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Sample records for net pain tolerance

  1. The peer effect on pain tolerance.

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    Engebretsen, Solveig; Frigessi, Arnoldo; Engø-Monsen, Kenth; Furberg, Anne-Sofie; Stubhaug, Audun; de Blasio, Birgitte Freiesleben; Nielsen, Christopher Sivert

    2018-05-19

    Twin studies have found that approximately half of the variance in pain tolerance can be explained by genetic factors, while shared family environment has a negligible effect. Hence, a large proportion of the variance in pain tolerance is explained by the (non-shared) unique environment. The social environment beyond the family is a potential candidate for explaining some of the variance in pain tolerance. Numerous individual traits have previously shown to be associated with friendship ties. In this study, we investigate whether pain tolerance is associated with friendship ties. We study the friendship effect on pain tolerance by considering data from the Tromsø Study: Fit Futures I, which contains pain tolerance measurements and social network information for adolescents attending first year of upper secondary school in the Tromsø area in Northern Norway. Pain tolerance was measured with the cold-pressor test (primary outcome), contact heat and pressure algometry. We analyse the data by using statistical methods from social network analysis. Specifically, we compute pairwise correlations in pain tolerance among friends. We also fit network autocorrelation models to the data, where the pain tolerance of an individual is explained by (among other factors) the average pain tolerance of the individual's friends. We find a significant and positive relationship between the pain tolerance of an individual and the pain tolerance of their friends. The estimated effect is that for every 1 s increase in friends' average cold-pressor tolerance time, the expected cold-pressor pain tolerance of the individual increases by 0.21 s (p-value: 0.0049, sample size n=997). This estimated effect is controlled for sex. The friendship effect remains significant when controlling for potential confounders such as lifestyle factors and test sequence among the students. Further investigating the role of sex on this friendship effect, we only find a significant peer effect of male friends

  2. Altering gender role expectations: effects on pain tolerance, pain threshold, and pain ratings.

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    Robinson, Michael E; Gagnon, Christine M; Riley, Joseph L; Price, Donald D

    2003-06-01

    The literature demonstrating sex differences in pain is sizable. Most explanations for these differences have focused on biologic mechanisms, and only a few studies have examined social learning. The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of gender-role stereotypes to sex differences in pain. This study used experimental manipulation of gender-role expectations for men and women. One hundred twenty students participated in the cold pressor task. Before the pain task, participants were given 1 of 3 instructional sets: no expectation, 30-second performance expectation, or a 90-second performance expectation. Pain ratings, threshold, and tolerance were recorded. Significant sex differences in the "no expectation" condition for pain tolerance (t = 2.32, df = 38, P differ in their pain tolerance, pain threshold, or pain ratings. This is the first empirical study to show that manipulation of expectations alters sex differences in laboratory pain.

  3. Pain and pain tolerance in professional ballet dancers.

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    Tajet-Foxell, B; Rose, F D

    1995-01-01

    Pain experience in sport had been the subject of increasing research in recent years. While sports professionals have generally been found to have higher pain thresholds than control subjects the reasons for this are not entirely clear. The present study seeks to investigate one possible explanatory factor, the importance of the popular image of the physical activity and of the self-image of its participants, by examining pain experience in professional ballet dancers. Like sports professionals, dancers were found to have higher pain and pain tolerance thresholds than age matched controls in the Cold Pressor Test. However, they also reported a more acute experience of the sensory aspects of the pain. Explanations of this apparent paradox are discussed both in terms of the neuroticism scores of the two groups and in terms of the dancers' greater experience of pain and its relationship with physical activity. The results illustrated the importance of using multidimensional measures of pain in this type of investigation. PMID:7788215

  4. Exercise increases pressure pain tolerance but not pressure and heat pain thresholds in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaegter, H. B.; Bement, M. Hoeger; Madsen, A. B.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exercise causes an acute decrease in the pain sensitivity known as exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH), but the specificity to certain pain modalities remains unknown. This study aimed to compare the effect of isometric exercise on the heat and pressure pain sensitivity. METHODS...... and counterbalanced order. Cuff pressure pain threshold (cPPT) and pain tolerance (cPTT) were assessed on the ipsilateral lower leg by computer-controlled cuff algometry. Heat pain threshold (HPT) was recorded on the ipsilateral foot by a computer-controlled thermal stimulator. RESULTS: Cuff pressure pain tolerance...... to the understanding of how isometric exercise influences pain perception, which is necessary to optimize the clinical utility of exercise in management of chronic pain. SIGNIFICANCE: The effect of isometric exercise on pain tolerance may be relevant for patients in chronic musculoskeletal pain as a pain...

  5. Effect of manipulated state aggression on pain tolerance.

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    Stephens, Richard; Allsop, Claire

    2012-08-01

    Swearing produces a pain lessening (hypoalgesic) effect for many people; an emotional response may be the underlying mechanism. In this paper, the role of manipulated state aggression on pain tolerance and pain perception is assessed. In a repeated-measures design, pain outcomes were assessed in participants asked to play for 10 minutes a first-person shooter video game vs a golf video game. Sex differences were explored. After playing the first-person shooter video game, aggressive cognitions, aggressive affect, heart rate, and cold pressor latency were increased, and pain perception was decreased. These data indicate that people become more pain tolerant with raised state aggression and support our theory that raised pain tolerance from swearing occurs via an emotional response.

  6. Exercise increases pressure pain tolerance but not pressure and heat pain thresholds in healthy young men.

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    Vaegter, H B; Hoeger Bement, M; Madsen, A B; Fridriksson, J; Dasa, M; Graven-Nielsen, T

    2017-01-01

    Exercise causes an acute decrease in the pain sensitivity known as exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH), but the specificity to certain pain modalities remains unknown. This study aimed to compare the effect of isometric exercise on the heat and pressure pain sensitivity. On three different days, 20 healthy young men performed two submaximal isometric knee extensions (30% maximal voluntary contraction in 3 min) and a control condition (quiet rest). Before and immediately after exercise and rest, the sensitivity to heat pain and pressure pain was assessed in randomized and counterbalanced order. Cuff pressure pain threshold (cPPT) and pain tolerance (cPTT) were assessed on the ipsilateral lower leg by computer-controlled cuff algometry. Heat pain threshold (HPT) was recorded on the ipsilateral foot by a computer-controlled thermal stimulator. Cuff pressure pain tolerance was significantly increased after exercise compared with baseline and rest (p  0.77) compared with HPT (intraclass correlation = 0.54). The results indicate that hypoalgesia after submaximal isometric exercise is primarily affecting tolerance of pressure pain compared with the pain threshold. These data contribute to the understanding of how isometric exercise influences pain perception, which is necessary to optimize the clinical utility of exercise in management of chronic pain. The effect of isometric exercise on pain tolerance may be relevant for patients in chronic musculoskeletal pain as a pain-coping strategy. WHAT DOES THIS STUDY ADD?: The results indicate that hypoalgesia after submaximal isometric exercise is primarily affecting tolerance of pressure pain compared with the heat and pressure pain threshold. These data contribute to the understanding of how isometric exercise influences pain perception, which is necessary to optimize the clinical utility of exercise in management of chronic pain. © 2016 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  7. Handling Ibuprofen increases pain tolerance and decreases perceived pain intensity in a cold pressor test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham M Rutchick

    Full Text Available Pain contributes to health care costs, missed work and school, and lower quality of life. Extant research on psychological interventions for pain has focused primarily on developing skills that individuals can apply to manage their pain. Rather than examining internal factors that influence pain tolerance (e.g., pain management skills, the current work examines factors external to an individual that can increase pain tolerance. Specifically, the current study examined the nonconscious influence of exposure to meaningful objects on the perception of pain. Participants (N = 54 completed a cold pressor test, examined either ibuprofen or a control object, then completed another cold pressor test. In the second test, participants who previously examined ibuprofen reported experiencing less intense pain and tolerated immersion longer (relative to baseline than those who examined the control object. Theoretical and applied implications of these findings are discussed.

  8. HYPNOBIRTHING INCREASE PAIN TOLERANCE AND ANXIETY IN ACTIVE PHASE LABOR

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    Nursalam Nursalam

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The main problem of inpartu mother was a labour pain and anxiety. The etiology of labour pain has been determained by dilatation and cervic’s tickness. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of hypnobirthing relaxation on the pain tolerance and anxiety responses in labor. Method: A pre experimental static group comparison purposive sampling design was used in this study. Population were all pregnant women in age of pregnancies between 38 until 39 weeks at RSUD Wangaya Denpasar. There were 12 respondents who met to the inclusion criteria divided into 6 respondents were given hypnobirthing relaxation intervention and 6 respondents as the control group. The independent variable was hypnobirthing relaxation and dependent variables were tolerance of pain and anxiety responses. Data were collected by using observation and questionnaire, then data were analyzed by using Mann Whitney U Test with significance level p=0.05. Result: The result showed that hypnobirthing relaxation had an effect on the pain tolerance and anxiety responses (p=0.015. Discussion: It can be concluded that the hypnobirthing relaxation has an effect to increase the pain tolerance and to decrease anxiety responses in active phase of labour. It is recommended to the hospital that have an ante natal care to hypnobirthing relaxation technique. Further studies should measure the effect of hynobirthing relaxation on increasing of β-endorfin in active phase labour.

  9. Role of microglia in neuropathic pain, postoperative pain, and morphine tolerance

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    Wen, Yeong-Ray; Tan, Ping-Heng; Cheng, Jen-Kun; Liu, Yen-Chin; Ji, Ru-Rong

    2011-01-01

    Management of chronic pain such as nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain associated with diabetic neuropathy, viral infection, and cancer is a real clinical challenge. Major surgeries such as breast and thoracic surgery, leg amputation, and coronary artery bypass surgery also lead to chronic pain in 10–50% of individuals after acute postoperative pain, in part due to surgery-induced nerve injury. Current treatments mainly focus on blocking neurotransmission in the pain pathway and have only resulted in limited success. Ironically, chronic opioid exposure may lead to paradoxical pain. Development of effective therapeutic strategies requires a better understanding of cellular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. An important progress in pain research points to important role of microglial cells in the development of chronic pain. Spinal cord microglia are strongly activated after nerve injury, surgical incision, and chronic opioid exposure. Increasing evidence suggests that under all these conditions the activated microglia not only exhibit increased expression of microglial markers CD11b and Iba1 but also display elevated phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase. Inhibition of spinal cord p38 has been shown to attenuate neuropathic pain and postoperative pain, as well as morphine-induced antinociceptive tolerance. Activation of p38 in spinal microglia results in increased synthesis and release of the neurotrophin BDNF and the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α. These microglia-released mediators can powerfully modulate spinal cord synaptic transmission, leading to increased excitability of dorsal horn neurons, i.e. central sensitization, in part via suppressing inhibitory synaptic transmission. We review the studies that support the pronociceptive role of microglia in conditions of neuropathic pain, post-surgical pain, and opioid tolerance. Some of these studies have been accomplished by four Taiwanese anesthesiologists who are also

  10. Thresholds and Tolerance of Physical Pain Among Young Adults Who Self-Injure

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    Katrina McCoy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence rates of nonsuicidal self-injury among college students range from 17% to 38%. Research indicates that individuals with borderline personality disorder who self-injure sometimes report an absence of pain during self-injury. Furthermore, self-injury in the absence of pain has been associated with more frequent suicide attempts. The present study examined pain thresholds and tolerance among 44 college students (11 who engaged in self-injury and 33 who did not. Pain thresholds and tolerance were measured using an algometer pressure device that was used to produce pain in previous laboratory research. Participants who engaged in self-injury had a higher pain tolerance than those who did not. In addition, participants who engaged in self-injury rated the pain as less intense than participants who did not. ANCOVAs revealed that depression was associated with pain rating and pain tolerance.

  11. A longitudinal exploration of pain tolerance and participation in contact sports.

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    Thornton, Claire; Sheffield, David; Baird, Andrew

    2017-07-01

    Athletes who choose to engage in contact sports do so with the knowledge that participation will bring pain in the form of contact with others, injury, and from exertion. Whilst athletes who play contact sports have been shown to have higher pain tolerance than those who do not, it is unclear whether this is a result of habituation over time, or as a result of individual differences at the outset. The aim was to compare pain responses over an athletic season in athletes who participated in contact sport and those who disengaged from it. One hundred and two new contact athletes completed measures of cold and ischaemic pain tolerance, perceived pain intensity, pain bothersomeness, pain coping styles and attendance at the start, middle (4 months) and end (8 months) of their season. The athletes were drawn from martial arts, rugby and American football. Cluster analysis placed 47 athletes into a participating category and 55 into a non-participating cluster. Participating athletes had higher ischaemic pain tolerance at the start (r=0.27, p=0.05), middle (r=0.41, pdirect coping, catastrophized less about injury pain and also found contact pain to be less bothersome physically and psychologically compared to non-participating athletes. Participating athletes were more tolerant of ischaemic pain at the end of the season compared to the start (r=0.28, p=0.04). Conversely non-participating athletes became significantly less tolerant to both pain stimuli by the end of the season (cold pressor; r=0.54, psports become less pain tolerant of experimental pain, possibly a result of catastrophizing. The results suggest that athletes who commit to contact sports find pain less bothersome over time, possibly as a result of experience and learning to cope with pain. Athletes who continue to participate in contact sports have a higher pain tolerance, report less bothersomeness and have higher direct coping than those who drop out. In addition, tolerance to ischaemic pain increased

  12. TOLERANCE TIME OF EXPERIMENTAL THERMAL PAIN (COLD INDUCED) IN VOLUNTEERS.

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    Vaid, V N; Wilkhoo, N S; Jain, A K

    1998-10-01

    Perception of thermal pain (cold induced) was studied in 106 volunteers from troops and civilians deployed in J & K. Thermal stimulus devised was "holding ice". Tolerance time of holding ice was taken to be a measure of thermal sensitivity, volunteers were classified based on their native areas, addiction habits and socio-economic status, out of 106 volunteers, 81 could & 25 could not hold ice over 10 min. Sixteen out of 40 from coastline States and 9 out of 66 from non-coast line States failed to hold ice over 10 min. In "below average" "average" and "high average" socio-economic groups, three out of 27, 19 out of 73 and 03 out of 6 failed to hold ice over 10 min respectively. Fifteen out of 64 from "addiction habit group" and 10 out of 42 from "no addiction habit group" failed to hold ice over 10 min. Statistically no classification used in the study revealed significant difference in "tolerance times" of volunteers except the one based on coastline and non-coastline States.

  13. Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønder, Lars

    Tolerance: A Sensorial Orientation to Politics is an experiment in re-orientation. The book is based on the wager that tolerance exceeds the more prevalent images of self-restraint and repressive benevolence because neither precludes the possibility of a more “active tolerance” motivated by the d...... these alternatives by returning to the notion of tolerance as the endurance of pain, linking this notion to exemplars and theories relevant to the politics of multiculturalism, religious freedom, and free speech....

  14. Relationships between widespread pain and thresholds pain tolerance on tender points in Portuguese women with fibromyalgia: impact on daily life.

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    Pablo Tomas-Carus

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to establish a relationship between widespread pain subjectively perceived and threshold pain tolerance on tender points, and to determine whether there are differences in threshold pain tolerance on tender points between the upper and lower body, as well as between the dominant and non-dominant side, and whether these differences have an impact on the daily life of Portuguese women with fibromyalgia (FM. Material e Methods: thirty-one women with FM aged between 34 and 67 years volunteered for the study. Threshold pain tolerance was assessed at critical points using a digital algometer pressure; the widespread pain index (WPI was constructed by the addition of 19 painful body regions; and the impact on the daily life assessed by the Portuguese version of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ, with individual interviews. Results: significant differences between the percentage of threshold pain tolerance of the whole body and the scales of widespread pain subjectively perceived were observed, showing that the widespread pain subjectively perceived by patients was between +25.9% and +27.5%. Also, significant differences between threshold pain tolerance of tender points located on the upper and lower body (1.9 ± 0.5 kg/cm2 vs. 2.6 ± 0.7 kg/cm2; respectively were observed. However, no significant differences were found between threshold pain tolerance of tender points located on dominant and non-dominant sides (2.1 ± 0.5 kg/cm2 e 2.1 ± 0.6 kg/cm2; respectively. Additionally, the analysis showed significant correlations between pain and patient`s daily life in: FIQ total score, physical function, feel good, job ability and fatigue. Conclusions: the women with FM show higher widespread pain subjectively perceived than threshold pain tolerance on tender points. Furthermore, the pain suffered by the patients with FM, especially that located on the upper body, either on the dominant or on the non-dominant side, has a negative

  15. Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) on Pain Distress Tolerance: A Preliminary Study.

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    Mariano, Timothy Y; van't Wout, Mascha; Jacobson, Benjamin L; Garnaat, Sarah L; Kirschner, Jason L; Rasmussen, Steven A; Greenberg, Benjamin D

    2015-08-01

    Pain remains a critical medical challenge. Current treatments target nociception without addressing affective symptoms. Medically intractable pain is sometimes treated with cingulotomy or deep brain stimulation to increase tolerance of pain-related distress. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may noninvasively modulate cortical areas related to sensation and pain representations. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that cathodal ("inhibitory") stimulation targeting left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) would increase tolerance to distress from acute painful stimuli vs anodal stimulation. Forty healthy volunteers received both anodal and cathodal stimulation. During stimulation, we measured pain distress tolerance with three tasks: pressure algometer, cold pressor, and breath holding. We measured pain intensity with a visual-analog scale before and after each task. Mixed ANOVA revealed that mean cold pressor tolerance tended to be higher with cathodal vs anodal stimulation (P = 0.055) for participants self-completing the task. Pressure algometer (P = 0.81) and breath holding tolerance (P = 0.19) did not significantly differ. The pressure algometer exhibited a statistically significant order effect irrespective of stimulation polarity (all P tDCS (P = 0.072). Although our primary results were nonsignificant, there is a preliminary suggestion that cathodal tDCS targeting left dACC may increase pain distress tolerance to cold pressor. Pressure algometer results are consistent with task-related sensitization. Future studies are needed to refine this novel approach for pain neuromodulation. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Personal values and pain tolerance: does a values intervention add to acceptance?

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    Branstetter-Rost, Ann; Cushing, Christopher; Douleh, Tanya

    2009-08-01

    Previous research suggests that acceptance is a promising alternative to distraction and control techniques in successfully coping with pain. Acceptance interventions based upon Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) have been shown to lead to greater tolerance of acute pain as well as increased adjustment and less disability among individuals with chronic pain. However, in these previous intervention studies, the ACT component of values has either not been included or not specifically evaluated. The current study compares the effects of an ACT-based acceptance intervention with and without the values component among individuals completing the cold-pressor task. Results indicate that inclusion of the values component (n = 34) of ACT leads to significantly greater pain tolerance than acceptance alone (n = 30). Consistent with previous research, both conditions were associated with greater pain tolerance than control (n = 35). Despite the difference in tolerance, pain threshold did not differ, and participants in the control condition provided lower ratings of pain severity. The findings from this study support the important role of values and values clarification in acceptance-based interventions such as ACT, and provide direction for clinicians working with individuals with chronic pain conditions. This article evaluates the additive effect of including a personalized-values exercise in an acceptance-based treatment for pain. Results indicate that values interventions make a significant contribution and improvement to acceptance interventions, which may be of interest to clinicians who provide psychological treatment to individuals with chronic pain.

  17. Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on pain distress tolerance: a preliminary study

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    Mariano, Timothy Y.; Wout, Mascha van’t; Jacobson, Benjamin L.; Garnaat, Sarah L.; Kirschner, Jason L.; Rasmussen, Steven A.; Greenberg, Benjamin D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pain remains a critical medical challenge. Current treatments target nociception without addressing affective symptoms. Medically intractable pain is sometimes treated with cingulotomy or deep brain stimulation to increase tolerance of pain-related distress. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may noninvasively modulate cortical areas related to sensation and pain representations. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that cathodal (“inhibitory”) stimulation targeting left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) would increase tolerance to distress from acute painful stimuli versus anodal stimulation. Methods Forty healthy volunteers received both anodal and cathodal stimulation. During stimulation, we measured pain distress tolerance with three tasks: pressure algometer, cold pressor, and breath holding. We measured pain intensity with a visual-analog scale before and after each task. Results Mixed ANOVA revealed that mean cold pressor tolerance tended to be higher with cathodal versus anodal stimulation (p = 0.055) for participants self-completing the task. Pressure algometer (p = 0.81) and breath holding tolerance (p = 0.19) did not significantly differ. The pressure algometer exhibited a statistically significant order effect irrespective of stimulation polarity (all p Pain intensity ratings increased acutely after cold pressor and pressure algometer tasks (both p pain ratings tended to rise less after cathodal versus anodal tDCS (p = 0.072). Conclusions Although our primary results were nonsignificant, there is a preliminary suggestion that cathodal tDCS targeting left dACC may increase pain distress tolerance to cold pressor. Pressure algometer results are consistent with task-related sensitization. Future studies are needed to refine this novel approach for pain neuromodulation. PMID:26115372

  18. "Do unto others"? Distinct psychopathy facets predict reduced perception and tolerance of pain.

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    Brislin, Sarah J; Buchman-Schmitt, Jennifer M; Joiner, Thomas E; Patrick, Christopher J

    2016-07-01

    Recent research has sought to understand how individuals high in psychopathic traits perceive pain in others (Decety, Skelly, & Kiehl, 2013; Marsh et al., 2013). Perception of pain in others is presumed to act as a prosocial signal, and underreactivity to others' pain may contribute to engagement in exploitative-aggressive behaviors among individuals high in psychopathic traits (Jackson, Meltzoff, & Decety, 2005). The current study tested for associations between facets of psychopathy as defined by the triarchic model (Patrick, Fowles, & Krueger, 2009) and decreased sensitivity to pain in 105 undergraduates tested in a laboratory pain assessment. A pressure algometer was used to index pain tolerance, and participants also rated their perceptions of and reactivity to the algometer-induced pain during the assessment and again 3 days later. A unique positive relationship was found between pain tolerance and the meanness facet of psychopathy, which also predicted reduced fear of painful algometer stimulation. Other psychopathy facets (boldness, disinhibition) showed negative relations with fear of pain stimulation during testing and at follow-up. Findings from this study extend the nomological network surrounding callousness (meanness) and suggest that increased pain tolerance may be a mechanism contributing to insensitivity to expressions of discomfort in others. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. ‘Do Unto Others’?: Distinct Psychopathy Facets Predict Reduced Perception and Tolerance of Pain

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    Brislin, Sarah J.; Buchman-Schmitt, Jennifer M.; Joiner, Thomas E.; Patrick, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has sought to understand how individuals high in psychopathic traits perceive pain in others (Decety, Skelly, & Kiehl, 2013; Marsh et al., 2013). Perception of pain in others is presumed to act as a prosocial signal, and underreactivity to others’ pain may contribute to engagement in exploitative-aggressive behaviors among individuals high in psychopathic traits (Jackson, Meltzoff, & Decety; 2005). The current study tested for associations between facets of psychopathy as defined by the triarchic model (Patrick, Fowles, & Krueger, 2009) and decreased sensitivity to pain in 105 undergraduates tested in a laboratory pain assessment. A pressure algometer was used to index pain tolerance, and participants also rated their perceptions of and reactivity to the algometer-induced pain during the assessment and again three days later. A unique positive relationship was found between pain tolerance and the meanness facet of psychopathy, which also predicted reduced fear of painful algometer stimulation. Other psychopathy facets (boldness, disinhibition) showed negative relations with fear of pain stimulation during testing and at follow-up. Findings from this study extend the nomological network surrounding callousness (meanness) and suggest that increased pain tolerance may be a mechanism contributing to insensitivity to expressions of discomfort in others. PMID:26950545

  20. The effect of cryotherapy on nerve conduction velocity, pain threshold and pain tolerance.

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    Algafly, Amin A; George, Keith P

    2007-06-01

    To determine the impact of the application of cryotherapy on nerve conduction velocity (NCV), pain threshold (PTH) and pain tolerance (PTO). A within-subject experimental design; treatment ankle (cryotherapy) and control ankle (no cryotherapy). Hospital-based physiotherapy laboratory. A convenience sample of adult male sports players (n = 23). NCV of the tibial nerve via electromyogram as well as PTH and PTO via pressure algometer. All outcome measures were assessed at two sites served by the tibial nerve: one receiving cryotherapy and one not receiving cryotherapy. In the control ankle, NCV, PTH and PTO did not alter when reassessed. In the ankle receiving cryotherapy, NCV was significantly and progressively reduced as ankle skin temperature was reduced to 10 degrees C by a cumulative total of 32.8% (pCryotherapy led to an increased PTH and PTO at both assessment sites (pcryotherapy can increase PTH and PTO at the ankle and this was associated with a significant decrease in NCV. Reduced NCV at the ankle may be a mechanism by which cryotherapy achieves its clinical goals.

  1. Tolerance for psychological pain and capability for suicide: Contributions to suicidal ideation and behavior.

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    Meerwijk, Esther L; Weiss, Sandra J

    2018-04-01

    Among people with suicide ideation most do not attempt suicide or die by suicide. In this online study of adult US Facebook users (n = 219), we examined capability for suicide, operationalized as fearlessness about death, and tolerance for psychological pain as potential variables that may explain why some people move from suicide ideation to suicidal behavior. Tolerance for psychological pain was significantly higher for participants who had never attempted suicide. Fearlessness about death was higher in participants who had attempted suicide, but not significantly. At high levels of psychological pain, one's belief in the ability to cope with psychological pain, a dimension of tolerance for psychological pain, was lower in participants with a history of suicide attempt than in participants who had never attempted suicide. The odds of suicidal desire were almost cut in half with each unit increase in participants' belief in their coping ability, whereas for each unit increase in fearlessness about death, the odds of suicidal desire increased by 65%. The Pearson correlation between tolerance for psychological pain and fearlessness about death was negligible. Our findings support a role for both tolerance for psychological pain and capability for suicide/fearlessness about death in the ideation-to-action framework of suicide. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Discrepancy between stimulus response and tolerance of pain in Alzheimer disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Dahm, Christina; Werner, Mads U; Jensen, Troels Staehelin

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Affective-motivational and sensory-discriminative aspects of pain were investigated in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease (AD) and healthy elderly controls using the cold pressor test tolerance and repetitive stimuli of warmth and heat stimuli, evaluating the stimulus....... The results further suggest that the attenuated cold pressor pain tolerance may relate to impairment of coping abilities. Paradoxically, we found an attenuated stimulus-response function, compared to controls, suggesting that AD dementia interferes with pain ratings over time, most likely due to memory...

  3. The challenge of perioperative pain management in opioid-tolerant patients

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    Coluzzi, Flaminia; Bifulco, Francesca; Cuomo, Arturo; Dauri, Mario; Leonardi, Claudio; Melotti, Rita Maria; Natoli, Silvia; Romualdi, Patrizia; Savoia, Gennaro; Corcione, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The increasing number of opioid users among chronic pain patients, and opioid abusers among the general population, makes perioperative pain management challenging for health care professionals. Anesthesiologists, surgeons, and nurses should be familiar with some pharmacological phenomena which are typical of opioid users and abusers, such as tolerance, physical dependence, hyperalgesia, and addiction. Inadequate pain management is very common in these patients, due to common prejudices and fears. The target of preoperative evaluation is to identify comorbidities and risk factors and recognize signs and symptoms of opioid abuse and opioid withdrawal. Clinicians are encouraged to plan perioperative pain medications and to refer these patients to psychiatrists and addiction specialists for their evaluation. The aim of this review was to give practical suggestions for perioperative management of surgical opioid-tolerant patients, together with schemes of opioid conversion for chronic pain patients assuming oral or transdermal opioids, and patients under maintenance programs with methadone, buprenorphine, or naltrexone. PMID:28919771

  4. Real men are made, not born! Incidental exposure to energy drinks may promote men's tolerance of physical pain.

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    Abetkoff, Darren; Karlsson, Torulf; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2015-12-01

    The energy drink market has grown exponentially since the debut of Red Bull. Advertising of energy drinks tends to reinforce an emphasis on masculine identification. However, no previous study has addressed the symbolic effect of energy drinks on pain tolerance, that is, a particular masculine characteristic. We conducted a priming-based experiment to show that energy drink primes elevated men's pain tolerance. Induced conformity to masculinity norms mediated the priming effect of energy drinks on pain tolerance. These findings suggest that mere reminders of masculinity-related products can lead men to behave accordingly in seemingly irrelevant domains (i.e., pain tolerance). Besides distraction and placebo treatment, the connection between a symbolic masculinity prime and greater tolerance of pain may shed lights on an alternative route for pain control. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Exercise tolerance in children and adolescents with musculoskeletal pain in joint hypermobility and joint hypomobility syndrome

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    Engelbert, Raoul H. H.; van Bergen, Monique; Henneken, Thamar; Helders, Paul J. M.; Takken, Tim

    2006-01-01

    Musculoskeletal pain is a common complaint in a pediatric health care practice, but exercise tolerance has never been described in detail in these children. Our objectives for this study were to evaluate the maximal exercise capacity, including peak heart rate and oxygen consumption, of children

  6. The challenge of perioperative pain management in opioid-tolerant patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coluzzi F

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Flaminia Coluzzi,1 Francesca Bifulco,2 Arturo Cuomo,2 Mario Dauri,3 Claudio Leonardi,4 Rita Maria Melotti,5 Silvia Natoli,3 Patrizia Romualdi,6 Gennaro Savoia,7 Antonio Corcione8 1Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Unit of Anaesthesia, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Polo Pontino, Latina, 2National Cancer Institute “G Pascale” Foundation, Unit of Anaesthesia, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, Naples, 3Department of Clinical Science and Translational Medicine, Tor Vergata University of Rome, 4Addiction Disease Department, Local Health Unit (ASL Rome 2, Rome, 5Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, 6Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, Bologna, 7Department Anesthesia, Fatebenefratelli Hospital, Naples, 8Unit of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Dei Colli Hospital, V. Monaldi, Naples, Italy Abstract: The increasing number of opioid users among chronic pain patients, and opioid abusers among the general population, makes perioperative pain management challenging for health care professionals. Anesthesiologists, surgeons, and nurses should be familiar with some pharmacological phenomena which are typical of opioid users and abusers, such as tolerance, physical dependence, hyperalgesia, and addiction. Inadequate pain management is very common in these patients, due to common prejudices and fears. The target of preoperative evaluation is to identify comorbidities and risk factors and recognize signs and symptoms of opioid abuse and opioid withdrawal. Clinicians are encouraged to plan perioperative pain medications and to refer these patients to psychiatrists and addiction specialists for their evaluation. The aim of this review was to give practical suggestions for perioperative management of surgical opioid-tolerant patients, together with schemes of opioid conversion for chronic pain patients assuming oral or transdermal opioids, and

  7. Convergent evolution towards high net carbon gain efficiency contributes to the shade tolerance of palms (Arecaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Ren Yi; Zhang, Jiao Lin; Cavaleri, Molly A.; Sterck, Frank; Strijk, J.S.; Cao, Kun Fang

    2015-01-01

    Most palm species occur in the shaded lower strata of tropical rain forests, but how their traits relate to shade adaptation is poorly understood. We hypothesized that palms are adapted to the shade of their native habitats by convergent evolution towards high net carbon gain efficiency (CGEn),

  8. Efficacy and Tolerability of Intramuscular Dexketoprofen in Postoperative Pain Management following Hernia Repair Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamdade, P T; Porwal, A; Shinde, J V; Erram, S S; Kamat, V V; Karmarkar, P S; Bhagtani, K; Dhorepatil, S; Irpatgire, R; Bhagat, H; Kolte, S S; Shirure, P A

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of intramuscular dexketoprofen for postoperative pain in patients undergoing hernia surgery. Methodology. Total 202 patients received single intramuscular injection of dexketoprofen 50 mg or diclofenac 50 mg postoperatively. The pain intensity (PI) was self-evaluated by patients on VAS at baseline 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours. The efficacy parameters were number of responders, difference in PI (PID) at 8 hours, sum of analogue of pain intensity differences (SAPID), and onset and duration of analgesia. Tolerability assessment was done by global evaluation and adverse events in each group. Results. Dexketoprofen showed superior efficacy in terms of number of responders (P = .007), PID at 8 hours (P = .02), and SAPID( 0-8 hours ) (P dexketoprofen trometamol 50 mg given intramuscularly provided faster, better, and longer duration of analgesia in postoperative patients of hernia repair surgery than diclofenac 50 mg, with comparable safety.

  9. Case report: efficacy and tolerability of ketamine in opioid-refractory cancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Priya; Roeland, Eric; Atayee, Rabia

    2014-09-01

    A 36-year-old female with metastatic breast cancer involving bones, liver, lung, and pleura/chest wall with worsening back pain received weight-based intravenous (IV) ketamine and was transitioned to oral ketamine for cancer-related neuropathic pain. She had responded poorly to outpatient pain regimen of oxycodone sustained and immediate release, hydromorphone, gabapentin, and duloxetine (approximate 480 mg total oral morphine equivalents [OME]), reporting an initial pain score of 10/10. She was started on hydromorphone parenteral patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) bolus dose in addition to her outpatient regimen. Despite escalating doses of opioids and the addition of a lidocaine 5% patch, the patient's pain remained uncontrolled 6 days after admission. On hospital day 7, utilizing a hospital weight-based ketamine protocol, the patient was started on subanesthetic doses of ketamine at 0.2 mg/kg/h (288 mg/24 h) and titrated over 2 days to 0.4 mg/kg/h (576 mg/24 h). Then, a 3-day rotation from intravenous to oral ketamine was initiated, and the patient was discharged on ketamine oral solution, 75 mg every 8 hours. When the patient's dose was increased to 0.4 mg/kg/h, adequate pain relief was charted by the nurse within 120 minutes, "patient pain free and resting comfortably." Her pain continued to be well managed, with an average pain score of 5/10 with the ketamine continuous infusion and sustained with conversion to oral ketamine without any report of side effects. This was a 37% reduction in pain scores. With the patient's stabilized dose of ketamine, opioid requirements decreased by 61.4% (1017.5 mg reduction in total OME). The use of weight-based dosing of IV continuous infusion and transition to oral ketamine was effective and tolerable in the management of opioid-refractory, neuropathic cancer pain. It is hoped that this case report promotes a discussion regarding ketamine dosing in refractory neuropathic cancer pain.

  10. Ketamine as an Adjunct to Postoperative Pain Management in Opioid Tolerant Patients After Spinal Fusions: A Prospective Randomized Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Urban, Michael K.; Ya Deau, Jacques T.; Wukovits, Barbara; Lipnitsky, Jane Y.

    2007-01-01

    Management of acute postoperative pain is challenging, particularly in patients with preexisting narcotic dependency. Ketamine has been used at subanesthetic doses as a N-methyl d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist to block the processing of nociceptive input in chronic pain syndromes. This prospective randomized study was designed to assess the use of ketamine as an adjunct to acute pain management in narcotic tolerant patients after spinal fusions. Twenty-six patients for 1–2 level poster...

  11. Effects of Combining a Brief Cognitive Intervention with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Pain Tolerance: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Abigail; Madan, Alok; Hilbert, Megan; Reeves, Scott T; George, Mark; Nash, Michael R; Borckardt, Jeffrey J

    2018-04-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy has been shown to be effective for treating chronic pain, and a growing literature shows the potential analgesic effects of minimally invasive brain stimulation. However, few studies have systematically investigated the potential benefits associated with combining approaches. The goal of this pilot laboratory study was to investigate the combination of a brief cognitive restructuring intervention and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in affecting pain tolerance. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled laboratory pilot. Medical University of South Carolina. A total of 79 healthy adult volunteers. Subjects were randomized into one of six groups: 1) anodal tDCS plus a brief cognitive intervention (BCI); 2) anodal tDCS plus pain education; 3) cathodal tDCS plus BCI; 4) cathodal tDCS plus pain education; 5) sham tDCS plus BCI; and 6) sham tDCS plus pain education. Participants underwent thermal pain tolerance testing pre- and postintervention using the Method of Limits. A significant main effect for time (pre-post intervention) was found, as well as for baseline thermal pain tolerance (covariate) in the model. A significant time × group interaction effect was found on thermal pain tolerance. Each of the five groups that received at least one active intervention outperformed the group receiving sham tDCS and pain education only (i.e., control group), with the exception of the anodal tDCS + education-only group. Cathodal tDCS combined with the BCI produced the largest analgesic effect. Combining cathodal tDCS with BCI yielded the largest analgesic effect of all the conditions tested. Future research might find stronger interactive effects of combined tDCS and a cognitive intervention with larger doses of each intervention. Because this controlled laboratory pilot employed an acute pain analogue and the cognitive intervention did not authentically represent cognitive behavioral

  12. Long-term efficacy, safety and tolerability of Remoxy for the management of chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergolizzi, Joseph V; Zampogna, Gianpietro; Taylor, Robert; Raffa, Robert B

    2015-03-01

    Historically, chronic pain generally went under-treated for a variety of objective and subjective reasons, including difficulty to objectively diagnose and manage over a long period of time, potential serious adverse effects of commonly available medications, and patient, healthcare and societal concerns over opioid medications. More recently, in an effort to redress the under-treatment of pain, the number of prescriptions of opioid analgesics has risen dramatically. However, paralleling the increased legitimate use has been a concomitant increase in opioid abuse, misuse and diversion. Pharmaceutical companies have responded by developing a variety of opioid formulations designed to deter abuse by making the products more difficult to tamper with. One such product is Remoxy(®), an extended-release formulation of the strong opioid oxycodone. We review the efficacy, safety and tolerability of this formulation based on the available published literature.

  13. Convergent Evolution towards High Net Carbon Gain Efficiency Contributes to the Shade Tolerance of Palms (Arecaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-Yi Ma

    Full Text Available Most palm species occur in the shaded lower strata of tropical rain forests, but how their traits relate to shade adaptation is poorly understood. We hypothesized that palms are adapted to the shade of their native habitats by convergent evolution towards high net carbon gain efficiency (CGEn, which is given by the maximum photosynthetic rate to dark respiration rate ratio. Leaf mass per area, maximum photosynthetic rate, dark respiration and N and P concentrations were measured in 80 palm species grown in a common garden, and combined with data of 30 palm species growing in their native habitats. Compared to other species from the global leaf economics data, dicotyledonous broad-leaved trees in tropical rainforest or other monocots in the global leaf economics data, palms possessed consistently higher CGEn, achieved by lowered dark respiration and fairly high foliar P concentration. Combined phylogenetic analyses of evolutionary signal and trait evolution revealed convergent evolution towards high CGEn in palms. We conclude that high CGEn is an evolutionary strategy that enables palms to better adapt to shady environments than coexisting dicot tree species, and may convey advantages in competing with them in the tropical forest understory. These findings provide important insights for understanding the evolution and ecology of palms, and for understanding plant shade adaptations of lower rainforest strata. Moreover, given the dominant role of palms in tropical forests, these findings are important for modelling carbon and nutrient cycling in tropical forest ecosystems.

  14. The BraveNet prospective observational study on integrative medicine treatment approaches for pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Donald I; Dolor, Rowena; Roberts, Rhonda; Pechura, Constance; Dusek, Jeffery; Amoils, Sandi; Amoils, Steven; Barrows, Kevin; Edman, Joel S; Frye, Joyce; Guarneri, Erminia; Kligler, Ben; Monti, Daniel; Spar, Myles; Wolever, Ruth Q

    2013-06-24

    Chronic pain affects nearly 116 million American adults at an estimated cost of up to $635 billion annually and is the No. 1 condition for which patients seek care at integrative medicine clinics. In our Study on Integrative Medicine Treatment Approaches for Pain (SIMTAP), we observed the impact of an integrative approach on chronic pain and a number of other related patient-reported outcome measures. Our prospective, non-randomized, open-label observational evaluation was conducted over six months, at nine clinical sites. Participants received a non-standardized, personalized, multimodal approach to chronic pain. Validated instruments for pain (severity and interference levels), quality of life, mood, stress, sleep, fatigue, sense of control, overall well-being, and work productivity were completed at baseline and at six, 12, and 24 weeks. Blood was collected at baseline and week 12 for analysis of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. Repeated-measures analysis was performed on data to assess change from baseline at 24 weeks. Of 409 participants initially enrolled, 252 completed all follow-up visits during the 6 month evaluation. Participants were predominantly white (81%) and female (73%), with a mean age of 49.1 years (15.44) and an average of 8.0 (9.26) years of chronic pain. At baseline, 52% of patients reported symptoms consistent with depression. At 24 weeks, significantly decreased pain severity (-23%) and interference (-28%) were seen. Significant improvements in mood, stress, quality of life, fatigue, sleep and well-being were also observed. Mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels increased from 33.4 (17.05) ng/mL at baseline to 39.6 (16.68) ng/mL at week 12. Among participants completing an integrative medicine program for chronic pain, significant improvements were seen in pain as well as other relevant patient-reported outcome measures. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01186341.

  15. Effects of Electroacupuncture Treatment on Bone Cancer Pain Model with Morphine Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Sima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To explore the efficacy of electroacupuncture treatment in cancer induced bone pain (CIBP rat model with morphine tolerance and explore changes of calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG. Methods. Forty SD rats were divided into five groups: sham, CIBP (B, CIBP + morphine (BM, CIBP + electroacupuncture (BE, and CIBP + morphine + electroacupuncture (BME. B, BM, BE, and BME groups were prepared CIBP model. The latter three groups then accepted morphine, electroacupuncture, and morphine combined electroacupuncture, separately, nine days consecutively (M1 to M9. Mechanical withdraw threshold (MWT was evaluated. Results. BE group only had differences in M1, M2, and M3 compared to B group (P<0.01. From M5, BM group showed significantly decreased MWT. Electroacupuncture could obtain analgesic effects only at early stage (M1 to M5. From M5 to M9, BME had the differences with BM group (P<0.01. IOD value of CGRP in BM and BME was substantially less than in B group. CGRP in BME was significantly lower than that in BM group (P<0.01. Conclusion. When used in combination with electroacupuncture, morphine could result in improving analgesic effects and reducing tolerance. CGRP may be associated with pain behaviors.

  16. Psychosocial Stress-Induced Analgesia: An Examination of Effects on Heat Pain Threshold and Tolerance and of Neuroendocrine Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaab, Jens; Jiménez, Julia; Voneschen, Livia; Oschwald, Daniel; Meyer, Andrea H; Nater, Urs M; Krummenacher, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Stress-induced analgesia (SIA) is an adaptive response of reduced nociception following demanding acute internal and external stressors. Although a psychobiological understanding of this phenomenon is of importance for stress-related psychiatric and pain conditions, comparably little is known about the psychobiological mechanisms of SIA in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute psychosocial stress on heat pain perception and its possible neuroendocrine mediation by salivary cortisol levels and α-amylase activity in healthy men. Employing an intra-individual assessment of heat pain parameters, acute psychosocial stress did not influence heat pain threshold but significantly, albeit slightly, increased heat pain tolerance. Using linear mixed-model analysis, this effect of psychosocial stress on heat pain tolerance was not mediated by increases of salivary cortisol and state anxiety levels or by the activity of α-amylase. These results show that while psychosocial stress is selectively analgesic for heat pain tolerance, this observed effect is not mediated by stress-induced increases of salivary cortisol and α-amylase activity, as proxies of both the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and the autonomic nervous system activation. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Influence of upper extremity positioning on pain, paresthesia, and tolerance: advancing current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Mark E; Hazelton, Jill; Dewey, William S; Casey, James C; Richard, Reginald

    2013-01-01

    Loss of upper extremity motion caused by axillary burn scar contracture is a major complication of burn injury. Positioning acutely injured patients with axillary burns in positions above 90° of shoulder abduction may improve shoulder motion and minimize scar contracture. However, these positions may increase injury risk to the nerves of the brachial plexus. This study evaluated the occurrence of paresthesias, pain, and positional intolerance in four shoulder abduction positions in healthy adults. Sixty men and women were placed in four randomly assigned shoulder abduction positions for up to 2 hours: 1) 90° with elbow extension (90 ABD); 2) 130° with elbow flexion at 110° (130 ABD); 3) 150° with elbow extension (150 ABD); and 4) 170° with elbow extension (170 ABD). Outcome measures were assessed at baseline and every 30 minutes and included the occurrence of upper extremity paresthesias, position comfort/tolerance, and pain. Transient paresthesias, lasting less than 3 minutes, occurred in all test positions in 10 to 37% of the cases. Significantly fewer subjects reported paresthesias in the 90 ABD position compared with the other positions (P < .01). Pain was reported more frequently in the 170° position (68%) compared with the other positions (P < .01). Positioning with the elbow flexed or in terminal extension is not recommended, regardless of the degree of shoulder abduction. Positioning patients in a position of 150° of shoulder abduction was shown to be safe and well tolerated. Consideration of positions above this range should be undertaken cautiously and only with strict monitoring in alert and oriented patients for short time periods.

  18. Efficacy and Tolerability of Intramuscular Dexketoprofen in Postoperative Pain Management following Hernia Repair Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. T. Jamdade

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of intramuscular dexketoprofen for postoperative pain in patients undergoing hernia surgery. Methodology. Total 202 patients received single intramuscular injection of dexketoprofen 50 mg or diclofenac 50 mg postoperatively. The pain intensity (PI was self-evaluated by patients on VAS at baseline 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours. The efficacy parameters were number of responders, difference in PI (PID at 8 hours, sum of analogue of pain intensity differences (SAPID, and onset and duration of analgesia. Tolerability assessment was done by global evaluation and adverse events in each group. Results. Dexketoprofen showed superior efficacy in terms of number of responders (P=.007, PID at 8 hours (P=.02, and SAPID 0–8 hours (P<.0001. It also showed faster onset of action (42 minutes and longer duration of action (6.5 hours. The adverse events were comparable in both groups. Conclusion. Single dose of dexketoprofen trometamol 50 mg given intramuscularly provided faster, better, and longer duration of analgesia in postoperative patients of hernia repair surgery than diclofenac 50 mg, with comparable safety.

  19. The effect of subliminal evaluative conditioning of cognitive self-schema and illness schema on pain tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerman, Esther E; Brosschot, Jos F; van der Togt, Stefanie A M; Verkuil, Bart

    2013-12-01

    Cognitive models explaining medically unexplained complaints propose that activating illness-related memory causes increased complaints such as pain. However, our previous studies showed conflicting support for this theory. Illness-related memory is more likely to influence reporting of complaints when its activation is enmeshed with that of self-related memory. We, therefore, investigated whether inducing this association would cause a stronger decrease in pain tolerance. In addition, we examined whether SFA acted as a moderator of this effect. We used subliminal evaluative conditioning (SEC) to induce an association between activated self-related and illness-related memory. Seventy-six participants were randomly assigned to four combinations of two priming factors: (1) the self-referent word "I" versus the nonself-referent "X" to manipulate activated self-related memory and (2) health complaint (HC) words versus neutral words to manipulate activated illness-related memory. Pain tolerance was assessed using a cold pressor task (CPT). Participants primed with the self-referent "I" and HC words did not demonstrate the expected lower pain tolerance. However, SFA acted as a moderator of the main effect of the self-prime: priming with "I" resulted in increased pain tolerance in participants with low SFA. The current study did not support the hypothesis that associations between activated self-related memory and illness-related memory cause increased reporting of complaints. Instead, activating self-related memory increased pain tolerance in participants with low SFA. This seems to indicate that the self-prime might cause an increase in SFA and suggests possible new ways to promote adaptive coping with pain.

  20. Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønder, Lars

    is linked to a different set of circumstances than the ones suggested by existing models in contemporary democratic theory. Reorienting the discussion of tolerance, the book raises the question of how to disclose new possibilities within our given context of affect and perception. Once we move away from......Tolerance: A Sensorial Orientation to Politics is an experiment in re-orientation. The book is based on the wager that tolerance exceeds the more prevalent images of self-restraint and repressive benevolence because neither precludes the possibility of a more “active tolerance” motivated...... by the desire to experiment and to become otherwise. The objective is to discuss what gets lost, conceptually as well as politically, when we neglect the subsistence of active tolerance within other practices of tolerance, and to develop a theory of active tolerance in which tolerance's mobilizing character...

