECEPTOR DEAD KINASE1 Functions as a Positive Regulator in Plant Responses to ABA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dhinesh; Kumar, Ritesh; Baek, Dongwon; Hyun, Tae-Kyung; Chung, Woo Sik; Yun, Dae-Jin; Kim, Jae-Yean

    2017-02-13

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a major phytohormone involved in important stress-related and developmental plant processes. Membrane-delimited ABA signal transduction plays an important role in early ABA signaling, but the molecular mechanisms connecting core signaling components to the plasma membrane remain unclear. Plants have evolved a large number of receptor-like kinases (RLKs) to modulate diverse biological processes by perceiving extracellular stimuli and activating downstream signaling responses. In this study, a putative leucine-rich repeat-RLK gene named RECEPTOR DEAD KINASE1 (AtRDK1) was identified and characterized in Arabidopsis thaliana. RDK1 promoter-GUS analysis revealed that RDK1 is expressed ubiquitously in the various tissues in Arabidopsis, and its expression is mainly induced by ABA. In the presence of ABA, RDK1-deficient rdk1-1 and rdk1-2 lines showed significant resistance in cotyledon greening and root growth, whereas RDK1-overexpressing lines showed enhanced sensitivity. Consistently, the expression of ABA-responsive genes was significantly downregulated in rdk1 mutant seedlings, which were also hypersensitive to drought stress with increased water loss. Interestingly, RDK1 was found to be an atypical kinase localized to the plasma membrane and did not require its kinase activity during ABA-mediated inhibition of seedling development. Accordingly, RDK1 interacted in the plasma membrane with type 2C protein phosphatase ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE1 (ABI1); this interaction was further enhanced by exogenous application of ABA, suggesting that RDK1-mediated recruitment of ABI1 onto the plasma membrane is important for ABA signaling. Taken together, these results reveal an important role for RDK1 in plant responses to abiotic stress conditions in an ABA-dependent manner. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sleep apnea in heart transplant recipients: type, symptoms, risk factors, and response to nasal continuous positive airway pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilakis, E S; Olson, E J; McGregor, C G; Olson, L J

    2000-04-01

    We determined the type, symptoms, and risk factors for sleep apnea in heart transplant recipients and the response to nasal continuous positive airway pressure. A retrospective study on heart transplant recipients with sleep apnea was conducted in a tertiary care medical center with follow-up telephone interviews. Between February 1988 and August 1998, 147 patients underwent orthotopic heart transplantation at our institution. Seventeen patients (11.6%) who were suspected of having sleep apnea underwent polysomnography at a mean interval of 17.5 months after transplantation. All were diagnosed with sleep apnea: 13 had obstructive sleep apnea and 4 had mixed sleep apnea. Mean age at polysomnography was 50.8 years (range, 24-67 years). The patients presented with snoring (100%), excessive daytime somnolence (65%), witnessed apneas (53%), and morning fatigue (53%). Sixteen (94%) had a mean weight gain of 10.4 kg after transplantation, and 1 patient lost 14.6 kg. In the 11 patients with obstructive sleep apnea who underwent nasal continuous positive airway pressure titration, significant improvements occurred in the apnea-hypopnea index (decreased from 37.6 to 10.4; p = 0.01) and mean arousal index (decreased from 44.5 to 19.4; p = 0.01). Only 2 of the 8 patients with sleep apnea for whom nasal continuous positive airway pressure was recommended continued to use it at the time of telephone follow-up. Sleep apnea, especially obstructive sleep apnea, occurs frequently in heart transplant recipients. Obstructive sleep apnea appears to present in the typical manner, and although a positive response to nasal continuous positive airway pressure can be documented by polysomnography, long-term use of nasal continuous positive airway pressure may be low.

  11. The position of a standard optical computer mouse affects cardiorespiratory responses during the operation of a computer under time constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunji Sako

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study investigated the association between task-induced stress and fatigue by examining the cardiovascular responses of subjects using different mouse positions while operating a computer under time constraints. Material and Methods: The study was participated by 16 young, healthy men and examined the use of optical mouse devices affixed to laptop computers. Two mouse positions were investigated: (1 the distal position (DP, in which the subjects place their forearms on the desk accompanied by the abduction and flexion of their shoulder joints, and (2 the proximal position (PP, in which the subjects place only their wrists on the desk without using an armrest. The subjects continued each task for 16 min. We assessed differences in several characteristics according to mouse position, including expired gas values, autonomic nerve activities (based on cardiorespiratory responses, operating efficiencies (based on word counts, and fatigue levels (based on the visual analog scale – VAS. Results: Oxygen consumption (VO2, the ratio of inspiration time to respiration time (Ti/Ttotal, respiratory rate (RR, minute ventilation (VE, and the ratio of expiration to inspiration (Te/Ti were significantly lower when the participants were performing the task in the DP than those obtained in the PP. Tidal volume (VT, carbon dioxide output rates (VCO2/VE, and oxygen extraction fractions (VO2/VE were significantly higher for the DP than they were for the PP. No significant difference in VAS was observed between the positions; however, as the task progressed, autonomic nerve activities were lower and operating efficiencies were significantly higher for the DP than they were for the PP. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the DP has fewer effects on cardiorespiratory functions, causes lower levels of sympathetic nerve activity and mental stress, and produces a higher total workload than the PP. This suggests that the DP is preferable to the PP when

  12. An analytical study of the longitudinal response of airplanes to positive wind shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, W. L.

    1981-01-01

    The longitudinal response of jet transport aircraft to vertical variation of the horizontal winds is analyzed. Specific reference is given to the role of the speed (u) stability derivatives in the interaction of the airplane and its environment. The relative importance of the u stability derivatives is determined. The wind shear tolerance factor is found which can be used to determine, in a qualitative manner, the stability (tolerance) of an airplane to wind shear. A further study of the control problem shows that the criteria for good control could be reduced from two to one automatic control systems. Only a speed control system is necessary for good control in wind shear.

  13. Master Robotic Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Lipunov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the MASTER-Net project is to produce a unique fast sky survey with all sky observed over a single night down to a limiting magnitude of 19-20. Such a survey will make it possible to address a number of fundamental problems: search for dark energy via the discovery and photometry of supernovae (including SNIa, search for exoplanets, microlensing effects, discovery of minor bodies in the Solar System, and space-junk monitoring. All MASTER telescopes can be guided by alerts, and we plan to observe prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts synchronously in several filters and in several polarization planes.

  14. Art/Net/Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik; Lindstrøm, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    The seminar Art|Net|Work deals with two important changes in our culture. On one side, the network has become essential in the latest technological development. The Internet has entered a new phase, Web 2.0, including the occurrence of as ‘Wiki’s’, ‘Peer-2-Peer’ distribution, user controlled...... the praxis of the artist. We see different kinds of interventions and activism (including ‘hacktivism’) using the network as a way of questioning the invisible rules that govern public and semi-public spaces. Who ‘owns’ them? What kind of social relationships do they generate? On what principle...

  15. KLHL40-related nemaline myopathy with a sustained, positive response to treatment with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natera-de Benito, D; Nascimento, A; Abicht, A; Ortez, C; Jou, C; Müller, J S; Evangelista, T; Töpf, A; Thompson, R; Jimenez-Mallebrera, C; Colomer, J; Lochmüller, H

    2016-03-01

    Congenital myopathies are a group of inherited muscle disorders characterized by hypotonia, weakness and a non-dystrophic muscle biopsy with the presence of one or more characteristic histological features. Neuromuscular transmission defects have recently been reported in several patients with congenital myopathies (CM). Mutations in KLHL40 are among the most common causes of severe forms of nemaline myopathy. Clinical features of affected individuals include fetal akinesia or hypokinesia, respiratory failure, and swallowing difficulties at birth. Muscle weakness is usually severe and nearly half of the individuals have no spontaneous antigravity movement. The average age of death has been reported to be 5 months in a recent case series. Herein we present a case of a patient with a nemaline myopathy due to KLHL40 mutations (c.604delG, p.Ala202Argfs*56 and c.1513G>C, p.Ala505Pro) with an impressive and prolonged beneficial response to treatment with high-dose pyridostigmine. Myasthenic features or response to ACEI have not previously been reported as a characteristic of nemaline myopathy or KLHL40-related myopathy.

  16. A 12-week resistance training program elicits positive changes in hemodynamic responses in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthya Campos Salazar

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of a resistance training program in hemodynamic responses and adaptations in 60 yr. old elderly. Volunteers were 60 healthy-elderly who underwent a training program 3 times/wk. for 12 wk. Participants were randomly assigned to either a control group, an exercise group who trained at 30% intensity of 5 maximal repetitions (5RM (30% of 5RM or an exercise group at an intensity of 70% (70% of 5RM. Hemodynamic variables measured were mean arterial pressure (MAP, calculated before and immediately after the training session, and rate pressure product (RPP, estimated once a month and before and after finishing the program. Results indicated that resistance exercise training at 30% and 70% of 5RM, with a total exercise work of 872.7 and 890.9 kg did not elicited cardiovascular risks for the elderly. A 12-wk resistance exercise training reduced the cardiovascular strain as shown by the RPP (~16% and the MAP (~9%, with no adverse effects throughout the program. Unfortunately, all the hemodynamic benefits were reverted 6 days following completion of the program. In conclusion, a healthy elderly population must perform resistance training exercises to significantly reduce the cardiovascular stress. We suggest to conduct further research that looks into different exercise intensities in longer program duration and to determine the mechanisms responsible for the deleterious effects of the detraining by using physiological, biochemical and biomechanical variables.

  17. Cardiovascular and neuroendocrine responses to left lateral position in non-obese young males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, M; Pump, B; Gabrielsen, A

    2001-01-01

    Previous results from our laboratory indicate that the heart is distended by the left lateral position (LAT) compared to horizontal supine (SUP). We therefore tested the hypothesis that cardiac output is increased by LAT and that mean arterial pressure is maintained unchanged or even decreased...... by magnetic resonance (n=6) to be 7.0 +/- 0.2 cm below the sternum in SUP (1/3 of anteroposterior chest diameter below the sternum) and 2.5 +/- 0.2 cm below the midsternal level in LAT. Brachial mean (auscultation) and finger mean arterial pressures (infrared photoplethysmography), cardiac output (foreign gas...... rebreathing), heart rate, and plasma concentrations (n=6) of vasoactive hormones were unchanged by LAT. In conclusion, cardiac output, mean arterial pressures, and vasoactive hormone releases were unaffected by 30 min of LAT. Furthermore, the hydrostatic reference points for arterial pressure measurements...

  18. Helminth.net: expansions to Nematode.net and an introduction to Trematode.net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, John; Rosa, Bruce A.; Ozersky, Philip; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Zhang, Xu; Bhonagiri-Palsikar, Veena; Tyagi, Rahul; Wang, Qi; Choi, Young-Jun; Gao, Xin; McNulty, Samantha N.; Brindley, Paul J.; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2015-01-01

    Helminth.net (http://www.helminth.net) is the new moniker for a collection of databases: Nematode.net and Trematode.net. Within this collection we provide services and resources for parasitic roundworms (nematodes) and flatworms (trematodes), collectively known as helminths. For over a decade we have provided resources for studying nematodes via our veteran site Nematode.net (http://nematode.net). In this article, (i) we provide an update on the expansions of Nematode.net that hosts omics data from 84 species and provides advanced search tools to the broad scientific community so that data can be mined in a useful and user-friendly manner and (ii) we introduce Trematode.net, a site dedicated to the dissemination of data from flukes, flatworm parasites of the class Trematoda, phylum Platyhelminthes. Trematode.net is an independent component of Helminth.net and currently hosts data from 16 species, with information ranging from genomic, functional genomic data, enzymatic pathway utilization to microbiome changes associated with helminth infections. The databases’ interface, with a sophisticated query engine as a backbone, is intended to allow users to search for multi-factorial combinations of species’ omics properties. This report describes updates to Nematode.net since its last description in NAR, 2012, and also introduces and presents its new sibling site, Trematode.net. PMID:25392426

  19. The FBA motif-containing protein AFBA1 acts as a novel positive regulator of ABA response in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun Young; Cui, Mei Hua; Noh, Min Soo; Jung, Kwang Wook; Shin, Jeong Sheop

    2017-03-01

    ABA plays a critical role in regulating seed germination and stomatal movement in response to drought stress. Screening ABA-responsive genes led to the identification of a novel Arabidopsis gene encoding a protein which contained a conserved F-box-associated (FBA) domain, subsequently named ABA-responsive FBA domain-containing protein 1 (AFBA1). Expression of ProAFBA1:GUS revealed that this gene was mainly expressed in guard cells. Expression of AFBA1 increased following the application of exogenous ABA and exposure to salt (NaCl) and drought stresses. Seed germination of the loss-of-function mutant (afba1) was insensitive to ABA, salt or mannitol, whereas AFBA1-overexpressing (Ox) seeds were more sensitive to these stresses than the wild-type seeds. The afba1 plants showed decreased drought tolerance, increased water loss rate and ABA-insensitive stomatal movement compared with the wild-type. In contrast, AFBA1-Ox plants exhibited enhanced drought tolerance and a rapid ABA-induced stomatal closure response. The expression of genes encoding serine/threonine protein phosphatases that are known negative regulators of ABA signaling increased in afba1 plants but decreased in AFBA1-Ox plants. AFBA1 was also found to be localized in the nucleus and to interact with an R2R3-type transcription factor, MYB44, leading to the suggestion that it functions in the stabilization of MYB44. Based on these results, we suggest that AFBA1 functions as a novel positive regulator of ABA responses, regulating the expression of genes involved in ABA signal transduction in Arabidopsis through its interaction with positive regulators of ABA signaling including MYB44, and increasing their stability during ABA-mediated responses. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Community pharmacy addresses the need for proper drug disposal with positive response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    In response to growing concerns regarding the improper disposal of prescription and over-the-counter drugs and its impact on the environment and teen drug abuse, the National Community Pharmacists Association developed a Prescription Disposal Program to assist its members in voluntarily developing consumer disposal options in their stores. The program includes a discount on products from partner organization Sharps Compliance Inc., free marketing materials, and national promotion via a new consumer website. To date, the program has nearly 1,000 community pharmacies in 47 states participating. A collection of 8,000 pounds of drugs has resulted, with more campaigns slated for the future. Included with this article are testimonials from compounding pharmacists who have initiated National Community Pharmacists Association's drug disposal program.

  1. Excitatory neurotransmitters in the tentacle flexor muscles responsible for space positioning of the snail olfactory organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcs, N; Hernádi, L; Elekes, K; Kimura, S; Kiss, T

    2014-03-01

    Recently, three novel flexor muscles (M1, M2 and M3) in the posterior tentacles of the snail have been described, which are responsible for the patterned movements of the tentacles of the snail, Helix pomatia. In this study, we have demonstrated that the muscles received a complex innervation pattern via the peritentacular and olfactory nerves originating from different clusters of motoneurons of the cerebral ganglia. The innervating axons displayed a number of varicosities and established neuromuscular contacts of different ultrastructural forms. Contractions evoked by nerve stimulation could be mimicked by external acetylcholine (ACh) and glutamate (Glu), suggesting that ACh and Glu are excitatory transmitters at the neuromuscular contacts. Choline acetyltransferase and vesicular glutamate transporter immunolabeled axons innervating flexor muscles were demonstrated by immunohistochemistry and in Western blot experiments. Nerve- and transmitter-evoked contractions were similarly attenuated by cholinergic and glutamatergic antagonists supporting the dual excitatory innervation. Dopamine (DA, 10⁻⁵ M) oppositely modulated thin (M1/M2) and thick (M3) muscle responses evoked by stimulation of the olfactory nerve, decreasing the contractions of the M1/M2 and increasing those of M3. In both cases, the modulation site was presynaptic. Serotonin (5-HT) at high concentration (10⁻⁵ M) increased the amplitude of both the nerve- and the ACh-evoked contractions in all muscles. The relaxation rate was facilitated suggesting pre- and postsynaptic site of action. Our data provided evidence for a DAergic and 5-HTergic modulation of cholinergic nerves innervating flexor muscles of the tentacles as well as the muscles itself. These effects of DA and 5-HT may contribute to the regulation of sophisticated movements of tentacle muscles lacking inhibitory innervation.

  2. The net charge at interfaces between insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristowe, N. C.; Littlewood, P. B.; Artacho, Emilio

    2011-03-01

    The issue of the net charge at insulating oxide interfaces is briefly reviewed with the ambition of dispelling myths of such charges being affected by covalency and related charge density effects. For electrostatic analysis purposes, the net charge at such interfaces is defined by the counting of discrete electrons and core ion charges, and by the definition of the reference polarization of the separate, unperturbed bulk materials. The arguments are illustrated for the case of a thin film of LaAlO3 over SrTiO3 in the absence of free carriers, for which the net charge is exactly 0.5e per interface formula unit, if the polarization response in both materials is referred to zero bulk values. Further consequences of the argument are extracted for structural and chemical alterations of such interfaces, in which internal rearrangements are distinguished from extrinsic alterations (changes of stoichiometry, redox processes), only the latter affecting the interfacial net charge. The arguments are reviewed alongside the proposal of Stengel and Vanderbilt (2009 Phys. Rev. B 80 241103) of using formal polarization values instead of net interfacial charges, based on the interface theorem of Vanderbilt and King-Smith (1993 Phys. Rev. B 48 4442-55). Implications for non-centrosymmetric materials are discussed, as well as for interfaces for which the charge mismatch is an integer number of polarization quanta.

  3. The net charge at interfaces between insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bristowe, N C; Littlewood, P B [Theory of Condensed Matter Group, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Artacho, Emilio, E-mail: ncb30@cam.ac.uk [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EQ (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-02

    The issue of the net charge at insulating oxide interfaces is briefly reviewed with the ambition of dispelling myths of such charges being affected by covalency and related charge density effects. For electrostatic analysis purposes, the net charge at such interfaces is defined by the counting of discrete electrons and core ion charges, and by the definition of the reference polarization of the separate, unperturbed bulk materials. The arguments are illustrated for the case of a thin film of LaAlO{sub 3} over SrTiO{sub 3} in the absence of free carriers, for which the net charge is exactly 0.5e per interface formula unit, if the polarization response in both materials is referred to zero bulk values. Further consequences of the argument are extracted for structural and chemical alterations of such interfaces, in which internal rearrangements are distinguished from extrinsic alterations (changes of stoichiometry, redox processes), only the latter affecting the interfacial net charge. The arguments are reviewed alongside the proposal of Stengel and Vanderbilt (2009 Phys. Rev. B 80 241103) of using formal polarization values instead of net interfacial charges, based on the interface theorem of Vanderbilt and King-Smith (1993 Phys. Rev. B 48 4442-55). Implications for non-centrosymmetric materials are discussed, as well as for interfaces for which the charge mismatch is an integer number of polarization quanta. (viewpoint)

  4. Net neutrality towards a co-regulatory solution

    CERN Document Server

    Marsden, Christopher T

    2010-01-01

    In considering market developments and policy responses to some of the most heated net-neutrality debates in Europe and the United States, Net Neutrality is the first, fully comprehensive overview of the subject. This book is also unique in providing readers with a supplementary outline of recommended policy prescriptives.

  5. The antitumor immune response in HER-2 positive, metastatic breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojevic-Bakic Nevenka

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the basis for anti-tumor immune reactivity observed in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2 (3+ breast carcinoma using an in vitro model in which the role of the HER-2-specific monoclonal antibody Herceptin was also investigated. Patients with metastatic breast cancer who had their primary tumor resected were included in this study. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC-dependent cytotoxicity in the presence or absence of Herceptin were assessed using the survival of target breast adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-361 cells as a parameter in a (3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT test. We observed a significant increase in PBMC-dependent cytotoxicity when autologous serum was introduced in the assay. Furthermore, the addition of Herceptin significantly increases their cytotoxicity. These data suggest that autologous serum constitutively contains factors that might affect PBMC-dependent cytotoxic activity against HER-2 positive cancer cells.

  6. Primate body temperature and sleep responses to lower body positive pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, D. M.; Fuller, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    Cephalic fluid shifts, induced by lower body positive pressure (LBPP) are known to influence various physiological systems (i.e., cardiovascular and renal). In earlier experiments, an apparent change in the arousal state of primates in such LBPP conditions was observed. This study was designed to examine the effects of LBPP on arousal state and body temperature level which is normally correlated with sleep. Chair-restrained male squirrel monkeys were exposed to 40 mmHg LBPP for 90-100 minutes between the daytime hours of 13:00-15:00. Each monkey was placed in a specially modified restraint chair to which they were highly trained. Deep body temperature (DBT) was collected from 10 animals. Sleep parameters were obtained from six animals chronically implanted for sleep recording. A video camera was used to observe each animal's apparent state of arousal. LBPP resulted in an approximate 0.9 C decrease in DBT. During video observation, some animals appeared drowsy during LBPP; however, sleep recording revealed no significant changes in the state of arousal. Thus, LBPP is capable of inducing a mild hyperthermia. Further, the mechanisms underlying the observed lowering of body temperature appear to be independent of arousal state.

  7. Blood Pressure Response to Losartan and Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in Hypertension and Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunström, Erik; Manhem, Karin; Rosengren, Annika; Peker, Yüksel

    2016-02-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is common in people with hypertension, particularly resistant hypertension. Treatment with an antihypertensive agent alone is often insufficient to control hypertension in patients with OSA. To determine whether continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) added to treatment with an antihypertensive agent has an impact on blood pressure (BP) levels. During the initial 6-week, two-center, open, prospective, case-control, parallel-design study (2:1; OSA/no-OSA), all patients began treatment with an angiotensin II receptor antagonist, losartan, 50 mg daily. In the second 6-week, sex-stratified, open, randomized, parallel-design study of the OSA group, all subjects continued to receive losartan and were randomly assigned to either nightly CPAP as add-on therapy or no CPAP. Twenty-four-hour BP monitoring included assessment every 15 minutes during daytime hours and every 20 minutes during the night. Ninety-one patients with untreated hypertension underwent a home sleep study (55 were found to have OSA; 36 were not). Losartan significantly reduced systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial BP in both groups (without OSA: 12.6, 7.2, and 9.0 mm Hg; with OSA: 9.8, 5.7, and 6.1 mm Hg). Add-on CPAP treatment had no significant changes in 24-hour BP values but did reduce nighttime systolic BP by 4.7 mm Hg. All 24-hour BP values were reduced significantly in the 13 patients with OSA who used CPAP at least 4 hours per night. Losartan reduced BP in OSA, but the reductions were less than in no-OSA. Add-on CPAP therapy resulted in no significant changes in 24-hour BP measures except in patients using CPAP efficiently. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00701428).​

  8. The equivalency between logic Petri workflow nets and workflow nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue

    2015-01-01

    Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented.

  9. OsDi19-4 acts downstream of OsCDPK14 to positively regulate ABA response in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lili; Yu, Changchun; Xu, Shanglin; Zhu, Yingguo; Huang, Wenchao

    2016-12-01

    The drought-induced 19 protein family consists of several atypical Cys2/His2-type zinc finger proteins in plants and plays an important role in abiotic stress. In this study, we found that overexpressing OsDi19-4 in rice altered the expression of a series of abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive genes, resulting in strong ABA-hypersensitive phenotypes including ABA-induced seed germination inhibition, early seedling growth inhibition and stomatal closure. On the contrary, OsDi19-4 knockdown lines were less sensitive to ABA. Additionally, OsCDPK14 was identified to interact with OsDi19-4 and be responsible for the phosphorylation of OsDi19-4, and the phosphorylation of OsDi19-4 was further enhanced after the treatment of ABA. Apart from these, OsDi19-4 was shown to directly bind to the promoters of OsASPG1 and OsNAC18 genes, two ABA-responsive genes, and regulate their expression. Transient expression assays confirmed the direct regulation role of OsDi19-4, and the regulation was further enhanced by the increased phosphorylation of OsDi19-4 after the treatment of ABA. Taken together, these data demonstrate that OsDi19-4 acts downstream of OsCDPK14 to positively regulate ABA response by modulating the expression of ABA-responsive genes in rice. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Positive reform of tuna farm diving in South Australia in response to government intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, P; Doolette, D J; Gorman, D F; Craig, D S

    2001-02-01

    Much of the tuna harvested in South Australia since 1990 has involved "farming" techniques requiring the use of divers. From 1993 to 1995, 17 divers from this industry were treated for decompression illness (DCI). In response, the State Government introduced corrective strategies. A decrease in the number of divers presenting for treatment was subsequently recorded. Consequently, the hypothesis was tested that the government intervention resulted in a decrease in the incidence of DCI in the industry and an improved clinical outcome of divers with DCI. The incidence of treated DCI in tuna farm divers was estimated from the number of divers with DCI treated and the number of dives undertaken extrapolated from a survey of the industry in 1997-8. General health was measured in the tuna farm diving population by a valid and reliable self assessment questionnaire. The outcome of the divers treated for DCI was analysed with a modified clinical severity scoring system. The apparent incidence of treated DCI has decreased in tuna farm divers since the government intervention. The evidence supports a truly decreased incidence rather than underreporting. The general health of the tuna farm divers was skewed towards the asymptomatic end of the range, although health scores indicative of DCI were reported after 1.7% of the dives that did not result in recognised DCI. The clinical outcome of the divers treated since the intervention has improved, possibly because of earlier recognition of the disease and hence less time spent diving while having DCI. The government intervention in the tuna industry in South Australia has resulted in a reduced incidence of DCI in the industry.

  11. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    studies that illustrate the practical use of CPN modelling and validation for design, specification, simulation, verification and implementation in various application domains. Their presentation primarily aims at readers interested in the practical use of CPN. Thus all concepts and constructs are first......Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism...... and the immense number of possible execution sequences. In this textbook, Jensen and Kristensen introduce the constructs of the CPN modelling language and present the related analysis methods in detail. They also provide a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN by showcasing selected industrial case...

  12. Self-esteem modulates dorsal medial prefrontal cortical response to self-positivity bias in implicit self-relevant processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Dedovic, Katarina; Guan, Lili; Chen, Yu; Qi, Mingming

    2014-11-01

    Processing self-related material recruits similar neural networks regardless of whether the self-relevance is made explicit or not. However, when considering the neural mechanisms that distinctly underlie cognitive and affective components of self-reflection, it is still unclear whether the same mechanisms are involved when self-reflection is explicit or implicit, and how these mechanisms may be modulated by individual personality traits, such as self-esteem. In the present functional MRI study, 25 participants were exposed to positive and negative words that varied with respect to the degree of self-relevance for each participant; however, the participants were asked to make a judgment about the color of the words. Regions-of-interest analysis showed that medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and posterior cingulate cortex were associated with gauging the self-relevance of information. However, no main effect of valence or an interaction effect between self-relevance and valence was observed. Further, positive correlations were observed between levels of self-esteem and response within dorsal mPFC (dmPFC) both in the contrast positive-high in self-relevance trials vs positive-low in self-relevance trials and in the contrast negative-low in self-relevance trials vs positive-low in self-relevance trials. These results suggested that the activation of dmPFC may be particularly associated with the processes of self-positivity bias. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Regional neural response differences in the determination of faces or houses positioned in a wide visual field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Yan, Tianyi; Wu, Jinglong; Chen, Kewei; Imajyo, Satoshi; Ohno, Seiichiro; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2013-01-01

    In human visual cortex, the primary visual cortex (V1) is considered to be essential for visual information processing; the fusiform face area (FFA) and parahippocampal place area (PPA) are considered as face-selective region and places-selective region, respectively. Recently, a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study showed that the neural activity ratios between V1 and FFA were constant as eccentricities increasing in central visual field. However, in wide visual field, the neural activity relationships between V1 and FFA or V1 and PPA are still unclear. In this work, using fMRI and wide-view present system, we tried to address this issue by measuring neural activities in V1, FFA and PPA for the images of faces and houses aligning in 4 eccentricities and 4 meridians. Then, we further calculated ratio relative to V1 (RRV1) as comparing the neural responses amplitudes in FFA or PPA with those in V1. We found V1, FFA, and PPA showed significant different neural activities to faces and houses in 3 dimensions of eccentricity, meridian, and region. Most importantly, the RRV1s in FFA and PPA also exhibited significant differences in 3 dimensions. In the dimension of eccentricity, both FFA and PPA showed smaller RRV1s at central position than those at peripheral positions. In meridian dimension, both FFA and PPA showed larger RRV1s at upper vertical positions than those at lower vertical positions. In the dimension of region, FFA had larger RRV1s than PPA. We proposed that these differential RRV1s indicated FFA and PPA might have different processing strategies for encoding the wide field visual information from V1. These different processing strategies might depend on the retinal position at which faces or houses are typically observed in daily life. We posited a role of experience in shaping the information processing strategies in the ventral visual cortex.

  14. Action, Participation and Social Practices: a psychosocial study of older woman who are in a responsability position of power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercè Pérez Salanova

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I present the results of a study on social practices of older women who are involved in different kinds of associations in responsibility positions. This study is a subproject of the investigation “Older women, daily life and social participation. Strategies for the promotion of Active Ageing”, whose aim was improving the comprehension of older women’s social practices taking as a reference the WHO perspective. A qualitative methodology was used based on 7 discussion groups and 5 interviews in which 50 informants participated. The results report how older women who are in formal power positions understand their activity, which activities are they doing and in which conditions, as well as the relationship between life trajectory and the practice of leading roles.

