WorldWideScience

Sample records for net oil imports

  1. Renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and economic growth: Evidence from MENA Net Oil Importing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kahia, Montassar; Ben Aissa, Mohamed Safouane

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we use panel cointegration techniques to explore the relationship between renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and economic growth in a sample of 11 MENA Net Oil Importing Countries covering the period 1980–2012. The Pedroni (1999, 2004), Kao(1999) as well as Westerlund(2007) panel cointegration tests indicate that there is a long-run equilibrium relationship between real GDP, renewable energy consumption, non-renewable energy consumption, real gross fixed capital for...

  2. Oil vulnerability index of oil-importing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Eshita

    2008-01-01

    This paper assesses the relative oil vulnerability of 26 net oil-importing countries for the year 2004 on the basis of various indicators - the ratio of value of oil imports to gross domestic product (GDP), oil consumption per unit of GDP, GDP per capita and oil share in total energy supply, ratio of domestic reserves to oil consumption, exposure to geopolitical oil market concentration risks as measured by net oil import dependence, diversification of supply sources, political risk in oil-supplying countries, and market liquidity. The approach using the principal component technique has been adopted to combine these individual indicators into a composite index of oil vulnerability. Such an index captures the relative sensitivity of various economies towards developments of the international oil market, with a higher index indicating higher vulnerability. The results show that there are considerable differences in the values of individual indicators of oil vulnerability and overall oil vulnerability index among the countries (both inter and intraregional). (author)

  3. Oil vulnerability index of oil-importing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Eshita [The Energy and Resources Institute, Darbari Seth Block, Habitat Place, New Delhi 110 003 (India)

    2008-03-15

    This paper assesses the relative oil vulnerability of 26 net oil-importing countries for the year 2004 on the basis of various indicators - the ratio of value of oil imports to gross domestic product (GDP), oil consumption per unit of GDP, GDP per capita and oil share in total energy supply, ratio of domestic reserves to oil consumption, exposure to geopolitical oil market concentration risks as measured by net oil import dependence, diversification of supply sources, political risk in oil-supplying countries, and market liquidity. The approach using the principal component technique has been adopted to combine these individual indicators into a composite index of oil vulnerability. Such an index captures the relative sensitivity of various economies towards developments of the international oil market, with a higher index indicating higher vulnerability. The results show that there are considerable differences in the values of individual indicators of oil vulnerability and overall oil vulnerability index among the countries (both inter and intraregional). (author)

  4. EEC demand for imported crude oil, 1956--1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouris, G; Robinson, C

    1977-06-01

    The authors develop here a model which analyses the EEC demand for imported oil, basing the analysis on functional relationships with real income and price. They conclude that net imports into the EEC in 1985 will be sensitive to future oil prices. If no UK oil were available then it might be necessary to double real oil prices to meet an objective of holding net imports to their 1973 levels. However, the existence of UK oil should allow this goal to be achieved with much lower price rises, probably around 30 to 50%, but perhaps as low as zero.

  5. Dynamically consistent oil import tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karp, L.; Newbery, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    The standard theory of optimal tariffs considers tariffs on perishable goods produced abroad under static conditions, in which tariffs affect prices only in that period. Oil and other exhaustable resources do not fit this model, for current tariffs affect the amount of oil imported, which will affect the remaining stock and hence its future price. The problem of choosing a dynamically consistent oil import tariff when suppliers are competitive but importers have market power is considered. The open-loop Nash tariff is solved for the standard competitive case in which the oil price is arbitraged, and it was found that the resulting tariff rises at the rate of interest. This tariff was found to have an equilibrium that in general is dynamically inconsistent. Nevertheless, it is shown that necessary and sufficient conditions exist under which the tariff satisfies the weaker condition of time consistency. A dynamically consistent tariff is obtained by assuming that all agents condition their current decisions on the remaining stock of the resource, in contrast to open-loop strategies. For the natural case in which all agents choose their actions simultaneously in each period, the dynamically consistent tariff was characterized, and found to differ markedly from the time-inconsistent open-loop tariff. It was shown that if importers do not have overwhelming market power, then the time path of the world price is insensitive to the ability to commit, as is the level of wealth achieved by the importer. 26 refs., 4 figs

  6. Net oil exports embodied in China's international trade: An input–output analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Xu; Zhang, Baosheng; Feng, Lianyong; Snowden, Simon; Höök, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    As the world's second largest oil importer, China has been one of the important factors which affect the global oil market. In recent years, China has attained great international trade surplus through exporting a large number of “Made in China” products even during the global economic crisis. Due to direct and indirect effects in production chain, each 'Made in China' product contains oil directly or indirectly. China is exporting much oil through “Made in China” products, which is not often considered even within China. An input–output model is established to calculate oil embodied in the international trade of China. The research results suggest the following: China's net oil exports embodied in the international trade were 87.02 million tonnes in 2007; manufacture of communication equipment, computers and other electronic equipment is the largest sector to export embodied oil; United States, China Hong Kong SAR and Netherlands are the top three countries and regions which benefit most from the embodied oil in “Made in China” products. China's adjusted degree of dependence on foreign oil is 24.9% in 2007, and 38.4% in 2011 if net oil exports embodied in international trade are considered. -- Highlights: ► Model is established based on IO analysis to calculate the net oil exports embodied in China's international trade. ► China's net oil exports through “Made in China” products are 87 million tones in 2007. ► United States, China Hong Kong SAR and Netherlands benefit most from the embodied oil in China's international trade. ► China's degree of dependence on foreign oil can be reduced obviously if oil embodied in international trade are considered.

  7. Oil price, capital mobility and oil importers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Romero, A.

    1992-01-01

    A three-region, three-commodity general equilibrium model is constructed to explore the impact of OPEC's pricing policies on major macro variables of importer economies. The aim of this paper is to explore general macro characteristics of the trading economies to aid understanding of the world economy response after OPEC I and OPEC II in terms of the evolution of North - South terms of trade, rates of profit and output levels. We support the view of a world economy in a three regions setting, North - South - OPEC. The analysis increases our understanding of why regions respond differently to the same external shock and how from different regimes of capital mobility we should derive alternative policy implications. With the current rise in oil prices, the topic promises to be relevant for some time, although the direction of the shocks has been reserved. (Author)

  8. Net energy yield from production of conventional oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, Michael; Krumdieck, Susan; Bodger, Pat

    2011-01-01

    Historic profitability of bringing oil to market was profound, but most easy oil has been developed. Higher cost resources, such as tar sands and deep off-shore, are considered the best prospects for the future. Economic modelling is currently used to explore future price scenarios commensurate with delivering fuel to market. Energy policy requires modelling scenarios capturing the complexity of resource and extraction aspects as well as the economic profitability of different resources. Energy-return-on-investment (EROI) expresses the profitability of bringing energy products to the market. Net energy yield (NEY) is related to the EROI. NEY is the amount of energy less expenditures necessary to deliver a fuel to the market. This paper proposes a pattern for EROI of oil production, based on historic oil development trends. Methodology and data for EROI is not agreed upon. The proposed EROI function is explored in relation to the available data and used to attenuate the International Energy Agency (IEA) world oil production scenarios to understand the implications of future declining EROI on net energy yield. The results suggest that strategies for management and mitigation of deleterious effects of a peak in oil production are more urgent than might be suggested by analyses focussing only on gross production. - Highlights: → Brief introduction to methodological issues concerning net energy analysis. → Description of EROI function over the whole production cycle of an energy resource. → Calibration of this function to EROI data from historic oil production. → Application to determine the net energy yield from current global oil production. → Calculation of net energy yield from IEA projections of future oil production.

  9. Photosynthetic behavior, growth and essential oil production of Melissa officinalis L. cultivated under colored shade nets

    OpenAIRE

    Graziele C Oliveira; Willyam L Vieira; Suzana C Bertolli; Ana Claudia Pacheco

    2016-01-01

    The modulation of light is of importance during cultivation of medicinal plants to obtain desirable morphological and physiological changes associated with the maximum production of active principles. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the light spectrum transmitted by colored shade nets on growth, essential oil production and photosynthetic behavior in plants of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) Plants were cultivated in pots for 4-mo under black, red, and blue nets with 50% shadin...

  10. Imported resources - gas/oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakob, K. [MOL Hungarian Oil and Gas Company, Budapest (Hungary)

    1995-12-01

    The goal of this presentation is to provide information on issues of crude oil and natural gas supply at a conference addressing the problems of energy in Eastern and Central Europe. Although this can inevitably be performed through the {open_quotes}binoculars{close_quotes} of the petroleum sector of my country, I will try to present the issues and challenges that are thought to be characteristic in general for the region.

  11. Photosynthetic behavior, growth and essential oil production of Melissa officinalis L. cultivated under colored shade nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziele C Oliveira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The modulation of light is of importance during cultivation of medicinal plants to obtain desirable morphological and physiological changes associated with the maximum production of active principles. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the light spectrum transmitted by colored shade nets on growth, essential oil production and photosynthetic behavior in plants of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L. Plants were cultivated in pots for 4-mo under black, red, and blue nets with 50% shading, and full sunlight exposure. Biometric and anatomical variables, essential oil yield, global solar radiation, photon flux density, chlorophyll content, and gas exchange parameters were measured in M. officinalis leaves. The results showed that despite being considered a partial shade plant, this species is able to adapt to full sunlight conditions without increasing biomass production. The spectral changes provided by colored shade nets did not caused any noticeable change in leaf anatomy of M. officinalis. However, the use of blue net resulted in increments of 116% in plant height, 168% in leaf area, 42% in chlorophyll content and 30% in yield of essential oil in lemon balm plants. These plant's qualities make the use of blue net a cultivation practice suitable for commercial use.

  12. Is It Feasible for China to Optimize Oil Import Source Diversification?

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jian; Zhang, Jin-Suo; Yao, Qin; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, China imported 282 million tons of crude oil with an external dependence of 58.1%, surpassing the USA as the world’s largest net oil importer. An import source diversification strategy has been adopted by China to ensure oil supply security and to prevent oil supply disruption. However, the strategy is restricted by the imbalance of oil reserves. What is the reasonable and clear objective of the diversification strategy under an imbalanced environment? How do we assess the natural i...

  13. Efficient way of importing crude oil from oil producing countries - A review on diversification policy of crude oil import

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dal Sok [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    Since the second oil crisis, the government has operated the import diversification support program to reduce the risk of crude oil import from Middle-East region and to raise the ability of dealing with the risk. This study tried to seek policy trends in future through reviewing the market environment related to the crude oil import diversification policy and the goal, instrument and effect of the policy. The supply and demand of crude oil and the price are influenced by market system in the world oil market and there are various types of crude oil trading available to both sellers and buyers. There is a probability that the suspension of supply in a certain area could be led to the price issue rather than the physical use of crude oil. In addition, the advantage of price with long-term contract of crude oil was abolished since the price of crude oil imported by term contract has been linked to spot prices. As a result, it is shown that the potential benefit from crude oil import diversification policy is reduced although political and social insecurity still exists in Middle-East region. Therefore, it is desirable to maintain the existing support program until the amount of stored oil reaches the optimum level and to help private enterprises determine the import considering economical efficiency and risk. (author). 36 refs., 5 figs., 23 tabs.

  14. Is It Feasible for China to Optimize Oil Import Source Diversification?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Xu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2013, China imported 282 million tons of crude oil with an external dependence of 58.1%, surpassing the USA as the world’s largest net oil importer. An import source diversification strategy has been adopted by China to ensure oil supply security and to prevent oil supply disruption. However, the strategy is restricted by the imbalance of oil reserves. What is the reasonable and clear objective of the diversification strategy under an imbalanced environment? How do we assess the natural imbalance? This paper analyzes the oil import diversification of China and the USA, as well as the oil production of oil export countries by the oil import source diversification index (OISDI. Our results are as follows: the distribution of oil import sources for China tends to coincide with the oil production distribution of oil exporters in the world. Compared with the USA, China has more diversified import sources. The Chinese government paid much attention to import sources in the past. In the future, China will adjust the distributions of regional sources rather than focus on the number of sources to further optimize the structure of imported regions in the course of implementing the import source diversification strategy.

  15. China's new oil import status underpins world's most dynamic petroleum scene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    China is poised to become a net importer of oil in 1994--95. That sets the stage for China importing more than 1 million b/d of crude oil and refined products on a net basis by the turn of the century. That development underpins a bigger story -- arguably the biggest story on the petroleum scene today. The turnabout that is seeing the world's fifth biggest oil producer go from significant oil exporter in recent years to major oil importer by the turn of the century points to several other truisms in the petroleum industry: That an oil demand surge in the Asia-Pacific region led by China will fuel overall world oil demand growth for years to come; that a refining and petrochemical boom in a country that accounts for about one fifth of the world's population has dramatic implications for those two industries; that privatization has gathered so much momentum in the global petroleum industry that even Communist China has embraced some form of it; that China's domestic crude supply shortfall is creating unprecedented opportunities for foreign upstream investors in one of the world's most prospective yet underexplored and underexploited regions; and that the same new openness that is distinguishing China's petroleum industry today is turning some of its state owned companies into major competitors to be reckoned with on the international scene, upstream and downstream. The paper discusses China's oil export/import balance, supply/demand outlook, policy changes, and new regulations governing export of crude oil and products

  16. Systems principles of planning the net cost of oil and gas extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryazanova, N I

    1979-01-01

    The automated system of calculation of ASPC ''oil extraction'' is developed in order to improve the existing system of planning of the oil extracting sector. The most complete expression of the systems construction of the plan is found in the section ''net cost and profit.'' Unity of the production process advances definite requirements for construction of the plan for net cost of oil and gas extraction as the model of this unified process. According to these requirements, the plan for net cost must be developed on the basis of interrelationship of the indicators of the plan for net cost within the section and with indicators of other sections of the plan, methodological unity and continuity of the methods of planning net cost by elements of outlays, articles of calculation and technical-economic factors, methodological continuity of regimes and stages of planning, as well as based on methodological continuity of the control levels. The listed requirements are principles for systems planning of the net cost of oil and gas extraction. These principles guarantee improvement in planning of net cost of oil and gas extraction according to the requirements made for the national economic planning.

  17. Ex-USSR: Oil exporter or importer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khartukov, E.M.

    1993-01-01

    Political disintegration and economic perestroika in the former Soviet Union (FSU) have major international ramifications and some of these can be found in the oil sector. An overview is presented of the FSU oil industry, including the conditions preceding and following the breakup. Early effects of the breakup included shortages of liquid fuels and the introduction of a strict export quota and license system. The likelihood of disruptions in oil exports, caused by political clashes between Russia and the other oil-transporting republics is low. Rapid decentralization of the Soviet oil trade is likely to bring forth currency-starved national exporters that may add substantially to international market competition and further undercut unstable world oil prices. In the short term, the FSU oil industry will suffer from inevitable imbalances which will manifest themselves in regional oil shortages and gluts spreading towards neighbouring international markets. In the medium and longer term the cooperating parts will become more self-reliant or infrastructurally independent and will speed natural growth and integration into neighbouring petroleum markets. Crude oil and oil product balances of the FSU republics are presented. 2 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs

  18. The US's group of seven: US oil import dependence grows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The latest available import data from the US Department of Energy show greater US dependence on imported crude oil, a two percentage point increase in 1992 above 1991. In fact, the share of imported crude oil of the sum of the US crude production and imports has grown from less than one-third in 1986 to nearly 46% in 1992. A closer look at the data reveals that US crude oil dependence is become increasingly centered on a small number of countries. In 1992, more than 85% of crude oil imports originated in seven countries: Saudia Arabia, Nigeria, Venezuela, Canada, Mexico, Angola, and the United Kingdom. Many people worry that US import dependence is at dangerous levels. However, the recent trend of joint ventures between US companies and oil producers should allay those fears by providing oil producers an incentive for stable oil supply in the US

  19. Uranium exports could match oil imports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    Apart from a temporary embargo while safeguards are negotiated, the Canadian government limits uranium exports so as to guarantee fuel for every Canadian reactor built or planned for 30 years. On the basis of present known reserves of 172 Gg of 'cheap' U 3 O 8 and 33 of 'dear', that would mean phasing out exports after the mid 1980's, but probably much more 'dear' uranium remains to be discovered. Provincial taxation and restrictions on foreign ownership may be limitations. Discoveries range over eleven areas, but production capacity at present is 14190 Mg/d from Ontario and 3400 from Saskatchewan, with 8800 mothballed and 4860 planned or being rehabilitated. The price has jumped to $95/kg, so that uranium exports may cover half the cost of oil imports. All producers use sulfuric acid leaching, except Eldorado, which uses carbonate leaching; a process using tertiary amine is being developed. Development of the organic-cooled Th/ 233 U fuelled reactor may greatly extend fuel resources. (N.D.H.)

  20. Giant Oil Fields - The Highway to Oil: Giant Oil Fields and their Importance for Future Oil Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robelius, Fredrik

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1950s, oil has been the dominant source of energy in the world. The cheap supply of oil has been the engine for economic growth in the western world. Since future oil demand is expected to increase, the question to what extent future production will be available is important. The belief in a soon peak production of oil is fueled by increasing oil prices. However, the reliability of the oil price as a single parameter can be questioned, as earlier times of high prices have occurred without having anything to do with a lack of oil. Instead, giant oil fields, the largest oil fields in the world, can be used as a parameter. A giant oil field contains at least 500 million barrels of recoverable oil. Only 507, or 1 % of the total number of fields, are giants. Their contribution is striking: over 60 % of the 2005 production and about 65 % of the global ultimate recoverable reserve (URR). However, giant fields are something of the past since a majority of the largest giant fields are over 50 years old and the discovery trend of less giant fields with smaller volumes is clear. A large number of the largest giant fields are found in the countries surrounding the Persian Gulf. The domination of giant fields in global oil production confirms a concept where they govern future production. A model, based on past annual production and URR, has been developed to forecast future production from giant fields. The results, in combination with forecasts on new field developments, heavy oil and oil sand, are used to predict future oil production. In all scenarios, peak oil occurs at about the same time as the giant fields peak. The worst-case scenario sees a peak in 2008 and the best-case scenario, following a 1.4 % demand growth, peaks in 2018

  1. Oil imports and the US balance of payments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, D.H.

    1990-01-01

    An examination of the historical data for the US during a period of major swings in our oil import bill shows little continuing relationship to measures of our overall international balance. A look at other major oil importers all more dependent on imported oil than we will be even by the end of the century shows they handled similar wide swings in their oil import bills even while improving their international balances. Some, perhaps a major part, or our increased payments for oil imports is likely to return as payment for imports from us by the oil exporters. What seems more important is that we remain competitive in our export industries, and some measures suggested to reduce our oil imports, such as a unilateral US oil import tariff are likely to work against this competitiveness by raising oil and energy costs to our industries above those of our competitors. In terms of our international balances at least, the cures for rising oil imports are likely to be much worse than the disease

  2. Political oil import diversification by financial and commercial traders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashcheeva, Mila; Tsui, Kevin K.

    2015-01-01

    International politics affects the oil trade. But do financial and commercial traders who participate in spot oil trading also respond to changes in international politics? We construct a firm-level dataset for all U.S. oil-importing companies over 1986–2008 to examine how these firms respond to increases in “political distance” between the U.S. and her trading partners, measured by divergence in their UN General Assembly voting patterns. Consistent with previous macro evidence, we first show that individual firms diversify their oil imports politically, even after controlling for unobserved firm heterogeneity. However, the political pattern of oil imports is not entirely driven by the concerns of hold-up risks, which exist when oil transactions via term contracts are associated with backward vertical FDI that is subject to expropriation. In particular, our results indicate that even financial and commercial traders significantly reduce their oil imports from U.S. political enemies. Interestingly, while these traders diversify their oil imports politically immediately after changes in international politics, other oil companies reduce their oil imports with a significant time lag. Our findings suggest that in designing regulations to avoid harmful repercussions on commodity and financial assets, policymakers need to understand the nature of political risk. -- Highlights: •American firms diversify their oil imports politically. •Financial and commercial traders diversify their oil imports politically immediately. •Other oil companies reduce their oil imports with a significant time lag. •Policymakers need to understand the nature of political risk

  3. Switching from monoculture to polyculture farming benefits birds in oil palm production landscapes: Evidence from mist netting data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, Muhammad S; Syafiq, Muhamad; Ashton-Butt, Adham; Ghazali, Amal; Asmah, Siti; Azhar, Badrul

    2017-08-01

    Monoculture farming is pervasive in industrial oil palm agriculture, including those RSPO plantations certified as sustainably managed. This farming practice does not promote the maintenance of farmland biodiversity. However, little scientific attention has been given to polyculture farming in oil palm production landscapes. Polyculture farming is likely to increase the floristic diversity and stand structural complexity that underpins biodiversity. Mist nets were used to sample birds at 120 smallholdings in Peninsular Malaysia. At each site, 12 vegetation structure characteristics were measured. We compared bird species richness, abundance, and composition between monoculture and polyculture smallholdings and used predictive models to examine the effects of habitat quality on avian biodiversity. Bird species richness was significantly greater in polyculture than that of monoculture smallholdings. The number of fallen and standing, dead oil palms were also important positive predictors of species richness. Bird abundance was also strongly increased by standing and dead oil palms and decreased with oil palm stand height. Our results indicate that polyculture farming can improve bird species richness in oil palm production landscapes. In addition, key habitat variables that are closely associated with farming practices, such as the removal of dead trees, should and can be managed by oil palm growers in order to promote biodiversity. To increase the sustainability of oil palm agriculture, it is imperative that stakeholders modify the way oil palms are currently planted and managed. Our findings can guide policy makers and certification bodies to promote oil palm production landscapes that will function more sustainably and increase existing biodiversity of oil palm landscapes.

  4. Role of oil imports in economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madduri, V.B.N.S.; Radhika, G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that energy has a vital role to play in a developing economy. The process of industrialization calls for continuous increase in energy use. In general, the greater the use of energy, the higher the economy is placed in the order of developed countries. Countries with high per-capita income have a high consumption level of energy too. On a per-capita basis, energy consumed in U.S.A. is 51.7 barrels of oil equivalent per year while in India, it is 0.9 barrels of oil equivalent only. Therefore, energy consumption, industrial development and economic growth are interlinked. Energy became a significant part in the process of development. In the case of developing countries, any change in the price of oil has a negative effect on economic growth. It was stated in one of the Oil and Natural Gas Commission reports that a fivefold increase in the international price of oil, in real terms, over the past 15 years has had profound effects on balance of payments and growth prospects in developing countries

  5. Dynamic correlation between stock market and oil prices: The case of oil-importing and oil-exporting countries

    OpenAIRE

    Filis, George; Degiannakis, S.; Floros, C.

    2011-01-01

    The paper investigates the time-varying correlation between stock market prices and oil prices for oil-importing and oil-exporting countries. A DCC-GARCH-GJR approach is employed to test the above hypothesis based on data from six countries; Oil-exporting: Canada, Mexico, Brazil and Oil-importing: USA, Germany, Netherlands. The contemporaneous correlation results show that i) although time-varying correlation does not differ for oil-importing and oil-exporting economies, ii) the correlation i...

  6. Venezuela No. 1 oil import source in S. America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darukhanavala, P.P.; Davidson, M.C.; Tyler, T.N.; Blaskovich, F.T.; Smith, C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that with the exception of Venezuela, the U.S. is likely to import much oil from South American countries through 2010, the General Accounting Office reports. GAO, a congressional watchdog agency, noted the U.S. imports about 4% of its oil from Colombia, Ecuador, and Trinidad and Tobago and possibly could import from Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, and Peru in the future. It the the eight countries' crude oil reserves are expected to increase about 30% by 2000, then slide about 2% by 2010. Their oil production is expected to climb about 21% over 1990 by 2000, then level off until 2010

  7. Evaluating U.S. oil security and import reliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Stephen P.A.; Huntington, Hillard G.

    2015-01-01

    We examine the literature that considers the consequences of U.S. reliance on imported oil. We take an approach that covers many ideas about the costs arising from U.S. reliance on imported oil, and we identify which of those ideas have broad support in the economics literature and which ideas have only limited support. We also quantify the costs of U.S. reliance on imported oil using two approaches. One is fairly narrow, conforms to the economics view of externalities, and yields small cost estimates. The other is relatively expansive, is favored by some policy analysts, and yields much larger cost estimates. We estimate these costs as expected U.S. economic losses over a time horizon from 2010 through 2035, while taking into account world oil market conditions, market power, probable oil supply disruptions, and the oil-market response to those supply disruptions. - Highlights: • A variety of perspectives on the consequences of U.S. reliance on imported oil. • Quantify and evaluate the costs of U.S. reliance on oil imports. • Narrower approaches are more consistent with the economic definition of externalities. • Narrower approaches yield recommendations for relatively modest policy. • Expansive approaches favored by some policy analysts support more aggressive policy

  8. Dominant Middle East oil reserves critically important to world supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riva, J.P. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the location production, and transportation of the 60 million bbl of oil consumed in the world each day is of vital importance to relations between nations, as well as to their economic wellbeing. Oil has frequently been a decisive factor in the determination of foreign policy. The war in the Persian Gulf, while a dramatic example of the critical importance of oil, is just the latest of a long line of oil-influenced diplomatic/military incidents, which may be expected to continue. Assuming that the world's remaining oil was evenly distributed and demand did not grow, if exploration and development proceeded as efficiently as they have in the U.S., world oil production could be sustained at around current levels to about the middle of the next century. It then would begin a long decline in response to a depleting resource base. However, the world's remaining oil is very unevenly distributed. It is located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, mostly in the Persian Gulf, and much is controlled by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Scientific resource assessments indicate that about half of the world's remaining conventionally recoverable crude oil resource occurs in the Persian Gulf area. In terms of proved reserves (known recoverable oil), the Persian Gulf portion increase to almost two-thirds

  9. Importance of algae oil as a source of biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan; Fatih Demirbas, M.

    2011-01-01

    Algae are the fastest-growing plants in the world. Industrial reactors for algal culture are open ponds, photobioreactors and closed systems. Algae are very important as a biomass source. Algae will some day be competitive as a source for biofuel. Different species of algae may be better suited for different types of fuel. Algae can be grown almost anywhere, even on sewage or salt water, and does not require fertile land or food crops, and processing requires less energy than the algae provides. Algae can be a replacement for oil based fuels, one that is more effective and has no disadvantages. Algae are among the fastest-growing plants in the world, and about 50% of their weight is oil. This lipid oil can be used to make biodiesel for cars, trucks, and airplanes. Microalgae have much faster growth-rates than terrestrial crops. the per unit area yield of oil from algae is estimated to be from 20,000 to 80,000 l per acre, per year; this is 7-31 times greater than the next best crop, palm oil. The lipid and fatty acid contents of microalgae vary in accordance with culture conditions. Most current research on oil extraction is focused on microalgae to produce biodiesel from algal oil. Algal-oil processes into biodiesel as easily as oil derived from land-based crops.

  10. Subcritical ethylic biodiesel production from wet animal fat and vegetable oils: A net energy ratio analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sales, Emerson A.; Ghirardi, Maria L.; Jorquera, Orlando

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Using ethanol in subcritical thermodynamic conditions, without catalysts. • The net energy ratio-NER identifies opportunities for industrial application. • The presence of water and free fatty acids improved the TG conversion. • Transesterification reactions of animal fat, soybean and palm oils. - Abstract: Ethylic transesterification process for biodiesel production without any chemical or biochemical catalysts at different subcritical thermodynamic conditions was performed using wet animal fat, soybean and palm oils as feedstock. The results indicate that 2 h of reaction at 240 °C with pressures varying from 20 to 45 bar was sufficient to transform almost all lipid fraction of the samples to biodiesel, depending on the reactor dead volume and proportions between reactants. Conversions of 100%, 84% and 98.5% were obtained for animal fat, soybean oil and palm oil, respectively, in the presence of water, with a net energy ration values of 2.6, 2.1 and 2.5 respectively. These results indicate that the process is energetically favorable, and thus represents a cleaner technology with environmental advantages when compared to traditional esterification or transesterification processes.

  11. Sensory properties of Californian and imported extra virgin olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Claudia; Guinard, Jean-Xavier

    2011-04-01

    Production and consumption of extra-virgin olive has been increasing in the United States, particularly in California. The objective of this study was to compare the sensory characteristics of 22 extra virgin olive oils (EVOO) from California, Italy, Spain, Chile, and Australia using a generic descriptive analysis. A total of 22 sensory attributes were identified and defined by the descriptive panel. With the exception of thick and citrus, all sensory attributes were significantly different among the oils. Canonical Variate Analysis (CVA) showed that California oils differed from some imported EVOOs, mainly by their absence of defects. A second analysis, of only those attributes included in the International Olive Council (IOC) official scorecard, provided a less detailed description of the samples and did not allow for a full characterization of the oils. While the IOC attributes allowed for faster classification in terms of clean versus defective EVOOs, the more comprehensive descriptive analysis provided both more information and a more refined classification of the samples. Variety and region of origin were important factors in the classification of both Californian and imported EVOOs.   Measuring olive oil sensory quality using the IOC method-positive attributes of fruitiness, bitterness, and pungency, and defects including fusty, musty, winey, and rancid-allows for the certification of oils as extra virgin but it provides limited information on the sensory characteristics of the oils. A full descriptive profile, on the other hand, provides information that can be used by producers in the processing and marketing of their oils, and is a useful tool in the education of consumers about the wide range of (positive) sensory attributes in EVOO and the various sensory styles of EVOO.

  12. In situ net N mineralisation and nitrification under organic and conventionally managed olive oil orchards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez Muñoz, Beatriz; Hinojosa, M. B.; García-Ruiz, R.

    2015-01-01

    Olive oil orchard occupies a great percentage of the cropland in southern Spain. Thus, changes in nitrogen (N) fertilization might have a great effect on N dynamics at least at regional scale, which should be investigated for a sustainable N fertilization program. In situ net N mineralization (NM......) and nitrification (NN) were investigated during a year in comparable organic (OR) and conventional (CV) olive oil orchards of two locations differing their N input. Soil samples were collected in two soil positions (under and between trees canopy) and both buried-bags and soil core techniques were used to quantify...... soil TN. Soil TN and PMN explained together a 50 % of the variability in soil N availability, which suggests that these two variables are good predictors of the potential of a soil to provide available N. The highest rates of soil N availability were found in spring, when olive tree demand for N...

  13. Transporting US oil imports: The impact of oil spill legislation on the tanker market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowland, P.J.

    1992-05-01

    The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (''OPA'') and an even more problematic array of State pollution laws have raised the cost, and risk, of carrying oil into and out of the US. This report, prepared under contract to the US Department of energy's Office of Domestic and International Policy, examines the impact of Federal and State oil spill legislation on the tanker market. It reviews the role of marine transportation in US oil supply, explores the OPA and State oil spill laws, studies reactions to OPA in the tanker and tank barge industries and in related industries such as insurance and ship finance, and finally, discusses the likely developments in the years ahead. US waterborne oil imports amounted to 6.5 million B/D in 1991, three-quarters of which was crude oil. Imports will rise by almost 3 million B/D by 2000 according to US Department of energy forecasts, with most of the crude oil growth after 1995. Tanker demand will grow even faster: most of the US imports and the increased traffic to other world consuming regions will be on long-haul trades. Both the number of US port calls by tankers and the volume of offshore lightering will grow. Every aspect of the tanker industry's behavior is affected by OPA and a variety of State pollution laws

  14. Transporting US oil imports: The impact of oil spill legislation on the tanker market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowland, P.J. (Rowland (P.) Associates (United States))

    1992-05-01

    The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 ( OPA'') and an even more problematic array of State pollution laws have raised the cost, and risk, of carrying oil into and out of the US. This report, prepared under contract to the US Department of energy's Office of Domestic and International Policy, examines the impact of Federal and State oil spill legislation on the tanker market. It reviews the role of marine transportation in US oil supply, explores the OPA and State oil spill laws, studies reactions to OPA in the tanker and tank barge industries and in related industries such as insurance and ship finance, and finally, discusses the likely developments in the years ahead. US waterborne oil imports amounted to 6.5 million B/D in 1991, three-quarters of which was crude oil. Imports will rise by almost 3 million B/D by 2000 according to US Department of energy forecasts, with most of the crude oil growth after 1995. Tanker demand will grow even faster: most of the US imports and the increased traffic to other world consuming regions will be on long-haul trades. Both the number of US port calls by tankers and the volume of offshore lightering will grow. Every aspect of the tanker industry's behavior is affected by OPA and a variety of State pollution laws.

  15. Diversification of oil import sources and energy security. A key strategy or an elusive objective?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivoda, Vlado

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between the diversification of sources of imported oil and energy security of oil-importing countries. It examines the importance of diversification policy for oil importers, explains why oil importers implement oil diversification policy, and contextualizes the oil import diversification strategy in the overall energy security policy of oil importers. The paper analyzes the factors and the contexts that affect the level of importance assigned to oil import diversification policy in oil-importing countries, and the limitations that may affect the successful implication of oil import diversification policy. The examples are drawn from the world's top three oil importers, the United States, Japan, and China. The policymakers in these and other oil-importing countries place much importance on energy security. The diversification of oil import sources is used as one of the strategies to enhance energy security in oil-importing countries. This paper is important for policymakers in oil-importing countries as it provides them with a qualitative conceptual framework with which to evaluate the need to diversify their countries' sources of imported oil, and with which to identify the likely limitations to the successful implementation of oil import diversification policy. (author)

  16. Revisiting the impacts of oil price increases on monetary policy implementation in the largest oil importers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurtac Yildirim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to test the impacts of oil price increases on monetary policy implementation in the largest oil importers. For that purpose, we estimate structural vector error correction (SVEC models to show the impacts of oil price increases on industrial production, consumer prices and immediate interest rates which are the elements of Taylor rule for the four largest oil importers (the USA, the EU, China and Japan. Our results indicate that oil price increases transmit to output and inflation and lead to fluctuations in industrial production, consumer prices and immediate interest rates which in turn influence the monetary policy stance in the following periods. The basic conclusion of research is that the channels through which oil prices affect output, inflation and interest rates should be identified by the monetary policy authorities of the USA, the EU, China and Japan. We also emphasize the importance of the determination of the optimal monetary policy framework to eliminate the negative consequences of oil price increases.

  17. The importance of North Sea oil to European energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauw, R. De

    1992-01-01

    There is no doubt about the importance of North Sea oil to the energy supply of the European Community. One might however be used to it and forget about the nature and the size of its impact on our economies. Firstly, this paper intends to estimate this impact - past, present and future. Secondly, a more qualitative approach will explore possible consequences of the implementation of the internal market for North Sea oil. Thirdly, the assistance given by the Community to innovative technologies which enabled North Sea oil to contribute, under better economic conditions and within a safer environment, to our supply is recalled. And finally, some remarks on energy policy form an EC perspective, are offered. (author)

  18. Scheduling of Crude Oil Operations in Refinery without Sufficient Charging Tanks Using Petri Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan An

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A short-term schedule for crude oil operations in a refinery should define and sequence the activities in detail. Each activity involves both discrete-event and continuous variables. The combinatorial nature of the scheduling problem makes it difficult to solve. For such a scheduling problem, charging tanks are a type of critical resources. If the number of charging tanks is not sufficient, the scheduling problem is further complicated. This work conducts a study on the scheduling problem of crude oil operations without sufficient charging tanks. In this case, to make a refinery able to operate, a charging tank has to be in simultaneous charging and feeding to a distiller for some time, called simultaneously-charging-and-feeding (SCF mode, leading to disturbance to the oil distillation in distillers. A hybrid Petri net model is developed to describe the behavior of the system. Then, a scheduling method is proposed to find a schedule such that the SCF mode is minimally used. It is computationally efficient. An industrial case study is given to demonstrate the obtained results.

  19. Coals to Newcastle: Will Alberta become a crude oil importer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haessel, W.; Foley, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    The security of markets for Canadian heavy crude oil (HCO) under different conditions is examined. The emphasis of the study is on the conditions under which bitumen blend from Alberta could penetrate certain markets that have generally been identified as potential prospects. A secondary question concerns the cost reductions in bitumen production and upgrading that would be needed for bitumen blend and synthetic crude oil (SCO) to penetrate these same markets if long-term oil prices settle at US$18/bbl for Saudi light delivered to the USA Gulf Coast in 2010. A brief overview is first presented of some of the world and US factors that will affect the demand for Canadian HCO, with specific reference to the demand in the northern USA in 2010. The determination of the volume of HCO that can or will be processed at a refinery or a combination of refineries in a given market is then discussed. The cost and volume numbers for 2010 as provided in the National Energy Board's latest Canadian energy supply and demand forecast are used in the analysis. It is concluded that all traditional markets outside of the Canadian prairies could be lost if world oil prices stay below US$18/bbl for extended periods. At prices below US$17/bbl, bitumen producers would have trouble competing with imported crude oils in Edmonton unless bitumen production costs decline from current levels. The potential for bitumen production costs to decline enough for diluted bitumen to compete with US$18/bbl oil is better than the prospect for SCO costs to decrease enough to compete in eastern Canada or the northern USA at those price levels. 9 figs., 8 tabs

  20. The importance of the oil sector in the national economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montenegro Santiago

    2001-01-01

    The paper is about the oil sector in Colombia as for their growing importance in the economy of the country in the last years, leaving of the base that this strategic sector for the economy for its high participation in the gross internal product, generates a very high percentage of the total exports and because it is also a very important source of fiscal resources for the national government as for the sectional governments. This writing is centered fundamentally in the analysis related with the production and export of raw petroleum

  1. Well-to-refinery emissions and net-energy analysis of China's crude-oil supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masnadi, Mohammad S.; El-Houjeiri, Hassan M.; Schunack, Dominik; Li, Yunpo; Roberts, Samori O.; Przesmitzki, Steven; Brandt, Adam R.; Wang, Michael

    2018-03-01

    Oil is China's second-largest energy source, so it is essential to understand the country's greenhouse gas emissions from crude-oil production. Chinese crude supply is sourced from numerous major global petroleum producers. Here, we use a per-barrel well-to-refinery life-cycle analysis model with data derived from hundreds of public and commercial sources to model the Chinese crude mix and the upstream carbon intensities and energetic productivity of China's crude supply. We generate a carbon-denominated supply curve representing Chinese crude-oil supply from 146 oilfields in 20 countries. The selected fields are estimated to emit between 1.5 and 46.9 g CO2eq MJ-1 of oil, with volume-weighted average emissions of 8.4 g CO2eq MJ-1. These estimates are higher than some existing databases, illustrating the importance of bottom-up models to support life-cycle analysis databases. This study provides quantitative insight into China's energy policy and the economic and environmental implications of China's oil consumption.

  2. Comparison of China's oil import risk. Results based on portfolio theory and a diversification index approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Gang; Liu, Lan-Cui; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the international oil price has fluctuated violently, bringing about huge risk for the international oil trade. In fact, the risk of crude oil and petroleum product imports is different because of the different import origins and prices. Which import risk is lower for China? From the perspective of oil supply security, how should China portfolio crude oil and petroleum product imports to minimize its oil import risk? Using portfolio theory and a diversification index approach, this paper compares and analyzes the supply, price and transport risks of crude oil and petroleum product imports. Our results show that the following: (1) Specific risk (diversification risk) and marine transport risk of China's petroleum product imports are lower than that of crude oil imports. (2) The average rate of return of China's petroleum product imports is higher than that of crude oil imports. Moreover, the average import price variance of petroleum product imports is lower than that of crude oil imports. Thus, the systematic risk (price risk) of petroleum products is lower too. Therefore, from the perspective of oil supply security, China should increase petroleum product imports to decrease its oil import risk. (author)

  3. An empirical analysis of the risk of crude oil imports in China using improved portfolio approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Gang; Wei, Yi-Ming; Fan, Ying; Liu, Lan-Cui

    2007-01-01

    This paper quantifies the diversification index of China's crude oil imports during the period 1996-2004, and explores the relationship between the monthly prices and Brent crude oil cash prices. Accordingly, we calculate the systematic and specific risks using portfolio theory of China's crude oil import over the period 1996-2004. Because China's crude oil import increased rapidly since 1996, we improve upon the traditional portfolio theory and develop a risk index model of portfolio theory for crude oil imports in order to explore objectively the changes in China's crude oil import risks. The results show that China's crude oil import risk is affected extensively by the fluctuation of international oil prices. So the traditional portfolio theory is insufficient to measure China's crude oil import risk. The improved portfolio theory risks index model reflects the effect of international oil prices, diversification, imports, and geopolitics factors etc., on crude oil import risk, and changes in crude oil import risk. Therefore, the risk index model of portfolio theory provides greater theoretical and methodological robustness as an indicator of China's crude oil import security than that offered from the application of traditional measures of dependence. (author)

  4. Ex-Soviet Union: oil exporter or importer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khartukov, E.M.

    1993-01-01

    Perestroika of the Soviet economy and the political disintegration of the USSR have raised questions about the international ramifications of the ongoing economic and political developments in the world's largest oil-producing country. First of all, it relates to their impact on the quantity and quality of oil exports from the former Soviet Union (FSU). On the other hand, the opening of the national oil industry to foreign investors focuses their ever growing attention on the complicated internal, inter-republic oil issues which emerged after the sudden fragmentation of the Soviet oil empire into a dozen of sovereign but still interdependent parts. 1 fig., 7 tabs

  5. Crude oil import policy of Turkey: Historical analysis of determinants and implications since 1968

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ediger, Volkan S., E-mail: volkanediger@gmail.co [Izmir University of Economics, Sakarya Caddesi, No. 156, 35330 Izmir (Turkey); Berk, Istemi [Izmir University of Economics, Sakarya Caddesi, No. 156, 35330 Izmir (Turkey)

    2011-04-15

    Turkey is one of the most energy import dependent countries in the world, suffering deeply from the economic and strategic burdens of oil importation. Our purpose is to determine the factors behind the crude oil import policy of Turkey and to measure their contribution to a well-organized import strategy. We implemented a principle component analysis to construct an Oil Import Vulnerability Index (OIVI) based on four factors, which are crude oil import dependency of primary energy consumption, crude oil import bill as a share of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), non-diversification of import sources, and share of oil in total energy import. The contribution of these factors to the OIVI is found to be approximately equal. While an overall deterioration in the OIVI has been observed during periods of increasing oil prices, better diversification of oil import sources has lead to significant improvements. We suggest Turkish policy-makers implement sound policies, emphasizing diversification of crude oil import sources and reduction of the share of crude oil in primary energy imports to increase energy supply security. This study has also demonstrated that it is possible to construct an index representing crude oil vulnerability caused by import dependency. - Research highlights: {yields}We examine the factors lying behind the crude oil import policy of Turkey. {yields} We measure the contribution of each factor to a well-organized import strategy. {yields} We constrtuct an Oil Import Vulnerability Index using principle component analysis. {yields} We suggest that four factors affect oil import policies with almost equal weights. {yields} Source diversification is found to be the core issue in oil import policies.

