WorldWideScience

Sample records for net photosynthesis pn

  1. Net photosynthesis, dark respiration, specific leaf weight, and growth of young apple trees as influenced by light regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barden, J.A.

    1974-11-01

    Eight different light treatments did not affect shoot length, leaf number, or total leaf area of young Red Yorking apple (Malus pumila Mill.) trees grown in a greenhouse. Dry weights of leaves and stems were suppressed by 80% shade. Net photosynthesis Pn, dark respiration (Rd), and specific leaf weight (SLW) were higher in sun than in shade leaves and adaptations in all 3 parameters occurred as a result of changing light conditions, even after leaf expansion had ceased. 5 figures, 1 table.

  2. Research of the relationship between delayed fluorescence and net photosynthesis rate in spinach under NaCl stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingrui; Xing, Da

    2006-09-01

    Under NaCl stress conditions, the relationship between delayed fluorescence (DF) and net photosynthesis rate (Pn) in detached leaves of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) was surveyed. Results showed that the changes in DF intensity of the spinach leaves directly exposed to different NaCl concentrations demonstrated considerably high consistency with that in Pn. Incubation of the leaves in 200mmol/L NaCl induced a gradual increase and subsequent decline of the DF intensity and Pu, whereas incubation of the leaves in 300mmol/L NaCl induced a continuous decline of the DF intensity and Pn, suggesting that DF bad the same response to duration of treatment of different NaC1 concentrations with Pn. Both DF and Pn showed maximal Ca 2+ antagonism effects on stress of high concentration NaC1 when the concentration of CaC1 II reached l5mmolfL. All the results demonstrated that DF has an excellent correlation with Pn and can be used as a sensitive test for the state of photosynthetic apparatus under salt stress physiology.

  3. Leaf area and net photosynthesis during development of Prunus serotina seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, S B; Gottschalk, K W

    1993-01-01

    We used the plastochron index to study the relationship between plant age, leaf age and development, and net photosynthesis of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) seedlings. Leaf area and net photosynthesis were measured on all leaves >/= 75 mm of plants ranging in age from 7 to 20 plastochrons. Effects of plant developmental stage on leaf area and net photosynthesis were evaluated for leaves of differing age (horizontal series), leaves on plants of constant age (vertical series), and leaves of constant age (oblique series). Regression techniques were used to estimate leaf area from leaf blade dimensions. The best equations for predicting leaf area had R(2) values of 0.991-0.992 and used linear or logarithmic functions of both leaf length and width. Suitable, but less precise, equations with R(2) values of 0.946-0.962 were developed from either leaf length or leaf width. Leaf area development in black cherry seedlings was similar to that in other indeterminate species. Leaves of young plants reached full expansion at a lower leaf plastochron age than leaves of older plants. Maximum net photosynthesis per unit leaf area occurred 2-3 plastochrons before full leaf expansion. There was strong ontogenetic drift in net photosynthesis with leaf age; net photosynthesis decreased as plant age increased in leaves of the same plastochron age. Plots of the oblique series were particularly useful in providing information about interaction effects.

  4. Apple tree growth, net photosynthesis, dark respiration, and specific leaf weight as affected by continuous and intermittent shade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barden, J.A.

    1977-07-01

    The effects of 80% shade from saran cloth and slats were very similar on young Delicious apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) trees. Shoot-length increase was suppressed about 10% by shade but leaf area was unaffected. Dry weight increase for shaded trees was about 50% of that for trees in full sun. Sun leaves required about 43.1 klx for light saturation and shade leaves needed only about 19.4 klx. Net photosynthesis (Pn) of shade leaves was about 70% of that of sun leaves at light saturation. Dark respiration (Rd) rates were also higher in sun- than shade-leaves. Specific leaf weight (SLW) of leaves near full expansion at the start of the experiment increased 15% under shade whereas sun-leaf SLW increased 40% during the experiment. For leaves unfolding under the differential light treatments, SLW of shade leaves averaged only 55% of sun leaves. 4 figures, 3 tables.

  5. What is the net effect of introducing vitrification for cryopreservation of surplus 2PN oocytes in an IVF program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golakov, Manja; Depenbusch, Marion; Schultze-Mosgau, Askan; Schoepper, Beate; Hajek, Jennifer; Neumann, Kay; Griesinger, Georg

    2018-02-01

    impressively higher cryo-survival rates with vitrification. The "true" net efficacy effect of introducing 2PN vitrification in an IVF program will, in real life, be lower due to patients not having surplus 2PN oocytes available for freezing and later transfer.

  6. In situ autumn ozone fumigation of mature Norway spruce - Effects on net photosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, H.

    2002-01-01

    concentration. The experiment was conducted during 70 days during the autumn. Our system could not detect any ozone effects on dark respiration, but eventually effects on dark respiration could be masked in signal noise. An inhibition of daily net photosynthesis in ozone treated shoots was apparent......, and it is was found that a mean increase in ozone concentration of 10 nl l(-1) reduced net photosynthesis with 7.4 %. This effect should be related to a pre-exposure during the season of AOT40 12.5 mul l(-1) h....

  7. Chloroplastic and stomatal aspects of ozone-induced reduction of net photosynthesis in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torsethaugen, Gro

    1998-09-01

    The present thesis relates to ozone-induced reduction of photosynthesis in plants. As a photochemical oxidant O{sub 3} is formed by the interaction of hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides and oxygen in sunlight. Ozone (O{sub 3}) is the most phytotoxic of all the air pollutants and is known to reduce plant growth and net photosynthesis, cause stomatal closure, induce visible injury, accelerate senescence and induce or inhibit transcription of a variety of genes with a corresponding increase/decrease in protein products. The underlying cellular mechanisms for many of these changes are unknown. Following fields are investigated: Ozone-induced reduction of net photosynthesis; ozone and the photosynthetic apparatus in the chloroplasts; ozone and stomata; ozone effects on plant membranes; protection against ozone injury in plants. 249 refs., 22 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Can net photosynthesis and water relations provide a clue on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Net photosynthesis, sap flow density (SFD) and water use efficiency (WUE) were measured in a Quercus suber forest in north Tunisia in an attempt to explain the forest decline. In general, sap flow was positively related to light intensity and water loss, indicating that high light intensities can increase the SFD up to the ...

  9. Net photosynthesis and respiration of sago pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus) exposed to herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, W.J.; Ailstock, M.S.; Momot, J.J.; Hughes, Jane S.; Biddinger, Gregory R.; Mones, Eugene

    1995-01-01

    We determined net photosynthesis and respiration rates for sago pondweed (potamogeton pectinatus) exposed to various concentrations of 11 herbicides widely used in Maryland during the past decade. Net photosynthesis and respiration were determined by measuring changes in the. oxygen content of solutions containing dilutions of technical grade herbicides. At 20-22? C and 58 umol/m2/sec of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), oxygen production of undosed plants averaged 0.72-2.03 mg/g fresh wt/h. Respiration rates of undosed plants averaged 0.46-0.60 mg O2/g fresh wt/h. Nominal herbicide concentrations (ng/L) that reduced net photosynthesis by 5O percent (IC5O) were: metribuzin, 8; atrazine, 29; cyanazine, 32; linuron, 70; simazine, 164; and paraquat, 240. IC5O values for 2,4-D, acifluorfen, glyphosate and metolachlor exceeded the maximum test concentration of 10,000 ng/L. The IC5O value for alachlor was estimated to be between 1,000 and 10,000 ng/L. None of the herbicides tested had a significant effect on dark respiration.

  10. Heat stress of two tropical seagrass species during low tides - impact on underwater net photosynthesis, dark respiration and diel in situ internal aeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Ole; Colmer, Timothy D; Borum, Jens; Zavala-Perez, Andrea; Kendrick, Gary A

    2016-06-01

    Seagrasses grow submerged in aerated seawater but often in low O2 sediments. Elevated temperatures and low O2 are stress factors. Internal aeration was measured in two tropical seagrasses, Thalassia hemprichii and Enhalus acoroides, growing with extreme tides and diel temperature amplitudes. Temperature effects on net photosynthesis (PN ) and dark respiration (RD ) of leaves were evaluated. Daytime low tide was characterized by high pO2 (54 kPa), pH (8.8) and temperature (38°C) in shallow pools. As PN was maximum at 33°C (9.1 and 7.2 μmol O2  m(-2) s(-1) in T. hemprichii and E. acoroides, respectively), the high temperatures and reduced CO2 would have diminished PN , whereas RD increased (Q10 of 2.0-2.7) above that at 33°C (0.45 and 0.33 μmol O2  m(-2)  s(-1) , respectively). During night-time low tides, O2 declined resulting in shoot base anoxia in both species, but incoming water containing c. 20 kPa O2 relieved the anoxia. Shoots exposed to 40°C for 4 h showed recovery of PN and RD , whereas 45°C resulted in leaf damage. These seagrasses are 'living near the edge', tolerant of current diel O2 and temperature extremes, but if temperatures rise both species may be threatened in this habitat. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Dynamics of photosynthesis in Eichhornia crassipes Solms of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-10-25

    Oct 25, 2010 ... maximum net photosynthesis (Pmax), light component point (LCP) and apparent quantum efficiency. (AQE) of the top fourth leaf of ... apparent quantum efficiency; Pn, net photosynthetic rate;LCP,light component ...... Science of rice production in Jiangsu Nanjing: Jiangsu Science and Technology Publisher ...

  12. Photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassham, James A.; Calvin, M.

    1955-02-01

    The overall process of photosynthesis involves a number of interconnected processes. These processes, which are cyclic with respect to both energy and material, are related at some points to well-known respiratory processes. The carbon-reduction cycle in photosynthesis is now known in detail. All enzymes involved in this cycle have been isolated and the sources of energy required for its operation have been identified in terms of reducing agents and 'high-energy' phosphate. These sources of energy a r e derived ultimately from absorbed light energy which brings about the photolysis of water. Possible mechanisms for this photolysis and for the transfer of energy from the photolysis products to the carbon-reduction cycle are discussed here. Experimental data, in the form of quantum efficiency measurements, are presented and partially confirm the theories proposed for the mechanisms of energy transfer. A diagram of the complete process of photosynthesis containing the several cycles and their relations is presented.

  13. Ambient UV-B radiation reduces PSII performance and net photosynthesis in high Arctic Salix arctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, Helge

    2011-01-01

    Ambient ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation potentially impacts the photosynthetic performance of high Arctic plants. We conducted an UV-B exclusion experiment in a dwarf shrub heath in NE Greenland (74°N), with open control, filter control, UV-B filtering and UV-AB filtering, all in combination......, nitrogen and UV-B absorbing compounds. Compared to a 60% reduced UV-B irradiance, the ambient solar UV-B reduced net photosynthesis in Salix arctica leaves fixed in the 45° position which exposed leaves to maximum natural irradiance. Also a reduced Calvin Cycle capacity was found, i.e. the maximum rate...... across position in the vegetation. These findings add to the evidence that the ambient solar UV-B currently is a significant stress factor for plants in high Arctic Greenland....

  14. Ambient UV-B radiation reduces PSII performance and net photosynthesis in high Arctic Salix arctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, H.

    2011-01-01

    Ambient ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation potentially impacts the photosynthetic performance of high Arctic plants. We conducted an UV-B exclusion experiment in a dwarf shrub heath in NE Greenland (74°N), with open control, filter control, UV-B filtering and UV-AB filtering, all in combination...... was characterized by simultaneous gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements and the PSII performance through the growing season was investigated with fluorescence measurements. Leaf harvest towards the end of the growing season was done to determine the specific leaf area and the content of carbon......, nitrogen and UV-B absorbing compounds. Compared to a 60% reduced UV-B irradiance, the ambient solar UV-B reduced net photosynthesis in Salix arctica leaves fixed in the 45° position which exposed leaves to maximum natural irradiance. Also a reduced Calvin Cycle capacity was found, i.e. the maximum rate...

  15. INFLUENCE OF ROOT OXYGEN DEFICIENCY ON PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND SACCHARIDE CONTENTS OF CAREX SPECIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MOOG, PR; BRUGGEMANN, W

    1993-01-01

    The responses to root oxygen deficiency concerning the photosynthesis, saccharide contents and mineral uptake have been investigated in Carex species, which were different in their anoxia-tolerance. The net rate of photosynthesis (P-N) of the anoxia-sensitive C. extensa was not affected by root

  16. Internal and external control of net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance of mature eastern white pine (Pinus strobus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris A. Maier; R.O. Teskey

    1992-01-01

    Leaf gas exchange and water relations were monitored in the upper canopy of two 25 m tall eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) trees over two consecutive growing seasons (1986 and 1987). Examination of the seasonal and diurnal patterns of net photosynthesis and leaf conductance showed that both internal and external (environmental) factors were...

  17. Effects of ozone on growth, net photosynthesis and yield of two African varieties of Vigna unguiculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetteh, Rashied; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Wada, Yoshiharu; Funada, Ryo; Izuta, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    To assess the effects of O(3)on growth, net photosynthesis and yield of two African varieties of cowpea(Vigna unguiculata L.), Blackeye and Asontem were exposed as potted plants to air that was either filtered to remove O(3) (FA), non-filtered air (NF), non-filtered with added O3 of approximately 50 nL L(-1) (ppb) from 11:00 to 16:00 (NF + O(3)) for 88 days in open-top chambers. The mean O(3) concentration (11:00-16:00) during the exposure period had a range from 16 ppb in the FA treatment to 118 ppb in the NF + O(3) treatment. Net photosynthetic rate and leaf area per plant were significantly reduced by exposure to O(3), reducing the growth of both varieties. Exposure to O(3) significantly reduced the 100-seed weight and number of seeds per pod. As a result, cowpea yield was significantly reduced by long-term exposure to O(3), with no difference in sensitivity between the varieties.

  18. Photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew P

    2016-10-31

    Photosynthesis sustains virtually all life on planet Earth providing the oxygen we breathe and the food we eat; it forms the basis of global food chains and meets the majority of humankind's current energy needs through fossilized photosynthetic fuels. The process of photosynthesis in plants is based on two reactions that are carried out by separate parts of the chloroplast. The light reactions occur in the chloroplast thylakoid membrane and involve the splitting of water into oxygen, protons and electrons. The protons and electrons are then transferred through the thylakoid membrane to create the energy storage molecules adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and nicotinomide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH). The ATP and NADPH are then utilized by the enzymes of the Calvin-Benson cycle (the dark reactions), which converts CO2 into carbohydrate in the chloroplast stroma. The basic principles of solar energy capture, energy, electron and proton transfer and the biochemical basis of carbon fixation are explained and their significance is discussed. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. Seasonal Photosynthesis in Fertilized and Nonfertilized Loblolly Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher M. Gough; John R. Seiler; Kurt H. Johnsen; David Arthur Sampson

    2004-01-01

    Net photosynthesis (Pn) of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) foliage was monitored monthly in 14 yr old stands under near-ambient conditions over an entire year in upper and lower crowns and in both nonfertilized stands and stands receiving nutrient amendments for six consecutive years. Air temperature, humidity, vapor pressure...

  20. Dynamics of photosynthesis in Eichhornia crassipes Solms of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-11-14

    With LI-6400 portable photosynthesis system, the photosynthetic characteristics of artificially cultured Eichhornia crassipes in Jiangsu, China, were monitored from June 1 to November 14, 2009. Both the net photosynthetic rate (Pn) in different positions and light and temperature-response curves of the top fourth leaf were ...

  1. Effect of heavy metals on plants. II. Net photosynthesis and transpiration of whole corn and sunflower plants treated with Pb, Cd, Ni, and Tl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, R.W.; Bazzaz, F.A.; Rolfe, G.L.

    1975-08-01

    Corn and sunflower plants were grown in hydroponic culture and treated with various levels of Pb, Cd, Ni, and Tl salts. Net photosynthesis, transpiration and toxic metal ion concentration of leaf material and total plant biomass was measured. Tl was found to be the most toxic to new photosynthesis and growth of both species followed in order by Cd, Ni, and Pb. (auth)

  2. Interactive effects of elevated CO2, warming, and drought on photosynthesis of Deschampsia flexuosa in a temperate heath ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian Rost; Ro-Poulsen, H.; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard

    2011-01-01

    [CO2; free air CO2 enrichment (FACE)], drought (D; water-excluding curtains), and night-time warming (T; infrared-reflective curtains) in a temperate heath. A/Ci curves were measured, allowing analysis of light-saturated net photosynthesis (Pn), light- and CO2-saturated net photosynthesis (Pmax......), stomatal conductance (gs), the maximal rate of Rubisco carboxylation (Vcmax), and the maximal rate of ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP) regeneration (Jmax) along with leaf δ13C, and carbon and nitrogen concentration on a monthly basis in the grass Deschampsia flexuosa. Seasonal drought reduced Pn via gs......, but severe (experimental) drought decreased Pn via a reduction in photosynthetic capacity (Pmax, Jmax, and Vcmax). The effects were completely reversed by rewetting and stimulated Pn via photosynthetic capacity stimulation. Warming increased early and late season Pn via higher Pmax and Jmax. Elevated CO2 did...

  3. Effects of light, temperature and canopy position on net photosynthesis and isoprene emission from sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, P.; Guenther, A.; Zimmerman, P.

    1996-01-01

    In June 1993, net photosynthetic rates, stomatal conductance and isoprene emission rates of sweetgum leaves (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) were measured at the top of the forest canopy (sun leaves) and within the canopy at a height of 8-10 m above ground level (shade leaves). Large differences in net photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance were found between sun and shade leaves. Mean rates of isoprene emission, expressed on a leaf area basis, were significantly lower in shade leaves than in sun leaves (4.1 versus 17.1 nmol m(-2) s(-1)); however, because specific leaf area of sun leaves was lower than that of shade leaves (0.0121 versus 0.0334 m(2) g(-1)), the difference between sun and shade leaves was less, though still significant, when isoprene emissions were expressed on a dry mass basis (45.5 versus 29.0 micro g C g(-1) h(-1)). Saturation of both net photosynthesis and isoprene emission occurred at lower PPFDs in shade leaves than in sun leaves. The effect of leaf temperature on isoprene emissions also differed between sun and shade leaves. Sun leaves lost a significantly greater percentage of fixed carbon as isoprene than shade leaves. The leaf-level physiological measurements were used to derive parameters for a canopy-level isoprene flux model. The importance of incorporating differences between sun- and shade-leaf properties into existing models is discussed.

  4. Using the quantum yields of photosystem II and the rate of net photosynthesis to monitor high irradiance and temperature stress in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakjera, Eshetu Janka; Körner, Oliver; Rosenqvist, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Under a dynamic greenhouse climate control regime, temperature is adjusted to optimise plant physiological responses to prevailing irradiance levels; thus, both temperature and irradiance are used by the plant to maximise the rate of photosynthesis, assuming other factors are not limiting...... irradiance, the maximum Pn and ETR were reached at 24 °C. Increased irradiance decreased the PSII operating efficiency and increased NPQ, while both high irradiance and temperature had a significant effect on the PSII operating efficiency at temperatures >28 °C. Under high irradiance and temperature, changes...... in the NPQ determined the PSII operating efficiency, with no major change in the fraction of open PSII centres (qL) (indicating a QA redox state). We conclude that 1) chrysanthemum plants cope with excess irradiance by non-radiative dissipation or a reversible stress response, with the effect on the Pn...

  5. Photosynthesis drives anomalies in net carbon-exchange of pine forests at different latitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luyssaert, S.; Janssens, I.A.; Sulkava, M.; Papale, D.; Dolman, A.J.; Reichstein, M.; Hollmén, J.; Martin, J.G.; Suni, T.; Vesala, T.; Loustau, D.; Law, B.E.; Moors, E.J.

    2007-01-01

    The growth rate of atmospheric CO2 exhibits large temporal variation that is largely determined by year-to-year fluctuations in land¿atmosphere CO2 fluxes. This land¿atmosphere CO2-flux is driven by large-scale biomass burning and variation in net ecosystem exchange (NEE). Between- and within years,

  6. Seasonal trends of light-saturated net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance of loblolly pine trees grown in contrasting environments of nutrition, water and carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh Murthy; Stanley J. Zarnoch; P.M. Dougherty

    1997-01-01

    Repeated measures analysis was used to evaluate the effect of long-term CO2 enhancement on seasonal trends of light-saturated rates of net photosynthesis (Asat) and stomatal conductance to water vapour (gsat) of 9-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.; trees grown in a 2x2...

  7. [Effects of Ozone on Photosynthesis of Several Plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miao-miao

    2015-05-01

    In order to investigate the effect of ozone on photosynthesis of Machilus pauhoi, Lindera setchuenensis, Phoebe bournei, Phoebe chekiangensis and Machilus thunbergii, the study was carried out in 12 open-top chambers( OTCs) with different levels of ozone in Qianyanzhou experimental station, and net photosynthesis rate (Pn) and stomatal conductance (Cond) were detected. The results indicated that ozone treatments changed the variation trend of photosynthesis of all tested plants, but ozone exposure did not always play an inhibitory role on them. In fact, photosynthesis changed with ozone concentration, experimental period, season and specific species. Exposed to ozone could even promote Pn to a peak in a short term, and the indicator of plants treated with ozone was higher than that of the control at this point. Low and medium concentrations of ozone treatment enhanced Pn of Phoebe bournei and Machilus thunbergii. The peak of treatment group also came earlier because of ozone. Furthermore, the positive correlation between Pn and Cond did not existed under the condition of ozone. Machilus thunbergii had the strongest resistance to ozone, followed by Phoebe bournei, by comparison, Phoebe chekiangensis, Machilus pauhoi and Lindera setchuenensis were more sensitive.

  8. Net photosynthesis in Sphagnum mosses has increased in response to the last century's 100 ppm increase in atmospheric CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serk, Henrik; Nilsson, Mats; Schleucher, Jurgen

    2017-04-01

    Peatlands store >25% of the global soil C pool, corresponding to 1/3 of the contemporary CO2-C in the atmosphere. The majority of the accumulated peat is made up by remains of Sphagnum peat mosses. Thus, understanding how various Sphagnum functional groups respond, and have responded, to increasing atmospheric CO2 and temperature constitutes a major challenge for our understanding of the role of peatlands under a changing climate. We have recently demonstrated (Ehlers et al., 2015, PNAS) that the abundance ratio of two deuterium isotopomers (molecules carrying D at specific intramolecular positions, here D6R/S) of photosynthetic glucose reflects the ratio of oxygenation to carboxylation metabolic fluxes at Rubisco. The photosynthetic glucose is prepared from various plant carbohydrates including cellulose. This finding has been established in CO2 manipulation experiments and observed in carbohydrate derived glucose isolated from herbarium samples of all investigated C-3 species. The isotopomer ratio is connected to specific enzymatic processes thus allowing for mechanistic implicit interpretations. Here we demonstrate a clear increase in net photosynthesis of Sphagnum fuscum in response to the increase of 100 ppm CO2 during the last century as deduced from analysis on S. fuscum remains from peat cores. The D6R/S ratio declines from bottom to top in peat cores, indicating CO2-driven reduction of photorespiration in contemporary moss biomass. In contrast to the hummock-forming S. fuscum, hollow-growing species, e.g. S. majus did not show this response or gave significantly weaker response, suggesting important ecological consequences of rising CO2 on peatland ecosystem services. We hypothesize that photosynthesis in hollow-growing species under water saturation is fully or partly disconnected from the atmospheric CO2 partial pressure and thus showing weaker or no response to increased atmospheric CO2. To further test the field observations we grow both hummock and

  9. Effect of temperature and CO2-enrichment on photosynthesis and the levels of carbohydrates and isoprenoid pathway products in guayule, a latex producing shrub

    Science.gov (United States)

    The stems and roots of the desert shrub guayule, Parthenium argentatum, contain a significant amount of latex, a potential source of natural rubber. To determine the factors regulating carbon partitioning, net photosynthesis (Pn) and the levels of carbohydrates and isoprenoid compounds were measured...

  10. N sources affect growth, nutrient content, and net photosynthesis in maté (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Gaiad

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different N sources on the growth of maté (Ilex paragurariensis St.Hil. seedlings grown in greenhouse was studied. All seedlings received a base fertilization of 10 mg N.kg-1 soil as NH4NO3, 60 mg P2O5.and 40 mg K2O.kg-1 soil as KH2PO4 15 days before treatments application. Treatments were as follow: Control, with no extra N added; Urea = 100 mg N.kg-1 soil as Urea; NO3- = 100 mg N.kg-1 soil as Ca(NO32; and NH4+ = 100 mg N.kg-1 soil as (NH42SO4. It was concluded that: 1 increasing N content in leaves alone was not able to promote gain in biomass production of maté seedlings; 2 seedlings receiving N-NH4 showed a higher accumulation of P and Mg on shoot biomass; and 3 an increase in leaf area, leaf number and net photosynthesis observed at the N-NH4 treatment was coincident with an increasing absorption of P and Mg.A influência de diferentes fontes de N sobre o crescimento de mudas de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St.Hil. foi estudada, em casa de vegetação. Todas as mudas receberam uma fertilização base de 10 mg N.kg-1 de solo na forma de NH4NO3, 60 mg P2O5.kg-1 e 40 mg K2O.kg-1 de solo na forma de KH2PO4 quinze dias antes da aplicação dos tratamentos. Os tratamentos foram os seguintes: Controle, sem adição extra de N; Uréia = 100 mg N.kg-1 de solo como Uréia; NO3- = 100 mg N.kg-1 de solo como Ca(NO32; e NH4+ = 100 mg N.kg-1 de solo como (NH42SO4. Concluiu-se que: 1 o aumento do conteúdo de N nas folhas, por si, não é capaz de promover ganhos na produção de biomassa em mudas de erva-mate; 2 mudas que receberam N-NH4 apresentaram maior acumulo de P e Mg na biomassa aérea; e 3 o aumento na absorção de P e Mg coincidiu com um aumento na área foliar, no número de folhas e na fotossíntese liquida na fonte N-NH4.

  11. Stimulated Respiration and Net Photosynthesis in Cassiopeia sp. during Glucose Enrichment Suggests in hospite CO2 Limitation of Algal Endosymbionts

    KAUST Repository

    Radecker, Nils

    2017-08-15

    The endosymbiosis between cnidarians and dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium is key to the high productivity of tropical coral reefs. In this endosymbiosis, Symbiodinium translocate most of their photosynthates to their animal host in exchange for inorganic nutrients. Among these, carbon dioxide (CO ) derived fromhost respiration helps to meet the carbon requirements to sustain photosynthesis of the dinoflagellates. Nonetheless, recent studies suggest that productivity in symbiotic cnidarians such as corals is CO -limited. Here we show that glucose enrichment stimulates respiration and gross photosynthesis rates by 80 and 140%, respectively, in the symbiotic upside-down jellyfish Cassiopeia sp. from the Central Red Sea. Our findings show that glucose was rapidly consumed and respired within the Cassiopeia sp. holobiont. The resulting increase of CO availability in hospite in turn likely stimulated photosynthesis in Symbiodinium. Hence, the increase of photosynthesis under these conditions suggests that CO limitation of Symbiodinium is a common feature of stable cnidarian holobionts and that the stimulation of holobiont metabolism may attenuate this CO limitation.

  12. Stimulated Respiration and Net Photosynthesis in Cassiopeia sp. during Glucose Enrichment Suggests in hospite CO2 Limitation of Algal Endosymbionts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Rädecker

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The endosymbiosis between cnidarians and dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium is key to the high productivity of tropical coral reefs. In this endosymbiosis, Symbiodinium translocate most of their photosynthates to their animal host in exchange for inorganic nutrients. Among these, carbon dioxide (CO2 derived from host respiration helps to meet the carbon requirements to sustain photosynthesis of the dinoflagellates. Nonetheless, recent studies suggest that productivity in symbiotic cnidarians such as corals is CO2-limited. Here we show that glucose enrichment stimulates respiration and gross photosynthesis rates by 80 and 140%, respectively, in the symbiotic upside-down jellyfish Cassiopeia sp. from the Central Red Sea. Our findings show that glucose was rapidly consumed and respired within the Cassiopeia sp. holobiont. The resulting increase of CO2 availability in hospite in turn likely stimulated photosynthesis in Symbiodinium. Hence, the increase of photosynthesis under these conditions suggests that CO2 limitation of Symbiodinium is a common feature of stable cnidarian holobionts and that the stimulation of holobiont metabolism may attenuate this CO2 limitation.

  13. Leaf senescence and late-season net photosynthesis of sun and shade leaves of overstory sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) grown in elevated and ambient carbon dioxide concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, Jeffrey D; Thomas, Richard B

    2003-02-01

    We examined the effects of elevated CO2 concentration ([CO2]) on leaf demography, late-season photosynthesis and leaf N resorption of overstory sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) trees in the Duke Forest Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiment. Sun and shade leaves were subdivided into early leaves (formed in the overwintering bud) and late leaves (formed during the growing season). Overall, we found that leaf-level net photosynthetic rates were enhanced by atmospheric CO2 enrichment throughout the season until early November; however, sun leaves showed a greater response to atmospheric CO2 enrichment than shade leaves. Elevated [CO2] did not affect leaf longevity, emergence date or abscission date of sun leaves or shade leaves. Leaf number and leaf area per shoot were unaffected by CO2 treatment. A simple shoot photosynthesis model indicated that elevated [CO2] stimulated photosynthesis by 60% in sun shoots, but by only 3% in shade shoots. Whole-shoot photosynthetic rate was more than 12 times greater in sun shoots than in shade shoots. In senescent leaves, elevated [CO2] did not affect residual leaf nitrogen, and nitrogen resorption was largely unaffected by atmospheric CO2 enrichment, except for a small decrease in shade leaves. Overall, elevated [CO2] had little effect on the number of leaves per shoot at any time during the season and, therefore, did not change seasonal carbon gain by extending or shortening the growing season. Stimulation of carbon gain by atmospheric CO2 enrichment in sweetgum trees growing in the Duke Forest FACE experiment was the result of a strong stimulation of photosynthesis throughout the growing season.

  14. Stomatal and non-stomatal factors regulated the photosynthesis of soybean seedlings in the present of exogenous bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Liya; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2017-11-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an emerging environmental endocrine disruptor that has toxic effects on plants growth. Photosynthesis supplies the substances and energy required for plant growth, and regulated by stomatal and non-stomatal factors. Therefore, in this study, to reveal how BPA affects photosynthesis in soybean seedlings (Glycine max L.) from the perspective of stomatal and non-stomatal factors, the stomatal factors (stomatal conductance and behaviours) and non-stomatal factors (Hill reaction, apparent quantum efficiency, Rubisco activity, carboxylation efficiency, the maximum Rubisco carboxylation velocity, ribulose-1,5-bisphospate regeneration capacities mediated by maximum electron transport rates, and triose phosphate utilization rate) were investigated using a portable photosynthesis system. Moreover, the pollution of BPA in the environment was simulated. The results indicate that low-dose BPA enhanced net photosynthetic rate (Pn) primarily by promoting stomatal factors, resulting in increased relative growth rates and accelerated soybean seedling growth. High-dose BPA decreases the Pn by simultaneously inhibiting stomatal and non-stomatal factors, and this inhibition decreases the relative growth rates further reducing soybean seedling growth. Following the withdrawal of BPA, all of the indices were restored to varying degrees. In conclusion, low-dose BPA increased the Pn by promoting stomatal factors while high-dose BPA decreased the Pn by simultaneously inhibiting stomatal and non-stomatal factors. These findings provide a model (or, hypothesis) for the effects of BPA on plant photosynthesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Long-term structural canopy changes sustain net photosynthesis per ground area in high arctic Vaccinium uliginosum exposed to changes in near-ambient UV-B levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesgaard, Kristine S; Albert, Kristian R; Ro-Poulsen, Helge; Michelsen, Anders; Mikkelsen, Teis N; Schmidt, Niels M

    2012-08-01

    Full recovery of the ozone layer is not expected for several decades and consequently, the incoming level of solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) will only slowly be reduced. Therefore to investigate the structural and photosynthetic responses to changes in solar UV-B we conducted a 5-year UV-B exclusion study in high arctic Greenland. During the growing season, the gas exchange (H₂O and CO₂) and chlorophyll-a fluorescence were measured in Vaccinium uliginosum. The leaf dry weight, carbon, nitrogen, stable carbon isotope ratio, chlorophyll and carotenoid content were determined from a late season harvest. The net photosynthesis per leaf area was on average 22% higher in 61% reduced UV-B treatment across the season, but per ground area photosynthesis was unchanged. The leaf level increase in photosynthesis was accompanied by increased leaf nitrogen, higher stomatal conductance and F(v)/F(m). There was no change in total leaf biomass, but reduction in total leaf area caused a pronounced reduction of specific leaf area and leaf area index in reduced UV-B. This demonstrates the structural changes to counterbalance the reduced plant carbon uptake seen per leaf area in ambient UV-B as the resulting plant carbon uptake per ground area was not affected. Thus, our understanding of long-term responses to UV-B reduction must take into account both leaf level processes as well as structural changes to understand the apparent robustness of plant carbon uptake per ground area. In this perspective, V. uliginosum seems able to adjust plant carbon uptake to the present amount of solar UV-B radiation in the High Arctic. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2011.

  16. Increase in leaf temperature opens stomata and decouples net photosynthesis from stomatal conductance in Pinus taeda and Populus deltoides x nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Josef; Ingwers, Miles W; McGuire, Mary Anne; Teskey, Robert O

    2017-03-01

    The effect of temperature on stomatal conductance (gs) and corresponding gas exchange parameters was studied in two tree species with contrasting leaf anatomy and ecophysiology-a broadleaf angiosperm, Populus deltoides x nigra (poplar), and a needle-leaf gymnosperm, Pinus taeda (loblolly pine). Experiments were conducted in growth chambers across a leaf temperature range of 19-48°C. Manipulations of temperature were done in well-watered and drought soil conditions and under ambient (400 ppm) and elevated (800 ppm) air CO2 concentrations. Increases in leaf temperature caused stomatal opening at both ambient and elevated [CO2]. The gs increased by 42% in poplar and by 40% in loblolly pine when leaf temperature increased from 30°C to 40°C at a vapour pressure difference of 1 kPa. Stomatal limitation to photosynthesis decreased in elevated temperature in loblolly pine but not in poplar. The ratio of net photosynthesis to gs depended on leaf temperature, especially at high temperatures. Evaporative cooling of transpiring leaves resulted in reductions in leaf temperature up to 9°C in well-watered poplar but only 1°C in drought-stressed poplar and in loblolly pine. As global mean temperatures rise and temperature extremes become more frequent and severe, understanding the effect of temperature on gs, and modelling that relationship, will become increasingly important. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  17. Effect of gamma radiation on chlorophylls content, net photosynthesis and respiration of Chlorella pyrenoidosa; Efecto de la radiacion gamma sobre la fotosintesis neta y la respiracion de Chlorella pyrenoidosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, C.; Fernandez, J.

    1983-07-01

    The effect of five doses of gamma radiation: 10, 100, 500, 1000 and 5000 Gy on chlorophylls content, net photosynthesis and respiration of Chlorella pyrenoidosa has been studied. A decrease in chlorophylls levels is produced after irradiation at 500, 1000 and 5000 Gy, being, at first b chlorophyll affected to a greater extent than a chlorophyll. Net photosynthesis and respiration decline throughout the time of the observation after irradiation, this depressing effect being much more remarkable for the first one. Met photosynthesis inhibition levels of about 30% are got only five hours post irradiation at a dose of 5000 Gy. Radio estimation by low doses, although obtained in some cases for tho 10 Gy dose, has not been statistically confirmed. (Author) 23 refs.

  18. Mathematical-statistical model for analysis of Ulva algal net photosynthesis in Venice lagoon; Modello matematico-statistico per l`analisi della produttivita` primaria dell`alga Ulva nella laguna di Venezia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izzo, G.; Rizzo, V. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Ambiente; Bella, A.; Picci, M. [Rome Univ. La Sapienza (Italy). Dip. di Statistica e Probabilita` Applicata; Giordano, P. [Rome Univ. La Sapienza (Italy). Dip. di Biologia Vegetale

    1996-08-01

    The algal net photosynthesis, an important factor for the characterization of water quality in Venice lagoon, has been studied experimentally providing a mathematical model, validated by using statistical methods. This model relates oxygen production with irradiance, according to a well known law in biological literature. Its observed an inverted proportion between algal oxygen production and temperature, thus seasonality.

  19. [Effects of reduced solar radiation on winter wheat flag leaf net photosynthetic rate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, You-Fei; Ni, Yan-Li; Mai, Bo-Ru; Wu, Rong-Jun; Feng, Yan; Sun, Jian; Li, Jian; Xu, Jing-Xin

    2011-06-01

    Taking winter wheat Triticum aestivum L. (cv. Yangmai 13) as test material, a field experiment was conducted in Nanjing City to study the effects of simulated reduced solar radiation on the diurnal variation of winter wheat flag leaf photosynthetic rate and the main affecting factors. Five treatments were installed, i. e., 15% (T15), 20% (T20) , 40% (T40), 60% (T60), and 100% (CK) of total incident solar radiation. Reduced solar irradiance increased the chlorophyll and lutein contents significantly, but decreased the net photosynthetic rate (Pn). Under different solar irradiance, the diurnal variation of Pn had greater difference, and the daily maximum Pn was in the order of CK > T60 > T40 > T 20 > T15. In CK, the Pn exhibited a double peak diurnal curve; while in the other four treatments, the Pn showed a single peak curve, and the peak was lagged behind that of CK. Correlation analysis showed that reduced solar irradiance was the main factor affecting the diurnal variation of Pn, but the physiological parameters also played important roles in determining the diurnal variation of Pn. In treatments T60 and T40, the photosynthesis active radiation (PAR), leaf temperature (T1) , stomatal conductance (Gs) , and transpiration rate (Tr) were significantly positively correlated with Pn, suggesting their positive effects on Pn. The intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and stomatal limitation (Ls) had significant negative correlations with Pn in treatments T60 and T40 but significant positive correlations with Pn in treatments T20 and T15, implying that the Ci and Ls had negative (or positive) effects on Pn when the solar irradiance was higher (or lower) than 40% of incident solar irradiance.

  20. Effect of ambient-level gas-phase peroxides on foliar injury, growth, and net photosynthesis in Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xuan, E-mail: xuan66chen@yahoo.co.j [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Science, No.8, Dayangfang, Anwai, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Aoki, Masatoshi [Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwaicho 3-5-8, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Takami, Akinori [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Onogawa 16-2, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Chai Fahe [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Science, No.8, Dayangfang, Anwai, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Hatakeyama, Shiro [Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwaicho 3-5-8, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan)

    2010-05-15

    To investigate the effects of ambient-level gas-phase peroxides concurrent with O{sub 3} on foliar injury, photosynthesis, and biomass in herbaceous plants, we exposed Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus) to clean air, 50 ppb O{sub 3}, 100 ppb O{sub 3}, and 2-3 ppb peroxides + 50 ppb O{sub 3} in outdoor chambers. Compared with exposure to 100 ppb O{sub 3}, exposure to 2-3 ppb peroxides + 50 ppb O{sub 3} induced greater damage in foliar injury, net photosynthetic rates and biomass; the pattern of foliar injury and the cause of net photosynthetic rate reduction also differed from those occurring with O{sub 3} exposure alone. These results indicate for the first time that sub-ppb peroxides + 50 ppb O{sub 3} can cause more severe damage to plants than 100 ppb O{sub 3}, and that not only O{sub 3}, but also peroxides, could be contributing to the herbaceous plant damage and forest decline observed in Japan's air-polluted urban and remote mountains areas. - Ambient-level gas-phase peroxides coexisted with 50 ppb O{sub 3} may contribute to the herbaceous plants damage and forest decline observed in Japan.

  1. Rapid determination of the damage to photosynthesis caused by salt and osmotic stresses using delayed fluorescence of chloroplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingrui; Xing, Da

    2008-03-01

    Chloroplasts are one of the most susceptible systems to salt and osmotic stresses. Based on quantitative measurements of delayed fluorescence (DF) of the chloroplasts, we have investigated the damage to photosynthesis caused by these two kinds of stresses in Arabidopsis seedlings by using a custom-built multi-channel biosensor. Results showed that the DF intensity and net photosynthesis rate (Pn) decreased in a similar way with increasing NaCl or sorbitol concentration. Incubation of the seedlings in 200 mM NaCl induced a rapid and reversible decline and subsequent slow and irreversible loss in both the DF intensity and Pn. The rapid decline was dominantly related to osmotic stress, whereas the slow declines in the DF intensity and Pn were specific to ionic stress and could be reversed to a similar extent by a Na+-channel blocker. The DF intensity and Pn also exhibited a similar response to irradiation light under NaCl or sorbitol stress. All results indicated that the DF intensity correlated well with Pn under salt and osmotic stresses. We thus conclude that DF is an excellent marker for detecting the damage to photosynthesis caused by these two stresses. The mechanism of the correlation between the DF intensity and Pn under salt and osmotic stresses was also analyzed in theory and investigated with experiments by measuring intercellular CO2 concetration (Ci), stomatal conductance (Gs), chlorophyll fluorescence parameter, and chlorophyll content. This proposed DF technique holds the potential to be a useful means for analyzing the dynamics of salt and osmotic stresses in vivo and elucidating the mechanism by which plants respond to stress.

  2. Underwater photosynthesis and respiration in leaves of submerged wetland plants: gas films improve CO2 and O2 exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colmer, Timothy David; Pedersen, Ole

    2007-01-01

    Many wetland plants have gas films on submerged leaf surfaces. We tested the hypotheses that leaf gas films enhance CO(2) uptake for net photosynthesis (P(N)) during light periods, and enhance O(2) uptake for respiration during dark periods. Leaves of four wetland species that form gas films, and......(N) was enhanced up to sixfold. Gas films on submerged leaves enable continued gas exchange via stomata and thus bypassing of cuticle resistance, enhancing exchange of O(2) and CO(2) with the surrounding water, and therefore underwater P(N) and respiration.......Many wetland plants have gas films on submerged leaf surfaces. We tested the hypotheses that leaf gas films enhance CO(2) uptake for net photosynthesis (P(N)) during light periods, and enhance O(2) uptake for respiration during dark periods. Leaves of four wetland species that form gas films......, and two species that do not, were used. Gas films were also experimentally removed by brushing with 0.05% (v/v) Triton X. Net O(2) production in light, or O(2) consumption in darkness, was measured at various CO(2) and O(2) concentrations. When gas films were removed, O(2) uptake in darkness was already...

  3. Personal Network (PN) Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Ramjee; Skouby, K.

    2005-01-01

    The applications of PN will be realised under many scenarios where users can have access to their personal network all the time. This network will enable the user to share critical information, play games, control their home remotely, etc. All this will be achieved with seamless interworking...... and handover between networks and user devices. This paper presents an array of use case scenarios that validates the ubiquitous usage of PN....

  4. Personal network (PN) applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, R.; Skouby, Knud Erik

    2005-01-01

    The applications of PN will be realised under many scenarios where users can have access to their personal network all the time. This network will enable the user to share critical information, play games, control their home remotely, etc. All this will be achieved with seamless interworking...... and handover between networks and user devices. This paper presents an array of use case scenarios that validates the ubiquitous usage of PN....

  5. Influence of strains and rootstocks on photosynthesis, respiration, and morphology of delicious apple trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferree, M.E.; Barden, J.A.

    1971-07-01

    The performance of young container grown apple trees of two Delicious strains was studied under greenhouse conditions in a 2 year experiment. Redspur Delicious, a spur type strain, and Richared Delicious were grown on seedling rootstocks in the first season and on seedling, MM 106, and M VII-A rootstocks the following year. Net photosynthesis (Pn) of Redspur leaves tended to be higher than the Pn of Richared leaves. One season's data indicated that the Pn leaves of greenhouse grown trees on seedling rootstocks was higher than those on MM 106. Leaves of trees on M VII-A were intermediate in Pn. The respiration rates were not affected by strains or rootstocks. Standard Delicious trees were more vigorous than trees of the spur type as indicated by greater shoot length, internode length, leaf number and total leaf area. The spur type trees had, however, a greater bark-wood ratio. Rootstocks affected both leaf size and dry leaf weight, but strains did not. 4 figures, 2 tables.

  6. [Effects of herbicide on grape leaf photosynthesis and nutrient storage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wei; Wang, Hui; Zhai, Heng

    2011-09-01

    Selecting three adjacent vineyards as test objects, this paper studied the effects of applying herbicide in growth season on the leaf photosynthetic apparatus and branch nutrient storage of grape Kyoho (Vitis vinfrraxVitis labrusca). In the vineyards T1 and T2 where herbicide was applied in 2009, the net photosynthesis rate (Pa) of grape leaves had a significant decrease, as compared with that in vineyard CK where artificial weeding was implemented. The leaves at the fourth node in vineyard T1 and those at the sixth node in vineyard T2 had the largest decrement of Pn (40.5% and 32.1%, respectively). Herbicide had slight effects on the leaf stomatal conductance (Gs). In T1 where herbicide application was kept on with in 2010, the Pn, was still significantly lower than that in CK; while in T2 where artificial weeding was implemented in 2010, the Pn and Gs of top- and middle node leaves were slightly higher than those in T1, but the Pn was still lower than that in CK, showing the aftereffects of herbicide residual. The herbicide application in 2009 decreased the leaf maximum photochemical efficiency of PS II (Fv/Fm) and performance index (P1) while increased the relative variable fluorescence in the J step and K step, indicating the damage of electron transportation of PS II center and oxygen-evolving complex. Herbicide application decreased the pigment content of middle-node leaves in a dose-manner. Applying herbicide enhanced the leaf catalase and peroxidase activities significantly, increased the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of middle-node leaves, but decreased the SOD activity of top- and bottom node leaves. After treated with herbicide, the ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity of middle- and bottom node leaves increased, but that of top-node leaves decreased. Herbicide treatment aggravated leaf lipid peroxidation, and reduced the soluble sugar, starch, free amino acids, and soluble protein storage in branches.

  7. Radiação, fotossíntese, rendimento e qualidade de frutos em macieiras 'Royal Gala' cobertas com telas antigranizo Radiation, photosynthesis, yield, and fruit quality of 'Royal Gala' apples under hail protection nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a intensidade e a qualidade da radiação solar disponibilizada às plantas e os seus impactos sobre a fotossíntese, rendimento e qualidade dos frutos, em macieiras 'Royal Gala', cobertas ou não com telas antigranizo nas cores branca e preta. A tela preta provocou redução maior na densidade de fluxo de fótons fotossinteticamente ativos acima do dossel das plantas (24,8%, em comparação à tela branca (21,2%. O interior do dossel das plantas sob tela preta recebeu menores valores de radiação ultravioleta, azul, verde, vermelho e vermelho distante, bem como da relação vermelho:vermelho distante, em relação às plantas descobertas. Estas alterações na quantidade e qualidade da luz sob tela preta aumentaram o teor de clorofila total e a área específica nas folhas, e reduziram a taxa fotossintética potencial, o peso de frutos por cm² de seção transversal de tronco e a coloração vermelha dos frutos. As telas antigranizo branca e preta reduziram a incidência de queimadura de sol, porém não tiveram efeito sobre a severidade de "russeting" e sobre o número de sementes por fruto.The objective of this work was to assess the amount and quality of the light supplied to plants, and the resulting impacts on photosynthesis, yield, and fruit quality of 'Royal Gala' apple trees uncovered or covered with white and black hail protection nets. The black net caused a higher reduction (24.8% of photosynthetic photon flux density, accumulated over the plant canopy during the day, than the white net (21.2%. The canopy internal portion of plants covered by black net received lower levels of ultraviolet, blue, green, red, and far red radiation, and light with a lower red:far red ratio, in comparison to uncovered plants; these ligth changes increased chlorophyll content and specific area of the leaves, and reduced the potential photosynthesis, the weight of fruits per cm² of trunk cross section area, and the

  8. Species-specific temporal variation in photosynthesis as a moderator of peatland carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korrensalo, Aino; Alekseychik, Pavel; Hájek, Tomáš; Rinne, Janne; Vesala, Timo; Mehtätalo, Lauri; Mammarella, Ivan; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina

    2017-01-01

    In boreal bogs plant species are low in number, but they differ greatly in their growth forms and photosynthetic properties. We assessed how ecosystem carbon (C) sink dynamics were affected by seasonal variations in the photosynthetic rate and leaf area of different species. Photosynthetic properties (light response parameters), leaf area development and areal cover (abundance) of the species were used to quantify species-specific net and gross photosynthesis rates (PN and PG, respectively), which were summed to express ecosystem-level PN and PG. The ecosystem-level PG was compared with a gross primary production (GPP) estimate derived from eddy covariance (EC) measurements.Species areal cover, rather than differences in photosynthetic properties, determined the species with the highest PG of both vascular plants and Sphagna. Species-specific contributions to the ecosystem PG varied over the growing season, which, in turn, determined the seasonal variation in ecosystem PG. The upscaled growing season PG estimate, 230 g C m-2, agreed well with the GPP estimated by the EC (243 g C m-2).Sphagna were superior to vascular plants in ecosystem-level PG throughout the growing season but had a lower PN. PN results indicated that areal cover of the species, together with their differences in photosynthetic parameters, shape the ecosystem-level C balance. Species with low areal cover but high photosynthetic efficiency appear to be potentially important for the ecosystem C sink. Results imply that functional diversity, i.e., the presence of plant groups with different seasonal timing and efficiency of photosynthesis, may increase the stability of C sinks of boreal bogs.

  9. Heat stress of two tropical seagrass species during low tides - impact on underwater net photosynthesis, dark respiration and diel in situ internal aeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole; Colmer, Timothy D.; Borum, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Seagrasses grow submerged in aerated seawater but often in low O2 sediments. Elevated temperatures and low O2 are stress factors. Internal aeration was measured in two tropical seagrasses, Thalassia hemprichii and Enhalus acoroides, growing with extreme tides and diel temperature amplitudes......), the high temperatures and reduced CO2 would have diminished PN, whereas RD increased (Q10 of 2.0-2.7) above that at 33°C (0.45 and 0.33 μmol O2 m-2 s-1, respectively). During night-time low tides, O2 declined resulting in shoot base anoxia in both species, but incoming water containing c. 20 kPa O2...

  10. Photosynthesis and growth responses of giant reed (Arundo donax L.) to the heavy metals Cd and Ni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazoglou, E G; Karantounias, G A; Vemmos, S N; Bouranis, D L

    2005-02-01

    Giant reed (Arundo donax L.) was grown on surface soil and irrigated with mixed heavy metal solutions of Cd(II) and Ni(II) to study the impact of these heavy metals on its growth and photosynthesis. The tested concentrations were 5, 50, and 100 ppm for each heavy metal against the control and resulted in high cadmium and nickel (DTPA extractable) concentrations in the top zone of the pot soil. The examined parameters, namely, stem height and diameter, number of nodes, fresh and dry weight of leaves, and net photosynthesis (Pn) were not affected, indicating that plants tolerate the high concentrations of Cd and Ni. As giant reed plants are very promising energy plants, they can be cultivated in contaminated soils to provide biomass for energy production purposes.

  11. The potential effects of concurrent increases in temperature, CO sub 2 and O sub 3 on net photosynthesis, as mediated by rubisCO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, S. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States) Essex Univ., Colchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Biology)

    1992-07-01

    At the leaf level, under light saturating and light limiting conditions, it is shown that elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration not only alters the scale of the response of carbon gain to rising temperature, but can alter the direction of response. These points bring into serious question the value of any predictions of plant production which ignore not only the direct effect Of C0{sub 2} on carbon gain, but also the basic interactions of temperature, C0{sub 2} and 0{sub 3}. Whilst many factors may potentially diminish the enhancement of lightsaturated leaf photosynthetic rates with increase in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, no mechanism has so far been identified which could remove the parallel stimulation of light-limited photosynthesis.

  12. The potential effects of concurrent increases in temperature, CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} on net photosynthesis, as mediated by rubisCO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[Essex Univ., Colchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Biology

    1992-07-01

    At the leaf level, under light saturating and light limiting conditions, it is shown that elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration not only alters the scale of the response of carbon gain to rising temperature, but can alter the direction of response. These points bring into serious question the value of any predictions of plant production which ignore not only the direct effect Of C0{sub 2} on carbon gain, but also the basic interactions of temperature, C0{sub 2} and 0{sub 3}. Whilst many factors may potentially diminish the enhancement of lightsaturated leaf photosynthetic rates with increase in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, no mechanism has so far been identified which could remove the parallel stimulation of light-limited photosynthesis.

  13. Improving photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, John R

    2013-08-01

    Photosynthesis is the basis of plant growth, and improving photosynthesis can contribute toward greater food security in the coming decades as world population increases. Multiple targets have been identified that could be manipulated to increase crop photosynthesis. The most important target is Rubisco because it catalyses both carboxylation and oxygenation reactions and the majority of responses of photosynthesis to light, CO₂, and temperature are reflected in its kinetic properties. Oxygenase activity can be reduced either by concentrating CO₂ around Rubisco or by modifying the kinetic properties of Rubisco. The C₄ photosynthetic pathway is a CO₂-concentrating mechanism that generally enables C₄ plants to achieve greater efficiency in their use of light, nitrogen, and water than C₃ plants. To capitalize on these advantages, attempts have been made to engineer the C₄ pathway into C₃ rice (Oryza sativa). A simpler approach is to transfer bicarbonate transporters from cyanobacteria into chloroplasts and prevent CO₂ leakage. Recent technological breakthroughs now allow higher plant Rubisco to be engineered and assembled successfully in planta. Novel amino acid sequences can be introduced that have been impossible to reach via normal evolution, potentially enlarging the range of kinetic properties and breaking free from the constraints associated with covariation that have been observed between certain kinetic parameters. Capturing the promise of improved photosynthesis in greater yield potential will require continued efforts to improve carbon allocation within the plant as well as to maintain grain quality and resistance to disease and lodging.

  14. Improving Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Photosynthesis is the basis of plant growth, and improving photosynthesis can contribute toward greater food security in the coming decades as world population increases. Multiple targets have been identified that could be manipulated to increase crop photosynthesis. The most important target is Rubisco because it catalyses both carboxylation and oxygenation reactions and the majority of responses of photosynthesis to light, CO2, and temperature are reflected in its kinetic properties. Oxygenase activity can be reduced either by concentrating CO2 around Rubisco or by modifying the kinetic properties of Rubisco. The C4 photosynthetic pathway is a CO2-concentrating mechanism that generally enables C4 plants to achieve greater efficiency in their use of light, nitrogen, and water than C3 plants. To capitalize on these advantages, attempts have been made to engineer the C4 pathway into C3 rice (Oryza sativa). A simpler approach is to transfer bicarbonate transporters from cyanobacteria into chloroplasts and prevent CO2 leakage. Recent technological breakthroughs now allow higher plant Rubisco to be engineered and assembled successfully in planta. Novel amino acid sequences can be introduced that have been impossible to reach via normal evolution, potentially enlarging the range of kinetic properties and breaking free from the constraints associated with covariation that have been observed between certain kinetic parameters. Capturing the promise of improved photosynthesis in greater yield potential will require continued efforts to improve carbon allocation within the plant as well as to maintain grain quality and resistance to disease and lodging. PMID:23812345

  15. Exogenous sucrose supply changes sugar metabolism and reduces photosynthesis of sugarcane through the down-regulation of Rubisco abundance and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Ana Karla Moreira; de Oliveira Martins, Marcio; Lima Neto, Milton Costa; Machado, Eduardo Caruso; Ribeiro, Rafael Vasconcelos; Silveira, Joaquim Albenisio Gomes

    2015-05-01

    Photosynthetic modulation by sugars has been known for many years, but the biochemical and molecular comprehension of this process is lacking. We studied how the exogenous sucrose supplied to leaves could affect sugar metabolism in leaf, sheath and stalk and inhibit photosynthesis in four-month old sugarcane plants. Exogenous sucrose 50mM sprayed on attached leaves strongly impaired the net CO2 assimilation (PN) and decreased the instantaneous carboxylation efficiency (PN/Ci), suggesting that the impairment in photosynthesis was caused by biochemical restrictions. The photosystem II activity was also affected by excess sucrose as indicated by the reduction in the apparent electron transport rate, effective quantum yield and increase in non-photochemical quenching. In leaf segments, sucrose accumulation was related to increases in the activities of soluble acid and neutral invertases, sucrose synthase and sucrose phosphate synthase, whereas the contents of fructose increased and glucose slightly decreased. Changes in the activities of sucrose hydrolyzing and synthesizing enzymes in leaf, sheath and stalk and sugar profile in intact plants were not enough to identify which sugar(s) or enzyme(s) were directly involved in photosynthesis modulation. However, exogenous sucrose was able to trigger down-regulation in the Rubisco abundance, activation state and enzymatic activity. Despite the fact that PN/Ci had been notably decreased by sucrose, in vitro activity and abundance of PEPCase did not change, suggesting an in vivo modulation of this enzyme. The data reveal that sucrose and/or other derivative sugars in leaves inhibited sugarcane photosynthesis by down-regulation of Rubisco synthesis and activity. Our data also suggest that sugar modulation was not exerted by a feedback mechanism induced by the accumulation of sugars in immature sugarcane stalk. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  16. Reintroducing Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, F.; Sanz, A.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on conceptual difficulties related to photosynthesis and respiratory metabolism of a Plant Physiology course for undergraduate students that could hinder their better learning of metabolic processes. A survey of results obtained in this area during the last 10 academic years was performed, as well as a specific test, aimed to…

  17. [Effects of soil compactness stress on root activity and leaf photosynthesis of cucumber].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Wang, Yi-Quan; Yang, Mei; Xu, Lei

    2005-10-01

    Responses of root activity and leaf photosynthesis to soil compactness stress were studied in cucumber plants grown in pots. Soil compaction was expressed by soil bulk density. There were three compactness treatments with soil bulk densities, 1.2, 1.4 and 1.6 g/cm(3). The results showed that when the soil compactness increased, the dry weight and activity of roots reduced (Fig. 1); the relative electrical conductivity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content of cucumber leaf (Fig. 2) increased; the soluble protein content decreased (Fig. 3); the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) increased (Fig. 4); net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (E) and specific leaf weight (SLW) decreased, but intercellular CO(2) concentration (Ci) increased (Fig. 5). These results mean that high soil compaction brings stress to cucumber plants.

  18. Photosynthesis and metabolite responses of Isatis indigotica Fortune to elevated [CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is affecting global crop productivity, food quality, and security. However, few studies have addressed the mechanism by which elevated CO2 may affect the growth of medicinal plants. Isatis indigotica Fortune is a widely used Chinese medicinal herb with multiple pharmacological properties. To investigate the physiological mechanism of I. indigotica response to elevated [CO2], plants were grown at either ambient [CO2] (385 μmol mol−1 or elevated [CO2] (590 μmol mol−1 in an open-top chamber (OTC experimental facility in North China. A significant reduction in transpiration rate (Tr and stomatal conductance (gs and a large increase in water-use efficiency contributed to an increase in net photosynthetic rate (Pn under elevated [CO2] 76 days after sowing. Leaf non-photochemical quenching (NPQ was decreased, so that more energy was used in effective quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (ΦPSII under elevated [CO2]. High ΦPSII, meaning high electron transfer efficiency, also increased Pn. The [CO2]-induced increase in photosynthesis significantly increased biomass by 36.8%. Amounts of metabolic compounds involved in sucrose metabolism, pyrimidine metabolism, flavonoid biosynthesis, and other processes in leaves were reduced under elevated [CO2]. These results showed that the fertilization effect of elevated [CO2] is conducive to increasing dry weight but not secondary metabolism in I. indigotica.