  1. Olea Europea-derived phenolic products attenuate antinociceptive morphine tolerance: an innovative strategic approach to treat cancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscoli, C; Lauro, F; Dagostino, C; D'Agostino, C; Ilari, S; Giancotti, L A; Gliozzi, M; Costa, N; Carresi, C; Musolino, V; Casale, F; Ventrice, D; Oliverio, M; Oliverio, E; Palma, E; Nisticò, S; Nistico', S; Procopio, A; Rizzo, M; Mollace, V

    2014-01-01

    Morphine and related opioid drugs are currently the major drugs for severe pain. Their clinical utility is limited in the management of severe cancer pain due to the rapid development of tolerance. Restoring opioid efficacy is therefore of great clinical importance. A great body of evidence suggests the key role of free radicals and posttranslational modulation in the development of tolerance to the analgesic activity of morphine. Epidemiological studies have shown a relationship between the Mediterranean diet and a reduced incidence of pathologies such as coronary heart disease and cancer. A central hallmark of this diet is the high consumption of virgin olive oil as the main source of fat which contains antioxidant components in the non-saponifiable fraction, including phenolic compounds absent in seed oils. Here, we show that in a rodent model of opiate tolerance, removal of the free radicals with phenolic compounds of olive oil such as hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein reinstates the analgesic action of morphine. Chronic injection of morphine in mice led to the development of tolerance and this was associated with increased nitrotyrosin and malondialdehyde (MDA) formation together with nitration and deactivation of MnSOD in the spinal cord. Removal of free radicals by hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein blocked morphine tolerance by inhibiting nitration and MDA formation and replacing the MnSOD activity. The phenolic fraction of virgin olive oil exerts antioxidant activities in vivo and free radicals generation occurring during chronic morphine administration play a crucial role in the development of opioid tolerance. Our data suggest novel therapeutic approach in the management of chronic cancer pain, in particular for those patients who require long-term opioid treatment for pain relief without development of tolerance.

  2. There's More Than Catastrophizing in Chronic Pain: Low Frustration Tolerance and Self-Downing Also Predict Mental Health in Chronic Pain Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suso-Ribera, Carlos; Jornet-Gibert, Montsant; Ribera Canudas, Maria Victoria; McCracken, Lance M; Maydeu-Olivares, Alberto; Gallardo-Pujol, David

    2016-06-01

    Among the potential range of irrational beliefs that could be used as predictors of physical and mental health, catastrophizing is the process that has received most attention in chronic pain research. Other irrational processes such as demandingness, low frustration tolerance, and self-downing have rarely been studied. The goal of this study was to explore whether this wider range of beliefs is associated with health in chronic pain patients beyond catastrophizing. A total of 492 chronic pain patients completed a measure of irrational beliefs, a measure of physical and mental health, and a numerical rating scale designed to assess pain intensity and interference. Irrational processes were more strongly associated with mental than with physical health. Low frustration tolerance and self-downing were found to be significantly related to mental health even after controlling for the effect of catastrophizing. Processes other than catastrophizing appear to have potentially important relationships with the mental health of people with chronic pain. These results may offer new intervention targets for practitioners.

  3. The Painful Side of Trap and Fixed Net Fisheries: Chronic Entanglement of Large Whales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Moore

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Concern over the well-being of marine mammals at sea has focused on intentional harvests, both in terms of individual welfare and population sustainability. Unintentional mortalities from fishing gear entanglement are primarily seen as a risk to population viability. Additionally, larger whales breaking free of, and subsequently carrying, fixed trap and net gear are subject to a very slow demise, averaging 6 months in the case of the North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis. Chronic cases can involve impaired foraging, increased drag, infection, hemorrhage, and severe tissue damage. The individual suffering of these cases appears to be extreme. Thus management measures should go beyond legally mandated conservation measures to include avoidance of such scenarios. Seafood consumers could succeed, where laws have failed, to demand fishing practices that do not kill whales in this manner. The effective absence of such demands would seem to reflect the cryptic nature of these cases to most consumers.

  4. Ketamine as an adjunct to postoperative pain management in opioid tolerant patients after spinal fusions: a prospective randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Michael K; Ya Deau, Jacques T; Wukovits, Barbara; Lipnitsky, Jane Y

    2008-02-01

    Management of acute postoperative pain is challenging, particularly in patients with preexisting narcotic dependency. Ketamine has been used at subanesthetic doses as a N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist to block the processing of nociceptive input in chronic pain syndromes. This prospective randomized study was designed to assess the use of ketamine as an adjunct to acute pain management in narcotic tolerant patients after spinal fusions. Twenty-six patients for 1-2 level posterior lumbar fusions with segmental instrumentation were randomly assigned to receive ketamine or act as a control. Patients in the ketamine group received 0.2 mg/kg on induction of general anesthesia and then 2 mcg kg(-1) hour(-1) for the next 24 hours. Patients were extubated in the operating room and within 15 minutes of arriving in the Post Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU) were started on intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) hydromorphone without a basal infusion. Patients were assessed for pain (numerical rating scale [NRS]), narcotic use, level of sedation, delirium, and physical therapy milestones until discharge. The ketamine group had significantly less pain during their first postoperative hour in the PACU (NRS 4.8 vs 8.7) and continued to have less pain during the first postoperative day at rest (3.6 vs 5.5) and with physical therapy (5.6 vs 8.0). Three patients in the control group failed PCA pain management and were converted to intravenous ketamine infusions when their pain scores improved. Patients in the ketamine group required less hydromorphone than the control group, but the differences were not significant. Subanesthetic doses of ketamine reduced postoperative pain in narcotic tolerant patients undergoing posterior spine fusions.

  5. Efficacy, tolerability, and safety of non-pharmacological therapies for chronic pain: An umbrella review on various CAM approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houzé, Bérengère; El-Khatib, Héjar; Arbour, Caroline

    2017-10-03

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies may be used as a non-pharmacological approach to chronic pain management. While hundreds of trials about individual CAM modality have been conducted, a comprehensive overview of their results is currently lacking for pain clinicians and researchers. This umbrella review synthesized the quality of meta-analytic evidence supporting the efficacy, tolerability and safety of CAM therapies for the management of chronic pain. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and CENTRAL were searched from October 1991 to November 2016. Reviews of clinical trials (randomized and non-randomized) with meta-analysis investigating the utility of any CAM modality for chronic pain were eligible. Pain relief post-intervention was the main outcome and secondary outcomes included patients' adherence and incidence of adverse effects during CAM protocol. Twenty-six reviews (207 clinical trials, >12,000 participants) about 18 CAM modalities, falling under natural products, mind and body practices or other complementary health approaches were included. Inhaled cannabis, graded motor imagery, and Compound Kushen injection (a form of Chinese medicine) were found the most efficient (with moderate-to-high effect sizes and low heterogeneity) and tolerable (≥80% of adherence to study protocols) for chronic pain relief. When reported, adverse effects related to these CAM were minor. Although several CAM were found effective for chronic pain relief, it remains unclear when these modalities are a reasonable choice against or in conjunction with mainstream treatments. In that sense, future research with a clear emphasis on concurrent evaluation of CAM overall efficacy and patient adherence/tolerance is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Exercise tolerance test in patients presenting with chest pain and normal electrocardiogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharieff, S.; Khan, Shah-e-Zaman

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To report the prevalence of abnormal exercise tolerance test (ETT) responses and to assess the risk factors for ischemic heart disease (IHD) in a population referred for the evaluation of chest pain with a normal baseline electrocardiogram (ECG). Design: A prospective study. The study was conducted at the National Institute of cardiovascular Diseases (NICVD), Karachi, Pakistan between 1st January 2000 and 31 December 2000. Subjects and Methods: One thousand one hundred and twenty-seven consecutive adult patients presenting in the outpatient department (OPD) with history of chest pain and having a normal baseline ECG were the subjects of the study after excluding patients with indeterminate or inconclusive test response. All these subjects underwent ETT and were screened for risk factor for IHD. Results: Of the patients studied 56.6% had abnormal ETT response. Male to female ratio of all patients was 4.85:1 Overall mean age was 50.3 +- 8.8 years. 65.9% of diabetic patients had ETT Suggestive of silent myocardial ischemia (p=0.012). Age > 50 year (p= <0.0001), male sex (p=0.015), diabetes mellitus (p=0.0033) and positive family history of IHD (p=0.0014) were the risk factor found in patient with abnormal ETT response. Conclusion: Age of more than 50 years, male gender, diabetes mellitus and positive family history of IHD are the significant risk factors for the development of ischemic heart disease in our population. Silent myocardial ischemic is common in diabetics. (author)

  7. A study on nuclear heat load tolerable for NET/TF coils cooled by internal flow of helium II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, A.

    1988-02-01

    NbTi cables cooled by internal flow of superfluid helium are considered an option for the design of NET/TF coils with about 11 T peak fields. Starting from an available winding cross section of 0.61x0.61 m 2 for a 8 MA turns coil made of a 16 kA conductor it is shown that sufficient hydraulic cross section can be provided within such cables to remove the expected thermal load resulting from nuclear heating with exponential decay from inboard to outboard side of the winding. The concept is a pancake type coil with 1.8 K helium fed-in the high field region of each pancake. The temperature distribution within such coils is calculated, and the local safety margin is determined from temperature and field. The calculation takes account of nuclear and a.c. heating, and of thermal conductance between the individual layers and the coil casing. It is shown that operation with 1.8 K inlet and about 3 K outlet temperature is possible. The electrical insulation with about 0.5 mm thickness proves to provide sufficient thermal insulation. No additional thermal shield is required between the coil casing and the winding package. Two different types of conductors are being considered: a) POLO type cable with quadratic cross section and a central circular coolant duct, and b) an LCT type cable with two conductors wound in hand. Both concepts with about 500 m length of the cooland channels are shown to meet the requirements resulting from a peak nuclear heat load of 0.3 mW/cm 3 in the inboard turns. The hydraulic diameters are sufficient to operate each coils with self-sustained fountain effect pumps. Even appreciably higher heat loads with up to 3 mW/cm 3 of nuclear heating can be tolerated for the POLO type cable when the hydraulic diameter is enlarged to its maximum of 17 mm. (orig.) [de

  8. Effect of Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR in Increasing Pain Tolerance and Improving the Mental Health of Injured Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warhel Asim Mohammed

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Literature indicates that injured athletes face both physical and psychological distress after they have been injured. In this study, a Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR was utilised as an intervention for use during the period of recovery with injured athletes and, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study using MBSR as an intervention for this purpose.Objective: The aim of this research was to investigate the role of MBSR practise in reducing the perception of pain and decreasing anxiety/stress, as well as increasing pain tolerance and mindfulness. An additional aim was to increase positive mood and decrease negative mood in injured athletes.Methods: The participants comprised of twenty athletes (male = 14; female = 6; age range = 21–36 years who had severe injuries, preventing their participation in sport for more than 3 months. Prior to their injury, the participants had trained regularly with their University teams and participated in official university championships. Both groups followed their normal physiotherapy treatment, but in addition, the intervention group practised mindfulness meditation for 8 weeks (one 90-min session/week. A Cold Pressor Test (CPT was used to assess pain tolerance. In contrast, the perception of pain was measured using a Visual Analogue Scale. Other measurements used were the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS, Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS, and Profile of Mood States (POMS.Results: Our results demonstrated an increase in pain tolerance for the intervention group and an increase in mindful awareness for injured athletes. Moreover, our findings observed a promising change in positive mood for both groups. Regarding the Stress/Anxiety scores, our findings showed a notable decrease across sessions; however, no significant changes were observed in other main and interaction effects in both groups.Conclusion: Injured athletes can benefit from using mindfulness as part of the

  9. Can agonistic striving lead to unexplained illness? Implicit goals, pain tolerance, and somatic symptoms in adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewart, Craig K; Elder, Gavin J; Laird, Kelsey T; Shelby, Grace D; Walker, Lynn S

    2014-09-01

    We tested the social action theory hypotheses that (a) psychological stress induced by struggling to control others (agonistic striving) is associated with higher levels of subjective somatic symptoms than stress induced by struggling to control the self (transcendence striving); (b) the association between agonistic striving and symptoms is moderated by the ability to tolerate pain; and (c) associations among agonistic goals, pain tolerance, and subjective symptoms are not explained by personality and affective traits or negative emotional responses to personal stressors. Implicit motives and negative emotional reactivity to recurring personal stressors were assessed by Social Competence Interview in 333 adolescents and adults who participated in longitudinal research on functional abdominal pain at a university medical center. Pain tolerance was assessed by graduated thermal pain protocol; subjective somatic symptoms, and personality/affective traits assessed by questionnaires. The primary outcome measure was the self-reported severity of 35 somatic symptoms often experienced in the absence of diagnosable disease. All hypotheses were supported. Nonconscious agonistic strivings may increase the perceived frequency and severity of subjective somatic symptoms; this tendency is greatly magnified by difficulty in self-regulating responses to painful stimuli. Implicit agonistic motives and their associations with symptoms are not explained by individual differences in trait neuroticism, anxiety, depression, anger, or low self-esteem or by negative emotional reactivity to a personal stressor. These findings may afford fruitful insights into mechanisms by which stressful social environments undermine health and suggest promising directions for clinical intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. The effect of simultaneously performed cognitive task and physical exercise on pressure pain threshold and tolerance in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliye GÜNDOĞDU

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the alterations of the pain threshold and tolerance after single, or dual task in athletes. Twenty male athletes and twenty non - athletic, recreationally active college students were participated in the study. Subjects w ere asked to perform Harvard step test (single task, and cognitive task was concurrent performance of an arithmetic task while performing Harvard step test. Pressure pain threshold (PPT and pressure pain tolerance (PPTO were assessed from muscle, tendon , bone and myofascial region from the dominant thigh by using a digital algometer. All measurements were repeated at rest, or following single and dual task. Results are presented as mean + standart deviation. Data were analyzed by using repeated measures of ANOVA test. A level of p<0.05 was accepted statistical significant. Athletes had higher PPT and PPTO measurements from muscle and myofascial region of thigh at rest. PPT and PPTO values were increased after single, or dual task in sedentary subjects, w hile athletic subjects had increased muscle and myofascial PPT and PPTO values after dual task. In conclusion, our results supports the notion that cognitive functions may interact the pain processing at rest, or following exercise in athletes.

  11. Perceived racial discrimination, but not mistrust of medical researchers, predicts the heat pain tolerance of African Americans with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodin, Burel R; Pham, Quyen T; Glover, Toni L; Sotolongo, Adriana; King, Christopher D; Sibille, Kimberly T; Herbert, Matthew S; Cruz-Almeida, Yenisel; Sanden, Shelley H; Staud, Roland; Redden, David T; Bradley, Laurence A; Fillingim, Roger B

    2013-11-01

    Studies have shown that perceived racial discrimination is a significant predictor of clinical pain severity among African Americans. It remains unknown whether perceived racial discrimination also alters the nociceptive processing of painful stimuli, which, in turn, could influence clinical pain severity. This study examined associations between perceived racial discrimination and responses to noxious thermal stimuli among African Americans and non-Hispanic Whites. Mistrust of medical researchers was also assessed given its potential to affect responses to the noxious stimuli. One-hundred and 30 (52% African American, 48% non-Hispanic White) community-dwelling older adults with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis completed two study sessions. In session one, individuals provided demographic, socioeconomic, physical and mental health information. They completed questionnaires related to perceived lifetime frequency of racial discrimination and mistrust of medical researchers. In session two, individuals underwent a series of controlled thermal stimulation procedures to assess heat pain sensitivity, particularly heat pain tolerance. African Americans were more sensitive to heat pain and reported greater perceived racial discrimination as well as greater mistrust of medical researchers compared with non-Hispanic Whites. Greater perceived racial discrimination significantly predicted lower heat pain tolerance for African Americans but not non-Hispanic Whites. Mistrust of medical researchers did not significantly predict heat pain tolerance for either racial group. These results lend support to the idea that perceived racial discrimination may influence the clinical pain severity of African Americans via the nociceptive processing of painful stimuli.

  12. Effect of GaAs Laser at 904 nm in the Pain Threshold in Tibia and Tolerance in Deltoid Evaluated by Pressure Algometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Luiz G. P.; Sato, Sidney K.; Silveira, Landulfo; Aimbire, Flávio; Moreira, Leonardo M.; Pinheiro, Antônio L. B.

    2011-08-01

    The use of LLLT in pain relief is a controversial issue in Physiotherapy, with the efficacy of LLLT associated to pain relief still requiring significant study. Objective. This work focuses on the evaluation of the effect of low power GaAs laser at 904 nm in pressure pain threshold and tolerance in tibia and deltoid muscle, respectively. A total of 17 subjects were divided in two groups: active and sham laser. Measurements were taken before and after laser irradiation in healthy individuals using a pressure algometry, first verifying the viability of algometry to evaluate the pain threshold and tolerance inter individuals and comparing the differences of right and left sides in the same patients, and finally evaluating the pain threshold and tolerance before and after a single laser application. Laser energy density was of 4.0 J/cm2 with power density of 137 mW/cm2. Comparing algometry values of active laser group and the sham group, the pain tolerance in the deltoid muscle did not change among groups after laser irradiation, while it was also encountered a statistically significant difference in the pain threshold in tibia when comparing the laser active and sham laser (ppain threshold in tibia. The effective laser action in raising the pain threshold in tibia upon healthy individuals can suggest that the laser could be applied not only as curative but also with preventive purpose.

  13. Efficacy and Tolerability of Intramuscular Dexketoprofen in Postoperative Pain Management following Hernia Repair Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Jamdade, P. T.; Porwal, A.; Shinde, J. V.; Erram, S. S.; Kamat, V. V.; Karmarkar, P. S.; Bhagtani, K.; Dhorepatil, S.; Irpatgire, R.; Bhagat, H.; Kolte, S. S.; Shirure, P. A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of intramuscular dexketoprofen for postoperative pain in patients undergoing hernia surgery. Methodology. Total 202 patients received single intramuscular injection of dexketoprofen 50 mg or diclofenac 50 mg postoperatively. The pain intensity (PI) was self-evaluated by patients on VAS at baseline 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours. The efficacy parameters were number of responders, difference in PI (PID) at 8 hours, sum of analogue of pain intensity differ...

  14. ?Do Unto Others??: Distinct Psychopathy Facets Predict Reduced Perception and Tolerance of Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Brislin, Sarah J.; Buchman-Schmitt, Jennifer M.; Joiner, Thomas E.; Patrick, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has sought to understand how individuals high in psychopathic traits perceive pain in others (Decety, Skelly, & Kiehl, 2013; Marsh et al., 2013). Perception of pain in others is presumed to act as a prosocial signal, and underreactivity to others? pain may contribute to engagement in exploitative-aggressive behaviors among individuals high in psychopathic traits (Jackson, Meltzoff, & Decety; 2005). The current study tested for associations between facets of psychopathy as defi...

  15. Effectiveness and gastrointestinal tolerability during conversion and titration with once-daily OROS® hydromorphone extended release in opioid-tolerant patients with chronic low back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Martin E; Nalamachu, Srinivas R; Khan, Arif; Kutch, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To describe the efficacy and safety of hydromorphone extended-release tablets (OROS hydromorphone ER) during dose conversion and titration. Patients and methods A total of 459 opioid-tolerant adults with chronic moderate to severe low back pain participated in an open-label, 2- to 4-week conversion/titration phase of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized withdrawal trial, conducted at 70 centers in the United States. Patients were converted to once-daily OROS hydromorphone ER at 75% of the equianalgesic dose of their prior total daily opioid dose (5:1 conversion ratio), and titrated as frequently as every 3 days to a maximum dose of 64 mg/day. The primary outcome measure was change in pain intensity numeric rating scale; additional assessments included the Patient Global Assessment and the Roland–Morris Disability Questionnaire scores. Safety assessments were performed at each visit and consisted of recording and monitoring all adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs. Results Mean (standard deviation) final daily dose of OROS hydromorphone ER was 37.5 (17.8) mg. Mean (standard error of the mean [SEM]) numeric rating scale scores decreased from 6.6 (0.1) at screening to 4.3 (0.1) at the final titration visit (mean [SEM] change, −2.3 [0.1], representing a 34.8% reduction). Mean (SEM) change in Patient Global Assessment was −0.6 (0.1), and mean change (SEM) in the Roland–Morris Disability Questionnaire was −2.8 (0.3). Patients achieving a stable dose showed greater improvement than patients who discontinued during titration for each of these measures (P < 0.001). Almost 80% of patients achieving a stable dose (213/268) had a ≥30% reduction in pain. Commonly reported AEs were constipation (15.4%), nausea (11.9%), somnolence (8.7%), headache (7.8%), and vomiting (6.5%); 13.0% discontinued from the study due to AEs. Conclusion The majority of opioid-tolerant patients with chronic low back pain were successfully converted to effective doses of

  16. Effectiveness and gastrointestinal tolerability during conversion and titration with once-daily OROS® hydromorphone extended release in opioid-tolerant patients with chronic low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hale ME

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Martin E Hale,1 Srinivas R Nalamachu,2 Arif Khan,3 Michael Kutch4,* 1Gold Coast Research, LLC, Weston, FL, USA; 2International Clinical Research Institute, Overland Park, KS, USA; 3MedNorthwest Clinical Research Center, Bellevue, WA, USA; Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 4Applied Clinical Intelligence, LLC, Bala Cynwyd, PA, USA *Affiliation at the time this work was completed. Michael Kutch is currently affiliated with Cytel Inc, Chesterbrook, PA, USA Purpose: To describe the efficacy and safety of hydromorphone extended-release tablets (OROS hydromorphone ER during dose conversion and titration. Patients and methods: A total of 459 opioid-tolerant adults with chronic moderate to severe low back pain participated in an open-label, 2- to 4-week conversion/titration phase of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized withdrawal trial, conducted at 70 centers in the United States. Patients were converted to once-daily OROS hydromorphone ER at 75% of the equianalgesic dose of their prior total daily opioid dose (5:1 conversion ratio, and titrated as frequently as every 3 days to a maximum dose of 64 mg/day. The primary outcome measure was change in pain intensity numeric rating scale; additional assessments included the Patient Global Assessment and the Roland–Morris Disability Questionnaire scores. Safety assessments were performed at each visit and consisted of recording and monitoring all adverse events (AEs and serious AEs. Results: Mean (standard deviation final daily dose of OROS hydromorphone ER was 37.5 (17.8 mg. Mean (standard error of the mean [SEM] numeric rating scale scores decreased from 6.6 (0.1 at screening to 4.3 (0.1 at the final titration visit (mean [SEM] change, -2.3 [0.1], representing a 34.8% reduction. Mean (SEM change in Patient Global Assessment was -0.6 (0.1, and mean change (SEM in the Roland–Morris Disability Questionnaire was -2.8 (0.3. Patients achieving a stable dose showed greater improvement

  17. Effectiveness of ketamine as an adjuvant to opioid-based therapy in decreasing pain associated with opioid tolerance in adults undergoing orthopedic surgery: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Marsha; Bonanno, Laura; Kuhn, William

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this systematic review is to examine the best available evidence on the clinical effectiveness of ketamine as an adjuvant to opioid-based therapy versus opioid-based therapy alone in decreasing perioperative pain associated with opioid tolerance in adult patients, aged 18-70 years, undergoing orthopedic surgical procedures.The following question guides the systematic review: does the administration of ketamine as an adjuvant to opioid-based therapy, compared to opioid-based therapy alone, improve perioperative pain relief in opioid-tolerant adult patients undergoing orthopedic surgical procedures?

  18. Tolerability of NGX-4010, a capsaicin 8% patch, in conjunction with three topical anesthetic formulations for the treatment of neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webster LR

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lynn R Webster1, John F Peppin2, Frederick T Murphy3,4, Jeffrey K Tobias5, Geertrui F Vanhove51Lifetree Clinical Research and Pain Clinic, Lifetree Medical Inc, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 2Clinical Research Division, The Pain Treatment Center of the Bluegrass, Lexington, KY, USA; 3Altoona Center for Clinical Research, Duncansville, PA, USA; 4University of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 5NeurogesX Inc, San Mateo, CA, USABackground: The objective of this study was to assess the safety, tolerability, and preliminary efficacy of NGX-4010, a capsaicin 8% patch, following pretreatment with three different topical anesthetics in patients with peripheral neuropathic pain.Methods: This open-label, multicenter study enrolled 117 patients with post-herpetic neuralgia, HIV-associated distal sensory polyneuropathy, or painful diabetic neuropathy. Patients received pretreatment with one of three lidocaine 4%-based topical anesthetics (L.M.X.4® [Ferndale Laboratories Inc, Ferndale, MI], Topicaine® Gel [Estela Basso, Jupiter, FL], or Betacaine Enhanced Gel 4 [Tiberius Inc, Tampa, FL] for 60 minutes followed by a single 60- or 90-minute NGX-4010 application, and were followed for 12 weeks. Tolerability and safety measures included “pain now” Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS scores, dermal assessments, medication use for treatment-related pain, adverse events (AEs, clinical laboratory parameters, physical examinations, and vital signs. The primary efficacy variable was the percentage change in mean NPRS scores for “average pain for the past 24 hours” from baseline to weeks 2 through 12.Results: Treatment with NGX-4010 following pretreatment with any of the three topical anesthetics was generally safe and well tolerated. Nearly all patients completed ≥90% of the planned NGX-4010 application duration. The most common treatment-related AEs, application-site burning and application-site pain, were transient, mostly mild or moderate

  19. Tolerability of the capsaicin 8% patch following pretreatment with lidocaine or tramadol in patients with peripheral neuropathic pain: a multicentre, randomized, assessor-blinded study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, T S; Høye, K; Fricová, J; Vanelderen, P; Ernault, E; Siciliano, T; Marques, S

    2014-10-01

    Application of the capsaicin 8% patch is associated with treatment-related discomfort. Consequently, pretreatment for 60 min with anaesthetic cream is recommended; however, this may be uncomfortable and time consuming. We conducted a multicentre, randomized (1:1), assessor-blinded study in patients with peripheral neuropathic pain to assess tolerability of the capsaicin patch following topical lidocaine (4%) or oral tramadol (50 mg) pretreatment. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients tolerating capsaicin patch application (ability to receive ≥90% of a 60-min application). Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) scores were assessed before, during and after treatment. Overall, 122 patients were included (61 per arm). The capsaicin patch was tolerated by 121 patients. Tolerability of the capsaicin patch was similar following pretreatment with lidocaine and tramadol. Following patch application, pain levels increased up to 55 min (change from baseline of 1.3 for lidocaine and 1.4 for tramadol). After patch removal, tramadol-treated patients experienced greater pain relief up to the end of day 1; in the evening, mean changes in NPRS scores from baseline were 0 for lidocaine and -1 for tramadol. Proportions of patients reporting increases of ≥2 NPRS points or >33% from baseline at one or more time point(s) on the day of treatment were similar between arms. Adverse event incidence was comparable between arms. Capsaicin 8% patch tolerability was similar in the two arms, with comparable results for most secondary endpoints. Tramadol given 30 min before patch application should be considered as an alternative pretreatment option in patients receiving capsaicin patch treatment. © 2014 The Authors. European Journal of Pain published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  20. Performance and Pain Tolerability of Current Diagnostic Allergy Skin Prick Test Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tversky, Jody R; Chelladurai, Yohalakshmi; McGready, John; Hamilton, Robert G

    2015-01-01

    Allergen skin prick testing remains an essential tool for diagnosing atopic disease and guiding treatment. Sensitivity needs to be defined for newly introduced devices. Our aim was to compare the performance of 10 current allergy skin prick test devices. Single- and multiheaded skin test devices (n = 10) were applied by a single operator in a prospective randomized manner. Histamine (1 and 6 mg/mL) and control diluent were introduced at 6 randomized locations onto the upper and lower arms of healthy subjects. Wheal and flare reactions were measured independently by 2 masked technicians. Twenty-four subjects provided consent, and 768 skin tests were placed. Mean wheal diameter among devices differed from 3.0 mm (ComforTen; Hollister-Stier, Spokane, Wash) to 6.8 mm (UniTest PC; Lincoln Diagnostics, Decatur, Ill) using 1 mg/mL histamine (P Diagnostics, Decatur, Ill; and Sharp-Test; Panatrex, Placentia, Calif) using 6 mg/mL histamine (P pain score of less than 4 on a 10-point visual analog scale. Pain scores were higher among women, but this did not reach statistical significance. The Multi-Test PC and the UniTest PC had the lowest pain scores compared with the other devices. All 10 skin prick test devices displayed good analytical sensitivity and specificity; however, 3 mm cannot arbitrarily be used as a positive threshold. The use of histamine at 1 mg/mL is unacceptable for certain devices but may be preferable for the most sensitive devices. On average, there was no pain score difference between multiheaded and single-head devices. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A pilot randomized control trial investigating the effect of mindfulness practice on pain tolerance, psychological well-being, and physiological activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kingston, Jessica; Chadwick, Paul; Meron, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of mindfulness training on pain tolerance, psychological well-being, physiological activity, and the acquisition of mindfulness skills. Methods: Forty-two asymptomatic University students participated in a randomized, single-blind, active control pilot study. ...

  2. Placebo- and paracetamol-controlled study on the efficacy and tolerability of hyoscine butylbromide in the treatment of patients with recurrent crampy abdominal pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller-Lissner, S.; Tytgat, G. N.; Paulo, L. G.; Quigley, E. M. M.; Bubeck, J.; Peil, H.; Schaefer, E.

    2006-01-01

    To compare the efficacy and tolerability of oral hyoscine butylbromide (hereafter hyoscine) 10 mg t.d.s., paracetamol 500 mg t.d.s. and their fixed combination against placebo in patients with recurrent crampy abdominal pain. A total of 1637 patients were entered into a four-arm double-blind study.

  3. Thermal tolerance, net CO2 exchange and growth of a tropical tree species, Ficus insipida, cultivated at elevated daytime and nighttime temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, G Heinrich; Cheesman, Alexander W; Winter, Klaus; Krause, Barbara; Virgo, Aurelio

    2013-06-15

    Global warming and associated increases in the frequency and amplitude of extreme weather events, such as heat waves, may adversely affect tropical rainforest plants via significantly increased tissue temperatures. In this study, the response to two temperature regimes was assessed in seedlings of the neotropical pioneer tree species, Ficus insipida. Plants were cultivated in growth chambers at strongly elevated daytime temperature (39°C), combined with either close to natural (22°C) or elevated (32°C) nighttime temperatures. Under both growth regimes, the critical temperature for irreversible leaf damage, determined by changes in chlorophyll a fluorescence, was approximately 51°C. This is comparable to values found in F. insipida growing under natural ambient conditions and indicates a limited potential for heat tolerance acclimation of this tropical forest tree species. Yet, under high nighttime temperature, growth was strongly enhanced, accompanied by increased rates of net photosynthetic CO2 uptake and diminished temperature dependence of leaf-level dark respiration, consistent with thermal acclimation of these key physiological parameters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Review of the efficacy and tolerability of the diclofenac epolamine topical patch 1.3% in patients with acute pain due to soft tissue injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehl, Kerry S

    2010-06-01

    The diclofenac epolamine topical patch 1.3% (DETP) was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in January 2007 for the treatment of soft tissue injuries such as strains, sprains, and contusions, although it has been available for many years in >40 countries worldwide. The aim of this study was to review the efficacy and tolerability of the DETP in relieving acute pain caused by soft tissue injuries. The MEDLINE, Derwent Drug File, BIOSIS, and EMBASE databases were searched for literature published between 1984 and October 30, 2009, in any language, using the terms diclofenac epolamine patch, diclofenac hydroxyethylpyrrolidine patch, and FLECTOR Patch. Clinical studies of the efficacy and/or tolerability of the DETP in patients with acute pain due to soft tissue injuries or localized periarticular disorders were included. Efficacy studies that enrolled patients with other medical conditions were excluded, except for reports that focused on tolerability, which were included to supplement tolerability data. The bibliographies of included studies were reviewed manually for relevant articles based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, and the manufacturer was contacted for additional relevant postmarketing surveillance information and presentations from scientific meetings. The search identified 6 placebo-controlled clinical studies, 1 active-comparator-controlled clinical study, and 1 open-label comparator clinical study of the efficacy and tolerability of the DETP in patients with soft tissue injuries. Three studies reported on tolerability. Primary analyses among the 8 studies reported DETP-associated reductions in spontaneous pain from baseline, assessed using a visual analog scale, ranging from 26% to 88% on day 7 and 56% to 61% on day 14. The use of the DETP was associated with significantly greater reductions in pain scores compared with a placebo patch (2 studies) on day 7 (88% vs 74%; P = 0.001) and day 14 (56.5% vs 46.8%; P = 0.001) and compared with

  5. Tolerância à dor no infarto do miocárdio Tolerancia al dolor en infarto del miocárdio Pain tolerance during myocardium infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Carneiro Mussi

    2010-01-01

    dolor, con el objetivo de mantener el control de la propia existencia y reproduciendo construcciones sociales sobre lo masculino y lo femenino en sus vidas cotidianas. CONCLUSIÓN: El desafío profesional es actuar en el plano simbólico de los géneros para reducir el atraso en la decisión de buscar atención médica y posibilitar los beneficios inmediatos de las terapias de reperfusión coronaria.PURPOSE: To evaluate pain tolerance as a prodromic symptom in men and women who had a myocardium infarction. METHODS: This was a quantitative-qualitative exploratory study with 43 women and 54 men from a public hospital. Demographic data were analyzed with percentages and qualitative data were analyzed with content analysis according to gender. RESULTS: The men's mean age was 55.3 years. The women's mean age was 61.5 years. Both genders had low educational level and professional inactivity. Men lived with a significant other and had higher family income than women. There was no difference regarding pain tolerance between men and women. Both men and women tried to maintain control over their life and to reproduce social constructions in daily life regarding being male and female. CONCLUSION: Heath care professional actions for the prevention of delaying seeking medical care for coronary perfusion by both male and female is challenging.

  6. Quantitative sensory testing and pain tolerance in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease compared to healthy control subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Dahm, Christina; Werner, Mads U; Dahl, Jørgen B

    2014-01-01

    Patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) report pain less frequently than their cognitively intact peers. It has been hypothesized that pain processing is altered in AD. The aim of this study was to investigate agreement and reliability of 3 pain sensitivity tests and to examine pain threshold...

  7. Analgesic effectiveness and tolerability of oral oxycodone/naloxone and pregabalin in patients with lung cancer and neuropathic pain: an observational analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Santis S

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Stefano De Santis,1 Cristina Borghesi,1 Serena Ricciardi,2 Daniele Giovannoni,1 Alberto Fulvi,2 Maria Rita Migliorino,2 Claudio Marcassa3 1Palliative Care and Cancer Pain Service, Oncological Pulmonary Unit, 2Oncological Pulmonary Unit, San Camillo-Forlanini Hospitals, Rome, 3Cardiologia Fondazione Maugeri IRCCS, Novara, Italy Introduction: Cancer-related pain has a severe negative impact on quality of life. Combination analgesic therapy with oxycodone and pregabalin is effective for treating neuropathic cancer pain. We investigated the efficacy and tolerability of a dose-escalation combination therapy with prolonged-release oxycodone/naloxone (OXN-PR and pregabalin in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer and severe neuropathic pain. Methods: This was a 4-week, open-label, observational study. Patients were treated with OXN-PR and pregabalin. Average pain intensity ([API] measured on a 0–10 numerical rating scale and neuropathic pain (Douleur Neuropathique 4 were assessed at study entry and at follow-up visits. The primary endpoint was response to treatment, defined as a reduction of API at T28 ≥30% from baseline. Secondary endpoints included other efficacy measures, as well as patient satisfaction and quality of life (Brief Pain Inventory Short Form, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Symptom Distress Scale; bowel function was also assessed. Results: A total of 56 patients were enrolled. API at baseline was 8.0±0.9, and decreased after 4 weeks by 48% (4.2±1.9; P<0.0001 vs baseline; 46 (82.1% patients responded to treatment. Significant improvements were also reported in number/severity of breakthrough cancer pain episodes (P=0.001, Brief Pain Inventory Short Form (P=0.0002, Symptom Distress Scale (P<0.0001, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale depression (P=0.0006 and anxiety (P<0.0001 subscales, and bowel function (P=0.0003. At study end, 37 (66.0% patients were satisfied/very satisfied with the new analgesic treatment

  8. An open-label, long-term study examining the safety and tolerability of pregabalin in Japanese patients with central neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onouchi K

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Kenji Onouchi,1 Hiroaki Koga,2 Kazumasa Yokoyama,3 Tamotsu Yoshiyama4 1Aida Memorial Rehabilitation Hospital, Moriya, Japan; 2Kumamoto Rehabilitation Hospital, Kikuchi-Gun, Japan; 3Department of Neurology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 4Pfizer Japan Inc., Tokyo, Japan Purpose: Studies of pregabalin for the treatment of central neuropathic pain have been limited to double-blind trials of 4–17 weeks in duration. The purpose of this study was to assess the long-term safety and tolerability of pregabalin in Japanese patients with central neuropathic pain. The efficacy of pregabalin was also assessed as a secondary measure. Patients and methods: This was a 53-week, multicenter, open-label trial of pregabalin (150–600 mg/day in Japanese patients with central neuropathic pain due to spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, or cerebral stroke. Results: A total of 103 patients received pregabalin (post-stroke =60; spinal cord injury =38; and multiple sclerosis =5. A majority of patients (87.4% experienced one or more treatment-related adverse events, most commonly somnolence, weight gain, dizziness, or peripheral edema. The adverse event profile was similar to that seen in other indications of pregabalin. Most treatment-related adverse events were mild (89.1% or moderate (9.2% in intensity. Pregabalin treatment improved total score, sensory pain, affective pain, visual analog scale (VAS, and present pain intensity scores on the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ and ten-item modified Brief Pain Inventory (mBPI-10 total score at endpoint compared with baseline. Improvements in SF-MPQ VAS and mBPI-10 total scores were evident in all patient subpopulations. Mean changes from baseline in SF-MPQ VAS and mBPI-10 scores at endpoint were –20.1 and –1.4, respectively. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that pregabalin is generally well tolerated and provides sustained efficacy over a 53-week treatment period in

  9. Age changes in pain perception : A systematic-review and meta-analysis of age effects on pain and tolerance thresholds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lautenbacher, Stefan; Peters, Jan H.; Heesen, Michael; Scheel, Jennifer; Kunz, Miriam

    Demographic changes, with substantial increase in life expectancy, ask for solid knowledge about how pain perception might be altered by aging. Although psychophysical studies on age-related changes in pain perception have been conducted over more than 70 years, meta-analyses are still missing. The

  10. Pain

    OpenAIRE

    H.W. Snyman

    1980-01-01

    The medical profession has always been under pressure to supply public explanations of the diseases with which it deals. On the other hand, it is an old characteristic of the profession to devise comprehensive and unifying theories on all sorts of medical problems. Both these statements apply to pain - one of the most important and clinically striking phenomena and expressions of man since his origin in the mists of time.

  11. Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.W. Snyman

    1980-09-01

    Full Text Available The medical profession has always been under pressure to supply public explanations of the diseases with which it deals. On the other hand, it is an old characteristic of the profession to devise comprehensive and unifying theories on all sorts of medical problems. Both these statements apply to pain - one of the most important and clinically striking phenomena and expressions of man since his origin in the mists of time.

  12. Sexual pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, Lori A; Stockdale, Colleen K

    2009-12-01

    Sexual pain is an underrecognized and poorly treated constellation of disorders that significantly impact affected women and their partners. Recognized as a form of chronic pain, sexual pain disorders are heterogeneous and include dyspareunia (superficial and deep), vaginismus, vulvodynia, vestibulitis, and noncoital sexual pain disorder. Women too often tolerate pain in the belief that this will meet their partners' needs. This article provides a review of the terminology and definition of the condition, theories on the pathophysiology, diagnostic considerations, and recommendations on the management of female sexual pain.

  13. Pain-relieving effectiveness, quality of life and tolerability of repeated capsaicin 8% patch treatment of peripheral neuropathic pain in Scandinavian clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, P; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Kvarstein, G

    2018-01-01

    CONTEXT: Clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy and safety of the capsaicin 8% patch in patients with peripheral neuropathic pain (PNP); however, few studies have assessed this treatment in a clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether treatment and re-treatment with the capsaicin ...

  14. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In a computer system, for example, typical discrete events ... This project brought out a series of influential reports on Petri net theory in the mid and late ... Technology became a leading centre for Petri net research and from then on, Petri nets ...

  15. Injection-associated pain in femoral arteriography: A European multicenter study comparing safety, tolerability, and efficacy of iodixanol and iopromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Justesen, Per; Downes, Mark; Grynne, Birthe Hougens; Lang, Hanne; Rasch, Wenche; Seim, Eva

    1997-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate injection-associated pain, safety, and efficacy with the isotonic contrast medium iodixanol (Visipaque 270 mg I/ml) compared with iopromide (Ultravist 300 mg I/ml) in femoral arteriography. Methods. A multicenter, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group clinical investigation was carried out in 54 hospitals in Europe. Of the patients evaluated, 1225 received iodixanol and 1227 iopromide in conventional and/or digital subtraction angiography. Results. The iodixanol group reported statistically significantly less injection-associated pain (0.9%) than the iopromide group (9.5%) (p<0.001). Further, 4.1% in the iodixanol group experienced pain and/or severe heat sensation vs 19.8% in the iopromide group (p<0.001). In the iodixanol group, 1.8% of the patients experienced contrast-related adverse events vs 2.4% in the iopromide group (p=NS). Overall diagnostic information was optimal for 94.1% in the iodixanol group and 95.3% in the iopromide group (p=NS). Conclusions. Iodixanol 270 mg I/ml causes significantly less injection-associated pain during femoral arteriography and is as safe and efficatious as iopromide 300 mg I/ml

  16. A novel magnetic stimulator increases experimental pain tolerance in healthy volunteers - a double-blind sham-controlled crossover study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudie Kortekaas

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: The 'complex neural pulse'(TM (CNP is a neuromodulation protocol employing weak pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF. A pioneering paper reported an analgesic effect in healthy humans after 30 minutes of CNP-stimulation using three nested whole head coils. We aimed to devise and validate a stimulator with a novel design entailing a multitude of small coils at known anatomical positions on a head cap, to improve applicability. The main hypothesis was that CNP delivery with this novel device would also increase heat pain thresholds. Twenty healthy volunteers were enrolled in this double-blind, sham-controlled, crossover study. Thirty minutes of PEMF (CNP or sham was applied to the head. After one week the other treatment was given. Before and after each treatment, primary and secondary outcomes were measured. Primary outcome was heat pain threshold (HPT measured with thermal quantitative sensory testing. Other outcomes were warmth detection threshold, and aspects of cognition, emotion and motor performance. As hypothesized heat pain threshold was significantly increased after the PEMF stimulation. All other outcomes were unaltered by the PEMF but there was a trend level reduction of cognitive performance after PEMF stimulation as measured by the digit-symbol substitution task. Results from this pilot study suggest that our device is able to stimulate the brain and to modulate its function. This is in agreement with previous studies that used similar magnetic field strengths to stimulate the brain. Specifically, pain control may be achieved with PEMF and for this analgesic effect, coil design does not appear to play a dominant role. In addition, the flexible configuration with small coils on a head cap improves clinical applicability. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Dutch Cochrane Centre NTR1093.

  17. Net Neutrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej

    2017-01-01

    Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else.......Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else....

  18. Predicting postoperative pain by preoperative pressure pain assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yung-Wei; Somma, Jacques; Hung, Yu-Chun; Tsai, Pei-Shan; Yang, Chen-Hsien; Chen, Chien-Chuan

    2005-09-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate whether preoperative pressure pain sensitivity testing is predictive of postoperative surgical pain. Female subjects undergoing lower abdominal gynecologic surgery were studied. A pressure algometer was used preoperatively to determine the pressure pain threshold and tolerance. A visual analog scale (VAS) was used to assess postoperative pain. A State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was used to assess patients' anxiety. Subjects received intravenous patient-controlled analgesia for postoperative pain control. The preoperative pain threshold and tolerance were compared with the postoperative VAS pain score and morphine consumption. Forty women were enrolled. Their preoperative pressure pain threshold and tolerance were 141 +/- 65 kPa and 223 +/- 62 kPa, respectively. The VAS pain score in the postanesthesia care unit and at 24 h postoperatively were 81 +/- 24 and 31 +/- 10, respectively. Highly anxious patients had higher VAS pain scores in the postanesthesia care unit (P pain tolerance was significantly correlated with the VAS at 24 h postoperatively (P pain tolerance after fentanyl administration (mean, 272 +/- 68 kPa) correlated significantly with morphine consumption in the first 24 h postoperatively (P pain tolerance is significantly correlated with the level of postoperative pain. Pain tolerance assessment after fentanyl was administered and fentanyl sensitivity predicted the dose of analgesics used in the first 24 h after surgery. The algometer is thus a simple, useful tool for predicting postoperative pain and analgesic consumption.

  19. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GENERAL I ARTICLE ... In Part 1 of this two-part article, we have seen im- ..... mable logic controller and VLSI arrays, office automation systems, workflow management systems, ... complex discrete event and real-time systems; and Petri nets.

  20. An open-label extension study to investigate the long-term safety and tolerability of THC/CBD oromucosal spray and oromucosal THC spray in patients with terminal cancer-related pain refractory to strong opioid analgesics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeremy R; Lossignol, Dominique; Burnell-Nugent, Mary; Fallon, Marie T

    2013-08-01

    Chronic pain in patients with advanced cancer poses a serious clinical challenge. The Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/cannabidiol (CBD) oromucosal spray (U.S. Adopted Name, nabiximols; Sativex(®)) is a novel cannabinoid formulation currently undergoing investigation as an adjuvant therapy for this treatment group. This follow-up study investigated the long-term safety and tolerability of THC/CBD spray and THC spray in relieving pain in patients with advanced cancer. In total, 43 patients with cancer-related pain experiencing inadequate analgesia despite chronic opioid dosing, who had participated in a previous three-arm (THC/CBD spray, THC spray, or placebo), two-week parent randomized controlled trial, entered this open-label, multicenter, follow-up study. Patients self-titrated THC/CBD spray (n=39) or THC spray (n=4) to symptom relief or maximum dose and were regularly reviewed for safety, tolerability, and evidence of clinical benefit. The efficacy end point of change from baseline in mean Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form scores for "pain severity" and "worst pain" domains showed a decrease (i.e., improvement) at each visit in the THC/CBD spray patients. Similarly, the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-C30 scores showed a decrease (i.e., improvement) from baseline in the domains of insomnia, pain, and fatigue. No new safety concerns associated with the extended use of THC/CBD spray arose from this study. This study showed that the long-term use of THC/CBD spray was generally well tolerated, with no evidence of a loss of effect for the relief of cancer-related pain with long-term use. Furthermore, patients who kept using the study medication did not seek to increase their dose of this or other pain-relieving medication over time, suggesting that the adjuvant use of cannabinoids in cancer-related pain could provide useful benefit. Copyright © 2013 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc

  1. RESTful NET

    CERN Document Server

    Flanders, Jon

    2008-01-01

    RESTful .NET is the first book that teaches Windows developers to build RESTful web services using the latest Microsoft tools. Written by Windows Communication Foundation (WFC) expert Jon Flanders, this hands-on tutorial demonstrates how you can use WCF and other components of the .NET 3.5 Framework to build, deploy and use REST-based web services in a variety of application scenarios. RESTful architecture offers a simpler approach to building web services than SOAP, SOA, and the cumbersome WS- stack. And WCF has proven to be a flexible technology for building distributed systems not necessa

  2. Improved netting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramley, A.; Clabburn, R.J.T.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for producing netting composed of longitudinal and transverse threads of irradiation cross linked thermoplastic material, the threads being joined together at their crossings by moulded masses of cross linked thermoplastic material. The thread may be formed of polyethylene filaments, subjected to a radiation dose of 15 to 25 MR. The moulding can be conducted at 245 0 to 260 0 C or higher. The product is claimed to be an improved quality of netting, with bonds of increased strength between crossing threads. (U.K.)