  6. Crude oil import policy of Turkey: Historical analysis of determinants and implications since 1968

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ediger, Volkan S.; Berk, Istemi

    2011-01-01

    Turkey is one of the most energy import dependent countries in the world, suffering deeply from the economic and strategic burdens of oil importation. Our purpose is to determine the factors behind the crude oil import policy of Turkey and to measure their contribution to a well-organized import strategy. We implemented a principle component analysis to construct an Oil Import Vulnerability Index (OIVI) based on four factors, which are crude oil import dependency of primary energy consumption, crude oil import bill as a share of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), non-diversification of import sources, and share of oil in total energy import. The contribution of these factors to the OIVI is found to be approximately equal. While an overall deterioration in the OIVI has been observed during periods of increasing oil prices, better diversification of oil import sources has lead to significant improvements. We suggest Turkish policy-makers implement sound policies, emphasizing diversification of crude oil import sources and reduction of the share of crude oil in primary energy imports to increase energy supply security. This study has also demonstrated that it is possible to construct an index representing crude oil vulnerability caused by import dependency. - Research highlights: →We examine the factors lying behind the crude oil import policy of Turkey. → We measure the contribution of each factor to a well-organized import strategy. → We constrtuct an Oil Import Vulnerability Index using principle component analysis. → We suggest that four factors affect oil import policies with almost equal weights. → Source diversification is found to be the core issue in oil import policies.

  7. Renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and economic growth: Evidence from MENA Net Oil Exporting Countries.

    OpenAIRE

    Kahia, Montassar; Ben Aissa, Mohamed Safouane

    2014-01-01

    This study investigate the relationship between renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and economic growth in a sample of 13 MENA Net Oil Exporting Countries covering the period 1980–2012 within a multivariate panel framework. The Pedroni (1999, 2004), Kao (1999) as well as the Westerlund (2007) panel cointegration tests indicate that there is a long-run equilibrium relationship between real GDP, renewable energy consumption, non-renewable energy consumption, real gross fixed capital ...

  8. Administration of structured lipid composed of MCT and fish oil reduces net protein catabolism in enterally fed burned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, T C; DeMichele, S J; Selleck, K M; Babayan, V K; Blackburn, G L; Bistrian, B R

    1989-01-01

    The effects of enteral feeding with safflower oil or a structured lipid (SL) derived from 60% medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) and 40% fish oil (MCT/fish oil) on protein and energy metabolism were compared in gastrostomy-fed burned rats (30% body surface area) by measuring oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, nitrogen balance, total liver protein, whole-body leucine kinetics, and rectus muscle and liver protein fractional synthetic rates (FSR, %/day). Male Sprague-Dawley rats (195 +/- 5g) received 50 ml/day of an enteral regimen containing 50 kcal, 2 g amino acids, and 40% nonprotein calories as lipid for three days. Protein kinetics were estimated by using a continuous L-[1-14C] leucine infusion technique on day 2. Thermally injured rats enterally fed MCT/fish oil yielded significantly higher daily and cumulative nitrogen balances (p less than or equal to 0.025) and rectus muscle (39%) FSR (p less than or equal to 0.05) when compared with safflower oil. MCT/fish oil showed a 22% decrease (p less than or equal to 0.005) in per cent flux oxidized and a 7% (p less than or equal to 0.05) decrease in total energy expenditure (TEE) versus safflower oil. A 15% increase in liver FSR was accompanied by a significant elevation (p less than or equal to 0.025) in total liver protein with MCT/fish oil. This novel SL shares the properties of other structured lipids in that it reduces the net protein catabolic effects of burn injury, in part, by influencing tissue protein synthetic rates. The reduction in TEE is unique to MCT/fish oil and may relate to the ability of fish oil to diminish the injury response. PMID:2500898

  9. Importance of baseline specification in evaluating conservation interventions and achieving no net loss of biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, J W; Gordon, A; Law, E A; Suttle, K B; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2014-06-01

    There is an urgent need to improve the evaluation of conservation interventions. This requires specifying an objective and a frame of reference from which to measure performance. Reference frames can be baselines (i.e., known biodiversity at a fixed point in history) or counterfactuals (i.e., a scenario that would have occurred without the intervention). Biodiversity offsets are interventions with the objective of no net loss of biodiversity (NNL). We used biodiversity offsets to analyze the effects of the choice of reference frame on whether interventions met stated objectives. We developed 2 models to investigate the implications of setting different frames of reference in regions subject to various biodiversity trends and anthropogenic impacts. First, a general analytic model evaluated offsets against a range of baseline and counterfactual specifications. Second, a simulation model then replicated these results with a complex real world case study: native grassland offsets in Melbourne, Australia. Both models showed that achieving NNL depended upon the interaction between reference frame and background biodiversity trends. With a baseline, offsets were less likely to achieve NNL where biodiversity was decreasing than where biodiversity was stable or increasing. With a no-development counterfactual, however, NNL was achievable only where biodiversity was declining. Otherwise, preventing development was better for biodiversity. Uncertainty about compliance was a stronger determinant of success than uncertainty in underlying biodiversity trends. When only development and offset locations were considered, offsets sometimes resulted in NNL, but not across an entire region. Choice of reference frame determined feasibility and effort required to attain objectives when designing and evaluating biodiversity offset schemes. We argue the choice is thus of fundamental importance for conservation policy. Our results shed light on situations in which biodiversity offsets may

  10. Fort Hills Oil Sands Project No Net Loss Lake earthfill structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakely, D.; Sawatsky, L. [Golder Associates Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Wog, K.; Paz, S. [Alberta Environment, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Water Management Operations; Chernys, S. [Petro-Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    The Fort Hills Oil Sands Project (FHOSP) is located north of Fort McMurray, Alberta. The Fort Hills Energy Corporation (FHEC) must compensate for fish habitat lost as a result of mine development that would disturb natural streams and lakes. FHEC planned to construct a fisheries compensation lake on the north end of its leased property, contained in part by an earthfill structure. Unlike most dam structures, the FHOSP No Net Loss Lake (NNLL) earthfill structure was planned solely for the creation of fisheries compensation habitat. Therefore, the NNLL earthfill structure must be designed with robust features that can handle any foreseeable environmental condition without failure, so that it may be accepted as a sustainable feature of the mine closure landscape. This paper discussed the design features of the NNLL earthfill structure. The paper presented information on the background of the project including regulatory criteria for the fisheries compensation habitat; fisheries compensation habitat location; and design criteria for the NNLL. The features of the NNLL earthfill structure were also discussed. In addition, the paper outlined the dam safety classification for earthfill structure and anticipated system performance. The proposed monitoring program and permanent closure plans were also discussed. It was concluded that the earthfill structure was designed with several features that would allow it to become a part of the closure landscape. These included a high width to height ratio, significant erosion protection, and an aggressive reclamation plan. These features will provide a sound basis for FHEC to apply for a reclamation certificate at the end of mine life. 3 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs.

  11. Importance of Baseline Specification in Evaluating Conservation Interventions and Achieving No Net Loss of Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, J W; Gordon, A; Law, E A; Suttle, K B; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2014-01-01

    There is an urgent need to improve the evaluation of conservation interventions. This requires specifying an objective and a frame of reference from which to measure performance. Reference frames can be baselines (i.e., known biodiversity at a fixed point in history) or counterfactuals (i.e., a scenario that would have occurred without the intervention). Biodiversity offsets are interventions with the objective of no net loss of biodiversity (NNL). We used biodiversity offsets to analyze the effects of the choice of reference frame on whether interventions met stated objectives. We developed 2 models to investigate the implications of setting different frames of reference in regions subject to various biodiversity trends and anthropogenic impacts. First, a general analytic model evaluated offsets against a range of baseline and counterfactual specifications. Second, a simulation model then replicated these results with a complex real world case study: native grassland offsets in Melbourne, Australia. Both models showed that achieving NNL depended upon the interaction between reference frame and background biodiversity trends. With a baseline, offsets were less likely to achieve NNL where biodiversity was decreasing than where biodiversity was stable or increasing. With a no-development counterfactual, however, NNL was achievable only where biodiversity was declining. Otherwise, preventing development was better for biodiversity. Uncertainty about compliance was a stronger determinant of success than uncertainty in underlying biodiversity trends. When only development and offset locations were considered, offsets sometimes resulted in NNL, but not across an entire region. Choice of reference frame determined feasibility and effort required to attain objectives when designing and evaluating biodiversity offset schemes. We argue the choice is thus of fundamental importance for conservation policy. Our results shed light on situations in which biodiversity offsets may

  12. Measuring the importance of oil-related revenues in total fiscal income for Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes-Loya, Manuel Lorenzo; Blanco, Lorenzo [Facultad de Economia, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Loma Redonda 1515 Pte., Col. Loma Larga, C.P. 64710, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2008-09-15

    Revenues from oil exports are an important part of government budgets in Mexico. A time-series analysis is conducted using monthly data from 1990 to 2005 examining three different specifications to determine how international oil price fluctuations and government income generated from oil exports influence fiscal policy in Mexico. The behavior of government spending and taxation is consistent with the spend-tax hypothesis. The results show that there is an inverse relationship between oil-related revenues and tax revenue from non-oil sources. Fiscal policy reform is urgently needed in order to improve tax collection as oil reserves in Mexico become more and more depleted. (author)

  13. Measuring the importance of oil-related revenues in total fiscal income for Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes-Loya, Manuel Lorenzo; Blanco, Lorenzo

    2008-01-01

    Revenues from oil exports are an important part of government budgets in Mexico. A time-series analysis is conducted using monthly data from 1990 to 2005 examining three different specifications to determine how international oil price fluctuations and government income generated from oil exports influence fiscal policy in Mexico. The behavior of government spending and taxation is consistent with the spend-tax hypothesis. The results show that there is an inverse relationship between oil-related revenues and tax revenue from non-oil sources. Fiscal policy reform is urgently needed in order to improve tax collection as oil reserves in Mexico become more and more depleted. (author)

  14. Asian oil demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesharaki, F.

    2005-01-01

    This conference presentation examined global oil market development and the role of Asian demand. It discussed plateau change versus cyclical movement in the global oil market; supply and demand issues of OPEC and non-OPEC oil; if high oil prices reduce demand; and the Asian oil picture in the global context. Asian oil demand has accounted for about 50 per cent of the global incremental oil market growth. The presentation provided data charts in graphical format on global and Asia-Pacific incremental oil demand from 1990-2005; Asia oil demand growth for selected nations; real GDP growth in selected Asian countries; and, Asia-Pacific oil production and net import requirements. It also included charts in petroleum product demand for Asia-Pacific, China, India, Japan, and South Korea. Other data charts included key indicators for China's petroleum sector; China crude production and net oil import requirements; China's imports and the share of the Middle East; China's oil exports and imports; China's crude imports by source for 2004; China's imports of main oil products for 2004; India's refining capacity; India's product balance for net-imports and net-exports; and India's trade pattern of oil products. tabs., figs

  15. An estimation of crude oil import demand in Turkey: Evidence from time-varying parameters approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozturk, Ilhan; Arisoy, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to model crude oil import demand and estimate the price and income elasticities of imported crude oil in Turkey based on a time-varying parameters (TVP) approach with the aim of obtaining accurate and more robust estimates of price and income elasticities. This study employs annual time series data of domestic oil consumption, real GDP, and oil price for the period 1966–2012. The empirical results indicate that both the income and price elasticities are in line with the theoretical expectations. However, the income elasticity is statistically significant while the price elasticity is statistically insignificant. The relatively high value of income elasticity (1.182) from this study suggests that crude oil import in Turkey is more responsive to changes in income level. This result indicates that imported crude oil is a normal good and rising income levels will foster higher consumption of oil based equipments, vehicles and services by economic agents. The estimated income elasticity of 1.182 suggests that imported crude oil consumption grows at a higher rate than income. This in turn reduces oil intensity over time. Therefore, crude oil import during the estimation period is substantially driven by income. - Highlights: • We estimated the price and income elasticities of imported crude oil in Turkey. • Income elasticity is statistically significant and it is 1.182. • The price elasticity is statistically insignificant. • Crude oil import in Turkey is more responsive to changes in income level. • Crude oil import during the estimation period is substantially driven by income.

  16. The importance of education to increase the use of bed nets in villages outside of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndjinga Julie K

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is the most prominent disease in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC, and long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs have been distributed free of charge since 2006 to combat the disease. However, the success of this bed net campaign depends on sufficient bed net use in all age groups. This study was designed to examine the factors affecting bed net use in villages outside of Kinshasa. Methods Two villages along the Congo River, totalling 142 households with 640 residents, were surveyed using a standard questionnaire. The interview determined the number, ages, and sexes of family members; the education level of the family head; the number, colour, and type of nets owned; and the number of nets used in the previous night. The size of house was also measured, and numbers of rooms and beds were recorded. These variables were examined to reveal important factors that affect bed net use. Results A total of 469 nets were counted, and nearly all nets were white LLINs. Of these nets, 229 (48.8% nets were used by 284 (44.4% residents. Bed nets were used by over 90% of children 5 to 15 years of age, whereas less than 50% of the residents in other age groups used bed nets. The important variables affecting bed net use were numbers of beds and rooms in the house and the education level of the family head of household. Conclusion Education was the most important factor affecting bed net use in the villages outside Kinshasa. Development of an educational programme, particularly one directed toward parents, is necessary to reduce misconceptions and increase prevalence of bed net use among all age groups.

  17. Transporting US oil imports: The impact of oil spill legislation on the tanker market. Draft final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowland, P.J. [Rowland (P.) Associates (United States)

    1992-05-01

    The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (``OPA``) and an even more problematic array of State pollution laws have raised the cost, and risk, of carrying oil into and out of the US. This report, prepared under contract to the US Department of energy`s Office of Domestic and International Policy, examines the impact of Federal and State oil spill legislation on the tanker market. It reviews the role of marine transportation in US oil supply, explores the OPA and State oil spill laws, studies reactions to OPA in the tanker and tank barge industries and in related industries such as insurance and ship finance, and finally, discusses the likely developments in the years ahead. US waterborne oil imports amounted to 6.5 million B/D in 1991, three-quarters of which was crude oil. Imports will rise by almost 3 million B/D by 2000 according to US Department of energy forecasts, with most of the crude oil growth after 1995. Tanker demand will grow even faster: most of the US imports and the increased traffic to other world consuming regions will be on long-haul trades. Both the number of US port calls by tankers and the volume of offshore lightering will grow. Every aspect of the tanker industry`s behavior is affected by OPA and a variety of State pollution laws.

  18. The potential of domestic production and imports of oil and gas in China: an energy return on investment perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Yang Kong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Concerns about China’s energy security have escalated because of the country’s high dependency on oil and gas imports, so it is necessary to calculate the availability of domestic oil and gas resources and China’s ability to obtain foreign energy through trade. In this work, the calculation was done by using the energy return on investment (EROI method. The results showed that the EROIstnd (i.e., standard EROI of China’s oil and gas extraction decreased from approximately 17.3:1 in 1986 to 8.4:1 in 2003, but it increased to 12.2:1 in 2013. From a company-level perspective, the EROIstnd differed for different companies and was in the range of (8–12:1. The EROI2,d (EROI considering energy outputs after processed and direct energy inputs for different companies was in the range of (3–7:1. The EROI of imported oil (EROIIO declined from 14.8:1 in 1998 to approximately 4.8:1 in 2014, and the EROI of imported natural gas (EROIING declined from 16.7:1 in 2009 to 8.6:1 in 2014. In 2015, the EROIIO and EROIING showed a slight increase due to decreasing import prices. In general, this paper suggests that from a net energy perspective, it has become more difficult for China to obtain oil and gas from both domestic production and imports. China is experiencing an EROI decline, which demonstrates the risk in the use of unsustainable fossil resources.

  19. Egypt risks to become net importer of energy toward the year 2000 according to the World Bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Petroleum exports were about the two-third of the whole goods exports of Egypt in the eighties years, but this part is getting under 50%, because a lower growth of exported volume and because of the reduction of prices. As these kinds of things are continuing during the nineties years and the local petroleum consumption is increasing, Egypt could become a net importer of petroleum products at the end of the century

  20. Quantifying China's oil import risks and the impact on the national economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Mei; Gao, Cuixia; Shen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    With an increase in China's oil imports, China's oil supply will also continue to be effected by the socio-economic stability of oil-exporting countries and the safety of oil transport routes. This paper introduces a systematic and quantitative method to evaluate the influence of China's oil import risks (OIR) on the national economy and industrial sectors from a perspective of apply chain process. For this analysis, China's OIR is quantified by integrating oil exporting country risk and the risks from oil transportation routes. Country risk is defined as the oil-exporting country's political risk caused by political changes or internal conflicts. Transport risk is defined as the risk of shipping routes affected by pirate attacks and geopolitics. Second, the relationship between China's OIR and oil import costs is analyzed using a multiple linear approach. Third, an input–output analysis method is used to research the effect of the cost of China's oil imports on the cost of investment within China's domestic sectors. This research finds that the corresponding impact on GDP is 3494.5 million dollars given an increasing by 10% of China's OIR. And the impact on domestic sectors differs from sector to sector. Finally, this paper puts forth recommendations to improve long-term oil supply security in China. - Highlights: • Quantifies China's OIR while taking into consideration the risks from oil-exporting countries and the risks from oil transportation routes. • Explores the relationship between China's OIR and oil import costs using a multiple linear regression approach. • Analyzes the effects of China's OIR on the investment cost of domestic sectors with an input–output analysis. • Investigates the impact of China's OIR on the domestic economy

  1. The importance of biomass net uptake for a trace metal budget in a forest stand in north-eastern France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandois, L.; Nicolas, M.; VanderHeijden, G.; Probst, A.

    2010-01-01

    The trace metal (TM: Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) budget (stocks and annual fluxes) was evaluated in a forest stand (silver fir, Abies alba Miller) in north-eastern France. Trace metal concentrations were measured in different tree compartments in order to assess TM partitioning and dynamics in the trees. Inputs included bulk deposition, estimated dry deposition and weathering. Outputs were leaching and biomass exportation. Atmospheric deposition was the main input flux. The estimated dry deposition accounted for about 40% of the total trace metal deposition. The relative importance of leaching (estimated by a lumped parameter water balance model, BILJOU) and net biomass uptake (harvesting) for ecosystem exportation depended on the element. Trace metal distribution between tree compartments (stem wood and bark, branches and needles) indicated that Pb was mainly stored in the stem, whereas Zn and Ni, and to a lesser extent Cd and Cu, were translocated to aerial parts of the trees and cycled in the ecosystem. For Zn and Ni, leaching was the main output flux (> 95% of the total output) and the plot budget (input-output) was negative, whereas for Pb the biomass net exportation represented 60% of the outputs and the budget was balanced. Cadmium and Cu had intermediate behaviours, with 18% and 30% of the total output relative to biomass exportation, respectively, and the budgets were negative. The net uptake by biomass was particularly important for Pb budgets, less so for Cd and Cu and not very important for Zn and Ni in such forest stands.

  2. Imported Oil and U.S. National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Facing the Hard Truths About Energy: A Comprehensive View to 2030 of Global Oil and Natural Gas, Washington, D.C., July 2007. As of February 14, 2009...example, if consumers could switch easily from commuting by car to mass transit or telecommuting when fuel costs rise, the effects on the U.S. economy...levels by 2011. Higher gas prices have apparently hit the Belarusian economy hard . The Lukashenko government has been looking for loans to cover

  3. Separated influence of crude oil prices on regional natural gas import prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Qiang; Geng, Jiang-Bo; Fan, Ying

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of global economic activity and international crude oil prices on natural gas import prices in three major natural gas markets using the panel cointegration model. It also investigates the shock impacts of the volatility and the increase and decrease of oil prices on regional natural gas import prices. The results show that both global economic activity and international crude oil prices have significant long-term positive effects on regional natural gas import prices. The volatility of international crude oil prices has a negative impact on regional natural gas import prices. The shock impact is weak in North America, lags in Europe and is most significant in Asia, which is mainly determined by different regional policies for price formation. In addition, the response of natural gas import prices to increases and decreases in international crude oil prices shows an asymmetrical mechanism, of which the decrease impact is relatively stronger. - Highlights: • Impacts of world economy and oil prices on regional natural gas prices are analysed • North American natural gas prices are mainly affected by world economy • Asian and European natural gas prices are mainly affected by oil prices • The volatility of oil prices has a negative impact on regional natural gas prices • The response of natural gas import prices to oil prices up and down shows asymmetry

  4. Imported resources - oil crude oil processing in the Czech Republic and its prospectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soucek, I.; Ottis, I. [Kaucuk, Kralupy nad Vitavou (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    This paper examines the availability of various crude oils, addressing specifically crude oil pipelines to the Czech Republic, both existing and under construction. Secondly, the economic status of two main Czech refineries is examined in comparison to international trends, technical configurations, and product supply and demand.

  5. The Strategic Importance of the Global Oil Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    cho- sen as PACOM Professional of the Year and U.S. Fed- eral Employee of the Year in 2006 and 2007. General David Petraeus awarded him the Joint...recovery may not be im- minent, signs are mounting that the tide is turning. The most tangible price effect is on the supply side. In this sense , a low oil...different.” Nothing short of a wholesale culture change in our global financial institutions is required, one that recognizes that the urgency of the

  6. Importance of the slick thickness for effective in-situ burning of crude oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Brogaard, Nicholas L.; Sørensen, Martin X.

    2015-01-01

    height. The experiments were performed in a new experimental apparatus, the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus (COFA), which has been developed to study ISB of oil on water in a controlled laboratory environment with large water-to-oil ratios. The regression rate, average mass loss rate and burning...... efficiency reached a constant maximum value for all oils at slick thicknesses exceeding 10–20 mm. For thinner initial slick thicknesses, these values were greatly reduced, most likely due to heat losses to the water. A further increase in the initial slick thickness could not improve the burning efficiency......In order to improve the potential of in-situ burning (ISB), the importance of the oil slick thickness on two pure oils (n-octane and dodecane) and two fresh crude oils (Grane and REBCO) was studied in relation to the regression rate, boilover tendency, mass loss rate, burning efficiency and flame...

  7. Drilling, alternative fuels and efficiency. Can the United States wean itself from imported oil?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairey, Philip [Florida Solar Energy Center, 1679 Clearlake Road, Cocoa, FL 32922-5703 (United States)

    2009-04-15

    Perhaps the most daunting challenge the next generation of Americans will face is what President Bush called our 'addiction to oil'. The challenge is to find the means to provide for our transportation needs in the face of declining world oil production. Perhaps the central question is whether we will export the great wealth of America to foreign countries in payment for oil before we tackle the grand challenge of creating a new transportation future that does not rely completely on oil. This article presents the historical facts relative to America's oil demand and domestic and world oil production resources. These historical trends are used to construct a scenario of future supply and demand for oil in the US. A range of existing technologies, which can reduce the need for petroleum imports, are then evaluated using wedges analysis, giving projections to the year 2030. (author)

  8. Drilling, alternative fuels and efficiency: Can the United States wean itself from imported oil?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairey, Philip [Florida Solar Energy Center, 1679 Clearlake Road, Cocoa, FL 32922-5703 (United States)], E-mail: pfairey@fsec.ucf.edu

    2009-04-15

    Perhaps the most daunting challenge the next generation of Americans will face is what President Bush called our 'addiction to oil'. The challenge is to find the means to provide for our transportation needs in the face of declining world oil production. Perhaps the central question is whether we will export the great wealth of America to foreign countries in payment for oil before we tackle the grand challenge of creating a new transportation future that does not rely completely on oil. This article presents the historical facts relative to America's oil demand and domestic and world oil production resources. These historical trends are used to construct a scenario of future supply and demand for oil in the US. A range of existing technologies, which can reduce the need for petroleum imports, are then evaluated using wedges analysis, giving projections to the year 2030.

  9. Drilling, alternative fuels and efficiency. Can the United States wean itself from imported oil?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairey, Philip

    2009-01-01

    Perhaps the most daunting challenge the next generation of Americans will face is what President Bush called our 'addiction to oil'. The challenge is to find the means to provide for our transportation needs in the face of declining world oil production. Perhaps the central question is whether we will export the great wealth of America to foreign countries in payment for oil before we tackle the grand challenge of creating a new transportation future that does not rely completely on oil. This article presents the historical facts relative to America's oil demand and domestic and world oil production resources. These historical trends are used to construct a scenario of future supply and demand for oil in the US. A range of existing technologies, which can reduce the need for petroleum imports, are then evaluated using wedges analysis, giving projections to the year 2030. (author)

  10. Analysis Monthly Import of Palm Oil Products Using Box-Jenkins Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nurul F. Y.; Khalid, Kamil; Saifullah Rusiman, Mohd; Ghazali Kamardan, M.; Roslan, Rozaini; Che-Him, Norziha

    2018-04-01

    The palm oil industry has been an important component of the national economy especially the agriculture sector. The aim of this study is to identify the pattern of import of palm oil products, to model the time series using Box-Jenkins model and to forecast the monthly import of palm oil products. The method approach is included in the statistical test for verifying the equivalence model and statistical measurement of three models, namely Autoregressive (AR) model, Moving Average (MA) model and Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA) model. The model identification of all product import palm oil is different in which the AR(1) was found to be the best model for product import palm oil while MA(3) was found to be the best model for products import palm kernel oil. For the palm kernel, MA(4) was found to be the best model. The results forecast for the next four months for products import palm oil, palm kernel oil and palm kernel showed the most significant decrease compared to the actual data.

  11. Price and income elasticities of crude oil import demand in South Africa. A cointegration analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziramba, Emmanuel [Department of Economics, University of South Africa, P.O Box 392, Unisa 0003 (South Africa)

    2010-12-15

    This paper examines the demand for imported crude oil in South Africa as a function of real income and the price of crude oil over the period 1980-2006. We carried out the Johansen co integration multivariate analysis to determine the long-run income and price elasticities. A unique long-run cointegration relationship exists between crude oil imports and the explanatory variables. The short-run dynamics are estimated by specifying a general error correction model. The estimated long-run price and income elasticities of -0.147 and 0.429 suggest that import demand for crude oil is price and income inelastic. There is also evidence of unidirectional long-run causality running from real GDP to crude oil imports. (author)

  12. The importance of biomass net uptake for a trace metal budget in a forest stand in north-eastern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandois, L; Nicolas, M; VanderHeijden, G; Probst, A

    2010-11-01

    The trace metal (TM: Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) budget (stocks and annual fluxes) was evaluated in a forest stand (silver fir, Abies alba Miller) in north-eastern France. Trace metal concentrations were measured in different tree compartments in order to assess TM partitioning and dynamics in the trees. Inputs included bulk deposition, estimated dry deposition and weathering. Outputs were leaching and biomass exportation. Atmospheric deposition was the main input flux. The estimated dry deposition accounted for about 40% of the total trace metal deposition. The relative importance of leaching (estimated by a lumped parameter water balance model, BILJOU) and net biomass uptake (harvesting) for ecosystem exportation depended on the element. Trace metal distribution between tree compartments (stem wood and bark, branches and needles) indicated that Pb was mainly stored in the stem, whereas Zn and Ni, and to a lesser extent Cd and Cu, were translocated to aerial parts of the trees and cycled in the ecosystem. For Zn and Ni, leaching was the main output flux (>95% of the total output) and the plot budget (input-output) was negative, whereas for Pb the biomass net exportation represented 60% of the outputs and the budget was balanced. Cadmium and Cu had intermediate behaviours, with 18% and 30% of the total output relative to biomass exportation, respectively, and the budgets were negative. The net uptake by biomass was particularly important for Pb budgets, less so for Cd and Cu and not very important for Zn and Ni in such forest stands. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. U.S. oil import vulnerability: The technical replacement capability. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The report examines the changes that have taken place in world oil markets and the U.S. economy since 1984 and provides revised estimates of the technical oil replacement potential that might be attained in the event of a severe and long lasting cutoff of imported oil. The analysis focuses on technologies that are commercially available today or will be within the next 5 years and that are among the most cost-effective methods for replacing oil use in applicable sectors. It also considers the economic impacts of adopting an aggressive oil replacement strategy in a severe oil emergency. The report presents a variety of policy options that could help accelerate the adoption of oil replacement technologies in preparation for, or in response to, a severe supply disruption, or as part of a long-term national policy to reduce import vulnerability. The report's conclusion that U.S. capability to replace lost oil imports is shrinking should be sobering to those who believe that there are quick and easy technological solutions, or that market forces alone will be sufficient to overcome the substantial economic and social dislocations that could result from a prolonged major oil disruption

  14. U.S. oil-import vulnerability: The technical replacement capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The report examines the changes that have taken place in world oil markets and the U.S. economy since 1984 and provides revised estimates of the technical oil replacement potential that might be attained in the event of a severe and long lasting cutoff of imported oil. The analysis focuses on technologies that are commercially available today or will be within the next 5 years and that are among the most cost-effective methods for replacing oil use in applicable sectors. It also considers the economic impacts of adopting an aggressive oil replacement strategy in a severe oil emergency. The report presents a variety of policy options that could help accelerate the adoption of oil replacement technologies in preparation for, or in response to, a severe supply disruption, or as part of a long-term national policy to reduce import vulnerability. The report concludes that U.S. capability to replace lost oil imports is shrinking. Market forces alone will not be sufficient to overcome the substantial economic and social dislocations that could result from a prolonged major oil disruption

  15. Nutraceutical Importance of Sesame Seed and Oil: A Review of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sesame seed is widely used in food and nutraceutical industries in many countries because of its high oil, protein and antioxidant contents. Sesame oil contains sesamin, sesamolin and sesaminol lignan fractions, which are known to play an important role in its oxidative stability and antioxidative activity. It is widely known ...

  16. Price and income elasticities of crude oil import demand in South Africa: A cointegration analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziramba, Emmanuel, E-mail: zirame@unisa.ac.z [Department of Economics, University of South Africa, P.O Box 392, Unisa 0003 (South Africa)

    2010-12-15

    This paper examines the demand for imported crude oil in South Africa as a function of real income and the price of crude oil over the period 1980-2006. We carried out the Johansen co integration multivariate analysis to determine the long-run income and price elasticities. A unique long-run cointegration relationship exists between crude oil imports and the explanatory variables. The short-run dynamics are estimated by specifying a general error correction model. The estimated long-run price and income elasticities of -0.147 and 0.429 suggest that import demand for crude oil is price and income inelastic. There is also evidence of unidirectional long-run causality running from real GDP to crude oil imports. - Research Highlights: {yields}The paper examines the demand for imported crude oil in South Africa over the period 1980-2006. {yields} The estimated long-run price and income elasticities are -0.147 and 0.429, respectively. {yields} There is evidence of unidirectional long-run causality running from real GDP to crude oil imports.

  17. Price and income elasticities of crude oil import demand in South Africa: A cointegration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziramba, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the demand for imported crude oil in South Africa as a function of real income and the price of crude oil over the period 1980-2006. We carried out the Johansen co integration multivariate analysis to determine the long-run income and price elasticities. A unique long-run cointegration relationship exists between crude oil imports and the explanatory variables. The short-run dynamics are estimated by specifying a general error correction model. The estimated long-run price and income elasticities of -0.147 and 0.429 suggest that import demand for crude oil is price and income inelastic. There is also evidence of unidirectional long-run causality running from real GDP to crude oil imports. - Research Highlights: →The paper examines the demand for imported crude oil in South Africa over the period 1980-2006. → The estimated long-run price and income elasticities are -0.147 and 0.429, respectively. → There is evidence of unidirectional long-run causality running from real GDP to crude oil imports.

  18. Quality studies of the energy in the electric net of the gathering warehouse of reusable parts and contaminate oils of the nuclear power plant Laguna Verde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tijerina S, F.; Vargas A, A.; Cardenas J, J.

    2012-10-01

    In the industry exist the high costs by faults of electronic and electric equipment s, due to during the design process, installation, tests and operation of these equipment s, is not had appropriate detection equipment to carry out quality studies of the energy. These studies give an important support to know that occurs in an electric net, the cause of the anomalous behavior of the equipment s and this way to avoid the expensive faults carrying out necessary engineering adaptations in an electric net. The elements of the electricity that are determined are the tension, current and frequency that are inside acceptable operational parameters that facilitate the operation and constant operation of the equipment s, free of interruptions and failures. The application of the quality studies of the energy is growing little by little in Mexico for the problems solution in the equipment s. This field is also developing new techniques and technologies integrated in the equipment s for its monitoring detection and protection. The present work offers the results of the first Quality Study of the Energy in the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde to solve the problem in the gathering warehouse of reusable parts and contaminate oils, in which the failure of the two radiation monitors of the gassy effluent of ventilation HVAC of the warehouse took place. (Author)

  19. Transporting US oil imports: The impact of oil spill legislation on the tanker market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This report looks at the impact of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 and the developing State oil spill regulations on the tanker and coastal barge markets, and at the implications for the future of the U.S. seaborne petroleum trades. The analysis relied on a dual approach. Because much of the legislation, both State and Federal, is still evolving--particularly with respect to implementing regulations--as yet there can be no definitive assessment of its impact. Consequently a quantitative analysis of fleets, trades, and vessel movements, was complemented by extensive interviews. Discussions have been held with oil companies large and small, shipowners, charterers, insurance companies, classification societies, and a variety of public and private institutions active in the maritime industry. All interviews were conducted in confidence: no individual views are identified in the report. (AT)

  20. How Desert Storm changed U.S. oil imports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    During the past two years, US petroleum imports shrank because of economic recession. There were significant changes in the shares of the shrunken pie because of the Persian Gulf War. This issue of Energy Detente compares US crude and refined product imports by hemisphere and by country during 1991 and 1989. These trends are likely to be reversed for short and long term reasons discussed inside. US dependence on Western Hemisphere countries increased by 0.6%, Venezuela accounting for 17% more imports in 1991 than 1989 and Canada and Mexico 11% and 4% more, respectively. This issue also presents the following: (1) the ED Refining Netback Data Series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of April 10, 1992; and (2) the ED Fuel Price/Tax Series for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere, April 1992 Edition

  1. Assessment of oil content and fatty acid composition variability in two economically important Hibiscus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming Li; Morris, Brad; Tonnis, Brandon; Davis, Jerry; Pederson, Gary A

    2012-07-04

    The Hibiscus genus encompasses more than 300 species, but kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) are the two most economically important species within the genus. Seeds from these two Hibiscus species contain a relatively high amount of oil with two unusual fatty acids: dihydrosterculic and vernolic acids. The fatty acid composition in the oil can directly affect oil quality and its utilization. However, the variability in oil content and fatty acid composition for these two species is unclear. For these two species, 329 available accessions were acquired from the USDA germplasm collection. Their oil content and fatty acid composition were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. Using NMR and GC analyses, we found that Hibiscus seeds on average contained 18% oil and seed oil was composed of six major fatty acids (each >1%) and seven minor fatty acids (each Hibiscus cannabinus seeds contained significantly higher amounts of oil (18.14%), palmitic (20.75%), oleic (28.91%), vernolic acids (VA, 4.16%), and significantly lower amounts of stearic (3.96%), linoleic (39.49%), and dihydrosterculic acids (DHSA, 1.08%) than H. sabdariffa seeds (17.35%, 18.52%, 25.16%, 3.52%, 4.31%, 44.72%, and 1.57%, respectively). For edible oils, a higher oleic/linoleic (O/L) ratio and lower level of DHSA are preferred, and for industrial oils a high level of VA is preferred. Our results indicate that seeds from H. cannabinus may be of higher quality than H. sabdariffa seeds for these reasons. Significant variability in oil content and major fatty acids was also detected within both species. The variability in oil content and fatty acid composition revealed from this study will be useful for exploring seed utilization and developing new cultivars in these Hibiscus species.

  2. Effect of crude oil and refined petroleum product imports on the national security. Critical technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The report contains the results of an investigation requested under Section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act to study the effect of oil imports on the domestic petroleum industry and on United States energy security. It reviews previous energy security assessments and resulting initiatives, assesses current US energy security, and studies emergency petroleum requirements. The report finds that there have been substantial improvements in US energy security since the last Section 232 Petroleum finding in 1979. However, declining domestic oil production, rising oil imports, and growing dependence on potentially insecure sources of supply raise concerns of vulnerability to a major supply disruption

  3. The Effect of Oil Spills on Marine Microbes: The Importance of Where, When, and How

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, M. L.; Ederington-Hagy, M.; Richardson, R. L.; Snyder, R.; Jeffrey, W. H.

    2016-02-01

    While much recent attention has been paid to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico and biodegradation by microbial communities, it is important to remember that numerous factors may determine the types of environmental effects that may result from oil spills. Not all oil spills (e.g., crude, refined, weathered, fuels, use of dispersants) are created equal, and it is likely that the characteristics of different environments will affect ecosystem response to oil. Temperature, salinity, and solar radiation are three potentially important factors related to location and seasonality. The effects of some of these environmental factors on the formation of Water Accommodated Fractions (WAFs) developed from Deepwater Horizon oils and the subsequent effects on microbial growth is being investigated. WAFs were generated under varying solar but controlled temperature conditions, various temperatures and salinities, as well as from burned and weathered oil. After all WAFs were collected, each was added to a coastal seawater sample and their effects on bacterial production or phytoplankton photosynthesis determined. Results from both assays demonstrated that WAFs produced in the dark had minimal effects on growth while inhibition was proportional to the amount of solar exposure. Burning oil prior to formation of WAFs increased inhibition of production independent of subsequent solar treatment. Preliminary data suggests that temperature plays a minimal role. The results imply that the ecological effects caused by oil spills are very light dependent and thus could vary by season, location, and may occur to significant depths in the ocean.

  4. Import demand of crude oil and economic growth. Evidence from India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Sajal

    2009-01-01

    This study establishes a long-run equilibrium relationship among quantity of crude oil import, income and price of the imported crude in India for the time span 1970-1971 to 2005-2006 using autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach of cointegration. Empirical results show that the long-term income elasticity of imported crude in India is 1.97 and there exists a unidirectional long-run causality running from economic growth to crude oil import. So reduction of crude oil import will not affect the future economic growth in India in the long-run. India should take various energy efficiency and demand side management measures in transport sector along with other measures like expanding and strengthening indigenous resource-base, substituting imported fuels by domestic fuels and de-controlling the price of petroleum products to reduce its import dependence. (author)

  5. Short-run and long-run elasticities of import demand for crude oil in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altinay, Galip

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to attempt to estimate the short-run and the long-run elasticities of demand for crude oil in Turkey by the recent autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach to cointegration. As a developing country, Turkey meets its growing demand for oil principally by foreign suppliers. Thus, the study focuses on modelling the demand for imported crude oil using annual data covering the period 1980-2005. The bounds test results reveal that a long-run cointegration relationship exists between the crude oil import and the explanatory variables: nominal price and income, but not in the model that includes real price in domestic currency. The long-run parameters are estimated through a long-run static solution of the estimated ARDL model, and then the short-run dynamics are estimated by the error correction model. The estimated models pass the diagnostic tests successfully. The findings reveal that the income and price elasticities of import demand for crude oil are inelastic both in the short run and in the long run

  6. U.S. demand and imports wither in recession: Oil loses share

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This issue of Energy Detente finds that the economic recession and very low prices for natural gas have cut US use of oil and reduced its oil-import dependency. The period 1985 through 1991 is examined by petroleum product. The 1991 decline in crude oil imports is felt to be an anomaly that will reverse itself in the short term; it was caused by the recession and the flurry of additional production during the Persian Gulf conflict. This issue also presents the following: (1) The ED Refining Netback Data Series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of April 10, 1992; and (2) the ED Fuel Price/Tax Series for countries of the Western Hemisphere, April 1992 Edition

  7. Oil price shocks and long run price and import demand behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleibergen, F.; Van Dijk, H.K.; Urbain, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    The effect which the oil price time series has on the long run properties of Vector AutoRegressive (VAR) models for price levels and import demand is investigated. As the oil price variable is assumed to be weakly exogenous for the long run parameters, a cointegration testing procedure allowing for weakly exogenous variables is developed using a LU decomposition of the long run multiplier matrix. The likelihood based cointegration test statistics, Wald, Likelihood Ratio and Lagrange Multiplier, are constructed and their limiting distributions derived. Using these tests, we find that incorporating the oil price in a model for the domestic or import price level of seven industrialized countries decreases the long run memory of the inflation rate. Second, we find that the results for import demand can be classified with respect to the oil importing or exporting status of the specific country. The result for Japan is typical as its import price is not influenced by gnp in the long run, which is the case for all other countries. 31 refs

  8. Imported palm oil for biofuels in the EU: Profitability, greenhouse gas emissions and social welfare effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saikkonen, Liisa; Ollikainen, Markku; Lankoski, Jussi

    2014-01-01

    We examine the social desirability of renewable diesel production from imported palm oil in the EU when greenhouse gas emissions are taken into account. Using a partial market equilibrium model, we also study the sectoral social welfare effects of a biofuel policy consisting of a blend mandate in a small EU country (Finland), when palm oil based diesel is used to meet the mandated quota for biofuels. We develop a market equilibrium model for three cases: i) no biofuel policy, ii) biofuel policy consisting of socially optimal emission-based biofuel tax credit and iii) actual EU biofuel policy. Our results for the EU biofuel market, Southeast Asia and Finland show very little evidence that a large scale use of imported palm oil in diesel production in the EU can be justified by lower greenhouse gas emission costs. Cuts in emission costs may justify extensive production only if low or negative land-use change emissions result from oil palm cultivation and if the estimated per unit social costs of emissions are high. In contrast, the actual biofuel policies in the EU encourage the production of palm oil based diesel. Our results indicate that the sectoral social welfare effects of the actual biofuel policy in Finland may be negative and that if emissions decrease under actual biofuel policy, the emission abatement costs can be high regardless of the land use change emissions. - Highlights: • We study the social desirability of renewable diesel production from palm oil in EU. • We also study sectoral social welfare impacts of actual biofuel policy in Finland. • Life cycle GHG emission costs of diesels are included in the economic analysis. • Extensive use of palm oil diesel in EU is difficult to justify by climate benefits. • The social welfare effects of the actual biofuel policy in Finland can be negative

  9. 31 CFR 560.513 - Importation of Iranian-origin oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Importation of Iranian-origin oil. 560.513 Section 560.513 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... the Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran of January 19, 1981, or where the proceeds are...