  15. Ocular surface squamous neoplasia in HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients and response to 5-fluorouracil in Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nutt RJ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Robert J Nutt,1 John L Clements,2 William H Dean3 1Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK; 2Boa Vista Eye Clinic, Benguela, Angola; 3Bristol Eye Hospital, Bristol, UK Background: Ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN is becoming increasingly prevalent and aggressive in Sub-Saharan Africa. It is a phenomenon linked with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, although association rates in Angola are currently unknown. A topical treatment that is effective in HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals may be preferable to surgery in some contexts. We aimed to estimate the proportion of OSSN associated with HIV in Angola and to report on the success of topical 5-fluorouracil as a primary treatment in HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients.Methods: Photographs of OSSNs taken at presentation and following treatment with 5-fluorouracil in patients presenting to Boa Vista Eye Clinic, Angola, between October 2011 and July 2013 were grouped into HIV-positive and HIV-negative groups and analyzed to compare presenting features and treatment response. Eighty-one OSSNs were analyzed for clinical features and 24 met the inclusion criteria for analysis of treatment response.Results: Eighty-two patients presented with OSSN between October 2011 and July 2013. Twenty-one (26% were HIV-positive and typically had OSSNs that exhibited more pathological features than those in HIV-negative patients. Twenty-four (29% patients met the inclusion criteria for analysis of treatment response; of these, 26 (91% OSSNs in both groups displayed at least partial resolution after one treatment course. In the HIV-positive group, five of eight patients displayed complete resolution, two showed partial resolution, and one failed. In the HIV-negative group, five of 16 showed complete resolution, ten of 16 had partial resolution, and one failed.Conclusion: Individuals presenting with OSSN in Angola are more likely to have HIV infection compared

  16. Will Mangrove Reforestation Provide Net Benefits: A Case in Sibunag, Guimaras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Joy Fernandez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In response to the threats in mangrove resources such as massive fishpond conversion, industrialization,and increased human settlements in coastal areas, the province of Guimaras answered these threats bywidespread mangrove reforestation projects in its coastal communities. These projects were found outto be beneficial, as depicted on large gap on the mangroves overall benefits and the costs of implementationof the mangrove reforestation project. Results of the study show that the present total benefit of mangroveper hectare with sustainable harvesting in the first year is lesser than the costs. However after the firstyear, the net benefits are positive. However, in compliance with Republic Act 7161 (R.A. 7161 thatbanned the cutting/using of all mangrove species, cost-benefit analysis of mangrove reforestation withoutharvesting was also computed. The net benefits exceed the costs from the start of the year up to the 20thyear. Both the scenarios include the Mean WTP equivalent to PhP 142.75, which is the amount peopleare willing to give for the conservation of mangroves. The net present values (net benefits of mangrovereforestation were found positive for both scenarios: with sustainable harvesting and without harvesting.

  17. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with trastuzumab in HER2-positive breast cancer: pathologic complete response rate, predictive and prognostic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.P.C. Buzatto

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to retrospectively review the pathologic complete response (pCR rate from patients (n=86 with stage II and III HER2-positive breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy at our institution from 2008 to 2013 and to determine possible predictive and prognostic factors. Immunohistochemistry for hormone receptors and Ki-67 was carried out. Clinical and pathological features were analyzed as predictive factors of response to therapy. For survival analysis, we used Kaplan-Meier curves to estimate 5-year survival rates and the log-rank test to compare the curves. The addition of trastuzumab to neoadjuvant chemotherapy significantly improved pCR rate from 4.8 to 46.8%, regardless of the number of preoperative trastuzumab cycles (P=0.0012. Stage II patients achieved a higher response rate compared to stage III (P=0.03. The disease-free and overall survivals were not significantly different between the group of patients that received trastuzumab in the neoadjuvant setting (56.3 and 70% at 5 years, respectively and the group that initiated it post-operatively (75.8 and 88.7% at 5 years, respectively. Axillary pCR post neoadjuvant chemotherapy with trastuzumab was associated with reduced risk of recurrence (HR=0.34; P=0.03 and death (HR=0.21; P=0.02. In conclusion, we confirmed that trastuzumab improves pCR rates and verified that this improvement occurs even with less than four cycles of the drug. Hormone receptors and Ki-67 expressions were not predictive of response in this subset of patients. Axillary pCR clearly denotes prognosis after neoadjuvant target therapy and should be considered to be a marker of resistance, providing an opportunity to investigate new strategies for HER2-positive treatment.

  18. Tomato NAC transcription factor SlSRN1 positively regulates defense response against biotic stress but negatively regulates abiotic stress response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Liu

    Full Text Available Biotic and abiotic stresses are major unfavorable factors that affect crop productivity worldwide. NAC proteins comprise a large family of transcription factors that play important roles in plant growth and development as well as in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In a virus-induced gene silencing-based screening to identify genes that are involved in defense response against Botrytis cinerea, we identified a tomato NAC gene SlSRN1 (Solanum lycopersicum Stress-related NAC1. SlSRN1 is a plasma membrane-localized protein with transactivation activity in yeast. Expression of SlSRN1 was significantly induced by infection with B. cinerea or Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst DC3000, leading to 6-8 folds higher than that in the mock-inoculated plants. Expression of SlSRN1 was also induced by salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and 1-amino cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid and by drought stress. Silencing of SlSRN1 resulted in increased severity of diseases caused by B. cinerea and Pst DC3000. However, silencing of SlSRN1 resulted in increased tolerance against oxidative and drought stresses. Furthermore, silencing of SlSRN1 accelerated accumulation of reactive oxygen species but attenuated expression of defense genes after infection by B. cinerea. Our results demonstrate that SlSRN1 is a positive regulator of defense response against B. cinerea and Pst DC3000 but is a negative regulator for oxidative and drought stress response in tomato.

  19. Changes in positive affect and mindfulness predict changes in cortisol response and psychiatric symptoms: a latent change score modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wai Kai; Ng, Sin Man; Wan, Jacky Ho Yin

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether and how changes in positive affect and mindfulness predicted changes in cortisol secretion and psychological distress in adaptation to examination stress. A sample of 105 college students completed a questionnaire set and provided salivary samples before (T1), during (T2) and after (T3) an examination period. Latent change score modelling revealed that T1-T2 and T2-T3 increases in mindfulness were associated with larger T2-T3 decrease in area-under-the-curve ground of cortisol awakening response (CARg), whereas T2-T3 increases in both positive affect and mindfulness were associated with larger T2-T3 decrease in anxiety symptoms (comparative fit index = .96; Tucker-Lewis index = .93-.95; root-mean-square error of approximation = .04-.08; standardised root-mean-square residual = .08-.10). T1-T2 and T2-T3 increases in positive affect were not associated T2-T3 decrease in CARg, whereas T1-T2 increases in positive affect and mindfulness were not associated with T2-T3 decrease in anxiety symptoms. The levels of post-stress recovery from anxiety symptoms could depend on concurrent increases in positive affect and mindfulness, whereas the levels of post-stress decline in cortisol secretion could depend on increases in mindfulness both during and after stress. Directions for translating the present findings into stress management programmes in college settings are discussed.

  20. Price smarter on the Net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, W; Marn, M; Zawada, C

    2001-02-01

    Companies generally have set prices on the Internet in two ways. Many start-ups have offered untenably low prices in a rush to capture first-mover advantage. Many incumbents have simply charged the same prices on-line as they do off-line. Either way, companies are missing a big opportunity. The fundamental value of the Internet lies not in lowering prices or making them consistent but in optimizing them. After all, if it's easy for customers to compare prices on the Internet, it's also easy for companies to track customers' behavior and adjust prices accordingly. The Net lets companies optimize prices in three ways. First, it lets them set and announce prices with greater precision. Different prices can be tested easily, and customers' responses can be collected instantly. Companies can set the most profitable prices, and they can tap into previously hidden customer demand. Second, because it's so easy to change prices on the Internet, companies can adjust prices in response to even small fluctuations in market conditions, customer demand, or competitors' behavior. Third, companies can use the clickstream data and purchase histories that it collects through the Internet to segment customers quickly. Then it can offer segment-specific prices or promotions immediately. By taking full advantage of the unique possibilities afforded by the Internet to set prices with precision, adapt to changing circumstances quickly, and segment customers accurately, companies can get their pricing right. It's one of the ultimate drivers of e-business success.

  1. Cardiovascular responses in older adults with total knee arthroplasty at rest and with exercise on a positive pressure treadmill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Sandra C; Horvey, Karla J; Yurach Pikaluk, Madison T; Butcher, Scott J

    2014-03-01

    We investigated cardiovascular responses at rest and during submaximal exercise on a lower body positive pressure treadmill in older adults with total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Twenty-four adults (mean age 64.6 ± 7.9 SD) with unilateral TKA participated (median time since surgery 8.0 weeks). Heart rate and blood pressure responses were measured at rest standing on the positive pressure treadmill with 0, 10, 20, and 30 mmHg applied. Heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen consumption, minute ventilation, knee pain and perceived exertion were measured during submaximal exercise tests (0 and 40% body weight support) conducted 1 week apart. At rest there were no differences in blood pressure across different treadmill pressures, but heart rate was significantly lower when 30 mmHg was applied compared to ambient pressure conditions (P exercise test stages with 0% body weight support (maximum speed 2.5 mph, 0% incline) and 6.4 stages with 40% body weight support (maximum speed 3.0 mph, 10% incline). During exercise, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, oxygen consumption, and minute ventilation were lower when 40% body weight support was provided for a given test stage (P exercise test stages (P < 0.05). Provision of body weight support allowed TKA patients to walk at faster speeds and/or to tolerate greater incline with relatively lower levels of heart rate, blood pressure, and oxygen consumption.

  2. Fishing with bed nets on Lake Tanganyika: a randomized survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Kate A; Byanaku, Aisha; Kubikonse, Augustine; Tshowe, Vincent; Katensi, Said; Lehman, Amy G

    2014-10-07

    Malaria is among the most common causes of death along Lake Tanganyika, a problem which many aid organizations have attempted to combat through the distribution of free mosquito bed nets to high-risk communities. The Lake Tanganyika Floating Health Clinic (LTFHC), a health-based non-governmental organization (NGO), has observed residents of the Lake Tanganyika basin using bed nets to fish small fry near the shoreline, despite a series of laws that prohibit bed net use and other fine-gauge nets for fishing, implemented to protect the near-shore fish ecology. The LTFHC sought to quantify the sources of bed nets and whether they were being used for fishing. The LTFHC conducted a survey of seven lakeside villages in Lagosa Ward, Tanzania. The government has divided each village into two to six pre-existing geographic sub-villages depending on population size. Seven households per sub-village were chosen at random for survey administration. The survey consisted of 23 questions regarding mosquito bed net practices, including the use of bed nets for fishing, as well as questions pertaining to any perceived changes to the fish supply. A total of 196 surveys were administered over a four-week period with a 100% response rate. Over 87% of households surveyed have used a mosquito bed net for fishing at some point. The majority of respondents reported receiving their bed net for free (96.4%), observing "many" residents of their village using bed nets for fishing (97.4%), and noticing a subjective decrease in the fish supply over time (64.9%). The findings of this study raise concerns that the use of free malaria bed nets for fishing is widespread along Lake Tanganyika, and that this dynamic will have an adverse effect on fish ecology. Further studies are indicated to fully define the scope of bed net misuse and the effects of alternative vector control strategies in water-based communities.

  3. Physiological and Biomechanical Responses of Highly Trained Distance Runners to Lower-Body Positive Pressure Treadmill Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Kyle R; Janecke, Jessica N

    2017-11-21

    As a way to train at faster running speeds, add training volume, prevent injury, or rehabilitate after an injury, lower-body positive pressure treadmills (LBPPT) have become increasingly commonplace among athletes. However, there are conflicting evidence and a paucity of data describing the physiological and biomechanical responses to LBPPT running in highly trained or elite caliber runners at the running speeds they habitually train at, which are considerably faster than those of recreational runners. Furthermore, data is lacking regarding female runners' responses to LBPPT running. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the physiological and biomechanical responses to LBPPT running in highly trained male and female distance runners. Fifteen highly trained distance runners (seven male; eight female) completed a single running test composed of 4 × 9-min interval series at fixed percentages of body weight ranging from 0 to 30% body weight support (BWS) in 10% increments on LBPPT. The first interval was always conducted at 0% BWS; thereafter, intervals at 10, 20, and 30% BWS were conducted in random order. Each interval consisted of three stages of 3 min each, at velocities of 14.5, 16.1, and 17.7 km·h-1 for men and 12.9, 14.5, and 16.1 km·h-1 for women. Expired gases, ventilation, breathing frequency, heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and stride characteristics were measured during each running speed and BWS. Male and female runners had similar physiological and biomechanical responses to running on LBPPT. Increasing BWS increased stride length (p  0.05), and small-large effects on HR and RPE (p  0.05). The results indicate the male and female distance runners have similar physiological and biomechanical responses to LBPPT running. Overall, the biomechanical changes during LBPPT running all contributed to less metabolic cost and corresponding physiological changes.

  4. Bacterial vaginosis and inflammatory response showed association with severity of cervical neoplasia in HPV-positive women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro-Sobrinho, Juçara Maria; Rabelo-Santos, Silvia Helena; Fugueiredo-Alves, Rosane Ribeiro; Derchain, Sophie; Sarian, Luis Otávio Z; Pitta, Denise R; Campos, Elisabete A; Zeferino, Luiz Carlos

    2016-02-01

    Vaginal infections may affect susceptibility to and clearance of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and chronic inflammation has been linked to carcinogenesis. This study aimed to evaluate the association between bacterial vaginosis (BV) and inflammatory response (IR) with the severity of cervical neoplasia in HPV-infected women. HPV DNA was amplified using PGMY09/11 primers and genotyping was performed using a reverse line blot hybridization assay in 211 cervical samples from women submitted to excision of the transformation zone. The bacterial flora was assessed in Papanicolaou stained smears, and positivity for BV was defined as ≥ 20% of clue cells. Present inflammatory response was defined as ≥ 30 neutrophils per field at 1000× magnification. Age higher than 29 years (OR:1.91 95% CI 1.06-3.45), infections by the types 16 and/or 18 (OR:1.92 95% CI 1.06-3.47), single or multiple infections associated with types 16 and/or 18 (OR: 1.92 CI 95% 1.06-3.47), BV (OR: 3.54 95% CI 1.62-7.73) and IR (OR: 6.33 95% CI 3.06-13.07) were associated with severity of cervical neoplasia (CIN 2 or worse diagnoses), while not smoking showed a protective effect (OR: 0.51 95% CI 0.26-0.98). After controlling for confounding factors, BV(OR: 3.90 95% CI 1.64-9.29) and IR (OR: 6.43 95% CI 2.92-14.15) maintained their association with the severity of cervical neoplasia. Bacterial vaginosis and inflammatory response were independently associated with severity of cervical neoplasia in HPV-positive women, which seems to suggest that the microenvironment would relate to the natural history of cervical neoplasia. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. A Positive Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, Susan Mandel

    2006-01-01

    This author contends that teachers should keep children reading and writing but, more importantly, they need to be sure that children are eager to engage in these activities. Requiring rather than desiring transactions with text does not help to get children hooked on books. Further, she asserts that the words "should" or "ought to" must not be…

  6. Positive and negative emotional responses to workrelated trauma of intensive care nurses in private health care facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizelle Van der Vyver

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Intensive care nursing is a stressful occupation and nurses are continually subjected to both primary and secondary trauma. Responses may be positive in the form of compassion satisfaction, or negative in the form of compassion fatigue. However, nurses tend to deny the negative impact of secondary trauma which leads to the silencing response and subsequent burnout. This article explores and describes the presence of these emotions and the relationships between them. A quantitative approach with a non-probability sampling method was used. The sample consisted of 30 registered nurses working in private health care intensive care units in East London, Eastern Cape. Data were gathered via the Professional Quality of Life Scale: Compassion Satisfaction and Fatigue Subscales – Revision IV (ProQOL – R-IV and the Silencing Response Scale and were analysed according to descriptive statistics and correlation coefficients. Findings suggest a high risk for compassion fatigue, a moderate risk for burnout and the silencing response and moderate potential for compassion satisfaction. A marked negative relationship was found between compassion satisfaction and burnout and a substantial positive relationship between compassion fatigue and burnout, as well as compassion fatigue and the silencing response.

    Opsomming

    Intensiewesorgverpleging is ‘n stresvolle beroep en verpleegsters word gedurig aan beide primêre en sekondêre trauma blootgestel. Reaksie hierop kan óf positief wees, in die vorm van empatie-tevredenheid, óf negatief, in die vorm van empatie-uitputting. Verpleegsters is egter geneig om die negatiewe impak van sekondêre trauma te ontken,wat gevolglik tot stilswye en uitbranding kan lei. Hierdie artikel ondersoek en beskryf die teenwoordigheid en verwantskap tussen hierdie emosies. ‘n Kwantitatiewe benadering met ‘n nie-waarskynlikheidsteekproefmetode is gebruik. Die steekproef het bestaan uit 30 geregistreerde

  7. Linear Logic on Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn

    This article shows how individual Petri nets form models of Girard's intuitionistic linear logic. It explores questions of expressiveness and completeness of linear logic with respect to this interpretation. An aim is to use Petri nets to give an understanding of linear logic and give some apprai...

  8. Reference Guide Microsoft.NET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee M van der; Verspaij GJ; Rosbergen S; IMP; NMD

    2003-01-01

    Developers, administrators and managers can get more understanding of the .NET technology with this report. They can also make better choices how to use this technology. The report describes the results and conclusions of a study of the usability for the RIVM of this new generation .NET development

  9. Net neutrality and audiovisual services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.; Nikoltchev, S.

    2011-01-01

    Net neutrality is high on the European agenda. New regulations for the communication sector provide a legal framework for net neutrality and need to be implemented on both a European and a national level. The key element is not just about blocking or slowing down traffic across communication

  10. EFFECTS OF STRAIN, CAGE DENSITY AND POSITION ON IMMUNE RESPONSE TO VACCINES AND BLOOD PARAMETERS IN LAYER PULLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. BOZKURT

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Two thousand 1-day-old layer chicks were used in the study from Lohman Brown, Isa Brown, Lohman White and Bowans White breeds. The chicks were placed in the at 3 cage densities (211.8, 274.5 and 370.6 cm2 per bird and on 3 positions (as top, middle and bottom tiers. All birds were kept under standard management policy and a commercial vaccination program was practiced. Total specific antibody titres to Infectious Brochitis Virus (IBV, Infectious Bursal Desease Virus (IBDV, Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV and Egg Drop Syndrome Virus (EDSV vaccines at the ages of 5, 10 and 20 weeks were serologically determined by ELISA. Cellmediated immune response was also evaluated. In commercial white egg laying strains specific antibody titres to IBV, IBDV, NDV and EDSV vaccines were greater than in Brown egg layer strains. Keeping in cage created more stress in Brown egg laying chicks than those in white egg laying chicks. As cage density increased, the ratio of heterophils to lymphocytes (H/L ratio slightly increased. Cage position had no influence on the titres of antibodies to IBV and IBDV vaccines but the position of cage in pullets where chicks were stocked, from top to bottom, NDV and EDSV antibody titre decreased and percentage of heterophils, H/L ratio and basophil rates were low. These findings suggest that cage-related stress could be decreased, resistance to diseases and finally well-being of hens may be improved if hens are kept under proper position and density within cage systems with respect to their physiological and behavioral characteristics that controlled by genes.

  11. A Small Universal Petri Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A. Zaitsev

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A universal deterministic inhibitor Petri net with 14 places, 29 transitions and 138 arcs was constructed via simulation of Neary and Woods' weakly universal Turing machine with 2 states and 4 symbols; the total time complexity is exponential in the running time of their weak machine. To simulate the blank words of the weakly universal Turing machine, a couple of dedicated transitions insert their codes when reaching edges of the working zone. To complete a chain of a given Petri net encoding to be executed by the universal Petri net, a translation of a bi-tag system into a Turing machine was constructed. The constructed Petri net is universal in the standard sense; a weaker form of universality for Petri nets was not introduced in this work.

  12. Bed net ownership in Kenya: the impact of 3.4 million free bed nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vulule John

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In July and September 2006, 3.4 million long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs were distributed free in a campaign targeting children 0-59 months old (CU5s in the 46 districts with malaria in Kenya. A survey was conducted one month after the distribution to evaluate who received campaign LLINs, who owned insecticide-treated bed nets and other bed nets received through other channels, and how these nets were being used. The feasibility of a distribution strategy aimed at a high-risk target group to meet bed net ownership and usage targets is evaluated. Methods A stratified, two-stage cluster survey sampled districts and enumeration areas with probability proportional to size. Handheld computers (PDAs with attached global positioning systems (GPS were used to develop the sampling frame, guide interviewers back to chosen households, and collect survey data. Results In targeted areas, 67.5% (95% CI: 64.6, 70.3% of all households with CU5s received campaign LLINs. Including previously owned nets, 74.4% (95% CI: 71.8, 77.0% of all households with CU5s had an ITN. Over half of CU5s (51.7%, 95% CI: 48.8, 54.7% slept under an ITN during the previous evening. Nearly forty percent (39.1% of all households received a campaign net, elevating overall household ownership of ITNs to 50.7% (95% CI: 48.4, 52.9%. Conclusions The campaign was successful in reaching the target population, families with CU5s, the risk group most vulnerable to malaria. Targeted distribution strategies will help Kenya approach indicator targets, but will need to be combined with other strategies to achieve desired population coverage levels.

  13. The effects of serial position and frequency of presentation of common stimulus features on orienting response reinstatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Shakhar, Gershon; Gati, Itamar

    2003-01-01

    Two factors that might affect the novelty value of a test stimulus (the frequency of appearance of features common to the test stimulus and the set of preceding stimuli, and the serial position of these features) were systematically manipulated, and their effects on the electrodermal component of the orienting response (OR) were examined. We presented 256 participants with both verbal and pictorial stimulus sequences. Following 12 presentations of control stimuli, a test stimulus, which shared two common components with some of the control stimuli, was presented, followed by two additional presentations of control stimuli. The results revealed that recent presentations of the common components significantly reduced OR magnitude to the test stimulus, whereas the presentation frequency of common components had no significant effect. The implications of these findings for the feature-matching theory are discussed and a modification of the theory is proposed.

  14. High intensity positive pressure ventilation and long term pulmonary function responses in severe stable COPD. A delicate and difficult balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquinas, Antonio M; Petroianni, Angelo

    2014-06-01

    Method to improve minute ventilation (MV) during spontaneous breathing (SB) in stable severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have a great clinical relevant in long term outcome. In this scenario, recommendations of early use of high-Intensity non-invasive Positive pressure Ventilation (HI-NPPV) or intelligent Volume Assured Pressure (iVAP) Support in Hypercapnic COPD have been proposed by safe therapeutics options. We analyze in this letter, Ekkernkamp et al. study that described the effect of HI-NPPV compared with SB on MV in patients receiving long-term treatment. We consider that interpretation of relationships between ABG, functional parameters, and respiratory mechanics reported need clarifications. Further prospective large clinical trials identifying the best mode of ventilation according to the characteristics in severe stable COPD are necessary to balance an effective approach and response on clinical symptoms and long-term effects.

  15. Ethanol-induced autonomic responses and risk taking increase in young adults with a positive family history of alcohol problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caneto, Florencia; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Pilatti, Angelina

    2018-01-01

    The mechanisms that underlie the greater prevalence of alcohol use disorders in individuals with a positive family history (FH+) of alcohol abuse are still under investigation. These subjects may exhibit differential sensitivity to alcohol's effects on psychomotor stimulation and impulsivity. Alcohol-induced psychomotor stimulation, measured as the heart rate (HR) response, is a proxy for the positive rewarding effects of the drug. We analyzed alcohol-induced effects on time perception (Time Production Task), risk taking (Balloon Analogue Risk Task [BART]), and HR in FH+ and FH- participants. In the FH+ and FH- groups, women and men received 0.6 and 0.7g/kg alcohol, respectively. The alcohol dose yielded a breath alcohol concentration of 0.08% throughout the experiment. The control groups received placebo, and the subjective perception of alcohol intoxication was assessed. Alcohol intoxication significantly increased HR and the adjusted average number of pumps on the BART (a measure of risk taking) in FH+ men and women but not in FH- participants. Behavioral impulsivity was unaffected by alcohol or a FH of alcohol abuse. FH- but not FH+ participants who received alcohol reported significantly greater subjective perception of alcohol's effects than their placebo counterparts. These results indicate that FH+ individuals presented heightened sensitivity to alcohol-induced HR stimulation and alcohol-induced risk taking compared with their FH- counterparts. FH+ subjects, however, were insensitive to the subjective effects of alcohol. This idiosyncratic response pattern may be a likely pathway by which a FH of alcohol problems promotes alcohol drinking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Factors that predict a positive response on gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulation test for diagnosing central precocious puberty in girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghwan Suh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available PurposeThe rapid increase in the incidence of precocious puberty in Korea has clinical and social significance. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH stimulation test is required to diagnose central precocious puberty (CPP, however this test is expensive and time-consuming. This study aimed to identify factors that can predict a positive response to the GnRH stimulation test.MethodsClinical and laboratory parameters, including basal serum luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, and estradiol (E2, were measured in 540 girls with clinical signs of CPP.ResultsTwo hundred twenty-nine of 540 girls with suspected CPP had a peak serum LH level higher than 5 IU/L (the CPP group. The CPP group had advanced bone age (P<0.001, accelerated yearly growth rate (P<0.001, increased basal levels of LH (P=0.02, FSH (P<0.001, E2 (P=0.001, and insulin-like growth factor-I levels (P<0.001 compared to the non-CPP group. In contrast, body weight (P<0.001 and body mass index (P<0.001 were lower in the CPP group. Although basal LH was significantly elevated in the CPP group compared to the non-CPP group, there was considerable overlap between the 2 groups. Cutoff values of basal LH (0.22 IU/L detected CPP with 87.8% sensitivity and 20.9% specificity.ConclusionNo single parameter can predict a positive response on the GnRH stimulation test with both high sensitivity and specificity. Therefore, multiple factors should be considered in evaluation of sexual precocity when deciding the timing of the GnRH stimulation test.

  17. No differences in ventral striatum responsivity between adolescents with a positive family history of alcoholism and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Kathrin U; Gan, Gabriela; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun L W; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Flor, Herta; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Lawrence, Claire; Loth, Eva; Mann, Karl; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomáš; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Ströhle, Andreas; Struve, Maren; Schumann, Gunter; Smolka, Michael N

    2015-05-01

    Individuals with alcohol-dependent parents show an elevated risk of developing alcohol-related problems themselves. Modulations of the mesolimbic reward circuit have been postulated as a pre-existing marker of alcoholism. We tested whether a positive family history of alcoholism is correlated with ventral striatum functionality during a reward task. All participants performed a modified version of the monetary incentive delay task while their brain responses were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging. We compared 206 healthy adolescents (aged 13-15) who had any first- or second-degree relative with alcoholism to 206 matched controls with no biological relative with alcoholism. Reward anticipation as well as feedback of win recruited the ventral striatum in all participants, but adolescents with a positive family history of alcoholism did not differ from their matched peers. Also we did not find any correlation between family history density and reward anticipation or feedback of win. This finding of no differences did not change when we analyzed a subsample of 77 adolescents with at least one parent with alcohol use disorder and their matched controls. Because this result is in line with another study reporting no differences between children with alcohol-dependent parents and controls at young age, but contrasts with studies of older individuals, one might conclude that at younger age the effect of family history has not yet exerted its influence on the still developing mesolimbic reward circuit. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    High-level Petri nets are now widely used in both theoretical analysis and practical modelling of concurrent systems. The main reason for the success of this class of net models is that they make it possible to obtain much more succinct and manageable descriptions than can be obtained by means...... of low-level Petri nets - while, on the other hand, they still offer a wide range of analysis methods and tools. The step from low-level nets to high-level nets can be compared to the step from assembly languages to modern programming languages with an elaborated type concept. In low-level nets...... there is only one kind of token and this means that the state of a place is described by an integer (and in many cases even by a boolean). In high-level nets each token can carry a complex information/data - which, e.g., may describe the entire state of a process or a data base. Today most practical...

  19. Amygdala responses to positively and negatively valenced baby faces in healthy female volunteers: influences of individual differences in harm avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeken, Chris; De Raedt, Rudi; Ramsey, Nick; Van Schuerbeek, Peter; Hermes, Dora; Bossuyt, Axel; Leyman, Lemke; Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne; De Mey, Johan; Luypaert, Robert

    2009-11-03

    Research regarding the lateralization of processing emotional visual stimuli suggests various roles for affective information-processing by the amygdalae. However, individual differences seem to influence outcome results. In this study we re-investigate this question, paying special attention to the salient nature of the mood inducing stimuli. We presented blocks of happy looking baby faces and sad looking baby faces (disfigured by severe dermatological conditions), as well as blurred isoluminescent neutral pictures to a 'homogeneous' group of 40 healthy female subjects during fMRI. We used the temperament dimension harm avoidance (HA), extracted from the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), to evaluate the impact of this personality feature on 'emotional' amygdala responses. HA is related to behavioral inhibition and it implies a genetically determined bias towards being cautious, apprehensive and overly pessimistic. Because emotional valence and arousal may be controlled by different neural systems, the positively and negatively valenced baby faces were selected to be equal in arousal levels. Viewing blocks of negatively valenced baby faces evoked bilateral amygdala activity, whereas viewing positively valenced ones resulted in left amygdala activity only. Globally, we found no evidence of lateralized amygdala specialization. When taking into account individual differences in HA, only in female subjects who score high on this dimension did we find predominantly left amygdala activation when viewing blocks of negatively valenced baby faces. HA did not influence amygdala activity when processing positively valenced images. Our results might indicate that personality features, such as HA, could be of importance in 'emotional' fMRI paradigms examining amygdala lateralization patterns.