  3. Efficacy and tolerability of buccal buprenorphine in opioid-experienced patients with moderate to severe chronic low back pain: results of a phase 3, enriched enrollment, randomized withdrawal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimbel, Joseph; Spierings, Egilius L H; Katz, Nathaniel; Xiang, Qinfang; Tzanis, Evan; Finn, Andrew

    2016-11-01

    A buccal film of buprenorphine (BBUP) was evaluated for safety and efficacy in a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, enriched-enrollment, randomized-withdrawal study in opioid-experienced patients (30 to ≤160 mg/d morphine sulfate equivalent) with moderate to severe chronic low back pain taking around-the-clock opioid analgesics. Patients' opioid doses were tapered to ≤30 mg morphine sulfate equivalent before open-label titration with BBUP (range, 150-900 μg every 12 hours). Patients who responded (received adequate analgesia that was generally well tolerated for 14 days) were randomized to receive buprenorphine (n = 254) or placebo (n = 257) buccal film. The primary efficacy variable was the change from baseline to week 12 of double-blind treatment in mean average daily pain-intensity scores using a rating scale of 0 (no pain) to 10 (worst pain imaginable). In the intent-to-treat population, mean pain scores were 6.7 after opioid taper and declined to 2.8 after the BBUP titration period. After randomization, mean pain scores were lower in the BBUP group than in the placebo group; the difference between groups in the mean change from baseline to week 12 was -0.98 (95% CI, -1.32 to -0.64; P opioid-experienced patients taking around-the-clock opioid treatment for chronic low back pain.

  4. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 9. Petri Nets - Applications. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 9 September 1999 pp 44-52 ... Author Affiliations. Y Narahari1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  5. Net Gain

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Describing the effect of tax incentives for import, production, and sale of nets and insecticides; and ..... So far, China is the only country where a system for the routine treatment of ...... 1993), and the trials in Ecuador and Peru (Kroeger et al.

  6. Net Locality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Gordon, Eric

    Provides an introduction to the new theory of Net Locality and the profound effect on individuals and societies when everything is located or locatable. Describes net locality as an emerging form of location awareness central to all aspects of digital media, from mobile phones, to Google Maps......, to location-based social networks and games, such as Foursquare and facebook. Warns of the threats these technologies, such as data surveillance, present to our sense of privacy, while also outlining the opportunities for pro-social developments. Provides a theory of the web in the context of the history...... of emerging technologies, from GeoCities to GPS, Wi-Fi, Wiki Me, and Google Android....

  7. [Analgesic effect and clinical tolerability of the combination of paracetamol 500 mg and caffeine 50 mg versus paracetamol 400 mg and dextropropoxyphene 30 mg in back pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, D; Brossel, R

    1996-09-07

    A double-blind randomized multicentric study was performed to test the hypothesis that the analgesic effect of paracetamol-cafeine is equivalent to that of paracetamol-dextropropoxyphen in patients suffering from pain due to osteoarthritis of the spine. Rhumatologists included 124 patients who were randomized into two groups of 62 each. Pain was measured daily during the seven-day treatment Huskisson's Analog Visual Scales; 112 were per protocol and evaluable. The two treatment groups were statistically similar for demographics, vital signs, medical and treatment history. A majority of them had pain located at the lumbar spine only; the other patients had either pain at the cervical or dorsal spine or at several sites. At the end of the week there was a major reduction in pain level: 51.2% in patients given paracetamol-cafeine and 47.0% in those given paracetamol-dextropropoxyphen. The main criteria of efficacy--the percentage of success (decrease of pain > 50%)--was similar in the two groups as well in the intention-to-treat population (p = 0.01) as the per protocol population (p = 0.028). Kinetics of pain decrease during the first day of treatment were assessed with an hourly evaluation during the six first hours and at the 12th hour. There was no difference between the two groups. There was no serious adverse event and the frequency and intensity of the adverse events were similar in the two groups. The potentializing action of cafeine on paracetamol-induced pain relief enables a degree of pain relief equivalent to that of a combination using an analgesic with a peripheral action, paracetamol, and another with a central action, dextropoxyphen. The fact that the paracetamol-cafeine combination does not have a central action avoids secondary effects induced by central analgesics (drowsiness, constipation) in patients with osteoarthritis back pain.

  8. Tolerability of buprenorphine transdermal system in nursing home patients with advanced dementia: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial (DEP.PAIN.DEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal A

    2018-05-01

    % CI: 2.95–182, p=0.003. Adjusted for age, sex, cognitive function, pain and depression at baseline, active buprenorphine was associated with 24.0 times increased risk of discontinuation (Cox model, 95% CI: 2.45–235, p=0.006. Daytime activity dropped significantly during the second day of active treatment (-21.4%, p=0.005 and decreased by 12.9% during the first week (p=0.053. Conclusion: Active buprenorphine had significantly higher risk of discontinuation compared with placebo in people with advanced dementia and depression, mainly due to psychiatric and neurological adverse events. Daytime activity dropped significantly during the first week of treatment. Concomitant use of antidepressants further reduced the tolerability of buprenorphine. Keywords: opioids, analgesics, dementia, drug safety, adverse drug reactions

  9. [Real-life efficacy and tolerability of methocarbamol in patients suffering from refractory muscle-related low/back pain - Results of a health care research project based on data from the German pain practice registry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Überall, Michael A; Emrich, Oliver M D; Müller-Schwefe, Gerhard H H

    2017-12-01

    Subacute, muscle-related low/back pain (L/BP) is known to be difficult to treat and frequently requires more specific causal-oriented treatments with agents improving the increased muscle tone. Currently, only methocarbamol is approved and available for the 1st-line treatment of patients with muscle-related L/BP in Germany - however, without sufficient data on longer lasting effects (> 1 week) in elsewhere refractory patients. Noninterventional cohort study, based on anonymized routine data of the German pain practice registry; retrospective evaluation of patients with refractory L/BP, who first time received a treatment with methocarbamol between October 1st until December 31st, 2015, and who documented their response to treatment with the standardized and validated instruments of the German pain questionnaire over at least 4 weeks (n = 251 patients). During the 4-week evaluation period, patients reported a highly significant and clinically relevant improvement of pain intensity (from 53.0 ± 10.5 to 19.0 ± 10.0 mm VAS), pain-related disability in daily life (mPDI: from 42.1 ± 12.5 to 15.5 ± 10.8) and quality of life (QLIP: from 18.6 ± 6.3 to 34.0 ± 5.5; all changes p life, patients with elsewhere refractory L/BP reported a significant and clinically relevant improvement of pain intensity, pain-related disability and quality of life in response to a 4-week treatment with methocarbamol.

  10. Principles of Burn Pain Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Dominika Lipowska; Jowza, Maryam

    2017-10-01

    This article describes pathophysiology of burn injury-related pain and the basic principles of burn pain management. The focus is on concepts of perioperative and periprocedural pain management with extensive discussion of opioid-based analgesia, including patient-controlled analgesia, challenges of effective opioid therapy in opioid-tolerant patients, and opioid-induced hyperalgesia. The principles of multimodal pain management are discussed, including the importance of psychological counseling, perioperative interventional pain procedures, and alternative pain management options. A brief synopsis of the principles of outpatient pain management is provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Efficacy and tolerability of a hydrocodone extended-release tablet formulated with abuse-deterrence technology for the treatment of moderate-to-severe chronic pain in patients with osteoarthritis or low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hale ME

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Martin E Hale,1 Charles Laudadio,2 Ronghua Yang,2 Arvind Narayana,2 Richard Malamut2 1Gold Coast Research, LLC, Plantation, FL, 2Teva Branded Pharmaceutical Products R & D, Inc., Frazer, PA, USA Abstract: This double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated the efficacy and safety of hydrocodone extended release (ER developed with abuse-deterrence technology to provide sustained pain relief and limit effects of alcohol and tablet manipulation on drug release. Eligible patients with chronic moderate-to-severe low back or osteoarthritis pain were titrated to an analgesic dose of hydrocodone ER (15–90 mg and randomized to placebo or hydrocodone ER every 12 hours. The primary efficacy measure was change from baseline to week 12 in weekly average pain intensity (API; 0=no pain, 10=worst pain imaginable. Secondary measures included percentage of patients with >33% and >50% increases from baseline in weekly API, change from baseline in weekly worst pain intensity, supplemental opioid usage, aberrant drug-use behaviors, and adverse events. Overall, 294 patients were randomized and received ≥1 dose of placebo (n=148 or hydrocodone ER (n=146. Weekly API did not differ significantly between hydrocodone ER and placebo at week 12 (P=0.134; although, in post hoc analyses, the change in weekly API was significantly lower with hydrocodone ER when excluding the lowest dose (15 mg; least squares mean, –0.20 vs 0.40; P=0.032. Significantly more patients had .33% and .50% increase in weekly API with placebo (P<0.05, and mean weekly worst pain intensity was significantly lower with hydrocodone ER at week 12 (P=0.026. Supplemental medication usage was higher with placebo (86% than hydrocodone ER (79%. Incidence of aberrant drug-use behaviors was low, and adverse events were similar between groups. This study did not meet the primary endpoint, although results support the effectiveness of this hydrocodone ER formulation in managing chronic low back or

  12. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1987-01-01

    The author describes a Petri net model, called coloured Petri nets (CP-nets), by means of which it is possible to describe large systems without having to cope with unnecessary details. The author introduces CP-nets and provide a first impression of their modeling power and the suitability...

  13. Learning Visual Basic NET

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Learning Visual Basic .NET is a complete introduction to VB.NET and object-oriented programming. By using hundreds of examples, this book demonstrates how to develop various kinds of applications--including those that work with databases--and web services. Learning Visual Basic .NET will help you build a solid foundation in .NET.

  14. Effects of Tobacco Smoking on Measures of Cold-Induced Pain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spillane, Erica L; Szewczyk, Robert P; McDonald, James D

    2005-01-01

    Nicotine's effect on human pain perception is uncertain. This study's purpose was to determine whether pain thresholds, pain tolerances, or ratings of pain intensity differ among smokers (S), non-smokers (NS...

  15. Rehabilitation Medicine Approaches to Pain Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheville, Andrea L; Smith, Sean R; Basford, Jeffrey R

    2018-06-01

    Rehabilitation medicine offers strategies that reduce musculoskeletal pain, targeted approaches to alleviate movement-related pain, and interventions to optimize patients' function despite the persistence of pain. These approaches fall into four categories: modulating nociception, stabilizing and unloading painful structures, influencing pain perception, and alleviating soft tissue musculotendinous pain. Incorporating these interventions into individualized, comprehensive pain management programs offers the potential to empower patients and limit pain associated with mobility and required daily activities. Rehabilitative approach may be particularly helpful for patients with refractory movement-associated pain and functional vulnerability, and for those who do not wish for, or cannot, tolerate pharmacoanalgesia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Efficacy and tolerability balance of oxycodone/naloxone and tapentadol in chronic low back pain with a neuropathic component: a blinded end point analysis of randomly selected routine data from 12-week prospective open-label observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueberall, Michael A; Mueller-Schwefe, Gerhard H H

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the benefit-risk profile (BRP) of oxycodone/naloxone (OXN) and tapentadol (TAP) in patients with chronic low back pain (cLBP) with a neuropathic component (NC) in routine clinical practice. This was a blinded end point analysis of randomly selected 12-week routine/open-label data of the German Pain Registry on adult patients with cLBP-NC who initiated an index treatment in compliance with the current German prescribing information between 1st January and 31st October 2015 (OXN/TAP, n=128/133). Primary end point was defined as a composite of three efficacy components (≥30% improvement of pain, pain-related disability, and quality of life each at the end of observation vs baseline) and three tolerability components (normal bowel function, absence of either central nervous system side effects, and treatment-emergent adverse event [TEAE]-related treatment discontinuation during the observation period) adopted to reflect BRP assessments under real-life conditions. Demographic as well as baseline and pretreatment characteristics were comparable for the randomly selected data sets of both index groups without any indicators for critical selection biases. Treatment with OXN resulted formally in a BRP noninferior to that of TAP and showed a significantly higher primary end point response vs TAP (39.8% vs 25.6%, odds ratio: 1.93; P =0.014), due to superior analgesic effects. Between-group differences increased with stricter response definitions for all three efficacy components in favor of OXN: ≥30%/≥50%/≥70% response rates for OXN vs TAP were seen for pain intensity in 85.2%/67.2%/39.1% vs 83.5%/54.1%/15.8% ( P = ns/0.031/<0.001), for pain-related disability in 78.1%/64.8%/43.8% vs 66.9%/50.4%/24.8% ( P =0.043/0.018/0.001), and for quality of life in 76.6%/68.0%/50.0% vs 63.9%/54.1%/34.6% ( P =0.026/0.022/0.017). Overall, OXN vs TAP treatments were well tolerated, and proportions of patients who either maintained a normal bowel function (68.0% vs 72

  17. Planning of nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carberry, M

    1996-01-01

    The paper is about the planning of nets in areas of low density like it is the case of the rural areas. The author includes economic and technological aspects, planning of nets, demands and management among others

  18. Annotating Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Bo; Wells, Lisa Marie

    2002-01-01

    Coloured Petri nets (CP-nets) can be used for several fundamentally different purposes like functional analysis, performance analysis, and visualisation. To be able to use the corresponding tool extensions and libraries it is sometimes necessary to include extra auxiliary information in the CP......-net. An example of such auxiliary information is a counter which is associated with a token to be able to do performance analysis. Modifying colour sets and arc inscriptions in a CP-net to support a specific use may lead to creation of several slightly different CP-nets – only to support the different uses...... of the same basic CP-net. One solution to this problem is that the auxiliary information is not integrated into colour sets and arc inscriptions of a CP-net, but is kept separately. This makes it easy to disable this auxiliary information if a CP-net is to be used for another purpose. This paper proposes...

  19. Pain in Down's Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Mafrica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain is a homeostatic mechanism that intervenes to protect the organism from harmful stimuli that could damage its integrity. It is made up of two components: the sensory-discriminative component, which identifies the provenance and characteristics of the type of pain; and the affective-motivational component, on which emotional reflexes, following the painful sensation, depend.There is a system for pain control at an encephalic and spinal level, principally made up of the periaqueductal grey matter, the periventricular area, the nucleus raphe magnus, and the pain-inhibition complex situated in the posterior horns of the spinal cord. Through the activation of these pain-control systems, the nervous system suppresses the afference of pain signals. Endogenous opioids represent another analgesic system.In the course of various studies on pain transmission in Down patients, the reduced tolerance of pain and the incapacity to give a qualitative and quantitative description emerged in a powerful way. All of these aspects cause difficulty in evaluating pain. This is linked to several learning difficulties. However, it cannot be excluded that in these anomalies of pain perception, both the anatomical and the neurotransmitter alteration, typical of this syndrome, may hold a certain importance.This fact may have important clinical repercussions that could affect the choice of therapeutic and rehabilitative schemes for treatment of pathologies in which pain is the dominant symptom, such as postoperative pain. It could influence research on analgesics that are more suitable for these patients, the evaluation of the depth of analgesia during surgical operation, and ultimately, absence of obvious pain manifestations. In conclusion, alterations of the central nervous system, neurotransmitters, pain transmission, and all related problems should be considered in the management of pain in patients with Down's syndrome, especially by algologists and

  20. [Cannabinoids in pain medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karst, M

    2018-06-07

    The endocannabinoid system (ECS) controls a large number of vital functions. Suboptimal tone of the ECS in certain regions of the nervous system may be associated with disorders that are also associated with pain. Pain and inflammation processes can be modulated by the exogenous supply of cannabinoids. Low-to-moderate pain-relieving effects and in individual cases large pain-relieving effects were observed in randomized, controlled studies of various types of chronic pain. People with chronic neuropathic pain and stress symptoms seem to particularly benefit. The therapeutic range of cannabinoids is small; often small doses are sufficient for clinically significant effects. The "Cannabis-als-Medizin-Gesetz" (cannabis as medicine law) allows the prescription of cannabis preparations under certain conditions. Available data indicate good long-term efficacy and tolerability. However, there is little systematic long-term experience from clinical studies.

  1. Efficacy and tolerability of lumiracoxib, a highly selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX2 inhibitor, in the management of pain and osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet Geusens

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Piet Geusens1, Willem Lems21Department of Internal Medicine, Subdivision of Rheumatology, University Hospital, Maastricht, The Netherlands and Biomedical Research Institute, University Hasselt, Belgium; 2Vrije Universiteit Medical Centre, Department of Rheumatology, Amsterdam, the NetherlandsAbstract: Lumiracoxib is a COX2 inhibitor that is highly selective, is more effective than placebo on pain in osteoarthritis (OA, with similar analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects as non-selective NSAIDs and the selective COX2 inhibitor celecoxib, has a lower incidence of upper gastrointestinal (GI side effects in patients not taking aspirin, and a similar incidence of cardiovascular (CV side effects compared to naproxen or ibuprofen. In the context of earlier guidelines and taking into account the GI and CV safety results of the TARGET study, lumiracoxib had secured European Medicines Agency (EMEA approval with as indication symptomatic treatment of OA as well as short-term management of acute pain associated with primary dysmenorrhea and following orthopedic or dental surgery. In the complex clinical context of efficiency and safety of selective and non-selective COX inhibitors, its prescription and use should be based on the risk and safety profile of the patient. In addition, there is further need for long-term GI and CV safety studies and general post-marketing safety on its use in daily practice. Meanwhile, at the time of submission of this manuscript, the EMEA has withdrawn lumiracoxib throughout Europe because of the risk of serious side effects affecting the liver.Keywords: lumiracoxib, NSAIDs, COX2 inhibitors, gastro-intestinal and cardiovascular safety

  2. Quantum net dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkelstein, D.

    1989-01-01

    The quantum net unifies the basic principles of quantum theory and relativity in a quantum spacetime having no ultraviolet infinities, supporting the Dirac equation, and having the usual vacuum as a quantum condensation. A correspondence principle connects nets to Schwinger sources and further unifies the vertical structure of the theory, so that the functions of the many hierarchic levels of quantum field theory (predicate algebra, set theory, topology,hor-ellipsis, quantum dynamics) are served by one in quantum net dynamics

  3. Programming NET Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Alex

    2007-01-01

    Web services are poised to become a key technology for a wide range of Internet-enabled applications, spanning everything from straight B2B systems to mobile devices and proprietary in-house software. While there are several tools and platforms that can be used for building web services, developers are finding a powerful tool in Microsoft's .NET Framework and Visual Studio .NET. Designed from scratch to support the development of web services, the .NET Framework simplifies the process--programmers find that tasks that took an hour using the SOAP Toolkit take just minutes. Programming .NET

  4. Game Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of game coloured Petri nets. This allows the modeler to explicitly model what parts of the model comprise the modeled system and what parts are the environment of the modeled system. We give the formal definition of game coloured Petri nets, a means of reachability...... analysis of this net class, and an application of game coloured Petri nets to automatically generate easy-to-understand visualizations of the model by exploiting the knowledge that some parts of the model are not interesting from a visualization perspective (i.e. they are part of the environment...

  5. Crafting tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchner, Antje; Freitag, Markus; Rapp, Carolin

    2011-01-01

    Ongoing changes in social structures, orientation, and value systems confront us with the growing necessity to address and understand transforming patterns of tolerance as well as specific aspects, such as social tolerance. Based on hierarchical analyses of the latest World Values Survey (2005......–08) and national statistics for 28 countries, we assess both individual and contextual aspects that influence an individual's perception of different social groupings. Using a social tolerance index that captures personal attitudes toward these groupings, we present an institutional theory of social tolerance. Our...

  6. -Net Approach to Sensor -Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusco Giordano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensors rely on battery power, and in many applications it is difficult or prohibitive to replace them. Hence, in order to prolongate the system's lifetime, some sensors can be kept inactive while others perform all the tasks. In this paper, we study the -coverage problem of activating the minimum number of sensors to ensure that every point in the area is covered by at least sensors. This ensures higher fault tolerance, robustness, and improves many operations, among which position detection and intrusion detection. The -coverage problem is trivially NP-complete, and hence we can only provide approximation algorithms. In this paper, we present an algorithm based on an extension of the classical -net technique. This method gives an -approximation, where is the number of sensors in an optimal solution. We do not make any particular assumption on the shape of the areas covered by each sensor, besides that they must be closed, connected, and without holes.

  7. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes how Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets) have been developed — from being a promising theoretical model to being a full-fledged language for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems (and other systems in which human beings and...

  8. Net zero water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lindeque, M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available the national grid. The unfortunate situation with water is that there is no replacement technology for water. Water can be supplied from many different sources. A net zero energy development will move closer to a net zero water development by reducing...

  9. Construction of monophase nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez A, Jose Antonio

    1996-01-01

    The paper refers to the use of monophase loads in commercial residential urbanizations and in small industries, for this reason it is considered unnecessary the construction of three-phase nets. The author makes a historical recount of these nets in Bogota, his capacities, uses and energy savings

  10. Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pain. Psychotherapy, relaxation and medication therapies, biofeedback, and behavior modification may also be employed to treat chronic pain. × ... pain. Psychotherapy, relaxation and medication therapies, biofeedback, and behavior modification may also be employed to treat chronic pain. ...

  11. Fusion through the NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spears, B.

    1987-01-01

    The paper concerns the next generation of fusion machines which are intended to demonstrate the technical viability of fusion. In Europe, the device that will follow on from JET is known as NET - the Next European Torus. If the design programme for NET proceeds, Europe could start to build the machine in 1994. The present JET programme hopes to achieve breakeven in the early 1990's. NET hopes to reach ignition in the next century, and so lay the foundation for a demonstration reactor. A description is given of the technical specifications of the components of NET, including: the first wall, the divertors to protect the wall, the array of magnets that provide the fields containing the plasma, the superconducting magnets, and the shield of the machine. NET's research programme is briefly outlined, including the testing programme to optimise conditions in the machine to achieve ignition, and its safety work. (U.K.)

  12. Pain in Children: Neglected, unaddressed and mismanaged

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Mathews

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain is one of the most misunderstood, under diagnosed, and under treated/untreated medical problems, particularly in children. One of the most challenging roles of medical providers serving children is to appropriately assess and treat their pain. New JCAHO regulations regard pain as "the fifth vital sign" and require caregivers to regularly assess and address pain. Pain being a personal experience, many different terms are used to describe different sensations. Assessment of pain in children is linked to their level of development. Children of the same age vary widely in their perception and tolerance of pain.

  13. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Gustavsen, Arild

    2010-01-01

    and identify possible renewable energy supply options which may be considered in calculations. Finally, the gap between the methodology proposed by each organisation and their respective national building code is assessed; providing an overview of the possible changes building codes will need to undergo......The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...

  14. Getting to Net Zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-01

    The technology necessary to build net zero energy buildings (NZEBs) is ready and available today, however, building to net zero energy performance levels can be challenging. Energy efficiency measures, onsite energy generation resources, load matching and grid interaction, climatic factors, and local policies vary from location to location and require unique methods of constructing NZEBs. It is recommended that Components start looking into how to construct and operate NZEBs now as there is a learning curve to net zero construction and FY 2020 is just around the corner.

  15. Pro NET Best Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, Stephen D

    2011-01-01

    Pro .NET Best Practices is a practical reference to the best practices that you can apply to your .NET projects today. You will learn standards, techniques, and conventions that are sharply focused, realistic and helpful for achieving results, steering clear of unproven, idealistic, and impractical recommendations. Pro .NET Best Practices covers a broad range of practices and principles that development experts agree are the right ways to develop software, which includes continuous integration, automated testing, automated deployment, and code analysis. Whether the solution is from a free and

  16. Effects of Spinal Cord Stimulation on Pain Thresholds and Sensory Perceptions in Chronic Pain Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shihab U; Zhang, Yi; Chen, Lucy; St Hillary, Kristin; Cohen, Abigail; Vo, Trang; Houghton, Mary; Mao, Jianren

    2015-07-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been in clinical use for nearly four decades. In earliest observations, researchers found a significant increase in pain threshold during SCS therapy without changes associated with touch, position, and vibration sensation. Subsequent studies yielded diverse results regarding how SCS impacts pain and other sensory thresholds. This pilot study uses quantitative sensory testing (QST) to objectively quantify the impact of SCS on warm sensation, heat pain threshold, and heat pain tolerance. Nineteen subjects with an indwelling SCS device for chronic pain were subjected to QST with heat stimuli. QST was performed on an area of pain covered with SCS-induced paresthesia and an area without pain and without paresthesia, while the SCS was turned off and on. The temperature at which the patient detected warm sensation, heat pain, and maximal tolerable heat pain was used to define the thresholds. We found that all three parameters, the detection of warm sensation, heat pain threshold, and heat pain tolerance, were increased during the period when SCS was on compared with when it was off. This increase was observed in both painful and non-painful sites. The observed pain relief during SCS therapy seems to be related to its impact on increased sensory threshold as detected in this study. The increased sensory threshold on areas without pain and without the presence of SCS coverage may indicate a central (spinal and/or supra-spinal) influence from SCS. © 2015 International Neuromodulation Society.

  17. Om tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huggler, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    Begrebet tolerance og dets betydninger diskuteres med henblik på en tydeliggørelse af begrebets forbindelse med stat, religion, ytringsfrihed, skeptisk erkendelsesteori, antropologi og pædagogik.......Begrebet tolerance og dets betydninger diskuteres med henblik på en tydeliggørelse af begrebets forbindelse med stat, religion, ytringsfrihed, skeptisk erkendelsesteori, antropologi og pædagogik....

  18. PhysioNet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The PhysioNet Resource is intended to stimulate current research and new investigations in the study of complex biomedical and physiologic signals. It offers free...

  19. NetSig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Heiko; Lawrence, Michael S; Chouinard, Candace R

    2018-01-01

    Methods that integrate molecular network information and tumor genome data could complement gene-based statistical tests to identify likely new cancer genes; but such approaches are challenging to validate at scale, and their predictive value remains unclear. We developed a robust statistic (Net......Sig) that integrates protein interaction networks with data from 4,742 tumor exomes. NetSig can accurately classify known driver genes in 60% of tested tumor types and predicts 62 new driver candidates. Using a quantitative experimental framework to determine in vivo tumorigenic potential in mice, we found that Net......Sig candidates induce tumors at rates that are comparable to those of known oncogenes and are ten-fold higher than those of random genes. By reanalyzing nine tumor-inducing NetSig candidates in 242 patients with oncogene-negative lung adenocarcinomas, we find that two (AKT2 and TFDP2) are significantly amplified...

  20. Blanket testing in NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chazalon, M.; Daenner, W.; Libin, B.

    1989-01-01

    The testing stages in NET for the performance assessment of the various breeding blanket concepts developed at the present time in Europe for DEMO (LiPb and ceramic blankets) and the requirements upon NET to perform these tests are reviewed. Typical locations available in NET for blanket testing are the central outboard segments and the horizontal ports of in-vessel sectors. These test positions will be connectable with external test loops. The number of test loops (helium, water, liquid metal) will be such that each major class of blankets can be tested in NET. The test positions, the boundary conditions and the external test loops are identified and the requirements for test blankets are summarized (author). 6

  1. Alexithymic trait, painful heat stimulation and everyday pain experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga ePollatos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alexithymia was found to be associated with a variety of somatic complaints including somatoform pain symptoms. This study addressed the question of whether the different facets of alexithymia are related to responses in heat pain stimulation and its interrelations with levels of everyday pain as assessed by self report. Methods: In the study, sensitivity to heat pain was assessed in fifty healthy female participants. Alexithymia facets were assessed by the Toronto Alexithymia Scale. Pain threshold and tolerance were determined using a testing the limits procedure. Participants furthermore rated subjective intensities and unpleasantness of tonic heat stimuli (45.5 C to 47.5 C on visual analogue scales and on a questionnaire. Possible confounding with temperature sensitivity and mood was controlled. Everyday pain was assessed by self-report addressing everyday pain frequency, intensity and impairment experienced over the last two months. Results: Main results were that the facets of alexithymia were differentially associated with pain perception. The affective scale difficulties in describing feelings was associated with hyposensitivity to pain as indicated by higher pain tolerance scores. Furthermore, everyday pain frequency was related to increased alexithymia values on the affective scale difficulties in identifying feelings, whereas higher values on the cognitive alexithymia scale externally oriented thinking were related to lower pain impairment and intensity. Conclusions: We conclude that the different facets of alexithymia are related to alternations in pain processing. Further research on clinical samples is necessary to elucidate whether different aspects of alexithymia act as vulnerability factor for the development of pain symptoms.

  2. Programming NET 35

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Bestselling author Jesse Liberty and industry expert Alex Horovitz uncover the common threads that unite the .NET 3.5 technologies, so you can benefit from the best practices and architectural patterns baked into the new Microsoft frameworks. The book offers a Grand Tour" of .NET 3.5 that describes how the principal technologies can be used together, with Ajax, to build modern n-tier and service-oriented applications. "

  3. NET SALARY ADJUSTMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    Finance Division

    2001-01-01

    On 15 June 2001 the Council approved the correction of the discrepancy identified in the net salary adjustment implemented on 1st January 2001 by retroactively increasing the scale of basic salaries to achieve the 2.8% average net salary adjustment approved in December 2000. We should like to inform you that the corresponding adjustment will be made to your July salary. Full details of the retroactive adjustments will consequently be shown on your pay slip.

  4. Cannabis and Cannabinoids for Chronic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Sandoval, E Alfonso; Kolano, Ashley L; Alvarado-Vázquez, P Abigail

    2017-10-05

    The purpose of this study was to provide the most up-to-date scientific evidence of the potential analgesic effects, or lack thereof, of the marijuana plant (cannabis) or cannabinoids, and of safety or tolerability of their long-term use. We found that inhaled (smoked or vaporized) cannabis is consistently effective in reducing chronic non-cancer pain. Oral cannabinoids seem to improve some aspects of chronic pain (sleep and general quality of life), or cancer chronic pain, but they do not seem effective in acute postoperative pain, abdominal chronic pain, or rheumatoid pain. The available literature shows that inhaled cannabis seems to be more tolerable and predictable than oral cannabinoids. Cannabis or cannabinoids are not universally effective for pain. Continued research on cannabis constituents and improving bioavailability for oral cannabinoids is needed. Other aspects of pain management in patients using cannabis require further open discussion: concomitant opioid use, medical vs. recreational cannabis, abuse potential, etc.

  5. Pain modulatory phenotypes differentiate subgroups with different clinical and experimental pain sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaegter, Henrik B.; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    between subgroups. Cuff algometry was performed on lower legs in 400 chronic pain patients to assess pressure pain threshold (cPPT), pressure pain tolerance (cPTT), temporal summation of pain (TSP: increase in pain scores to ten repeated stimulations), and conditioned pain modulation (CPM: increase in c......PPT during cuff pain conditioning on the contralateral leg). Heat detection (HDT) and heat pain thresholds (HPT) at clinical painful and non-painful body areas were assessed. Based on TSP and CPM four distinct groups were formed: Group 1 (n=85) had impaired CPM and facilitated TSP. Group 2 (n=148) had...... impaired CPM and normal TSP. Group 3 (n=45) had normal CPM and facilitated TSP. Group 4 (n=122) had normal CPM and normal TSP. Group 1 showed more pain regions compared with the other three groups (PCPM and facilitated TSP plays an important role in widespread pain. Group 1...

  6. Effects of vicarious pain on self-pain perception: investigating the role of awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrighena, Esslin L; Lu, Ge; Yuen, Wai Ping; Lee, Tatia MC; Keuper, Kati

    2017-01-01

    The observation of pain in others may enhance or reduce self-pain, yet the boundary conditions and factors that determine the direction of such effects are poorly understood. The current study set out to show that visual stimulus awareness plays a crucial role in determining whether vicarious pain primarily activates behavioral defense systems that enhance pain sensitivity and stimulate withdrawal or appetitive systems that attenuate pain sensitivity and stimulate approach. We employed a mixed factorial design with the between-subject factors exposure time (subliminal vs optimal) and vicarious pain (pain vs no pain images), and the within-subject factor session (baseline vs trial) to investigate how visual awareness of vicarious pain images affects subsequent self-pain in the cold-pressor test. Self-pain tolerance, intensity and unpleasantness were evaluated in a sample of 77 healthy participants. Results revealed significant interactions of exposure time and vicarious pain in all three dependent measures. In the presence of visual awareness (optimal condition), vicarious pain compared to no-pain elicited overall enhanced self-pain sensitivity, indexed by reduced pain tolerance and enhanced ratings of pain intensity and unpleasantness. Conversely, in the absence of visual awareness (subliminal condition), vicarious pain evoked decreased self-pain intensity and unpleasantness while pain tolerance remained unaffected. These findings suggest that the activation of defense mechanisms by vicarious pain depends on relatively elaborate cognitive processes, while – strikingly – the appetitive system is activated in highly automatic manner independent from stimulus awareness. Such mechanisms may have evolved to facilitate empathic, protective approach responses toward suffering individuals, ensuring survival of the protective social group. PMID:28831270

  7. Treatment for non-inflammatory pain in a rheumatologist's practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Vladimirovna Chichasova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents data on different approaches to analgesia in relation to the mechanism of pain. Pregabalin (lyrica has demonstrated a rapid development of an analgesic effect in different types of non-inflammatory pain: neuropathic pain, pain in fibromyalgia syndrome. The dose-dependent effect of pregabalin and its satisfactory tolerance are noted.

  8. Increased pain sensitivity in accident-related chronic pain patients with comorbid posttraumatic stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaegter, Henrik Bjarke; Andersen, Tonny Elmose; Harvold, Mathea

    2018-01-01

    , anxiety, pain catastrophizing, and fear of movement) in patients with accident-related chronic spinal pain with (N=44) and without (N=64) comorbid PTSD characteristics. METHODS: Cuff algometry was performed on lower legs to assess pressure pain threshold (cPPT), tolerance (cPTT), temporal summation...

  9. Prediction of pain in orthodontic patients based on preoperative pain assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Baoyu; Ren, Manman; Lin, Feiou; Yao, Linjie

    2016-01-01

    Aim To investigate whether pretreatment assessment of experimental pain can predict the level of pain after archwire placement. Methods One hundred and twenty-one general university students seeking orthodontic treatment were enrolled in this study. A cold pressor test was performed to estimate the pain tolerance of subjects before treatment. Self-reported pain intensity was calculated using a 10 cm visual analog scale during the 7 days after treatment. The relationship between pain tolerance and orthodontic pain was analyzed using Spearman’s correlation analysis. Results The maximum mean level of pain intensity occurred at 24 hours after bonding (53.31±16.13) and fell to normal levels at day 7. Spearman’s correlation analysis found a moderate positive association between preoperative pain tolerance and self-reported pain after archwire placement (P0.05). Conclusion A simple and noninvasive preoperative sensory test (the cold pressor test) was useful in predicting the risk of developing unbearable pain in patients after archwire placement. Self-reported pain after archwire placement decreased as individual pain tolerance increased. PMID:27042019

  10. Hypoalgesia after exercise and the cold pressor test is reduced in chronic musculuskeletal pain patients with high pain sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vægter, Henrik Bjarke; Handberg, Gitte; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In chronic pain patients, impaired conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH) have been reported. No studies have compared CPM and EIH in chronic musculoskeletal pain patients with high pain sensitivity (HPS) and low pain sensitivity (LPS). MATERIALS.......005). Pain tolerance increased after the cold pressor test and exercise in both groups (PCPM and EIH were partly impaired in chronic pain patients with high versus less pain sensitivity, suggesting that the CPM and EIH responses depend on the degree of pain sensitivity. This has clinical...

  11. Pain-related anxiety influences pain perception differently in men and women: a quantitative sensory test across thermal pain modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Michel A; Welch, Patrick G; Katz, Joel; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2013-03-01

    The sexes differ with respect to perception of experimental pain. Anxiety influences pain perception more in men than in women; however, there lacks research exploring which anxiety constructs influence pain perception differentially between men and women. Furthermore, research examining whether depression is associated with pain perception differently between the sexes remains scant. The present investigation was designed to examine how trait anxiety, pain-related anxiety constructs (ie, fear of pain, pain-related anxiety, anxiety sensitivity), and depression are associated with pain perception between the sexes. A total of 95 nonclinical participants (55% women) completed measures assessing the constructs of interest and participated in quantitative sensory testing using heat and cold stimuli administered by a Medoc Pathway Pain and Sensory Evaluation System. The findings suggest that pain-related anxiety constructs, but not trait anxiety, are associated with pain perception. Furthermore, these constructs are associated with pain intensity ratings in men and pain tolerance levels in women. This contrasts with previous research suggesting that anxiety influences pain perception mostly or uniquely in men. Depression was not systematically associated with pain perception in either sex. Systematic relationships were not identified that allow conclusions regarding how fear of pain, pain-related anxiety, and anxiety sensitivity may contribute to pain perception differentially in men and women; however, anxiety sensitivity was associated with increased pain tolerance, a novel finding needing further examination. The results provide directions for future research and clinical endeavors and support that fear and anxiety are important features associated with hyperalgesia in both men and women. Copyright © 2012 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Dyadic analysis of child and parent trait and state pain catastrophizing in the process of children's pain communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnie, Kathryn A; Chambers, Christine T; Chorney, Jill; Fernandez, Conrad V; McGrath, Patrick J

    2016-04-01

    When explored separately, child and parent catastrophic thoughts about child pain show robust negative relations with child pain. The objective of this study was to conduct a dyadic analysis to elucidate intrapersonal and interpersonal influences of child and parent pain catastrophizing on aspects of pain communication, including observed behaviours and perceptions of child pain. A community sample of 171 dyads including children aged 8 to 12 years (89 girls) and parents (135 mothers) rated pain catastrophizing (trait and state versions) and child pain intensity and unpleasantness following a cold pressor task. Child pain tolerance was also assessed. Parent-child interactions during the cold pressor task were coded for parent attending, nonattending, and other talk, and child symptom complaints and other talk. Data were analyzed using the actor-partner interdependence model and hierarchical multiple regressions. Children reporting higher state pain catastrophizing had greater symptom complaints regardless of level of parent state pain catastrophizing. Children reporting low state pain catastrophizing had similar high levels of symptom complaints, but only when parents reported high state pain catastrophizing. Higher child and parent state and/or trait pain catastrophizing predicted their own ratings of higher child pain intensity and unpleasantness, with child state pain catastrophizing additionally predicting parent ratings. Higher pain tolerance was predicted by older child age and lower child state pain catastrophizing. These newly identified interpersonal effects highlight the relevance of the social context to children's pain expressions and parent perceptions of child pain. Both child and parent pain catastrophizing warrant consideration when managing child pain.

  13. Cost-effectiveness modeling for neuropathic pain treatments: investigating the relative importance of parameters using an open-source model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Matthew; Bending, Matthew W; Baio, Gianluca; Yesufu-Udechuku, Amina; Dunlop, William C N

    2018-06-08

    The study objective was to develop an open-source replicate of a cost-effectiveness model developed by National Institute for Health and Care (NICE) in order to explore uncertainties in health economic modeling of novel pharmacological neuropathic pain treatments. The NICE model, consisting of a decision tree with branches for discrete levels of pain relief and adverse event (AE) severities, was replicated using R and used to compare a hypothetical neuropathic pain drug to pregabalin. Model parameters were sourced from NICE's clinical guidelines and associated with probability distributions to account for underlying uncertainty. A simulation-based scenario analysis was conducted to assess how uncertainty in efficacy and AEs affected the net monetary benefit (NMB) for the hypothetical treatment at a cost-effectiveness threshold of £20,000 per QALY. Relative to pregabalin, an increase in efficacy was associated with greater NMB than an improvement in tolerability. A greater NMB was observed when efficacy was marginally higher than that of pregabalin while maintaining the same level of AEs than when efficacy was equivalent to pregabalin but with a more substantial reduction in AEs. In the latter scenario, the NMB was only positive at a low cost-effectiveness threshold. The replicate model shares the limitations described in the NICE guidelines. There is a lack of support in scientific literature for the assumption that increased efficacy is associated with a greater reduction in tolerability. The replicate model also included a single comparator, unlike the NICE model. Pain relief is a stronger driver of NMB than tolerability at a cost-effectiveness threshold of £20,000 per QALY. Health technology assessment decisions which are influenced by NICE's model may reward efficacy gains even if they are associated with more severe AEs. This contrasts with recommendations from clinical guidelines for neuropathic pain which place more equal weighting on improvements in

  14. Postoperative pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, H; Dahl, J B

    1993-01-01

    also modify various aspects of the surgical stress response, and nociceptive blockade by regional anesthetic techniques has been demonstrated to improve various parameters of postoperative outcome. It is therefore stressed that effective control of postoperative pain, combined with a high degree......Treatment of postoperative pain has not received sufficient attention by the surgical profession. Recent developments concerned with acute pain physiology and improved techniques for postoperative pain relief should result in more satisfactory treatment of postoperative pain. Such pain relief may...

  15. Electronic Gaming as Pain Distraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Jameson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated whether active distraction reduces participants’ experience of pain more than passive distraction during a cold pressor task. In the first experiment, 60 participants were asked to submerge their hand in cold (2°C water for as long as they could tolerate. They did this with no distraction, and then with active (electronic gaming system and passive (television distraction, in randomly assigned order. Tolerance time, pain intensity ratings and task absorption ratings were measured for each condition. A second experiment attempted to control for participants’ expectations about the effects of distraction on pain. Forty participants underwent the same experimental procedure, but were given verbal suggestions about the effects of distraction by the experimenter before each distraction condition. Participants in both experiments had a significantly higher pain tolerance and reported less pain with the active distraction compared with passive or no distraction. Participants reported being more absorbed, and were significantly more willing to do the task again when they had the active distraction compared with both passive distraction and no distraction. They also had more enjoyment, less anxiety and greater reduction in pain with active distraction than with passive distraction. There was no effect of suggestion. These experiments offer further support for the use of electronic games as a method of pain control.

  16. Biological Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Wingender, E

    2011-01-01

    It was suggested some years ago that Petri nets might be well suited to modeling metabolic networks, overcoming some of the limitations encountered by the use of systems employing ODEs (ordinary differential equations). Much work has been done since then which confirms this and demonstrates the usefulness of this concept for systems biology. Petri net technology is not only intuitively understood by scientists trained in the life sciences, it also has a robust mathematical foundation and provides the required degree of flexibility. As a result it appears to be a very promising approach to mode

  17. Reconfiguration of distribution nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latorre Bayona, Gerardo; Angarita Marquez, Jorge Luis

    2000-01-01

    Starting of the location of the reconfiguration problem inside the context of the operation of distribution nets, of the quality indicators definition and of the presentation of the alternatives more used for reduction of technical losses, they are related diverse reconfiguration methodologies proposed in the technical literature, pointing out their three principals limitations; also are presents the results of lost obtained starting from simulation works carried out in distribution circuits of the ESSA ESP, which permitting to postulate the reconfiguration of nets like an excellent alternative to reduce technical losses

  18. NET system integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farfaletti-Casali, F.; Mitchell, N.; Salpietro, E.; Buzzi, U.; Gritzmann, P.

    1985-01-01

    The NET system integration procedure is the process by which the requirements of the various Tokamak machine design areas are brought together to form a compatible machine layout. Each design area produces requirements which generally allow components to be built at minimum cost and operate with minimum technical risk, and the final machine assembly should be achieved with minimum departure from these optimum designs. This is carried out in NET by allowing flexibility in the maintenance and access methods to the machine internal components which must be regularly replaced by remote handling, in segmentation of these internal components and in the number of toroidal field coils

  19. Towards Tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisette Kuyper; Jurjen Iedema; Saskia Keuzenkamp

    2013-01-01

    Across Europe, public attitudes towards lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) individuals range from broad tolerance to widespread rejection. Attitudes towards homosexuality are more than mere individual opinions, but form part of the social and political structures which foster or hinder the equality

  20. Intolerant tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khushf, G

    1994-04-01

    The Hyde Amendment and Roman Catholic attempts to put restrictions on Title X funding have been criticized for being intolerant. However, such criticism fails to appreciate that there are two competing notions of tolerance, one focusing on the limits of state force and accepting pluralism as unavoidable, and the other focusing on the limits of knowledge and advancing pluralism as a good. These two types of tolerance, illustrated in the writings of John Locke and J.S. Mill, each involve an intolerance. In a pluralistic context where the free exercise of religion is respected, John Locke's account of tolerance is preferable. However, it (in a reconstructed form) leads to a minimal state. Positive entitlements to benefits like artificial contraception or nontherapeutic abortions can legitimately be resisted, because an intolerance has already been shown with respect to those that consider the benefit immoral, since their resources have been coopted by taxation to advance an end that is contrary to their own. There is a sliding scale from tolerance (viewed as forbearance) to the affirmation of communal integrity, and this scale maps on to the continuum from negative to positive rights.

  1. BioNet Digital Communications Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Kevin; Kuzminsky, Sebastian; Williams, Shea

    2010-01-01

    BioNet v2 is a peer-to-peer middleware that enables digital communication devices to talk to each other. It provides a software development framework, standardized application, network-transparent device integration services, a flexible messaging model, and network communications for distributed applications. BioNet is an implementation of the Constellation Program Command, Control, Communications and Information (C3I) Interoperability specification, given in CxP 70022-01. The system architecture provides the necessary infrastructure for the integration of heterogeneous wired and wireless sensing and control devices into a unified data system with a standardized application interface, providing plug-and-play operation for hardware and software systems. BioNet v2 features a naming schema for mobility and coarse-grained localization information, data normalization within a network-transparent device driver framework, enabling of network communications to non-IP devices, and fine-grained application control of data subscription band width usage. BioNet directly integrates Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) as a communications technology, enabling networked communications with assets that are only intermittently connected including orbiting relay satellites and planetary rover vehicles.

  2. Coloured Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. This book introduces the constructs of the CPN modelling language and presents the related analysis methods. It provides a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN.

  3. Safety nets or straitjackets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Does regulation of working hours at national and sector level impose straitjackets, or offer safety nets to employees seeking working time flexibility? This article compares legislation and collective agreements in the metal industries of Denmark, Germany and the USA. The industry has historically...

  4. Neuronal nets in robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez Sanchez, Raul

    1999-01-01

    The paper gives a generic idea of the solutions that the neuronal nets contribute to the robotics. The advantages and the inconveniences are exposed that have regarding the conventional techniques. It also describe the more excellent applications as the pursuit of trajectories, the positioning based on images, the force control or of the mobile robots management, among others

  5. Net4Care platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    , that in turn enables general practitioners and clinical staff to view observations. Use the menus above to explore the site's information resources. To get started, follow the short Hello, World! tutorial. The Net4Care project is funded by The Central Denmark Region and EU via Caretech Innovation....

  6. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism an...

  7. Game Theory .net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Mikhael

    2003-01-01

    States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of GameTheory.net is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…

  8. BacillusRegNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misirli, Goksel; Hallinan, Jennifer; Röttger, Richard

    2014-01-01

    As high-throughput technologies become cheaper and easier to use, raw sequence data and corresponding annotations for many organisms are becoming available. However, sequence data alone is not sufficient to explain the biological behaviour of organisms, which arises largely from complex molecular...... the associated BacillusRegNet website (http://bacillus.ncl.ac.uk)....

  9. Boom Booom Net Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Yong, Louisa; Dobie, Ian

    1999-01-01

    of an existing Internet radio station; Boom Booom Net Radio. Whilst necessity dictates some use of technology-related terminology, wherever possible we have endeavoured to keep such jargon to a minimum and to either explain it in the text or to provide further explanation in the appended glossary....

  10. Salt Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Liming; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2002-01-01

    Studying salt stress is an important means to the understanding of plant ion homeostasis and osmo-balance. Salt stress research also benefits agriculture because soil salinity significantly limits plant productivity on agricultural lands. Decades of physiological and molecular studies have generated a large body of literature regarding potential salt tolerance determinants. Recent advances in applying molecular genetic analysis and genomics tools in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana are sh...