  10. Fumigant Activity of Sweet Orange Essential Oil Fractions Against Red Imported Fire Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Zhang, Ning; Chen, Hongli; Zhong, Balian; Yang, Aixue; Kuang, Fan; Ouyang, Zhigang; Chun, Jiong

    2017-08-01

    Sweet orange oil fractions were prepared by molecular distillation of cold-pressed orange oil from sample A (Citrus sinensis (L.) 'Hamlin' from America) and sample B (Citrus sinensis Osbeck 'Newhall' from China) respectively, and their fumigant activities against medium workers of red imported fire ants (Solenopsis invicta Buren) were investigated. The volatile composition of the orange oil fractions was identified and quantified using GC-MS. Fractions from sample A (A1, A2, and A3) contained 23, 37, and 48 chemical constituents, and fractions from sample B (B1, B2, and B3) contained 18, 29, and 26 chemical constituents, respectively. Monoterpenes were the most abundant components, accounting for 73.56% to 94.86% of total orange oil fractions, among which D-limonene (65.28-80.18%), β-pinene (1.71-5.58%), 3-carene (0.41-4.01%), β-phellandrene (0.58-2.10%), and linalool (0.31-2.20%) were major constituents. Fumigant bioassay indicated that all orange oil fractions exerted good fumigant toxicity against workers of fire ants at 3, 5, 10, and 20 mg/centrifuge tubes, and B1 had the strongest insecticidal potential, followed by A1, B2, A2, B3, and A3. The fractions composed of more high volatile molecules (A1 and B1) showed greater fumigant effects than others. Compounds linalool and D-limonene, which were the constituents of the orange oil, exhibited excellent fumigant toxicity against red imported fire ant workers. Linalool killed red imported fire ant workers completely at 5, 10, and 20 mg/tube after 8 h of treatment, and D-limonene induced >86% mortality at 8 h of exposure. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. The Importance of the Oil and Gas Complex for the Brazilian Economy and Its States

    OpenAIRE

    Guilhoto, Joaquim Jose Martins; Ichihara, Silvio Massaru; Postali, Fernando Antonio Slaibe

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a research conducted to measure the importance of the oil and gas complex in the Brazilian economy and in its states. Initially, the efforts were concentrated in the construction of an interregional input-output system for the 27 states of the Brazilian economy at the level of 42 industries, for the year of 2002. Using this system it was possible to make an analysis of role played by the oil and gas complex in the Brazilian economy and its states. First it i...

  12. The importance of subsample preparation practices in the analysis of crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, K.S.; Iorio, S.M.B.M. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (CENPES/PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas], e-mail: katiapereira@petrobras.com.br; Marques, M.L.S.P. [Fundacao Gorceix, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    There have been many subsample preparation practices proposed to reduce sources of error in analyses of crude oils. Optimal subsample preparation allows keeping the degree of representativity of the final aliquot going into the laboratory analyzer. The objective of this work was to discuss some experiences in order to understand the importance of sampling practices to obtain representative subsamples of crude oils and petroleum products, and measurements with minimized uncertainty whenever possible. Specific practices, whose effectiveness was tested by experiments, are discussed in this work. The analysis of variance showed that the subsamples should not be used in vapor pressure tests unless in case of interlaboratory cross check, and have to be considered as the first test from the bottle subsample. Sometimes long periods of crude oils samples storage are necessary for a complete evaluation, but because of the effect of this storage time it was observed a trend in the reducing of acidity and sulfur content. (author)

  13. Petroleum’s Price Transmission and Imported Demand for Crude Oil in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Papusson Chaiwat; Nantarat Tangvitoontham

    2014-01-01

    The study of the petroleum price structures in Thailand reveals that diesel is the important fuel because it influences inflation and productions’ costs. Government wants to keep diesel’s price stability; meanwhile, it is less control in gasohol and petrol prices. These prices are normally higher than diesel’s price in order to support the renewable energy and reduce the consumption behaviors. Real price elasticity of imported crude oil in short run is insignificant but in long run is about 0...

  14. Transfer prices and the excess cost of Canadian oil imports: New evidence on Bertrand versus Rugman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J.-T.; Weiner, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    Transfer pricing can be a source for contention between governments and multinational corporations, with suspicion that transfer prices are set so as to report higher income in countries where corporations are taxed more lightly. The first systematic empirical evidence on transfer pricing in multinational corporations is presented, through examination of the Canadian petroleum industry, which is dominated by foreign multinationals. The data cover the period 1974-84 and allow analysis of the allegation of excess cost paid by Canada for crude oil imports. After taking into account crude oil quality indicators, transaction characteristics, and countries of export, the merging of a comparable set of U.S. and Canadian data demonstrates evidence of transfer-price setting at levels significantly different from arm's-length prices for crude oil imports to Canada from 1974-84. However, the evidence runs contrary to Bertrand's assessment: the crude oil prices for affiliate transactions were found to be, in general, lower than comparable prices for third-party transactions. As to transport costs, the converse was found to be the case, however, the effect is much less important than transfer pricing. The overall result is that transfer prices have worked in Canada's favour. 15 refs., 7 tabs

  15. Oil pulling and importance of traditional medicine in oral health maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseem, Mustafa; Khiyani, Muhammad Faheem; Nauman, Hiba; Zafar, Muhammad Sohail; Shah, Altaf H; Khalil, Hesham S

    2017-01-01

    Dental diseases have detrimental effects on the functionality and quality of life of individuals. In addition, a strong relationship has been established between various oral and systemic diseases. In fact, the prevention and treatment of dental caries and periodontal disease have been shown to reduce the risk of diabetes and heart disease significantly. This goes beyond the role of oral health as a means to identify early manifestations of systemic diseases in the oral cavity. It highlights the necessity of maintaining an optimal oral hygiene to significantly modify the risk factors for serious systemic diseases. The use of oil pulling can be frequently found in ancient medical text and is supported by recent studies for its efficacy and long-term use for maintaining and improving oral health. This article provides an overview on the concept of oil pulling or oil swishing, its mechanism of action and a summary of the evidence available, which highlights the role of oil pulling in specific oral diseases. The goal of this review is to highlight the ancient procedure that has the potential to be used as an adjunct to conventional chemical means of dental plaque control, such as mouth rinses. Incorporating oil swishing as a component of daily oral hygiene can significantly improve oral and general health, specifically in lower socioeconomic groups and rural communities that may have interrupted access to health-care services and dental products such as dentifrices and mouth washes due to various factors; availability and affordability being the most important.

  16. Fine-Root Production in an Amazon Rain Forest: Deep Roots are an Important Component of Net Primary Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norby, R.; Cordeiro, A. L.; Oblitas, E.; Valverde-Barrantes, O.; Quesada, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    Fine-root production is a significant component of net primary production (NPP), but it is the most difficult of the major components to measure. Data on fine-root production are especially sparse from tropical forests, and therefore the estimates of tropical forest NPP may not be accurate. Many estimates of fine-root production are based on observations in the top 15 or 30 cm of soil, with the implicit assumption that this approach will capture most of the root distribution. We measured fine-root production in a 30-m tall, old-growth, terra firme rain forest near Manaus, Brazil, which is the site for a free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment. Ten minirhizotrons were installed at a 45 degree angle to a depth of 1.1 meters; the tubes were installed 2 years before any measurements were made to allow the root systems to recover from disturbance. Images were collected biweekly, and measurements of root length per area of minirhizotron window were scaled up to grams of root per unit land area. Scaling up minirhizotron measurments is problematic, but our estimate of fine-root standing crop in the top 15 cm of soil (281 ± 37 g dry matter m-2) compares well with a direct measurement of fine roots in two nearby 15-cm soil cores (290 ± 37 g m-2). Although the largest fraction of the fine-root standing crop was in the upper soil horizons, 44% of the fine-root mass was deeper than 30 cm, and 17% was deeper than 60 cm. Annual fine-root production was 934 ± 234 g dry matter m-2 (453 ± 113 g C m-2), which was 35% of estimated NPP of the forest stand (1281 g C m-2). A previous estimate of NPP of the forest at this site was smaller (1010 g m-2), but that estimate relied on fine-root production measured elsewhere and only in the top 10 or 30 cm of soil; fine roots accounted for 21% of NPP in that analysis. Extending root observations deeper into the soil will improve estimates of the contribution of fine-root production to NPP, which will in turn improve estimates of ecosystem

  17. The impacts on U.S. energy markets and the economy of reducing oil imports. Service report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    The General Accounting Office (GAO) has responded to a request from Representative John Kasich by requesting that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) use the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) to estimate the cost to the U.S. economy of reducing oil imports. The analysis summarized by this paper focuses on two approaches toward a target reduction in oil imports: (1) a set of cases with alternative world crude oil price trajectories, and (2) two cases which investigates the use of an oil import fee

  18. Risk of revolutions in the Middle East. [Of importance for oil supplies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, R.

    1983-01-01

    Western Europe and of course also Denmark will still for many years be dependent on the oil that is recovered in the Arabian Gulf. Denmark has the largest percentage oil conservation in Western Europe. It is not only due to the power plants using more coal, but also our energy consumption decreases more than in other Western European countries. In spite of these reulsts it is obvious, that Denmarks economy entirely depends on the economy of our neighbouring countries. Security of energy supply is therefore a western problem, which Denmark cannot solve alone. The development of societies in the Middle East countries, including the key country Saudi Arabia, is so labile, that a period of crisis with insecurity in the oil supplies cannot be excluded. In addition to this is the risk of international conflicts, that stop the oil export. The probability of these risks becoming actualized in the next 10 to 15 years is hard to tell, but it is important to call the attention to the risks. These risks seem to be much underrated in the discussions of security policy, where the east-west problems dominate. Therefore it would be wrong to take the westernization of the Arabic societies for granted. Periods with extreme ideologies are very probable. As to the international conflicts one only has to refer to the present war between Iraq and Iran.

  19. Oil intensities and oil prices : evidence for Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Alaimo, Veronica; Lopez, Humberto

    2008-01-01

    Crude oil prices have dramatically increased over the past years and are now at a historical maximum in nominal terms and very close to it in real terms. It is difficult to argue, at least for net oil importers, that higher oil prices have a positive impact on welfare. In fact, the negative relationship between oil prices and economic activity has been well documented in the literature. Ye...

  20. The impacts of oil price fluctuations on the economy of sub-Saharan African countries, importers of oil products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacko, I.

    1997-01-01

    This work comprises three parts. The first part aims at presenting the energy situation of sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries grouped in five regions. Because of the demographic pressure and of the petroleum shocks, the commercial energy consumption is growing up rapidly and the energy prices are high for the end-users (because the energy is imported and paid in dollars, and the fiscality share is increased by governments in the case of prices drop in the international market). The important problem of wood fuel is considered, together with the energy-economic growth relations and the determining factors of the energy demand in SSA. Some econometric relations are tested. The second part analyzes the mechanisms generated by petroleum shocks and counter-shocks, and stresses first on the transfers induced by these fluctuations. Then, it presents some macro-economical models which try to integrate the effects of a petroleum shock and makes some calculations based on a decomposition of imports and exports global and partial coefficients. Some important conclusions are inferred from this study: 1 - the second petroleum shock strikes more seriously the oil importing SSA countries because they do not benefit from a favorable international context, like during the first shock (also because the second shock is accompanied by a dollar shock); 2 - the absence of symmetry in oil shocks-counter-shocks; 3 - the crisis of SSA countries is not only of petroleum origin but is also linked with the drop of the export incomes (which itself is partially explained by the impact of petroleum shocks on the industrialized economies), with their bad insertion in the world economy, and with unsuitable domestic economies. The third part proposes some solutions to attenuate the energy and economical difficulties of these countries. It is necessary to implement an energy planning mainly based on the mastery of the demand and on a better management of local resources. The policies of

  1. Net Gain

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Describing the effect of tax incentives for import, production, and sale of nets and insecticides; and ..... So far, China is the only country where a system for the routine treatment of ...... 1993), and the trials in Ecuador and Peru (Kroeger et al.

  2. Net soil respiration and greenhouse gas balance along a sequence of forest disturbance to smallholder rubber and oil palm plantations in Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusyu Aini, Fitri; Hergoualc'h, Kristell; Smith, Jo; Verchot, Louis; Martius, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    The rapid increase in demand for land to establish oil palm and rubber plantations has led to the conversion of forests, with potential impacts on greenhouse gas emissions and on climate change. This study evaluates the net greenhouse gas balance following forest change to other land uses, i.e. one year rubber plantation, twenty-year rubber plantation and eight year oil palm plantation on Sumatran mineral soils. None of the plantations had ever been fertilized previously. During this study they were fertilized to provide nitrogen at the recommended rate used by farmers (33.3 kg N ha-1 y-1). The ecosystem stores carbon in litterfall, standing litter biomass (undergrowth vegetation, leaves, twigs, litter on the soil surface), soil organic matter, root biomass, and standing tree biomass. It releases carbon to the atmosphere through soil respiration fluxes, negative values indicating that carbon is stored by the land use change and positive values indicating emissions to the atmosphere. Net soil respiration was assessed using a mass balance approach: standing litter and tree biomass were measured once; the rate of carbon accumulation from standing litter and tree biomass was calculated by dividing the stock by the age of plantation or the time since logging started in the disturbed forest. The carbon accumulation in standing litter, tree biomass in the forest and soil organic matter for all land-uses was estimated from available in the literature. Root biomass for each land-use system was calculated using the root:shoot ratio. The net soil respiration of carbon dioxide from the forest, disturbed forest, one year rubber plantation, twenty-year rubber plantation and oil palm plantation were calculated to be -6 (± 5), 12 (± 6), 11 (± 15), 10 (± 5), 39 (± 7) Mg ha-1 y-1, respectively. Soil nitrous oxide, methane and litterfall were measured for 14 months and respiration fluxes were measured for 5 months across land uses and different seasons. The measured emissions of

  3. Globally sourced mineral commodities used in U.S. Navy SEAL gear—An illustration of U.S. net import reliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, Jamie; Nassar, Nedal T.; Gambogi, Joseph; Baker, Michael S.; Jarvis, Michael T.

    2018-01-25

    A U.S. Navy SEAL (an acronym for sea, air, land) carries gear containing at least 23 nonfuel mineral commodities for which the United States is greater than 50 percent net import reliant. The graphics display the leading world producers of selected nonfuel mineral commodities used to manufacture U.S. Navy SEAL gear. SEALs are members of the U.S. Navy's special operations forces.

  4. The use of IRMS, (1)H NMR and chemical analysis to characterise Italian and imported Tunisian olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camin, Federica; Pavone, Anita; Bontempo, Luana; Wehrens, Ron; Paolini, Mauro; Faberi, Angelo; Marianella, Rosa Maria; Capitani, Donatella; Vista, Silvia; Mannina, Luisa

    2016-04-01

    Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS), (1)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H NMR), conventional chemical analysis and chemometric elaboration were used to assess quality and to define and confirm the geographical origin of 177 Italian PDO (Protected Denomination of Origin) olive oils and 86 samples imported from Tunisia. Italian olive oils were richer in squalene and unsaturated fatty acids, whereas Tunisian olive oils showed higher δ(18)O, δ(2)H, linoleic acid, saturated fatty acids β-sitosterol, sn-1 and 3 diglyceride values. Furthermore, all the Tunisian samples imported were of poor quality, with a K232 and/or acidity values above the limits established for extra virgin olive oils. By combining isotopic composition with (1)H NMR data using a multivariate statistical approach, a statistical model able to discriminate olive oil from Italy and those imported from Tunisia was obtained, with an optimal differentiation ability arriving at around 98%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Do emerging markets matter in the world oil pricing system? Evidence of imported crude by China and India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Li; Lin Xiaowen, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides empirical evidence on the changing structure of world oil price system by identifying an additional driver-emerging market factor. We choose China and India as a representative of emerging markets to examine if the quantity of crude oil imported by China and India is significant in the existing oil pricing system (. Our data starts from January 2002 and ends in March 2010, which includes the oil shock of 2007-2008. We utilize cointegration and error correction model framework developed by and in the analysis. Our results indicate that demand from emerging markets has become a significant factor in the world oil pricing system since 2003. This result is significant as it lends empirical support to the widely held conjecture that the oil shock of 2007-2008 is a demand-led shock (). Our result also has significant policy implications that go beyond the oil shock. The emerging market factor is there to stay and reflects the changing power between emerging and developed economies in the world economic system as a result of decades of fast economic development in the former. It will certainly influence policy issues related to oil and beyond. - Highlights: → We test the existing oil price modelling with data from 2002-2010. → We find evidence of structural breaks in the world oil pricing model. → We find that emerging market factor is a new driver in the world oil pricing system since 2003. → The emerging market factor lends empirical support to 'consumption-led' conjecture of oil shock. → New factor reflects significant changes of oil demand landscape following shifting economic power.

  6. The development process and its relation to oil revenues and dependence on imported labor market in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almtairi, N.M.

    1991-01-01

    This study describes and analyzes the process of development in Saudi Arabia in relation to oil revenues and Saudi Arabian dependence on imported foreign labor. Modern development and societal change in Saudi Arabia began with the commercial exploitation of oil in 1939, therefore Saudi economy must be viewed from a dual perspective: a highly capital-intensive oil sector and a labor-intensive non-oil sector. In one generation the Kingdom created an infrastructure suitable to a rapid transformation from Bedouin tribes to a modern state, which became a leading regional power and now occupies an important place in international society. Important advances were made in social services, health services and education at all levels. Large-scale importation of foreign labor workers during the 1970s and early 1980s was necessary for the Development Plans. By the 1990s the major infrastructure was completed and only the maintenance work and minor projects remained for foreign labor sources

  7. Biologically Important Eremophilane Sesquiterpenes from Alaska Cedar Heartwood Essential Oil and Their Semi-Synthetic Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Khasawneh, Mohammad A.; Xiong, Yeping; Peralta-Cruz, Javier; Karchesy, Joe J.

    2011-01-01

    The essential oil of Alaska cedar heartwood is known to contain compounds which contribute to the remarkable durability of this species. While previous research has identified several compounds, a complete description of this oil has not been undertaken. In this research a profile of the oil is given in which the major components are identified by GC, isolation and spectroscopic techniques. The major components of the steam distilled essential oil were identified as nootkatin, nootkatone, val...

  8. Characterization of Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Oils: The Importance of Solvent Selection for Analytical Method Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, Jack R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ware, Anne E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-25

    Two catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) oils (bottom/heavy fraction) were analyzed in various solvents that are used in common analytical methods (nuclear magnetic resonance - NMR, gas chromatography - GC, gel permeation chromatography - GPC, thermogravimetric analysis - TGA) for oil characterization and speciation. A more accurate analysis of the CFP oils can be obtained by identification and exploitation of solvent miscibility characteristics. Acetone and tetrahydrofuran can be used to completely solubilize CFP oils for analysis by GC and tetrahydrofuran can be used for traditional organic GPC analysis of the oils. DMSO-d6 can be used to solubilize CFP oils for analysis by 13C NMR. The fractionation of oils into solvents that did not completely solubilize the whole oils showed that miscibility can be related to the oil properties. This allows for solvent selection based on physico-chemical properties of the oils. However, based on semi-quantitative comparisons of the GC chromatograms, the organic solvent fractionation schemes did not speciate the oils based on specific analyte type. On the other hand, chlorinated solvents did fractionate the oils based on analyte size to a certain degree. Unfortunately, like raw pyrolysis oil, the matrix of the CFP oils is complicated and is not amenable to simple liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) or solvent fractionation to separate the oils based on the chemical and/or physical properties of individual components. For reliable analyses, for each analytical method used, it is critical that the bio-oil sample is both completely soluble and also not likely to react with the chosen solvent. The adoption of the standardized solvent selection protocols presented here will allow for greater reproducibility of analysis across different users and facilities.

  9. Value change in oil and gas production: V. Incorporation of uncertainties and determination of relative importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, I.; Noeth, S.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of two fundamentally different types of uncertainty on the value of oil field production are investigated here. First considered is the uncertainty caused by the fact that the expected value estimate is not one of the possible outcomes. To correctly allow for the risk attendant upon using the expected value as a measure of worth, even with statistically sharp parameters, one needs to incorporate the uncertainty of the expected value. Using a simple example we show how such incorporation allows for a clear determination of the relative risk of projects that may have the same expected value but very different risks. We also show how each project can be risked on its own using the expected value and variance. This uncertainty type is due to the possible pathways for different outcomes even when parameters categorizing the system are taken to be known. Second considered is the risk due to the fact that parameters in oil field estimates are just estimates and, as such, have their own intrinsic errors that influence the possible outcomes and make them less certain. This sort of risk depends upon the uncertainty of each parameter, and also the type of distribution the parameters are taken to be drawn from. In addition, not all uncertainties in parameters values are of equal importance in influencing an outcome probability. We show how can determine the relative importance for the parameters and so determine where to place effort to resolve the dominant contributions to risk if it is possible to do so. Considerations of whether to acquire new information, and also whether to undertake further studies under such an uncertain environment, are used as vehicles to address these concerns of risk due to uncertainty. In general, an oil field development project has to contend with all the above types of risk and uncertainty. It is therefore of importance to have quantitative measures of risk so that one can compare and contrast the various effects, and so that

  10. In vitro antimicrobial properties of plant essential oils thymus vulgaris, cymbopogon citratus and laurus nobilis against five important foodborne pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Farias Millezi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Several essential oils of condiment and medicinal plants possess proven antimicrobial activity and are of important interest for the food industry. Therefore, the Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC of those oils should be determined for various bacteria. MIC varies according to the oil used, the major compounds, and the physiology of the bacterium under study. In the present study, the essential oils of the plants Thymus vulgaris (time, Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass and Laurus nobilis (bay were chemically quantified, and the MIC was determined on the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19117, Salmonella enterica Enteritidis S64, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. The essential oil of C. citratus demonstrated bacterial activity at all concentrations tested and against all of the bacteria tested. The majority of essential oil compounds were geranial and neral. The major constituent of T. vulgaris was 1.8-cineol and of L. nobilis was linalool, which presented lower antibacterial activity, followed by 1.8-cineol. The Gram-negative bacteria demonstrated higher resistance to the use of the essential oils tested in this study. E. coli was the least sensitive and was inhibited only by the oils of C. citratus and L. nobilis.

  11. Quality of Vegetable Oil Prior to Fortification Is an Important Criteria to Achieve a Health Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuri Andarwulan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Unbranded palm cooking oil has been fortified for several years and can be found in the market with different oxidation levels. This study aimed to investigate the stability and shelf life of unbranded, bulk, vitamin A-fortified palm oils with the most commonly observed oxidation levels in Indonesia. Three types of cooking oils were tested: (i cooking oil with a peroxide value (PV below 2 mEq O2/kg (PO1; (ii cooking oil with a PV around 4 mEq O2/kg (PO2; and (iii cooking oil with a PV around 9 mEq O2/kg (PO3. The oil shelf life was determined by using accelerated shelf life testing (ASLT, where the product was stored at 60, 75 and 90 °C, and then PV, free fatty acid and vitamin A concentration in the oil samples were measured. The results showed that PO1 had a shelf life of between 2–3 months, while PO2’s shelf life was a few weeks and PO3’s only a few days. Even given those varying shelf lives, the vitamin A loss in the oils was still acceptable, at around 10%. However, the short shelf life of highly oxidized cooking oil, such as PO3, might negatively impact health, due to the potential increase of free radicals of the lipid peroxidation in the oil. Based on the results, the Indonesian government should prohibit the sale of highly-oxidized cooking oil. In addition, government authorities should promote and endorse the fortification of only cooking oil with low peroxide levels to ensure that fortification is not associated with any health issues associated with high oxidation levels of the cooking oil.

  12. Estimating core inflation : the role of oil price shocks and imported inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørnland, Hilde Christiane

    1997-01-01

    This paper calculates core inflation, by imposing long run restrictions on a structural vector autoregression (VAR) model containing the growth rate of output, inflation and oil prices. Core inflation is identified as that component in inflation that has no long run effect on output. No restrictions are placed on the response of output and inflation to the oil price shocks. The analysis is applied to Norway and the United Kingdom, both oil producing OECD countries. A model that ...

  13. Investigating oiled birds from oil field waste pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, D.G.; Edwards, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    Procedures and results of investigations concerning the oiling of inland raptors, migratory water-fowl and other birds are presented. Freon washings from the oiled birds and oil from the pits were analyzed by gas chromatography. In most instances the source of the oil could be established by chromatographic procedures. The numbers of birds involved (including many on the endangered species list) suggested the need for netting or closing oil field waste pits and mud disposal pits. Maintaining a proper chain of custody was important

  14. The deforestation problem in oil-importing developing countries: A capital theory approach to a renewable resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    This study attempts an analysis of the effects of a crude-oil price shock on the tropical rain-forest biomass of oil-importing developing countries. It establishes the logical plausibility of this relationship between price shocks and deforestation by developing a stylized capital-theoretic intertemporal model with a trade constraint. This formulation allows one to determine the correct price path at each moment in time, an efficiency consideration. A second theoretical model purports to show that justification for the building of high dams as a response to energy shocks was based on myopic expectations of crude oil supplier behavior. Once rational supplier response to natural capital stocks is taken into consideration, a different result emerges suggesting a much larger optical biomass stock. Noting that deforestation is an externality with global repercussions and appealing to the logic of the Folk Theorem of game theory, the last chapter proposes an international collaborative effort whereby concerned nations would supply crude oil to oil-importing developing countries that have witnessed the deterioration of their forest biomass as a direct or indirect consequence of oil price shocks

  15. Uranium exports could match oil imports. [status and prospects of the Canadian uranium industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntyre, H C

    1977-04-01

    Apart from a temporary embargo while safeguards are negotiated, the Canadian government limits uranium exports so as to guarantee fuel for every Canadian reactor built or planned for 30 years. On the basis of present known reserves of 172 Gg of 'cheap' U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ and 33 of 'dear', that would mean phasing out exports after the mid 1980's, but probably much more 'dear' uranium remains to be discovered. Provincial taxation and restrictions on foreign ownership may be limitations. Discoveries range over eleven areas, but production capacity at present is 14190 Mg/d from Ontario and 3400 from Saskatchewan, with 8800 mothballed and 4860 planned or being rehabilitated. The price has jumped to $95/kg, so that uranium exports may cover half the cost of oil imports. All producers use sulfuric acid leaching, except Eldorado, which uses carbonate leaching; a process using tertiary amine is being developed. Development of the organic-cooled Th//sup 233/U fuelled reactor may greatly extend fuel resources.

  16. Importance of separating sedimentation facies in prospecting for oil and gas pools confined to sloping structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, B

    1984-01-01

    The Shuantotszi field which is in the southeast part of the Sunlyalo oil and gas basin was discovered in 1962. For a long time the correlation of the main factors controlling the oil and gas distribution remained obscure. It has been established in recent years that the main volume of oil and gas is confined to facies in the channels of the second order, arranged between the facies of the main channel and the perlite deposits of the delta. It was established that formation of the accumulation is associated with redistribution and secondary migration of hydrocarbons.

  17. Preliminary study of reasonableness of important parameters used in deriving OILs for PWR accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yongsheng, L.; Shongqi, S.

    2004-01-01

    Institute of nuclear energy technology, Tsinghua university, Beijing , China ,100084 Body of Abstract: This paper introduced the definition of operational intervention level (OIL) and the derived process of default OILs recommended by IAEA firstly. Then the paper focused on the reasonableness of two parameters, R1 and R2, which is assumed in derived process of default OIL1 and OIL2 in a reactor accident. The values of R1 and R2 were calculated by the calculating program of InterRas. The source item for computing includes the accidents PWR described in Wash-1400 and France severe accident source items, and furthermore the meteorological conditions for computing are classified to three classes, which are D stability class, A stability class, and F stability class with the mixing heights of 400 meters and 4 hour exposure to the plume. The wind speed is 3m/s, 2m/s and 1m/s correspond to the stability classes. The results show that the average values of R1 and R2 in the same accident series and different meteorological conditions derived by the calculating program of InterRas are close to the presumptive values. The results also indicated the rationalization of the default OIL1 and OIL2. On the other hand, the calculating results of different accidents have considerable disparity with the presumptive values in different distances and meteorological conditions, but the mutative trends are very well-regulated on distance and meteorological conditions. So the OILs recommended by IAEA are applicable to some specified conditions. At last the paper introduced the method of revising the default OILs in terms of measurement results. (Author)

  18. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In a computer system, for example, typical discrete events ... This project brought out a series of influential reports on Petri net theory in the mid and late ... Technology became a leading centre for Petri net research and from then on, Petri nets ...

  19. Relative importance of climate changes at different time scales on net primary productivity-a case study of the Karst area of northwest Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiyu; Zhang, Mingyang; Lin, Zhenshan

    2017-10-05

    Climate changes are considered to significantly impact net primary productivity (NPP). However, there are few studies on how climate changes at multiple time scales impact NPP. With MODIS NPP product and station-based observations of sunshine duration, annual average temperature and annual precipitation, impacts of climate changes at different time scales on annual NPP, have been studied with EEMD (ensemble empirical mode decomposition) method in the Karst area of northwest Guangxi, China, during 2000-2013. Moreover, with partial least squares regression (PLSR) model, the relative importance of climatic variables for annual NPP has been explored. The results show that (1) only at quasi 3-year time scale do sunshine duration and temperature have significantly positive relations with NPP. (2) Annual precipitation has no significant relation to NPP by direct comparison, but significantly positive relation at 5-year time scale, which is because 5-year time scale is not the dominant scale of precipitation; (3) the changes of NPP may be dominated by inter-annual variabilities. (4) Multiple time scales analysis will greatly improve the performance of PLSR model for estimating NPP. The variable importance in projection (VIP) scores of sunshine duration and temperature at quasi 3-year time scale, and precipitation at quasi 5-year time scale are greater than 0.8, indicating important for NPP during 2000-2013. However, sunshine duration and temperature at quasi 3-year time scale are much more important. Our results underscore the importance of multiple time scales analysis for revealing the relations of NPP to changing climate.

  20. Biologically Important Eremophilane Sesquiterpenes from Alaska Cedar Heartwood Essential Oil and Their Semi-Synthetic Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe J. Karchesy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Alaska cedar heartwood is known to contain compounds which contribute to the remarkable durability of this species. While previous research has identified several compounds, a complete description of this oil has not been undertaken. In this research a profile of the oil is given in which the major components are identified by GC, isolation and spectroscopic techniques. The major components of the steam distilled essential oil were identified as nootkatin, nootkatone, valencene, nootaktene, carvacrol, methyl carvacrol, nootkatol (2, and eremophil-1(10,11-dien-13-ol (3. The last two compounds were isolated for the first time from Alaska cedar in this research. The absolute stereochemistry at C-2 of nootkatol was shown to have the (S configuration using the Mosher ester method. Assignment of stereochemistry for valencene-13-ol (3 was established by synthesis from valencene (6. Finally, two related sesquiterpenoids were synthesized from nootkatone and valencene. These sesquiterpenoids were nootkatone-1,10-11,12-diepoxide (5 and valencene-13-aldehyde (4, respectively.

  1. Biologically important eremophilane sesquiterpenes from alaska cedar heartwood essential oil and their semi-synthetic derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasawneh, Mohammad A; Xiong, Yeping; Peralta-Cruz, Javier; Karchesy, Joe J

    2011-06-08

    The essential oil of Alaska cedar heartwood is known to contain compounds which contribute to the remarkable durability of this species. While previous research has identified several compounds, a complete description of this oil has not been undertaken. In this research a profile of the oil is given in which the major components are identified by GC, isolation and spectroscopic techniques. The major components of the steam distilled essential oil were identified as nootkatin, nootkatone, valencene, nootaktene, carvacrol, methyl carvacrol, nootkatol (2), and eremophil-1(10),11-dien-13-ol (3). The last two compounds were isolated for the first time from Alaska cedar in this research. The absolute stereochemistry at C-2 of nootkatol was shown to have the (S) configuration using the Mosher ester method. Assignment of stereochemistry for valencene-13-ol (3) was established by synthesis from valencene (6). Finally, two related sesquiterpenoids were synthesized from nootkatone and valencene. These sesquiterpenoids were nootkatone-1,10-11,12-diepoxide (5) and valencene-13-aldehyde (4), respectively.

  2. Short‑Term and Long‑Term Relationships Between Prices of Imported Oil and Fuel Products in the U. S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Adamec

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we analyzed a system of five monthly time series integrated I(1: average price of crude oil imported to the U.S. from OPEC countries (Opec, imported oil price from other than OPEC countries (NonOpec in USD per barrel, average price of regular gasoline in the U.S. (Regular, premium quality gasoline price (Premium and kerosene price (Kerosene in U.S. cents per gallon. Cointegration was established by EG test and the series were analyzed by VECM model with lag selected via BIC criterion. Cointegration rank was determined by the Johansen procedure. According to VECM coefficients, prices of oil from OPEC countries and beyond OPEC exert influence upon all commodity prices in the system, but in a contradictory manner. Responses to innovation shocks in Opec and NonOpec stabilized within 8 to 10 months upon a nonzero shift and further became permanent. Innovation shock in both types of gasoline and Kerosene had only short-term significant impact upon the system. Forecast error variance in all variables is explained mainly by variation in oil prices, especially Opec, which persists with increased horizon. For a short horizon h = 1, FEVDs in gasoline and kerosene prices are primarily made of variation in the respective fuel prices.

  3. Barite: a case study of import reliance on an essential material for oil and gas exploration and development drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiwas, Donald I.; Miller, M. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Global dependence on a limited number of countries for specific mineral commodities could lead to sudden supply disruptions for the United States, and barite is one such commodity. Analyses of barite supply amounts and sources for the United States are demonstrative of mineral commodities on which the country is import reliant. Mineral commodity trade flows can be analyzed more easily than import reliances for commodities in which U.S. domestic demand is primarily met by materials contained within manufactured products, as with the rare-earth elements in cellular phones and computers. Barite plays an essential role as a weighting material in drilling muds used in oil and gas drilling, primarily to prevent the explosive release of gas and oil during drilling. The Nation’s efforts to become more energy independent are based largely on the domestic oil and gas industry’s ability to explore and develop onshore and offshore fuel deposits. These activities include increased efforts by the United States to locate and recover oil and gas within unconventional deposits, such as those in the Bakken, Eagle Ford, and Marcellus Formations, using advanced drilling technologies.

  4. Oil price fluctuations and U.S. dollar exchange rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizardo, Radhames A.; Mollick, Andre V.

    2010-01-01

    Adding oil prices to the monetary model of exchange rates, we find that oil prices significantly explain movements in the value of the U.S. dollar (USD) against major currencies from the 1970s to 2008. Our long-run and forecasting results are remarkably consistent with an oil-exchange rate relationship. Increases in real oil prices lead to a significant depreciation of the USD against net oil exporter currencies, such as Canada, Mexico, and Russia. On the other hand, the currencies of oil importers, such as Japan, depreciate relative to the USD when the real oil price goes up. (author)

  5. Net Neutrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej

    2017-01-01

    Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else.......Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else....

  6. Importance of disturbance history on net primary productivity in the world's most productive forests and implications for the global carbon cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, Liubov; Roxburgh, Stephen H; Weston, Christopher J; Benyon, Richard G; Sullivan, Andrew L; Polglase, Philip J

    2018-05-14

    Analysis of growth and biomass turnover in natural forests of Eucalyptus regnans, the world's tallest angiosperm, reveals it is also the world's most productive forest type, with fire disturbance an important mediator of net primary productivity (NPP). A comprehensive empirical database was used to calculate the averaged temporal pattern of NPP from regeneration to 250 years age. NPP peaks at 23.1 ± 3.8 (95% interquantile range) Mg C ha -1  year -1 at age 14 years, and declines gradually to about 9.2 ± 0.8 Mg C ha -1  year -1 at 130 years, with an average NPP over 250 years of 11.4 ± 1.1 Mg C ha -1  year -1 , a value similar to the most productive temperate and tropical forests around the world. We then applied the age-class distribution of E. regnans resulting from relatively recent historical fires to estimate current NPP for the forest estate. Values of NPP were 40% higher (13 Mg C ha -1  year -1 ) than if forests were assumed to be at maturity (9.2 Mg C ha -1  year -1 ). The empirically derived NPP time series for the E. regnans estate was then compared against predictions from 21 global circulation models, showing that none of them had the capacity to simulate a post-disturbance peak in NPP, as found in E. regnans. The potential importance of disturbance impacts on NPP was further tested by applying a similar approach to the temperate forests of conterminous United States and of China. Allowing for the effects of disturbance, NPP summed across both regions was on average 11% (or 194 Tg C/year) greater than if all forests were assumed to be in a mature state. The results illustrate the importance of accounting for past disturbance history and growth stage when estimating forest primary productivity, with implications for carbon balance modelling at local to global scales. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Importance of size and distribution of Ni nanoparticles for the hydrodeoxygenation of microalgae oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenji; Zhao, Chen; Lercher, Johannes A

    2013-07-22

    Improved synthetic approaches for preparing small-sized Ni nanoparticles (d=3 nm) supported on HBEA zeolite have been explored and compared with the traditional impregnation method. The formation of surface nickel silicate/aluminate involved in the two precipitation processes are inferred to lead to the stronger interaction between the metal and the support. The lower Brønsted acid concentrations of these two Ni/HBEA catalysts compared with the parent zeolite caused by the partial exchange of Brønsted acid sites by Ni(2+) cations do not influence the hydrodeoxygenation rates, but alter the product selectivity. Higher initial rates and higher stability have been achieved with these optimized catalysts for the hydrodeoxygenation of stearic acid and microalgae oil. Small metal particles facilitate high initial catalytic activity in the fresh sample and size uniformity ensures high catalyst stability. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Importance of fines in smart water enhanced oil recovery (SmW-EOR) for chalk outcrops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, Krishna Hara; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    In SmW-EOR it is generally believed that precipitation of brines must be avoided since it can have a negative impact on the SmW sweep efficiency. But substitution of Mg2+ by Ca2+ on calcite surfaces (a well-accepted phenomenon) can change the brine combination and enhance the possibility of fine ......W-EOR experiments reported in literature. Both the amount of available soluble SO4 2- (aq) in the solution and the amount of CaSO4 precipitation has been calculated and correlated to the corresponding oil recovery.......In SmW-EOR it is generally believed that precipitation of brines must be avoided since it can have a negative impact on the SmW sweep efficiency. But substitution of Mg2+ by Ca2+ on calcite surfaces (a well-accepted phenomenon) can change the brine combination and enhance the possibility of fine...

  9. The anatomy and importance of project finance for oil and gas developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyatt, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that project financing can be of great benefit to oil and gas projects because by separately identifying and securing assets and cashflows it can provide large sums not otherwise accessible to whole projects or to individual companies. Project financing is of interest to members of the SPE because it routinely requires the expertise of petroleum engineers and other professionals to vouch for the viability of petroleum projects and the recoverability of reserves. its essential attraction is that risk analysis and the application of precise professional criteria enable large projects and amounts to be financed, which otherwise might not occur. This is particularly the case when there are a number of participants in a large project, none of which is on its own able to support the finance. The growth in the average size of projects means that an increasing number of projects must be financed in this way or not be able to go forward

  10. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GENERAL I ARTICLE ... In Part 1 of this two-part article, we have seen im- ..... mable logic controller and VLSI arrays, office automation systems, workflow management systems, ... complex discrete event and real-time systems; and Petri nets.

  11. How important are national companies for oil and gas sector performance? Lessons from the Bolivia and Brazil case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paz Antolín, María José; Ramírez Cendrero, Juan Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Control of natural resources, especially oil and gas, has been a major issue in the consideration of underdevelopment. In the present commodity boom, some Latin American economies are reforming their resource exploitation regimes, especially those issues linked with foreign capital share. The purpose of this report is to analyze these changes in the Bolivian and Brazilian oil and gas sectors in order to answer such questions as: Which property system combining public and private capital is the most suitable? Which regulating framework can guarantee a sustainable increase in output and investment? Our analyses lead to the conclusion that the regulatory framework can establish a particular ownership structure that is considered favorable for improving the performance of oil and gas sector, but the internal dynamics and the historical trajectories of enterprises will also be determining factors that interact with the given regulatory framework, generating mixed results. - highlights: • We analyze the influence of the regulatory framework in the growth of production. • We analyze the influence of the regulatory framework in investment dynamics. • We compare the regulatory frameworks for Brazil and Bolivia. • We compare the importance of public and private companies in hydrocarbons in Brazil and Bolivia

  12. The Importance of Target Market Selection for More Profitable Olive Oil Exports by Turkey: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa METE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the quotas and taxes implemented by EU to Turkey were examined and it was observed that these policies have negative effects on Turkey’s olive oil exports. Due to the restrictive policies and low profitability in the entry to the EU market, it was determined that Turkey should be directed to the markets that have higher profitability compared with the exports to EU countries. These detections were carried out in accordance with the information obtained from International Trade Center (ITC and Market Access Database (MAD. As a result of the detections it has been found that exports to the EU countries are more profitable and the entry to the market is easier than to the US. As a result of the researches in ITC and MAD databases, actual companies in oil imports in the US market have been determined and it has shown by examining a bill of loading sample that the firms that make olive oils exports in Turkey easily enter new target markets if they know the usage of the databases

  13. Millionaire underdogs: The Independent Petroleum Association of American and the politics of imported oil, 1921-1941

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staggs, K.J.