  19. [Effects of excess Mn on photosynthesis characteristics in cucumber under different light intensity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qinghua; Zhu, Zhujun; Ying, Quansheng; Qian, Qiongqiu

    2005-06-01

    By a solution culture experiment, this paper studied the effects of excess Mn on the growth, chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and photosynthesis of cucumber under different light intensity. The results indicated that excess Mn inhibited plant growth, which was more obvious under high light intensity than under low light intensity. The primary maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII (v/Fm), quantum efficiency of non-cyclic electron transport of PSII (phiPSII), and photochemical quenching (qP) were significantly decreased in excess Mn treatment under high light intensity, while no significant effects on Fv/Fm and qP were observed under low light intensity. Excess Mn, particularly under high light intensity, decreased net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and stomatal conductance (Gs). Excess Mn increased intracellular CO2 (Ci) under high light intensity and decreased Ci under low light intensity, while stomatal limitation value (Ls) was just reverse to Ci. It could be concluded that the decrease of Pn in excess Mn treatment was not resulted from stomatal limitation under high light intensity, but was true under low light intensity.

  20. Climate changes and photosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Sh Tkemaladze

    2016-06-01

    Solar energy is environmentally friendly and its conversion to energy of chemical substances is carried out only by photosynthesis – effective mechanism characteristic of plants. However, microorganism photosynthesis occurs more frequently than higher plant photosynthesis. More than half of photosynthesis taking place on the earth surface occurs in single-celled organisms, especially algae, in particular, diatomic organisms.

  1. Effects of Lead Stress on Photosynthesis and Physiological and Biochemical Characteristics of Amorpha fruticosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHOU Mei-li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The seedlings of Amorpha fruticosa were cultured at lead concentration of 0(control, 100, 300, 600 mg·kg-1 respectively, under pot experiment to observe and analyze the response of physiological indicators such as malonaldehyde(MDA content, activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, POD, CAT, photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in leaves of Amorpha fruticosa to Pb stress. The results showed that with the increase of Pb concentration, the contents of MDA and activities of SOD and POD in leaves of Amorpha fruticosa increased. The net photosynthetic rate(Pn was significantly higher than that of the control at 100 mg·kg-1 Pb stress treatment. When the Pb concentration reached 300 mg·kg-1, the activity of antioxidant enzymes and relative content of chlorophyll(SPAD of Amorpha fruticosa increased significantly. The activities of catalases(CAT began to decrease, the decrease of photosynthesis was mainly affected by nonstomatal limitation, and the chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of Amorpha fruticosa were not seriously damaged when Amorpha fruticosa was under Pb stress of 600 mg·kg-1. It indicated that Amorpha fruticosa could resist Pb pollution (600 mg·kg-1in the environment.

  2. [Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration on mung bean leaf photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xing-yu; Han, Xue; Li, Ping; Yang, Hong-bin; Lin, Er-da

    2011-10-01

    By using free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) system, a pot experiment under field condition was conducted to study the effects of elevated CO2 concentration (550 +/- 60 micromol mol(-1)) on the leaf photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of mung bean. Comparing with the control (CO2 concentration averagely 389 +/- 40 micromol mol(-1)), elevated CO2 concentration increased the leaf intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and net photosynthesis rate (P(n)) at flowering and pod growth stage by 9.8% and 11.7%, decreased the stomatic conductance (G(s)) and transpiration rate (T(r)) by 32.0% and 24.6%, respectively, and increased the water use efficiency (WUE) by 83.5%. Elevated CO2 concentration had lesser effects on the minimal fluorescence (F0), maximal fluorescence (F(m)), variable fluorescence (F(v)), ratio of variable fluorescence to minimal fluorescence (F(v)/F0), and ratio of variable fluorescence to maximal fluorescence (F(v)/F(m)) at bud stage, but increased the F0 at pod filling stage by 19.1% and decreased the Fm, F(v), F(v)/F0, and F(v)/F(m) by 9.0%, 14.3%, 25.8% , and 6.2%, respectively. These results suggested that elevated CO2 concentration could damage the structure of leaf photosystem II and consequently decrease the leaf photosynthetic capacity in the late growth phase of mung bean.

  3. Discoveries in Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindjee; Beatty, J. T.; Gest, H.; Allen, J. F.

    "Life Is Bottled Sunshine" [Wynwood Reade, Martyrdom of Man, 1924]. This inspired phrase is a four-word summary of the significance of photosynthesis for life on earth. The study of photosynthesis has attracted the attention of a legion of biologists, biochemists, chemists and physicists for over 200 years. Discoveries in Photosynthesis presents a sweeping overview of the history of photosynthesis investigations, and detailed accounts of research progress in all aspects of the most complex bioenergetic process in living organisms.

  4. Photosynthesis. Agricultural Lesson Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Dept. of Agricultural Education and Mechanization.

    This lesson plan is intended for use in conducting classes on photosynthesis. Presented first are an attention step/problem statement and a series of questions and answers designed to convey general information about photosynthesis. The following topics are among those discussed: the photosynthesis process and its importance, the organisms that…

  5. Far-red light is needed for efficient photochemistry and photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Shuyang; van Iersel, Marc W

    2017-02-01

    The efficiency of monochromatic light to drive photosynthesis drops rapidly at wavelengths longer than 685nm. The photosynthetic efficiency of these longer wavelengths can be improved by adding shorter wavelength light, a phenomenon known as the Emerson enhancement effect. The reverse effect, the enhancement of photosynthesis under shorter wavelength light by longer wavelengths, however, has not been well studied and is often thought to be insignificant. We quantified the effect of adding far-red light (peak at 735nm) to red/blue or warm-white light on the photosynthetic efficiency of lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Adding far-red light immediately increased quantum yield of photosystem II (ΦPSII) of lettuce by an average of 6.5 and 3.6% under red/blue and warm-white light, respectively. Similar or greater increases in ΦPSII were observed after 20min of exposure to far-red light. This longer-term effect of far-red light on ΦPSII was accompanied by a reduction in non-photochemical quenching of fluorescence (NPQ), indicating that far-red light reduced the dissipation of absorbed light as heat. The increase in ΦPSII and complementary decrease in NPQ is presumably due to preferential excitation of photosystem I (PSI) by far-red light, which leads to faster re-oxidization of the plastoquinone pool. This facilitates reopening of PSII reaction centers, enabling them to use absorbed photons more efficiently. The increase in ΦPSII by far-red light was associated with an increase in net photosynthesis (Pn). The stimulatory effect of far-red light increased asymptotically with increasing amounts of far-red. Overall, our results show that far-red light can increase the photosynthetic efficiency of shorter wavelength light that over-excites PSII. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of elevated CO{sub 2} concentration on photosynthesis of Sphagnum fuscum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauhiainen, J.; Silvola, J. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology

    1996-12-31

    The objectives of the research were to measure photosynthesis of Sphagnum fuscum in long term exposure to four CO{sub 2} levels at semi-natural conditions, to find out if there is an acclimation of net photosynthesis into prevailing CO{sub 2} concentrations and to measure the moisture dependent net photosynthesis at various CO{sub 2} concentrations of samples grown at different CO{sub 2} concentrations

  7. Wheat cultivars selected for high Fv/Fm under heat stress maintain high photosynthesis, total chlorophyll, stomatal conductance, transpiration and dry matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Dew Kumari; Andersen, Sven Bode; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2015-01-01

    (1 week at 36/30∘C day/night temperature in greenhouse) closer to natural heat waves in North-Western Europe. Dry matter accumulation after 7 days of heat stresswas positively correlated to Fv/Fm. The high Fv/Fm group maintained significantly higher total chlorophyll and net photosynthetic rate (PN...... variation for tolerance to severe heat stress (3 days at 40∘C in controlled conditions) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Here we investigated the performance of the previously selected cultivars (high and low group based on Fv/Fm value) in terms of growth and photosynthetic traits undermoderate heat stress......-significant under the given heat stress. This study validated that our three-tiered approach of phenotyping by Fv/Fm performed under increasing severity of heat was successful in identifying wheat cultivars differing in photosynthesis under moderate and agronomically more relevant heat stress. The identified...

  8. Effects of light acclimation on the photosynthesis, growth, and biomass allocation in American chestnut ( Castanea dentata) seedlings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, G. Geoff; Bauerle, William L; Mudder, Bryan T

    2006-01-01

    ...) to examine how light intensity affects photosynthesis, growth, and biomass allocation. Net photosynthetic rate increased linearly with increasing irradiance while instantaneous water use efficiency peaked at 32...

  9. Molecular mechanisms of photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blankenship, R.E.

    2001-12-15

    Photosynthesis is a biological process that is as complex as it is fundamental. It is a field that spans time scales from the cosmic to the femtosecond, and bridges disciplines from biochemistry to geology. In the last ten years major advances in the field and improved research techniques have further deepened the understanding of the process of photosynthesis. Molecular Mechanisms of Photosynthesis stands as an ideal introduction to this subject. The author, a leading authority in photosynthesis research, offers a modern approach to photosynthesis in this accessible and well-illustrated text. The book provides a concise overview of the basic principles of energy storage and the history of the field, then progresses into more advanced topics such as electron transfer pathways, kinetics, genetic manipulations, and evolution. Throughout, the author includes an interdisciplinary emphasis that makes this book appealing across fields. authorship: leading authority in photosynthesis and the President of the International Society of Photosynthesis Research. First authoritative text to enter the market in 10 years. Stresses an interdisciplinary approach, which appeals to all science students. Emphasizes the recent advances in molecular structures and mechanisms. Only text to contain comprehensive coverage of both bacterial and plant photosynthesis. Includes the latest insights and research on structural information, improved spectroscopic techniques as well as advances in biochemical and genetic methods. Presents the most extensive treatment of the Origin and evolution of photosynthesis. Comprehensive appendix, which includes a detailed introduction to the physical basis of photosynthesis, including thermodynamics, kinetics and spectroscopy. (author)

  10. [Effects of drying and re-watering on the photosynthesis and active oxygen metabolism of Periploca sepium seedlings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yu-yan; Hao, Wen-fang; Gong, Chun-mei; Han, Rui-lian; Liang, Zong-suo

    2010-12-01

    Taking two-year-old Periploca sepium seedlings as test materials, an experiment with controlled soil water contents was conducted to study the effects of repeated drying and re-watering on the leaf photosynthetic characteristics and the lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system in young leaves, mature leaves, old leaves, new stems, and fine roots. The seedlings were subjected to three cycles of drying and re-watering, with regular irrigation to maintain the soil water content at around 80% of field capacity as the control (CK). Under drying, the leaf relative water content (RWC) and net photosynthesis rate (Pn) decreased significantly, while the leaf photosynthetic pigments content increased. When the seedlings were re-watered, their leaf RWC recovered to the CK level, showing a strong repair capacity after drying. Both the leaf chlorophyll content and the Pn after repeated drying and re-watering presented a higher level than those of the CK, indicating a compensatory effect appeared and an appropriate drought stress being able to induce the adaptability of P. sepium to drought stress. Stomatal closure was the main factor limiting P. sepium photosynthesis under drought stress, while non-stomatal limitation only worked at noon. Under drying, the superoxide anion radical (O2-*) production rate in young leaves, new stems, and fine roots increased while the malondialdehyde (MDA) contents decreased, suggesting that these young tissues were not suffered from the oxidative stress. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) in different organs had different variation trends, with those in fine roots changed actively, suggesting the important role of fine roots in the acclimation of P. sepium to drought environment. It was the cooperation and coordination among plant organs that made P. sepium more adaptive to the repeated drying and wetting conditions in drought-prone regions.

  11. Salicylic acid alleviates the adverse effects of salt stress in Torreya grandis cv. Merrillii seedlings by activating photosynthesis and enhancing antioxidant systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Salt stress is a major factor limiting plant growth and productivity. Salicylic acid (SA has been shown to ameliorate the adverse effects of environmental stress on plants. To investigate the protective role of SA in ameliorating salt stress on Torreya grandis (T. grandis trees, a pot experiment was conducted to analyze the biomass, relative water content (RWC, chlorophyll content, net photosynthesis (Pn, gas exchange parameters, relative leakage conductivity (REC, malondialdehyde (MDA content, and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and peroxidase (POD of T. grandis under 0.2% and 0.4% NaCl conditions with and without SA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The exposure of T. grandis seedlings to salt conditions resulted in reduced growth rates, which were associated with decreases in RWC and Pn and increases in REC and MDA content. The foliar application of SA effectively increased the chlorophyll (chl (a+b content, RWC, net CO2 assimilation rates (Pn, and proline content, enhanced the activities of SOD, CAT and POD, and minimized the increases in the REC and MDA content. These changes increased the capacity of T. grandis in acclimating to salt stress and thus increased the shoot and root dry matter. However, when the plants were under 0% and 0.2% NaCl stress, the dry mass of the shoots and roots did not differ significantly between SA-treated plants and control plants. CONCLUSIONS: SA induced the salt tolerance and increased the biomass of T. grandis cv. by enhancing the chlorophyll content and activity of antioxidative enzymes, activating the photosynthetic process, and alleviating membrane injury. A better understanding about the effect of salt stress in T. grandis is vital, in order gain knowledge over expanding the plantations to various regions and also for the recovery of T. grandis species in the future.

  12. Dehydration induced loss of photosynthesis in Arabidopsis leaves during senescence is accompanied by the reversible enhancement in the activity of cell wall β-glucosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patro, Lichita; Mohapatra, Pranab Kishor; Biswal, Udaya Chand; Biswal, Basanti

    2014-08-01

    The physiology of loss of photosynthetic production of sugar and the consequent cellular sugar reprogramming during senescence of leaves experiencing environmental stress largely remains unclear. We have shown that leaf senescence in Arabidopsis thaliana causes a significant reduction in the rate of oxygen evolution and net photosynthetic rate (Pn). The decline in photosynthesis is further aggravated by dehydration. During dehydration, primary photochemical reaction of thylakoids and net photosynthesis decrease in parallel with the increase in water deficit. Senescence induced loss in photosynthesis is accompanied by a significant increase in the activity of cell wall hydrolyzing enzyme such as β-glucosidase associated with cell wall catabolism. The activity of this enzyme is further enhanced when the senescing leaves experience dehydration stress. It is possible that both senescence and stress separately or in combination result in the loss in photosynthesis which could be a signal for an enhancement in the activity of β-glucosidase that breaks down cell wall polysaccharides to sugar to sustain respiration for metabolic activities of plants experiencing stress. Thus dehydration response of cell wall hydrolases of senescing leaves is considered as plants' strategy to have cell wall polysaccharides as an alternative energy source for completion of energy requiring senescence process, stress survival and maintenance of recovery potential of energy deficit cells in the background of loss in photosynthesis. Withdrawal of stress (rehydration) distinctly exhibits recovery of photosynthesis and suppression of enzyme activity. Retention of the signaling for sugar reprogramming through breakdown of cell wall polysaccharides in the senescing leaves exposed to severe drought stress suggests that senescing leaves like mature ones possess potential for stress recovery. The precise mechanism of stress adaptation of senescing leaves is yet to be known. A significant

  13. Leaf anatomy and photosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghuijs, H.N.C.

    2016-01-01

    Keywords: CO2 diffusion, C3 photosynthesis, mesophyll conductance, mesophyll resistance, re-assimilation, photorespiration, respiration, tomato Herman Nicolaas Cornelis Berghuijs (2016). Leaf anatomy and photosynthesis; unravelling the CO2 diffusion pathway in C3 leaves. PhD thesis. Wageningen

  14. Sink regulation of photosynthesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matthew J. Paul; Christine H. Foyer

    2001-01-01

    ... in the effects of elevated CO2 on photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is one of the most highly integrated and regulated metabolic processes to maximize the use of available light, to minimize the damaging effects of excess light and to optimize the use...

  15. Molecular mechanisms of photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youvan, D.C.; Marrs, B.L.

    1987-06-01

    Knowledge of the molecular interactions, structure and genetic basis of the photosynthetic reaction center makes it possible to ask more detailed questions about its function. Spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography and molecular genetics combine to give a detailed picture of events in photosynthesis and shown how particular molecules contribute to the process. The molecular biology of the photosynthesis center of Rhodopseudomonas is investigated.

  16. Attenuation of salt-induced changes in photosynthesis by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In parallel, NO application in salt-stressed plants attenuated the decrease in the photosynthetic parameters such as leaf chlorophyll, net photosynthetic rate (PN), stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration rate (E), the ratio of variable to maximum fluorescence (Fv/Fm), electron transport rate (ETR), the efficiency of excitation ...

  17. Plant Photosynthesis-Irradiance Curve Responses to Pollution Show Non-Competitive Inhibited Michaelis Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Maozi; Wang, Zhiwei; He, Lingchao; Xu, Kang; Cheng, Dongliang; Wang, Genxuan

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthesis-irradiance (PI) curves are extensively used in field and laboratory research to evaluate the photon-use efficiency of plants. However, most existing models for PI curves focus on the relationship between the photosynthetic rate (Pn) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), and do not take account of the influence of environmental factors on the curve. In the present study, we used a new non-competitive inhibited Michaelis-Menten model (NIMM) to predict the co-variation of Pn, PAR, and the relative pollution index (I). We then evaluated the model with published data and our own experimental data. The results indicate that the Pn of plants decreased with increasing I in the environment and, as predicted, were all fitted well by the NIMM model. Therefore, our model provides a robust basis to evaluate and understand the influence of environmental pollution on plant photosynthesis.

  18. Effects of low sink demand on leaf photosynthesis under potassium deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yonghui; Lu, Zhifeng; Lu, Jianwei; Li, Xiaokun; Cong, Rihuan; Ren, Tao

    2017-04-01

    The interaction between low sink demand and potassium (K) deficiency in leaf photosynthesis was not intensively investigated, therefore this interaction was investigated in winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). Plants subjected to sufficient (+K) or insufficient (-K) K supply treatments were maintained or removed their flowers and pods; these conditions were defined as high sink demand (HS) or low sink demand (LS), respectively. The low sink demand induced a lower photosynthetic rate (Pn), especially in the -K treatment during the first week. A negative relationship between Pn and carbohydrate concentration was observed in the -K treatment but not in the +K treatment, suggesting that the decrease in Pn in the -K treatment was the result of sink feedback regulation under low sink demand. Longer sink removal duration increased carbohydrate concentration, but the enhanced assimilate did not influence Pn. On the contrary, low sink demand resulted in a high K concentration, slower chloroplast degradation rate and better PSII activity, inducing a higher Pn compared with HS. Consequently, low sink demand decreased leaf photosynthesis over the short term due to sink feedback regulation, and potassium deficiency enhanced the photosynthetic decrease through carbohydrate accumulation and a lower carbohydrate concentration threshold for initiating photosynthesis depression. A longer duration of limited sink demand and sufficient potassium supply resulted in a higher photosynthesis rate because of delayed chloroplast degradation. This finding indicates that the nutritional status plays a role in leaf photosynthesis variations due to sink-source manipulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Atomically Abrupt Topological p-n Junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Hwan; Jin, Kyung-Hwan; Kho, Byung Woo; Park, Byeong-Gyu; Liu, Feng; Kim, Jun Sung; Yeom, Han Woong

    2017-08-24

    Topological insulators (TI's) are a new class of quantum matter with extraordinary surface electronic states, which bear great potential for spintronics and error-tolerant quantum computing. In order to put a TI into any practical use, these materials need to be fabricated into devices whose basic units are often p-n junctions. Interesting electronic properties of a 'topological' p-n junction were proposed theoretically such as the junction electronic state and the spin rectification. However, the fabrication of a lateral topological p-n junction has been challenging because of materials, process, and fundamental reasons. Here, we demonstrate an innovative approach to realize a p-n junction of topological surface states (TSS's) of a three-dimensional (3D) topological insulator (TI) with an atomically abrupt interface. When a ultrathin Sb film is grown on a 3D TI of Bi2Se3 with a typical n-type TSS, the surface develops a strongly p-type TSS through the substantial hybridization between the 2D Sb film and the Bi2Se3 surface. Thus, the Bi2Se3 surface covered partially with Sb films bifurcates into areas of n- and p-type TSS's as separated by atomic step edges with a lateral electronic junction of as short as 2 nm. This approach opens a different avenue toward various electronic and spintronic devices based on well-defined topological p-n junctions with the scalability down to atomic dimensions.

  20. A chamber for measurement of net photosynthesis on a whole plant = Uma câmara para medir fotossíntese líquida em plantas inteiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Jamil Marur

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available A limitation for quantifying photosynthesis with existing equipment is that they were designed to measure of plant parts, such as one leaf or group of few leaves, which has a great variability over the whole plant. As a consequence, it is difficult to integrateaccurately the measurements taken on plant parts in order to assess the process over the entire plant. The objectives of this work were to show in detail a chamber built to measure whole plant photosynthesis and present measurements taken with this apparatus on coffee plants under field conditions. The chamber makes possible to obtain reliable measurements of CO2 assimilation rates over canopies of different LAI and levels of light exposure. The plant with LAI equal to 1.84 had higher assimilation rates for the whole canopy, butautoshading decreased assimilation rates per leaf area unit, as compared with the plant with LAI of 0.86.Os atuais aparelhos portáteis que medem fotossíntese no campo foram concebidos para proceder a leituras de uma folha, de parte de uma folha ou de um grupo de poucas folhas, que apresentam grande variabilidade em uma planta. A grande variabilidade entre as partesda planta dificulta a integração das medidas. Há, portanto, a necessidade de se desenvolver medidas do fluxo de CO2 na planta como um todo, em seu ambiente natural, para então utilizar os valores medidos para avaliar a performance dos modelos em simular o processoenvolvido. O objetivo deste trabalho foi mostrar os detalhes de construção de uma câmara para medir fotossíntese de plantas inteiras de cafeeiro, em condições de campo. Os resultados indicaram que a câmara construída tornou possível a medição da fotossíntese emplantas inteiras, em folhas expostas a diferentes intensidades de radiação solar. A planta com IAF 1,84 apresentou maior assimilação por planta e menor taxa fotossintética por unidade de área foliar do que aquela com IAF 0,86.

  1. The influence of silicon on barley growth, photosynthesis and ultra-structure under chromium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shafaqat; Farooq, Muhammad Ahsan; Yasmeen, Tahira; Hussain, Sabir; Arif, Muhammad Saleem; Abbas, Farhat; Bharwana, Saima Aslam; Zhang, Guoping

    2013-03-01

    Silicon (Si) is generally considered as a benefic element for higher plants, especially for those grown under abiotic stressed environments. Current study is carried out in a hydroponic experiment to analyze the effect of Si application on barley growth, photosynthesis and ultra-structure under chromium (Cr) stress. The treatments consisted of three Si (0, 1 and 2mM) and two Cr (0 and 100 μM) levels. The results showed that Si application at both levels enhanced plant growth relative to the control, and alleviated Cr toxicity, reflected by significant increase in growth and photosynthetic parameters, such as SPAD value, net photosynthetic rate (P(n)), cellular CO(2) concentration (C(i)), stomatal conductance (G(s)) and transpiration rate (T(r)), and chlorophyll fluorescence efficiency (Fv/Fm), with 2mM Si having greater effect than 1mM Si. Cr stress caused ultra-structural disorders in leaves, such as uneven swelling of chloroplast, increased amount of plastoglobuli, disintegrated and disappeared thylakoid membranes, increased size and number of starch granules in leaves, and root ultra-structural modification, including increased vacuolar size, presence of Cr metal in cell walls and vacuoles, disruption and disappearance of nucleus. Exogenous Si alleviated these ultra-structural disorders both in roots and leaves. Apparently, Si and Cr behaved antagonistically, indicating that Si could be a candidate for Cr detoxification in crops under Cr-contaminated soil. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Growth, photosynthesis, and antioxidant responses of Vigna unguiculata L. treated with hydrogen peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Aiman Hasan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. is an important legume well grown in semiarid and arid environment. Hydrogen peroxide solutions (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mM have been used to optimize growth and photosynthetic performance of cowpea plant at two growth stages [30 and 45 DAS (days of sowing]. Foliar application of H2O2 at 0.5 > 1.0 mM solution at 29 DAS optimally promoted the photosynthetic attributes [leaf chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate (PN, water use efficiency, and maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm] and growth performance [root and shoot length; fresh and dry weight] of plants where the responses were more significant at the later growth stage. It was favored by activity of enzymes as carbonic anhydrase [CA; E.C. 4.2.1.1] and nitrate reductase [NR, E.C. 1.6.6.1] and those of antioxidant enzymes viz. peroxidase [POX; EC 1.11.1.7], catalase [CAT; EC 1.11.1.6], and superoxide dismutase [SOD; EC 1.15.1.1] and leaf proline content. Strengthened root system and antioxidant activity, particularly leaf proline level appeared to be the key factor for efficient photosynthesis and growth responses.

  3. Wheat cultivars selected for high Fv /Fm under heat stress maintain high photosynthesis, total chlorophyll, stomatal conductance, transpiration and dry matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Dew Kumari; Andersen, Sven Bode; Ottosen, Carl-Otto; Rosenqvist, Eva

    2015-02-01

    The chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Fv /Fm reflects the maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry and has been widely used for early stress detection in plants. Previously, we have used a three-tiered approach of phenotyping by Fv /Fm to identify naturally existing genetic variation for tolerance to severe heat stress (3 days at 40°C in controlled conditions) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Here we investigated the performance of the previously selected cultivars (high and low group based on Fv /Fm value) in terms of growth and photosynthetic traits under moderate heat stress (1 week at 36/30°C day/night temperature in greenhouse) closer to natural heat waves in North-Western Europe. Dry matter accumulation after 7 days of heat stress was positively correlated to Fv /Fm . The high Fv /Fm group maintained significantly higher total chlorophyll and net photosynthetic rate (PN ) than the low group, accompanied by higher stomatal conductance (gs ), transpiration rate (E) and evaporative cooling of the leaf (ΔT). The difference in PN between the groups was not caused by differences in PSII capacity or gs as the variation in Fv /Fm and intracellular CO2 (Ci ) was non-significant under the given heat stress. This study validated that our three-tiered approach of phenotyping by Fv /Fm performed under increasing severity of heat was successful in identifying wheat cultivars differing in photosynthesis under moderate and agronomically more relevant heat stress. The identified cultivars may serve as a valuable resource for further studies to understand the physiological mechanisms underlying the genetic variability in heat sensitivity of photosynthesis. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  4. Growth, photosynthesis and nitrogen metabolism in soybean varieties after exclusion of the UV-B and UV-A/B components of solar radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Singh Baroniya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to study the impact of the exclusion of the solar UV components on growth, photosynthesis and nitrogen metabolism in soybean (Glycine max varieties PK-472, Pusa-24, JS 71-05, JS-335, NRC-7 and Kalitur. The plants were grown in specially designed UV exclusion chambers wrapped with filters to exclude UV-B or UV-A/B and transmitted all UV. Exclusion of UV significantly enhanced the growth of the aerial parts as well as the growth of the below ground parts in all of the six soybean varieties. Nitrate reductase activity (NRA was significantly reduced, whereas leghemoglobin (Lb content, total soluble protein, net photosynthesis (Pn and α-tocopherol content were enhanced after UV exclusion. The exclusion of solar UV-A/B enhanced all parameters to a larger extent than the exclusion of solar UV-B in four of the six varieties of soybean except for NRC-7 and Kalitur. These two varieties responded more to UV-B exclusion compared to UV-A/B exclusion. A significant inverse correlation between the NRA and the number of nodules per plant was observed. The extent of response in all parameters was greater in PK-472 and JS71-05 than that in Kalitur and JS-335 after UV exclusion. The exclusion of UV augmented the growth of nodules, Lb content and α-tocopherol levels and conferred higher rates of Pn to support better growth of nodules. Control plants (+ UV-A/B seemed to fulfill their N demand through the assimilation of NO3− resulting in lower symbiotic nitrogen fixation and higher NR activity.

  5. Disponibilidade de luz em macieiras 'Fuji' cobertas com telas antigranizo e seus efeitos sobre a fotossíntese, o rendimento e a qualidade dos frutos Light supply to 'Fuji' apple trees covered with hail protection nets and its effects on photosynthesys, yield and fruit quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante

    2009-09-01

    light supplied to the plants increased the mean area and the specific area of the leaves and reduced the potential photosynthesis, leading to a reduction of yield (number and weight of fruits per cm-2 of trunk cross section area and the red color of the fruit. The white and black hail protection nets reduced the incidence of sunburn but had no effect on russeting severity and number of seeds/fruit.

  6. Artificial photosynthesis combines biology with technology for sustainable energy transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas A.; Moore, Ana L.; Gust, Devens

    2013-03-01

    Photosynthesis supports the biosphere. Currently, human activity appropriates about one fourth of terrestrial photosynthetic net primary production (NPP) to support our GDP and nutrition. The cost to Earth systems of "our cut" of NPP is thought to be rapidly driving several Earth systems outside of bounds that were established on the geological time scale. Even with a fundamental realignment of human priorities, changing the unsustainable trajectory of the anthropocene will require reengineering photosynthesis to more efficiently meet human needs. Artificial photosynthetic systems are envisioned that can both supply renewable fuels and serve as platforms for exploring redesign strategies for photosynthesis. These strategies can be used in the nascent field of synthetic biology to make vast, much needed improvements in the biomass production efficiency of photosynthesis.

  7. Artificial photosynthesis: closing remarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarström, Leif

    2017-06-02

    This paper derives from my closing remarks lecture at the 198th Faraday Discussion meeting on Artificial Photosynthesis, Kyoto, Japan, February 28-March 2. The meeting had sessions on biological approaches and fundamental processes, molecular catalysts, inorganic assembly catalysts, and integration of systems for demonstrating realistic devices. The field has had much progress since the previous Faraday Discussion on Artificial Photosynthesis in Edinburgh, UK, in 2011. This paper is a personal account of recent discussions and developments in the field, as reflected in and discussed during the meeting. First it discusses the general directions of artificial photosynthesis and some considerations for a future solar fuels technology. Then it comments on some scientific directions in the area of the meeting.

  8. Effects of Insect-Proof Net Cultivation, Rice-Duck Farming, and Organic Matter Return on Rice Dry Matter Accumulation and Nitrogen Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Xu, Guochun; Wang, Qiangsheng; Hang, Yuhao

    2017-01-01

    Insect-proof net cultivation (IPN), rice-duck farming (RD), and organic matter return (OM) are important methods to realize sustainable development of rice production. A split-plot field experiment was performed to study the effects of IPN, RD, and OM on the rice yield, dry matter accumulation and N utilization. Results showed that compared to inorganic N fertilizer (IN), wheat straw return, and biogas residue return increased the rice yield by 2.11-4.28 and 4.78-7.67%, respectively, and also improved dry matter and N accumulation after the elongation stage (EG), dry matter and N translocation, and N recovery efficiency (NRE). These results attributed to an increase in leaf SPAD values and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) after the EG. Compared to conventional rice farming (CR), RD promoted the rice yield by 1.52-3.74%, and contributed to higher the leaf photosynthesis, dry matter and N accumulation, dry matter and N translocation, and NRE. IPN decreased the intensity of sun radiation in the nets due to the coverage of the insect-proof nets, which declined the leaf Pn, dry matter accumulation and translocation, N absorption and translocation, and NRE compared to open field cultivation (OFC). The rice yield of IPN were 2.48-4.98% lower than that of OFC. Compared to the interaction between CR and IN, the interaction between RD and OM improved the rice yield by 5.26-9.33%, and increased dry matter and N accumulation after the EG, dry matter and N translocation, and NRE. These results indicated that OM, RD and the interaction between RD and OM could promote dry matter accumulation and N utilization, which was beneficial to improve the rice yield.

  9. Effects of Insect-Proof Net Cultivation, Rice-Duck Farming, and Organic Matter Return on Rice Dry Matter Accumulation and Nitrogen Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Xu, Guochun; Wang, Qiangsheng; Hang, Yuhao

    2017-01-01

    Insect-proof net cultivation (IPN), rice-duck farming (RD), and organic matter return (OM) are important methods to realize sustainable development of rice production. A split-plot field experiment was performed to study the effects of IPN, RD, and OM on the rice yield, dry matter accumulation and N utilization. Results showed that compared to inorganic N fertilizer (IN), wheat straw return, and biogas residue return increased the rice yield by 2.11–4.28 and 4.78–7.67%, respectively, and also improved dry matter and N accumulation after the elongation stage (EG), dry matter and N translocation, and N recovery efficiency (NRE). These results attributed to an increase in leaf SPAD values and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) after the EG. Compared to conventional rice farming (CR), RD promoted the rice yield by 1.52–3.74%, and contributed to higher the leaf photosynthesis, dry matter and N accumulation, dry matter and N translocation, and NRE. IPN decreased the intensity of sun radiation in the nets due to the coverage of the insect-proof nets, which declined the leaf Pn, dry matter accumulation and translocation, N absorption and translocation, and NRE compared to open field cultivation (OFC). The rice yield of IPN were 2.48–4.98% lower than that of OFC. Compared to the interaction between CR and IN, the interaction between RD and OM improved the rice yield by 5.26–9.33%, and increased dry matter and N accumulation after the EG, dry matter and N translocation, and NRE. These results indicated that OM, RD and the interaction between RD and OM could promote dry matter accumulation and N utilization, which was beneficial to improve the rice yield. PMID:28174589

  10. Realizing artificial photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gust, Devens; Moore, Thomas A; Moore, Ana L

    2012-01-01

    Artificial photosynthesis comprises the design of systems for converting solar energy into useful forms based on the fundamental science underlying natural photosynthesis. There are many approaches to this problem. In this report, the emphasis is on molecule-based systems for photochemical production of fuels using sunlight. A few examples of typical components of artificial photosynthetic systems including antennas, reaction centres, catalysts for fuel production and water oxidation, and units for photoprotection and photoregulation are presented in order to illustrate the current state of the field and point out challenges yet to be fully addressed.

  11. Electrostatics of lateral p-n junctions in atomically thin materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nipane, Ankur; Jayanti, Sirisha; Borah, Abhinandan; Teherani, James T.

    2017-11-01

    The lack of analytical expressions for the electrostatics of asymmetrically doped 2D lateral junctions complicates the design and analysis of devices based on atomically thin materials. In this work, we provide analytical expressions for the electric field, electrostatic potential, and depletion width across 2D lateral p-n junctions with arbitrary, but spatially uniform doping configurations. We also extend these expressions for use in lateral 3D metal-2D semiconductor junctions and lateral 2D heterojunctions. The results show a significantly larger depletion width (˜2 to 20×) for our 2D method compared to a conventional 3D approach due to the presence of a large out-of-plane electric field. For asymmetrically doped p-n junctions, the 2D depletion width shows a logarithmic dependence on the doping density of the highly doped side, in sharp contrast with conventional electrostatics for 3D junctions. Further, we show that 2D lateral depletion widths can be significantly modulated by changing the surrounding dielectric environment and, hence, can be tuned to realize optimum device structures. Finally, we show that even though the long depletion tails in 2D lateral p-n junctions carry a significant amount of total net charge, they do not significantly affect the electric field and electrostatic potential profiles, supporting the validity of the depletion approximation in analytical modeling of 2D lateral p-n junctions.

  12. [Effects of NaCl stress on photosynthesis characteristics and fast chlorophyll fluorescence induction dynamics of Pistacia chinensis leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu-Xin; Liu, Bing-Xiang; Guo, Zhi-Tao; Chang, Yue-Xia; He, Lei; Chen, Fang; Lu, Bing-She

    2013-09-01

    By using fast chlorophyll fluorescence induction dynamics analysis technique (JIP-test), this paper studied the photosynthesis characteristics and fast chlorophyll fluorescence induction dynamics of 1-year old Pistacia chinensis seedlings under the stress of NaCl at the concentrations 0% (CK), 0.15%, 0.3%, 0.45%, and 0.6%. With the increasing concentration of NaCl, the contents of Chl a, Chl b, and Chl (a+b) in the seedlings leaves decreased, the Chl a/b ratio decreased after an initial increase, and the carotenoid content increased. The net photosynthetic rate (P(n)) and stomatal conductance (g(s)) decreased gradually with increasing NaCl concentration. The decrease of P(n) was mainly attributed to the stomatal limitation when the NaCl concentration was lower than 0.3%, and to the non-stomatal limitation when the NaCl concentration was higher than 0.3%. The trapped energy flux per RC (TR0/CS0), electron transport flux per RC (ET0/CS0), density of RCs (RC/CS0), and yield or flux ratio (psi(0) or phi(E0)) decreased, but the absorption flux per CS (ABS/CS0) and the K phase (W(k)) and J phase (V) in the O-J-I-P chlorophyll fluorescence induction curves increased distinctly, indicating that NaCl stress damaged the leaf oxygen-evolving complex (OEC), donor sides, and PS II reaction centers. When the NaCl concentration reached 0.3%, the maximum photochemical efficiency (F(v)/F(m)) and performance index (PI(ABS)) decreased 17.7% and 36.6%, respectively, as compared with the control.

  13. Overcompensation or limitation to photosynthesis and root hydraulic conductance altered by rehydration in seedlings of sorghum and maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In view of the prospect of irregular extremes of high and low rainfall due to climate change, the mechanisms underlying plant responses to periods of drought and re-watering need to be understood. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. and maize (Zea mays L. were grown in pots of loess soil at three soil moisture levels to examine the effects of different levels of drought over 10 days and plant responses to re-watering (5 days of rehydration. Photosynthesis-related traits recovered rapidly both in sorghum and maize on re-watering, suggesting that photosynthetic function was not severely damaged after a short drought period, although the values of these traits were dramatically reduced during drought per se. However, the two species differed in the extent to which they recovered from severe stress. In sorghum, net photosynthetic rate (Pn, stomatal conductance (Gs, and maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm returned to control levels after re-watering. However, in maize, these parameters exceeded control levels after re-watering. Both overcompensation and pre-drought limitation were observed. Over a range of growth conditions, close relationships between Gs and root hydraulic conductance (Kr were observed in pooled data sets. Pn, Kr, and their related characteristics were compared among species and treatments. Our results showed that the recovery of Kr is similar between sorghum and maize, at least after a short time of re-watering, although the two species differ in drought-tolerance capacity. Our results also suggest that sorghum can endure moderate drought by adjusting certain traits, but is still as vulnerable as maize under severe drought stress.

  14. Teaching Photosynthesis with ELL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Susan; Shaw, Edward Lewis, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Although the teaching of photosynthesis occurs yearly in elementary classrooms, one thing that makes it challenging is the inclusion of English language learners (ELLs). This article presents several activities for teaching and assessing of photosynthesis in a third grade classroom. The activities incorporate the photosynthesis content, teaching…

  15. Limits on Natural Photosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Grondelle, Rienk; Boeker, Egbert

    2017-01-01

    Photosynthesis in nature does not use the far infrared part of the solar spectrum (lambda > 900 nm), comprising about 30% of the incoming solar energy. By simple thermodynamic arguments it is explained that this is due to the unavoidable back reactions during the night. It follows that lambda

  16. Crassulacean acid metabolism enhances underwater photosynthesis and diminishes photorespiration in the aquatic plant Isoetes australis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole; Rich, S.M.; Pulido Pérez, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Underwater photosynthesis by aquatic plants is often limited by low availability of CO2, and photorespiration can be high. Some aquatic plants utilize crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthesis. The benefits of CAM for increased underwater photosynthesis and suppression of photorespiration......, it became negative in those low in malate. • CAM in aquatic plants enables higher rates of underwater net photosynthesis over large O2 and CO2 concentration ranges in floodwaters, via increased CO2 fixation and suppression of photorespiration....... were evaluated for Isoetes australis, a submerged plant that inhabits shallow temporary rock pools. • Leaves high or low in malate were evaluated for underwater net photosynthesis and apparent photorespiration at a range of CO2 and O2 concentrations. • CAM activity was indicated by 9.7-fold higher leaf...

  17. Esophageal Cancer: Associations With (pN+) Lymph Node Metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Thomas W; Ishwaran, Hemant; Hofstetter, Wayne L; Schipper, Paul H; Kesler, Kenneth A; Law, Simon; Lerut, E M R; Denlinger, Chadrick E; Salo, Jarmo A; Scott, Walter J; Watson, Thomas J; Allen, Mark S; Chen, Long-Qi; Rusch, Valerie W; Cerfolio, Robert J; Luketich, James D; Duranceau, Andre; Darling, Gail E; Pera, Manuel; Apperson-Hansen, Carolyn; Blackstone, Eugene H

    2017-01-01

    To identify the associations of lymph node metastases (pN+), number of positive nodes, and pN subclassification with cancer, treatment, patient, geographic, and institutional variables, and to recommend extent of lymphadenectomy needed to accurately detect pN+ for esophageal cancer. Limited data and traditional analytic techniques have precluded identifying intricate associations of pN+ with other cancer, treatment, and patient characteristics. Data on 5806 esophagectomy patients from the Worldwide Esophageal Cancer Collaboration were analyzed by Random Forest machine learning techniques. pN+, number of positive nodes, and pN subclassification were associated with increasing depth of cancer invasion (pT), increasing cancer length, decreasing cancer differentiation (G), and more regional lymph nodes resected. Lymphadenectomy necessary to accurately detect pN+ is 60 for shorter, well-differentiated cancers (<2.5 cm) and 20 for longer, poorly differentiated ones. In esophageal cancer, pN+, increasing number of positive nodes, and increasing pN classification are associated with deeper invading, longer, and poorly differentiated cancers. Consequently, if the goal of lymphadenectomy is to accurately define pN+ status of such cancers, few nodes need to be removed. Conversely, superficial, shorter, and well-differentiated cancers require a more extensive lymphadenectomy to accurately define pN+ status.

  18. Leaf absorbance and photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurer, Kees

    1994-01-01

    The absorption spectrum of a leaf is often thought to contain some clues to the photosynthetic action spectrum of chlorophyll. Of course, absorption of photons is needed for photosynthesis, but the reverse, photosynthesis when there is absorption, is not necessarily true. As a check on the existence of absorption limits we measured spectra for a few different leaves. Two techniques for measuring absorption have been used, viz. the separate determination of the diffuse reflectance and the diffuse transmittance with the leaf at a port of an integrating sphere and the direct determination of the non-absorbed fraction with the leaf in the sphere. In a cross-check both methods yielded the same results for the absorption spectrum. The spectrum of a Fuchsia leaf, covering the short-wave region from 350 to 2500 nm, shows a high absorption in UV, blue and red, the well known dip in the green and a steep fall-off at 700 nm. Absorption drops to virtually zero in the near infrared, with subsequent absorptions, corresponding to the water absorption bands. In more detailed spectra, taken at 5 nm intervals with a 5 nm bandwidth, differences in chlorophyll content show in the different depths of the dip around 550 nm and in a small shift of the absorption edge at 700 nm. Spectra for Geranium (Pelargonium zonale) and Hibiscus (with a higher chlorophyll content) show that the upper limit for photosynthesis can not be much above 700 nm. No evidence, however, is to be seen of a lower limit for photosynthesis and, in fact, some experiments down to 300 nm still did not show a decrease of the absorption although it is well recognized that no photosynthesis results with 300 nm wavelengths.

  19. Net Locality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Gordon, Eric

    Provides an introduction to the new theory of Net Locality and the profound effect on individuals and societies when everything is located or locatable. Describes net locality as an emerging form of location awareness central to all aspects of digital media, from mobile phones, to Google Maps...... of emerging technologies, from GeoCities to GPS, Wi-Fi, Wiki Me, and Google Android....

  20. Net Neutrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej

    2017-01-01

    Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else.......Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else....

  1. Effects of Heat Acclimation on Photosynthesis, Antioxidant Enzyme Activities, and Gene Expression in Orchardgrass under Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Xin Zhao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to examine the effects of heat acclimation on enzymatic activity, transcription levels, the photosynthesis processes associated with thermostability in orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L..The stomatal conductance (Gs, net photosynthetic rate (Pn, and transpiration rates (Tr of both heat-acclimated (HA and non-acclimated (NA plants were drastically reduced during heat treatment [using a 5-day heat stress treatment (38/30 °C ‒ day/night followed by a 3-day recovery under control conditions (25/20 °C ‒ day/night, in order to consolidate the second cycle was permitted]. Water use efficiency increased more steeply in the HA (4.9 times versus the NA (1.8 times plants, and the intercellular CO2 concentration decreased gently in NA (10.9% and HA (25.3% plants after 20 d of treatments compared to 0 days’. Furthermore, heat-acclimated plants were able to maintain significant activity levels of superoxide disumutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, guaiacol peroxidase (POD, and transcription levels of genes encoding these enzymes; in addition, HA plants displayed lower malondialdehyde content and lower electrolyte leakage than NA plants. These results suggest that maintenance of activity and transcription levels of antioxidant enzymes as well as photosynthesis are associated with variable thermostability in HA and NA plants. This likely occurs through cellular membrane stabilization and improvements in water use efficiency in the photosynthetic process during heat stress. The association between antioxidant enzyme activity and gene expression, both of which may vary with genetic variation in heat tolerance, is important to further understand the molecular mechanisms that contribute to heat tolerance.

  2. Interaction of Methanol Spray and Water-Deficit Stress on Photosynthesis and Biochemical Characteristics of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Sadry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armand, Nezam; Amiri, Hamzeh; Ismaili, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    This study was a factorial experiment with a completely randomized design and three replications. The four levels of methanol spraying were used. Spraying was carried out three times during the growing season at 10-day intervals beginning at 4 weeks after sowing. The spraying of solution continued until saturation of droplets on the leaves was achieved. The levels of water-deficit stress applied were nonstress, moderate water stress and severe water stress. The results showed that there was a significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) between the methanol and water-deficit stress treatments for chlorophyll (Chl) a and Chl b, carotenoid, total chlorophyll, net photosynthesis (PN ), intercellular CO2 (Ci ), maximal quantum yield of photosystem II photochemistry (Fv /Fm ), leaf moisture, water use efficiency and relative water content. The application of foliar methanol at all levels of water-deficit stress significantly decreased the catalase activity of the roots. Under all levels of water-deficit stress, the 30% (v/v) methanol treatment significantly decreased peroxidase activity in the roots over that for the control. The results suggest that foliar application of methanol can decrease the negative effects of water-deficit stress on Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Sadry. © 2015 The American Society of Photobiology.

  3. New Concept of Photosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komissarov Gennadiy Germanovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The history of the formation of a new concept of photosynthesis proposed by the author is considered for the period since 1966 to 2013. Its essence consists in the following facts: the photosynthetic oxygen (hydrogen source is not water, but exo- and endogenous hydrogen peroxide; thermal energy is a necessary part of the photosynthetic process; along with the carbon dioxide the air (oxygen, inert gases is included in the photosynthetic equation. The mechanism of the photovoltaic (Becquerel effect in films of chlorophyll and its synthetic analogue - phthalocyanine are briefly touched upon in the article. The article presents the works on artificial photosynthesis performed in the laboratory of Photobionics of N.N. Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, RAS.

  4. [C4 type photosynthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozak, Anna; Wasilewska, Wioleta; Buczyńska, Alicja; Romanowska, Elzbieta

    2012-01-01

    C4 photosynthesis includes several anatomical and biochemical modifications that allow plants to concentrate CO2 at the site of Rubisco. The photorespiratory pathway is repressed in C4 plants, since the rates of photosynthesis and biomass production are increased. This is an adaptation to high light intensities, high temperatures and dryness. C4 plants contain two distinct types of photosynthetic cells, mesophyll and bundle sheath. The processes of assimilation and reduction of CO2 are separated spatiality and catayzed by two different enzymes. Only the bundle sheath chloroplasts perform the reactions of the Calvin-Benson cycle with the help of the Rubisco enzyme present exclusively in this cell type. The primary CO2 fixation occurs in mesophyll cells through the action of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase. The light-dependent reactions of the photosynthesis occur exclusively in the latter cell type. These differences in photochemistry lead to distinct redox profiles in both types of cells. C4 plants are divided into three biochemical subtypes on the basis of differences in the mechanisms of decarboxylation of the C4 acids. C4 plants will provide the main source of food for humans and animals in the nearest decade.

  5. Carotenoids and Photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Hideki; Uragami, Chiasa; Cogdell, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are ubiquitous and essential pigments in photosynthesis. They absorb in the blue-green region of the solar spectrum and transfer the absorbed energy to (bacterio-)chlorophylls, and so expand the wavelength range of light that is able to drive photosynthesis. This is an example of singlet-singlet energy transfer, and so carotenoids serve to enhance the overall efficiency of photosynthetic light reactions. Carotenoids also act to protect photosynthetic organisms from the harmful effects of excess exposure to light. Triplet-triplet energy transfer from chlorophylls to carotenoids plays a key role in this photoprotective reaction. In the light-harvesting pigment-protein complexes from purple photosynthetic bacteria and chlorophytes, carotenoids have an additional role of structural stabilization of those complexes. In this article we review what is currently known about how carotenoids discharge these functions. The molecular architecture of photosynthetic systems will be outlined first to provide a basis from which to describe carotenoid photochemistry, which underlies most of their important functions in photosynthesis.

  6. Effect of Heading Back on Photosynthesis, Yield and Fruit Quality in Pear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shehbaz SINGH

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A field study was conducted to examine the effect of low headed back of pear plants on photosynthesis, yield and fruit quality in pear trees cv. Patharnakh. Plants were maintained at heights of 1.0 m, 1.5 m, 2.0 m, 2.5 m and 3.0 m from ground level by removing top of the canopy during dormant season, while the control trees were not given any pruning treatment. The photosynthesis rate (Pn and photosynthetic active radiation (PAR were taken from April to July at fortnightly interval. Highest Pn of leaves trees was observed at morning time and it showed a positive relationship with PAR received. Both increased with advancement in season and recorded maximum in the 2nd fortnight of June, thereafter declined slightly. PAR and Pn increased with intensity of the pruning. Upper canopy of all the treatments recorded highest photosynthesis rate. Fruit yield per tree increased as the pruning height was raised and was recorded maximum in 2.5 m level of pruning. Fruit size enlarged linearly with the intensity of pruning. Pruning treatment improved soluble solids content of fruit.

  7. Effect of Heading Back on Photosynthesis, Yield and Fruit Quality in Pear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shehbaz SINGH

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A field study was conducted to examine the effect of low headed back of pear plants on photosynthesis, yield and fruit quality in pear trees cv. �Patharnakh�. Plants were maintained at heights of 1.0 m, 1.5 m, 2.0 m, 2.5 m and 3.0 m from ground level by removing top of the canopy during dormant season, while the control trees were not given any pruning treatment. The photosynthesis rate (Pn and photosynthetic active radiation (PAR were taken from April to July at fortnightly interval. Highest Pn of leaves trees was observed at morning time and it showed a positive relationship with PAR received. Both increased with advancement in season and recorded maximum in the 2nd fortnight of June, thereafter declined slightly. PAR and Pn increased with intensity of the pruning. Upper canopy of all the treatments recorded highest photosynthesis rate. Fruit yield per tree increased as the pruning height was raised and was recorded maximum in 2.5 m level of pruning. Fruit size enlarged linearly with the intensity of pruning. Pruning treatment improved soluble solids content of fruit.

  8. Effects of Long-Term Periodic Submergence on Photosynthesis and Growth of Taxodium distichum and Taxodium ascendens Saplings in the Hydro-Fluctuation Zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chaoying; Li, Changxiao; Wei, Hong; Xie, Yingzan; Han, Wenjiao

    2016-01-01

    Responses of bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) and pond cypress (Taxodium ascendens) saplings in photosynthesis and growth to long-term periodic submergence in situ in the hydro-fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Dam Reservoir (TGDR) were studied. Water treatments of periodic deep submergence (DS) and moderate submergence (MS) in situ were imposed on 2-year-old bald cypress and pond cypress saplings. The effects of periodic submergence on photosynthesis and growth were investigated after 3 years (i.e. 3 cycles) compared to a control (i.e. shallow submergence, abbreviated as SS). Results showed that pond cypress had no significant change in net photosynthetic rate (Pn) in response to periodic moderate and deep submergence in contrast to a significant decrease in Pn of bald cypress under both submergence treatments, when compared to that of SS. Ratios of Chlorophyll a/b and Chlorophylls/Carotenoid of pond cypress were significantly increased in periodic moderate submergence and deep submergence, while bald cypress showed no significant change. Diameter at breast height (DBH) and tree height of both species were significantly reduced along with submergence depth. Relative diameter and height growth rates of the two species were also reduced under deeper submergence. Moreover, bald cypress displayed higher relative diameter growth rate than pond cypress under deep submergence mainly attributed to higher productivity of the larger crown area of bald cypress. When subjected to deep subergence, both species showed significant reduction in primary branch number, while in moderate submergence, bald cypress but not pond cypress showed significant reduction in primary branch number. These results indicate that both bald cypress and pond cypress are suitbale candidates for reforestation in the TGDR region thanks to their submergence tolerance characteristics, but bald cypress can grow better than pond cypress under deep submergence overall.

  9. Effects of Long-Term Periodic Submergence on Photosynthesis and Growth of Taxodium distichum and Taxodium ascendens Saplings in the Hydro-Fluctuation Zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoying Wang

    Full Text Available Responses of bald cypress (Taxodium distichum and pond cypress (Taxodium ascendens saplings in photosynthesis and growth to long-term periodic submergence in situ in the hydro-fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Dam Reservoir (TGDR were studied. Water treatments of periodic deep submergence (DS and moderate submergence (MS in situ were imposed on 2-year-old bald cypress and pond cypress saplings. The effects of periodic submergence on photosynthesis and growth were investigated after 3 years (i.e. 3 cycles compared to a control (i.e. shallow submergence, abbreviated as SS. Results showed that pond cypress had no significant change in net photosynthetic rate (Pn in response to periodic moderate and deep submergence in contrast to a significant decrease in Pn of bald cypress under both submergence treatments, when compared to that of SS. Ratios of Chlorophyll a/b and Chlorophylls/Carotenoid of pond cypress were significantly increased in periodic moderate submergence and deep submergence, while bald cypress showed no significant change. Diameter at breast height (DBH and tree height of both species were significantly reduced along with submergence depth. Relative diameter and height growth rates of the two species were also reduced under deeper submergence. Moreover, bald cypress displayed higher relative diameter growth rate than pond cypress under deep submergence mainly attributed to higher productivity of the larger crown area of bald cypress. When subjected to deep subergence, both species showed significant reduction in primary branch number, while in moderate submergence, bald cypress but not pond cypress showed significant reduction in primary branch number. These results indicate that both bald cypress and pond cypress are suitbale candidates for reforestation in the TGDR region thanks to their submergence tolerance characteristics, but bald cypress can grow better than pond cypress under deep submergence overall.

  10. Agent-based Personal Network (PN) service architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Bo; Olesen, Henning

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we proposte a new concept for a centralized agent system as the solution for the PN service architecture, which aims to efficiently control and manage the PN resources and enable the PN based services to run seamlessly over different networks and devices. The working principle......, control procedure and enabling techniques behind the agent based solution are the main focuses of this paper....

  11. Mapping Pn amplitude spreading and attenuation in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaoning [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Phillips, William S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stead, Richard J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-06

    Pn travels most of its path in the mantle lid. Mapping the lateral variation of Pn amplitude attenuation sheds light on material properties and dynamics of the uppermost region of the mantle. Pn amplitude variation depends on the wavefront geometric spreading as well as material attenuation. We investigated Pn geometric spreading, which is much more complex than a traditionally assumed power-law spreading model, using both synthetic and observed amplitude data collected in Asia. We derived a new Pn spreading model based on the formulation that was proposed previously to account for the spherical shape of the Earth (Yang et. al., BSSA, 2007). New parameters derived for the spreading model provide much better correction for Pn amplitudes in terms of residual behavior. Because we used observed Pn amplitudes to construct the model, the model incorporates not only the effect of the Earth's spherical shape, but also the effect of potential upper-mantle velocity gradients in the region. Using the new spreading model, we corrected Pn amplitudes measured at 1, 2, 4 and 6 Hz and conducted attenuation tomography. The resulting Pn attenuation model correlates well with the regional geology. We see high attenuation in regions such as northern Tibetan Plateau and the western Pacific subduction zone, and low attenuation for stable blocks such as Sichuan and Tarim basins.

  12. DETERMINATION OF SENSITIVE SITES IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS DURING LONGTERM PLANT DEHYDRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M BRESTIČ

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to measure the net CO2 assimilation, O2 evolution, Rubisco activity, 13C content, actual photochemical PSII efficiency, stomatal conductance, water and osmotic potentials as well as relative water content during increasing plant dehydration. The measurements allowed to determine vulnerability of individual segments of complex process of photosynthesis and characterise the stomatal and non-stomatal responses to dehydration and resistance of mechanisms of photosynthesis to gradual water stress. The sensitiveness of stomata, osmoprotection and isotopic 13C discrimination seem to be the most interesting parameters which act dynamically in plant acclimation to drought. They may be successfully used in screening new genotypes with efficient water and carbon use and in quantification of threshold of deleterious environmental effect to photosynthesis.

  13. Novel pneumoviruses (PnVs): Evolution and inflammatory pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glineur, Stephanie F. [Inflammation Immunobiology Section, Laboratory of Allergic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-1883 (United States); Renshaw, Randall W. [Animal Health Diagnostic Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, PO Box 5786, Ithaca, New York, NY 14851-5786 (United States); Percopo, Caroline M.; Dyer, Kimberly D. [Inflammation Immunobiology Section, Laboratory of Allergic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-1883 (United States); Dubovi, Edward J. [Animal Health Diagnostic Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, PO Box 5786, Ithaca, New York, NY 14851-5786 (United States); Domachowske, Joseph B. [Department of Pediatrics, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY 13210 (United States); Rosenberg, Helene F., E-mail: hrosenberg@niaid.nih.gov [Inflammation Immunobiology Section, Laboratory of Allergic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-1883 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    A previous report of a novel pneumovirus (PnV) isolated from the respiratory tract of a dog described its significant homology to the rodent pathogen, pneumonia virus of mice (PVM). The original PnV–Ane4 pathogen replicated in and could be re-isolated in infectious state from mouse lung but elicited minimal mortality compared to PVM strain J3666. Here we assess phylogeny and physiologic responses to 10 new PnV isolates. The G/glycoprotein sequences of all PnVs include elongated amino-termini when compared to the characterized PVMs, and suggest division into groups A and B. While we observed significant differences in cytokine production and neutrophil recruitment to the lungs of BALB/c mice in response to survival doses (50 TCID{sub 50} units) of representative group A (114378-10-29-KY-F) and group B (7968-11-OK) PnVs, we observed no evidence for positive selection (dN>dS) among the PnV/PnV, PVM/PnV or PVM/PVM G/glycoprotein or F/fusion protein sequence pairs. - Highlights: • We consider ten novel isolates of the pneumovirus (PnV) first described by Renshaw and colleagues. • The G/glycoprotein sequences of all PnVs include elongated amino-termini when compared to PVM. • We detect cytokine production and neutrophil recruitment to the lungs of mice in response to PnV. • We observed no evidence for positive selection (dN>dS) among the gene sequence pairs.