  11. SolNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Ulrike; Vajen, Klaus; Bales, Chris

    2014-01-01

    -accompanying Master courses, placements of internships, and PhD scholarship projects. A new scholarship project, “SHINE”, was launched in autumn 2013 in the frame work of the Marie Curie program of the European Union (Initial Training Network, ITN). 13 PhD-scholarships on solar district heating, solar heat......SolNet, founded in 2006, is the first coordinated International PhD education program on Solar Thermal Engineering. The SolNet network is coordinated by the Institute of Thermal Engineering at Kassel University, Germany. The network offers PhD courses on solar heating and cooling, conference...... for industrial processes, as well as sorption stores and materials started in December 2013. Additionally, the project comprises a training program with five PhD courses and several workshops on solar thermal engineering that will be open also for other PhD students working in the field. The research projects...

  12. Prayer and pain: the mediating role of positive re-appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezutter, Jessie; Wachholtz, Amy; Corveleyn, Jozef

    2011-12-01

    The present study explored in a sample of Flemish pain patients the role of prayer as a possible individual factor in pain management. The focus on prayer as a personal religious factor fits with the current religious landscape in Western-Europe where personal religious factors are more important than organizational dimensions of religion. Our study is framed in the transactional theory of stress and coping by testing first, whether prayer was related with pain severity and pain tolerance and second, whether cognitive positive re-appraisal was a mediating mechanism in the association between prayer and pain. We expected that prayer would be related to pain tolerance in reducing the impact of the pain on patient's daily life, but not necessarily to pain severity. A cross-sectional questionnaire design was adopted in order to measure demographics, prayer, pain outcomes (i.e., pain severity and pain tolerance), and cognitive positive re-appraisal. Two hundred and two chronic pain (CP) patients, all members of a Flemish national patients association, completed the questionnaires. Correlational analyses showed that prayer was significantly related with pain tolerance, but not with pain severity. However, ancillary analyses revealed a moderational effect of religious affiliation in the relationship between prayer and pain severity as well as pain tolerance. Furthermore, mediation analysis revealed that cognitive positive re-appraisal was indeed an underlying mechanism in the relationship between prayer and pain tolerance. This study affirms the importance to distinguish between pain severity and pain tolerance, and indicates that prayer can play a role in pain management, especially for religious pain patients. Further, the findings can be framed within the transactional theory of stress and coping as the results indicate that positive re-appraisal might be an important underlying mechanism in the association between prayer and pain.

  13. Turkey's net energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soezen, Adnan; Arcaklioglu, Erol; Oezkaymak, Mehmet

    2005-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to develop the equations for forecasting net energy consumption (NEC) using an artificial neural-network (ANN) technique in order to determine the future level of energy consumption in Turkey. In this study, two different models were used in order to train the neural network. In one of them, population, gross generation, installed capacity and years are used in the input layer of the network (Model 1). Other energy sources are used in input layer of network (Model 2). The net energy consumption is in the output layer for two models. Data from 1975 to 2003 are used for the training. Three years (1981, 1994 and 2003) are used only as test data to confirm this method. The statistical coefficients of multiple determinations (R 2 -value) for training data are equal to 0.99944 and 0.99913 for Models 1 and 2, respectively. Similarly, R 2 values for testing data are equal to 0.997386 and 0.999558 for Models 1 and 2, respectively. According to the results, the net energy consumption using the ANN technique has been predicted with acceptable accuracy. Apart from reducing the whole time required, with the ANN approach, it is possible to find solutions that make energy applications more viable and thus more attractive to potential users. It is also expected that this study will be helpful in developing highly applicable energy policies

  14. Urbanism, Region, and Tolerance Revisited: The Case of Racial Prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuch, Steven A.

    1987-01-01

    Using prejudice toward blacks as the outcome measure, analysis of national survey data for 1972 and 1985 indicates that: urbanites and non-Southerners are more racially tolerant than their non-urban and Southern counterparts; the net effects of urbanism on tolerance have increased over time while region effects have decreased; and urban to…

  15. Functional resonance magnetic imaging (fMRI) in adolescents with idiopathic musculoskeletal pain: a paradigm of experimental pain

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, Juliana; Amaro, Edson; da Rocha, Liana Guerra Sanches; Jorge, Liliana; Santos, Flavia Heloisa; Len, Claudio A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Studies on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have shown that adults with musculoskeletal pain syndromes tolerate smaller amount of pressure (pain) as well as differences in brain activation patterns in areas related to pain.The objective of this study was to evaluate, through fMRI, the brain activation in adolescents with idiopathic musculoskeletal pain (IMP) while performing an experimental paradigm of pain. Methods The study included 10 consecutive adolescents with idi...

  16. Effects of vicarious pain on self-pain perception: investigating the role of awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terrighena EL

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Esslin L Terrighena,1,2 Ge Lu,1 Wai Ping Yuen,1 Tatia M C Lee,1–4 Kati Keuper1,2,5 1Department of Psychology, Laboratory of Neuropsychology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; 2Laboratory of Social Cognitive Affective Neuroscience, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; 3The State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Hong Kong; 4Institute of Clinical Neuropsychology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; 5Institute for Biomagnetism and Biosignalanalysis, University of Münster, Münster, Germany Abstract: The observation of pain in others may enhance or reduce self-pain, yet the boundary conditions and factors that determine the direction of such effects are poorly understood. The current study set out to show that visual stimulus awareness plays a crucial role in ­determining whether vicarious pain primarily activates behavioral defense systems that enhance pain sensitivity and stimulate withdrawal or appetitive systems that attenuate pain sensitivity and stimulate approach. We employed a mixed factorial design with the between-subject factors exposure time (subliminal vs optimal and vicarious pain (pain vs no pain images, and the within-subject factor session (baseline vs trial to investigate how visual awareness of vicarious pain images affects subsequent self-pain in the cold-pressor test. Self-pain tolerance, intensity and unpleasantness were evaluated in a sample of 77 healthy participants. Results revealed ­significant interactions of exposure time and vicarious pain in all three dependent measures. In the presence of visual awareness (optimal condition, vicarious pain compared to no-pain elicited overall enhanced self-pain sensitivity, indexed by reduced pain tolerance and enhanced ratings of pain intensity and unpleasantness. Conversely, in the absence of visual awareness (subliminal condition, vicarious pain evoked decreased self-pain intensity and unpleasantness while pain tolerance remained unaffected. These

  17. Infectious Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Jonuleit, Helmut; Schmitt, Edgar; Kakirman, Hacer; Stassen, Michael; Knop, Jürgen; Enk, Alexander H.

    2002-01-01

    Regulatory CD4+CD25+ T cells (Treg) are mandatory for maintaining immunologic self-tolerance. We demonstrate that the cell-cell contact–mediated suppression of conventional CD4+ T cells by human CD25+ Treg cells is fixation resistant, independent from membrane-bound TGF-β but requires activation and protein synthesis of CD25+ Treg cells. Coactivation of CD25+ Treg cells with Treg cell–depleted CD4+ T cells results in anergized CD4+ T cells that in turn inhibit the activation of conventional, ...

  18. Net one, net two: the primary care network income statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halley, M D; Little, A W

    1999-10-01

    Although hospital-owned primary care practices have been unprofitable for most hospitals, some hospitals are achieving competitive advantage and sustainable practice operations. A key to the success of some has been a net income reporting tool that separates practice operating expenses from the costs of creating and operating a network of practices to help healthcare organization managers, physicians, and staff to identify opportunities to improve the network's financial performance. This "Net One, Net Two" reporting allows operations leadership to be held accountable for Net One expenses and strategic leadership to be held accountable for Net Two expenses.

  19. String-net condensation: A physical mechanism for topological phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, Michael A.; Wen Xiaogang

    2005-01-01

    We show that quantum systems of extended objects naturally give rise to a large class of exotic phases--namely topological phases. These phases occur when extended objects, called ''string-nets,'' become highly fluctuating and condense. We construct a large class of exactly soluble 2D spin Hamiltonians whose ground states are string-net condensed. Each ground state corresponds to a different parity invariant topological phase. The models reveal the mathematical framework underlying topological phases: tensor category theory. One of the Hamiltonians--a spin-1/2 system on the honeycomb lattice--is a simple theoretical realization of a universal fault tolerant quantum computer. The higher dimensional case also yields an interesting result: we find that 3D string-net condensation naturally gives rise to both emergent gauge bosons and emergent fermions. Thus, string-net condensation provides a mechanism for unifying gauge bosons and fermions in 3 and higher dimensions

  20. Proof Nets for Lambek Calculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, Dirk

    1992-01-01

    The proof nets of linear logic are adapted to the non-commutative Lambek calculus. A different criterion for soundness of proof nets is given, which gives rise to new algorithms for proof search. The order sensitiveness of the Lambek calculus is reflected by the planarity condition on proof nets;

  1. Net metering: zero electricity bill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangi, A.; Khan, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide move towards renewable energy sources, environmental concerns and decentralization of the power sector have made net metering an attractive option for power generation at small scale. This paper discusses the net metering, economical issues of renewable sources in Pakistan, technical aspects, installation suitability according to varying terrain, existing utility rules and formulation of legislation for net metering making it economically attractive. (author)

  2. The Net Advance of Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    THE NET ADVANCE OF PHYSICS Review Articles and Tutorials in an Encyclopædic Format Established 1995 [Link to MIT] Computer support for The Net Advance of Physics is furnished by The Massachusetts Newest Additions SPECIAL FEATURES: Net Advance RETRO: Nineteenth Century Physics History of Science

  3. Co-morbid pain and opioid addiction: long term effect of opioid maintenance on acute pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachholtz, Amy; Gonzalez, Gerardo

    2014-12-01

    Medication assisted treatment for opioid dependence alters the pain experience. This study will evaluate changes pain sensitivity and tolerance with opioid treatments; and duration of this effect after treatment cessation. 120 Individuals with chronic pain were recruited in 4 groups (N = 30): 1-methadone for opioid addiction; 2-buprenorphine for opioid addiction; 3-history of opioid maintenance treatment for opioid addiction but with prolonged abstinence (M = 121 weeks; SD = 23.3); and 4-opioid naïve controls. Participants completed a psychological assessment and a cold water task including, time to first pain (sensitivity) and time to stopping the pain task (tolerance). Data analysis used survival analyses. A Kaplan-Meier-Cox survival analysis showed group differences for both pain sensitivity (log rank = 15.50; p opioid maintenance resulted in differing pain sensitivity compared to opioid naïve (p's opioid maintenance compared to active methadone patients (p opioid naïve control group participants (p's opioid abstinence increased (R = .37; p opioid maintenance, there appears to be long-term differences in pain sensitivity that do not resolve with discontinuation of opioid maintenance. Although pain sensitivity does not change, pain tolerance does improve after opioid maintenance cessation. Implications for treating co-morbid opioid addiction and pain (acute and chronic) are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Horizontal ichthyoplankton tow-net system with unobstructed net opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nester, Robert T.

    1987-01-01

    The larval fish sampler described here consists of a modified bridle, frame, and net system with an obstruction-free net opening and is small enough for use on boats 10 m or less in length. The tow net features a square net frame attached to a 0.5-m-diameter cylinder-on-cone plankton net with a bridle designed to eliminate all obstructions forward of the net opening, significantly reducing currents and vibrations in the water directly preceding the net. This system was effective in collecting larvae representing more than 25 species of fish at sampling depths ranging from surface to 10 m and could easily be used at greater depths.

  5. Infectious Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonuleit, Helmut; Schmitt, Edgar; Kakirman, Hacer; Stassen, Michael; Knop, Jürgen; Enk, Alexander H.

    2002-01-01

    Regulatory CD4+CD25+ T cells (Treg) are mandatory for maintaining immunologic self-tolerance. We demonstrate that the cell-cell contact–mediated suppression of conventional CD4+ T cells by human CD25+ Treg cells is fixation resistant, independent from membrane-bound TGF-β but requires activation and protein synthesis of CD25+ Treg cells. Coactivation of CD25+ Treg cells with Treg cell–depleted CD4+ T cells results in anergized CD4+ T cells that in turn inhibit the activation of conventional, freshly isolated CD4+ T helper (Th) cells. This infectious suppressive activity, transferred from CD25+ Treg cells via cell contact, is cell contact–independent and partially mediated by soluble transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. The induction of suppressive properties in conventional CD4+ Th cells represents a mechanism underlying the phenomenon of infectious tolerance. This explains previously published conflicting data on the role of TGF-β in CD25+ Treg cell–induced immunosuppression. PMID:12119350

  6. Pelvic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OLPP) Office of Science Policy, Reporting, and Program Analysis (OSPRA) Division of Extramural Research (DER) Extramural Scientific ... treat my pain? Can pelvic pain affect my emotional well-being? How can I cope with long- ...

  7. Neck pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause of neck pain is muscle strain or tension. Most often, everyday activities are to blame. Such ... of a heart attack , such as shortness of breath, sweating, nausea, vomiting, or arm or jaw pain. ...

  8. Master Robotic Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Lipunov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the MASTER-Net project is to produce a unique fast sky survey with all sky observed over a single night down to a limiting magnitude of 19-20. Such a survey will make it possible to address a number of fundamental problems: search for dark energy via the discovery and photometry of supernovae (including SNIa, search for exoplanets, microlensing effects, discovery of minor bodies in the Solar System, and space-junk monitoring. All MASTER telescopes can be guided by alerts, and we plan to observe prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts synchronously in several filters and in several polarization planes.

  9. Patellofemoral Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Rebecca A; Khadavi, Michael J; Fredericson, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Patellofemoral pain is characterized by insidious onset anterior knee pain that is exaggerated under conditions of increased patellofemoral joint stress. A variety of risk factors may contribute to the development of patellofemoral pain. It is critical that the history and physical examination elucidate those risk factors specific to an individual in order to prescribe an appropriate and customized treatment plan. This article aims to review the epidemiology, risk factors, diagnosis, and management of patellofemoral pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Cannabinoid System and Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhams, Stephen G.; Chapman, Victoria; Finn, David P.; Hohmann, Andrea G.; Neugebauer, Volker

    2018-01-01

    Chronic pain states are highly prevalent and yet poorly controlled by currently available analgesics, representing an enormous clinical, societal, and economic burden. Existing pain medications have significant limitations and adverse effects including tolerance, dependence, gastrointestinal dysfunction, cognitive impairment, and a narrow therapeutic window, making the search for novel analgesics ever more important. In this article, we review the role of an important endogenous pain control system, the endocannabinoid (EC) system, in the sensory, emotional, and cognitive aspects of pain. Herein, we briefly cover the discovery of the EC system and its role in pain processing pathways, before concentrating on three areas of current major interest in EC pain research; 1. Pharmacological enhancement of endocannabinoid activity (via blockade of EC metabolism or allosteric modulation of CB1 receptors); 2. The EC System and stress-induced modulation of pain; and 3. The EC system & medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) dysfunction in pain states. Whilst we focus predominantly on the preclinical data, we also include extensive discussion of recent clinical failures of endocannabinoid-related therapies, the future potential of these approaches, and important directions for future research on the EC system and pain. PMID:28625720

  11. Phantom Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Because this is yet another version of tangled sensory wires, the result can be pain. A number of other factors are believed to contribute to phantom pain, including damaged nerve endings, scar tissue at the site of the amputation and the physical memory of pre-amputation pain in the affected area. ...

  12. Limitations of shallow nets approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shao-Bo

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we aim at analyzing the approximation abilities of shallow networks in reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces (RKHSs). We prove that there is a probability measure such that the achievable lower bound for approximating by shallow nets can be realized for all functions in balls of reproducing kernel Hilbert space with high probability, which is different with the classical minimax approximation error estimates. This result together with the existing approximation results for deep nets shows the limitations for shallow nets and provides a theoretical explanation on why deep nets perform better than shallow nets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Spinal pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izzo, R.; Popolizio, T.; D’Aprile, P.; Muto, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Purpose of this review is to address the current concepts on the pathophysiology of discogenic, radicular, facet and dysfunctional spinal pain, focusing on the role of the imaging in the diagnostic setting, to potentially address a correct approach also to minimally invasive interventional techniques. • Special attention will be given to the discogenic pain, actually considered as the most frequent cause of chronic low back pain. • The correct distinction between referred pain and radicular pain contributes to give a more correct approach to spinal pain. • The pathogenesis of chronic pain renders this pain a true pathology requiring a specific management. - Abstract: The spinal pain, and expecially the low back pain (LBP), represents the second cause for a medical consultation in primary care setting and a leading cause of disability worldwide [1]. LBP is more often idiopathic. It has as most frequent cause the internal disc disruption (IDD) and is referred to as discogenic pain. IDD refers to annular fissures, disc collapse and mechanical failure, with no significant modification of external disc shape, with or without endplates changes. IDD is described as a separate clinical entity in respect to disc herniation, segmental instability and degenerative disc desease (DDD). The radicular pain has as most frequent causes a disc herniation and a canal stenosis. Both discogenic and radicular pain also have either a mechanical and an inflammatory genesis. For to be richly innervated, facet joints can be a direct source of pain, while for their degenerative changes cause compression of nerve roots in lateral recesses and in the neural foramina. Degenerative instability is a common and often misdiagnosed cause of axial and radicular pain, being also a frequent indication for surgery. Acute pain tends to extinguish along with its cause, but the setting of complex processes of peripheral and central sensitization may influence its evolution in chronic

  14. Spinal pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izzo, R., E-mail: roberto1766@interfree.it [Neuroradiology Department, A. Cardarelli Hospital, Naples (Italy); Popolizio, T., E-mail: t.popolizio1@gmail.com [Radiology Department, Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza Hospital, San Giovanni Rotondo (Fg) (Italy); D’Aprile, P., E-mail: paoladaprile@yahoo.it [Neuroradiology Department, San Paolo Hospital, Bari (Italy); Muto, M., E-mail: mutomar@tiscali.it [Neuroradiology Department, A. Cardarelli Hospital, Napoli (Italy)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Purpose of this review is to address the current concepts on the pathophysiology of discogenic, radicular, facet and dysfunctional spinal pain, focusing on the role of the imaging in the diagnostic setting, to potentially address a correct approach also to minimally invasive interventional techniques. • Special attention will be given to the discogenic pain, actually considered as the most frequent cause of chronic low back pain. • The correct distinction between referred pain and radicular pain contributes to give a more correct approach to spinal pain. • The pathogenesis of chronic pain renders this pain a true pathology requiring a specific management. - Abstract: The spinal pain, and expecially the low back pain (LBP), represents the second cause for a medical consultation in primary care setting and a leading cause of disability worldwide [1]. LBP is more often idiopathic. It has as most frequent cause the internal disc disruption (IDD) and is referred to as discogenic pain. IDD refers to annular fissures, disc collapse and mechanical failure, with no significant modification of external disc shape, with or without endplates changes. IDD is described as a separate clinical entity in respect to disc herniation, segmental instability and degenerative disc desease (DDD). The radicular pain has as most frequent causes a disc herniation and a canal stenosis. Both discogenic and radicular pain also have either a mechanical and an inflammatory genesis. For to be richly innervated, facet joints can be a direct source of pain, while for their degenerative changes cause compression of nerve roots in lateral recesses and in the neural foramina. Degenerative instability is a common and often misdiagnosed cause of axial and radicular pain, being also a frequent indication for surgery. Acute pain tends to extinguish along with its cause, but the setting of complex processes of peripheral and central sensitization may influence its evolution in chronic

  15. Shielding calculations for NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verschuur, K.A.; Hogenbirk, A.

    1991-05-01

    In the European Fusion Technology Programme there is only a small activity on research and development for fusion neutronics. Never-the-less, looking further than blanket design now, as ECN is getting involved in design of radiation shields for the coils and biological shields, it becomes apparent that fusion neutronics as a whole still needs substantial development. Existing exact codes for calculation of complex geometries like MCNP and DORT/TORT are put over the limits of their numerical capabilities, whilst approximate codes for complex geometries like FURNACE and MERCURE4 are put over the limits of their modelling capabilities. The main objective of this study is just to find out how far we can get with existing codes in obtaining reliable values for the radiation levels inside and outside the cryostat/shield during operation and after shut-down. Starting with a 1D torus model for preliminary parametric studies, more dimensional approximation of the torus or parts of it including the main heterogeneities should follow. Regular contacts with the NET-Team are kept, to be aware of main changes in NET design that might affect our calculation models. Work on the contract started 1 July 1990. The technical description of the contract is given. (author). 14 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  16. Social Modeling Influences on Pain Experience and Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Kenneth D.

    The impact of exposure to social models displaying variably tolerant pain behaviour on observers' expressions of pain is examined. Findings indicate substantial effects on verbal reports of pain, avoidance behaviour, psychophysiological indices, power function parameters, and sensory decision theory indices. Discussion centers on how social models…

  17. Differential pain modulation in patients with peripheral neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormsen, Lise; Bach, Flemming W; Rosenberg, Raben; Jensen, Troels S

    2017-12-29

    Background The definition of neuropathic pain has recently been changed by the International Association for the Study of Pain. This means that conditions such as fibromyalgia cannot, as sometimes discussed, be included in the neuropathic pain conditions. However, fibromyalgia and peripheral neuropathic pain share common clinical features such as spontaneous pain and hypersensitivity to external stimuli. Therefore, it is of interest to directly compare the conditions. Material and methods In this study we directly compared the pain modulation in neuropathic pain versus fibromyalgia by recording responses to a cold pressor test in 30 patients with peripheral neuropathic pain, 28 patients with fibromyalgia, and 26 pain-free age-and gender-matched healthy controls. Patients were asked to rate their spontaneous pain on a visual analog scale (VAS (0-100 mm) immediately before and immediately after the cold pressor test. Furthermore the duration (s) of extremity immersion in cold water was used as a measure of the pain tolerance threshold, and the perceived pain intensity at pain tolerance on the VAS was recorded on the extremity in the water after the cold pressor test. In addition, thermal (thermo tester) and mechanical stimuli (pressure algometer) were used to determine sensory detection, pain detection, and pain tolerance thresholds in different body parts. All sensory tests were done by the same examiner, in the same room, and with each subject in a supine position. The sequence of examinations was the following: (1) reaction time, (2) pressure thresholds, (3) thermal thresholds, and (4) cold pressor test. Reaction time was measured to ensure that psychomotoric inhibitions did not influence pain thresholds. Results Pain modulation induced by a cold pressor test reduced spontaneous pain by 40% on average in neuropathic pain patients, but increased spontaneous pain by 2.6% in fibromyalgia patients. This difference between fibromyalgia and neuropathic pain patients was

  18. Spontaneous pain attacks: neuralgic pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bont, L.G.

    2006-01-01

    Paroxysmal orofacial pains can cause diagnostic problems, especially when different clinical pictures occur simultaneously. Pain due to pulpitis, for example, may show the same characteristics as pain due to trigeminal neuralgia would. Moreover, the trigger point of trigeminal neuralgia can either

  19. The equivalency between logic Petri workflow nets and workflow nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue

    2015-01-01

    Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented.

  20. The Equivalency between Logic Petri Workflow Nets and Workflow Nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue

    2015-01-01

    Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented. PMID:25821845

  1. Alternative Drugs in Pain Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlker Kelle

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Various treatment modalities of acute and chronic pain have been an area of interest of medicine and investigators for centuries. There are two major classes of drugs that are used to control pain: opioid and non-opioid analgesics. They could be used in the case of monotherapy or combination therapy in pain management. However, these agents are not accepted as ideal drugs in clinical approaches against pain because of their serious side effects such as development of tolerance and addiction, renal failure and gastrointestinal bleeding. As a consequent, developing new forms of pain relievers that are more safe and effective without any other side effects has became the main goal of researchers. In recent studies, it has been shown that conotoxin therapies are not addictive, and have tolerable indexes unlike opioids. In addition, conotoxins side effects are much milder and easier to manage than those of opioids. In this regard, it has been emphasized that biotoxins such as conotoxins obtained from marine creatures can be better choices in pain management for future prospects.

  2. Art/Net/Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik; Lindstrøm, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    The seminar Art|Net|Work deals with two important changes in our culture. On one side, the network has become essential in the latest technological development. The Internet has entered a new phase, Web 2.0, including the occurrence of as ‘Wiki’s’, ‘Peer-2-Peer’ distribution, user controlled...... on the ‘network’ itself as a phenomenon and are often using technological networks as a mean of production and distribution. This changes the artistic practice and the distribution channels of art works – and the traditional notions of ‘work’, ‘origin’ and ‘rights’ are increasingly perceived as limiting...... the praxis of the artist. We see different kinds of interventions and activism (including ‘hacktivism’) using the network as a way of questioning the invisible rules that govern public and semi-public spaces. Who ‘owns’ them? What kind of social relationships do they generate? On what principle...

  3. Net4Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2012-01-01

    , health centers are getting larger and more distributed, and the number of healthcare professionals does not follow the trend in chronic diseases. All of this leads to a need for telemedical and mobile health applications. In a Danish context, these applications are often developed through local...... (innovative) initiatives with little regards for national and global (standardization) initiatives. A reason for this discrepancy is that the software architecture for national (and global) systems and standards are hard to understand, hard to develop systems based on, and hard to deploy. To counter this, we...... propose a software ecosystem approach for telemedicine applications, providing a framework, Net4Care, encapsulating national/global design decisions with respect to standardization while allowing for local innovation. This paper presents an analysis of existing systems, of requirements for a software...

  4. Tolerability of hysteroscopy under local anaesthesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasrullah, F.D.; Khan, A.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the tolerability of hysteroscopy amongst patients, when performed under local anesthesia. Patients attending the Outpatient Clinics with bleeding per vagina were randomly selected. After the clinical work-up and taking consent, all patients were given injection diclofenac sodium half an hour prior to the procedure. After preparing and positioning the patient,10cc of injection Bupivacaine was given for para cervical block at 3 and 9 o'clock positions. The uterine cavity was distended with normal saline. Hysteroscopy was performed and the findings noted. Pain scoring was done by visual analogue scale. The condition of the patient was monitored during and after the procedure; they were kept under observation for four hours. Tolerability of the procedure was assessed by pain scoring and the presence of complications, and the results analyzed. During the study period 113 patients underwent hysteroscopy for abnormal uterine bleeding. The procedure was performed successfully in 98.2% patients without any complications, while 1.8% patients experienced transient vasovagal attack. The procedure was painless in 52.2% patients; 40.7% patients had mild pain (score <3) and were reassured, whereas 7.1% patients had moderate pain (score 3-5). Only 3.5% cases required analgesia for pain control. All patients remained haemodynamically stable during and after the procedure. Hysteroscopy is very well tolerated under local anaesthesia by our local population. (author)

  5. Pain genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Foulkes

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Pain, which afflicts up to 20% of the population at any time, provides both a massive therapeutic challenge and a route to understanding mechanisms in the nervous system. Specialised sensory neurons (nociceptors signal the existence of tissue damage to the central nervous system (CNS, where pain is represented in a complex matrix involving many CNS structures. Genetic approaches to investigating pain pathways using model organisms have identified the molecular nature of the transducers, regulatory mechanisms involved in changing neuronal activity, as well as the critical role of immune system cells in driving pain pathways. In man, mapping of human pain mutants as well as twin studies and association studies of altered pain behaviour have identified important regulators of the pain system. In turn, new drug targets for chronic pain treatment have been validated in transgenic mouse studies. Thus, genetic studies of pain pathways have complemented the traditional neuroscience approaches of electrophysiology and pharmacology to give us fresh insights into the molecular basis of pain perception.

  6. Botulinum toxin in pain treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colhado, Orlando Carlos Gomes; Boeing, Marcelo; Ortega, Luciano Bornia

    2009-01-01

    Botulinum toxin (BTX) is one of the most potent bacterial toxins known and its effectiveness in the treatment of some pain syndromes is well known. However, the efficacy of some of its indications is still in the process of being confirmed. The objective of this study was to review the history, pharmacological properties, and clinical applications of BTX in the treatment of pain of different origins. Botulinum toxin is produced by fermentation of Clostridium botulinum, a Gram-positive, anaerobic bacterium. Commercially, BTX comes in two presentations, types A and B. Botulinum toxin, a neurotoxin with high affinity for cholinergic synapses, blocks the release of acetylcholine by nerve endings without interfering with neuronal conduction of electrical signals or synthesis and storage of acetylcholine. It has been proven that BTX can selectively weaken painful muscles, interrupting the spasm-pain cycle. Several studies have demonstrated the efficacy and safety of BTX-A in the treatment of tension headaches, migraines, chronic lumbar pain, and myofascial pain. Botulinum toxin type A is well tolerated in the treatment of chronic pain disorders in which pharmacotherapy regimens can cause side effects. The reduction in the consumption of analgesics and length of action of 3 to 4 months per dose represent other advantages of its use. However, further studies are necessary to establish the efficacy of BTX-A in chronic pain disorders and its exact mechanism of action, as well as its potential in multifactorial treatments.

  7. High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    various journals and collections. As a result, much of this knowledge is not readily available to people who may be interested in using high-level nets. Within the Petri net community this problem has been discussed many times, and as an outcome this book has been compiled. The book contains reprints...... of some of the most important papers on the application and theory of high-level Petri nets. In this way it makes the relevant literature more available. It is our hope that the book will be a useful source of information and that, e.g., it can be used in the organization of Petri net courses. To make......High-level Petri nets are now widely used in both theoretical analysis and practical modelling of concurrent systems. The main reason for the success of this class of net models is that they make it possible to obtain much more succinct and manageable descriptions than can be obtained by means...

  8. Repressive Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Jarlbæk

    2017-01-01

    Consultation of organised interests and others when drafting laws is often seen as an important source of both input and output legitimacy. But whereas the input side of the equation stems from the very process of listening to societal actors, output legitimacy can only be strengthened if consult......Consultation of organised interests and others when drafting laws is often seen as an important source of both input and output legitimacy. But whereas the input side of the equation stems from the very process of listening to societal actors, output legitimacy can only be strengthened...... a substantial effect on the substance of laws – shows that there is a great difference in the amenability of different branches of government but that, in general, authorities do not listen much despite a very strong consultation institution and tradition. A suggestion for an explanation could be pointing...... to an administrative culture of repressive tolerance of organised interests: authorities listen but only reacts in a very limited sense. This bears in it the risk of jeopardising the knowledge transfer from societal actors to administrative ditto thus harming the consultation institutions’ potential for strengthening...

  9. Net neutrality and audiovisual services

    OpenAIRE

    van Eijk, N.; Nikoltchev, S.

    2011-01-01

    Net neutrality is high on the European agenda. New regulations for the communication sector provide a legal framework for net neutrality and need to be implemented on both a European and a national level. The key element is not just about blocking or slowing down traffic across communication networks: the control over the distribution of audiovisual services constitutes a vital part of the problem. In this contribution, the phenomenon of net neutrality is described first. Next, the European a...

  10. NetView technical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This is the Final Technical Report for the NetView Technical Research task. This report is prepared in accordance with Contract Data Requirements List (CDRL) item A002. NetView assistance was provided and details are presented under the following headings: NetView Management Systems (NMS) project tasks; WBAFB IBM 3090; WPAFB AMDAHL; WPAFB IBM 3084; Hill AFB; McClellan AFB AMDAHL; McClellan AFB IBM 3090; and Warner-Robins AFB.

  11. Buprenorphine-naloxone therapy in pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kelly Yan; Chen, Lucy; Mao, Jianren

    2014-05-01

    Buprenorphine-naloxone (bup/nal in 4:1 ratio; Suboxone; Reckitt Benckiser Pharmaceuticals Incorporation, Richmond, VA) is approved by the Food and Drug Administration for outpatient office-based addiction treatment. In the past few years, bup/nal has been increasingly prescribed off-label for chronic pain management. The current data suggest that bup/nal may provide pain relief in patients with chronic pain with opioid dependence or addiction. However, the unique pharmacological profile of bup/nal confers it to be a weak analgesic that is unlikely to provide adequate pain relief for patients without opioid dependence or addiction. Possible mechanisms of pain relief by bup/nal therapy in opioid-dependent patients with chronic pain may include reversal of opioid-induced hyperalgesia and improvement in opioid tolerance and addiction. Additional studies are needed to assess the implication of bup/nal therapy in clinical anesthesia and perioperative pain management.

  12. Bone pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Charlotte Ørsted; Hansen, Rikke Rie; Heegaard, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal conditions are common causes of chronic pain and there is an unmet medical need for improved treatment options. Bone pain is currently managed with disease modifying agents and/or analgesics depending on the condition. Disease modifying agents affect the underlying pathophysiology...... of the disease and reduce as a secondary effect bone pain. Antiresorptive and anabolic agents, such as bisphosphonates and intermittent parathyroid hormone (1-34), respectively, have proven effective as pain relieving agents. Cathepsin K inhibitors and anti-sclerostin antibodies hold, due to their disease...... modifying effects, promise of a pain relieving effect. NSAIDs and opioids are widely employed in the treatment of bone pain. However, recent preclinical findings demonstrating a unique neuronal innervation of bone tissue and sprouting of sensory nerve fibers open for new treatment possibilities....

  13. Initial CAD investigations for NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, F.; Leinemann, K.; Ludwig, A.; Marek, U.; Olbrich, W.; Schlechtendahl, E.G.

    1985-11-01

    This report summarizes the work done under contract no. 164/84-7/FU-D-/NET between the Commission of the European Communities and KfK during the period from June 1, 1984, through May 31, 1985. The following topics are covered in this report: Initial modelling of NET version NET2A, CAD system extension for remote handling studies, analysis of the CAD information structure, work related to the transfer of CAD information between KfK and the NET team. (orig.) [de

  14. Understanding Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salom, Jaume; Widén, Joakim; Candanedo, José

    2011-01-01

    Although several alternative definitions exist, a Net-Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) can be succinctly described as a grid-connected building that generates as much energy as it uses over a year. The “net-zero” balance is attained by applying energy conservation and efficiency measures...... and by incorporating renewable energy systems. While based on annual balances, a complete description of a Net ZEB requires examining the system at smaller time-scales. This assessment should address: (a) the relationship between power generation and building loads and (b) the resulting interaction with the power grid...

  15. Rare, but challenging tumors: NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, D.; Balev, B.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (GEP - NET) are a heterogeneous group of tumors with different locations and many different clinical, histological, and imaging performance. In a part of them a secretion of various organic substances is present. The morbidity of GEP - NET in the EU is growing, and this leads to increase the attention to them. What you will learn: Imaging methods used for localization and staging of GEP - NET, characteristics of the study’s protocols; Classification of GEP - NET; Demonstration of typical and atypical imaging features of GEP - NET in patients registered at the NET Center at University Hospital ‘St. Marina’, Varna; Features of metastatic NET, The role of imaging in the evaluation of treatment response and follow-up of the patients. Discussion: The image semiotics analysis is based on 19 cases of GEP - NET registered NET Center at University Hospital ‘St. Marina’. The main imaging method is multidetector CT (MDCT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI ) has advantages in the evaluation of liver lesions and the local prevalence of anorectal tumors. In patients with advanced disease and liver lesions the assessment of skeletal involvement (MRI/ nuclear medical method) is mandatory. The majority of GEP - NET have not any specific imaging findings. Therefore it is extremely important proper planning and conducting of the study (MDCT and MR enterography; accurate assessment phase of scanning, positive and negative contrast). Conclusion: GEP - NET is a major diagnostic challenge due to the absence of typical imaging characteristics and often an overlap with those of the tumors of different origin can be observed. Therefore, a good knowledge of clinical and imaging changes occurring at different locations is needed. MDCT is the basis for the diagnosis, staging and follow-up of these neoplasms

  16. Imagery and Verbal Counseling Methods in Stress Inoculation Training for Pain Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Everett L., Jr.; Shumate, Michael

    1981-01-01

    Pleasant imagery relieves pain and may account for much of the effectiveness of stress inoculation training. Women who used imagery controlled their pain better; women who did not use imagery had longer tolerance when they heard pain conceptualized as a multistage process. Self-instruction did not affect pain control. (Author)

  17. Reliability and validity of a simple and clinically applicable pain stimulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Søren; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Manniche, Claus

    2014-01-01

    and after conditioned pain modulation by cold-pressor test (CPT). Correlation to pressure pain threshold (PPT) of the infraspinatus muscle and cold-pressor test pain intensity, time to pain onset and time to non-tolerance, was examined. Test/re-test reliability of clamp pain was also assessed...... and the stimulus-response relationship was examined with a set of 6 different clamps.Conclusions: Clamp pain was sensitive to changes in pain sensitivity provoked by conditioned pain modulation (CPM). Test/re-test reliability of the spring-clamp pain was better for healthy volunteers over a period of days, than...

  18. Pain Catastrophizing and Anxiety are Associated With Heat Pain Perception in a Community Sample of Adults With Chronic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Marisa J; Moeschler, Susan M; Hoelzer, Bryan C; Hooten, W Michael

    2016-10-01

    The principle aim of this study was to investigate the associations between heat pain (HP) perception, pain catastrophizing, and pain-related anxiety in a heterogenous cohort of community-dwelling adults with chronic pain admitted to a 3-week outpatient pain rehabilitation program. All adults consecutively admitted to an outpatient pain rehabilitation program from July 2009 through January 2011 were eligible for study recruitment (n=574). Upon admission, patients completed the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), the short version of the Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale (PASS-20), and HP perception was assessed using a standardized quantitative sensory testing (QST) method of levels. Greater PCS scores were significantly correlated with lower standardized values of HP threshold (HP 0.5) (P=0.006) and tolerance (HP 5) (P=0.003). In a multiple variable model adjusted for demographic and clinical factors known to influence HP perception, every 10-point increase in the PCS was associated with a -0.124 point change in HP 0.5 (P=0.014) and a -0.142 change in HP 5 (P=0.014) indicating that participants with higher PCS scores had lower HP thresholds and tolerances, respectively. Similarly, greater PASS-20 scores significantly correlated with lower standardized values of HP 0.5 and HP 5. In a multiple variable model, every 10-point increase in the PASS-20 was associated with a -0.084 point change in HP 0.5 (P=0.005) and a -0.116 point change in HP 5 (P=0.001) indicating that participants with higher PASS-20 scores had lower HP thresholds and tolerances, respectively. The findings of this study extend the use of a standardized method for assessing HP in a heterogenous sample of adults with chronic pain. Although pain catastrophizing shares significant variance with pain-related anxiety, our findings suggest that either measure would be appropriate for use in future studies that incorporate the QST method of levels.

  19. Linear Logic on Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn

    This article shows how individual Petri nets form models of Girard's intuitionistic linear logic. It explores questions of expressiveness and completeness of linear logic with respect to this interpretation. An aim is to use Petri nets to give an understanding of linear logic and give some apprai...

  20. Net neutrality and audiovisual services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.; Nikoltchev, S.

    2011-01-01

    Net neutrality is high on the European agenda. New regulations for the communication sector provide a legal framework for net neutrality and need to be implemented on both a European and a national level. The key element is not just about blocking or slowing down traffic across communication

  1. The gut-brain interaction in opioid tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarali, Hamid I; Dewey, William L

    2017-12-01

    The prevailing opioid crisis has necessitated the need to understand mechanisms leading to addiction and tolerance, the major contributors to overdose and death and to develop strategies for developing drugs for pain treatment that lack abuse liability and side-effects. Opioids are commonly used for treatment of pain and symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease. The significant effect of opioids in the gut, both acute and chronic, includes persistent constipation and paradoxically may also worsen pain symptoms. Recent work has suggested a significant role of the gastrointestinal microbiome in behavioral responses to opioids, including the development of tolerance to its pain-relieving effects. In this review, we present current concepts of gut-brain interaction in analgesic tolerance to opioids and suggest that peripheral mechanisms emanating from the gut can profoundly affect central control of opioid function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ejaculatory pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, Eske K; Møhl, Bo; Kehlet, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    . The psychosexual interview revealed no major psychosexual disturbances and concluded that the pain was of somatic origin. All patients with ejaculatory pain had experienced major negative life changes and deterioration in their overall quality of life and sexual function as a result of the hernia operation...

  3. Breast Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... result in the development of breast cysts. Breast trauma, prior breast surgery or other factors localized to the breast can lead to breast pain. Breast pain may also start outside the breast — in the chest wall, muscles, joints or heart, for example — and ...

  4. Neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Re

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Neuropathic pain is the expression of a dysfunction or primary lesion of a nerve in the peripheral or central nervous system, or both, rather than the biological signal transmitted by the nerve following peripheral nociceptor activation. It represents about 20% of all painful syndromes, with an estimated prevalence of 1.5%, however is actual incidence is hard to pinpoint due to the difficulties encountered in distinguishing it from chronic pain, of which it represents a significant percentage, on account of the not infrequent concurrence of conditions. It is crucial to recognise the variety of symptoms with which it can present: these can be negative and positive and, in turn, motor, sensitive and autonomic. In public health terms, it is important to emphasise that the diagnosis of neuropathic pain does not in most cases require sophisticated procedures and does not therefore weigh on health expenditure. In clinical practice, a validated scale (the LANSS is mentioned is useful for identifying patients presenting neuropathic pain symptoms. Therapy is based on three categories of medication: tricyclic antidepressants, anti-epileptics and opioids at high doses: neuropathic pain has a bad reputation for often resisting common therapeutic approaches and responding less well that nociceptor pain to monotherapy. Therapeutic strategies are all the more adequate the more they are based on symptoms and therefore on the pain generation mechanisms, although the recommendations are dictated more by expert opinions that double-blind randomised trials.

  5. Painful shoulder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benno Ejnismann

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Many factors can be involved in the painful shoulder. Beyond articularcauses other pathologies such as artrosis, periarticular diseases as rotadorcuff tears, long head of the biceps tendinitis, adhesive capsulitis, calcifyingtendinitis, degenerative arthritis of the acromioclavicular joint, cervicalradiculopathy and nervous injuries can cause pain in the shoulder.

  6. Orofacial Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aligned teeth can have trouble because the muscles work harder to bring the teeth together, causing strain. Pain also can be caused by clenching or grinding teeth, trauma to the head and neck or poor ergonomics. ; Some people may experience pain in the ears, ...

  7. Neck Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vomiting Nausea and Vomiting in Infants and Children Neck Pain Neck Swelling Shortness of Breath Shortness of Breath ... worse or doesn’t get better. Start OverDiagnosisYour pain may be from DEGENERATIVE CERVICAL ARTHRITIS, a disorder that affects the bones and ...

  8. Properties of porous netted materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daragan, V.D.; Drozdov, B.G.; Kotov, A.Yu.; Mel'nikov, G.N.; Pustogarov, A.V.

    1987-01-01

    Hydraulic and strength characteristics, efficient heat conduction and inner heat exchange coefficient are experimentally studied for porous netted materials on the base of the brass nets as dependent on porosity, cell size and method of net laying. Results of the studies are presented. It is shown that due to anisotropy of the material properties the hydraulic resistance in the direction parallel to the nets plane is 1.3-1.6 times higher than in the perpendicular one. Values of the effective heat conduction in the direction perpendicular to the nets plane at Π>0.45 agree with the data from literature, at Π<0.45 a deviation from the calculated values is marked in the direction of the heat conduction decrease

  9. NET remote workstation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leinemann, K.

    1990-10-01

    The goal of this NET study was to define the functionality of a remote handling workstation and its hardware and software architecture. The remote handling workstation has to fulfill two basic functions: (1) to provide the man-machine interface (MMI), that means the interface to the control system of the maintenance equipment and to the working environment (telepresence) and (2) to provide high level (task level) supporting functions (software tools) during the maintenance work and in the preparation phase. Concerning the man-machine interface, an important module of the remote handling workstation besides the standard components of man-machine interfacing is a module for graphical scene presentation supplementing viewing by TV. The technique of integrated viewing is well known from JET BOOM and TARM control using the GBsim and KISMET software. For integration of equipment dependent MMI functions the remote handling workstation provides a special software module interface. Task level support of the operator is based on (1) spatial (geometric/kinematic) models, (2) remote handling procedure models, and (3) functional models of the equipment. These models and the related simulation modules are used for planning, programming, execution monitoring, and training. The workstation provides an intelligent handbook guiding the operator through planned procedures illustrated by animated graphical sequences. For unplanned situations decision aids are available. A central point of the architectural design was to guarantee a high flexibility with respect to hardware and software. Therefore the remote handling workstation is designed as an open system based on widely accepted standards allowing the stepwise integration of the various modules starting with the basic MMI and the spatial simulation as standard components. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Musical Agency during Physical Exercise Decreases Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Thomas H; Bowling, Daniel L; Contier, Oliver; Grant, Joshua; Schneider, Lydia; Lederer, Annette; Höer, Felicia; Busch, Eric; Villringer, Arno

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: When physical exercise is systematically coupled to music production, exercisers experience improvements in mood, reductions in perceived effort, and enhanced muscular efficiency. The physiology underlying these positive effects remains unknown. Here we approached the investigation of how such musical agency may stimulate the release of endogenous opioids indirectly with a pain threshold paradigm. Design: In a cross-over design we tested the opioid-hypothesis with an indirect measure, comparing the pain tolerance of 22 participants following exercise with or without musical agency. Method: Physical exercise was coupled to music by integrating weight-training machines with sensors that control music-synthesis in real time. Pain tolerance was measured as withdrawal time in a cold pressor test. Results: On average, participants tolerated cold pain for ~5 s longer following exercise sessions with musical agency. Musical agency explained 25% of the variance in cold pressor test withdrawal times after factoring out individual differences in general pain sensitivity. Conclusions: This result demonstrates a substantial pain reducing effect of musical agency in combination with physical exercise, probably due to stimulation of endogenous opioid mechanisms. This has implications for exercise endurance, both in sports and a multitude of rehabilitative therapies in which physical exercise is effective but painful.

  11. Musical Agency during Physical Exercise Decreases Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H. Fritz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: When physical exercise is systematically coupled to music production, exercisers experience improvements in mood, reductions in perceived effort, and enhanced muscular efficiency. The physiology underlying these positive effects remains unknown. Here we approached the investigation of how such musical agency may stimulate the release of endogenous opioids indirectly with a pain threshold paradigm.Design: In a cross-over design we tested the opioid-hypothesis with an indirect measure, comparing the pain tolerance of 22 participants following exercise with or without musical agency.Method: Physical exercise was coupled to music by integrating weight-training machines with sensors that control music-synthesis in real time. Pain tolerance was measured as withdrawal time in a cold pressor test.Results: On average, participants tolerated cold pain for ~5 s longer following exercise sessions with musical agency. Musical agency explained 25% of the variance in cold pressor test withdrawal times after factoring out individual differences in general pain sensitivity.Conclusions: This result demonstrates a substantial pain reducing effect of musical agency in combination with physical exercise, probably due to stimulation of endogenous opioid mechanisms. This has implications for exercise endurance, both in sports and a multitude of rehabilitative therapies in which physical exercise is effective but painful.

  12. Abnormal pain perception in patients with Multiple System Atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ory-Magne, F; Pellaprat, J; Harroch, E; Galitzsky, M; Rousseau, V; Pavy-Le Traon, A; Rascol, O; Gerdelat, A; Brefel-Courbon, C

    2018-03-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease or Multiple System Atrophy frequently experience painful sensations. The few studies investigating pain mechanisms in Multiple System Atrophy patients have reported contradictory results. In our study, we compared pain thresholds in Multiple System Atrophy and Parkinson's disease patients and healthy controls and evaluated the effect of l-DOPA on pain thresholds. We assessed subjective and objective pain thresholds (using a thermotest and RIII reflex), and pain tolerance in OFF and ON conditions, clinical pain, motor and psychological evaluation. Pain was reported in 78.6% of Multiple System Atrophy patients and in 37.5% of Parkinson's disease patients. In the OFF condition, subjective and objective pain thresholds were significantly lower in Multiple System Atrophy patients than in healthy controls (43.8 °C ± 1.3 vs 45.7 °C ± 0.8; p = 0.0005 and 7.4 mA ± 3.8 vs 13.7 mA ± 2.8; p = 0.002, respectively). They were also significantly reduced in Multiple System Atrophy compared to Parkinson's disease patients. No significant difference was found in pain tolerance for the 3 groups and in the effect of l-DOPA on pain thresholds in Multiple System Atrophy and Parkinson's disease patients. In the ON condition, pain tolerance tended to be reduced in Multiple System Atrophy versus Parkinson's disease patients (p = 0.05). Multiple System Atrophy patients had an increase in pain perception compared to Parkinson's disease patients and healthy controls. The l-DOPA effect was similar for pain thresholds in Multiple System Atrophy and Parkinson's disease patients, but tended to worsen pain tolerance in Multiple System Atrophy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André

    2017-08-01

    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  14. Pro asynchronous programming with .NET

    CERN Document Server

    Blewett, Richard; Ltd, Rock Solid Knowledge

    2014-01-01

    Pro Asynchronous Programming with .NET teaches the essential skill of asynchronous programming in .NET. It answers critical questions in .NET application development, such as: how do I keep my program responding at all times to keep my users happy how do I make the most of the available hardware how can I improve performanceIn the modern world, users expect more and more from their applications and devices, and multi-core hardware has the potential to provide it. But it takes carefully crafted code to turn that potential into responsive, scalable applications.With Pro Asynchronous Programming

  15. How Is Pain Managed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Detection- Goggins Lab Sol Goldman Center Discussion Board Pain Management Pain is a very common symptom in patients ... of pain. Pain Assessment The first step in pain management is a thorough assessment. Your healthcare provider will ...