    1991-01-01

    Smaller, usually non-integrated producers, or independents, demanded a protective tariff on imported petroleum, the one policy that would make the majors bear all the burdens of curtailment. In 1929 they created a national organization, the Independent Petroleum Association of America (IPPA), and after 1929 spent the next 12 years lobbying Congress and the Executive for some form of protective legislation. The independents argued that protectionism was necessary in order to maintain a competitive balance in the industry, and that if the majors were allowed to buy them out, the country would face high monopolistic prices for petroleum products. This study explains why the independent oil producers wanted protectionist legislation in the 1920s and 1930s, how they influenced oil policy, and what the short-term and long-run effects of the compromise over import controls were for America. It focuses particularly on the IPAA and makes use of its publications and of archival and manuscript collections, government documents, and trade journals that illuminate its thinking and its political activities

  14. China's oil use, 1990-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, Guy C.K.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past two decades, China's oil demand has risen steeply. In 1990, it was only about 25% higher than that of 1978, the year economic reform was introduced. By 2008, it had reached 396.0 million tons, roughly four times the 1978 level, making China the second largest oil user worldwide. The country became a net oil importer in 1993, and between 1993 and 2008, its net import dependency - a yardstick for energy security - soared from 7.5% to 50.0%. China's increased demand for oil has made the country a global energy player of critical importance. Although the literature on the global implications of China's oil use has proliferated, relatively few studies have attempted to examine ''how China uses oil.'' Hence, this study covers every oil-consuming facility and sector in China, exploring the patterns of, and factors involved in, oil demand by power plants, oil refineries, heat plants and, gas-works, and industrial, transport, agricultural, household and commercial sectors. It concludes that in virtually all sectors in China, oil demand will grow, with transport and industry leading the way. (author)

  15. RESTful NET

    CERN Document Server

    Flanders, Jon

    2008-01-01

    RESTful .NET is the first book that teaches Windows developers to build RESTful web services using the latest Microsoft tools. Written by Windows Communication Foundation (WFC) expert Jon Flanders, this hands-on tutorial demonstrates how you can use WCF and other components of the .NET 3.5 Framework to build, deploy and use REST-based web services in a variety of application scenarios. RESTful architecture offers a simpler approach to building web services than SOAP, SOA, and the cumbersome WS- stack. And WCF has proven to be a flexible technology for building distributed systems not necessa

  16. Improved netting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramley, A.; Clabburn, R.J.T.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for producing netting composed of longitudinal and transverse threads of irradiation cross linked thermoplastic material, the threads being joined together at their crossings by moulded masses of cross linked thermoplastic material. The thread may be formed of polyethylene filaments, subjected to a radiation dose of 15 to 25 MR. The moulding can be conducted at 245 0 to 260 0 C or higher. The product is claimed to be an improved quality of netting, with bonds of increased strength between crossing threads. (U.K.)

  17. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, S

    1909-11-29

    Mineral, shale, and like oils are treated successively with sulfuric acid, milk of lime, and a mixture of calcium oxide, sodium chloride, and water, and finally a solution of naphthalene in toluene is added. The product is suitable for lighting, and for use as a motor fuel; for the latter purpose, it is mixed with a light spirit.

  18. The importance of Norway in the oil and natural gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noreng, Oeystein

    2006-01-01

    The article presents an analysis of the global energy markets with emphasis on the Northern areas and the importance of Norway. The energy supplies and prices, the OPEC role, the role of Norway and Russia in the natural gas markets and energy policies are discussed. Various risk aspects particularly for Norway are mentioned. (tk)

  19. Drawing a Roadmap for Oil Pricing Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Kojima, Masami

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, the median oil imports rose to 5 percent of gross domestic product for net importers. In the past several years, many governments have not passed through the world oil price increases to consumers fully. As a sign of divergent pricing policies, the retail prices of gasoline, diesel, and cooking gas in January 2013 varied by a factor of 190, 250, and 70, respectively, across develo...

  20. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 9. Petri Nets - Applications. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 9 September 1999 pp 44-52 ... Author Affiliations. Y Narahari1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  1. Preliminary assessment of the importance of turbulent coagulation in the Kuwaiti oil fires. Final report, April 1992-June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohlberg, I.

    1993-06-01

    This study provides a mathematical determination of the spatial distribution of aerosols due to turbulent shear coagulation and turbulent inertial coagulation, as applied to the conditions of the Kuwaiti Oil Fires (KOF) of 1991. Using an approximation from a forest fire for the normalized size distribution of aerosols, the downstream particle concentration is found by the concurrent solution of the coagulations' kinetics combined with turbulent atmospheric diffusion. The result shows the explicit dependence of the concentration on the following principal parameters: turbulent energy dissipation rate, turbulent diffusion constant, average wind speed, mass ejection from a well, Kolmorogov time scale for turbulence, and Kolmorogov length scale for turbulence. For very large values of turbulent energy dissipation rate, turbulent inertial coagulation is more effective than turbulent shear coagulation in particle growth. The spatial dependence of concentration attributed to turbulent coagulation may vary considerably. Depending on the choice of parameters, the importance of turbulent coagulation in particle transport processes may extend from less than a kilometer to tens of kilometers. Kuwaiti Oil Fires (KOF), Particle transport, Turbulent inertial coagulation, Turbulent shear coagulation.

  2. Net Locality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Gordon, Eric

    Provides an introduction to the new theory of Net Locality and the profound effect on individuals and societies when everything is located or locatable. Describes net locality as an emerging form of location awareness central to all aspects of digital media, from mobile phones, to Google Maps......, to location-based social networks and games, such as Foursquare and facebook. Warns of the threats these technologies, such as data surveillance, present to our sense of privacy, while also outlining the opportunities for pro-social developments. Provides a theory of the web in the context of the history...... of emerging technologies, from GeoCities to GPS, Wi-Fi, Wiki Me, and Google Android....

  3. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobbett, G T.B.

    1907-07-08

    Crude petroleum having a density of 850 to 900 is purified with sulfuric acid, decanted, mixed with benzine or petrol, and again treated with sulfuric acid and decanted. The remaining acid and coloring-matter are removed by washing with water, or treating with oxalic acid, zinc carbonate, lead carbonate, calcium carbonate, or oxide of zinc. The product is used as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. Specifications No. 28,104, A.D. 1906, and No. 12,606, A.D. 1907, are referred to. According to the Provisional Specification, the process is applicable to shale or schist oil.

  4. Is it better to import palm oil from Thailand to produce biodiesel in Ireland than to produce biodiesel from indigenous Irish rape seed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thamsiriroj, T.; Murphy, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    The proposed EU Directive on the promotion of Renewable Energy stipulates that only biofuels that achieve greenhouse emissions savings of 35% will be eligible for inclusion with respect to meeting the 2020 target of 10% for the share of biofuels. This paper examines biodiesel for use in Ireland, produced from two different sources: indigenous rape seed and palm oil imported from Thailand. The palm oil system generates more biodiesel per hectare than the rape seed system, and has less parasitic demand. Greenhouse-gas reductions of 29% and 55%, respectively were calculated for the rape seed and palm oil systems. (author)

  5. The Chinese Olive Oil Market Today Import Prices,Market Segments, Opportunities and Challenges%The Chinese Olive Oil Market Today Import Prioes,Market Segments, Opportunities and Challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mateo Radnic

    2011-01-01

    @@ Ⅰ .EDIBLE OIL CONSUMPTION IN CHINA According to the data of Edible Oil Consumption in China,this market has constantly growth over the last years, doublingits size in only 8 years.For the past year 2010, the market sizereaches over 29 thousand tons.

  6. Amendment of oil related systems. Abolishment of the temporary measure law for importing specific petroleum products and amendment of the oil storage law and the volatile oil selling business law; Sekiyu kanren no seido kaisei ni tsuite. Tokutei sekiyu seihin yunyu oyobi kihatsuyu hanbaigyoho no kaisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, I. [Small and Medium Enterprise Agency, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-07-20

    This paper describes the following matters related to amendment of oil related systems which will be enforced according to the result of discussions at the Petroleum Council on the ways the oil product supply should be in the future. The temporary measure law for importing specific oil products shall be abolished when it will be expired in March 1996. This is because the law has limited the oil product importing organizations only to oil companies who have oil refining capabilities, and the continuation of the law would lose its justifiability under the present circumstances in the petroleum industry. The oil reservation law is then amended so that the emergency handling ability on oil supply will not be hampered even after possible expansion in the number of oil product importing organizations as a result of the abolishment of the temporary measure law. The quality management systems for oil products will also be revised so that the present level on quality items of the minimum necessity will not be declined with respect to the environments and safety. Furthermore, the area designating system that has been limiting erection of oil service stations will be repealed by October 1996. 2 tabs.

  7. Net energy analysis - powerful tool for selecting elective power options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-12-01

    A number of net energy analysis studies have been conducted in recent years for electric power production from coal, oil and uranium fuels; synthetic fuels from coal and oil shale; and heat and electric power from solar energy. This technique is an excellent indicator of investment costs, environmental impact and potential economic competitiveness of alternative electric power systems for energy planners from the Eastern European countries considering future options. Energy conservation is also important to energy planners and the net energy analysis technique is an excellent accounting system on the extent of energy resource conservation. The author proposes to discuss the technique and to present the results of his studies and others in the field. The information supplied to the attendees will serve as a powerful tool to the energy planners considering their electric power options in the future.

  8. Does China factor matter? An econometric analysis of international crude oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Gang; Zhang, Yue-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Whether China’s crude oil imports are the culprit of oil price volatility these years has not been quantitatively confirmed. Therefore, this paper empirically investigates the role of China’s crude oil net imports in Brent price changes from October 2005 to November 2013 based on an econometric analysis. The results indicate that, during the sample period, China’s crude oil imports do not significantly affect Brent price changes, no matter in the long run or short run. Therefore, the blame for China’s crude oil imports to cause the dramatic fluctuations of international oil price has no solid evidence. Also, there exists significant uni-directional causality running from the Brent price to China's crude oil imports at the 5% level. Besides, the response of the Brent price to China's crude oil imports is found positive but slight, and the Brent price responds more significantly to US dollar exchange rate and OECD commercial inventory than to China’s crude oil imports in the short run. Finally, the contribution of China's crude oil imports to Brent price movement is about 10%, which is less than that of US dollar exchange rate but larger than that of Indian crude oil imports or OECD commercial inventory. - Highlights: • The paper detects the role of China’s crude oil imports in Brent oil price changes. • China’s crude imports do not matter for oil prices in the long run or short run. • The blame for China’s crude imports on oil price changes has no solid evidence. • Significant causality runs from Brent prices to China's crude oil net imports. • China's crude imports contribute less to Brent prices than US dollar exchange rate

  9. The equivalency between logic Petri workflow nets and workflow nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue

    2015-01-01

    Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented.

  10. The Equivalency between Logic Petri Workflow Nets and Workflow Nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue

    2015-01-01

    Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented. PMID:25821845

  11. DNA-SIP identifies sulfate-reducing Clostridia as important toluene degraders in tar-oil-contaminated aquifer sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winderl, C.; Penning, H.; von Netzer, F.; Meckenstock, R.U.; Lueders, T. [Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    Global groundwater resources are constantly challenged by a multitude of contaminants such as aromatic hydrocarbons. Especially in anaerobic habitats, a large diversity of unrecognized microbial populations may be responsible for their degradation. Still, our present understanding of the respective microbiota and their ecophysiology is almost exclusively based on a small number of cultured organisms, mostly within the Proteobacteria. Here, by DNA-based stable isotope probing (SIP), we directly identified the most active sulfate-reducing toluene degraders in a diverse sedimentary microbial community originating from a tar-oil-contaminated aquifer at a former coal gasification plant. On incubation of fresh sediments with {sup 13}C{sub 7}-toluene, the production of both sulfide and (CS{sub 2}){sup 13}CO{sub 2} was clearly coupled to the {sup 13}Clabeling of DNA of microbes related to Desulfosporosinus spp. within the Peptococcaceae (Clostridia). The screening of labeled DNA fractions also suggested a novel benzylsuccinate synthase alpha-subunit (bssA) sequence type previously only detected in the environment to be tentatively affiliated with these degraders. However, carbon flow from the contaminant into degrader DNA was only similar to 50%, pointing toward high ratios of heterotrophic CS{sub 2}-fixation during assimilation of acetyl-CoA originating from the contaminant by these degraders. These findings demonstrate that the importance of non-proteobacterial populations in anaerobic aromatics degradation, as well as their specific ecophysiology in the subsurface may still be largely ungrasped.

  12. High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    various journals and collections. As a result, much of this knowledge is not readily available to people who may be interested in using high-level nets. Within the Petri net community this problem has been discussed many times, and as an outcome this book has been compiled. The book contains reprints...... of some of the most important papers on the application and theory of high-level Petri nets. In this way it makes the relevant literature more available. It is our hope that the book will be a useful source of information and that, e.g., it can be used in the organization of Petri net courses. To make......High-level Petri nets are now widely used in both theoretical analysis and practical modelling of concurrent systems. The main reason for the success of this class of net models is that they make it possible to obtain much more succinct and manageable descriptions than can be obtained by means...

  13. Quality studies of the energy in the electric net of the gathering warehouse of reusable parts and contaminate oils of the nuclear power plant Laguna Verde; Estudios de calidad de la energia en la red electrica del almacen de acopio de partes reusables y aceites contaminados (CCAC) de la Central Nuclear Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tijerina S, F.; Vargas A, A.; Cardenas J, J., E-mail: francisco.tijerina@cfe.gob.mx [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Subgerencia de Ingenieria, Carretera Cardel-Nautla Km 42.5, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    In the industry exist the high costs by faults of electronic and electric equipment s, due to during the design process, installation, tests and operation of these equipment s, is not had appropriate detection equipment to carry out quality studies of the energy. These studies give an important support to know that occurs in an electric net, the cause of the anomalous behavior of the equipment s and this way to avoid the expensive faults carrying out necessary engineering adaptations in an electric net. The elements of the electricity that are determined are the tension, current and frequency that are inside acceptable operational parameters that facilitate the operation and constant operation of the equipment s, free of interruptions and failures. The application of the quality studies of the energy is growing little by little in Mexico for the problems solution in the equipment s. This field is also developing new techniques and technologies integrated in the equipment s for its monitoring detection and protection. The present work offers the results of the first Quality Study of the Energy in the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde to solve the problem in the gathering warehouse of reusable parts and contaminate oils, in which the failure of the two radiation monitors of the gassy effluent of ventilation HVAC of the warehouse took place. (Author)

  14. CONTAGIOUS EFFECTS OF OIL PRICES ON ASIAN STOCK MARKETS’ BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jok-Tong Wan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to examine the stock markets’ shock due to the effect of the price of oil in the East Asia Region. Particularly, this study examines if there is stock market interdependence during global oil price shocks (sudden changes for a sample of five total oil importers (the Philippines, Hong Kong SAR, Taiwan, South Korea, and Japan, four net oil importers (Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand, and China, and one net oil exporter (Malaysia between 1999 and 2014. From the result, an oil price change is collectively found to have a small but significant positive impact on the stock markets, in particular where a sudden decrease in oil prices tends to cause a stock market downturn and volatility. The world economy’s spending, financial investments in oil futures and foreign investment by oil rich nations are some underlying motives for inducing this oil-stock positive relation. The same direction of time-varying conditional correlations is found across East Asian stock markets during negative oil price shocks. The integration among East Asian stock markets is inducing the oil shock contagion to be transmitted from direct oil-affected countries (South Korea, Hong Kong, and Singapore to non-direct oil affected countries’ (Japan and Taiwan stock markets. In spite of a long practiced ASEAN+3 macroeconomics surveillance process and Early Warning System (EWS which can be customized for stock markets to prevent or detect the oil risk, hedging against initial oil-affected stock markets and a stronger influence by the East Asian countries in the global world of oil and capital investment are strongly suggested.

  15. The new oil : water, its use, reuse and conservation has become almost as important to Alberta's economic future as oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, M.

    2009-03-15

    This article addressed concerns about water use in Alberta's oil sand industry and the need to effectively manage it. Companies such as Suncor, Syncrude Canada, Imperial Oil, Canadian Natural Resources Ltd., Petro-Canada, Nexen, Devon Energy and ConocoPhillips have improved water-use efficiency and reduced absolute water use significantly in recent years. A large percentage of the water produced from bitumen processing is recycled. In addition, saline groundwater not suitable for human or agricultural use has been pumped from deep aquifers to use in place of fresh water. The new Water and Environmental Science Research Facility at the University of Lethbridge, demonstrates just how prominent an issue water has become. Nexen Inc. is funding a Fellowship for Water Research at the new Lethbridge centre. A research team at the department of chemical and petroleum engineering at the Schulich School of Engineering is developing new ways to clean up produced water to such a purity that it can be used in oil and gas operations or used for irrigation. The standard of purity for oil production processes is higher than it is for irrigation because salts and silicon in water cause corrosion problems in metal equipment such as steam boilers. Ultrafiltration is being tested as an option to treat the produced water. To purify the produced water without the added cost of using pressure, the research team is enhancing the filtering process by adding a surfactant, a surface-active agent or detergent. 1 fig.

  16. Coal and Oil: The Dark Monarchs of Global Energy: Understanding Supply and Extraction Patterns and their Importance for Future Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeoek, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    The formation of modern society has been dominated by coal and oil, and together these two fossil fuels account for nearly two thirds of all primary energy used by mankind. This makes future production a key question for future social development and this thesis attempts to answer whether it is possible to rely on an assumption of ever increasing production of coal and oil. Both coal and oil are finite resources, created over long time scales by geological processes. It is thus impossible to extract more fossil fuels than geologically available. In other words, there are limits to growth imposed by nature. The concept of depletion and exhaustion of recoverable resources is a fundamental question for the future extraction of coal and oil. Historical experience shows that peaking is a well established phenomenon in production of various natural resources. Coal and oil are no exceptions, and historical data shows that easily exploitable resources are exhausted while more challenging deposits are left for the future. For oil, depletion can also be tied directly to the physical laws governing fluid flows in reservoirs. Understanding and predicting behaviour of individual fields, in particularly giant fields, are essential for understanding future production. Based on comprehensive databases with reserve and production data for hundreds of oilfields, typical patterns were found. Alternatively, depletion can manifest itself indirectly through various mechanisms. This has been studied for coal. Over 60% of the global crude oil production is derived from only around 330 giant oilfields, where many of them are becoming increasingly mature. The annual decline in existing oil production has been determined to be around 6% and it is unrealistic that this will be offset by new field developments, additional discoveries or unconventional oil. This implies that the peak of the oil age is here. For coal a similar picture emerges, where 90% of the global coal production originates

  17. Net savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, P.

    2001-01-01

    The state of e-commerce in the Canadian upstream oil and natural gas sector is examined in an effort to discover the extent to which the .com economy has penetrated the marketplace. The overall assessment is that although the situation varies from producer to producer and process to process, a bustling digital marketplace in the Canadian oil business has yet to emerge. Nevertheless, there are several examples of companies using e-business tools to minimize technology staffing and to eliminate wasteful practices. Initiatives cited include streamlining of supply chains to cut handling costs, using application service providers to trim information technology budgets, and adopting electronic joint interest billing to save on printing, postage and re-entering data. Most notable efforts have been made by companies such as BXL Energy Limited and Genesis Exploration Limited, both of which are boosting efficiency on the inside by contracting out data storage and software applications. For example, BXL has replaced its microfilm log library occupying six cabinets, and totalling about 9,000 lbs., by a fibre optic line. All applications can now be run from a laptop which weighs three to four pounds. In a similar vein, Genesis Exploration started using application service providers (ASPs) to avoid the cost and hassle of buying and maintaining major software applications in-house. By accessing the ASPs, Genesis staff can run software without buying or installing it on their own computers. In yet another example of cutting information technology costs, Pengrowth Corporation has its network administration done remotely over the Internet by Northwest Digital Systems (NWD). As far as the industry at large is concerned, the answer appears to be in a digital marketplace specifically tailored to the upstream sector's unique profile. As a start, a study is underway by Deloitte Consulting to explore producer interest in joining or founding an upstream digital marketplace. The study was

  18. Net savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, P.

    2001-02-01

    The state of e-commerce in the Canadian upstream oil and natural gas sector is examined in an effort to discover the extent to which the .com economy has penetrated the marketplace. The overall assessment is that although the situation varies from producer to producer and process to process, a bustling digital marketplace in the Canadian oil business has yet to emerge. Nevertheless, there are several examples of companies using e-business tools to minimize technology staffing and to eliminate wasteful practices. Initiatives cited include streamlining of supply chains to cut handling costs, using application service providers to trim information technology budgets, and adopting electronic joint interest billing to save on printing, postage and re-entering data. Most notable efforts have been made by companies such as BXL Energy Limited and Genesis Exploration Limited, both of which are boosting efficiency on the inside by contracting out data storage and software applications. For example, BXL has replaced its microfilm log library occupying six cabinets, and totalling about 9,000 lbs., by a fibre optic line. All applications can now be run from a laptop which weighs three to four pounds. In a similar vein, Genesis Exploration started using application service providers (ASPs) to avoid the cost and hassle of buying and maintaining major software applications in-house. By accessing the ASPs, Genesis staff can run software without buying or installing it on their own computers. In yet another example of cutting information technology costs, Pengrowth Corporation has its network administration done remotely over the Internet by Northwest Digital Systems (NWD). As far as the industry at large is concerned, the answer appears to be in a digital marketplace specifically tailored to the upstream sector's unique profile. As a start, a study is underway by Deloitte Consulting to explore producer interest in joining or founding an upstream digital marketplace. The study

  19. Oil market in Asia. Now and future up to year 2000 and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibutani, Yu

    1995-01-01

    Asia's growing oil demand will be met by imports from the Middle East to an overwhelmingly extent. Therefore, more refining capacity will be needed to cope with the oil demand. New refineries will require the increasingly sophisticated technology to produce higher yields of transportation fuels and older ones will have to be upgrated, which will reshape the integration of downstream activities in this region. Further, East Asia, including China, as a net importer of oil, is vulnerable because of low oil sufficiency and inadequate stockpiling, while oil demand is increasing at remarkable rates. (author)

  20. China's energy security: Oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Kang

    2014-01-01

    China is currently the largest energy consuming country in the world. Until the early 1990s, China had long been a net energy exporter. The country became a net oil importer in 1993, the first time since the 1960s. For China, energy security first means oil supply security. China turned into a net natural gas importer in 2007 and then a net coal importer in 2009. In other words, China is now a net importer of all three types of fossil energy—oil, natural gas, and coal. In the context of rising oil imports and implementation of China's 12th Five-Year Program from 2011 to 2015, this paper examines China's energy security strategies with a focus on three leading elements, namely overseas oil investment, strategic petroleum reserves (SPR)and unconventional gas development. Our findings suggest that the Chinese government has promoted overseas investment strongly; its SPR program has been established though the progress for Phase II has been slower than expected and the government intends to boost the unconventional gas sector development. However, the challenges are enormous as well. As for future research, other elements for each dimension of energy security should be reviewed to reach a comprehensive conclusion about how well China has done and what steps are needed to move forward. - Highlights: • Identified China's key energy security strategies during the 12th Five-Year Program (FYP) and previous FYPs. • Provided a unique insight into China's rising oil imports. • Reviewed China's overseas oil and gas investment as a key energy security measure. • Assessed China's strategic petroleum reserves program and the future growth. • Provided a comprehensive coverage of China's unconventional gas development, including both coal-bed methane and shale gas

  1. The importance of atmospheric base cation deposition for preventing soil acidification in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region of Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaun A. Watmough; Colin J. Whitfield; Mark E. Fenn

    2014-01-01

    Industrial activities in the oil sands region of Alberta, Canada have resulted in greatly elevated emissions of SO2 and N (NOx and NH3) and there are concerns over possible widespread ecosystem acidification. Acid sensitive soils in the region are common and have very low base cation weathering rates...

  2. Rare, but challenging tumors: NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, D.; Balev, B.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (GEP - NET) are a heterogeneous group of tumors with different locations and many different clinical, histological, and imaging performance. In a part of them a secretion of various organic substances is present. The morbidity of GEP - NET in the EU is growing, and this leads to increase the attention to them. What you will learn: Imaging methods used for localization and staging of GEP - NET, characteristics of the study’s protocols; Classification of GEP - NET; Demonstration of typical and atypical imaging features of GEP - NET in patients registered at the NET Center at University Hospital ‘St. Marina’, Varna; Features of metastatic NET, The role of imaging in the evaluation of treatment response and follow-up of the patients. Discussion: The image semiotics analysis is based on 19 cases of GEP - NET registered NET Center at University Hospital ‘St. Marina’. The main imaging method is multidetector CT (MDCT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI ) has advantages in the evaluation of liver lesions and the local prevalence of anorectal tumors. In patients with advanced disease and liver lesions the assessment of skeletal involvement (MRI/ nuclear medical method) is mandatory. The majority of GEP - NET have not any specific imaging findings. Therefore it is extremely important proper planning and conducting of the study (MDCT and MR enterography; accurate assessment phase of scanning, positive and negative contrast). Conclusion: GEP - NET is a major diagnostic challenge due to the absence of typical imaging characteristics and often an overlap with those of the tumors of different origin can be observed. Therefore, a good knowledge of clinical and imaging changes occurring at different locations is needed. MDCT is the basis for the diagnosis, staging and follow-up of these neoplasms

  3. Produced water ponds are an important source of aromatics and alcohols in Rocky Mountain oil and gas basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, S. N.

    2017-12-01

    Most of the water extracted with oil and natural gas (i.e., produced water) is disposed of by injection into the subsurface. In the arid western United States, however, a significant portion of produced water is discharged in ponds for evaporative disposal, and produced water is often stored in open ponds prior to subsurface injection. Even though they are common in the West (Utah's Uinta Basin has almost 200 ha), produced water ponds have been excluded from oil and gas emissions inventories because little information about their emission rates and speciation is available. We used flux chambers and inverse plume modeling to measure emissions of methane, C2-C11 hydrocarbons, light alcohols, carbonyls, and carbon dioxide from oil and gas produced water storage and disposal ponds in the Uinta Basin and the Upper Green River Basin, Wyoming, during 2013-2017. Methanol was the most abundant organic compound in produced water (91 ± 2% of the total volatile organic concentration; mean ± 95% confidence interval) but accounted for only 25 ± 30% of total organic compound emissions from produced water ponds. Non-methane hydrocarbons, especially C6-C9 alkanes and aromatics, accounted for the majority of emitted organics. We were able to predict emissions of individual compounds based on water concentrations, but only to within an order of magnitude. The speciation and magnitude of emissions varied strongly across facilities and was influenced by water age, the presence or absence of oil sheens, and with meteorological conditions (especially ice cover). Flux chamber measurements were lower than estimates from inverse modeling techniques.Based on our flux chamber measurements, we estimate that produced water ponds are responsible for between 3 and 9% of all non-methane organic compound emissions in the Uinta Basin (or as much as 18% if we rely on our inverse modeling results). Emissions from produced water ponds contain little methane and are more reactive (i.e., they have

  4. Net Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío del Carmen Serrano Barquín

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we make some reflections on the ways and means used by young men and women to communicate and interact college online and in social networks. In this sense, it is argued that youth socialization from electronic communication contributes to the manifestation of covert acts, sometimes symbolic violence foster or harsh environments, even at the level of representation of that identity. Expand knowledge and achievements that have such networks in youth socialization processes is an important contribution to the field of communication, new technologies and of course the violence.

  5. The environmental agreement may lead to large losses for the oil producers. The Kyoto mechanisms are very important to Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The article presents an economic model study of the implications of an climatic agreement. Two main scenarios are presented: 1) The Kyoto protocol is extended to 2020. 2) All counties ratify a climatic agreement. The conclusions are that the Kyoto protocol may have great effects on the oil and gas markets and large economic consequences for Norway. It is therefore mandatory to extensively use the Kyoto mechanisms such as trade with quotas, common implementation and the green development mechanism

  6. Visual Studio 2010 and NET 4 Six-in-One

    CERN Document Server

    Novak, Istvan; Granicz, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Complete coverage of all key .NET 4 and Visual Studio 2010 languages and technologies. .NET 4 is Microsoft's latest version of their core programming platform, and Visual Studio 2010 is the toolset that helps write .NET 4 applications. This comprehensive resource offers one-stop shopping for all you need to know to get productive with .NET 4. Experienced author and .NET guru Mitchel Sellers reviews all the important new features of .NET 4, including .NET charting and ASP.NET charting, ASP.NET dynamic data and jQuery, and the addition of F# as a supported package language. The expansive coverag

  7. The increasing importance of the oil issue in the Middle East by the 1970's. Oil and development: the trap of oil income in the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatelus, Michel

    2015-10-01

    In a first article, after having recalled some aspects of the context of the Middle East during the second half of the 1960's and the first half of the 1970's, notably in terms of GDP and population in the different countries, the author comments how these countries tried to take possession of what they considered as their own oil, how some of them tried to reorganise oil production (notably Iraq and Syria) when others tried to act differently in collaboration with western companies or through specific bodies (OPEC). The author outlines that evolutions which occurred during this period (1960's-1970's) resulted in an unprecedented, brutal and uneven enrichment (particularly at the beginning of the 1970's) of oil producing states. He comments how oil was then used as a weapon against some western countries (first oil crisis), and that Arab countries also had different policies in terms of development, finance or reserve management. In the second article which addresses the fact that high oil incomes could become a trap, the author comments the consequences of the existence of high oil incomes. He discusses the policies adopted by Arab countries except Iraq: creation of a welfare economy, development of activities related to hydrocarbon availability, a minimum redistribution to other countries of the region, lucrative and safe investments, and requirements in terms of peacekeeping. Then, the author briefly comments the situation of countries of the regions. He distinguishes those which are not oil producers but are involved in wealth circulation and can take some profit out of it (Lebanon, Jordan), those which are excluded (Syria and Yemen), and the specific case of Iraq. He finally evokes the perspectives and contradictions of the growth scheme

  8. NetBeans GUI Builder

    OpenAIRE

    Pusiankova, Tatsiana

    2009-01-01

    This work aims at making readers familiar with the powerful tool NetBeans IDE GUI Builder and helping them make their first steps to creation of their own graphical user interface in the Java programming language. The work includes theoretical description of NetBeans IDE GUI Builder, its most important characteristics and peculiarities and also a set of practical instructions that will help readers in creation of their first GUI. The readers will be introduced to the environment of this tool ...

  9. Trends in heavy oil production and refining in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B.; Pendergrass, R.A. II.

    1992-07-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production and is part of a study being conducted for the US Department of Energy. This report summarizes trends in oil production and refining in Canada. Heavy oil (10 degrees to 20 degrees API gravity) production in California has increased from 20% of the state's total oil production in the early 1940s to 70% in the late 1980s. In each of the three principal petroleum producing districts (Los Angeles Basin, Coastal Basin, and San Joaquin Valley) oil production has peaked then declined at different times throughout the past 30 years. Thermal production of heavy oil has contributed to making California the largest producer of oil by enhanced oil recovery processes in spite of low oil prices for heavy oil and stringent environmental regulation. Opening of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Elk Hills (CA) field in 1976, brought about a major new source of light oil at a time when light oil production had greatly declined. Although California is a major petroleum-consuming state, in 1989 the state used 13.3 billion gallons of gasoline or 11.5% of US demand but it contributed substantially to the Nation's energy production and refining capability. California is the recipient and refines most of Alaska's 1.7 million barrel per day oil production. With California production, Alaskan oil, and imports brought into California for refining, California has an excess of oil and refined products and is a net exporter to other states. The local surplus of oil inhibits exploitation of California heavy oil resources even though the heavy oil resources exist. Transportation, refining, and competition in the market limit full development of California heavy oil resources

  10. Oil biodegradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Eenennaam, van Justine S.; Murk, Tinka; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.

    2017-01-01

    During the Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill, interactions between oil, clay particles and marine snow lead to the formation of aggregates. Interactions between these components play an important, but yet not well understood, role in biodegradation of oil in the ocean water. The aim of this study

  11. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1987-01-01

    The author describes a Petri net model, called coloured Petri nets (CP-nets), by means of which it is possible to describe large systems without having to cope with unnecessary details. The author introduces CP-nets and provide a first impression of their modeling power and the suitability...

  12. Learning Visual Basic NET

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Learning Visual Basic .NET is a complete introduction to VB.NET and object-oriented programming. By using hundreds of examples, this book demonstrates how to develop various kinds of applications--including those that work with databases--and web services. Learning Visual Basic .NET will help you build a solid foundation in .NET.

  13. Irradiation of Oil / Water Biphasic Systems: the Importance of Interfacial Surface Area on the Production of Hydrogen and Other Deleterious Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Causey, Patrick-W.; Stuart, Craig-R.

    2012-09-01

    -water interfacial surface area, control of headspace gas composition, and removal of sample aliquots. Results highlight the importance of interfacial surface area in affecting the radiolytic degradation of the studied hydrocarbons. In particular, experiments having higher oil-water interfacial surface areas generate greater quantities of oil degradation products as compared with lower surface area samples. As expected, one notable result from these irradiations was the formation of significant quantities of hydrogen, which was found to be dependent on the interfacial surface area. Presented here is a review of the radiolytic degradation of insoluble organic material in aqueous systems, a summary of experimental results focusing on biphasic systems and a description of a strategy to mitigate the effects of insoluble organic material ingress and to aid in developing station-appropriate responses. (authors)

  14. Towards a Standard for Modular Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart; Petrucci, Laure

    2009-01-01

    concepts could or should be subject to import and export in high-level Petri nets. In this paper, we formalise a minimal version of modular high-level Petri nets, which is based on the concepts of modular PNML. This shows that modular PNML can be formalised once a specific version of Petri net is fixed....... Moreover, we present and discuss some more advanced features of modular Petri nets that could be included in the standard. This way, we provide a formal foundation and a basis for a discussion of features to be included in the upcoming standard of a module concept for Petri nets in general and for high-level...

  15. Triacylglycerols profiling in plant oils important in food industry, dietetics and cosmetics using high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lísa, Miroslav; Holcapek, Michal

    2008-07-11

    Optimized non-aqueous reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method using acetonitrile-2-propanol gradient elution and the column coupling in the total length of 45 cm has been applied for the high resolution separation of plant oils important in food industry, dietetics and cosmetics. Positive-ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry is used for the unambiguous identification and also the reliable quantitation with the response factors approach. Based on the precise determination of individual triacyglycerol concentrations, the calculation of average parameters important in the nutrition is performed, i.e. average carbon number, average double bond number, relative concentrations of essential, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Results are reported in the form of both chromatographic fingerprints and tables containing relative concentrations for all triacylglycerols and fatty acids in individual samples. In total, 264 triacylglycerols consisting of 28 fatty acids with the alkyl chain length from 6 to 26 carbon atoms and 0 to 4 double bonds have been identified in 26 industrial important plant oils.

  16. Network succession reveals the importance of competition in response to emulsified vegetable oil amendment for uranium bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ye; Zhang, Ping; Qin, Yujia; Tu, Qichao; Yang, Yunfeng; He, Zhili; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Zhou, Jizhong

    2016-01-01

    Discerning network interactions among different species/populations in microbial communities has evoked substantial interests in recent years, but little information is available about temporal dynamics of microbial network interactions in response to environmental perturbations. Here, we modified the random matrix theory-based network approach to discern network succession in groundwater microbial communities in response to emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) amendment for uranium bioremediation. Groundwater microbial communities from one control and seven monitor wells were analysed with a functional gene array (GeoChip 3.0), and functional molecular ecological networks (fMENs) at different time points were reconstructed. Our results showed that the network interactions were dramatically altered by EVO amendment. Dynamic and resilient succession was evident: fairly simple at the initial stage (Day 0), increasingly complex at the middle period (Days 4, 17, 31), most complex at Day 80, and then decreasingly complex at a later stage (140-269 days). Unlike previous studies in other habitats, negative interactions predominated in a time-series fMEN, suggesting strong competition among different microbial species in the groundwater systems after EVO injection. Particularly, several keystone sulfate-reducing bacteria showed strong negative interactions with their network neighbours. These results provide mechanistic understanding of the decreased phylogenetic diversity during environmental perturbations. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Simulation based analysis and an application to an offshore oil and gas production system of the Natvig measures of component importance in repairable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natvig, Bent; Eide, Kristina A.; Gasemyr, Jorund; Huseby, Arne B.; Isaksen, Stefan L.

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper the Natvig measures of component importance for repairable systems, and its extended version are analyzed for two three-component systems and a bridge system. The measures are also applied to an offshore oil and gas production system. According to the extended version of the Natvig measure a component is important if both by failing it strongly reduces the expected system uptime and by being repaired it strongly reduces the expected system downtime. The results include a study of how different distributions affect the ranking of the components. All numerical results are computed using discrete event simulation. In a companion paper [Huseby AB, Eide KA, Isaksen SL, Natvig B, Gasemyr, J. Advanced discrete event simulation methods with application to importance measure estimation. 2009, submitted for publication] the advanced simulation methods needed in these calculations are described.

  18. Planning of nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carberry, M

    1996-01-01

    The paper is about the planning of nets in areas of low density like it is the case of the rural areas. The author includes economic and technological aspects, planning of nets, demands and management among others

  19. Annotating Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Bo; Wells, Lisa Marie

    2002-01-01

    Coloured Petri nets (CP-nets) can be used for several fundamentally different purposes like functional analysis, performance analysis, and visualisation. To be able to use the corresponding tool extensions and libraries it is sometimes necessary to include extra auxiliary information in the CP......-net. An example of such auxiliary information is a counter which is associated with a token to be able to do performance analysis. Modifying colour sets and arc inscriptions in a CP-net to support a specific use may lead to creation of several slightly different CP-nets – only to support the different uses...... of the same basic CP-net. One solution to this problem is that the auxiliary information is not integrated into colour sets and arc inscriptions of a CP-net, but is kept separately. This makes it easy to disable this auxiliary information if a CP-net is to be used for another purpose. This paper proposes...

  20. Net metering in British Columbia : white paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, T.

    2003-01-01

    Net metering was described as being the reverse registration of an electricity customer's revenue meter when interconnected with a utility's grid. It is a provincial policy designed to encourage small-distributed renewable power generation such as micro-hydro, solar energy, fuel cells, and larger-scale wind energy. It was noted that interconnection standards for small generation is an important issue that must be addressed. The British Columbia Utilities Commission has asked BC Hydro to prepare a report on the merits of net metering in order to support consultations on a potential net metering tariff application by the utility. This report provides information on net metering with reference to experience in other jurisdictions with net metering, and the possible costs and benefits associated with net metering from both a utility and consumer perspective. Some of the barriers and policy considerations for successful implementation of net metering were also discussed. refs., tabs., figs

  1. Unconventional imports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.

    2001-01-01

    This article focuses on bitumens and bitumen products from Canadian oil sands and explores how they will affect the Canadian oil industry and the US refining industry. The falling production of crude, the growing demand for it, and the stagnating refining capacity in the US are reported, and Canadian and Mexican exports to the US, the definition of bitumens and bitumen quality, and the position of Canada as world leader in bitumen resources are considered. Bitumen production techniques, sales of bitumens and synthetic crude, the production outlook, and the quality and refining of bitumen and synthetic crude are examined. Plots illustrating North American crude refining capacity, production and demand for 1980-2000; US crude imports from Canada and Mexico (1981-2000), world proven oil reserves (2001), world bitumen resources, and Canadian oil production (1998-2000) are provided. Details of the composition of crudes and bitumens, and recent synthetic crude production are tabulated

  2. Experiments and simulation of a net closing mechanism for tether-net capture of space debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, Inna; Thomsen, Benjamin; Botta, Eleonora M.; Misra, Arun K.

    2017-10-01

    This research addresses the design and testing of a debris containment system for use in a tether-net approach to space debris removal. The tether-net active debris removal involves the ejection of a net from a spacecraft by applying impulses to masses on the net, subsequent expansion of the net, the envelopment and capture of the debris target, and the de-orbiting of the debris via a tether to the chaser spacecraft. To ensure a debris removal mission's success, it is important that the debris be successfully captured and then, secured within the net. To this end, we present a concept for a net closing mechanism, which we believe will permit consistently successful debris capture via a simple and unobtrusive design. This net closing system functions by extending the main tether connecting the chaser spacecraft and the net vertex to the perimeter and around the perimeter of the net, allowing the tether to actuate closure of the net in a manner similar to a cinch cord. A particular embodiment of the design in a laboratory test-bed is described: the test-bed itself is comprised of a scaled-down tether-net, a supporting frame and a mock-up debris. Experiments conducted with the facility demonstrate the practicality of the net closing system. A model of the net closure concept has been integrated into the previously developed dynamics simulator of the chaser/tether-net/debris system. Simulations under tether tensioning conditions demonstrate the effectiveness of the closure concept for debris containment, in the gravity-free environment of space, for a realistic debris target. The on-ground experimental test-bed is also used to showcase its utility for validating the dynamics simulation of the net deployment, and a full-scale automated setup would make possible a range of validation studies of other aspects of a tether-net debris capture mission.

  3. Art/Net/Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik; Lindstrøm, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    The seminar Art|Net|Work deals with two important changes in our culture. On one side, the network has become essential in the latest technological development. The Internet has entered a new phase, Web 2.0, including the occurrence of as ‘Wiki’s’, ‘Peer-2-Peer’ distribution, user controlled...... on the ‘network’ itself as a phenomenon and are often using technological networks as a mean of production and distribution. This changes the artistic practice and the distribution channels of art works – and the traditional notions of ‘work’, ‘origin’ and ‘rights’ are increasingly perceived as limiting...... the praxis of the artist. We see different kinds of interventions and activism (including ‘hacktivism’) using the network as a way of questioning the invisible rules that govern public and semi-public spaces. Who ‘owns’ them? What kind of social relationships do they generate? On what principle...

  4. Do high oil prices justify an increase in taxation in a mature oil province? The case of the UK continental shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakhle, Carole

    2007-01-01

    In response to the structural shift in oil price coupled with greater import dependency, concerns about security of supply have once again emerged as a major policy issue. The UK, the largest producer of oil and natural gas in the European Union, became a net importer of natural gas in 2004, and according to Government estimates will become a net importer of oil by the end of the decade. A weakened North Sea performance means extra reliance, both for the UK and Europe as a whole, on global oil and gas network and imports. In 2002, the UK Government introduced a 10% supplementary charge and in 2005, doubled the charge to 20% in an attempt to capture more revenues from the oil industry as a result of the increase in the price of crude oil. However, higher tax rates do not necessarily generate higher fiscal revenue and in the long term may result in materially lower revenues if investment is discouraged as indeed occurred when the 2007 UK Annual Budget statement showed a shortfall in North Sea oil revenues below forecasts of Pounds 4 billion. It is therefore argued that the increase in the fiscal take came at the wrong time for the UK Continental Shelf and that the UK Government's concern should have been to encourage more oil production from its declining province, especially in the light of the rising concern surrounding the security of supply

  5. Quantum net dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkelstein, D.

    1989-01-01

    The quantum net unifies the basic principles of quantum theory and relativity in a quantum spacetime having no ultraviolet infinities, supporting the Dirac equation, and having the usual vacuum as a quantum condensation. A correspondence principle connects nets to Schwinger sources and further unifies the vertical structure of the theory, so that the functions of the many hierarchic levels of quantum field theory (predicate algebra, set theory, topology,hor-ellipsis, quantum dynamics) are served by one in quantum net dynamics

  6. A Brief Introduction to Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1997-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets or CPN) is a graphical oriented language for design, specification, simulation and verification of systems. It is in particular well- suited for systems in which communication, synchronisation and resource sharing are important. Typical examples of application areas a...