  20. NET23/STING Promotes Chromatin Compaction from the Nuclear Envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    de las Heras, Jose I.; Saiz-Ros, Natalia; Makarov, Alexandr A.; Lazou, Vassiliki; Meinke, Peter; Waterfall, Martin; Kelly, David A.; Schirmer, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the peripheral distribution and amount of condensed chromatin are observed in a number of diseases linked to mutations in the lamin A protein of the nuclear envelope. We postulated that lamin A interactions with nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins (NETs) that affect chromatin structure might be altered in these diseases and so screened thirty-one NETs for those that promote chromatin compaction as determined by an increase in the number of chromatin clusters of high pixel intensity. One of these, NET23 (also called STING, MITA, MPYS, ERIS, Tmem173), strongly promoted chromatin compaction. A correlation between chromatin compaction and endogenous levels of NET23/STING was observed for a number of human cell lines, suggesting that NET23/STING may contribute generally to chromatin condensation. NET23/STING has separately been found to be involved in innate immune response signaling. Upon infection cells make a choice to either apoptose or to alter chromatin architecture to support focused expression of interferon genes and other response factors. We postulate that the chromatin compaction induced by NET23/STING may contribute to this choice because the cells expressing NET23/STING eventually apoptose, but the chromatin compaction effect is separate from this as the condensation was still observed when cells were treated with Z-VAD to block apoptosis. NET23/STING-induced compacted chromatin revealed changes in epigenetic marks including changes in histone methylation and acetylation. This indicates a previously uncharacterized nuclear role for NET23/STING potentially in both innate immune signaling and general chromatin architecture. PMID:25386906

  1. Pathological response rate in hormone-positive breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant FEC and triweekly docetaxel: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiba T

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Takayoshi Kiba,1 Nao Morii,2,3 Hirotoshi Takahashi,2 Shinji Ozaki,2 Misao Atsumi,4 Fumi Masumoto,4 Hiroyasu Yamashiro,2,31Division of Modern Medical Technology, Institute for Clinical Research, 2Department of Breast Surgery, National Hospital Organization Kure Medical Center and Chugoku Cancer Center, Kure, Japan; 3Department of Breast Surgery, Tenri Hospital, Tenri, Nara, Japan; 4Clinical Trial Management Office, National Hospital Organization Kure Medical Center and Chugoku Cancer Center, Kure, JapanAbstract: We recently reported that neoadjuvant 5-FU, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide (FEC followed by weekly paclitaxel and/or trastuzumab induced a high pathological complete response (pCR rate in hormone-negative patients. The present study examined the therapeutic efficacy of neoadjuvant FEC followed by triweekly docetaxel and/or trastuzumab in the treatment of hormone-positive patients. Between February 2012 and December 2013, 16 hormone-positive patients with local breast cancer (luminal A type: six patients; luminal B type: two patients; luminal HER2 type: eight patients were included in the study. The histological type of the primary cancer was invasive ductal carcinoma in all patients. The cancer stages in the 16 women who received this regimen were stage I in five (31.3%, IIA in four (25.0%, IIB in five (31.3%, IIIB in one (6.3%, and IIIC in one (6.3%. Regarding clinical TNM classification, five patients were T1N0M0, one was T1N1M0, three were T2N0M0, five were T2N1M0, one was T3N2M0, and one was T4N0M0. The pCR was evaluated using resected tissue after neoadjuvant chemotherapy according to the evaluation criteria of the Japanese Breast Cancer Society. Patients were classified into pathologic responders (grade 2: 50.0% of all patients: 2/6 of luminal A type; 6/8 of Luminal HER2 type and nonresponders (grades 0 and 1: 50.0% of all patients: 4/6 of luminal A type; 2/2 of luminal B type; 2/8 of luminal HER2 type according to the grade of

  2. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André

    2017-08-01

    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  3. Petri Net Tool Overview 1986

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Feldbrugge, Frits

    1987-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the characteristics of all currently available net based tools. It is a compilation of information provided by tool authors or contact persons. A concise one page overview is provided as well....

  4. Understanding Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salom, Jaume; Widén, Joakim; Candanedo, José

    2011-01-01

    Although several alternative definitions exist, a Net-Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) can be succinctly described as a grid-connected building that generates as much energy as it uses over a year. The “net-zero” balance is attained by applying energy conservation and efficiency measures...... and by incorporating renewable energy systems. While based on annual balances, a complete description of a Net ZEB requires examining the system at smaller time-scales. This assessment should address: (a) the relationship between power generation and building loads and (b) the resulting interaction with the power grid....... This paper presents and categorizes quantitative indicators suitable to describe both aspects of the building’s performance. These indicators, named LMGI - Load Matching and Grid Interaction indicators, are easily quantifiable and could complement the output variables of existing building simulation tools...

  5. PolicyNet Publication System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The PolicyNet Publication System project will merge the Oracle-based Policy Repository (POMS) and the SQL-Server CAMP system (MSOM) into a new system with an Oracle...

  6. KM3NeT

    CERN Multimedia

    KM3NeT is a large scale next-generation neutrino telescope located in the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea, optimized for the discovery of galactic neutrino sources emitting in the TeV energy region.

  7. Net Neutrality: Background and Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilroy, Angele A

    2006-01-01

    .... The move to place restrictions on the owners of the networks that compose and provide access to the Internet, to ensure equal access and nondiscriminatory treatment, is referred to as "net neutrality...

  8. Petri Nets in Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A process language for security protocols is presented together with a semantics in terms of sets of events. The denotation of process is a set of events, and as each event specifies a set of pre and postconditions, this denotation can be viewed as a Petri net. By means of an example we illustrate...... how the Petri-net semantics can be used to prove security properties....

  9. The Economics of Net Neutrality

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, Robert W.; Wallsten, Scott

    2006-01-01

    This essay examines the economics of "net neutrality" and broadband Internet access. We argue that mandating net neutrality would be likely to reduce economic welfare. Instead, the government should focus on creating competition in the broadband market by liberalizing more spectrum and reducing entry barriers created by certain local regulations. In cases where a broadband provider can exercise market power the government should use its antitrust enforcement authority to police anticompetitiv...

  10. Activity Profiles and Physiological Responses of Representative Tag Football Players in Relation to Playing Position and Physical Fitness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke W Hogarth

    Full Text Available This study determined the physical fitness, match-activity profiles and physiological responses of representative tag football players and examined the relationship between physical fitness and the match-activity profile. Microtechnology devices and heart rate (HR chest straps were used to determine the match-activity profiles of sixteen tag football players for five matches during the 2014 Australian National Championships. The relationships between lower body muscular power, straight line running speed and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2 and the match-activity profile were examined using Pearson's correlation coefficients. Outside players had greater lower body muscular power (ES = 0.98 and straight line running speed (ES = 1.03-1.18 than inside players, and also covered greater very high-speed running (VHSR distance/min (ES = 0.67 and reached higher peak running speeds (ES = 0.95 during matches. Inside and outside players performed a similar number of repeated high-intensity effort (RHIE bouts and reported similar mean and maximum efforts per RHIE bout. However, there were differences between playing positions for mean and maximal RHIE effort durations (ES = 0.69-1.15 and mean RHIE bout recovery (ES = 0.56. Inside and outside players also reported small to moderate differences (ES = 0.43-0.80 for times spent in each HR zone. There were a number of moderate to very large correlations between physical fitness measures and match-activity profile variables. This study found lower body muscular power, straight line running speed and Yo-Yo IR2 to be related to the match-activities of representative tag football players, although differences between inside and outside players suggest that athlete testing and training practices should be modified for different playing positions.

  11. Interaction of cocaine with positive GABAA modulators on the repeated acquisition and performance of response sequences in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinton, M S; Gerak, L R; Moerschbaecher, J M; Winsauer, P J

    2005-09-01

    Although positive GABA(A) modulators can attenuate several cocaine-induced behavioral effects, there is a paucity of data on their interaction with cocaine on transition behavior or learning. The current study examined the effects of cocaine (3.2-32 mg/kg), pregnanolone (3.2-24 mg/kg), and lorazepam (0.1-10 mg/kg) alone and in combination in rats responding under a multiple schedule of repeated acquisition and performance. In the acquisition component, subjects acquired a different three-response sequence each session, whereas in the performance component, they responded on the same three-response sequence each session. All three drugs produced dose-dependent rate-decreasing and error-increasing effects. Cocaine was the least effective in decreasing rates and the most effective in increasing the percentage of errors. In combination with pregnanolone (3.2 or 10 mg/kg), the rate-decreasing effects of cocaine were relatively unchanged in both components, but 3.2 mg/kg of pregnanolone enhanced its error-increasing effects and the 10-mg/kg dose produced a significant dose-dependent interaction on errors. The combination of cocaine with lorazepam (0.32 mg/kg, 70-min pretreatment) produced significantly greater rate-decreasing and error-increasing effects than cocaine alone. A 15-min pretreatment with the same dose of lorazepam enhanced the error-increasing effects of small doses and attenuated the effects of larger doses of cocaine. Combinations of pregnanolone and lorazepam produced greater rate-decreasing and error-increasing effects in both components than either drug alone. The present data show that cocaine is more disruptive to learning in rats than pregnanolone or lorazepam, and that the disruptive effects of cocaine can be enhanced by CNS depressants.

  12. Restoring the salivary cortisol awakening response through nasal continuous positive airway pressure therapy in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiciuc, Cristina Mihaela; Dima Cozma, Lucia Corina; Bercea, Raluca Mihaela; Lupusoru, Catalina Elena; Mihaescu, Traian; Szalontay, Andreea; Gianfreda, Angela; Patacchioli, Francesca Romana

    2013-10-01

    Partial and largely conflicting data are currently available on the interplay between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) activity in adult obese men. This study was performed to evaluate the daily trajectories of salivary cortisol, specifically with respect to the salivary cortisol awakening response (CAR), a common method used to assess HPA axis activity. The main findings of this study were that adult male obese subjects who were newly diagnosed with severe OSA showed the following: (1) a flattening of the CAR; (2) levels of cortisol at awakening that were lower than those of the controls; and (3) maintenance of the physiological circadian activity of the HPA axis, with the highest hormone concentrations produced in the morning and the lowest in the evening. This study was also designed to investigate the effects of 3 and 6 mos of treatment with continuous airways positive pressure (CPAP). CPAP use resulted in a significant recovery of the sleep patterns disrupted by OSA; moreover, mild neuropsychological signs of depression and anxiety in severe OSA patients were concomitantly progressively improved by CPAP treatment. Furthermore, this study reports that 3 and 6 mos of CPAP therapy restored the presence of CAR and was able to significantly reduce the difference in the morning cortisol levels between the OSA and control groups. In conclusion, we report here that compared with obese nonapneic matched controls, OSA patients present a dysregulation of HPA axis activity, as shown by the flattening of the diurnal pattern of cortisol production in response to repeated challenge due to hypoxia and sleep fragmentation. This dysregulation was especially detectable in the first hour after awakening and restored after 3 and 6 mos of treatment with CPAP.

  13. OsHAK1, a High-Affinity Potassium Transporter, Positively Regulates Responses to Drought Stress in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the environmental factors that severely restrict plant distribution and crop production. Recently, we reported that the high-affinity potassium transporter OsHAK1 plays important roles in K acquisition and translocation in rice over low and high K concentration ranges, however, knowledge on the regulatory roles of OsHAK1 in osmotic/drought stress is limited. Here, transcript levels of OsHAK1 were found transiently elevated by water deficit in roots and shoots, consistent with the enhanced GUS activity in transgenic plants under stress. Under drought conditions, OsHAK1 knockout mutants (KO presented lower tolerance to the stress and displayed stunted growth at both the vegetative and reproductive stages. Phenotypic analysis of OsHAK1 overexpression seedlings (Ox demonstrated that they present better tolerance to drought stress than wild-type (WT. Compared to WT seedlings, OsHAK1 overexpressors had lower level of lipid peroxidation, higher activities of antioxidant enzymes (POX and CAT and higher proline accumulation. Furthermore, qPCR analysis revealed that OsHAK1 act as a positive regulator of the expression of stress-responsive genes as well as of two well-known rice channel genes (OsTPKb and OsAKT1 involved in K homeostasis and stress responses in transgenic plants under dehydration. Most important, OsHAK1-Ox plants displayed enhanced drought tolerance at the reproductive stage, resulting in 35% more grain yield than WT under drought conditions, and without exhibiting significant differences under normal growth conditions. Consequently, OsHAK1 can be considered to be used in molecular breeding for improvement of drought tolerance in rice.

  14. 26 CFR 1.904(f)-3 - Allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation of net operating losses and net....904(f)-3 Allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses. For rules relating to the allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses, see § 1.904(g)-3T. ...

  15. 29 CFR 4204.13 - Net income and net tangible assets tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Net income and net tangible assets tests. 4204.13 Section....13 Net income and net tangible assets tests. (a) General. The criteria under this section are that either— (1) Net income test. The purchaser's average net income after taxes for its three most recent...

  16. Individual differences in timing of peak positive subjective responses to d-amphetamine: Relationship to pharmacokinetics and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher T; Weafer, Jessica; Cowan, Ronald L; Kessler, Robert M; Palmer, Abraham A; de Wit, Harriet; Zald, David H

    2016-04-01

    Rate of delivery of psychostimulants has been associated with their positive euphoric effects and potential addiction liability. However, information on individual differences in onset of d-amphetamine's effects remains scarce. We examined individual differences in the time to peak subjective and physiological effects and the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of oral d-amphetamine. We considered two independent studies that used different dosing regimens where subjects completed the drug effects questionnaire at multiple time points post d-amphetamine. Based on the observation of distinct individual differences in time course of drug effects questionnaire "feel", "high", and "like" ratings (DEQH+L+F) in Study 1, subjects in both studies were categorized as early peak responders (peak within 60 minutes), late peak responders (peak > 60 minutes) or nonresponders; 20-25% of participants were categorized as early peak responders, 50-55% as late peak responders and 20-30% as nonresponders. Physiological (both studies) and plasma d-amphetamine (Study 1) were compared among these groups. Early peak responders exhibited an earlier rise in plasma d-amphetamine levels and more sustained elevation in heart rate compared to late peak responders. The present data illustrate the presence of significant individual differences in the temporal pattern of responses to oral d-amphetamine, which may contribute to heightened abuse potential. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Fermentative biohydrogen production: Evaluation of net energy gain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perera, Karnayakage Rasika J.; Ketheesan, Balachandran; Nirmalakhandan, Nagamany [Civil Engineering Department, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88011 (United States); Gadhamshetty, Venkataramana [Civil and Environmental Engineering Dept., Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Most dark fermentation (DF) studies had resorted to above-ambient temperatures to maximize hydrogen yield, without due consideration of the net energy gain. In this study, literature data on fermentative hydrogen production from glucose, sucrose, and organic wastes were compiled to evaluate the benefit of higher fermentation temperatures in terms of net energy gain. This evaluation showed that the improvement in hydrogen yield at higher temperatures is not justified as the net energy gain not only declined with increase of temperature, but also was mostly negative when the fermentation temperature exceeded 25 C. To maximize the net energy gain of DF, the following two options for recovering additional energy from the end products and to determine the optimal fermentation temperature were evaluated: methane production via anaerobic digestion (AD); and direct electricity production via microbial fuel cells (MFC). Based on net energy gain, it is concluded that DF has to be operated at near-ambient temperatures for the net energy gain to be positive; and DF + MFC can result in higher net energy gain at any temperature than DF or DF + AD. (author)

  18. Feature-specific transition from positive mismatch response to mismatch negativity in early infancy: mismatch responses to vowels and initial consonants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ying-Ying; Wu, Hsin-Chi; Tzeng, Yu-Lin; Yang, Ming-Tao; Zhao, Lu-Lu; Lee, Chia-Ying

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated how phonological saliency, deviance size, and maturation affect mismatch responses (MMRs) in early infancy. MMRs to Mandarin vowels and initial consonants were measured using a multi-deviant oddball paradigm in adults, newborns, and 6-month-olds. The vowel condition consisted of Mandarin syllable da as the standard, du as the large deviant and di as small deviant. As for initial consonant condition, we took syllable ba as standard, ga as large deviant, and ba as small deviant. While adults showed typical mismatch negativities (MMNs), newborns demonstrated broad positive MMRs (P-MMRs) to both initial consonants and vowels. For 6-month-olds, deviance size affected the polarity of MMRs to vowels. The large deviant du/da contrast elicited an adult-like MMN, while the small deviant di/da contrast elicited a P-MMR. Initial consonant changes elicited only P-MMRs, regardless of deviance size. In summary, MMRs to vowels switched from P-MMR at birth to MMN at 6 months. However, the polarity transition was not found for MMRs to initial consonants. The developmental trajectories of MMRs to vowels and initial consonants further support the phonological saliency hypothesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of health, socio-economic position, and mode of data collection on non-response in health interview surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekholm, Ola; Gundgaard, Jens; Rasmussen, Niels K R

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the relationship between potential explanatory factors (socio-economic factors and health) and non-response in two general population health interview surveys (face-to-face and telephone), and to compare the effects of the two interview modes on non-response patterns. METHODS...... generally associated with non-response in both modes of interview. The non-response rate was high among persons with low socio-economic position. No significant associations between health and non-response were found. CONCLUSIONS: Health status does not play a systematic role for non-response rates...... in health interview surveys, but the non-response rate is higher in lower socio-economic groups. Analyses of non-response should be performed to understand the implications of survey findings....

  20. Protein crystallization image classification with elastic net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Jeffrey; Collins, John; Weldetsion, Mehari; Newland, Oliver; Chiang, Eric; Guerrero, Steve; Okada, Kazunori

    2014-03-01

    Protein crystallization plays a crucial role in pharmaceutical research by supporting the investigation of a protein's molecular structure through X-ray diffraction of its crystal. Due to the rare occurrence of crystals, images must be manually inspected, a laborious process. We develop a solution incorporating a regularized, logistic regression model for automatically evaluating these images. Standard image features, such as shape context, Gabor filters and Fourier transforms, are first extracted to represent the heterogeneous appearance of our images. Then the proposed solution utilizes Elastic Net to select relevant features. Its L1-regularization mitigates the effects of our large dataset, and its L2- regularization ensures proper operation when the feature number exceeds the sample number. A two-tier cascade classifier based on naïve Bayes and random forest algorithms categorized the images. In order to validate the proposed method, we experimentally compare it with naïve Bayes, linear discriminant analysis, random forest, and their two-tier cascade classifiers, by 10-fold cross validation. Our experimental results demonstrate a 3-category accuracy of 74%, outperforming other models. In addition, Elastic Net better reduces the false negatives responsible for a high, domain specific risk. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to apply Elastic Net to classifying protein crystallization images. Performance measured on a large pharmaceutical dataset also fared well in comparison with those presented in the previous studies, while the reduction of the high-risk false negatives is promising.

  1. Prevalences of positive skin test responses to 10 common allergens in the US population: results from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbes, Samuel J; Gergen, Peter J; Elliott, Leslie; Zeldin, Darryl C

    2005-08-01

    Allergy skin tests were administered in the second and third National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES II and III) conducted in the United States from 1976 through 1980 and 1988 through 1994, respectively. This study estimated positive skin test response rates in NHANES III and identified predictors of one or more positive test responses. Comparisons with NHANES II were also made. In NHANES III, 10 allergens and 2 controls were tested in all subjects aged 6 to 19 years and a random half-sample of subjects aged 20 to 59 years. A wheal-based definition of a positive test response was used. In NHANES III, 54.3% of the population had positive test responses to 1 or more allergens. Prevalences were 27.5% for dust mite, 26.9% for perennial rye, 26.2% for short ragweed, 26.1% for German cockroach, 18.1% for Bermuda grass, 17.0% for cat, 15.2% for Russian thistle, 13.2% for white oak, 12.9% for Alternaria alternata, and 8.6% for peanut. Among those with positive test responses, the median number of positive responses was 3.0. Adjusted odds of a positive test response were higher for the following variables: age of 20 to 29 years, male sex, minority race, western region, old homes, and lower serum cotinine levels. For the 6 allergens common to NHANES II and III, prevalences were 2.1 to 5.5 times higher in NHANES III. The majority of the US population represented in NHANES III was sensitized to 1 or more allergens. Whether the higher prevalences observed in NHANES III reflect true changes in prevalence or methodological differences between the surveys cannot be determined with certainty.

  2. "It is about how the net looks": a qualitative study of perceptions and practices related to mosquito net care and repair in two districts in eastern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandurra, Leah; Acosta, Angela; Koenker, Hannah; Kibuuka, Daniel Musoke; Harvey, Steven

    2014-12-17

    Prolonging net durability has important implications for reducing both malaria transmission and the frequency of net replacement. Protective behaviour, such as net care and repair, offers promise for improving net integrity and durability. Given the potential cost-savings and public health benefit associated with extending the useful life of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), prevention and mitigation of damage will become ever more critical to ensuring adequate net coverage at the population level. A qualitative assessment was conducted in two districts in central eastern Uganda in September 2013. Data on household net care and repair behaviour, attitudes and practices were collected from 30 respondents through in-depth interviews (IDIs), observations, photos, and video to gather an in-depth understanding of these behaviours. Net damage was common and the most cited causes were children and rodents. Responses revealed strong social norms about net cleanliness and aesthetics, and strong expectations that others should care for and repair their own nets. Respondents were receptive and able to repair nets, though longer-term repair methods, such as sewing and patching, were not as commonly reported or observed. Self-reported behaviour was not always consistent with observed or demonstrated behaviour, revealing potential misconceptions and the need for clear and consistent net care and repair messaging. Respondents considered both aesthetics and malaria protection important when deciding whether, when, and how to care for and repair nets. BCC should continue to emphasize the importance of maintaining net integrity for malaria prevention purposes as well as for maintaining aesthetic appeal. Additional research is needed, particularly surrounding washing, drying, daily storage routines, and gender roles in care and repair, in order to understand the complexity of these behaviours, and refine existing or develop new behaviour change communication (BCC) messages for

  3. TimeNET Optimization Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Bodenstein

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a novel tool for simulation-based optimization and design-space exploration of Stochastic Colored Petri nets (SCPN is introduced. The working title of this tool is TimeNET Optimization Environment (TOE. Targeted users of this tool are people modeling complex systems with SCPNs in TimeNET who want to find parameter sets that are optimal for a certain performance measure (fitness function. It allows users to create and simulate sets of SCPNs and to run different optimization algorithms based on parameter variation. The development of this tool was motivated by the need to automate and speed up tests of heuristic optimization algorithms to be applied for SCPN optimization. A result caching mechanism is used to avoid recalculations.

  4. Gender related differences in response to "in favor of myself" wellness program to enhance positive self & body image among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golan, Moria; Hagay, Noa; Tamir, Snait

    2014-01-01

    Physical, neurological and psychological changes are often experienced differently by male and female adolescents. Positive self-esteem, emotional well-being, school achievements, and family connectedness are considered as protective factors against health-compromising behaviors. This study examines the gender differences in respect to the effect of a school-based interactive wellness program--"In Favor of Myself"--on self-image, body image, eating attitudes and behaviors of young adolescents. Two hundred and ten adolescents (mean age 13.5) participated in the intervention group, 55% were girls and 45% boys. Program consisted of eight 90-minutes structured sessions integrated into a regular school coping skills curriculum. The program focused on self-esteem, self-image, body image, media literacy and cognitive dissonance. The overall impact of the program and the study protocol were previously published. Overall, there are gender related differences in respect to body image and self-image in young adolescents in response to "In Favor of Myself". Compared to boys, girls reported at baseline higher self-esteem, being more contingent by appearance, and their self-image was more influenced by popularity, appearance, interpersonal communication and admired people. Furthermore girls presented greater gap between current body figure and perceived ideal figure. Not only were girls more dissatisfied with their body, but they were more active in attempts to become and/or remain "thin". At program termination, gender × time effect was detected in reduction of self-worth contingent by others, change in importance given to achievements at schools, parents' perceptions, as well as the impact of comparisons to friends and family members on self-image. Girls exhibited more gains than boys from 'In Favor of Myself' which raise the questions about how effective would be the program when delivered in mixed gender groups vs. mono-gender groups.

  5. Running on a lower-body positive pressure treadmill: VO2max, respiratory response, and vertical ground reaction force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffalt, Peter C; Hovgaard-Hansen, Line; Jensen, Bente Rona

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and time to exhaustion while running on a lower-body positive pressure treadmill (LBPPT) at normal body weight (BW) as well as how BW support affects respiratory responses, ground reaction forces, and stride characteristics. Twelve runners performed VO2max tests on a regular treadmill and an LBPPT. Furthermore, they performed steady-state running (10km/hr, 14 km/hr, and 18 km/hr) and high-speed running (20km/hr and 22 km/hr) at four different BWs on the LBPPT. VO2, heart rate, ventilation, and breathing frequency as well as vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) and stride characteristics were measured. VO2max could be obtained on both treadmills, although time to exhaustion was 34.5% longer on the LBPPT. VO2, ventilation, and heart rate decreased linearly with increasing BW support at steady-state running, while breathing rate remained unaffected by increasing BW support. Ground reaction force was markedly reduced with increasing BW support. The contact time decreased and flight time increased with increasing BW support. The step frequency decreased and step length increased to some extent with increasing BW support. VO2max can be achieved on an LBPPT at 100% BW with an incline-running protocol. The LBPPT is a suitable training device for athletes and allows training at high running speeds and high aerobic stimuli with the benefit of low vGRF and a near-normal movement pattern, although manipulation of gravitational weight causes some adaptations in locomotion.

  6. Exploratory Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Response-Guided Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Hormone Positive Breast Cancer Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Miquel-Cases

    Full Text Available Guiding response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (guided-NACT allows for an adaptative treatment approach likely to improve breast cancer survival. In this study, our primary aim is to explore the expected cost-effectiveness of guided-NACT using as a case study the first randomized controlled trial that demonstrated effectiveness (GeparTrio trial.As effectiveness was shown in hormone-receptor positive (HR+ early breast cancers (EBC, our decision model compared the health-economic outcomes of treating a cohort of such women with guided-NACT to conventional-NACT using clinical input data from the GeparTrio trial. The expected cost-effectiveness and the uncertainty around this estimate were estimated via probabilistic cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA, from a Dutch societal perspective over a 5-year time-horizon.Our exploratory CEA predicted that guided-NACT as proposed by the GeparTrio, costs additional €110, but results in 0.014 QALYs gained per patient. This scenario of guided-NACT was considered cost-effective at any willingness to pay per additional QALY. At the prevailing Dutch willingness to pay threshold (€80.000/QALY cost-effectiveness was expected with 78% certainty.This exploratory CEA indicated that guided-NACT (as proposed by the GeparTrio trial is likely cost-effective in treating HR+ EBC women. While prospective validation of the GeparTrio findings is advisable from a clinical perspective, early CEAs can be used to prioritize further research from a broader health economic perspective, by identifying which parameters contribute most to current decision uncertainty. Furthermore, their use can be extended to explore the expected cost-effectiveness of alternative guided-NACT scenarios that combine the use of promising imaging techniques together with personalized treatments.

  7. Gender related differences in response to "in favor of myself" wellness program to enhance positive self & body image among adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moria Golan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical, neurological and psychological changes are often experienced differently by male and female adolescents. Positive self-esteem, emotional well-being, school achievements, and family connectedness are considered as protective factors against health-compromising behaviors. This study examines the gender differences in respect to the effect of a school-based interactive wellness program--"In Favor of Myself"--on self-image, body image, eating attitudes and behaviors of young adolescents. METHODS: Two hundred and ten adolescents (mean age 13.5 participated in the intervention group, 55% were girls and 45% boys. Program consisted of eight 90-minutes structured sessions integrated into a regular school coping skills curriculum. The program focused on self-esteem, self-image, body image, media literacy and cognitive dissonance. The overall impact of the program and the study protocol were previously published. RESULTS: Overall, there are gender related differences in respect to body image and self-image in young adolescents in response to "In Favor of Myself". Compared to boys, girls reported at baseline higher self-esteem, being more contingent by appearance, and their self-image was more influenced by popularity, appearance, interpersonal communication and admired people. Furthermore girls presented greater gap between current body figure and perceived ideal figure. Not only were girls more dissatisfied with their body, but they were more active in attempts to become and/or remain "thin". At program termination, gender × time effect was detected in reduction of self-worth contingent by others, change in importance given to achievements at schools, parents' perceptions, as well as the impact of comparisons to friends and family members on self-image. CONCLUSIONS: Girls exhibited more gains than boys from 'In Favor of Myself' which raise the questions about how effective would be the program when delivered in mixed gender groups

  8. Implementing NetScaler VPX

    CERN Document Server

    Sandbu, Marius

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow guide with detailed step-by step-instructions on how to implement the different key components in NetScaler, with real-world examples and sample scenarios.If you are a Citrix or network administrator who needs to implement NetScaler in your virtual environment to gain an insight on its functionality, this book is ideal for you. A basic understanding of networking and familiarity with some of the different Citrix products such as XenApp or XenDesktop is a prerequisite.