  16. Pain Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Funding Funding Opportunities (NIH Guide) Forms and Deadlines Electronic Research Admin (eRA) Grants Policy OER News About ... remains the most commonly used pain reliever. The French physician, Dr. Albert Schweitzer, proclaimed in 1931 that, “ ...

  17. Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... addition, there doesn't appear to be one type of mattress that's best for people with back pain. It's probably a ... of Nondiscrimination Advertising Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization ...

  18. Ankle Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... home remedies for a while. Seek immediate medical attention if you: Have severe pain or swelling Have ... of Privacy Practices Notice of Nondiscrimination Manage Cookies Advertising Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization ...

  19. Abdominal Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or pain in your chest Seek immediate medical attention Have someone drive you to urgent care or ... of Privacy Practices Notice of Nondiscrimination Manage Cookies Advertising Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization ...

  20. Testicle Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is more common in adolescents. Seek immediate medical attention if you have: Sudden, severe testicle pain Testicle ... of Privacy Practices Notice of Nondiscrimination Manage Cookies Advertising Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization ...

  1. Gastric pain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drugs and drug classes are also linked to a range of mechanisms through which the drugs ... meal, occurring several times per ... Burning or distressing pain, relieved by food ..... antimicrobial agents, and several other drug interactions are.

  2. Penis pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain - penis ... Bites, either human or insect Cancer of the penis Erection that does not go away (priapism) Genital herpes Infected hair follicles Infected prosthesis of the penis Infection under the foreskin of uncircumcised men ( balanitis ) ...

  3. Joint pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or conditions. It may be linked to arthritis , bursitis , and muscle pain . No matter what causes it, ... Autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus Bursitis Chondromalacia patellae Crystals in the joint: Gout (especially ...

  4. Elbow pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the cause, but may involve: Antibiotics Corticosteroid shots Manipulation Pain medicine Physical therapy Surgery (last resort) Alternative ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  5. Knee pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fracture of the kneecap or other bones. Iliotibial band syndrome . Injury to the thick band that runs from your hip to the outside ... of your knee pain. When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your provider if: You cannot bear ...

  6. Abdominal Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I find more information and related topics? Functional Abdominal Pain (English, French or Spanish)—from The North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (NASPGHAN). Gastro Kids , a ...

  7. Flank pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... how to do these exercises at home. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and physical therapy may be prescribed for flank pain caused by spinal arthritis. Antibiotics are used to treat most kidney infections. You ...

  8. Elbow Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tear damage than are many other joints. Seek emergency care if you have: An obvious deformity in ... http://www.mayoclinic.org/symptoms/elbow-pain/basics/definition/SYM-20050874 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  9. Arm Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be a sign of a heart attack. Seek emergency treatment if you have: Arm, shoulder or back ... http://www.mayoclinic.org/symptoms/arm-pain/basics/definition/SYM-20050870 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  10. KM3NeT

    CERN Multimedia

    KM3NeT is a large scale next-generation neutrino telescope located in the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea, optimized for the discovery of galactic neutrino sources emitting in the TeV energy region.

  11. Pickering nuclear fish diversion net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, J.; Lew, A. [Ontario Power Generation, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    Pickering Fish Diversion Net - An Engineered Environmental Solution that has significantly reduced fish impingement at the Pickering Nuclear Facility. Note: As a recent urgent request/discussed by Mark Elliot, CNE-OPG and Jacques Plourde, CNS.

  12. PolicyNet Publication System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The PolicyNet Publication System project will merge the Oracle-based Policy Repository (POMS) and the SQL-Server CAMP system (MSOM) into a new system with an Oracle...

  13. Net Neutrality: Background and Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilroy, Angele A

    2006-01-01

    .... The move to place restrictions on the owners of the networks that compose and provide access to the Internet, to ensure equal access and nondiscriminatory treatment, is referred to as "net neutrality...

  14. Salivary Alpha-Amylase Correlates with Subjective Heat Pain Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittwer, Amrei; Krummenacher, Peter; La Marca, Roberto; Ehlert, Ulrike; Folkers, Gerd

    2016-06-01

    Self-reports of pain are important for an adequate therapy. This is a problem with patients and infants who are restricted in providing an accurate verbal estimation of their pain. Reliable, real-time, economical, and non-invasive physiological correlates might contribute to a more comprehensive description of pain. Salivary alpha-amylase constitutes one candidate biomarker, which reflects predominantly sympathetic nervous system alterations under stressful conditions and can be measured non-invasively. The current study investigated the effects of acute heat pain on salivary alpha-amylase activity. Heat pain tolerance was measured on the non-dominant forearm. Participants completed visual analog scales on pain intensity and unpleasantness. Saliva samples were collected directly after pain induction. Twenty-seven healthy volunteers were recruited for this study. While salivary alpha-amylase levels correlated positively with intensity and unpleasantness ratings in response to acute heat pain stimuli, there was no corresponding association with pain tolerance. Salivary alpha-amylase is suggested to be an indirect physiologic correlate of subjective heat pain perception. Future studies should address the role of salivary alpha-amylase depending on the origin of pain, the concerned tissue, and other pain assessment methods. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Analisis Determinan Net Ekspor Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Daulay, Rahmawaty

    2010-01-01

    This study is to analyzing empirically among Indonesia GDP, trade partnership GDP (Malaysia, Singapore, US and Thailand) and real exchange rate toward Indonesia Net Export. To find out which one from those three variables is significant in order to fluctuating (increasing or decreasing) Indonesia Net Export either in the short run or in the long run. Data collection is obtained using secondary data, namely Indonesia GDP, Malaysia GDP, Singapura GDP, US GDP, Thailand GDP and real exchange rate...

  16. NetBeans GUI Builder

    OpenAIRE

    Pusiankova, Tatsiana

    2009-01-01

    This work aims at making readers familiar with the powerful tool NetBeans IDE GUI Builder and helping them make their first steps to creation of their own graphical user interface in the Java programming language. The work includes theoretical description of NetBeans IDE GUI Builder, its most important characteristics and peculiarities and also a set of practical instructions that will help readers in creation of their first GUI. The readers will be introduced to the environment of this tool ...

  17. Physicians Experience with and Expectations of the Safety and Tolerability of WHO-Step III Opioids for Chronic (Low Back Pain: Post Hoc Analysis of Data from a German Cross-Sectional Physician Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Ueberall

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe physicians’ daily life experience with WHO-step III opioids in the treatment of chronic (low back pain (CLBP. Methods. Post hoc analysis of data from a cross-sectional online survey with 4.283 Germany physicians. Results. With a reported median use in 17% of affected patients, WHO-step III opioids play a minor role in treatment of CLBP in daily practice associated with a broad spectrum of positive and negative effects. If prescribed, potent opioids were reported to show clinically relevant effects (such as ≥50% pain relief in approximately 3 of 4 patients (median 72%. Analgesic effects reported are frequently related with adverse events (AEs. Only 20% of patients were reported to remain free of any AE. Most frequently reported AE was constipation (50%, also graded highest for AE-related daily life restrictions (median 46%. Specific AE countermeasures were reported to be necessary in approximately half of patients (median 45%; nevertheless AE-related premature discontinuation rates reported were high (median 22%. Fentanyl/morphine were the most/least prevalently prescribed potent opioids mentioned (median 20 versus 8%. Conclusion. Overall, use of WHO-step III opioids for CLBP is low. AEs, especially constipation, are commonly reported and interfere significantly with analgesic effects in daily practice. Nevertheless, beneficial effects outweigh related AEs in most patients with CLBP.

  18. Neonatal pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Suellen M

    2014-01-01

    Effective management of procedural and postoperative pain in neonates is required to minimize acute physiological and behavioral distress and may also improve acute and long-term outcomes. Painful stimuli activate nociceptive pathways, from the periphery to the cortex, in neonates and behavioral responses form the basis for validated pain assessment tools. However, there is an increasing awareness of the need to not only reduce acute behavioral responses to pain in neonates, but also to protect the developing nervous system from persistent sensitization of pain pathways and potential damaging effects of altered neural activity on central nervous system development. Analgesic requirements are influenced by age-related changes in both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic response, and increasing data are available to guide safe and effective dosing with opioids and paracetamol. Regional analgesic techniques provide effective perioperative analgesia, but higher complication rates in neonates emphasize the importance of monitoring and choice of the most appropriate drug and dose. There have been significant improvements in the understanding and management of neonatal pain, but additional research evidence will further reduce the need to extrapolate data from older age groups. Translation into improved clinical care will continue to depend on an integrated approach to implementation that encompasses assessment and titration against individual response, education and training, and audit and feedback. PMID:24330444

  19. Multiflavor string-net models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Hung

    2017-05-01

    We generalize the string-net construction to multiple flavors of strings, each of which is labeled by the elements of an Abelian group Gi. The same flavor of strings can branch, while different flavors of strings can cross one another and thus they form intersecting string nets. We systematically construct the exactly soluble lattice Hamiltonians and the ground-state wave functions for the intersecting string-net condensed phases. We analyze the braiding statistics of the low-energy quasiparticle excitations and find that our model can realize all the topological phases as the string-net model with group G =∏iGi . In this respect, our construction provides various ways of building lattice models which realize topological order G , corresponding to different partitions of G and thus different flavors of string nets. In fact, our construction concretely demonstrates the Künneth formula by constructing various lattice models with the same topological order. As an example, we construct the G =Z2×Z2×Z2 string-net model which realizes a non-Abelian topological phase by properly intersecting three copies of toric codes.

  20. What does fault tolerant Deep Learning need from MPI?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amatya, Vinay C.; Vishnu, Abhinav; Siegel, Charles M.; Daily, Jeffrey A.

    2017-09-25

    Deep Learning (DL) algorithms have become the {\\em de facto} Machine Learning (ML) algorithm for large scale data analysis. DL algorithms are computationally expensive -- even distributed DL implementations which use MPI require days of training (model learning) time on commonly studied datasets. Long running DL applications become susceptible to faults -- requiring development of a fault tolerant system infrastructure, in addition to fault tolerant DL algorithms. This raises an important question: {\\em What is needed from MPI for designing fault tolerant DL implementations?} In this paper, we address this problem for permanent faults. We motivate the need for a fault tolerant MPI specification by an in-depth consideration of recent innovations in DL algorithms and their properties, which drive the need for specific fault tolerance features. We present an in-depth discussion on the suitability of different parallelism types (model, data and hybrid); a need (or lack thereof) for check-pointing of any critical data structures; and most importantly, consideration for several fault tolerance proposals (user-level fault mitigation (ULFM), Reinit) in MPI and their applicability to fault tolerant DL implementations. We leverage a distributed memory implementation of Caffe, currently available under the Machine Learning Toolkit for Extreme Scale (MaTEx). We implement our approaches by extending MaTEx-Caffe for using ULFM-based implementation. Our evaluation using the ImageNet dataset and AlexNet neural network topology demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed fault tolerant DL implementation using OpenMPI based ULFM.

  1. Sex differences in experimental measures of pain sensitivity and endogenous pain inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulls HW

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hailey W Bulls,1 Emily L Freeman,1 Austen JB Anderson,2 Meredith T Robbins,3 Timothy J Ness,3 Burel R Goodin1,3 1Department of Psychology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA; 2Department of Biology, Samford University, Birmingham, AL, USA; 3Department of Anesthesiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA Abstract: It has been suggested that increased pain sensitivity and disruption of endogenous pain inhibitory processes may account, at least in part, for the greater prevalence and severity of chronic pain in women compared to men. However, previous studies addressing this topic have produced mixed findings. This study examined sex differences in pain sensitivity and inhibition using quantitative sensory testing (QST, while also considering the influence of other important factors such as depressive symptoms and sleep quality. Healthy men (n=24 and women (n=24 each completed a QST battery. This battery included an ischemic pain task (IPT that used a submaximal effort tourniquet procedure as well as a conditioned pain modulation (CPM procedure for the assessment of endogenous pain inhibition. Prior to QST, participants completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Analyses revealed significant sex differences for the ischemic pain task and the conditioned pain modulation procedure, such that women tolerated the ischemic pain for a shorter amount of time and demonstrated less pain inhibition compared with men. This remained true even when accounting for sex differences in depressive symptoms and sleep quality. The results of this study suggest that women may be more pain sensitive and possess less-efficient endogenous pain inhibitory capacity compared with men. Whether interventions that decrease pain sensitivity and enhance pain inhibition in women ultimately improve their clinical pain outcomes is an area of research that deserves additional

  2. Teaching Tolerance? Associational Diversity and Tolerance Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapp, Carolin; Freitag, Markus

    2015-01-01

    , a closer look is taken at how associational diversity relates to the formation of tolerance and the importance of associations as schools of tolerance are evaluated. The main theoretical argument follows contact theory, wherein regular and enduring contact in diverse settings reduces prejudice and thereby...

  3. Thermal and pressure pain sensitivity in patients with unilateral shoulder pain: comparison of involved and uninvolved sides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Rogelio A; Kindler, Lindsay L; Valencia, Carolina; George, Steven Z

    2011-03-01

    Cross-sectional. In the examination of patients with unilateral shoulder pain, pain provocation testing to compare the involved and uninvolved sides has been considered useful. However, side-to-side comparisons of experimental pain sensitivity in patients with unilateral shoulder pain are not widely reported in the literature. To compare experimental pain sensitivity between the involved and uninvolved sides in patients with unilateral shoulder pain. In consecutive patients seeking operative treatment for shoulder pain, sensitivity measures of bilateral pressure pain threshold at the shoulder and forearm, and thermal pain threshold, tolerance, and temporal summation at the forearm, were examined. Pressure sensitivity was tested with a Fischer pressure algometer, and thermal sensitivity with a computer-controlled Medoc neurosensory analyzer. The involved and uninvolved sides were compared with an analysis of variance. Influence of sex and location of testing were considered as covariates in the analysis. Fifty-nine consecutively recruited participants completed experimental pain sensitivity testing. Participants reported significantly lower pressure pain thresholds in the involved side compared to the uninvolved side (F1,56 = 4.96, P = .030). In addition, female compared to male participants demonstrated lower pressure pain thresholds in the bilateral shoulder regions (F1,56 = 10.84, P = .002). There was no difference in thermal pain sensitivity between sides. Average clinical pain intensity was negatively correlated with pressure pain threshold at the involved local site (r = -0.284, P = .029), indicating an influence of clinical pain intensity on local pressure pain. The results of this study provide evidence for higher experimental pressure pain sensitivity in the involved side of patients with unilateral shoulder pain and no difference between sides for thermal pain sensitivity. Females demonstrated higher pain sensitivity than males to pressure stimuli at the

  4. Lactose tolerance tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogen breath test for lactose tolerance ... Two common methods include: Lactose tolerance blood test Hydrogen breath test The hydrogen breath test is the preferred method. It measures the amount of hydrogen ...

  5. The effects of anger and sadness on clinical pain reports and experimentally-induced pain thresholds in women with and without fibromyalgia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middendorp, H. van; Lumley, M.A.; Jacobs, J.W.G.; Bijlsma, J.W.J.; Geenen, R.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Negative emotions are commonly experienced in fibromyalgia and may affect pain. This study examined the effects of anger and sadness on clinical pain reports and on pain threshold and tolerance in response to electrical stimulation in women with and without fibromyalgia. METHODS: In an

  6. Low back pain - acute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backache; Low back pain; Lumbar pain; Pain - back; Acute back pain; Back pain - new; Back pain - short-term; Back strain - new ... lower back supports most of your body's weight. Low back pain is the number two reason that Americans see ...

  7. Oxcarbazepine for neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Muke; Chen, Ning; He, Li; Yang, Mi; Zhu, Cairong; Wu, Fengbo

    2017-12-02

    Several anticonvulsant drugs are used in the management of neuropathic pain. Oxcarbazepine is an anticonvulsant drug closely related to carbamazepine. Oxcarbazepine has been reported to be efficacious in the treatment of neuropathic pain, but evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is conflicting. Oxcarbazepine is reportedly better tolerated than carbamazepine. This is the first update of a review published in 2013. To assess the benefits and harms of oxcarbazepine for different types of neuropathic pain. On 21 November 2016, we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE and Embase. We searched the Chinese Biomedical Retrieval System (January 1978 to November 2016). We searched the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) databases and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials in January 2017, and we wrote to the companies who make oxcarbazepine and to pain experts requesting additional information. All RCTs and randomised cross-over studies of oxcarbazepine for the treatment of people of any age or sex with any neuropathic pain were eligible. We planned to include trials of oxcarbazepine compared with placebo or any other intervention with a treatment duration of at least six weeks, regardless of administration route and dose. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Five multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials with a total of 862 participants were eligible for inclusion in this updated review. Three trials involved participants with painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) (n = 634), one included people with neuropathic pain due to radiculopathy (n = 145), and one, which was newly identified at this update, involved participants with peripheral neuropathic pain of mixed origin (polyneuropathy, peripheral nerve injury or postherpetic neuralgia) (n = 83). Some studies did not report all outcomes of interest. For

  8. Painful menstrual periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menstruation - painful; Dysmenorrhea; Periods - painful; Cramps - menstrual; Menstrual cramps ... into two groups, depending on the cause: Primary dysmenorrhea Secondary dysmenorrhea Primary dysmenorrhea is menstrual pain that ...

  9. Alternative medicine - pain relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acupuncture - pain relief; Hypnosis - pain relief; Guided imagery - pain relief ... neck, shoulder, knee, or elbow) Osteoarthritis Rheumatoid arthritis Hypnosis is a focused state of concentration. With self- ...

  10. Laughter, Humor and Pain Perception in Children: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Stuber

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there are many clinical programs designed to bring humor into pediatric hospitals, there has been very little research with children or adolescents concerning the specific utility of humor for children undergoing stressful or painful procedures. Rx Laughter™, a non-profit organization interested in the use of humor for healing, collaborated with UCLA to collect preliminary data on a sample of 18 children aged 7–16 years. Participants watched humorous video-tapes before, during and after a standardized pain task that involved placing a hand in cold water. Pain appraisal (ratings of pain severity and pain tolerance (submersion time were recorded and examined in relation to humor indicators (number of laughs/smiles during each video and child ratings of how funny the video was. Whereas humor indicators were not significantly associated with pain appraisal or tolerance, the group demonstrated significantly greater pain tolerance while viewing funny videos than when viewing the videos immediately before or after the cold-water task. The results suggest that humorous distraction is useful to help children and adolescents tolerate painful procedures. Further study is indicated to explore the specific mechanism of this benefit.

  11. Chest pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez A, Juan Carlos; Saenz M, Oscar; Martinez M, Camilo; Gonzales A Francisco; Nicolas R, Jose; Vergara V, Erika P; Pereira G, Alberto M

    2010-01-01

    In emergency departments, chest pain is one of the leading motives of consultation. We thus consider it important to review aspects such as its classification, causes, and clinical profiles. Initial assessment should include a full clinical history comprising thorough anamnesis and physical examination. Adequate interpretation of auxiliary tests, ordered in accordance with suspected clinical conditions, should lead to accurate diagnosis. We highlight certain symptoms and clinical signs, ECG and X-ray findings, cardiac bio markers, arterial blood gases, and CT-scanning. Scores of severity and prognosis such as TIMI are assessed. Optimal treatment of the clinical conditions leading to chest pain depends on adequate initial approach and assessment.

  12. MATT: Multi Agents Testing Tool Based Nets within Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Kerraoui

    2016-12-01

    As part of this effort, we propose a model based testing approach for multi agent systems based on such a model called Reference net, where a tool, which aims to providing a uniform and automated approach is developed. The feasibility and the advantage of the proposed approach are shown through a short case study.

  13. Implementing NetScaler VPX

    CERN Document Server

    Sandbu, Marius

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow guide with detailed step-by step-instructions on how to implement the different key components in NetScaler, with real-world examples and sample scenarios.If you are a Citrix or network administrator who needs to implement NetScaler in your virtual environment to gain an insight on its functionality, this book is ideal for you. A basic understanding of networking and familiarity with some of the different Citrix products such as XenApp or XenDesktop is a prerequisite.

  14. Net4Care PHMR Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the SimpleClinicalDocument......The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the Simple...

  15. Recognition and Toleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2010-01-01

    Recognition and toleration are ways of relating to the diversity characteristic of multicultural societies. The article concerns the possible meanings of toleration and recognition, and the conflict that is often claimed to exist between these two approaches to diversity. Different forms...... or interpretations of recognition and toleration are considered, confusing and problematic uses of the terms are noted, and the compatibility of toleration and recognition is discussed. The article argues that there is a range of legitimate and importantly different conceptions of both toleration and recognition...

  16. Fault Tolerant Feedback Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, H.

    2001-01-01

    An architecture for fault tolerant feedback controllers based on the Youla parameterization is suggested. It is shown that the Youla parameterization will give a residual vector directly in connection with the fault diagnosis part of the fault tolerant feedback controller. It turns out...... that there is a separation be-tween the feedback controller and the fault tolerant part. The closed loop feedback properties are handled by the nominal feedback controller and the fault tolerant part is handled by the design of the Youla parameter. The design of the fault tolerant part will not affect the design...... of the nominal feedback con-troller....

  17. Food-Derived Natural Compounds for Pain Relief in Neuropathic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Eun Yeong; Kim, Yun Tai

    2016-01-01

    Neuropathic pain, defined as pain caused by a lesion or disease of the somatosensory nervous system, is characterized by dysesthesia, hyperalgesia, and allodynia. The number of patients with this type of pain has increased rapidly in recent years. Yet, available neuropathic pain medicines have undesired side effects, such as tolerance and physical dependence, and do not fully alleviate the pain. The mechanisms of neuropathic pain are still not fully understood. Injury causes inflammation and immune responses and changed expression and activity of receptors and ion channels in peripheral nerve terminals. Additionally, neuroinflammation is a known factor in the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain. During neuropathic pain development, the C-C motif chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) acts as an important signaling mediator. Traditional plant treatments have been used throughout the world for treating diseases. We and others have identified food-derived compounds that alleviate neuropathic pain. Here, we review the natural compounds for neuropathic pain relief, their mechanisms of action, and the potential benefits of natural compounds with antagonistic effects on GPCRs, especially those containing CCR2, for neuropathic pain treatment.

  18. Pain and Coping in The Religious Mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jegindø, Else-Marie Elmholdt; Geertz, Armin W.; Roepstorff, Andreas

    institutions, i.e. the Religion, Cognition and Culture (RCC) research area at The Faculty of Theology, Centre of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience (CFIN) and The Danish Pain Research Centre (DPRC) at the University of Aarhus and Aarhus University Hospital. The team will design fMRI (functional magnetic...... hypothesize that the target group will have a higher pain threshold and pain tolerance during religious practice compared to a non-religious control group, and the fMRI experiments are expected to show reduced neural activity (BOLD) in areas of the brain correlating with pain experience during personal prayer...... and religious stimuli (target) and increased neural activity in reward systems during personal prayer and religious stimuli (target). To complement the clinical experiments, field work in Mauritius during the Hindu Thaipusam Festival 2010 will explore how pain in an online ritual setting is experienced...

  19. Biofeedback for pain management in traumatised refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Julia; Karl, Anke; Denke, Claudia; Mathier, Fabienne; Dittmann, Jennifer; Rohleder, Nicolas; Knaevelsrud, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Chronic pain (CP) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are both frequent and often comorbid in refugees. To date, few controlled trials have studied the efficacy of treatments targeting this comorbidity; no treatment guidelines yet exist. The authors examined the feasibility and efficacy of short-term cognitive behavioural biofeedback (BF) addressing CP in traumatised refugees. The sample comprised 11 severely traumatised refugees with CP and PTSD (mean age = 36 years, SD = 6), who underwent assessment with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale, Pain Disability Index, and Visual Rating Scale. Additionally, coping with pain and psychotherapy tolerance were assessed. Acceptance of BF was high. Pre-post effects were small to medium for increased pain management and associated heart rate reactivity but large for coping with pain. The results encourage further research to confirm whether BF is indicated as a treatment component, but not a stand-alone treatment, for traumatised refugees with comorbid CP and PTSD.

  20. Coloured Petri Nets and the Invariant Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1981-01-01

    processes to be described by a common subnet, without losing the ability to distinguish between them. Our generalization, called coloured Petri nets, is heavily influenced by predicate transition-nets introduced by H.J. Genrich and K. Lautenbach. Moreover our paper shows how the invariant-method, introduced...... for Petri nets by K. Lautenbach, can be generalized to coloured Petri nets....

  1. Pain Control After Surgery: Pain Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emotional Well-Being Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth Control Family Health Infants and Toddlers Kids and Teens ... Bracing: What Works? Home Prevention and Wellness Pain Control After Surgery: Pain Medicines Pain Control After Surgery: ...

  2. Breast pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that reducing the amount of fat, caffeine, or chocolate in your diet helps reduce breast pain. Vitamin ... harmful, but most studies have not shown any benefit. Talk to your provider before starting any medicine or ... Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center-Shreveport, Shreveport, LA. Review provided by ...

  3. Foot pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that you were born with or develops later Injury Shoes that fit poorly or do not have much cushioning Too much walking or other sports activity Trauma The following can cause foot pain: Arthritis and gout . Common in the big toe, which becomes red, swollen, ...

  4. Pain (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... intravenous chemotherapy. Mucositis (sores or inflammation in the mouth or other parts of the digestive system ) caused by chemotherapy or targeted therapy. Skin pain, rash, or hand-foot syndrome (redness, tingling, or burning in the palms of the hands and/or ...

  5. Achilles Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Five ailments which can cause pain in the achilles tendon area are: (1) muscular strain, involving the stretching or tearing of muscle or tendon fibers; (2) a contusion, inflammation or infection called tenosynovitis; (3) tendonitis, the inflammation of the tendon; (4) calcaneal bursitis, the inflammation of the bursa between the achilles tendon…

  6. [Social pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoyama, Naohito; Shimoyama, Megumi

    2011-09-01

    This chapter focuses on what social pain is and how it should be managed. In order to understand social pain in a cancer patient, it is necessary to recognize the change in the patient's daily life after the diagnosis of cancer. Because the degree of suffering and the relationships with family members and the people he or she worked with differ from patient to patient, it is important to note that the context of social pain is different in each patient. Five points shown below are essential in managing social pain. 1. Economical suffering may be alleviated by utilization of the social security system while taking into account each patient's standard of living. 2. Burdens on family members should be lessened, such as by not having them stay at the patient's bedside every day and letting them go home occasionally. 3. The normal patterns of communication, support, and conflict in the family should be identified, and the extent to which they have been disrupted by the illness should be assessed. 4. It is important to understand the ethnic, cultural, and religious background of the patient and the potential impact of their influence on the individual and the illness. 5. Practical or emotional unfinished business that the patient has needs to be identified, and efforts should be made to support fulfillment.

  7. Leg pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the blood Medicines (such as diuretics and statins) Muscle fatigue or strain from overuse, too much exercise, or holding a muscle in the same position for a long time An injury can also cause leg pain from: A torn or overstretched muscle ( strain ) Hairline ...

  8. Habituating pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajslev, Jeppe Zielinski Nguyen; Lund, Henrik Lambrecht; Møller, Jeppe Lykke

    2013-01-01

    and pain as unavoidable conditions in construction work. Based on 32 semi-structured interviews performed in eight case studies within four different construction professions, workers’ descriptions of physical strain and its relation to the organizational and social context are analyzed through concepts...

  9. Mechanical tolerance stackup and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Bryan R

    2004-01-01

    BackgroundDimensioning and TolerancingTolerance Format and Decimal PlacesConverting Plus/Minus Dimensions and Tolerances into Equal Bilaterally Toleranced DimensionsVariation and Sources of VariationTolerance AnalysisWorst-case Tolerance StackupsStatistical Tolerance StackupsGeometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T)Converting Plus/Minus Tolerancing to Positional Tolerancing and Projected Tolerance ZonesDiametral and Radial Tolerance StackupsSpecifying Material Condition Modifiers and Their Effect on Tolerance Stackups The Tolerance Stackup SketchThe Tolerance Stackup Report FormTolerance S

  10. Orofacial pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjolijn Oomens

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the primary care sector, diagnosis and initial management of orofacial pain are often performed by familydoctors and dentists. Knowledge of the different types of orofacial pain and headache disorders is therefor of great importance. The International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-3 provides an overview of the different types of orofacial pain and will be discussed in this lecture. The main focus will be on trigeminal neuralgia and cluster headache and the current research in this field. Trigeminal Neuralgia (TN is defined as a disorder characterized by recurrent, unilateral, brief, electricshock-like pains, abrupt in onset and termination, limited to the distribution of one or more divisions of thetrigeminal nerve and triggered by innocuous stimuli. Unfortunately, most TN is idiopathic, and the aetiology isnot clear. The guidelines on pharmaceutical TN management published by the American Academy of Neurology (AAN and the European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS recommend carbamazepine (CBZ; 200–1200 mg/day or oxcarbazepine (OXC; 600–1800 mg/day as first-line therapy. Both are antiepileptics with well known interactions with other drugs and safety problems. An overview of the currently available literature on the pharmaceutical management of TN patients is discussed. Cluster headache (CH is one of the most painful primary headache disorders. It is characterized by daily or almost daily attacks of unilateral excruciating periorbital pain associated with ipsilateral cranial autonomic symptoms, typically lasting between 15 and 180 minutes if untreated. Cluster headache is caused by the relaesement of neurotransmitters and vasodilators from the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPH. The SPG is a large extracranial parasympathetic ganglion located in the pterygopalatine fossa (PPF. The current treatments for CH attacks are injectable sumatriptan and oxygen inhalation. Both treatments have well known side effects and

  11. When Sex Is Painful

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS FAQ020 When Sex Is Painful • How common is painful sex? • What causes pain during sex? • Where is pain during sex felt? • When should ...

  12. Pain Information Brochure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Library Health Care Systems Research Collaboratory Pain Registries IOM Report: Relieving Pain in America HHS Pathways to ... Library Health Care Systems Research Collaboratory Pain Registries IOM Report: Relieving Pain in America HHS Pathways to ...

  13. NIH Pain Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Library Health Care Systems Research Collaboratory Pain Registries IOM Report: Relieving Pain in America HHS Pathways to ... Library Health Care Systems Research Collaboratory Pain Registries IOM Report: Relieving Pain in America HHS Pathways to ...

  14. Back pain and sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Running - back pain; Weightlifting - back pain; Lumbar pain - sports; Sciatica - sports; Low back pain - sports ... MD, Thompson SR, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine: Principles and Practice . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  15. Back Pain During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Back Pain During Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Back Pain During ... FAQ115, January 2016 PDF Format Back Pain During Pregnancy Pregnancy What causes back pain during pregnancy? How ...

  16. D.NET case study

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    lremy

    The mission was defined to build, “A society where information and ... innovative ideas and projects around different themes (using ICT), and piloting them to test .... like D.Net with several projects that had moved beyond their pilot phase.

  17. Petri Nets in Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A process language for security protocols is presented together with a semantics in terms of sets of events. The denotation of process is a set of events, and as each event specifies a set of pre and postconditions, this denotation can be viewed as a Petri net. By means of an example we illustrate...

  18. Complexity metrics for workflow nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lassen, K.B.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    2009-01-01

    Process modeling languages such as EPCs, BPMN, flow charts, UML activity diagrams, Petri nets, etc., are used to model business processes and to configure process-aware information systems. It is known that users have problems understanding these diagrams. In fact, even process engineers and system

  19. Reference Guide Microsoft.NET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee M van der; Verspaij GJ; Rosbergen S; IMP; NMD

    2003-01-01

    Met behulp van het rapport kunnen ontwikkelaars, beheerders en betrokken managers bij ICT projecten meer inzicht krijgen in de .NET technologie en een goede keuze maken in de inzetbaarheid van deze technologie. Het rapport geeft de bevindingen en conclusies van een verkennende studie naar het

  20. Complexity Metrics for Workflow Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; van der Aalst, Wil M.P.

    2009-01-01

    Process modeling languages such as EPCs, BPMN, flow charts, UML activity diagrams, Petri nets, etc.\\ are used to model business processes and to configure process-aware information systems. It is known that users have problems understanding these diagrams. In fact, even process engineers and system...

  1. Communicating with the Net Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    resource investment is necessary to sustain a high quality all-volunteer force. 9 Leadership Technique for the Net Generation Army Regulation 600...Generations at Work, Millenials at Work, http://www.generationsatwork. com /articles_millennials_at_work.php (accessed November 21, 2010). 31 Thomas

  2. Net Neutrality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.

    2014-01-01

    The Netherlands is among the first countries that have put specific net neutrality standards in place. The decision to implement specific regulation was influenced by at least three factors. The first was the prevailing social and academic debate, partly due to developments in the United States. The

  3. Surgery for GEP-NETs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, Ulrich; Hansen, Carsten Palnæs

    2012-01-01

    Surgery is the only treatment that may cure the patient with gastroentero-pancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumours (NET) and neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC) and should always be considered as first line treatment if R0/R1 resection can be achieved. The surgical and interventional procedures for GEP...

  4. Net4Care PHMR Tutorial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    Goal To demonstrate how to use the Net4Care PHMR builder module to a) Create a SimpleClinicalDocument instance and populate it with relevant administrative and medical information to form a tele medical report of a set of measurements, b) Use the provided DanishPHMRBuilder to generate a correctly...

  5. Acceptance- versus Change-Based Pain Management: The Role of Psychological Acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacker, Kara J.; Herbert, James D.; Forman, Evan M.; Kounios, John

    2012-01-01

    This study compared two theoretically opposed strategies for acute pain management: an acceptance-based and a change-based approach. These two strategies were compared in a within-subjects design using the cold pressor test as an acute pain induction method. Participants completed a baseline pain tolerance assessment followed by one of the two…

  6. Accelerator diagnosis and control by Neural Nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    Neural Nets (NN) have been described as a solution looking for a problem. In the last conference, Artificial Intelligence (AI) was considered in the accelerator context. While good for local surveillance and control, its use for large complex systems (LCS) was much more restricted. By contrast, NN provide a good metaphor for LCS. It can be argued that they are logically equivalent to multi-loop feedback/forward control of faulty systems, and therefore provide an ideal adaptive control system. Thus, where AI may be good for maintaining a 'golden orbit,' NN should be good for obtaining it via a quantitative approach to 'look and adjust' methods like operator tweaking which use pattern recognition to deal with hardware and software limitations, inaccuracies or errors as well as imprecise knowledge or understanding of effects like annealing and hysteresis. Further, insights from NN allow one to define feasibility conditions for LCS in terms of design constraints and tolerances. Hardware and software implications are discussed and several LCS of current interest are compared and contrasted. 15 refs., 5 figs

  7. Accelerator diagnosis and control by Neural Nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    Neural Nets (NN) have been described as a solution looking for a problem. In the last conference, Artificial Intelligence (AI) was considered in the accelerator context. While good for local surveillance and control, its use for large complex systems (LCS) was much more restricted. By contrast, NN provide a good metaphore for LCS. It can be argued that they are logically equivalent to multi-loop feedback/forward control of faulty systems and therefore provide an ideal adaptive control system. Thus, where A1 may be good for maintaining a golden orbit, NN should be good for obtaining it via a quantitative approach to look and adjust methods like operator tweaking which use pattern recognition to deal with hardware and software limitations, inaccuracies or errors as well as imprecise knowledge or understanding of effects like annealing and hysteresis. Further, insights from NN allow one to define feasibility conditions for LCS in terms of design constraints and tolerances. Hardware and software implications are discussed and several LCS of current interest are compared and contrasted. 15 refs., 5 figs

  8. .net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Comité de Rédaction d' EspacesTemps.net

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available EspacesTemps lance aujourd'hui deux objets différents : un site internet et, sur ce site, Le Journal . Il s'agit donc de bien plus, et, au fond, de tout autre chose qu'un simple outil de communication destiné à informer nos lecteurs de nos parutions. Ce n'est pas non plus la « mise en ligne » de nos numéros-papier. L'internet nous donne au contraire l'occasion de réaliser, dans de meilleures conditions, ce que nous avons tenté de faire depuis quelques ...

  9. Partners' Empathy Increases Pain Ratings: Effects of Perceived Empathy and Attachment Style on Pain Report and Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurter, Sarah; Paloyelis, Yannis; de C. Williams, Amanda C.; Fotopoulou, Aikaterini

    2014-01-01

    Pain can be influenced by its social context. We aimed to examine under controlled experimental conditions how empathy from a partner and personal attachment style affect pain report, tolerance, and facial expressions of pain. Fifty-four participants, divided into secure, anxious, and avoidant attachment style groups, underwent a cold pressor task with their partners present. We manipulated how much empathy the participants perceived that their partners had for them. We observed a significant main effect of perceived empathy on pain report, with greater pain reported in the high perceived empathy condition. No such effects were found for pain tolerance or facial display. We also found a significant interaction of empathy with attachment style group, with the avoidant group reporting and displaying less pain than the secure and the anxious groups in the high perceived empathy condition. No such findings were observed in the low empathy condition. These results suggest that empathy from one's partner may influence pain report beyond behavioral reactions. In addition, the amount of pain report and expression that people show in high empathy conditions depends on their attachment style. Perspective Believing that one's partner feels high empathy for one's pain may lead individuals to rate the intensity of pain as higher. Individual differences in attachment style moderate this empathy effect. PMID:24953886

  10. Caught in the Net: Perineuronal Nets and Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Slaker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to drugs of abuse induces plasticity in the brain and creates persistent drug-related memories. These changes in plasticity and persistent drug memories are believed to produce aberrant motivation and reinforcement contributing to addiction. Most studies have explored the effect drugs of abuse have on pre- and postsynaptic cells and astrocytes; however, more recently, attention has shifted to explore the effect these drugs have on the extracellular matrix (ECM. Within the ECM are unique structures arranged in a net-like manner, surrounding a subset of neurons called perineuronal nets (PNNs. This review focuses on drug-induced changes in PNNs, the molecules that regulate PNNs, and the expression of PNNs within brain circuitry mediating motivation, reward, and reinforcement as it pertains to addiction.

  11. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Net Zero Energy Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-18

    recovery and cogeneration opportunities, offsetting the remaining demand with the production of renewable energy from onsite sources so that the Net...implementing energy recovery and cogeneration opportunities, and then offsetting the remaining demand with the production of renewable energy from on-site...they impact overall energy performance. The use of energy modeling in the design stage provides insights that can contribute to more effective design

  12. Net alkalinity and net acidity 2: Practical considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, C.S.; Cravotta, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    The pH, alkalinity, and acidity of mine drainage and associated waters can be misinterpreted because of the chemical instability of samples and possible misunderstandings of standard analytical method results. Synthetic and field samples of mine drainage having various initial pH values and concentrations of dissolved metals and alkalinity were titrated by several methods, and the results were compared to alkalinity and acidity calculated based on dissolved solutes. The pH, alkalinity, and acidity were compared between fresh, unoxidized and aged, oxidized samples. Data for Pennsylvania coal mine drainage indicates that the pH of fresh samples was predominantly acidic (pH 2.5-4) or near neutral (pH 6-7); ??? 25% of the samples had pH values between 5 and 6. Following oxidation, no samples had pH values between 5 and 6. The Standard Method Alkalinity titration is constrained to yield values >0. Most calculated and measured alkalinities for samples with positive alkalinities were in close agreement. However, for low-pH samples, the calculated alkalinity can be negative due to negative contributions by dissolved metals that may oxidize and hydrolyze. The Standard Method hot peroxide treatment titration for acidity determination (Hot Acidity) accurately indicates the potential for pH to decrease to acidic values after complete degassing of CO2 and oxidation of Fe and Mn, and it indicates either the excess alkalinity or that required for neutralization of the sample. The Hot Acidity directly measures net acidity (= -net alkalinity). Samples that had near-neutral pH after oxidation had negative Hot Acidity; samples that had pH mine drainage treatment can lead to systems with insufficient Alkalinity to neutralize metal and H+ acidity and is not recommended. The use of net alkalinity = -Hot Acidity titration is recommended for the planning of mine drainage treatment. The use of net alkalinity = (Alkalinitymeasured - Aciditycalculated) is recommended with some cautions

  13. Manipulation of pain catastrophizing: An experimental study of healthy participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel E Bialosky

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Joel E Bialosky1*, Adam T Hirsh2,3, Michael E Robinson2,3, Steven Z George1,3*1Department of Physical Therapy; 2Department of Clinical and Health Psychology; 3Center for Pain Research and Behavioral Health, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USAAbstract: Pain catastrophizing is associated with the pain experience; however, causation has not been established. Studies which specifically manipulate catastrophizing are necessary to establish causation. The present study enrolled 100 healthy individuals. Participants were randomly assigned to repeat a positive, neutral, or one of three catastrophizing statements during a cold pressor task (CPT. Outcome measures of pain tolerance and pain intensity were recorded. No change was noted in catastrophizing immediately following the CPT (F(1,84 = 0.10, p = 0.75, partial η2 < 0.01 independent of group assignment (F(4,84 = 0.78, p = 0.54, partial η2 = 0.04. Pain tolerance (F(4 = 0.67, p = 0.62, partial η2 = 0.03 and pain intensity (F(4 = 0.73, p = 0.58, partial η2 = 0.03 did not differ by group. This study suggests catastrophizing may be difficult to manipulate through experimental pain procedures and repetition of specific catastrophizing statements was not sufficient to change levels of catastrophizing. Additionally, pain tolerance and pain intensity did not differ by group assignment. This study has implications for future studies attempting to experimentally manipulate pain catastrophizing.Keywords: pain, catastrophizing, experimental, cold pressor task, pain catastrophizing scale

  14. A review of dexketoprofen trometamol in acute pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Magdi; Moon, Jee Y

    2018-03-23

    Dexketoprofen trometamol is a modified non-selective COX inhibitor with a rapid onset of action that is available as both oral and parenteral formulations. The aim of this narrative review was to assess the efficacy and tolerability/safety of dexketoprofen trometamol in acute pain states using the best available published scientific evidence (randomized controlled clinical trials and systematic reviews/meta-analyses). Literature retrieval was performed via Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library (from inception up to March 2017) using combinations of the terms "randomized controlled trials", "dexketoprofen", "celecoxib", "etoricoxib", "parecoxib" and "acute pain". Single-dose dexketoprofen trometamol provides effective analgesia in the treatment of acute pain, such as postoperative pain (dental and non-dental surgery), renal colic, acute musculoskeletal disorders and dysmenorrhoea, and reduces opioid consumption in the postoperative setting. It has a rapid onset of action (within 30 minutes) and is well tolerated during short-term treatment. Direct comparisons with COX-2 inhibitors are lacking; however, the efficacy and tolerability of single-dose dexketoprofen trometamol appears to be consistent with that seen with celecoxib, etoricoxib and parecoxib in the acute pain setting. In conclusion, dexketoprofen trometamol appears to provide similar analgesic efficacy to COX-2 inhibitors when used to treat acute pain, has a rapid onset of action, is well tolerated, and has an opioid-sparing effect when used as part of a multimodal regimen in the acute pain setting.

  15. Toleration out of respect?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2013-01-01

    Under conditions of pluralism different cultures, interests or values can come into conflict, which raises the problem of how to secure peaceful co-existence. The idea of toleration historically emerged as an answer to this problem. Recently Rainer Forst has argued that toleration should not just...... be based on a modus vivendi designed to secure peaceful co-existence, but should be based on moral reasons. Forst therefore advances what he calls the ‘respect conception’ of toleration as an in itself morally desirable type of relationship, which is furthermore the only conception of toleration...... that avoids various so-called ‘paradoxes of toleration’. The paper first examines whether Forst’s respect conception can be applied descriptively to distinguish between actual patterns of behaviour and classify different acts of toleration. Then the focus is shifted to toleration out of respect as a normative...

  16. Tolerance in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, Nigel S.

    2009-01-01

    The set of genes that underlie ethanol tolerance (inducible resistance) are likely to overlap with the set of genes responsible for ethanol addiction. Whereas addiction is difficult to recognize in simple model systems, behavioral tolerance is readily identifiable and can be induced in large populations of animals. Thus, tolerance lends itself to analysis in model systems with powerful genetics. Drosophila melanogaster has been used by a variety of laboratories for the identification of genes...

  17. Comparison of acceptance and distraction strategies in coping with experimentally induced pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore H

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hazel Moore,1 Ian Stewart,1 Dermot Barnes-Holmes,2 Yvonne Barnes-Holmes,2 Brian E McGuire1,31School of Psychology, National University of Ireland, Galway, 2Department of Psychology, National University of Ireland, Maynooth, 3Centre for Pain Research, National University of Ireland, Galway, IrelandBackground: This study compared an acceptance-based strategy with a control-based strategy (distraction in terms of the ability of participants to tolerate a painful stimulus, across two experiments. In addition, participants were either actively encouraged, or not, to link pain tolerance with pursuit of valued goals to examine the impact of pursuing a personally meaningful goal or value on the extent to which pain will be tolerated.Methods: Participants in experiment 1 (n=41 and experiment 2 (n=52 were equally assigned to acceptance or distraction protocols. Further, half the participants in each group generated examples from their own lives in which they had pursued a valued objective, while the other half did not. In experiment 2, the values focus was enhanced to examine the impact on pain tolerance.Results: There were no significant differences overall between the acceptance and distraction groups on pain tolerance in either experiment. However, in experiment 2, individuals classified as accepting in terms of general coping style and who were assigned to the acceptance strategy showed significantly better pain tolerance than accepting individuals who were in the distraction condition. Across both experiments, those with strong goal-driven values in both protocols were more tolerant of pain. Participants appeared to have more difficulty adhering to acceptance than to distraction as a strategy.Conclusion: Acceptance may be associated with better tolerance of pain, but may also be more difficult to operationalize than distraction in experimental studies. Matching coping style and coping strategy may be most effective, and enhancement of goal

  18. Net alkalinity and net acidity 1: Theoretical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, Carl S.; Cravotta, Charles A.