  14. RESTful NET

    CERN Document Server

    Flanders, Jon

    2008-01-01

    RESTful .NET is the first book that teaches Windows developers to build RESTful web services using the latest Microsoft tools. Written by Windows Communication Foundation (WFC) expert Jon Flanders, this hands-on tutorial demonstrates how you can use WCF and other components of the .NET 3.5 Framework to build, deploy and use REST-based web services in a variety of application scenarios. RESTful architecture offers a simpler approach to building web services than SOAP, SOA, and the cumbersome WS- stack. And WCF has proven to be a flexible technology for building distributed systems not necessa

  15. [Effects of nitrogen fertilization on wheat leaf photosynthesis under elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xian-feng; Zhang, Xu-cheng; Guo, Tian-wen; Yu, Jia

    2010-09-01

    In this paper, the effects of nitrogen (N) fertilization on the wheat leaf photosynthesis under long-term elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration (760 micromol x mol(-1)) was studied, based on the measurements of photosynthetic gas exchange parameters and light intensity-photosynthetic rate response curves at jointing stage. Under the long-term elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, applying sufficient N could increase the wheat leaf photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr), and instantaneous water use efficiency (WUEi). Comparing with those under ambient atmospheric CO2 concentration, the Po and WUEi under the elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration increased, while the stomatal conductance (Gs) and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) decreased. With the increase of light flux intensity, the Pn and WUEi under the elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration were higher those under ambient atmospheric CO2 concentration, Gs was in adverse, while Ci and Tr had less change. At high fertilization rate of N, the Gs was linearly positively correlated with Pn, Tr, and WUEi, and the Gs and Ci had no correlation with each other under the elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration but negatively correlated under ambient atmospheric CO2 concentration. At low fertilization rate of N, the Gs had no correlations with Pn and WUEi but linearly positively correlated with Ci and Tr. It was suggested that under the elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, the wheat leaf Pn at low N fertilization rate was limited by non-stomatal factor.

  16. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Associate Professor of. Computer Science and. Automation at the Indian. Institute of Science,. Bangalore. His research interests are broadly in the areas of stochastic modeling and scheduling methodologies for future factories; and object oriented modeling. GENERAL I ARTICLE. Petri Nets. 1. Overview and Foundations.

  17. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 8. Petri Nets - Overview and Foundations. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 8 August 1999 pp ... Author Affiliations. Y Narahari1. Department ot Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  18. Fruit photosynthesis in Satsuma mandarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiratsuka, Shin; Suzuki, Mayu; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Nada, Kazuyoshi

    2015-12-01

    To clarify detailed characteristics of fruit photosynthesis, possible gas exchange pathway and photosynthetic response to different environments were investigated in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu). About 300 mm(-2) stomata were present on fruit surface during young stages (∼10-30 mm diameter fruit) and each stoma increased in size until approximately 88 days after full bloom (DAFB), while the stomata collapsed steadily thereafter; more than 50% stomata deformed at 153 DAFB. The transpiration rate of the fruit appeared to match with stoma development and its intactness rather than the density. Gross photosynthetic rate of the rind increased gradually with increasing CO2 up to 500 ppm but decreased at higher concentrations, which may resemble C4 photosynthesis. In contrast, leaf photosynthesis increased constantly with CO2 increment. Although both fruit and leaf photosynthesis were accelerated by rising photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), fruit photosynthesis was greater under considerably lower PPFD from 13.5 to 68 μmolm(-2)s(-1). Thus, Satsuma mandarin fruit appears to incorporate CO2 through fully developed and non-collapsed stomata, and subject it to fruit photosynthesis, which may be characterized as intermediate status among C3, C4 and shade plant photosynthesis. The device of fruit photosynthesis may develop differently from its leaf to capture CO2 efficiently. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Cytokinins and photosynthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilarska, Maria; Skowron, Ernest; Niewiadomska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Almost six decades of studies explained many aspects of cytokinin complex metabolism, such as, biogenesis, degradation, signal perception and interaction with other phytohormones (mainly with auxins). A dual character of cytokinins' action on the nuclear genes (activation and repression) has been explained by recognition of the two types on nuclear receptors, which ensure a precise mechanism of self-control. Cytokinins promote the process of photosynthesis at different levels of plant- and cellular organization (development of leaves and plastids, influence on the photosynthetic proteins, activation of photosynthetic genes, etc.). An anti-senescing action of these hormones has been recently attributed to the activation of intra-cellular invertase, which suppress floem loading and change the sink-source pattern of the leaf.

  20. Petri Nets Based Modelling of Control Flow for Memory-Aid Interactive Programs in Telemedicine

    CERN Document Server

    Khoromskaia, V K

    2004-01-01

    Petri Nets (PN) based modelling of the control flow for the interactive memory assistance programs designed for personal pocket computers and having special requirements for robustness is considered. The proposed concept allows one to elaborate the programs which can give users a variety of possibilities for a day-time planning in the presence of environmental and time restrictions. First, a PN model for a known simple algorithm is constructed and analyzed using the corresponding state equations and incidence matrix. Then a PN graph for a complicated algorithm with overlapping actions and choice possibilities is designed, supplemented by an example of its analysis. Dynamic behaviour of this graph is tested by tracing of all possible paths of the flow of control using the PN simulator. It is shown that PN based modelling provides reliably predictable performance of interactive algorithms with branched structures and concurrency requirements.

  1. Novel analysis of Petri-net-based controllers by means of TCT implementation tool of supervisory control theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Uzam

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The control of discrete event systems (DES has been widely studied in the past two decades. Finite-state automata (FSA and Petri nets (PN are the two principal modelling formalisms for this study. Supervisory control theory (SCT, based on language and FSA concepts, is a well established framework for the study of discrete event control systems (DECS. PN-based approaches to the control design have been considered as an alternative framework. In the PN-based control of DES, given an uncontrolled PN model of a system and a set of specifications, a PN-based controller consisting of monitors (control places is synthesised to solve the problem. In general, forbidden-state specifications are considered. Another heavily studied specification is to obtain the live system behaviour (non-blockingness in SCT terminology for a given PN model by computing a PN-based controller. Unfortunately, PN-based analysis tools cannot deal with uncontrollable transitions. Therefore, to date there is no general technique for the correctness analysis of the computed PN-based controllers. This paper proposes a novel and general methodology to carry out the correctness analysis for the computed PN-based controllers by using the TCT implementation tool of SCT. Three examples are considered for illustration.

  2. Artificial Photosynthesis: Beyond Mimicking Nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dau, Holger; Fujita, Etsuko; Sun, Licheng

    2017-11-23

    In this Editorial, Guest Editors Holger Dau, Etsuko Fujita, and Licheng Sun introduce the Special Issue of ChemSusChem on "Artificial Photosynthesis for Sustainable Fuels". They discuss the need for non-fossil based fuels, introduce both biological and artificial photosynthesis, and outline various important concepts in artificial photosynthesis, including molecular and solid-state catalysts for water oxidation and hydrogen evolution, catalytic CO2 reduction, and photoelectrochemical systems. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Salicylic Acid Alleviates the Adverse Effects of Salt Stress on Dianthus superbus (Caryophyllaceae by Activating Photosynthesis, Protecting Morphological Structure, and Enhancing the Antioxidant System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Ma

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Salt stress critically affects the physiological processes and morphological structure of plants, resulting in reduced plant growth. Salicylic acid (SA is an important signal molecule that mitigates the adverse effects of salt stress on plants. Large pink Dianthus superbus L. (Caryophyllaceae usually exhibit salt-tolerant traits under natural conditions. To further clarify the salt-tolerance level of D. superbus and the regulating mechanism of exogenous SA on the growth of D. superbus under different salt stresses, we conducted a pot experiment to examine the biomass, photosynthetic parameters, stomatal structure, chloroplast ultrastructure, reactive oxygen species (ROS concentrations, and antioxidant activities of D. superbus young shoots under 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9% NaCl conditions, with and without 0.5 mM SA. D. superbus exhibited reduced growth rate, decreased net photosynthetic rate (Pn, increased relative electric conductivity (REC and malondialdehyde (MDA contents, and poorly developed stomata and chloroplasts under 0.6 and 0.9% salt stress. However, exogenously SA effectively improved the growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activity, and stoma and chloroplast development of D. superbus. However, when the plants were grown under severe salt stress (0.9% NaCl condition, there was no significant difference in the plant growth and physiological responses between SA-treated and non-SA-treated plants. Therefore, our research suggests that exogenous SA can effectively counteract the adverse effect of moderate salt stress on D. superbus growth and development.

  4. When did oxygenic photosynthesis evolve?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roger Buick

    2008-01-01

    ...2.4 Ga ago, but when the photosynthetic oxygen production began is debatable. However, geological and geochemical evidence from older sedimentary rocks indicates that oxygenic photosynthesis evolved well before this oxygenation event...

  5. Plasmon-induced artificial photosynthesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ueno, Kosei; Oshikiri, Tomoya; Shi, Xu; Zhong, Yuqing; Misawa, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    We have successfully developed a plasmon-induced artificial photosynthesis system that uses a gold nanoparticle-loaded oxide semiconductor electrode to produce useful chemical energy as hydrogen and ammonia...

  6. Artificial photosynthesis for solar fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styring, Stenbjörn

    2012-01-01

    This contribution was presented as the closing lecture at the Faraday Discussion 155 on artificial photosynthesis, held in Edinburgh Scotland, September 5-7 2011. The world needs new, environmentally friendly and renewable fuels to exchange for fossil fuels. The fuel must be made from cheap and "endless" resources that are available everywhere. The new research area of solar fuels aims to meet this demand. This paper discusses why we need a solar fuel and why electricity is not enough; it proposes solar energy as the major renewable energy source to feed from. The scientific field concerning artificial photosynthesis expands rapidly and most of the different scientific visions for solar fuels are briefly overviewed. Research strategies and the development of artificial photosynthesis research to produce solar fuels are overviewed. Some conceptual aspects of research for artificial photosynthesis are discussed in closer detail.

  7. My journey in photosynthesis research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuvalov, Vladimir A

    2015-08-01

    At the invitation of Suleyman I. Allakhverdiev, I provide here a brief autobiography for this special issue that recognizes my service and research for the larger international community of photosynthesis research.

  8. Recent advances in understanding photosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Fl?gge, Ulf-Ingo; Westhoff, Peter; Leister, Dario

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthesis is central to all life on earth, providing not only oxygen but also organic compounds that are synthesized from atmospheric CO 2 and water using light energy as the driving force. The still-increasing world population poses a serious challenge to further enhance biomass production of crop plants. Crop yield is determined by various parameters, inter alia by the light energy conversion efficiency of the photosynthetic machinery. Photosynthesis can be looked at from different per...

  9. Modeling the protection of photosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Harbinson, J.

    2012-01-01

    It is hard to overstate the importance of photosynthesis for mankind and the biosphere. It produces the oxygen we breathe and the food we eat, and images of Earth from space show the green of terrestrial vegetation and swirls of marine phytoplankton. To meet our increasing demand for food and energy, it seems inevitable that we will need to increase the efficiency of photosynthesis in plants and algae. There is therefore some urgency in our drive to better understand the operation, regulation...

  10. Dark states in quantum photosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Kozyrev, S V

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a model of quantum photosynthesis with degeneracy in the light-harvesting system. We consider interaction of excitons in chromophores with light and phonons (vibrations of environment). These interactions have dipole form but are different (are related to non-parallel vectors of "bright" states). We show that this leads to excitation of non-decaying "dark" states. We discuss relation of this model to the known from spectroscopical experiments phenomenon of existence of photonic echo in quantum photosynthesis.

  11. 19th Scientific Readings Devoted to P.N. Chirvinskiy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ya. Ilaltdinov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Scientific conference devoted to P.N. Chirvinskiy was held in the Perm State University (January 2017. The problems of mineralogy, petrology, lithology, metallogeny and geochemistry were discussed.

  12. A 4PN-exact approximation to General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Brizuela, David

    2010-01-01

    An approximation to General Relativity is presented which agrees with the Einstein field equations up to and including the fourth post-Newtonian (PN) order. This approximation is formulated in a fully constrained scheme: all involved equations are explicitly elliptic except the wave equation that describes the two independent degrees of freedom of the gravitational field. The formalism covers naturally the conformal-flat-condition (CFC) approach by Isenberg, Wilson, and Mathews and the improved second PN-order exact approach CFC+. For stationary configurations, like Kerr black holes, agreement with General Relativity is achieved even through 5PN order. In addition, we analyze in detail a particularly interesting 2PN-exact waveless approximation which results from imposing more restrictive conditions. The proposed scheme can be considered as a further development on the waveless approach suggested by Schaefer and Gopakumar [Phys. Rev. D {\\bf 69}, 021501 (2004)].

  13. Photosynthesis, water relations, and growth of planted Pinus strobus L. on burned sites in the southern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine J. Elliott; James M. Vose

    1994-01-01

    We measured net photosynthesis,leaf conductance, xylem water potential, and growth of Pinus strbus L. seedlings two years after planting on two clear-cut and burned sites in the southern Appalachians. Multiple regression analysis was used to relate seedling net pholosynthesis to vapor pressure deficit, seedling crown temperature, photosynthetically active radiation (...

  14. Quantification of temperature, CO2, and light effects on crop photosynthesis as a basis for model-based greenhouse climate control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Körner, O.; Heuvelink, E.; Niu, Q.

    2009-01-01

    Detailed measurements of crop photosynthesis at supra-optimal temperatures and high CO2 levels, to validate models for use in model-based greenhouse climate control, are still lacking. We performed CO2 gas exchange measurements to estimate gross crop photosynthesis (Pgc) from measured net crop gas

  15. Delayed fluorescence in photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltsev, Vasilij; Zaharieva, Ivelina; Chernev, Petko; Strasser, Reto J

    2009-01-01

    Photosynthesis is a very efficient photochemical process. Nevertheless, plants emit some of the absorbed energy as light quanta. This luminescence is emitted, predominantly, by excited chlorophyll a molecules in the light-harvesting antenna, associated with Photosystem II (PS II) reaction centers. The emission that occurs before the utilization of the excitation energy in the primary photochemical reaction is called prompt fluorescence. Light emission can also be observed from repopulated excited chlorophylls as a result of recombination of the charge pairs. In this case, some time-dependent redox reactions occur before the excitation of the chlorophyll. This delays the light emission and provides the name for this phenomenon-delayed fluorescence (DF), or delayed light emission (DLE). The DF intensity is a decreasing polyphasic function of the time after illumination, which reflects the kinetics of electron transport reactions both on the (electron) donor and the (electron) acceptor sides of PS II. Two main experimental approaches are used for DF measurements: (a) recording of the DF decay in the dark after a single turnover flash or after continuous light excitation and (b) recording of the DF intensity during light adaptation of the photosynthesizing samples (induction curves), following a period of darkness. In this paper we review historical data on DF research and recent advances in the understanding of the relation between the delayed fluorescence and specific reactions in PS II. An experimental method for simultaneous recording of the induction transients of prompt and delayed chlorophyll fluorescence and decay curves of DF in the millisecond time domain is discussed.

  16. Ecosystem respiration depends strongly on photosynthesis in a temperate heath

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Klaus Steenberg; Ibrom, Andreas; Beier, Claus

    2007-01-01

    We measured net ecosystem CO2 flux (F-n) and ecosystem respiration (R-E), and estimated gross ecosystem photosynthesis (P-g) by difference, for two years in a temperate heath ecosystem using a chamber method. The exchange rates of carbon were high and of similar magnitude as for productive forest...... ecosystems with a net ecosystem carbon gain during the second year of 293 +/- 11 g C m(-2) year(-1) showing that the carbon sink strength of heather-dominated ecosystems may be considerable when C. vulgaris is in the building phase of its life cycle. The estimated gross ecosystem photosynthesis and ecosystem.......65) was improved when the P-g rate was incorporated into the model (second year; R-2 = 0.79), suggesting that daytime R-E increased with increasing photosynthesis. Furthermore, the temperature sensitivity of R-E decreased from apparent Q(10) values of 3.3 to 3.9 by the classic equation to a more realistic Q(10...

  17. Estimating photosynthetic radiation use efficiency using incident light and photosynthesis of individual leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, A; Dejong, T M

    2003-06-01

    It has been theorized that photosynthetic radiation use efficiency (PhRUE) over the course of a day is constant for leaves throughout a canopy if leaf nitrogen content and photosynthetic properties are adapted to local light so that canopy photosynthesis over a day is optimized. To test this hypothesis, 'daily' photosynthesis of individual leaves of Solanum melongena plants was calculated from instantaneous rates of photosynthesis integrated over the daylight hours. Instantaneous photosynthesis was estimated from the photosynthetic responses to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and from the incident PAR measured on individual leaves during clear and overcast days. Plants were grown with either abundant or scarce N fertilization. Both net and gross daily photosynthesis of leaves were linearly related to daily incident PAR exposure of individual leaves, which implies constant PhRUE over a day throughout the canopy. The slope of these relationships (i.e. PhRUE) increased with N fertilization. When the relationship was calculated for hourly instead of daily periods, the regressions were curvilinear, implying that PhRUE changed with time of the day and incident radiation. Thus, linearity (i.e. constant PhRUE) was achieved only when data were integrated over the entire day. Using average PAR in place of instantaneous incident PAR increased the slope of the relationship between daily photosynthesis and incident PAR of individual leaves, and the regression became curvilinear. The slope of the relationship between daily gross photosynthesis and incident PAR of individual leaves increased for an overcast compared with a clear day, but the slope remained constant for net photosynthesis. This suggests that net PhRUE of all leaves (and thus of the whole canopy) may be constant when integrated over a day, not only when the incident PAR changes with depth in the canopy, but also when it varies on the same leaf owing to changes in daily incident PAR above the canopy. The

  18. Water use efficiency of net primary production in global terrestrial ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Water use efficiency; global terrestrial ecosystems; MODIS; net primary production; evapotranspiration;. Köppen–Geiger climate classification. ... Terrestrial plants fix or trap carbon dioxide via photosynthesis to produce the material ...... S W 2007 Evaluating water stress controls on primary production in biogeochemical and ...

  19. Isotopic tracers for net primary productivity for a terrestrial esocystem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The coupling effect of vapour release and CO2 uptake during photosynthesis plays an important role in the carbon and hydrologic cycles. The water use efficiency (WUE) for transpiration was used in calculating the net primary productivity (NPP) for terrestrial ecosystem. Three parameters were used in calculating the water ...

  20. Application of Petri Nets in Bone Remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingxi Li

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding a mechanism of bone remodeling is a challenging task for both life scientists and model builders, since this highly interactive and nonlinear process can seldom be grasped by simple intuition. A set of ordinary differential equations (ODEs have been built for simulating bone formation as well as bone resorption. Although solving ODEs numerically can provide useful predictions for dynamical behaviors in a continuous time frame, an actual bone remodeling process in living tissues is driven by discrete events of molecular and cellular interactions. Thus, an event-driven tool such as Petri nets (PNs, which may dynamically and graphically mimic individual molecular collisions or cellular interactions, seems to augment the existing ODE-based systems analysis. Here, we applied PNs to expand the ODE-based approach and examined discrete, dynamical behaviors of key regulatory molecules and bone cells. PNs have been used in many engineering areas, but their application to biological systems needs to be explored. Our PN model was based on 8 ODEs that described an osteoprotegerin linked molecular pathway consisting of 4 types of bone cells. The models allowed us to conduct both qualitative and quantitative evaluations and evaluate homeostatic equilibrium states. The results support that application of PN models assists understanding of an event-driven bone remodeling mechanism using PN-specific procedures such as places, transitions, and firings.

  1. Ecosystem respiration depends strongly on photosynthesis in a temperate heath

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Klaus Steenberg; Ibrom, A.; Beier, C.

    2007-01-01

    We measured net ecosystem CO2 flux (F-n) and ecosystem respiration (R-E), and estimated gross ecosystem photosynthesis (P-g) by difference, for two years in a temperate heath ecosystem using a chamber method. The exchange rates of carbon were high and of similar magnitude as for productive forest...... respiration from October to March was 22% and 30% of annual flux, respectively, suggesting that both cold-season carbon gain and loss were important in the annual carbon cycle of the ecosystem. Model fit of R-E of a classic, first-order exponential equation related to temperature ( second year; R-2 = 0......) of 2.5 by the modified model. The model introduces R-photo, which describes the part of respiration being tightly coupled to the photosynthetic rate. It makes up 5% of the assimilated carbon dioxide flux at 0 degrees C and 35% at 20 degrees C implying a high sensitivity of respiration to photosynthesis...

  2. THE INDUCTION PERIOD IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E L

    1937-11-20

    1. Measurements on the photosynthesis of Cabomba caroliniana show an induction period at low and high light intensities and CO(2) concentrations. 2. The equation which describes the data for Cabomba also describes the data obtained by other investigators on different species. The phenomenon is thus shown to be similar in plants representative of three phyla. 3. A derivation of the induction period equation is made from a consideration of the cycle of light and dark processes known to occur in photosynthesis. The equation indicates that light intensity enters as the square, and that the same light reactions are involved as those which affect the stationary state rates. However, a different dark reaction appears to limit photosynthesis during the induction period.

  3. Nanobiocatalytic assemblies for artificial photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Hong; Nam, Dong Heon; Park, Chan Beum

    2014-08-01

    Natural photosynthesis, a solar-to-chemical energy conversion process, occurs through a series of photo-induced electron transfer reactions in nanoscale architectures that contain light-harvesting complexes, protein-metal clusters, and many redox biocatalysts. Artificial photosynthesis in nanobiocatalytic assemblies aims to reconstruct man-made photosensitizers, electron mediators, electron donors, and redox enzymes for solar synthesis of valuable chemicals through visible light-driven cofactor regeneration. The key requirement in the design of biocatalyzed artificial photosynthetic process is an efficient and forward electron transfer between each photosynthetic component. This review describes basic principles in combining redox biocatalysis with photocatalysis, and highlights recent research outcomes in the development of nanobiocatalytic assemblies that can mimic natural photosystems I and II, respectively. Current issues in biocatalyzed artificial photosynthesis and future perspectives will be briefly discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of elevated pressure on rate of photosynthesis during plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeishi, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Jun; Okazawa, Atsushi; Harada, Kazuo; Hirata, Kazumasa; Kobayashi, Akio; Akamatsu, Fumiteru

    2013-10-20

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of an artificially controlled environment, particularly elevated total pressure, on net photosynthesis and respiration during plant growth. Pressure directly affects not only cells and organelles in leaves but also the diffusion coefficients and degrees of solubility of CO2 and O2. In this study, the effects of elevated total pressure on the rates of net photosynthesis and respiration of a model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, were investigated in a chamber that newly developed in this study to control the total pressure. The results clearly showed that the rate of respiration decreased linearly with increasing total pressure at a high humidity. The rate of respiration decreased linearly with increasing total pressure up to 0.2 MPa, and increased with increasing total pressure from 0.3 to 0.5 MPa at a low humidity. The rate of net photosynthesis decreased linearly with increasing total pressure under a constant partial pressure of CO2 at 40 Pa. On the other hand, the rate of net photosynthesis was clearly increased by up to 1.6-fold with increasing total pressure and partial pressure of CO2. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. C3 and C4 photosynthesis models: an overview from the perspective of crop modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, X.; Struik, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    Nearly three decades ago Farquhar, von Caemmerer and Berry published a biochemical model for C3 photosynthetic rates (the FvCB model). The model predicts net photosynthesis (A) as the minimum of the Rubisco-limited rate of CO2 assimilation (Ac) and the electron transport-limited rate of CO2

  6. Petri net methodology for solving healthcare management issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushk Abdul Rauf

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Various approaches of Petri nets can be achieved as system security and information flow in the healthcare recording system inside any medical or health-related business. Petri net system formal modeling is essential as well as important to track down the records and secure information inside a preformed health organization. In this paper, we mainly focused on the formal model Petri net which security mechanism is controlled by public key encryption where PN based modeling is preferred. This Petri net is a mathematical modeling to solve graphical notation for step by step processes that include choice, repetition, and circumstantial execution. Petri nets offer widely mathematical applications of discrete and continuous event execution semiotics, with an efficient mathematical analysis processing theory. We sure that our formal model will lay a solid foundation to minimize the risks and overcome the security risks in the healthcare industry.

  7. Effects of Water Stress on Photosynthesis and Chlorophyll Fluorescence of the Sugar Beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAN Kai-hong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of water stress and rewatering on sugar beet yield and its corresponding photosynthetic parameters, and to provide the basis of water management for the sugar beet fields, pool experiments in an artificial proof canopy were set up to observe changes of beet net photosynthetic rate(Pn, transpiration rate(Tr, water use efficiency(WUE and stomatal limitation (Ls, intercellular CO2 oncentration(Ci, and PSⅡ maximum quantum yield(Fv/Fm. The results indicated that the diurnal variation of Tr and Pn in CK treatment (whole growth period replenishment at different times near "unimodal" type; and water shortage treatments presented "twin peaks" change. Diurnal transpiration capacity(DTC under water stress at sugar accumulation stage reduced by 70.16%~74.81% and diurnal photosynthetic capacity(DPC was 63.48%~69.96% lower than that of CK, while diurnal water use efficiency(WUEd increased by 19.28%~22.39%. Rehydration helped Tr and Pn recovery, but did not reach unstressed levels. Ls changes under extremely dry environment had a midday trough "twin peaks" feature, and Ci was at "double-dip" in consistent with the timing of Ls; Water stress inhibited and inactivated photochemical reaction center of midday PSⅡ. Water stress led to irreversible decrease in the Pn and Tr, and prolonged the Pn inefficient period, which become the important factor of influencing the sugar beet yield.

  8. The paleobiological record of photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Fossil evidence of photosynthesis, documented in Precambrian sediments by microbially laminated stromatolites, cyanobacterial microscopic fossils, and carbon isotopic data consistent with the presence of Rubisco-mediated CO2-fixation, extends from the present to ~3,500 million years ago. Such data, however, do not resolve time of origin of O2-producing photoautotrophy from its anoxygenic, bacterial, evolutionary precursor. Though it is well established that Earth’s ecosystem has been based on autotrophy since its very early stages, the time of origin of oxygenic photosynthesis, more than 2,450 million years ago, has yet to be established. PMID:20607406

  9. Dynamic photosynthesis in different environmental conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaiser, M.E.; Morales, A.; Harbinson, J.; Kromdijk, J.; Heuvelink, E.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2015-01-01

    Incident irradiance on plant leaves often fluctuates, causing dynamic photosynthesis. Whereas steady-state photosynthetic responses to environmental factors have been extensively studied, knowledge of dynamic modulation of photosynthesis remains scarce and scattered. This review addresses this

  10. Novel Fractional Order Calculus Extended PN for Maneuvering Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jikun Ye

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the theory of fractional order calculus (FOC, a novel extended proportional guidance (EPN law for intercepting the maneuvering target is proposed. In the first part, considering the memory function and filter characteristic of FOC, the novel extended PN guidance algorithm is developed based on the conventional PN after introducing the properties and operation rules of FOC. Further, with the help of FOC theory, the average load and ballistics characteristics of proposed guidance law are analyzed. Then, using the small offset kinematic model, the robustness of the new guidance law against autopilot parameters is studied theoretically by analyzing the sensitivity of the closed loop guidance system. At last, representative numerical results show that the designed guidance law obtains a better performance than the traditional PN for maneuvering target.

  11. Particle and X-ray damage in pn-CCDs

    CERN Document Server

    Meidinger, N; Strüder, L

    2000-01-01

    The fully depleted pn-junction charge coupled device (pn-CCD) has been developed as a detector for X-ray imaging and high-resolution spectroscopy for the X-ray satellite missions XMM and ABRIXAS. If the detector is exposed to a particle radiation environment, the energy resolution is degraded due to charge transfer losses and a dark current increase. In a first experiment, prototype devices were irradiated with 10 MeV protons. After completion of the detector development, the proton irradiation was repeated for a quantitative study of the radiation damage, relevant for the satellite missions. The irradiation test was extended by a 5.5 MeV alpha-particle and a 6 keV X-ray exposure of the pn-CCD, including the CAMEX preamplifier chip.

  12. Limitation of oxygenic photosynthesis and oxygen consumption by phosphate and organic nitrogen in a hypersaline microbial mat : a microsensor study

    OpenAIRE

    R. Ludwig; Pringault, Olivier; Wit, R.; De Beer, D; Jonkers, H.M.

    2006-01-01

    Microbial mats are characterized by high primary production but low growth rates, pointing to a limitation of growth by the lack of nutrients or substrates. We identified compounds that instantaneously stimulated photosynthesis rates and oxygen consumption rates in a hypersaline microbial mat by following the short-term response (c. 6 h) of these processes to addition of nutrients, organic and inorganic carbon compounds, using microsensors. Net photosynthesis rates were not stimulated by comp...

  13. Vertical distribution of pelagic photosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsgaard, Maren Moltke

    As phytoplankton photosynthesis is dependent on light, one might assume that all the phytoplankton activity occurs in the surface of our oceans. This assumption was, however, challenged early in the history of biological oceanography when chlorophyll sampling and fluorescence profiling showed deep...

  14. Growth and photosynthesis of lettuce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holsteijn, van H.M.C.

    1981-01-01

    Butterhead lettuce is an important glass-house crop in the poor light period in The Netherlands. Fundamental data about the influence of temperature, light and CO 2 on growth and photosynthesis are important e.g. to facilitate selection criteria for new cultivars. In

  15. Modeling the protection of photosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harbinson, J.

    2012-01-01

    It is hard to overstate the importance of photosynthesis for mankind and the biosphere. It produces the oxygen we breathe and the food we eat, and images of Earth from space show the green of terrestrial vegetation and swirls of marine phytoplankton. To meet our increasing demand for food and

  16. Eukaryotic vs. cyanobacterial oxygenic photosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Schmelling, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Slides of my talk about the differences between eukaryotic and cyanobacterial oxygenic photosynthesis.  The talk is a more generell overview about the differences of the two systems. Slides and Figures are my own. For comments, questions and suggestions please contact me via twitter @derschmelling or via mail

  17. Chlorophylls, Symmetry, Chirality, and Photosynthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Senge, Mathias O.; Aoife A. Ryan; Kristie A. Letchford; MacGowan, Stuart A.; Tamara Mielke

    2014-01-01

    PUBLISHED Chlorophylls are a fundamental class of tetrapyrroles and function as the central reaction center, accessory and photoprotective pigments in photosynthesis. Their unique individual photochemical properties are a consequence of the tetrapyrrole macrocycle, the structural chemistry and coordination behavior of the phytochlorin system, and specific substituent pattern. They achieve their full potential in solar energy conversion by working in concert in highly complex, supramolecula...

  18. Assessing Photosynthesis by Fluorescence Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saura, Pedro; Quiles, Maria Jose

    2011-01-01

    This practical paper describes a novel fluorescence imaging experiment to study the three processes of photochemistry, fluorescence and thermal energy dissipation, which compete during the dissipation of excitation energy in photosynthesis. The technique represents a non-invasive tool for revealing and understanding the spatial heterogeneity in…

  19. Artificial photosynthesis at soft interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaming, Delphine; Hatay, Imren; Cortez, Fernando; Olaya, Astrid; Méendez, Manuel A; Ge, Pei Yu; Deng, Haiqiang; Voyame, Patrick; Nazemi, Zahra; Girault, Hubert

    2011-01-01

    The concept of artificial photosynthesis at a polarised liquid membrane is presented. It includes two photosystems, one at each interface for the hydrogen and oxygen evolution respectively. Both reactions involve proton coupled electron transfer reactions, and some ultrafast steps at the photosensitization stage.

  20. Injecting Inquiry into Photosynthesis Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Irene; Smith, Rebecca; Nielsen, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    This is the story of how a typical middle school lab was transformed into an open-ended inquiry experience through a few small, but very powerful, changes. By allowing students to follow their own questions, the classroom filled with enthusiasm and students learned much more about photosynthesis, respiration, and the scientific processes. The…

  1. The Oklahoma PN/ADN Articulation Project Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education, Oklahoma City.

    In response to a critical nursing shortage in the state of Oklahoma, the Oklahoma Practical Nursing (PN)/Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) Articulation Project Coordinating Committee was formed in spring 1990 to develop a proposal for program articulation. A curriculum matrix was designed and adopted for use by five regional subcommittees which…

  2. Improving detection range via correlation of long PN codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Saurav; Wang, Zhonghai; Zheng, Y. Rosa

    2012-06-01

    This paper proposes a correlation method for detecting super-regenerative RF receivers via stimulation. Long PN sequences are used as to stimulate the unintended emissions from the RF receivers. High correlation between known PN sequence and stimulated unintended emissions from RF receivers helps improving the detection range compared to passive detection and power detection methods. Although RF receivers generate unintended emissions from their nonlinear devices, without stimulation, the power of these unintended emission is usually lower than --70dBm, as per the FCC regulations. Direct detection (passive detection) of these emissions is a challenging task specially in noisy conditions. When a stimulation signal is transmitted from distance, superregenerative receivers generate unintended emissions that contain the stimulation signal and its harmonics. Excellent correlation property of PN sequence enables us to improve the range and accuracy of detecting the super-regenerative receivers through stimulation method even in noisy conditions. The experiment involves detection of wireless doorbell, a commercially available super-regenerative receiver. USRP is used for transmitting the stimulant signal and receiving unintended stimulated emissions from the doorbell. Experiments show that the detection range of the proposed method with long PN sequences is much larger than passive detection and power detection methods.

  3. New PN Even Balanced Sequences for Spread-Spectrum Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inácio JAL

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A new class of pseudonoise even balanced (PN-EB binary spreading sequences is derived from existing classical odd-length families of maximum-length sequences, such as those proposed by Gold, by appending or inserting one extra-zero element (chip to the original sequences. The incentive to generate large families of PN-EB spreading sequences is motivated by analyzing the spreading effect of these sequences from a natural sampling point of view. From this analysis a new definition for PG is established, from which it becomes clear that very high processing gains (PGs can be achieved in band-limited direct-sequence spread-spectrum (DSSS applications by using spreading sequences with zero mean, given that certain conditions regarding spectral aliasing are met. To obtain large families of even balanced (i.e., equal number of ones and zeros sequences, two design criteria are proposed, namely the ranging criterion (RC and the generating ranging criterion (GRC. PN-EB sequences in the polynomial range are derived using these criteria, and it is shown that they exhibit secondary autocorrelation and cross-correlation peaks comparable to the sequences they are derived from. The methods proposed not only facilitate the generation of large numbers of new PN-EB spreading sequences required for CDMA applications, but simultaneously offer high processing gains and good despreading characteristics in multiuser SS scenarios with band-limited noise and interference spectra. Simulation results are presented to confirm the respective claims made.

  4. Discontinuous pn-heterojunction for organic thin film transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cho, B.; Yu, S.H.; Kim, M.; Lee, M.H.; Huh, W.; Lee, J.; Kim, J.; Cho, J.H.; Lee, J.Y.; Song, Y.J.; Kang, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    Utilization of discontinuous pn-oragnic heterojunction is introduced as a versatile method to improve charge transport in organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). The method is demonstrated by depositing n-type dioctyl perylene tetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI-C8) discontinuously onto base p-type

  5. Factors underlying genotypic differences in the induction of photosynthesis in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleh, Mochamad Arief; Tanaka, Yu; Nomoto, Yuko; Iwahashi, Yu; Nakashima, Keiichiro; Fukuda, Yasuko; Long, Stephen P; Shiraiwa, Tatsuhiko

    2016-03-01

    Crop leaves are subject to continually changing light levels in the field. Photosynthetic efficiency of a crop canopy and productivity will depend significantly on how quickly a leaf can acclimate to a change. One measure of speed of response is the rate of photosynthesis increase toward its steady state on transition from low to high light. This rate was measured for seven genotypes of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. After 10 min of illumination, cultivar 'UA4805' (UA) had achieved a leaf photosynthetic rate (Pn ) of 23.2 μmol · m(-2)  · s(-1) , close to its steady-state rate, while the slowest cultivar 'Tachinagaha' (Tc) had only reached 13.0 μmol · m(-2)  · s(-1) and was still many minutes from obtaining steady state. This difference was further investigated by examining induction at a range of carbon dioxide concentrations. Applying a biochemical model of limitations to photosynthesis to the responses of Pn to intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci ), it was found that the speed of apparent in vivo activation of ribulose-1:5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) was responsible for this difference. Sequence analysis of the Rubisco activase gene revealed single nucleotide polymorphisms that could relate to this difference. The results show a potential route for selection of cultivars with increased photosynthetic efficiency in fluctuating light. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Community photosynthesis of aquatic macrophytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binzer, T.; Sand-Jensen, K.; Middelboe, A. L.

    2006-01-01

    We compared 190 photosynthesis-irradiance (P-E) experiments with single- and multispecies communities of macroalgae and vascular plants from freshwater and marine habitats. We found a typical hyperbolic P-E relation in all communities and no sign of photosaturation or photoinhibition of photosynt......We compared 190 photosynthesis-irradiance (P-E) experiments with single- and multispecies communities of macroalgae and vascular plants from freshwater and marine habitats. We found a typical hyperbolic P-E relation in all communities and no sign of photosaturation or photoinhibition...... fourfold from communities with a very uneven to a more even light distribution. Photosynthetic characteristics of communities are strongly influenced by plant density, absorption, and distribution of light and cannot be interpreted from the photosynthetic behavior of phytoelements. Thus, many examples...

  7. Eccentric-orbit EMRI gravitational wave energy fluxes to 7PN order

    CERN Document Server

    Forseth, Erik; Hopper, Seth

    2015-01-01

    We present new results through 7PN order on the energy flux from eccentric extreme-mass-ratio binaries. The black hole perturbation calculations are made at very high accuracy (200 decimal places) using a Mathematica code based on the Mano-Suzuki-Takasugi (MST) analytic function expansion formalism. All published coefficients in the expansion through 3PN order are confirmed and new analytic and numeric terms are found to high order in $e^2$ at orders between 3.5PN and 7PN. We also show original work in finding (nearly) arbitrarily accurate expansions for hereditary terms at 1.5PN, 2.5PN, and 3PN orders. We fit to a model where at each PN order an eccentricity singular function is factored out, improving substantially the fit even as $e \\to 1$.

  8. General lighting requirements for photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, D.R. [Univ. of Dayton, OH (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A review of the general lighting requirements for photosynthesis reveals that four aspects of light are important: irradiance, quality, timing and duration. These properties of light affect photosynthesis by providing the energy that drives carbon assimilation as well as by exerting control over physiology, structure and morphology of plants. Irradiance, expressed as energy flux, W m{sup -2}, or photon irradiance, {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}, determines the rate at which energy is being delivered to the photosynthetic reaction centers. Spectral quality, the wavelength composition of light, is important because photons differ in their probability of being absorbed by the light harvesting complex and hence their ability to drive carbon assimilation. Also the various light receptors for light-mediated regulation of plant form and physiology have characteristic absorption spectra and hence photons differ in their effectiveness for eliciting responses. Duration is important because both carbon assimilation and regulation are affected by the total energy or integrated irradiance delivered during a given period. Many processes associated with photosynthesis are time-dependent, increasing or decreasing with duration. Timing is important because the effectiveness of light in the regulation of plant processes varies with the phase of the diumal cycle as determined by the plant`s time-measuring mechanisms.

  9. The interplanetary exchange of photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, Charles S

    2008-02-01

    Panspermia, the transfer of organisms from one planet to another, either through interplanetary or interstellar space, remains speculation. However, its potential can be experimentally tested. Conceptually, it is island biogeography on an interplanetary or interstellar scale. Of special interest is the possibility of the transfer of oxygenic photosynthesis between one planet and another, as it can initiate large scale biospheric productivity. Photosynthetic organisms, which must live near the surface of rocks, can be shown experimentally to be subject to destruction during atmospheric transit. Many of them grow as vegetative cells, which are shown experimentally to be susceptible to destruction by shock during impact ejection, although the effectiveness of this dispersal filter can be shown to be mitigated by the characteristics of the cells and their local environment. Collectively these, and other, experiments reveal the particular barriers to the cross-inoculation of photosynthesis. If oxygen biosignatures are eventually found in the atmospheres of extrasolar planets, understanding the potential for the interplanetary exchange of photosynthesis will aid in their interpretation.

  10. Moss functioning in different taiga ecosystems in interior Alaska : I. Seasonal, phenotypic, and drought effects on photosynthesis and response patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skre, O; Oechel, W C

    1981-02-01

    Carbon dioxide exchange rates in excised 2-year-old shoot sections of five common moss species were measured by infrared gas analysis in mosses collected from different stands of mature vegetation near Fairbanks, Alaska. The maximum rates of net photosynthesis ranged from 2.65 mg CO 2 g -1 h -1 in Polytrichum commune Hedw. to 0.25 in Spagnum nemoreum Scop. Intermediate values were found in Sphagnum subsecundum Nees., Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) B.S.G., and Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. Dark respiration rates at 15°C ranged from 0.24 mg CO 2 g -1 h -1 in S. subsecundum to 0.57 mg CO 2 g -1 h -1 in H. splendens. The dark respiration rates were found to increase in periods of growth or restoration of tissue (i.e., after desiccation). There was a strong decrease in the rates of net photosynthesis during the winter and after long periods of desiccation.Due to increasing amounts of young, photosynthetically active tissue there was a gradual increase in the rates of net photosynthesis during the season to maximum values in late August. As an apparent result of constant respiration rates and increasing gross photosynthetic rates, the optimum temperature for photosynthesis at light saturation and field capacity increased during the season in all species except Polytrichum, with a corresponding drop in the compensation light intensities. Sphagnum subsecundum seemed to be the most light-dependent species.Leaf water content was found to be an important limiting factor for photosynthesis in the field. A comparison between sites showed that the maximum rates of net photosynthesis increased with increasing nutrient content in the soil but at the permafrostfree sites photosynthesis was inhibited by frequent moisture stress.

  11. Improved estimates of net primary productivity from MODIS satellite data at regional and local scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yude Pan; Richard Birdsey; John Hom; Kevin McCullough; Kenneth Clark

    2006-01-01

    We compared estimates of net primary production (NPP) from the MODIS satellite with estimates from a forest ecosystem process model (PnET-CN) and forest inventory and analysis (FIA) data for forest types of the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. The regional means were similar for the three methods and for the dominant oak? hickory forests in the region. However...

  12. Seasonality of temperate forest photosynthesis and daytime respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehr, R; Munger, J W; McManus, J B; Nelson, D D; Zahniser, M S; Davidson, E A; Wofsy, S C; Saleska, S R

    2016-06-30

    Terrestrial ecosystems currently offset one-quarter of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions because of a slight imbalance between global terrestrial photosynthesis and respiration. Understanding what controls these two biological fluxes is therefore crucial to predicting climate change. Yet there is no way of directly measuring the photosynthesis or daytime respiration of a whole ecosystem of interacting organisms; instead, these fluxes are generally inferred from measurements of net ecosystem-atmosphere CO2 exchange (NEE), in a way that is based on assumed ecosystem-scale responses to the environment. The consequent view of temperate deciduous forests (an important CO2 sink) is that, first, ecosystem respiration is greater during the day than at night; and second, ecosystem photosynthetic light-use efficiency peaks after leaf expansion in spring and then declines, presumably because of leaf ageing or water stress. This view has underlain the development of terrestrial biosphere models used in climate prediction and of remote sensing indices of global biosphere productivity. Here, we use new isotopic instrumentation to determine ecosystem photosynthesis and daytime respiration in a temperate deciduous forest over a three-year period. We find that ecosystem respiration is lower during the day than at night-the first robust evidence of the inhibition of leaf respiration by light at the ecosystem scale. Because they do not capture this effect, standard approaches overestimate ecosystem photosynthesis and daytime respiration in the first half of the growing season at our site, and inaccurately portray ecosystem photosynthetic light-use efficiency. These findings revise our understanding of forest-atmosphere carbon exchange, and provide a basis for investigating how leaf-level physiological dynamics manifest at the canopy scale in other ecosystems.

  13. Photosynthesis of C3 and C4 Species in Response to Increased CO2 Concentration and Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAMIM

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic gas exchange in response to increased carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2] and drought stress of two C3 (wheat and kale and two C4 species (Echinochloa crusgallii and Amaranthus caudatus were analysed. Plants were grown in controlled growth chambers with ambient (350 μmol mol−1 and doubled ambient [CO2]. Drought was given by withholding water until the plants severely wilted, whereas the control plants were watered daily. Even though stomatal conductance (Gs of C4 species either under ambient or double [CO2] was lower than those in C3, doubled [CO2] decreased Gs of all species under well watered conditions. As a result, the plants grown under doubled [CO2] transpired less water than those grown under ambient [CO2]. Photosynthesis (Pn of the C4 species was sustained during moderate drought when those of the C3 species decreased significantly. Doubled [CO2] increased photosynthesis of C3 but not of C4 species. Increased [CO2] was only able to delay Pn reduction of all species due to the drought, but not remove it completely. The positive effects of increased [CO2] during moderate drought and the disappearance of it under severe drought suggesting that metabolic effect may limit photosynthesis under severe drought.

  14. Photosynthesis of C3 and C4 Species in Response to Increased CO2 Concentration and Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAMIM

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic gas exchange in response to increased carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2] and drought stress of two C3 (wheat and kale and two C4 species (Echinochloa crusgallii and Amaranthus caudatus were analysed. Plants were grown in controlled growth chambers with ambient (350 mol mol-1 and doubled ambient [CO2]. Drought was given by withholding water until the plants severely wilted, whereas the control plants were watered daily. Even though stomatal conductance (Gs of C4 species either under ambient or double [CO2] was lower than those in C3, doubled [CO2] decreased Gs of all species under well watered conditions. As a result, the plants grown under doubled [CO2] transpired less water than those grown under ambient [CO2]. Photosynthesis (Pn of the C4 species was sustained during moderate drought when those of the C3 species decreased significantly. Doubled [CO2] increased photosynthesis of C3 but not of C4 species. Increased [CO2] was only able to delay Pn reduction of all species due to the drought, but not remove it completely. The positive effects of increased [CO2] during moderate drought and the disappearance of it under severe drought suggesting that metabolic effect may limit photosynthesis under severe drought.

  15. Microbial photosynthesis in coral reef sediments (Heron Reef, Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Ursula; Blazejak, Anna; Bird, Paul; Eickert, Gabriele; Schoon, Raphaela; Abed, Raeid M. M.; Bissett, Andrew; de Beer, Dirk

    2008-03-01

    We investigated microphytobenthic photosynthesis at four stations in the coral reef sediments at Heron Reef, Australia. The microphytobenthos was dominated by diatoms, dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria, as indicated by biomarker pigment analysis. Conspicuous algae firmly attached to the sand grains (ca. 100 μm in diameter, surrounded by a hard transparent wall) were rich in peridinin, a marker pigment for dinoflagellates, but also showed a high diversity based on cyanobacterial 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. Specimens of these algae that were buried below the photic zone exhibited an unexpected stimulation of respiration by light, resulting in an increase of local oxygen concentrations upon darkening. Net photosynthesis of the sediments varied between 1.9 and 8.5 mmol O 2 m -2 h -1 and was strongly correlated with Chl a content, which lay between 31 and 84 mg m -2. An estimate based on our spatially limited dataset indicates that the microphytobenthic production for the entire reef is in the order of magnitude of the production estimated for corals. Photosynthesis stimulated calcification at all investigated sites (0.2-1.0 mmol Ca 2+ m -2 h -1). The sediments of at least three stations were net calcifying. Sedimentary N 2-fixation rates (measured by acetylene reduction assays at two sites) ranged between 0.9 to 3.9 mmol N 2 m -2 h -1 and were highest in the light, indicating the importance of heterocystous cyanobacteria. In coral fingers no N 2-fixation was measurable, which stresses the importance of the sediment compartment for reef nitrogen cycling.

  16. New PN Even Balanced Sequences for Spread-Spectrum Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inácio J. A. L.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A new class of pseudonoise even balanced (PN-EB binary spreading sequences is derived from existing classical odd-length families of maximum-length sequences, such as those proposed by Gold, by appending or inserting one extra-zero element (chip to the original sequences. The incentive to generate large families of PN-EB spreading sequences is motivated by analyzing the spreading effect of these sequences from a natural sampling point of view. From this analysis a new definition for PG is established, from which it becomes clear that very high processing gains (PGs can be achieved in band-limited direct-sequence spread-spectrum (DSSS applications by using spreading sequences with zero mean, given that certain conditions regarding spectral aliasing are met. To obtain large families of even balanced (i.e., equal number of ones and zeros sequences, two design criteria are proposed, namely the ranging criterion (RC and the generating ranging criterion (GRC. PN-EB sequences in the polynomial range 3 ≤ n ≤ 6 are derived using these criteria, and it is shown that they exhibit secondary autocorrelation and cross-correlation peaks comparable to the sequences they are derived from. The methods proposed not only facilitate the generation of large numbers of new PN-EB spreading sequences required for CDMA applications, but simultaneously offer high processing gains and good despreading characteristics in multiuser SS scenarios with band-limited noise and interference spectra. Simulation results are presented to confirm the respective claims made.

  17. Contactless Microwave Characterization of Encapsulated Graphene p-n Junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjan, Vishal; Zihlmann, Simon; Makk, Péter; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Schönenberger, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Accessing intrinsic properties of a graphene device can be hindered by the influence of contact electrodes. Here, we capacitively couple graphene devices to superconducting resonant circuits and observe clear changes in the resonance-frequency and -widths originating from the internal charge dynamics of graphene. This allows us to extract the density of states and charge relaxation resistance in graphene p-n junctions without the need of electrical contacts. The presented characterizations pa...

  18. A Pn Spreading Model Constrained with Observed Amplitudes in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    structure. For the Tibetan Plateau, a “plateau” province was defined as the region with a Moho depth deeper than 55 km. The “platform” and “shield...penetration depths below the Moho for different distances based on ray geometry and the Earth model used by Yang et al. (2007). My calculation...heterogeneities in the mantle lid and Moho topography on Pn geometric spreading, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 101: 126–140, doi: 10.1785/0120100113. Bird, P

  19. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Rosener, B. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host ``na-net.ornl.gov`` at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message ``send index`` to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user`s perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  20. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Rosener, B. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host na-net.ornl.gov'' at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message send index'' to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user's perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  1. Understanding of photosynthesis among primary school pupils

    OpenAIRE

    Murn, Špela

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthesis is considered one of the most difficult subjects for pupils. It is very complex topic, which is very difficult to understand. The goal of our research was to examine the knowledge on photosynthesis of the pupils of the primary school, their attitude towrds it, and whether there were any misconceptions about photosynthesis. The research was conducted on a sample of 120 pupils in Dolenjske Toplice primary school. The questionnaire consisted of 19 questions. In the first part o...

  2. A nanoscale pn junction in series with tunable Schottky barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspitarte, Lee; McCulley, Daniel R.; Minot, Ethan D.

    2017-10-01

    PN junctions in nanoscale materials are of interest for a range of technologies including photodetectors, solar cells, and light-emitting diodes. However, Schottky barriers at the interface between metal contacts and the nanomaterial are often unavoidable. The effect of metal-semiconductor interfaces on the behavior of nanoscale diodes must be understood, both to extract the characteristics of the pn junction, and to understand the overall characteristics of the final device. Here, we study the current-voltage characteristics of diodes that are formed in fully suspended carbon nanotubes (CNTs). We utilize tunable Schottky barrier heights at the CNT-metal interface to elucidate the role of the Schottky barriers on the device characteristics. We develop a quantitative model to show how a variety of device characteristics can arise from apparently similar devices. Using our model we extract key parameters of the Schottky barriers and the pn junction, and predict the overall I-V characteristics of the device. Our equivalent circuit model is relevant to a variety of nanomaterial-based diode devices that are currently under investigation.

  3. Electron transport through ac driven graphene p-n junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Qiang; Kang, Yan-Zhuo; Ding, Kai-He

    2018-02-01

    We study the electronic transport through ac driven graphene p-n junctions under a perpendicular magnetic field. It is found that subject to the transversely or longitudinally polarized ac field, in the p-n region, the conductance versus the on-site energy of the right electrode exhibits a characteristic structure with a zero value plateau and the followed oscillation peaks, whose widths are greatly suppressed by the ac field. In the n-n region, the conductance plateaus at G = (n + 1 / 2) (4e2 / h) (n is an integer) shrink for the transversely polarized ac field, whereas accompanied with the addition of the new quantized plateaus at G = n (4e2 / h) for the longitudinally polarized ac field. The combined influence of the ac field with the disorder can trigger a change in the mixing of the hole and electron states at the p-n interface, which leads to a destruction of the plateaus structure in the conductance versus the disorder strength with the emergence of new ones. The influence of the elliptically and circularly polarized ac field on the conductance is also shown.

  4. Seed photosynthesis enhances Posidonia oceanica seedling growth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Celdrán, David; Marín, Arnaldo

    2013-01-01

    Posidonia oceanica seeds demonstrate photosynthetic activity during germination as well as throughout seedling development, a fact which suggests that seed photosynthesis can influence seedling growth...

  5. Solar fuels via artificial photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gust, Devens; Moore, Thomas A; Moore, Ana L

    2009-12-21

    Because sunlight is diffuse and intermittent, substantial use of solar energy to meet humanity's needs will probably require energy storage in dense, transportable media via chemical bonds. Practical, cost effective technologies for conversion of sunlight directly into useful fuels do not currently exist, and will require new basic science. Photosynthesis provides a blueprint for solar energy storage in fuels. Indeed, all of the fossil-fuel-based energy consumed today derives from sunlight harvested by photosynthetic organisms. Artificial photosynthesis research applies the fundamental scientific principles of the natural process to the design of solar energy conversion systems. These constructs use different materials, and researchers tune them to produce energy efficiently and in forms useful to humans. Fuel production via natural or artificial photosynthesis requires three main components. First, antenna/reaction center complexes absorb sunlight and convert the excitation energy to electrochemical energy (redox equivalents). Then, a water oxidation complex uses this redox potential to catalyze conversion of water to hydrogen ions, electrons stored as reducing equivalents, and oxygen. A second catalytic system uses the reducing equivalents to make fuels such as carbohydrates, lipids, or hydrogen gas. In this Account, we review a few general approaches to artificial photosynthetic fuel production that may be useful for eventually overcoming the energy problem. A variety of research groups have prepared artificial reaction center molecules. These systems contain a chromophore, such as a porphyrin, covalently linked to one or more electron acceptors, such as fullerenes or quinones, and secondary electron donors. Following the excitation of the chromophore, photoinduced electron transfer generates a primary charge-separated state. Electron transfer chains spatially separate the redox equivalents and reduce electronic coupling, slowing recombination of the charge

  6. CAM Photosynthesis in Submerged Aquatic Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is a CO2-concentrating mechanism selected in response to aridity in terrestrial habitats, and, in aquatic environments, to ambient limitations of carbon. Evidence is reviewed for its presence in five genera of aquatic vascular plants, including Isoe??tes, Sagittaria, Vallisneria, Crassula, and Littorella. Initially, aquatic CAM was considered by some to be an oxymoron, but some aquatic species have been studied in sufficient detail to say definitively that they possess CAM photosynthesis. CO2-concentrating mechanisms in photosynthetic organs require a barrier to leakage; e.g., terrestrial C4 plants have suberized bundle sheath cells and terrestrial CAM plants high stomatal resistance. In aquatic CAM plants the primary barrier to CO2 leakage is the extremely high diffusional resistance of water. This, coupled with the sink provided by extensive intercellular gas space, generates daytime CO2(Pi) comparable to terrestrial CAM plants. CAM contributes to the carbon budget by both net carbon gain and carbon recycling, and the magnitude of each is environmentally influenced. Aquatic CAM plants inhabit sites where photosynthesis is potentially limited by carbon. Many occupy moderately fertile shallow temporary pools that experience extreme diel fluctuations in carbon availability. CAM plants are able to take advantage of elevated nighttime CO2 levels in these habitats. This gives them a competitive advantage over non-CAM species that are carbon starved during the day and an advantage over species that expend energy in membrane transport of bicarbonate. Some aquatic CAM plants are distributed in highly infertile lakes, where extreme carbon limitation and light are important selective factors. Compilation of reports on diel changes in titratable acidity and malate show 69 out of 180 species have significant overnight accumulation, although evidence is presented discounting CAM in some. It is concluded that similar proportions of the aquatic

  7. [CO2 response process and its simulation of Prunus sibirica photosynthesis under different soil moisture conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qin; Zhang, Guang-Can; Pei, Bin; Xu, Zhi-Qiang; Zhao, Yu; Fang, Li-Dong

    2013-06-01

    Taking the two-year old potted Prunus sibirica seedlings as test materials, and using CIRAS-2 photosynthetic system, this paper studied the CO2 response process of P. sibirica photosynthesis in semi-arid loess hilly region under eight soil moisture conditions. The CO2 response data of P. sibirica were fitted and analyzed by rectangular hyperbola model, exponential equation, and modified rectangular hyperbola model. Meanwhile, the quantitative relationships between the photosynthesis and the soil moisture were discussed. The results showed that the CO2 response process of P. sibirica photosynthesis had obvious response characteristics to the soil moisture threshold. The relative soil water content (RWC) required to maintain the higher photosynthetic rate (P(n)) and carboxylation efficiency (CE) of P. sibirica was in the range of 46.3%-81.9%. In this RWC range, the photosynthesis did not appear obvious CO2 saturated inhibition phenomenon. When the RWC exceeded this range, the photosynthetic capacity (P(n max)), CE, and CO2 saturation point (CSP) decreased evidently. Under different soil moisture conditions, there existed obvious differences among the three models in simulating the CO2 response data of P. sibirica. When the RWC was in the range of 46.3%-81.9%, the CO2 response process and the characteristic parameters such as CE, CO2 compensation point (see symbol), and photorespiration rate (R(p)) could be well fitted by the three models, and the accuracy was in the order of modified rectangular hyperbola model > exponential equation > rectangular hyperbola model. When the RWC was too high or too low, namely, the RWC was > 81.9% or process and the characteristic parameters. It was suggested that when the RWC was from 46.3% to 81.9%, the photosynthetic efficiency of P. sibirica was higher, and, as compared with rectangular hyperbola model and exponential equation, modified rectangular hyperbola model had more applicability to fit the CO2 response data of P. sibirica

  8. Effects of incandescent radiation on photosynthesis, growth rate and yield of 'Waldmann's Green' leaf lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, S. L.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1989-01-01

    Effects of different ratios incandescent (ln) to fluorescent (Fl) radiation were tested on growth of 'Waldmann's Green' leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) in a controlled environment. After 4 days of treatment, dry weight, leaf area, relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), leaf area ratio (LAR) and photosynthetic rate (Pn) were greater for plants grown at 84 rather than 16% of total irradiance (82 W m-2) from ln lamps. Although leaf dry weight and area were 12-17% greater at 84% ln after the first 8 days of treatment, there were no differences in RGR or Pn between treatments during the last 4 days. If 84% ln was compared with 50% ln, all cumulative growth parameters, RGR, NAR and Pn were greater for 84% ln during the first 4 days of treatment. However, during the second 4 days, RGR was greater for the 50% ln treatment, resulting in no net difference in leaf dry weight or area between treatments. Shifting from 84 to 50% ln radiation between the first and second 4 days of treatment increased plant dry weight, leaf area, RGR and NAR relative to those under 84% ln for 8 days continuously.

  9. Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux is defined as the year-over-year change in Total Ecosystem Carbon Stock, or the net rate of carbon exchange between an ecosystem and the...