  9. Net4Care PHMR Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the SimpleClinicalDocument......The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the Simple...

  10. Pro DLR in NET 4

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Chaur

    2011-01-01

    Microsoft's Dynamic Language Runtime (DLR) is a platform for running dynamic languages such as Ruby and Python on an equal footing with compiled languages such as C#. Furthermore, the runtime is the foundation for many useful software design and architecture techniques you can apply as you develop your .NET applications. Pro DLR in .NET 4 introduces you to the DLR, showing how you can use it to write software that combines dynamic and static languages, letting you choose the right tool for the job. You will learn the core DLR components such as LINQ expressions, call sites, binders, and dynami

  11. Hierarchies in Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Peter; Jensen, Kurt; Shapiro, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    The paper shows how to extend Coloured Petri Nets with a hierarchy concept. The paper proposes five different hierarchy constructs, which allow the analyst to structure large CP-nets as a set of interrelated subnets (called pages). The paper discusses the properties of the proposed hierarchy...... constructs, and it illustrates them by means of two examples. The hierarchy constructs can be used for theoretical considerations, but their main use is to describe and analyse large real-world systems. All of the hierarchy constructs are supported by the editing and analysis facilities in the CPN Palette...

  12. Acute responsivity of the serotonergic system to S-citalopram and positive emotionality – the moderating role of the 5-HTTLPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catrin eWielpuetz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the idea that the central serotonergic system has a modulatory function on behavior and personality in general, we aimed to highlight its association to habitual positive emotionality. In a placebo-controlled double-blind and randomized cross-over neuroendocrine challenge design (n = 72 healthy males we investigated the association of the central serotonergic responsivity, 5-HTTLPR-genotype as well as their combined effects on positive emotionality. Regression analyses revealed an involvement of the serotonergic system in positive emotionality. There was, however, no direct association between positive emotionality and cortisol responses to S-citalopram; rather 5-HTTLPR-genotype showed an association (p < .05. That is, positive emotionality scores increased with the number of s-alleles carried by the individuals. Most notable was the moderating role of 5-HTTLPR-genotype (p < .05 on the association between acute serotonergic responsivity and positive emotionality. Indeed, this association was only found in ss-homozygotes, in which the acute responsivity of the serotonergic system additionally seems to contribute to the level of positive emotionality (r = .70, p < .05. The findings correspond to previous research demonstrating that the 5-HTTLPR is not only involved in the negative-emotional aspects of behavior and temperament, but is associated, moreover, with positive affectivity – supporting the assumption of its valence-neutrality. In addition, our data are in line with the idea of possible influences of the 5-HTTLPR-genotype on early neuronal development. They also indicate the need for further studies in order to clearly elucidate the role of the serotonergic system and its subcomponents in the regulation of positive emotionality.

  13. Beginning DotNetNuke Skinning and Design

    CERN Document Server

    Hay, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    DotNetNuke is an open source framework built on top of the ASP.Net platform. While this system offers an impressive set of out-of-the-box features for public and private sites, it also includes a compelling story for folks who want to present a unique look and feel to visitors. The skinning engine inside of DotNetNuke has strengthened over the course of several years and hundreds of thousands of registered users. The success of its skin and module developer community is another key indicator of the depth and breadth of this technology. The Core Team responsible for the DotNetNuke brand has gon

  14. D.NET case study

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    lremy

    developing products, marketing tools and building capacity of the grass root telecentre workers. D.Net recognized that it had several ideas worth developing into small interventions that would make big differences, but resource constraints were a barrier for scaling-up these initiatives. More demands, limited resources.

  15. Surgery for GEP-NETs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, Ulrich; Hansen, Carsten Palnæs

    2012-01-01

    Surgery is the only treatment that may cure the patient with gastroentero-pancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumours (NET) and neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC) and should always be considered as first line treatment if R0/R1 resection can be achieved. The surgical and interventional procedures for GEP...

  16. Net Neutrality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.

    2014-01-01

    The Netherlands is among the first countries that have put specific net neutrality standards in place. The decision to implement specific regulation was influenced by at least three factors. The first was the prevailing social and academic debate, partly due to developments in the United States. The

  17. Complexity Metrics for Workflow Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; van der Aalst, Wil M.P.

    2009-01-01

    Process modeling languages such as EPCs, BPMN, flow charts, UML activity diagrams, Petri nets, etc.\\ are used to model business processes and to configure process-aware information systems. It is known that users have problems understanding these diagrams. In fact, even process engineers and system...

  18. Empathy in Negative and Positive Interpersonal Interactions. What is the Relationship Between Central (EEG, fNIRS) and Peripheral (Autonomic) Neurophysiological Responses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Maria Elide Vanutelli, Maria Elide

    2017-01-01

    Emotional empathy is crucial to understand how we respond to interpersonal positive or negative situations. In the present research, we aim at identifying the neural networks and the autonomic responsiveness underlying the human ability to perceive and empathize with others' emotions when positive (cooperative) or negative (uncooperative) interactions are observed. A multimethodological approach was adopted to elucidate the reciprocal interplay of autonomic (peripheral) and central (cortical) activities in empathic behavior. Electroencephalography (EEG, frequency band analysis) and hemodynamic (functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, fNIRS) activity were all recorded simultaneously with systemic skin conductance response (SCR) and heart rate (HR) measurements as potential biological markers of emotional empathy. Subjects were required to empathize in interpersonal interactions. As shown by fNIRS/EEG measures, negative situations elicited increased brain responses within the right prefrontal cortex (PFC), whereas positive situations elicited greater responses within the left PFC. Therefore, a relevant lateralization effect was induced by the specific valence (mainly for negative conditions) of the emotional interactions. Also, SCR was modulated by positive/negative conditions. Finally, EEG activity (mainly low-frequency theta and delta bands) intrinsically correlated with the cortical hemodynamic responsiveness, and they both predicted autonomic activity. The integrated central and autonomic measures better elucidated the significance of empathic behavior in interpersonal interactions.

  19. Empathy in Negative and Positive Interpersonal Interactions. What is the Relationship Between Central (EEG, fNIRS) and Peripheral (Autonomic) Neurophysiological Responses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Maria Elide Vanutelli, Maria Elide

    2017-01-01

    Emotional empathy is crucial to understand how we respond to interpersonal positive or negative situations. In the present research, we aim at identifying the neural networks and the autonomic responsiveness underlying the human ability to perceive and empathize with others’ emotions when positive (cooperative) or negative (uncooperative) interactions are observed. A multimethodological approach was adopted to elucidate the reciprocal interplay of autonomic (peripheral) and central (cortical) activities in empathic behavior. Electroencephalography (EEG, frequency band analysis) and hemodynamic (functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, fNIRS) activity were all recorded simultaneously with systemic skin conductance response (SCR) and heart rate (HR) measurements as potential biological markers of emotional empathy. Subjects were required to empathize in interpersonal interactions. As shown by fNIRS/EEG measures, negative situations elicited increased brain responses within the right prefrontal cortex (PFC), whereas positive situations elicited greater responses within the left PFC. Therefore, a relevant lateralization effect was induced by the specific valence (mainly for negative conditions) of the emotional interactions. Also, SCR was modulated by positive/negative conditions. Finally, EEG activity (mainly low-frequency theta and delta bands) intrinsically correlated with the cortical hemodynamic responsiveness, and they both predicted autonomic activity. The integrated central and autonomic measures better elucidated the significance of empathic behavior in interpersonal interactions. PMID:28450977

  20. Redefining the Positive Circumferential Resection Margin by Incorporating Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy Treatment Response in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer, a Multicenter Validation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo Ho; Chie, Eui Kyu; Jeong, Seung-Yong; Kim, Tae-You; Kim, Dae Yong; Kim, Tae Hyun; Kim, Sun Young; Baek, Ji Yeon; Hang, Hee Jin; Kim, Min Ju; Park, Sung Chan; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Sung Hwan; Lee, Jong Hoon; Choi, Doo Ho; Park, Hee Chul; Kang, Sung-Bum; Kim, Jae-Sung

    2017-05-24

    This study was conducted to validate the prognostic influence of treatment response among patients with positive circumferential resection margin for locally advanced rectal cancer. Clinical data of 197 patients with positive circumferential resection margin defined as ≤ 2mm after preoperative chemoradiotherapy followed by total mesorectal excision between 2004 and 2009 were collected for this multicenter validation study. All patients underwent median 50.4Gy radiation with concurrent fluoropyrimidine based chemotherapy. Treatment response was dichotomized to good response, including near total and moderate regression, and poor response, including minimal and no regression. After 52 months median follow-up, five-year overall survival (OS) for good responders and poor responders was 79.1% and 48.4%, respectively (p<0.001). In multivariate analysis, circumferential resection margin involvement and treatment response were a prognosticator for overall survival and locoregional recurrence free survival. In subgroup analysis, good responders with close margin showed significantly better survival outcomes for survival. Good responders with involved margin and poor responders with close margin shared similar results, whereas poor responders with involved margin had worst survival (5 year OS, 81.2%, 57.0%, 50.0%, and 32.4%, respectively, p<0.001). Among patients with positive circumferential resection margin after pre-operative chemoradiotherapy, survival of the good responders was significantly better than poor responders. Subgroup analysis revealed that definition of positive circumferential resection margin may be individualized as involvement for good responders, whereas ≤ 2 mm for poor responders.

  1. The Effect of Lower-Body Positive Pressure on the Cardiorespiratory Response at Rest and during Submaximal Running Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Stucky

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-gravity treadmills facilitate locomotion by lower-body positive pressure (LBPP. Effects on cardiorespiratory regulation are unknown. Healthy men (30 ± 8 y, 178.3 ± 5.7 cm, 70.3 ± 8.0 kg; mean ± SD stood upright (n = 10 or ran (n = 9 at 9, 11, 13, and 15 km.h−1 (5 min stages with LBPP (0, 15, 40 mmHg. Cardiac output (CO, stroke volume (SV, heart rate (HR, blood pressure (BP, peripheral resistance (PR, and oxygen uptake (VO2 were monitored continuously. During standing, LBPP increased SV [by +29 ± 13 (+41% and +42 ± 15 (+60% ml, at 15 and 40 mmHg, respectively (p < 0.05] and decreased HR [by −15 ± 6 (−20% and −22 ± 9 (−29% bpm (p < 0.05] resulting in a transitory increase in CO [by +1.6 ± 1.0 (+32% and +2.0 ± 1.0 (+39% l.min−1 (p < 0.05] within the first seconds of LBPP. This was accompanied by a transitory decrease in end-tidal PO2 [by −5 ± 3 (−5% and −10 ± 4 (−10% mmHg (p < 0.05] and increase in VO2 [by +66 ± 53 (+26% and +116 ± 64 (+46% ml.min−1 (p < 0.05], suggesting increased venous return and pulmonary blood flow. The application of LBPP increased baroreflex sensitivity (BRS [by +1.8 ± 1.6 (+18% and +4.6 ± 3.7 (+47% at 15 and 40 mmHg LBPP, respectively P < 0.05]. After reaching steady-state exercise CO vs. VO2 relationships remained linear with similar slope and intercept for each participant (mean R2 = 0.84 ± 0.13 while MAP remained unchanged. It follows that (1 LBPP affects cardiorespiratory integration at the onset of exercise; (2 at a given LBPP, once reaching steady-state exercise, the cardiorespiratory load is reduced proportionally to the lower metabolic demand resulting from the body weight support; (3 the balance between cardiovascular response, oxygen delivery to the exercising muscles and blood pressure regulation is maintained at exercise steady-state; and (4 changes in baroreflex sensitivity may be involved in the regulation of cardiovascular parameters during LBPP.

  2. De-escalation of treatment in HER2-positive breast cancer: Determinants of response and mechanisms of resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeraraghavan, Jamunarani; De Angelis, Carmine; Reis-Filho, Jorge S; Pascual, Tomás; Prat, Aleix; Rimawi, Mothaffar F; Osborne, C Kent; Schiff, Rachel

    2017-08-01

    Overexpression and/or gene amplification of HER2, a crucial member of the HER family of four receptors, occur in about 15-20% of breast cancers and define an aggressive subtype of the disease. Activated HER homo and heterodimers govern a complex and redundant downstream signaling network that regulates cell survival and metastasis. Despite treatment with effective HER2-targeted therapies, many HER2-positive tumors fail to respond, or initially respond but eventually develop resistance. One of the upfront reasons for this treatment failure is failure to accurately select the tumors that are truly dependent on HER2 for survival and so would benefit the most from HER2-targeted therapy. In these truly HER2-addicted tumors (i.e. physiologically dependent), resistance could be the result of an incomplete inhibition of signaling at the HER receptor layer. In this regard, preclinical and clinical studies have documented the superiority of combination anti-HER2 therapy over single agent therapy to achieve a more comprehensive inhibition of the various HER receptor dimers. HER2 can be further activated or reactivated by mutations or other alterations in HER2 itself, or in other HER family members. Even when a complete and sustained HER inhibition is achieved, resistance to anti-HER therapy can arise by other somewhat dominant mechanisms, including preexisting or emerging alternative signaling pathways such as the estrogen receptor, deregulated downstream signaling components, especially of the PI3K pathway, and the tumor immune microenvironment. Most of the clinical trials that have investigated the efficacy of anti-HER2 therapies took place in the background of aggressive chemotherapy regimens, thus confounding the identification of key factors of resistance to the anti-HER2 treatments. Recent studies, however, have suggested that some HER2-amplified tumors may benefit from anti-HER2 therapy combined with only a single chemotherapy agent or in the absence of any

  3. Organisms Composing an Experimental Coral Reef Community from Mo'orea, French Polynesia, Exhibit Taxon-Specific Net Production: Net Calcification Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coulson A. Lantz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Current research on coral reefs seeks to link the responses to anthropogenic stressors (such as global warming and ocean acidification [OA] among differing functional levels of biological organization. While experimental studies have identified ex situ taxon-specific responses to OA and global warming, isolating and connecting these effects in situ at the community-level has proved difficult. The difficulties arise from the large number of naturally varying parameters affecting corals reefs, such as light intensity and seawater residence time that affect net community production and calcification. To control variation in seawater residence time and allow light intensity to vary naturally, experimental outer reef (17-m depth benthic communities composed of calcified algae, corals, and reef pavement were constructed in large outdoor flumes in Mo'orea, French Polynesia. Net community production (P, net community calcification (G, the ratio of P/G (P/Gratio, and slope of P regressed on G (P/Gslope were calculated for the communities, and concurrently for the constituent members under the same temperature, light, and flow conditions. P and G, for both the communities and constituent members, were correlated positively with light intensity, whereas P/Gratio and P/Gslope were unaffected by light intensity. P/Gratios and P/Gslopes exhibited values that were specific to each community member. These results suggest that the P/Gratio and P/Gslope may be unaffected by natural variability in light intensity and could serve as useful metrics to relate responses at the taxon and community level, which is an important step in assessing the effects of environmental changes on coral reefs.

  4. Caught in the Net: Perineuronal Nets and Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Slaker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to drugs of abuse induces plasticity in the brain and creates persistent drug-related memories. These changes in plasticity and persistent drug memories are believed to produce aberrant motivation and reinforcement contributing to addiction. Most studies have explored the effect drugs of abuse have on pre- and postsynaptic cells and astrocytes; however, more recently, attention has shifted to explore the effect these drugs have on the extracellular matrix (ECM. Within the ECM are unique structures arranged in a net-like manner, surrounding a subset of neurons called perineuronal nets (PNNs. This review focuses on drug-induced changes in PNNs, the molecules that regulate PNNs, and the expression of PNNs within brain circuitry mediating motivation, reward, and reinforcement as it pertains to addiction.

  5. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Army Net Zero Training Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-20

    sensors were strategically placed throughout the installation by magnetically attaching them to water main valve stems. The sensors check sound...Recycle Wrap  Substitutes for Packaging Materials  Re-Use of Textiles and Linens  Setting Printers to Double-Sided Printing Net Zero Waste...can effectively achieve source reduction. Clean and Re-Use Shop Rags - Shop rags represent a large textile waste stream at many installations. As a

  6. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Net Zero Waste Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-20

    Anaerobic Digesters – Although anaerobic digestion is not a new technology and has been used on a large-scale basis in wastewater treatment , the...technology and has been used on a large-scale basis in wastewater treatment , the use of the technology should be demonstrated with other...approaches can be used for cardboard and cellulose -based packaging materials. This approach is in line with the Net Zero Waste hierarchy in terms of

  7. A positive serum basophil histamine release assay is a marker for ciclosporin-responsiveness in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iqbal, Kamran; Bhargava, Kapil; Skov, Per Stahl

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The electronic records of 398 patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) who had had a serum basophil histamine release assay (BHRA) performed as a marker of functional autoantibodies were audited. The BHRA was positive in 105 patients (26.4%). Fifty eight were treated with ciclo...... with ciclosporin because they were H1 anti-histamine unresponsive. CSU patients with a positive BHRA were more likely to respond clinically (P...

  8. HANPP Collection: Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity (NPP) portion of the Human Appropriation of Net Primary...

  9. Hydrodynamic characteristics of plane netting used for aquaculture net cages in uniform current

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DONG, SHUCHUANG; HU, FUXIANG; KUMAZAWA, TAISEI; SIODE, DAISUKE; TOKAI, TADASHI

    2016-01-01

      The hydrodynamic characteristics of polyethylene (PE) netting and chain link wire netting with different types of twine diameter and mesh size for aquaculture net cages were examined by experiments in a flume tank...

  10. False-positive skin prick test responses to commercially available dog dander extracts caused by contamination with house dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, M. J.; Mulder, M.; Witteman, A. M.; van Ree, R.; Aalberse, R. C.; Jansen, H. M.; van der Zee, J. S.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In an outpatient population, a high frequency of positive skin prick test responses to dog dander was found in the absence of detectable IgE to dog dander in the RAST. The majority of these patients were sensitized to house dust mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) and had no obvious

  11. The Influence of Colour on Radiometric Performances of Agricultural Nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellano, S.; Hemming, S.; Russo, G.

    2008-01-01

    The whole construction parameters of the net, combined with the shape of the structure, the position of the sun and the sky conditions affect the radiometric performance of the permeable covering system. The radiometric properties of the permeable membrane influence the quality of the agricultural

  12. Comparative Study of Different Gill Net Mesh Sizes in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioline

    indiv). The coefficient of variation between the size classes was high (93.9%) and showed slight positive skewness (0.58)and kurtosis of -0.43 (Table 1). The comparison of mean within the gill net mesh sizes using student t-test (t -test=145 > 0.890.5) showed significance variation between the size classes caught (Table 1).

  13. Determinants of net return among fish marketers in Port Harcourt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ordinary least squares multiple regression technique was also used to estimate the determinants of net returns of the marketers. The result showed that fish marketing in the area is profitable and has a return on investment of N1.17. Educational level and marketing experience positively and significantly influenced the ...

  14. Isolated unit tests in .Net

    OpenAIRE

    Haukilehto, Tero

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis isolation in unit testing is studied to get a precise picture of the isolation frameworks available for .Net environment. At the beginning testing is discussed in theory with the benefits and the problems it may have been linked with. The theory includes software development in general in connection with testing. Theory of isolation is also described before the actual isolation frameworks are represented. Common frameworks are described in more detail and comparable informa...

  15. Hyper-responsivity to touch and vestibular stimuli as a predictor of positive response to sensory integration procedures by autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, A J; Tickle, L S

    1980-06-01

    Sensory processing disturbance in autistic children as a predictor of response to sensory integrative procedures was investigated. Ten autistic children, ages 3-1/2 to 13 years (mean, 7.4 years), were initially evaluated in regard to their hypo-, hyper-, or normal responsivity to visual, auditory, tactile, vestibular, proprioceptive, olfactory, and gustatory stimuli. After evaluation, each child received therapy that provided somatosensory and vestibular stimulation and elicited adaptive responses to these stimuli. At the end of one year of therapy, each child's progress was judged in relationship to that of the others, and the group was divided into the six best and the four poorest respondents. Stepwise discriminant analysis identified which initial test variables predicted good or poor responses to therapy. The good respondents showed tactile defensiveness, avoidance of movement, gravitational insecurity, and an orienting response to an air puff. Results suggest that children who registered sensory input but failed to modulate it responded better to therapy than those who were hypo-responsive or failed to orient to sensory input.

  16. Studies Of Positive-Position-Feedback Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanson, James L.; Caughey, Thomas K.

    1992-01-01

    Report discusses theoretical and experimental studies of positive-position-feedback control for suppressing vibrations in large flexible structures. Positive-position-feedback control involves placement of actuators and sensors on structure; control voltages applied to actuators in response to outputs of sensors processed via compensator algorithm. Experiments demonstrate feasibility of suppressing vibrations by positive position feedback, and spillover of vibrational energy into uncontrolled modes has stabilizing effect if control gain sufficiently small.

  17. Event hierarchies in DanNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bolette Sandford; Nimb, Sanni

    2008-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler udarbejdelsen af et verbumshierarki i det leksikalsk-semantiske ordnet, DanNet.......Artiklen omhandler udarbejdelsen af et verbumshierarki i det leksikalsk-semantiske ordnet, DanNet....

  18. The Uniframe .Net Web Service Discovery Service

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berbeco, Robert W

    2003-01-01

    Microsoft .NET allows the creation of distributed systems in a seamless manner Within NET small, discrete applications, referred to as Web services, are utilized to connect to each other or larger applications...

  19. Long Term RadNet Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This RadNet Quality Data Asset includes all data since initiation and when ERAMS was expanded to become RadNet, name changed to reflect new mission. This includes...

  20. Survival is associated with complete response on MRI after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in ER-positive HER2-negative breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loo, Claudette E; Rigter, Lisanne S; Pengel, Kenneth E; Wesseling, Jelle; Rodenhuis, Sjoerd; Peeters, Marie-Jeanne T F D Vrancken; Sikorska, Karolina; Gilhuijs, Kenneth G A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/143937979

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pathological complete remission (pCR) of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative breast cancer is rarely achieved after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). In addition, the prognostic value of pCR for this breast cancer subtype is limited. We

  1. Responses to Positive versus Negative Interventions to Disruptive Classroom Behavior in a Student with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Renee B.

    2013-01-01

    This study reviews pertinent research, then uses a single-subject experimental design and methodology to assess the impact of both positive and negative interventions to reduce the incidence of inappropriate classroom behavior in a 12.2 year-old male student with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). In the context of this study,…

  2. Maximising net returns to fertiliser use by financially constrained ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Fertiliser Optimisation Tool was developed for Uganda to maximise net returns to fertiliser use for finance-limited crop management in consideration of the area of each crop to be planted, fertiliser costs, expected grain value, and money available for investment. The tool optimises across the 15 response functions to ...

  3. Distinguishing between Net and Global DIF in Polytomous Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfield, Randall D.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, I address two competing conceptions of differential item functioning (DIF) in polytomously scored items. The first conception, referred to as net DIF, concerns between-group differences in the conditional expected value of the polytomous response variable. The second conception, referred to as global DIF, concerns the conditional…

  4. Maximising net returns to fertiliser use by financially constrained ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Financial constraints usually limit fertiliser use by smallholder farmers and it is important that they maximise net returns on their investment. Fifteen crop-nutrient response functions, including six crops, were derived from results of 84 trials conducted in Uganda. The benefit:cost ratio (BC) for typical fertiliser use costs and ...

  5. Net loss of CaCO3 from coral reef communities due to human induced seawater acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, A.J.; Kuffner, I.B.; MacKenzie, F.T.; Jokiel, P.L.; Rodgers, K.S.; Tan, A.

    2009-01-01

    Acidification of seawater owing to oceanic uptake of atmospheric CO2 originating from human activities such as burning of fossil fuels and land-use changes has raised serious concerns regarding its adverse effects on corals and calcifying communities. Here we demonstrate a net loss of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) material as a result of decreased calcification and increased carbonate dissolution from replicated subtropical coral reef communities (n=3) incubated in continuous-flow mesocosms subject to future seawater conditions. The calcifying community was dominated by the coral Montipora capitata. Daily average community calcification or Net Ecosystem Calcification (NEC=CaCO3 production – dissolution) was positive at 3.3 mmol CaCO3 m−2 h−1 under ambient seawater pCO2 conditions as opposed to negative at −0.04 mmol CaCO3 m−2h−1 under seawater conditions of double the ambient pCO2. These experimental results provide support for the conclusion that some net calcifying communities could become subject to net dissolution in response to anthropogenic ocean acidification within this century. Nevertheless, individual corals remained healthy, actively calcified (albeit slower than at present rates), and deposited significant amounts of CaCO3 under the prevailing experimental seawater conditions of elevated pCO2.

  6. PsychoNet: a psycholinguistc commonsense ontology

    OpenAIRE

    Mohtasseb, Haytham; Ahmed, Amr

    2010-01-01

    Ontologies have been widely accepted as the most advanced knowledge representation model. This paper introduces PsychoNet, a new knowledgebase that forms the link between psycholinguistic taxonomy, existing in LIWC, and its semantic textual representation in the form of commonsense semantic ontology, represented by ConceptNet. The integration of LIWC and ConceptNet and the added functionalities facilitate employing ConceptNet in psycholinguistic studies. Furthermore, it simplifies utilization...

  7. Normal Distribution of CD8+ T-Cell-Derived ELISPOT Counts within Replicates Justifies the Reliance on Parametric Statistics for Identifying Positive Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Y. Karulin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Accurate assessment of positive ELISPOT responses for low frequencies of antigen-specific T-cells is controversial. In particular, it is still unknown whether ELISPOT counts within replicate wells follow a theoretical distribution function, and thus whether high power parametric statistics can be used to discriminate between positive and negative wells. We studied experimental distributions of spot counts for up to 120 replicate wells of IFN-γ production by CD8+ T-cell responding to EBV LMP2A (426 – 434 peptide in human PBMC. The cells were tested in serial dilutions covering a wide range of average spot counts per condition, from just a few to hundreds of spots per well. Statistical analysis of the data using diagnostic Q-Q plots and the Shapiro-Wilk normality test showed that in the entire dynamic range of ELISPOT spot counts within replicate wells followed a normal distribution. This result implies that the Student t-Test and ANOVA are suited to identify positive responses. We also show experimentally that borderline responses can be reliably detected by involving more replicate wells, plating higher numbers of PBMC, addition of IL-7, or a combination of these. Furthermore, we have experimentally verified that the number of replicates needed for detection of weak responses can be calculated using parametric statistics.

  8. 78 FR 72451 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BL74 Net Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service...). These regulations provide guidance on the computation of net investment income. The regulations affect... lesser of: (A) The individual's net investment income for such taxable year, or (B) the excess (if any...

  9. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net investment. 69.302 Section 69.302... Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B Rural...) Investment in Accounts 2002, 2003 and to the extent such inclusions are allowed by this Commission, Account...

  10. 47 CFR 65.450 - Net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.450 Section 65.450... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.450 Net income. (a) Net income shall consist of all revenues derived from the provision of interstate telecommunications services...

  11. 47 CFR 65.500 - Net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.500 Section 65.500... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Interexchange Carriers § 65.500 Net income. The net income methodology specified in § 65.450 shall be utilized by all interexchange carriers that are...

  12. NetBeans IDE 8 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Salter, David

    2014-01-01

    If you're a Java developer of any level using NetBeans and want to learn how to get the most out of NetBeans, then this book is for you. Learning how to utilize NetBeans will provide a firm foundation for your Java application development.

  13. Characterizing behavioural congruences for Petri nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Priese, Lutz; Sassone, Vladimiro

    1995-01-01

    We exploit a notion of interface for Petri nets in order to design a set of net combinators. For such a calculus of nets, we focus on the behavioural congruences arising from four simple notions of behaviour, viz., traces, maximal traces, step, and maximal step traces, and from the corresponding...

  14. 27 CFR 4.37 - Net contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the volume of wine within the container, except that the following tolerances shall be allowed: (1... THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.37 Net contents. (a) Statement of net contents. The net contents of wine for which a standard of fill is...