    2005-01-01

    Net acidity and net alkalinity are widely used, poorly defined, and commonly misunderstood parameters for the characterization of mine drainage. The authors explain theoretical expressions of 3 types of alkalinity (caustic, phenolphthalein, and total) and acidity (mineral, CO 2 , and total). Except for rarely-invoked negative alkalinity, theoretically defined total alkalinity is closely analogous to measured alkalinity and presents few practical interpretation problems. Theoretically defined 'CO 2 -acidity' is closely related to most standard titration methods with an endpoint pH of 8.3 used for determining acidity in mine drainage, but it is unfortunately named because CO 2 is intentionally driven off during titration of mine-drainage samples. Using the proton condition/mass-action approach and employing graphs to illustrate speciation with changes in pH, the authors explore the concept of principal components and how to assign acidity contributions to aqueous species commonly present in mine drainage. Acidity is defined in mine drainage based on aqueous speciation at the sample pH and on the capacity of these species to undergo hydrolysis to pH 8.3. Application of this definition shows that the computed acidity in mgL -1 as CaCO 3 (based on pH and analytical concentrations of dissolved Fe II , Fe III , Mn, and Al in mgL -1 ):acidity calculated =50{1000(10 -pH )+[2(Fe II )+3(Fe III )]/56+2(Mn) /55+3(Al)/27}underestimates contributions from HSO 4 - and H + , but overestimates the acidity due to Fe 3+ and Al 3+ . However, these errors tend to approximately cancel each other. It is demonstrated that 'net alkalinity' is a valid mathematical construction based on theoretical definitions of alkalinity and acidity. Further, it is shown that, for most mine-drainage solutions, a useful net alkalinity value can be derived from: (1) alkalinity and acidity values based on aqueous speciation (2) measured alkalinity minus calculated acidity, or (3) taking the negative of the

  19. Net alkalinity and net acidity 1: Theoretical considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, C.S.; Cravotta, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    Net acidity and net alkalinity are widely used, poorly defined, and commonly misunderstood parameters for the characterization of mine drainage. The authors explain theoretical expressions of 3 types of alkalinity (caustic, phenolphthalein, and total) and acidity (mineral, CO2, and total). Except for rarely-invoked negative alkalinity, theoretically defined total alkalinity is closely analogous to measured alkalinity and presents few practical interpretation problems. Theoretically defined "CO 2-acidity" is closely related to most standard titration methods with an endpoint pH of 8.3 used for determining acidity in mine drainage, but it is unfortunately named because CO2 is intentionally driven off during titration of mine-drainage samples. Using the proton condition/mass- action approach and employing graphs to illustrate speciation with changes in pH, the authors explore the concept of principal components and how to assign acidity contributions to aqueous species commonly present in mine drainage. Acidity is defined in mine drainage based on aqueous speciation at the sample pH and on the capacity of these species to undergo hydrolysis to pH 8.3. Application of this definition shows that the computed acidity in mg L -1 as CaCO3 (based on pH and analytical concentrations of dissolved FeII, FeIII, Mn, and Al in mg L -1):aciditycalculated=50{1000(10-pH)+[2(FeII)+3(FeIII)]/56+2(Mn)/ 55+3(Al)/27}underestimates contributions from HSO4- and H+, but overestimates the acidity due to Fe3+ and Al3+. However, these errors tend to approximately cancel each other. It is demonstrated that "net alkalinity" is a valid mathematical construction based on theoretical definitions of alkalinity and acidity. Further, it is shown that, for most mine-drainage solutions, a useful net alkalinity value can be derived from: (1) alkalinity and acidity values based on aqueous speciation, (2) measured alkalinity minus calculated acidity, or (3) taking the negative of the value obtained in a

  20. A dyadic analysis of siblings' relationship quality, behavioural responses, and pain experiences during experimental pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinkel, Meghan G; Chambers, Christine T; Corkum, Penny; Jacques, Sophie

    2018-04-16

    Research on family factors in paediatric pain has primarily focused on parents; the role of siblings has been largely ignored. This study examined whether sibling relationship quality was related to siblings' behaviours during experimental pain, and whether the behaviours of an observing sibling were related to children's pain outcomes. Ninety-two sibling dyads between 8-12 years old completed both observational and questionnaire measures of sibling relationship quality. Children took turns completing the cold pressor task (CPT) in a counterbalanced order with their sibling present. Pain outcomes (intensity, fear, tolerance) were recorded for each sibling, and the behaviour of the observing and participating siblings during the CPT were coded as attending, non-attending, and coping/encouragement. Structural equation modelling, using the actor-partner interdependence model, was conducted to analyse the dyadic data. While participating in the CPT with their sibling present, greater levels of warmth and positivity in the sibling relationship were related to children engaging in more non-attending behaviours and less attending behaviours. Greater levels of attending behaviours by the observing child was related to the sibling having a lower pain tolerance, and greater levels of coping/encouragement behaviours by the observing child was related to the sibling reporting greater pain intensity and fear during the CPT. Children with warmer/positive sibling relationships were more likely to respond to acute pain by shifting the focus away from their pain experience (e.g., through distraction) when a sibling was present. Pain-focused behaviours by an observing sibling are related to greater child pain and fear during experimental pain.

  1. A pain in the bud? Implications of cross-modal sensitivity for pain experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Monica; de Bruyne, Marien; Giummarra, Melita J

    2016-11-01

    There is growing evidence that enhanced sensitivity to painful clinical procedures and chronic pain are related to greater sensitivity to other sensory inputs, such as bitter taste. We examined cross-modal sensitivities in two studies. Study 1 assessed associations between bitter taste sensitivity, pain tolerance, and fear of pain in 48 healthy young adults. Participants were classified as non-tasters, tasters and super-tasters using a bitter taste test (6-n-propythiouracil; PROP). The latter group had significantly higher fear of pain (Fear of Pain Questionnaire) than tasters (p=.036, effect size r = .48). There was only a trend for an association between bitter taste intensity ratings and intensity of pain at the point of pain tolerance in a cold pressor test (p=.04). In Study 2, 40 healthy young adults completed the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile before rating intensity and unpleasantness of innocuous (33 °C), moderate (41 °C), and high intensity (44 °C) thermal pain stimulations. The sensory-sensitivity subscale was positively correlated with both intensity and unpleasantness ratings. Canonical correlation showed that only sensitivity to audition and touch (not taste/smell) were associated with intensity of moderate and high (not innocuous) thermal stimuli. Together these findings suggest that there are cross-modal associations predominantly between sensitivity to exteroceptive inputs (i.e., taste, touch, sound) and the affective dimensions of pain, including noxious heat and intolerable cold pain, in healthy adults. These cross-modal sensitivities may arise due to greater psychological aversion to salient sensations, or from shared neural circuitry for processing disparate sensory modalities.

  2. Les dispositifs du Net art

    OpenAIRE

    Fourmentraux, Jean-Paul

    2010-01-01

    La pratique du Net art radicalise la question du potentiel communicationnel d’un média —Internet— qui constitue tout à la fois le support technique, l’outil créatif et le dispositif social de l’œuvre. Les technologies de l’information et de la communication (TIC) placent en effet l’œuvre d’art au cœur d’une négociation socialement distribuée entre l’artiste et le public. L’article est focalisé sur cette construction collective du Net art et sur ses mises en scènes. Il montre le travail artist...

  3. Complexity Metrics for Workflow Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; van der Aalst, Wil M.P.

    2009-01-01

    analysts have difficulties grasping the dynamics implied by a process model. Recent empirical studies show that people make numerous errors when modeling complex business processes, e.g., about 20 percent of the EPCs in the SAP reference model have design flaws resulting in potential deadlocks, livelocks......, etc. It seems obvious that the complexity of the model contributes to design errors and a lack of understanding. It is not easy to measure complexity, however. This paper presents three complexity metrics that have been implemented in the process analysis tool ProM. The metrics are defined...... for a subclass of Petri nets named Workflow nets, but the results can easily be applied to other languages. To demonstrate the applicability of these metrics, we have applied our approach and tool to 262 relatively complex Protos models made in the context of various student projects. This allows us to validate...

  4. dotNet som multimediaplattform

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Glenn

    2008-01-01

    As the speed and complexity of computers have increased so have software and the expectations of users. Software development follows a straightforward evolution where complicated tasks are made easier by better tools; this repeats itself as those tasks in turn are automated. Software mechanics that were seen as revolutionary a decade ago are seen as obvious requirements that no multimedia application can be without. dotNet is the next step in line and makes it easier and faster to build softw...

  5. NET model coil test possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erb, J.; Gruenhagen, A.; Herz, W.; Jentzsch, K.; Komarek, P.; Lotz, E.; Malang, S.; Maurer, W.; Noether, G.; Ulbricht, A.; Vogt, A.; Zahn, G.; Horvath, I.; Kwasnitza, K.; Marinucci, C.; Pasztor, G.; Sborchia, C.; Weymuth, P.; Peters, A.; Roeterdink, A.

    1987-11-01

    A single full size coil for NET/INTOR represents an investment of the order of 40 MUC (Million Unit Costs). Before such an amount of money or even more for the 16 TF coils is invested as much risks as possible must be eliminated by a comprehensive development programme. In the course of such a programme a coil technology verification test should finally prove the feasibility of NET/INTOR TF coils. This study report is almost exclusively dealing with such a verification test by model coil testing. These coils will be built out of two Nb 3 Sn-conductors based on two concepts already under development and investigation. Two possible coil arrangements are discussed: A cluster facility, where two model coils out of the two Nb 3 TF-conductors are used, and the already tested LCT-coils producing a background field. A solenoid arrangement, where in addition to the two TF model coils another model coil out of a PF-conductor for the central PF-coils of NET/INTOR is used instead of LCT background coils. Technical advantages and disadvantages are worked out in order to compare and judge both facilities. Costs estimates and the time schedules broaden the base for a decision about the realisation of such a facility. (orig.) [de

  6. NET-2 Network Analysis Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malmberg, A.F.

    1974-01-01

    The NET-2 Network Analysis Program is a general purpose digital computer program which solves the nonlinear time domain response and the linearized small signal frequency domain response of an arbitrary network of interconnected components. NET-2 is capable of handling a variety of components and has been applied to problems in several engineering fields, including electronic circuit design and analysis, missile flight simulation, control systems, heat flow, fluid flow, mechanical systems, structural dynamics, digital logic, communications network design, solid state device physics, fluidic systems, and nuclear vulnerability due to blast, thermal, gamma radiation, neutron damage, and EMP effects. Network components may be selected from a repertoire of built-in models or they may be constructed by the user through appropriate combinations of mathematical, empirical, and topological functions. Higher-level components may be defined by subnetworks composed of any combination of user-defined components and built-in models. The program provides a modeling capability to represent and intermix system components on many levels, e.g., from hole and electron spatial charge distributions in solid state devices through discrete and integrated electronic components to functional system blocks. NET-2 is capable of simultaneous computation in both the time and frequency domain, and has statistical and optimization capability. Network topology may be controlled as a function of the network solution. (U.S.)

  7. Gender expression, sexual orientation and pain sensitivity in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil, Jacob M; Rowell, Lauren N; Lutz, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Despite a growing body of literature investigating sex differences with regard to pain, surprisingly little research has been conducted on the influence of various aspects of self-identity, including gender expression and sexual orientation, on pain sensitivity within each sex, particularly among women. In men, dispositional femininity is linked to greater clinical pain and trait masculinity is associated with higher pain thresholds. To examine whether gender expression and sexual orientation are associated with within-sex differences in ischemic pain sensitivity in healthy young women. A convenience sample of 172 females (mean age 21.4 years; range 18 to 30 years of age; 56.0% white, 89% heterosexual) performed an ischemic pain task in counterbalanced order. Desired levels of dispositional femininity for a preferred romantic partner and self-described levels of personal dispositional femininity were measured. Compared with heterosexual women, lesbian and bisexual women reported lower pain intensity ratings early in the discomfort task. Irrespective of sexual orientation, attraction to more feminine romantic partners and dispositional masculinity were correlated with lower pain intensity, and with higher pain thresholds and tolerance levels. These preliminary findings suggest that within-sex differences in sexual orientation and other aspects of identity, irrespective of biological sex, may be important to consider when examining experimental pain performance and clinical pain experiences. Larger investigations of the psychophysiological relationships among sexual orientation, gender expression and pain sensitivity are warranted. These findings may have implications for differences in clinical pain sensitivity of lesbian and bisexual women compared with heterosexual women.

  8. Race effects on temporal summation to heat pain in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Matthew C; Walker, Lynn; Bruehl, Stephen; Hellman, Natalie; Sherman, Amanda L; Rao, Uma

    2015-05-01

    Racial differences in pain responsiveness have been demonstrated in adults. However, it is unclear whether racial differences are also present in youth and whether they extend to experimental pain indices assessing temporal summation of second pain (TSSP). Temporal summation of second pain provides an index of pain sensitivity and may be especially relevant in determining risk for chronic pain. This study assessed pain tolerance and TSSP to evoked thermal pain in 78 healthy youth (age range, 10-17), 51% of whom were African American and 49% were non-Hispanic white. Multilevel models revealed within-individual increases in pain ratings during the temporal summation task in non-Hispanic white youth that were consistent with TSSP. Pain ratings did not change significantly during the temporal summation task in African-American youth. Baseline evoked pain ratings were significantly higher in African-American compared with non-Hispanic white youth. These findings suggest that enhanced responsiveness to evoked thermal pain in African Americans is present in adolescence but is unlikely to be related to elevated TSSP. These results may have implications for understanding racial differences in chronic pain experience in adulthood.

  9. Pain perception in major depressive disorder: a neurophysiological case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambito Marsala, Sandro; Pistacchi, Michele; Tocco, Pierluigi; Gioulis, Manuela; Fabris, Federico; Brigo, Francesco; Tinazzi, Michele

    2015-10-15

    Depression and pain may sometimes be related conditions. Occasionally, depression may be associated with physical symptoms, such as back pain and headache. Moreover, depression may impair the subjective response to pain and is likely to influence the pain feeling. Conversely, chronic pain may represent an emotional condition as well as physical sensation, and can influence both the mood and behaviour. To better understand the relationship between pain and depression, we therefore assessed the pain threshold and the tolerance pain threshold in patients with depressive disorders. We conducted a case-control study and selected patients who had recently received a diagnosis of major depression (DSM-IV), before treatment, and without any significant pain complaints. Age- and sex-matched healthy controls were also included. Tactile and pain thresholds were assessed in all subjects through an electrical stimulation test. All results were compared between the groups. 27 patients and 27 age-matched healthy controls were included in the study. Tactile, pain and tolerance thresholds were evaluated in all subjects. The pain threshold and pain tolerance were lower in patients with major depression than controls. All differences were statistically significant (pdepressive disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Children's selective attention to pain and avoidance behaviour: the role of child and parental catastrophizing about pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervoort, Tine; Trost, Zina; Van Ryckeghem, Dimitri M L

    2013-10-01

    The present study investigated selective attention to pain in children, its implications for child avoidance behaviour, and the moderating role of dimensions comprising child and parental catastrophizing about pain (ie, rumination, magnification, and helplessness). Participants were 59 children (31 boys) aged 10-16 years and one of their parents (41 mothers). Children performed a dot-probe task in which child facial pain displays of varying pain expressiveness were presented. Child avoidance behaviour was indexed by child pain tolerance during a cold-pressor task. Children and parents completed measures of child and parent pain catastrophizing, respectively. Findings indicated that both the nature of child selective attention to pain and the impact of selective attention upon child avoidance behaviour were differentially sensitive to specific dimensions of child and parental catastrophizing. Specifically, findings showed greater tendency to shift attention away from pain faces (i.e.,, attentional avoidance) among children reporting greater pain magnification. A similar pattern was observed in terms of parental characteristics, such that children increasingly shifted attention away from pain with increasing levels of parental rumination and helplessness. Furthermore, child attentional avoidance was associated with greater avoidance behaviour (i.e., lower pain tolerance) among children reporting high levels of pain magnification and those whose parents reported greater rumination about pain. The current findings corroborate catastrophizing as a multidimensional construct that may differentially impact outcomes and attest to the importance of assessing both child and parental characteristics in relation to child pain-related attention and avoidance behaviour. Further research directions are discussed. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Intravenous lignocaine infusion for intractable pain in Ewing's sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivedita Page

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A 23-year-old female presented to our palliative care center with Ewing's sarcoma of the humerus with lung metastases. Pain in her arm was unrelieved by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, neuropathic medication as well as morphine. She could not tolerate any further increase in opioid dose but was so distraught due to the pain that she wanted to die. An intravenous lignocaine infusion in a dose of 2 mg/kg was given over an hour for three successive days. This successfully relieved her pain after which she was settled with her original medication. We feel that in palliative care settings, where intractable pain and tolerance to morphine are so common, intravenous lignocaine infusions could provide a safe and effective tool for pain relief.

  12. Pain perception and hypnosis: findings from recent functional neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Casale, Antonio; Ferracuti, Stefano; Rapinesi, Chiara; Serata, Daniele; Caltagirone, Saverio Simone; Savoja, Valeria; Piacentino, Daria; Callovini, Gemma; Manfredi, Giovanni; Sani, Gabriele; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Girardi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Hypnosis modulates pain perception and tolerance by affecting cortical and subcortical activity in brain regions involved in these processes. By reviewing functional neuroimaging studies focusing on pain perception under hypnosis, the authors aimed to identify brain activation-deactivation patterns occurring in hypnosis-modulated pain conditions. Different changes in brain functionality occurred throughout all components of the pain network and other brain areas. The anterior cingulate cortex appears to be central in modulating pain circuitry activity under hypnosis. Most studies also showed that the neural functions of the prefrontal, insular, and somatosensory cortices are consistently modified during hypnosis-modulated pain conditions. Functional neuroimaging studies support the clinical use of hypnosis in the management of pain conditions.

  13. Effect of bupivacaine lozenges on oral mucositis pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Stine; Treldal, Charlotte; Kristensen, Claus A

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: A nonblinded parallel-group randomized controlled study investigated the efficacy and tolerability of repeated administration of a bupivacaine lozenge (25 mg) as pain management for oral mucositis pain in head and neck cancer patients as add-on to standard systemic pain management...... with bupivacaine lozenges (taken up to every 2 hours) plus standard pain treatment minus topical lidocaine (Lozenge group) or standard pain treatment including topical lidocaine (Control group). The efficacy analysis included 38 patients, as 12 patients were excluded because of changes in study design and missing...... that the bupivacaine lozenge as an add-on to standard pain treatment had a clinically significant pain-relieving effect in patients with oral mucositis. ClinicalTrialsgov: NCT02252926....

  14. Compromise and Toleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    Political compromise is akin to toleration, since both consist of an "agreement to disagree." Compromise and toleration also share a predicament of being regarded as ambiguous virtues that require of us to accept something we actually regard as wrong. However, we misunderstand the nature, justifi...... in compromise are more stringent than those for being tolerated. Still, the limits of compromise cannot be drawn to narrowly if it is to remain its value as a form of agreement that respects and embodies the differences of opinion in society.......Political compromise is akin to toleration, since both consist of an "agreement to disagree." Compromise and toleration also share a predicament of being regarded as ambiguous virtues that require of us to accept something we actually regard as wrong. However, we misunderstand the nature......, justification, and limits of compromise if we see it merely as a matter of toleration. While toleration is mainly a matter of accepting citizens' equal right to co-existence as subjects to law, political compromise includes the parties in making law – it makes them co-authors of law. Toleration entails...

  15. Tolerances in micro manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Zhang, Yang; Islam, Aminul

    This paper describes a method for analysis of tolerances in micro manufacturing. It proposes a mapping oftolerances to dimensions and compares this with current available international standards. The analysisdocuments that tolerances are not scaled down as the absolute dimension. In practice...

  16. Fault tolerant computing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randell, B.

    1981-01-01

    Fault tolerance involves the provision of strategies for error detection damage assessment, fault treatment and error recovery. A survey is given of the different sorts of strategies used in highly reliable computing systems, together with an outline of recent research on the problems of providing fault tolerance in parallel and distributed computing systems. (orig.)

  17. Toleration out of respect?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2014-01-01

    be based on a modus vivendi designed to secure peaceful co-existence, but should be based on moral reasons. Forst therefore advances what he calls the ‘respect conception’ of toleration as an in itself morally desirable type of relationship, which is furthermore the only conception of toleration...

  18. Recognition and Toleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2010-01-01

    Recognition and toleration are ways of relating to the diversity characteristic of multicultural societies. The article concerns the possible meanings of toleration and recognition, and the conflict that is often claimed to exist between these two approaches to diversity. Different forms or inter...

  19. Differences in Pain Processing Between Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain, Recurrent Low Back Pain, and Fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goubert, Dorien; Danneels, Lieven; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Descheemaeker, Filip; Meeus, Mira

    2017-05-01

    The impairment in musculoskeletal structures in patients with low back pain (LBP) is often disproportionate to their complaint. Therefore, the need arises for exploration of alternative mechanisms contributing to the origin and maintenance of non-specific LBP. The recent focus has been on central nervous system phenomena in LBP and the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the various symptoms and characteristics of chronic pain. Knowledge concerning changes in pain processing in LBP remains ambiguous, partly due to the diversity in the LBP population. The purpose of this study is to compare quantitative sensory assessment in different groups of LBP patients with regard to chronicity. Recurrent low back pain (RLBP), mild chronic low back pain (CLBP), and severe CLBP are compared on the one hand with healthy controls (HC), and on the other hand with fibromyalgia (FM) patients, in which abnormal pain processing has previously been reported. Cross-sectional study. Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Ghent University, Belgium. Twenty-three RLBP, 15 mild CLBP, 16 severe CLBP, 26 FM, and 21 HC participated in this study. Quantitative sensory testing was conducted by manual pressure algometry and computer-controlled cuff algometry. A manual algometer was used to evaluate hyperalgesia as well as temporal summation of pain and a cuff algometer was used to evaluate deep tissue hyperalgesia, the efficacy of the conditioned pain modulation and spatial summation of pain. Pressure pain thresholds by manual algometry were significantly lower in FM compared to HC, RLBP, and severe CLBP. Temporal summation of pain was significantly higher in FM compared to HC and RLBP. Pain tolerance thresholds assessed by cuff algometry were significantly lower in FM compared to HC and RLBP and also in severe CLBP compared to RLBP. No significant differences between groups were found for spatial summation or conditioned pain modulation. No psychosocial issues were taken into account for this

  20. The Uniframe .Net Web Service Discovery Service

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berbeco, Robert W

    2003-01-01

    Microsoft .NET allows the creation of distributed systems in a seamless manner Within NET small, discrete applications, referred to as Web services, are utilized to connect to each other or larger applications...

  1. Long Term RadNet Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This RadNet Quality Data Asset includes all data since initiation and when ERAMS was expanded to become RadNet, name changed to reflect new mission. This includes...

  2. Special Section on Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    Special section on coloured Petri nets, their basic concepts, analysis methods, tool support and industrial applications.......Special section on coloured Petri nets, their basic concepts, analysis methods, tool support and industrial applications....

  3. Preoperative pain mechanisms assessed by cuff algometry are associated with chronic postoperative pain relief after total knee replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Kristian Kjær; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Simonsen, Ole; Laursen, Mogens Berg; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2016-07-01

    Chronic postoperative pain after total knee replacement (TKR) in knee osteoarthritis (KOA) implies clinical challenges. Widespread hyperalgesia, facilitated temporal summation of pain (TSP), and impaired conditioned pain modulation (CPM) have been found in painful KOA. This exploratory study investigated postoperative pain relief 12 months after TKR in 4 subgroups of patients preoperatively profiled by mechanistic quantitative sensory testing. In 103 patients with KOA, pressure pain detection threshold (PDT) and tolerance thresholds (PTT) were assessed at the lower leg using cuff algometry. Temporal summation of pain was measured as an increase in pain intensity scores during 10 repeated (2 seconds intervals) painful cuff stimuli. Conditioned pain modulation was calculated as the relative increase in PDT during painful conditioning stimulation. The grand averages of TSP and CPM were calculated and values below or above were used for subgrouping: facilitated TSP/impaired CPM (group A, N = 16), facilitated TSP/normal CPM (group B, N = 15), normal TSP/impaired CPM (group C, N = 44), and normal TSP/normal CPM (group D, N = 28). Clinical VAS pain intensity scores were collected before and 12 months after TKR surgery and the pain relief calculated. Less pain relief was found in group A (52.0% ± 14.0% pain relief) than in group B (81.1% ± 3.5%, P = 0.023) and group C (79.6% ± 4.4%, P = 0.007), but not group D (69.4% ± 7.9%, P = 0.087). Low preoperative PDT was associated with a less postoperative pain relief (R = -0.222, P = 0.034), whereas TSP or CPM alone showed no associations with postoperative pain relief. This explorative study indicated that patients with osteoarthritis with facilitated TSP together with impaired CPM are more vulnerable to experience less pain relief after TKR.

  4. Remember Tolerance Differently

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønder, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This essay questions the linear conception of history which often accompanies the way contemporary democratic theory tends to disavow tolerance's discontinuities and remainders. In the spirit of Foucault's genealogy of descent, the idea is to develop a new sense of tolerance's history, not by inv......This essay questions the linear conception of history which often accompanies the way contemporary democratic theory tends to disavow tolerance's discontinuities and remainders. In the spirit of Foucault's genealogy of descent, the idea is to develop a new sense of tolerance's history......, not by invoking a critique external to contemporary democratic theory, but by witnessing the history of tolerance paraliptically, with an eye to what it obscures and yet presupposes....

  5. NetBeans IDE 8 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Salter, David

    2014-01-01

    If you're a Java developer of any level using NetBeans and want to learn how to get the most out of NetBeans, then this book is for you. Learning how to utilize NetBeans will provide a firm foundation for your Java application development.

  6. History-dependent stochastic Petri nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonenberg, H.; Sidorova, N.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Hee, van K.M.; Pnueli, A.; Virbitskaite, I.; Voronkov, A.

    2010-01-01

    Stochastic Petri Nets are a useful and well-known tool for performance analysis. However, an implicit assumption in the different types of Stochastic Petri Nets is the Markov property. It is assumed that a choice in the Petri net only depends on the current state and not on earlier choices. For many

  7. Putting Petri nets to work in Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    1994-01-01

    Petri nets exist for over 30 years. Especially in the last decade Petri nets have been put into practive extensively. Thanks to several useful extensions and the availability of computer tools, Petri nets have become a mature tool for modelling and analysing industrial systems. This paper describes

  8. Aplicació Microsoft .Net : Hotel Spa

    OpenAIRE

    Marquès Palmer, Jordi

    2010-01-01

    Desenvolupament d'una aplicació amb Microsoft .NET, WCF, WPF, Linq2SQL, d'un Hotel Spa. Desarrollo de una aplicación con Microsoft .NET, WCF, WPF, Linq2SQL, de un Hotel Spa. Application development using Microsoft .NET, WCF, WPF, Linq2SQL, for a Spa Hotel.

  9. Delta Semantics Defined By Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    and the possibility of using predicates to specify state changes. In this paper a formal semantics for Delta is defined and analysed using Petri nets. Petri nets was chosen because the ideas behind Petri nets and Delta concide on several points. A number of proposals for changes in Delta, which resulted from...

  10. The K-NET - A year after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, S.; Ohtani, K.; Katayama, T.

    2001-01-01

    We started to release the K-NET strong-motion data from June 1996 and about one year passed. In this article, we report the development of K-NET and some applications using the K-NET information released on the Internet. (author)

  11. 47 CFR 65.500 - Net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.500 Section 65.500... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Interexchange Carriers § 65.500 Net income. The net income methodology specified in § 65.450 shall be utilized by all interexchange carriers that are...

  12. 47 CFR 65.450 - Net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.450 Section 65.450... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.450 Net income. (a) Net income shall consist of all revenues derived from the provision of interstate telecommunications services...

  13. INMARSAT-C SafetyNET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunamis 406 EPIRB's National Weather Service Marine Forecasts INMARSAT-C SafetyNET Marine Forecast Offices greater danger near shore or any shallow waters? NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE PRODUCTS VIA INMARSAT-C SafetyNET Inmarsat-C SafetyNET is an internationally adopted, automated satellite system for promulgating

  14. Pain and the ethics of pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, R B

    1984-01-01

    In this article I clarify the concepts of 'pain', 'suffering', 'pains of body', 'pains of soul'. I explore the relevance of an ethic to the clinical setting which gives patients a strong prima facie right to freedom from unnecessary and unwanted pain and which places upon medical professionals two concomitant moral obligations to patients. First, there is the duty not to inflict pain and suffering beyond what is necessary for effective diagnosis, treatment and research. Next, there is the duty to do all that can be done to relieve all the pain and suffering which can be alleviated. I develop in some detail that individuality of pain sensitivity must be taken into account in fulfilling these obligations. I explore the issue of the relevance of informed consent and the right to refuse treatment to the matter of pain relief. And I raise the question of what conditions, if any, should override the right to refuse treatment where pain relief is of paramount concern.

  15. The role of sleep problems in central pain processing in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yvonne C; Lu, Bing; Edwards, Robert R; Wasan, Ajay D; Nassikas, Nicholas J; Clauw, Daniel J; Solomon, Daniel H; Karlson, Elizabeth W

    2013-01-01

    Among rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, the intensity of pain may be out of proportion to the severity of peripheral inflammation. This observation suggests that mechanisms of central nervous system pain amplification, such as diminished conditioned pain modulation (CPM), may play a role in enhancing pain perception among some RA patients. This study was undertaken to examine the level of CPM, pressure-pain threshold, and pressure-pain tolerance among RA patients compared to healthy controls. Fifty-eight female RA patients and 54 age-matched female control subjects without chronic pain underwent quantitative sensory testing (QST) to assess CPM levels, pressure-pain thresholds, and pressure-pain tolerance levels. CPM was induced using a cold water bath, and the pain threshold (when patients first felt pain) and pain tolerance (when pain was too much to bear) were assessed with an algometer. Associations between RA and each QST outcome were analyzed using linear regression. Sleep problems, mental health, and inflammation were assessed as mediators of the relationship between RA and QST outcomes. The median CPM level was 0.5 kg/cm2 (interquartile range [IQR] -0.1, 1.6) among RA patients, compared to a median of 1.5 kg/cm2 (IQR -0.1, 2.5) among controls (P=0.04). RA patients, compared to controls, had a lower pain threshold and lower pain tolerance at the wrists (each P≤0.05). In addition, RA patients had greater problems with sleep, pain catastrophizing, depression, and anxiety (Ppain-free control subjects. Sleep problems may mediate the association between RA and attenuated CPM. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  16. Paediatric pain management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patients is musculoskeletal pain, headache or abdominal pain.2. The pain ... Children older than four years of age can usually talk about their pain; at the age of six to eight years they can use the ... Pain presentation in children normally falls into one of the ... expression, body posture and movement.10 This scale is often.

  17. Pain and Nociception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Sarah; Dickenson, Anthony H

    2014-01-01

    Cancer pain, especially pain caused by metastasis to bone, is a severe type of pain, and unless the cause and consequences can be resolved, the pain will become chronic. As detection and survival among patients with cancer have improved, pain has become an increasing challenge, because traditiona...

  18. Melanocortins and Neuropathic Pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrinten, Dorien Henriëtte

    2003-01-01

    Neuropathic pain (pain initiated by a lesion or dysfunction of the nervous system) is characterised by symptoms such as allodynia (pain due to a stimulus that does not normally provoke pain) and hyperalgesia (an increased response to a stimulus that is normally painful). It constitutes a major

  19. NET 40 Generics Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Sudipta

    2012-01-01

    This is a concise, practical guide that will help you learn Generics in .NET, with lots of real world and fun-to-build examples and clear explanations. It is packed with screenshots to aid your understanding of the process. This book is aimed at beginners in Generics. It assumes some working knowledge of C# , but it isn't mandatory. The following would get the most use out of the book: Newbie C# developers struggling with Generics. Experienced C++ and Java Programmers who are migrating to C# and looking for an alternative to other generic frameworks like STL and JCF would find this book handy.

  20. Pain management in Jordan: nursing students' knowledge and attitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Khalaileh, Murad; Al Qadire, Mohammad

    Pain management requires knowledgeable and trained nurses. Because nursing students are the nurses of the future, it is important to ensure that students receive adequate education about pain management in nursing schools. The purpose of this study is to evaluate nursing students' knowledge and attitudes regarding pain management. A cross-sectional survey was used. The sample comprised 144 students from three nursing colleges in Jordan. Sixty-one percent were female and the average age was 21.6 years (SD 1.7). The students' Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain was used. The rate of correct answers ranged from 11.1% to 64%. Students showed a low level of knowledge regarding pain management-the average score was just 16 (SD 5.11) out of 40. Students were weak in their knowledge of pain medications pharmacology (actions and side effects). Less than half of students (47.9%) recognised that pain may be present, even when vital signs are normal and facial expressions relaxed. Finally, students showed negative attitudes towards pain management, believing that patients should tolerate pain as much as they can before receiving opioids; almost half (48%) of students agreed that patients' pain could be managed with placebo rather than medication. In conclusion, Jordanian nursing students showed lower levels of pain knowledge compared with other nursing students around the world. This study underlines the need to include pain-management courses throughout undergraduate nursing curricula in Jordan.

  1. A Multirelational Account of Toleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferretti, Maria Paola; Lægaard, Sune

    2013-01-01

    Toleration classically denotes a relation between two agents that is characterised by three components: objection, power, and acceptance overriding the objection. Against recent claims that classical toleration is not applicable in liberal democracies and that toleration must therefore either be ...

  2. Towards a Standard for Modular Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart; Petrucci, Laure

    2009-01-01

    concepts could or should be subject to import and export in high-level Petri nets. In this paper, we formalise a minimal version of modular high-level Petri nets, which is based on the concepts of modular PNML. This shows that modular PNML can be formalised once a specific version of Petri net is fixed....... Moreover, we present and discuss some more advanced features of modular Petri nets that could be included in the standard. This way, we provide a formal foundation and a basis for a discussion of features to be included in the upcoming standard of a module concept for Petri nets in general and for high-level...

  3. Can preoperative electrical nociceptive stimulation predict acute pain after groin herniotomy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, Eske Kvanner; Hansen, J.B.; Kehlet, H.

    2008-01-01

    Preoperative identification of patients at risk for high-intensity postoperative pain may be used to predict patients at risk for development of a persistent pain state and allocate patients to more intensive specific pain therapy. Preoperative pain threshold to electrocutaneus stimulation has...... repair. The correlation between the pain data for electrical stimulation was compared with the postoperative pain during the first week in 165 patients, whereof 3 were excluded. Preoperative electrical pain detection threshold and electrical pain tolerance threshold did not correlate to postoperative...... pain (rho = -0.13, P = .09, and rho = -1.2, P = .4, respectively. PERSPECTIVE: Although preoperative electrical nociceptive stimulation may predict patients at risk of high-intensity acute pain after other surgical procedures, this was not the case in groin hernia repair patients receiving concomitant...

  4. specific low back pain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-09-01

    Sep 1, 2015 ... SPECIFIC LOW BACK PAIN: IMPLICATION FOR DIRECT HEALTH. CARE COST ... abundant evidence suggesting the benefits of therapeu- tic exercise on pain and ... Exercise and behavioural therapies in chronic pain. 174.

  5. Low back pain - chronic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007422.htm Low back pain - chronic To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Low back pain refers to pain that you feel in your ...

  6. Palliative care - managing pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page, please enable JavaScript. Palliative care is a holistic approach to care that focuses on treating pain ... stressful for you and your family. But with treatment, pain can be managed. How Pain is Measured ...

  7. Side Effects: Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Controlling pain is an important part of your cancer treatment plan. Learn how to track levels of pain. Find out how pain, a side effect of cancer treatment, is treated using acupuncture, biofeedback, and physical therapy.

  8. Pain perception studies in tension-type headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezov, David; Ashina, Sait; Jensen, Rigmor; Bendtsen, Lars

    2011-02-01

    Tension-type headache (TTH) is a disorder with high prevalence and significant impact on society. Understanding of pathophysiology of TTH is paramount for development of effective treatments and prevention of chronification of TTH. Our aim was to review the findings from pain perception studies of pathophysiology of TTH as well as to review the research of pathophysiology of TTH. Pain perception studies such as measurement of muscle tenderness, pain detection thresholds, pain tolerance thresholds, pain response to suprathreshold stimulation, temporal summation and diffuse noxious inhibitory control (DNIC) have played a central role in elucidating the pathophysiology of TTH. It has been demonstrated that continuous nociceptive input from peripheral myofascial structures may induce central sensitization and thereby chronification of the headache. Measurements of pain tolerance thresholds and suprathreshold stimulation have shown presence of generalized hyperalgesia in chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) patients, while DNIC function has been shown to be reduced in CTTH. One imaging study showed loss of gray matter structures involved in pain processing in CTTH patients. Future studies should aim to integrate pain perception and imaging to confirm this finding. Pharmacological studies have shown that drugs like tricyclic anti-depressant amitriptyline and nitric oxide synthase inhibitors can reverse central sensitization and the chronicity of headache. Finally, low frequency electrical stimulation has been shown to rapidly reverse central sensitization and may be a new modality in treatment of CTTH and other chronic pain disorders. © 2010 American Headache Society.

  9. Somatosensory sensitivity in patients with persistent idiopathic orofacial pain is associated with pain relief from hypnosis and relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baad-Hansen, Lene; Abrahamsen, Randi; Zachariae, Robert; List, Thomas; Svensson, Peter

    2013-06-01

    In a recent study hypnosis has been found to relieve persistent idiopathic orofacial pain. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) is widely used to evaluate somatosensory sensitivity, which has been suggested as a possible predictor of management outcome. The objectives of this study were to examine: (1) possible associations between clinical pain relief and baseline somatosensory sensitivity and (2) the effect of hypnosis management on QST parameters. Forty-one patients with persistent idiopathic orofacial pain completed this randomized controlled study in 1 of 2 groups: hypnosis (hypnotic analgesia suggestions) or control (relaxation). QST at 2 intraoral (pain region and contralateral mirror image region) and 3 extraoral (hand and both cheeks) sites was performed at baseline and after the hypnosis/control management, together with pressure pain thresholds and pressure pain tolerance thresholds determined bilaterally at the masseter and temporalis muscles, the temporomandibular joints, and the third finger. Degree of pain relief was negatively correlated with a summary statistic of baseline somatosensory sensitivity (summed z-score), that is, high baseline somatosensory sensitivity was associated with low pain relief (r=-0.372, P=0.020). Hypnosis had no major effect on any QST measure compared with relaxation (P>0.063). High pain sensitivity at baseline may predict poor pain management outcome. In addition, despite clear clinical pain relief, hypnosis did not significantly or specifically influence somatosensory sensitivity. Future studies should further explore QST measures as possible predictors of different management response in orofacial pain conditions.

  10. Net metering in British Columbia : white paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, T.

    2003-01-01

    Net metering was described as being the reverse registration of an electricity customer's revenue meter when interconnected with a utility's grid. It is a provincial policy designed to encourage small-distributed renewable power generation such as micro-hydro, solar energy, fuel cells, and larger-scale wind energy. It was noted that interconnection standards for small generation is an important issue that must be addressed. The British Columbia Utilities Commission has asked BC Hydro to prepare a report on the merits of net metering in order to support consultations on a potential net metering tariff application by the utility. This report provides information on net metering with reference to experience in other jurisdictions with net metering, and the possible costs and benefits associated with net metering from both a utility and consumer perspective. Some of the barriers and policy considerations for successful implementation of net metering were also discussed. refs., tabs., figs

  11. Soul Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L. Jirek

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study extends prior research on vicarious traumatization and emotion management by exploring a deeper, more life-altering effect of working with traumatized clients—namely, “soul pain.” Analyses of in-depth interviews with 29 advocates working with survivors of physical and sexual violence reveal that, as a direct consequence of hearing countless stories of human brutality, some staff members experience a profound wounding of their spirit. This finding expands our understanding of the occupational hazards of the helping professions by revealing another dimension of advocates’ lives—that of the soul or spirit—that may be affected by their work with trauma survivors.

  12. [Physiotherapy and physical therapy in pain management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, M; Seeger, D; Schöps, P

    2015-10-01

    Patients attend physiotherapy and physical therapy (PT) due to pain problems and/or functional impairments. Although the main focus for therapists has traditionally been physical examination and treatment of tissue structures and biomechanics, over the last few decades a growing body of research has highlighted the importance of central nervous system processing and psychosocial contributors to pain perception. Treatment with PT aims to reduce disability and suffering by reducing pain and increasing tolerance to movement. In Germany, pain management conducted by physiotherapists is currently undergoing major changes. Firstly, PT education is transitioning from a vocational to a degree level and additionally new concepts for improved multidisciplinary treatment approaches are being developed. However, there still remain substantial differences between therapists working in multidisciplinary pain clinics and those following medical referral in private practices. This article provides information on how national and international impulses have contributed to the development of different concepts of passive therapies and active/functional pain rehabilitation in Germany. In the future PT will need to provide more evidence about efficiency and modes of actions for different treatment options to selectively reason the application to patients with acute, subacute and chronic pain.

  13. Emergency nurses' knowledge of pain management principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, P; Buschmann, M

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine areas of emergency nurses' knowledge deficit regarding pain management, and to identify barriers to pain management as perceived by emergency nurses. Data were collected anonymously in a mail survey using a 52-item knowledge questionnaire addressing pain management principles and asking emergency nurses (Illinois Emergency Nurses Association members) to rate various barriers as to how often they affect their practice. Questionnaires were mailed to all Illinois ENA members (n = 1000). Three hundred five emergency nurses' questionnaires were returned. A significant deficit existed on 2 domains of knowledge: understanding of the terms "addiction," "tolerance," and "dependence"; and knowledge of various pharmacologic analgesic principles. Nurses with a master's degree or higher, or those who attended a 1-day seminar on pain management, achieved statistically significantly higher scores. The 2 barriers identified by emergency nurses as the most common were the inability to administer medication until a diagnosis is made (53%), and inadequate assessment of pain and pain relief (48%) (the percentage indicates how often the emergency nurses believed the barrier was present in their practice). The data indicate that emergency nurses may not have a good understanding of the management of pain with drugs, or of such issues as risk of addiction.

  14. Targinact--opioid pain relief without constipation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Targinact (Napp Pharmaceuticals Ltd) is a modified-release combination product containing the strong opioid oxycodone plus the opioid antagonist naloxone. It is licensed for "severe pain, which can be adequately managed only with opioid analgesics".1 The summary of product characteristics (SPC) states that "naloxone is added to counteract opioid-induced constipation by blocking the action of oxycodone at opioid receptors locally in the gut". Advertising for the product claims "better pain relief", "superior GI [gastrointestinal] tolerability" and "improved quality of life" "compared to previous treatment in a clinical practice study (n=7836)". Here we consider whether Targinact offers advantages over using strong opioids plus laxatives where required.

  15. Pro-Nets versus No-Nets: Differences in Urban Older Adults' Predilections for Internet Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresci, M. Kay; Yarandi, Hossein N.; Morrell, Roger W.

    2010-01-01

    Enthusiasm for information technology (IT) is growing among older adults. Many older adults enjoy IT and the Internet (Pro-Nets), but others have no desire to use it (No-Nets). This study found that Pro-Nets and No-Nets were different on a number of variables that might predict IT use. No-Nets were older, had less education and income, were…

  16. Increased sensitivity to supra-threshold painful stimuli in patients with multiple functional somatic symptoms (MFS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuzminskyte, Ruta; Kupers, Ronny Clement Florent; Videbech, Poul

    2010-01-01

    threshold and pain tolerance levels in patients with MFS. Twenty-two patients with MFS and 27 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects volunteered for this study. The subjects received innocuous and noxious thermal stimuli to the volar forearm by means of a Peltier contact heat probe. We assessed pain...... threshold and pain tolerance with an ascending staircase method. Anxiety levels and hemodynamic (blood pressure, pulse rate) and endocrine (cortisol and prolactin release) responses were measured before and after pain testing. We found no group differences for any of the physiological or self...

  17. State, religion and toleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huggler, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    Contribution to Religion and State - From separation to cooperation? Legal-philosophical reflections for a de-secularized world. (IVR Cracow Special Workshop). Eds. Bart. C. Labuschagne & Ari M. Solon. Abstract: Toleration is indeed a complex phenomenon. A discussion of the concept will have...... to underline not only the broadmindedness and liberty of individuals or of groups, but also the relevant distinctions and arguments in political philosophy, epistemology, philosophy of religion and philosophical anthropology and their connection with educational issues. Through a discussion of these relations......, the essay argues three theses: (1) Toleration is not reducible to an ethics of spiritual freedom. (2) Toleration is not neutral to fanatism. (3) Toleration involves esteem for the person....

  18. Central Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as neurontin (gabapentin) can be useful. Lowering stress levels appears to reduce pain. View Full Treatment Information Definition Central pain syndrome is a neurological condition caused ...

  19. A Theory of Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Corneo, Giacomo; Jeanne, Olivier

    2006-01-01

    We develop an economic theory of tolerance where styles of behaviour are invested with symbolic value. Value systems are endogenous and taught by parents to their children. In conjunction with actual behaviour, value systems determine the esteem enjoyed by individuals. Intolerant individuals have all symbolic value invested in a single style of behaviour, whereas tolerant people have diversified values. The proposed model identifies a link between the unpredictability of children's lifestyles...

  20. A quantitative review of ethnic group differences in experimental pain response: do biology, psychology, and culture matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim-Williams, Bridgett; Riley, Joseph L; Williams, Ameenah K K; Fillingim, Roger B

    2012-04-01

    Pain is a subjectively complex and universal experience. We examine research investigating ethnic group differences in experimental pain response and factors contributing to group differences. We conducted a systematic literature review and analysis of studies using experimental pain stimuli to assess pain sensitivity across multiple ethnic groups. Our search covered the period from 1944 to 2011, and used the PubMed bibliographic database; a reference source containing over 17 million citations. We calculated effect sizes; identified ethnic/racial group categories, pain stimuli, and measures; and examined findings regarding biopsychosociocultural factors contributing to ethnic/racial group differences. We found 472 studies investigating ethnic group differences and pain. Twenty-six of these met our review inclusion criteria of investigating ethnic group differences in experimental pain. The majority of studies included comparisons between African Americans (AA) and non-Hispanic Whites (NHW). There were consistently moderate to large effect sizes for pain tolerance across multiple stimulus modalities; AA demonstrated lower pain tolerance. For pain threshold, findings were generally in the same direction, but effect sizes were small to moderate across ethnic groups. Limited data were available for suprathreshold pain ratings. A subset of studies comparing NHW and other ethnic groups showed a variable range of effect sizes for pain threshold and tolerance. There are potentially important ethnic/racial group differences in experimental pain perception. Elucidating ethnic group differences has translational merit for culturally competent clinical care and for addressing and reducing pain treatment disparities among ethnically/racially diverse groups. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Surface Hydrophobicity Causes SO2 Tolerance in Lichens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Markus; Jürgens, Sascha-René; Brinkmann, Martin; Herminghaus, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims The superhydrophobicity of the thallus surface in one of the most SO2-tolerant lichen species, Lecanora conizaeoides, suggests that surface hydrophobicity could be a general feature of lichen symbioses controlling their tolerance to SO2. The study described here tests this hypothesis. Methods Water droplets of the size of a raindrop were placed on the surface of air-dry thalli in 50 lichen species of known SO2 tolerance and contact angles were measured to quantify hydrophobicity. Key Results The wettability of lichen thalli ranges from strongly hydrophobic to strongly hydrophilic. SO2 tolerance of the studied lichen species increased with increasing hydrophobicity of the thallus surface. Extraction of extracellular lichen secondary metabolites with acetone reduced, but did not abolish the hydrophobicity of lichen thalli. Conclusions Surface hydrophobicity is the main factor controlling SO2 tolerance in lichens. It presumably originally evolved as an adaptation to wet habitats preventing the depression of net photosynthesis due to supersaturation of the thallus with water. Hydrophilicity of lichen thalli is an adaptation to dry or humid, but not directly rain-exposed habitats. The crucial role of surface hydrophobicity in SO2 also explains why many markedly SO2-tolerant species are additionally tolerant to other (chemically unrelated) toxic substances including heavy metals. PMID:18077467

  2. Bound states in string nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Marc Daniel; Dusuel, Sébastien; Vidal, Julien

    2016-11-01

    We discuss the emergence of bound states in the low-energy spectrum of the string-net Hamiltonian in the presence of a string tension. In the ladder geometry, we show that a single bound state arises either for a finite tension or in the zero-tension limit depending on the theory considered. In the latter case, we perturbatively compute the binding energy as a function of the total quantum dimension. We also address this issue in the honeycomb lattice where the number of bound states in the topological phase depends on the total quantum dimension. Finally, the internal structure of these bound states is analyzed in the zero-tension limit.