  7. Programming NET Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Alex

    2007-01-01

    Web services are poised to become a key technology for a wide range of Internet-enabled applications, spanning everything from straight B2B systems to mobile devices and proprietary in-house software. While there are several tools and platforms that can be used for building web services, developers are finding a powerful tool in Microsoft's .NET Framework and Visual Studio .NET. Designed from scratch to support the development of web services, the .NET Framework simplifies the process--programmers find that tasks that took an hour using the SOAP Toolkit take just minutes. Programming .NET

  8. Game Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of game coloured Petri nets. This allows the modeler to explicitly model what parts of the model comprise the modeled system and what parts are the environment of the modeled system. We give the formal definition of game coloured Petri nets, a means of reachability...... analysis of this net class, and an application of game coloured Petri nets to automatically generate easy-to-understand visualizations of the model by exploiting the knowledge that some parts of the model are not interesting from a visualization perspective (i.e. they are part of the environment...

  9. Important role of vertical migration of compressed gas, oil and water in formation of AVPD (abnormally high pressure gradient) zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anikiyev, K.A.

    1980-01-01

    The principal role of vertical migration of compressed gases, gas-saturated petroleum and water during formation of abnormally high pressure gradients (AVPD) is confirmed by extensive factual data on gas production, grifons, blowouts and gushers that accompany drilling formations with AVPD from early history to the present time; the sources of vertical migration of compressed fluids, in accordance with geodynamic AVPD theory, are the deep degasified centers of the earth mantle. Among the various types of AVPD zones especially notable are the large (often massive or massive-layer) deposits and the intrusion aureoles that top them in the overlapping covering layers. Prediction of AVPD zones and determining their field and energy potential must be based on field-baric simulation of the formations being drilled in light of laws regarding the important role of the vertical migration of compressed fluids. When developing field-baric models, it is necessary to utilize the extensive and valuable data on grifons, gas production and blowouts that has been collected and categorized by drilling engineers and production geologists. To further develop data on field-baric conditions of the earth, it is necessary to collect and study signals of AVPD. First of all, there is a need to evaluate potential elastic resources of compressed fluids which can move from the bed into the well. Thus it is necessary to study and standardize intrusion aureoles and other AVPD zones within the aspect of fieldbaric modeling.

  10. Estimating oil product demand in Indonesia using a cointegrating error correction model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, C.

    2001-01-01

    Indonesia's long oil production history and large population mean that Indonesian oil reserves, per capita, are the lowest in OPEC and that, eventually, Indonesia will become a net oil importer. Policy-makers want to forestall this day, since oil revenue comprised around a quarter of both the government budget and foreign exchange revenues for the fiscal years 1997/98. To help policy-makers determine how economic growth and oil-pricing policy affect the consumption of oil products, we estimate the demand for six oil products and total petroleum consumption, using an error correction-cointegration approach, and compare it with estimates on a lagged endogenous model using data for 1970-95. (author)

  11. The future of oil and bioethanol in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Jose R.; Pacca, Sergio A.; Parente, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    This work compares the return on investments (ROI) of oil versus biofuels in Brazil. Although several renewable energy sources might displace oil, the country's forte is sugarcane biofuels. In our analysis we carry out simplified benefit–cost analyses of producing oil fields, pre-salt oil fields (without and with enhanced oil recovery), a business as the usual ethanol scenario, and a high ethanol scenario. Excluding the ROI from existing oil fields, which is the highest, when the discount rate is 4% or more, the ROI of the high ethanol scenario is greater than that of the ROI of pre-salt oil. Considering a US$40/t CO 2 tax, the high ethanol scenario's ROI is greater than the pre-salt oil's ROI if a discount rate of 2% or more is adopted. Moreover, the high ethanol scenario throughput up to 2070 compares to 97% of the pre-salt oil reserve without EOR, and demands 78% of its investment. Pre-salt oil production declines beyond 2042 when the country might become a net oil importer. In contrast, ethanol production reaches 2.1 million boe per day, and another 0.9 million boe of fossil demand is displaced through bioelectricity, yielding a total of 3 million boe (62% of the country's oil demand). - Highlights: • Cost-benefit analyses of pre-salt and biofuels in Brazil. • Hubbert model applied to pre-salt oil reserves. • Sustainable energy scenarios. • Carbon mitigation accounting based on biofuel scenarios. • Enhanced oil recovery effect on pre-salt oil reserves

  12. Crude oil prices: Speculation versus fundamentals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziej, Marek Krzysztof

    Beginning in 2004, the price of crude oil fluctuates rapidly over a wide range. Large and rapid price increases have recessionary consequences and dampen long-term infrastructural investment. I investigate whether price changes are driven by market fundamentals or speculation. With regard to market fundamentals, I revisit econometric evidence for the importance of demand shocks, as proxied by dry maritime cargo rates, on oil prices. When I eliminate transportation costs from both sides of the equation, disaggregate OPEC and non-OPEC production, and allow for more than one cointegrating relation, I find that previous specifications are inconsistent with arguments that demand shocks play an important role. Instead, results confirm the importance of OPEC supply shocks. I investigate two channels by which speculation may affect oil prices; the direct effect of trader behavior and changes in oil from a commodity to a financial asset. With regard to trader behavior, I find evidence that trader positions are required to explain the spread between spot and futures prices of crude oil on the New York Mercantile Exchange. The inclusion of trader positions clarifies the process of equilibrium error correction, such that there is bidirectional causality between prices and trader positions. This creates the possibility of speculative bubbles. With regard to oil as a commodity and/or financial asset, I use a Kalman Filter model to estimate the time-varying partial correlation between returns to investments in equity and oil markets. This correlation changes from negative to positive at the onset of the 2008 financial crisis. The low interest rates used to rescue the economy depress convenience yields, which reduces the benefits of holding oil as a commodity. Instead, oil becomes a financial asset (on net) as the oil market changed from contango to backwardation. Contradicting simple political narratives, my research suggests that both market fundamentals and speculation drive

  13. Analysis of China Fiscal System for Deepwater Oil and Gas Development under Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingming Liu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available World deepwater is famous for its rich oil and gas reserves, and has become an important source of global oil and gas supply, with a rising investment which will be over the shallow water counterparts in the next few years, as well as an expansion of oil and gas output. The ‘Deepwater Golden Triangle’ of the North American Gulf of Mexico, Brazil and West Africa has been leading the most exploration, development and investment activities in the world, and their experience on fiscal system during different development stages has great reference value other than advanced technologies. Under the assumptions of uncertain oil price and producing cost, this paper analyzed China fiscal system for deepwater oil and gas development, modeled the free natural resource tax, uplifting the threshold of special oil levy, and other scenarios, and compared their results on contractor’s net presented value, internal return rate and present index. Based on net present value, internal return rate, profitability index, as well as the domestic fiscal policies, this paper found that Special Oil Levy levied only on profit oil and the cancel of government share oil would have the most significant incentives, while lower the income tax rate to 15%, raising the threshold price at which the Special Oil Levy payable by 15 $/bbl and zero Value-added tax have much higher feasibility.

  14. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes how Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets) have been developed — from being a promising theoretical model to being a full-fledged language for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems (and other systems in which human beings and...

  15. Net zero water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lindeque, M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available the national grid. The unfortunate situation with water is that there is no replacement technology for water. Water can be supplied from many different sources. A net zero energy development will move closer to a net zero water development by reducing...

  16. Construction of monophase nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez A, Jose Antonio

    1996-01-01

    The paper refers to the use of monophase loads in commercial residential urbanizations and in small industries, for this reason it is considered unnecessary the construction of three-phase nets. The author makes a historical recount of these nets in Bogota, his capacities, uses and energy savings

  17. Oil production, oil prices, and macroeconomic adjustment under different wage assumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvie, C.; Maleka, P.T.

    1992-01-01

    In a previous paper one of the authors developed a simple model to try to identify the possible macroeconomic adjustment processes arising in an economy experiencing a temporary period of oil production, under alternative wage adjustment assumptions, namely nominal and real wage rigidity. Certain assumptions were made regarding the characteristics of actual production, the permanent revenues generated from that oil production, and the net exports/imports of oil. The role of the price of oil, and possible changes in that price was essentially ignored. Here we attempt to incorporate the price of oil, as well as changes in that price, in conjunction with the production of oil, the objective being to identify the contribution which the price of oil, and changes in it, make to the adjustment process itself. The emphasis in this paper is not given to a mathematical derivation and analysis of the model's dynamics of adjustment or its comparative statics, but rather to the derivation of simulation results from the model, for a specific assumed case, using a numerical algorithm program, conducive to the type of theoretical framework utilized here. The results presented suggest that although the adjustment profiles of the macroeconomic variables of interest, for either wage adjustment assumption, remain fundamentally the same, the magnitude of these adjustments is increased. Hence to derive a more accurate picture of the dimensions of adjustment of these macroeconomic variables, it is essential to include the price of oil as well as changes in that price. (Author)

  18. Fusion through the NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spears, B.

    1987-01-01

    The paper concerns the next generation of fusion machines which are intended to demonstrate the technical viability of fusion. In Europe, the device that will follow on from JET is known as NET - the Next European Torus. If the design programme for NET proceeds, Europe could start to build the machine in 1994. The present JET programme hopes to achieve breakeven in the early 1990's. NET hopes to reach ignition in the next century, and so lay the foundation for a demonstration reactor. A description is given of the technical specifications of the components of NET, including: the first wall, the divertors to protect the wall, the array of magnets that provide the fields containing the plasma, the superconducting magnets, and the shield of the machine. NET's research programme is briefly outlined, including the testing programme to optimise conditions in the machine to achieve ignition, and its safety work. (U.K.)

  19. Application of deconvolution interferometry with both Hi-net and KiK-net data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, N.

    2013-12-01

    Application of deconvolution interferometry to wavefields observed by KiK-net, a strong-motion recording network in Japan, is useful for estimating wave velocities and S-wave splitting in the near surface. Using this technique, for example, Nakata and Snieder (2011, 2012) found changed in velocities caused by Tohoku-Oki earthquake in Japan. At the location of the borehole accelerometer of each KiK-net station, a velocity sensor is also installed as a part of a high-sensitivity seismograph network (Hi-net). I present a technique that uses both Hi-net and KiK-net records for computing deconvolution interferometry. The deconvolved waveform obtained from the combination of Hi-net and KiK-net data is similar to the waveform computed from KiK-net data only, which indicates that one can use Hi-net wavefields for deconvolution interferometry. Because Hi-net records have a high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and high dynamic resolution, the S/N and the quality of amplitude and phase of deconvolved waveforms can be improved with Hi-net data. These advantages are especially important for short-time moving-window seismic interferometry and deconvolution interferometry using later coda waves.

  20. Oil Producers vulnerability: restrictions for oil supply strategy - OPEC, Mexico and Norway; Indicadores de vulnerabilidade do produtor de petroleo: restricoes a estrategia de oferta - OPEP, Mexico and Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, Fernanda; Schaeffer, Roberto; Szklo, Alexandre [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE)

    2008-07-01

    Few analysts address the socio-economic vulnerability faced by large oil producers countries that restricts their oil supply strategies. However, such as net import countries may be vulnerable to oil supply, large oil exporters countries may also become vulnerable due to their socio-economic dependence on oil, as export revenues are so important to their wealth generation and their populations' well-fare status. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the vulnerabilities of some oil exporters as the OPEC's member-countries, Mexico and Norway face, or may face, and that may restrict their degree of freedom for productive decision making (including investments) and for elaborating oil supply strategies (aiming at taking a larger share of the oil revenue). In order to do that this paper is divided in 3 sections. Initially, socio-economic vulnerability indicators for the oil exporting countries are presented, built and analyzed. Socio-economic vulnerability indicators comprehend, for instance, the following dimensions: physical, productive, fiscal, commercial, macroeconomic and social. The next section regards the application of a multi criteria method, the AHP - Analytic Hierarchy Process in order to summarize and organize the indicators. Finally, implications of the socio-economic vulnerabilities of these oil export countries for the world oil supply and price are derived. (author)

  1. Model and calculations for net infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, S.W.; Long, A.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a conceptual model for calculating net infiltration is developed and implemented. It incorporates the following important factors: viability of climate for the next 10,000 years, areal viability of net infiltration, and important soil/plant factors that affect the soil water budget of desert soils. Model results are expressed in terms of occurrence probabilities for time periods. In addition the variability of net infiltration is demonstrated both for change with time and differences among three soil/hydrologic units present at the site modeled

  2. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Gustavsen, Arild

    2010-01-01

    and identify possible renewable energy supply options which may be considered in calculations. Finally, the gap between the methodology proposed by each organisation and their respective national building code is assessed; providing an overview of the possible changes building codes will need to undergo......The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...

  3. Getting to Net Zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-01

    The technology necessary to build net zero energy buildings (NZEBs) is ready and available today, however, building to net zero energy performance levels can be challenging. Energy efficiency measures, onsite energy generation resources, load matching and grid interaction, climatic factors, and local policies vary from location to location and require unique methods of constructing NZEBs. It is recommended that Components start looking into how to construct and operate NZEBs now as there is a learning curve to net zero construction and FY 2020 is just around the corner.

  4. Pro NET Best Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, Stephen D

    2011-01-01

    Pro .NET Best Practices is a practical reference to the best practices that you can apply to your .NET projects today. You will learn standards, techniques, and conventions that are sharply focused, realistic and helpful for achieving results, steering clear of unproven, idealistic, and impractical recommendations. Pro .NET Best Practices covers a broad range of practices and principles that development experts agree are the right ways to develop software, which includes continuous integration, automated testing, automated deployment, and code analysis. Whether the solution is from a free and

  5. PhysioNet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The PhysioNet Resource is intended to stimulate current research and new investigations in the study of complex biomedical and physiologic signals. It offers free...

  6. NetSig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Heiko; Lawrence, Michael S; Chouinard, Candace R

    2018-01-01

    Methods that integrate molecular network information and tumor genome data could complement gene-based statistical tests to identify likely new cancer genes; but such approaches are challenging to validate at scale, and their predictive value remains unclear. We developed a robust statistic (Net......Sig) that integrates protein interaction networks with data from 4,742 tumor exomes. NetSig can accurately classify known driver genes in 60% of tested tumor types and predicts 62 new driver candidates. Using a quantitative experimental framework to determine in vivo tumorigenic potential in mice, we found that Net......Sig candidates induce tumors at rates that are comparable to those of known oncogenes and are ten-fold higher than those of random genes. By reanalyzing nine tumor-inducing NetSig candidates in 242 patients with oncogene-negative lung adenocarcinomas, we find that two (AKT2 and TFDP2) are significantly amplified...

  7. Blanket testing in NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chazalon, M.; Daenner, W.; Libin, B.

    1989-01-01

    The testing stages in NET for the performance assessment of the various breeding blanket concepts developed at the present time in Europe for DEMO (LiPb and ceramic blankets) and the requirements upon NET to perform these tests are reviewed. Typical locations available in NET for blanket testing are the central outboard segments and the horizontal ports of in-vessel sectors. These test positions will be connectable with external test loops. The number of test loops (helium, water, liquid metal) will be such that each major class of blankets can be tested in NET. The test positions, the boundary conditions and the external test loops are identified and the requirements for test blankets are summarized (author). 6

  8. Programming NET 35

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Bestselling author Jesse Liberty and industry expert Alex Horovitz uncover the common threads that unite the .NET 3.5 technologies, so you can benefit from the best practices and architectural patterns baked into the new Microsoft frameworks. The book offers a Grand Tour" of .NET 3.5 that describes how the principal technologies can be used together, with Ajax, to build modern n-tier and service-oriented applications. "

  9. NET SALARY ADJUSTMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    Finance Division

    2001-01-01

    On 15 June 2001 the Council approved the correction of the discrepancy identified in the net salary adjustment implemented on 1st January 2001 by retroactively increasing the scale of basic salaries to achieve the 2.8% average net salary adjustment approved in December 2000. We should like to inform you that the corresponding adjustment will be made to your July salary. Full details of the retroactive adjustments will consequently be shown on your pay slip.

  10. Oil and gas trends and implications in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahim, Khalid Abdul; Liwan, Audrey

    2012-01-01

    The trends of reserves, production and consumption of oil in Malaysia to meet the ever-increasing demands do not seem to show that oil and gas will be depleted soon, contrary to many reports. Malaysia’s net exporter status of oil continues to expand over time for as long as the value of exports is greater than the value of imports. Only in physical quantities of oil that Malaysia’s imports exceed exports, but this does not mean that Malaysia will be a net importer by then. Given higher prices of exports, the value of exports outweighs the value of imports. If the current reserves are extracted based on the domestic consumption trend of 1980–2010, Malaysia’s reserves will last until 2027 but based on the 1998–2010 trend, the reserves will be depleted by 2035. Malaysia has adopted a four fuel diversification strategy comprising oil, gas, coal and hydro, instead of heavily dependent on oil. Gas has a huge potential for domestic utilization as well as for exports to increase revenues. Malaysia is one of the few countries having many types of renewable energy sources. Malaysia has great potential in biomass utilization as renewable resources mostly from the existing natural forest and planned plantations. - Highlights: ► The quantities of petroleum production and consumption are expected to converge. ► Malaysia’s status as a net exporter in value terms is expected to expand. ► With slower consumption trend, petroleum reserves will be depleted by 2035. ► There is a large potential in natural gas utilization in Malaysia. ► Renewable energy is abundant for the fuel diversification policy for Malaysia.

  11. A Simple Physics-Based Model Predicts Oil Production from Thousands of Horizontal Wells in Shales

    KAUST Repository

    Patzek, Tadeusz

    2017-10-18

    Over the last six years, crude oil production from shales and ultra-deep GOM in the United States has accounted for most of the net increase of global oil production. Therefore, it is important to have a good predictive model of oil production and ultimate recovery in shale wells. Here we introduce a simple model of producing oil and solution gas from the horizontal hydrofractured wells. This model is consistent with the basic physics and geometry of the extraction process. We then apply our model thousands of wells in the Eagle Ford shale. Given well geometry, we obtain a one-dimensional nonlinear pressure diffusion equation that governs flow of mostly oil and solution gas. In principle, solutions of this equation depend on many parameters, but in practice and within a given oil shale, all but three can be fixed at typical values, leading to a nonlinear diffusion problem we linearize and solve exactly with a scaling

  12. NET remote workstation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leinemann, K.

    1990-10-01

    The goal of this NET study was to define the functionality of a remote handling workstation and its hardware and software architecture. The remote handling workstation has to fulfill two basic functions: (1) to provide the man-machine interface (MMI), that means the interface to the control system of the maintenance equipment and to the working environment (telepresence) and (2) to provide high level (task level) supporting functions (software tools) during the maintenance work and in the preparation phase. Concerning the man-machine interface, an important module of the remote handling workstation besides the standard components of man-machine interfacing is a module for graphical scene presentation supplementing viewing by TV. The technique of integrated viewing is well known from JET BOOM and TARM control using the GBsim and KISMET software. For integration of equipment dependent MMI functions the remote handling workstation provides a special software module interface. Task level support of the operator is based on (1) spatial (geometric/kinematic) models, (2) remote handling procedure models, and (3) functional models of the equipment. These models and the related simulation modules are used for planning, programming, execution monitoring, and training. The workstation provides an intelligent handbook guiding the operator through planned procedures illustrated by animated graphical sequences. For unplanned situations decision aids are available. A central point of the architectural design was to guarantee a high flexibility with respect to hardware and software. Therefore the remote handling workstation is designed as an open system based on widely accepted standards allowing the stepwise integration of the various modules starting with the basic MMI and the spatial simulation as standard components. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Exploring the core factors and its dynamic effects on oil price: An application on path analysis and BVAR-TVP model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Jian; Guo, Ju-E.; Meng Lei; Wang Shouyang

    2011-01-01

    As the uncertainty of oil price increases, impacts of the influential factors on oil price vary over time. It is of great importance to explore the core factors and its time-varying influence on oil price. In view of this, based on the PATH-ANALYSIS model, this paper obtains the core factors, builds an oil price system VAR model, which uses demand, supply, price, and inventory as endogenous variables, and China's net imports as well as dollar index as exogenous variables. Then we set up a BVAR-TVP (Time varying parameter) model to analyze dynamic impacts of core factors on oil price. The results show that: (1) oil prices became more sensitive to oil supply changes, and the influence delays became shorter; (2) the impact of oil inventories on oil prices with a time lag of two quarters but has a downward trend; (3) the impact of oil consumption on oil prices with a time lag of two quarters, and this effect is increasingly greater; (4) the US dollar index is always the important factor of oil price and its control power increases gradually, and the financial crisis (occurred in 2008) further strengthens the influence of US dollar. - Highlights: ► We build an oil price VAR model based on the PATH-ANALYSIS results. ► The dynamic effects of core factors on oil price was studied by BVAR-TVP model. ► Oil prices became more sensitive to oil supply changes. ► The effect of oil consumption on oil prices is increasingly greater. ► Financial crisis further strengthens the influence of US dollar on oil price.

  14. Ranking Canadian oil and gas projects using TOPSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Jafar Sadjadi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary concerns for investment in oil and gas projects is to have a comprehensive understanding on different issues associated with this industry. The industry is mainly influ-enced by the price of oil and gas and in some events, many production units have been forced to shut down solely because of low price of oil and gas. Environmental issues are other important factors, which may put pressure on Canada’s political affairs since the country has strong com-mitment to reduce green gas effect. In this paper, we introduce a multi-criteria decision making method, which helps us rank different projects in terms of investment. The proposed study con-siders different investment factors including net present value, rate of return, benefit-cost analy-sis and payback period along with the intensity of green gas effects for ranking the present oil and gas projects in Canada.

  15. Biological Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Wingender, E

    2011-01-01

    It was suggested some years ago that Petri nets might be well suited to modeling metabolic networks, overcoming some of the limitations encountered by the use of systems employing ODEs (ordinary differential equations). Much work has been done since then which confirms this and demonstrates the usefulness of this concept for systems biology. Petri net technology is not only intuitively understood by scientists trained in the life sciences, it also has a robust mathematical foundation and provides the required degree of flexibility. As a result it appears to be a very promising approach to mode

  16. Reconfiguration of distribution nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latorre Bayona, Gerardo; Angarita Marquez, Jorge Luis

    2000-01-01

    Starting of the location of the reconfiguration problem inside the context of the operation of distribution nets, of the quality indicators definition and of the presentation of the alternatives more used for reduction of technical losses, they are related diverse reconfiguration methodologies proposed in the technical literature, pointing out their three principals limitations; also are presents the results of lost obtained starting from simulation works carried out in distribution circuits of the ESSA ESP, which permitting to postulate the reconfiguration of nets like an excellent alternative to reduce technical losses

  17. NET system integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farfaletti-Casali, F.; Mitchell, N.; Salpietro, E.; Buzzi, U.; Gritzmann, P.

    1985-01-01

    The NET system integration procedure is the process by which the requirements of the various Tokamak machine design areas are brought together to form a compatible machine layout. Each design area produces requirements which generally allow components to be built at minimum cost and operate with minimum technical risk, and the final machine assembly should be achieved with minimum departure from these optimum designs. This is carried out in NET by allowing flexibility in the maintenance and access methods to the machine internal components which must be regularly replaced by remote handling, in segmentation of these internal components and in the number of toroidal field coils

  18. Evolution of the economic importance of the oil and gas industrial sector in Brazil: impacts on macroeconomic indicators; Evolucao da importancia economica da industria de petroleo e gas natural no Brasil: contribuicao a variaveis macroeconomicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canelas, Andre Luis de Souza

    2007-06-15

    This thesis analyzes the evolution of the macroeconomic importance of the oil and gas sector in Brazil, in the recent years, which is represented by its contribution to the macroeconomic indicators, which are: GDP, Investment, Foreign Direct Investment, Trade Balance, Tax Revenue, Jobs, Wages and Inflation. The results found indicate that the oil and gas sector has a relevant contribution to the values of the Brazilian GDP, total amount of investment, total amount of foreign direct investment, tax revenue, inflation and trade balance, whereas this sector has a less relevant impact for the creation of jobs and wages in Brazil. (author)

  19. Net Neutrality: Media Discourses and Public Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Quail

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes media and public discourses surrounding net neutrality, with particular attention to public utility philosophy, from a critical perspective. The article suggests that further public education about net neutrality would be beneficial. The first portion of this paper provides a survey of the existing literature surrounding net neutrality, highlighting the contentious debate between market-based and public interest perspectives. In order to contextualize the debate, an overview of public utility philosophy is provided, shedding light on how the Internet can be conceptualized as a public good. Following this discussion, an analysis of mainstream media is presented, exploring how the media represents the issue of net neutrality and whether or not the Internet is discussed through the lens of public utility. To further examine how the net neutrality debate is being addressed, and to see the potential impacts of media discourses on the general public, the results of a focus group are reported and analyzed. Finally, a discussion assesses the implications of the net neutrality debate as presented through media discourses, highlighting the future of net neutrality as an important policy issue.

  20. Estimating primary productivity of tropical oil palm in Malaysia using remote sensing technique and ancillary data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanniah, K. D.; Tan, K. P.; Cracknell, A. P.

    2014-10-01

    The amount of carbon sequestration by vegetation can be estimated using vegetation productivity. At present, there is a knowledge gap in oil palm net primary productivity (NPP) at a regional scale. Therefore, in this study NPP of oil palm trees in Peninsular Malaysia was estimated using remote sensing based light use efficiency (LUE) model with inputs from local meteorological data, upscaled leaf area index/fractional photosynthetically active radiation (LAI/fPAR) derived using UK-DMC 2 satellite data and a constant maximum LUE value from the literature. NPP values estimated from the model was then compared and validated with NPP estimated using allometric equations developed by Corley and Tinker (2003), Henson (2003) and Syahrinudin (2005) with diameter at breast height, age and the height of the oil palm trees collected from three estates in Peninsular Malaysia. Results of this study show that oil palm NPP derived using a light use efficiency model increases with respect to the age of oil palm trees, and it stabilises after ten years old. The mean value of oil palm NPP at 118 plots as derived using the LUE model is 968.72 g C m-2 year-1 and this is 188% - 273% higher than the NPP derived from the allometric equations. The estimated oil palm NPP of young oil palm trees is lower compared to mature oil palm trees (oil palm trees contribute to lower oil palm LAI and therefore fPAR, which is an important variable in the LUE model. In contrast, it is noted that oil palm NPP decreases with respect to the age of oil palm trees as estimated using the allomeric equations. It was found in this study that LUE models could not capture NPP variation of oil palm trees if LAI/fPAR is used. On the other hand, tree height and DBH are found to be important variables that can capture changes in oil palm NPP as a function of age.

  1. The Definitive Guide to NetBeans™ Platform 7

    CERN Document Server

    Bock, Heiko

    2011-01-01

    The NetBeans Platform is the world's only modular Swing application framework, used by very large organizations in mission-critical scenarios, such as at Boeing and Northrop Grumman, as well as in the financial sector and in the oil/gas industry. For these large customers in enterprises who are increasingly interested in Maven and OSGi, the book will have particular relevance. The Definitive Guide to NetBeans Platform 7 is a thorough and authoritative introduction to the open-source NetBeans Platform, covering all its major APIs in detail, with relevant code examples used throughout. * Provide

  2. Interaction of oil and mineral fines on shorelines: review and assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, Edward H.; Lee, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    The interaction of fine mineral particles with stranded oil in an aqueous medium reduces the adhesion of the oil to solid surfaces, such as sediments or bedrock. The net result is the formation of stable, micron-sized, oil droplets that disperse into the water column. In turn, the increase in surface area makes the oil more available for biodegradation. This interaction, referred to as oil-mineral aggregate (OMA) formation, can explain how oiled shorelines are cleaned naturally in the absence of wave action in very sheltered coastal environments. OMA formation also plays an important role in the efficacy of shoreline treatment techniques, such as physical mixing and sediment relocation that move oiled sediments into the zone of wave action to promote the interaction between oil and mineral fines. Successful application of these shoreline treatment options has been demonstrated at two spill events (the Tampa Bay response in Florida and the Sea Empress operation in Wales) and at a controlled oil spill experiment in the field (the 1997 Svalbard ITOSS program). Sediment relocation harnesses the hydraulic action of waves so that the processes of fine-particle interaction and physical abrasion usually occur in tandem on open coasts. There has been no evidence of significant detrimental side-effects of residual oil in pelagic or benthic environments associated with the use of these treatment options to enhance rates of dispersion and oil biodegradation

  3. Interaction of oil and mineral fines on shorelines: review and assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, Edward H.; Lee, Kenneth

    2003-12-01

    The interaction of fine mineral particles with stranded oil in an aqueous medium reduces the adhesion of the oil to solid surfaces, such as sediments or bedrock. The net result is the formation of stable, micron-sized, oil droplets that disperse into the water column. In turn, the increase in surface area makes the oil more available for biodegradation. This interaction, referred to as oil-mineral aggregate (OMA) formation, can explain how oiled shorelines are cleaned naturally in the absence of wave action in very sheltered coastal environments. OMA formation also plays an important role in the efficacy of shoreline treatment techniques, such as physical mixing and sediment relocation that move oiled sediments into the zone of wave action to promote the interaction between oil and mineral fines. Successful application of these shoreline treatment options has been demonstrated at two spill events (the Tampa Bay response in Florida and the Sea Empress operation in Wales) and at a controlled oil spill experiment in the field (the 1997 Svalbard ITOSS program). Sediment relocation harnesses the hydraulic action of waves so that the processes of fine-particle interaction and physical abrasion usually occur in tandem on open coasts. There has been no evidence of significant detrimental side-effects of residual oil in pelagic or benthic environments associated with the use of these treatment options to enhance rates of dispersion and oil biodegradation.

  4. Development of Bottom Oil Recovery Systems. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    ahead of the filtration process. Stage 6 Disposal: Collection of oil , oiled debris, and decontaminated sand/sediments. 7 NET ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFIT......Sea HFO / 10.7 X 1983 T/V Hanon Jade Yosu, South Korea Heavy Arabian Crude Oil X (salt) ( burn residue) 1984 T/V Alvenus Louisiana Merey

  5. Coloured Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. This book introduces the constructs of the CPN modelling language and presents the related analysis methods. It provides a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN.

  6. Safety nets or straitjackets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Does regulation of working hours at national and sector level impose straitjackets, or offer safety nets to employees seeking working time flexibility? This article compares legislation and collective agreements in the metal industries of Denmark, Germany and the USA. The industry has historically...

  7. Neuronal nets in robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez Sanchez, Raul

    1999-01-01

    The paper gives a generic idea of the solutions that the neuronal nets contribute to the robotics. The advantages and the inconveniences are exposed that have regarding the conventional techniques. It also describe the more excellent applications as the pursuit of trajectories, the positioning based on images, the force control or of the mobile robots management, among others

  8. Net4Care platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    , that in turn enables general practitioners and clinical staff to view observations. Use the menus above to explore the site's information resources. To get started, follow the short Hello, World! tutorial. The Net4Care project is funded by The Central Denmark Region and EU via Caretech Innovation....

  9. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism an...

  10. Game Theory .net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Mikhael

    2003-01-01

    States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of GameTheory.net is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…

  11. BacillusRegNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misirli, Goksel; Hallinan, Jennifer; Röttger, Richard

    2014-01-01

    As high-throughput technologies become cheaper and easier to use, raw sequence data and corresponding annotations for many organisms are becoming available. However, sequence data alone is not sufficient to explain the biological behaviour of organisms, which arises largely from complex molecular...... the associated BacillusRegNet website (http://bacillus.ncl.ac.uk)....

  12. Boom Booom Net Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Yong, Louisa; Dobie, Ian

    1999-01-01

    of an existing Internet radio station; Boom Booom Net Radio. Whilst necessity dictates some use of technology-related terminology, wherever possible we have endeavoured to keep such jargon to a minimum and to either explain it in the text or to provide further explanation in the appended glossary....

  13. WHEN IMPORTERS TURN TO EXPORTING OIL AND GAS — THE SHALE GAS HYPE AND CERTAIN GEOPOLITICAL CHANGES LIE AHEAD IN THE EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Kneissl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Middle East, the world’s only major source of low-cost oil, will remain at the core of the long-term prospects of the world oil market. The IEA went too far referring to the “shale hydrocarbon revolution born in the USA”. For the time being, the global energy landscape has not been turned upside down. It is China’s soaring energy consumption rather than the US’ rising production that will fundamentally shift the world energy order. Some analysts claim that the Sino-Russian relationship will truly shift global energy boundaries: pipelines are turning east. Global oil prices may fall if and when significant volumes of additional Iranian oil return to the market. A new petroleum frontier in the Eastern Mediterranean complicates the manifold conflicts, but opens up new chances for cooperation. There are huge opportunities created by the discovery of gas in the Eastern Mediterranean — not least for countries that are short of both money and energy. Developing these opportunities will require cooperation, and could be both a lucrative and politically rewarding confidence-building measure. 

  14. Analysis of the impact of the Kyoto Protocol on the export revenues of OPEC member states and on the oil import requirements of non-Annex I countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden NH van der; Linde C van der; Lako P; Rooijen SNM van; Netherlands Energy Research; Netherlands Institute of International Relations; NOP

    2000-01-01

    The members of the Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) continue to voice their concerns about the adverse impact of the implementation of greenhouse gas emission reduction policies on the oil exporting countries. Referring to Article 4.8 of the UNFCCC, the OPEC is of the opinion

  15. THE IMPORTANCE OF THE STANDARD SAMPLE FOR ACCURATE ESTIMATION OF THE CONCENTRATION OF NET ENERGY FOR LACTATION IN FEEDS ON THE BASIS OF GAS PRODUCED DURING THE INCUBATION OF SAMPLES WITH RUMEN LIQUOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T ŽNIDARŠIČ

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to examine the necessity of using the standard sample at the Hohenheim gas test. During a three year period, 24 runs of forage samples were incubated with rumen liquor in vitro. Beside the forage samples also the standard hay sample provided by the Hohenheim University (HFT-99 was included in the experiment. Half of the runs were incubated with rumen liquor of cattle and half with the rumen liquor of sheep. Gas produced during the 24 h incubation of standard sample was measured and compared to a declared value of sample HFT-99. Beside HFT-99, 25 test samples with known digestibility coefficients determined in vivo were included in the experiment. Based on the gas production of HFT-99, it was found that donor animal (cattle or sheep did not significantly affect the activity of rumen liquor (41.4 vs. 42.2 ml of gas per 200 mg dry matter, P>0.1. Neither differences between years (41.9, 41.2 and 42.3 ml of gas per 200 mg dry matter, P>0.1 were significant. However, a variability of about 10% (from 38.9 to 43.7 ml of gas per 200 mg dry matter was observed between runs. In the present experiment, the gas production in HFT-99 was about 6% lower than the value obtained by the Hohenheim University (41.8 vs. 44.43 ml per 200 mg dry matter. This indicates a systematic error between the laboratories. In the case of twenty-five test samples, correction on the basis of the standard sample reduced the average difference of the in vitro estimates of net energy for lactation (NEL from the in vivo determined values. It was concluded that, due to variation between runs and systematical differences in rumen liquor activity between two laboratories, the results of Hohenheim gas test have to be corrected on the basis of standard sample.

  16. SolNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Ulrike; Vajen, Klaus; Bales, Chris

    2014-01-01

    -accompanying Master courses, placements of internships, and PhD scholarship projects. A new scholarship project, “SHINE”, was launched in autumn 2013 in the frame work of the Marie Curie program of the European Union (Initial Training Network, ITN). 13 PhD-scholarships on solar district heating, solar heat......SolNet, founded in 2006, is the first coordinated International PhD education program on Solar Thermal Engineering. The SolNet network is coordinated by the Institute of Thermal Engineering at Kassel University, Germany. The network offers PhD courses on solar heating and cooling, conference...... for industrial processes, as well as sorption stores and materials started in December 2013. Additionally, the project comprises a training program with five PhD courses and several workshops on solar thermal engineering that will be open also for other PhD students working in the field. The research projects...

  17. Energy Security Analysis: The case of constrained oil supply for Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glynn, James; Chiodi, Alessandro; Gargiulo, Maurizio; Deane, J.P.; Bazilian, Morgan; Gallachóir, Brian Ó

    2014-01-01

    Ireland imports 88% of its energy requirements. Oil makes up 59% of total final energy consumption (TFC). Import dependency, low fuel diversity and volatile prices leave Ireland vulnerable in terms of energy security. This work models energy security scenarios for Ireland using long term macroeconomic forecasts to 2050, with oil production and price scenarios from the International Monetary Fund, within the Irish TIMES energy systems model. The analysis focuses on developing a least cost optimum energy system for Ireland under scenarios of constrained oil supply (0.8% annual import growth, and –2% annual import decline) and subsequent sustained long term price shocks to oil and gas imports. The results point to gas becoming the dominant fuel source for Ireland, at 54% total final energy consumption in 2020, supplanting oil from reference projections of 57% to 10.8% TFC. In 2012, the cost of net oil imports stood at €3.6 billion (2.26% GDP). The modelled high oil and gas price scenarios show an additional annual cost in comparison to a reference of between €2.9bn and €7.5bn by 2020 (1.9–4.9% of GDP) to choose to develop a least cost energy system. Investment and ramifications for energy security are discussed. - Highlights: • We investigate energy security within a techno-economic model of Ireland to 2050. • We impose scenarios constraints of volume and price derived from IMF forecasting. • Continued high oil prices lead to natural gas supplanting oil at 54% TFC by 2020. • Declining oil production induces additional energy system costs of 7.9% GDP by 2020. • High oil and gas prices are likely to strain existing Irish gas import infrastructure

  18. Turkey's net energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soezen, Adnan; Arcaklioglu, Erol; Oezkaymak, Mehmet

    2005-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to develop the equations for forecasting net energy consumption (NEC) using an artificial neural-network (ANN) technique in order to determine the future level of energy consumption in Turkey. In this study, two different models were used in order to train the neural network. In one of them, population, gross generation, installed capacity and years are used in the input layer of the network (Model 1). Other energy sources are used in input layer of network (Model 2). The net energy consumption is in the output layer for two models. Data from 1975 to 2003 are used for the training. Three years (1981, 1994 and 2003) are used only as test data to confirm this method. The statistical coefficients of multiple determinations (R 2 -value) for training data are equal to 0.99944 and 0.99913 for Models 1 and 2, respectively. Similarly, R 2 values for testing data are equal to 0.997386 and 0.999558 for Models 1 and 2, respectively. According to the results, the net energy consumption using the ANN technique has been predicted with acceptable accuracy. Apart from reducing the whole time required, with the ANN approach, it is possible to find solutions that make energy applications more viable and thus more attractive to potential users. It is also expected that this study will be helpful in developing highly applicable energy policies

  19. Assessment of the use of dispersants on oil spills in California marine waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trudel, K.; Ross, S.; Belore, R.; Buffington, S.; Ogawa, C.; Panzer, D.

    2002-01-01

    The technical issues regarding the use of dispersants to clean up oil spills from offshore production sources and transportation sources in California were assessed in this study which examined both operational and environmental issues. The operational issues included the dispersibility of produced and imported oils, along with the capabilities of California response resources to deal with typical spills and limiting environmental impacts to offshore environments. The environmental issues include the risks associated with typical spills and potential net environmental benefit of chemically dispersing oil spills. Most crude oils produced offshore California are heavy and border on the undispersable range, but the imported crudes are somewhat lighter. Modeling has shown that most produced oils and some imported oils emulsify quickly and weather more quickly to the point where they are no longer dispersible. There is a very narrow window of time for chemical dispersions to be used effectively. The net environmental benefit analysis demonstrates that the use of dispersants lessens the total environmental impact of spill scenarios. It was emphasized that it is necessary to act quickly if chemical dispersion is to be effective. Rapid response strategies are needed, including locally based vessel and helicopter spraying systems. 19 refs., 8 tabs., 1 fig

  20. The price of oil and the future of Middle East Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaki Yamani, A.

    1997-01-01

    Most LNG contracts relate the LNG price received by the supplier at the point of delivery to a relevant oil price. Gas and oil are thus closely connected so that when the price of landed oil decreases so dose the price of delivered LNG. With large fixed transportation and liquefaction costs, accounting for around 85% of the supply cost of delivered LNG in the case of Qatari LNG supplied to japan, you can imagine how large falls in the price paid for delivered LNG would squeeze the net back to the producer back in Qatar. However, low oil price can do some damage to the economics of existing LNG projects in the Middle East. More importantly, persistently low oil prices can prevent new LNG projects from leaving the drawing board-which will stifle the exciting export potential of Middle Eastern gas

  1. BP fusion model for the detection of oil spills on the sea by remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiwei; An, Jubai; Zhang, Hande; Lin, Bin

    2003-06-01

    Oil spills are very serious marine pollution in many countries. In order to detect and identify the oil-spilled on the sea by remote sensor, scientists have to conduct a research work on the remote sensing image. As to the detection of oil spills on the sea, edge detection is an important technology in image processing. There are many algorithms of edge detection developed for image processing. These edge detection algorithms always have their own advantages and disadvantages in the image processing. Based on the primary requirements of edge detection of the oil spills" image on the sea, computation time and detection accuracy, we developed a fusion model. The model employed a BP neural net to fuse the detection results of simple operators. The reason we selected BP neural net as the fusion technology is that the relation between simple operators" result of edge gray level and the image"s true edge gray level is nonlinear, while BP neural net is good at solving the nonlinear identification problem. Therefore in this paper we trained a BP neural net by some oil spill images, then applied the BP fusion model on the edge detection of other oil spill images and obtained a good result. In this paper the detection result of some gradient operators and Laplacian operator are also compared with the result of BP fusion model to analysis the fusion effect. At last the paper pointed out that the fusion model has higher accuracy and higher speed in the processing oil spill image"s edge detection.

  2. Macroeconomic effects of oil price shocks in Brazil and in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalcanti, Tiago; Jalles, João Tovar

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We find that output growth volatility in the US has been decreasing over time. ► The contribution of oil price shocks to such volatility has also been decreasing. ► In Brazil, oil shocks do not seem to have a clear impact on growth. ► They account for a small fraction of the Brazilian inflation and output volatility. ► Counterfactuals show US output would be 10% less volatile with Brazil’s oil import share. - Abstract: This paper studies the effects of oil price shocks in the last 30 years on the Brazilian and American inflation rate and rhythm of economic activity. The Brazilian and the United States economies are interesting polar cases, since they had a completely different path on the oil import dependence rate. While the oil import dependence rate has increase sharply in the United States (US), it has decreased substantially in Brazil. We found that output growth volatility in the United States has been decreasing over time as well as the contribution of oil price shocks to such volatility, despite the increase in oil import dependence. Inflation volatility has also been decreasing but oil price shocks are accounting for a larger fraction of this volatility in the US. In Brazil, such shocks do not seem to have a clear impact on output growth and they account for a very small fraction of the Brazilian inflation and output growth rate volatility. We finally run some counterfactual experiments to analyze how real output growth in the United States would had been if net oil import share in the United States behaved similarly to what was observed in Brazil. We conclude that output level would be roughly the same, however, it would be about 10% less volatile if the US had the actual Brazilian oil import share

  3. Net one, net two: the primary care network income statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halley, M D; Little, A W

    1999-10-01

    Although hospital-owned primary care practices have been unprofitable for most hospitals, some hospitals are achieving competitive advantage and sustainable practice operations. A key to the success of some has been a net income reporting tool that separates practice operating expenses from the costs of creating and operating a network of practices to help healthcare organization managers, physicians, and staff to identify opportunities to improve the network's financial performance. This "Net One, Net Two" reporting allows operations leadership to be held accountable for Net One expenses and strategic leadership to be held accountable for Net Two expenses.