  15. Predictors of Positive Treatment Outcome in People With Anorexia Nervosa Treated in a Specialized Inpatient Unit: The Role of Early Response to Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, Jackie; Brewin, Nicola; Cashmore, Rebecca; Haycraft, Emma; Baggott, Jonathan; Cooper, Amy; Arcelus, Jon

    2016-09-01

    To investigate factors which predict positive treatment outcome in inpatients with anorexia nervosa (AN), particularly the role of early treatment response. 102 patients entering specialist inpatient treatment were assessed for eating disorder history, psychopathology, and motivation to change. Predictive factors assessed were: early treatment response defined as weight increase of at least 0.5-1 kg/week during the first 6 weeks of treatment (n=87), admission body mass index (BMI), onset age, chronicity, motivation to change, diagnosis, and previous hospitalization for AN. Positive treatment outcome was defined as achieving a BMI of 17.5 kg/m(2) within an individual time frame. Logistic regression indicated that patients were 18 times more likely to reach positive treatment outcome if they met the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence weight guidelines within the first 6 weeks of hospitalization. Higher admission BMI was also found to predict positive treatment outcome. Higher entry BMI and early weight gain predict positive treatment outcome in individuals receiving specialist AN inpatient treatment. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  16. Developing Training Programs to Enhance Positive Attitude toward the ASEAN Community and Self-responsibility For Students in the 6th Grade Naku Distric Kalasin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siriporn Chooarerom

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to ; 1 Study the status and problem of an through attitude the ASEAN community for grade 6 students. 2 Develop training programs to enhance their positive attitude towards the ASEAN community and self-responsibility for grade 6 students. 3 Experiment training program to enhance their positive attitude towards the ASEAN community and self-responsibility for grade 6 students. The samples of this study were 21 students. They were selected though cluster random sampling method. The research instruments used in the study were the Training programs to enhance their positive attitude towards the ASEAN community and self-responsibility. Surveys of problems from the event ASEAN week. Lenarning ASEAN. Measuring a positive attitude towards the ASEAN community scale with discriminating power ranging 0.375 – 0.793 and Measuring self-responsibility scale with discriminating power ranging 0.411 – 0.893 and a reliability of 0.973. The statistics used for analyzing the collected data were mean, standard deviation, and One-way repeated measure MANOVA The study showed that 1 Study of the attitude of the ASEAN community condition survey found that teachers have trouble understanding, Interested to attend the event and have admired and awareness in preparation the ASEAN community, the levels are minimal. The students realized in preparation, understanding about . Attention to participation and appreciation the ASEAN community, the levels are minimal 2 Training programs to enhance their positive attitude toward the ASEAN community and self-responsibility for grade 6 students was created by. Activities focus on the students involved and take action. Remove group activities used in the event. Stage one consists of two steps leading to the involvement step 3 step 4 step by step analysis and application of the five-stage process and evaluation. By 5 experts have evaluated the overall level more appropriate. 3 Students attend their

  17. An anterior left ventricular lead position is associated with increased mortality and non-response in cardiac resynchronization therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Mads Brix; Johansen, Jens Brock; Riahi, Sam

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) might be due to insufficient resynchronization as a result of a sub-optimal left ventricular lead positon (LV-LP). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of different LV-LPs on mortality and symptomatic improvement in a large cohort...

  18. Relative roles of the cellular and humoral responses in the Drosophila host defense against three gram-positive bacterial infections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nehme, N.T.; Quintin, J.; Cho, J.H.; Lee, J.; Lafarge, M.C.; Kocks, C.; Ferrandon, D.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Two NF-kappaB signaling pathways, Toll and immune deficiency (imd), are required for survival to bacterial infections in Drosophila. In response to septic injury, these pathways mediate rapid transcriptional activation of distinct sets of effector molecules, including antimicrobial

  19. Destination branding by residents : The role of perceived responsibility in positive and negative word-of-mouth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuring, Jelmer; Haartsen, Tialda

    2017-01-01

    The importance of residents’ communication about their home region as tourist destination is increasingly acknowledged in the place branding process. However, the extent to which residents feel responsible for communicating Destination Images (DIs), and how these attributions affect word-of-mouth

  20. Is response to anti-hepatitis C virus treatment predictive of mortality in hepatitis C virus/HIV-positive patients?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Lars; Raben, Dorthe

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-term clinical outcomes after hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment of HIV/HCV patients are not well described. We aimed to compare the risk of all-cause and liver-related death (LRD) according to HCV treatment response in HIV/HCV patients in the multicohort study Collaboration...

  1. Waterscape determinants of net mercury methylation in a tropical wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro, Wilkinson L; Díez, Sergi; da Silva, Carolina J; Ignácio, Áurea R A; Guimarães, Jean R D

    2016-10-01

    The periphyton associated with freshwater macrophyte roots is the main site of Hg methylation in different wetland environments in the world. The aim of this study was to test the use of connectivity metrics of water bodies, in the context of patches, in a tropical waterscape wetland (Guapore River, Amazonia, Brazil) as a predictor of potential net methylmercury (MeHg) production by periphyton communities. We sampled 15 lakes with different patterns of lateral connectivity with the main river channel, performing net mercury methylation potential tests in incubations with local water and Eichhornia crassipes root-periphyton samples, using (203)HgCl2 as a tracer. Physico-chemical variables, landscape data (morphological characteristics, land use, and lateral connection type of water bodies) using GIS resources and field data were analyzed with Generalized Additive Models (GAM). The net Me(203)Hg production (as % of total added (203)Hg) was expressive (6.2-25.6%) showing that periphyton is an important matrix in MeHg production. The model that best explained the variation in the net Me(203)Hg production (76%) was built by the variables: connection type, total phosphorus and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in water (AICc=48.324, p=0.001). Connection type factor was the best factor to model fit (r(2)=0.32; p=0.008) and temporarily connected lakes had higher rates of net mercury methylation. Both DOC and total phosphorus showed positive significant covariation with the net methylation rates (r(2)=0.26; p=0.008 and r(2)=0.21; p=0.012 respectively). Our study suggests a strong relationship between rates of net MeHg production in this tropical area and the type of water body and its hydrological connectivity within the waterscape. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Longer inter-lead electrical delay is associated with response to cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with presumed optimal left ventricular lead position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Anders; Kronborg, Mads Brix; Nørgaard, Bjarne Linde

    2018-01-01

    was defined as ≥15% reduction in LV end-systolic volume at 6 months follow-up. Selecting a practical IED cut-off value of 100 ms, more patients with long IED than patients with short IED responded to CRT (87 vs. 68%; P = 0.004). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, IED ≥100 ms remained associated...... LV lead position. Conclusion: A longer IED was associated with more pronounced LV reverse remodelling response in CRT recipients with a presumed optimal LV lead position concordant or adjacent to the latest mechanically activated non-scarred segment....

  3. Systemic Epstein-Barr Virus-positive T-Cell Lymphoproliferative Disease of Childhood With Good Response to Steroid Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Hoon; Kim, Myungshin; Kim, Yonggoo; Han, Kyungja; Han, Eunhee; Lee, Jae Wook; Chung, Nack-Gyun; Cho, Bin

    2017-11-01

    Systemic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disease of childhood is a rare disease and has a very fulminant clinical course with high mortality. A 21-month-old female patient was referred to our hospital with a 1 week history of fever and was subsequently diagnosed with systemic Epstein-Barr virus-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disease of childhood. After starting treatment with dexamethasone, she showed early defervescence and improvement of laboratory parameters, and has remained disease-free after stopping steroid treatment, although longer follow-up is necessary. Our report underscores the possibility that this disease entity may be heterogenous in terms of prognosis.

  4. NetF-producing Clostridium perfringens: Clonality and plasmid pathogenicity loci analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdizadeh Gohari, Iman; Kropinski, Andrew M; Weese, Scott J; Whitehead, Ashley E; Parreira, Valeria R; Boerlin, Patrick; Prescott, John F

    2017-04-01

    Clostridium perfringens is an important cause of foal necrotizing enteritis and canine acute hemorrhagic diarrhea. A major virulence determinant of the strains associated with these diseases appears to be a beta-sheet pore-forming toxin, NetF, encoded within a pathogenicity locus (NetF locus) on a large tcp-conjugative plasmid. Strains producing NetF also produce the putative toxin NetE, encoded within the same pathogenicity locus, as well as CPE enterotoxin and CPB2 on a second plasmid, and sometimes the putative toxin NetG within a pathogenicity locus (NetG locus) on another separate large conjugative plasmid. Previous genome sequences of two netF-positive C. perfringens showed that they both shared three similar plasmids, including the NetF/NetE and CPE/CPB2 toxins-encoding plasmids mentioned above and a putative bacteriocin-encoding plasmid. The main purpose of this study was to determine whether all NetF-producing strains share this common plasmid profile and whether their distinct NetF and CPE pathogenicity loci are conserved. To answer this question, 15 equine and 15 canine netF-positive isolates of C. perfringens were sequenced using Illumina Hiseq2000 technology. In addition, the clonal relationships among the NetF-producing strains were evaluated by core genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST). The data obtained showed that all NetF-producing strains have a common plasmid profile and that the defined pathogenicity loci on the plasmids are conserved in all these strains. cgMLST analysis showed that the NetF-producing C. perfringens strains belong to two distinct clonal complexes. The pNetG plasmid was absent from isolates of one of the clonal complexes, and there were minor but consistent differences in the NetF/NetE and CPE/CPB2 plasmids between the two clonal complexes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Exposure to blue wavelength light modulates anterior cingulate cortex activation in response to 'uncertain' versus 'certain' anticipation of positive stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkozei, Anna; Smith, Ryan; Killgore, William D S

    2016-03-11

    Blue wavelength light has been used as an effective treatment for some types of mood disorders and circadian rhythm related sleep problems. We hypothesized that acute exposure to blue wavelength light would directly affect the functioning of neurocircuity implicated in emotion regulation (i.e., ventromedial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, insula, and anterior cingulate cortex [ACC]) during 'certain' and 'uncertain' anticipation of negative and positive stimuli. Thirty-five healthy adults were randomized to receive a thirty-minute exposure to either blue (active) or amber (placebo) light, immediately followed by an emotional anticipation task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In contrast to placebo, participants in the blue light group showed significantly reduced activation within the rostral ACC during 'uncertain' anticipation (i.e., uncertainty regarding whether a positive or negative stimulus would be shown) in comparison to 'certain' anticipation of a positive stimulus. These findings may be explicable in terms of interactions between blue light exposure and the influence of specific neuromodulators on ACC-mediated decision-making mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The electrocortical response to rewarding and aversive feedback: The reward positivity does not reflect salience in simple gambling tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Elizabeth M; Hajcak, Greg

    2017-11-26

    The Reward Positivity (RewP) is an event-related potential (ERP) potentiated to monetary gains and reduced to monetary losses. Recently, competing data suggest that more salient outcomes elicit a positivity relative to less salient outcomes, regardless of valence. However, all previous work testing the impact of salience on the RewP have examined expected versus unexpected outcomes. In the current study, participants completed the same gambling task twice in which feedback was equally probable: in one condition, feedback indicated monetary gain or loss-and in the other condition, feedback indicated either safety or punishment from subsequent electric shock. Traditional ERP and principal component analysis (PCA)-derived measures confirmed that the RewP was more positive to feedback signaling monetary gain and safety from shock compared to feedback signaling monetary loss and punishment with shock. These results align with models in which the RewP indexes reward-related processes, including reward prediction error models. Potential explanations for salience-based effects on the RewP are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Global climate change and terrestrial net primary production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melillo, Jerry M.; Mcguire, A. D.; Kicklighter, David W.; Moore, Berrien, III; Vorosmarty, Charles J.; Schloss, Annette L.

    1993-01-01

    A process-based model was used to estimate global patterns of net primary production and soil nitrogen cycling for contemporary climate conditions and current atmospheric CO2 concentration. Over half of the global annual net primary production was estimated to occur in the tropics, with most of the production attributable to tropical evergreen forest. The effects of CO2 doubling and associated climate changes were also explored. The responses in tropical and dry temperate ecosystems were dominated by CO2, but those in northern and moist temperate ecosystems reflected the effects of temperature on nitrogen availability.

  8. HER2 intratumoral heterogeneity is independently associated with incomplete response to anti-HER2 neoadjuvant chemotherapy in HER2-positive breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yanjun; Nitta, Hiroaki; Wei, Lai; Banks, Peter M; Portier, Bryce; Parwani, Anil V; Li, Zaibo

    2017-11-01

    Anti-HER2 neoadjuvant chemotherapy has been widely used in HER2-positive breast cancer patients; however, pathologic complete response (pCR) is achieved in only 40-50% of patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of HER2 intratumoral heterogeneity (ITH) with response to anti-HER2 neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Assessment of HER2 ITH was performed on whole tissue sections of pre-treatment samples from a cohort of 64 invasive breast carcinoma cases originally considered positive for HER2 and treated with anti-HER2 neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Both HER2 gene signal and protein expression were simultaneously evaluated by means of a single-slide dual assay, designated as a HER2 gene-protein assay (GPA). HER2 GPA was carried out as well on surgical resection tissues from 25 cases with incomplete therapeutic response. Nineteen of 64 cases (30%) showed HER2 ITH. Significantly more cases with HER2 ITH were found in the incomplete response group (56%, 14/25) than in the pCR group (13%, 5/39). Patients without ITH detectable by GPA had a 76% pCR outcome (34/45), as compared to 26% (5/19) for those with detectable ITH. Multivariate analysis demonstrated HER2 ITH, progesterone receptor positivity, and relatively low HER2/chromosome 17 centromere ratio to be significantly associated with incomplete response. HER2 ITH analyses conducted with GPA method revealed that HER2 ITH is an independent factor predicting incomplete response to anti-HER2 neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

  9. An improved null model for assessing the net effects of multiple stressors on communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Patrick L; MacLennan, Megan M; Vinebrooke, Rolf D

    2017-07-28

    Ecological stressors (i.e., environmental factors outside their normal range of variation) can mediate each other through their interactions, leading to unexpected combined effects on communities. Determining whether the net effect of stressors is ecologically surprising requires comparing their cumulative impact to a null model that represents the linear combination of their individual effects (i.e., an additive expectation). However, we show that standard additive and multiplicative null models that base their predictions on the effects of single stressors on community properties (e.g., species richness or biomass) do not provide this linear expectation, leading to incorrect interpretations of antagonistic and synergistic responses by communities. We present an alternative, the compositional null model, which instead bases its predictions on the effects of stressors on individual species, and then aggregates them to the community level. Simulations demonstrate the improved ability of the compositional null model to accurately provide a linear expectation of the net effect of stressors. We simulate the response of communities to paired stressors that affect species in a purely additive fashion and compare the relative abilities of the compositional null model and two standard community property null models (additive and multiplicative) to predict these linear changes in species richness and community biomass across different combinations (both positive, negative, or opposite) and intensities of stressors. The compositional model predicts the linear effects of multiple stressors under almost all scenarios, allowing for proper classification of net effects, whereas the standard null models do not. Our findings suggest that current estimates of the prevalence of ecological surprises on communities based on community property null models are unreliable, and should be improved by integrating the responses of individual species to the community level as does our

  10. NET 40 Generics Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Sudipta

    2012-01-01

    This is a concise, practical guide that will help you learn Generics in .NET, with lots of real world and fun-to-build examples and clear explanations. It is packed with screenshots to aid your understanding of the process. This book is aimed at beginners in Generics. It assumes some working knowledge of C# , but it isn't mandatory. The following would get the most use out of the book: Newbie C# developers struggling with Generics. Experienced C++ and Java Programmers who are migrating to C# and looking for an alternative to other generic frameworks like STL and JCF would find this book handy.

  11. HPV16 E7 DNA tattooing: safety, immunogenicity, and clinical response in patients with HPV-positive vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Sanne; Marijne Heeren, A; Zijlmans, Henry J M A A; Welters, Marij J P; van den Berg, Joost H; Philips, Daisy; Kvistborg, Pia; Ehsan, Ilina; Scholl, Suzy M E; Nuijen, Bastiaan; Schumacher, Ton N M; van Beurden, Marc; Jordanova, Ekaterina S; Haanen, John B A G; van der Burg, Sjoerd H; Kenter, Gemma G

    2017-09-01

    Usual type vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (uVIN) is caused by HPV, predominantly type 16. Several forms of HPV immunotherapy have been studied, however, clinical results could be improved. A novel intradermal administration route, termed DNA tattooing, is superior in animal models, and was tested for the first time in humans with a HPV16 E7 DNA vaccine (TTFC-E7SH). The trial was designed to test safety, immunogenicity, and clinical response of TTFC-E7SH in twelve HPV16 + uVIN patients. Patients received six vaccinations via DNA tattooing. The first six patients received 0.2 mg TTFC-E7SH and the next six 2 mg TTFC-E7SH. Vaccine-specific T-cell immunity was evaluated by IFNγ-ELISPOT and multiparametric flow cytometry. Only grade I-II adverse events were observed upon TTFC-E7SH vaccination. The ELISPOT analysis showed in 4/12 patients a response to the peptide pool containing shuffled E7 peptides. Multiparametric flow cytometry showed low CD4 + and/or CD8 + T-cell responses as measured by increased expression of PD-1 (4/12 in both), CTLA-4 (2/12 and 3/12), CD107a (5/12 and 4/12), or the production of IFNγ (2/12 and 1/12), IL-2 (3/12 and 4/12), TNFα (2/12 and 1/12), and MIP1β (3/12 and 6/12). At 3 months follow-up, no clinical response was observed in any of the twelve vaccinated patients. DNA tattoo vaccination was shown to be safe. A low vaccine-induced immune response and no clinical response were observed in uVIN patients after TTFC-E7SH DNA tattoo vaccination. Therefore, a new phase I/II trial with an improved DNA vaccine format is currently in development for patients with uVIN.

  12. Position indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, David E.

    1981-01-01

    A nuclear reactor system is described in which a position indicator is provided for detecting and indicating the position of a movable element inside a pressure vessel. The movable element may be a valve element or similar device which moves about an axis. Light from a light source is transmitted from a source outside the pressure vessel to a first region inside the pressure vessel in alignment with the axis of the movable element. The light is redirected by a reflector prism to a second region displaced radially from the first region. The reflector prism moves in response to movement of the movable element about its axis such that the second region moves arcuately with respect to the first region. Sensors are arrayed in an arc corresponding to the arc of movement of the second region and signals are transmitted from the sensors to the exterior of the reactor vessel to provide indication of the position of the movable element.

  13. Net Generation: Visions for their Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Davila

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses the changes that are demanded in the conception and culture of the learning, focuses the attention on the effect that the new digital environments have cause on the person, the education and the society. The main reflection is over the digital culture that characterizes to the Net generation (people that had from zero to 20 years for the year 1999 and their requirements of knowing or knowledge and of how to learn that knowledge today and always. This research was carried out a bibliographical and documental revision. The information makes us meditate about the change of the traditional transmission learning to the interactive learning defendant in the digital environments; they involve a new culture of educational system, of teaching and learning, where this responsible the own individual, the family and the society. This will contribute with the understanding, acceptance, adaptation, use, development and life in an interconnected world, digital and communicated globally.

  14. Testing Benjamin Graham’s net current asset value model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongsoo An

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to empirically test one of Graham’s investment methods based on the net current asset value (NCAV. The NCAV is truly unique, and conservative, and commonly known as the net-net method.  The ratio of the net current asset value to market value (NCAV/MV was employed in this study to test a stock’s performance comparing to the performance of S&P 500 as the market index. We used all stocks in Portfolio123 whose raw data were supplied by Compustat, Standard & Poors, Capital IQ, and Reuters for the period of January 2, 1999 to August 31, 2012. The overall results show that the firms with high net current asset values outperform the market. These results are strong in the up market. It can be argued that the firms with a high NCAV/MV ratio are likely to move toward their fundamental value and generate high excess return because its stock prices are now undervalued. The implications of the study are: (a a positive NCAV/MV ratio may be a good indicator of the underpriced security; (b investing in the growth period and avoiding the downturn period leads investors to earn much higher returns from the firms with a high NCAV/MV ratio; and (c The NCAV/MV strategy requires a longer holding period of the portfolio in order to generate excess returns.

  15. Positive Psychology in Context: Effects of Expressing Gratitude in Ongoing Relationships Depend on Perceptions of Enactor Responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algoe, Sara B; Zhaoyang, Ruixue

    2016-01-01

    Recent correlational evidence implicates gratitude in personal and relational growth, for both members of ongoing relationships. From these observations, it would be tempting to prescribe interpersonal gratitude exercises to improve relationships. In this experiment, couples were randomly assigned to express gratitude over a month, or to a relationally-active control condition. Results showed modest effects of condition on personal and relational well-being. However, those whose partners were perceived as being particularly responsive when expressing gratitude at the initial lab session showed greater well-being across a range of outcomes, whereas this was not so for people in the control condition. Notably, evidence raises concerns about the effectiveness of artificial injections of gratitude when the partner is perceived to be low in responsiveness. Given the importance of close relationships, this work highlights the need for more theory-driven basic research tested in context before assuming what appears to work naturally will also work artificially.

  16. Metabolic Response of Soil Microorganisms to Frost: A New Perspective from Position-specific 13C Labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bore, E. K.; Apostel, C.; Halicki, S.; Dippold, M. A.; Kuzyakov, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Cold adapted organisms and their biomolecules have received considerable attention in the last few decades, particularly in light of the perceived biotechnological potential. Mostly, these studies are based on pure isolated cultures from permafrost or permafrost samples with inherently adapted microbes. However, microbial activities in agricultural soils that are predominantly exposed to freeze conditions during winter in temperate ecosystems remain unclear. To analyze microbial metabolism at low soil temperatures, isotopomeres of position-specifically 13C labeled glucose were incubated at three temperature; 5 (control), -5 -20 oC. Soils were sampled after 1, 3 and 10 days (and after 30 days for samples at -20 °C). 13C was quantifed in CO2, bulk soil, microbial biomass and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Highest 13C recovery in CO2 was obtained from C-1 position in control soil. Consequently, metabolic activity was dominated by pentose phosphate pathway at 5 °C. In contrast, metabolic behaviors switched towards a preferential respiration of the glucose C-4 position at -5 and -20 °C. High 13C recovery from C-4 position confirms previous studies suggesting that fermentation increases at subzero temperature. A 3-fold higher 13C recovery in microbial biomass at -5 °C than under control conditions points towards synthesis of intracellular antifreeze metabolites such as glycerol and ethanol and it is consistent with fermentative metabolism. A 5-fold higher 13C in bulk soil than microbial biomass at -20 °C does not reflect non-metabolized glucose because 13C recovery in DOC was less than 0.4% at day 1. Therefore, high 13C recovery in bulk soil at -20 °C was attributed to extracellular metabolites secreted to overcome frost. The shift in antifreeze mechanisms with temperature was brought about by shift in microbial community structure as indicated by incorporation into 13C into PLFA which was 2-fold higher in gram negative bacteria under control than frozen

  17. Responses of ocean circulation and carbon cycle to changes in the position of the Southern Hemisphere westerlies at Last Glacial Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völker, Christoph; Köhler, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We explore the impact of a latitudinal shift in the westerly wind belt over the Southern Ocean on the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and on the carbon cycle for Last Glacial Maximum background conditions using a state-of-the-art ocean general circulation model. We find that a southward (northward) shift in the westerly winds leads to an intensification (weakening) of no more than 10% of the AMOC. This response of the ocean physics to shifting winds agrees with other studies starting from preindustrial background climate, but the responsible processes are different. In our setup changes in AMOC seemed to be more pulled by upwelling in the south than pushed by downwelling in the north, opposite to what previous studies with different background climate are suggesting. The net effects of the changes in ocean circulation lead to a rise in atmospheric pCO2 of less than 10 μatm for both northward and southward shift in the winds. For northward shifted winds the zone of upwelling of carbon- and nutrient-rich waters in the Southern Ocean is expanded, leading to more CO2outgassing to the atmosphere but also to an enhanced biological pump in the subpolar region. For southward shifted winds the upwelling region contracts around Antarctica, leading to less nutrient export northward and thus a weakening of the biological pump. These model results do not support the idea that shifts in the westerly wind belt play a dominant role in coupling atmospheric CO2 rise and Antarctic temperature during deglaciation suggested by the ice core data. PMID:26074663

  18. Using NetMaster to manage IBM networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Guss

    1991-01-01

    After defining a network and conveying its importance to support the activities at the JSC, the need for network management based on the size and complexity of the IBM SNA network at JSC is demonstrated. Network Management consists of being aware of component status and the ability to control resources to meet the availability and service needs of users. The concerns of the user are addressed as well as those of the staff responsible for managing the network. It is explained how NetMaster (a network management system for managing SNA networks) is used to enhance reliability and maximize service to SNA network users through automated procedures. The following areas are discussed: customization, problem and configuration management, and system measurement applications of NetMaster. Also, several examples are given that demonstrate NetMaster's ability to manage and control the network, integrate various product functions, as well as provide useful management information.

  19. Reduced responsiveness of kisspeptin neurons to estrogenic positive feedback associated with age-related disappearance of LH surge in middle-age female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Misawa Niki; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Matsui, Hisanori; Seki, Nobuyuki; Matsumoto, Hirokazu; Ishikawa, Kaori; Chatani, Fumio; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2013-11-01

    Age-related disappearance of the LH surge is one of major biomarkers of reproductive aging in female rats. Kisspeptin neurons in the hypothalamic anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) are proposed as the critical regulator of the preovulatory LH surge in response to estrogenic positive feedback. Here we investigated the possible involvement of the AVPV kisspeptin neurons in the disappearance of the LH surge in middle-age rats. Middle-age rats exhibiting persistent estrus (M-PE) did not show an LH surge although neither Kiss1 mRNA nor peptide in the AVPV was differentially expressed when compared to young rats exhibiting normal estrous cycles (YN). M-PE released LH in response to exogenous kisspeptin in a similar dose-dependent manner as YN, suggesting that their GnRH neurons still maintained responsiveness to kisspeptin. To investigate the estrogenic positive feedback effect on kisspeptin neurons in the AVPV, rats were ovariectomized and supplemented with estradiol (OVX+E2). We performed in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry for Kiss1 mRNA and cFos, respectively, and found that M-PE exhibited a significantly lower percentage of Kiss1 mRNA positive neurons with cFos immunoreactivity, although the total number of kisspeptin neurons was not different from that in cyclic rats. Furthermore, OVX+E2 M-PE did not show the surge-like LH release under high estradiol administration while YN did. Thus our current study suggests that the reduced responsiveness of the AVPV kisspeptin neurons to estrogenic positive feedback presumably results in the decrease in kisspeptin secretion from neurons and eventually causes the age-related disappearance of the LH surge in middle age female rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of X-Y Servo Pneumatic-Piezoelectric Hybrid Actuators for Position Control with High Response, Large Stroke and Nanometer Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-Hsiung Chiang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop a X-Y dual-axial intelligent servo pneumatic-piezoelectric hybrid actuator for position control with high response, large stroke (250 mm, 200 mm and nanometer accuracy (20 nm. In each axis, the rodless pneumatic actuator serves to position in coarse stroke and the piezoelectric actuator compensates in fine stroke. Thus, the overall control systems of the single axis become a dual-input single-output (DISO system. Although the rodless pneumatic actuator has relatively larger friction force, it has the advantage of mechanism for multi-axial development. Thus, the X-Y dual-axial positioning system is developed based on the servo pneumatic-piezoelectric hybrid actuator. In addition, the decoupling self-organizing fuzzy sliding mode control is developed as the intelligent control strategies. Finally, the proposed novel intelligent X-Y dual-axial servo pneumatic-piezoelectric hybrid actuators are implemented and verified experimentally.

  1. THE POSITION OF STATE RESPONSIBILITY FOR ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION BY CORPORATE : The Legal Studies of Implementation Paradigm Polluter Pay Principle in Environmental Law Enforcement in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maret Priyanta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The development activities is one of the government's efforts in order to realize a fairness and prosperous for the society. The natural resources management through the business activities carried out by the corporation, became one of the important factors in the success of national development. One of the impacts of development activities on the environment is the environmental pollution because of the utilization of natural resources. The pollution has caused a decrease in the quality of human life and other living creatures. Differences paradigm or way people view the polluter pays principle and the position of the responsibility of States to discredit the corporation still there is a difference of view and understanding. It is see from the practice of application of the Social and Environmental Responsibility (TJSL, which seems to have been removing corporate responsibility and involvement allocationof State budget revenue and expenditure of the State to penangulangan pollution, which performed by the corporation. This has led to uncertainty in the law enforcement environment in Indonesia. This study aimed to describe the problem from the legal aspect and theory in relation to the position of state responsibility and corporate environmental pollution in the environmental legal system. This study uses normative juridical approach, through the method of approach to legislation, the conceptual approach, and an analytical approach. The scope of this normative juridical research includes the study of the principles and theory of law. Paradigm reform of the principles of pollution should be change or reform based on theory of law, whereby the position and extent of responsibility of states and corporations definitely be regulated in the Indonesia environmental legal system.

  2. Brain and liver pathology, amyloid deposition, and interferon responses among older HIV-positive patients in the late HAART era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Isaac H; De Girolami, Umberto; Chettimada, Sukrutha; Misra, Vikas; Singer, Elyse J; Gabuzda, Dana

    2017-02-17

    HIV+ patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) with suppressed viral loads have a low incidence of HIV-associated dementia, but increased prevalence of milder forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). These milder forms of HAND are often associated with minimal histological abnormalities, and their pathophysiology is unclear. Comorbidities, altered amyloid metabolism, accelerated brain aging, and activated interferon responses are suspected to play a role in HAND pathogenesis in HAART-treated persons. To investigate associations between liver disease, accelerated brain aging, and HAND in HIV+ patients in the late HAART era (2002-2015), we studied liver and brain autopsy tissues from 53 older subjects evaluated at UCLA and BWH using histopathological stains, a sensitive fluorescent amyloid stain (AmyloGlo), and targeted gene expression profiling (NanoString). The majority of HIV+ subjects (median age 56) were on HAART (89.3%) with last pre-mortem plasma viral load brain pathologies. AmyloGlo staining detected large amyloid deposits in only one HIV+ case (age 69 with Alzheimer's disease pathology) and two HIV- controls (ages 66 and 74). White matter from HIV+ cases vs. HIV- seronegative controls showed a trend (p = 0.06) towards increased interferon response gene expression (ISG15, MX1, IFIT1, IFIT2, and IFITM1). Gliosis and cerebrovascular disease, but not accelerated amyloid deposition, are common brain pathologies among older HIV+ patients in the late HAART era. Although HIV+ subjects had more cirrhosis, liver pathology was not associated with any consistent pattern of brain pathology. Cerebrovascular disease, interferon responses, and neuroinflammation are likely factors contributing to brain aging and HAND in older HIV+ patients on current HAART regimens.