  10. Prognostic Value of Preoperative Serum Levels of Periostin (PN) in Early Breast Cancer (BCa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzzo, Pier Vitale; Rubagotti, Alessandra; Argellati, Francesca; Di Meglio, Antonio; Zanardi, Elisa; Zinoli, Linda; Comite, Paola; Mussap, Michele; Boccardo, Francesco

    2015-07-28

    PN is a secreted cell adhesion protein critical for carcinogenesis. Elevated serum levels of PN have been implicated as playing an important role in different types of cancer, and a few reports suggest a potential role as a prognostic marker. We evaluated the prognostic significance of preoperative serum PN concentration in patients with BCa receiving curative surgery. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was performed to determine the preoperative serum PN level in 182 patients. The correlations between serum PN concentration with clinical pathological features and PN expression in primary tumor samples were analyzed. The prognostic impact of serum PN levels with all-cause and BCa-specific mortality was also investigated. Appropriate statistics were used. Elevated serum PN levels were significantly associated with patient age (p = 0.005), adjuvant systemic therapy (p = 0.04) and progesterone receptor (PgR) status (p = 0.02). No correlation between PN preoperative serum levels and other clinical-pathological parameters, including either the epithelial or the stromal PN expression of primary tumor or the combination of the two, was found. Similarly, no association between serum PN levels and either all-cause or BCa-specific mortality was found. However, subgroup analysis revealed a correlation between higher PN serum levels and all-cause mortality in patients with node-negative disease (p = 0.05) and in those with a low PgR expression (p = 0.03). Higher levels of serum PN were also found to correlate with BCa-specific mortality in the subgroup of patients who did not receive any adjuvant systemic therapy (p = 0.04). Our findings suggest that PN was detectable in the serum of early BCa patients before surgery and increased base-line serum levels predicted worse long-term survival outcomes in specific subgroups of patients.

  11. Prognostic Value of Preoperative Serum Levels of Periostin (PN in Early Breast Cancer (BCa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Vitale Nuzzo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available PN is a secreted cell adhesion protein critical for carcinogenesis. Elevated serum levels of PN have been implicated as playing an important role in different types of cancer, and a few reports suggest a potential role as a prognostic marker. We evaluated the prognostic significance of preoperative serum PN concentration in patients with BCa receiving curative surgery. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA was performed to determine the preoperative serum PN level in 182 patients. The correlations between serum PN concentration with clinical pathological features and PN expression in primary tumor samples were analyzed. The prognostic impact of serum PN levels with all-cause and BCa-specific mortality was also investigated. Appropriate statistics were used. Elevated serum PN levels were significantly associated with patient age (p = 0.005, adjuvant systemic therapy (p = 0.04 and progesterone receptor (PgR status (p = 0.02. No correlation between PN preoperative serum levels and other clinical-pathological parameters, including either the epithelial or the stromal PN expression of primary tumor or the combination of the two, was found. Similarly, no association between serum PN levels and either all-cause or BCa-specific mortality was found. However, subgroup analysis revealed a correlation between higher PN serum levels and all-cause mortality in patients with node-negative disease (p = 0.05 and in those with a low PgR expression (p = 0.03. Higher levels of serum PN were also found to correlate with BCa-specific mortality in the subgroup of patients who did not receive any adjuvant systemic therapy (p = 0.04. Our findings suggest that PN was detectable in the serum of early BCa patients before surgery and increased base-line serum levels predicted worse long-term survival outcomes in specific subgroups of patients.

  12. Effects of air current speed, light intensity and co2 concentration on photosynthesis and transpiration of plant leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaya, Y.; Tsuruyama, J.; Shibuya, T.; Kiyota, M.

    To obtain basic data for adequate air circulation to promote gas exchange and growth of plants in closed plant culture modules in bioregenerative life support systems in space, the effects of air current speeds less than 0.8 m s-1 on transpiration (Tr) and net photosynthetic rates (Pn) of sweetpotato and barley leaves were determined using a leaf chamber method under different photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFDs) and CO_2 concentrations. The air current speed inside the leaf chamber was controlled by controlling the input voltages for an air circulation fan. The leaf surface boundary layer resistance was determined by the evaporation rate of wet paper and the water vapor pressure difference between the paper and surrounding air in the leaf chamber. The Tr and Pn of leaves rapidly increased as the air current speed increased from 0.01 to 0.1 m s-1 and gradually increased from 0.1 to 0.8 m s-1. These changes are correspondent to the change of the leaf surface boundary layer resistance. The depression of Tr by low air current speeds was greater than that of Pn. Tr and Pn decreased by 0.5 and 0.7 times, respectively, as the air current speed decreased from 0.8 to 0.01 m s-1. The depressions of Tr and Pn by low air current speeds were most notable at PPFDs of 500 and 250 μmol m-2 s-1, respectively. The air current speeds affected Tr and Pn at a CO_2 concentration of 700 μmol mol-1 as well as at 400 μmol mol-1. The results confirmed the importance of controlling air movement for enhancing Tr and Pn under the relatively high PPFD and elevated CO_2 levels likely in plant culture systems in space.

  13. Photochemistry and enzymology of photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radmer, R.

    1979-07-30

    In the first task, a specially designed mass spectrometer system monitors the gas exchange occurring in response to single short flashes of light. This apparatus will be primarily used to study photosystem II donor reactions, such as the photooxidation of hydroxylamine, hydrazine, and hydrogen peroxide. This technique will also be used to study the light-induced exchange of O/sub 2/ and CO/sub 2/ in algae. The second task, biochemical studies, will focus on the role of chloroplast copper in photosynthesis. We propose to isolate, purify, and characterize the chloroplast copper enzyme polyphenol oxidase, and attempt to elucidate its role in photosynthesis. These studies will be integrated with a new program devoted to the biochemical response of the photosynthetic membrane to stress. The third task is a series of studies on the light-harvesting and electron-transport mechanisms of C/sub 4/ plants. This program will address three basic problems: (1) the effect of different preparative procedures on various photosynthetic reactions, with particular emphasis on photosystem II reactions in corn bundle sheath chloroplasts; (2) the development and testing of photosystem II assays; and (3) studies of the stoichiometry of electron carriers in bundle sheath chloroplasts, and whether cyclic phosphorylation could be a major pathway in this tissue.

  14. Chlorophylls, Symmetry, Chirality, and Photosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias O. Senge

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophylls are a fundamental class of tetrapyrroles and function as the central reaction center, accessory and photoprotective pigments in photosynthesis. Their unique individual photochemical properties are a consequence of the tetrapyrrole macrocycle, the structural chemistry and coordination behavior of the phytochlorin system, and specific substituent pattern. They achieve their full potential in solar energy conversion by working in concert in highly complex, supramolecular structures such as the reaction centers and light-harvesting complexes of photobiology. The biochemical function of these structures depends on the controlled interplay of structural and functional principles of the apoprotein and pigment cofactors. Chlorophylls and bacteriochlorophylls are optically active molecules with several chiral centers, which are necessary for their natural biological function and the assembly of their supramolecular complexes. However, in many cases the exact role of chromophore stereochemistry in the biological context is unknown. This review gives an overview of chlorophyll research in terms of basic function, biosynthesis and their functional and structural role in photosynthesis. It highlights aspects of chirality and symmetry of chlorophylls to elicit further interest in their role in nature.

  15. Transition metals in plant photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yruela, Inmaculada

    2013-09-01

    Transition metals are involved in essential biological processes in plants since they are cofactors of metalloproteins and also act as regulator elements. Particularly, plant chloroplasts are organelles with high transition metal ion demand because metalloproteins are involved in the photosynthetic electron transport chain. The transition metal requirement of photosynthetic organisms greatly exceeds that of non-photosynthetic organisms, and either metal deficiency or metal excess strongly impacts photosynthetic functions. In chloroplasts, the transition metal ion requirement needs a homeostasis network that strictly regulates metal uptake, chelation, trafficking and storage since under some conditions metals cause toxicity. This review gives an overview of the current understanding of main features concerning the role of copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) in plant photosynthesis as well as the mechanisms involved in their homeostasis within chloroplasts. The metalloproteins functioning in photosynthetic proteins of plants as well as those proteins participating in the metal transport and metal binding assembly are reviewed. Furthermore, the role of nickel (Ni) in artificial photosynthesis will be discussed.

  16. Uncertainty in measurements of the photorespiratory CO2 compensation point and its impact on models of leaf photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rates of carbon dioxide assimilation through photosynthesis are readily modeled through the Farquhar, von Caemmerer and Berry (FvCB) model based on the biochemistry of the initial Rubisco-catalyzed reaction of net C3 carbon assimilation. As models of CO2 assimilation are used more broadly for simula...

  17. Photosynthesis (The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis and thePrimary Quantum Conversion Act of Photosynthesis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, Melvin

    1952-11-22

    This constitutes a review of the path of carbon in photosynthesis as it has been elaborated through the summer of 1952, with particular attention focused on those aspects of carbon metabolism and i t s variation which have led to some direct information regarding the primary quantum conversion act. An introduction to the arguments which have been adduced in support of the idea that chlorophyll i s a physical sensitizer handing i t s excitation on to thioctic acid, a compound containing a strained 1, 2 -dithiolcyclopentane ring, i s given.

  18. Photosynthesis: The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis and the Primary Quantum Conversion Act of Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, Melvin

    1952-11-22

    This constitutes a review of the path of carbon in photosynthesis as it has been elaborated through the summer of 1952, with particular attention focused on those aspects of carbon metabolism and its variation which have led to some direct information regarding the primary quantum conversion act. An introduction to the arguments which have been adduced in support of the idea that chlorophyll is a physical sensitizer handing its excitation on to thioctic acid, a compound containing a strained 1, 2 -dithiolcyclopentane ring, is given.

  19. Crystal Growth and Characterization of the Narrow-Band-Gap Semiconductors OsPn 2 (Pn = P, As, Sb)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugaris, Daniel E.; Malliakas, Christos D.; Shoemaker, Daniel P.; Do, Dat T.; Chung, Duck Young; Mahanti, Subhendra D.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2014-09-15

    Using metal fluxes, crystals of the binary osmium dipnictides OsPn(2) (Pn = P, As, Sb) have been grown for the first time. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction confirms that these compounds crystallize in the marcasite structure type with orthorhombic space group Pnnm. The structure is a three-dimensional framework of corner- and edge-sharing OsPn(6) octahedra, as well as [Pn(2)(-4)] anions. Raman spectroscopy shows the presence of PP single bonds, consistent with the presence of [Pn(2)(-4)] anions and formally Os4+ cations. Optical-band-gap and high-temperature electrical resistivity measurements indicate that these materials are narrow-band-gap semiconductors. The experimentally determined Seebeck coefficients reveal that nominally undoped OsP2 and OsSb2 are n-type semiconductors, whereas OsAs2 is p-type. Electronic band structure using density functional theory calculations shows that these compounds are indirect narrow-band-gap semiconductors. The bonding p orbitals associated with the Pn(2) dimer are below the Fermi energy, and the corresponding antibonding states are above, consistent with a PnPn single bond. Thermopower calculations using Boltzmann transport theory and constant relaxation time approximation show that these materials are potentially good thermoelectrics, in agreement with experiment.

  20. Modelling Photosynthesis to Increase Conceptual Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Pauline; Tronson, Deidre; Ritchie, Raymond J.

    2006-01-01

    Biology students in their first year at university have difficulty understanding the abstract concepts of photosynthesis. The traditional didactic lecture followed by practical exercises that show various macroscopic aspects of photosynthesis often do not help the students visualise or understand the submicroscopic (molecular-level) reactions that…

  1. Annual cycle of Scots pine photosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis, i.e. the assimilation of atmospheric carbon to organic molecules with the help of solar energy, is a fundamental and well-understood process. Here, we connect theoretically the fundamental concepts affecting C3 photosynthesis with the main environmental drivers (ambient temperature and solar light intensity, using six axioms based on physiological and physical knowledge, and yield straightforward and simple mathematical equations. The light and carbon reactions in photosynthesis are based on the coherent operation of the photosynthetic machinery, which is formed of a complicated chain of enzymes, membrane pumps and pigments. A powerful biochemical regulation system has emerged through evolution to match photosynthesis with the annual cycle of solar light and temperature. The action of the biochemical regulation system generates the annual cycle of photosynthesis and emergent properties, the state of the photosynthetic machinery and the efficiency of photosynthesis. The state and the efficiency of the photosynthetic machinery is dynamically changing due to biosynthesis and decomposition of the molecules. The mathematical analysis of the system, defined by the very fundamental concepts and axioms, resulted in exact predictions of the behaviour of daily and annual patterns in photosynthesis. We tested the predictions with extensive field measurements of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. photosynthesis on a branch scale in northern Finland. Our theory gained strong support through rigorous testing.

  2. Bioluminescence as a light source for photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Huanxiang; Liu, Libing; Lv, Fengting; Wang, Shu

    2013-11-25

    The luminol bioluminescence system containing luminol, hydrogen peroxide and HRP was used as a potential substitute light source of sunlight for the photosynthesis of plants, in which the electron flow of the photosynthesis process was proven using chloroplasts isolated from spinach leaves.

  3. Annual cycle of Scots pine photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Pertti; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Kulmala, Liisa; Kulmala, Markku; Noe, Steffen; Petäjä, Tuukka; Vanhatalo, Anni; Bäck, Jaana

    2017-12-01

    Photosynthesis, i.e. the assimilation of atmospheric carbon to organic molecules with the help of solar energy, is a fundamental and well-understood process. Here, we connect theoretically the fundamental concepts affecting C3 photosynthesis with the main environmental drivers (ambient temperature and solar light intensity), using six axioms based on physiological and physical knowledge, and yield straightforward and simple mathematical equations. The light and carbon reactions in photosynthesis are based on the coherent operation of the photosynthetic machinery, which is formed of a complicated chain of enzymes, membrane pumps and pigments. A powerful biochemical regulation system has emerged through evolution to match photosynthesis with the annual cycle of solar light and temperature. The action of the biochemical regulation system generates the annual cycle of photosynthesis and emergent properties, the state of the photosynthetic machinery and the efficiency of photosynthesis. The state and the efficiency of the photosynthetic machinery is dynamically changing due to biosynthesis and decomposition of the molecules. The mathematical analysis of the system, defined by the very fundamental concepts and axioms, resulted in exact predictions of the behaviour of daily and annual patterns in photosynthesis. We tested the predictions with extensive field measurements of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) photosynthesis on a branch scale in northern Finland. Our theory gained strong support through rigorous testing.

  4. Environmental and physiological control of dynamic photosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaiser, M.E.

    2016-01-01

    Irradiance is the main driver of photosynthesis. In natural conditions, irradiance incident on a leaf often fluctuates, due to the movement of leaves, clouds and the sun. These fluctuations force photosynthesis to respond dynamically, however with delays that are subject to rate constants of

  5. An evaluation of the effects of exogenous ethephon, an ethylene releasing compound, on photosynthesis of mustard (Brassica juncea cultivars that differ in photosynthetic capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan NA

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The stimulatory effect of CO2 on ethylene evolution in plants is known, but the extent to which ethylene controls photosynthesis is not clear. Studies on the effects of ethylene on CO2 metabolism have shown conflicting results. Increase or inhibition of photosynthesis by ethylene has been reported. To understand the physiological processes responsible for ethylene-mediated changes in photosynthesis, stomatal and mesophyll effects on photosynthesis and ethylene biosynthesis in response to ethephon treatment in mustard (Brassica juncea cultivars differing in photosynthetic capacity were studied. Results The effects of ethephon on photosynthetic rate (PN, stomatal conductance (gS, carbonic anhydrase (CA activity, 1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid synthase (ACS activity and ethylene evolution were similar in both the cultivars. Increasing ethephon concentration up to 1.5 mM increased PN, gS and CA maximally, whereas 3.0 mM ethephon proved inhibitory. ACS activity and ethylene evolution increased with increasing concentrations of ethephon. The corresponding changes in gs and CA activity suggest that the changes in photosynthesis in response to ethephon were triggered by altered stomatal and mesophyll processes. Stomatal conductance changed in parallel with changes in mesophyll photosynthetic properties. In both the cultivars ACS activity and ethylene increased up to 3.0 mM ethephon, but 1.5 mM ethephon caused maximum effects on photosynthetic parameters. Conclusion These results suggest that ethephon affects foliar gas exchange responses. The changes in photosynthesis in response to ethephon were due to stomatal and mesophyll effects. The changes in gS were a response maintaining stable intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci under the given treatment in both the cultivars. Also, the high photosynthetic capacity cultivar, Varuna responded less to ethephon than the low photosynthetic capacity cultivar, RH30. The photosynthetic

  6. Effects of mutual shading on the regulation of photosynthesis in field-grown sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Liu, Li-Na; Jiang, Chuang-Dao; Liu, Yu-Jun; Shi, Lei

    2014-08-01

    In the field, close planting inevitably causes mutual shading and depression of leaf photosynthesis. To clarify the regulative mechanisms of photosynthesis under these conditions, the effects of planting density on leaf structure, gas exchange and proteomics were carefully studied in field-grown sorghum. In the absence of mineral deficiency, (1) close planting induced a significant decrease in light intensity within populations, which further resulted in much lower stomatal density and other anatomical characteristics associated with shaded leaves; (2) sorghum grown at high planting density had a lower net photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance than those grown at low planting density; (3) approximately 62 protein spots changed their expression levels under the high planting density conditions, and 22 proteins associated with photosynthesis were identified by mass spectrometry. Further analysis revealed the depression of photosynthesis caused by mutual shading involves the regulation of leaf structure, absorption and transportation of CO2, photosynthetic electron transport, production of assimilatory power, and levels of enzymes related to the Calvin cycle. Additionally, heat shock protein and oxygen-evolving enhancer protein play important roles in photoprotection in field-grown sorghum. A model for the regulation of photosynthesis under mutual shading was suggested based on our results. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis VII. Respiration and Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, A. A.; Calvin, M.

    1949-07-21

    The relationship of respiration to photosynthesis in barley seedling leaves and the algae, Chlorella and Scenedesmus, has been investigated using radioactive carbon dioxide and the techniques of paper chromatography and radioautography. The plants are allowed to photosynthesize normally for thirty seconds in c{sup 14}O{sub 2} after which they are allowed to respire in air or helium in the light or dark. Respiration of photosynthetic intermediates as evidenced by the appearance of labeled glutomic, isocitric, fumaric and succinic acids is slower in the light than in the dark. Labeled glycolic acid is observed in barley and algae. It disappears rapidly in the dark and is maintained and increased in quantity in the light in C0{sub 2}-free air.

  8. Professional Enterprise NET

    CERN Document Server

    Arking, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Comprehensive coverage to help experienced .NET developers create flexible, extensible enterprise application code If you're an experienced Microsoft .NET developer, you'll find in this book a road map to the latest enterprise development methodologies. It covers the tools you will use in addition to Visual Studio, including Spring.NET and nUnit, and applies to development with ASP.NET, C#, VB, Office (VBA), and database. You will find comprehensive coverage of the tools and practices that professional .NET developers need to master in order to build enterprise more flexible, testable, and ext

  9. From natural to artificial photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, James; Tran, Phong D

    2013-04-06

    Demand for energy is projected to increase at least twofold by mid-century relative to the present global consumption because of predicted population and economic growth. This demand could be met, in principle, from fossil energy resources, particularly coal. However, the cumulative nature of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) emissions demands that stabilizing the atmospheric CO(2) levels to just twice their pre-anthropogenic values by mid-century will be extremely challenging, requiring invention, development and deployment of schemes for carbon-neutral energy production on a scale commensurate with, or larger than, the entire present-day energy supply from all sources combined. Among renewable and exploitable energy resources, nuclear fusion energy or solar energy are by far the largest. However, in both cases, technological breakthroughs are required with nuclear fusion being very difficult, if not impossible on the scale required. On the other hand, 1 h of sunlight falling on our planet is equivalent to all the energy consumed by humans in an entire year. If solar energy is to be a major primary energy source, then it must be stored and despatched on demand to the end user. An especially attractive approach is to store solar energy in the form of chemical bonds as occurs in natural photosynthesis. However, a technology is needed which has a year-round average conversion efficiency significantly higher than currently available by natural photosynthesis so as to reduce land-area requirements and to be independent of food production. Therefore, the scientific challenge is to construct an 'artificial leaf' able to efficiently capture and convert solar energy and then store it in the form of chemical bonds of a high-energy density fuel such as hydrogen while at the same time producing oxygen from water. Realistically, the efficiency target for such a technology must be 10 per cent or better. Here, we review the molecular details of the energy capturing reactions of natural

  10. From natural to artificial photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, James; Tran, Phong D.

    2013-01-01

    Demand for energy is projected to increase at least twofold by mid-century relative to the present global consumption because of predicted population and economic growth. This demand could be met, in principle, from fossil energy resources, particularly coal. However, the cumulative nature of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions demands that stabilizing the atmospheric CO2 levels to just twice their pre-anthropogenic values by mid-century will be extremely challenging, requiring invention, development and deployment of schemes for carbon-neutral energy production on a scale commensurate with, or larger than, the entire present-day energy supply from all sources combined. Among renewable and exploitable energy resources, nuclear fusion energy or solar energy are by far the largest. However, in both cases, technological breakthroughs are required with nuclear fusion being very difficult, if not impossible on the scale required. On the other hand, 1 h of sunlight falling on our planet is equivalent to all the energy consumed by humans in an entire year. If solar energy is to be a major primary energy source, then it must be stored and despatched on demand to the end user. An especially attractive approach is to store solar energy in the form of chemical bonds as occurs in natural photosynthesis. However, a technology is needed which has a year-round average conversion efficiency significantly higher than currently available by natural photosynthesis so as to reduce land-area requirements and to be independent of food production. Therefore, the scientific challenge is to construct an ‘artificial leaf’ able to efficiently capture and convert solar energy and then store it in the form of chemical bonds of a high-energy density fuel such as hydrogen while at the same time producing oxygen from water. Realistically, the efficiency target for such a technology must be 10 per cent or better. Here, we review the molecular details of the energy capturing reactions of natural

  11. Reinventing the PN Junction: Dimensionality Effects on Tunneling Switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    state tunneling probability is 10-6. 2.3.2 Conclusion This device exploits a unique heterostructure and surface quantum well to create a new...pn junction describes tunneling [9] within a nanowire or carbon nanotube junction as schematically represented in Figure 6.3(a). Tunneling is...6.5 0D-1D JUNCTION A 0d to 1d junction represents tunneling from a quantum dot to a nanowire as shown in Figure 6.6(a). Our main goal in analyzing

  12. Bio-inspired nanostructures for implementing vertical pn-junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Saffih, Faycal

    2011-08-04

    An apparatus, system, and method having a 3D pn-junction structure are presented. One embodiment of an apparatus includes a substrate, a first doped structure, and a second doped structure. In one embodiment, the first doped structure has a first doping type. The first doped structure may be formed above the substrate and extend outwardly from an upper surface of the substrate. In one embodiment, the second doped structure has a second doping type. The second doped structure may be formed above the substrate and in contact with the first doped structure. Additionally, the second doped structure may extend outwardly from the upper surface of the substrate.

  13. Regeneration of Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate and Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase Activity Associated with Lack of Oxygen Inhibition of Photosynthesis at Low Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    H. Schnyder; MÄCHLER, F.; NÖSBERGER, J.

    2017-01-01

    The nature of the lack of oxygen inhibition of C3-photosynthesis at low temperature was investigated in white clover (Trifolium repens L.). Detached leaves were brought to steady-state photosynthesis in air (34 Pa p(CO2), 21 kPa p(O2), balance N2) at temperatures of 20°C and 8°C, respectively. Net photosynthesis, ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) and ATP contents, and ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBPCO) activities were followed before and after changing to 2·0 kPa p(O2). A...

  14. Lessons of Photosynthesis for Nanotechnologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgis, J. N.

    2013-05-01

    The last years have seen several major discoveries in the study of photosynthesis with a potentially large impact on the development of bio-inspired nanosciences. These discoveries include important aspects of different enzymes responsible for various reactions, notably the reaction that allows the photolysis of water. This makes possible important steps towards the realization of systems able to produce hydrogen and oxygen from water using light and also for non-polluting fuel cells. A second group of discoveries concerns the way light is concentrated in photosynthetic systems. This biological concentration system has been found in some circumstances to rely on long distance quantum effects, of interest both for the production of high efficiency photovoltaic devices, and for the production and evolution of quantum computing systems.

  15. Plasmon-induced artificial photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Kosei; Oshikiri, Tomoya; Shi, Xu; Zhong, Yuqing; Misawa, Hiroaki

    2015-06-06

    We have successfully developed a plasmon-induced artificial photosynthesis system that uses a gold nanoparticle-loaded oxide semiconductor electrode to produce useful chemical energy as hydrogen and ammonia. The most important feature of this system is that both sides of a strontium titanate single-crystal substrate are used without an electrochemical apparatus. Plasmon-induced water splitting occurred even with a minimum chemical bias of 0.23 V owing to the plasmonic effects based on the efficient oxidation of water and the use of platinum as a co-catalyst for reduction. Photocurrent measurements were performed to determine the electron transfer between the gold nanoparticles and the oxide semiconductor. The efficiency of water oxidation was determined through spectroelectrochemical experiments aimed at elucidating the electron density in the gold nanoparticles. A set-up similar to the water-splitting system was used to synthesize ammonia via nitrogen fixation using ruthenium instead of platinum as a co-catalyst.

  16. The oldest records of photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awramik, S. M.

    1992-01-01

    There is diverse, yet controversial fossil evidence for the existence of photosynthesis 3500 million years ago. Among the most persuasive evidence is the stromatolites described from low grade metasedimentary rocks in Western Australia and South Africa. Based on the understanding of the paleobiology of stromatolites and using pertinent fossil and Recent analogs, these Early Archean stromatolites suggest that phototrophs evolved by 3500 million years ago. The evidence allows further interpretation that cyanobacteria were involved. Besides stromatolites, microbial and chemical fossils are also known from the same rock units. Some microfossils morphologically resemble cyanobacteria and thus complement the adduced cyanobacterial involvement in stromatolite construction. If cyanobacteria had evolved by 3500 million years ago, this would indicate that nearly all prokaryotic phyla had already evolved and that prokaryotes diversified rapidly on the early Earth.

  17. Global Patterns in Human Consumption of Net Primary Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, Marc L.; Bounoua, Lahouari; Ricketts, Taylor; Loucks, Colby; Harriss, Robert; Lawrence William T.

    2004-01-01

    The human population and its consumption profoundly affect the Earth's ecosystems. A particularly compelling measure of humanity's cumulative impact is the fraction of the planet's net primary production that we appropriate for our Net primary production-the net amount of solar energy converted to plant organic matter through photosynthesis-can be measured in units of elemental carbon and represents the primary food energy source for the world's ecosystems. Human appropriation of net primary production, apart from leaving less for other species to use, alters the composition of the atmosphere, levels of biodiversity, flows within food webs and the provision of important primary production required by humans and compare it to the total amount generated on the landscape. We then derive a spatial ba!mce sheet of net primary production supply and demand for the world. We show that human appropriation of net primary production varies spatially from almost zero to many times the local primary production. These analyses reveal the uneven footprint of human consumption and related environmental impacts, indicate the degree to which human populations depend on net primary production "imports" and suggest policy options for slowing future growth of human appropriation of net primary production.

  18. INTERACTIVE ILUSTRATION FOR PHOTOSYNTHESIS TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Pereira

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Computational resources became the major tool in the challenge of making high education moreeasy and motivating. Complex Biochemical pathways can now be presented in interactive and three-dimensional animations. One of the most complex (detailed and interesting metabolic pathway thatstudents must understand in biochemical courses is photosynthesis. The light-dependent reactionsare of special interest since they involve many dierent kinds of mechanisms, as light absorptionby membrane complexes, proteins movement inside membranes, reactions of water hydrolysis, andelectrons ow; making it dicult to understand by static bi-dimensional representations.The resources of animation and ActionScript programming were used to make an interactive ani-mation of photosynthesis, which at some times even simulates three-dimensionality. The animationbegins with a leaf and progressively zooms in, until we have a scheme of a tylakoyd membrane, whereeach of the dierent steps of the pathway can be clicked to reveal a more detailed scheme of it. Whereappropriate, the energy graphs are shown side by side with the reactions. The electron is representedwith a face, so it can be shown to be stressing while going up in the energy graphs. Finally, there isa simplied version of the whole pathway, to illustrate how it all goes together.The objective is to help professors on teaching the subject in regular classes, since currently allthe explanations are omitted. In a future version, texts will be added to each step so it can beself-explicative to the students, helping them even on home or on-line learning.

  19. Shallow cumulus rooted in photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Guerau Arellano, J.; Ouwersloot, H.; Horn, G.; Sikma, M.; Jacobs, C. M.; Baldocchi, D.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the interaction between plant evapotranspiration, controlled by photosynthesis (for a low vegetation cover by C3 and C4 grasses), and the moist thermals that are responsible for the formation and development of shallow cumulus clouds (SCu). We perform systematic numerical experiments at fine spatial scales using large-eddy simulations explicitly coupled to a plant-physiology model. To break down the complexity of the vegetation-atmospheric system at the diurnal scales, we design the following experiments with increasing complexity: (a) clouds that are transparent to radiation, (b) clouds that shade the surface from the incoming shortwave radiation and (c) plant stomata whose apertures react with an adjustment in time to cloud perturbations. The shading by SCu leads to a strong spatial variability in photosynthesis and the surface energy balance. As a result, experiment (b) simulates SCu that are characterized by less extreme and less skewed values of the liquid water path and cloud-base height. These findings are corroborated by the calculation of characteristics lengths scales of the thermals and clouds using autocorrelation and spectral analysis methods. We find that experiments (a) and (b) are characterized by similar cloud cover evolution, but different cloud population characteristics. Experiment (b), including cloud shading, is characterized by smaller clouds, but closer to each other. By performing a sensitivity analysis on the exchange of water vapor and carbon dioxide at the canopy level, we show that the larger water-use efficiency of C4 grass leads to two opposing effects that directly influence boundary-layer clouds: the thermals below the clouds are more vigorous and deeper driven by a larger buoyancy surface flux (positive effect), but are characterized by less moisture content (negative effect). We conclude that under the investigated mid-latitude atmospheric and well-watered soil conditions, SCu over C4 grass fields is characterized

  20. An analytical method for well-formed workflow/Petri net verification of classical soundness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clempner Julio

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider workflow nets as dynamical systems governed by ordinary difference equations described by a particular class of Petri nets. Workflow nets are a formal model of business processes. Well-formed business processes correspond to sound workflow nets. Even if it seems necessary to require the soundness of workflow nets, there exist business processes with conditional behavior that will not necessarily satisfy the soundness property. In this sense, we propose an analytical method for showing that a workflow net satisfies the classical soundness property using a Petri net. To present our statement, we use Lyapunov stability theory to tackle the classical soundness verification problem for a class of dynamical systems described by Petri nets. This class of Petri nets allows a dynamical model representation that can be expressed in terms of difference equations. As a result, by applying Lyapunov theory, the classical soundness property for workflow nets is solved proving that the Petri net representation is stable. We show that a finite and non-blocking workflow net satisfies the sound property if and only if its corresponding PN is stable, i.e., given the incidence matrix A of the corresponding PN, there exists a Փ strictly positive m vector such that AՓ≤ 0. The key contribution of the paper is the analytical method itself that satisfies part of the definition of the classical soundness requirements. The method is designed for practical applications, guarantees that anomalies can be detected without domain knowledge, and can be easily implemented into existing commercial systems that do not support the verification of workflows. The validity of the proposed method is successfully demonstrated by application examples.

  1. Ion implanted GaAs nanowire pn junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegener, Katharina; Stichtenoth, Daniel; Ronning, Carsten [II. Institute of Physics, University of Goettingen (Germany); Gutsche, Christoph; Prost, Werner; Tegude, Franz Josef [Solid-State Electronics Department, University of Duisburg-Essen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Ion beam doping of materials offers advantages in comparison to doping during growth or by diffusion. First, the impurity concentration as well as the lateral and depth distributions of the dopants are precisely controllable, and secondly, almost all elements can be implanted isotope-selective even beyond any solubility limit. We present studies on ion implanted gallium arsenide (GaAs) nanowire pn junctions. Nominal intrinsic GaAs nanowires were grown by the vapour-liquid-solid mechanism using gold nanoparticles on top of GaAs(100) substrates. Sulphur, being a donor in GaAs, was implanted into the nanowires using different ion energies resulting in a uniform concentration profile. The now n-type doped nanowires were then reinserted into the metal organic vapour phase epitaxy system. After an annealing procedure, the growth of the nanowires was continued under the addition of an acceptor. Finally, the fabricated nanowire pn junctions were shaved from the growth substrate and processed with contacts on top of insulating carrier substrates. First results on the electrical characterization of these structures are shown.

  2. Photosynthesis in Hydrogen-Dominated Atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Bains

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of extrasolar planets discovered in the last decade shows that we should not be constrained to look for life in environments similar to early or present-day Earth. Super-Earth exoplanets are being discovered with increasing frequency, and some will be able to retain a stable, hydrogen-dominated atmosphere. We explore the possibilities for photosynthesis on a rocky planet with a thin H2-dominated atmosphere. If a rocky, H2-dominated planet harbors life, then that life is likely to convert atmospheric carbon into methane. Outgassing may also build an atmosphere in which methane is the principal carbon species. We describe the possible chemical routes for photosynthesis starting from methane and show that less energy and lower energy photons could drive CH4-based photosynthesis as compared with CO2-based photosynthesis. We find that a by-product biosignature gas is likely to be H2, which is not distinct from the hydrogen already present in the environment. Ammonia is a potential biosignature gas of hydrogenic photosynthesis that is unlikely to be generated abiologically. We suggest that the evolution of methane-based photosynthesis is at least as likely as the evolution of anoxygenic photosynthesis on Earth and may support the evolution of complex life.

  3. Photosynthesis in Hydrogen-Dominated Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bains, William; Seager, Sara; Zsom, Andras

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of extrasolar planets discovered in the last decade shows that we should not be constrained to look for life in environments similar to early or present-day Earth. Super-Earth exoplanets are being discovered with increasing frequency, and some will be able to retain a stable, hydrogen-dominated atmosphere. We explore the possibilities for photosynthesis on a rocky planet with a thin H2-dominated atmosphere. If a rocky, H2-dominated planet harbors life, then that life is likely to convert atmospheric carbon into methane. Outgassing may also build an atmosphere in which methane is the principal carbon species. We describe the possible chemical routes for photosynthesis starting from methane and show that less energy and lower energy photons could drive CH4-based photosynthesis as compared with CO2-based photosynthesis. We find that a by-product biosignature gas is likely to be H2, which is not distinct from the hydrogen already present in the environment. Ammonia is a potential biosignature gas of hydrogenic photosynthesis that is unlikely to be generated abiologically. We suggest that the evolution of methane-based photosynthesis is at least as likely as the evolution of anoxygenic photosynthesis on Earth and may support the evolution of complex life. PMID:25411926

  4. Partial correlation properties of pseudonoise /PN/ codes in noncoherent synchronization/detection schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartier, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    This concise paper considers the effect on the autocorrelation function of a pseudonoise (PN) code when the acquisition scheme only integrates coherently over part of the code and then noncoherently combines these results. The peak-to-null ratio of the effective PN autocorrelation function is shown to degrade to the square root of n, where n is the number of PN symbols over which coherent integration takes place.

  5. Carbon-Fixing Reactions of Photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Summaryplantcell;28/7/tpc.116.tt0716/FIG1F1fig1Photosynthesis in plants converts the energy of sunlight into chemical energy. Although photosynthesis involves many proteins and catalytic processes, it often is described as two sets of reactions, the light-dependent reactions and the carbon-fixing reactions. This lesson introduces the core biochemistry of the carbon-fixing reactions of photosynthesis, as well as its variations, C4 and CAM. Finally, it addresses how and why plants are affected by rising atmospheric CO2 levels, and research efforts to increase photosynthetic efficiency in current and future conditions. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  6. The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, M.; Benson, A. A.

    1948-03-08

    The dark fixation of carbon dioxide by green algae has been investigated and found to be closely related to photosynthesis fixation. By illumination in the absence of carbon dioxide followed by treatment with radioactive carbon dioxide in the dark, the amount fixed has been increased ten to twenty fold. This rate of maximum fixation approaches photosynthesis maximum rates. The majority of the radioactive products formed under these conditions have been identified and isolated and the distribution of labeled carbon determined. From these results a tentative scheme for the mechanism of photosynthesis is set forth.

  7. WaveNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Coastal Inlets Research Program WaveNet WaveNet is a web-based, Graphical-User-Interface ( GUI ) data management tool developed for Corps coastal...generates tabular and graphical information for project planning and design documents. The WaveNet is a web-based GUI designed to provide users with a...data from different sources, and employs a combination of Fortran, Python and Matlab codes to process and analyze data for USACE applications

  8. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes how Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets) have been developed — from being a promising theoretical model to being a full-fledged language for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems (and other systems in which human beings and...... use of CP-nets — because it means that the function representation and the translations (which are a bit mathematically complex) no longer are parts of the basic definition of CP-nets. Instead they are parts of the invariant method (which anyway demands considerable mathematical skills...

  9. Game Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of game coloured Petri nets. This allows the modeler to explicitly model what parts of the model comprise the modeled system and what parts are the environment of the modeled system. We give the formal definition of game coloured Petri nets, a means of reachability...... analysis of this net class, and an application of game coloured Petri nets to automatically generate easy-to-understand visualizations of the model by exploiting the knowledge that some parts of the model are not interesting from a visualization perspective (i.e. they are part of the environment...

  10. Programming NET Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Alex

    2007-01-01

    Web services are poised to become a key technology for a wide range of Internet-enabled applications, spanning everything from straight B2B systems to mobile devices and proprietary in-house software. While there are several tools and platforms that can be used for building web services, developers are finding a powerful tool in Microsoft's .NET Framework and Visual Studio .NET. Designed from scratch to support the development of web services, the .NET Framework simplifies the process--programmers find that tasks that took an hour using the SOAP Toolkit take just minutes. Programming .NET

  11. Annotating Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Bo; Wells, Lisa Marie

    2002-01-01

    -net. An example of such auxiliary information is a counter which is associated with a token to be able to do performance analysis. Modifying colour sets and arc inscriptions in a CP-net to support a specific use may lead to creation of several slightly different CP-nets – only to support the different uses...... a method which makes it possible to associate auxiliary information, called annotations, with tokens without modifying the colour sets of the CP-net. Annotations are pieces of information that are not essential for determining the behaviour of the system being modelled, but are rather added to support...

  12. Electrical/thermal transport and electronic structure of the binary cobalt pnictides CoPn2 (Pn = As and Sb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Goto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the electrical and thermal transport properties of polycrystalline CoPn2 (Pn = As and Sb between 300 and 900 K. CoAs2 shows semiconducting electrical transport up to 900 K, while CoSb2 exhibits degenerate conduction. Sign inversion of the Seebeck coefficient is observed at ∼310 and ∼400 K for CoAs2 and CoSb2, respectively. Thermal conductivity at 300 K is 11.7 Wm−1K−1 for CoAs2 and 9.4 Wm−1K−1 for CoSb2. The thermoelectric power factor of CoAs2 is ∼10 μWcm−1K−2, although the dimensionless figure of merit is limited to ∼0.1 due to relatively high thermal conductivity. Using electronic structure calculations, the band gap value is calculated to be 0.55 eV for CoAs2 and 0.26 eV for CoSb2.

  13. Final report, Feedback limitations of photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharkey, Thomas D.

    1999-07-22

    Final report of research on carbon metabolism of photosynthesis. The feedback from carbon metabolism to primary photosynthetic processes is summarized, and a comprehensive list of published scientific papers is provided.

  14. The carbon (formerly dark) reactions of photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Bob B

    2016-05-01

    In this brief account, I describe the background for dividing photosynthesis into "light" and "dark" reactions and show how this concept changed to "light" and "carbon" reactions as science in the field advanced.

  15. Artificial Photosynthesis with Semiconductor-Liquid Junctions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guijarro, Néstor; Formal, Florian Le; Sivula, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    .... solar fuel engineering. In this review we give an overview of the field of artificial photosynthesis using a semiconductor-electrolyte interface employed in a photoelectrochemical device or as a heterogeneous photocatalyst...

  16. Using photosynthesis to detect plant stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Two Stennis Space Center scientists use a photosynthesis measuring system on a pine tree at the Harrison County Experimental Forest about 15 miles north of Gulfport, Miss. The scientists have discovered a new method of detecting plant stress.

  17. A quantum protective mechanism in photosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marais, A.; Sinayskiy, I.; Petruccione, F.; van Grondelle, R.

    2015-01-01

    Since the emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis, living systems have developed protective mechanisms against reactive oxygen species. During charge separation in photosynthetic reaction centres, triplet states can react with molecular oxygen generating destructive singlet oxygen. The triplet product

  18. Photorespiration and the potential to improve photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Martin; Bauwe, Hermann

    2016-12-01

    The photorespiratory pathway, in short photorespiration, is an essential metabolite repair pathway that allows the photosynthetic CO2 fixation of plants to occur in the presence of oxygen. It is necessary because oxygen is a competing substrate of the CO2-fixing enzyme ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase, forming 2-phosphoglycolate that negatively interferes with photosynthesis. Photorespiration very efficiently recycles 2-phosphoglycolate into 3-phosphoglycerate, which re-enters the Calvin-Benson cycle to drive sustainable photosynthesis. Photorespiration however requires extra energy and re-oxidises one quarter of the 2-phosphoglycolate carbon to CO2, lowering potential maximum rates of photosynthesis in most plants including food and energy crops. This review discusses natural and artificial strategies to reduce the undesired impact of air oxygen on photosynthesis and in turn plant growth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Steady‐state models of photosynthesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    CAEMMERER, SUSANNE

    2013-01-01

    .... Despite these shortcomings steady‐state models of photosynthesis provide simple easy to use tools for thought experiments to explore photosynthetic pathway changes such as redirecting photorespiratory CO 2 , inserting bicarbonate...

  20. Photobioreactors to Accelerate Our Understanding of Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-12

    genes required for photosynthesis in green algae: 1) Characterized the growth rates of wild-type under different light intensities , 2) Demonstrated...green algae: 1) Characterized the growth rates of a Chlamydomonas wild-type strain as a function of different light intensities . 2) Tested our...our ability to measure growth rates in a pool of 2,000 mutnats, 3) Ran a proof-of-concept screen of 20,000 mutants. Photobioreactors, photosynthesis

  1. Foliar phloem infrastructure in support of photosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    William Walter Adams; Christopher M Cohu; Onno eMuller; Barbara eDemmig-Adams

    2013-01-01

    Acclimatory adjustments of foliar minor loading veins in response to growth at different temperatures and light intensities are evaluated. These adjustments are related to their role in providing infrastructure for the export of photosynthetic products as a prerequisite for full acclimation of photosynthesis to the respective environmental conditions. Among winter-active apoplastic loaders, higher photosynthesis rates were associated with greater numbers of sieve elements per minor vein as we...

  2. Environmental and physiological control of dynamic photosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiser, M.E.

    2016-01-01

    Irradiance is the main driver of photosynthesis. In natural conditions, irradiance incident on a leaf often fluctuates, due to the movement of leaves, clouds and the sun. These fluctuations force photosynthesis to respond dynamically, however with delays that are subject to rate constants of underlying processes, such as regulation of electron transport, activation states of enzymes in the Calvin cycle, and stomatal conductance (gs). For example, in leaves adapted to low irradiance that are s...

  3. Dynamic photosynthesis in different environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Elias; Morales, Alejandro; Harbinson, Jeremy; Kromdijk, Johannes; Heuvelink, Ep; Marcelis, Leo F M

    2015-05-01

    Incident irradiance on plant leaves often fluctuates, causing dynamic photosynthesis. Whereas steady-state photosynthetic responses to environmental factors have been extensively studied, knowledge of dynamic modulation of photosynthesis remains scarce and scattered. This review addresses this discrepancy by summarizing available data and identifying the research questions necessary to advance our understanding of interactions between environmental factors and dynamic behaviour of photosynthesis using a mechanistic framework. Firstly, dynamic photosynthesis is separated into sub-processes related to proton and electron transport, non-photochemical quenching, control of metabolite flux through the Calvin cycle (activation states of Rubisco and RuBP regeneration, and post-illumination metabolite turnover), and control of CO₂ supply to Rubisco (stomatal and mesophyll conductance changes). Secondly, the modulation of dynamic photosynthesis and its sub-processes by environmental factors is described. Increases in ambient CO₂ concentration and temperature (up to ~35°C) enhance rates of photosynthetic induction and decrease its loss, facilitating more efficient dynamic photosynthesis. Depending on the sensitivity of stomatal conductance, dynamic photosynthesis may additionally be modulated by air humidity. Major knowledge gaps exist regarding environmental modulation of loss of photosynthetic induction, dynamic changes in mesophyll conductance, and the extent of limitations imposed by stomatal conductance for different species and environmental conditions. The study of mutants or genetic transformants for specific processes under various environmental conditions could provide significant progress in understanding the control of dynamic photosynthesis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Modelling safety of gantry crane operations using Petri nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Karmveer; Raj, Navneet; Sahu, S K; Behera, R K; Sarkar, Sobhan; Maiti, J

    2017-03-01

    Being a powerful tool in modelling industrial and service operations, Petri net (PN) has been extremely used in different domains, but its application in safety study is limited. In this study, we model the gantry crane operations used for industrial activities using generalized stochastic PNs. The complete cycle of operations of the gantry crane is split into three parts namely inspection and loading, movement of load, and unloading of load. PN models are developed for all three parts and the whole system as well. The developed PN models have captured the safety issues through reachability tree. The hazardous states are identified and how they ultimately lead to some unwanted accidents is demonstrated. The possibility of falling of load and failure of hook, sling, attachment and hoist rope are identified. Possible suggestions based on the study are presented for redesign of the system. For example, mechanical stoppage of operations in case of loosely connected load, and warning system for use of wrong buttons is tested using modified models.

  5. Thinning effect on photosynthesis depends on needle ages in a Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ren-Shan; Yang, Qing-Peng; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Zheng, Wen-Hui; Chi, Yong-Gang; Xu, Ming; Fang, Yun-Ting; Gessler, Arthur; Li, Mai-He; Wang, Si-Long

    2017-02-15

    Canopies in evergreen coniferous plantations often consist of various-aged needles. However, the effect of needle age on the photosynthetic responses to thinning remains ambiguous. Photosynthetic responses of different-aged needles to thinning were investigated in a Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantation. A dual isotope approach [simultaneous measurements of stable carbon (δ(13)C) and oxygen (δ(18)O) isotopes] was employed to distinguish between biochemical and stomatal limitations to photosynthesis. Our results showed that increases in net photosynthesis rates upon thinning only occurred in the current-year and one-year-old needles, and not in the two- to four-year-old needles. The increased δ(13)C and declined δ(18)O in current year needles of trees from thinned stands indicated that both the photosynthetic capacity and stomatal conductance resulted in increasing photosynthesis. In one-year-old needles of trees from thinned stands, an increased needle δ(13)C and a constant needle δ(18)O were observed, indicating the photosynthetic capacity rather than stomatal conductance contributed to the increasing photosynthesis. The higher water-soluble nitrogen content in current-year and one-year-old needles in thinned trees also supported that the photosynthetic capacity plays an important role in the enhancement of photosynthesis. In contrast, the δ(13)C, δ(18)O and water-soluble nitrogen in the two- to four-year-old needles were not significantly different between the control and thinned trees. Thus, the thinning effect on photosynthesis depends on needle age in a Chinese fir plantation. Our results highlight that the different responses of different-aged needles to thinning have to be taken into account for understanding and modelling ecosystem responses to management, especially under the expected environmental changes in future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Net zero water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lindeque, M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Is it possible to develop a building that uses a net zero amount of water? In recent years it has become evident that it is possible to have buildings that use a net zero amount of electricity. This is possible when the building is taken off...

  7. SolNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Ulrike; Vajen, Klaus; Bales, Chris

    2014-01-01

    SolNet, founded in 2006, is the first coordinated International PhD education program on Solar Thermal Engineering. The SolNet network is coordinated by the Institute of Thermal Engineering at Kassel University, Germany. The network offers PhD courses on solar heating and cooling, conference...

  8. Kunstige neurale net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørning, Annette

    1994-01-01

    Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse.......Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse....

  9. Focusing RKKY interaction by graphene P-N junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-Hui; Zhu, Jia-Ji; Yang, Wen; Chang, Kai

    2017-09-01

    The carrier-mediated RKKY interaction between local spins plays an important role for the application of magnetically doped graphene in spintronics and quantum computation. Previous studies largely concentrate on the influence of electronic states of uniform systems on the RKKY interaction. Here we reveal a very different way to manipulate the RKKY interaction by showing that the anomalous focusing—a well-known electron optics phenomenon in graphene P-N junctions—can be utilized to refocus the massless Dirac electrons emanating from one local spin to the other local spin. This gives rise to rich spatial interference patterns and symmetry-protected non-oscillatory RKKY interaction with a strongly enhanced magnitude. It may provide a new way to engineer the long-range spin-spin interaction in graphene.

  10. Nanofibrous p-n Junction and Its Rectifying Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Fang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Randomly oriented tin oxide (SnO2 nanofibers and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene-poly(styrenesulfonate/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PEDOT:PSS/PVP nanofibers were prepared by a two-step electrospinning technique to form a layered fibrous mat. The current-voltage measurement revealed that the fibrous mat had an obvious diode-rectifying characteristic. The thickness of the nanofiber layers was found to have a considerable influence on the device resistance and rectifying performance. Such an interesting rectifying property was attributed to the formation of a p-n junction between the fibrous SnO2 and PEDOT:PSS/PVP layers. This is the first report that a rectifying junction can be formed between two layers of electrospun nanofiber mats, and the resulting nanofibrous diode rectifier may find applications in sensors, energy harvest, and electronic textiles.

  11. Rectifying behaviour of spin coated pn hetero-junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yogamalar, N. Rajeswari; Bose, A. Chandra, E-mail: acbose@nitt.edu [Nanomaterials Laboratory, Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli – 620 015 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Rectifying pn hetero- junction is fabricated with an acceptor p-type organic semiconductor namely tetra- chloro dihydroxy tetra-iodo fluorescein (Rose Bengal (RB)) followed by an inorganic n-type ZnO semiconductor on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate. The n-type ZnO films are formed by unintentional doping and doping with aluminium (Al) and yttrium (Y) donors. The surface morphology and the distribution of grains are observed from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The current-voltage (I-V) characteristic of the rectifying diode is measured to characterize the junction properties. The I-V plots obtained from the hetero- junction with electric contact shows a diode characteristic different from that of an ideal behavior. The overall efficiency of the diode exhibits a greater dependency on the film crystallinity, carrier concentration, and reverse saturation current.

  12. Semiconductor nanostructures for artificial photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peidong

    2012-02-01

    Nanowires, with their unique capability to bridge the nanoscopic and macroscopic worlds, have already been demonstrated as important materials for different energy conversion. One emerging and exciting direction is their application for solar to fuel conversion. The generation of fuels by the direct conversion of solar energy in a fully integrated system is an attractive goal, but no such system has been demonstrated that shows the required efficiency, is sufficiently durable, or can be manufactured at reasonable cost. One of the most critical issues in solar water splitting is the development of a suitable photoanode with high efficiency and long-term durability in an aqueous environment. Semiconductor nanowires represent an important class of nanostructure building block for direct solar-to-fuel application because of their high surface area, tunable bandgap and efficient charge transport and collection. Nanowires can be readily designed and synthesized to deterministically incorporate heterojunctions with improved light absorption, charge separation and vectorial transport. Meanwhile, it is also possible to selectively decorate different oxidation or reduction catalysts onto specific segments of the nanowires to mimic the compartmentalized reactions in natural photosynthesis. In this talk, I will highlight several recent examples in this lab using semiconductor nanowires and their heterostructures for the purpose of direct solar water splitting.

  13. Low-fat, high-carbohydrate parenteral nutrition (PN) may potentially reverse liver disease in long-term PN-dependent infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne Skytte; Jørgensen, Marianne Hørby; Husby, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis (PNAC) is a complication of long-term parenteral nutrition (PN). Removal of lipids may reverse PNAC but compromises the energy to ensure infant growth. The purpose of this study was to test whether a low-fat, high-carbohydrate PN regimen......, which prevents and reverses PNAC in adults, could do the same in infants. This regimen could potentially avoid the problem of diminished energy input after removing nutritional lipids. METHODS: Infants developing PNAC over a 2-year period were started on a low-fat PN regimen with calories primarily from...... carbohydrates. The fat-free PN, containing 314 kJ/ml, was provided 5-6 times a week and fat, including essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, 1-2 times a week. Enteral feeding was continued according to individual tolerance. RESULTS: The study included 10 infants with short bowel syndrome (six...

  14. Global analysis of photosynthesis transcriptional regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Saheed; Noguera, Daniel R; Donohue, Timothy J

    2014-12-01

    Photosynthesis is a crucial biological process that depends on the interplay of many components. This work analyzed the gene targets for 4 transcription factors: FnrL, PrrA, CrpK and MppG (RSP_2888), which are known or predicted to control photosynthesis in Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) identified 52 operons under direct control of FnrL, illustrating its regulatory role in photosynthesis, iron homeostasis, nitrogen metabolism and regulation of sRNA synthesis. Using global gene expression analysis combined with ChIP-seq, we mapped the regulons of PrrA, CrpK and MppG. PrrA regulates ∼34 operons encoding mainly photosynthesis and electron transport functions, while CrpK, a previously uncharacterized Crp-family protein, regulates genes involved in photosynthesis and maintenance of iron homeostasis. Furthermore, CrpK and FnrL share similar DNA binding determinants, possibly explaining our observation of the ability of CrpK to partially compensate for the growth defects of a ΔFnrL mutant. We show that the Rrf2 family protein, MppG, plays an important role in photopigment biosynthesis, as part of an incoherent feed-forward loop with PrrA. Our results reveal a previously unrealized, high degree of combinatorial regulation of photosynthetic genes and significant cross-talk between their transcriptional regulators, while illustrating previously unidentified links between photosynthesis and the maintenance of iron homeostasis.

  15. [Effects of grafting on photosynthesis of sweet pepper seedlings under low temperature and weak light intensity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Nan; Wang, Mei-ling; Wang, Hong-tao; Ai, Xi-zhen

    2009-03-01

    Sweet pepper 'Chifengtexuan' seedlings were grafted onto 'Weishi' and 'Buyeding' rootstocks, treated with low temperature (8 degrees C/ 5 degrees C) and weak light intensity (100 micromol x m(-2) s(-1)) for 7 days, and then recovered under normal conditions (25 degrees C/ 18 degrees C, PFD 550-600 micromol x s(-1)) for 3 days to study the variations of their gas exchange parameters, carboxylation efficiency, and fluorescence parameters, with the own-rooted 'Chifengtexuan' seedlings as the control. The results showed that on the 3rd day of low temperature and weak light intensity stress, the photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), and carboxylation efficiency (CE) of both own-rooted and grafted seedling leaves decreased more than 50%, and after then, the Pn and Gs tended to stable while CE decreased continually. The intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) declined first, but enhanced after the 4th day of the stress. Low temperature and weak light intensity decreased the maximal photochemical efficiency of PS II in darkness (Fv/Fm), actual photochemical efficiency of PS II during illumination (phi (PS II)) and electron transport rate (ETR), but increased the initial fluorescence (Fo), which implied that the stress caused definite damage of photosynthetic apparatus. However, the damage diminished after 3 days of recovery. Comparing with those of own-rooted seedlings, the Pn, Gs, CE, phi(PS II), and Fv/Fm of grafted seedlings increased to various degrees, and Fo decreased markedly during the stress. It was concluded that grafting could promote the photosynthetic function, and alleviate the effects of low temperature and weak light intensity on the photosynthesis of sweet pepper seedlings.

  16. Unified Model for P-N Junction Current-Voltage Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Cristea, Miron J.

    2009-01-01

    The current-voltage p-n junction characteristics were mainly analyzed until now at low injection levels and high level injection separately. This work unifies the low injection, medium injection, high injection levels and the ohmic region of the I/V characteristics. Keywords: p-n junctions, current-voltage characteristics, low injection and high injection levels, ohmic region.

  17. A novel ethylene responsive factor CitERF13 plays a role in photosynthesis regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiu-Lan; Xia, Xiao-Jian; Kuang, Sheng; Zhang, Xi-Li; Yin, Xue-Ren; Yu, Jing-Quan; Chen, Kun-Song

    2017-03-01

    Ethylene responsive factors (ERFs) act as critical downstream components of the ethylene signalling pathway in regulating plant development and stress responses. However little is known about its role in regulation of photosynthesis. Here, we identified an ethylene-inducible ERF gene in citrus, CitERF13. Transient over-expression of CitERF13 in N. tabacum leaves, resulted in a significant decrease in net photosynthetic rate. Closer examination of photosynthetic activity of PSII and PSI indicated that CitERF13 overexpression led to declines of Fv/Fm, Y(II) and Y(I). However, change in NPQ was less pronounced. CitERF13 overexpression also significantly reduced Vc,max, Jmax and AQY, indicating inhibition of the Calvin cycle. The expression of photosynthesis-related genes was suppressed to a variable extent in leaf blades transiently over-expressing CitERF13. CitERF13 transient overexpression in tobacco or citrus both resulted in a decline of Chlorophyll content and CitERF13 overexpressing tobacco leaf disc was more susceptible to chlorosis in response to MV-mediated oxidative stress. The results suggest that CitERF13 is potentially involved in suppressing photosynthesis through multiple pathways, for instance, inhibiting photochemical activity of photosynthesis, CO2 carboxylation capacity and chlorophyll metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. XML as a format of expression of Object-Oriented Petri Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Jedlička

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of object-oriented (OO variants have so far been devised for Petri Nets (PN. However, none of these variants has ever been described using an open, independent format – such as XML. This article suggests several possibilities and advantages of such a description. The outlined XML language definition for the description of object-oriented Petri Nets (OOPN is based on XMI (description of UML object-oriented models, SOX (simple description of general OO systems and PNML (an XML-based language used for the description of structured and modular PN. For OOPN, the XML form of description represents a standard format for storing as well as for transfer between various OOPN-processing (analysis, simulation, ... tools.