  4. Proof Nets for Lambek Calculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, Dirk

    1992-01-01

    The proof nets of linear logic are adapted to the non-commutative Lambek calculus. A different criterion for soundness of proof nets is given, which gives rise to new algorithms for proof search. The order sensitiveness of the Lambek calculus is reflected by the planarity condition on proof nets;

  5. Net metering: zero electricity bill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangi, A.; Khan, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide move towards renewable energy sources, environmental concerns and decentralization of the power sector have made net metering an attractive option for power generation at small scale. This paper discusses the net metering, economical issues of renewable sources in Pakistan, technical aspects, installation suitability according to varying terrain, existing utility rules and formulation of legislation for net metering making it economically attractive. (author)

  6. The Net Advance of Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    THE NET ADVANCE OF PHYSICS Review Articles and Tutorials in an Encyclopædic Format Established 1995 [Link to MIT] Computer support for The Net Advance of Physics is furnished by The Massachusetts Newest Additions SPECIAL FEATURES: Net Advance RETRO: Nineteenth Century Physics History of Science

  7. Horizontal ichthyoplankton tow-net system with unobstructed net opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nester, Robert T.

    1987-01-01

    The larval fish sampler described here consists of a modified bridle, frame, and net system with an obstruction-free net opening and is small enough for use on boats 10 m or less in length. The tow net features a square net frame attached to a 0.5-m-diameter cylinder-on-cone plankton net with a bridle designed to eliminate all obstructions forward of the net opening, significantly reducing currents and vibrations in the water directly preceding the net. This system was effective in collecting larvae representing more than 25 species of fish at sampling depths ranging from surface to 10 m and could easily be used at greater depths.

  8. Master Robotic Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Lipunov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the MASTER-Net project is to produce a unique fast sky survey with all sky observed over a single night down to a limiting magnitude of 19-20. Such a survey will make it possible to address a number of fundamental problems: search for dark energy via the discovery and photometry of supernovae (including SNIa, search for exoplanets, microlensing effects, discovery of minor bodies in the Solar System, and space-junk monitoring. All MASTER telescopes can be guided by alerts, and we plan to observe prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts synchronously in several filters and in several polarization planes.

  9. Limitations of shallow nets approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shao-Bo

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we aim at analyzing the approximation abilities of shallow networks in reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces (RKHSs). We prove that there is a probability measure such that the achievable lower bound for approximating by shallow nets can be realized for all functions in balls of reproducing kernel Hilbert space with high probability, which is different with the classical minimax approximation error estimates. This result together with the existing approximation results for deep nets shows the limitations for shallow nets and provides a theoretical explanation on why deep nets perform better than shallow nets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Chemometric techniques in oil classification from oil spill fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Azimah; Toriman, Mohd Ekhwan; Juahir, Hafizan; Kassim, Azlina Md; Zain, Sharifuddin Md; Ahmad, Wan Kamaruzaman Wan; Wong, Kok Fah; Retnam, Ananthy; Zali, Munirah Abdul; Mokhtar, Mazlin; Yusri, Mohd Ayub

    2016-10-15

    Extended use of GC-FID and GC-MS in oil spill fingerprinting and matching is significantly important for oil classification from the oil spill sources collected from various areas of Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah (East Malaysia). Oil spill fingerprinting from GC-FID and GC-MS coupled with chemometric techniques (discriminant analysis and principal component analysis) is used as a diagnostic tool to classify the types of oil polluting the water. Clustering and discrimination of oil spill compounds in the water from the actual site of oil spill events are divided into four groups viz. diesel, Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO), Mixture Oil containing Light Fuel Oil (MOLFO) and Waste Oil (WO) according to the similarity of their intrinsic chemical properties. Principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrates that diesel, HFO, MOLFO and WO are types of oil or oil products from complex oil mixtures with a total variance of 85.34% and are identified with various anthropogenic activities related to either intentional releasing of oil or accidental discharge of oil into the environment. Our results show that the use of chemometric techniques is significant in providing independent validation for classifying the types of spilled oil in the investigation of oil spill pollution in Malaysia. This, in consequence would result in cost and time saving in identification of the oil spill sources. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Electricity/oil substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melvin, J.G.

    1980-09-01

    The extent to which electricity could substitute for imported oil in Canada is assessed and it is concluded that the bulk of projected oil imports could be displaced. This substitution of electricity for oil could be largely completed within two decades, with existing technology, using Canadian resources. The substitution of electricity for imported oil would result in relatively low energy costs and would stimulate economic growth. Energy self-sufficiency through the substitution of electricity for oil is uniquely a Canadian option; it is not open to other industrial countries. The option exists because of Canada's resources of oil sands for essential liquid fuels, hydraulic and nuclear electrical potential, and natural gas as an interim source of energy. While other countries face an energy crisis due to declining supplies of oil, Canada faces opportunities. The policies of Federal and Provincial governments, as perceived by individual decision makers, will have a major influence on Canada's ability to realize opportunities. (auth)

  12. Shielding calculations for NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verschuur, K.A.; Hogenbirk, A.

    1991-05-01

    In the European Fusion Technology Programme there is only a small activity on research and development for fusion neutronics. Never-the-less, looking further than blanket design now, as ECN is getting involved in design of radiation shields for the coils and biological shields, it becomes apparent that fusion neutronics as a whole still needs substantial development. Existing exact codes for calculation of complex geometries like MCNP and DORT/TORT are put over the limits of their numerical capabilities, whilst approximate codes for complex geometries like FURNACE and MERCURE4 are put over the limits of their modelling capabilities. The main objective of this study is just to find out how far we can get with existing codes in obtaining reliable values for the radiation levels inside and outside the cryostat/shield during operation and after shut-down. Starting with a 1D torus model for preliminary parametric studies, more dimensional approximation of the torus or parts of it including the main heterogeneities should follow. Regular contacts with the NET-Team are kept, to be aware of main changes in NET design that might affect our calculation models. Work on the contract started 1 July 1990. The technical description of the contract is given. (author). 14 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  13. Net shape powder processing of aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffer, G.B.

    2000-01-01

    The increasing interest in light weight materials coupled to the need for cost-effective processing have combined to create a significant opportunity for aluminium powder metallurgy. Net shape processing of aluminium using the classical press-and-sinter powder metallurgy technique is a unique and important metal-forming method which is cost effective in producing complex parts at, or very close to, final dimensions. This paper provides an overview of the net shape powder processing of aluminium. Current research is critically reviewed and the future potential is briefly considered

  14. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Germany 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Germany has very little domestic oil and natural gas production and relies heavily on imports. It has well diversified and flexible oil and natural gas supply infrastructure, which consists of crude, product and gas pipelines and crude and oil product import terminals. Natural gas is imported into Germany exclusively by cross-border pipeline. The country has no LNG infrastructure, although some German companies have booked capacities in overseas LNG terminals. Oil continues to be the main source of energy in Germany although it has declined markedly since the early 1970s. It now represents approximately 32% of Germany’s total primary energy supply (TPES). Natural gas consumption in Germany has declined 10% since 2006. Demand was 90 bcm in 2010, down from 100 bcm in 2005. According to government commissioned analysis, the total consumption of natural gas in Germany is expected to continue to decline over the long term. The share of natural gas in Germany’s TPES is currently around 22%. German oil stock levels are generally well above the required 90-days. Total oil stock levels in Germany were equivalent to 140 days net imports in April 2012. Since 1998, the German oil stockholding agency (EBV) has been solely responsible for meeting Germany's 90-day stockholding obligation. The Oil Stockholding Act stipulates that the EBV shall constantly maintain stocks of oil and petroleum products at a level equivalent to or above 90 days of net imports. There is no minimum stockholding obligation on industry, so industry held commercial stocks are held in addition to the EBV stocks. There are several legal tools available to German authorities for natural gas emergency response. These include Ordinances that can be used to restrict the sale, purchase or use of goods, both in terms of quantity and time, or permit them only for certain priority purposes, to ensure that vital energy needs are met. There are no compulsory natural gas storage requirements in Germany, and no

  15. OIL AS POLITICAL WEAPON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana, BUICAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil (called by some black gold has not always been as coveted and used, but only in the last hundred years has established itself as a highly sought after as an indispensable proper functioning of modern economic activity that an important factor in international politics. International oil regime has changed in the last decades. In 1960, oil regime was a private oligopol which had links with governments main consuming countries. By then the price of a barrel of oil was two U.S. dollars and seven major transnational oil companies decided the amount of oil that will be produced. Meanwhile the world region with the largest oil exports were more strongly expressed nationalism and decolonization. Result, it was so in the late 60s in the region occur independent states. They have created an organization aim of this resource to their advantage - OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Thus since 1973 there have been changes in the international regime governing oil field, namely producing countries were fixed production rate and price. After this time the oil weapon has become increasingly important in the management of international relations. Oil influenced the great powers to Middle East conflicts that occurred in the last century, but their attitude about the emergence of new sources of oil outside OPEC. In the late 90's, Russia has become a major supplier of oil to the West.

  16. Net4Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2012-01-01

    , health centers are getting larger and more distributed, and the number of healthcare professionals does not follow the trend in chronic diseases. All of this leads to a need for telemedical and mobile health applications. In a Danish context, these applications are often developed through local...... (innovative) initiatives with little regards for national and global (standardization) initiatives. A reason for this discrepancy is that the software architecture for national (and global) systems and standards are hard to understand, hard to develop systems based on, and hard to deploy. To counter this, we...... propose a software ecosystem approach for telemedicine applications, providing a framework, Net4Care, encapsulating national/global design decisions with respect to standardization while allowing for local innovation. This paper presents an analysis of existing systems, of requirements for a software...

  17. Review of FEWS NET Biophysical Monitoring Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, K. W.; Brown, Molly E.; Verdin, J.; Underwood, L. W.

    2009-01-01

    The Famine Early Warning System Network (FEWS NET) provides monitoring and early warning support to decision makers responsible for responding to famine and food insecurity. FEWS NET transforms satellite remote sensing data into rainfall and vegetation information that can be used by these decision makers. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has recently funded activities to enhance remote sensing inputs to FEWS NET. To elicit Earth observation requirements, a professional review questionnaire was disseminated to FEWS NET expert end-users: it focused upon operational requirements to determine additional useful remote sensing data and; subsequently, beneficial FEWS NET biophysical supplementary inputs. The review was completed by over 40 experts from around the world, enabling a robust set of professional perspectives to be gathered and analyzed rapidly. Reviewers were asked to evaluate the relative importance of environmental variables and spatio-temporal requirements for Earth science data products, in particular for rainfall and vegetation products. The results showed that spatio-temporal resolution requirements are complex and need to vary according to place, time, and hazard: that high resolution remote sensing products continue to be in demand, and that rainfall and vegetation products were valued as data that provide actionable food security information.

  18. Activation of PAD4 in NET formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda eRohrbach

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Peptidyl arginine deiminases, or PADs, convert arginine residues to the non-ribosomally encoded amino acid citrulline in a variety of protein substrates. PAD4 is expressed in granulocytes and is essential for the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs via PAD4-mediated histone citrullination. Citrullination of histones is thought to promote NET formation by inducing chromatin decondensation and facilitating the expulsion of chromosomal DNA that is coated with antimicrobial molecules. Numerous stimuli have been reported to lead to PAD4 activation and NET formation. However, how this signaling process proceeds and how PAD4 becomes activated in cells is largely unknown. Herein, we describe the various stimuli and signaling pathways that have been implicated in PAD4 activation and NET formation, including the role of reactive oxygen species generation. To provide a foundation for the above discussion, we first describe PAD4 structure and function, and how these studies led to the development of PAD-specific inhibitors. A comprehensive survey of the receptors and signaling pathways that regulate PAD4 activation will be important for our understanding of innate immunity, and the identification of signaling intermediates in PAD4 activation may also lead to the generation of pharmaceuticals to target NET-related pathogenesis.

  19. Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, ... blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the ...

  20. Diesel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil ... Diesel oil ... Diesel oil poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of ... most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to inhaling the fumes. NERVOUS ...

  1. Oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsouros, M.H.

    1992-01-01

    The world annually transports 1.7 billion tons of oil by sea, and oil spills, often highly concentrated discharges, are increasing from a variety of sources. The author discusses sources of oils spills: natural; marine transportation; offshore oil production; atmospheric sources; municipal industrial wastes and runoff. Other topics include: the fate of the spilled oil; the effects of the oil; the response to oil spills; and prevention of oil spills. 30 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  2. Net neutrality and audiovisual services

    OpenAIRE

    van Eijk, N.; Nikoltchev, S.

    2011-01-01

    Net neutrality is high on the European agenda. New regulations for the communication sector provide a legal framework for net neutrality and need to be implemented on both a European and a national level. The key element is not just about blocking or slowing down traffic across communication networks: the control over the distribution of audiovisual services constitutes a vital part of the problem. In this contribution, the phenomenon of net neutrality is described first. Next, the European a...

  3. NetView technical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This is the Final Technical Report for the NetView Technical Research task. This report is prepared in accordance with Contract Data Requirements List (CDRL) item A002. NetView assistance was provided and details are presented under the following headings: NetView Management Systems (NMS) project tasks; WBAFB IBM 3090; WPAFB AMDAHL; WPAFB IBM 3084; Hill AFB; McClellan AFB AMDAHL; McClellan AFB IBM 3090; and Warner-Robins AFB.

  4. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... up. How Oil Harms Animals and Plants in Marine Environments In general, oil spills can affect animals and plants in two ways: from the oil ... up. How Oil Harms Animals and Plants in Marine Environments In general, oil spills can affect animals and plants in two ways: from the oil ...

  5. New round for oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delamarche, Myrtille

    2018-01-01

    After three years of crisis, oil companies are now strongly reinvesting, while oil prices are stabilizing at a reasonable long-term level, notably due to a rising demand from developing countries. Examples of new investments made by majors such as Total, Shell or Exxon but also by national companies and junior companies, are given. Oil price evolution as well as cost reductions (thanks notably to the digitalisation of the sector, leading to a decrease in exploration costs) are analyzed. The importance of the US oil production, and particularly shale oil production, is pinpointed

  6. Global patterns in human consumption of net primary production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, Marc L.; Bounoua, Lahouari; Ricketts, Taylor; Loucks, Colby; Harriss, Robert; Lawrence, William T.

    2004-06-01

    The human population and its consumption profoundly affect the Earth's ecosystems. A particularly compelling measure of humanity's cumulative impact is the fraction of the planet's net primary production that we appropriate for our own use. Net primary production-the net amount of solar energy converted to plant organic matter through photosynthesis-can be measured in units of elemental carbon and represents the primary food energy source for the world's ecosystems. Human appropriation of net primary production, apart from leaving less for other species to use, alters the composition of the atmosphere, levels of biodiversity, energy flows within food webs and the provision of important ecosystem services. Here we present a global map showing the amount of net primary production required by humans and compare it to the total amount generated on the landscape. We then derive a spatial balance sheet of net primary production `supply' and `demand' for the world. We show that human appropriation of net primary production varies spatially from almost zero to many times the local primary production. These analyses reveal the uneven footprint of human consumption and related environmental impacts, indicate the degree to which human populations depend on net primary production `imports' and suggest policy options for slowing future growth of human appropriation of net primary production.

  7. 19 CFR 212.11 - Net worth exhibit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net worth exhibit. 212.11 Section 212.11 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT Information Required From Applicants § 212.11 Net worth exhibit...

  8. Reachability Trees for High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Jensen, Arne M.; Jepsen, Leif Obel

    1986-01-01

    the necessary analysis methods. In other papers it is shown how to generalize the concept of place- and transition invariants from place/transition nets to high-level Petri nets. Our present paper contributes to this with a generalization of reachability trees, which is one of the other important analysis...

  9. Mexican oil industry: Shifting to difficult oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazan G., Gerardo; Gonzalez, Cristobal J.

    2010-09-15

    Mexico has stepped into an important transition of declining oil fields and new challenging oil projects. The aim of this paper is to show a new perspective of the oil resources that have been exploited throughout the Mexican territory, as well as the remaining resources yet to be exploited. We have developed a resources/production-costs chart that illustrates the historical and future development of the Mexican oil industry, showing the shift that the industry will face in the coming years; this chart was taken from a model already in use by the most prestige energy agencies in the world.

  10. Initial CAD investigations for NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, F.; Leinemann, K.; Ludwig, A.; Marek, U.; Olbrich, W.; Schlechtendahl, E.G.

    1985-11-01

    This report summarizes the work done under contract no. 164/84-7/FU-D-/NET between the Commission of the European Communities and KfK during the period from June 1, 1984, through May 31, 1985. The following topics are covered in this report: Initial modelling of NET version NET2A, CAD system extension for remote handling studies, analysis of the CAD information structure, work related to the transfer of CAD information between KfK and the NET team. (orig.) [de

  11. Understanding Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salom, Jaume; Widén, Joakim; Candanedo, José

    2011-01-01

    Although several alternative definitions exist, a Net-Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) can be succinctly described as a grid-connected building that generates as much energy as it uses over a year. The “net-zero” balance is attained by applying energy conservation and efficiency measures...... and by incorporating renewable energy systems. While based on annual balances, a complete description of a Net ZEB requires examining the system at smaller time-scales. This assessment should address: (a) the relationship between power generation and building loads and (b) the resulting interaction with the power grid...

  12. Estimating the short-term economic damages from the Prestige oil spill in the Galician fisheries and tourism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garza-Gil, M. Dolores; Prada-Blanco, Albino; Vazquez-Rodriguez, M. Xose

    2006-01-01

    The Prestige oil spill may be considered as one of the worst in the last years because of the amount of oil spilled (59,000 tons at the moment) and the wide zone affected: almost all the coastline in Galicia (Spanish region with a very important coast fishing and tourist activity) and some points in North Spain and in Southwest France. In this paper, we estimate the short-term economic damages from the Prestige oil spills in the Galician fishing and tourist activities. The economic losses arising from the Prestige oil spill exceed those items that can be indemnified under the IOPC system. Their magnitude could reach 5 times more than the applicable limit of compensations in the Prestige case. The consequence is net losses from repeated oil spills and internationally accepted incentives to risky strategies in the marine transport of hydrocarbons. (author)

  13. Estimating the short-term economic damages from the Prestige oil spill in the Galician fisheries and tourism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garza-Gil, M. Dolores; Prada-Blanco, Albino; Vazquez-Rodriguez, M. Xose [Department of Applied Economics, Faculty of Economics, University of Vigo Lagoas-Marcosende, 36310 Vigo (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    The Prestige oil spill may be considered as one of the worst in the last years because of the amount of oil spilled (59,000 tons at the moment) and the wide zone affected: almost all the coastline in Galicia (Spanish region with a very important coast fishing and tourist activity) and some points in North Spain and in Southwest France. In this paper, we estimate the short-term economic damages from the Prestige oil spills in the Galician fishing and tourist activities. The economic losses arising from the Prestige oil spill exceed those items that can be indemnified under the IOPC system. Their magnitude could reach 5 times more than the applicable limit of compensations in the Prestige case. The consequence is net losses from repeated oil spills and internationally accepted incentives to risky strategies in the marine transport of hydrocarbons. (author)

  14. Life cycle energy efficiency and potentials of biodiesel production from palm oil in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papong, Seksan; Chom-In, Tassaneewan; Noksa-nga, Soottiwan

    2010-01-01

    Biodiesel production from palm oil has been considered one of the most promising renewable resources for transportation fuel in Thailand. The objective of this study was to analyze the energy performance and potential of the palm oil methyl ester (PME) production in Thailand. The PME system was divided into four stages: the oil palm plantation, transportation, crude palm oil (CPO) production, and transesterification into biodiesel. The results showed that the highest fossil-based energy consumption was in the transesterification process, followed by the plantation, transportation, and CPO production. A net energy value and net energy ratio (NER) of 24.0 MJ/FU and 2.5, respectively, revealed that the PME system was quite energy efficient. In addition, if all the by-products from the CPO production (such as empty fruit branches, palm kernel shells, and biogas) were considered in terms of energy sources, the NER would be more than 3.0. The PME can be a viable substitute for diesel and can decrease the need for oil imports. Based on B100 demand in 2008, PME can be substituted for 478 million liters of diesel. Moreover, with palm oil output potential and B5 implementation, it can be substituted for 1134 million liters of diesel. (author)

  15. Preparation of function-enhanced vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Maeda

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of function-enriched edible oils: Preventive effect of lipid peroxidation; (a Heat exposure: Commercial rape-seed oil and extra virgin oil were used as controls. For preparation of the test samples (function fortified oils of tomato-juice waste-residue and grape wine- ferment waste-residues, it is described in above section (1. All oil preparations were exposed to high temperature at 150oC and peroxide value (POV, acid value and TBARS were measured at various times as described. The methods of measurements of POV, acid value and TBARS were adapted conventional standard method described elsewhere. (b Light exposure: Similar to (a they were exposed to excessive light using Nippon Ikaga Kikai (Tokyo, LH-200-RDS equipped with fluorescent light tube (x3, NEC FL40S-2XN, 3.2K lux at 390-730nm. Result and Discussions: (1 Extraction of carotenoids etc. Modern edible oil refining processes are highly elaborated and efficient. The most of the commercial edible oils in the market are so purified that many important antioxidant components are mostly removed during refining process. Oils became mostly colorless and odorless; and they lack are devoid of anti-oxidative or radical scavenging components. We measured anti-alkyl peroxy radical (ROO.-scavenging activity, and found that many commercial oils have very little such activity (Figure 1. Many disposal- of tomato juice or extraction waste-residues in wine making, yet contained significant amount of functionally useful components that may be recovered by immersing the dried waste residues in the functionally poor oil, ie., low grade oils. Figure 2A, B shows it was indeed possible to recover such component like lycopene and carotenoids, and the spectrum of this oil exhibits multiple peaks correspond tomato lycopene. (2 Antioxidation activity: (a Acid value after light and heat exposure. Commercial highly purified edible oils are vulnerable for oxidation and resulting in lipid or alkyl hydroperoxides formation (ROOH, which

  16. A Primer on Alberta’s Oil sands Royalties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Dobson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fulfilling its campaign promise, the new NDP government announced a review of Alberta’s royalty framework in June 2015. The province receives royalty revenue from three main sources – natural gas, crude oil, and oil sands. Since the 2009-10 fiscal year the largest contributor to Alberta’s royalty revenues has been the oil sands. If you want a sense of how important oil sands royalties have been for Alberta’s finances, consider this: In the 2014–15 fiscal year, the government collected just over $5 billion from oil sands royalties. These royalties covered over 10 per cent of the province’s operational expenses of $48.6 billion in the same fiscal year. Over the last six fiscal years the oil sands have contributed an average of 10 per cent of revenues to provincial coffers. This makes oil sands royalties the fourth largest contributor behind personal income taxes (23 per cent, federal transfers (13 per cent and corporate income taxes (11 per cent. But how many Albertans really understand how the royalty system works? What do we mean when we say “royalty”? How does the Alberta Government calculate royalties on oil sands producers? If the system is going to change, it’s important that Albertans understand how the current system works. That is what this paper is designed to do. For Albertans to properly judge the impact of new policy, they need a solid understanding of the current policy environment. We all know that oil prices have dropped and oil sands producers are losing profitability. As such, changes to the royalty system could have a deep and profound impact on the sector. Here are some of the issues this primer will study: • Pre-payout projects vs. post-payout projects, in other words, the classification of projects for royalty purposes based on whether the cumulative costs of a project exceed its cumulative revenues • Monthly payment of royalties vs. annual payment • Understanding the unit price of bitumen and how that

  17. Oil price and the dollar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coudert, V.; Mignon, V.; Penot, A.

    2007-01-01

    Oil prices and the United States (US) dollar exchange rate are driving the evolution of the world economy. This paper investigated long-term relationships between oil prices and the US effective exchange rate. An empirical study was performed on oil prices and the dollar real effective exchange rate between 1974 to 2004. The impact of the dollar exchange rate was also explored, and the effects of oil prices on supply and demand were considered. A dynamic partial equilibrium framework study was evaluated in order to compare how other countries used revenues from oil exports in dollars. The study showed that both variables had similar evolutions when price fluctuations were low. Strong increases in the dollar were associated with lower oil prices. However, adjustment speeds of the dollar real effective exchange rate was slow. Co-integration and causality tests showed that oil prices influenced the exchange rate, and that the link between the 2 variables was transmitted through the country's net foreign asset position. It was concluded that higher oil prices improved US net foreign asset position in relation to other countries, and had a positive impact on dollar appreciation. 24 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig

  18. Sensitivity of the deep-sea amphipod Eurythenes gryllus to chemically dispersed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Gro Harlaug; Coquillé, Nathalie; Le Floch, Stephane; Geraudie, Perrine; Dussauze, Matthieu; Lemaire, Philippe; Camus, Lionel

    2016-04-01

    In the context of an oil spill accident and the following oil spill response, much attention is given to the use of dispersants. Dispersants are used to disperse an oil slick from the sea surface into the water column generating a cloud of dispersed oil droplets. The main consequence is an increasing of the sea water-oil interface which induces an increase of the oil biodegradation. Hence, the use of dispersants can be effective in preventing oiling of sensitive coastal environments. Also, in case of an oil blowout from the seabed, subsea injection of dispersants may offer some benefits compared to containment and recovery of the oil or in situ burning operation at the sea surface. However, biological effects of dispersed oil are poorly understood for deep-sea species. Most effects studies on dispersed oil and also other oil-related compounds have been focusing on more shallow water species. This is the first approach to assess the sensitivity of a macro-benthic deep-sea organism to dispersed oil. This paper describes a toxicity test which was performed on the macro-benthic deep-sea amphipod (Eurythenes gryllus) to determine the concentration causing lethality to 50% of test individuals (LC50) after an exposure to dispersed Brut Arabian Light (BAL) oil. The LC50 (24 h) was 101 and 24 mg L(-1) after 72 h and 12 mg L(-1) at 96 h. Based on EPA scale of toxicity categories to aquatic organisms, an LC50 (96 h) of 12 mg L(-1) indicates that the dispersed oil was slightly to moderately toxic to E. gryllus. As an attempt to compare our results to others, a literature study was performed. Due to limited amount of data available for dispersed oil and amphipods, information on other crustacean species and other oil-related compounds was also collected. Only one study on dispersed oil and amphipods was found, the LC50 value in this study was similar to the LC50 value of E. gryllus in our study. Since toxicity data are important input to risk assessment and net environmental

  19. Assessing the suitability of input-output analysis for enhancing our understanding of potential economic effects of Peak Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerschner, Christian; Hubacek, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Given recent developments on energy markets and skyrocketing oil prices, we argue for an urgent need to study the potential effects of world oil production reaching a maximum (Peak Oil) in order to facilitate the development of adaptation policies. We consider input-output (IO) modelling as a powerful tool for this purpose. However, the standard Leontief type model implicitly assumes that all necessary inputs to satisfy a given demand can and will be supplied. This is problematic if the availability of certain key inputs becomes restricted and it is therefore only of limited usefulness for the study of the phenomenon of Peak Oil. Hence this paper firstly reviews two alternative modelling tools within the IO framework: supply-driven and mixed models. The former has been severely criticised for its problematic assumption of perfect factor substitution and perfect elasticity of demand as revealed by Oosterhaven [Oosterhaven J. On the plausibility of the supply-driven IO model. J Reg Sci 1988; 28:203-17. ]. The supply-constrained model on the other hand proved well suited to analyse the quantity dimension of Peak Oil and is therefore applied empirically in the second part of the paper, using data for the UK, Japanese and Chilean economy. Results show how differences in net-oil exporting and net-oil importing countries are clearly visible in terms of final demand. Industries, most affected in all countries, include transportation, electricity production and financial and trade services. (author)

  20. Oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaulding, M.L.; Reed, M.

    1990-01-01

    Public awareness and concern for the potential short and long term impacts of oil spills on the marine environment has generally been high, particularly for regions of special ecological importance or where significant numbers of marine mammals and birds are present. This awareness was further heightened by the extraordinary number of recent large spills in coastal U.S. water: Exxon Valdez, Alaska; World Prodigy, Rhode Island; Presidente Rivera, Delaware; Rachel-B, Texas and American Trader, California. The occurrence of so many spills in a one year period is unprecedented in U.S. spill history. The legislative response to these spills has been immediate. New legislative initiative are rapidly being developed. Improved ways to organize spill response efforts are being devised and implemented. Funds are being allocated to further develop and improve spill response equipment and damage assessment methodologies. These spill events will have a significant impact in both the short and long term on oil exploration, development and transport in marine waters. They will result in major changes in management and operation of oil exploration and development. The purpose of this conference was to provide a forum for discussion of the changes which are currently taking place in oil spill legislation, management, and response strategies

  1. Which nets are being used: factors associated with mosquito net use in Amhara, Oromia and Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples' Regions of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngondi, Jeremiah M; Graves, Patricia M; Gebre, Teshome; Mosher, Aryc W; Shargie, Estifanos B; Emerson, Paul M; Richards, Frank O

    2011-04-17

    across both surveys. While net replacement remains important, the findings suggest that: more education about use and care of nets; making nets more resistant to damage; and encouraging net mending are likely to maximize the huge investment in scale up of net ownership by ensuring they are used. Without this step, the widespread benefits of LLIN cannot be realized.

  2. Which nets are being used: factors associated with mosquito net use in Amhara, Oromia and Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples' Regions of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosher Aryc W

    2011-04-01

    modifiable factors affecting use of nets that were consistent across both surveys. While net replacement remains important, the findings suggest that: more education about use and care of nets; making nets more resistant to damage; and encouraging net mending are likely to maximize the huge investment in scale up of net ownership by ensuring they are used. Without this step, the widespread benefits of LLIN cannot be realized.

  3. Linear Logic on Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn

    This article shows how individual Petri nets form models of Girard's intuitionistic linear logic. It explores questions of expressiveness and completeness of linear logic with respect to this interpretation. An aim is to use Petri nets to give an understanding of linear logic and give some apprai...

  4. Net neutrality and audiovisual services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.; Nikoltchev, S.

    2011-01-01

    Net neutrality is high on the European agenda. New regulations for the communication sector provide a legal framework for net neutrality and need to be implemented on both a European and a national level. The key element is not just about blocking or slowing down traffic across communication

  5. The adaptive internet application for interpretation of the transformer oil gas chromatographic analysis results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polužanski Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an adaptive Internet application for the interpretation of the transformer oil gas chromatographic analysis results. The first version of the application is developed by following an evolutionary software development concept. The most important software development risks and the appropriate solutions are described. An open-source web framework named Bootstrap is used for an application implementation. The application is developed by using ASP.NET and MS SQL server.

  6. The oil barrel price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blondy, J.; Papon, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes an overview and a prospective glance on the oil barrel price. It indicates the relevant indicators: Brent quotation, euro/dollar parity, economic activity indicators, world oil consumption distribution, crude oil production, refining capacity. It briefly presents the involved stake holders: crude oil producers, oil refiners, refined product dealers, and the OPEC. It discusses the major retrospective trends: evolution in relationship with geopolitical events and energy policies, strong correlation between oil demand and economic growth, prevalence of OPEC, growing importance of national oil companies. An emerging trend is noticed: growing role of emerging countries on the crude market. Some prospective issues are discussed: duration and intensity of economic recession, separation between economic growth and energy consumption, pace and ambition level of policies of struggle against climate change, exploitable resources, and geopolitical hazards. Four evolution hypotheses are discussed

  7. Properties of porous netted materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daragan, V.D.; Drozdov, B.G.; Kotov, A.Yu.; Mel'nikov, G.N.; Pustogarov, A.V.

    1987-01-01

    Hydraulic and strength characteristics, efficient heat conduction and inner heat exchange coefficient are experimentally studied for porous netted materials on the base of the brass nets as dependent on porosity, cell size and method of net laying. Results of the studies are presented. It is shown that due to anisotropy of the material properties the hydraulic resistance in the direction parallel to the nets plane is 1.3-1.6 times higher than in the perpendicular one. Values of the effective heat conduction in the direction perpendicular to the nets plane at Π>0.45 agree with the data from literature, at Π<0.45 a deviation from the calculated values is marked in the direction of the heat conduction decrease

  8. The instability of world oil market and its impact on economic development: Indonesia's experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patmosukismo, S.

    1991-01-01

    The world oil market has been characterized by fluctuating prices which have a direct impact on the world economy. If the world oil price rises in real terms, upstream activities become more attractive to producers, and if the price declines, downstream opportunities become more attractive. The world oil market is currently determined not only by producers and consumers, but also by the futures trade. In addition, the elasticity of oil prices has increased since the 1970s through competition among producers and competition from other energy sources. The Asia Pacific countries are experiencing rapid economic growth, and are thus heavily dependent on oil, but generally have small reserves. Their reserves/production ratio is ca 20 years, with a major share coming from China and Indonesia. The current situation of tight and inadequate supply may increase the region's dependence on Middle East sources. The effects of the three recent major oil crises on the Asia Pacific countries are reviewed and the role of oil and gas in Indonesia's economic development is described. Export earnings from oil and gas represent a major share of total Indonesian export revenues, and taxes and receipts from oil companies continue to be the largest receipts in Indonesian government revenues. Slow changes in the primary fuel mix and high growth in domestic consumption may turn Indonesia into a net oil importer before the year 2000. A major effort to decrease domestic oil consumption has been implemented by using natural gas and coal in the power generation sector. On the supply side, recoverable oil and gas reserves of 50 billion bbl and 200 trillion ft 3 respectively may be present but their development depends on the investment scheme of the continuing exploration program

  9. Major oil exporters may profit rather than lose, in a carbon-constrained world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Tobias A.; Azar, C.; Johansson, D.; Lindgren, K.

    2007-01-01

    The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) claims compensation for losses in expected oil export revenues due to CO 2 mitigation measures in developing countries. These losses are expected for two primary reasons: a reduction in the consumption of oil in importing countries and a reduction in the producer price of oil (taxation in an importing country implies a transfer of rents from producers to consumers). So far, most studies have focused on these two mechanisms and corroborated that revenue losses for OPEC are to be expected. However, there are also mechanisms that may be expected to raise the price of oil products. In a cost-effective regime for dealing with climate change, i.e., a regime in which all or most countries participate and in which the same carbon price is applied on all carbon-emitting activities, the cost of using unconventional oil, or synthetic diesel from coal, will increase even more than the cost of using conventional oil. Given that reserves of conventional oil are expected to dwindle over time, heavy oils and coal to liquids might set the long-run price for liquid fuels, which means that the price of oil would increase beyond the carbon fee; i.e., the rent on conventional oil would increase. We use an energy-economic optimization model to analyze these three mechanisms. We find that the net present value of OPEC revenue from conventional oil increases slightly (at most by 4 percent) with a global CO 2 restriction regime. We also consider conditions under which this result does not hold

  10. The Effects of Oil Price Shocks on Turkish Business Cycle: A Markov Switching Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasif Abiyev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between oil price changes and the output growth in Turkey. Design/methodology/approach - The data were taken from International Financial Statistics databases, consisting of monthly data for the period 1986:01-2014:09. Different univariate Markov - switching regime autoregressive models are specified and estimated. Among them we selected univariate MSIH(3 - AR(2 model for output and extended it to verify if the inclusion of various asymmetric oil price shocks as an exogenous variable improves the ability of the Markov switching model. Four different oil price shocks are considered. Findings - We find that among various oil price shocks, only net oil price increases have negative effects on output growth and mitigate the magnitude of some recessionary periods in Turkey. However, it doesn’t strongly explain the behavior of business cycle in Turkey. Research limitations/implications - Our results suggest that the inclusion of other fundamental financial factors in the bivariate Markov switching model of aggregate economic activity and oil price changes becomes important to explicitly detect the negative impact of oil price shocks on output in Turkey. Originality/value - Our results support the existence of a negative relationship between oil price increases and output growth mentioned in the literature and empirical studies on Turkey.

  11. Oil prices and current account: A structural analysis for the Turkish economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozlale, Umit; Pekkurnaz, Didem

    2010-01-01

    Although there has been an increasing number of studies about the effects of oil prices on the macroeconomic performances, the literature on the interaction between oil prices and current account is limited, especially for oil importing developing countries. This paper analyzes the impact of oil prices on the current account balances for the Turkish economy using a structural vector autoregression model. Our model allows us to identify the net effect of oil prices on current account balances after controlling for other factors such as output gap and exchange rate misalignment. The results show that the response of current account ratio to oil price shock increases gradually up to the first three months and then starts to decrease, which indicates a significant effect of oil price shocks in the short-run. Moreover, when the obtained structural shocks are employed in a simple regression analysis, the parameter regarding the oil price shocks is found to be negative and statistically significant. The final section discusses the policy implications of the results.

  12. Net load forecasting for high renewable energy penetration grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Amanpreet; Nonnenmacher, Lukas; Coimbra, Carlos F.M.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss methods for net load forecasting and their significance for operation and management of power grids with high renewable energy penetration. Net load forecasting is an enabling technology for the integration of microgrid fleets with the macrogrid. Net load represents the load that is traded between the grids (microgrid and utility grid). It is important for resource allocation and electricity market participation at the point of common coupling between the interconnected grids. We compare two inherently different approaches: additive and integrated net load forecast models. The proposed methodologies are validated on a microgrid with 33% annual renewable energy (solar) penetration. A heuristics based solar forecasting technique is proposed, achieving skill of 24.20%. The integrated solar and load forecasting model outperforms the additive model by 10.69% and the uncertainty range for the additive model is larger than the integrated model by 2.2%. Thus, for grid applications an integrated forecast model is recommended. We find that the net load forecast errors and the solar forecasting errors are cointegrated with a common stochastic drift. This is useful for future planning and modeling because the solar energy time-series allows to infer important features of the net load time-series, such as expected variability and uncertainty. - Highlights: • Net load forecasting methods for grids with renewable energy generation are discussed. • Integrated solar and load forecasting outperforms the additive model by 10.69%. • Net load forecasting reduces the uncertainty between the interconnected grids.

  13. When oil spills emulsify

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobra, M.; Fingas, M.; Tennyson, E.

    1992-01-01

    Cleanup operations of oil spills must take into account the numerous detrimental effects attributable to the emulsification of spilled oil into a stable water-in-oil mousse. The incorporation of water greatly increases the volume of the polluted material. The viscous nature of mousse impedes the efficient operation of most mechanical recovery equipment and results in a cohesive slick that resists dispersion, both natural and artificial. The rate at which spilled oil emulsifies determines the effective window of opportunity for specific countermeasures. Much has been learned from previous studies on petroleum emulsification, but is still remain a poorly understood phenomenon. Although most crude oils can be emulsified, not all spills result in the formation of stable mousse. The formation of mousse results from a complex series of processes. Whether an oil will form mousse or not, and if so, at what rate, depends on an array of different factors including the properties of the oil and the prevailing environmental conditions. We need a greater understanding of the emulsification process to better predict the emulsification behavior of oil spills and utilize the most appropriate countermeasures available. In this paper, the authors report on work to elucidate the role that physicochemical factors play in determining an oil's tendency to emulsify. The authors studied the emulsification behavior of oils of known composition to examine the importance of oil chemistry in the emulsification process

  14. Oil shale commercialization study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, M.M.

    1981-09-01

    Ninety four possible oil shale sections in southern Idaho were located and chemically analyzed. Sixty-two of these shales show good promise of possible oil and probable gas potential. Sixty of the potential oil and gas shales represent the Succor Creek Formation of Miocene age in southwestern Idaho. Two of the shales represent Cretaceous formations in eastern Idaho, which should be further investigated to determine their realistic value and areal extent. Samples of the older Mesozonic and paleozoic sections show promise but have not been chemically analyzed and will need greater attention to determine their potential. Geothermal resources are of high potential in Idaho and are important to oil shale prospects. Geothermal conditions raise the geothermal gradient and act as maturing agents to oil shale. They also might be used in the retorting and refining processes. Oil shales at the surface, which appear to have good oil or gas potential should have much higher potential at depth where the geothermal gradient is high. Samples from deep petroleum exploration wells indicate that the succor Creek shales have undergone considerable maturation with depth of burial and should produce gas and possibly oil. Most of Idaho's shales that have been analyzed have a greater potential for gas than for oil but some oil potential is indicated. The Miocene shales of the Succor Creek Formation should be considered as gas and possibly oil source material for the future when technology has been perfectes. 11 refs.

  15. Pigouvian penalty for oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohn, R.E.

    1993-01-01

    The imposition of ex ante taxes on expected spilled oil, in addition to ex post payments for damages under tort liability, would foster economic efficiency. This paper begins the analysis of the joint approach with the case in which Pigouvian taxes are used exclusively. A model is developed in which the volume of spilled oil causing environmental damage is reduced, first by spill prevention expenditures by shippers and then by clean-up expenditures by the government. The efficient Pigouvian tax on expected spilled oil equals marginal environmental damage which equals the net marginal cost of prevention which equals marginal clean-up cost. (Author)

  16. Oil shale activities in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, D.; Jialin, Q.

    1991-01-01

    China has abundant oil shale resources, of the Early Silurian to Neogene age, the most important being the Tertiary period. The proved oil shale reserves in Fushun amount to 3.6 billion t, in Maoming 4.1 billion t. In Fushun, oil shale is produced by open-pit mining as a byproduct of coal, in Maoming it is also mined in open pits, but without coal. In China, scale oil has been produced from oil shale for 60 years. Annual production of crude shale oil amounts to about 200 000 t. The production costs of shale oil are lower than the price of crude petroleum on the world market. China has accumulated the experience and technologies of oil shale retorting. The Fushun type retort has been elaborated, in which the latent and sensible heat of shale coke is well utilized. But the capacity of such retort is relatively small, therefore it is suitable for use in small or medium oil plants. China has a policy of steadily developing shale oil industry. China is conducting oil shale research and developing oil shale processing technology. Much attention is being pay ed to the comprehensive utilization of oil shale, shale oil, and to environmental problems. In China, oil shale is mostly used for producing shale by retorting, attention will also be paid to direct combustion for power generation. Great achievements in oil shale research have been made in the eighties, and there will be a further development in the nineties. (author), 12 refs., 3 tabs

  17. Net energy levels on the lipid profile of pork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Alexander da Silva Alencar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of net energy levels on the lipid profile of adipose tissue and muscle of swines. A total of 90 animals, with initial weight of 71.94±4.43kg, were used, and distributed in a randomized block design in five net energy levels (2,300, 2,425, 2,550, 2,675, and 2,800Kcal kg-1 feed, with nine replicates and two animals per experimental unit. Lipid profiles of adipose tissue and muscle were analyzed using gas chromatography. Increasing the levels of net energy using soybean oil, improved the lipid profile of adipose tissue and muscle, increased linearly (P<0.05 the concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially linoleic and α-linolenic acid, reduced linearly (P<0.05 the monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids and omega 6: omega 3. In adipose tissue was observed linear reduction (P<0.05 of atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes. In conclusion, increasing the level of net energy of the diet using soybean oil improved the lipid profile of adipose tissue and muscle.