  3. Relationship between plasma estradiol levels and estrogen-responsive gene expression in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbier, Anita K; Anderson, Helen; Ghazoui, Zara; Folkerd, Elizabeth J; A'hern, Roger; Crowder, Robert J; Hoog, Jeremy; Smith, Ian E; Osin, Peter; Nerurkar, Ashutosh; Parker, Joel S; Perou, Charles M; Ellis, Matthew J; Dowsett, Mitch

    2010-03-01

    PURPOSE To determine whether plasma estradiol (E2) levels are related to gene expression in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancers in postmenopausal women. Materials and METHODS Genome-wide RNA profiles were obtained from pretreatment core-cut tumor biopsies from 104 postmenopausal patients with primary ER-positive breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant anastrozole. Pretreatment plasma E2 levels were determined by highly sensitive radioimmunoassay. Genes were identified for which expression was correlated with pretreatment plasma E2 levels. Validation was performed in an independent set of 73 ER-positive breast cancers. Results The expression of many known estrogen-responsive genes and gene sets was highly significantly associated with plasma E2 levels (eg, TFF1/pS2, GREB1, PDZK1 and PGR; P < .005). Plasma E2 explained 27% of the average expression of these four average estrogen-responsive genes (ie, AvERG; r = 0.51; P < .0001), and a standardized mean of plasma E2 levels and ER transcript levels explained 37% (r, 0.61). These observations were validated in an independent set of 73 ER-positive tumors. Exploratory analysis suggested that addition of the nuclear coregulators in a multivariable analysis with ER and E2 levels might additionally improve the relationship with the AvERG. Plasma E2 and the standardized mean of E2 and ER were both significantly correlated with 2-week Ki67, a surrogate marker of clinical outcome (r = -0.179; P = .05; and r = -0.389; P = .0005, respectively). CONCLUSION Plasma E2 levels are significantly associated with gene expression of ER-positive breast cancers and should be considered in future genomic studies of ER-positive breast cancer. The AvERG is a new experimental tool for the study of putative estrogenic stimuli of breast cancer.

  4. Relationship Between Plasma Estradiol Levels and Estrogen-Responsive Gene Expression in Estrogen Receptor–Positive Breast Cancer in Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbier, Anita K.; Anderson, Helen; Ghazoui, Zara; Folkerd, Elizabeth J.; A'Hern, Roger; Crowder, Robert J.; Hoog, Jeremy; Smith, Ian E.; Osin, Peter; Nerurkar, Ashutosh; Parker, Joel S.; Perou, Charles M.; Ellis, Matthew J.; Dowsett, Mitch

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether plasma estradiol (E2) levels are related to gene expression in estrogen receptor (ER)–positive breast cancers in postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods Genome-wide RNA profiles were obtained from pretreatment core-cut tumor biopsies from 104 postmenopausal patients with primary ER-positive breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant anastrozole. Pretreatment plasma E2 levels were determined by highly sensitive radioimmunoassay. Genes were identified for which expression was correlated with pretreatment plasma E2 levels. Validation was performed in an independent set of 73 ER-positive breast cancers. Results The expression of many known estrogen-responsive genes and gene sets was highly significantly associated with plasma E2 levels (eg, TFF1/pS2, GREB1, PDZK1 and PGR; P < .005). Plasma E2 explained 27% of the average expression of these four average estrogen-responsive genes (ie, AvERG; r = 0.51; P < .0001), and a standardized mean of plasma E2 levels and ER transcript levels explained 37% (r, 0.61). These observations were validated in an independent set of 73 ER-positive tumors. Exploratory analysis suggested that addition of the nuclear coregulators in a multivariable analysis with ER and E2 levels might additionally improve the relationship with the AvERG. Plasma E2 and the standardized mean of E2 and ER were both significantly correlated with 2-week Ki67, a surrogate marker of clinical outcome (r = −0.179; P = .05; and r = −0.389; P = .0005, respectively). Conclusion Plasma E2 levels are significantly associated with gene expression of ER-positive breast cancers and should be considered in future genomic studies of ER-positive breast cancer. The AvERG is a new experimental tool for the study of putative estrogenic stimuli of breast cancer. PMID:20124184

  5. The development of the Florentine silk industry: a positive response to the crisis of the fourteenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Tognetti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of the silk industry in Renaissance Florence was a response to the profound economic changes wrought by the demographic crisis of the fourteenth century. The decrease in the available labour supply, the rise in labour costs, changes in demand and consumption, encouraged entrepreneurs in Florence to direct their manufacturing interests towards the production of expensive high-quality goods. The Florentine silk industry was born in the last decades of the fourteenth century, and in the fifteenth century quickly developed into a dynamic industry capable of producing large quantities of luxury fabrics for export to all the principal European markets.

  6. Atoms confined in a penetrable potential: effect of the atom position on the electric and magnetic responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta Coden, Diego S; Gomez, Sergio S; Romero, Rodolfo H, E-mail: rhromero@exa.unne.edu.ar [Instituto de Modelado e Innovacion Tecnologica, CONICET and Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional del Nordeste, Avenida Libertad 5500 (3400) Corrientes (Argentina)

    2011-02-14

    We report results of the calculation of polarizability and the nuclear magnetic shielding tensors of two-electron atoms confined within an attractive Gaussian potential well. The electric and magnetic responses are obtained within the random phase approximation (RPA) of the polarization propagator. The influence of the depth and range of the potential on the electronic structure is also studied. The dependence of the parallel (along the displacement) and perpendicular components of the polarizability and shielding tensors on the distance of the atom to the centre of the well is calculated and rationalized as a dissociation-type process of the artificial diatomic molecule formed between the Coulomb and the well potentials.

  7. Variation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen-specific IFN-γ and IL-17 responses in healthy tuberculin skin test (TST-positive human subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Fan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the variation of IFN-γ and IL-17 responses to M. tuberculosis antigens in healthy TST+ humans. METHODS: We isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 21 TST+ healthy adults, stimulated them with phytohemagglutinin (PHA, PPD, Ag85B, ESAT-6, and live M. bovis BCG, and assayed IFN-γ and IL-17 secretion by ELISA in supernatants after 24 or 72 hours of incubation respectively. RESULTS: As in other studies, we found a wide range of IFN-γ responses to M. tuberculosis antigens; the variation significantly exceeded that observed in the same donors to the polyclonal T cell stimulus, phytohemagglutinin (PHA. In addition, we assayed IL-17 secretion in response to the same stimuli, and found less subject-to-subject variation. Analysis of the ratio of IFN-γ to IL-17 secretion on a subject-to-subject basis also revealed a wide range, with the majority of results distributed in a narrow range, and a minority with extreme results all of which were greater than that in the majority of subjects. The data suggest that study of exceptional responses to M. tuberculosis antigens may reveal immunologic correlates with specific outcomes of M. tuberculosis infection. CONCLUSION: Variation of IFNγ and IFN-γ/IL-17 responses to mycobacterial antigens exceeds that of responses to the polyclonal stimulus, PHA, in TST positive healthy humans. This indicates a quantitative spectrum of human immune responses to infection with M. tuberculosis. Since the outcome of human infection with M. tuberculosis varies greatly, systematic study of multiple immune responses to multiple antigens is likely to reveal correlations between selected immune responses and the outcomes of infection.

  8. The NADPH-oxidase AtRbohI plays a positive role in drought-stress response in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huan; Yan, Jingwei; Yu, Xiaoyun; Liang, Yan; Fang, Lin; Scheller, Henrik Vibe; Zhang, Aying

    2017-09-23

    As the major resource of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the NADPH oxidases (Rbohs) have been shown to play important roles in plant cells under normal growth and stress conditions. Although many family members of Rbohs were studied, little is known about the function of RbohI in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we report that exogenous ABA application decreases RbohI expression and mannitol significantly increases RbohI expression at transcript level. The RbohI transcripts were strongly detected in dry seeds and roots. The loss-of-function mutant rbohI exhibited sensitivity to ABA and mannitol stress during germination. Furthermore, the lateral root growth of rbohI was severely inhibited after treatment with mannitol stress. Overexpression of RbohI in Arabidopsis significantly improves the drought tolerance. Moreover, more H2O2 accumulated in RbohI overexpressors than in wild type plants in response to mannitol stress. Our conclusion is that AtRbohI functions in drought-stress response in Arabidopsis thaliana. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. The NADPH-oxidase AtRbohI plays a positive role in drought-stress response in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Huan [Nanjing Agricultural Univ. (China); Yan, Jingwei [Nanjing Agricultural Univ. (China); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yu, Xiaoyun [Nanjing Agricultural Univ. (China); Liang, Yan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fang, Lin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Scheller, Henrik Vibe [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhang, Aying [Nanjing Agricultural Univ. (China)

    2017-05-27

    As the major resource of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the NADPH oxidases (Rbohs) have been shown to play important roles in plant cells under normal growth and stress conditions. Although many family members of Rbohs were studied, little is known about the function of RbohI in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we report that exogenous ABA application decreases RbohI expression and mannitol significantly increases RbohI expression at transcript level. The RbohI transcripts were strongly detected in dry seeds and roots. The loss-of-function mutant rbohI exhibited sensitivity to ABA and mannitol stress during germination. Furthermore, the lateral root growth of rbohI was severely inhibited after treatment with mannitol stress. Overexpression of RbohI in Arabidopsis significantly improves the drought tolerance. Moreover, more H2O2 accumulated in RbohI overexpressors than in wild type plants in response to mannitol stress. Our conclusion is that AtRbohI functions in drought-stress response in Arabidopsis thaliana.

  10. Positional differentiation of abscission zones during the development of leaves of Sambucus nigra and the response of the cells to auxin and ethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, D.J.; Sargent, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    Abscission in the leaf rachis of Sambucus nigra L. is preceded by a positional differentiation of zone cells that enlarge and separate in response to ethylene but not to auxin. These cells are absent from youngest leaves, and such leaves do not abscind even in ethylene; other cells of the immature rachii will enlarge in response to auxin. These two classes of target cells are always recognizable by their opposing responses to auxin and ethylene. Prior to separation zone cells exposed to ethylene show considerable activation of the cytoplasm, many polysomes, elongate endoplasmic reticulum and highly dilated dictyosomes with many associated vesicles. Treatment with auxin precludes these changes, and abscission is always retarded: high levels of ethylene must be added to overcome the auxin inhibition. The differentiation of zone cells and their ethylene-stimulated growth and activation are prerequisites for rachis abscission in Sambucus. Such cell development may be of general occurrence prior to organ abscission in plants.

  11. LBD14/ASL17 Positively Regulates Lateral Root Formation and Is Involved in ABA Response for Root Architecture in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Eunkyeong; Kang, Na Young; Cho, Chuloh; Seo, Pil Joon; Suh, Mi Chung; Kim, Jungmook

    2017-10-11

    The LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES (LOB) DOMAIN/ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2-LIKE (LBD/ASL) gene family members play key roles in diverse aspects of plant development. Previous studies have shown that LBD16, 18, 29, and 33 are critical for integrating the plant hormone auxin to control lateral root development in Arabidopsis thaliana. In the present study, we show that LBD14 is expressed exclusively in the root where it promotes lateral root (LR) emergence. Repression of LBD14 expression by ABA correlates with the inhibitory effects of ABA on LR emergence. Transient gene expression assays with Arabidopsis protoplasts demonstrated that LBD14 is a nuclear-localized transcriptional activator. The knock-down of LBD14 expression by RNAi resulted in reduced LR formation by delaying both the LR primordium development and LR emergence, whereas overexpression of LBD14 in Arabidopsis enhances LR formation. We show that ABA (but not other plant hormones such as auxin, brassinosteroids, and cytokinin) specifically downregulated GUS expression under the control of the LBD14 promoter in transgenic Arabidopsis during LR development from initiation to emergence and endogenous LBD14 transcript levels in the root. Moreover, RNAi of LBD14 enhanced the LR suppression in response to ABA, whereas LBD14 overexpression did not alter the ABA-mediated suppression of LR formation. Taken together, these results suggest that LBD14 promoting LR formation is one of the critical factors regulated by ABA to inhibit LR growth, contributing to the regulation of the Arabidopsis root system architecture in response to ABA. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. BRAHMA ATPase of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex acts as a positive regulator of gibberellin-mediated responses in arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal Archacki

    Full Text Available SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes perform a pivotal function in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana mutants in major SWI/SNF subunits display embryo-lethal or dwarf phenotypes, indicating their critical role in molecular pathways controlling development and growth. As gibberellins (GA are major positive regulators of plant growth, we wanted to establish whether there is a link between SWI/SNF and GA signaling in Arabidopsis. This study revealed that in brm-1 plants, depleted in SWI/SNF BRAHMA (BRM ATPase, a number of GA-related phenotypic traits are GA-sensitive and that the loss of BRM results in markedly decreased level of endogenous bioactive GA. Transcriptional profiling of brm-1 and the GA biosynthesis mutant ga1-3, as well as the ga1-3/brm-1 double mutant demonstrated that BRM affects the expression of a large set of GA-responsive genes including genes responsible for GA biosynthesis and signaling. Furthermore, we found that BRM acts as an activator and directly associates with promoters of GA3ox1, a GA biosynthetic gene, and SCL3, implicated in positive regulation of the GA pathway. Many GA-responsive gene expression alterations in the brm-1 mutant are likely due to depleted levels of active GAs. However, the analysis of genetic interactions between BRM and the DELLA GA pathway repressors, revealed that BRM also acts on GA-responsive genes independently of its effect on GA level. Given the central position occupied by SWI/SNF complexes within regulatory networks controlling fundamental biological processes, the identification of diverse functional intersections of BRM with GA-dependent processes in this study suggests a role for SWI/SNF in facilitating crosstalk between GA-mediated regulation and other cellular pathways.

  13. BRAHMA ATPase of the SWI/SNF Chromatin Remodeling Complex Acts as a Positive Regulator of Gibberellin-Mediated Responses in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archacki, Rafal; Buszewicz, Daniel; Sarnowski, Tomasz J.; Sarnowska, Elzbieta; Rolicka, Anna T.; Tohge, Takayuki; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Kotlinski, Maciej; Iwanicka-Nowicka, Roksana; Kalisiak, Katarzyna; Patryn, Jacek; Halibart-Puzio, Joanna; Kamiya, Yuji; Davis, Seth J.; Koblowska, Marta K.; Jerzmanowski, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes perform a pivotal function in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants in major SWI/SNF subunits display embryo-lethal or dwarf phenotypes, indicating their critical role in molecular pathways controlling development and growth. As gibberellins (GA) are major positive regulators of plant growth, we wanted to establish whether there is a link between SWI/SNF and GA signaling in Arabidopsis. This study revealed that in brm-1 plants, depleted in SWI/SNF BRAHMA (BRM) ATPase, a number of GA-related phenotypic traits are GA-sensitive and that the loss of BRM results in markedly decreased level of endogenous bioactive GA. Transcriptional profiling of brm-1 and the GA biosynthesis mutant ga1-3, as well as the ga1-3/brm-1 double mutant demonstrated that BRM affects the expression of a large set of GA-responsive genes including genes responsible for GA biosynthesis and signaling. Furthermore, we found that BRM acts as an activator and directly associates with promoters of GA3ox1, a GA biosynthetic gene, and SCL3, implicated in positive regulation of the GA pathway. Many GA-responsive gene expression alterations in the brm-1 mutant are likely due to depleted levels of active GAs. However, the analysis of genetic interactions between BRM and the DELLA GA pathway repressors, revealed that BRM also acts on GA-responsive genes independently of its effect on GA level. Given the central position occupied by SWI/SNF complexes within regulatory networks controlling fundamental biological processes, the identification of diverse functional intersections of BRM with GA-dependent processes in this study suggests a role for SWI/SNF in facilitating crosstalk between GA-mediated regulation and other cellular pathways. PMID:23536800

  14. NETS - Danish participation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsen, S. (Grontmij - Carl Bro, Glostrup (Denmark)); Theel, C. (Baltic Sea Solutions, Holeby (Denmark))

    2008-12-15

    Within the NICe-funded project 'Nordic Environmental Technology Solutions (NETS)' a new type of networking at the Nordic level was organized in order to jointly exploit the rapidly growing market potential in the environmental technology sector. The project aimed at increased and professionalized commercialization of Nordic Cleantech in energy and water business segments through 1) closer cooperation and joint marketing activities, 2) a website, 3) cleantech product information via brochures and publications 4) and participating in relevant trade fairs and other industry events. Facilitating business-to-business activities was another core task for the NETS project partners from Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark with the aim to encourage total solutions for combined Cleantech system offers. The project has achieved to establish a Cleantech register of 600 Nordic Cleantech companies, a network of 86 member enterprises, produced several publications and brochures for direct technology promotion and a website for direct access to company profiles and contact data. The project partners have attended 14 relevant international Cleantech trade fairs and conferences and facilitated business-to-business contacts added by capacity building offers through two company workshops. The future challenge for the project partners and Nordic Cleantech will be to coordinate the numerous efforts within the Nordic countries in order to reach concerted action and binding of member companies for reliable services, an improved visibility and knowledge exchange. With Cleantech's growing market influence and public awareness, the need to develop total solutions is increasing likewise. Marketing efforts should be encouraged cross-sectional and cross-border among the various levels of involved actors from both the public and the private sector. (au)

  15. HER-2 amplification, HER-1 expression, and tamoxifen response in estrogen receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer: a southwest oncology group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpino, Grazia; Green, Stephanie J; Allred, D Craig; Lew, Dannika; Martino, Silvana; Osborne, C Kent; Elledge, Richard M

    2004-09-01

    Preclinical data indicate that expression of the ErbB family of receptors, such as HER-2 and HER-1 (EGFR) may be involved in endocrine resistance. Evidence of resistance from clinical studies has been inconsistent. The present study examined whether HER-2 gene amplification or HER-1 expression predicted response to tamoxifen. Three hundred and forty nine patients had estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer and received daily tamoxifen as initial therapy for advanced disease. HER-2 gene amplification, detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and HER-1 expression, evaluated by immunohistochemistry, was determined on 136 and 204 patients, respectively. HER-2 amplification was correlated with lower ER (P = 0.02), HER-1 positivity (P = 0.004), and HER-2 protein overexpression (P HER-1-negative versus 36% for HER-1-positive (P = 0.05). Time to treatment failure (TTF) was 7 months for non-amplified HER-2 tumors and 5 months (P = 0.007) for amplified HER-2 tumors, and there was a trend toward a better overall survival (OS) in patients with non-amplified HER-2 tumors (median 31 versus 25 months, respectively, P = 0.07). For positive versus negative HER-1 tumors, TTF was 4 versus 8 months (P = 0.08) and median survival was 24 versus 31 months (P = 0.41). Combining HER-1 expression and HER-2 gene status, patients with both negative HER-1 expression and non-amplified HER-2 had longer TTF (P = 0.001) and OS (P = 0.03) than if either were positive. In multivariate analysis, HER-2 was not an independent factor for TTF and OS, although HER-1 was significant for TTF only (P HER-1 expression had lower ER levels and were modestly less responsive to tamoxifen, suggesting that molecular events in addition to those involving the ErbB receptors are important in determining the endocrine-resistant phenotype.

  16. Supporting Reporting: On the Positive Effects of Text- and Video-Based Awareness Material on Responsible Journalistic Suicide News Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Sebastian; Arendt, Florian; Schäfer, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Suicide is a global public health problem. Media impact on suicide is well confirmed and there are several recommendations on how media should and should not report on suicide to minimize the risk of copycat behavior. Those media guidelines have been developed to improve responsible reporting on suicide (RRS). Although such guidelines are used in several countries, we lack empirical evidence on their causal effect on actual journalistic news writing. We conducted an experiment with journalism students (N = 78) in Germany in which we tested whether exposure to awareness material promoting RRS influences news writing. As a supplement to the widely used text-based material, we tested the impact of a video in which a suicide expert presents the guidelines. A video was used as a supplement to text partly due to its potential benefit for prevention efforts over the Internet. We chose a low-budget production process allowing easy reproduction in different countries by local suicide experts. In the experiment, participants were either exposed to written, audio-visual, or no awareness material. Afterwards, participants read numerous facts of an ostensible suicide event and were asked to write a factual suicide news story based on these facts. Analyses indicate that awareness material exposure helped to improve RRS with the awareness video showing the strongest effects. We recommend that suicide prevention should use instructive awareness videos about RRS complementary to text-based awareness material.

  17. Positive and negative emotional responses to workrelated trauma of intensive care nurses in private health care facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Elkonin

    2011-04-01

    Opsomming Intensiewesorgverpleging is ‘n stresvolle beroep en verpleegsters word gedurig aan beide primêre en sekondêre trauma blootgestel. Reaksie hierop kan óf positief wees, in die vorm van empatie-tevredenheid, óf negatief, in die vorm van empatie-uitputting. Verpleegsters is egter geneig om die negatiewe impak van sekondêre trauma te ontken,wat gevolglik tot stilswye en uitbranding kan lei. Hierdie artikel ondersoek en beskryf die teenwoordigheid en verwantskap tussen hierdie emosies. ‘n Kwantitatiewe benadering met ‘n nie-waarskynlikheidsteekproefmetode is gebruik. Die steekproef het bestaan uit 30 geregistreerde verpleegsters wat in privaat-intensiewesorgeenhede in Oos-Londen in die Oos-Kaap werk. Data is met behulp van die vierde hersiening van die ’Professional Quality of Life Scale: Compassion Satisfaction and Fatigue Subscales’ en die ’Silencing Response Scale’ingevorder en verwerk met verwysing na beskrywende statistieke en korrelasiekoëffisiente. Die resultate dui op ‘n hoë risiko vir empatie-uitputting, ‘n matige risiko vir uitbranding en die stilswye-reaksie, sowel as ‘n matige potensiaal vir empatie-tevredenheid. ‘n Beduidende negatiewe verwantskap blyk tussen empatie-tevredenheid en uitbranding te bestaan, terwyl ‘n aansienlik positiewe verwantskap tussen empatie-uitputting en uitbranding en empatieuitputting en die stilswye-reaksie bestaan.

  18. Monte Carlo simulation of the X-ray response of a germanium microstrip detector with energy and position resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, G; Fajardo, P; Morse, J

    1999-01-01

    We present Monte Carlo computer simulations of the X-ray response of a micro-strip germanium detector over the energy range 30-100 keV. The detector consists of a linear array of lithographically defined 150 mu m wide strips on a high purity monolithic germanium crystal of 6 mm thickness. The simulation code is divided into two parts. We first consider a 10 mu m wide X-ray beam striking the detector surface at normal incidence and compute the interaction processes possible for each photon. Photon scattering and absorption inside the detector crystal are simulated using the EGS4 code with the LSCAT extension for low energies. A history of events is created of the deposited energies which is read by the second part of the code which computes the energy histogram for each detector strip. Appropriate algorithms are introduced to account for lateral charge spreading occurring during charge carrier drift to the detector surface, and Fano and preamplifier electronic noise contributions. Computed spectra for differen...

  19. Prediction of fluid responsiveness using dynamic preload indices in patients undergoing robot-assisted surgery with pneumoperitoneum in the Trendelenburg position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, J H; Lee, E H; Hwang, G S; Choi, W J

    2013-07-01

    We investigated the abilities of pulse pressure variation (PPV) and stroke volume variation (SVV) to predict fluid responsiveness during robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy, requiring pneumoperitoneum and the Trendelenburg position. In 42 patients without cardiopulmonary disease, PPV and SVV were measured before and after administration of 500 ml colloid under pneumoperitoneum combined with the steep Trendelenburg position (35°). Fluid responsiveness was defined as a ≥15% increase in stroke volume after the fluid loading measured using transoesophageal echocardiography. Of the 42 included patients, 22 were responders and 20 were non-responders. A PPV of ≥9.5% identified responders with a sensitivity of 77.3% and a specificity of 90.0%, and a SVV of ≥9.5% also identified responders with a sensitivity of 77.3% and a specificity of 75.0%. The area under receiver operating characteristic curves for PPV and SVV were 0.87 (P robotic laparoscopic surgery with pneumoperitoneum in the Trendelenberg position.

  20. Rearing conditions affected responses of weaned pigs to organic acids showing a positive effect on digestibility, microflora and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Kuang, Yiwen; Zhang, Yalin; Song, Yumo; Zhang, Xiaoling; Lin, Yan; Che, Lianqiang; Xu, Shengyu; Wu, De; Xue, Bai; Fang, Zhengfeng

    2016-10-01

    Three experiments were conducted to assess the response of weaned pigs to organic acid SF3, which contains 34% calcium formate, 16% calcium lactate, 7% citric acid and 13% medium chain fatty acids. Dietary treatments had no effect on growth performance of piglets (21-day weaning) fed the commercial prestart diet for 1 week before receiving the experimental diets supplemented with SF3 at 0, 3 or 5 g/kg diet (Exp. 1), whereas diarrhea frequency averaged across a week was decreased by SF3 supplementation (5 g/kg diet) in piglets fed the experimental diets immediately after weaning (Exp. 2). In Exp. 3, piglets (28-day weaning) were fed the control (containing pure colistin sulfate and enramycin, respectively, at 20 mg/kg diet) for 1 week and then were fed the control or SF3-supplemented (5 g/kg diet) diet for 2 weeks. The SF3-fed piglets had greater apparent ileal digestibility of calcium and dry matter, while also demonstrating greater overall gross energy, up-regulated jejunal expression of sodium-glucose cotransporter-1 and transforming growth factor-β, down-regulated jejunal expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, higher ileal Lactobacillus, with lower total bacteria content, lower plasma TNF-α but higher IgG levels than the control-fed piglets. Collectively, SF3 consumption improved diarrhea resistance of weaned pigs by improving nutrient digestibility, piglet immunity and intestinal bacteria profile. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  1. Serum response factor: positive and negative regulation of an epithelial gene expression network in the destrin mutant cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami-Schulz, Sharolyn V; Verdoni, Angela M; Sattler, Shannon G; Jessen, Erik; Kao, Winston W-Y; Ikeda, Akihiro; Ikeda, Sakae

    2014-04-15

    Increased angiogenesis, inflammation, and proliferation are hallmarks of diseased tissues, and in vivo models of these disease phenotypes can provide insight into disease pathology. Dstn(corn1) mice, deficient for the actin depolymerizing factor destrin (DSTN), display an increase of serum response factor (SRF) that results in epithelial hyperproliferation, inflammation, and neovascularization in the cornea. Previous work demonstrated that conditional ablation of Srf from the corneal epithelium of Dstn(corn1) mice returns the cornea to a wild-type (WT) like state. This result implicated SRF as a major regulator of genes that contributes to abnormal phenotypes in Dstn(corn1) cornea. The purpose of this study is to identify gene networks that are affected by increased expression of Srf in the Dstn(corn1) cornea. Microarray analysis led to characterization of gene expression changes that occur when conditional knockout of Srf rescues mutant phenotypes in the cornea of Dstn(corn1) mice. Comparison of gene expression values from WT, Dstn(corn1) mutant, and Dstn(corn1) rescued cornea identified >400 differentially expressed genes that are downstream from SRF. Srf ablation had a significant effect on genes associated with epithelial cell-cell junctions and regulation of actin dynamics. The majority of genes affected by SRF are downregulated in the Dstn(corn1) mutant cornea, suggesting that increased SRF negatively affects transcription of SRF gene targets. ChIP-seq analysis on Dstn(corn1) mutant and WT tissue revealed that, despite being present in higher abundance, SRF binding is significantly decreased in the Dstn(corn1) mutant cornea. This study uses a unique model combining genetic and genomic approaches to identify genes that are regulated by SRF. These findings expand current understanding of the role of SRF in both normal and abnormal tissue homeostasis.

  2. Application and Theory of Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 13th International Conference onApplication and Theory of Petri Nets, held in Sheffield, England, in June 1992. The aim of the Petri net conferences is to create a forum for discussing progress in the application and theory of Petri nets. Typically....... Balbo and W. Reisig, 18 submitted papers, and seven project papers. The submitted papers and project presentations were selectedby the programme committee and a panel of referees from a large number of submissions....

  3. Are You Neutral About Net Neutrality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-20

    Information Resources Management College National Defense University Are You Neutral About Net Neutrality ? A presentation for Systems & Software...author uses Verizon FiOS for phone, TV, and internet service 3 Agenda Net Neutrality —Through 2 Lenses Who Are the Players & What Are They Saying...Medical Treatment Mini-Case Studies Updates Closing Thoughts 4 Working Definitions of Net Neutrality "Network Neutrality" is the concept that

  4. Texture Based Image Analysis With Neural Nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilovici, Irina S.; Ong, Hoo-Tee; Ostrander, Kim E.

    1990-03-01

    In this paper, we combine direct image statistics and spatial frequency domain techniques with a neural net model to analyze texture based images. The resultant optimal texture features obtained from the direct and transformed image form the exemplar pattern of the neural net. The proposed approach introduces an automated texture analysis applied to metallography for determining the cooling rate and mechanical working of the materials. The results suggest that the proposed method enhances the practical applications of neural nets and texture extraction features.