  3. The Net Reclassification Index (NRI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pepe, Margaret S.; Fan, Jing; Feng, Ziding

    2015-01-01

    The Net Reclassification Index (NRI) is a very popular measure for evaluating the improvement in prediction performance gained by adding a marker to a set of baseline predictors. However, the statistical properties of this novel measure have not been explored in depth. We demonstrate the alarming...... result that the NRI statistic calculated on a large test dataset using risk models derived from a training set is likely to be positive even when the new marker has no predictive information. A related theoretical example is provided in which an incorrect risk function that includes an uninformative...... marker is proven to erroneously yield a positive NRI. Some insight into this phenomenon is provided. Since large values for the NRI statistic may simply be due to use of poorly fitting risk models, we suggest caution in using the NRI as the basis for marker evaluation. Other measures of prediction...

  4. NETS - Danish participation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsen, S. (Grontmij - Carl Bro, Glostrup (Denmark)); Theel, C. (Baltic Sea Solutions, Holeby (Denmark))

    2008-12-15

    Within the NICe-funded project 'Nordic Environmental Technology Solutions (NETS)' a new type of networking at the Nordic level was organized in order to jointly exploit the rapidly growing market potential in the environmental technology sector. The project aimed at increased and professionalized commercialization of Nordic Cleantech in energy and water business segments through 1) closer cooperation and joint marketing activities, 2) a website, 3) cleantech product information via brochures and publications 4) and participating in relevant trade fairs and other industry events. Facilitating business-to-business activities was another core task for the NETS project partners from Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark with the aim to encourage total solutions for combined Cleantech system offers. The project has achieved to establish a Cleantech register of 600 Nordic Cleantech companies, a network of 86 member enterprises, produced several publications and brochures for direct technology promotion and a website for direct access to company profiles and contact data. The project partners have attended 14 relevant international Cleantech trade fairs and conferences and facilitated business-to-business contacts added by capacity building offers through two company workshops. The future challenge for the project partners and Nordic Cleantech will be to coordinate the numerous efforts within the Nordic countries in order to reach concerted action and binding of member companies for reliable services, an improved visibility and knowledge exchange. With Cleantech's growing market influence and public awareness, the need to develop total solutions is increasing likewise. Marketing efforts should be encouraged cross-sectional and cross-border among the various levels of involved actors from both the public and the private sector. (au)

  5. NETS - Danish participation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsen, S [Grontmij - Carl Bro, Glostrup (Denmark); Theel, C [Baltic Sea Solutions, Holeby (Denmark)

    2008-12-15

    Within the NICe-funded project 'Nordic Environmental Technology Solutions (NETS)' a new type of networking at the Nordic level was organized in order to jointly exploit the rapidly growing market potential in the environmental technology sector. The project aimed at increased and professionalized commercialization of Nordic Cleantech in energy and water business segments through 1) closer cooperation and joint marketing activities, 2) a website, 3) cleantech product information via brochures and publications 4) and participating in relevant trade fairs and other industry events. Facilitating business-to-business activities was another core task for the NETS project partners from Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark with the aim to encourage total solutions for combined Cleantech system offers. The project has achieved to establish a Cleantech register of 600 Nordic Cleantech companies, a network of 86 member enterprises, produced several publications and brochures for direct technology promotion and a website for direct access to company profiles and contact data. The project partners have attended 14 relevant international Cleantech trade fairs and conferences and facilitated business-to-business contacts added by capacity building offers through two company workshops. The future challenge for the project partners and Nordic Cleantech will be to coordinate the numerous efforts within the Nordic countries in order to reach concerted action and binding of member companies for reliable services, an improved visibility and knowledge exchange. With Cleantech's growing market influence and public awareness, the need to develop total solutions is increasing likewise. Marketing efforts should be encouraged cross-sectional and cross-border among the various levels of involved actors from both the public and the private sector. (au)

  6. A review of the use of ketamine in pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfic, Qutaiba A

    2013-01-01

    Ketamine is a noncompetitive antagonist of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor. It has been widely used in anesthesia and pain management. Ketamine has been administered via the intravenous, intramuscular, subcutaneous, oral, rectal, topical, intranasal, sublingual, epidural, and caudal routes. Ketamine improves postoperative and posttrauma pain scores and reduces opioid consumption. It has special indication for patients with opioid tolerance, acute hyperalgesia, and neuropathic pain. It also has a role in the management of chronic pain including both cancer and noncancer pain. Recreational use of ketamine is increasing as well through different routes of administration like inhalation, smoking, or intravenous injection. Long-time exposure to ketamine, especially in the abusers, may lead to serious side effects. This review is trying to define the role of ketamine in pain management.

  7. Pain perception studies in tension-type headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bezov, David; Ashina, Sait; Jensen, Rigmor

    2011-01-01

    Tension-type headache (TTH) is a disorder with high prevalence and significant impact on society. Understanding of pathophysiology of TTH is paramount for development of effective treatments and prevention of chronification of TTH. Our aim was to review the findings from pain perception studies...... of pathophysiology of TTH as well as to review the research of pathophysiology of TTH. Pain perception studies such as measurement of muscle tenderness, pain detection thresholds, pain tolerance thresholds, pain response to suprathreshold stimulation, temporal summation and diffuse noxious inhibitory control (DNIC...... to integrate pain perception and imaging to confirm this finding. Pharmacological studies have shown that drugs like tricyclic anti-depressant amitriptyline and nitric oxide synthase inhibitors can reverse central sensitization and the chronicity of headache. Finally, low frequency electrical stimulation has...

  8. Higher-moment measurements of net-kaon, net-charge and net-proton multiplicity distributions at STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Amal

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report the measurements of the various moments, such as mean, standard deviation (σ), skewness (S) and kurtosis (κ) of the net-kaon, net-charge and net-proton multiplicity distributions at mid-rapidity in Au + Au collisions from √(s NN )=7.7 to 200 GeV with the STAR experiment at RHIC. This work has been done with the aim to locate the critical point on the QCD phase diagram. These moments and their products are related to the thermodynamic susceptibilities of conserved quantities such as net baryon number, net charge, and net strangeness as well as to the correlation length of the system which diverges in an ideal infinite thermodynamic system at the critical point. For a finite system, existing for a finite time, a non-monotonic behavior of these variables would indicate the presence of the critical point. Furthermore, we also present the moment products Sσ, κσ 2 of net-kaon, net-charge and net-proton multiplicity distributions as a function of collision centrality and energy. The energy and the centrality dependence of higher moments and their products have been compared with different models

  9. 5-HT modulation of pain perception in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sarah L; Power, Andrea; Boyle, Yvonne; Anderson, Ian M; Silverdale, Monty A; Jones, Anthony K P

    2017-10-01

    Although there is clear evidence for the serotonergic regulation of descending control of pain in animals, little direct evidence exists in humans. The majority of our knowledge comes from the use of serotonin (5-HT)-modulating antidepressants as analgesics in the clinical management of chronic pain. Here, we have used an acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) to manipulate 5-HT function and examine its effects of ATD on heat pain threshold and tolerance, attentional manipulation of nociceptive processing and mood in human volunteers. Fifteen healthy participants received both ATD and balanced amino acid (BAL) drinks on two separate sessions in a double-blind cross-over design. Pain threshold and tolerance were determined 4 h post-drink via a heat thermode. Additional attention, distraction and temperature discrimination paradigms were completed using a laser-induced heat pain stimulus. Mood was assessed prior and throughout each session. Our investigation reported that the ATD lowered plasma TRP levels by 65.05 ± 7.29% and significantly reduced pain threshold and tolerance in response to the heat thermode. There was a direct correlation between the reduction in total plasma TRP levels and reduction in thermode temperature. In contrast, ATD showed no effect on laser-induced pain nor significant impact of the distraction-induced analgesia on pain perception but did reduce performance of the painful temperature discrimination task. Importantly, all findings were independent of any effects of ATD on mood. As far as we are aware, it is the first demonstration of 5-HT effects on pain perception which are not confounded by mood changes.

  10. Atypical Odontalgia (Phantom Tooth Pain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... atypical facial pain, phantom tooth pain, or neuropathic orofacial pain, is characterized by chronic pain in a tooth ... such as a specialist in oral medicine or orofacial pain. The information contained in this monograph is for ...

  11. Neuro Emotional Technique for the treatment of trigger point sensitivity in chronic neck pain sufferers: A controlled clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Bablis, Peter; Pollard, Henry; Bonello, Rod

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Trigger points have been shown to be active in many myofascial pain syndromes. Treatment of trigger point pain and dysfunction may be explained through the mechanisms of central and peripheral paradigms. This study aimed to investigate whether the mind/body treatment of Neuro Emotional Technique (NET) could significantly relieve pain sensitivity of trigger points presenting in a cohort of chronic neck pain sufferers. Methods Sixty participants presenting to a private chiro...

  12. Differential effects of two virtual reality interventions: distraction versus pain control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loreto-Quijada, Desirée; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, José; Nieto, Rubén; Gutiérrez-Martínez, Olga; Ferrer-García, Marta; Saldaña, Carmina; Fusté-Escolano, Adela; Liutsko, Liudmila

    2014-06-01

    There is evidence that virtual reality (VR) pain distraction is effective at improving pain-related outcomes. However, more research is needed to investigate VR environments with other pain-related goals. The main aim of this study was to compare the differential effects of two VR environments on a set of pain-related and cognitive variables during a cold pressor experiment. One of these environments aimed to distract attention away from pain (VRD), whereas the other was designed to enhance pain control (VRC). Participants were 77 psychology students, who were randomly assigned to one of the following three conditions during the cold pressor experiment: (a) VRD, (b) VRC, or (c) Non-VR (control condition). Data were collected regarding both pain-related variables (intensity, tolerance, threshold, time perception, and pain sensitivity range) and cognitive variables (self-efficacy and catastrophizing). Results showed that in comparison with the control condition, the VRC intervention significantly increased pain tolerance, the pain sensitivity range, and the degree of time underestimation. It also increased self-efficacy in tolerating pain and led to a reduction in reported helplessness. The VRD intervention significantly increased the pain threshold and pain tolerance in comparison with the control condition, but it did not affect any of the cognitive variables. Overall, the intervention designed to enhance control seems to have a greater effect on the cognitive variables assessed. Although these results need to be replicated in further studies, the findings suggest that the VRC intervention has considerable potential in terms of increasing self-efficacy and modifying the negative thoughts that commonly accompany pain problems.

  13. Application and Theory of Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 13th International Conference onApplication and Theory of Petri Nets, held in Sheffield, England, in June 1992. The aim of the Petri net conferences is to create a forum for discussing progress in the application and theory of Petri nets. Typically....... Balbo and W. Reisig, 18 submitted papers, and seven project papers. The submitted papers and project presentations were selectedby the programme committee and a panel of referees from a large number of submissions....

  14. TwiddleNet: Smartphones as Personal Servers

    OpenAIRE

    Gurminder, Singh; Center for the Study of Mobile Devices and Communications

    2012-01-01

    TwiddleNet uses smartphones as personal servers to enable instant content capture and dissemination for firstresponders. It supports the information sharing needs of first responders in the early stages of an emergency response operation. In TwiddleNet, content, once captured, is automatically tagged and disseminated using one of the several networking channels available in smartphones. TwiddleNet pays special attention to minimizing the equipment, network set-up time, and content...

  15. Supporting Self-management of Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-04

    Chronic Pain Syndrome; Chronic Pain; Chronic Pain Due to Injury; Chronic Pain Due to Trauma; Chronic Pain Due to Malignancy (Finding); Chronic Pain Post-Procedural; Chronic Pain Hip; Chronic Pain, Widespread

  16. Paediatric pain management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    REVIEW. Introduction. Pain is defined by the International Association for the Study of. Pain (IASP) as ... lasts for a short time, whilst chronic pain normally persists for a much longer ..... on a regular time schedule, i.e. 'by the clock', whereby the medicine is .... combination with a non-opioid (from the first step) for severe pain.

  17. Chest Pain: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Chest pain: First aid Chest pain: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff Causes of chest pain can vary from minor problems, such as indigestion ... 26, 2018 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-chest-pain/basics/ART-20056705 . Mayo ...

  18. Chronic pelvic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Sharon L

    2013-12-01

    Chronic pelvic pain is pain lasting longer than 6 months and is estimated to occur in 15% of women. Causes of pelvic pain include disorders of gynecologic, urologic, gastroenterologic, and musculoskeletal systems. The multidisciplinary nature of chronic pelvic pain may complicate diagnosis and treatment. Treatments vary by cause but may include medicinal, neuroablative, and surgical treatments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Warmed local anesthetic reduces pain of infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialkov, J A; McDougall, E P

    1996-01-01

    The effect of warming local anesthetic on the amount of pain experienced during local infiltration was tested by comparing equal volumes of 40 degrees C- and 21 degrees C-infiltrates in each of 26 subjects. Six subjects were patients undergoing excision of two benign asymptomatic nevi in separate locations, and 20 subjects were healthy adult volunteers who were injected in bilateral antebrachial sites. The warmed and room temperature solutions were randomized to each side, so that each subject received both temperature injections in random order. All subjects and the injector were blinded. The rate of injection was time-controlled (0.05 ml/sec). Following both injections, subjects were asked to rate the pain experienced at each site. In addition, the subject was asked if there was no difference, a slight difference, or a substantial difference between the two sites. A two-tailed paired t-test was used to analyze the mean difference in pain scores for all subjects. Paired analysis of the pain scores for each subject eliminated intersubject variance of pain tolerance. The mean difference in pain score between the room temperature and warmed solutions was +1.5 (p < 0.0001). Of the 21 subjects (81%) who found the warmed solution less painful, 11 (52%) found the difference to be significant, while 10 (48%) found the difference to be slight. Two subjects (8%) found no difference between the two, while 3 subjects (11%) found the colder solution slightly less painful. We conclude that warming local anesthetic to 40 degrees C prior to subcutaneous injection is a simple, inexpensive means of reducing the pain of local infiltration.

  20. Triathletes Lose Their Advantageous Pain Modulation under Acute Psychosocial Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geva, Nirit; Pruessner, Jens; Defrin, Ruth

    2017-02-01

    Triathletes, who constantly engage in intensely stressful sport, were recently found to exhibit greater pain tolerance and more efficient pain inhibition capabilities than nonathletes. However, pain inhibition correlated negatively with retrospective reports of mental stress during training and competition. The aim of the current study was to test pain inhibition capabilities of triathletes under acute, controlled psychological stress manipulation. Participants were 25 triathletes and ironman triathletes who underwent the measurement of pain threshold, pain intolerance, tonic suprathreshold pain, and conditioned pain modulation before and during exposure to the Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST). Perceived ratings of stress and anxiety, autonomic variables, and salivary cortisol levels were obtained as indices of stress. The MIST induced a significant stress reaction manifested in the subjective and objective indices. Overall, a significant reduction in pain threshold and in conditioned pain modulation efficacy was observed after the MIST, which reached the baseline levels observed previously in nonathletes. Paradoxically, the magnitude of this stress-induced hyperalgesia (SIH) correlated negatively with the magnitude of the stress response; low-stress responders exhibited greater SIH than high-stress responders. The results suggest that under acute psychological stress, triathletes not only react with SIH and a reduction in pain modulation but also lose their advantageous pain modulation over nonathletes. The stronger the stress response recorded, the weaker the SIH. It appears that triathletes are not resilient to stress, responding with an increase in the sensitivity to pain as well as a decrease in pain inhibition. The possible effects of athletes' baseline pain profile and stress reactivity on SIH are discussed.

  1. Professional Visual Basic 2010 and .NET 4

    CERN Document Server

    Sheldon, Bill; Sharkey, Kent

    2010-01-01

    Intermediate and advanced coverage of Visual Basic 2010 and .NET 4 for professional developers. If you've already covered the basics and want to dive deep into VB and .NET topics that professional programmers use most, this is your book. You'll find a quick review of introductory topics-always helpful-before the author team of experts moves you quickly into such topics as data access with ADO.NET, Language Integrated Query (LINQ), security, ASP.NET web programming with Visual Basic, Windows workflow, threading, and more. You'll explore all the new features of Visual Basic 2010 as well as all t

  2. NASA Net Zero Energy Buildings Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless, S.; Scheib, J.; Torcellini, P.; Hendron, B.; Slovensky, M.

    2014-10-01

    In preparation for the time-phased net zero energy requirement for new federal buildings starting in 2020, set forth in Executive Order 13514, NASA requested that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a roadmap for NASA's compliance. NASA detailed a Statement of Work that requested information on strategic, organizational, and tactical aspects of net zero energy buildings. In response, this document presents a high-level approach to net zero energy planning, design, construction, and operations, based on NREL's first-hand experience procuring net zero energy construction, and based on NREL and other industry research on net zero energy feasibility. The strategic approach to net zero energy starts with an interpretation of the executive order language relating to net zero energy. Specifically, this roadmap defines a net zero energy acquisition process as one that sets an aggressive energy use intensity goal for the building in project planning, meets the reduced demand goal through energy efficiency strategies and technologies, then adds renewable energy in a prioritized manner, using building-associated, emission- free sources first, to offset the annual energy use required at the building; the net zero energy process extends through the life of the building, requiring a balance of energy use and production in each calendar year.

  3. Pro Agile NET Development with Scrum

    CERN Document Server

    Blankenship, Jerrel; Millett, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Pro Agile .NET Development with SCRUM guides you through a real-world ASP.NET project and shows how agile methodology is put into practice. There is plenty of literature on the theory behind agile methodologies, but no book on the market takes the concepts of agile practices and applies these in a practical manner to an end-to-end ASP.NET project, especially the estimating, requirements and management aspects of a project. Pro Agile .NET Development with SCRUM takes you through the initial stages of a project - gathering requirements and setting up an environment - through to the development a

  4. Pain, emotion, headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussone, Gennaro; Grazzi, Licia; Panerai, Alberto E

    2012-10-01

    Pain has been considered as part of a defensive strategy whose specific role is to signal an immediate active danger to the organism. This definition fits well for acute pain. It does not work well, however, for chronic pain that is maintained even in absence of an ongoing, active threat. Currently, acute and chronic pain are considered to be separate conditions. What follows is a review of the different theories about pain and its history. Different hypotheses regarding pain mechanisms are illustrated. New data emerging from scientific research on chronic pain (migraine in particular) involving innovative imaging techniques are reported and discussed. © 2012 American Headache Society.

  5. Characterization of a novel model of tonic heat pain stimulation in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naert, A.L.; Kehlet, H.; Kupers, R.

    2008-01-01

    .2+/-0.4, females scoring higher than men (7.4+/-0.5 vs. 5.2+/-0.5; pstimulation period after which they stabilized. A strong interindividual variability was observed in the time profiles of the pain ratings over the course of the 7-min...... tonic heat pain stimulation and compared the responses on this test with other measures of pain. In 58 normal volunteers, we applied a 7-min lasting contact heat stimulation of 47 degrees C to the upper leg while participants constantly rated their pain. Average pain rating during the 7-min period was 6...... stimulation period. The model showed a good test-retest reproducibility. Tonic heat pain ratings only correlated moderately with the pain threshold while stronger correlations were observed with pain tolerance and ratings of suprathreshold phasic heat pain. We conclude that the tonic heat model is a suitable...

  6. Cancer Pain Physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Sarah; Bannister, Kirsty; Dickenson, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Mechanisms of inflammatory and neuropathic pains have been elucidated and translated to patient care by the use of animal models of these pain states. Cancer pain has lagged behind since early animal models of cancer-induced bone pain were based on the systemic injection of carcinoma cells....... This precluded systematic investigation of specific neuronal and pharmacological alterations that occur in cancer-induced bone pain. In 1999, Schwei et al. described a murine model of cancer-induced bone pain that paralleled the clinical condition in terms of pain development and bone destruction, confined...... to the mouse femur. This model prompted related approaches and we can now state that cancer pain may include elements of inflammatory and neuropathic pains but also unique changes in sensory processing. Cancer induced bone pain results in progressive bone destruction, elevated osteoclast activity...

  7. Old and in pain: Enduring and situational effects of cultural aging stereotypes on older people's pain experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, S F; Marques, S; Matos, M

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the interplay between enduring and situational aging stereotype (AS) effects in older adults' self-reports of clinical and experimentally induced pain. We expected that, as compared with the situational activation of positive AS or a neutral condition, the activation of negative AS would lead to more severe self-reports of clinical pain (H1, hypothesis 1), higher cold pressor task (CPT) pain threshold (H2) and lower CPT pain tolerance (H3), especially among older adults who more strongly endorsed AS. This was a prospective study across two moments in time. At time 1 (T1), 52 older adults (Mage  = 74.7; 51.9% women) filled out measures of cultural AS endorsement, clinical pain severity and interference. Three months afterwards (T2), some of these participants collaborated in an experimental study on the effects of AS activation on reported clinical pain (n = 40) and experimentally induced (using CPT) pain threshold and tolerance (n = 35). Our results supported H2, i.e., as compared with the activation of positive AS or a neutral condition, when negative AS were activated older adults showed higher CPT pain thresholds, but this effect was more salient among those who more strongly endorsed AS at T1. This study stresses the influence of cultural AS in older adults' pain experiences showing that the situational activation of negative AS greatly increases experimentally induced pain thresholds of elders who more strongly endorse those stereotypes. It also highlights the relevance of interventions at the level of the physical and/or social environments surrounding elders in pain. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  8. Experiments and simulation of a net closing mechanism for tether-net capture of space debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, Inna; Thomsen, Benjamin; Botta, Eleonora M.; Misra, Arun K.

    2017-10-01

    This research addresses the design and testing of a debris containment system for use in a tether-net approach to space debris removal. The tether-net active debris removal involves the ejection of a net from a spacecraft by applying impulses to masses on the net, subsequent expansion of the net, the envelopment and capture of the debris target, and the de-orbiting of the debris via a tether to the chaser spacecraft. To ensure a debris removal mission's success, it is important that the debris be successfully captured and then, secured within the net. To this end, we present a concept for a net closing mechanism, which we believe will permit consistently successful debris capture via a simple and unobtrusive design. This net closing system functions by extending the main tether connecting the chaser spacecraft and the net vertex to the perimeter and around the perimeter of the net, allowing the tether to actuate closure of the net in a manner similar to a cinch cord. A particular embodiment of the design in a laboratory test-bed is described: the test-bed itself is comprised of a scaled-down tether-net, a supporting frame and a mock-up debris. Experiments conducted with the facility demonstrate the practicality of the net closing system. A model of the net closure concept has been integrated into the previously developed dynamics simulator of the chaser/tether-net/debris system. Simulations under tether tensioning conditions demonstrate the effectiveness of the closure concept for debris containment, in the gravity-free environment of space, for a realistic debris target. The on-ground experimental test-bed is also used to showcase its utility for validating the dynamics simulation of the net deployment, and a full-scale automated setup would make possible a range of validation studies of other aspects of a tether-net debris capture mission.

  9. Multidisciplinary pain management programs.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiser, Ulrike; Arnold, Bernhard; Pfingsten, Michael; Nagel, Bernd; Lutz, Johannes; Sabatowski, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Ulrike Kaiser,1 Bernhard Arnold,2 Michael Pfingsten,3 Bernd Nagel,4 Johannes Lutz,5 Rainer Sabatowski1,61Comprehensive Pain Center, University Hospital “Carl Gustav Carus”, Dresden, 2Department of Pain Management, Klinikum Dachau, Dachau, 3Pain Clinic, University Medicine, University of Göttingen, 4Day Care Unit, DRK Pain Center, Mainz, 5Interdisciplinary Pain Center, Zentralklinik Bad Berka, Bad Berka, 6Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, University ...

  10. Opioid Therapy for Chronic Nonmalignant Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell K Portenoy

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Long term administration of an opioid drug for chronic nonmalignant pain continues to be controversial, but is no longer uniformly rejected by pain specialists. This is true despite concerns that the regulatory agencies that oversee physician prescribing of opioid drugs continue to stigmatize the practice. The changing clinical perspective has been driven, in part, by widespread acknowledgement of the remarkably favourable outcomes achieved during opioid treatment of cancer pain. These outcomes contrast starkly with popular teaching about chronic opioid therapy and affirm the potential for prolonged efficacy, tolerable side effects, enhanced function associated with improved comfort and minimal risk of aberrant drug-related behaviours consistent with addiction. A large anecdotal experience in populations with nonmalignant pain suggests that these patients are more heterogeneous and that opioid therapy will greatly benefit some and will contribute to negative outcomes for others. The few controlled clinical trials that have been performed support the safety and efficacy of opioid therapy, but have been too limited to ensure generalization to the clinical setting. A critical review of the medical literature pertaining to chronic pain, opioid pharmacology and addiction medicine can clarify misconceptions about opioid therapy and provide a foundation for patient selection and drug administration. The available data support the view that opioids are no panacea for chronic pain, but should be considered in carefully selected patients using clinically derived guidelines that stress a structured approach and ongoing monitoring of efficacy, adverse effects, functional outcomes and the occurrence of aberrant drug-related behaviours.

  11. Management of chronic pain after hernia repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andresen K

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Kristoffer Andresen, Jacob Rosenberg Department of Surgery, Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Abstract: Chronic pain following inguinal hernia repair is a common problem and feared complication. Up to 16% of people experience chronic pain following the repair of a groin hernia. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of treatment strategies for patients with chronic pain following inguinal hernia repair based on best practice guidelines and current clinical routines. The optimal management of chronic pain following inguinal hernia surgery should begin with a thorough clinical examination to rule out other causes of chronic pain and to rule out a recurrence. A scaled approach to treatment is recommended. Initially, watchful waiting can be tried if it can be tolerated by the patient and then systemic painkillers, escalating to blocks, and surgery as the final option. Surgery should include mesh removal and triple neurectomy following anterior approaches or mesh and tack removal following a posterior approach. The diagnosis and treatment strategies should be performed by or discussed with experts in the field. Keywords: inguinal hernia, chronic pain, management, surgery, pharmacology, radio frequency

  12. Escaping the tolerance trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammoudeh, S.; Madan, V.

    1994-01-01

    In order to examine the implications of the weakening of OPEC's responsiveness in adjusting its production levels, this paper explicitly incorporates rigidity in the quantity adjustment mechanism, thereby extending previous research which assumed smooth quantity adjustments. The rigidity is manifested in a tolerance range for the discrepancy between the declared target price and that of the market. This environment gives rise to a 'tolerance trap' which impedes the convergence process and inevitably brings the market to a standstill before its reaches the targeted price and revenue objectives. OPEC's reaction to the standstill has important implications for the achievement of the target-based equilibrium and for the potential collapse of the market price. This paper examines OPEC's policy options in the tolerance trap and reveals that the optional policy in order to break this impasse and move closer to the equilibrium point is gradually to reduce output and not to flood the market. (Author)

  13. Pain perception and modulation in acute and chronic pain states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudejans, L.C.J.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis describes the evaluation of pain perception in acute and chronic pain patients and the strength of the endogenous pain modulation system in chronic pain patients. Additionally, pain phenotypes are determined in patients with chronic pain. The ability of patients with acute pain after

  14. Price smarter on the Net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, W; Marn, M; Zawada, C

    2001-02-01

    Companies generally have set prices on the Internet in two ways. Many start-ups have offered untenably low prices in a rush to capture first-mover advantage. Many incumbents have simply charged the same prices on-line as they do off-line. Either way, companies are missing a big opportunity. The fundamental value of the Internet lies not in lowering prices or making them consistent but in optimizing them. After all, if it's easy for customers to compare prices on the Internet, it's also easy for companies to track customers' behavior and adjust prices accordingly. The Net lets companies optimize prices in three ways. First, it lets them set and announce prices with greater precision. Different prices can be tested easily, and customers' responses can be collected instantly. Companies can set the most profitable prices, and they can tap into previously hidden customer demand. Second, because it's so easy to change prices on the Internet, companies can adjust prices in response to even small fluctuations in market conditions, customer demand, or competitors' behavior. Third, companies can use the clickstream data and purchase histories that it collects through the Internet to segment customers quickly. Then it can offer segment-specific prices or promotions immediately. By taking full advantage of the unique possibilities afforded by the Internet to set prices with precision, adapt to changing circumstances quickly, and segment customers accurately, companies can get their pricing right. It's one of the ultimate drivers of e-business success.

  15. Fault tolerant linear actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesar, Delbert

    2004-09-14

    In varying embodiments, the fault tolerant linear actuator of the present invention is a new and improved linear actuator with fault tolerance and positional control that may incorporate velocity summing, force summing, or a combination of the two. In one embodiment, the invention offers a velocity summing arrangement with a differential gear between two prime movers driving a cage, which then drives a linear spindle screw transmission. Other embodiments feature two prime movers driving separate linear spindle screw transmissions, one internal and one external, in a totally concentric and compact integrated module.

  16. Inequality, Tolerance, and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    This paper argues for the importance of individuals' tolerance of inequality for economic growth. By using the political ideology of governments as a measure of revealed tolerance of inequality, the paper shows that controlling for ideology improves the accuracy with which the effects of inequality...... are measured. Results show that inequality reduces growth but more so in societies where people perceive it as being relatively unfair. Further results indicate that legal quality and social trust are likely transmission channels for the effects of inequality....

  17. Inequality, Tolerance, and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2004-01-01

    This paper argues for the importance of individuals' tolerance of inequality for economic growth. By using the political ideology of governments as a measure of revealed tolerance of inequality, the paper shows that controlling for ideology improves the accuracy with which the effects of inequality...... are measured. Results show that inequality reduces growth but more so in societies where people perceive it as being relatively unfair. Further results indicate that legal quality and social trust are likely transmission channels for the effects of inequality....

  18. HANPP Collection: Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) as a Percentage of Net Primary Product (NPP) portion of the HANPP Collection represents a map identifying...

  19. Differential effects of repeated low dose treatment with the cannabinoid agonist WIN 55,212-2 in experimental models of bone cancer pain and neuropathic pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Andreas; Ding, Ming; Egerod, Kristoffer Lihme

    2008-01-01

    Pain due to bone malignancies is one of the most difficult types of cancer pain to fully control and may further decrease the patients' quality of life. Animal models of chronic pain conditions resulting from peripheral inflammatory reactions or nerve injuries are responsive to treatment with can......Pain due to bone malignancies is one of the most difficult types of cancer pain to fully control and may further decrease the patients' quality of life. Animal models of chronic pain conditions resulting from peripheral inflammatory reactions or nerve injuries are responsive to treatment...... with cannabinoid agonists. However, the use of cannabinoid agonists in humans may be hampered by CNS related side effects and development of tolerance. In the present study, we investigated the effect of repeated low dose administration of the synthetic cannabinoid agonist WIN 55,212-2 on bone cancer pain...... and neuropathic pain in mice. In addition, we investigated the development of CNS related side effects and tolerance. We found that 0.5 mg/kg/day for 18 days reduced pain related behavior and expression of spinal glial fibrillary acidic protein in the bone cancer pain model but not in the neuropathic pain model...

  20. Music can effectively reduce pain perception in women rather than men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffaripour, Sina; Mahmoudi, Hilda; Sahmeddini, Mohammad Ali; Alipour, Abbas; Chohedri, Abdolhamid

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays music is used to decrease pain and increase relaxation in clinical settings. It is hypothesized that music can affect women more easily than men. We assessed the effect of two types of music (Iranian folkloric and preferred music) on pain tolerance and pain rating in cold pressor test. A consecutive sample of 50 healthy Iranian medical students was enrolled. They reported pain tolerance and pain rating in cold pressor test in three different musical conditions served as the outcome measures. The results were analyzed with repeated measurement analysis of variance. Mean tolerance time was significantly higher in preferred music compared to Iranian folkloric music (F (1,48) =25.44, p=0.0001) and no music (F(1,48)=3.51, p=0.0001) conditions. There was a significant interaction when tolerance time in no music condition was compared to preferred music condition, regarding sex; Tolerance time increased more in females (F(1,48)=5.53, p=0.023). The results also indicated that pain ratings, regardless of sex, were different in three musical conditions (F(1.7,81.34)=15.37, p=0.0001). Music distracted attention from pain and Women can be impressed and distracted more easily by music.

  1. Reduction rules for reset/inhibitor nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, H.M.W.; Wynn, M.T.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Hofstede, ter A.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Reset/inhibitor nets are Petri nets extended with reset arcs and inhibitor arcs. These extensions can be used to model cancellation and blocking. A reset arc allows a transition to remove all tokens from a certain place when the transition fires. An inhibitor arc can stop a transition from being

  2. Verifying generalized soundness for workflow nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hee, van K.M.; Oanea, O.I.; Sidorova, N.; Voorhoeve, M.; Virbitskaite, I.; Voronkov, A.

    2007-01-01

    We improve the decision procedure from [10] for the problem of generalized soundness of workflow nets. A workflow net is generalized sound iff every marking reachable from an initial marking with k tokens on the initial place terminates properly, i.e. it can reach a marking with k tokens on the

  3. A Brief Introduction to Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1997-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets or CPN) is a graphical oriented language for design, specification, simulation and verification of systems. It is in particular well- suited for systems in which communication, synchronisation and resource sharing are important. Typical examples of application areas a...

  4. Net analyte signal based statistical quality control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skibsted, E.T.S.; Boelens, H.F.M.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Smilde, A.K.; Broad, N.W.; Rees, D.R.; Witte, D.T.

    2005-01-01

    Net analyte signal statistical quality control (NAS-SQC) is a new methodology to perform multivariate product quality monitoring based on the net analyte signal approach. The main advantage of NAS-SQC is that the systematic variation in the product due to the analyte (or property) of interest is

  5. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Investment in Accounts 2002, 2003 and to the extent such inclusions are allowed by this Commission, Account... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B Rural...

  6. Asynchronous stream processing with S-Net

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grelck, C.; Scholz, S.-B.; Shafarenko, A.

    2010-01-01

    We present the rationale and design of S-Net, a coordination language for asynchronous stream processing. The language achieves a near-complete separation between the application code, written in any conventional programming language, and the coordination/communication code written in S-Net. Our

  7. Dynamic response of the thermometric net radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. D. Wilson; W. J. Massman; G. E. Swaters

    2009-01-01

    We computed the dynamic response of an idealized thermometric net radiometer, when driven by an oscillating net longwave radiation intended roughly to simulate rapid fluctuations of the radiative environment such as might be expected during field use of such devices. The study was motivated by curiosity as to whether non-linearity of the surface boundary conditions...

  8. 78 FR 72451 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Net Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Withdrawal of... computation of net investment income. The regulations affect individuals, estates, and trusts whose incomes meet certain income thresholds. DATES: The proposed rule published December 5, 2012 (77 FR 72612), is...

  9. 10 CFR 436.20 - Net savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.20 Net savings. For a retrofit project, net savings may be found by subtracting life cycle costs based on the proposed project from life cycle costs based on not having it. For a...

  10. Net Neutrality and Inflation of Traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peitz, M.; Schütt, F.

    2015-01-01

    Under strict net neutrality Internet service providers (ISPs) are required to carry data without any differentiation and at no cost to the content provider. We provide a simple framework with a monopoly ISP to evaluate different net neutrality rules. Content differs in its sensitivity to delay.

  11. The Net Neutrality Debate: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Rich

    2006-01-01

    Rich Greenfield examines the basics of today's net neutrality debate that is likely to be an ongoing issue for society. Greenfield states the problems inherent in the definition of "net neutrality" used by Common Cause: "Network neutrality is the principle that Internet users should be able to access any web content they choose and…

  12. Net neutrality and inflation of traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peitz, M.; Schütt, Florian

    Under strict net neutrality Internet service providers (ISPs) are required to carry data without any differentiation and at no cost to the content provider. We provide a simple framework with a monopoly ISP to evaluate the short-run effects of different net neutrality rules. Content differs in its

  13. 27 CFR 4.37 - Net contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net contents. 4.37 Section 4.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.37 Net...

  14. Comparison of pain threshold and duration of pain perception in men and women of different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Soares Leonel de Nazaré

    Full Text Available Introduction Pain is a sensory and emotional experience that occurs with the presence of tissue injury, actual or potential. Pain is subjective, and its expression is primarily determined by the perceived intensity of the painful sensation, called the pain threshold. Objective To evaluate whether there are differences in pain threshold (LD and time to pain perception (TPED between the gender in different age groups and to analyze the correlation between age and pain threshold in each gender. Methods and procedures Participants were 60 volunteers divided into 6 groups (n = 10 each according to gender and age (18–33, 34–49, and 50–64 years. The evaluation of perception and pain tolerance was performed by immersing the container with one hand in water at a temperature of 0 °C–2 °C; the latency to withdrawal of the hand from ice water was measured in seconds and was considered a measure of LD. The TPED was reported by each participant as the start time of the painful stimulus. Results We found differences between the LD for G1 (men aged between 18 and 33 years and G2 (women aged 18 to 33 years with greater LD for G1 (p = 0.0122 and greater LD for women (p = 0.0094; for other comparisons of LD and TPED, there were no differences (p > 0.05 for all comparisons. Low correlation was found between age progression with increased LD and the TPED only in men (p = 0.01 and r = 0.45 and p = 0.05 and r = 0.34, respectively. Conclusion We conclude that women have a higher pain threshold than men especially when these groups are aged between 18 and 33 years, and in men increasing age correlates with increased TPED and LD.

  15. Pain in cancer survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mladosievicova, B.

    2017-01-01

    Pain is a common problem among cancer survivors, especially in the first few years after treatment. In the longer term, approximately 5% to 10% of survivors have chronic severe pain. Overall prevalence of all types pain is about 40% in some cancer survivors with previous specific diagnosis. Until recently, impact of pain in cancer survivors have largely been unexamined. This complication can be predicted by type of malignancy, its therapy, time elapsed from completion of anticancer treatment and effectivity of previous pain interventions. As the purpose of this article is to update readers on more recent data about prevalence of pain in cancer survivors and common treatment-related chronic pain etiologies in patients with a history of cancer who are beyond the acute diagnosis and treatment phase, previously known information about acute pain, pain in terminally ill patients. Some new studies in certain subpopulations of cancer survivors will be explored in more detail. (author)

  16. Spinal pain in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aartun, Ellen; Hartvigsen, Jan; Wedderkopp, Niels

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The severity and course of spinal pain is poorly understood in adolescents. The study aimed to determine the prevalence and two-year incidence, as well as the course, frequency, and intensity of pain in the neck, mid back, and low back (spinal pain). METHODS: This study was a school......-based prospective cohort study. All 5th and 6th grade students (11-13 years) at 14 schools in the Region of Southern Denmark were invited to participate (N = 1,348). Data were collected in 2010 and again two years later, using an e-survey completed during school time. RESULTS: The lifetime prevalence of spinal pain...... reported their pain as relatively infrequent and of low intensity, whereas the participants with frequent pain also experienced pain of higher intensity. The two-year incidence of spinal pain varied between 40% and 60% across the physical locations. Progression of pain from one to more locations and from...

  17. Net energy gain from DT fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buende, R.

    1985-01-01

    The net energy which can be gained from an energy raw material by means of a certain conversion system is deduced as the figure-of-merit which adequately characterizes the net energy balance of utilizing an energy source. This potential net energy gain is determined for DT fusion power plants. It is represented as a function of the degree of exploitation of the energy raw material lithium ore and is compared with the net energy which can be gained with LW and FBR power plants by exploiting uranium ore. The comparison clearly demonstrates the net energetic advantage of DT fusion. A sensitivity study shows that this holds even if the energy expenditure for constructing and operating is drastically increased

  18. Discrete, continuous, and hybrid petri nets

    CERN Document Server

    David, René

    2004-01-01

    Petri nets do not designate a single modeling formalism. In fact, newcomers to the field confess sometimes to be a little puzzled by the diversity of formalisms that are recognized under this "umbrella". Disregarding some extensions to the theoretical modeling capabilities, and looking at the level of abstraction of the formalisms, Condition/Event, Elementary, Place/Transition, Predicate/Transition, Colored, Object Oriented... net systems are frequently encountered in the literature. On the other side, provided with appropriate interpretative extensions, Controled Net Systems, Marking Diagrams (the Petri net generalization of State Diagrams), or the many-many variants in which time can be explicitly incorporated -Time(d), Deterministic, (Generalized) Stochastic, Fuzzy...- are defined. This represents another way to define practical formalisms that can be obtained by the "cro- product" of the two mentioned dimensions. Thus Petri nets constitute a modeling paradigm, understandable in a broad sense as "the total...

  19. Net charge fluctuations and local charge compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Jinghua

    2006-01-01

    We propose net charge fluctuation as a measure of local charge correlation length. It is demonstrated that, in terms of a schematic multiperipheral model, net charge fluctuation satisfies the same Quigg-Thomas relation as satisfied by charge transfer fluctuation. Net charge fluctuations measured in finite rapidity windows depend on both the local charge correlation length and the size of the observation window. When the observation window is larger than the local charge correlation length, the net charge fluctuation only depends on the local charge correlation length, while forward-backward charge fluctuations always have strong dependence on the observation window size. Net charge fluctuations and forward-backward charge fluctuations measured in the present heavy ion experiments show characteristic features similar to those from multiperipheral models. But the data cannot all be understood within this simple model

  20. Neural Net Safety Monitor Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Richard R.

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) at the Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) has been conducting flight-test research using an F-15 aircraft (figure 1). This aircraft has been specially modified to interface a neural net (NN) controller as part of a single-string Airborne Research Test System (ARTS) computer with the existing quad-redundant flight control system (FCC) shown in figure 2. The NN commands are passed to FCC channels 2 and 4 and are cross channel data linked (CCDL) to the other computers as shown. Numerous types of fault-detection monitors exist in the FCC when the NN mode is engaged; these monitors would cause an automatic disengagement of the NN in the event of a triggering fault. Unfortunately, these monitors still may not prevent a possible NN hard-over command from coming through to the control laws. Therefore, an additional and unique safety monitor was designed for a single-string source that allows authority at maximum actuator rates but protects the pilot and structural loads against excessive g-limits in the case of a NN hard-over command input. This additional monitor resides in the FCCs and is executed before the control laws are computed. This presentation describes a floating limiter (FL) concept1 that was developed and successfully test-flown for this program (figure 3). The FL computes the rate of change of the NN commands that are input to the FCC from the ARTS. A window is created with upper and lower boundaries, which is constantly floating and trying to stay centered as the NN command rates are changing. The limiter works by only allowing the window to move at a much slower rate than those of the NN commands. Anywhere within the window, however, full rates are allowed. If a rate persists in one direction, it will eventually hit the boundary and be rate-limited to the floating limiter rate. When this happens, a persistent counter begins and after a limit is reached, a NN disengage command is generated. The

  1. Toleration, Groups, and Multiculturalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2014-01-01

    have the ability to interfere with the group’s activities, an object of dislike or disapproval, an agent enjoying non-interference or a moral patient. This means that 'toleration of groups' can mean quite different things depending on the exact meaning of 'group' in relation to each component...

  2. Fault Tolerant Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, S. A.

    This thesis considered the development of fault tolerant control systems. The focus was on the category of automated processes that do not necessarily comprise a high number of identical sensors and actuators to maintain safe operation, but still have a potential for improving immunity to component...

  3. Toleration and its enemies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarvad, Ib Martin

    2010-01-01

    After a presentation of the development of freedom of expression in Danish constitutional law, to freedom of the press in European human rights law - the Jersild case- to a right to mock and ridicule other faiths in recent Danish practice, the essay of Locke on toleration is examined, its...

  4. A little toleration, please

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, C.

    2000-01-01

    Value pluralism does not imply relativism or subjectivism about values. What it does is allow respect for an at least limited toleration of values with which one may profoundly disagree. Thus a doctor can respect the autonomy of a patient whose values he does not share. Key Words: Pluralism • multiculturalism • relativism • subjectivism • patient autonomy PMID:11129842

  5. Net energy from nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotty, R.M.; Perry, A.M.; Reister, D.B.

    1975-11-01

    An analysis of net energy from nuclear power plants is dependent on a large number of variables and assumptions. The energy requirements as they relate to reactor type, concentration of uranium in the ore, enrichment tails assays, and possible recycle of uranium and plutonium were examined. Specifically, four reactor types were considered: pressurized water reactor, boiling water reactor, high temperature gas-cooled reactor, and heavy water reactor (CANDU). The energy requirements of systems employing both conventional (current) ores with uranium concentration of 0.176 percent and Chattanooga Shales with uranium concentration of 0.006 percent were determined. Data were given for no recycle, uranium recycle only, and uranium plus plutonium recycle. Starting with the energy requirements in the mining process and continuing through fuel reprocessing and waste storage, an evaluation of both electrical energy requirements and thermal energy requirements of each process was made. All of the energy, direct and indirect, required by the processing of uranium in order to produce electrical power was obtained by adding the quantities for the individual processes. The energy inputs required for the operation of a nuclear power system for an assumed life of approximately 30 years are tabulated for nine example cases. The input requirements were based on the production of 197,100,000 MWH(e), i.e., the operation of a 1000 MW(e) plant for 30 years with an average plant factor of 0.75. Both electrical requirements and thermal energy requirements are tabulated, and it should be emphasized that both quantities are needed. It was found that the electricity generated far exceeded the energy input requirements for all the cases considered

  6. Effects of Videogame Distraction using a Virtual Reality Type Head-Mounted Display Helmet on Cold Pressor Pain in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlquist, Lynnda M.; Weiss, Karen E.; Dillinger Clendaniel, Lindsay; Law, Emily F.; Ackerman, Claire Sonntag; McKenna, Kristine D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To test whether a head-mounted display helmet enhances the effectiveness of videogame distraction for children experiencing cold pressor pain. Method Forty-one children, aged 6–14 years, underwent one or two baseline cold pressor trials followed by two distraction trials in which they played the same videogame with and without the helmet in counterbalanced order. Pain threshold (elapsed time until the child reported pain) and pain tolerance (total time the child kept the hand submer...

  7. Centrifuge-induced neck and back pain in F-16 pilots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Britt; Nielsen, René Tyranski; Skejø, Pernille Bro

    2013-01-01

    lead to injuries should be avoided. This is a report of four cases of neck pain experienced during G-tolerance training, some of which may have caused ongoing problems for the pilot. Cases: Four cases, describing four different injuries experienced during G-tolerance training, are presented, including...

  8. Net energy benefits of carbon nanotube applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Pei; Isaacs, Jacqueline A.; Eckelman, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Life cycle net energy benefits are examined. • CNT-enabled and the conventional technologies are compared. • Flash memory with CNT switches show significant positive net energy benefit. • Lithium-ion batteries with MWCNT cathodes show positive net energy benefit. • Lithium-ion batteries with SWCNT anodes tend to exhibit negative net energy benefit. - Abstract: Implementation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in various applications can reduce material and energy requirements of products, resulting in energy savings. However, processes for the production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are energy-intensive and can require extensive purification. In this study, we investigate the net energy benefits of three CNT-enabled technologies: multi-walled CNT (MWCNT) reinforced cement used as highway construction material, single-walled CNT (SWCNT) flash memory switches used in cell phones and CNT anodes and cathodes used in lithium-ion batteries used in electric vehicles. We explore the avoided or additional energy requirement in the manufacturing and use phases and estimate the life cycle net energy benefits for each application. Additional scenario analysis and Monte Carlo simulation of parameter uncertainties resulted in probability distributions of net energy benefits, indicating that net energy benefits are dependent on the application with confidence intervals straddling the breakeven line in some cases. Analysis of simulation results reveals that SWCNT switch flash memory and MWCNT Li-ion battery cathodes have statistically significant positive net energy benefits (α = 0.05) and SWCNT Li-ion battery anodes tend to have negative net energy benefits, while positive results for MWCNT-reinforced cement were significant only under an efficient CNT production scenario and a lower confidence level (α = 0.1).

  9. Modeling of system reliability Petri nets with aging tokens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volovoi, V.