  19. Symbiodinium photosynthesis in Caribbean octocorals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake D Ramsby

    Full Text Available Symbioses with the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium form the foundation of tropical coral reef communities. Symbiodinium photosynthesis fuels the growth of an array of marine invertebrates, including cnidarians such as scleractinian corals and octocorals (e.g., gorgonian and soft corals. Studies examining the symbioses between Caribbean gorgonian corals and Symbiodinium are sparse, even though gorgonian corals blanket the landscape of Caribbean coral reefs. The objective of this study was to compare photosynthetic characteristics of Symbiodinium in four common Caribbean gorgonian species: Pterogorgia anceps, Eunicea tourneforti, Pseudoplexaura porosa, and Pseudoplexaura wagenaari. Symbiodinium associated with these four species exhibited differences in Symbiodinium density, chlorophyll a per cell, light absorption by chlorophyll a, and rates of photosynthetic oxygen production. The two Pseudoplexaura species had higher Symbiodinium densities and chlorophyll a per Symbiodinium cell but lower chlorophyll a specific absorption compared to P. anceps and E. tourneforti. Consequently, P. porosa and P. wagenaari had the highest average photosynthetic rates per cm2 but the lowest average photosynthetic rates per Symbiodinium cell or chlorophyll a. With the exception of Symbiodinium from E. tourneforti, isolated Symbiodinium did not photosynthesize at the same rate as Symbiodinium in hospite. Differences in Symbiodinium photosynthetic performance could not be attributed to Symbiodinium type. All P. anceps (n = 9 and P. wagenaari (n = 6 colonies, in addition to one E. tourneforti and three P. porosa colonies, associated with Symbiodinium type B1. The B1 Symbiodinium from these four gorgonian species did not cluster with lineages of B1 Symbiodinium from scleractinian corals. The remaining eight E. tourneforti colonies harbored Symbiodinium type B1L, while six P. porosa colonies harbored type B1i. Understanding the symbioses between gorgonian corals and

  20. Pro NET Best Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, Stephen D

    2011-01-01

    Pro .NET Best Practices is a practical reference to the best practices that you can apply to your .NET projects today. You will learn standards, techniques, and conventions that are sharply focused, realistic and helpful for achieving results, steering clear of unproven, idealistic, and impractical recommendations. Pro .NET Best Practices covers a broad range of practices and principles that development experts agree are the right ways to develop software, which includes continuous integration, automated testing, automated deployment, and code analysis. Whether the solution is from a free and

  1. Getting to Net Zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-01

    The technology necessary to build net zero energy buildings (NZEBs) is ready and available today, however, building to net zero energy performance levels can be challenging. Energy efficiency measures, onsite energy generation resources, load matching and grid interaction, climatic factors, and local policies vary from location to location and require unique methods of constructing NZEBs. It is recommended that Components start looking into how to construct and operate NZEBs now as there is a learning curve to net zero construction and FY 2020 is just around the corner.

  2. Instant Lucene.NET

    CERN Document Server

    Heydt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A step-by-step guide that helps you to index, search, and retrieve unstructured data with the help of Lucene.NET.Instant Lucene.NET How-to is essential for developers new to Lucene and Lucene.NET who are looking to get an immediate foundational understanding of how to use the library in their application. It's assumed you have programming experience in C# already, but not that you have experience with search techniques such as information retrieval theory (although there will be a l

  3. Daily variation in net primary production and net calcification in coral reef communities exposed to elevated pCO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeau, Steeve; Edmunds, Peter J.; Lantz, Coulson A.; Carpenter, Robert C.

    2017-07-01

    The threat represented by ocean acidification (OA) for coral reefs has received considerable attention because of the sensitivity of calcifiers to changing seawater carbonate chemistry. However, most studies have focused on the organismic response of calcification to OA, and only a few have addressed community-level effects, or investigated parameters other than calcification, such as photosynthesis. Light (photosynthetically active radiation, PAR) is a driver of biological processes on coral reefs, and the possibility that these processes might be perturbed by OA has important implications for community function. Here we investigate how CO2 enrichment affects the relationships between PAR and community net O2 production (Pnet), and between PAR and community net calcification (Gnet), using experiments on three coral communities constructed to match (i) the back reef of Mo'orea, French Polynesia, (ii) the fore reef of Mo'orea, and (iii) the back reef of O'ahu, Hawaii. The results were used to test the hypothesis that OA affects the relationship between Pnet and Gnet. For the three communities tested, pCO2 did not affect the Pnet-PAR relationship, but it affected the intercept of the hyperbolic tangent curve fitting the Gnet-PAR relationship for both reef communities in Mo'orea (but not in O'ahu). For the three communities, the slopes of the linear relationships between Pnet and Gnet were not affected by OA, although the intercepts were depressed by the inhibitory effect of high pCO2 on Gnet. Our result indicates that OA can modify the balance between net calcification and net photosynthesis of reef communities by depressing community calcification, but without affecting community photosynthesis.

  4. Daily variation in net primary production and net calcification in coral reef communities exposed to elevated pCO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Comeau

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The threat represented by ocean acidification (OA for coral reefs has received considerable attention because of the sensitivity of calcifiers to changing seawater carbonate chemistry. However, most studies have focused on the organismic response of calcification to OA, and only a few have addressed community-level effects, or investigated parameters other than calcification, such as photosynthesis. Light (photosynthetically active radiation, PAR is a driver of biological processes on coral reefs, and the possibility that these processes might be perturbed by OA has important implications for community function. Here we investigate how CO2 enrichment affects the relationships between PAR and community net O2 production (Pnet, and between PAR and community net calcification (Gnet, using experiments on three coral communities constructed to match (i the back reef of Mo'orea, French Polynesia, (ii the fore reef of Mo'orea, and (iii the back reef of O'ahu, Hawaii. The results were used to test the hypothesis that OA affects the relationship between Pnet and Gnet. For the three communities tested, pCO2 did not affect the Pnet–PAR relationship, but it affected the intercept of the hyperbolic tangent curve fitting the Gnet–PAR relationship for both reef communities in Mo'orea (but not in O'ahu. For the three communities, the slopes of the linear relationships between Pnet and Gnet were not affected by OA, although the intercepts were depressed by the inhibitory effect of high pCO2 on Gnet. Our result indicates that OA can modify the balance between net calcification and net photosynthesis of reef communities by depressing community calcification, but without affecting community photosynthesis.

  5. A new class of PN3-pincer ligands for metal–ligand cooperative catalysis

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huaifeng

    2014-12-01

    Work on a new class of PN3-pincer ligands for metal-ligand cooperative catalysis is reviewed. While the field of the pyridine-based PN3-transition metal pincer complexes is still relatively young, many important applications of these complexes have already emerged. In several cases, the PN3-pincer complexes for metal-ligand cooperative catalysis result in significantly improved or unprecedented activities. The synthesis and coordination chemistry of PN3-pincer ligands are briefly summarized first to cover the synthetic routes for their preparation, followed by a focus review on their applications in catalysis. A specific emphasis is placed on the later section about the role of PN3-pincer ligands\\' dearomatization-rearomatization steps during the catalytic cycles. The mechanistic insights from density functional theory (DFT) calculations are also discussed.

  6. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Musall, Eike

    2010-01-01

    and identify possible renewable energy supply options which may be considered in calculations. Finally, the gap between the methodology proposed by each organisation and their respective national building code is assessed; providing an overview of the possible changes building codes will need to undergo......The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...... parameters used in the calculations are discussed and the various renewable supply options considered in the methodologies are summarised graphically. Thus, the paper helps to understand different existing approaches to calculate energy balance in Net ZEBs, highlights the importance of variables selection...

  7. PhysioNet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The PhysioNet Resource is intended to stimulate current research and new investigations in the study of complex biomedical and physiologic signals. It offers free...

  8. NetSig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Heiko; Lawrence, Michael S; Chouinard, Candace R

    2018-01-01

    Methods that integrate molecular network information and tumor genome data could complement gene-based statistical tests to identify likely new cancer genes; but such approaches are challenging to validate at scale, and their predictive value remains unclear. We developed a robust statistic (Net......Sig) that integrates protein interaction networks with data from 4,742 tumor exomes. NetSig can accurately classify known driver genes in 60% of tested tumor types and predicts 62 new driver candidates. Using a quantitative experimental framework to determine in vivo tumorigenic potential in mice, we found that Net......Sig candidates induce tumors at rates that are comparable to those of known oncogenes and are ten-fold higher than those of random genes. By reanalyzing nine tumor-inducing NetSig candidates in 242 patients with oncogene-negative lung adenocarcinomas, we find that two (AKT2 and TFDP2) are significantly amplified...

  9. Gas Sensors Based on Ceramic p-n Heterocontacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aygun, Seymen Murat [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Ceramic p-n heterocontacts based on CuO/ZnO were successfully synthesized and a systematic study of their hydrogen sensitivity was conducted. The sensitivity and response rates of CuO/ZnO sensors were studied utilizing current-voltage, current-time, and impedance spectroscopy measurements. The heterocontacts showed well-defined rectifying characteristics and were observed to detect hydrogen via both dc and ac measurements. Surface coverage data were derived from current-time measurements which were then fit to a two-site Langmuir adsorption model quite satisfactorily. The fit suggested that there should be two energetically different adsorption sites in the system. The heterocontacts were doped in an attempt to increase the sensitivity and the response rate of the sensor. First, the effects of doping the p-type (CuO) on the sensor characteristics were investigated. Doping the p-type CuO with both acceptor and isovalent dopants greatly improved the hydrogen sensitivity. The sensitivity of pure heterocontact observed via I-V measurements was increased from ~2.3 to ~9.4 with Ni doping. Dopants also enhanced the rectifying characteristics of the heterocontacts. Small amounts of Li addition were shown to decrease the reverse bias (saturation) current to 0.2 mA at a bias level of -5V. No unambiguous trends were observed between the sensitivity, the conductivity, and the density of the samples. Comparing the two phase microstructure to the single phase microstructure there was no dramatic increase in the sensitivity. Kinetic studies also confirmed the improved sensor characteristics with doping. The dopants decreased the response time of the sensor by decreasing the response time of one of the adsorption sites. The n-type ZnO was doped with both acceptor and donor dopants. Li doping resulted in the degradation of the p-n junction and the response time of the sensor. However, the current-voltage behavior of Ga-doped heterocontacts showed the best rectifying characteristics

  10. TideNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    query tide data sources in a desired geographic region of USA and its territories (Figure 1). Users can select a tide data source through the Google Map ...select data sources according to the desired geographic region. It uses the Google Map interface to display data from different sources. Recent...Coastal Inlets Research Program TideNet The TideNet is a web-based Graphical User Interface (GUI) that provides users with GIS mapping tools to

  11. Building Neural Net Software

    OpenAIRE

    Neto, João Pedro; Costa, José Félix

    1999-01-01

    In a recent paper [Neto et al. 97] we showed that programming languages can be translated on recurrent (analog, rational weighted) neural nets. The goal was not efficiency but simplicity. Indeed we used a number-theoretic approach to machine programming, where (integer) numbers were coded in a unary fashion, introducing a exponential slow down in the computations, with respect to a two-symbol tape Turing machine. Implementation of programming languages in neural nets turns to be not only theo...

  12. Interaction Nets in Russian

    OpenAIRE

    Salikhmetov, Anton

    2013-01-01

    Draft translation to Russian of Chapter 7, Interaction-Based Models of Computation, from Models of Computation: An Introduction to Computability Theory by Maribel Fernandez. "In this chapter, we study interaction nets, a model of computation that can be seen as a representative of a class of models based on the notion of 'computation as interaction'. Interaction nets are a graphical model of computation devised by Yves Lafont in 1990 as a generalisation of the proof structures of linear logic...

  13. Programming NET 35

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Bestselling author Jesse Liberty and industry expert Alex Horovitz uncover the common threads that unite the .NET 3.5 technologies, so you can benefit from the best practices and architectural patterns baked into the new Microsoft frameworks. The book offers a Grand Tour" of .NET 3.5 that describes how the principal technologies can be used together, with Ajax, to build modern n-tier and service-oriented applications. "

  14. Sixty years in algal physiology and photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirson, A

    1994-06-01

    This personal perspective records research experiences in chemistry and biology at four German universities, two before and two after World War II. The research themes came from cytophysiology of green unicellular algae, in particular their photosynthesis. The function of inorganic ions in photosynthesis and dark respiration was investigated at different degrees of specific mineral stress (deficiencies), and the kinetics of recovery followed after the addition of the missing element. Two types of recovery of photosynthesis were observed: indirect restitution via growth processes and immediate normalisation. From the latter case (K(+), phosphate, Mn(++)) the effect of manganese was emphasized as its role in photosynthetic O2 evolution became established during our research. Other themes of our group, with some bearing on photosynthesis were: synchronization of cell growth by light-dark change and effects of blue (vs. red) light on the composition of green cells. Some experiences in connection with algal mass cultures are included. Discussion of several editorial projects shows how photosynthesis, as an orginally separated field of plant biochemistry and biophysics, became included into general cell physiology and even ecophysiology of green plants. The paper contains an appreciation of the authors' main mentor Kurt Noack (1888-1963) and of Ernst Georg Pringsheim (1881-1970), founder of experimental phycology.

  15. Effect of water stress on photosynthesis and related parameters in Pinus halepensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melzack, R.N.; Bravdo, B.; Riov, J.

    1985-01-01

    Net photosynthesis, transpiration, dark respiration rates and stomatal and mesophyll resistances were studied in young potted seedlings of Pinus halepensis Mill. under gradually decreasing soil and leaf water potentials. Stomatal resistance under non-limiting xylem water potentials was 6-7 times higher than mesophyll resistance. Stomata started to close at threshold xylem water potentials of -0.8 MPa, whereas mesophyll resistance started to increase at about -1.4 MPa. Decreasing xylem water potentials increased the CO/sub 2/ compensation point and decreased the water use efficiency (expressed by the photosynthesis to transpiration ratio) and dark respiration rate. It is concluded that at least part of the drought resistance characteristics of P. halepensis are associated with a sensitive stomatal mechanism which enables an efficient control of water loss.

  16. Ambient UV-B radiation decreases photosynthesis in high arctic Vaccinium uliginosum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, H.

    2008-01-01

    An UV-B-exclusion experiment was established in high arctic Zackenberg, Northeast Greenland, to investigate the possible effects of ambient UV-B on plant performance. During almost a whole growing season, canopy gas exchange and Chl fluorescence were measured on Vaccinium uliginosum (bog blueberry......). Leaf area, biomass, carbon, nitrogen and UV-B-absorbing compounds were determined from a late season harvest. Compared with the reduced UV-B treatment, the plants in ambient UV-B were found to have a higher content of UV-B-absorbing compounds, and canopy net photosynthesis was as an average 23% lower...... during the season. By means of the JIP-test, it was found that the potential of processing light energy through the photosynthetic machinery was slightly reduced in ambient UV-B. This indicates that not only the UV-B effects on PSII may be responsible for some of the observed reduction of photosynthesis...

  17. Ocean acidification alleviates low-temperature effects on growth and photosynthesis of the red alga Neosiphonia harveyi (Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olischläger, Mark; Wiencke, Christian

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to examine interactive effects between ocean acidification and temperature on the photosynthetic and growth performance of Neosiphonia harveyi. N. harveyi was cultivated at 10 and 17.5 °C at present (~380 µatm), expected future (~800 µatm), and high (~1500 µatm) pCO2. Chlorophyll a fluorescence, net photosynthesis, and growth were measured. The state of the carbon-concentrating mechanism (CCM) was examined by pH-drift experiments (with algae cultivated at 10 °C only) using ethoxyzolamide, an inhibitor of external and internal carbonic anhydrases (exCA and intCA, respectively). Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of acetazolamide (an inhibitor of exCA) and Tris (an inhibitor of the acidification of the diffusive boundary layer) on net photosynthesis was measured at both temperatures. Temperature affected photosynthesis (in terms of photosynthetic efficiency, light saturation point, and net photosynthesis) and growth at present pCO2, but these effects decreased with increasing pCO2. The relevance of the CCM decreased at 10 °C. A pCO2 effect on the CCM could only be shown if intCA and exCA were inhibited. The experiments demonstrate for the first time interactions between ocean acidification and temperature on the performance of a non-calcifying macroalga and show that the effects of low temperature on photosynthesis can be alleviated by increasing pCO2. The findings indicate that the carbon acquisition mediated by exCA and acidification of the diffusive boundary layer decrease at low temperatures but are not affected by the cultivation level of pCO2, whereas the activity of intCA is affected by pCO2. Ecologically, the findings suggest that ocean acidification might affect the biogeographical distribution of N. harveyi.

  18. Overexpression of glycolate oxidase confers improved photosynthesis under high light and high temperature in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Li Cui

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available While glycolate oxidase (GLO is well known as a key enzyme for the photorespiratory metabolism in plants, its physiological function and mechanism remains to be further clarified. Our previous studies have shown that suppression of GLO in rice leads to stunted growth and inhibited photosynthesis (Pn which is positively and linearly correlated with decreased GLO activities. It is, therefore, of interest to further understand whether photosynthesis can be improved when GLO is up-regulated? In this study, four independent overexpression rice lines, with gradient increases in GLO activity, were generated and functionally analyzed. Phenotypic observations showed that the growth could be improved when GLO activities were increased by 60% or 100%, whereas reduced growth was noticed when the activity was further increased by 150% or 210%. As compared with WT plants, all the overexpression plants exhibited significantly improved photosynthesis under conditions of high light and high temperature, but not under normal conditions. In addition, the overexpression plants were more resistant to the MV-induced photooxidative stress. It was further demonstrated that the antioxidant enzymes, and the antioxidant metabolite glutathione was not significantly altered in the overexpression plants. In contrast, H2O2 and salicylic acid (SA were correspondingly induced upon the GLO overexpression. Taken together, the results suggest that GLO may play an important role for plants to cope with high light and high temperature, and that H2O2 and SA may serve as signaling molecules to trigger stress defense responses but antioxidant reactions appear not to be involved in the defense.

  19. Titanium-dioxide nanotube p-n homojunction diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alivov, Yahya, E-mail: y.alivov@colorado.edu, E-mail: pnagpal@colorado.edu; Ding, Yuchen; Singh, Vivek [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, 3415 Colorado Avenue, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Nagpal, Prashant, E-mail: y.alivov@colorado.edu, E-mail: pnagpal@colorado.edu [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, 3415 Colorado Avenue, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, 3415 Colorado Avenue, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Renewable and Sustainable Energy Institute, University of Colorado Boulder, 2445 Kittredge Loop, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)

    2014-12-29

    Application of semiconductors in functional optoelectronic devices requires precise control over their doping and formation of junction between p- and n-doped semiconductors. While doped thin films have led to several semiconductor devices, need for high-surface area nanostructured devices for photovoltaic, photoelectrochemical, and photocatalytic applications has been hindered by lack of desired doping in nanostructures. Here, we show titanium-dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanotubes doped with nitrogen (N) and niobium (Nb) as acceptors and donors, respectively, and formation of TiO{sub 2} nanotubes p-n homojunction. This TiO{sub 2}:N/TiO{sub 2}:Nb homojunction showed distinct diode-like behaviour with rectification ratio of 1115 at ±5 V and exhibited good photoresponse for ultraviolet light (λ = 365 nm) with sensitivity of 0.19 A/W at reverse bias of −5 V. These results can have important implications for development of nanostructured metal-oxide solar-cells, photodiodes, LED's, photocatalysts, and photoelectrochemical devices.

  20. Ionic PN and PNP junctions -- Diodes and Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalman, Eric; Vlassiouk, Ivan; Apel, Pavel; Siwy, Zuzanna

    2008-03-01

    There are well-known devices for controlling the transport of electrons, but very few control ions in a solution. We have prepared ionic diodes and transistors that function in a similar manner to their semiconductor analogues. Ionic PN junctions were created by surface patterning single conical nanopores in polymer films, so that the pore walls are split into two sections: one with positive charge, and the other with negative. These diodes can achieve rectification degrees of several hundreds. Ionic PNP junctions were created by surface patterning single double-conical nanopores in polymer films with tip diameter between 2 and 6 nm, so that the pore walls are split into three sections: the two areas near the large pore openings which are positively charged, while the center of the pore, near the pore tip, is negatively charged. This device works in a similar fashion to a semiconducting BJT transistor, and we show that we can control the electric potential chemically in a manner sufficient to gate the ion current through the device.

  1. 2PN light propagation and measurement in the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, X.-M.; Huang, T.-Y.

    2011-10-01

    As a sensitive and useful tool in gravitational physics, especially for some high order effects, the propagation of light carries lots of information about the nature of spacetime and plays an important role in high- precision experiments and measurements. Three methods can be used in this issue. First is mainly developed by Kopeikin & Schafer (1999) and Kopeikin & Makarov (2007) and so on. Second is mainly developed by Brumberg (1991) and Klioner & Kopeikin (1992) and so on. Recently, Linet & Teyssandier (2002) and Le Poncin-Lafitte & Teyssandier (2008) and others used Synge's world function to investigate the light propagation avoiding the integration of geodesic equations. We adopt the second one. In this paper, the second post-Newtonian (2PN) framework for light propagation is developed with two additional parameters σ and η besides the two parameterized post-Newtonian (PPN) parameters γ and β. For a precision level of a few microarcsecond for space astrometry missions in the near future, started from the definition of a measurable quantity, a gauge-invariant angle between the directions of two incoming photons for a differential measurement in astrometric observation is discussed.

  2. Upper mantle structure at Walvis Ridge from Pn tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryberg, Trond; Braeuer, Benjamin; Weber, Michael

    2017-10-01

    Passive continental margins offer the unique opportunity to study the processes involved in continental extension and break-up. Within the LISPWAL (LIthospheric Structure of the Namibian continental Passive margin at the intersection with the Walvis Ridge from amphibious seismic investigations) project, combined on- and offshore seismic experiments were designed to characterize the Southern African passive margin at the Walvis Ridge in northern Namibia. In addition to extensive analysis of the crustal structures, we carried out seismic investigations targeting the velocity structure of the upper mantle in the landfall region of the Walvis Ridge with the Namibian coast. Upper mantle Pn travel time tomography from controlled source, amphibious seismic data was used to investigate the sub-Moho upper mantle seismic velocity. We succeeded in imaging upper mantle structures potentially associated with continental break-up and/or the Tristan da Cunha hotspot track. We found mostly coast-parallel sub-Moho velocity anomalies, interpreted as structures which were created during Gondwana break-up.

  3. Artificial photosynthesis for solar water-splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Yasuhiro; Vayssieres, Lionel; Durrant, James R.

    2012-08-01

    Hydrogen generated from solar-driven water-splitting has the potential to be a clean, sustainable and abundant energy source. Inspired by natural photosynthesis, artificial solar water-splitting devices are now being designed and tested. Recent developments based on molecular and/or nanostructure designs have led to advances in our understanding of light-induced charge separation and subsequent catalytic water oxidation and reduction reactions. Here we review some of the recent progress towards developing artificial photosynthetic devices, together with their analogies to biological photosynthesis, including technologies that focus on the development of visible-light active hetero-nanostructures and require an understanding of the underlying interfacial carrier dynamics. Finally, we propose a vision for a future sustainable hydrogen fuel community based on artificial photosynthesis.

  4. Energy conversion in natural and artificial photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Iain; Li, Gonghu; Brudvig, Gary W

    2010-05-28

    Modern civilization is dependent upon fossil fuels, a nonrenewable energy source originally provided by the storage of solar energy. Fossil-fuel dependence has severe consequences, including energy security issues and greenhouse gas emissions. The consequences of fossil-fuel dependence could be avoided by fuel-producing artificial systems that mimic natural photosynthesis, directly converting solar energy to fuel. This review describes the three key components of solar energy conversion in photosynthesis: light harvesting, charge separation, and catalysis. These processes are compared in natural and in artificial systems. Such a comparison can assist in understanding the general principles of photosynthesis and in developing working devices, including photoelectrochemical cells, for solar energy conversion. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Atomically thin p-n junctions with van der Waals heterointerfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chul-Ho; Lee, Gwan-Hyoung; van der Zande, Arend M; Chen, Wenchao; Li, Yilei; Han, Minyong; Cui, Xu; Arefe, Ghidewon; Nuckolls, Colin; Heinz, Tony F; Guo, Jing; Hone, James; Kim, Philip

    2014-09-01

    Semiconductor p-n junctions are essential building blocks for electronic and optoelectronic devices. In conventional p-n junctions, regions depleted of free charge carriers form on either side of the junction, generating built-in potentials associated with uncompensated dopant atoms. Carrier transport across the junction occurs by diffusion and drift processes influenced by the spatial extent of this depletion region. With the advent of atomically thin van der Waals materials and their heterostructures, it is now possible to realize a p-n junction at the ultimate thickness limit. Van der Waals junctions composed of p- and n-type semiconductors--each just one unit cell thick--are predicted to exhibit completely different charge transport characteristics than bulk heterojunctions. Here, we report the characterization of the electronic and optoelectronic properties of atomically thin p-n heterojunctions fabricated using van der Waals assembly of transition-metal dichalcogenides. We observe gate-tunable diode-like current rectification and a photovoltaic response across the p-n interface. We find that the tunnelling-assisted interlayer recombination of the majority carriers is responsible for the tunability of the electronic and optoelectronic processes. Sandwiching an atomic p-n junction between graphene layers enhances the collection of the photoexcited carriers. The atomically scaled van der Waals p-n heterostructures presented here constitute the ultimate functional unit for nanoscale electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  6. Photosynthesis and substrate supply for isoprene biosynthesis in poplar leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magel, E.; Mayrhofer, S.; Müller, A.; Zimmer, I.; Hampp, R.; Schnitzler, J.-P.

    Gray poplar leaves emit high amounts of isoprene. In this context, we investigated the degree to which photosynthesis delivers necessary precursors for chloroplast isoprene biosynthesis, and whether this energy-consuming pathway could be involved in protecting the photosynthetic electron transport system. Such protection could result from consumption of a surplus in ATP and NADPH, generated under constricted net assimilation caused by high leaf temperatures and high light intensities. During the course of the day triose phosphate (TP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMADP) concentrations showed pronounced diurnal variations closely related to net assimilation and isoprene emission rates, while other variables, e.g. energy (ATP/ADP) and redox (NADPH/NADP) ratio, as well as phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and pyruvate strongly scattered related to changing temperature and light intensities. Intra-day positive correlations were found mainly between leaf concentrations of TP and DMADP, and sucrose, ATP/ADP ratio and net assimilation rates. Under non-saturating light (200-400 μmol photons m -2 s -1), leaf DMADP pools were positively correlated mainly with PEP, starch, and fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (F26BP). Under saturating light, correlations improved and additionally involved sucrose, TP, and the ratio of NADPH/NADP. Study of temperature response curves showed that net assimilation and isoprene emission were negatively correlated to each other. This disconnection was mostly visible by the transient change of DMADP contents with maximum levels at 25 °C. At higher temperatures, declining pools of DMADP, TP and pyruvate indicated that DMADP consumption overcompensated DMADP production resulting in highest isoprene emission rates at declining pool sizes of precursors. In parallel to the reduction of net assimilation increases of NADPH/NADP and ATP/ADP ratios also portended that the MEP pathway dissipates a surplus of ATP and NADPH which cannot be used for carbon reduction under

  7. Anoxygenic Photosynthesis Controls Oxygenic Photosynthesis in a Cyanobacterium from a Sulfidic Spring

    KAUST Repository

    Klatt, Judith M.

    2015-03-15

    Before the Earth\\'s complete oxygenation (0.58 to 0.55 billion years [Ga] ago), the photic zone of the Proterozoic oceans was probably redox stratified, with a slightly aerobic, nutrient-limited upper layer above a light-limited layer that tended toward euxinia. In such oceans, cyanobacteria capable of both oxygenic and sulfide-driven anoxygenic photosynthesis played a fundamental role in the global carbon, oxygen, and sulfur cycle. We have isolated a cyanobacterium, Pseudanabaena strain FS39, in which this versatility is still conserved, and we show that the transition between the two photosynthetic modes follows a surprisingly simple kinetic regulation controlled by this organism\\'s affinity for H2S. Specifically, oxygenic photosynthesis is performed in addition to anoxygenic photosynthesis only when H2S becomes limiting and its concentration decreases below a threshold that increases predictably with the available ambient light. The carbon-based growth rates during oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis were similar. However, Pseudanabaena FS39 additionally assimilated NO3 - during anoxygenic photosynthesis. Thus, the transition between anoxygenic and oxygenic photosynthesis was accompanied by a shift of the C/N ratio of the total bulk biomass. These mechanisms offer new insights into the way in which, despite nutrient limitation in the oxic photic zone in the mid-Proterozoic oceans, versatile cyanobacteria might have promoted oxygenic photosynthesis and total primary productivity, a key step that enabled the complete oxygenation of our planet and the subsequent diversification of life.

  8. Anoxygenic photosynthesis controls oxygenic photosynthesis in a cyanobacterium from a sulfidic spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatt, Judith M; Al-Najjar, Mohammad A A; Yilmaz, Pelin; Lavik, Gaute; de Beer, Dirk; Polerecky, Lubos

    2015-03-01

    Before the Earth's complete oxygenation (0.58 to 0.55 billion years [Ga] ago), the photic zone of the Proterozoic oceans was probably redox stratified, with a slightly aerobic, nutrient-limited upper layer above a light-limited layer that tended toward euxinia. In such oceans, cyanobacteria capable of both oxygenic and sulfide-driven anoxygenic photosynthesis played a fundamental role in the global carbon, oxygen, and sulfur cycle. We have isolated a cyanobacterium, Pseudanabaena strain FS39, in which this versatility is still conserved, and we show that the transition between the two photosynthetic modes follows a surprisingly simple kinetic regulation controlled by this organism's affinity for H2S. Specifically, oxygenic photosynthesis is performed in addition to anoxygenic photosynthesis only when H2S becomes limiting and its concentration decreases below a threshold that increases predictably with the available ambient light. The carbon-based growth rates during oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis were similar. However, Pseudanabaena FS39 additionally assimilated NO3 (-) during anoxygenic photosynthesis. Thus, the transition between anoxygenic and oxygenic photosynthesis was accompanied by a shift of the C/N ratio of the total bulk biomass. These mechanisms offer new insights into the way in which, despite nutrient limitation in the oxic photic zone in the mid-Proterozoic oceans, versatile cyanobacteria might have promoted oxygenic photosynthesis and total primary productivity, a key step that enabled the complete oxygenation of our planet and the subsequent diversification of life. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Global Analysis of Photosynthesis Transcriptional Regulatory Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Saheed; Noguera, Daniel R.; Donohue, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthesis is a crucial biological process that depends on the interplay of many components. This work analyzed the gene targets for 4 transcription factors: FnrL, PrrA, CrpK and MppG (RSP_2888), which are known or predicted to control photosynthesis in Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) identified 52 operons under direct control of FnrL, illustrating its regulatory role in photosynthesis, iron homeostasis, nitrogen metabolism and regulation of sRNA synthesis. Using global gene expression analysis combined with ChIP-seq, we mapped the regulons of PrrA, CrpK and MppG. PrrA regulates ∼34 operons encoding mainly photosynthesis and electron transport functions, while CrpK, a previously uncharacterized Crp-family protein, regulates genes involved in photosynthesis and maintenance of iron homeostasis. Furthermore, CrpK and FnrL share similar DNA binding determinants, possibly explaining our observation of the ability of CrpK to partially compensate for the growth defects of a ΔFnrL mutant. We show that the Rrf2 family protein, MppG, plays an important role in photopigment biosynthesis, as part of an incoherent feed-forward loop with PrrA. Our results reveal a previously unrealized, high degree of combinatorial regulation of photosynthetic genes and significant cross-talk between their transcriptional regulators, while illustrating previously unidentified links between photosynthesis and the maintenance of iron homeostasis. PMID:25503406

  10. Global analysis of photosynthesis transcriptional regulatory networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saheed Imam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis is a crucial biological process that depends on the interplay of many components. This work analyzed the gene targets for 4 transcription factors: FnrL, PrrA, CrpK and MppG (RSP_2888, which are known or predicted to control photosynthesis in Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq identified 52 operons under direct control of FnrL, illustrating its regulatory role in photosynthesis, iron homeostasis, nitrogen metabolism and regulation of sRNA synthesis. Using global gene expression analysis combined with ChIP-seq, we mapped the regulons of PrrA, CrpK and MppG. PrrA regulates ∼34 operons encoding mainly photosynthesis and electron transport functions, while CrpK, a previously uncharacterized Crp-family protein, regulates genes involved in photosynthesis and maintenance of iron homeostasis. Furthermore, CrpK and FnrL share similar DNA binding determinants, possibly explaining our observation of the ability of CrpK to partially compensate for the growth defects of a ΔFnrL mutant. We show that the Rrf2 family protein, MppG, plays an important role in photopigment biosynthesis, as part of an incoherent feed-forward loop with PrrA. Our results reveal a previously unrealized, high degree of combinatorial regulation of photosynthetic genes and significant cross-talk between their transcriptional regulators, while illustrating previously unidentified links between photosynthesis and the maintenance of iron homeostasis.

  11. Modified water regimes affect photosynthesis, xylem water potential, cambial growth and resistance of juvenile Pinus taeda L. to Dendroctonus frontalis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Dunn; Peter L. Jr. Lorio

    1993-01-01

    We modified soil water supply to two groups of juvenile loblolly pines, Pinus taeda L., by sheltering or irrigating root systems in early summer or in later summer and measured oleoresin flow (primary defense), net photosynthesis, xylem water potential, and cambial growth throughout the growing season. When consistent significant differences in...

  12. Photosynthesis and the world food problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Poskuta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies in the field of photosynthesis are particularly predisposed to play an important role in the solving of the main problem of today food for the world's growing population. The article presents data on the rate of population increase, the size of food production and yields of the most important crop plants. The relationship between the photosynthetic productivity of C3 and C4 plants and their yields is discussed. The problem of the rising atmospheric CO2 concentration and its influence on photosynthesis, photorespiration and accumulation of plant biomass is presented.

  13. Carbon economics of LAI drive photosynthesis patterns across an Amazonian precipitation gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, Sophie; Williams, Mathew; Meir, Patrick; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2017-04-01

    The Amazon rainforest is an integral part of the terrestrial carbon cycle, yet whilst the physiological response of its plants to water availability is increasingly well quantified, constraints to photosynthesis through adaptive response to precipitation regime have received little attention. We use the Soil Plant Atmosphere model to apportion variation in photosynthesis to individual drivers for plots with detailed measurements of carbon cycling, leaf traits and canopy properties, along an Amazonian mean annual precipitation (MAP) gradient. We hypothesised that leaf area index (LAI) would be the principal driver of variation in photosynthesis. Differences in LAI are predicted to result from economic factors; plants balance the carbon cost of leaf construction and maintenance with assimilation potential, to maximise canopy carbon export. Model analysis showed that LAI was the primary driver of differences in GPP along the precipitation gradient, accounting for 49% of observed variation. Meteorology accounted for 19%, whilst plant traits accounted for only 5%. To explain the observed spatial trends in LAI we undertook model experiments. For each plot the carbon budget was quantified iteratively using the field measured LAI time-series of the other plots, keeping meteorology, soil and plant traits constant. The mean annual LAI achieving maximum photosynthesis and net canopy carbon export increased with MAP, reflecting observed LAI trends. At the driest site, alternative, higher LAI strategies were unsustainable. The carbon cost of leaf construction and maintenance was disproportional to GPP achieved. At high MAP, increased foliar carbon costs were remunerative and GPP was maximised by high LAI. Our evidence therefore suggests that observed LAI trends across the precipitation gradient are driven by carbon economics. Forests LAI response to temporal changes in precipitation reflects trends observed across spatial gradients, identifying LAI as a key mechanism for plant

  14. Growth but not photosynthesis response of a host plant to infection by a holoparasitic plant depends on nitrogen supply.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Shen

    Full Text Available Parasitic plants can adversely influence the growth of their hosts by removing resources and by affecting photosynthesis. Such negative effects depend on resource availability. However, at varied resource levels, to what extent the negative effects on growth are attributed to the effects on photosynthesis has not been well elucidated. Here, we examined the influence of nitrogen supply on the growth and photosynthesis responses of the host plant Mikania micrantha to infection by the holoparasite Cuscuta campestris by focusing on the interaction of nitrogen and infection. Mikania micrantha plants fertilized at 0.2, 1 and 5 mM nitrate were grown with and without C. campestris infection. We observed that the infection significantly reduced M. micrantha growth at each nitrate fertilization and more severely at low than at high nitrate. Such alleviation at high nitrate was largely attributed to a stronger influence of infection on root biomass at low than at high nitrate fertilization. However, although C. campestris altered allometry and inhibited host photosynthesis, the magnitude of the effects was independent of nitrate fertilizations. The infection reduced light saturation point, net photosynthesis at saturating irradiances, apparent quantum yield, CO2 saturated rate of photosynthesis, carboxylation efficiency, the maximum carboxylation rate of Rubisco, and maximum light-saturated rate of electron transport, and increased light compensation point in host leaves similarly across nitrate levels, corresponding to a similar magnitude of negative effects of the parasite on host leaf soluble protein and Rubisco concentrations, photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency and stomatal conductance across nitrate concentrations. Thus, the more severe inhibition in host growth at low than at high nitrate supplies cannot be attributed to a greater parasite-induced reduction in host photosynthesis, but the result of a higher proportion of host resources

  15. Zinc oxide nanoparticles affect biomass accumulation and photosynthesis in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping eWang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dramatic increase in the use of nanoparticles (NPs in a variety of applications greatly increased the likelihood of the release of NPs into the environment. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs are among the most commonly used NPs, and it has been shown that ZnO NPs were harmful to several different plants. We report here the effects of ZnO NPs exposure on biomass accumulation and photosynthesis in Arabidopsis. We found that 200 and 300 mg/L ZnO NPs treatments reduced Arabidopsis growth by ~20% and 80%, respectively, in comparison to the control. Pigments measurement showed Chlorophyll a and b contents were reduced more than 50%, whereas carotenoid contents remain largely unaffected in 300 mg/L ZnO NPs treated Arabidopsis plants. Consistent with this, net rate of photosynthesis, leaf stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration and transpiration rate were all reduced more than 50% in 300 mg/L ZnO NPs treated plants. Quantitative RT-PCR results showed that expression levels of chlorophyll synthesis genes including CHLOROPHYLL A OXYGENASE (CAO, CHLOROPHYLL SYNTHASE (CHLG, COPPER RESPONSE DEFECT 1 (CRD1, MAGNESIUM-PROTOPORPHYRIN IX METHYLTRANSFERASE (CHLM and MG-CHELATASE SUBUNIT D (CHLD, and photosystem structure gene PHOTOSYSTEM I SUBUNIT D-2 (PSAD2, PHOTOSYSTEM I SUBUNIT E-2 (PSAE2, PHOTOSYSTEM I SUBUNIT K (PSAK and PHOTOSYSTEM I SUBUNIT K (PSAN were reduced about 5-fold in 300 mg/L ZnO NPs treated plants. On the other hand, elevated expression, though to different degrees, of several carotenoids synthesis genes including GERANYLGERANYL PYROPHOSPHATE SYNTHASE 6 (GGPS6, PHYTOENE SYNTHASE (PSY PHYTOENE DESATURASE (PDS, and ZETA-CAROTENE DESATURASE (ZDS were observed in ZnO NPs treated plants. Taken together, these results suggest that toxicity effects of ZnO NPs observed in Arabidopsis was likely due to the inhibition of the expression of chlorophyll synthesis genes and photosystem structure genes, which results in the inhibition of

  16. Response of photosynthesis in the leaves of cucumber seedlings to light intensity and CO2 concentration under nitrate stress

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Xiufeng; Wei, Min

    2014-01-01

    The effects of 2 nitrate levels, 14 (CK) and 140 mmol L-1 (T), on the leaf gas exchange variables of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Xintaimici) seedlings grown in hydroponic culture were investigated. Photosynthetic light- and CO2-response curves from CK and T seedlings were determined and used for the analysis of photosynthetic capacity. The results showed that nitrate stress resulted in a significant reduction of net photosynthesis of T seedlings compared with CK. At the same time, the ap...

  17. EFFECT OF AIR TEMPERATURE ON LEAF PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN ELDER

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Popescu

    2012-01-01

    Temperature with solar radiation intensity is the main external factor affecting photosynthesis process. Measurements were collected in the 2011 growing season. Photosynthesis and respiration measurements were made at Sambucus nigra leaves with a CO2 analyzer. The aim was to develop a model of photosynthesis in relation to temperature (which is in close relationship with air humidity). Photosynthesis of Sambucus nigra leaves is sensitive to temperature with an optimum around 25-28oC and rates...

  18. CARBON DIOXIDE MITIGATION THROUGH CONTROLLED PHOTOSYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2000-10-01

    This research was undertaken to meet the need for a robust portfolio of carbon management options to ensure continued use of coal in electrical power generation. In response to this need, the Ohio Coal Research Center at Ohio University developed a novel technique to control the emissions of CO{sub 2} from fossil-fired power plants by growing organisms capable of converting CO{sub 2} to complex sugars through the process of photosynthesis. Once harvested, the organisms could be used in the production of fertilizer, as a biomass fuel, or fermented to produce alcohols. In this work, a mesophilic organism, Nostoc 86-3, was examined with respect to the use of thermophilic algae to recycle CO{sub 2} from scrubbed stack gases. The organisms were grown on stationary surfaces to facilitate algal stability and promote light distribution. The testing done throughout the year examined properties of CO{sub 2} concentration, temperature, light intensity, and light duration on process viability and the growth of the Nostoc. The results indicate that the Nostoc species is suitable only in a temperature range below 125 F, which may be practical given flue gas cooling. Further, results indicate that high lighting levels are not suitable for this organism, as bleaching occurs and growth rates are inhibited. Similarly, the organisms do not respond well to extended lighting durations, requiring a significant (greater than eight hour) dark cycle on a consistent basis. Other results indicate a relative insensitivity to CO{sub 2} levels between 7-12% and CO levels as high as 800 ppm. Other significant results alluded to previously, relate to the development of the overall process. Two processes developed during the year offer tremendous potential to enhance process viability. First, integration of solar collection and distribution technology from Oak Ridge laboratories could provide a significant space savings and enhanced use of solar energy. Second, the use of translating slug flow

  19. La plataforma .NET

    OpenAIRE

    Fornas Estrada, Miquel

    2008-01-01

    L'aparició de la plataforma .NET Framework ha suposat un canvi molt important en la forma de crear i distribuir aplicacions, degut a que incorpora una sèrie d'innovacions tècniques i productives que simplifiquen molt les tasques necessàries per desenvolupar un projecte. La aparición de la plataforma. NET Framework ha supuesto un cambio muy importante en la forma de crear y distribuir aplicaciones, debido a que incorpora una serie de innovaciones técnicas y productivas que simplifican mucho...

  20. Biological Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Wingender, E

    2011-01-01

    It was suggested some years ago that Petri nets might be well suited to modeling metabolic networks, overcoming some of the limitations encountered by the use of systems employing ODEs (ordinary differential equations). Much work has been done since then which confirms this and demonstrates the usefulness of this concept for systems biology. Petri net technology is not only intuitively understood by scientists trained in the life sciences, it also has a robust mathematical foundation and provides the required degree of flexibility. As a result it appears to be a very promising approach to mode

  1. Challenges in Understanding Photosynthesis in a University Introductory Biosciences Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Södervik, Ilona; Virtanen, Viivi; Mikkilä-Erdmann, Mirjamaija

    2015-01-01

    University students' understanding of photosynthesis was examined in a large introductory biosciences class. The focus of this study was to first examine the conceptions of photosynthesis among students in class and then to investigate how a certain type of text could enhance students' understanding of photosynthesis. The study was based on pre-…

  2. Long-term survival of patients with pN2 lung cancer according to the pattern of lymphatic spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legras, Antoine; Mordant, Pierre; Arame, Alex; Foucault, Christophe; Dujon, Antoine; Le Pimpec Barthes, Françoise; Riquet, Marc

    2014-04-01

    N2 involvement has dramatic consequences on the prognosis and management of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). N2-NSCLC may present with or without N1 involvement, constituting non-skip (pN1N2) and skip (pN0N2) diseases, respectively. As the prognostic impact of this subclassification is still a matter of debate, we analyzed the prognosis of pN2 patients according to the pN1-involvement and the number of N2-stations concerned. The medical records of consecutive patients who underwent surgery for pN2-NSCLC in 2 French centers between 1980 and 2009 were prospectively collected and retrospectively reviewed. Patients undergoing induction therapy, exploratory thoracotomy, incomplete mediastinal lymphadenectomy, or incomplete resections were excluded. The prognoses of pN1N2 and pN0N2 patients were first compared, and then deciphered according to the number of N2 stations involved (single-station: 1S, multi-station: 2S). All together, 871 patients underwent first-line complete surgical resection for pN2-NSCLC during the study period, including 258 pN0N2 (29.6%) and 613 pN1N2 (70.4%) patients. Mean follow-up was 72.8±48 months. Median, 5- and 10-year survivals were, respectively, 30 months, 34%, and 24% for pN0N2 and 20 months, 21%, and 14% for pN1N2 patients (p<0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed 3 different prognostic groups; ie, favorable in pN0N2-1S disease, intermediate in pN0N2-2S and pN1N2-1S diseases, and poor in pN1N2-2S disease (p<0.001). Among pN2 patients, the combination of N1 involvement (pN0N2 vs pN1N2) and number of involved N2 stations (1S vs 2S) are independent prognostic factors. These results might be taken into consideration to sub-classify the heterogeneous pN2-NSCLC group of patients. Copyright © 2014 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Natural genetic variation in Arabidopsis thaliana photosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flood, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Oxygenic photosynthesis is the gateway of the sun’s energy into the biosphere, it is where light becomes life. Genetic variation is the fuel of evolution, without it natural selection is powerless and adaptation impossible. In this thesis I have set out to study a relatively unexplored field

  4. Natural genetic variation in plant photosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flood, P.J.; Harbinson, J.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Natural genetic variation in plant photosynthesis is a largely unexplored and as a result an underused genetic resource for crop improvement. Numerous studies show genetic variation in photosynthetic traits in both crop and wild species, and there is an increasingly detailed knowledge base

  5. Applying photosynthesis research to increase crop yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton C. Black; Shi-Jean S. Sung; Kristina Toderich; Pavel Yu Voronin

    2010-01-01

    This account is dedicated to Dr. Guivi Sanadze for his career long devotion to science and in recognition of his discovery of isoprene emission by trees during photosynthesis. Investigations on the emission of isoprene and other monoterpenes now have been extended globally to encompass other terrestrial vegetation, algae, waters, and marine life in the world's...

  6. Multiporous Supramolecular Microspheres for Artificial Photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Kai; Xue, Bin; Frere, Samuel; Slutsky, Inna; Cao, Yi; Wang, Wei; Gazit, Ehud

    2017-05-23

    Artificial photosynthesis shows a promising potential for sustainable supply of nutritional ingredients. While most studies focus on the assembly of the light-sensitive chromophores to 1-D architectures in an artificial photosynthesis system, other supramolecular morphologies, especially bioinspired ones, which may have more efficient light-harvesting properties, have been far less studied. Here, MCpP-FF, a bioinspired building block fabricated by conjugating porphyrin and diphenylalanine, was designed to self-assemble into nanofibers-based multiporous microspheres. The highly organized aromatic moieties result in extensive excitation red-shifts and notable electron transfer, thus leading to a remarkable attenuated fluorescence decay and broad-spectrum light sensitivity of the microspheres. Moreover, the enhanced photoelectron production and transfer capability of the microspheres are demonstrated, making them ideal candidates for sunlight-sensitive antennas in artificial photosynthesis. These properties induce a high turnover frequency of NADH, which can be used to produce bioproducts in biocatalytic reactions. In addition, the direct electron transfer makes external mediators unnecessary, and the insolubility of the microspheres in water allows their easy retrieval for sustainable applications. Our findings demonstrate an alternative to design new platforms for artificial photosynthesis, as well as a new type of bioinspired, supramolecular multiporous materials.

  7. Canopy Photosynthesis: From Basics to Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hikosaka, Kouki; Niinemets, Ülo; Anten, N.P.R.

    2016-01-01

    A plant canopy, a collection of leaves, is an ecosystem-level unit of photosynthesis that assimilates carbon dioxide and exchanges other gases and energy with the atmosphere in a manner highly sensitive to ambient conditions including atmospheric carbon dioxide and water vapor concentrations, light

  8. Advantages and disadvantages on photosynthesis measurement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Through photosynthesis, green plants and cyanobacteria are able to transfer sunlight energy to molecular reaction centers for conversion into chemical energy with nearly 100% efficiency. Speed is the key as the transfer of the solar energy takes place almost instantaneously such that little energy is wasted as heat.

  9. PnET-BGC: Modeling Biogeochemical Processes in a Northern Hardwood Forest Ecosystem

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This archived model product contains the directions, executables, and procedures for running PnET-BGC to recreate the results of: Gbondo-Tugbawa, S.S., C.T. Driscoll...

  10. PnET-BGC: Modeling Biogeochemical Processes in a Northern Hardwood Forest Ecosystem

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This archived model product contains the directions, executables, and procedures for running PnET-BGC to recreate the results of: Gbondo-Tugbawa, S.S.,...

  11. Locally hydrazine doped WSe2 p-n junction toward high-performance photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mengxing; Xie, Dan; Sun, Yilin; Li, Weiwei; Ren, Tianling

    2018-01-01

    Two dimensional (2D) materials have shown great potential in the photodetection and other optoelectronic applications. Exploiting 2D materials to form p-n junctions enables effective generation and separation of carriers excited by light, thus creating high-performance optoelectronic devices. This paper demonstrates a lateral WSe2 p-n junction through a locally hydrazine doping method. Good current-rectifying characteristics, including a high rectification ratio of ∼103, have been observed; this indicates that a high-quality p-n junction has been formed by chemical doping. Under light illumination, the device shows improved photoresponse capabilities with a responsivity of 30 mA W‑1, a detectivity of 6.18 × 108 Jones, photocurrent/dark current ratio of 103 and a response time of 2 ms. These results suggest an effective way to get a p-n junction and reveal the application potential of the device for next generation photodetectors.

  12. Single gate p-n junctions in graphene-ferroelectric devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinnefeld, J. Henry; Mason, Nadya, E-mail: nadya@illinois.edu [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Xu, Ruijuan; Pandya, Shishir; Martin, Lane W. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Rogers, Steven; Shim, Moonsub [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2016-05-16

    Graphene's linear dispersion relation and the attendant implications for bipolar electronics applications have motivated a range of experimental efforts aimed at producing p-n junctions in graphene. Here we report electrical transport measurements of graphene p-n junctions formed via simple modifications to a PbZr{sub 0.2}Ti{sub 0.8}O{sub 3} substrate, combined with a self-assembled layer of ambient environmental dopants. We show that the substrate configuration controls the local doping region, and that the p-n junction behavior can be controlled with a single gate. Finally, we show that the ferroelectric substrate induces a hysteresis in the environmental doping which can be utilized to activate and deactivate the doping, yielding an “on-demand” p-n junction in graphene controlled by a single, universal backgate.

  13. Comparison of the pp → π+pn and pp → π+d production rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fäldt, G.; Wilkin, C.

    2017-07-01

    Fully constrained bubble chamber data on the pp →π+ pn and pp →π+ d reactions are used to investigate the ratio of the counting rates for the two processes at low pn excitation energies. Whereas the ratio is in tolerable agreement with that found in a high resolution spectrometer experiment, the angular distribution in the final pn rest frame shows that the deviation from the predictions of final state interaction theory must originate primarily from higher partial waves in the pn system. These considerations might also be significant for the determination of the S-wave Λp scattering length from data on the pp →K+ Λp reaction.

  14. PnET Models: Carbon, Nitrogen, Water Dynamics in Forest Ecosystems (Vers. 4 and 5)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — PnET (Photosynthetic / EvapoTranspiration model) is a nested series of models of carbon, water, and nitrogen dynamics in forest ecosystems. The models can be used to...

  15. PnET Models: Carbon, Nitrogen, Water Dynamics in Forest Ecosystems (Vers. 4 and 5)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: PnET (Photosynthetic / EvapoTranspiration model) is a nested series of models of carbon, water, and nitrogen dynamics in forest ecosystems. The models can...

  16. Root Zone Cooling and Exogenous Spermidine Root-Pretreatment Promoting Lactuca sativa L. Growth and Photosynthesis in the High-Temperature Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin eSun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Root zone high-temperature stress is a major factor limiting hydroponic plant growth during the high-temperature season. The effects of root zone cooling (RZC; at 25°C and exogenous spermidine (Spd root-pretreatment (SRP, 0.1 mM on growth, leaf photosynthetic traits, and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of hydroponic Lactuca sativa L. grown in a high-temperature season (average temperature > 30°C were examined. Both treatments significantly promoted plant growth and photosynthesis in the high-temperature season, but the mechanisms of photosynthesis improvement in the hydroponic grown lettuce plants were different between the RZC and SRP treatments. The former improved plant photosynthesis by increasing stoma conductance (Gs to enhance CO2 supply, thus promoting photosynthetic electron transport activity and phosphorylation, which improved the level of the photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII, rather than enhancing CO2 assimilation efficiency. The latter improved plant photosynthesis by enhancing CO2 assimilation efficiency, rather than stomatal regulation. Combination of RZC and SRP significantly improved PN of lettuce plants in a high-temperature season by both improvement of Gs to enhance CO2 supply and enhancement of CO2 assimilation. The enhancement of photosynthetic efficiency in both treatments was independent of altering light-harvesting or excessive energy dissipation.

  17. Apparent photosynthesis and leaf stomatal diffusion in EDU treated ozone-sensitive bean plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, J.H.; Lee, E.H.; Heggestad, H.H.

    1978-01-01

    A new chemical, N-(2-(2-oxo-1-imidazolindinyl)ethyl)-N'-phenylurea (EDU), prevents O/sub 3/ injury to Bush Blue Lake 290 (BBL 290) leaves. Studies utilizing the chemical to understand the physiological and biochemical mechanisms of plant tolerance to O/sub 3/ required investigations into whether or not EDU altered stomatal diffusion rates and net photosynthesis Q/sub CO/sub 2//. This study indicates there were no significant differences in leaf conductance or Q/sub CO/sub 2// in soil-grown plants treated with EDU soil applications up to 50 mg/(15-cm dia.) pot. 11 references, 1 figure.

  18. C3 and C4 photosynthesis models: an overview from the perspective of crop modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, X; Struik, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    Nearly three decades ago Farquhar, von Caemmerer and Berry published a biochemical model for C3 photosynthetic rates (the FvCB model). The model predicts net photosynthesis (A) as the minimum of the Rubisco-limited rate of CO2 assimilation (Ac) and the electron transport-limited rate of CO2 assimilation (Aj). Given its simplicity and the growing availability of the required enzyme kinetic constants, the FvCB model has been used for a wide range of studies, from analysing underlying C3 leaf bi...

  19. Petri Nets-Applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 9. Petri Nets - Applications. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 9 September 1999 pp 44-52. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/09/0044-0052. Author Affiliations. Y Narahari ...

  20. Safety nets or straitjackets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Does regulation of working hours at national and sector level impose straitjackets, or offer safety nets to employees seeking working time flexibility? This article compares legislation and collective agreements in the metal industries of Denmark, Germany and the USA. The industry has historically...

  1. Coloured Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. This book introduces the constructs of the CPN modelling language and presents the related analysis methods. It provides a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN.

  2. Boom Booom Net Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Yong, Louisa; Dobie, Ian

    1999-01-01

    of an existing Internet radio station; Boom Booom Net Radio. Whilst necessity dictates some use of technology-related terminology, wherever possible we have endeavoured to keep such jargon to a minimum and to either explain it in the text or to provide further explanation in the appended glossary....

  3. Game Theory .net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Mikhael

    2003-01-01

    States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of GameTheory.net is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…

  4. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism...

  5. The Influence of Neocate in Paediatric Short Bowel Syndrome on PN Weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. De Greef

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical management of short bowel syndrome remains a multistage process. Although PN is crucial, early introduction of enteral feeding is mandatory. We describe retrospectively 4 patients with an ultrashort bowel who could be weaned off PN on very short terms after introduction of an amino-acid-based formula (Neocate. Patient 1 had congenital short bowel with 50 cm small bowel and 30 cm colon. He had persistent diarrhoea on a semielementary formula. When Neocate was introduced he could be weaned from PN within 6 months. Patient 2 needed multiple surgical interventions because of NEC at D 27. He maintained 40 cm small bowel and an intact colon and remained PN dependent on semielemental formula. After introducing Neocate, PN could be weaned within 3 months. In the next 2 patients, Neocate was introduced as initial enteral feeding after bowel resection following antenatal midgut volvulus. Patient 3 had 20 cm small bowel and an intact colon. PN was weaned after 2 months. Patient 4 had 9 cm small bowel and an intact colon. PN was weaned after 13 months. In all patients Ileocaecal valve (ICV was preserved. No consensus is reached on the type of formula to use for short bowel syndrome. Compared to recent data in the literature, the weaning period in these 4 patients was significantly shortened on an aminoacid based formula. The reason for this may lie in the antiallergic properties of this formula. We recommend the use of an amino-acid-based formula to induce earlier weaning of PN.

  6. A DESD-box helicase functions in salinity stress tolerance by improving photosynthesis and antioxidant machinery in rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. PB1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Sarvajeet Singh; Tajrishi, Marjan; Madan, Meenu; Tuteja, Narendra

    2013-05-01

    The exact mechanism of helicase-mediated salinity tolerance is not yet understood. We have isolated a DESD-box containing cDNA from Pisum sativum (Pea) and named it as PDH45. It is a unique member of DEAD-box helicase family; containing DESD instead of DEAD/H. PDH45 overexpression driven by constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus-35S promoter in rice transgenic [Oryza sativa L. cv. Pusa Basmati 1 (PB1)] plants confers salinity tolerance by improving the photosynthesis and antioxidant machinery. The Na(+) ion concentration and oxidative stress parameters in leaves of the NaCl (0, 100 or 200 mM) treated PDH45 overexpressing T1 transgenic lines were lower as compared to wild type (WT) rice plants under similar conditions. The 200 mM NaCl significantly reduced the leaf area, plant dry mass, net photosynthetic rate (PN), stomatal conductance (gs), intercellular CO2 (Ci), chlorophyll (Chl) content in WT plants as compared to the transgenics. The T1 transgenics exhibited higher glutathione (GSH) and ascorbate (AsA) contents under salinity stress. The activities of antioxidant enzymes viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reductase (GR) were significantly higher in transgenics; suggesting the existence of an efficient antioxidant defence system to cope with salinity induced-oxidative damage. Yeast two-hybrid assay indicated that the PDH45 protein interacts with Cu/Zn SOD, adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate-kinase, cysteine proteinase and eIF(4G), thus confirming the involvement of ROS scavenging machinery in the transgenic plants to provide salt tolerance. Furthermore, the T2 transgenics were also able to grow, flower, and set viable seeds under continuous salinity stress of 200 mM NaCl. This study provides insights into the mechanism of PDH45 mediated salinity stress tolerance by controlling the generation of stress induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and also by protecting the photosynthetic machinery through a

  7. Perineuronal nets in subcortical auditory nuclei of four rodent species with differing hearing ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Nichole L; Schofield, Brett R

    2017-12-26

    Perineuronal nets (PNs) are aggregates of extracellular matrix molecules that surround some neurons in the brain. While PNs occur widely across many cortical areas, subcortical PNs are especially associated with motor and auditory systems. The auditory system has recently been suggested as an ideal model system for studying PNs and their functions. However, descriptions of PNs in subcortical auditory areas vary, and it is unclear whether the variation reflects species differences or differences in staining techniques. Here, we used two staining techniques (one lectin stain and one antibody stain) to examine PN distribution in the subcortical auditory system of four different species: guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus), mice (Mus musculus, CBA/CaJ strain), Long-Evans rats (Rattus norvegicus), and naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber). We found that some auditory nuclei exhibit dramatic differences in PN distribution among species while other nuclei have consistent PN distributions. We also found that PNs exhibit molecular heterogeneity, and can stain with either marker individually or with both. PNs within a given nucleus can be heterogeneous or homogenous in their staining patterns. We compared PN staining across the frequency axes of tonotopically organized nuclei and among species with different hearing ranges. PNs were distributed non-uniformly across some nuclei, but only rarely did this appear related to the tonotopic axis. PNs were prominent in all four species; we found no systematic relationship between the hearing range and the number, staining patterns or distribution of PNs in the auditory nuclei. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Optoelectronic devices based on electrically tunable p-n diodes in a monolayer dichalcogenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugher, Britton W. H.; Churchill, Hugh O. H.; Yang, Yafang; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo

    2014-04-01

    The p-n junction is the functional element of many electronic and optoelectronic devices, including diodes, bipolar transistors, photodetectors, light-emitting diodes and solar cells. In conventional p-n junctions, the adjacent p- and n-type regions of a semiconductor are formed by chemical doping. Ambipolar semiconductors, such as carbon nanotubes, nanowires and organic molecules, allow for p-n junctions to be configured and modified by electrostatic gating. This electrical control enables a single device to have multiple functionalities. Here, we report ambipolar monolayer WSe2 devices in which two local gates are used to define a p-n junction within the WSe2 sheet. With these electrically tunable p-n junctions, we demonstrate both p-n and n-p diodes with ideality factors better than 2. Under optical excitation, the diodes demonstrate a photodetection responsivity of 210 mA W-1 and photovoltaic power generation with a peak external quantum efficiency of 0.2%, promising values for a nearly transparent monolayer material in a lateral device geometry. Finally, we demonstrate a light-emitting diode based on monolayer WSe2. These devices provide a building block for ultrathin, flexible and nearly transparent optoelectronic and electronic applications based on ambipolar dichalcogenide materials.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of p-n homojunction-containing zinc oxide nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guohua; Sundararajan, Abhishek; Mouti, Anas; Chang, Yao-Jen; Lupini, Andrew R.; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Strachan, Douglas R.; Guiton, Beth S.