  5. Factors associated with mosquito net use by individuals in households owning nets in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graves Patricia M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ownership of insecticidal mosquito nets has dramatically increased in Ethiopia since 2006, but the proportion of persons with access to such nets who use them has declined. It is important to understand individual level net use factors in the context of the home to modify programmes so as to maximize net use. Methods Generalized linear latent and mixed models (GLLAMM were used to investigate net use using individual level data from people living in net-owning households from two surveys in Ethiopia: baseline 2006 included 12,678 individuals from 2,468 households and a sub-sample of the Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS in 2007 included 14,663 individuals from 3,353 households. Individual factors (age, sex, pregnancy; net factors (condition, age, net density; household factors (number of rooms [2006] or sleeping spaces [2007], IRS, women's knowledge and school attendance [2007 only], wealth, altitude; and cluster level factors (rural or urban were investigated in univariate and multi-variable models for each survey. Results In 2006, increased net use was associated with: age 25-49 years (adjusted (a OR = 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.2-1.7 compared to children U5; female gender (aOR = 1.4; 95% CI 1.2-1.5; fewer nets with holes (Ptrend = 0.002; and increasing net density (Ptrend [all nets in HH good] = 1.6; 95% CI 1.2-2.1; increasing net density (Ptrend [per additional space] = 0.6, 95% CI 0.5-0.7; more old nets (aOR [all nets in HH older than 12 months] = 0.5; 95% CI 0.3-0.7; and increasing household altitude (Ptrend Conclusion In both surveys, net use was more likely by women, if nets had fewer holes and were at higher net per person density within households. School-age children and young adults were much less likely to use a net. Increasing availability of nets within households (i.e. increasing net density, and improving net condition while focusing on education and promotion of net use, especially in school-age children

  6. A functional C-terminal TRAF3-binding site in MAVS participates in positive and negative regulation of the IFN antiviral response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Suzanne; Vilasco, Myriam; Werden, Steven J; Arguello, Meztli; Joseph-Pillai, Deshanthe; Zhao, Tiejun; Nguyen, Thi Lien-Anh; Sun, Qiang; Meurs, Eliane F; Lin, Rongtuan; Hiscott, John

    2011-06-01

    Recognition of viral RNA structures by the cytosolic sensor retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) results in the activation of signaling cascades that culminate with the generation of the type I interferon (IFN) antiviral response. Onset of antiviral and inflammatory responses to viral pathogens necessitates the regulated spatiotemporal recruitment of signaling adapters, kinases and transcriptional proteins to the mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS). We previously demonstrated that the serine/threonine kinase IKKε is recruited to the C-terminal region of MAVS following Sendai or vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection, mediated by Lys63-linked polyubiquitination of MAVS at Lys500, resulting in inhibition of downstream IFN signaling (Paz et al, Mol Cell Biol, 2009). In this study, we demonstrate that C-terminus of MAVS harbors a novel TRAF3-binding site in the aa450-468 region of MAVS. A consensus TRAF-interacting motif (TIM), 455-PEENEY-460, within this site is required for TRAF3 binding and activation of IFN antiviral response genes, whereas mutation of the TIM eliminates TRAF3 binding and the downstream IFN response. Reconstitution of MAVS(-/-) mouse embryo fibroblasts with a construct expressing a TIM-mutated version of MAVS failed to restore the antiviral response or block VSV replication, whereas wild-type MAVS reconstituted antiviral inhibition of VSV replication. Furthermore, recruitment of IKKε to an adjacent C-terminal site (aa 468-540) in MAVS via Lys500 ubiquitination decreased TRAF3 binding and protein stability, thus contributing to IKKε-mediated shutdown of the IFN response. This study demonstrates that MAVS harbors a functional C-terminal TRAF3-binding site that participates in positive and negative regulation of the IFN antiviral response.

  7. Pro Agile NET Development with Scrum

    CERN Document Server

    Blankenship, Jerrel; Millett, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Pro Agile .NET Development with SCRUM guides you through a real-world ASP.NET project and shows how agile methodology is put into practice. There is plenty of literature on the theory behind agile methodologies, but no book on the market takes the concepts of agile practices and applies these in a practical manner to an end-to-end ASP.NET project, especially the estimating, requirements and management aspects of a project. Pro Agile .NET Development with SCRUM takes you through the initial stages of a project - gathering requirements and setting up an environment - through to the development a

  8. Pro ASP.NET MVC 4

    CERN Document Server

    Freeman, Adam

    2012-01-01

    The ASP.NET MVC 4 Framework is the latest evolution of Microsoft's ASP.NET web platform. It provides a high-productivity programming model that promotes cleaner code architecture, test-driven development, and powerful extensibility, combined with all the benefits of ASP.NET. ASP.NET MVC 4 contains a number of significant advances over previous versions. New mobile and desktop templates (employing adaptive rendering) are included together with support for jQuery Mobile for the first time. New display modes allow your application to select views based on the browser that's making the request whi

  9. Professional Visual Basic 2010 and .NET 4

    CERN Document Server

    Sheldon, Bill; Sharkey, Kent

    2010-01-01

    Intermediate and advanced coverage of Visual Basic 2010 and .NET 4 for professional developers. If you've already covered the basics and want to dive deep into VB and .NET topics that professional programmers use most, this is your book. You'll find a quick review of introductory topics-always helpful-before the author team of experts moves you quickly into such topics as data access with ADO.NET, Language Integrated Query (LINQ), security, ASP.NET web programming with Visual Basic, Windows workflow, threading, and more. You'll explore all the new features of Visual Basic 2010 as well as all t

  10. Towards a Standard for Modular Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart; Petrucci, Laure

    2009-01-01

    When designing complex systems, mechanisms for structuring, composing, and reusing system components are crucial. Today, there are many approaches for equipping Petri nets with such mechanisms. In the context of defining a standard interchange format for Petri nets, modular PNML was defined....... Moreover, we present and discuss some more advanced features of modular Petri nets that could be included in the standard. This way, we provide a formal foundation and a basis for a discussion of features to be included in the upcoming standard of a module concept for Petri nets in general and for high...

  11. An analytical method for well-formed workflow/Petri net verification of classical soundness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clempner Julio

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider workflow nets as dynamical systems governed by ordinary difference equations described by a particular class of Petri nets. Workflow nets are a formal model of business processes. Well-formed business processes correspond to sound workflow nets. Even if it seems necessary to require the soundness of workflow nets, there exist business processes with conditional behavior that will not necessarily satisfy the soundness property. In this sense, we propose an analytical method for showing that a workflow net satisfies the classical soundness property using a Petri net. To present our statement, we use Lyapunov stability theory to tackle the classical soundness verification problem for a class of dynamical systems described by Petri nets. This class of Petri nets allows a dynamical model representation that can be expressed in terms of difference equations. As a result, by applying Lyapunov theory, the classical soundness property for workflow nets is solved proving that the Petri net representation is stable. We show that a finite and non-blocking workflow net satisfies the sound property if and only if its corresponding PN is stable, i.e., given the incidence matrix A of the corresponding PN, there exists a Փ strictly positive m vector such that AՓ≤ 0. The key contribution of the paper is the analytical method itself that satisfies part of the definition of the classical soundness requirements. The method is designed for practical applications, guarantees that anomalies can be detected without domain knowledge, and can be easily implemented into existing commercial systems that do not support the verification of workflows. The validity of the proposed method is successfully demonstrated by application examples.

  12. Inequalities by educational level in response to combination antiretroviral treatment and survival in HIV-positive men and women in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-14

    Socioeconomic inequality challenges population-level implementation of health interventions. We investigated differences by educational level in clinical, virological, and immunological responses to combined antiretroviral treatment (cART) in HIV-positive men and women in Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research in Europe, a European collaboration. Data were pooled from 15 cohorts in eight countries of patients initiating cART in 1996-2013 with data on educational level categorized in UNESCO/ISCED classifications. Kaplan-Meier curves, Cox and piecewise linear mixed models were used. Of 24 069 HIV-positive patients, 9% had not completed primary education, 32% had completed primary, 44% secondary, and 15% tertiary education. Overall, 21% were women, who were overrepresented in lower educational strata. During 132 507 person-years of follow-up, 1081 individuals died; cumulative mortality decreased with higher educational level (P education were more marked than for death alone (P education, 85% with completed primary education, 82% with secondary, and 87% with tertiary (P education had higher CD4 cell count at cART initiation and at each time after cART but rate of CD4 cell count recovery did not differ. Differences in mortality and clinical responses were similar for men and women and were not entirely explained by delayed HIV diagnosis and late cART initiation. HIV-positive patients with lower educational level had worse responses to cART and survival in European countries with universal healthcare. To maximize the population impact of cART, Europe needs to decrease the socioeconomic divide.

  13. Experiments and simulation of a net closing mechanism for tether-net capture of space debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, Inna; Thomsen, Benjamin; Botta, Eleonora M.; Misra, Arun K.

    2017-10-01

    This research addresses the design and testing of a debris containment system for use in a tether-net approach to space debris removal. The tether-net active debris removal involves the ejection of a net from a spacecraft by applying impulses to masses on the net, subsequent expansion of the net, the envelopment and capture of the debris target, and the de-orbiting of the debris via a tether to the chaser spacecraft. To ensure a debris removal mission's success, it is important that the debris be successfully captured and then, secured within the net. To this end, we present a concept for a net closing mechanism, which we believe will permit consistently successful debris capture via a simple and unobtrusive design. This net closing system functions by extending the main tether connecting the chaser spacecraft and the net vertex to the perimeter and around the perimeter of the net, allowing the tether to actuate closure of the net in a manner similar to a cinch cord. A particular embodiment of the design in a laboratory test-bed is described: the test-bed itself is comprised of a scaled-down tether-net, a supporting frame and a mock-up debris. Experiments conducted with the facility demonstrate the practicality of the net closing system. A model of the net closure concept has been integrated into the previously developed dynamics simulator of the chaser/tether-net/debris system. Simulations under tether tensioning conditions demonstrate the effectiveness of the closure concept for debris containment, in the gravity-free environment of space, for a realistic debris target. The on-ground experimental test-bed is also used to showcase its utility for validating the dynamics simulation of the net deployment, and a full-scale automated setup would make possible a range of validation studies of other aspects of a tether-net debris capture mission.

  14. High calcium and dobutamine positive inotropy in the perfused mouse heart: myofilament calcium responsiveness, energetic economy, and effects of protein kinase C inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Congwu

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In perfused hearts, high calcium-induced inotropy results in less developed pressure relative to myocardial oxygen consumption compared to the β-adrenergic agonist dobutamine. Calcium handling is an important determinant of myocardial oxygen consumption. Therefore, we hypothesized that this phenomenon was due to reduced myofilament responsiveness to calcium, related to protein kinase C activation. Results Developed pressure was significantly higher with dobutamine compared to high perfusate calcium of 3.5 mM (73 ± 10 vs 63 ± 10 mmHg, p Conclusions By measuring intracellular calcium, developed pressures and myocardial oxygen consumption in perfused mouse hearts, these results demonstrate that high perfusate calcium positive inotropy compared to dobutamine results in reduced myofilament responsiveness to intracellular calcium, which is associated with energetic inefficiency and evidence of protein kinase C activation.

  15. The role of sigmaB in the stress response of Gram-positive bacteria -- targets for food preservation and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, Willem; Abee, Tjakko

    2005-04-01

    The alternative sigma factor sigmaB modulates the stress response of several Gram-positive bacteria, including Bacillus subtilis and the food-borne human pathogens Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. In all these bacteria, sigmaB is responsible for the transcription of genes that can confer stress resistance to the vegetative cell. Recent findings indicate that sigmaB also plays an important role in antibiotic resistance, pathogenesis and cellular differentiation processes such as biofilm formation and sporulation. Although there are important differences in the regulation of sigmaB and in the set of genes regulated by sigmaB in B. subtilis, B. cereus, L. monocytogenes and S. aureus, there are also some conserved themes. A mechanistic understanding of the sigmaB activation processes and assessment of its regulon could provide tools for pathogen control and inactivation both in the food industry and clinical settings.

  16. Asymptomatic Helminth Infection in Active Tuberculosis Is Associated with Increased Regulatory and Th-2 Responses and a Lower Sputum Smear Positivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebba Abate

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The impact of intestinal helminth infection on the clinical presentation and immune response during active tuberculosis (TB infection is not well characterized. Our aim was to investigate whether asymptomatic intestinal helminth infection alters the clinical signs and symptoms as well as the cell mediated immune responses in patients with active TB.Consecutive, newly diagnosed TB patients and healthy community controls (CCs were recruited in North-west Ethiopia. TB-score, body mass index and stool samples were analyzed. Cells from HIV-negative TB patients (HIV-/TB and from CCs were analyzed for regulatory T-cells (Tregs and cytokine responses using flow cytometry and ELISPOT, respectively.A significantly higher ratio of helminth co-infection was observed in TB patients without HIV (Helm+/HIV-/TB compared to HIV negative CCs, (40% (121/306 versus 28% (85/306, p = 0.003. Helm+/HIV-/TB patients showed significantly increased IL-5 secreting cells compared to Helm-/HIV-/TB (37 SFU (IQR:13-103 versus 2 SFU (1-50; p = 0.02, n = 30. Likewise, levels of absolute Tregs (9.4 (3.2-16.7 cells/μl versus 2.4 (1.1-4.0 cells/μl; p = 0.041 and IL-10 secreting cells (65 SFU (7-196 versus 1 SFU (0-31; p = 0.014 were significantly higher in Helm+/HIV-/TB patients compared to Helm-/HIV-/TB patients. In a multivariate analysis, a lower rate of sputum smear positivity for acid fast bacilli, lower body temperature, and eosinophilia were independently associated with helminth infection in TB patients.Asymptomatic helminth infection is associated with increased regulatory T-cell and Th2-type responses and a lower rate of sputum smear positivity. Further studies are warranted to investigate the clinical and immunological impact of helminth infection in TB patients.

  17. Do Family Responsibilities and a Clinical Versus Research Faculty Position Affect Satisfaction with Career and Work–Life Balance for Medical School Faculty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, Laurel; Nettiksimmons, Jasmine; Howell, Lydia Pleotis

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Balancing career and family obligations poses challenges to medical school faculty and contributes to dissatisfaction and attrition from academics. We examined the relationship between family setting and responsibilities, rank, and career and work–life satisfaction for faculty in a large U.S. medical school. Methods: Baseline faculty surveys were analyzed from the first year of a 4-year National Institutes of Health–funded study to evaluate awareness, knowledge, attitudes, and use of family friendly policies and career satisfaction. The study focus was on the impact of family responsibilities and characteristics of the faculty position (rank, clinical vs. nonclinical, and academic series) in multivariate comparisons between primary predictors and outcomes of interest. Results: Both clinical and family responsibilities for children under 18 play a major and interacting role in satisfaction with career and work–life balance. Clinical faculty respondents without children at home reported significantly greater career satisfaction and better work–life balance than their nonclinical counterparts. Nonclinical faculty respondents with children reported greater satisfaction and better balance than counterparts without family responsibilities. However, the advantage in career satisfaction and work–life balance for clinical faculty respondents disappeared for those with responsibility for young children. No gender-based differences were noted in the results or across faculty rank for respondents; however, for women, reaching associate professor resulted in greater career satisfaction. Conclusion: This study suggests that both work-related factors and family responsibilities influence satisfaction with career and work–life balance, but the predictors appear to interact in complex and nuanced ways. Further research is needed to delineate more clearly these interactions and to explore other factors that may play important additional roles. PMID

  18. Do Family Responsibilities and a Clinical Versus Research Faculty Position Affect Satisfaction with Career and Work-Life Balance for Medical School Faculty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, Laurel; Nettiksimmons, Jasmine; Howell, Lydia Pleotis; Villablanca, Amparo C

    2015-06-01

    Balancing career and family obligations poses challenges to medical school faculty and contributes to dissatisfaction and attrition from academics. We examined the relationship between family setting and responsibilities, rank, and career and work-life satisfaction for faculty in a large U.S. medical school. Baseline faculty surveys were analyzed from the first year of a 4-year National Institutes of Health-funded study to evaluate awareness, knowledge, attitudes, and use of family friendly policies and career satisfaction. The study focus was on the impact of family responsibilities and characteristics of the faculty position (rank, clinical vs. nonclinical, and academic series) in multivariate comparisons between primary predictors and outcomes of interest. Both clinical and family responsibilities for children under 18 play a major and interacting role in satisfaction with career and work-life balance. Clinical faculty respondents without children at home reported significantly greater career satisfaction and better work-life balance than their nonclinical counterparts. Nonclinical faculty respondents with children reported greater satisfaction and better balance than counterparts without family responsibilities. However, the advantage in career satisfaction and work-life balance for clinical faculty respondents disappeared for those with responsibility for young children. No gender-based differences were noted in the results or across faculty rank for respondents; however, for women, reaching associate professor resulted in greater career satisfaction. This study suggests that both work-related factors and family responsibilities influence satisfaction with career and work-life balance, but the predictors appear to interact in complex and nuanced ways. Further research is needed to delineate more clearly these interactions and to explore other factors that may play important additional roles.

  19.  NET and NETosis – new phenomenon in immunology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Matoszka

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available  Neutrophils are one of the first cells of the immune system recruited to the site of infection, representing the host’s most effective and numerous front-line defenders. Recently, a novel antimicrobial mechanism of neutrophils has been described: upon activation, they release DNA and a subset of their granule content, forming neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs. These extracellular, chromatin structures, which contain histones and neutrophil granule proteins, can trap and kill a broad spectrum of microbes, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, protozoa and viruses. Some of the pathogens, which are trapped and exposed to high local concentrations of antimicrobial compounds, employ strategies against NET binding, including surface modification and/or degradation of NET by DNases. It has been suggested that NETs are formed during active cell death, recently named NETosis. New data indicate that this novel mechanism of cell death requires interaction between three processes – reactive oxygen species generation, histone citrullination and autophagy – and significantly differs from previously known types of cell death, including apoptosis and necrosis. Moreover, the release of nuclear chromatin was also described for other types of cells – mast cells and eosinophils. Mast cells, like neutrophils, under certain conditions release nuclear chromatin and may undergo a similar active cell death program, while eosinophils release only mitochondrial chromatin, and its release does not lead to the death of these cells.

  20. User needs on Nursing Net (The Kango Net) - analyzing the total consultation page - http://www.kango-net.jp/en/index.html.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakyo, Yumi; Nakayama, Kazuhiro; Komatsu, Hiroko; Setoyama, Yoko

    2009-01-01

    People are required to take in and comprehend a massive amount of health information and in turn make some serious decisions based on that information. We, at St. Luke's College of Nursing, provide a rich selection of high-quality health information, and have set up Nursing Net (The Kango Net:Kango is Nursing in Japanese). This website provides information for consumers as well as people interested in the nursing profession. In an attempt to identify the needs of users, this study conducted an analysis of the contents on the total consultation page. Many readers voted that responses to nursing techniques and symptoms questions proved instrumental in their queries. Based on the results of this study, we can conclude that this is an easy-to-access, convenient site for getting health information about physical symptoms and nursing techniques.

  1. HANPP Collection: Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) as a Percentage of Net Primary Product (NPP) portion of the HANPP Collection represents a map identifying...

  2. Minimal Edge-Transitive Nets for the Design and Construction of Metal-Organic Frameworks

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2017-04-05

    Highly-connected and minimal edge-transitive nets (with one or two kinds of edge) can be regarded as ideal blueprints for the rational design and construction of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Here we report and affirm the prominence of highly-connected nets as suitable targets in reticular chemistry for the design and synthesis of MOFs. Of special interest are augmented highly-connected binodal edge-transitive nets embedding a unique and precise positioning and connectivity of the net vertex figures, regarded as net-coded building units (net-cBUs). Explicitly, a definite net-cBU encompasses precise geometrical information that codes uniquely and matchlessly a selected net, a compelling perquisite for the rational design of MOFs. Interestingly, the double six-membered ring (d6R) building unit offers great prospective to be deployed as a net-cBU for the deliberate reticulation of the sole two edge-transitive nets with a vertex figure as a d6R, namely the (4,12)-coordinated shp net (square and hexagonal prism) and the (6,12)-coordinated alb net (aluminium diboride, hexagonal prism and trigonal prism). Conceivably, we envisioned and proposed various MOF structures based on the derived shp and alb nets. Gaining access to the requisite net-cBUs is essential for the successful practice of reticular chemistry; correspondingly organic and organic chemistries were deployed to afford concomitant molecular building blocks (MBBs) with the looked-for shape and connectivity. Practically, the combination of the 12-connected (12-c) rare-earth (RE) polynuclear, points of extension matching the 12 vertices of the hexagonal prism (d6R) with a 4-connected tetracarboxylate ligand or a 6-connected hexacarboxylate ligand afforded the targeted shp-MOF or alb-MOF, respectively. Intuitively, a dodecacarboxylate ligand can be conceived and purported as a compatible 12-c MBB, plausibly affording the positioning of the carbon centers of the twelve carboxylate groups on the vertices of the

  3. 78 FR 72393 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Investment Income Tax; Final and Proposed Rules #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 231 / Monday, December... Parts 1 and 602 RIN 1545-BK44 Net Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury... Investment Income Tax and the computation of Net Investment Income. The regulations affect individuals...

  4. 77 FR 72611 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... December 5, 2012 Part V Department of the Treasury Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 Net Investment... Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking...) the individual's net investment income for such taxable year, or (B) the excess (if any) of (i) the...

  5. Net analyte signal based statistical quality control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skibsted, E.T.S.; Boelens, H.F.M.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Smilde, A.K.; Broad, N.W.; Rees, D.R.; Witte, D.T.

    2005-01-01

    Net analyte signal statistical quality control (NAS-SQC) is a new methodology to perform multivariate product quality monitoring based on the net analyte signal approach. The main advantage of NAS-SQC is that the systematic variation in the product due to the analyte (or property) of interest is

  6. Asynchronous stream processing with S-Net

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grelck, C.; Scholz, S.-B.; Shafarenko, A.

    2010-01-01

    We present the rationale and design of S-Net, a coordination language for asynchronous stream processing. The language achieves a near-complete separation between the application code, written in any conventional programming language, and the coordination/communication code written in S-Net. Our

  7. Using the MVC architecture on . NET platform

    OpenAIRE

    Ježek, David

    2011-01-01

    This thesis deals with usage of MVC (Model View Controller) technology in web development on ASP.NET platform from Microsoft. Mainly it deals with latest version of framework ASP.NET MVC 3. First part describes MVC architecture and the second describes usage of MVC in certain parts of web application an comparing with PHP.

  8. Analysis of Petri Nets and Transition Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eike Best

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a stand-alone, no-frills tool supporting the analysis of (labelled place/transition Petri nets and the synthesis of labelled transition systems into Petri nets. It is implemented as a collection of independent, dedicated algorithms which have been designed to operate modularly, portably, extensibly, and efficiently.

  9. 27 CFR 7.27 - Net contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net contents. 7.27 Section 7.27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... the net contents are displayed by having the same blown, branded, or burned in the container in...

  10. Petri nets and other models of concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Sassone, Vladimiro

    1998-01-01

    This paper retraces, collects, and summarises contributions of the authors - in collaboration with others - on the theme of Petri nets and their categorical relationships to other models of concurrency.......This paper retraces, collects, and summarises contributions of the authors - in collaboration with others - on the theme of Petri nets and their categorical relationships to other models of concurrency....

  11. Delta Semantics Defined By Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    This report is identical to an earlier version of May 1978 except that Chapter 5 has been revised. A new paper: "A Petri Net Definition of a System Description Language", DAIMI, April 1979, 20 pages, extends the Petri net model to include a data state representing the program variables. Delta...

  12. Net neutrality and inflation of traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peitz, M.; Schütt, Florian

    Under strict net neutrality Internet service providers (ISPs) are required to carry data without any differentiation and at no cost to the content provider. We provide a simple framework with a monopoly ISP to evaluate the short-run effects of different net neutrality rules. Content differs in its

  13. Net Neutrality and Inflation of Traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peitz, M.; Schütt, F.

    2015-01-01

    Under strict net neutrality Internet service providers (ISPs) are required to carry data without any differentiation and at no cost to the content provider. We provide a simple framework with a monopoly ISP to evaluate different net neutrality rules. Content differs in its sensitivity to delay.

  14. The Net Neutrality Debate: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Rich

    2006-01-01

    Rich Greenfield examines the basics of today's net neutrality debate that is likely to be an ongoing issue for society. Greenfield states the problems inherent in the definition of "net neutrality" used by Common Cause: "Network neutrality is the principle that Internet users should be able to access any web content they choose and…

  15. Teaching and Learning with the Net Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Kassandra; Marateo, Raymond C.; Ferris, S. Pixy

    2007-01-01

    As the Net Generation places increasingly greater demands on educators, students and teachers must jointly consider innovative ways of teaching and learning. In this, educators are supported by the fact that the Net Generation wants to learn. However, these same educators should not fail to realize that this generation learns differently from…

  16. Verification of Timed-Arc Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lasse; Jacobsen, Morten; Møller, Mikael Harkjær

    2011-01-01

    Timed-Arc Petri Nets (TAPN) are an extension of the classical P/T nets with continuous time. Tokens in TAPN carry an age and arcs between places and transitions are labelled with time intervals restricting the age of tokens available for transition firing. The TAPN model posses a number...

  17. A Brief Introduction to Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1997-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets or CPN) is a graphical oriented language for design, specification, simulation and verification of systems. It is in particular well- suited for systems in which communication, synchronisation and resource sharing are important. Typical examples of application areas a...

  18. Gill net and trammel net selectivity in the northern Aegean Sea, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Saadet Karakulak

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Fishing trials were carried out with gill nets and trammel nets in the northern Aegean Sea from March 2004 to February 2005. Four different mesh sizes for the gill nets and the inner panel of trammel nets (16, 18, 20 and 22 mm bar length were used. Selectivity parameters for the five most economically important species, bogue (Boops boops, annular sea bream (Diplodus annularis, striped red mullet (Mullus surmuletus, axillary sea bream (Pagellus acarne and blotched picarel (Spicara maena, caught by the two gears were estimated. The SELECT method was used to estimate the selectivity parameters of a variety of models. Catch composition and catch proportion of several species were different in gill and trammel nets. The length frequency distributions of the species caught by the two gears were significantly different. The bi-modal model selectivity curve gave the best fit for gill net and trammel net data, and there was little difference between the modal lengths of these nets. However, a clear difference was found in catching efficiency. The highest catch rates were obtained with the trammel net. Given that many discard species and small fish are caught by gill nets and trammel nets with a mesh size of 16 mm, it is clear that these nets are not appropriate for fisheries. Consequently, the best mesh size for multispecies fisheries is 18 mm. This mesh size will considerably reduce the numbers of small sized individuals and discard species in the catch.

  19. Complete Response to Trastuzumab-Based Chemotherapy in a Patient with Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-2-Positive Metastatic Salivary Duct Carcinoma ex Pleomorphic Adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigenori Kadowaki

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA of the salivary glands has often a salivary duct carcinoma (SDC component, which resembles ductal carcinoma of the breast and frequently overexpresses human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2. We report a case of metastatic CXPA with SDC component who was treated with trastuzumab-based chemotherapy and has had a durable complete response. Case Report: A 74-year-old man was diagnosed with CXPA of the right parotid gland. The resected tumor was histologically diagnosed as CXPA with a predominant SDC component that showed strong positivity for HER2 protein and HER2 gene amplification. Multiple pulmonary metastatic lesions were detected after surgery, and combination chemotherapy with paclitaxel and trastuzumab was initiated. A complete response was confirmed after 7 treatment cycles, and no evidence of disease progression has been observed after 13 months of initiation of therapy. Conclusions: This report suggests a potential utility of trastuzumab-based chemotherapy for HER2-positive CXPA.

  20. Position-Dependent Cardiovascular Response and Time-Motion Analysis During Training Drills and Friendly Matches in Elite Male Basketball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Ronda, Lorena; Ric, Angel; Llabres-Torres, Ivan; de Las Heras, Bernat; Schelling I Del Alcazar, Xavi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure differences in the cardiovascular workload (heart rate [HR]) and time-motion demands between positional groups, during numerous basketball training drills, and compare the results with in-game competition demands. A convenience sample of 14 top-level professional basketball players from the same club (Spanish First Division, ACB) participated in the study. A total of 146 basketball exercises per player (performed over an 8-week period in 32 team training sessions throughout the competitive season) and 7 friendly matches (FM) played during the preparatory phase were analyzed. The results reveal that HRavg and HRpeak were the highest in FM (158 ± 10; 198 ± 9 b · min(-1), respectively). Time-motion analysis showed 1v1 to be the most demanding drill (53 ± 8 and 46 ± 12 movements per minute for full and half court, respectively). During FM, players performed 33 ± 7 movements per minute. Positional differences exist for both HR and time-motion demands, ranging from moderate to very large for all basketball drills compared with FM. Constraints such as number of players, court size, work-to-rest ratios, and coach intervention are key factors influencing cardiovascular responses and time-motion demands during basketball training sessions. These results demonstrate that systematic monitoring of the physical demands and physiological responses during training and competition can inform and potentially improve coaching strategy, basketball-specific training drills, and ultimately, match performance.