  18. A Petri Nets Model for Blockchain Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pinna, Andrea; Tonelli, Roberto; Orrú, Matteo; Marchesi, Michele

    2017-01-01

    A Blockchain is a global shared infrastructure where cryptocurrency transactions among addresses are recorded, validated and made publicly available in a peer- to-peer network. To date the best known and important cryptocurrency is the bitcoin. In this paper we focus on this cryptocurrency and in particular on the modeling of the Bitcoin Blockchain by using the Petri Nets formalism. The proposed model allows us to quickly collect information about identities owning Bitcoin addresses and to re...

  19. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: China 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    Although coal is the dominant energy source in China, accounting for some 70% of the country's Total Energy Consumption (TEC) in 2009, oil and gas are also essential energy sources. Despite strong growth in consumption of oil, its share of TEC fell from 22% in 2000 to 18% in 2009, as coal use rose even faster to meet burgeoning demand for electricity. A strong policy push boosted natural gas supplies, particularly to residential customers, so that the share of natural gas doubled from 2% in 2000 to 4% in 2009. China is one of the important oil and natural gas producing counties in the world. In 2010, China's crude oil production exceeded 4 million barrels per day (mb/d). However, with strong and sustained economic growth, its demand for oil has also increased, from 4.6 mb/d in 2000 to over 8 mb/d in 2009. In the New Policy Scenario (NPS) of the IEA World Energy Outlook (WEO) 2011, China's primary oil demand rises to 12.2 mb/d in 2020. Although China is now the world's fifth largest oil producer, the country has been a net oil importer since 1993. In 2011, China imported over 5 mb/d of crude oil, accounting for about 54% of its total demand. More than 50% of the total crude oil imports came from counties of the Middle East. To prevent a potential shock to the economy caused by an oil supply disruption, the Chinese government has been steadily pushing building an oil stock reserve system. China has completed four stockpiling facilities with a capacity of around 103 mb in the first phase of its Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) plan, and has begun construction of its second phase, which comprises eight storage sites that will reportedly have a combined capacity of around 207 mb. Among them, two sites were completed in the second half of 2011 and the Tianjin site is reportedly set to be completed in 2012. According to unofficial reports, the remaining four SPR-II sites are expected to become operational by 2013. The third phase is expected to boost

  20. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André

    2017-08-01

    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  1. Pro asynchronous programming with .NET

    CERN Document Server

    Blewett, Richard; Ltd, Rock Solid Knowledge

    2014-01-01

    Pro Asynchronous Programming with .NET teaches the essential skill of asynchronous programming in .NET. It answers critical questions in .NET application development, such as: how do I keep my program responding at all times to keep my users happy how do I make the most of the available hardware how can I improve performanceIn the modern world, users expect more and more from their applications and devices, and multi-core hardware has the potential to provide it. But it takes carefully crafted code to turn that potential into responsive, scalable applications.With Pro Asynchronous Programming

  2. Controle da pinta-preta em tomateiro e da mancha-zonada em pepino por meio de bicarbonato de sódio e óleo vegetal Control of early blight on tomato and net spot on cucumber through application of sodium bicarbonate and vegetal oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Roberto Ramírez-Otárola Sarmiento

    1999-07-01

    ística significativa entre iprodione e bicarbonato de sódio. Para a mancha-zonada o tratamento com benomil diminuiu a taxa de desenvolvimento da doença, enquanto que o bicarbonato de sódio não teve efeito. Os resultados obtidos no presente trabalho sugerem que o bicarbonato de sódio e óleo vegetal são substâncias que apresentam potencial para o controle da pinta-preta e mancha-zonada, necessitando porém, de novos estudos.Two experiments were carried out under field conditions at UNESP/FCAV, Jaboticabal, São Paulo state, Brazil. In the first experiment (from May to October, 1993 the efficiency of weekly sprays of sodium bicarbonate (1%, vegetal oil (1% and iprodione (0.075%, alone or in combination, were studied for the control of tomato early blight (Alternaria solani, using tomato cv. Jumbo AG-592. In the second experiment (March to June, 1993 the efficiency of weekly sprays of different doses of sodium bicarbonate (0.5, 1 and 1.5% were compared with benomyl (0.05%, on the control of cucumber net spot (Leandria momordicae, using cucumber cv. Premier. The experiments followed a randomised block design with four replications and forty plants distributed in four rows of 5.0 and 2.5 m long used respectively for cucumber and tomato. Disease severity on tomate was rated at 14 day intervals (the first five and at 7 day intervals (the last two, beginning 39 days after transplanting. Disease severity for cucumber net spot was rated five times, at 14 day intervals, beginning 28 days after transplanting. Disease progress curves for each treatment for each culture were determined. Fruit yield for each culture was also evaluated. Results showed that evaluation of disease severity in the fifth leaf and logistic transformation were most suitable for the study of tomato early blight epidemics. For cucumber net spot, evaluation in the fourth leaf and logistic transformation were the most suitable, as shown by the determination coefficient values. Both iprodione and sodium bicarbonate

  3. Current Status and Future Prospect of K-NET and KiK-net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoi, S.; Kunugi, T.; Suzuki, W.; Nakamura, H.; Fujiwara, H.

    2014-12-01

    During 18 years since the deployment of K-NET following the Kobe earthquake, our attention has mainly focused on rapidity of the data collection and an unfailing and reliable observation. In this presentation, we review three generations of the instruments employed by K-NET and KiK-net from these two points of view.At beginning of the 2000's, we newly developed the second generation instruments (K-NET02, K-NET02A, KiK-net06) to replace the first generation instruments (K-NET95, SMAC-MDK) employed when the networks were constructed in the 1990's. These instruments have an automatic dial-out function. It takes typically 2-5 s to establish communication and a few seconds to send the pre-trigger data. After that, data is available typically within a 1.5 s delay. Not only waveform data but also strong motion indexes such as real-time intensity, PGA, PGV, PGD, and response spectra are continuously sent once a second.After the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, we have developed the third generation instruments (K-NET11, KiK-net11) and have replaced almost half of the all stations country wide. Main improvement of this instrument is more unfailing and reliable observation. Because we have often experienced very large ground motions (e.g. 45 records exceeding gravity), the maximum measureable range was expanded from 2000 gal to 4000 gal for the second generation instrument, and to 8000 gal for the third. For the third generation instrument, in case of power failure, observation (including transmission of data) works for seven days thanks to the backup battery, while for the second generation instruments it works only for one day. By adding an oblique component to the three-component accelerometers, we could automatically distinguish shaking data from noise such as electric pulses which may cause a false alarm in EEW. Implementation to guarantee the continuity of observation under severe conditions such as during the Tohoku earthquake is very important, as well as a highly efficient

  4. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil ...

  5. C# 4, ASP.NET 4, and WPF, with Visual Studio 2010 jump start

    CERN Document Server

    Nagel, Christian; Stephens, Rod; Hanselman, Scott; Glynn, Jay; Rader, Devin; Watson, Karli; Skinner, Morgan

    2010-01-01

    This Wrox Blox is a value-packed resource to help experienced .NETdevelopers learn the new .NET release. It is excerpted from theWrox books: Professional C# 4 and .NET 4, Professional ASP.NET4, and WPF Programmer's Reference by Christian Nagel,Bill Evjen, Scott Hanselman, and Rod Stephens, and includes morethan 100 print book pages drawn from these three key titles. It isan excellent resource to help .NET developers get up to speed faston .NET 4, C# 4.0, ASP.NET 4, and WPF, providing all theinformation needed to program with the important new features,including: C# Dynamic Types and Par

  6. Business cycles in oil economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mutairi, N.H.

    1991-01-01

    This study examines the impact of oil price shocks on output fluctuations of several oil-exporting economies. In most studies of business cycles, the role of oil price is ignored; the few studies that use oil price as one of the variables in the system focus on modeling oil-importing economies. The vector autoregression (VAR) technique is used to consider the cases of Norway, Nigeria, and Mexico. Both atheoretical and 'structural' VARs are estimated to determine the importance of oil price impulses on output variations. The study reports two types of results: variance decomposition and impulse response functions, with particular emphasis on the issues of stationarity and co-integration among the series. The empirical results suggest that shocks to oil price are important in explaining output variations. In most cases, shocks to oil price are shown to explain more than 20% of the forecast variance of output over a 40-quarter horizon

  7. KM3NeT

    CERN Multimedia

    KM3NeT is a large scale next-generation neutrino telescope located in the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea, optimized for the discovery of galactic neutrino sources emitting in the TeV energy region.

  8. Pickering nuclear fish diversion net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, J.; Lew, A. [Ontario Power Generation, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    Pickering Fish Diversion Net - An Engineered Environmental Solution that has significantly reduced fish impingement at the Pickering Nuclear Facility. Note: As a recent urgent request/discussed by Mark Elliot, CNE-OPG and Jacques Plourde, CNS.

  9. PolicyNet Publication System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The PolicyNet Publication System project will merge the Oracle-based Policy Repository (POMS) and the SQL-Server CAMP system (MSOM) into a new system with an Oracle...

  10. Net Neutrality: Background and Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilroy, Angele A

    2006-01-01

    .... The move to place restrictions on the owners of the networks that compose and provide access to the Internet, to ensure equal access and nondiscriminatory treatment, is referred to as "net neutrality...

  11. Without a Safety Net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Lykke; Gørlich, Anne; Grytnes, Regine

    2017-01-01

    ‘Precarisation’ is one of the concepts that has become important in efforts to explain how neoliberal politics and changed economic conditions produce new forms of marginalization and increased insecurity. The aim of this article is to examine how subjectivity is produced among young Danish emplo...

  12. Casting a larger net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Balle; Villadsen, Anders Ryom

    2013-01-01

    Managerial networking is an important part of public management. Research has forcefully demonstrated how this aspect of management directly and indirectly is related to organizational outcomes. Much less is known, however, about the determinants of managerial networking. This is especially true ...

  13. Outside the net

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokuge, Gayathri; Hilhorst, Dorothea

    2017-01-01

    Inequality and conflict in Sri Lanka have frequently been analyzed along ethnic lines. However, many scholars have stressed the importance of other dimensions of identity, such as gender, caste and class, in studying social tension. This study uses intersectionality theory to examine how a

  14. Process for oil shale retorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John B.; Kunchal, S. Kumar

    1981-10-27

    Particulate oil shale is subjected to a pyrolysis with a hot, non-oxygenous gas in a pyrolysis vessel, with the products of the pyrolysis of the shale contained kerogen being withdrawn as an entrained mist of shale oil droplets in a gas for a separation of the liquid from the gas. Hot retorted shale withdrawn from the pyrolysis vessel is treated in a separate container with an oxygenous gas so as to provide combustion of residual carbon retained on the shale, producing a high temperature gas for the production of some steam and for heating the non-oxygenous gas used in the oil shale retorting process in the first vessel. The net energy recovery includes essentially complete recovery of the organic hydrocarbon material in the oil shale as a liquid shale oil, a high BTU gas, and high temperature steam.

  15. Analisis Determinan Net Ekspor Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Daulay, Rahmawaty

    2010-01-01

    This study is to analyzing empirically among Indonesia GDP, trade partnership GDP (Malaysia, Singapore, US and Thailand) and real exchange rate toward Indonesia Net Export. To find out which one from those three variables is significant in order to fluctuating (increasing or decreasing) Indonesia Net Export either in the short run or in the long run. Data collection is obtained using secondary data, namely Indonesia GDP, Malaysia GDP, Singapura GDP, US GDP, Thailand GDP and real exchange rate...

  16. Loss of protection with insecticide-treated nets against pyrethroid-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes once nets become holed: an experimental hut study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irish SR

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important advantage of pyrethroid-treated nets over untreated nets is that once nets become worn or holed a pyrethroid treatment will normally restore protection. The capacity of pyrethroids to kill or irritate any mosquito that comes into contact with the net and prevent penetration of holes or feeding through the sides are the main reasons why treated nets continue to provide protection despite their condition deteriorating over time. Pyrethroid resistance is a growing problem among Anopheline and Culicine mosquitoes in many parts of Africa. When mosquitoes become resistant the capacity of treated nets to provide protection might be diminished, particularly when holed. An experimental hut trial against pyrethroid-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus was therefore undertaken in southern Benin using a series of intact and holed nets, both untreated and treated, to assess any loss of protection as nets deteriorate with use and time. Results There was loss of protection when untreated nets became holed; the proportion of mosquitoes blood feeding increased from 36.2% when nets were intact to between 59.7% and 68.5% when nets were holed to differing extents. The proportion of mosquitoes blood feeding when treated nets were intact was 29.4% which increased to 43.6–57.4% when nets were holed. The greater the number of holes the greater the loss of protection regardless of whether nets were untreated or treated. Mosquito mortality in huts with untreated nets was 12.9–13.6%; treatment induced mortality was less than 12%. The exiting rate of mosquitoes into the verandas was higher in huts with intact nets. Conclusion As nets deteriorate with use and become increasingly holed the capacity of pyrethroid treatments to restore protection is greatly diminished against resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes.

  17. Regional study is the next important stage in evaluation of oil and gas industry potential of sedimentary basins of Western Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.K. Azhgaliev

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the general state of exploration and regional geotectonic characteristics of the structure of the basins of Western Kazakhstan (the Caspian Basin, Ustyurt-Bozashi and Mangyshlak. Principal results of regional studies carried out on the «Comprehensive study of sedimentary basins of the Republic of Kazakhstan» project for 2009-2013 are given. Based on this, topical issues in the study of the deep structure of basins are emphasized, from the perspective of further assessment of the forecasted hydrocarbon potential. In accordance with the new deep drilling data (5.5-7.0 km and more in recent years, the importance and necessity of specifying the structure and high prospects of the Paleozoic deposits are substantiated. In this regard, it is stated that it is advisable to post a parametric well in the future with an anomalous projected depth (14-15 km in the central part of the Caspian Basin (Eurasia Project. Also, the program of regional studies (geotraverses and 2D seismic profiles on the most important geological «cuttings» from the sides of the Caspian basin to the center, the zones of its articulation with the other basins that apply in the south, was considered. The characteristic of the problems solved by the program of regional study of the basins of Western Kazakhstan is given.

  18. Multiflavor string-net models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Hung

    2017-05-01

    We generalize the string-net construction to multiple flavors of strings, each of which is labeled by the elements of an Abelian group Gi. The same flavor of strings can branch, while different flavors of strings can cross one another and thus they form intersecting string nets. We systematically construct the exactly soluble lattice Hamiltonians and the ground-state wave functions for the intersecting string-net condensed phases. We analyze the braiding statistics of the low-energy quasiparticle excitations and find that our model can realize all the topological phases as the string-net model with group G =∏iGi . In this respect, our construction provides various ways of building lattice models which realize topological order G , corresponding to different partitions of G and thus different flavors of string nets. In fact, our construction concretely demonstrates the Künneth formula by constructing various lattice models with the same topological order. As an example, we construct the G =Z2×Z2×Z2 string-net model which realizes a non-Abelian topological phase by properly intersecting three copies of toric codes.

  19. The functioning of the oil market during an oil crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, G.; Siner, M.; Tijdhof, B.

    2003-01-01

    The title study regarding the functioning of the oil market during an oil crisis is carried out with particular reference to the strategic behaviour of oil companies. Section 2 identifies major oil supply disruptions since 1951 and describes some important changes in the market that have occurred in recent decades; Section 3 reviews the economic literature of the functioning of oil markets during disruptions and models of oil supply disruptions; Section 4 examines the response of oil markets to recent supply disruptions; Section 5 examines the incentives and scope for strategic behaviour; Section 6 considers the implications of our analysis for the design of policy responses to oil supply disruptions; Appendix A describes the background to the four recent oil supply disruptions; Appendix B discusses the relationship between spot and futures prices for a storable commodity; and Appendix C is the bibliography

  20. Full chain energy analysis of biodiesel production from palm oil in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pleanjai, Somporn; Gheewala, Shabbir H. [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-Uthit Road, Bangmod, Tungkru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2009-11-15

    Biodiesel from palm oil has been considered for partial substitution of diesel fuel for transportation in Thailand. The Thai government recently has set up a production target of 8.5 million liters per day of palm oil-based biodiesel by 2011. The aim of this study is to investigate the energy consumption of palm methyl ester (PME) production in Thailand using a life cycle approach compared to other possible oil crops for biodiesel production including jatropha and coconut. The main contributors to the energy use are cultivation, oil production, transesterification and transportation. Taking into account only fossil fuel or petroleum inputs in the production cycle, the energy analysis provides results in favour of PME in Thailand. The net energy balance (NEB) and net energy ratio (NER) of PME and co-products are 100.84 GJ/ha and 3.58, respectively. The NER of PME without co-products is 2.42, which is still higher than one indicating a favourable result. The results are important in selecting an appropriate feedstock for biodiesel production and this study will support policy makers in the energy sector to make informed decisions vis-a-vis promotion of oil palm plantation for biodiesel. This will also support the Thai government in its policy to promote the use of indigenous and renewable sources for transportation fuels. (author)

  1. Economics of Newfoundland and Labrador's offshore oil industry : separating fact from myth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locke, W.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation provided an analysis of the Newfoundland offshore oil sector to help inform public understanding and debate. Four questions were posed to the oil sector in order to provide answers to questions the public may have concerning oil and gas operations and their socio-economic impacts in the region. It was observed that Newfoundland's daily production, reserves and activity levels are relatively small in comparison with other major oil producing regions, accounting for only 0.4 per cent of the world's daily oil production. On a per capita basis, oil production in the region is significant in comparison to other oil-producing regions, placing fourth in the world behind the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, and Norway. The oil and gas sector is the largest single contributor to Newfoundland's economy, providing 16 per cent of Newfoundland's gross domestic product (GDP). An estimated $16 billion will be provided to the province's treasury through the exploitation of the province's resources. Production statistics for Hibernia, Terra Nova, White Rose and Hebron were presented. Price forecasts and projected royalty payments were also provided. It was noted that the Newfoundland government receives more than 50 per cent of the profits of the combined fields, and higher oil prices will yield higher shares to the government. Equity holders incur more risk and receive lower net present value than royalty and tax collectors. It was suggested that increases in local benefits will lead to increased project costs, which will in turn lead to reduced royalty incomes. It was concluded that the Newfoundland offshore oil sector is vitally important to all aspects of the province's economy. An informed debate on public policy issues that impact Newfoundland's offshore oil industry is needed. refs., tabs., figs

  2. A simulator for high-level Petri nets: An ePNK application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart; Laganeckas, Mindaugas

    2013-01-01

    The ePNK is a platform for Petri net tools based on the PNML transfer format. One of its important features is its extensibility, which allows developers to plug in new Petri net types and new functions and applications for different kinds of Petri nets. The basic version of the ePNK provides...

  3. Economic effects of peak oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, Christian; Lehr, Ulrike; Wiebe, Kirsten S.

    2012-01-01

    Assuming that global oil production peaked, this paper uses scenario analysis to show the economic effects of a possible supply shortage and corresponding rise in oil prices in the next decade on different sectors in Germany and other major economies such as the US, Japan, China, the OPEC or Russia. Due to the price-inelasticity of oil demand the supply shortage leads to a sharp increase in oil prices in the second scenario, with high effects on GDP comparable to the magnitude of the global financial crises in 2008/09. Oil exporting countries benefit from high oil prices, whereas oil importing countries are negatively affected. Generally, the effects in the third scenario are significantly smaller than in the second, showing that energy efficiency measures and the switch to renewable energy sources decreases the countries' dependence on oil imports and hence reduces their vulnerability to oil price shocks on the world market. - Highlights: ► National and sectoral economic effects of peak oil until 2020 are modelled. ► The price elasticity of oil demand is low resulting in high price fluctuations. ► Oil shortage strongly affects transport and indirectly all other sectors. ► Global macroeconomic effects are comparable to the 2008/2009 crisis. ► Country effects depend on oil imports and productivity, and economic structures.

  4. Status of Net Metering: Assessing the Potential to Reach Program Caps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.; Gelman, R.; Bird, L.

    2014-09-01

    Several states are addressing the issue of net metering program caps, which limit the total amount of net metered generating capacity that can be installed in a state or utility service territory. In this analysis, we examine net metering caps to gain perspective on how long net metering will be available in various jurisdictions under current policies. We also surveyed state practices and experience to understand important policy design considerations.

  5. Import of electric power increased by 19 %

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The import of electric power increased by 19% in 1999. Due to the decrease in the electric power export the net import of electric power increased even more. Electric power import from Sweden was 6000 GWh, import from Russia 5200 GWh and import from Norway 100 GWh. The electric power export in 1999 was only 200 GWh. The generation of nuclear power increased 5% and the consumption of wood-based fuels by 3%. The increase in nuclear power generation is based on increment of the power output capacities of the power plants. The consumption of peat decreased by 12% and the production of hydroelectric power by 15%. The decrement of the peat consumption is based on the changes in energy taxation. The production of hydroelectric power decreased to the normal level after the rainy year 1998. Oil consumption remained nearly the same as in 1998 even though the national product increased in 1999 by 3.5%. The wind power generation was doubled in 1999. The share of it is still only about 0.01% of the total energy consumption. Carbon dioxide emissions from coal and peat, decreased by 1.0 million tons, down to 56 million tons. The present emissions are now only about 2 million tons higher than during the reference year 1990. The emissions have decreased by 5 million tons since 1996 when they were at their highest

  6. Guifi.net: Security analysis of a heterogeneous community network

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos García, Patricia

    2018-01-01

    Guifi.net is a heterogeneous community network that brings Internet to rural areas or vulnerable groups. This opens the door to many advances, but encompasses some risks as well. The aim of this project is to assess the general security of Guifi.net from tests performed on a key network element: the router. In particular, MikroTik and Ubiquiti are the most used makes in Guifi.net and hence, the target of this project. Basic, yet important, security settings are tested. On the plus side, the ...

  7. Instant Autodesk AutoCAD 2014 customization with .NET

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. An instruction-based guide with examples written in the C# programming language. VB.NET programmers can also take advantage of these examples by using one of the free conversion websites to convert the examples to VB.NET.Clear, step-by-step instructions and complete code examples illustrate the processes, making it easy to develop your own custom AutoCAD tools.This book is perfect if you are interested in customizing AutoCAD 2014 using the .NET API. You should have a basic familiari

  8. Importance of the planning activities, cutting, handling and analysis of the nuclei of oil well drilling; Importancia de las actividades de planificacion, corte, manejo y analisis de los nucleos de perforacion de pozos petroleros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras L, Enrique A; Garcia M, Pablo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    In the geologic formation where the oil deposits are located, diverse types of rocks perform functions as structural elements, storage containers for hydrocarbon water and calorific energy, as well as impermeable barriers and transport means of the energy and the fluids. Among the most important properties that are used to describe these functions are the porosity, the permeability, the compressibility of the pores volume, the formation resistivity factor, the saturation exponent, the velocity of acoustic waves P and S, the relative permeability, the capillary pressures, the elastic constants and other mechanical properties, the thermal expansion, coefficient, the thermal conductivity, the thermal diffusivity and the specific heat. The execution of an ample variety of activities related to the stages of exploration, location, evaluation and development of the oil deposits, depends strongly on having a good knowledge of the magnitude and the spatial variability of these properties. The technical feasibility as well as the economics in developing a prospectus of oil deposit, depends on that the intervening rocks exhibit a suitable combination of their properties, thus constituting a confining and storing geologic structure of hydrocarbons that is feasible to be developed technically, at the same time of having the economic potential of yielding an economic benefit. In this context, from the experience platform on the subject existing in the Laboratorio de Yacimientos of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas. The present article approaches the relevance which have the activities of cutting, handling and laboratory analysis of the oil well drilling nuclei, for the geologic evaluation of the formation, in relation to the characterization, the evaluation and the advantage of the oil deposits. [Spanish] En las formaciones geologicas donde se encuentran emplazados los yacimientos petroleros, diversos tipos de rocas desempenan funciones como elementos estructurales

  9. Future of oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatermann, R.; Ten Hoedt, R.

    2009-01-01

    Two articles in the section 'Future of oil and gas': one ('Baltic strained by oil traffic') on the growing risks of accidents in maritime traffic in the Baltic region, and one ('Angola wants bigger piece of the pie') on the importance of the oil production in Angola to energy supplies in Europe and the USA. It appears that national oil company Sonango wants to have a greater part of the profits

  10. Oil outlook to 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lounnas, R.; Brennand, G.

    2002-01-01

    The latest oil outlook to the year 2020 is presented, using the OPEC World Energy Model (OWEM). In the reference case, the OPEC Reference Basket of seven crudes is assumed to remain within the declared price range of US dollars 22-28 per barrel, in nominal terms, for the rest of this decade, growing with inflation thereafter. World oil demand grows from 76 million barrels a day in 2000 to 89 mb/d by 2010, and to over 106 mb/d by 2020. Two-thirds of the increase in demand over this 20-year period comes from China and the developing countries. Non-OPEC production is expected to continue to increase throughout the entire forecast period, with the decline in North Sea output more than compensated by increases in the developing countries, Russia and the Caspian region. OPEC market share in the first decade is accordingly relatively stable, as increases in output are approximately matched by higher non-OPEC supply. In the following ten years, however, it becomes increasingly inevitable that OPEC market share will increase, as the net rise in non-OPEC output slows. The net investment requirement will need to cover both additional capacity and the maintenance of the existing production potential. For OPEC alone, the estimate is around 10 billion dollars a year during this period. Substantially higher or lower oil prices than the assumed values for the reference case are shown not only to generate lower OPEC export revenue, but also to be unsustainable. (Author)

  11. Outlook for Saskatchewan heavy oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youzwa, P.

    1993-01-01

    Some of the opportunities and challenges currently facing the heavy oil industry in Saskatchewan are discussed from a government perspective. By the end of September 1993, 220 heavy oil wells were drilled in the province, and 26% of the land sales in 1993 were in heavy oil areas. About 41% of the wells drilled in heavy oil areas were horizontal oil wells. Of the total horizontal wells drilled in Saskatchewan, 48% are for heavy oil, and horizontal well production averages 85 bbl/d. Initial trends suggest that horizontal wells both accelerate production and contribute to ultimate recovery. Total heavy oil production in 1992 reached 28.9 million bbl and recoverable reserves in 1991 were 262.3 million bbl, or 1.5% of total oil in place. The low recovery is not only due to technical factors such as high viscosity but also to low investment in the heavy oil sector due to poor economics. It is hoped that lower interest and exchange rates, the success of horizontal wells and the provincial royalty structure will maintain the recent increase in heavy oil activity. The provincial government recently launched a comprehensive energy strategy in which development of a heavy oil strategy is an important component. Total heavy oil reserves exceed those of light and medium oil and have significant development potential. The Saskatchewan government wishes to adopt a cooperative and partnership approach in its dealings with the heavy oil industry to help realize this potential. 9 figs

  12. Discards of Danish set nets fisheries in the Kattegat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savina, Esther; Krag, Ludvig Ahm; Frandsen, Rikke

    to the food web. These ecological interactions can be of importance for the surrounding ecosystem, especially regarding small-scale fisheries which take place in relatively shallow waters. Previous studies on gill- or trammel nets discards mostly focus either on commercially valuable fish, or on incidentally...... caught rare or protected species. Data collected by observers aboard commercial fishing vessels gives a first insight into the discards of non-commercial fish and invertebrates in the Danish small-scale set nets fisheries...

  13. Global Trends and Development Prospects for Oil and the Oil Products Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dorozhkina

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the important issue of the development of the global market of oil and oil products. It offers an overview of how this market was formed and its current status, classification, location and potential of countries in the oil and oil processing business. It analyzes the Ukrainian oil products market. The article discusses the shortcomings and strategic areas for the development of Ukraine’s oil transport system. It presents an optimum method for creating integration groups in order to develop the oil processing business in Ukraine for the future. The article considers the main trends and outlines development prospects for the global oil and oil products market.

  14. Insight conference reports : Far north oil and gas forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The emerging issues and opportunities for developing oil and gas resources in the North were outlined during this conference, along with recent developments, the current climate from an exploration perspective and the current state of play in the North. It highlighted Yukon's oil and gas potential and emphasized the importance of both the Mackenzie Gas Project and the Alaska Highway Pipeline Project. The activities of gas producers, pipeline proponents and governments regarding the construction of gas pipelines to connect northern gas to markets in North America were reviewed along with net fiscal and social benefits; community and First Nations' involvement; federal regulatory processes that have First Nations support; and securing federal funding to help prepare for the pipelines. The conference featured 19 presentations, of which 3 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  15. MATT: Multi Agents Testing Tool Based Nets within Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Kerraoui

    2016-12-01

    As part of this effort, we propose a model based testing approach for multi agent systems based on such a model called Reference net, where a tool, which aims to providing a uniform and automated approach is developed. The feasibility and the advantage of the proposed approach are shown through a short case study.

  16. Oil risk in oil stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Wang, L

    2008-01-01

    We assess the oil price sensitivities and oil risk premiums of NYSE listed oil & gas firms' returns by using a two-step regression analysis under two different arbitrage pricing models. Thus, we apply the Fama and French (1992) factor returns in a study of oil stocks. In all, we find that the return

  17. Accounting for Depletion of Oil and Gas Resources in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, Jamal, E-mail: jortman@ukm.my; Jafari, Yaghoob, E-mail: yaghoob.jafari@gmail.com [Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Faculty of Economics and Management (Malaysia)

    2012-12-15

    Since oil and gas are non-renewable resources, it is important to identify the extent to which they have been depleted. Such information will contribute to the formulation and evaluation of appropriate sustainable development policies. This paper provides an assessment of the changes in the availability of oil and gas resources in Malaysia by first compiling the physical balance sheet for the period 2000-2007, and then assessing the monetary balance sheets for the said resource by using the Net Present Value method. Our findings show serious reduction in the value of oil reserves from 2001 to 2005, due to changes in crude oil prices, and thereafter the depletion rates decreased. In the context of sustainable development planning, albeit in the weak sustainability sense, it will be important to ascertain if sufficient reinvestments of the estimated resource rents in related or alternative capitals are being attempted by Malaysia. For the study period, the cumulative resource rents were to the tune of RM61 billion. Through a depletion or resource rents policy, the estimated quantum may guide the identification of a reinvestment threshold (after considering needed capital investment for future development of the industry) in light of ensuring the future productive capacity of the economy at the time when the resource is exhausted.

  18. Accounting for Depletion of Oil and Gas Resources in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Jamal; Jafari, Yaghoob

    2012-01-01

    Since oil and gas are non-renewable resources, it is important to identify the extent to which they have been depleted. Such information will contribute to the formulation and evaluation of appropriate sustainable development policies. This paper provides an assessment of the changes in the availability of oil and gas resources in Malaysia by first compiling the physical balance sheet for the period 2000–2007, and then assessing the monetary balance sheets for the said resource by using the Net Present Value method. Our findings show serious reduction in the value of oil reserves from 2001 to 2005, due to changes in crude oil prices, and thereafter the depletion rates decreased. In the context of sustainable development planning, albeit in the weak sustainability sense, it will be important to ascertain if sufficient reinvestments of the estimated resource rents in related or alternative capitals are being attempted by Malaysia. For the study period, the cumulative resource rents were to the tune of RM61 billion. Through a depletion or resource rents policy, the estimated quantum may guide the identification of a reinvestment threshold (after considering needed capital investment for future development of the industry) in light of ensuring the future productive capacity of the economy at the time when the resource is exhausted.

  19. Implementing NetScaler VPX

    CERN Document Server

    Sandbu, Marius

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow guide with detailed step-by step-instructions on how to implement the different key components in NetScaler, with real-world examples and sample scenarios.If you are a Citrix or network administrator who needs to implement NetScaler in your virtual environment to gain an insight on its functionality, this book is ideal for you. A basic understanding of networking and familiarity with some of the different Citrix products such as XenApp or XenDesktop is a prerequisite.

  20. Net4Care PHMR Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the SimpleClinicalDocument......The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the Simple...

  1. Coloured Petri Nets and the Invariant Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1981-01-01

    processes to be described by a common subnet, without losing the ability to distinguish between them. Our generalization, called coloured Petri nets, is heavily influenced by predicate transition-nets introduced by H.J. Genrich and K. Lautenbach. Moreover our paper shows how the invariant-method, introduced...... for Petri nets by K. Lautenbach, can be generalized to coloured Petri nets....

  2. ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES OF PEAK OIL FOR THE MAJOR MULTINATIONAL OIL AND GAS COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio García-Amate

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this work is to analyze the financial statements of the five major multinational oil and gas companies, for the 2011-2015 period, in the framework of the peak oil phenomenon. Peak oil can affect key financial indicators (e.g., earnings volatility, leverage that are used by managers, investors, and stockholders and which may potentially lead to changes in the decision making by management. Our results show that the decline in oil production affects the decisions about investment in new oil wells, leverage, dividends paid, shares purchased and net income involving the five major companies. In addition, we study the evolution of oil prices, and its influence in several items of the financial statements. Even though oil prices were at high levels during 2011-2014, however, the net income of the five companies actually declined due to the impact of peak oil. Finally, data for the last year studied (2015 indicate a general deterioration in return ratios and other accounting variables. Although the new investments should have been profitable, they have been influenced by peak oil, compromising the economic position of the companies. The advice to these companies would be to relax their investments, especially during a period of falling oil prices. Company managers need to recognize the prolonged duration of peak oil and price trends to promote profitability recovery decisions.

  3. Controls on the variability of net infiltration to desert sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, Victor M.; McKinney, Tim S.; Zhdanov, Michael S.; Watt, Dennis E.

    2007-01-01

    As populations grow in arid climates and desert bedrock aquifers are increasingly targeted for future development, understanding and quantifying the spatial variability of net infiltration becomes critically important for accurately inventorying water resources and mapping contamination vulnerability. This paper presents a conceptual model of net infiltration to desert sandstone and then develops an empirical equation for its spatial quantification at the watershed scale using linear least squares inversion methods for evaluating controlling parameters (independent variables) based on estimated net infiltration rates (dependent variables). Net infiltration rates used for this regression analysis were calculated from environmental tracers in boreholes and more than 3000 linear meters of vadose zone excavations in an upland basin in southwestern Utah underlain by Navajo sandstone. Soil coarseness, distance to upgradient outcrop, and topographic slope were shown to be the primary physical parameters controlling the spatial variability of net infiltration. Although the method should be transferable to other desert sandstone settings for determining the relative spatial distribution of net infiltration, further study is needed to evaluate the effects of other potential parameters such as slope aspect, outcrop parameters, and climate on absolute net infiltration rates.

  4. Characterizing commercial oil palm expansion in Latin America: land use change and trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furumo, Paul Richard; Aide, T. Mitchell

    2017-02-01

    Commodity crop expansion has increased with the globalization of production systems and consumer demand, linking distant socio-ecological systems. Oil palm plantations are expanding in the tropics to satisfy growing oilseed and biofuel markets, and much of this expansion has caused extensive deforestation, especially in Asia. In Latin America, palm oil output has doubled since 2001, and the majority of expansion seems to be occurring on non-forested lands. We used MODIS satellite imagery (250 m resolution) to map current oil palm plantations in Latin America and determined prior land use and land cover (LULC) using high-resolution images in Google Earth. In addition, we compiled trade data to determine where Latin American palm oil flows, in order to better understand the underlying drivers of expansion in the region. Based on a sample of 342 032 ha of oil palm plantations across Latin America, we found that 79% replaced previously intervened lands (e.g. pastures, croplands, bananas), primarily cattle pastures (56%). The remaining 21% came from areas that were classified as woody vegetation (e.g. forests), most notably in the Amazon and the Petén region in northern Guatemala. Latin America is a net exporter of palm oil but the majority of palm oil exports (70%) stayed within the region, with Mexico importing about half. Growth of the oil palm sector may be driven by global factors, but environmental and economic outcomes vary between regions (i.e. Asia and Latin America), within regions (i.e. Colombia and Peru), and within single countries (i.e. Guatemala), suggesting that local conditions are influential. The present trend of oil palm expanding onto previously cleared lands, guided by roundtable certifications programs, provides an opportunity for more sustainable development of the oil palm sector in Latin America.

  5. Biodiesel production from waste soybean oil biomass as renewable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... biodegradable, produced from renewable sources and contributes a minimal amount of net green house gases .... Later, the waste cooking oil was filtered by filter paper to ... the alcoxide from absorbing water from the air.

  6. D.NET case study

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    lremy

    The mission was defined to build, “A society where information and ... innovative ideas and projects around different themes (using ICT), and piloting them to test .... like D.Net with several projects that had moved beyond their pilot phase.

  7. Petri Nets in Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A process language for security protocols is presented together with a semantics in terms of sets of events. The denotation of process is a set of events, and as each event specifies a set of pre and postconditions, this denotation can be viewed as a Petri net. By means of an example we illustrate...

  8. Complexity metrics for workflow nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lassen, K.B.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    2009-01-01

    Process modeling languages such as EPCs, BPMN, flow charts, UML activity diagrams, Petri nets, etc., are used to model business processes and to configure process-aware information systems. It is known that users have problems understanding these diagrams. In fact, even process engineers and system

  9. Reference Guide Microsoft.NET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee M van der; Verspaij GJ; Rosbergen S; IMP; NMD

    2003-01-01

    Met behulp van het rapport kunnen ontwikkelaars, beheerders en betrokken managers bij ICT projecten meer inzicht krijgen in de .NET technologie en een goede keuze maken in de inzetbaarheid van deze technologie. Het rapport geeft de bevindingen en conclusies van een verkennende studie naar het

  10. Complexity Metrics for Workflow Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; van der Aalst, Wil M.P.

    2009-01-01

    Process modeling languages such as EPCs, BPMN, flow charts, UML activity diagrams, Petri nets, etc.\\ are used to model business processes and to configure process-aware information systems. It is known that users have problems understanding these diagrams. In fact, even process engineers and system...

  11. Communicating with the Net Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    resource investment is necessary to sustain a high quality all-volunteer force. 9 Leadership Technique for the Net Generation Army Regulation 600...Generations at Work, Millenials at Work, http://www.generationsatwork. com /articles_millennials_at_work.php (accessed November 21, 2010). 31 Thomas

  12. Net Neutrality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.

    2014-01-01

    The Netherlands is among the first countries that have put specific net neutrality standards in place. The decision to implement specific regulation was influenced by at least three factors. The first was the prevailing social and academic debate, partly due to developments in the United States. The

  13. Surgery for GEP-NETs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, Ulrich; Hansen, Carsten Palnæs

    2012-01-01

    Surgery is the only treatment that may cure the patient with gastroentero-pancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumours (NET) and neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC) and should always be considered as first line treatment if R0/R1 resection can be achieved. The surgical and interventional procedures for GEP...

  14. Net4Care PHMR Tutorial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    Goal To demonstrate how to use the Net4Care PHMR builder module to a) Create a SimpleClinicalDocument instance and populate it with relevant administrative and medical information to form a tele medical report of a set of measurements, b) Use the provided DanishPHMRBuilder to generate a correctly...

  15. Deceased Slabs Drive Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, H. J.; Hannah, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    The application of Re-Os isotope geochemistry to dating single oils is a nascent field [1,2]. Challenges include dissection of oils into asphaltene-maltene (ASPH-MALT) components in a way that preserves meaningful chronologic and source information. Significantly, oil-water mixing rapidly transfers Os to the oil, while Re exchange is sluggish [3]. The Os initial ratio of the oil is shifted in the direction of Os carried in the aqueous fluid, whereas the Re-Os isotopic age is preserved. We show that this phenomenon is operative in natural systems. Further, we show that deserpentinization of old oceanic slabs [4], may be linked to expulsion of Os-enriched waters into overlying sedimentary sections - a process that may be of fundamental importance for oil generation. This conclusion does not diminish the role of traditional organic-rich shales as source rocks for the hydrocarbon, but shows that external fluids are essential to petroleum generation. Moreover, the external fluids may be an important driver for expulsion and migration of oils. We have taken apart several petroleum systems from source rock, to residual oil, to tar mat development, to in situ live oil, through to produced oil. In many cases, a fluid with low 187Os/188Os - unlike that of normal basinal brines - provides a critical component to the oil-water mixture. Funding - CHRONOS project supported by Norwegian petroleum industry (Eni-Norge, Lundin, Aker BP) Acknowledgement - Christine Fichler [4], who first queried us on old slabs and oil, and stimulated ideas. [1] Georgiev, S.V., Stein, H.J., Hannah, J.L., Galimberti, R., Nali, M., Yang, G., and Zimmerman, A. (2016) Re-Os dating of maltenes and asphaltenes within single samples of crude oil: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 179: 53-75. [doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2016.01.016] [2] DiMarzio, J., Georgiev, S.V., Stein, H.J., and Hannah, J.L. (in press) Residency of rhenium and osmium in a heavy crude oil: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. [3] Hurtig, N.C., Georgiev, S

  16. Cheap oil. Good news - for most

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorié, J.