    2013-02-01

    We illustrate a simple method to synthesize highly ordered ZnO axial p-n homojunction-containing nanowires using a low temperature method, and on a variety of substrates. X-ray diffraction, scanning transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy are used to reveal high quality single-crystalline wires with a [001] growth direction. The study of electrical transport through a single nanowire based device and cathodoluminescence via scanning transmission electron microscopy demonstrates that an axial p-n junction exists within each ZnO nanowire. This represents the first low temperature synthesis of axial p-n homojunction-containing ZnO nanowires with uniform and controllable diameters.We illustrate a simple method to synthesize highly ordered ZnO axial p-n homojunction-containing nanowires using a low temperature method, and on a variety of substrates. X-ray diffraction, scanning transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy are used to reveal high quality single-crystalline wires with a [001] growth direction. The study of electrical transport through a single nanowire based device and cathodoluminescence via scanning transmission electron microscopy demonstrates that an axial p-n junction exists within each ZnO nanowire. This represents the first low temperature synthesis of axial p-n homojunction-containing ZnO nanowires with uniform and controllable diameters. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr31639d

  10. VitisNet: "Omics" integration through grapevine molecular networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Grimplet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genomic data release for the grapevine has increased exponentially in the last five years. The Vitis vinifera genome has been sequenced and Vitis EST, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic tools and data sets continue to be developed. The next critical challenge is to provide biological meaning to this tremendous amount of data by annotating genes and integrating them within their biological context. We have developed and validated a system of Grapevine Molecular Networks (VitisNet. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The sequences from the Vitis vinifera (cv. Pinot Noir PN40024 genome sequencing project and ESTs from the Vitis genus have been paired and the 39,424 resulting unique sequences have been manually annotated. Among these, 13,145 genes have been assigned to 219 networks. The pathway sets include 88 "Metabolic", 15 "Genetic Information Processing", 12 "Environmental Information Processing", 3 "Cellular Processes", 21 "Transport", and 80 "Transcription Factors". The quantitative data is loaded onto molecular networks, allowing the simultaneous visualization of changes in the transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome for a given experiment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: VitisNet uses manually annotated networks in SBML or XML format, enabling the integration of large datasets, streamlining biological functional processing, and improving the understanding of dynamic processes in systems biology experiments. VitisNet is grounded in the Vitis vinifera genome (currently at 8x coverage and can be readily updated with subsequent updates of the genome or biochemical discoveries. The molecular network files can be dynamically searched by pathway name or individual genes, proteins, or metabolites through the MetNet Pathway database and web-portal at http://metnet3.vrac.iastate.edu/. All VitisNet files including the manual annotation of the grape genome encompassing pathway names, individual genes, their genome identifier, and chromosome

  11. A novel mechanistic interpretation of instantaneous temperature responses of leaf net photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Jörg; Alfarraj, Saleh; Rennenberg, Heinz; Adams, Mark

    2016-07-01

    Steady-state rates of leaf CO2 assimilation (A) in response to incubation temperature (T) are often symmetrical around an optimum temperature. A/T curves of C3 plants can thus be fitted to a modified Arrhenius equation, where the activation energy of A close to a low reference temperature is strongly correlated with the dynamic change of activation energy to increasing incubation temperature. We tested how [CO2] light, or [CO2] at 800 µmol mol(-1) and variable light affect parameters that describe A/T curves, and how these parameters are related to known properties of temperature-dependent thylakoid electron transport. Variation of light intensity and substomatal [CO2] had no influence on the symmetry of A/T curves, but significantly affected their breadth. Thermodynamic and kinetic (physiological) factors responsible for (i) the curvature in Arrhenius plots and (ii) the correlation between parameters of a modified Arrhenius equation are discussed. We argue that the shape of A/T curves cannot satisfactorily be explained via classical concepts assuming temperature-dependent shifts between rate-limiting processes. Instead the present results indicate that any given A/T curve appears to reflect a distinct flux mode, set by the balance between linear and cyclic electron transport, and emerging from the anabolic demand for ATP relative to that for NADPH.

  12. Does the 14C method estimate net photosynthesis? II. Implications from cyclostat studies of marine phytoplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Shaofeng; Laws, Edward A.

    2014-09-01

    Two species of marine phytoplankton, Isochrysis galbana and Chlorella kessleri, were grown in a continuous culture system on a 12-h:12-h light:dark cycle of illumination under nitrate-limited growth conditions. At growth rates of ~1 d-1, production rates estimated from 14C uptake were not significantly different from production rates estimated from changes in particulate organic carbon (POC) and total organic carbon (TOC). At growth rates of ~0.35 d-1, however, production rates based on uptake of 14C significantly (passimilation by a greater percentage at low growth rates than at high growth rates probably reflects the greater efficiency of intracellular recycling of respired CO2 at high growth rates. The fact that the extent of overestimation is greater when cells are grown on a light:dark cycle probably reflects the fact that not all carbon respired in the dark was fixed during the previous photoperiod and that intracellular recycling of respired CO2 during the photoperiod is inefficient during some phases of the synchronized growth that tends to be entrained by light:dark cycles.

  13. Can net photosynthesis and water relations provide a clue on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs.

  14. Ambient UV-B radiation decreases photosynthesis in high arctic Vaccinium uliginosum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, K.R.; Ro-Poulsen, H. (Univ. of Copenhagen, Dept. of Terrestrial Ecology, Copenhagen (DK)); Mikkelsen, T.N. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Biosystems Dept., Roskilde (DK))

    2008-06-15

    An UV-B-exclusion experiment was established in high arctic Zackenberg, Northeast Greenland, to investigate the possible effects of ambient UV-B on plant performance. During almost a whole growing season, canopy gas exchange and Chl fluorescence were measured on Vaccinium uliginosum (bog blueberry). Leaf area, biomass, carbon, nitrogen and UV-B-absorbing compounds were determined from a late season harvest. Compared with the reduced UV-B treatment, the plants in ambient UV-B were found to have a higher content of UV-B-absorbing compounds, and canopy net photosynthesis was as an average 23% lower during the season. By means of the JIP-test, it was found that the potential of processing light energy through the photosynthetic machinery was slightly reduced in ambient UV-B. This indicates that not only the UV-B effects on PSII may be responsible for some of the observed reduction of photosynthesis but also the effects on other parts of the photosynthetic machinery, e.g. the Calvin cycle, might be important. The 60% reduction of the UV-B irradiance used in this study implies a higher relative change in the UV-B load than many of the supplemental experiments do, but the substantial effect on photosynthesis clearly indicates that V. uliginosum is negatively affected by the current level of UV-B. (au)

  15. Reduced growth due to belowground sink limitation is not fully explained by reduced photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campany, Courtney E; Medlyn, Belinda E; Duursma, Remko A

    2017-08-01

    Sink limitation is known to reduce plant growth, but it is not known how plant carbon (C) balance is affected, limiting our ability to predict growth under sink-limited conditions. We manipulated soil volume to impose sink limitation of growth in Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. seedlings. Seedlings were grown in the field in containers of different sizes and planted flush to the soil alongside freely rooted (Free) seedlings. Container volume negatively affected aboveground growth throughout the experiment, and light saturated rates of leaf photosynthesis were consistently lower in seedlings in containers (-26%) compared with Free seedlings. Significant reductions in photosynthetic capacity in containerized seedlings were related to both reduced leaf nitrogen content and starch accumulation, indicating direct effects of sink limitation on photosynthetic downregulation. After 120 days, harvested biomass of Free seedlings was on average 84% higher than seedlings in containers, but biomass distribution in leaves, stems and roots was not different. However, the reduction in net leaf photosynthesis over the growth period was insufficient to explain the reduction in growth, so that we also observed an apparent reduction in whole-plant C-use efficiency (CUE) between Free seedlings and seedlings in containers. Our results show that sink limitation affects plant growth through feedbacks to both photosynthesis and CUE. Mass balance approaches to predicting plant growth under sink-limited conditions need to incorporate both of these feedbacks. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Record of C4 Photosynthesis Through the Late Neogene and Pleistocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerling, T. E.

    2016-12-01

    C4 photosynthesis is an adaptation to the low atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations experienced in the Neogene; it is found principally in tropical to sub-tropical/temperate regions where temperatures are high in the growing season. Although C4 photosynthesis makes up about 50% of Net Primary Productivity in tropical regions, its macroscopic fossil record is extremely sparse. Therefore, inferences to its significance in local ecosystems are based primarily on stable isotopes, with phytoliths become more important as phytolith morphology becomes better associated with plant structure and classification. Stable isotopes have been the principal recorder for understanding the history of C4 photosynthesis; however, different materials record different aspects of the C4 contribution to ecosystem structure and thus are telling different parts of the same story. With the fossil record so poorly known, we often assume similar ecosystem structures and functions as we observe in modern analogues. It is likely that large evolutionary changes have taken place within C4 plants as they went from 50% tropical NPP in the late Neogene.

  17. Modeling photosynthesis in sea ice-covered waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Matthew C.; Lindsay, Keith; Holland, Marika M.

    2015-09-01

    The lower trophic levels of marine ecosystems play a critical role in the Earth System mediating fluxes of carbon to the ocean interior. Many of the functional relationships describing biological rate processes, such as primary productivity, in marine ecosystem models are nonlinear functions of environmental state variables. As a result of nonlinearity, rate processes computed from mean fields at coarse resolution will differ from similar computations that incorporate small-scale heterogeneity. Here we examine how subgrid-scale variability in sea ice thickness impacts simulated net primary productivity (NPP) in a 1°×1° configuration of the Community Earth System Model (CESM). CESM simulates a subgrid-scale ice thickness distribution and computes shortwave penetration independently for each ice thickness category. However, the default model formulation uses grid-cell mean irradiance to compute NPP. We demonstrate that accounting for subgrid-scale shortwave heterogeneity by computing light limitation terms under each ice category then averaging the result is a more accurate invocation of the photosynthesis equations. Moreover, this change delays seasonal bloom onset and increases interannual variability in NPP in the sea ice zone in the model. The new treatment reduces annual production by about 32% in the Arctic and 19% in the Antarctic. Our results highlight the importance of considering heterogeneity in physical fields when integrating nonlinear biogeochemical reactions.

  18. Food Safety Nets:

    OpenAIRE

    Haggblade, Steven; Diallo, Boubacar; Staatz, John; Theriault, Veronique; Traoré, Abdramane

    2013-01-01

    Food and social safety nets have a history as long as human civilization. In hunter gatherer societies, food sharing is pervasive. Group members who prove unlucky in the short run, hunting or foraging, receive food from other households in anticipation of reciprocal consideration at a later time (Smith 1988). With the emergence of the first large sedentary civilizations in the Middle East, administrative systems developed specifically around food storage and distribution. The ancient Egyptian...

  19. Net technical assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Wegmann, David G.

    1989-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The present and near term military balance of power between the U.S. and the Soviet Union can be expressed in a variety of net assessments. One can examine the strategic nuclear balance, the conventional balance in Europe, the maritime balance, and many others. Such assessments are essential not only for policy making but for arms control purposes and future force structure planning. However, to project the future military balance, on...

  20. Effects of Salinity and N on the Growth, Photosynthesis and N Status of Canola (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad BYBORDI

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of NaCl salinity and N on the growth, ion concentrations and photosynthesis (Pn in three canola cultivars (SLM046 Okapi and Licord were investigated. The experiment was conducted with four NaCl levels (0, 50, 100, and 150 mM factoriallycombined with three N levels (100, 200, 300 mg l-1 as NH4 NO3 by adding to the half strength of Hoagland solution. The plants were growth in 121 pots filled with sand and perlite mixture (1:1 for 12 months. Salinity had a significant negative effect on all tratments, although the severity of the effect varied among the cultivars. High concentration of salinity (150 mM decreased the leaf area by 63%, 68% and 76% in cvs SLM046 and Licord and Okapi to that in control (Na0 N10. The plants growth were improved at 200 mg l-1 N concentration in cvs Licord and Okapi, but it was reduced when the N concentration increased up to 300 mg l-1. The growth of SLM046 progressively increased with the increasing both salinity and N levels. Both Pn and transpiration rate were significantly reduced by the increase of salinity in all three cultivars. Increasing of N levels in the solution had no effect on Pn in various salinity levels in cvs SLM046 and Licord, but in Okapi cv. Pn decreased as N level increased. Salinity in the root zone led to a significant decrease in both K concentration and K/Na ratio in the leaves in all cultivars regardless of the N levels. Within each N level, leaf Na concentration increased and K concentration decreased as salinity concentration in the root zone increased from 50 to 150 mM. Nitrate reductase (NR activity in 150 mM treated plants decreased by 27%, 58% and 52% in cvs SLM046, Licord and Okapi respectively. The decreased activity of NR by the increased NaCl was accompanied by a decrease in total N and nitrate uptake. The deleterious effects of salinity on the plants growth appeared to be as the result of the reduction in Pn, K/Na ratio and NR activity in the salinity treated plants. It

  1. [Effects of long-term mixed application of organic and inorganic fertilizers on canopy apparent photosynthesis and yield of winter wheat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Dong, Shu-ting; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Ji-wang; Zhao, Bin

    2015-08-01

    A field experiment was conducted using the winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) variety Shimai 15. The source of organic nitrogen was cow manure, and four fertilization treatments were included, i.e., no N fertilizer application, single application of urea, single application of cow manure, and mixed application of urea and cow manure. The effects of different applications of inorganic and organic nitrogen on canopy apparent photosynthesis (CAP), photosynthetic rate of flag leaves (Pn), leaf area index (LAI), florescence parameters and grain yield of winter wheat were determined. The results showed that urea had the largest effect on the early growth period, as at this stage the CAP, Pn and LAI of the single application of urea were the highest, which was followed by the mixed application and the single application of cow manure. However, 10 days after anthesis, the single application of cow manure and the mixed application delayed the leaf senescence process when compared with the single application of urea. This could be due to the two treatments having higher anti-oxidant enzyme activity and promoting a longer green leaf duration, which could maintain a higher photosynthetic capability. What' s more, the mixed application had a better performance and got the highest grain yield. Consequently, the mixed application of organic and inorganic fertilizers could delay leaf senescence and maintain a better canopy structure and higher photosynthesis capability at the late grain filling stage, which resulted in a higher grain yield.

  2. Using WordNet for Building WordNets

    CERN Document Server

    Farreres, X; Farreres, Xavier; Rodriguez, Horacio; Rigau, German

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarises a set of methodologies and techniques for the fast construction of multilingual WordNets. The English WordNet is used in this approach as a backbone for Catalan and Spanish WordNets and as a lexical knowledge resource for several subtasks.

  3. Entropy production in oscillatory processes during photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Agudelo, Víctor A; Barragán, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The flow of matter and heat and the rate of enzymatic reactions are examined using two models of photosynthesis that exhibit sustained and damped oscillatory dynamics, with the objective of calculating the rate of entropy generation and studying the effects of temperature and kinetic constants on the thermodynamic efficiency of photosynthesis. The global coefficient of heat transfer and the direct and inverse constants of the formation reaction of the RuBisCO-CO2 complex were used as control parameters. Results show that when the system moves from isothermal to non-isothermal conditions, the transition from a steady state to oscillations facilitates an increase in the energy efficiency of the process. The simulations were carried out for two photosynthetic models in a system on a chloroplast reactor scale.

  4. Artificial Photosynthesis with Semiconductor-Liquid Junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guijarro, Néstor; Formal, Florian Le; Sivula, Kevin

    2015-02-25

    Given the urgent need to develop a sustainable, carbon neutral energy storage system on a global scale, intense efforts are currently underway to advance the field of artificial photosynthesis: i.e. solar fuel engineering. In this review we give an overview of the field of artificial photosynthesis using a semiconductor-electrolyte interface employed in a photoelectrochemical device or as a heterogeneous photocatalyst. First we present a basic description of the operation principles of a semiconductor-liquid junction based device. The role of nanotechnology in the recent advances in the field is highlighted and common material systems under current study are briefly reviewed. The importance of the material surfaces are further scrutinized by presenting recent advances in interfacial engineering. Technical challenges and an outlook towards industrialization of the technology are given.

  5. Synthesis and structural characterization of the Zintl phases Na{sub 3}Ca{sub 3}TrPn{sub 4}, Na{sub 3}Sr{sub 3}TrPn{sub 4}, and Na{sub 3}Eu{sub 3}TrPn{sub 4} (Tr=Al, Ga, In; Pn=P, As, Sb)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yi [Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, University of Delaware, 304A Drake Hall, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Suen, Nian-Tzu [Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, University of Delaware, 304A Drake Hall, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225002 (China); Kunene, Thabiso; Stoyko, Stanislav [Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, University of Delaware, 304A Drake Hall, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Bobev, Svilen, E-mail: bobev@udel.edu [Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, University of Delaware, 304A Drake Hall, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2017-05-15

    15 new quaternary Zintl phases have been synthesized by solid-state reactions from the respective elements, and their structures have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Na{sub 3}E{sub 3}TrPn{sub 4} (E=Ca, Sr, Eu; Tr=Al, Ga, In; Pn=P, As, Sb) crystallize in the hexagonal crystal system with the non-centrosymmetric space group P6{sub 3}mc (No. 186). The structure represents a variant of the K{sub 6}HgS{sub 4} structure type (Pearson index hP22) and features [TrPn{sub 4}]{sup 9–} tetrahedral units, surrounded by Na{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+}, Sr{sup 2+}, Eu{sup 2+} cations. The nominal formula rationalization [Na{sup +}]{sub 3}[E{sup 2+}]{sub 3}[TrPn{sub 4}]{sup 9–} follows the octet rule, suggesting closed-shell configurations for all atoms and intrinsic semiconducting behavior. However, structure refinements for several members hint at disorder and mixing of cations that potentially counteract the optimal valence electron count. - Graphical abstract: The hexagonal, non-centrosymmetric structure of Na{sub 3}E{sub 3}TrPn{sub 4} (E=Ca, Sr, Eu; Tr=Al, Ga, In; Pn=P, As, Sb) features [TrPn{sub 4}]{sup 9–} tetrahedral units, surrounded by Na{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+}, Sr{sup 2+}, Eu{sup 2+} cations. - Highlights: • 15 quaternary phosphides, arsenides, and antimonides are synthesized and structurally characterized. • The structure is a variant of the hexagonal K{sub 6}HgS{sub 4}-type, with distinctive pattern for the cations. • Occupational and/or positional disorder of yet unknown origin exists for some members of the series.

  6. Optimum Temperatures for Net Primary Productivity of Three Tropical Seagrass Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Catherine J; Ow, Yan X; Langlois, Lucas; Uthicke, Sven; Johansson, Charlotte L; O'Brien, Katherine R; Hrebien, Victoria; Adams, Matthew P

    2017-01-01

    Rising sea water temperature will play a significant role in responses of the world's seagrass meadows to climate change. In this study, we investigated seasonal and latitudinal variation (spanning more than 1,500 km) in seagrass productivity, and the optimum temperatures at which maximum photosynthesis and net productivity (for the leaf and the whole plant) occurs, for three seagrass species (Cymodocea serrulata, Halodule uninervis, and Zostera muelleri). To obtain whole plant net production, photosynthesis, and respiration rates of leaves and the root/rhizome complex were measured using oxygen-sensitive optodes in closed incubation chambers at temperatures ranging from 15 to 43°C. The temperature-dependence of photosynthesis and respiration was fitted to empirical models to obtain maximum metabolic rates and thermal optima. The thermal optimum (Topt) for gross photosynthesis of Z. muelleri, which is more commonly distributed in sub-tropical to temperate regions, was 31°C. The Topt for photosynthesis of the tropical species, H. uninervis and C. serrulata, was considerably higher (35°C on average). This suggests that seagrass species are adapted to water temperature within their distributional range; however, when comparing among latitudes and seasons, thermal optima within a species showed limited acclimation to ambient water temperature (Topt varied by 1°C in C. serrulata and 2°C in H. uninervis, and the variation did not follow changes in ambient water temperature). The Topt for gross photosynthesis were higher than Topt calculated from plant net productivity, which includes above- and below-ground respiration for Z. muelleri (24°C) and H. uninervis (33°C), but remained unchanged at 35°C in C. serrulata. Both estimated plant net productivity and Topt are sensitive to the proportion of below-ground biomass, highlighting the need for consideration of below- to above-ground biomass ratios when applying thermal optima to other meadows. The thermal optimum

  7. Optimum Temperatures for Net Primary Productivity of Three Tropical Seagrass Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine J. Collier

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Rising sea water temperature will play a significant role in responses of the world's seagrass meadows to climate change. In this study, we investigated seasonal and latitudinal variation (spanning more than 1,500 km in seagrass productivity, and the optimum temperatures at which maximum photosynthesis and net productivity (for the leaf and the whole plant occurs, for three seagrass species (Cymodocea serrulata, Halodule uninervis, and Zostera muelleri. To obtain whole plant net production, photosynthesis, and respiration rates of leaves and the root/rhizome complex were measured using oxygen-sensitive optodes in closed incubation chambers at temperatures ranging from 15 to 43°C. The temperature-dependence of photosynthesis and respiration was fitted to empirical models to obtain maximum metabolic rates and thermal optima. The thermal optimum (Topt for gross photosynthesis of Z. muelleri, which is more commonly distributed in sub-tropical to temperate regions, was 31°C. The Topt for photosynthesis of the tropical species, H. uninervis and C. serrulata, was considerably higher (35°C on average. This suggests that seagrass species are adapted to water temperature within their distributional range; however, when comparing among latitudes and seasons, thermal optima within a species showed limited acclimation to ambient water temperature (Topt varied by 1°C in C. serrulata and 2°C in H. uninervis, and the variation did not follow changes in ambient water temperature. The Topt for gross photosynthesis were higher than Topt calculated from plant net productivity, which includes above- and below-ground respiration for Z. muelleri (24°C and H. uninervis (33°C, but remained unchanged at 35°C in C. serrulata. Both estimated plant net productivity and Topt are sensitive to the proportion of below-ground biomass, highlighting the need for consideration of below- to above-ground biomass ratios when applying thermal optima to other meadows. The

  8. Foliar phloem infrastructure in support of photosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Walter Adams

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Acclimatory adjustments of foliar minor loading veins in response to growth at different temperatures and light intensities are evaluated. These adjustments are related to their role in providing infrastructure for the export of photosynthetic products as a prerequisite for full acclimation of photosynthesis to the respective environmental conditions. Among winter-active apoplastic loaders, higher photosynthesis rates were associated with greater numbers of sieve elements per minor vein as well as an increased apparent total membrane area of cells involved in phloem loading (greater numbers of cells and/or greater cell wall invaginations. Among summer-active apoplastic loaders, higher photosynthesis rates were associated with increased vein density and, possibly, a greater number of sieve elements and companion cells per minor vein. Among symplastic loaders, minor loading vein architecture (number per vein and arrangement of cells was apparently constrained, but higher photosynthesis rates were associated with higher foliar vein densities and larger intermediary cells (presumably providing a greater volume for enzymes involved in active raffinose sugar synthesis. Winter-active apoplastic loaders thus apparently place emphasis on adjustments of cell membrane area (presumably available for transport proteins active in loading of minor veins, while symplastic loaders apparently place emphasis on increasing the volume of cells in which their active loading step takes place. Presumably to accommodate a greater flux of photosynthate through the foliar veins, winter-active apoplastic loaders also have a higher number of sieve elements per minor loading vein, whereas symplastic loaders and summer-active apoplastic loaders have a higher total number of veins per leaf area. These latter adjustments in the vasculature (during leaf development may also apply to the xylem (via greater numbers of tracheids per vein and/or greater vein density per leaf area

  9. Manganese and the Evolution of Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Woodward W.; Hemp, James; Johnson, Jena E.

    2015-09-01

    Oxygenic photosynthesis is the most important bioenergetic event in the history of our planet—it evolved once within the Cyanobacteria, and remained largely unchanged as it was transferred to algae and plants via endosymbiosis. Manganese plays a fundamental role in this history because it lends the critical redox behavior of the water-oxidizing complex of photosystem II. Constraints from the photoassembly of the Mn-bearing water-oxidizing complex fuel the hypothesis that Mn(II) once played a key role as an electron donor for anoxygenic photosynthesis prior to the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis. Here we review the growing body of geological and geochemical evidence from the Archean and Paleoproterozoic sedimentary records that supports this idea and demonstrates that the oxidative branch of the Mn cycle switched on prior to the rise of oxygen. This Mn-oxidizing phototrophy hypothesis also receives support from the biological record of extant phototrophs, and can be made more explicit by leveraging constraints from structural biology and biochemistry of photosystem II in Cyanobacteria. These observations highlight that water-splitting in photosystem II evolved independently from a homodimeric ancestral type II reaction center capable of high potential photosynthesis and Mn(II) oxidation, which is required by the presence of homologous redox-active tyrosines in the modern heterodimer. The ancestral homodimer reaction center also evolved a C-terminal extension that sterically precluded standard phototrophic electron donors like cytochrome c, cupredoxins, or high-potential iron-sulfur proteins, and could only complete direct oxidation of small molecules like Mn2+, and ultimately water.

  10. Photosynthesis in reproductive structures: costs and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, John A; Griffiths, Howard

    2015-04-01

    The role of photosynthesis by reproductive structures during grain-filling has important implications for cereal breeding, but the methods for assessing the contribution by reproductive structures to grain-filling are invasive and prone to compensatory changes elsewhere in the plant. A technique analysing the natural abundance of stable carbon isotopes in soluble carbohydrates has significant promise. However, it depends crucially on there being no more than two sources of organic carbon (leaf and ear/awn), with significantly different (13)C:(12)C ratios and no secondary fractionation during grain-filling. The role of additional peduncle carbohydrate reserves represents a potential means for N remobilization, as well as for hydraulic continuity during grain-filling. The natural abundance of the stable isotopes of carbon and oxygen are also useful for exploring the influence of reproduction on whole plant carbon and water relations and have been used to examine the resource costs of reproduction in females and males of dioecious plants. Photosynthesis in reproductive structures is widespread among oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, including many clades of algae and embryophytes of different levels of complexity. The possible evolutionary benefits of photosynthesis in reproductive structures include decreasing the carbon cost of reproduction and 'use' of transpiratory loss of water to deliver phloem-immobile calcium Ca(2+) and silicon [Si(OH)4] via the xylem. The possible costs of photosynthesis in reproductive structures are increasing damage to DNA from photosynthetically active, and hence UV-B, radiation and the production of reactive oxygen species. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Artificial photosynthesis in ranaspumin-2 based foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell, David; Todd, Jacob; Montemagno, Carlo

    2010-09-08

    We present a cell-free artificial photosynthesis platform that couples the requisite enzymes of the Calvin cycle with a nanoscale photophosphorylation system engineered into a foam architecture using the Tungara frog surfactant protein Ranaspumin-2. This unique protein surfactant allowed lipid vesicles and coupled enzyme activity to be concentrated to the microscale Plateau channels of the foam, directing photoderived chemical energy to the singular purpose of carbon fixation and sugar synthesis, with chemical conversion efficiencies approaching 96%.

  12. Ethylene polymerization by PN3-type pincer chromium(III) complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Gong, Dirong

    2014-12-01

    Chromium (III) complexes, Cr1, [2,6-(tBu2PNH) 2C5H4N]CrCl3; Cr2, [2,6-(Ph 2PNH)2C5H4N]CrCl3; Cr3, [2-(tBu2PNH)C5H4N]CrCl3 THF; Cr4, [6-(tBu2PNH)C5H4N-2- CH2NEt2]CrCl3; Cr5, [6-(tBu 2PNH)C5H4N-2-C3H2N 2]CrCl3; Cr6, [6-(tBu2PNH)C 5H4N-2-(3,5-Me2)C3H 2N2]CrCl3; Cr7, [6-(tBu 2PNH)C5H4N-2-(3,5-iPr 2)C3H2N2]CrCl3; Cr8, [6-(tBu2PNH)C5H4N-2-(3,5-Ph 2)C3H2N2]CrCl3, bearing a family of neutral PN3-type pincer ligands have been prepared. The molecular structure of Cr2 was further elucidated by the X-ray crystallographic analysis, showing an octahedral geometry. Treatment of these complexes with MAO or alkylaluminum led to catalysts with moderate activities (about 105 g (PE)/Cr(mol) h) for ethylene polymerization, affording exclusively linear low molecular weight solid PE without any detectable oligomers. Among Cr1-Cr8, the highest activity was achieved for Cr1/MAO at room temperature with production of PE with highest molecular weight, indicating that replacement of both tBu groups in Cr1 with Ph groups, or one PtBu2 with the N (imine) arm, resulted in a lower catalytic activity and lower M w. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  13. A model of canopy photosynthesis incorporating protein distribution through the canopy and its acclimation to light, temperature and CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ian R.; Thornley, John H. M.; Frantz, Jonathan M.; Bugbee, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims The distribution of photosynthetic enzymes, or nitrogen, through the canopy affects canopy photosynthesis, as well as plant quality and nitrogen demand. Most canopy photosynthesis models assume an exponential distribution of nitrogen, or protein, through the canopy, although this is rarely consistent with experimental observation. Previous optimization schemes to derive the nitrogen distribution through the canopy generally focus on the distribution of a fixed amount of total nitrogen, which fails to account for the variation in both the actual quantity of nitrogen in response to environmental conditions and the interaction of photosynthesis and respiration at similar levels of complexity. Model A model of canopy photosynthesis is presented for C3 and C4 canopies that considers a balanced approach between photosynthesis and respiration as well as plant carbon partitioning. Protein distribution is related to irradiance in the canopy by a flexible equation for which the exponential distribution is a special case. The model is designed to be simple to parameterize for crop, pasture and ecosystem studies. The amount and distribution of protein that maximizes canopy net photosynthesis is calculated. Key Results The optimum protein distribution is not exponential, but is quite linear near the top of the canopy, which is consistent with experimental observations. The overall concentration within the canopy is dependent on environmental conditions, including the distribution of direct and diffuse components of irradiance. Conclusions The widely used exponential distribution of nitrogen or protein through the canopy is generally inappropriate. The model derives the optimum distribution with characteristics that are consistent with observation, so overcoming limitations of using the exponential distribution. Although canopies may not always operate at an optimum, optimization analysis provides valuable insight into plant acclimation to environmental

  14. Predicting photosynthesis and transpiration responses to ozone: decoupling modeled photosynthesis and stomatal conductance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Lombardozzi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Plants exchange greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and water with the atmosphere through the processes of photosynthesis and transpiration, making them essential in climate regulation. Carbon dioxide and water exchange are typically coupled through the control of stomatal conductance, and the parameterization in many models often predict conductance based on photosynthesis values. Some environmental conditions, like exposure to high ozone (O3 concentrations, alter photosynthesis independent of stomatal conductance, so models that couple these processes cannot accurately predict both. The goals of this study were to test direct and indirect photosynthesis and stomatal conductance modifications based on O3 damage to tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera in a coupled Farquhar/Ball-Berry model. The same modifications were then tested in the Community Land Model (CLM to determine the impacts on gross primary productivity (GPP and transpiration at a constant O3 concentration of 100 parts per billion (ppb. Modifying the Vcmax parameter and directly modifying stomatal conductance best predicts photosynthesis and stomatal conductance responses to chronic O3 over a range of environmental conditions. On a global scale, directly modifying conductance reduces the effect of O3 on both transpiration and GPP compared to indirectly modifying conductance, particularly in the tropics. The results of this study suggest that independently modifying stomatal conductance can improve the ability of models to predict hydrologic cycling, and therefore improve future climate predictions.

  15. Photosynthesis research on yellowtops: macroevolution in progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschera, U; Niklas, K J

    2007-04-01

    The vast majority of angiosperms, including most of the agronomically important crop plants (wheat, etc.), assimilate CO2 through the inefficient C3 pathway of photosynthesis. Under ambient conditions these organisms loose about 1/3 of fixed carbon via photorespiration, an energetically wasteful process. Plants with C4 photosynthesis (such as maize) eliminate photorespiration via a biochemical CO2-pump and thus have a larger rate of carbon gain. The genus Flaveria (yellowtops, Asteraceae) contains not only C3 and C4 species, but also many C3-C4 intermediates, which have been interpreted as evolving from C3 to fully expressed C4 metabolism. However, the evolutionary significance of C3-C4Flaveria-intermediates has long been a matter of debate. A well-resolved phylogeny of nearly all Flaveria species has recently been published. Here, we review pertinent background information and combine this novel phylogeny with physiological data. We conclude that the Flaveria species complex provides a robust model system for the study of the transition from C3 to C4 photosynthesis, which is arguably a macroevolutionary event. We conclude with comments relevant to the current Intelligent Design debate.

  16. [Effects of salicylic acid on the leaf photosynthesis and antioxidant enzyme activities of cucumber seedlings under low temperature and light intensity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Ai, Xi-Zhen; Liang, Wen-Juan; Wang, Hong-Tao; Liu, Sheng-Xue; Zheng, Nan

    2009-02-01

    In order to elucidate the regulation functions of salicylic acid (SA) on the photosynthesis of cucumber under low temperature and light intensity, the seedlings of cucumber 'Jinyou 3' under low temperature and light intensity were foliar-sprayed with different concentration SA, and the leaf gas exchange parameters, photochemical efficiency, MDA content, and antioxidant enzyme activities were measured. The results showed that under low temperature and light intensity, the leaf photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr), actual photochemical efficiency of PS II (PhiPSII), and maximal photochemical efficiency of PS II (Fv/Fm) of the seedlings all decreased but the intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) increased, suggesting that nonstomatal limitation was the main cause of the decrease of Pn under low temperature and light intensity stress. Low temperature and light intensity also led to the increase of leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, the decrease of catalase (CAT) activity, and the decrease after an initial increase of peroxidase (POD) activity. However, foliar-spraying 0.5-2.5 mmol x L(-1) of SA before the stress increased the leaf Pn, Gs, Tr, PhiPSII, Fv/Fm, and activities of SOD, POD and CAT while decreased the Ci and MDA content, suggesting that SA could regulate the leaf photosynthetic functions of cucumber seedlings, and enhance the seedlings resistance against low temperature and light intensity. The optimum concentration of SA for the foliar-spraying was 1 mmol x L(-1).

  17. Lead accumulation reduces photosynthesis in the lead hyper-accumulator Salvinia minima Baker by affecting the cell membrane and inducing stomatal closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal-Alvarado, Daniel A; Espadas-Gil, Francisco; Sáenz-Carbonell, Luis; Talavera-May, Carlos; Santamaría, Jorge M

    2016-02-01

    Salvinia minima Baker accumulates a fair amount of lead in its tissues; however, no studies have investigated the effect of lead on the physiological processes that affect photosynthesis in this species. The objective of the present study was to assess whether the high amounts of lead accumulated by S. minima can affect its photosynthetic apparatus. The physiological changes in the roots and leaves in response to lead accumulation were analyzed. An exposure to 40 μM Pb(NO3)2 for 24 h (first stage) was sufficient to reduce the photosynthetic rate (Pn) by 44%. This reduction in Pn was apparently the result of processes at various levels, including damage to the cell membranes (mainly in roots). Interestingly, although the plants were transferred to fresh medium without lead for an additional 24 h (second stage), Pn not only remained low, but was reduced even further, which was apparently related to stomatal closure, and may have led to reduced CO2 availability. Therefore, it can be concluded that lead exposure first decreases the photosynthetic rate by damaging the root membrane and then induces stomatal closure, resulting in decreased CO2 availability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Proof nets for lingusitic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moot, R.C.A.

    2002-01-01

    This book investigates the possible linguistic applications of proof nets, redundancy free representations of proofs, which were introduced by Girard for linear logic. We will adapt the notion of proof net to allow the formulation of a proof net calculus which is soundand complete for the

  19. Teaching Tennis for Net Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Bryce

    1989-01-01

    A program for teaching tennis to beginners, NET (Net Easy Teaching) is described. The program addresses three common needs shared by tennis students: active involvement in hitting the ball, clearing the net, and positive reinforcement. A sample lesson plan is included. (IAH)

  20. Net4Care Ecosystem Website

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius; Rasmussen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    is a tele-monitoring scenario in which Net4Care clients are deployed in a gateway in private homes. Medical devices then connect to these gateways and transmit their observations to a Net4Care server. In turn the Net4Care server creates valid clinical HL7 documents, stores them in a national XDS repository...

  1. Effects of soil moisture regimes on photosynthesis and growth in cattail ( Typha latifolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuwen; Pezeshki, S. Reza; Goodwin, Shirlean

    2004-03-01

    Both waterlogging and water deficiency are major environmental factors affecting plant growth and functioning in many wetland and floodplain ecosystems across North America. Wetland plants possess various characteristics that enable them to survive and function in the intermittently flooded wetland environments, while their sensitivity to drought has received less attention. The present study quantified the photosynthetic and growth responses of cattail ( Typha latifolia), an important species of freshwater wetlands, to a wide range of soil moisture regimes. In addition, changes in the efficiency of photosynthetic apparatus following initiation of the treatments were investigated. Under greenhouse conditions, seedlings were subjected to four soil moisture regimes: (1) drained (control), (2) continuous flooding, (3) periodic flooding, and (4) periodic drought. Results indicated that dark fluorescence yield was increased in response to periodic drought, while it showed decreases under continuous flooding. Net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance were enhanced by continuous flooding and periodic flooding. In contrast, these parameters exhibited reduction under periodic drought. In addition, leaf chlorophyll content was adversely affected by periodic drought. Recovery of net photosynthesis was noted, along with enhanced height growth, in both continuously and periodically flooded plants. Meanwhile, continuous flooding enhanced biomass production while periodic drought led to biomass reduction. Periodic drought also contributed to substantial reduction in root growth compared with shoot growth. Therefore, the combined photosynthetic performance and growth responses of cattail are likely to contribute to the ability of this species to thrive in flooded condition but be susceptive to periodic drought.

  2. Exogenous application of ascorbic acid stimulates growth and photosynthesis of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. under drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samina Malik and Muhammad Ashraf

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought causes considerable reduction in plant growth. A hydroponic experiment was conducted to appraise the potential role of exogenously applied ascorbic acid in alleviating the effect of drought on wheat. Two contrasting wheat genotypes, a drought tolerant cultivar Chakwal-86 and a drought sensitive strain 6544-6 were used in the study. Drought was induced by dissolving 20% Polyethylene glycol (PEG8000 in the nutrient solution producing -0.6MPa osmotic stress. Drought caused a significant decrease in chlorophyll pigments and net photosynthesis resulting in growth reduction of both wheat genotypes. However, this decrease was more severe in the genotype 6544-6 compared to Chakwal-86. Ascorbic acid (AsA was applied through rooting medium, as a foliar spray and seed soaking treatment. Ascorbic acid treated seedlings of both genotypes maintained higher chlorophyll contents, net photosynthesis and growth compared to the non-treated plants. Of the three different modes of ascorbic acid application, rooting medium was more effective in alleviating the adversities of drought in wheat. `

  3. Optional use of CAM photosynthesis in two C4 species, Portulaca cyclophylla and Portulaca digyna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtum, Joseph A M; Hancock, Lillian P; Edwards, Erika J; Winter, Klaus

    2017-07-01

    Low levels of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) are demonstrated in two species with C4 photosynthesis, Portulaca cyclophylla and P. digyna. The expression of CAM in P. cyclophylla and P. digyna is facultative, i.e. optional. Well-watered plants did not accumulate acid at night and exhibited gas-exchange patterns consistent with C4 photosynthesis. CAM-type nocturnal acidification was reversible in that it was induced following drought and lost when droughted plants were rewatered. In P. cyclophylla, droughting was accompanied by a small but discernible net uptake of CO2 during the dark, whereas in P. digyna, net CO2 exchange at night approached the CO2 compensation point but did not transition beyond it. This report brings the number of known C4 species with a capacity for expressing CAM to six. All are species of Portulaca. The observation of CAM in P. cyclophylla and P. digyna is the first for species in the opposite-leaved (OL) Portulacelloid-anatomy lineage of Portulaca and for the Australian clade therein. The other four species are within the alternate-leaved (AL) lineage, in the Atriploid-anatomy Oleracea and the Pilosoid-anatomy Pilosa clades. Studies of the evolutionary origins of C4 and CAM in Portulaca will benefit from a more wide-range survey of CAM across its species, particularly in the C3-C4 intermediate-containing Cryptopetala clade. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Insight into mechanism of lanthanum (III) induced damage to plant photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huiqing; Wang, Lihong; Li, Yueli; Sun, Jingwen; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2016-05-01

    A great deal of literature is available regarding the environmental and ecological effects of rare earth element pollution on plants. These studies have shown that excess lanthanum (La) (III) in the environment can inhibit plant growth and even cause plant death. Moreover, inhibition of plant photosynthesis is known to be one of the physiological bases of these damages. However, the mechanism responsible for these effects is still unclear. In this study, the mechanism of La(III)-induced damage to plant photosynthesis was clarified from the viewpoint of the chloroplast ultrastructure, the contents of chloroplast mineral elements and chlorophyll, the transcription of chloroplast ATPase subunits and chloroplast Mg(2+)-ATPase activity, in which rice was selected as a study object. Following treatment with low level of La(III), the chloroplast ultrastructure of rice was not changed, and the contents of chloroplast mineral elements (Mg, P, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn) increased, but the chlorophyll content did not change significantly. Moreover, the transcription of chloroplast ATPase subunits, chloroplast Mg(2+)-ATPase activity, the net photosynthetic rate and growth indices increased. Following treatment with high levels of La(III), the chloroplast ultrastructure was damaged, chloroplast mineral elements (except Cu and Zn) and chlorophyll contents decreased, and the transcription of chloroplast ATPase subunits, chloroplast Mg(2+)-ATPase activity, the net photosynthetic rate and growth indices decreased. Based on these results, a possible mechanism of La(III)-induced damage to plant photosynthesis was proposed to provide a reference for scientific evaluation of the potential ecological risk of rare earth elements in the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The photoirradiation induced p-n junction in naphthylamine-based organic photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Linyi; Gao, Qiang; Xia, Youyi; Ang, Chung Yen; Bose, Purnandhu; Tan, Si Yu; Zhao, Yanli

    2015-09-21

    The bulk heterojunction (BHJ) plays an indispensable role in organic photovoltaics, and thus has been investigated extensively in recent years. While a p-n heterojunction is usually fabricated using two different donor and acceptor materials such as poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), it is really rare that such a BHJ is constructed by a single entity. Here, we presented a photoirradiation-induced p-n heterojunction in naphthylamine-based organic photovoltaic cells, where naphthylamine as a typical p-type semiconductor could be oxidized under photoirradiation and transformed into a new semiconductor with the n-type character. The p-n heterojunction was realized using both the remaining naphthylamine and its oxidative product, giving rise to the performance improvement in organic photovoltaic devices. The experimental results show that the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the devices could be achieved up to 1.79% and 0.43% in solution and thin film processes, respectively. Importantly, this technology using naphthylamine does not require classic P3HT and PCBM to realize the p-n heterojunction, thereby simplifying the device fabrication process. The present approach opens up a promising route for the development of novel materials applicable to the p-n heterojunction.

  6. Master Robotic Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Lipunov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the MASTER-Net project is to produce a unique fast sky survey with all sky observed over a single night down to a limiting magnitude of 19-20. Such a survey will make it possible to address a number of fundamental problems: search for dark energy via the discovery and photometry of supernovae (including SNIa, search for exoplanets, microlensing effects, discovery of minor bodies in the Solar System, and space-junk monitoring. All MASTER telescopes can be guided by alerts, and we plan to observe prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts synchronously in several filters and in several polarization planes.

  7. Art/Net/Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik; Lindstrøm, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    The seminar Art|Net|Work deals with two important changes in our culture. On one side, the network has become essential in the latest technological development. The Internet has entered a new phase, Web 2.0, including the occurrence of as ‘Wiki’s’, ‘Peer-2-Peer’ distribution, user controlled...... the praxis of the artist. We see different kinds of interventions and activism (including ‘hacktivism’) using the network as a way of questioning the invisible rules that govern public and semi-public spaces. Who ‘owns’ them? What kind of social relationships do they generate? On what principle...

  8. A methodological approach for using high-level Petri Nets to model the immune system response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennisi, Marzio; Cavalieri, Salvatore; Motta, Santo; Pappalardo, Francesco

    2016-12-22

    Mathematical and computational models showed to be a very important support tool for the comprehension of the immune system response against pathogens. Models and simulations allowed to study the immune system behavior, to test biological hypotheses about diseases and infection dynamics, and to improve and optimize novel and existing drugs and vaccines. Continuous models, mainly based on differential equations, usually allow to qualitatively study the system but lack in description; conversely discrete models, such as agent based models and cellular automata, permit to describe in detail entities properties at the cost of losing most qualitative analyses. Petri Nets (PN) are a graphical modeling tool developed to model concurrency and synchronization in distributed systems. Their use has become increasingly marked also thanks to the introduction in the years of many features and extensions which lead to the born of "high level" PN. We propose a novel methodological approach that is based on high level PN, and in particular on Colored Petri Nets (CPN), that can be used to model the immune system response at the cellular scale. To demonstrate the potentiality of the approach we provide a simple model of the humoral immune system response that is able of reproducing some of the most complex well-known features of the adaptive response like memory and specificity features. The methodology we present has advantages of both the two classical approaches based on continuous and discrete models, since it allows to gain good level of granularity in the description of cells behavior without losing the possibility of having a qualitative analysis. Furthermore, the presented methodology based on CPN allows the adoption of the same graphical modeling technique well known to life scientists that use PN for the modeling of signaling pathways. Finally, such an approach may open the floodgates to the realization of multi scale models that integrate both signaling pathways (intra

  9. Electron-beam-induced current measurements with applied bias provide insight to locally resolved acceptor concentrations at p-n junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Abou-Ras

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Electron-beam-induced current (EBIC measurements have been employed for the investigation of the local electrical properties existing at various types of electrical junctions during the past decades. In the standard configuration, the device under investigation is analyzed under short-circuit conditions. Further insight into the function of the electrical junction can be obtained when applying a bias voltage. The present work gives insight into how EBIC measurements at applied bias can be conducted at the submicrometer level, at the example of CuInSe2 solar cells. From the EBIC profiles acquired across ZnO/CdS/CuInSe2/Mo stacks exhibiting p-n junctions with different net doping densities in the CuInSe2 layers, values for the width of the space-charge region, w, were extracted. For all net doping densities, these values decreased with increasing applied voltage. Assuming a linear relationship between w2 and the applied voltage, the resulting net doping densities agreed well with the ones obtained by means of capacitance-voltage measurements.

  10. Light environment alters ozone uptake per net photosynthetic rate in black cherry trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredericksen, T S; Kolb, T E; Skelly, J M; Steiner, K C; Joyce, B J; Savage, J E

    1996-05-01

    Foliar ozone uptake rates of different-sized black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) trees were compared within a deciduous forest and adjacent openings in north-central Pennsylvania during one growing season. Study trees included open-grown seedlings and saplings, forest understory seedlings and saplings, and sunlit and shaded portions of mature canopy tree crowns. Instantaneous ozone uptake rates were highest in high-light environments primarily because of higher stomatal conductances. Low ozone uptake rates of seedlings and saplings in the forest understory could be attributed partially to lower average ambient ozone concentrations compared to the canopy and open environments. Among the tree size and light combinations tested, ozone uptake rates were highest in open-grown seedlings and lowest in forest-grown seedlings. Despite lower ozone uptake rates of foliage in shaded environments, ozone uptake per net photosynthesis of foliage in shaded environments was significantly higher than that of foliage in sunlit environments because of weaker coupling between net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in shaded environments. The potential for greater ozone injury in shaded environments as a result of greater ozone uptake per net photosynthesis is consistent with previous reports of greater ozone injury in shaded foliage than in sunlit foliage.

  11. [Effects of light intensity on photosynthesis and dry matter production of flue-cured tobacco at its seedling stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Liu, Guo-Shun; Chen, Guo-Hua; Xiang, De-En; Wu, Yun-Ping

    2010-08-01

    Taking flue-cured tobacco Yunyan 87 as test material, this paper studied its photosynthesis and dry matter production at seedling stage under 100%, 88%, 72%, and 62% natural light intensities. At noon of sunny days, 100% natural light intensity inhibited the photosynthesis, while proper shading (88% natural light intensity) could eliminate the inhibition, and the daily photosynthesis was significantly higher than other treatments. Shading reduced the light saturation point and compensation point, enhanced the apparent quantum yield of photosynthesis and the net photosynthetic rate under weak light, increased the chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b contents, but decreased the chlorophyll a/b and cartenoids contents. Under 88% natural light intensity, tobacco seedlings had higher light saturation point, lower compensation point, higher suitability to the change of light intensity, and higher photosynthetic potentiality. 100% natural light intensity was more advantageous to the transfer of dry matter and soluble sugar to stem, while 88% natural light intensity was more beneficial to the transfer of dry matter and soluble sugar to root. Under the conditions of this experiment, proper shading (88% natural light intensity treatment) could improve the seedling quality of flue-cured tobacco.

  12. Pronounced gradients of light, photosynthesis and O2 consumption in the tissue of the brown alga Fucus serratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Mads; Kühl, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Macroalgae live in an ever-changing light environment affected by wave motion, self-shading and light-scattering effects, and on the thallus scale, gradients of light and chemical parameters influence algal photosynthesis. However, the thallus microenvironment and internal gradients remain underexplored. In this study, microsensors were used to quantify gradients of light, O2 concentration, variable chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthesis and O2 consumption as a function of irradiance in the cortex and medulla layers of Fucus serratus. The two cortex layers showed more efficient light utilization compared to the medulla, calculated both from electron transport rates through photosystem II and from photosynthesis-irradiance curves. At moderate irradiance, the upper cortex exhibited onset of photosynthetic saturation, whereas lower thallus layers exhibited net O2 consumption. O2 consumption rates in light varied with depth and irradiance and were more than two-fold higher than dark respiration. We show that the thallus microenvironment of F. serratus exhibits a highly stratified balance of production and consumption of O2 , and when the frond was held in a fixed position, high incident irradiance levels on the upper cortex did not saturate photosynthesis in the lower thallus layers. We discuss possible photoadaptive responses and consequences for optimizing photosynthetic activity on the basis of vertical differences in light attenuation coefficients. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Elements of a dynamic systems model of canopy photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xin-Guang; Song, Qingfeng; Ort, Donald R

    2012-06-01

    Improving photosynthesis throughout the full canopy rather than photosynthesis of only the top leaves of the canopy is central to improving crop yields. Many canopy photosynthesis models have been developed from physiological and ecological perspectives, however most do not consider heterogeneities of microclimatic factors inside a canopy, canopy dynamics and associated energetics, or competition among different plants, and most models lack a direct linkage to molecular processes. Here we described the rationale, elements, and approaches necessary to build a dynamic systems model of canopy photosynthesis. A systems model should integrate metabolic processes including photosynthesis, respiration, nitrogen metabolism, resource re-mobilization and photosynthate partitioning with canopy level light, CO(2), water vapor distributions and heat exchange processes. In so doing a systems-based canopy photosynthesis model will enable studies of molecular ecology and dramatically improve our insight into engineering crops for improved canopy photosynthetic CO(2) uptake, resource use efficiencies and yields. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Soil Temperature Triggers the Onset of Photosynthesis in Korean Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiabing; Guan, Dexin; Yuan, Fenhui; Wang, Anzhi; Jin, Changjie

    2013-01-01

    In forest ecosystems, the onset of spring photosynthesis may have an important influence on the annual carbon balance. However, triggers for the onset of photosynthesis have yet to be clearly identified, especially for temperate evergreen conifers. The effects of climatic factors on recovery of photosynthetic capacity in a Korean pine forest were investigated in the field. No photosynthesis was detectable when the soil temperature was below 0°C even if the air temperature was far beyond 15°C. The onset of photosynthesis and sap flow was coincident with the time of soil thawing. The rates of recovery of photosynthetic capacity highly fluctuated with air temperature after onset of photosynthesis, and intermittent frost events remarkably inhibited the photosynthetic capacity of the needles. The results suggest that earlier soil thawing is more important than air temperature increases in triggering the onset of photosynthesis in Korean pine in temperate zones under global warming scenarios. PMID:23755227

  15. Helminth.net: expansions to Nematode.net and an introduction to Trematode.net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, John; Rosa, Bruce A.; Ozersky, Philip; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Zhang, Xu; Bhonagiri-Palsikar, Veena; Tyagi, Rahul; Wang, Qi; Choi, Young-Jun; Gao, Xin; McNulty, Samantha N.; Brindley, Paul J.; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2015-01-01

    Helminth.net (http://www.helminth.net) is the new moniker for a collection of databases: Nematode.net and Trematode.net. Within this collection we provide services and resources for parasitic roundworms (nematodes) and flatworms (trematodes), collectively known as helminths. For over a decade we have provided resources for studying nematodes via our veteran site Nematode.net (http://nematode.net). In this article, (i) we provide an update on the expansions of Nematode.net that hosts omics data from 84 species and provides advanced search tools to the broad scientific community so that data can be mined in a useful and user-friendly manner and (ii) we introduce Trematode.net, a site dedicated to the dissemination of data from flukes, flatworm parasites of the class Trematoda, phylum Platyhelminthes. Trematode.net is an independent component of Helminth.net and currently hosts data from 16 species, with information ranging from genomic, functional genomic data, enzymatic pathway utilization to microbiome changes associated with helminth infections. The databases’ interface, with a sophisticated query engine as a backbone, is intended to allow users to search for multi-factorial combinations of species’ omics properties. This report describes updates to Nematode.net since its last description in NAR, 2012, and also introduces and presents its new sibling site, Trematode.net. PMID:25392426

  16. Photosynthesis, transpiration and water use efficiencies of a plant canopy and plant leaves under restricted air current conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaya, Yoshiaki; Shibuya, Toshio; Tsuruyama, Joshin

    A fundamental study was conducted to obtain the knowledge for culturing plants and exchanging gases with plants under restricted air circulation conditions in space agriculture. The effects of air velocities less than 1.3 m s-1 on net photosynthetic rates (Pn), transpiration rates (Tr) and Pn/Tr, water use efficiencies (WUE), of a canopy of cucumber seedlings and of single leaves of cucumber, sweet potato and barley were assessed with assimilation chamber methods in ground based experiments. The cucumber seedling canopy, which had a LAI of 1.4 and height of 0.1 m, was set in a wind tunnel installed in a plant canopy assimilation chamber. Each of the attached single leaves was set in a leaf assimilation chamber. The Pn and Tr of the plant canopy increased to 1.2 and 2.8 times, respectively, and WUE decreased to 0.4 times with increasing the air velocity from 0.02 to 1.3 m s-1. The Pn and Tr of the single leaves of all the species increased by 1.3-1.7 and 1.9-2.2 times, respectively, and WUE decreased to 0.6-0.8 times as the air velocity increased from 0.05 to 0.8 m s-1. The effect of air velocity was more significant on Tr than on Pn and thus WUE decreased with increasing air velocity in both the plant canopy and the individual leaves. The leaf boundary layer resistance was approximately proportional to the minus 1/3 power of the air velocity. Stomatal resistance was almost constant during the experiment. The CO2 concentrations in the sub-stomatal cavity in leaves of cucumber, sweet potato and barley, respectively, were 43, 31 and 58 mmol mol-1 lower at the air velocity of 0.05 m s-1 than at the air velocity of 0.8 m s-1, while the water vapor pressure in the sub-stomatal cavity was constant. We concluded that the change in the CO2 concentration in the sub-stomatal cavity was a cause of the different effect of the air velocity on Pn and Tr, and thus on WUE. The phenomenon will be more remarkable under restricted air convection conditions at lower gravity in space.

  17. NETS FOR PEACH PROTECTED CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelia Schettini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the radiometric properties of coloured nets used to protect a peach cultivation. The modifications of the solar spectral distribution, mainly in the R and FR wavelength band, influence plant photomorphogenesis by means of the phytochrome and cryptochrome. The phytochrome response is characterized in terms of radiation rate in the red wavelengths (R, 600-700 nm to that in the farred radiation (FR, 700-800 nm, i.e. the R/FR ratio. The effects of the blue radiation (B, 400-500 nm is investigated by the ratio between the blue radiation and the far-red radiation, i.e. the B/FR ratio. A BLUE net, a RED net, a YELLOW net, a PEARL net, a GREY net and a NEUTRAL net were tested in Bari (Italy, latitude 41° 05’ N. Peach trees were located in pots inside the greenhouses and in open field. The growth of the trees cultivated in open field was lower in comparison to the growth of the trees grown under the nets. The RED, PEARL, YELLOW and GREY nets increased the growth of the trees more than the other nets. The nets positively influenced the fruit characteristics, such as fruit weight and flesh firmness.