  1. Long-term Durability of Responses to 2 or 3 Doses of Hepatitis A Vaccination in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Adults on Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Aristine; Chang, Sui-Yuan; Sun, Hsin-Yun; Tsai, Mao-Song; Liu, Wen-Chun; Su, Yi-Ching; Wu, Pei-Ying; Hung, Chien-Ching; Chang, Shan-Chwen

    2017-02-15

    Previous studies have shown that the durability of serological response is impaired in successfully vaccinated human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) positive subjects after receiving 2 doses of inactivated hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccine. We evaluated whether 3 doses compared with 2 doses of HAV vaccine could improve the long-term seroprotection for this susceptible group. Antibody persistence among HIV-positive men who have sex with men aged 18-40 years who had received 2 or 3 doses of HAV vaccine according to a 0-6- or a 0-1-6-month schedule was evaluated biannually for 5 consecutive years in this prospective, nonrandomized cohort study. At the end of 5 years, seroprotection persisted in 79% (146/185) versus 76% (85/110) and 94% (146/155) versus 88% (84/95) of the 3- versus 2-dose primary responders by intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses, respectively (P > .05). Throughout the 5 years, the geometric mean concentrations of anti-HAV immunoglobulin G (IgG) were significantly higher for the 3-dose than the 2-dose group. In the multivariable analysis, a 3-dose regimen compared with a 2-dose regimen (odds ratio = 3.36; 95% confidence interval = 1.14-9.93) was independently associated with sustained seroprotection. Three doses versus 2 doses of HAV vaccine improve the durability of immune responses in terms of higher concentrations of specific IgG, which take longer to decay to subthreshold levels.

  2. Hemispheric Asymmetries in Striatal Reward Responses Relate to Approach-Avoidance Learning and Encoding of Positive-Negative Prediction Errors in Dopaminergic Midbrain Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberg, Kristoffer Carl; Doell, Kimberly C; Schwartz, Sophie

    2015-10-28

    Some individuals are better at learning about rewarding situations, whereas others are inclined to avoid punishments (i.e., enhanced approach or avoidance learning, respectively). In reinforcement learning, action values are increased when outcomes are better than predicted (positive prediction errors [PEs]) and decreased for worse than predicted outcomes (negative PEs). Because actions with high and low values are approached and avoided, respectively, individual differences in the neural encoding of PEs may influence the balance between approach-avoidance learning. Recent correlational approaches also indicate that biases in approach-avoidance learning involve hemispheric asymmetries in dopamine function. However, the computational and neural mechanisms underpinning such learning biases remain unknown. Here we assessed hemispheric reward asymmetry in striatal activity in 34 human participants who performed a task involving rewards and punishments. We show that the relative difference in reward response between hemispheres relates to individual biases in approach-avoidance learning. Moreover, using a computational modeling approach, we demonstrate that better encoding of positive (vs negative) PEs in dopaminergic midbrain regions is associated with better approach (vs avoidance) learning, specifically in participants with larger reward responses in the left (vs right) ventral striatum. Thus, individual dispositions or traits may be determined by neural processes acting to constrain learning about specific aspects of the world. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3514491-10$15.00/0.

  3. A novel workflow for seismic net pay estimation with uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Glinsky, Michael E; Unaldi, Muhlis; Nagassar, Vishal

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel workflow for seismic net pay estimation with uncertainty. It is demonstrated on the Cassra/Iris Field. The theory for the stochastic wavelet derivation (which estimates the seismic noise level along with the wavelet, time-to-depth mapping, and their uncertainties), the stochastic sparse spike inversion, and the net pay estimation (using secant areas) along with its uncertainty; will be outlined. This includes benchmarking of this methodology on a synthetic model. A critical part of this process is the calibration of the secant areas. This is done in a two step process. First, a preliminary calibration is done with the stochastic reflection response modeling using rock physics relationships derived from the well logs. Second, a refinement is made to the calibration to account for the encountered net pay at the wells. Finally, a variogram structure is estimated from the extracted secant area map, then used to build in the lateral correlation to the ensemble of net pay maps while matc...

  4. The onset of the progression of acute phase response mechanisms induced by extreme impacts can be followed by the decrease in blood levels of positive acute phase proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larina, Olga; Bekker, Anna

    Studies performed at space flights and earth-based simulation models detected the plasma indices of acute phase reaction (APR), i.e. the increase of APR cytokine mediators and alterations in the production of blood acute phase proteins (APP) at the initial stages of adaptation to altered gravity conditions. Acute phase response is the principal constituent of the functional activity of innate immunity system. Changes in plasma APPs contents are considered to serve the restoration of homeostasis state. According to trends of their concentration shifts at the evolving of acute phase reaction APPs are denoted as positive, neutral, or negative. Plasma concentrations of positive acute phase proteins α1-acid glycoprotein (α1-AGP), α1-antitrypsin (α1-AT), and neutral α2-macroglobulin (α2-M) were measured in human study at 12-hour antiorthostatic position (AOP) with 15° head down tilt and hypoxia experiments at 14% oxygen in pressure chamber. Both of these impacts were shown to produce alterations in the APP levels indicative for acute phase response. Nevertheless, in AOP experiment noticeable decrease in α1-AGP concentration occurred by hour 12, and even more pronounced decline of α1-AGP and α1-AT were found on hypoxia hours 12 and 36. Acute phase proteins α1-AGP and α2-M possess the features of proteinase inhibitors. This function is implemented by the formation of complexes with the molecules of proteolytic enzymes which subsequently are removed from the blood flow. Transient decrease in plasma concentrations of protease inhibitors on early phases of APR development was reported to result from the growth of plasma protease activity due to cathepsin release from activated leukocytes, which had not yet been compensated by enhanced APP synthesis. Being a carrier protein for positively charged and neutral substances, α1-AGP shows pronounced elevation in its blood content during APR development. As assumed, it is required for the transportation of the increased

  5. HER2-positive breast cancer: {sup 18}F-FDG PET for early prediction of response to trastuzumab plus taxane-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humbert, Olivier; Brunotte, Francois [Centre GF Leclerc, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Dijon (France); CHU Le Bocage, Imaging Department, Dijon (France); Universite de Bourgogne, UMR CNRS 5158, Dijon (France); Cochet, Alexandre [Centre GF Leclerc, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Dijon (France); Universite de Bourgogne, UMR CNRS 5158, Dijon (France); Riedinger, Jean-Marc [Centre GF Leclerc, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Dijon (France); Centre GF Leclerc, Department of Biology and Pathology, Dijon (France); Berriolo-Riedinger, Alina; Toubeau, Michel; Dygai-Cochet, Inna [Centre GF Leclerc, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Dijon (France); Arnould, Laurent [Centre GF Leclerc, Department of Biology and Pathology, Dijon (France); Coudert, Bruno; Desmoulins, Isabelle; Guiu, Severine; Fumoleau, Pierre [Centre GF Leclerc, Department of Medical Oncology, Dijon (France); Coutant, Charles [Centre GF Leclerc, Department of Surgery, Dijon (France)

    2014-08-15

    To investigate the value of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT) to predict a pathological complete response (pCR) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in women with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer. Fifty-seven consecutive women with HER2-positive breast cancer, treated with trastuzumab plus taxane-based NAC, were prospectively included. Maximum Standardized Uptake Value of the primary tumor and axillary nodes were measured at baseline (PET{sub 1}.SUV{sub max}) and after the first course of NAC (PET{sub 2}.SUV{sub max}). Tumor metabolic volumes were assessed to determine Total Lesion Glycolysis (TLG). The tumor metabolic response (ΔSUV{sub max} and ΔTLG) was calculated. In univariate analysis, negative hormonal receptor status (p = 0.04), high tumor grade (p = 0.03), and low tumor PET{sub 2}.SUV{sub max} (p = 0.001) were predictive of pCR. Tumor ΔSUV{sub max} correlated with pCR (p = 0.03), provided that tumors with low metabolic activity at baseline were excluded. ΔTLG did not correlate with pCR. In multivariate analysis, tumor PET{sub 2}.SUV{sub max} < 2.1 was the best independent predictive factor (Odds ratio =14.3; p = 0.004) with both negative and positive predictive values of 76 %. Although the metabolic features of the primary tumor did not depend on hormonal receptor status, both the baseline metabolism and early response of axillary nodes were higher if estrogen receptors were not expressed (p = 0.01 and p = 0.03, respectively). In HER2-positive breast cancer, very low tumor residual metabolism after the first cycle of NAC (SUV{sub max} < 2.1) was the main predictor of pCR. These results should be further explored in multicenter studies and incorporated into the design of clinical trials. (orig.)

  6. Discrete, continuous, and hybrid petri nets

    CERN Document Server

    David, René

    2004-01-01

    Petri nets do not designate a single modeling formalism. In fact, newcomers to the field confess sometimes to be a little puzzled by the diversity of formalisms that are recognized under this "umbrella". Disregarding some extensions to the theoretical modeling capabilities, and looking at the level of abstraction of the formalisms, Condition/Event, Elementary, Place/Transition, Predicate/Transition, Colored, Object Oriented... net systems are frequently encountered in the literature. On the other side, provided with appropriate interpretative extensions, Controled Net Systems, Marking Diagrams (the Petri net generalization of State Diagrams), or the many-many variants in which time can be explicitly incorporated -Time(d), Deterministic, (Generalized) Stochastic, Fuzzy...- are defined. This represents another way to define practical formalisms that can be obtained by the "cro- product" of the two mentioned dimensions. Thus Petri nets constitute a modeling paradigm, understandable in a broad sense as "the total...

  7. A study of best positive predictors for sustained virologic response to interferon alpha plus ribavirin therapy in naive chronic hepatitis C patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riazuddin Sheikh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine the rate of sustained virological response (SVR and various factors associated with response rates in chronic hepatitis C infected patients treated with interferon alpha and ribavirin combination therapy. Methods A retrospective review of patients data collected at this Centre from 2001 to 2007 was performed. Out of 731 consecutive patients 400 patients that fulfilled the study criteria were evaluated and subsequently treated with a combination of interferon alpha 2b (3 MU subcutaneously three injections weekly and ribavirin (800–1200 mg orally daily. Treatment were administered for either 24 weeks or 48 weeks and patients were followed for an additional 6 months thereafter. End of the treatment response (ETR, SVR and side effects were recorded. Results Out of 400 patients, 394 completed the entire treatment course and six patients discontinued treatment at month 2. Over 67% responded at the end of treatment and 16% suffered relapse. Among all treated patients, 47.6% males and 56.7% females had sustained viral response with a total combined sustained viral response rate of 50.5%. Rapid response was seen in 46.5% patients. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, slow virological responders (adjusted OR 2.6 [95% CI 1.9–3.7], HCV genotype 1&4 (adjusted OR 2.4 [95% CI 1.7–3.5], pre-treatment viral load > 0.2 MIU/mL (adjusted OR 2.2 [95% CI 1.8–4.2], Panjabi ethnic group (adjusted OR 1.6 [95% CI 1.0–3.2] and Age > 40 years (adjusted OR 1.5 [95% CI 0.9–2.4] were independent risk factors for non response. Side effects were usual and tolerable and only 1.5% discontinued the treatment. Conclusion The best positive predictor for SVR in this country are: rapid virologic response, HCV genotype 2 & 3, age

  8. Differential pH and capsaicin responses of Griffonia simplicifolia IB4 (IB4)-positive and IB4-negative small sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M; Willmott, N J; Michael, G J; Priestley, J V

    2004-01-01

    Protons play a key role in nociception caused by inflammation and ischaemia, but little is known about the relative sensitivities of different dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. We have therefore examined the responses in vitro of rat DRG cells classified according to whether or not they bind Griffonia simplicifolia IB4 (IB4), a lectin which is widely used to distinguish between two major populations of small diameter neurons. Under voltage-clamp conditions, proton-activated inward currents were found in approximately 90% of small DRG neurons and showed one of three waveforms: transient, sustained or mixed. The majority of IB4-positive (IB4+) neurons (63%) gave rise to sustained inward currents that were sensitive to capsazepine. In contrast, the most prevalent waveform in small IB4-negative (IB4-) neurons (69%) was a mixed response containing transient and sustained components. The transient component was inhibited by amiloride whilst the sustained component showed a variable sensitivity to capsazepine. We also found that more IB4+ cells responded to capsaicin and, on average, gave rise to a larger magnitude of response than small IB4- neurons, consistent with their higher prevalence and greater amplitude of vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1)-like acid responses. The increase in intracellular Ca(2+) induced by capsaicin was also slightly greater in IB4+ neurons and in these cells its magnitude correlated with the level of TRPV1 immunoreactivity. Our data suggest that acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) and TRPV1 are the major acid-sensitive receptors in small IB4- neurons, whilst TRPV1 is the predominant one in IB4+ neurons. Because ASIC-like responses were approximately 10-fold more sensitive to changes in H(+) than TRPV1-like responses, we speculate that small IB4- rather than IB4+ neurons play an essential role in sensing acid. Our results also highlight differences in capsaicin responses between IB4+ and IB4- small neurons and reveal the close link between capsaicin

  9. Differential regulation of polysaccharide-specific antibody responses to isolated polysaccharides, conjugate vaccines, and intact Gram-positive versus Gram-negative extracellular bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snapper, Clifford M

    2016-06-24

    Bacterial capsular polysaccharides are major virulence factors and are key targets in a number of licensed anti-bacterial vaccines. Their major characteristics are their large molecular weight and expression of repeating antigenic epitopes that mediate multivalent B cell receptor cross-linking. In addition, since the majority of these antigens cannot associate with MHC-II they fail to recruit CD4+ T cell help and are referred to as T cell-independent antigens. In this review I will discuss a series of studies from my laboratory that have underscored the importance of understanding polysaccharide-specific antibody responses within the context in which the PS is expressed (i.e. in isolation, as a component of conjugate vaccines, and expressed naturally by intact bacteria). We have shown that multivalent B cell receptor crosslinking, as mediated by polysaccharides, uniquely determines the qualitative response of the B cell to subsequent stimuli, but by itself is insufficient to induce antibody secretion or class switching. For these latter events to occur, second signals must act in concert with primary signals derived from the B cell receptor. The co-expression of polysaccharide and protein within intact bacteria promotes recruitment of CD4+ T cell help for the associated PS-specific IgG response, in contrast to isolated polysaccharides. Further, the particulate nature of extracellular bacteria confers properties to the polysaccharide-specific IgG response that makes it distinct immunologically from soluble conjugate vaccines. Finally, the underlying biochemical and/or structural differences that distinguish Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria appear to play critical roles in differentially regulating the associated polysaccharide-specific IgG responses to these groups of pathogens. These studies have a number of implications for the understanding and future design of polysaccharide-based vaccines. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Tryptophan Substitutions at Lipid-exposed Positions of the Gamma M3 Transmembrane Domain Increase the Macroscopic Ionic Current Response of the Torpedo californica Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Martín, A.; Mercado, J.L.; Rojas, L.V.; McNamee, M.G.; Lasalde-Dominicci, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Our previous amino-acid substitutions at the postulated lipid-exposed transmembrane segment M4 of the Torpedo californica acetylcholine receptor (AChR) focused on the alpha subunit. In this study we have extended the mutagenesis analysis using single tryptophan replacements in seven positions (I288, M291, F292, S294, L296, M299 and N300) near the center of the third transmembrane domain of the gamma subunit (γM3). All the tryptophan substitution mutants were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes following mRNA injections at levels close to wild type. The functional response of these mutants was evaluated using macroscopic current analysis in voltage-clamped oocytes. For all the substitutions the concentration for half-maximal activation, EC50, is similar to wild type using acetylcholine. For F292W, L296W and M299W the normalized macroscopic responses are 2- to 3-fold higher than for wild type. Previous photolabeling studies demonstrated that these three positions were in contact with membrane lipids. Each of these M3 mutations was co-injected with the previously characterized αC418W mutant to examine possible synergistic effects of single lipid-exposed mutations on two different subunits. For the γM3/αM4 double mutants, the EC50s were similar to those measured for the αC418W mutant alone. Tryptophan substitutions at positions that presumably face the interior of the protein (S294 and M291) or neighboring helices (I288) did not cause significant inhibition of channel function or surface expression of AChRs. PMID:11547353

  11. Pro visual C++/CLI and the net 35 platform

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Pro Visual C++/CLI and the .NET 3.5 Platform is about writing .NET applications using C++/CLI. While readers are learning the ins and outs of .NET application development, they will also be learning the syntax of C++, both old and new to .NET. Readers will also gain a good understanding of the .NET architecture. This is truly a .NET book applying C++ as its development language not another C++ syntax book that happens to cover .NET.

  12. Association between IPS-1 polymorphisms and PEG-IFN treatment response in patients with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WU Haiqing

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate whether interferon-β promoter stimulator 1 (IPS-1 gene polymorphisms could affect the treatment response to peginterferon alpha (PEG-IFN in patients with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB. MethodsA total of 212 HBeAg-positive CHB patients treated with PEG-IFN monotherapy for 48 weeks were enrolled from the department of infectious diseases of Ruijin hospital in this study from January 2008 to December 2012. We collected peripheral blood from patients and extracted total genomic DNA. Genotype analysis was performed for 10 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in IPS-1 gene using the Sequenom MassArray system. Response was defined as cases showing hepatitis B virus (HBV DNA level <200 IU/ml, HBeAg seroconversion, and normal aminotransferase (ALT levels after 48-week PEG-IFN therapy. The chi-square test was conducted to analyze the allele frequency and genotype distribution of IPS-1 in both the response (R and non-response (NR groups. Binary logistic regression modeling was used to analyze the association of SNPs and haplotypes of IPS-1 with treatment response. ResultsOf all the 212 patients, 95 (44.8% were infected with HBV genotype B and 117 (55.2% with HBV genotype C. There was a total response rate of 34.9% (74/212. Significant differences in genotype distributions of four SNPs (rs2326369, rs2464, rs6515831, and rs16989000 were observed between the R and NR groups (P<0.05. In multivariate analysis, three SNPs (rs2326369, rs6515831, and rs2464 were found to be independently associated with PEG-IFN efficacy after adjustment for sex, age, HBV genotype, family history, and baseline levels of HBV DNA and ALT: (1 rs2326369 CC genotype was independently associated with NR (OR=0.51, 95% CI: 0.28-0.92, P=0.026; (2 rs6515831 TT genotype was independently associated with R (OR=2.08, 95% CI: 1.12-3.86, P=0.020; (3 rs2464 CC genotype was independently associated with R (OR=2.33, 95% CI: 1.24-4.37, P=0.009. Furthermore

  13. Arabidopsis Small Rubber Particle Protein Homolog SRPs Play Dual Roles as Positive Factors for Tissue Growth and Development and in Drought Stress Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Yu; Park, Ki Youl; Seo, Young Sam; Kim, Woo Taek

    2016-04-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) act as repositories for fatty acids and sterols, which are used for various cellular processes such as energy production and membrane and hormone synthesis. LD-associated proteins play important roles in seed development and germination, but their functions in postgermination growth are not well understood. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) contains three SRP homologs (SRP1, SRP2, and SRP3) that share sequence identities with small rubber particle proteins of the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). In this report, the possible cellular roles of SRPs in postgermination growth and the drought tolerance response were investigated. Arabidopsis SRPs appeared to be LD-associated proteins and displayed polymerization properties in vivo and in vitro. SRP-overexpressing transgenic Arabidopsis plants (35S:SRP1, 35S:SRP2, and 35S:SRP3) exhibited higher vegetative and reproductive growth and markedly better tolerance to drought stress than wild-type Arabidopsis. In addition, constitutive over-expression of SRPs resulted in increased numbers of large LDs in postgermination seedlings. In contrast, single (srp1, 35S:SRP2-RNAi, and srp3) and triple (35S:SRP2-RNAi/srp1srp3) loss-of-function mutant lines exhibited the opposite phenotypes. Our results suggest that Arabidopsis SRPs play dual roles as positive factors in postgermination growth and the drought stress tolerance response. The possible relationships between LD-associated proteins and the drought stress response are discussed. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  14. The Positive Correlation of the Enhanced Immune Response to PCV2 Subunit Vaccine by Conjugation of Chitosan Oligosaccharide with the Deacetylation Degree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiqiang Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan oligosaccharides (COS, the degraded products of chitosan, have been demonstrated to have versatile biological functions. In primary studies, it has displayed significant adjuvant effects when mixed with other vaccines. In this study, chitosan oligosaccharides with different deacetylation degrees were prepared and conjugated to porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 subunit vaccine to enhance its immunogenicity. The vaccine conjugates were designed by the covalent linkage of COSs to PCV2 molecules and administered to BALB/c mice three times at two-week intervals. The results indicate that, as compared to the PCV2 group, COS–PCV2 conjugates remarkably enhanced both humoral and cellular immunity against PCV2 by promoting lymphocyte proliferation and initiating a mixed T-helper 1 (Th1/T-helper 2 (Th2 response, including raised levels of PCV2-specific antibodies and an increased production of inflammatory cytokines. Noticeably, with the increasing deacetylation degree, the stronger immune responses to PCV2 were observed in the groups with COS-PCV2 vaccination. In comparison with NACOS (chitin oligosaccharides–PCV2 and LCOS (chitosan oligosaccharides with low deacetylation degree–PCV2, HCOS (chitosan oligosaccharides with high deacetylation degree–PCV2 showed the highest adjuvant effect, even comparable to that of PCV2/ISA206 (a commercialized adjuvant group. In summary, COS conjugation might be a viable strategy to enhance the immune response to PCV2 subunit vaccine, and the adjuvant effect was positively correlated with the deacetylation degree of COS.

  15. Greening the NetFPGA Reference Router

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Guo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency is an important criterion in the design of next generation networks for both economic and environmental concerns. This paper presents an energy-efficient router that is able to dynamically adapt its routing capability in response to real-time traffic load, achieving energy proportional routing. The NetFPGA reference router, which operates at one of two frequencies (125 MHz or 62.5 MHz, requires a board reset to switch frequencies. We have modified the reference router to allow dynamic switching among five operating frequencies. Experiments with real traces indicate that, compared to the reference router, a 10% power reduction can be achieved through dynamic frequency scaling. When the router is further modified to support green traffic engineering and Ethernet port shut-down, power consumption can be reduced by 46% while maintaining the required quality of service. This allows the router to meet the instantaneous performance requirements while minimizing power dissipation. Similar results can be expected when these general power-saving principles are applied in future commercial routers.

  16. KONVERGENSI DALAM PROGRAM NET CITIZEN JOURNALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhafidilla Vebrynda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Di dalam artikel ini, peneliti ingin melihat perkembangan teknologi di Indonesia sebagai sebuah peluang untuk menjalankan sebuah program berita berbasis video kiriman masyarakat. Perkembangan teknologi tersebut adalah teknologi penyiaran, teknologi sosial media dan teknologi dalam proses produksi sebuah video. Di Indonesia, jumlah televisi semakin banyak. Setiap stasiun televisi harus bersaing untuk dapat bertahan hidup. Net TV merupakan sebuah stasiun televisi baru di Indonesia yang harus memiliki berbagai program unggulan baru agar dapat bersaing dengan televisi lainnya yang sudah ada. Net TV menggunakan berbagai platform media untuk menjalankan program Net Citizen Journalism (Net CJ. Penggunaan berbagai platform media dikenal dengan istilah multiplatform dan secara teoritis dikenal dengan istilah konvergensi. Konvergensi yaitu saat meleburnya domain-domain dalam berbagai media komunikasi. Artikel ini menggunakan metode studi kasus untuk melihat bagaimana konvergensi terjadi dalam proses pengelolaan program Net CJ. Teknik pengumpulan data adalah dengan wawancara mendalam, observasi dan studi dokumen. Wawancara mendalam dilakukan dari tiga sudut pandang yaitu dari pengelola program, pengguna/audience dan pengamat media. Penelitian ini menemukan bahwa dengan menggunakan berbagai platform media yang fungsinya berbeda, memiliki satu tujuan yang sama yaitu untuk menjalankan program Net CJ. Adapun berbagai platform dalam proses produksi program yaitu tayangan TV konvensional, streaming TV, website, aplikasi Net CJ, facebook, twitter, instagram dan path. Konvergensi media dijalankan dalam dua proses, yaitu proses produksi dan proses promosi program berita.

  17. Net Neutrality: Media Discourses and Public Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Quail

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes media and public discourses surrounding net neutrality, with particular attention to public utility philosophy, from a critical perspective. The article suggests that further public education about net neutrality would be beneficial. The first portion of this paper provides a survey of the existing literature surrounding net neutrality, highlighting the contentious debate between market-based and public interest perspectives. In order to contextualize the debate, an overview of public utility philosophy is provided, shedding light on how the Internet can be conceptualized as a public good. Following this discussion, an analysis of mainstream media is presented, exploring how the media represents the issue of net neutrality and whether or not the Internet is discussed through the lens of public utility. To further examine how the net neutrality debate is being addressed, and to see the potential impacts of media discourses on the general public, the results of a focus group are reported and analyzed. Finally, a discussion assesses the implications of the net neutrality debate as presented through media discourses, highlighting the future of net neutrality as an important policy issue.

  18. Net transport of suspended matter due to tidal straining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S. E.; Jago, C. F.; Simpson, J. H.; Rippeth, T. P.

    2003-04-01

    Net transport of suspended particulate matter (SPM) is well-known in tidal regions where there is time-velocity asymmetry due to frictional modification of the tide in shallow water. We present here observations which show a new mechanism for net flux of SPM in response to tidal straining in a region of freshwater influence (ROFI). In situ measurements of the particle size of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and turbulent energy dissipation have been made at a site in Liverpool Bay (Irish Sea) where there is significant resuspension of particles from the muddy sand substrate during spring tides. This is a ROFI where tidal straining dominates the temporal development of turbulence. On a spring tide the water column tries to stratify on the ebb and destratify on the flood, but these tendencies are masked by mixing due to tidal stirring. Nevertheless, there is a marked excess of TKE dissipation rate E on the flood, especially in the upper part of the water column. Resuspension occurs on both flood and ebb, but SPM flux is strongly asymmetric with a net shorewards component. Asymmetry is most pronounced for the larger particles which comprise most of the mass. Enhanced ? on the flood mixes large particles upwards into faster flowing water, which increases the flux. Comparable upwards mixing of large particles does not occur on the ebb where enhanced E is confined to slower bottom waters. The net flux is not seen on neap tides because, although there is more stratification due to tidal straining, there is essentially no resuspension. The net flux on springs is undoubtedly an important component of SPM transport (and any comparable particulates) in coastal regions.

  19. Reversal of ocean acidification enhances net coral reef calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Rebecca; Caldeira, Lilian; Hosfelt, Jessica; Kwiatkowski, Lester; Maclaren, Jana K; Mason, Benjamin M; Nebuchina, Yana; Ninokawa, Aaron; Pongratz, Julia; Ricke, Katharine L; Rivlin, Tanya; Schneider, Kenneth; Sesboüé, Marine; Shamberger, Kathryn; Silverman, Jacob; Wolfe, Kennedy; Zhu, Kai; Caldeira, Ken

    2016-03-17

    Approximately one-quarter of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere each year is absorbed by the global oceans, causing measurable declines in surface ocean pH, carbonate ion concentration ([CO3(2-)]), and saturation state of carbonate minerals (Ω). This process, referred to as ocean acidification, represents a major threat to marine ecosystems, in particular marine calcifiers such as oysters, crabs, and corals. Laboratory and field studies have shown that calcification rates of many organisms decrease with declining pH, [CO3(2-)], and Ω. Coral reefs are widely regarded as one of the most vulnerable marine ecosystems to ocean acidification, in part because the very architecture of the ecosystem is reliant on carbonate-secreting organisms. Acidification-induced reductions in calcification are projected to shift coral reefs from a state of net accretion to one of net dissolution this century. While retrospective studies show large-scale declines in coral, and community, calcification over recent decades, determining the contribution of ocean acidification to these changes is difficult, if not impossible, owing to the confounding effects of other environmental factors such as temperature. Here we quantify the net calcification response of a coral reef flat to alkalinity enrichment, and show that, when ocean chemistry is restored closer to pre-industrial conditions, net community calcification increases. In providing results from the first seawater chemistry manipulation experiment of a natural coral reef community, we provide evidence that net community calcification is depressed compared with values expected for pre-industrial conditions, indicating that ocean acidification may already be impairing coral reef growth.

  20. The Net Climate Impact of Coal-Fired Power Plant Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindell, D.; Faluvegi, G.

    2010-01-01

    Coal-fired power plants influence climate via both the emission of long-lived carbon dioxide (CO2) and short-lived ozone and aerosol precursors. Using a climate model, we perform the first study of the spatial and temporal pattern of radiative forcing specifically for coal plant emissions. Without substantial pollution controls, we find that near-term net global mean climate forcing is negative due to the well-known aerosol masking of the effects of CO2. Imposition of pollution controls on sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides leads to a rapid realization of the full positive forcing from CO2, however. Long-term global mean forcing from stable (constant) emissions is positive regardless of pollution controls. Emissions from coal-fired power plants until 1970, including roughly 1/3 of total anthropogenic CO2 emissions, likely contributed little net global mean climate forcing during that period though they may have induce weak Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude (NHml) cooling. After that time many areas imposed pollution controls or switched to low sulfur coal. Hence forcing due to emissions from 1970 to 2000 and CO2 emitted previously was strongly positive and contributed to rapid global and especially NHml warming. Most recently, new construction in China and India has increased rapidly with minimal application of pollution controls. Continuation of this trend would add negative near-term global mean climate forcing but severely degrade air quality. Conversely, following the Western and Japanese pattern of imposing air quality pollution controls at a later time could accelerate future warming rates, especially at NHmls. More broadly, our results indicate that due to spatial and temporal inhomogeneities in forcing, climate impacts of multi-pollutant emissions can vary strongly from region to region and can include substantial effects on maximum rate-of-change, neither of which are captured by commonly used global metrics. The method we introduce here to estimate