    2004-01-01

    The paper addresses the dynamic modeling of degrading and repairable complex systems. Emphasis is placed on the convenience of modeling for the end user, with special attention being paid to the modeling part of a problem, which is considered to be decoupled from the choice of solution algorithms. Depending on the nature of the problem, these solution algorithms can include discrete event simulation or numerical solution of the differential equations that govern underlying stochastic processes. Such modularity allows a focus on the needs of system reliability modeling and tailoring of the modeling formalism accordingly. To this end, several salient features are chosen from the multitude of existing extensions of Petri nets, and a new concept of aging tokens (tokens with memory) is introduced. The resulting framework provides for flexible and transparent graphical modeling with excellent representational power that is particularly suited for system reliability modeling with non-exponentially distributed firing times. The new framework is compared with existing Petri-net approaches and other system reliability modeling techniques such as reliability block diagrams and fault trees. The relative differences are emphasized and illustrated with several examples, including modeling of load sharing, imperfect repair of pooled items, multiphase missions, and damage-tolerant maintenance. Finally, a simple implementation of the framework using discrete event simulation is described

  10. Surgical treatment of pain in chronic pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović Dejan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The principal indication for surgical intervention in chronic pancreatitis is intractable pain. Depending upon the presence of dilated pancreatic ductal system, pancreatic duct drainage procedures and different kinds of pancreatic resections are applied. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to show the most appropriate procedure to gain the most possible benefits in dependence of type of pathohistological process in chronic pancreatitis. METHOD: Our study included 58 patients with intractable pain caused by chronic pancreatitis of alcoholic genesis. The first group consisted of 30 patients with dilated pancreatic ductal system more than 10 mm. The second group involved 28 patients without dilated pancreatic ductal system. Pain relief, weight gain and glucose tolerance were monitored. RESULTS: All patients of Group I (30 underwent latero-lateral pancreaticojejunal - Puestow operation. 80% of patients had no pain after 6 month, 13.6% had rare pain and 2 patients, i.e. 6.4%, who continued to consume alcohol, had strong pain. Group II consisting of 28 patients was without dilated pancreatic ductal system. This group was subjected to various types of pancreatic resections. Whipple procedure (W was done in 6 patients, pylorus preserving Whipple (PPW in 7 cases, and duodenum preserving cephalic pancreatectomy (DPCP was performed in 15 patients. Generally, 89.2% of patients had no pain 6 month after the operation. An average weight gain was 1.9 kg in W group, 2.8 kg in PPW group and 4.1 kg in DPCP group. Insulin-dependent diabetes was recorded in 66.6% in W group, 57.1% in PPW group and 0% in DPCP group. CONCLUSION: According to our opinion, DPCP may be considered the procedure of choice for surgical treatment of pain in chronic pancreatitis in patients without dilatation of pancreas ductal system because of no serious postoperative metabolic consequences.

  11. Deconstructing tolerance with clobazam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsler, Robert T.; Sankar, Raman; Montouris, Georgia D.; White, H. Steve; Cloyd, James C.; Kane, Mary Clare; Peng, Guangbin; Tworek, David M.; Shen, Vivienne; Isojarvi, Jouko

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate potential development of tolerance to adjunctive clobazam in patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Methods: Eligible patients enrolled in open-label extension study OV-1004, which continued until clobazam was commercially available in the United States or for a maximum of 2 years outside the United States. Enrolled patients started at 0.5 mg·kg−1·d−1 clobazam, not to exceed 40 mg/d. After 48 hours, dosages could be adjusted up to 2.0 mg·kg−1·d−1 (maximum 80 mg/d) on the basis of efficacy and tolerability. Post hoc analyses evaluated mean dosages and drop-seizure rates for the first 2 years of the open-label extension based on responder categories and baseline seizure quartiles in OV-1012. Individual patient listings were reviewed for dosage increases ≥40% and increasing seizure rates. Results: Data from 200 patients were included. For patients free of drop seizures, there was no notable change in dosage over 24 months. For responder groups still exhibiting drop seizures, dosages were increased. Weekly drop-seizure rates for 100% and ≥75% responders demonstrated a consistent response over time. Few patients had a dosage increase ≥40% associated with an increase in seizure rates. Conclusions: Two-year findings suggest that the majority of patients do not develop tolerance to the antiseizure actions of clobazam. Observed dosage increases may reflect best efforts to achieve seizure freedom. It is possible that the clinical development of tolerance to clobazam has been overstated. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00518713 and NCT01160770. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that the majority of patients do not develop tolerance to clobazam over 2 years of treatment. PMID:27683846

  12. Pro visual C++/CLI and the net 35 platform

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Pro Visual C++/CLI and the .NET 3.5 Platform is about writing .NET applications using C++/CLI. While readers are learning the ins and outs of .NET application development, they will also be learning the syntax of C++, both old and new to .NET. Readers will also gain a good understanding of the .NET architecture. This is truly a .NET book applying C++ as its development language not another C++ syntax book that happens to cover .NET.

  13. Inefficacy of high-dose transdermal fentanyl in a patient with neuropathic pain, a case report.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, C.P.; Bremer, R.; Dongelmans, D.A.; Dongen, R.T.M. van; Crul, B.J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Pain partially responsive to opioids can lead to rapid escalating dosages due to tolerance development. In this report the case of a 58-year-old female with neuropathic pain using increasing transdermal (TTS) fentanyl dosages to a maximum dose of 3400 microg/h resulting in fentanyl plasma levels of

  14. Extenuating Circumstances in Perceptions of Suicide: Disease Diagnosis (AIDS, Cancer), Pain Level, and Life Expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stephen K.; Range, Lillian M.

    1991-01-01

    Examined whether illness type, pain level, and life expectancy affected reactions of undergraduates (n=160) toward a terminal illness suicide with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) or cancer. AIDS patients were more stigmatized than cancer patients; suicide was more tolerated if victim was suffering greater pain. (Author/ABL)

  15. Citalopram Treatment of Pediatric Recurrent Abdominal Pain and Comorbid Internalizing Disorders: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, John V.; Perel, James; Lucas, Amanda; Bridge, Jeff; Ehmann, Mary; Kalas, Catherine; Monk, Kelly; Axelson, David; Birmaher, Boris; Ryan, Neal; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Brent, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess the potential efficacy, tolerability, and safety of citalopram in the treatment of functional pediatric recurrent abdominal pain and comorbid internalizing disorders. Method: Twenty-five clinically referred children and adolescents with recurrent abdominal pain aged 7 to 18 years, inclusive, participated in a 12-week,…

  16. Facilitated pronociceptive pain mechanisms in radiating back pain compared with localized back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaegter, Henrik Bjarke; Palsson, Thorvaldur Skuli; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Facilitated pain mechanisms and impaired pain inhibition are often found in chronic pain patients. This study compared clinical pain profiles, pain sensitivity, as well as pro-nociceptive and anti-nociceptive mechanisms in patients with localized low back pain (n=18), localized neck pain (n=17......), low back and radiating leg pain (n=18), or neck and radiating arm pain (n=17). It was hypothesized that patients with radiating pain had facilitated pain mechanisms and impaired pain inhibition compared with localized pain patients. Cuff algometry was performed on the non-painful lower leg to assess...... threshold (HPT) at the non-painful hand were also assessed. Clinical pain intensity, psychological distress, and disability were assessed with questionnaires. TSP was increased in patients with radiating back pain compared with localized back pain (Ppain or localized low...

  17. Laterality of pain: modulation by placebo and participants' paranormal belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemenz, Caroline; Regard, Marianne; Brugger, Peter; Emch, Oliver

    2009-09-01

    To investigate the effects of placebo and paranormal belief on the laterality of pain perception. The right hemisphere is dominantly involved in both the mediation of pain sensation and the belief in paranormal phenomena. We set out to assess a possible influence of long-term belief systems on placebo analgesia in response to unilateral nociceptive stimuli. Forty healthy participants (20 high and 20 low believers as indexed by the Magical Ideation Scale) underwent a placebo analgesia study measuring stimulus detection, pain threshold, and pain tolerance by electrostimulation on the right and left hand. Placebo treatment consisted of the application of a sham cream on the hands. Placebo had a positive influence on pain perception in the 3 variables. Enhanced pain sensitivity for the left side was only found for the disbelievers. Placebo treatment resulted in a double dissociation: in believers, it increased tolerance exclusively on the left side, in disbelievers on the right side. Our results confirm laterality effects in pain perception. However, only disbelievers conformed to the expected higher left-sided sensitivity. Placebo effects were dissociated between believers and disbelievers suggesting that short-term reactions to a placebo are modulated by a person's long-term belief system.

  18. Acoustic analysis and mood classification of pain-relieving music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Don; Beveridge, Scott; Mitchell, Laura A; MacDonald, Raymond A R

    2011-09-01

    Listening to preferred music (that which is chosen by the participant) has been shown to be effective in mitigating the effects of pain when compared to silence and a variety of distraction techniques. The wide range of genre, tempo, and structure in music chosen by participants in studies utilizing experimentally induced pain has led to the assertion that structure does not play a significant role, rather listening to preferred music renders the music "functionally equivalent" as regards its effect upon pain perception. This study addresses this assumption and performs detailed analysis of a selection of music chosen from three pain studies. Music analysis showed significant correlation between timbral and tonal aspects of music and measurements of pain tolerance and perceived pain intensity. Mood classification was performed using a hierarchical Gaussian Mixture Model, which indicated the majority of the chosen music expressed contentment. The results suggest that in addition to personal preference, associations with music and the listening context, emotion expressed by music, as defined by its acoustical content, is important to enhancing emotional engagement with music and therefore enhances the level of pain reduction and tolerance. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  19. Chronic pain: the burden of disease and treatment innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Monti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Musculoskeletal conditions are the most frequent cause of chronic pain and affect around 1 in 5 adults in Europe. When chronic pain occurs, it becomes disease itself, with substantial clinical, social and economic impact. Effi cacy and tolerability problems are encountered with all therapeutic strategies available to treat musculoskeletal pain. This often limits effective analgesia and patients’ long term compliance, with the result that chronic pain is persistently underestimated and undertreated. Tapentadol is a novel, centrally acting analgesic that has been recently commercialized for the treatment of chronic pain. This new molecule, by combining two distinct mechanisms of action, μ-opioid receptor agonism (MOR and noradrenaline reuptake inhibition (NRI, introduces a new pharmacological class called MOR-NRI. Several studies demonstrated promising results in the management of both nociceptive and neuropathic pain and good tolerability profi le, particularly concerning side effects, compared to traditional opioids. This novel analgesic represents a possible therapeutic option also in the rheumatologic fi eld, particularly in the treatment of osteoarthritis and low back pain.

  20. Loin pain hematuria syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taba Taba Vakili, Sahar; Alam, Tausif; Sollinger, Hans

    2014-09-01

    Loin pain hematuria syndrome is a rare disease with a prevalence of ∼0.012%. The most prominent clinical features include periods of severe intermittent or persistent unilateral or bilateral loin pain accompanied by either microscopic or gross hematuria. Patients with loin pain hematuria syndrome initially present with hematuria, flank pain, or most often both hematuria and flank pain. Kidney biopsies from patients with loin pain hematuria typically reveal only minor pathologic abnormalities. Further, loin pain hematuria syndrome is not associated with loss of kidney function or urinary tract infections. Loin pain hematuria syndrome-associated hematuria and pain are postulated to be linked to vascular disease of the kidney, coagulopathy, renal vasospasm with microinfarction, hypersensitivity, complement activation on arterioles, venocalyceal fistula, abnormal ureteral peristalsis, and intratubular deposition of calcium or uric acid microcrystals. Many patients with loin pain hematuria syndrome also meet criteria for a somatoform disorder, and analgesic medications, including narcotics, commonly are used to treat loin pain hematuria syndrome-associated pain. Interventional treatments include renal denervation, kidney autotransplantation, and nephrectomy; however, these methods should be used only as a last resort when less invasive measures have been tried unsuccessfully. In this review article, we discuss and critique current clinical practices related to loin pain hematuria syndrome pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Application of deconvolution interferometry with both Hi-net and KiK-net data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, N.

    2013-12-01

    Application of deconvolution interferometry to wavefields observed by KiK-net, a strong-motion recording network in Japan, is useful for estimating wave velocities and S-wave splitting in the near surface. Using this technique, for example, Nakata and Snieder (2011, 2012) found changed in velocities caused by Tohoku-Oki earthquake in Japan. At the location of the borehole accelerometer of each KiK-net station, a velocity sensor is also installed as a part of a high-sensitivity seismograph network (Hi-net). I present a technique that uses both Hi-net and KiK-net records for computing deconvolution interferometry. The deconvolved waveform obtained from the combination of Hi-net and KiK-net data is similar to the waveform computed from KiK-net data only, which indicates that one can use Hi-net wavefields for deconvolution interferometry. Because Hi-net records have a high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and high dynamic resolution, the S/N and the quality of amplitude and phase of deconvolved waveforms can be improved with Hi-net data. These advantages are especially important for short-time moving-window seismic interferometry and deconvolution interferometry using later coda waves.

  2. VISCERAL ABDOMINAL PAIN AND OPPORTUNITIES OF SPASMOLYTIC TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Kornienko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of treatment of 30 children with visceral abdominal pain caused by different etiological factors with neurotropic selective m9cholinergic antagonist hyoscine butilbromide (buscopan are presented in this article. Two groups of children were treated with hyoscine butilbromide and drotaverine accordingly. Administration of hyoscine butilbromide allows to stop pain in 93% of patients; mean duration of abdominal pain was 3,4 ± 1,2 days (4,2 ± 1,4 days in children treated with drotaverine, р < 0,05. Activity of dyspeptic disorders was decreased at the time of treatment. a tolerance to hyoscine butilbromide was satisfactory, and no adverse events were registered. hyoscine butilbromide is effective in treatment of visceral abdominal pain in children, allowing shortening its duration more actively then drotaverine.Key words: children, visceral abdominal pain, hyoscine butilbromide.

  3. KONVERGENSI DALAM PROGRAM NET CITIZEN JOURNALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhafidilla Vebrynda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Di dalam artikel ini, peneliti ingin melihat perkembangan teknologi di Indonesia sebagai sebuah peluang untuk menjalankan sebuah program berita berbasis video kiriman masyarakat. Perkembangan teknologi tersebut adalah teknologi penyiaran, teknologi sosial media dan teknologi dalam proses produksi sebuah video. Di Indonesia, jumlah televisi semakin banyak. Setiap stasiun televisi harus bersaing untuk dapat bertahan hidup. Net TV merupakan sebuah stasiun televisi baru di Indonesia yang harus memiliki berbagai program unggulan baru agar dapat bersaing dengan televisi lainnya yang sudah ada. Net TV menggunakan berbagai platform media untuk menjalankan program Net Citizen Journalism (Net CJ. Penggunaan berbagai platform media dikenal dengan istilah multiplatform dan secara teoritis dikenal dengan istilah konvergensi. Konvergensi yaitu saat meleburnya domain-domain dalam berbagai media komunikasi. Artikel ini menggunakan metode studi kasus untuk melihat bagaimana konvergensi terjadi dalam proses pengelolaan program Net CJ. Teknik pengumpulan data adalah dengan wawancara mendalam, observasi dan studi dokumen. Wawancara mendalam dilakukan dari tiga sudut pandang yaitu dari pengelola program, pengguna/audience dan pengamat media. Penelitian ini menemukan bahwa dengan menggunakan berbagai platform media yang fungsinya berbeda, memiliki satu tujuan yang sama yaitu untuk menjalankan program Net CJ. Adapun berbagai platform dalam proses produksi program yaitu tayangan TV konvensional, streaming TV, website, aplikasi Net CJ, facebook, twitter, instagram dan path. Konvergensi media dijalankan dalam dua proses, yaitu proses produksi dan proses promosi program berita.

  4. Net Neutrality: Media Discourses and Public Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Quail

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes media and public discourses surrounding net neutrality, with particular attention to public utility philosophy, from a critical perspective. The article suggests that further public education about net neutrality would be beneficial. The first portion of this paper provides a survey of the existing literature surrounding net neutrality, highlighting the contentious debate between market-based and public interest perspectives. In order to contextualize the debate, an overview of public utility philosophy is provided, shedding light on how the Internet can be conceptualized as a public good. Following this discussion, an analysis of mainstream media is presented, exploring how the media represents the issue of net neutrality and whether or not the Internet is discussed through the lens of public utility. To further examine how the net neutrality debate is being addressed, and to see the potential impacts of media discourses on the general public, the results of a focus group are reported and analyzed. Finally, a discussion assesses the implications of the net neutrality debate as presented through media discourses, highlighting the future of net neutrality as an important policy issue.

  5. Chronic Pelvic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NSAIDs) are helpful in relieving pelvic pain, especially dysmenorrhea . Physical therapy—Acupuncture, acupressure, and nerve stimulation therapies may be useful in treating pain caused by dysmenorrhea. Physical therapy that eases trigger points may give ...

  6. Eldercare at Home: Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or "heaviness" or “misery.” Look for behavior or body language that looks like a response to pain. An ... to communicate about pain in words. Behaviors or body language to look for include facial expressions such as ...

  7. Magnets for Pain Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NCCIH NCCIH At a Glance Mission and Vision Organizational Structure Director's Message Strategic Plans & Reports Budget & ... © Matthew Lester Magnets are often marketed for different types of pain, such as foot or back pain ...

  8. Perspectives in Pancreatic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Salim

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This review describes some of the mechanisms which are thought to be important in the causation of pain in chronic pancreatitis. Both medical and surgical techniques for treating this pain are described.

  9. Diclofenac Topical (osteoarthritis pain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gel (Voltaren) is used to relieve pain from osteoarthritis (arthritis caused by a breakdown of the lining ... Diclofenac topical liquid (Pennsaid) is used to relieve osteoarthritis pain in the knees. Diclofenac is in a ...

  10. Physiotherapists' knowledge of pain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To investigate the pain knowledge of sports and orthopaedic manipulative physiotherapists ... may enable more effective treatment and management of clinical ... A person may have severe pain, but appear calm and rational at the same time.

  11. Persistent idiopathic facial pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maarbjerg, Stine; Wolfram, Frauke; Heinskou, Tone Bruvik

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Persistent idiopathic facial pain (PIFP) is a poorly understood chronic orofacial pain disorder and a differential diagnosis to trigeminal neuralgia. To address the lack of systematic studies in PIFP we here report clinical characteristics and neuroimaging findings in PIFP. Methods...... pain 7 (13%), hypoesthesia 23 (48%), depression 16 (30%) and other chronic pain conditions 17 (32%) and a low prevalence of stabbing pain 21 (40%), touch-evoked pain 14 (26%) and remission periods 10 (19%). The odds ratio between neurovascular contact and the painful side was 1.4 (95% Cl 0.4–4.4, p = 0.......565) and the odds ratio between neurovascular contact with displacement of the trigeminal nerve and the painful side was 0.2 (95% Cl 0.0–2.1, p = 0.195). Conclusion: PIFP is separated from trigeminal neuralgia both with respect to the clinical characteristics and neuroimaging findings, as NVC was not associated...

  12. Block That Pain!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Block That Pain! Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of ... contrast, most pain relievers used for surgical procedures block activity in all types of neurons. This can ...

  13. Science of pain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Basbaum, A. I; Bushnell, M. Catherine

    2009-01-01

    "The International Association for the Study of Pain defines pain as "an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage...

  14. A Consideration of Resistance and Tolerance for Ruminant Nematode Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve eBishop

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Debates on the relative merits of resistance (the ability of the host to control the parasite lifecycle and tolerance (the net impact of infection on host performance are often lively and unhindered by data or evidence. Resistance generally shows continuous, heritable variation but data are sparser for tolerance, the utility of which will depend upon the disease prevalence. Prevalence is a function of group mean resistance and infection pressure, which itself is influenced by mean resistance. Tolerance will have most value for endemic diseases with a high prevalence, but will be of little value for low prevalence diseases. The conditionality of tolerance on infection status, and hence resistance, makes it difficult to estimate independently of resistance.Tolerance is potentially tractable for nematode infections, as the prevalence of infection is ca. 100% in animals grazing infected pasture, and infection level can be quantified by faecal egg count (FEC. Whilst individual animal phenotypes for tolerance are difficult to estimate, breeding values are estimable if related animals graze pastures of different contamination levels. Selection for resistance, i.e. FEC, provides both direct and indirect benefits from ever decreased pasture contamination and hence decreased infectious challenge. Modelling and experimental studies have shown that such reductions in pasture contamination may lead to substantially increased performance.It is proposed that selection goals addressing nematode infections should include both resistance and performance under challenging conditions. However, there may be benefits from exploiting large datasets in which sires are used across cohorts differing in infection level, to further explore tolerance. This may help to customise breeding objectives, with tolerance given greater weight in heavily parasitized environments.

  15. Pulsed Radiofrequency Application for the Treatment of Pain Secondary to Sacroiliac Joint Metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yu Ri; Lee, Na Rea; Kwon, Young Suk; Jang, Ji Su; Lim, So Young

    2016-01-01

    Sacroiliac (SI) joint pain can result from degeneration, infection, malignancy, and trauma. Patients with metastatic bone pain who do not respond to conventional treatment may need more aggressive neuroinvasive approaches. Recently, pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) neuromodulation has emerged as a promising treatment alternative for refractory cases of SI joint pain. Nevertheless, there is no report on the treatment of pain arising from SI joint metastases with PRF. We are reporting about a 63-year-old woman suffering from buttock pain due to breast cancer metastases in the SI joint. We treated this patient with PRF neuromodulation of the L4-S3 primary dorsal rami and lateral branches using a rotating curved needle technique. The patient tolerated the procedures well, without any complications. She experienced about 70% reduction in pain, and pain relief was sustained for 10 months. This result suggests that PRF neuromodulation is a safe, effective treatment for pain from SI joint metastases.

  16. Cortisol reduces recall of explicit contextual pain memory in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwegler, Kyrill; Ettlin, Dominik; Buser, Iris; Klaghofer, Richard; Goetzmann, Lutz; Buddeberg, Claus; Alon, Eli; Brügger, Mike; de Quervain, Dominique J-F

    2010-09-01

    Remembering painful incidents has important adaptive value but may also contribute to clinical symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and chronic pain states. Because glucocorticoids are known to impair memory retrieval processes, we investigated whether cortisol affects recall of previously experienced pain in healthy young men. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, 20 male participants were presented pictures, half of them combined with a heat-pain stimulus. The next day, the same pictures were shown in the absence of pain. Cortisol (20 mg) administered 1h before retention testing reduced recall of explicit contextual pain memory, whereas it did not affect pain threshold or pain tolerance. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Symmetric Cryptosystem Based on Petri Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein ‎ A. Lafta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this wok, a novel approach based on ordinary Petri net is used to generate private key . The reachability marking  of petri net is used as encryption/decryption key to provide more complex key . The same ordinary Petri Nets models  are used for the sender(encryption and  the receiver(decryption.The plaintext has been permutated  using  look-up table ,and XOR-ed with key to generate cipher text

  18. Characterizing behavioural congruences for Petri nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Priese, Lutz; Sassone, Vladimiro

    1995-01-01

    We exploit a notion of interface for Petri nets in order to design a set of net combinators. For such a calculus of nets, we focus on the behavioural congruences arising from four simple notions of behaviour, viz., traces, maximal traces, step, and maximal step traces, and from the corresponding...... four notions of bisimulation, viz., weak and weak step bisimulation and their maximal versions. We characterize such congruences via universal contexts and via games, providing in such a way an understanding of their discerning powers....

  19. Model and calculations for net infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, S.W.; Long, A.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a conceptual model for calculating net infiltration is developed and implemented. It incorporates the following important factors: viability of climate for the next 10,000 years, areal viability of net infiltration, and important soil/plant factors that affect the soil water budget of desert soils. Model results are expressed in terms of occurrence probabilities for time periods. In addition the variability of net infiltration is demonstrated both for change with time and differences among three soil/hydrologic units present at the site modeled

  20. Mars MetNet Mission Payload Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Haukka, H.; Alexashkin, S.; Guerrero, H.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.

    2012-09-01

    A new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is being developed in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission [1] is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide crucial scientific data about the Martian atmospheric phenomena.

  1. The net neutrality debate on Twitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf J. Schünemann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The internet has been seen as a medium that empowers individual political actors in relation to established political elites and media gatekeepers. The present article discusses this “net empowerment hypothesis” and tests it empirically by analysing Twitter communication on the regulation of net neutrality. We extracted 503.839 tweets containing #NetNeutrality posted between January and March 2015 and analysed central developments and the network structure of the debate. The empirical results show that traditional actors from media and politics still maintain a central role.

  2. Visual Studio 2010 and NET 4 Six-in-One

    CERN Document Server

    Novak, Istvan; Granicz, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Complete coverage of all key .NET 4 and Visual Studio 2010 languages and technologies. .NET 4 is Microsoft's latest version of their core programming platform, and Visual Studio 2010 is the toolset that helps write .NET 4 applications. This comprehensive resource offers one-stop shopping for all you need to know to get productive with .NET 4. Experienced author and .NET guru Mitchel Sellers reviews all the important new features of .NET 4, including .NET charting and ASP.NET charting, ASP.NET dynamic data and jQuery, and the addition of F# as a supported package language. The expansive coverag

  3. Pain Examination and Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Catherine

    2016-02-01

    Pain is a clinical challenge to health care providers who care for hand disorders. Pathologic pain that prevents recovery leads to dissatisfaction for both patients and providers. Despite pain being common, the root cause is often difficult to diagnose. This article reviews the examination and diagnostic tools that are helpful in identifying pathologic and neuropathic pain. This article provides tools to speed recognition of these processes to allow earlier intervention and better patient outcomes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Ketogenic Diets and Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masino, Susan A.; Ruskin, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Ketogenic diets are well-established as a successful anticonvulsant therapy. Based on overlap between mechanisms postulated to underlie pain and inflammation, and mechanisms postulated to underlie therapeutic effects of ketogenic diets, recent studies have explored the ability for ketogenic diets to reduce pain. Here we review clinical and basic research thus far exploring the impact of a ketogenic diet on thermal pain, inflammation, and neuropathic pain. PMID:23680946

  5. Ketogenic Diets and Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Masino, Susan A.; Ruskin, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Ketogenic diets are well-established as a successful anticonvulsant therapy. Based on overlap between mechanisms postulated to underlie pain and inflammation, and mechanisms postulated to underlie therapeutic effects of ketogenic diets, recent studies have explored the ability for ketogenic diets to reduce pain. Here we review clinical and basic research thus far exploring the impact of a ketogenic diet on thermal pain, inflammation, and neuropathic pain.

  6. Net Pay Estimator | Alaska Division of Retirement and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benefits > Net Pay Estimator Online Counselor Scheduler Empower Retirement Account Info Online myRnB Accessibility Net Pay Estimator Click here for the Retiree Net Pay Estimator? The net pay estimator is a useful tool to estimate your net pay under different salaries, federal withholding tax exemptions, and

  7. Studies on the suitability of HDPE material for gill nets

    OpenAIRE

    Subramania Pillai, N.; Boopendranath, M.R.; Kunjipalu, K.K.

    1989-01-01

    The suitability of HDPE yarn and HDPE twine in place of nylon for gill nets has been studied. As regards total catch nylon gill net is found to be better than HDPE nets. However, statistical analysis of the catch in respect of quality fishes shows that HDPE yarn nets are equally efficient as nylon nets.

  8. The Petri Net Markup Language : concepts, technology, and tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Billington, J.; Christensen, S.; Hee, van K.M.; Kindler, E.; Kummer, O.; Petrucci, L.; Post, R.D.J.; Stehno, C.; Weber, M.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Best, E.

    2003-01-01

    The Petri Net Markup Language (PNML) is an XML-based interchange format for Petri nets. In order to support different versions of Petri nets and, in particular, future versions of Petri nets, PNML allows the definition of Petri net types.Due to this flexibility, PNML is a starting point for a

  9. Heat tolerance in wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Dew Kumari

    As a consequence of global climate change, heat stress together with other abiotic stresses will remain an important determinant of future food security. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the third most important crop of the world feeding one third of the world population. Being a crop of temperate...... climate, wheat is sensitive to heat stress. We need to understand how our crops will perform in these changing climatic conditions and how we can develop varieties, which are more tolerant. The PhD study focussed on understanding heat tolerance in wheat with a combined approach of plant physiology...... and quantitative genetics in particular, plant phenotyping based quantitative trait loci (QTL) discovery for a physiological trait under heat stress. Chlorophyll a fluorescence trait, Fv/Fm was used as a phenotyping tool, as it reflects the effect of heat stress on maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem...

  10. The influence of children's pain memories on subsequent pain experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Melanie; Chambers, Christine T; McGrath, Patrick J; Klein, Raymond M; Stewart, Sherry H

    2012-08-01

    Healthy children are often required to repeatedly undergo painful medical procedures (eg, immunizations). Although memory is often implicated in children's reactions to future pain, there is a dearth of research directly examining the relationship between the 2. The current study investigated the influence of children's memories for a novel pain stimulus on their subsequent pain experience. One hundred ten healthy children (60 boys) between the ages of 8 and 12 years completed a laboratory pain task and provided pain ratings. Two weeks later, children provided pain ratings based on their memories as well as their expectancies about future pain. One month following the initial laboratory visit, children again completed the pain task and provided pain ratings. Results showed that children's memory of pain intensity was a better predictor of subsequent pain reporting than their actual initial reporting of pain intensity, and mediated the relationship between initial and subsequent pain reporting. Children who had negatively estimated pain memories developed expectations of greater pain prior to a subsequent pain experience and showed greater increases in pain ratings over time than children who had accurate or positively estimated pain memories. These findings highlight the influence of pain memories on healthy children's expectations of future pain and subsequent pain experiences and extend predictive models of subsequent pain reporting. Copyright © 2012 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The relationship between neck pain and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Janice; Kajaks, Tara; Macdermid, Joy C

    2013-01-01

    Neck pain is a significant societal burden due to its high prevalence and healthcare costs. While physical activity can help to manage other forms of chronic musculoskeletal pain, little data exists on the relationship between physical activity and neck pain. The purpose of this study was to compare physical activity levels between individuals with neck pain and healthy controls, and then to relate disability, fear of movement, and pain sensitivity measures to physical activity levels in each of the two participant groups. 21 participants were recruited for each of the two participant groups (n = 42). Data collection included the use of the Neck Disability Index, the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia, electrocutaneous (Neurometer® CPT) and pressure stimulation (JTech algometer) for quantitative sensory testing, and 5 days of subjective (Rapid Assessment of Physical Activity) and objective (BioTrainer II) measurements of physical activity. Analysis of Variance and Pearson's Correlation were used to determine if differences and relationships exist between dependent variables both within and between groups. The results show that individuals with mild neck pain and healthy controls do not differ in subjectively and objectively measured physical activity. While participants with neck pain reported higher neck disability and fear of movement, these factors did not significantly relate to physical activity levels. Perceived activity level was related to pain threshold and tolerance at local neck muscles sites (C2 paraspinal muscle and upper trapezius muscle), whereas measured activity was related to generalized pain sensitivity, as measured at the tibialis anterior muscle site.

  12. Socially-Tolerable Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Amegashie, J. Atsu

    2008-01-01

    History is replete with overt discrimination on the basis of race, gender, age, citizenship, ethnicity, marital status, academic performance, health status, volume of market transactions, religion, sexual orientation, etc. However, these forms of discrimination are not equally tolerable. For example, discrimination based on immutable or prohibitively unalterable characteristics such as race, gender, or ethnicity is much less acceptable. Why? I develop a simple rent-seeking model of conflict w...

  13. Acute pain guidelines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    identified the fact that pain is badly managed in all parts of the world, but .... Physiological pain is the activation of nociceptors in response to a noxious ... postsynaptic neuron. ... The basic afferent pain pathway is outlined in Figure 2. 3.2 Neurotransmitters ..... “Crying” is characterised by an utterance of emotion accompanied.

  14. 13. Sacroiliac joint pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanelderen, P.; Szadek, K.M.; Cohen, S.P.; Witte, J.; Lataster, A.; Patijn, J.; Mekhail, N.; van Kleef, M.; van Zundert, J.

    2010-01-01

    The sacroiliac joint accounts for approximately 16% to 30% of cases of chronic mechanical low back pain. Pain originating in the sacroiliac joint is predominantly perceived in the gluteal region, although pain is often referred into the lower and upper lumbar region, groin, abdomen, and/ or lower

  15. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain condition. It causes intense pain, usually in the arms, hands, legs, or feet. It may happen ... move the affected body part The cause of CRPS is unknown. There is no specific diagnostic test. ...

  16. Knee pain (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The location of knee pain can help identify the problem. Pain on the front of the knee can be due to bursitis, arthritis, or ... synovial fluid) that forms behind the knee. Overall knee pain can be due to bursitis, arthritis, tears in ...

  17. [Pain in edentulous patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baat, C. de

    2006-01-01

    In daily social life, orofacial pain is strongly associated with teeth. However, edentulousness is no lifetime guarantee of being pain-free in the orofacial region. Common oral pains in edentulous people are caused by denture misfits or occlusal errors, by alveolar ridge atrophy, by (sharp)

  18. 21. Phantom pain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, A.P.; Vanduynhoven, E.; Kleef, M. van; Huygen, F.; Pope, J.E.; Mekhail, N.

    2011-01-01

    Phantom pain is pain caused by elimination or interruption of sensory nerve impulses by destroying or injuring the sensory nerve fibers after amputation or deafferentation. The reported incidence of phantom limb pain after trauma, injury or peripheral vascular diseases is 60% to 80%. Over half the

  19. Medicines for back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You may need to be watched for side effects. NARCOTIC PAIN RELIEVERS Narcotics , also called opioid pain relievers, are used only for pain that is severe and is not helped by other types of painkillers. They work well for short-term relief. Do ...

  20. Pain: Hope through Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in drugstores. Chiropractic care may ease back pain, neck pain, headaches, and musculoskeletal conditions. It involves "hands-on" ... together. The peripheral nervous system refers to the cervical, thoracic, ... or dysfunction (such as pain) travel from the brain to the spinal cord ...

  1. Characterization of a novel model of tonic heat pain stimulation in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naert, Arne L G; Kehlet, Henrik; Kupers, Ron

    2008-08-15

    The vast majority of the experimental pain studies have used acute, phasic heat stimuli to investigate the neurobiological mechanisms of pain. However, the validity of these models for understanding clinical forms of pain is questionable. We here describe the characteristics of a model of prolonged tonic heat pain stimulation and compared the responses on this test with other measures of pain. In 58 normal volunteers, we applied a 7-min lasting contact heat stimulation of 47 degrees C to the upper leg while participants constantly rated their pain. Average pain rating during the 7-min period was 6.2+/-0.4, females scoring higher than men (7.4+/-0.5 vs. 5.2+/-0.5; pPain ratings showed a steady increase during the first half of the stimulation period after which they stabilized. A strong interindividual variability was observed in the time profiles of the pain ratings over the course of the 7-min stimulation period. The model showed a good test-retest reproducibility. Tonic heat pain ratings only correlated moderately with the pain threshold while stronger correlations were observed with pain tolerance and ratings of suprathreshold phasic heat pain. We conclude that the tonic heat model is a suitable model that can be applied without excessive discomfort in the majority of subjects and offers a valuable addition to the armamentarium of experimental pain models. The model can be particularly suitable for brain imaging receptor binding studies which require long stimulation periods.

  2. The role of tramadol in pain management in Latin America: a report by the Change Pain Latin America Advisory Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Garcia, Joäo Batista; Lech, Osvandré; Campos Kraychete, Durval; Rico, María Antonieta; Hernández-Castro, John Jairo; Colimon, Frantz; Guerrero, Carlos; Sempértegui Gallegos, Manuel; Lara-Solares, Argelia; Flores Cantisani, José Alberto; Amescua-Garcia, César; Guillén Núñez, María Del Rocío; Berenguel Cook, María Del Rosario; Jreige Iskandar, Aziza; Bonilla Sierra, Patricia

    2017-09-01

    Change Pain Latin America (CPLA) was created to enhance chronic pain understanding and develop pain management improving strategies in this region. During its seventh meeting (August 2016), the main objective was to discuss tramadol's role in treating pain in Latin America. Furthermore, potential pain management consequences were considered, if tramadol was to become more stringently controlled. Key topics discussed were: main indications for prescribing tramadol, its pharmacological characteristics, safety and tolerability, effects of restrictions on its availability and use, and consequent impact on pain care quality. The experts agreed that tramadol is used to treat a wide spectrum of non-oncological pain conditions (e.g. post-surgical, musculoskeletal, post-traumatic, neuropathic, fibromyalgia), as well as cancer pain. Its relevance when treating special patient groups (e.g. the elderly) is recognized. The main reasons for tramadol's high significance as a treatment option are: its broad efficacy, an inconspicuous safety profile and its availability, considering that access to strong analgesics - mainly controlled drugs (classical opioids) - is highly restricted in some countries. The CPLA also agreed that tramadol is well tolerated, without the safety issues associated with long-term nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use, with fewer opioid-like side effects than classical opioids and lower abuse risk. In Latin America, tramadol is a valuable and frequently used medication for treating moderate to severe pain. More stringent regulations would have significant impact on its availability, especially for outpatients. This could cause regression to older and frequently inadequate pain management methods, resulting in unnecessary suffering for many Latin American patients.

  3. Painful Intercourse Is Significantly Associated with Evoked Pain Perception and Cognitive Aspects of Pain in Women with Pelvic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryl J. Alappattu, DPT, PhD

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: Differences in local pain ratings suggest that women with pelvic pain perceive stimuli in this region as more painful than pain-free women although the magnitude of stimuli does not differ. Alappattu MJ, George SZ, Robinson ME, Fillingim RB, Moawad N, LeBrun EW, and Bishop MD. Painful intercourse is significantly associated with evoked pain perception and cognitive aspects of pain in women with pelvic pain. Sex Med 2015;3:14–23.

  4. Pharmacodynamics and tolerance of X-ray contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmiedel, E.

    1987-01-01

    The improved tolerance of nonionic contrast media compared with conventional contrast media is mainly due to their lower osmolality and reduced allergoid potential. Tolerance advantages that have been definitely proven are, for example, low-pain contrast medium injection and superior systemic tolerance; side effects of an allergic pattern occur less often. Animals experiments have established that nonionic contrast media exercise a comparatively lower influence on the cardiovascular system. The haemodynamics of pulmonary circulation are less adversely affected on intravenous bolus injection. Reduced potential risk is to be expected especially in cardiac and bronchopulmonary high-risk patients. The reduced nephrotoxicity of nonionic contrast media was definitely established by clinical studies. Further systematic studies will however be required to provide an answer to the question whether this also entails a reduction in the incidence of renal failures induced by contrast media. (orig.) [de

  5. Mars MetNet Mission Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Arruego, I.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.; Haukka, H.; Palin, M.; Nikkanen, T.

    2015-10-01

    New kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is under development in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semihard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested.

  6. Mars MetNet Precursor Mission Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Guerrero, H.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.; Haukka, H.

    2013-09-01

    We are developing a new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested.

  7. RadNet Air Quality (Deployable) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RadNet Deployable Monitoring is designed to collect radiological and meteorological information and data asset needed to establish the impact of radiation levels on...

  8. Versatile Wireless Data Net, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed R many will be MEMS devices. The net enables coordinated, efficient transmission of measurement signals; self test metrics, and environmental metrics to...

  9. Integrating phenotype ontologies with PhenomeNET

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez-Garcia, Miguel Angel; Gkoutos, Georgios V.; Schofield, Paul N.; Hoehndorf, Robert

    2017-01-01

    in clinical and model organism databases presents complex problems when attempting to match classes across species and across phenotypes as diverse as behaviour and neoplasia. We have previously developed PhenomeNET, a system for disease gene prioritization

  10. The Uniframe .Net Web Service Discovery Service

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berbeco, Robert W

    2003-01-01

    ...) and registered with Internet Information Server (IIS), and can be applied in numerous fashions This project uses the NET capabilities to create a distributed discovery service (called as UNWSDS...

  11. Elliptic net and its cryptographic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslim, Norliana; Said, Mohamad Rushdan Md

    2017-11-01

    Elliptic net is a generalization of elliptic divisibility sequence and in cryptography field, most cryptographic pairings that are based on elliptic curve such as Tate pairing can be improved by applying elliptic nets algorithm. The elliptic net is constructed by using n dimensional array of values in rational number satisfying nonlinear recurrence relations that arise from elliptic divisibility sequences. The two main properties hold in the recurrence relations are for all positive integers m>n, hm +nhm -n=hm +1hm -1hn2-hn +1hn -1hm2 and hn divides hm whenever n divides m. In this research, we discuss elliptic divisibility sequence associated with elliptic nets based on cryptographic perspective and its possible research direction.

  12. A Lightweight TwiddleNet Portal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rimikis, Antonios M

    2008-01-01

    TwiddleNet is a distributed architecture of personal servers that harnesses the power of the mobile devices, enabling real time information and file sharing of multiple data types from commercial-off-the-shelf platforms...

  13. MMPM - Mars MetNet Precursor Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Schmidt, W.; Pichkhadze, K.; Linkin, V.; Vazquez, L.; Uspensky, M.; Polkko, J.; Genzer, M.; Lipatov, A.; Guerrero, H.; Alexashkin, S.; Haukka, H.; Savijarvi, H.; Kauhanen, J.

    2008-09-01

    We are developing a new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars - MetNet in situ observation network based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called the Met-Net Lander (MNL). The eventual scope of the MetNet Mission is to deploy some 20 MNLs on the Martian surface using inflatable descent system structures, which will be supported by observations from the orbit around Mars. Currently we are working on the MetNet Mars Precursor Mission (MMPM) to deploy one MetNet Lander to Mars in the 2009/2011 launch window as a technology and science demonstration mission. The MNL will have a versatile science payload focused on the atmospheric science of Mars. Detailed characterization of the Martian atmospheric circulation patterns, boundary layer phenomena, and climatology cycles, require simultaneous in-situ measurements by a network of observation posts on the Martian surface. The scientific payload of the MetNet Mission encompasses separate instrument packages for the atmospheric entry and descent phase and for the surface operation phase. The MetNet mission concept and key probe technologies have been developed and the critical subsystems have been qualified to meet the Martian environmental and functional conditions. Prototyping of the payload instrumentation with final dimensions was carried out in 2003-2006.This huge development effort has been fulfilled in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), the Russian Lavoschkin Association (LA) and the Russian Space Research Institute (IKI) since August 2001. Currently the INTA (Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial) from Spain is also participating in the MetNet payload development. To understand the behavior and dynamics of the Martian atmosphere, a wealth of simultaneous in situ observations are needed on varying types of Martian orography, terrain and altitude spanning all latitudes and longitudes. This will be performed by the Mars MetNet Mission. In addition to the science aspects the

  14. Children's pain perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve, R; Marquina-Aponte, V

    2012-05-01

    Previous studies on children's pain perspectives remain limited to English-speaking populations. An exploratory cross-sectional descriptive design was used to investigate the developmental progression of children's pain perspectives, including their pain experience, its definition and attributes, causality and coping. The Children's Pain Perspectives Inventory was applied to 180 healthy Spanish children. A coding system was developed following the content analysis method. Three age groups were compared: 4-6 years, corresponding to the Piagetian pre-operational stage of cognitive development; 7-11 years, corresponding to stage of concrete operations; and 12-14 years, corresponding to the period of early formal operations. In children between 4 and 6, the predominant narratives related to physical injuries, the notion of causality and the definition of pain. In children between 7 and 11, the predominant narratives were those in which pain was described as a sensation in one part of the body. The view of pain as having an emotional basis significantly increased with age and was more frequent in adolescents. In contrast, children between 4-6 and 7-11 indicated that pain occurs spontaneously. The denial of any positive aspects of pain significantly decreased with age; some children between 7 and 11 referred to the 'possibility of relief', while the view that pain is a 'learning experience' was significantly more frequent among adolescents aged between 12 and 14 years. The use of cognitive strategies to control pain significantly increased with age. Between 12 and 14 years of age, adolescents communicate pain by non-verbal behaviour and reported that they do not express demands for relief. There was a progression from concrete to more complex notions of pain as age increased. These results may be of use to health professionals and parents to understand how children at various developmental stages express and cope with pain and to develop tools that effectively assess and

  15. .NET 4.5 parallel extensions

    CERN Document Server

    Freeman, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    This book contains practical recipes on everything you will need to create task-based parallel programs using C#, .NET 4.5, and Visual Studio. The book is packed with illustrated code examples to create scalable programs.This book is intended to help experienced C# developers write applications that leverage the power of modern multicore processors. It provides the necessary knowledge for an experienced C# developer to work with .NET parallelism APIs. Previous experience of writing multithreaded applications is not necessary.

  16. Mastering AngularJD for .NET developers

    CERN Document Server

    Majid, Mohammad Wadood

    2015-01-01

    This book is envisioned for traditional developers and programmers who want to develop client-side applications using the AngularJS framework and ASP.NET Web API 2 with Visual Studio. .NET developers who have already built web applications or web services and who have a fundamental knowledge of HTML, JavaScript, and CSS and want to explore single-page applications will also find this guide useful. Basic knowledge of AngularJS would be helpful.

  17. CCS - and its relationship to net theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens

    1987-01-01

    In this paper we give a short introduction to Milner's Calculus for Communicating Systems - a paradigm for concurrent computation. We put special emphasis on the basic concepts and tools from the underlying "algebraic approach", and their relationship to the approach to concurrency within net the...... theory. Furthermore, we provide an operational version of the language CCS with "true concurrency" in the sense of net theory, and a discussion of the possible use of such a marriage of the two theories of concurrency....

  18. Control of Petri Nets by finite automata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkhard, H D

    1983-01-01

    Petri Nets are considered where the firings are controlled by finite automata. The control may be distributed to various automata working over disjoint sets of transitions. To avoid deadlocks and conflicts for the whole system the distribution of control must be organised in an appropriate manner. The existence of deadlocks and conflicts is shown to be undecidable in general, but conflict resolving and deadlock free controls can be constructed for given nets. 10 references.

  19. Pain-related worry in patients with chronic orofacial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, C Ervin; Stockstill, John W; Stanley, William D; Wu, Qiang

    2014-07-01

    Pain-related worry is distinct from, but related to, pain catastrophizing (PC) and anxiety. Worry and its relationship with other variables have been studied in people with chronic pain but not in people with chronic orofacial pain. The authors explored the prevalence of trait, general and pain-related worry and the association of worry with higher pain levels and other variables. The authors assessed people who had a diagnosis of chronic orofacial pain by using nonpain-related trait worry, state anxiety, trait anxiety, PC and pain measures. The participants' answers to an open-ended question about what they were most worried about led to the identification of worry domains, including worry about pain. The authors found that worrying about pain was related significantly to worst and least pain levels, pain interference and pain duration, as well as moderated trait worry in predicting pain interference. Although trait worry was not correlated directly with pain, when moderated by PC, it made substantial contributions in predicting pain interference. Participants with chronic orofacial pain reported experiencing substantial levels of trait worry, anxiety, PC and worry about pain that related to pain ratings directly and indirectly. Clinicians should assess pain-related worry in patients with chronic orofacial pain to understand the effects of worry on pain and functioning. Clinicians could treat these patients more effectively by helping them reduce their levels of pain-related worry and focusing on improved coping.

  20. Dancing in pain: pain appraisal and coping in dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ruth; Hanrahan, Stephanie J

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between the type of pain experienced (performance pain and injury pain), the cognitive appraisal of pain and pain coping styles in dancers. Fifty-one professional ballet and contemporary dancers (17 males and 34 females), with the mean age of 25.9 years, completed a general pain questionnaire, the Pain Appraisal Inventory, the Survey of Pain Attitudes Control Subscale, and the Sports Inventory for Pain. Multivariate analyses of variance indicated that both the cognitive appraisal of the pain and pain coping styles did not differ according to the type of pain experienced or the pain severity. However, it was found that dancers with performance pain of either low or high severity were more likely to dance in pain than dancers experiencing injury pain. Multiple regression analyses indicated that the appraisal of pain as threatening was predictive of the use of avoidance and catastrophizing pain coping styles. Overall, results indicated that dancers may not differentiate between performance pain and injury pain, or modify their appraisal and coping strategies according to the characteristics of the pain experienced. The study highlighted an opportunity for increased education for dancers in recognizing the difference between pain considered to be a routine aspect of training and pain which is a signal of serious injury.