  18. Electronic structure and transport properties of Ba{sub 2}Cd{sub 2}Pn{sub 3} (Pn = As and Sb): An efficient materials for energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reshak, A.H., E-mail: maalidph@yahoo.co.uk [New Technologies - Research Centre, University of West Bohemia, Univerzitni 8, 306 14 Pilsen (Czech Republic); Center of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology, School of Material Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis, 01007 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia)

    2016-06-15

    The full potential method within the recently modified Becke-Johnson potential explore that the Ba{sub 2}Cd{sub 2}Pn{sub 3} (Pn = As and Sb) compounds are narrow band gap semiconductors of about 0.49 and 0.32 eV, which confute the finding of the previous TB-LMTO-ASA calculation that Ba{sub 2}Cd{sub 2}Sb{sub 3} is a poor metal. It has been found that there are subtle difference in band desperations of the two compounds, resulting in significant influence on the electronic and transport properties, taking into account the size and the electro-negativity differences between As and Sb atoms. Calculation show that there exists a strong hybridization between the orbitals which may lead to form covalent bonding which is more favorable for the transport of the carriers than ionic one. The electronic structure, the anisotropy and the inter-atomic interactions are further analyzed by calculating the valence electronic charge density distribution in two crystallographic planes. The semi-classical Boltzmann theory as incorporated in BoltzTraP code was used to calculate the transport properties of Ba{sub 2}Cd{sub 2}As{sub 3} and Ba{sub 2}Cd{sub 2}Sb{sub 3} at different temperatures and chemical potentials to ascertain the influence of temperatures and substituting As by Sb on the transport properties. The carries mobility decreases with increasing the temperature also with increasing the carriers concentration. We have observed that substituting As by Sb lead to increase the carries mobility of Ba{sub 2}Cd{sub 2}Sb{sub 3} along the whole temperature interval and the carries concentration range. It has been found that Ba{sub 2}Cd{sub 2}As{sub 3} exhibit higher carriers concentration, electronic electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient than that of Ba{sub 2}Cd{sub 2}Sb{sub 3} along the investigated temperature range. The highest value of Seebeck coefficient occurs at 300 K, which show good agreement with the experimental data. The power factor increases linearly with

  19. The Peptide PnPP-19, a Spider Toxin Derivative, Activates μ-Opioid Receptors and Modulates Calcium Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. N. Freitas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthetic peptide PnPP-19 comprehends 19 amino acid residues and it represents part of the primary structure of the toxin δ-CNTX-Pn1c (PnTx2-6, isolated from the venom of the spider Phoneutria nigriventer. Behavioural tests suggest that PnPP-19 induces antinociception by activation of CB1, μ and δ opioid receptors. Since the peripheral and central antinociception induced by PnPP-19 involves opioid activation, the aim of this work was to identify whether this synthetic peptide could directly activate opioid receptors and investigate the subtype selectivity for μ-, δ- and/or κ-opioid receptors. Furthermore, we also studied the modulation of calcium influx driven by PnPP-19 in dorsal root ganglion neurons, and analyzed whether this modulation was opioid-mediated. PnPP-19 selectively activates μ-opioid receptors inducing indirectly inhibition of calcium channels and hereby impairing calcium influx in dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons. Interestingly, notwithstanding the activation of opioid receptors, PnPP-19 does not induce β-arrestin2 recruitment. PnPP-19 is the first spider toxin derivative that, among opioid receptors, selectively activates μ-opioid receptors. The lack of β-arrestin2 recruitment highlights its potential for the design of new improved opioid agonists.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of p-n homojunction-containing zinc oxide nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guohua; Sundararajan, Abhishek; Mouti, Anas; Chang, Yao-Jen; Lupini, Andrew R; Pennycook, Stephen J; Strachan, Douglas R; Guiton, Beth S

    2013-03-21

    We illustrate a simple method to synthesize highly ordered ZnO axial p-n homojunction-containing nanowires using a low temperature method, and on a variety of substrates. X-ray diffraction, scanning transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy are used to reveal high quality single-crystalline wires with a [001] growth direction. The study of electrical transport through a single nanowire based device and cathodoluminescence via scanning transmission electron microscopy demonstrates that an axial p-n junction exists within each ZnO nanowire. This represents the first low temperature synthesis of axial p-n homojunction-containing ZnO nanowires with uniform and controllable diameters.

  1. The ZnO p-n homojunctions modulated by ZnMgO barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Jing Yang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we fabricated the ultrathin ZnO p-n homojunctions, which modulated by ZnMgO asymmetrical double barriers (ADB. The ADB p-n homojunctions displays step-like curve in the absorption spectrums, this is the first time that quantum confinement effect has been observed in the absorption spectrums at room temperature (RT. The Hall-effect data confirm there is 2-dimensional electron gas in the interface of the ZnMgO ADB p-n junctions. The quantum confinement effect enhances the hall-mobility μ to 103 cm2V −1s−1 based on the polarity of the films. There was no rectification property in the ZnO homojunctions with thickness of 250nm, however, when the ADB was added in the n-type layer of the homojunctions, it displays a typical Zener diode rectification property in the I-V curve.

  2. Nanoscale imaging of the photoresponse in PN junctions of InGaAs infrared detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hui; Li, Tian-Xin; Tang, Heng-Jing; Zhu, Liang; Li, Xue; Gong, Hai-Mei; Lu, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Electronic layout, such as distributions of charge carriers and electric field, in PN junction is determinant for the photovoltaic devices to realize their functionality. Considerable efforts have been dedicated to the carrier profiling of this specific region with Scanning Probe Microscope, yet reliable analysis was impeded by the difficulty in resolving carriers with high mobility and the unclear surface effect, particularly on compound semiconductors. Here we realize nanometer Scanning Capacitance Microscopic study on the cross-section of InGaAs/InP photodetctors with the featured dC/dV layout of PN junction unveiled for the first time. It enables us to probe the photo-excited minority carriers in junction region and diagnose the performance deficiency of the diode devices. This work provides an illuminating insight into the PN junction for assessing its basic capability of harvesting photo-carriers as well as blocking leakage current in nanoscopic scale.

  3. Photosynthesis and growth reduction with warming are driven by nonstomatal limitations in a Mediterranean semi-arid shrub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Sánchez, Lupe; Nicolás, Emilio; Nortes, Pedro A; Maestre, Fernando T; Querejeta, José I

    2016-05-01

    Whereas warming enhances plant nutrient status and photosynthesis in most terrestrial ecosystems, dryland vegetation is vulnerable to the likely increases in evapotranspiration and reductions in soil moisture caused by elevated temperatures. Any warming-induced declines in plant primary production and cover in drylands would increase erosion, land degradation, and desertification. We conducted a four-year manipulative experiment in a semi-arid Mediterranean ecosystem to evaluate the impacts of a ~2°C warming on the photosynthesis, transpiration, leaf nutrient status, chlorophyll content, isotopic composition, biomass growth, and postsummer survival of the native shrub Helianthemum squamatum. We predicted that warmed plants would show reduced photosynthetic activity and growth, primarily due to the greater stomatal limitation imposed by faster and more severe soil drying under warming. On average, warming reduced net photosynthetic rates by 36% across the study period. Despite this strong response, warming did not affect stomatal conductance and transpiration. The reduction of peak photosynthetic rates with warming was more pronounced in a drought year than in years with near-average rainfall (75% and 25-40% reductions relative to controls, respectively), with no indications of photosynthetic acclimation to warming through time. Warmed plants had lower leaf N and P contents, δ (13)C, and sparser and smaller leaves than control plants. Warming reduced shoot dry mass production by 31%. However, warmed plants were able to cope with large reductions in net photosynthesis, leaf area, and shoot biomass production without changes in postsummer survival rates. Our findings highlight the key role of nonstomatal factors (biochemical and/or nutritional) in reducing net carbon assimilation rates and growth under warming, which has important implications for projections of plant carbon balance under the warmer and drier climatic scenario predicted for drylands worldwide

  4. Can the photosynthesis first step quantum mechanism be explained?

    OpenAIRE

    Sacilotti, Marco; Almeida, Euclides; Mota, Claudia C. B. O.; Nunes, Frederico Dias; Gomes,Anderson S. L.

    2010-01-01

    Photosynthesis first step mechanism concerns the sunlight absorption and both negative and positive charges separation. Recent and important photosynthesis literature claims that this mechanism is quantum mechanics controlled, however without presenting qualitative or quantitative scientifically based mechanism. The present accepted and old-fashioned photosynthesis mechanism model suffers from few drawbacks and an important issue is the absence of driving force for negative and positive charg...

  5. The role of ethylene perception in the control of photosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Tholen, Danny; Pons, Thijs L.; Voesenek, Laurentius ACJ; Poorter, Hendrik

    2008-01-01

    The process of photosynthesis is under the control by several internal factors. Apart from the effect of abscisic acid on stomatal conductance, little is known about the interaction between hormonal signals and photosynthesis in fully-developed, nonsenescing leaves. Recently, we found that the ethylene transduction pathway is involved in the regulation of photosynthesis. Using an ethylene-insensitive tobacco genotype we showed that the absence of a functional ethylene receptor leads to a redu...

  6. Growth, biomass production and photosynthesis of Cenchrus ciliaris L. under Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne based silvopastoral systems in semi arid tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, A K; Tiwari, H S; Bhatt, R K

    2010-11-01

    The growth, biomass production and photosynthesis of Cenchrus ciliaris was studied under the canopies of 17 yr old Acacia tortilis trees in semi arid tropical environment. On an average the full grown canopy of A. tortilis at the spacing of 4 x 4 m allowed 55% of total Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) which in turn increased Relative Humidity (RH) and reduced under canopy temperature to -1.75 degrees C over the open air temperature. C. ciliaris attained higher height under the shade of A. tortilis. The tiller production and leaf area index decreased marginally under the shade of tree canopies as compared to the open grown grasses. C. ciliaris accumulated higher chlorophyll a and b under the shade of tree canopies indicating its shade adaptation potential. The assimilatory functions such as rate of photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance, photosynthetic water use efficiency (PN/TR) and carboxylation efficiency (PN/CINT) decreased under the tree canopies due to low availability of PAR. The total biomass production in term of fresh and dry weight decreased under the tree canopies. On average of 2 yr C. ciliaris had produced 12.78 t ha(-1) green and 3.72 -t ha(-1) dry biomass under the tree canopies of A. tortilis. The dry matter yield reduced to 38% under the tree canopies over the open grown grasses. The A. tortilis + C. ciliaris maintained higher soil moisture, organic carbon content and available N P K for sustainable biomass production for the longer period. The higher accumulation of crude protein, starch, sugar and nitrogen in leaves and stem of C. ciliaris indicates that this grass species also maintained its quality under A. tortilis based silvopastoral system. The photosynthesis and dry matter accumulation are closely associated with available PAR indicating that for sustainable production of this grass species in the silvopasture systems for longer period about 55% or more PAR is required.

  7. A high performance charge plasma PN-Schottky collector transistor on silicon-on-insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loan, Sajad A.; Bashir, Faisal; Rafat, M.; Alamoud, Abdul Rehman M.; Abbasi, Shuja A.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a new high performance PN-Schottky collector (PN-SC) lateral bipolar junction transistor (BJT) on silicon-on-insulator (SOI). The proposed device addresses the problem of poor speed of conventional lateral PNP-BJT device by using a Schottky collector. Further, it does not use the conventional ways of ion implantation/diffusion to realize n and p type doped region. However, it uses metal electrodes of different work functions to create n and p type charge plasma in an undoped silicon film. The simulation study of the proposed lateral PN-SC bipolar charge plasma transistor on SOI (PN-SC-BCPT) device has shown a significant improvement in current gain (β), cutoff frequency (f T) and switching performance in comparison to conventional PNP-BJT and PNP-bipolar charge plasma transistor (PNP-BCPT) devices. A significantly high β is obtained in the proposed PN-SC-BCPT (˜2100) in comparison to PNP-BCPT (˜1450) and the conventional BJT (˜9) devices, respectively. It has been observed that there is 89.56% and 153.5% increase in f T for the proposed PN-SC-BCPT device (2.18 GHz) in comparison to conventional PNP-BJT (1.15 GHz) and PNP-BCPT (0.86 GHz) devices, respectively. Further, reductions of 24.6% and 15.4% in switching ON-delay and 66% and 30.76% in switching OFF-delay have been achieved in the proposed device based inverters in comparison to PNP-BCPT and the conventional BJT devices based inverters, respectively. Furthermore, the proposed device does not face doping related issues and the requirement of high temperature processing is absent.

  8. [Effects of shade and competition of Chenopodium album on photosynthesis, fluorescence and growth characteristics of Flaveria bidentis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qing; Li, Jing-Shi; Guo, Ai-Ying; Qi, Yan-Ling; Li, Yan-Sheng; Zhang, Feng-Juan

    2014-09-01

    It is necessary to elucidate its growth mechanism in order to prevent and control the further spread of Flaveria bidentis, an invasive plant in China. The effects of shading (shading rate of 0, 50% and 80%, respectively) and planting pattern (single cropping of F. bidentis, single cropping of Chenopodium album and their intercropping) on germination rate, fluorescence characteristics and growth characteristics of the two plants were investigated. The results showed that moderate shading contributed to emergence rate, but emergence rate of F. bidentis was not uniform, which was one of important factors as a stronger invader. With the increasing light intensity, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), photochemical quenching (qP), electron transport rate of PS II (ETR), quantum yield of PS II (Y), non-photochemical quenching (qN), water use efficiency (WUE), shoot bio-mass rate (SMR), crown width (CW) and dry biomass (DM) increased, specific leaf area (SLA) decreased, LMR of F. bidentis significantly increased, LMR of C. album changed insignificantly, and the increment of DM of F. bidentis was higher than that of C. album. In 80% shade treatment, Pn and DM of F. bidentis were lower than those of C. album. In natural light treatment, Pn, qN, WUE and relative competitive index (RCI) were the highest, CW and DM of intercropped F. bidentis and Pn, Y of C. album were significantly lower than that of the respective single treatment. F. bidentis had higher light saturation point (LSP) and light compensation point (LCP). In conclusion, the shade-tolerant ability of F. bidentis was weaker than that of C. album, but it was reversed in natural light treatment. The two plants adapted to the weak light in 80% shade treatment by increasing SLA and decreasing LMR. F. bidentis improved competition under natural light by increasing SMR and decreasing CW.

  9. EFFECT OF AIR TEMPERATURE ON LEAF PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN ELDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Popescu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Temperature with solar radiation intensity is the main external factor affecting photosynthesis process. Measurements were collected in the 2011 growing season. Photosynthesis and respiration measurements were made at Sambucus nigra leaves with a CO2 analyzer. The aim was to develop a model of photosynthesis in relation to temperature (which is in close relationship with air humidity. Photosynthesis of Sambucus nigra leaves is sensitive to temperature with an optimum around 25-28oC and rates declining by 18% with air temperature around 33-35oC.

  10. Coupling photocatalysis and redox biocatalysis toward biocatalyzed artificial photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sahng Ha; Kim, Jae Hong; Park, Chan Beum

    2013-04-02

    In green plants, solar-energy utilization is accomplished through a cascade of photoinduced electron transfer, which remains a target model for realizing artificial photosynthesis. We introduce the concept of biocatalyzed artificial photosynthesis through coupling redox biocatalysis with photocatalysis to mimic natural photosynthesis based on visible-light-driven regeneration of enzyme cofactors. Key design principles for reaction components, such as electron donors, photosensitizers, and electron mediators, are described for artificial photosynthesis involving biocatalytic assemblies. Recent research outcomes that serve as a proof of the concept are summarized and current issues are discussed to provide a future perspective. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Photosynthesis of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) in rainfed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . ... observed environments. These physiological results of wheat genotypes can be used to find adaptive and potential genotypes for changing environment. Keywords: Wheat, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration, environment.

  12. Underwater photosynthesis of submerged plants - recent advances and methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pedersen, Ole; Colmer, Timothy D; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2013-01-01

    We describe the general background and the recent advances in research on underwater photosynthesis of leaf segments, whole communities, and plant dominated aquatic ecosystems and present contemporary...

  13. [Effects of simulating acid rain on photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of Quercus glauca Quercus glauca].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sai; Yi, Li-Ta; Yu, Shu-Quan; Zhang, Chao; Shi, Jing-Jing

    2014-08-01

    At three levels of simulated acid rainfall intensities with pH values of 2.5 (severe), 40 (medium) and 5.6 (light) respectively, the responses of chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic parameters of Quercus glauca seedlings were studied in three acid rainfall treatments, i. e. only the aboveground of seedlings exposed to acid rain (T1), both of the seedlings and soil exposed to acid rain (T2), only the soil exposed to acid rain (T3) compared with blank control (CK). Under the severe acid rainfall, T1 significantly inhibited chlorophyll synthesis, and thus reduced the primary photochemical efficiency of PS II ( F(v)/F(m)), potential activity of PS II (F(v)/F(o)) , apparent quantum (Y), net photosynthetic rate (P(n)), and transpiration rate (T(r)), but increased the light compensation point (LCP) and dark respiration rate (R(d)) of Q. glauca seedlings. T2 inhibited, but T3 played a little enhancement on the aforementioned parameters of Q. glauca seedlings. Under the conditions of medium and light acid rainfall intensities, the above parameters in the three treatments were higher than that of CK, except with lower R(d). The chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic parameters showed a similar tendency in the three treatments, i. e. T2>T3 >T1. It indicated that T1 had the strongest inhibition on seedlings in condition of the severe acid rainfall, while T2 had the most dramatic facilitating effect on seedlings under the medium and light acid rainfall. Intensity of acid rainfall had significant influences on SPAD, F(v)/F(m), F(v)/F(o), Y, P(n), T(r), and maximum photosynthetic rate (A(max)), whereas treatments of acid rainfall affected SPAD, F(v)/F(m), Y, P(n), T(r), A(max) and light saturation point (LSP). The interaction of acid rainfall intensities and treatments played significant effects on SPAD, F(v)/F(m), Y, P(n) and A(max).

  14. Catalytic growth of vertically aligned SnS/SnS2 p-n heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degrauw, Aaron; Armstrong, Rebekka; Rahman, Ajara A.; Ogle, Jonathan; Whittaker-Brooks, Luisa

    2017-09-01

    Nanowire arrays of SnS/SnS2 p-n heterojunctions are grown on transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) coated-glass and Si/SiO2 substrates via chemical vapor transport (CVT). The nanowire arrays are comprised of individual SnS/SnS2 heterostructures that are highly oriented with their lengths and morphologies controlled by the CVT conditions (i.e. reaction temperature, flow rate, and reaction time). The growth and optoelectronic characterization of these well-defined SnS/SnS2 p-n heterostructures pave the way for the fabrication of highly efficient solar cell devices.

  15. Impact of temperature and nitrogen composition on the growth of GaAsPN alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Keisuke; Mugikura, Shun; Tanaka, Shunsuke; Goto, Masaya; Sekiguchi, Hiroto; Okada, Hiroshi; Wakahara, Akihiro

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the impact of temperature and nitrogen-composition on the growth mode and crystallinity of GaAsPN alloys. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction results combined with transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that maintaining two-dimensional (2-D) growth required higher temperatures when nitrogen composition increased. Outside the 2-D growth windows, stacking faults and micro-twins were preferentially formed at {1 1 1} B planes rather than at the {1 1 1} A planes and anomalous growth was observed. The photoluminescence spectra of GaAsPN layers implies that the higher temperature growth is effective for reducing the nitrogen-related point defects.

  16. Two southern planetary nebulae ESO 263-PN 02 and SchuWe-3

    CERN Document Server

    West, R M

    1980-01-01

    Spectroscopic observations show that two newly discovered southern objects, ESO 263-PN 02 and SchuWe-3, are planetary nebulae. ESO 263-PN 02 has a high excitation at the center and the 15/sup m/ central star is of very early type. SchuWe-3 has ring-shape, is reddened (A /sub V/ approximately 1/sup m/) and has a low excitation and electron density in the ring. The distance is estimated between 0.6 and 5 kpc, but is probably closer to the lower value. The measured velocities are +33+or-20 and -194+or-15 km s/sup -1/, respectively. (10 refs).

  17. The equivalency between logic Petri workflow nets and workflow nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue

    2015-01-01

    Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented.

  18. Functional analysis of corn husk photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengelly, Jasper J L; Kwasny, Scott; Bala, Soumi; Evans, John R; Voznesenskaya, Elena V; Koteyeva, Nuria K; Edwards, Gerald E; Furbank, Robert T; von Caemmerer, Susanne

    2011-06-01

    The husk surrounding the ear of corn/maize (Zea mays) has widely spaced veins with a number of interveinal mesophyll (M) cells and has been described as operating a partial C(3) photosynthetic pathway, in contrast to its leaves, which use the C(4) photosynthetic pathway. Here, we characterized photosynthesis in maize husk and leaf by measuring combined gas exchange and carbon isotope discrimination, the oxygen dependence of the CO(2) compensation point, and photosynthetic enzyme activity and localization together with anatomy. The CO(2) assimilation rate in the husk was less than that in the leaves and did not saturate at high CO(2), indicating CO(2) diffusion limitations. However, maximal photosynthetic rates were similar between the leaf and husk when expressed on a chlorophyll basis. The CO(2) compensation points of the husk were high compared with the leaf but did not vary with oxygen concentration. This and the low carbon isotope discrimination measured concurrently with gas exchange in the husk and leaf suggested C(4)-like photosynthesis in the husk. However, both Rubisco activity and the ratio of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase to Rubisco activity were reduced in the husk. Immunolocalization studies showed that phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase is specifically localized in the layer of M cells surrounding the bundle sheath cells, while Rubisco and glycine decarboxylase were enriched in bundle sheath cells but also present in M cells. We conclude that maize husk operates C(4) photosynthesis dispersed around the widely spaced veins (analogous to leaves) in a diffusion-limited manner due to low M surface area exposed to intercellular air space, with the functional role of Rubisco and glycine decarboxylase in distant M yet to be explained.

  19. Role of ascorbic acid in photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, B N

    2014-03-01

    Experimental data concerning the role of ascorbic acid in both the maintenance of photosynthesis and in the protection of the photosynthetic apparatus against reactive oxygen species and photoinhibition are reviewed. The function of ascorbic acid as an electron donor in the "Krasnovsky reaction", as well as its physiological role as a donor to components of the photosynthetic electron transport chain, which was first studied by A. A. Krasnovsky in the 1980s, is discussed. Data on the content and transport of ascorbic acid in plant cells and chloroplasts are presented.

  20. Enzyme Regulation in C4 Photosynthesis 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquot, Jean-Pierre P.; Buchanan, Bob B.; Martin, F.; Vidal, J.

    1981-01-01

    NADP-malate dehydrogenase, a light-modulated enzyme of C4 photosynthesis, was purified to homogeneity from leaves of corn. The pure enzyme was activated by thioredoxin m that was reduced either photochemically (with ferredoxin and ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase) or chemically (with dithiothreitol). Unactivated corn leaf NADP-malate dehydrogenase had a molecular weight of 50,000 to 60,000 and was chromophorefree. The enzyme appeared to have a high content of serine and glycine and to contain both S—S and SH groups. Consequently, NADP-malate dehydrogenase seems to be capable of undergoing reversible oxidation/reduction during its photoregulation. PMID:16661905

  1. Photosynthesis and obtaining hydrogen. Photosynthese und Wasserstoffgewinnung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohlhoff, J.

    1989-01-01

    The individual processes of photo synthesis can be divided into groups of primary and secondary reactions. The primary reactions include the processes due to the effect of light and lead to splitting of water to form oxygen and to instituting both and hydrogen store and an energy store. Chlorophyl acts as an absorber and transmitter of light energy. The photolysis of water can only occur with the photons of visible light of relatively low energy, because the photosynthesis reaction centres have membranes which catch the light, collect it (by using its energy to separate electric charges) and this makes a multi-quantum process possible. (orig.).

  2. The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis. XIV.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, Melvin; Bassham, J.A.; Benson, A.A.; Kawaguchi, S.; Lynch, V.H.; Stepka, W.; Tolbert, N.E.

    1951-06-30

    It seems hardly necessary to repeat to an audience of this kind the importance of the process known as photosynthesis in the interaction and the interdependence of organisms and in the very existence of life as we know it. This process by which green plants are able to capture electromagnetic energy in the form of sunlight and transform it into stored chemical energy in the form of a wide variety of reduced (relative to carbon dioxide) carbon compounds provides the only major source of energy for the maintenance and propagation of all life.

  3. [Influence of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration on photosynthesis and leaf nitrogen partition in process of photosynthetic carbon cycle in Musa paradisiaca].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, G; Zhao, P; Zeng, X; Peng, S

    2001-06-01

    The photosynthetic rate (Pn) in leaves of Musa paradisiaca grown under elevated CO2 concentration (700 +/- 56 microliters.L-1) for one week was 5.14 +/- 0.32 mumol.m-2.s-1, 22.1% higher than that under ambient CO2 concentration, while under elevated CO2 concentration for 8 week, the Pn decreased by 18.1%. It can be inferred that the photosynthetic acclimation to elevated CO2 concentration and the Pn inhibition occurred in leaves of M. paradisiaca. The respiration rate in light (Rd) was lower in leaves under higher CO2 concentration, compared with that under ambient CO2 concentration. If the respiration in light was not included, the difference in CO2 compensation point for the leaves of both plants was not significant. Under higher CO2 concentration for 8 weeks, the maximum carboxylation rate(Vcmax) and electron transportation rate (J) in leaves decreased respectively by 30.5% and 14.8%, compared with that under ambient CO2 concentration. The calculated apparent quantum yield (alpha) in leaves under elevated CO2 concentration according to the initial slope of Pn/PAR was reduced to 0.014 +/- 0.010 molCO2.mol-1 quanta, compared with the value of 0.025 +/- 0.005 molCO2.mol-1 quanta in the control. The efficiency of light energy conversion also decreased from 0.203 to 0.136 electrons.quanta-1 in plants under elevated CO2 concentration. A lower partitioning coefficient for leaf nitrogen in Rubisco, bioenergetics and thylakoid light-harvesting components was observed in plants under higher CO2 concentration. The results indicated that the multi-process of photosynthesis was suppressed significantly by a long-term (8 weeks) higher CO2 concentration incubation.

  4. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    studies that illustrate the practical use of CPN modelling and validation for design, specification, simulation, verification and implementation in various application domains. Their presentation primarily aims at readers interested in the practical use of CPN. Thus all concepts and constructs are first......Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism...... and the immense number of possible execution sequences. In this textbook, Jensen and Kristensen introduce the constructs of the CPN modelling language and present the related analysis methods in detail. They also provide a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN by showcasing selected industrial case...

  5. Characterization of vertical GaN p-n diodes and junction field-effect transistors on bulk GaN down to cryogenic temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilyalli, I. C.; Aktas, O.

    2015-12-01

    There is great interest in wide-bandgap semiconductor devices and most recently in vertical GaN structures for power electronic applications such as power supplies, solar inverters and motor drives. In this paper the temperature-dependent electrical behavior of vertical GaN p-n diodes and vertical junction field-effect transistors fabricated on bulk GaN substrates of low defect density (104 to 106 cm-2) is described. Homoepitaxial MOCVD growth of GaN on its native substrate and the ability to control the doping in the drift layers in GaN have allowed the realization of vertical device architectures with drift layer thicknesses of 6 to 40 μm and net carrier electron concentrations as low as 1 × 1015 cm-3. This parameter range is suitable for applications requiring breakdown voltages of 1.2 kV to 5 kV. Mg, which is used as a p-type dopant in GaN, is a relatively deep acceptor (E A ≈ 0.18 eV) and susceptible to freeze-out at temperatures below 200 K. The loss of holes in p-GaN has a deleterious effect on p-n junction behavior, p-GaN contacts and channel control in junction field-effect transistors at temperatures below 200 K. Impact ionization-based avalanche breakdown (BV > 1200 V) in GaN p-n junctions is characterized between 77 K and 423 K for the first time. At higher temperatures the p-n junction breakdown voltage improves due to increased phonon scattering. A positive temperature coefficient in the breakdown voltage is demonstrated down to 77 K; however, the device breakdown characteristics are not as abrupt at temperatures below 200 K. On the other hand, contact resistance to p-GaN is reduced dramatically above room temperature, improving the overall device performance in GaN p-n diodes in all cases except where the n-type drift region resistance dominates the total forward resistance. In this case, the electron mobility can be deconvolved and is found to decrease with T -3/2, consistent with a phonon scattering model. Also, normally-on vertical junction

  6. Diffusive and Metabolic Constraints to Photosynthesis in Quinoa during Drought and Salt Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killi, Dilek; Haworth, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) has been proposed as a hardy alternative to traditional grain crops in areas with warm-to-hot climates that are likely to experience increased drought and salt stress in the future. We characterised the diffusive and metabolic limitations to photosynthesis in quinoa exposed to drought and salt stress in isolation and combination. Drought-induced pronounced stomatal and mesophyll limitations to CO2 transport, but quinoa retained photosynthetic capacity and photosystem II (PSII) performance. Saline water (300 mmol NaCl-equivalent to 60% of the salinity of sea-water) supplied in identical volumes to the irrigation received by the control and drought treatments induced similar reductions in stomatal and mesophyll conductance, but also reduced carboxylation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, regeneration of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate, increased non-photochemical dissipation of energy as heat and impaired PSII electron transport. This suggests that ion toxicity reduced PN via interference with photosynthetic enzymes and degradation of pigment–protein complexes within the thylakoid membranes. The results of this study demonstrate that the photosynthetic physiology of quinoa is resistant to the effects of drought, but quinoa may not be a suitable crop for areas subject to strong salt stress or irrigation with a concentration of saline water equivalent to a 300 mmol NaCl solution. PMID:29039809

  7. Diffusive and Metabolic Constraints to Photosynthesis in Quinoa during Drought and Salt Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killi, Dilek; Haworth, Matthew

    2017-10-17

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) has been proposed as a hardy alternative to traditional grain crops in areas with warm-to-hot climates that are likely to experience increased drought and salt stress in the future. We characterised the diffusive and metabolic limitations to photosynthesis in quinoa exposed to drought and salt stress in isolation and combination. Drought-induced pronounced stomatal and mesophyll limitations to CO₂ transport, but quinoa retained photosynthetic capacity and photosystem II (PSII) performance. Saline water (300 mmol NaCl-equivalent to 60% of the salinity of sea-water) supplied in identical volumes to the irrigation received by the control and drought treatments induced similar reductions in stomatal and mesophyll conductance, but also reduced carboxylation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, regeneration of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate, increased non-photochemical dissipation of energy as heat and impaired PSII electron transport. This suggests that ion toxicity reduced PN via interference with photosynthetic enzymes and degradation of pigment-protein complexes within the thylakoid membranes. The results of this study demonstrate that the photosynthetic physiology of quinoa is resistant to the effects of drought, but quinoa may not be a suitable crop for areas subject to strong salt stress or irrigation with a concentration of saline water equivalent to a 300 mmol NaCl solution.

  8. Diffusive and Metabolic Constraints to Photosynthesis in Quinoa during Drought and Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Killi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. has been proposed as a hardy alternative to traditional grain crops in areas with warm-to-hot climates that are likely to experience increased drought and salt stress in the future. We characterised the diffusive and metabolic limitations to photosynthesis in quinoa exposed to drought and salt stress in isolation and combination. Drought-induced pronounced stomatal and mesophyll limitations to CO2 transport, but quinoa retained photosynthetic capacity and photosystem II (PSII performance. Saline water (300 mmol NaCl-equivalent to 60% of the salinity of sea-water supplied in identical volumes to the irrigation received by the control and drought treatments induced similar reductions in stomatal and mesophyll conductance, but also reduced carboxylation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, regeneration of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate, increased non-photochemical dissipation of energy as heat and impaired PSII electron transport. This suggests that ion toxicity reduced PN via interference with photosynthetic enzymes and degradation of pigment–protein complexes within the thylakoid membranes. The results of this study demonstrate that the photosynthetic physiology of quinoa is resistant to the effects of drought, but quinoa may not be a suitable crop for areas subject to strong salt stress or irrigation with a concentration of saline water equivalent to a 300 mmol NaCl solution.

  9. Carbon dioxide fixation by artificial photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibusuki, Takashi; Koike, Kazuhide; Ishitani, Osamu [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, AIST, MITI, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    Green plants can absorb atmospheric CO{sub 2} and transform it to sugars, carbohydrates through their photosynthetic systems, but they become the source of CO{sub 2} when they are dead. This is the reason why artificial leaves which can be alive forever should be developed to meet with global warming due to the increase of CO{sub 2} concentration. The goal of artificial photosynthesis is not to construct the same system as the photosynthetic one, but to mimic the ability of green plants to utilize solar energy to make high energy chemicals. Needless to say, the artificial photosynthetic system is desired to be as simple as possible and to be as efficient as possible. From the knowledge on photosynthesis and the results of previous investigations, the critical components of artificial photosynthetic system are understood as follows: (1) light harvesting chromophore, (2) a center for electron transfer and charge separation, (3) catalytic sites for converting small molecules like water and CO{sub 2} (mutilelectron reactions) which are schematically described.

  10. Strategies for improving C4 photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Caemmerer, Susanne; Furbank, Robert T

    2016-06-01

    Recent activities to improve photosynthetic performance in crop plants has focused mainly on C3 photosynthesis where there are clear identified targets such as improving Rubisco kinetics, installation of a CO2 concentrating mechanism and alleviating limitations in chloroplast electron transport. Here we address strategies to improve photosynthetic performance in C4 plants, which utilize a CO2 concentrating mechanism, having evolved a complex blend of anatomy and biochemistry to achieve this. While the limitations to photosynthetic flux are not as well studied in C4 plants, work in transgenic Flaveria bidentis, a transformable model C4 dicot, and recent transcriptional analysis of leaves from diverse C4 plants, provides several gene candidates for improvement of carbon metabolism (such as pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and Rubisco) and for access of CO2 to phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in the mesophyll cells (such as carbonic anhydrase and CO2 porins). Chloroplast electron transport in C4 plants is shared between the two cell types, providing opportunities not only to alleviate limitations to flux through intersystem electron transport by targeting nuclear encoded proteins in the cytochrome (Cyt) b6/f complex, but in better sharing the harvesting of light energy between mesophyll and bundle sheath chloroplasts. Gene candidates for improvement of C4 photosynthesis could be utilized either through transgenic approaches or via mining natural allelic variation in sequenced populations of crop species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Coupled electron transfers in artificial photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarström, Leif; Styring, Stenbjörn

    2008-03-27

    Light-induced charge separation in molecular assemblies has been widely investigated in the context of artificial photosynthesis. Important progress has been made in the fundamental understanding of electron and energy transfer and in stabilizing charge separation by multi-step electron transfer. In the Swedish Consortium for Artificial Photosynthesis, we build on principles from the natural enzyme photosystem II and Fe-hydrogenases. An important theme in this biomimetic effort is that of coupled electron-transfer reactions, which have so far received only little attention. (i) Each absorbed photon leads to charge separation on a single-electron level only, while catalytic water splitting and hydrogen production are multi-electron processes; thus there is the need for controlling accumulative electron transfer on molecular components. (ii) Water splitting and proton reduction at the potential catalysts necessarily require the management of proton release and/or uptake. Far from being just a stoichiometric requirement, this controls the electron transfer processes by proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET). (iii) Redox-active links between the photosensitizers and the catalysts are required to rectify the accumulative electron-transfer reactions, and will often be the starting points of PCET.

  12. Selective and differential optical spectroscopies in photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krausz, Elmars

    2013-10-01

    Photosynthetic pigments are inherently intense optical absorbers and have strong polarisation characteristics. They can also luminesce strongly. These properties have led optical spectroscopies to be, quite naturally, key techniques in photosynthesis. However, there are typically many pigments in a photosynthetic assembly, which when combined with the very significant inhomogeneous and homogeneous linewidths characteristic of optical transitions, leads to spectral congestion. This in turn has made it difficult to provide a definitive and detailed electronic structure for many photosynthetic assemblies. An electronic structure is, however, necessary to provide a foundation for any complete description of fundamental processes in photosynthesis, particularly those in reaction centres. A wide range of selective and differential spectral techniques have been developed to help overcome the problems of spectral complexity and congestion. The techniques can serve to either reduce spectral linewidths and/or extract chromophore specific information from unresolved spectral features. Complementary spectral datasets, generated by a number of techniques, may then be combined in a 'multi-dimensional' theoretical analysis so as to constrain and define effective models of photosynthetic assemblies and their fundamental processes. A key example is the work of Renger and his group (Raszewski, Biophys J 88(2):986-998, 2005) on PS II reaction centre assemblies. This article looks to provide an overview of some of these techniques and indicate where their strengths and weaknesses may lie. It highlights some of our own contributions and indicates areas where progress may be possible.

  13. The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassham, J. A.; Calvin, Melvin

    1960-10-01

    Biosynthesis begins with photosynthesis. Green plants and other photosynthetic organisms use the energy of absorbed visible light to make organic compounds from inorganic compounds. These organic compounds are the starting point for all other biosynthetic pathways. The products of photosynthesis provide not only the substrate material but also chemical energy for all subsequent biosynthesis. For example, nonphotosynthetic organisms making fats from sugars would first break down the sugars to smaller organic molecules. Some of the smaller molecules might be oxidized with O{sub 2} to CO{sub 2} and water. These reactions are accompanied by a release of chemical energy because O{sub 2} and sugar have a high chemical potential energy towards conversion to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. In a biochemical system only part of this energy would be released as heat. The heat would be used to bring about the conversion of certain enzymic cofactors to their more energetic forms. These cofactors would then enter into specific enzymic reactions in such a way as to supply energy to drive reactions in the direction of fat synthesis. Fats would be formed from the small organic molecules resulting from the breakdown of sugars. Thus sugar, a photosynthetic product, can supply both the energy and the material for the biosynthesis of fats.

  14. Review on optofluidic microreactors for artificial photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaowen; Wang, Jianchun; Li, Tenghao; Wang, Jianmei; Xu, Min; Yu, Weixing; El Abed, Abdel; Zhang, Xuming

    2018-01-01

    Artificial photosynthesis (APS) mimics natural photosynthesis (NPS) to store solar energy in chemical compounds for applications such as water splitting, CO2 fixation and coenzyme regeneration. NPS is naturally an optofluidic system since the cells (typical size 10 to 100 µm) of green plants, algae, and cyanobacteria enable light capture, biochemical and enzymatic reactions and the related material transport in a microscale, aqueous environment. The long history of evolution has equipped NPS with the remarkable merits of a large surface-area-to-volume ratio, fast small molecule diffusion and precise control of mass transfer. APS is expected to share many of the same advantages of NPS and could even provide more functionality if optofluidic technology is introduced. Recently, many studies have reported on optofluidic APS systems, but there is still a lack of an in-depth review. This article will start with a brief introduction of the physical mechanisms and will then review recent progresses in water splitting, CO2 fixation and coenzyme regeneration in optofluidic APS systems, followed by discussions on pending problems for real applications.

  15. Artificial photosynthesis: understanding water splitting in nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Nicholas; Pantazis, Dimitrios A; Neese, Frank; Lubitz, Wolfgang

    2015-06-06

    In the context of a global artificial photosynthesis (GAP) project, we review our current work on nature's water splitting catalyst. In a recent report (Cox et al. 2014 Science 345, 804-808 (doi:10.1126/science.1254910)), we showed that the catalyst-a Mn4O5Ca cofactor-converts into an 'activated' form immediately prior to the O-O bond formation step. This activated state, which represents an all Mn(IV) complex, is similar to the structure observed by X-ray crystallography but requires the coordination of an additional water molecule. Such a structure locates two oxygens, both derived from water, in close proximity, which probably come together to form the product O2 molecule. We speculate that formation of the activated catalyst state requires inherent structural flexibility. These features represent new design criteria for the development of biomimetic and bioinspired model systems for water splitting catalysts using first-row transition metals with the aim of delivering globally deployable artificial photosynthesis technologies.

  16. pn karimi'*, sm maru', jm bururia', kam kuria' and pa odhiamboz

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus at the Kenyatta National. Hospital, Nairobi. P.N. KARIMI'*, S.M. ... choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients. Key words: Prevalence ... poisoning, toxic shock syndrome and scalded skin syndrome [2]. Nasal carriage of ...

  17. Gate-tunable carbon nanotube–MoS2 heterojunction p-n diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jariwala, Deep; Sangwan, Vinod K.; Wu, Chung-Chiang; Prabhumirashi, Pradyumna L.; Geier, Michael L.; Marks, Tobin J.; Lauhon, Lincoln J.; Hersam, Mark C.

    2013-01-01

    The p-n junction diode and field-effect transistor are the two most ubiquitous building blocks of modern electronics and optoelectronics. In recent years, the emergence of reduced dimensionality materials has suggested that these components can be scaled down to atomic thicknesses. Although high-performance field-effect devices have been achieved from monolayered materials and their heterostructures, a p-n heterojunction diode derived from ultrathin materials is notably absent and constrains the fabrication of complex electronic and optoelectronic circuits. Here we demonstrate a gate-tunable p-n heterojunction diode using semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and single-layer molybdenum disulfide as p-type and n-type semiconductors, respectively. The vertical stacking of these two direct band gap semiconductors forms a heterojunction with electrical characteristics that can be tuned with an applied gate bias to achieve a wide range of charge transport behavior ranging from insulating to rectifying with forward-to-reverse bias current ratios exceeding 104. This heterojunction diode also responds strongly to optical irradiation with an external quantum efficiency of 25% and fast photoresponse <15 μs. Because SWCNTs have a diverse range of electrical properties as a function of chirality and an increasing number of atomically thin 2D nanomaterials are being isolated, the gate-tunable p-n heterojunction concept presented here should be widely generalizable to realize diverse ultrathin, high-performance electronics and optoelectronics. PMID:24145425

  18. Dynamic SPECT of the brain using a lipophilic technetium-99m complex, PnAO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, S; Andersen, A R; Vorstrup, S

    1985-01-01

    The lipophilic 99mTc-labeled oxime propylene amine oxime (PnAO) should, according to recent reports behave like 133Xe in the human brain. This study compares SPECT images of the two tracers in six subjects: four stroke cases, one transitory ischemic attack case and one normal subject. Technetium-......AO has a high yet incomplete brain extraction yielding a flow dominated initial distribution with limitations mentioned.......The lipophilic 99mTc-labeled oxime propylene amine oxime (PnAO) should, according to recent reports behave like 133Xe in the human brain. This study compares SPECT images of the two tracers in six subjects: four stroke cases, one transitory ischemic attack case and one normal subject. Technetium-99......m PnAO was injected i.v. as a bolus of 15 to 25 mCi. The distribution was followed over 10-sec intervals using a highly sensitive, rapidly rotating SPECT (Tomomatic 64) and compared to 133Xe flow maps. Upon arrival of the PnAO bolus to the brain, a high uptake was found in brain tissue with high...

  19. Enhanced spin Seebeck effect in a germanene p-n junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jun [College of New Energy, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121013 (China); Chi, Feng [School of Physical Science and Technology, Inner Mongolia University, Huhehaote 010023 (China); College of Engineering, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121013 (China); Guo, Yong [Department of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Quantum Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Collaborative Innovation of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China)

    2014-12-28

    Spin Seebeck effect in a germanene p-n junction is studied by using the nonequilibrium Green's function method combined with the tight-binding Hamiltonian. We find that the thermal bias ΔT can generate spin thermopower when a local exchange field is applied on one edge of the germanene nano-ribbon. The magnitude of the spin thermopower can be modulated by the potential drop across the two terminals of the p-n junction. When the value of the potential drop is smaller than the spin-orbit interaction strength, the spin thermopower is enhanced by two orders of magnitude larger as compared to the case of zero p-n voltage. Optimal temperature corresponding to maximum spin thermopower is insensitive to the potential drop. In the p-n region, maximum spin thermopower can be obtained at relatively higher temperatures. When the value of the potential drop is larger than that of the spin-orbit interaction, however, the spin Seebeck effect decays rapidly with increasing potential drop or temperature. By optimizing the structure parameters, the magnitude of the spin thermopower can be remarkably enhanced due to the coexistence of the exchange field and the potential drop.

  20. Gamma rays from the 31P(n, γ)32P reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelkoop, G. van

    1967-01-01

    The 31P(n, γ)32P reaction is studied with a 5 cm3 Ge(Li) counter. Altogether, 54 γ-rays are detected with experimental energy errors between 0.4 and 3.0 keV. The Q-value of the reaction is determined as Q = 7936.8±0.8 keV.

  1. Photocurrent generation in lateral graphene p-n junction created by electron-beam irradiation

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Xuechao

    2015-07-08

    Graphene has been considered as an attractive material for optoelectronic applications such as photodetectors owing to its extraordinary properties, e.g. broadband absorption and ultrahigh mobility. However, challenges still remain in fundamental and practical aspects of the conventional graphene photodetectors which normally rely on the photoconductive mode of operation which has the drawback of e.g. high dark current. Here, we demonstrated the photovoltaic mode operation in graphene p-n junctions fabricated by a simple but effective electron irradiation method that induces n-type doping in intrinsic p-type graphene. The physical mechanism of the junction formation is owing to the substrate gating effect caused by electron irradiation. Photoresponse was obtained for this type of photodetector because the photoexcited electron-hole pairs can be separated in the graphene p-n junction by the built-in potential. The fabricated graphene p-n junction photodetectors exhibit a high detectivity up to ~3 × 1010 Jones (cm Hz1/2 W−1) at room temperature, which is on a par with that of the traditional III–V photodetectors. The demonstrated novel and simple scheme for obtaining graphene p-n junctions can be used for other optoelectronic devices such as solar cells and be applied to other two dimensional materials based devices.

  2. THE REGULATION AND TREND OF PARTICIPATORY NOTES (PN) IN INDIA-- A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. D. S. Selvakumar*

    2016-01-01

    India allowed Foreign Institutional Investors (FIIs) to buy stocks listed on Indian exchanges. However, all investors, whether institutions or individuals, were required to register themselves with the capital markets regulator, SEBI. To get around these restrictions, FIIs started to issue so-called participatory notes. This paper attempts to review the problems, regulations, growth and the recent trends in PN investments.

  3. Estimating p-n Diode Bulk Parameters, Bandgap Energy and Absolute Zero by a Simple Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocaya, R. O.; Dejene, F. B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a straightforward but interesting experimental method for p-n diode characterization. The method differs substantially from many approaches in diode characterization by offering much tighter control over the temperature and current variables. The method allows the determination of important diode constants such as temperature…

  4. The 2H(e, e' p)n reaction at large energy transfers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willering, Hendrik Willem

    2003-01-01

    At the ELSA accelerator facillity in Bonn, Germany, we have measured the deutron "breakup" reaction 2H(e,e' p)n at four-momentum transfers around Q2 = -0 .20(GeV/c)2 with an electron beam energy of E0 = 1.6 GeV. The cross section has been determined for energy transfers extending from the

  5. Cycle multiplicity of total graph of Cn, Pn, and K1,n | Ali ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cycle multiplicity of a graph G is the maximum number of edge disjoint cycles in G. In this paper, we find the cycle multiplicity of total graph of cycles Cn, paths Pn, and star graph K1,n respectively. Keywords: cycle multiplicity, total graph, cycle, path, star graph.

  6. Total number of planetary nebulae in different galaxies and the PN distance scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peimbert, M.

    1990-12-01

    RESUMEN A partir de una muestra de quince galaxias se encuentra que la tasa de natalidad de nebulosas planetarias por unidad de luminosidad, , disminuye al aumentar la luminosidad y al aumentar (B - V)0. Se discuten posibles explicaciones para estos resultados. Se estima el valor de para la Galaxia y a partir de el se encuentra que el numero total de nebulosas planetarias en nuestra galaxia con R mortalidad estelar por unidad de luminosidad y la tasa de natalidad de enanas blancas favorecen escalas de distancias largas para nebulosas planetarias, como la de Cudworth (1974) y la de Mallik y Peimbert (1988). ABSTRACT From a sample of fifteen galaxies it is found that the birth rate of PN per unit luminosity, , decreases with increasing luminosity and with increasing (B - V)0 possible reasons for these relationships are discussed. The value for the Galaxy is estimated and, from it, a total number of PN of 7200 # 1800 wid R < 0.64 pc is obtained. The galactic value implies that most of the intermediate mass stars go through the PN stage. The galactic value, the stellar death rate per unit luminosity and the white dwarf birth rate are in favor of long distance scales to PN like those of Cudworth (1974) and Mallik and (1988). Key wonis: NEBULAE.PLANETARY - STARS-EVOLUTION - STARS-SThLIAR STA. S

  7. Photocurrent spectroscopy of exciton and free particle optical transitions in suspended carbon nanotube pn-junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Shun-Wen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States); Theiss, Jesse; Hazra, Jubin; Aykol, Mehmet; Kapadia, Rehan [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States); Cronin, Stephen B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States)

    2015-08-03

    We study photocurrent generation in individual, suspended carbon nanotube pn-junction diodes formed by electrostatic doping using two gate electrodes. Photocurrent spectra collected under various electrostatic doping concentrations reveal distinctive behaviors for free particle optical transitions and excitonic transitions. In particular, the photocurrent generated by excitonic transitions exhibits a strong gate doping dependence, while that of the free particle transitions is gate independent. Here, the built-in potential of the pn-junction is required to separate the strongly bound electron-hole pairs of the excitons, while free particle excitations do not require this field-assisted charge separation. We observe a sharp, well defined E{sub 11} free particle interband transition in contrast with previous photocurrent studies. Several steps are taken to ensure that the active charge separating region of these pn-junctions is suspended off the substrate in a suspended region that is substantially longer than the exciton diffusion length and, therefore, the photocurrent does not originate from a Schottky junction. We present a detailed model of the built-in fields in these pn-junctions, which, together with phonon-assistant exciton dissociation, predicts photocurrents on the same order of those observed experimentally.

  8. Spin-dependent Seebeck effects in a graphene superlattice p-n junction with different shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Benhu; Zhou, Benliang; Yao, Yagang; Zhou, Guanghui; Hu, Ming

    2017-10-01

    We theoretically calculate the spin-dependent transmission probability and spin Seebeck coefficient for a zigzag-edge graphene nanoribbon p-n junction with periodically attached stubs under a perpendicular magnetic field and a ferromagnetic insulator. By using the nonequilibrium Green’s function method combining with the tight-binding Hamiltonian, it is demonstrated that the spin-dependent transmission probability and spin Seebeck coefficient for two types of superlattices can be modulated by the potential drop, the magnetization strength, the number of periods of the superlattice, the strength of the perpendicular magnetic field, and the Anderson disorder strength. Interestingly, a metal to semiconductor transition occurs as the number of the superlattice for a crossed superlattice p-n junction increases, and its spin Seebeck coefficient is much larger than that for the T-shaped one around the zero Fermi energy. Furthermore, the spin Seebeck coefficient for crossed systems can be much pronounced and their maximum absolute value can reach 528 μV K-1 by choosing optimized parameters. Besides, the spin Seebeck coefficient for crossed p-n junction is strongly enhanced around the zero Fermi energy for a weak magnetic field. Our results provide theoretical references for modulating the thermoelectric properties of a graphene superlattice p-n junction by tuning its geometric structure and physical parameters.

  9. Hydrogenation of esters catalyzed by ruthenium PN3-Pincer complexes containing an aminophosphine arm

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Tao

    2014-08-11

    Hydrogenation of esters under mild conditions was achieved using air-stable ruthenium PN3-pincer complexes containing an aminophosphine arm. High efficiency was achieved even in the presence of water. DFT studies suggest a bimolecular proton shuttle mechanism which allows H2 to be activated by the relatively stable catalyst with a reasonably low transition state barrier. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  10. Relating Leaf Nitrogen, Leaf Photosynthesis and Canopy CO2 Exchange in a Temperate Winter Barley Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, R.; Boegh, E.; Herbst, M.; Friborg, T.

    2012-12-01

    Net exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere and the soil-vegetation interface (NEE) is controlled by a wide range of biochemical and biophysical processes where leaf photosynthesis is often the most important. In mechanistically and physically based photosynthesis models (e.g. Farquhar et al. 1980) leaf nutrient status is a limiting factor for the photosynthetic capacity since it is implicitly incorporated through the parameters of maximum rate of carboxylation of CO2 (Vcmax) and the maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax). These are closely related to leaf nitrogen concentration (Na) and leaf chlorophyll content (Cab) and often show a characteristic seasonal dynamic. When simulating CO2 exchange, model outputs are sensitive to leaf photosynthetic capacity, which is labour consuming to verify through field measurements. A less time consuming method is to measure leaf "greenness" (SPAD), which is closely related to chlorophyll content and thus photosynthetic capacity. In the present study field measurements of leaf photosynthesis (LI-6400, LICOR Inc.), leaf reflectance (SPAD-502, Minolta), and LAI (LAI-2000, LICOR Inc.) were conducted on agricultural fields in Western Denmark during one growing season. The leaf photosynthesis measurements provided the basis for estimating photosynthetic capacity. SPAD measurements and LAI was measured with a higher spatial and temporal resolution. SPAD readings were calibrated against Cab and Na analyzed on leaf material in the laboratory and later correlated to photosynthetic capacity. These data were used to parameterize a coupled photosynthesis and stomatal model that was run for the growing season 2012 to estimate NEE. As a part of the hydrological observatory HOBE (hobe.dk), fluxes of greenhouse gasses are continuously measured by eddy covariance systems at three field sites in the Skjern River Catchment, Western Denmark, providing the basis for estimating the exchange of energy, water vapour, and CO2 on canopy scale. One of

  11. On the relation between phototaxis and photosynthesis in Rhodospirillum Rubrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, J.B.; Nijenhuis, L.E.

    1950-01-01

    The relation between phototaxis and photosynthesis in Rhodospirillum rubrum has been studied. The light intensity at which saturation is reached in photosynthesis proved to coincide with that at which the contrast sensitivity starts to decrease. Potassium cyanide, which preferably inhibits the

  12. A model for chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthesis at leaf scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van der C.; Verhoef, W.; Rosema, A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a leaf biochemical model for steady-state chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthesis of C3 and C4 vegetation. The model is a tool to study the relationship between passively measured steady-state chlorophyll fluorescence and actual photosynthesis, and its evolution during the

  13. The Relation of Quantum Requirement in Photosynthesis toRespiration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassham, James A.; Shibata, Kazuo; Calvin, M.

    1955-01-21

    1. The r a t e s of photosynthesis and subsequent respiration of Chlorella pyrenoidosa were measured using an oxygen analyzer (sensitive to paramagnetism). The energy absorbed during the photosynthesis periods was determined and the quantum requirement was calculated. 2. Dark respiration r a t e was found to depend on the r a t e of light absorption during the period of photosynthesis, and increased with increasing photosynthesis rate. 3 . The quantum requirement, corrected for respiration, varied from 4. 9 ( a t a ratio of photosynthesis to respiration of 1.4) to 6. 9 (at a r a t i o of 12). Both uncorrected and corrected quantum requirements approach an experimental value of 7. 4 a t high light intensity. 4. The lower quantum requirement obtained a t low light intensity is believed to be due to a relatively greater importance of contribution of energy from respiration t o photosynthesis. An expression i s derived for the relation between this contribution and the enhancement of dark respiration due to the level of photosynthesis to which the plants a r e conditioned. 5. Attempts to obtain the blue -light stimulation of photosynthesis with algae photosynthesizing in r e d light were unsuccessful.

  14. Influence of varying light regimes on photosynthesis and related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Variation in the light environment in tropical forests affects plant germination, photosynthesis, growth, and reproduction (Longman and Jenik, 1987; Tokahashi and. Rustandi, 2006). Adequate data on photosynthesis are lacking for most forest species (Mooney et al., 1983). The capacity of plants to intercept and use radiant ...

  15. Modelling C₃ photosynthesis from the chloroplast to the ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernacchi, Carl J; Bagley, Justin E; Serbin, Shawn P; Ruiz-Vera, Ursula M; Rosenthal, David M; Vanloocke, Andy

    2013-09-01

    Globally, photosynthesis accounts for the largest flux of CO₂ from the atmosphere into ecosystems and is the driving process for terrestrial ecosystem function. The importance of accurate predictions of photosynthesis over a range of plant growth conditions led to the development of a C₃ photosynthesis model by Farquhar, von Caemmerer & Berry that has become increasingly important as society places greater pressures on vegetation. The photosynthesis model has played a major role in defining the path towards scientific understanding of photosynthetic carbon uptake and the role of photosynthesis on regulating the earth's climate and biogeochemical systems. In this review, we summarize the photosynthesis model, including its continued development and applications. We also review the implications these developments have on quantifying photosynthesis at a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, and discuss the model's role in determining photosynthetic responses to changes in environmental conditions. Finally, the review includes a discussion of the larger-scale modelling and remote-sensing applications that rely on the leaf photosynthesis model and are likely to open new scientific avenues to address the increasing challenges to plant productivity over the next century. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. Exploring Undergraduates' Understanding of Photosynthesis Using Diagnostic Question Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Joyce M.; Anderson, Charles W.; Heidemann, Merle; Merrill, John; Merritt, Brett; Richmond, Gail; Urban-Lurain, Mark

    2012-01-01

    We present a diagnostic question cluster (DQC) that assesses undergraduates' thinking about photosynthesis. This assessment tool is not designed to identify individual misconceptions. Rather, it is focused on students' abilities to apply basic concepts about photosynthesis by reasoning with a coordinated set of practices based on a few scientific…

  17. Exploring Photosynthesis and Plant Stress Using Inexpensive Chlorophyll Fluorometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cessna, Stephen; Demmig-Adams, Barbara; Adams, William W., III

    2010-01-01

    Mastering the concept of photosynthesis is of critical importance to learning plant physiology and its applications, but seems to be one of the more challenging concepts in biology. This teaching challenge is no doubt compounded by the complexity by which plants alter photosynthesis in different environments. Here we suggest the use of chlorophyll…

  18. Photosynthesis sensitivity to climate change in land surface models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique-Sunen, Andrea; Black, Emily; Verhoef, Anne; Balsamo, Gianpaolo

    2016-04-01

    Accurate representation of vegetation processes within land surface models is key to reproducing surface carbon, water and energy fluxes. Photosynthesis determines the amount of CO2 fixated by plants as well as the water lost in transpiration through the stomata. Photosynthesis is calculated in land surface models using empirical equations based on plant physiological research. It is assumed that CO2 assimilation is either CO2 -limited, radiation -limited ; and in some models export-limited (the speed at which the products of photosynthesis are used by the plant) . Increased levels of atmospheric CO2 concentration tend to enhance photosynthetic activity, but the effectiveness of this fertilization effect is regulated by environmental conditions and the limiting factor in the photosynthesis reaction. The photosynthesis schemes at the 'leaf level' used by land surface models JULES and CTESSEL have been evaluated against field photosynthesis observations. Also, the response of photosynthesis to radiation, atmospheric CO2 and temperature has been analysed for each model, as this is key to understanding the vegetation response that climate models using these schemes are able to reproduce. Particular emphasis is put on the limiting factor as conditions vary. It is found that while at present day CO2 concentrations export-limitation is only relevant at low temperatures, as CO2 levels rise it becomes an increasingly important restriction on photosynthesis.

  19. Growth response to a changing environment-Impacts of tropospheric ozone dose on photosynthesis of Norway spruce forests in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaozhen; Pietsch, Stephan; Hasenauer, Hubert

    2010-05-01

    Tropospheric ozone is an important air pollutant, although plants have active defense strategies (e.g. antioxidants), the cumulative ozone dose may lead to chronic damages to plant tissues. Ozone enters into plants through stomata and reacts with other chemicals to create toxic compounds. This affects plant photosynthesis and may reduce CO2 fixation, and consequently growth. Open top cambers (OTC) are usually used to study the effects of elevated ozone levels on photosynthesis; whereas field studies with on site occurring ozone levels are rare. A recent modelling study on Norway spruce stands in Austria exhibited trends in model errors indicating that an increase in ozone dose leads to a reduction in volume increment. This study aims to explore how different ozone doses affect photosynthesis under field conditions and may translate into growth response for 12 stands of Norway spruce, distributed along an ozone concentration gradient across Austria. A LI-6400xt photosynthesis system was utilized to collect physiological parameters including net photosynthesis, stomata conductance, internal CO2 concentration, transpiration, etc. Chlorophyll fluorescence data was collected by using a PEA chlorophyll fluorescence meter, and chlorophyll content was measured. Morphological characteristics and soil samples were also analyzed. Ozone dose to leaf tissue was calculated from external ozone concentration, the conductance of the stomata to ozone, the leaf area index and the time span of the day when ozone uptake takes place. Our results confirm that increasing cumulative ozone dose reduces maximum assimilation rate and carboxylation efficiency under field conditions. Our final goal is to quantify how far this ozone induced reduction in assimilation power ultimately translates into a growth reduction of Norway spruce in Austria.

  20. Spring Hydrology Determines Summer Net Carbon Uptake in Northern Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yonghong; Kimball, John; Reichle, Rolf H.

    2014-01-01

    Increased photosynthetic activity and enhanced seasonal CO2 exchange of northern ecosystems have been observed from a variety of sources including satellite vegetation indices (such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index; NDVI) and atmospheric CO2 measurements. Most of these changes have been attributed to strong warming trends in the northern high latitudes (greater than or equal to 50N). Here we analyze the interannual variation of summer net carbon uptake derived from atmospheric CO2 measurements and satellite NDVI in relation to surface meteorology from regional observational records. We find that increases in spring precipitation and snow pack promote summer net carbon uptake of northern ecosystems independent of air temperature effects. However, satellite NDVI measurements still show an overall benefit of summer photosynthetic activity from regional warming and limited impact of spring precipitation. This discrepancy is attributed to a similar response of photosynthesis and respiration to warming and thus reduced sensitivity of net ecosystem carbon uptake to temperature. Further analysis of boreal tower eddy covariance CO2 flux measurements indicates that summer net carbon uptake is positively correlated with early growing-season surface soil moisture, which is also strongly affected by spring precipitation and snow pack based on analysis of satellite soil moisture retrievals. This is attributed to strong regulation of spring hydrology on soil respiration in relatively wet boreal and arctic ecosystems. These results document the important role of spring hydrology in determining summer net carbon uptake and contrast with prevailing assumptions of dominant cold temperature limitations to high-latitude ecosystems. Our results indicate potentially stronger coupling of boreal/arctic water and carbon cycles with continued regional warming trends.

  1. Leaf photosynthesis and respiration of three bioenergy crops in relation to temperature and leaf nitrogen: how conserved are biochemical model parameters among crop species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archontoulis, S V; Yin, X; Vos, J; Danalatos, N G; Struik, P C

    2012-01-01

    Given the need for parallel increases in food and energy production from crops in the context of global change, crop simulation models and data sets to feed these models with photosynthesis and respiration parameters are increasingly important. This study provides information on photosynthesis and respiration for three energy crops (sunflower, kenaf, and cynara), reviews relevant information for five other crops (wheat, barley, cotton, tobacco, and grape), and assesses how conserved photosynthesis parameters are among crops. Using large data sets and optimization techniques, the C(3) leaf photosynthesis model of Farquhar, von Caemmerer, and Berry (FvCB) and an empirical night respiration model for tested energy crops accounting for effects of temperature and leaf nitrogen were parameterized. Instead of the common approach of using information on net photosynthesis response to CO(2) at the stomatal cavity (A(n)-C(i)), the model was parameterized by analysing the photosynthesis response to incident light intensity (A(n)-I(inc)). Convincing evidence is provided that the maximum Rubisco carboxylation rate or the maximum electron transport rate was very similar whether derived from A(n)-C(i) or from A(n)-I(inc) data sets. Parameters characterizing Rubisco limitation, electron transport limitation, the degree to which light inhibits leaf respiration, night respiration, and the minimum leaf nitrogen required for photosynthesis were then determined. Model predictions were validated against independent sets. Only a few FvCB parameters were conserved among crop species, thus species-specific FvCB model parameters are needed for crop modelling. Therefore, information from readily available but underexplored A(n)-I(inc) data should be re-analysed, thereby expanding the potential of combining classical photosynthetic data and the biochemical model.

  2. Leaf photosynthesis and respiration of three bioenergy crops in relation to temperature and leaf nitrogen: how conserved are biochemical model parameters among crop species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archontoulis, S. V.; Yin, X.; Vos, J.; Danalatos, N. G.; Struik, P. C.

    2012-01-01

    Given the need for parallel increases in food and energy production from crops in the context of global change, crop simulation models and data sets to feed these models with photosynthesis and respiration parameters are increasingly important. This study provides information on photosynthesis and respiration for three energy crops (sunflower, kenaf, and cynara), reviews relevant information for five other crops (wheat, barley, cotton, tobacco, and grape), and assesses how conserved photosynthesis parameters are among crops. Using large data sets and optimization techniques, the C3 leaf photosynthesis model of Farquhar, von Caemmerer, and Berry (FvCB) and an empirical night respiration model for tested energy crops accounting for effects of temperature and leaf nitrogen were parameterized. Instead of the common approach of using information on net photosynthesis response to CO2 at the stomatal cavity (An–Ci), the model was parameterized by analysing the photosynthesis response to incident light intensity (An–Iinc). Convincing evidence is provided that the maximum Rubisco carboxylation rate or the maximum electron transport rate was very similar whether derived from An–Ci or from An–Iinc data sets. Parameters characterizing Rubisco limitation, electron transport limitation, the degree to which light inhibits leaf respiration, night respiration, and the minimum leaf nitrogen required for photosynthesis were then determined. Model predictions were validated against independent sets. Only a few FvCB parameters were conserved among crop species, thus species-specific FvCB model parameters are needed for crop modelling. Therefore, information from readily available but underexplored An–Iinc data should be re-analysed, thereby expanding the potential of combining classical photosynthetic data and the biochemical model. PMID:22021569

  3. Can the photosynthesis first step quantum mechanism be explained?

    CERN Document Server

    Sacilotti, Marco; Mota, Claudia C B O; Nunes, Frederico Dias; Gomes, Anderson S L

    2010-01-01

    Photosynthesis first step mechanism concerns the sunlight absorption and both negative and positive charges separation. Recent and important photosynthesis literature claims that this mechanism is quantum mechanics controlled, however without presenting qualitative or quantitative scientifically based mechanism. The present accepted and old-fashioned photosynthesis mechanism model suffers from few drawbacks and an important issue is the absence of driving force for negative and positive charges separation. This article presents a new qualitative model for this first step mechanism in natural catalytic systems such as photosynthesis in green leaves. The model uses a concept of semiconductor band gap engineering, such as the staggered energy band gap line-up in semiconductors. To explain the primary mechanism in natural photosynthesis the proposal is the following: incident light is absorbed inside the leaves causing charges separation. The only energetic configuration that allows charges separation under illum...

  4. Botryticides affect grapevine leaf photosynthesis without inducing defense mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Anne-Noëlle; Wojnarowiez, Geneviève; Panon, Marie-Laure; Baillieul, Fabienne; Clément, Christophe; Fontaine, Florence; Vaillant-Gaveau, Nathalie

    2009-02-01

    The effects of the two botryticides, fludioxonil (fdx) and fenhexamid (fhd), were investigated on grapevine leaves (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot noir) following photosynthesis and defense mechanisms. Treatments were carried out in vineyard at the end of flowering. Phytotoxicity of both fungicides was evaluated by measuring variations of leaf photosynthetic parameters and correlated expression of photosynthesis-related genes. Results demonstrated that similar decrease in photosynthesis was caused by fdx and fhd applications. Moreover, the mechanism leading to photosynthesis alteration seems to be the same for both fungicides. Stomatal limitation to photosynthetic gas exchange did not change following treatments indicating that inhibition of photosynthesis was mostly attributed to non-stomatal factors. Nevertheless, fungicides-induced depression of photosynthesis was related neither to a decrease in Rubisco carboxylation efficiency and in the capacity for regeneration of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate nor to loss in PSII activity. However, fdx and fhd treatments generated repression of genes encoding proteins involved in the photosynthetic process. Indeed, decreased photosynthesis was coupled with repression of PsbP subunit of photosystem II (psbP1), chlorophyll a/b binding protein of photosystem I (cab) and Rubisco small subunit (rbcS) genes. A repression of these genes may participate in the photosynthesis alteration. To our knowledge, this is the first study of photosynthesis-related gene expression following fungicide stress. In the meantime, defense responses were followed by measuring chitinase activity and expression of varied defense-related genes encoding proteins involved in phenylpropanoid synthesis (PAL) or octadecanoid synthesis (LOX), as well as pathogenesis-related protein (Chi4C). No induction of defense was observed in botryticides-treated leaves. To conclude, the photosynthesis is affected without any triggering of plant defense responses.

  5. Linear Logic on Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn

    This article shows how individual Petri nets form models of Girard's intuitionistic linear logic. It explores questions of expressiveness and completeness of linear logic with respect to this interpretation. An aim is to use Petri nets to give an understanding of linear logic and give some apprai...

  6. Reference Guide Microsoft.NET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee M van der; Verspaij GJ; Rosbergen S; IMP; NMD

    2003-01-01

    Developers, administrators and managers can get more understanding of the .NET technology with this report. They can also make better choices how to use this technology. The report describes the results and conclusions of a study of the usability for the RIVM of this new generation .NET development

  7. Net neutrality and audiovisual services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.; Nikoltchev, S.

    2011-01-01

    Net neutrality is high on the European agenda. New regulations for the communication sector provide a legal framework for net neutrality and need to be implemented on both a European and a national level. The key element is not just about blocking or slowing down traffic across communication

  8. A Small Universal Petri Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A. Zaitsev

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A universal deterministic inhibitor Petri net with 14 places, 29 transitions and 138 arcs was constructed via simulation of Neary and Woods' weakly universal Turing machine with 2 states and 4 symbols; the total time complexity is exponential in the running time of their weak machine. To simulate the blank words of the weakly universal Turing machine, a couple of dedicated transitions insert their codes when reaching edges of the working zone. To complete a chain of a given Petri net encoding to be executed by the universal Petri net, a translation of a bi-tag system into a Turing machine was constructed. The constructed Petri net is universal in the standard sense; a weaker form of universality for Petri nets was not introduced in this work.

  9. Running Head: Control and Adjustment of the Rate of Photosynthesis Above Present CO{sub 2} Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, J. Timothy

    1996-12-01

    The adjustment of photosynthesis to different environmental conditions and especially to elevated CO{sub 2} is often characterized in terms of changes in the processes that establish (limit) the net CO{sub 2} assimilation rate. At slightly above present ambient pCO{sub 2} light-saturated photosynthetic responses to CO{sub 2} depart limitation by the catalytic capacity of tissue rubisco content. An hypothesis attributing this departure to limited thylakoid reaction/electron transport capacity is widely accepted, although we find no experimental evidence in the literature supporting this proposition.. The results of several tests point to the conclusion that the capacity of the thyiakoid reactions cannot be generally responsible for the deviation from rubisco limitation. This conclusion leaves a significant gap in the interpretation of gas exchange responses to CO{sub 2}. Since the inputs to the photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle (CO{sub 2} and photon-capture/electron-transport products) do not limit photosynthesis on the shoulder of the A=f(c{sub i}) curve, the control of photosynthesis can be characterized as: due to feedback. Several characteristics of gas exchange and fluorescence that occur when steady-states in this region are perturbed by changes in CO{sub 2} or O{sub 2} suggest significant regulation by conditions other than directly by substrate RuBP levels. A strong candidate to explain these responses is the triose-phosphate flux/ inorganic phosphate regulatory sequence, although not all of the gas exchange characteristics expected with ''TPU-limitation'' are present (e.g. oxygen-insensitive photosynthesis). Interest in nitrogen allocation between rubisco and light capture/electron transport as the basis for photosynthetic adjustment to elevated CO{sub 2} may need to be reconsidered as a result of these findings. Contributors to the feedback regulation of photosynthesis (which may include sucrose phosphate synthase and fructose

  10. Shedding new light on viral photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puxty, Richard J; Millard, Andrew D; Evans, David J; Scanlan, David J

    2015-10-01

    Viruses infecting the environmentally important marine cyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus encode 'auxiliary metabolic genes' (AMGs) involved in the light and dark reactions of photosynthesis. Here, we discuss progress on the inventory of such AMGs in the ever-increasing number of viral genome sequences as well as in metagenomic datasets. We contextualise these gene acquisitions with reference to a hypothesised fitness gain to the phage. We also report new evidence with regard to the sequence and predicted structural properties of viral petE genes encoding the soluble electron carrier plastocyanin. Viral copies of PetE exhibit extensive modifications to the N-terminal signal peptide and possess several novel residues in a region responsible for interaction with redox partners. We also highlight potential knowledge gaps in this field and discuss future opportunities to discover novel phage-host interactions involved in the photosynthetic process.

  11. Solar fuels production by artificial photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ager, Joel W., E-mail: JWAger@lbl.gov [Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lee, Min-Hyung [Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA and Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA and Department of Applied Chemistry, Kyung Hee University (Korea, Republic of); Javey, Ali [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA and Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, CA, 94720 (United States)

    2013-12-10

    A practical method to use sunlight to generate storable chemical energy could dramatically change the landscape of global energy generation. One of the fundamental requirements of such an “artificial photosynthesis” scheme is a light capture and conversion approach capable of generating the required chemical potentials (e.g. >1.23 V for splitting water into H{sub 2} and O{sub 2}). An approach based on inorganic light absorbers coupled directly to oxidation and reduction catalysts is being developed in the Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis (JCAP). P-type III-V semiconductors with a high surface area can be used as high current density photocathodes. The longevity under operation of these photocathodes can be improved by the use of conformal metal oxides deposited by atomic layer deposition.

  12. Functional quantum biology in photosynthesis and magnetoreception

    CERN Document Server

    Lambert, Neill; Cheng, Yuan-Chung; Li, Che-Ming; Chen, Guang-Yin; Nori, Franco

    2012-01-01

    Is there a functional role for quantum mechanics or coherent quantum effects in biological processes? While this question is as old as quantum theory, only recently have measurements on biological systems on ultra-fast time-scales shed light on a possible answer. In this review we give an overview of the two main candidates for biological systems which may harness such functional quantum effects: photosynthesis and magnetoreception. We discuss some of the latest evidence both for and against room temperature quantum coherence, and consider whether there is truly a functional role for coherence in these biological mechanisms. Finally, we give a brief overview of some more speculative examples of functional quantum biology including the sense of smell, long-range quantum tunneling in proteins, biological photoreceptors, and the flow of ions across a cell membrane.

  13. Does coherence enhance transport in photosynthesis?

    CERN Document Server

    Kassal, Ivan; Rahimi-Keshari, Saleh

    2012-01-01

    Recent observations of coherence in photosynthetic complexes have led to the question of whether quantum effects can occur in vivo, not under femtosecond laser pulses but in incoherent sunlight and at steady state, and, if so, whether the coherence explains the high exciton transfer efficiency. We distinguish several types of coherence and show that although some photosynthetic pathways are partially coherent processes, photosynthesis in nature proceeds through stationary states. This distinction allows us to rule out several mechanisms of transport enhancement in sunlight. In particular, although they are crucial for understanding exciton transport, neither wavelike motion nor microscopic coherence, on their own, enhance the efficiency. By contrast, two partially coherent mechanisms---ENAQT and supertransfer---can enhance transport even in sunlight and thus constitute motifs for the optimisation of artificial sunlight harvesting. Finally, we clarify the importance of ultrafast spectroscopy in understanding i...

  14. ENERGY RECEPTION AND TRANSFER IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, Melvin

    1958-09-23

    The basic information about the path of carbon in photosynthesis is reviewed together with the methods that were used to discover it. This has led to the knowledge of what is required of the photochemical reaction in the form of chemical species. Attention is then directed to the structure of the photochemical apparatus itself insofar as it is viewable by electron microscopy, and some principoles of ordered structure are devised for the types of molecules to be found in the chloroplasts. From the combination of these, a structure for the grana lamella is suggested and a mode of function proposed. Experimental test for this mode of function is underway; one method is to examine photoproduced unpaired electrons. This is discussed.

  15. MONALISA for stochastic simulations of Petri net models of biochemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balazki, Pavel; Lindauer, Klaus; Einloft, Jens; Ackermann, Jörg; Koch, Ina

    2015-07-10

    The concept of Petri nets (PN) is widely used in systems biology and allows modeling of complex biochemical systems like metabolic systems, signal transduction pathways, and gene expression networks. In particular, PN allows the topological analysis based on structural properties, which is important and useful when quantitative (kinetic) data are incomplete or unknown. Knowing the kinetic parameters, the simulation of time evolution of such models can help to study the dynamic behavior of the underlying system. If the number of involved entities (molecules) is low, a stochastic simulation should be preferred against the classical deterministic approach of solving ordinary differential equations. The Stochastic Simulation Algorithm (SSA) is a common method for such simulations. The combination of the qualitative and semi-quantitative PN modeling and stochastic analysis techniques provides a valuable approach in the field of systems biology. Here, we describe the implementation of stochastic analysis in a PN environment. We extended MONALISA - an open-source software for creation, visualization and analysis of PN - by several stochastic simulation methods. The simulation module offers four simulation modes, among them the stochastic mode with constant firing rates and Gillespie's algorithm as exact and approximate versions. The simulator is operated by a user-friendly graphical interface and accepts input data such as concentrations and reaction rate constants that are common parameters in the biological context. The key features of the simulation module are visualization of simulation, interactive plotting, export of results into a text file, mathematical expressions for describing simulation parameters, and up to 500 parallel simulations of the same parameter sets. To illustrate the method we discuss a model for insulin receptor recycling as case study. We present a software that combines the modeling power of Petri nets with stochastic simulation of dynamic

  16. A shadow detector for photosynthesis efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Kang-Ling; Jones, Roger D; McCarter, Patrick; Tunc-Ozdemir, Meral; Draper, James A; Elston, Timothy C; Kramer, David; Jones, Alan M

    2017-02-07

    Plants tolerate large variations in the intensity of the light environment by controlling the efficiency of solar to chemical energy conversion. To do this, plants have a mechanism to detect the intensity, duration, and change in light as they experience moving shadows, flickering light, and cloud cover. Sugars are the primary products of CO2 fixation, a metabolic pathway that is rate limited by this solar energy conversion. We propose that sugar is a signal encoding information about the intensity, duration and change in the light environment. We previously showed that the Arabidopsis heterotrimeric G protein complex including its receptor-like Regulator of G signaling protein, AtRGS1, detects both the concentration and the exposure time of sugars (Fu et al., 2014. Cell 156: 1084-1095). This unique property, designated dose-duration reciprocity, is a behavior that emerges from the system architecture / system motif. Here, we show that another property of the signaling system is to detect large changes in light while at the same time, filtering types of fluctuation in light that do not affect photosynthesis efficiency. When AtRGS1 is genetically ablated, photosynthesis efficiency is reduced in a changing- but not a constant-light environment. Mathematical modeling revealed that information about changes in the light environment is encoded in the amount of free AtRGS1 that becomes compartmentalized following stimulation. We propose that this property determines when to adjust photosynthetic efficiency in an environment where light intensity changes abruptly caused by moving shadows on top of a background of light changing gradually from sun rise to sun set and fluctuating light such as that caused by fluttering leaves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Net ecosystem calcification and net primary production in two Hawaii back-reef systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiili, S.; Colbert, S.; Hart, K.

    2016-02-01

    Back-reef systems have complex carbon cycling, driven by dominant benthic communities that change with environmental conditions and display characteristic patterns of net primary production (NP) and net ecosystem calcification (G). The G/NP ratio provides a fundamental community-level assessment to compare systems spatially and to evaluate temporal changes in carbon cycling. Carbon dynamics were examined at leeward Hōnaunau and windward Waíōpae, Hawaíi Island. Both locations discharge brackish groundwater, including geothermal water at Waíōpae. The change in total CO2 (TCO2) and total alkalinity (TA) between morning and afternoon was measured to calculate the G/NP ratio along a salinity gradient. At both sites, aragonite saturation (ΩAr) was lower than open ocean conditions, and increased with salinity. Between the morning and afternoon, ΩAr increased by at least 1 as photosynthesis consumed CO2. At Waíōpae, water was corrosive to aragonite due to the input of acidic groundwater, but not at Honaunau, demonstrating the importance of local watershed characteristics on ΩAr. Across the salinity gradient, TA and TCO2 decreased between morning and afternoon. At Hōnaunau, G/NP increased from 0.11 to 0.31 with salinity, consistent with an offshore increase in coral cover. But at Waíōpae, G/NP decreased from 0.49 to 0.0 with salinity, despite an increase in coral cover with salinity. Low G may be caused by benthic processes, including coral bleaching or high rates of carbonate dissolution in interstitial waters between tide pools. Broader environmental conditions than just salinity, including pH of fresh groundwater inputs, shape the carbon cycling in the back-reef system. Examining the G/NP ratio of a back-reef system allows for a simple method to establish community level activity, and possibly indicate changes in a dynamic system.

  18. Photosynthesis in estuarine intertidal microphytobenthos is limited by inorganic carbon availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Sónia; Cartaxana, Paulo; Máguas, Cristina; Marques da Silva, Jorge

    2016-04-01

    The effects of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) availability on photosynthesis were studied in two estuarine intertidal microphytobenthos (MPB) communities and in the model diatom species Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Kinetics of DIC acquisition, measured with a liquid-phase oxygen electrode, showed higher K(1/2)(DIC) (0.31 mM) and Vm (7.78 nmol min(-1) µg (Chl a)(-1)) for MPB suspensions than for P. tricornutum (K(1/2)(DIC) = 0.23 mM; Vm = 4.64 nmol min(-1) µg (Chl a)(-1)), suggesting the predominance of species with lower affinity for DIC and higher photosynthetic capacity in the MPB. The net photosynthetic rate of the MPB suspensions reached saturation at a DIC concentration of 1-1.5 mM. This range was lower than the concentrations found in the interstitial water of the top 5-mm sediment layer, suggesting no limitation of photosynthesis by DIC in the MPB communities. Accordingly, carbon isotope discrimination revealed a moderate activity of CO2-concentrating mechanisms in the MPB. However, addition of NaHCO3 to intact MPB biofilms caused a significant increase in the relative maximum photosynthetic electron transport rate (rETR max) measured by imaging pulse-amplitude modulated chlorophyll a fluorescence. These results suggest local depletion of DIC at the photic layer of the sediment (the first few hundred µm), where MPB cells accumulate during diurnal low tides. This work provides the first direct experimental evidence of DIC limitation of photosynthesis in highly productive intertidal MPB communities.

  19. Enhancing (crop) plant photosynthesis by introducing novel genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dann, Marcel; Leister, Dario

    2017-09-26

    Although some elements of the photosynthetic light reactions might appear to be ideal, the overall efficiency of light conversion to biomass has not been optimized during evolution. Because crop plants are depleted of genetic diversity for photosynthesis, efforts to enhance its efficiency with respect to light conversion to yield must generate new variation. In principle, three sources of natural variation are available: (i) rare diversity within extant higher plant species, (ii) photosynthetic variants from algae, and (iii) reconstruction of no longer extant types of plant photosynthesis. Here, we argue for a novel approach that outsources crop photosynthesis to a cyanobacterium that is amenable to adaptive evolution. This system offers numerous advantages, including a short generation time, virtually unlimited population sizes and high mutation rates, together with a versatile toolbox for genetic manipulation. On such a synthetic bacterial platform, 10 000 years of (crop) plant evolution can be recapitulated within weeks. Limitations of this system arise from its unicellular nature, which cannot reproduce all aspects of crop photosynthesis. But successful establishment of such a bacterial host for crop photosynthesis promises not only to enhance the performance of eukaryotic photosynthesis but will also reveal novel facets of the molecular basis of photosynthetic flexibility.This article is part of the themed issue 'Enhancing photosynthesis in crop plants: targets for improvement'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  20. Impairment of leaf photosynthesis after insect herbivory or mechanical injury on common milkweed, Asclepias syriaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, K J; Haile, F J; Peterson, R K D; Higley, L G

    2008-10-01

    Insect herbivory has variable consequences on plant physiology, growth, and reproduction. In some plants, herbivory reduces photosynthetic rate (Pn) activity on remaining tissue of injured leaves. We sought to better understand the influence of leaf injury on Pn of common milkweed, Asclepias syriaca (Asclepiadaceae), leaves. Initially, we tested whether Pn reductions occurred after insect herbivory or mechanical injury. We also (1) examined the duration of photosynthetic recovery, (2) compared mechanical injury with insect herbivory, (3) studied the relationship between leaf Pn with leaf injury intensity, and (4) considered uninjured leaf compensatory Pn responses neighboring an injured leaf. Leaf Pn was significantly reduced on mechanically injured or insect-fed leaves in all reported experiments except one, so some factor(s) (cardiac glycoside induction, reproductive investment, and water stress) likely interacts with leaf injury to influence whether Pn impairment occurs. Milkweed tussock moth larval herbivory, Euchaetes egle L. (Arctiidae), impaired leaf Pn more severely than mechanical injury in one experiment. Duration of Pn impairment lasted > 5 d to indicate high leaf Pn sensitivity to injury, but Pn recovery occurred within 13 d in one experiment. The degree of Pn reduction was more severe from E. egle herbivory than similar levels of mechanical tissue removal. Negative linear relationships characterized leaf Pn with percentage tissue loss from single E. egle-fed leaves and mechanically injured leaves and suggested that the signal to trigger leaf Pn impairment on remaining tissue of an injured leaf was amplified by additional tissue loss. Finally, neighboring uninjured leaves to an E. egle-fed leaf had a small (approximately 10%) degree of compensatory Pn to partly offset tissue loss and injured leaf Pn impairment.

  1. Petri net modeling and simulation of pipelined redistributions for a deadlock-free system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros I. Souravlas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The growing use of multiprocessing systems has given rise to the necessity for modeling, verifying, and evaluating their performance in order to fully exploit hardware. The Petri net (PN formalism is a suitable tool for modeling parallel systems due to its basic characteristics, such as parallelism and synchronization. In addition, the PN formalism allows the incorporation of more details of the real system into the model. Examples of such details include contention for shared resources (like memory or identification of blocked processes (a definition for blocked processes is found in the Introduction section. In this paper, PNs are considered as a modeling framework to verify and study the performance of parallel pipelined communications. The main strength of the pipelines is that if organized in a proper way, they lead to overlapping of computation, communication, and read/write costs that incur in parallel communications. Most of the well-known pipelined schemes have been evaluated by theoretical analysis, queueing networks, and simulations. Usually, the factors taken into account are scheduling, message classification, and buffer spacing. To the best of our knowledge, there is no work in the literature that uses PN as a modeling tool for verification of the pipeline-based scheme. Apart from verification, a more accurate and complete model should also consider other factors, such as contentions and blocked processes. These factors have a high impact on the performance of a parallel system. The PN model presented in this paper accurately captures the behavior of the pipeline-based parallel communication system. The model considers synchronization, message scheduling, and message classification, while it is proven to be free of deadlocks and contentions. Also, the model is characterized by symmetry, so it can be used for large and complex systems.

  2. High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    High-level Petri nets are now widely used in both theoretical analysis and practical modelling of concurrent systems. The main reason for the success of this class of net models is that they make it possible to obtain much more succinct and manageable descriptions than can be obtained by means...... of low-level Petri nets - while, on the other hand, they still offer a wide range of analysis methods and tools. The step from low-level nets to high-level nets can be compared to the step from assembly languages to modern programming languages with an elaborated type concept. In low-level nets...... there is only one kind of token and this means that the state of a place is described by an integer (and in many cases even by a boolean). In high-level nets each token can carry a complex information/data - which, e.g., may describe the entire state of a process or a data base. Today most practical...

  3. Temperate and Tropical Forest Canopies are Already Functioning beyond Their Thermal Thresholds for Photosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alida C. Mau

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical tree species have evolved under very narrow temperature ranges compared to temperate forest species. Studies suggest that tropical trees may be more vulnerable to continued warming compared to temperate species, as tropical trees have shown declines in growth and photosynthesis at elevated temperatures. However, regional and global vegetation models lack the data needed to accurately represent such physiological responses to increased temperatures, especially for tropical forests. To address this need, we compared instantaneous photosynthetic temperature responses of mature canopy foliage, leaf temperatures, and air temperatures across vertical canopy gradients in three forest types: tropical wet, tropical moist, and temperate deciduous. Temperatures at which maximum photosynthesis occurred were greater in the tropical forests canopies than the temperate canopy (30 ± 0.3 °C vs. 27 ± 0.4 °C. However, contrary to expectations that tropical species would be functioning closer to threshold temperatures, photosynthetic temperature optima was exceeded by maximum daily leaf temperatures, resulting in sub-optimal rates of carbon assimilation for much of the day, especially in upper canopy foliage (>10 m. If trees are unable to thermally acclimate to projected elevated temperatures, these forests may shift from net carbon sinks to sources, with potentially dire implications to climate feedbacks and forest community composition.

  4. Models for estimating photosynthesis parameters from in situ production profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovač, Žarko; Platt, Trevor; Sathyendranath, Shubha; Antunović, Suzana

    2017-12-01

    The rate of carbon assimilation in phytoplankton primary production models is mathematically prescribed with photosynthesis irradiance functions, which convert a light flux (energy) into a material flux (carbon). Information on this rate is contained in photosynthesis parameters: the initial slope and the assimilation number. The exactness of parameter values is crucial for precise calculation of primary production. Here we use a model of the daily production profile based on a suite of photosynthesis irradiance functions and extract photosynthesis parameters from in situ measured daily production profiles at the Hawaii Ocean Time-series station Aloha. For each function we recover parameter values, establish parameter distributions and quantify model skill. We observe that the choice of the photosynthesis irradiance function to estimate the photosynthesis parameters affects the magnitudes of parameter values as recovered from in situ profiles. We also tackle the problem of parameter exchange amongst the models and the effect it has on model performance. All models displayed little or no bias prior to parameter exchange, but significant bias following parameter exchange. The best model performance resulted from using optimal parameter values. Model formulation was extended further by accounting for spectral effects and deriving a spectral analytical solution for the daily production profile. The daily production profile was also formulated with time dependent growing biomass governed by a growth equation. The work on parameter recovery was further extended by exploring how to extract photosynthesis parameters from information on watercolumn production. It was demonstrated how to estimate parameter values based on a linearization of the full analytical solution for normalized watercolumn production and from the solution itself, without linearization. The paper complements previous works on photosynthesis irradiance models by analysing the skill and consistency of

  5. Pro asynchronous programming with .NET

    CERN Document Server

    Blewett, Richard; Ltd, Rock Solid Knowledge

    2014-01-01

    Pro Asynchronous Programming with .NET teaches the essential skill of asynchronous programming in .NET. It answers critical questions in .NET application development, such as: how do I keep my program responding at all times to keep my users happy how do I make the most of the available hardware how can I improve performanceIn the modern world, users expect more and more from their applications and devices, and multi-core hardware has the potential to provide it. But it takes carefully crafted code to turn that potential into responsive, scalable applications.With Pro Asynchronous Programming

  6. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André

    2017-08-01

    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  7. Wild Manihot Species Do Not Possess C4 Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    CALATAYUD, P.‐A.; BARÓN, C. H.; VELÁSQUEZ, H.; ARROYAVE, J. A.; LAMAZE, T.

    2002-01-01

    Cultivated cassava (Manihot esculenta) has a higher rate of photosynthesis than is usual for C3 plants and photosynthesis is not light saturated. For these reasons it has been suggested that cultivated cassava could be derived from wild species possessing C4 photosynthesis. The natural abundance of 13C and activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and phosphoglycolate phosphatase were measured in leaves of 20 wild cassava species to test this hypothesis. All the species studied, including M. flabellifolia the potential wild progenitor of cultivated cassava, clearly exhibited C3 not C4 characteristics. PMID:12096814

  8. Cathodoluminescence analysis of cleaved facets of a ZnSe p-n junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; As, D. J.; Buda, B.; Lübbers, M.; Schikora, D.; Mimkes, J.; Lischka, K.

    2000-04-01

    ZnSe diodes grown on (100) GaAs substrates by molecular beam epitaxy were investigated using cathodoluminesence (CL) measurements at sample temperatures between 50 and 300 K. The CL line scans at different photon energies were performed on cleaved p-n junctions at 50 and 300 K, respectively. Taking into account surface recombination, carrier generation volume, carrier diffusion and internal built-in electric field and related carrier drift, the CL measurements from cleaved p-n junctions could be qualitatively explained. The charge depletion layer has a strong influence on the CL measurements. The calculated charge depletion width is in good agreement with CL measurements. The experimental data from the spatially resolved CL on the cleaved ZnSe diodes revealed important information of the carrier dynamics and recombination processes in these devices.

  9. Fabrication and electrical properties of axial and radial GaAs nanowire pn junction diode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun-Shuai; Zhang, Xia; Yan, Xin; Chen, Xiong; Li, Liang; Cui, Jian-Gong; Huang, Yong-Qing; Ren, Xiao-Min

    2014-12-01

    We report on the fabrications and characterizations of axial and radial GaAs nanowire pn junction diode arrays. The nanowires are grown on n-doped GaAs (111)B substrates using the Au-catalyzed vapor—liquid—solid mechanism by metal—organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Diethyl—zinc and silane are used as p- and n-type dopant precursors, respectively. Both the axial and radial diodes exhibit diode-like J—V characteristics and have similar performances under forward bias. Under backward bias, the axial diode has a large leakage current, which is attributed to the bending of the pn junction interface induced by two doping mechanisms in Au-catalyzed nanowires. The low leakage current and high rectification ratio make the radial diode more promising in electrical and optoelectronic devices.

  10. Equilibration of quantum hall edge states and its conductance fluctuations in graphene p-n junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Chandan; Kuiri, Manabendra; Das, Anindya

    2018-02-01

    We report an observation of conductance fluctuations (CFs) in the bipolar regime of quantum hall (QH) plateaus in graphene (p-n-p/n-p-n) devices. The CFs in the bipolar regime are shown to decrease with increasing bias and temperature. At high temperature (above 7 K) the CFs vanishes completely and the flat quantized plateaus are recovered in the bipolar regime. The values of QH plateaus are in theoretical agreement based on full equilibration of chiral channels at the p-n junction. The amplitude of CFs for different filling factors follows a trend predicted by the random matrix theory. Although, there are mismatch in the values of CFs between the experiment and theory but at higher filling factors the experimental values become closer to the theoretical prediction. The suppression of CFs and its dependence has been understood in terms of time dependent disorders present at the p-n junctions.

  11. Draft User Functionalities and Interfaces of PN Services (Low-Fi Prototyping)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karamolegkos, P.; Larsen, J. E.; Larsen, Lars Bo

    2006-01-01

    Internal report of WP1 Task 4 activities from January 2006 to August 2006. This report describes the draft user functionalities and coming user interfaces for PN services. It is a working document to be handed over to WP1 Task1 and Task3 for guidelines on specification. State of the art usability...... and user experience, conceptual design work on the two pilot services, MAGNET.CARE and Nomadic@Work, is described.......Internal report of WP1 Task 4 activities from January 2006 to August 2006. This report describes the draft user functionalities and coming user interfaces for PN services. It is a working document to be handed over to WP1 Task1 and Task3 for guidelines on specification. State of the art usability...

  12. Responses of Landoltia punctata to cobalt and nickel: Removal, growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant system and starch metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ling; Ding, Yanqiang; Xu, Yaliang; Li, Zhidan; Jin, Yanling; He, Kaize; Fang, Yang; Zhao, Hai

    2017-09-01

    Landoltia punctata has been considered as a potential bioenergy crop due to its high biomass and starch yields in different cultivations. Cobalt and nickel are known to induce starch accumulation in duckweed. We monitored the growth rate, net photosynthesis rate, total chlorophyll content, Rubisco activity, Co2+ and Ni2+ contents, activity of antioxidant enzymes, starch content and activity of related enzymes under various concentrations of cobalt and nickel. The results indicate that Co2+ and Ni2+ (≤0.5mgL-1) can facilitate growth in the beginning. Although the growth rate, net photosynthesis rate, chlorophyll content and Rubisco activity were significantly inhibited at higher concentrations (5mgL-1), the starch content increased sharply up to 53.3% dry weight (DW) in L. punctata. These results were attributed to the increase in adenosine diphosphate-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) and soluble starch synthase (SSS) activities and the decrease in α-amylase activity upon exposure to excess Co2+ and Ni2+. In addition, a substantial increase in the antioxidant enzyme activities and high flavonoid contents in L. punctata may have largely resulted in the metal tolerance. Furthermore, the high Co2+ and Ni2+ contents (2012.9±18.8 and 1997.7±29.2mgkg-1 DW) in the tissue indicate that L. punctata is a hyperaccumulator. Thus, L. punctata can be considered as a potential candidate for the simultaneous bioremediation of Co2+- and Ni2+-polluted water and high-quality biomass production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Modeling pN2 through Geological Time: Implications for Planetary Climates and Atmospheric Biosignatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stüeken, E. E.; Kipp, M. A.; Koehler, M. C.; Schwieterman, E. W.; Johnson, B.; Buick, R.

    2016-12-01

    Nitrogen is a major nutrient for all life on Earth and could plausibly play a similar role in extraterrestrial biospheres. The major reservoir of nitrogen at Earth's surface is atmospheric N2, but recent studies have proposed that the size of this reservoir may have fluctuated significantly over the course of Earth's history with particularly low levels in the Neoarchean - presumably as a result of biological activity. We used a biogeochemical box model to test which conditions are necessary to cause large swings in atmospheric N2 pressure. Parameters for our model are constrained by observations of modern Earth and reconstructions of biomass burial and oxidative weathering in deep time. A 1-D climate model was used to model potential effects on atmospheric climate. In a second set of tests, we perturbed our box model to investigate which parameters have the greatest impact on the evolution of atmospheric pN2 and consider possible implications for nitrogen cycling on other planets. Our results suggest that (a) a high rate of biomass burial would have been needed in the Archean to draw down atmospheric pN2 to less than half modern levels, (b) the resulting effect on temperature could probably have been compensated by increasing solar luminosity and a mild increase in pCO2, and (c) atmospheric oxygenation could have initiated a stepwise pN2 rebound through oxidative weathering. In general, life appears to be necessary for significant atmospheric pN2 swings on Earth-like planets. Our results further support the idea that an exoplanetary atmosphere rich in both N2 and O2 is a signature of an oxygen-producing biosphere.

  14. Photovoltaic characteristics of diffused P/+N bulk GaAs solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, J. M.; Keeney, R. P.; Bhat, I. B.; Bhat, K. N.; Sundaram, L. G.; Ghandhi, S. K.

    1982-01-01

    The photovoltaic characteristics of P(+)N junction solar cells fabricated on bulk GaAs by an open tube diffusion technique are described in this paper.Spectral response measurements were analyzed in detail and compared to a computer simulation in order to determine important material parameters. It is projected that proper optimization of the cell parameters can increase the efficiency of the cells from 12.2 percent to close to 20 percent.

  15. Pn tomography of South China Sea, Taiwan Island, Philippine archipelago, and adjacent regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xibing; Song, Xiaodong; Li, Jiangtao

    2017-02-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) and its surrounding areas are geologically highly heterogeneous from the interactions of multiple plates in Southeast Asia (Eurasian plate, Indian-Australian plate, Philippine Sea plate, and Pacific plate). To understand the tectonics at depth, here we combined bulletin and handpicked data to conduct Pn tomography of the region. The results show distinct features that are correlated with the complex geology at surface, suggesting a lithosphere-scale tectonics of the region. Low Pn velocities are found along a belt of the western Pacific transpressional system from the Okinawa Trough and eastern East China Sea, across central and eastern Taiwan orogeny, to the island arcs of the Luzon Strait and the entire Philippine Islands, as well as under the Palawan Island and part of the continental margin north of the Pearl River Basin. High velocities are found under Ryukyu subduction zone, part of the Philippine subduction zone, part of the Eurasian subduction beneath the southwestern Taiwan, and the continent-ocean boundary between the south China and the SCS basin. The Taiwan Strait, the Mainland SE coast, and the main SCS basin sea are relatively uniform with average Pn values. Crustal thicknesses show large variations in the study region but also coherency with tectonic elements. The Pn pattern in Taiwan shows linear trends of surface geology and suggests strongly lithosphere-scale deformation of the young Taiwan orogenic belt marked by the deformation boundary under the Western Foothill and the Western Coastal Plain at depth, and the crustal thickness shows a complex pattern from the transpressional collision. Our observations are consistent with rifting and extension in the northern margin of the SCS but are not consistent with mantle upwelling as a mechanism for the opening and the subsequent closing of the SCS. The Philippine island arc is affected by volcanisms from both the Asian and Philippine Sea subductions in the south but mainly from

  16. Integrated CLOS and PN Guidance for Increased Effectiveness of Surface to Air Missiles

    OpenAIRE

    Binte Fatima Tuz ZAHRA; Syed Tauqeer ul Islam RIZVI; Syed Irtiza Ali SHAH

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a novel approach has been presented to integrate command to line-of-sight (CLOS) guidance and proportional navigation (PN) guidance in order to reduce miss distance and to increase the effectiveness of surface to air missiles. Initially a comparison of command to line-of-sight guidance and proportional navigation has been presented. Miss distance, variation of angle-of-attack, normal and lateral accelerations and error of missile flight path from direct line-of-sight have been ...

  17. Oscillating Magnetoresistance in Graphene p-n Junctions at Intermediate Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overweg, Hiske; Eggimann, Hannah; Liu, Ming-Hao; Varlet, Anastasia; Eich, Marius; Simonet, Pauline; Lee, Yongjin; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Richter, Klaus; Fal'ko, Vladimir I.; Ensslin, Klaus; Ihn, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    We report on the observation of magnetoresistance oscillations in graphene p-n junctions. The oscillations have been observed for six samples, consisting of single-layer and bilayer graphene, and persist up to temperatures of 30 K, where standard Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations are no longer discernible. The oscillatory magnetoresistance can be reproduced by tight-binding simulations. We attribute this phenomenon to the modulated densities of states in the n- and p- regions.

  18. High breakdown single-crystal GaN p-n diodes by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Meng; Nomoto, Kazuki; Zhu, Mingda; Hu, Zongyang; Zhao, Yuning; Protasenko, Vladimir; Song, Bo; Yan, Xiaodong; Li, Guowang; Verma, Jai; Bader, Samuel; Fay, Patrick; Xing, Huili Grace; Jena, Debdeep

    2015-12-01

    Molecular beam epitaxy grown GaN p-n vertical diodes are demonstrated on single-crystal GaN substrates. A low leakage current GaN. Single-crystal GaN substrates with very low dislocation densities enable the low leakage current and the high breakdown field in the diodes, showing significant potential for MBE growth to attain near-intrinsic performance when the density of dislocations is low.

  19. Modeling pN2 through Geological Time: Implications for Planetary Climates and Atmospheric Biosignatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stüeken, E E; Kipp, M A; Koehler, M C; Schwieterman, E W; Johnson, B; Buick, R

    2016-12-01

    Nitrogen is a major nutrient for all life on Earth and could plausibly play a similar role in extraterrestrial biospheres. The major reservoir of nitrogen at Earth's surface is atmospheric N2, but recent studies have proposed that the size of this reservoir may have fluctuated significantly over the course of Earth's history with particularly low levels in the Neoarchean-presumably as a result of biological activity. We used a biogeochemical box model to test which conditions are necessary to cause large swings in atmospheric N2 pressure. Parameters for our model are constrained by observations of modern Earth and reconstructions of biomass burial and oxidative weathering in deep time. A 1-D climate model was used to model potential effects on atmospheric climate. In a second set of tests, we perturbed our box model to investigate which parameters have the greatest impact on the evolution of atmospheric pN2 and consider possible implications for nitrogen cycling on other planets. Our results suggest that (a) a high rate of biomass burial would have been needed in the Archean to draw down atmospheric pN2 to less than half modern levels, (b) the resulting effect on temperature could probably have been compensated by increasing solar luminosity and a mild increase in pCO2, and (c) atmospheric oxygenation could have initiated a stepwise pN2 rebound through oxidative weathering. In general, life appears to be necessary for significant atmospheric pN2 swings on Earth-like planets. Our results further support the idea that an exoplanetary atmosphere rich in both N2 and O2 is a signature of an oxygen-producing biosphere. Key Words: Biosignatures-Early Earth-Planetary atmospheres. Astrobiology 16, 949-963.

  20. P-N junctions dynamics in graphene channel induced by ferroelectric domains motion

    OpenAIRE

    Kurchak, Anatolii I.; Eliseev, Eugene A.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Strikha, Maksym V.; Morozovska, Anna N.

    2017-01-01

    The p-n junctions dynamics in graphene channel induced by stripe domains nucleation, motion and reversal in a ferroelectric substrate is explored using self-consistent approach based on Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire phenomenology combined with classical electrostatics. We revealed the extrinsic size effect in the dependence of the graphene channel conductivity on its length. For the case of perfect electric contact between the ferroelectric and graphene, relatively low gate voltages are required...

  1. Nanoscale imaging of the photoresponse in PN junctions of InGaAs infrared detector

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Xia; Tian-Xin Li; Heng-Jing Tang; Liang Zhu; Xue Li; Hai-Mei Gong; Wei Lu

    2016-01-01

    Electronic layout, such as distributions of charge carriers and electric field, in PN junction is determinant for the photovoltaic devices to realize their functionality. Considerable efforts have been dedicated to the carrier profiling of this specific region with Scanning Probe Microscope, yet reliable analysis was impeded by the difficulty in resolving carriers with high mobility and the unclear surface effect, particularly on compound semiconductors. Here we realize nanometer Scanning Cap...

  2. Array analysis of regional Pn and Pg wavefields from the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, M.A. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

    1991-06-01

    Small-aperture high-frequency seismic arrays with dimensions of a few kilometers or less, can improve our ability to seismically monitor compliance with a low-yield Threshold Test Ban Treaty. This work studies the characteristics and effectiveness of array processing of the regional Pn and Pg wavefields generated by underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site. Waveform data from the explosion HARDIN (m{sub b} = 5.5) is recorded at a temporary 12-element, 3-component, 1.5 km-aperture array sited in an area of northern Nevada. The explosions VILLE (m{sub b} = 4.4) and SALUT (m{sub b} = 5.5) are recorded at two arrays sited in the Mojave desert, one a 96-element vertical-component 7 km-aperture array and the other a 155-element vertical-component 4 km-aperture array. Among the mean spectra for the m{sub b} = 5.5 events there are significant differences in low-frequency spectral amplitudes between array sites. The spectra become nearly identical beyond about 6 Hz. Spectral ratios are used to examine seismic source properties and the partitioning of energy between Pn and Pg. Frequency-wavenumber analysis at the 12-element array is used to obtain estimates of signal gain, phase velocity, and source azimuth. This analysis reveals frequency-dependent biases in velocity and azimuth of the coherent Pn and Pg arrivals. Signal correlation, the principal factor governing array performance, is examined in terms of spatial coherence estimates. The coherence is found to vary between the three sites. In all cases the coherence of Pn is greater than that for Pg. 81 refs., 92 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Elevated CO2 increases photosynthesis in fluctuating irradiance regardless of photosynthetic induction state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaiser, Elias; Zhou, Dianfan; Heuvelink, Ep; Harbinson, Jeremy; Morales Sierra, A.; Marcelis, Leo F.M.

    2017-01-01

    Leaves are often exposed to fluctuating irradiance, which limits assimilation. Elevated CO2 enhances dynamic photosynthesis (i.e. photosynthesis in fluctuating irradiance) beyond its effects on steady-state photosynthesis rates. Studying the role of CO2 in dynamic photosynthesis is important for

  4. Petri Net Tool Overview 1986

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Feldbrugge, Frits

    1987-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the characteristics of all currently available net based tools. It is a compilation of information provided by tool authors or contact persons. A concise one page overview is provided as well....

  5. Understanding Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salom, Jaume; Widén, Joakim; Candanedo, José

    2011-01-01

    Although several alternative definitions exist, a Net-Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) can be succinctly described as a grid-connected building that generates as much energy as it uses over a year. The “net-zero” balance is attained by applying energy conservation and efficiency measures...... and by incorporating renewable energy systems. While based on annual balances, a complete description of a Net ZEB requires examining the system at smaller time-scales. This assessment should address: (a) the relationship between power generation and building loads and (b) the resulting interaction with the power grid....... This paper presents and categorizes quantitative indicators suitable to describe both aspects of the building’s performance. These indicators, named LMGI - Load Matching and Grid Interaction indicators, are easily quantifiable and could complement the output variables of existing building simulation tools...

  6. PolicyNet Publication System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The PolicyNet Publication System project will merge the Oracle-based Policy Repository (POMS) and the SQL-Server CAMP system (MSOM) into a new system with an Oracle...

  7. KM3NeT

    CERN Multimedia

    KM3NeT is a large scale next-generation neutrino telescope located in the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea, optimized for the discovery of galactic neutrino sources emitting in the TeV energy region.

  8. Net Neutrality: Background and Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilroy, Angele A

    2006-01-01

    .... The move to place restrictions on the owners of the networks that compose and provide access to the Internet, to ensure equal access and nondiscriminatory treatment, is referred to as "net neutrality...

  9. Electrical rectification in axial in-situ doped Ge nanowire pn junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Son T.; Dayeh, S.; Picraux, S. T.; Zaslavsky, A.

    2010-03-01

    We demonstrate the vapor-liquid-solid growth of and electrical rectification in axial in-situ doped pn junction Ge nanowires (NWs). In-situ doping of the NWs was accomplished by introducing dopant gases (diborane and phosphine) during growth, resulting in an axial pn junction. Contacts to the wires were defined using e-beam lithography, followed by Ni metallization. Four-point measurements of the fabricated devices at room temperature and at 77 K clearly show rectification with on/off current ratio of more than two orders of magnitude when the bias is applied across the NW pn junction. The ideality factor of the junction current points to a significant generation-recombination contribution. The Ohmic characteristics in the p and n regions outside the junction make it possible to estimate the doping levels. We also observed gate control of the NW junction current using the substrate as a back gate. Observed current modulation is in good agreement with the electrostatic depletion of the NWs as a function of diameter and doping.

  10. FSHR polymorphism p.N680S mediates different responses to FSH in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarini, Livio; Moriondo, Valeria; Marino, Marco; Adversi, Francesca; Capodanno, Francesco; Grisolia, Chiarina; La Marca, Antonio; La Sala, Giovanni Battista; Simoni, Manuela

    2014-08-05

    The single nucleotide polymorphism p.N680S of the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor (FSHR) is a discrete marker of ovarian response but previous in vitro studies failed to demonstrate differences in the response to FSH between N and S carrier cells. Here we demonstrate that p.N680S mediates different kinetics of the response to FSH in vitro. Intracellular cAMP production is faster in p.N680S N than in S homozygous human granulosa cells (45 versus 90 min to achieve the plateau, respectively; Mann-Whitney's U-test; p < 0.005; n = 4). Reflecting the cAMP kinetics, phospho-ERK1/2 and -CREB activation, AREG and STARD1 gene expressions and progesterone production were qualitatively and quantitatively different in N versus S homozygous cells. Finally, the blockade of ERK pathway by U0126 abolishes the genotype-mediated different effects on gene expression and progesterone production (Mann-Whitney's U-test; p ≥ 0.005; n = 3). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Polarization-induced pn diodes in wide-band-gap nanowires with ultraviolet electroluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Santino D; Kent, Thomas F; Phillips, Patrick J; Mills, Michael J; Rajan, Siddharth; Myers, Roberto C

    2012-02-08

    Almost all electronic devices utilize a pn junction formed by random doping of donor and acceptor impurity atoms. We developed a fundamentally new type of pn junction not formed by impurity-doping, but rather by grading the composition of a semiconductor nanowire resulting in alternating p and n conducting regions due to polarization charge. By linearly grading AlGaN nanowires from 0% to 100% and back to 0% Al, we show the formation of a polarization-induced pn junction even in the absence of any impurity doping. Since electrons and holes are injected from AlN barriers into quantum disk active regions, graded nanowires allow deep ultraviolet LEDs across the AlGaN band-gap range with electroluminescence observed from 3.4 to 5 eV. Polarization-induced p-type conductivity in nanowires is shown to be possible even without supplemental acceptor doping, demonstrating the advantage of polarization engineering in nanowires compared with planar films and providing a strategy for improving conductivity in wide-band-gap semiconductors. As polarization charge is uniform within each unit cell, polarization-induced conductivity without impurity doping provides a solution to the problem of conductivity uniformity in nanowires and nanoelectronics and opens a new field of polarization engineering in nanostructures that may be applied to other polar semiconductors. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  12. PN Sequence Preestimator Scheme for DS-SS Signal Acquisition Using Block Sequence Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Kyu Park

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available An m-sequence (PN sequence preestimator scheme for direct-sequence spread spectrum (DS-SS signal acquisition by using block sequence estimation (BSE is proposed and analyzed. The proposed scheme consists of an estimator and a verifier which work according to the PN sequence chip clock, and provides not only the enhanced chip estimates with a threshold decision logic and one-chip error correction among the first m received chips, but also the reliability check of the estimates with additional decision logic. The probabilities of the estimator and verifier operations are calculated. With these results, the detection, the false alarm, and the missing probabilities of the proposed scheme are derived. In addition, using a signal flow graph, the average acquisition time is calculated. The proposed scheme can be used as a preestimator and easily implemented by changing the internal signal path of a generally used digital matched filter (DMF correlator or any other correlator that has a lot of sampling data memories for sampled PN sequence. The numerical results show rapid acquisition performance in a relatively good CNR.

  13. Growth and electrical rectification in axial in-situ doped p-n junction germanium nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picraux, Samuel T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dayeh, Shadi [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zaslavsky, Alexander [BROWN U; Le, Son T [BROWN U

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth and electrical properties of axial in-situ doped p-n junction Ge nanowires (NWs). In-situ doping of the NWs was accomplished by introducing dopant gases (diborane and phosphine) together with GeH{sub 4} in the growth process. By changing dopant sources during growth, a p-n junction can be realized along the axis of the NWs. Metal contacts to the wires were defined using e-beam lithography patterning, followed by 100 nm Ni sputter deposition and lift-off. Four-point measurements of the fabricated devices at room temperature and at 77 K clearly show rectification with on/off current ratio up to two orders of magnitude when the bias is applied across the p-n junction. The ideality factor of the junction current points to a significant generation-recombination contribution. The Ohmic characteristics in the p and n regions outside the junction make it possible to estimate the doping levels. We also observed backgate control of the NW junction current.

  14. Fluoranthene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, inhibits light as well as dark reactions of photosynthesis in wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, Rupal Singh; Jajoo, Anjana

    2014-11-01

    The toxic effect of fluoranthene (FLT) on seed germination, growth of seedling and photosynthesis processes of wheat (Triticum aestivum) was investigated. Wheat seeds were exposed to 5 µM and 25 µM FLT concentrations for 25 days and it was observed that FLT had inhibiting effect on rate of seed germination. The germination rate of wheat seeds decreased by 11% at 25 µM FLT concentration. Root/shoot growth and biomass production declined significantly even at low concentrations of FLT. Chlorophyll a fluorescence and gas exchange parameters were measured after 25 days to evaluate the effects of FLT on Photosystem II (PSII) activity and CO2 assimilation rate. The process of CO2 assimilation decreased more effectively by FLT as compared to the yield of PSII. A negative correlation was found between plant net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, carboxylation capacity and biomass production with FLT. It is concluded that inhibiting effects of FLT on photosynthesis are contributed more by inhibition in the process of CO2 fixation rather than inhibition of photochemical events. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Petri Nets in Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A process language for security protocols is presented together with a semantics in terms of sets of events. The denotation of process is a set of events, and as each event specifies a set of pre and postconditions, this denotation can be viewed as a Petri net. By means of an example we illustrate...... how the Petri-net semantics can be used to prove security properties....

  16. The Economics of Net Neutrality

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, Robert W.; Wallsten, Scott

    2006-01-01

    This essay examines the economics of "net neutrality" and broadband Internet access. We argue that mandating net neutrality would be likely to reduce economic welfare. Instead, the government should focus on creating competition in the broadband market by liberalizing more spectrum and reducing entry barriers created by certain local regulations. In cases where a broadband provider can exercise market power the government should use its antitrust enforcement authority to police anticompetitiv...

  17. Oxygenic photosynthesis: translation to solar fuel technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian David Janna Olmos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mitigation of man-made climate change, rapid depletion of readily available fossil fuel reserves and facing the growing energy demand that faces mankind in the near future drive the rapid development of economically viable, renewable energy production technologies. It is very likely that greenhouse gas emissions will lead to the significant climate change over the next fifty years. World energy consumption has doubled over the last twenty-five years, and is expected to double again in the next quarter of the 21st century. Our biosphere is at the verge of a severe energy crisis that can no longer be overlooked. Solar radiation represents the most abundant source of clean, renewable energy that is readily available for conversion to solar fuels. Developing clean technologies that utilize practically inexhaustible solar energy that reaches our planet and convert it into the high energy density solar fuels provides an attractive solution to resolving the global energy crisis that mankind faces in the not too distant future. Nature’s oxygenic photosynthesis is the most fundamental process that has sustained life on Earth for more than 3.5 billion years through conversion of solar energy into energy of chemical bonds captured in biomass, food and fossil fuels. It is this process that has led to evolution of various forms of life as we know them today. Recent advances in imitating the natural process of photosynthesis by developing biohybrid and synthetic “artificial leaves” capable of solar energy conversion into clean fuels and other high value products, as well as advances in the mechanistic and structural aspects of the natural solar energy converters, photosystem I and photosystem II, allow to address the main challenges: how to maximize solar-to-fuel conversion efficiency, and most importantly: how to store the energy efficiently and use it without significant losses. Last but not least, the question of how to make the process of solar

  18. The influence of replacing the pnicogens As by Sb on the optical properties of the Zintl phases Ba{sub 2}Cd{sub 2}Pn{sub 3} (Pn = As and Sb)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reshak, A.H., E-mail: maalidph@yahoo.co.uk [New Technologies – Research Centre, University of West Bohemia, Univerzitni 8, 306 14 Pilsen (Czech Republic); Center of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology, School of Material Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis, 01007 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia)

    2015-11-05

    We explored the influence of changing the pnicogens by substituting As by Sb on the optical properties of Ba{sub 2}Cd{sub 2}Pn{sub 3} (Pn = As and Sb). Calculation show that there exists subtle difference in the electronic structures when we substitute As by Sb, which lead to significant influence on the optical properties, taking into account the size and the electro-negativity differences between As and Sb atoms. The full potential method within the recently modified Becke-Johnson potential explore that the Ba{sub 2}Cd{sub 2}Pn{sub 3} (Pn = As and Sb) compounds are narrow band gap semiconductors of about 0.49 and 0.32 eV. The optical properties explore that these material have negative uniaxial anisotropy, negative birefringence and considerable anisotropy between the optical components in the polarization directions [100], [010] and [001] with respect to the crystal axis. Furthermore, the optical properties confirm that Ba{sub 2}Cd{sub 2}Sb{sub 3} possess a band gap which is smaller than that of Ba{sub 2}Cd{sub 2}As{sub 3}. The optical properties helps to get deep insight into the electronic structure. - Highlights: • The optical properties of Ba{sub 2}Cd{sub 2}Pn{sub 3} (Pn = As and Sb) were investigated. • The subtle difference in electronic structures influence the optical properties. • Ba{sub 2}Cd{sub 2}Pn{sub 3} (Pn = As and Sb) are narrow band gap semiconductors. • The investigated compounds exhibit negative uniaxial anisotropy and birefringence.

  19. New fluorescence parameters for monitoring photosynthesis in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Force, L.; Critchley, Ch.; Rensen, van J.J.S.

    2003-01-01

    Chlorophyll fluorescence measurements have a wide range of applications from basic understanding of photosynthesis functioning to plant environmental stress responses and direct assessments of plant health. The measured signal is the fluorescence intensity (expressed in relative units) and the most

  20. Box photosynthesis modeling results for WRF/CMAQ LSM

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Box Photosynthesis model simulations for latent heat and ozone at 6 different FLUXNET sites. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Ran, L., J....