    2014-01-01

    - The oil price has fallen by 40% in recent months, as a result of increasing oil supply, and is expected to be in the range of USD 70 - 80 per barrel in 2015. - The global economy is set to benefit, as are oil importing regions such as Europe and Asia. - Oil exporting countries like Brazil, Russia

  17. Middle East and North African Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Quazzaz, Ayad

    1981-01-01

    Traces the history of oil and natural gas in the Middle East and relates the importance of the Middle East's current stores of oil to economic development. Information is presented on the relationship of major oil companies and local governments, OPEC, rate of production, and the impact of oil on the societies of the Middle East and North Africa.…

  18. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Japan 2013 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Oil remains the most significant energy source in Japan, accounting for some 45% of the country’s total primary energy supply (TPES) in 2011. Japan’s oil demand steadily decreased from 5.71 mb/d in 1997 to 4.47 mb/d in 2010. However, its oil demand increased to 4.48 mb/d in 2011 and 4.73 mb/d in 2012 due to the Great East Japan Earthquake in March 2011 and its subsequent impacts. The transport sector represented around 38% of total consumption in 2010, while the industry sector accounted for 30%. A significant proportion of the industry sector’s oil demand comes from the chemical industry. Of the 4.8 mb/d of oil imported by Japan in 2012, 3.5 mb/d consisted of crude oil, 209 kb/d of NGLs and feedstocks, and some 1.2 mb/d of refined products. About 83% of Japan’s crude oil imports in 2012 came from the Middle East. The country has 27 operational refineries with a total crude distillation capacity of around 4.5 mb/d. Japan meets its 90-day stockholding obligation to the IEA by holding government emergency stocks and by placing a minimum stockholding obligation on industry. JOGMEC’s primary role is to manage public stocks under the Oil Stockpiling Act, while industry (refineries, specified distributors and importers) is obliged to hold the equivalent of 70 days of their daily imports, sales or refinery production, based on the average of the previous 12 months. The public stocks mostly consist of crude oil, but the Administration has expanded its emergency inventory to include four categories of refined products - gasoline, kerosene, fuel oil and diesel oil. Japan held some 591 million barrels (mb) of oil stocks at the end of January 2013, equating to 166 days of 2011 net-imports (92 days of government stocks and 74 days of industry stocks). Around 72% of total stocks were held in the form of crude oil. Japan has consistently met its minimum IEA stockholding obligation. The share of natural gas in the country’s TPES increased significantly from 17% in 2010

  19. QML-AiNet: An immune network approach to learning qualitative differential equation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Wei; Coghill, George M

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we explore the application of Opt-AiNet, an immune network approach for search and optimisation problems, to learning qualitative models in the form of qualitative differential equations. The Opt-AiNet algorithm is adapted to qualitative model learning problems, resulting in the proposed system QML-AiNet. The potential of QML-AiNet to address the scalability and multimodal search space issues of qualitative model learning has been investigated. More importantly, to further improve the efficiency of QML-AiNet, we also modify the mutation operator according to the features of discrete qualitative model space. Experimental results show that the performance of QML-AiNet is comparable to QML-CLONALG, a QML system using the clonal selection algorithm (CLONALG). More importantly, QML-AiNet with the modified mutation operator can significantly improve the scalability of QML and is much more efficient than QML-CLONALG.

  20. Happy oil companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maincent, G.

    2009-01-01

    The decay of demand, the bad financial results of the first half of 2009 and the hypothetical depletion of reserves must not hide a reality: oil companies are passing through the economic crisis without much trouble. Even if profits have marked time in volume (-57% for BP, -65% for Shell..), the net margins have not significantly suffered and the available cash remains comfortable (14 billion euros for Total as an example). The perspectives offered by the new offshore sites (like Santos in Brazil) added to the fabulous promises of the Iraqi market where 'majors' can now make their come-back will be the key of success of oil companies. The overall exploration-production investments should start up again by the beginning of 2011. For the only offshore drilling domain, they should rise up by 32% during the 2009-2013 period which represents a sum of 367 billion dollars. (J.S.)

  1. Petri nets - part 1: concepts and application areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivertsen, Terje

    2004-03-01

    There exist a number of models, languages, methods, and tools that support the specification and analysis of system requirements. One important class comprises graphical methods based on the concept of Petri nets. Due to the wide variety of applications, these methods are relevant also in research and applications outside the digital systems safety domain. The present report constitutes the first of three parts of a unified exposition of graphical methods based on the concept of Petri nets. The report provides an introduction to basic concepts of Petri nets and an overview of a wide variety of application areas. The second part of the trilogy will present a number of techniques and tools. The third part will focus on analysis. Petri nets have been proposed for a wide variety of applications, and new areas are considered as new challenges emerge from scientific, technological, and social developments. The wide variety of application areas reflects a broad interest in Petri nets, coming from diverse directions. Empirically, as well as theoretically, there are good reasons to claim that Petri nets are applicable for many different kinds of problems. What is common to the different applications and problems addressed is the need for a formalism that allows adequate representation of important system characteristics like concurrency, asyncronicity, distribution, parallelism, and non-determinism. Several of the references in the report discuss NPP-related applications, or applications with great potentials for technology transfer from other areas to the nuclear domain. (Author)

  2. System analysis for effective use of palm oil waste as energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiew, Yoon Lin; Iwata, Tomoko; Shimada, Sohei

    2011-01-01

    Biomass refers to renewable energy sources and comes from biological materials such as trees, plants, manure as well as municipal solid wastes. Effective utilization of biomass as an energy resource requires the use of an optimization model to take into account biomass availability, transportation distances, and the scales and locations of power facilities within a region. In this study, we develop a new analytical tool that integrates cost, energy savings, greenhouse gas considerations, scenario analysis, and a Geographic Information System (GIS) to provide a comprehensive analysis of alternative systems for optimizing biomass energy production. The goal is to find a system that optimizes the use of biomass waste by analyzing the cost, net avoided CO 2 emission, and net energy savings with the objective of profit maximization. In this paper, we describe an application of the modeling tool described above to one of the fastest growing agriculture industries in Asia, the palm oil industry, for the case of Malaysia. Five scenarios utilizing palm oil waste as energy resources are discussed. The scenario of installing of new Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants in the region yielded a number of benefits in terms of net energy savings, net avoided CO 2 emission, and profits. The results also demonstrate the benefits of utilizing excess heat for biomass pre-treatment. The choice of a suitable CHP plant scale, management strategies for biomass seasonal availability, and market price of biomass are also important factors for effective use of the biomass in a region. -- Highlights: → We develop an optimization model for energy production from agricultural biomass. → We model 5 scenarios to optimize plant size, plant location and biomass distribution. → We evaluate the net energy savings, net avoided CO 2 emission, and profits. → We demonstrate the benefits of utilizing excess heat for biomass pre-treatment. → We determine additional factors which may impact

  3. .net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Comité de Rédaction d' EspacesTemps.net

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available EspacesTemps lance aujourd'hui deux objets différents : un site internet et, sur ce site, Le Journal . Il s'agit donc de bien plus, et, au fond, de tout autre chose qu'un simple outil de communication destiné à informer nos lecteurs de nos parutions. Ce n'est pas non plus la « mise en ligne » de nos numéros-papier. L'internet nous donne au contraire l'occasion de réaliser, dans de meilleures conditions, ce que nous avons tenté de faire depuis quelques ...

  4. Caught in the Net: Perineuronal Nets and Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Slaker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to drugs of abuse induces plasticity in the brain and creates persistent drug-related memories. These changes in plasticity and persistent drug memories are believed to produce aberrant motivation and reinforcement contributing to addiction. Most studies have explored the effect drugs of abuse have on pre- and postsynaptic cells and astrocytes; however, more recently, attention has shifted to explore the effect these drugs have on the extracellular matrix (ECM. Within the ECM are unique structures arranged in a net-like manner, surrounding a subset of neurons called perineuronal nets (PNNs. This review focuses on drug-induced changes in PNNs, the molecules that regulate PNNs, and the expression of PNNs within brain circuitry mediating motivation, reward, and reinforcement as it pertains to addiction.

  5. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Net Zero Energy Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-18

    recovery and cogeneration opportunities, offsetting the remaining demand with the production of renewable energy from onsite sources so that the Net...implementing energy recovery and cogeneration opportunities, and then offsetting the remaining demand with the production of renewable energy from on-site...they impact overall energy performance. The use of energy modeling in the design stage provides insights that can contribute to more effective design

  6. Net alkalinity and net acidity 2: Practical considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, C.S.; Cravotta, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    The pH, alkalinity, and acidity of mine drainage and associated waters can be misinterpreted because of the chemical instability of samples and possible misunderstandings of standard analytical method results. Synthetic and field samples of mine drainage having various initial pH values and concentrations of dissolved metals and alkalinity were titrated by several methods, and the results were compared to alkalinity and acidity calculated based on dissolved solutes. The pH, alkalinity, and acidity were compared between fresh, unoxidized and aged, oxidized samples. Data for Pennsylvania coal mine drainage indicates that the pH of fresh samples was predominantly acidic (pH 2.5-4) or near neutral (pH 6-7); ??? 25% of the samples had pH values between 5 and 6. Following oxidation, no samples had pH values between 5 and 6. The Standard Method Alkalinity titration is constrained to yield values >0. Most calculated and measured alkalinities for samples with positive alkalinities were in close agreement. However, for low-pH samples, the calculated alkalinity can be negative due to negative contributions by dissolved metals that may oxidize and hydrolyze. The Standard Method hot peroxide treatment titration for acidity determination (Hot Acidity) accurately indicates the potential for pH to decrease to acidic values after complete degassing of CO2 and oxidation of Fe and Mn, and it indicates either the excess alkalinity or that required for neutralization of the sample. The Hot Acidity directly measures net acidity (= -net alkalinity). Samples that had near-neutral pH after oxidation had negative Hot Acidity; samples that had pH mine drainage treatment can lead to systems with insufficient Alkalinity to neutralize metal and H+ acidity and is not recommended. The use of net alkalinity = -Hot Acidity titration is recommended for the planning of mine drainage treatment. The use of net alkalinity = (Alkalinitymeasured - Aciditycalculated) is recommended with some cautions

  7. Lavender oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender oil is an oil made from the flowers of lavender plants. Lavender poisoning can occur when ... further instructions. This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United ...

  8. Petroleum Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Different types of crude oil and refined product, of all different chemical compositions, have distinct physical properties. These properties affect the way oil spreads and breaks down, its hazard to marine and human life, and the likelihood of threat.

  9. A Study on the efficient alleviation of domestic oil price at international oil crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Ku [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-01-01

    For alleviating domestic oil price when the international oil crisis happens, the government has been reacted directly such as using stored oil or alleviation fund. Although the release of stored oil works for short-term depending on the type of crisis, concerning that most of oil crisis had been resulted in temporary supply reduction rather than long-term supply suspension, utilizing the domestic alleviation fund is regarded more economical than storing oil. However, it has been suggested to compare efficiencies of alleviation fund and a futures market regarding the perspectives that using alleviation fund is more inefficient than utilizing a futures market. Moreover, the direct management by government is less efficient than indirect management. As an efficient way to alleviate domestic oil price at international oil crisis, this study presents an effective utilization of trading in futures of crude oil. There is a high probability of occurrence of this kind of oil crisis by judging from the world political situation and the trend of oil market. In such a case, the government as a crude oil importer should minimize the stored oil and utilize a futures market effectively. The subject of alleviating oil price by trading in futures is an oil supplier, such as oil refining companies or oil importers not the government as a prerequisite. Furthermore, the government should approve to include appropriate cost for preparing oil price alleviation in the oil price and it is required that such a government policy should be consistent. (author). 41 refs., 3 figs., 15 Tabs.

  10. Net alkalinity and net acidity 1: Theoretical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, Carl S.; Cravotta, Charles A.

    2005-01-01

    Net acidity and net alkalinity are widely used, poorly defined, and commonly misunderstood parameters for the characterization of mine drainage. The authors explain theoretical expressions of 3 types of alkalinity (caustic, phenolphthalein, and total) and acidity (mineral, CO 2 , and total). Except for rarely-invoked negative alkalinity, theoretically defined total alkalinity is closely analogous to measured alkalinity and presents few practical interpretation problems. Theoretically defined 'CO 2 -acidity' is closely related to most standard titration methods with an endpoint pH of 8.3 used for determining acidity in mine drainage, but it is unfortunately named because CO 2 is intentionally driven off during titration of mine-drainage samples. Using the proton condition/mass-action approach and employing graphs to illustrate speciation with changes in pH, the authors explore the concept of principal components and how to assign acidity contributions to aqueous species commonly present in mine drainage. Acidity is defined in mine drainage based on aqueous speciation at the sample pH and on the capacity of these species to undergo hydrolysis to pH 8.3. Application of this definition shows that the computed acidity in mgL -1 as CaCO 3 (based on pH and analytical concentrations of dissolved Fe II , Fe III , Mn, and Al in mgL -1 ):acidity calculated =50{1000(10 -pH )+[2(Fe II )+3(Fe III )]/56+2(Mn) /55+3(Al)/27}underestimates contributions from HSO 4 - and H + , but overestimates the acidity due to Fe 3+ and Al 3+ . However, these errors tend to approximately cancel each other. It is demonstrated that 'net alkalinity' is a valid mathematical construction based on theoretical definitions of alkalinity and acidity. Further, it is shown that, for most mine-drainage solutions, a useful net alkalinity value can be derived from: (1) alkalinity and acidity values based on aqueous speciation (2) measured alkalinity minus calculated acidity, or (3) taking the negative of the

  11. Net alkalinity and net acidity 1: Theoretical considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, C.S.; Cravotta, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    Net acidity and net alkalinity are widely used, poorly defined, and commonly misunderstood parameters for the characterization of mine drainage. The authors explain theoretical expressions of 3 types of alkalinity (caustic, phenolphthalein, and total) and acidity (mineral, CO2, and total). Except for rarely-invoked negative alkalinity, theoretically defined total alkalinity is closely analogous to measured alkalinity and presents few practical interpretation problems. Theoretically defined "CO 2-acidity" is closely related to most standard titration methods with an endpoint pH of 8.3 used for determining acidity in mine drainage, but it is unfortunately named because CO2 is intentionally driven off during titration of mine-drainage samples. Using the proton condition/mass- action approach and employing graphs to illustrate speciation with changes in pH, the authors explore the concept of principal components and how to assign acidity contributions to aqueous species commonly present in mine drainage. Acidity is defined in mine drainage based on aqueous speciation at the sample pH and on the capacity of these species to undergo hydrolysis to pH 8.3. Application of this definition shows that the computed acidity in mg L -1 as CaCO3 (based on pH and analytical concentrations of dissolved FeII, FeIII, Mn, and Al in mg L -1):aciditycalculated=50{1000(10-pH)+[2(FeII)+3(FeIII)]/56+2(Mn)/ 55+3(Al)/27}underestimates contributions from HSO4- and H+, but overestimates the acidity due to Fe3+ and Al3+. However, these errors tend to approximately cancel each other. It is demonstrated that "net alkalinity" is a valid mathematical construction based on theoretical definitions of alkalinity and acidity. Further, it is shown that, for most mine-drainage solutions, a useful net alkalinity value can be derived from: (1) alkalinity and acidity values based on aqueous speciation, (2) measured alkalinity minus calculated acidity, or (3) taking the negative of the value obtained in a

  12. Oil in France: main results in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This article comments the evolution of oil product prices in France in 2008 and of the global oil product consumption in 2008. This consumption and its evolutions are also analysed with respect to the different consuming sectors: non-energetic uses (petrochemical industry and lubricants), industry, housing and office buildings, agriculture, transports, and electricity thermal production. Crude oil imports and their origins are the commented, as well as refined product imports and exports. The evolution of price of imported crude oil, the national oil production, the refining activity in France, and the amount of crude and refined oil stocks are also briefly commented

  13. Importance measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Cobo, A.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discusses the following: general concepts of importance measures; example fault tree, used to illustrate importance measures; Birnbaum's structural importance; criticality importance; Fussel-Vesely importance; upgrading function; risk achievement worth; risk reduction worth

  14. Terms of trade, countertrade and recycling under oil price shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolonen, Y. (Turku School of Economics (Finland))

    1989-01-01

    In this paper we first analyse the consequences of oil pricedisturbances in a model of two oil importing and one oil producingcountries. Attention is given both to the terms of trade between theoil importers and to the recycling of the oil revenues of the oilproducer to imports from these oil importing countries. Secondly,extending the model by another oil producer we discuss a situationwhere a part of the oil trade takes place on a countertrade basis. Thequestion is whether such countertrade deals are advantageous or notwhen oil price shocks occur. Various factors are presented upon whichthe outcome depends. 12 refs., 2 tabs., 1 app.

  15. Les dispositifs du Net art

    OpenAIRE

    Fourmentraux, Jean-Paul

    2010-01-01

    La pratique du Net art radicalise la question du potentiel communicationnel d’un média —Internet— qui constitue tout à la fois le support technique, l’outil créatif et le dispositif social de l’œuvre. Les technologies de l’information et de la communication (TIC) placent en effet l’œuvre d’art au cœur d’une négociation socialement distribuée entre l’artiste et le public. L’article est focalisé sur cette construction collective du Net art et sur ses mises en scènes. Il montre le travail artist...

  16. Complexity Metrics for Workflow Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; van der Aalst, Wil M.P.

    2009-01-01

    analysts have difficulties grasping the dynamics implied by a process model. Recent empirical studies show that people make numerous errors when modeling complex business processes, e.g., about 20 percent of the EPCs in the SAP reference model have design flaws resulting in potential deadlocks, livelocks......, etc. It seems obvious that the complexity of the model contributes to design errors and a lack of understanding. It is not easy to measure complexity, however. This paper presents three complexity metrics that have been implemented in the process analysis tool ProM. The metrics are defined...... for a subclass of Petri nets named Workflow nets, but the results can easily be applied to other languages. To demonstrate the applicability of these metrics, we have applied our approach and tool to 262 relatively complex Protos models made in the context of various student projects. This allows us to validate...

  17. Causality Relationship between Crude Oil Variables and Budget Variables in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Zakaria, Zukarnain; Shamsuddin, Sofian

    2017-01-01

    As an oil and gas exporter, Malaysia profited from higher world energy prices. However, the fall in oil prices from highs in 2014 significantly affected Malaysia’s government revenue (GR), hence its expenditure since the Malaysian GR still largely depends on oil revenues. Malaysia also has problems with high spending on energy subsidy, shrinking in its net crude oil export, and narrowing the gap between its crude oil production and consumption. Given this scenario, not only shocks in crude oi...

  18. dotNet som multimediaplattform

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Glenn

    2008-01-01

    As the speed and complexity of computers have increased so have software and the expectations of users. Software development follows a straightforward evolution where complicated tasks are made easier by better tools; this repeats itself as those tasks in turn are automated. Software mechanics that were seen as revolutionary a decade ago are seen as obvious requirements that no multimedia application can be without. dotNet is the next step in line and makes it easier and faster to build softw...

  19. Modelling human factor with Petri nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedreaga, Luminita; Constantinescu, Cristina; Guzun, Basarab

    2007-01-01

    The human contribution to risk and safety of nuclear power plant operation can be best understood, assessed and quantified using tools to evaluate human reliability. Human reliability analysis becomes an important part of every probabilistic safety assessment and it is used to demonstrate that nuclear power plants designed with different safety levels are prepared to cope with severe accidents. Human reliability analysis in context of probabilistic safety assessment consists in: identifying human-system interactions important to safety; quantifying probabilities appropriate with these interactions. Nowadays, the complex system functions can be modelled using special techniques centred either on states space adequate to system or on events appropriate to the system. Knowing that complex system model consists in evaluating the likelihood of success, in other words, in evaluating the possible value for that system being in some state, the inductive methods which are based on the system states can be applied also for human reliability modelling. Thus, switching to the system states taking into account the human interactions, the underlying basis of the Petri nets can be successfully applied and the likelihoods appropriate to these states can also derived. The paper presents the manner to assess the human reliability quantification using Petri nets approach. The example processed in the paper is from human reliability documentation without a detailed human factor analysis (qualitative). The obtained results by these two kinds of methods are in good agreement. (authors)

  20. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: India 2007 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    With almost 1.1 billion inhabitants, India is the second most populous country in the world and the seventh-largest country by geographical area. In 2005, India’s GDP was about USD 644 billion. In terms of purchasing power parity (PPP)21, GDP stood at USD 3 362 which makes it the fourth-largest economy in the world (after the United States, China and Japan). Per capita income in PPP terms is around USD 3 582, about one-tenth of the OECD average. GDP growth in 2005 was 9.2%. India has about 5.6 billion barrels of proven oil reserves (January 2007). The combination of rising oil consumption and fairly stable production levels leaves India increasingly dependent on imports to meet consumption needs; most of these imports are coming from the Middle East. In 2006, the country produced an average of 792 kb/d of total oil liquids, of which 87% (687 kb/d) was crude oil. During 2006, India’s demand for oil reached 2.64 mb/d. In 2004, India decided to build a strategic petroleum reserve (SPR) in a phased manner. The work on the first phase started in 2007, with invitations for tender for the construction of rock caverns with a capacity of some 37 mb (5 Mt), which equates to 20 days of net imports or 15 days of consumption in 2005. The work is planned to be fi nished in 2010, after which the rock caverns will begin to be filled. A second phase is projected (but not yet scheduled), which would expand the storage capacity to 45 days of consumption (roughly 110 mb or 15 Mt). The Integrated Energy Policy of 2006 states that the effectiveness of the reserves can be increased through co-operative operation with the reserves of other countries, such as IEA member countries.

  1. NET model coil test possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erb, J.; Gruenhagen, A.; Herz, W.; Jentzsch, K.; Komarek, P.; Lotz, E.; Malang, S.; Maurer, W.; Noether, G.; Ulbricht, A.; Vogt, A.; Zahn, G.; Horvath, I.; Kwasnitza, K.; Marinucci, C.; Pasztor, G.; Sborchia, C.; Weymuth, P.; Peters, A.; Roeterdink, A.

    1987-11-01

    A single full size coil for NET/INTOR represents an investment of the order of 40 MUC (Million Unit Costs). Before such an amount of money or even more for the 16 TF coils is invested as much risks as possible must be eliminated by a comprehensive development programme. In the course of such a programme a coil technology verification test should finally prove the feasibility of NET/INTOR TF coils. This study report is almost exclusively dealing with such a verification test by model coil testing. These coils will be built out of two Nb 3 Sn-conductors based on two concepts already under development and investigation. Two possible coil arrangements are discussed: A cluster facility, where two model coils out of the two Nb 3 TF-conductors are used, and the already tested LCT-coils producing a background field. A solenoid arrangement, where in addition to the two TF model coils another model coil out of a PF-conductor for the central PF-coils of NET/INTOR is used instead of LCT background coils. Technical advantages and disadvantages are worked out in order to compare and judge both facilities. Costs estimates and the time schedules broaden the base for a decision about the realisation of such a facility. (orig.) [de

  2. NET-2 Network Analysis Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malmberg, A.F.

    1974-01-01

    The NET-2 Network Analysis Program is a general purpose digital computer program which solves the nonlinear time domain response and the linearized small signal frequency domain response of an arbitrary network of interconnected components. NET-2 is capable of handling a variety of components and has been applied to problems in several engineering fields, including electronic circuit design and analysis, missile flight simulation, control systems, heat flow, fluid flow, mechanical systems, structural dynamics, digital logic, communications network design, solid state device physics, fluidic systems, and nuclear vulnerability due to blast, thermal, gamma radiation, neutron damage, and EMP effects. Network components may be selected from a repertoire of built-in models or they may be constructed by the user through appropriate combinations of mathematical, empirical, and topological functions. Higher-level components may be defined by subnetworks composed of any combination of user-defined components and built-in models. The program provides a modeling capability to represent and intermix system components on many levels, e.g., from hole and electron spatial charge distributions in solid state devices through discrete and integrated electronic components to functional system blocks. NET-2 is capable of simultaneous computation in both the time and frequency domain, and has statistical and optimization capability. Network topology may be controlled as a function of the network solution. (U.S.)

  3. Water issues associated with heavy oil production.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Quinn, J. J.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-11-28

    Crude oil occurs in many different forms throughout the world. An important characteristic of crude oil that affects the ease with which it can be produced is its density and viscosity. Lighter crude oil typically can be produced more easily and at lower cost than heavier crude oil. Historically, much of the nation's oil supply came from domestic or international light or medium crude oil sources. California's extensive heavy oil production for more than a century is a notable exception. Oil and gas companies are actively looking toward heavier crude oil sources to help meet demands and to take advantage of large heavy oil reserves located in North and South America. Heavy oil includes very viscous oil resources like those found in some fields in California and Venezuela, oil shale, and tar sands (called oil sands in Canada). These are described in more detail in the next chapter. Water is integrally associated with conventional oil production. Produced water is the largest byproduct associated with oil production. The cost of managing large volumes of produced water is an important component of the overall cost of producing oil. Most mature oil fields rely on injected water to maintain formation pressure during production. The processes involved with heavy oil production often require external water supplies for steam generation, washing, and other steps. While some heavy oil processes generate produced water, others generate different types of industrial wastewater. Management and disposition of the wastewater presents challenges and costs for the operators. This report describes water requirements relating to heavy oil production and potential sources for that water. The report also describes how water is used and the resulting water quality impacts associated with heavy oil production.

  4. Oil spill clean up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claxton, L.D.; Houk, V.S.; Williams, R.; Kremer, F.

    1991-01-01

    Due to the consideration of bioremediation for oil spills, it is important to understand the ecological and human health implications of bioremediation efforts. During biodegradation, the toxicity of the polluting material may actually increase upon the conversion of non-toxic constituents to toxic species. Also, toxic compounds refractory to biological degradation may compromise the effectiveness of the treatment technique. In the study, the Salmonella mutagenicity assay showed that both the Prudhoe Bay crude oil and its weathered counterpart collected from oil-impacted water were weakly mutagenic. Results also showed that the mutagenic components were depleted at a faster rate than the overall content of organic material

  5. China's oil resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesegart, K

    1981-03-01

    The United Nations International Meeting on Petroleum Geology is being held this month from 18-25 in China, a country whose oil reserves up to mid-sixties had been judged by foreign observers to be minute and the development of her oil sector of no major importance. Today, with an annual crude output of 106 mn tons, China already ranks ninth among the world's oil producers. And, with the prospect of a further advance towards leadership among producers and exporters of the coveted energy material, the West is showing growing interest in China's energy potential. How real is this prospect forms the subject of this article. 3 tables.

  6. Challenge - oil crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogler, O.

    1981-01-01

    After a short survey on recent developments of energy supply the risks of future energy supply and its effects are discussed. The parameters of dependence on oil-producing countries are studied and an evaluation is given on the measures which have to be taken by the Western industrialized countries in response to the dependence on oil. Further subjects are: mechanism of oil distribution in case of crisis, long-term cooperation of producer countries, measures on international level in the USA and Japan, and the energy-importing countries in the conflict area between OPEC- and industrialized countries. (UA) [de

  7. Peak oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, W. H.; Campbell, C. J.; Zagar, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Oil and gas were formed under exceptional conditions in the geological past, meaning that they are subject to natural depletion, such that the past growth in production must give way to decline. Although depletion is a simple concept to grasp, public data on the resource base are extremely unreliable due to ambiguous definitions and lax reporting. The oil industry is reluctant to admit to an onset of decline carrying obvious adverse financial consequences. There are several different categories of oil and gas, from tar sands to deep water fields, each with specific characteristics that need to be evaluated. It is important to build a global model on a country by country basis in order that anomalous statistics may be identified and evaluated. Such a study suggests that the world faces the onset of decline, with far-reaching consequences given the central role of oil-based energy. It is accordingly an important subject deserving detailed consideration by policy makers. (author)

  8. Development of oil for lead shielded glass windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antony, M.P.; Subramaniam, S.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.

    1997-01-01

    Oil filled glass windows are used in Hot Cells for viewing purposes. Absorption of moisture and radiation can cause degradation of the oil and the degradation products will make the oil cloudy. Hence, it is necessary to replace the oil at least once in two years. The requirements of the oil were met so far by importing it from USA, Germany and France. An attempt has been made to make the oil indigenously with a view to replenish the oil in future, and also as an alternate source for oil import. The details of the development of a radiation resistant oil, its specifications and the test procedures are discussed in this report. (author)

  9. Quarterly oil statistics. Second quarter, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This issue presents rapid and accurate information on supply and disposal of crude oil, oil products, and natural gas, including production, refinery output, trade, bunkers, refinery fuel and losses and stock changes. Detailed import and export data are given for 42 origins and 29 destinations for crude oil and products. NGL, feedstocks, naphtha, LPG, gasoline, kerosene, gas/diesel oil, and heavy fuel oil (residual) are covered. (DLC)

  10. Latin American oil markets and refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Obadia, C.

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the oil markets and refining in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela, and examines the production of crude oil in these countries. Details are given of Latin American refiners highlighting trends in crude distillation unit capacity, cracking to distillation ratios, and refining in the different countries. Latin American oil trade is discussed, and charts are presented illustrating crude production, oil consumption, crude refining capacity, cracking to distillation ratios, and oil imports and exports

  11. Oil exports under GATT and the WTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallah, H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper will try to focus on two aspects of oil production policy under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the World Trade Organization. The first is how freely an oil producer can regulate the quantity of oil production and exports without violating GATT rules and the second is how an oil exporter could benefit from GATT rules to overstep barriers to market access imposed by oil-importing countries. (author)

  12. Sustainable management in crop monocultures: the impact of retaining forest on oil palm yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Felicity A; Edwards, David P; Sloan, Sean; Hamer, Keith C

    2014-01-01

    Tropical agriculture is expanding rapidly at the expense of forest, driving a global extinction crisis. How to create agricultural landscapes that minimise the clearance of forest and maximise sustainability is thus a key issue. One possibility is protecting natural forest within or adjacent to crop monocultures to harness important ecosystem services provided by biodiversity spill-over that may facilitate production. Yet this contrasts with the conflicting potential that the retention of forest exports dis-services, such as agricultural pests. We focus on oil palm and obtained yields from 499 plantation parcels spanning a total of ≈23,000 ha of oil palm plantation in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. We investigate the relationship between the extent and proximity of both contiguous and fragmented dipterocarp forest cover and oil palm yield, controlling for variation in oil palm age and for environmental heterogeneity by incorporating proximity to non-native forestry plantations, other oil palm plantations, and large rivers, elevation and soil type in our models. The extent of forest cover and proximity to dipterocarp forest were not significant predictors of oil palm yield. Similarly, proximity to large rivers and other oil palm plantations, as well as soil type had no significant effect. Instead, lower elevation and closer proximity to forestry plantations had significant positive impacts on oil palm yield. These findings suggest that if dipterocarp forests are exporting ecosystem service benefits or ecosystem dis-services, that the net effect on yield is neutral. There is thus no evidence to support arguments that forest should be retained within or adjacent to oil palm monocultures for the provision of ecosystem services that benefit yield. We urge for more nuanced assessments of the impacts of forest and biodiversity on yields in crop monocultures to better understand their role in sustainable agriculture.

  13. Consequences of oil film degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravendran, Rathesan

    2017-01-01

    In a review of recent studies into two-stroke lubrication, Rathesan Ravendran and Peter Jensen of Hans Jensen Lubricators highlight the importance of cylinder oil distribution.......In a review of recent studies into two-stroke lubrication, Rathesan Ravendran and Peter Jensen of Hans Jensen Lubricators highlight the importance of cylinder oil distribution....

  14. Translating Health Services Research into Practice in the Safety Net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Susan L; Fischer, Ilana; Havranek, Edward P

    2016-02-01

    To summarize research relating to health services research translation in the safety net through analysis of the literature and case study of a safety net system. Literature review and key informant interviews at an integrated safety net hospital. This paper describes the results of a comprehensive literature review of translational science literature as applied to health care paired with qualitative analysis of five key informant interviews conducted with senior-level management at Denver Health and Hospital Authority. Results from the literature suggest that implementing innovation may be more difficult in the safety net due to multiple factors, including financial and organizational constraints. Results from key informant interviews confirmed the reality of financial barriers to innovation implementation but also implied that factors, including institutional respect for data, organizational attitudes, and leadership support, could compensate for disadvantages. Translating research into practice is of critical importance to safety net providers, which are under increased pressure to improve patient care and satisfaction. Results suggest that translational research done in the safety net can better illuminate the special challenges of this setting; more such research is needed. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  15. Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    During fiscal year 1992, the reserves generated $473 million in revenues, a $181 million decrease from the fiscal year 1991 revenues, primarily due to significant decreases in oil and natural gas prices. Total costs were $200 million, resulting in net cash flow of $273 million, compared with $454 million in fiscal year 1991. From 1976 through fiscal year 1992, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves generated more than $15 billion in revenues and a net operating income after costs of $12.5 billion. In fiscal year 1992, production at the Naval Petroleum Reserves at maximum efficient rates yielded 26 million barrels of crude oil, 119 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 164 million gallons of natural gas liquids. From April to November 1992, senior managers from the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves held a series of three workshops in Boulder, Colorado, in order to build a comprehensive Strategic Plan as required by Secretary of Energy Notice 25A-91. Other highlights are presented for the following: Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1--production achievements, crude oil shipments to the strategic petroleum reserve, horizontal drilling, shallow oil zone gas injection project, environment and safety, and vanpool program; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2--new management and operating contractor and exploration drilling; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3--steamflood; Naval Oil Shale Reserves--protection program; and Tiger Team environmental assessment of the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming

  16. The nature of oil shocks and the global economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archanskaïa, Elizaveta; Creel, Jérôme; Hubert, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This paper identifies the main driving force behind oil price shocks in 1970–2006 by applying a simple identification strategy of supply-driven and demand-driven price shocks. The identification hypothesis states that supply-driven oil price shocks have a negative impact on the macroeconomic activity of countries, which are net consumers of oil while demand-driven oil price shocks do not have negative effects. In order to identify global demand-driven shocks, a weighted aggregate GDP series of countries, which are net consumers of oil, is constructed over 1970–2006. The key result is that the main driving force behind oil price shocks has changed from supply-driven shocks in 1970–1992 to demand-driven shocks in 1992–2006. - Highlights: ► We characterize the oil–macroeconomy relationship at the global level. ► We identify oil supply and oil demand shocks drawing on a AS/AS model. ► We construct an indicator of global activity for countries net consumers of oil. ► We use Qu-Perron break tests, TVP, Cyclical correlations and VARs. ► We show that the main driving force behind oil price shocks has changed around 1992.

  17. [Imperial Oil's Cold Lake oil sands operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingle, H. B.

    1999-01-01

    Imperial Oil Limited's Cold Lake oil sands resources, production and operations in Alberta are discussed. Cold Lake is the company's largest single asset and its largest source of crude oil production. In 1998, Cold Lake accounted for just under half of Imperial's total liquid production, averaging more than 135,000 barrels of bitumen a day. Despite the very difficult operating conditions experienced by the oil sands industry in 1998, Imperial Oil's Cold Lake operations generated a positive cash flow and earnings. Just as important, the near and long-term potential of Cold Lake property continues to be strong, even with the tough market conditions today and the foreseeable future. Proved reserves at the end of 1997 were 1.3 billions barrels, equal to about 24 years of current production, but even more important is Imperial's resource base in the Athabasca region, which represents 150 years of production at current rates. Although production forecasts for the near future are are revised downward because of production shut-in due to low prices, the company is confident of its long-term prospects mainly because of existing infrastructure, superior reservoir quality, 30 years worth of operating improvements and established bitumen-blend markets. Details of the company's future Cold Lake development plans are discussed. The need to continue technology development, which has been at the core of the industry's growth in the past and will continue to be the key to the future, are emphasized

  18. The Uniframe .Net Web Service Discovery Service

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berbeco, Robert W

    2003-01-01

    Microsoft .NET allows the creation of distributed systems in a seamless manner Within NET small, discrete applications, referred to as Web services, are utilized to connect to each other or larger applications...

  19. Long Term RadNet Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This RadNet Quality Data Asset includes all data since initiation and when ERAMS was expanded to become RadNet, name changed to reflect new mission. This includes...

  20. Special Section on Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    Special section on coloured Petri nets, their basic concepts, analysis methods, tool support and industrial applications.......Special section on coloured Petri nets, their basic concepts, analysis methods, tool support and industrial applications....

  1. Using the candidate gene approach for detecting genes underlying seed oil concentration and yield in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, Mehrzad; Cober, Elroy R; Rajcan, Istvan

    2013-07-01

    Increasing the oil concentration in soybean seeds has been given more attention in recent years because of demand for both edible oil and biodiesel production. Oil concentration in soybean is a complex quantitative trait regulated by many genes as well as environmental conditions. To identify genes governing seed oil concentration in soybean, 16 putative candidate genes of three important gene families (GPAT: acyl-CoA:sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, DGAT: acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase, and PDAT: phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase) involved in triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis pathways were selected and their sequences retrieved from the soybean database ( http://www.phytozome.net/soybean ). Three sequence mutations were discovered in either coding or noncoding regions of three DGAT soybean isoforms when comparing the parents of a 203 recombinant inbreed line (RIL) population; OAC Wallace and OAC Glencoe. The RIL population was used to study the effects of these mutations on seed oil concentration and other important agronomic and seed composition traits, including seed yield and protein concentration across three field locations in Ontario, Canada, in 2009 and 2010. An insertion/deletion (indel) mutation in the GmDGAT2B gene in OAC Wallace was significantly associated with reduced seed oil concentration across three environments and reduced seed yield at Woodstock in 2010. A mutation in the 3' untranslated (3'UTR) region of GmDGAT2C was associated with seed yield at Woodstock in 2009. A mutation in the intronic region of GmDGAR1B was associated with seed yield and protein concentration at Ottawa in 2010. The genes identified in this study had minor effects on either seed yield or oil concentration, which was in agreement with the quantitative nature of the traits. However, the novel gene-specific markers designed in the present study can be used in soybean breeding for marker-assisted selection aimed at increasing seed yield and oil

  2. Demand and willingness-to-pay for bed nets in Tanzania: results from a choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingrich, Chris D; Ricotta, Emily; Kahwa, Amos; Kahabuka, Catherine; Koenker, Hannah

    2017-07-14

    Universal coverage campaigns for long-lasting insecticide-treated nets do not always reach the goal of one net for every two household members, and even when ownership of at least one net per household is high, many households may not own enough nets. The retail market provides these households options for replacing or increasing the number of nets they own with products that best fit their needs since a variety of net shapes, sizes, and colours are available. Hence, it is important to understand the factors affecting private net demand. This study explores private demand for nets in Tanzania using a discrete choice experiment. The experiment provides participants the option to buy nets with their own money, and thus should prove more accurate than a hypothetical survey of net preferences. Nearly 800 participants sampled in two regions showed an overall strong demand for nets, with 40% choosing to buy a net across all seven combinations of net prices and characteristics such as size, shape, and insecticide treatment. Only 8% of all participants chose not to buy a single net. A key factor influencing demand was whether a participant's household currently owned sufficient nets for all members, with rural participants showing lower net coverage and greater demand than urban participants. Both poor and less poor households showed strong evidence of making purchase decisions based on more than price alone. Mean willingness-to-pay values for a net started at US$1.10 and grew by US$0.50-1.40 for various attributes such as rectangular shape, large size, and insecticide treatment. The impact of price on demand was negative but small, with elasticity values between -0.25 and -0.45. The results suggest that private demand for nets in Tanzania could potentially supplement future coverage campaigns. Net manufacturers and retailers should advertise and promote consumers' preferred net attributes to improve sales and further expand net access and coverage. To overcome household

  3. Assessment of an oil palm population from Nigerian Institute for Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.), a monocotyledonous plant belonging to the Arecaceae family, is one of the most important oil crops in the world. In Nigeria, oil palm has benefited immensely from conventional breeding efforts resulting in high yields that have been achieved with this breeding material. However, oil palm ...

  4. NetBeans IDE 8 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Salter, David

    2014-01-01

    If you're a Java developer of any level using NetBeans and want to learn how to get the most out of NetBeans, then this book is for you. Learning how to utilize NetBeans will provide a firm foundation for your Java application development.

  5. History-dependent stochastic Petri nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonenberg, H.; Sidorova, N.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Hee, van K.M.; Pnueli, A.; Virbitskaite, I.; Voronkov, A.

    2010-01-01

    Stochastic Petri Nets are a useful and well-known tool for performance analysis. However, an implicit assumption in the different types of Stochastic Petri Nets is the Markov property. It is assumed that a choice in the Petri net only depends on the current state and not on earlier choices. For many

  6. Putting Petri nets to work in Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    1994-01-01

    Petri nets exist for over 30 years. Especially in the last decade Petri nets have been put into practive extensively. Thanks to several useful extensions and the availability of computer tools, Petri nets have become a mature tool for modelling and analysing industrial systems. This paper describes

  7. Aplicació Microsoft .Net : Hotel Spa

    OpenAIRE

    Marquès Palmer, Jordi

    2010-01-01

    Desenvolupament d'una aplicació amb Microsoft .NET, WCF, WPF, Linq2SQL, d'un Hotel Spa. Desarrollo de una aplicación con Microsoft .NET, WCF, WPF, Linq2SQL, de un Hotel Spa. Application development using Microsoft .NET, WCF, WPF, Linq2SQL, for a Spa Hotel.

  8. Delta Semantics Defined By Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    and the possibility of using predicates to specify state changes. In this paper a formal semantics for Delta is defined and analysed using Petri nets. Petri nets was chosen because the ideas behind Petri nets and Delta concide on several points. A number of proposals for changes in Delta, which resulted from...

  9. The K-NET - A year after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, S.; Ohtani, K.; Katayama, T.

    2001-01-01

    We started to release the K-NET strong-motion data from June 1996 and about one year passed. In this article, we report the development of K-NET and some applications using the K-NET information released on the Internet. (author)

  10. 47 CFR 65.500 - Net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.500 Section 65.500... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Interexchange Carriers § 65.500 Net income. The net income methodology specified in § 65.450 shall be utilized by all interexchange carriers that are...

  11. 47 CFR 65.450 - Net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.450 Section 65.450... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.450 Net income. (a) Net income shall consist of all revenues derived from the provision of interstate telecommunications services...

  12. INMARSAT-C SafetyNET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunamis 406 EPIRB's National Weather Service Marine Forecasts INMARSAT-C SafetyNET Marine Forecast Offices greater danger near shore or any shallow waters? NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE PRODUCTS VIA INMARSAT-C SafetyNET Inmarsat-C SafetyNET is an internationally adopted, automated satellite system for promulgating

  13. Oil supply and oil politics: Deja Vu all over again

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleveland, Cutler J.; Kaufmann, Robert K.

    2003-01-01

    President Bush has identified US dependence on imported oil as an urgent energy, economic, and national security concern. The President's energy plan promotes the development of domestic resources, based on the assumption that economic incentives and the opening of frontier areas for exploration will increase domestic production. If realized, this will reduce dependence on imported oil and reduce OPEC's ability to affect aggregate oil supply and price. The evidence suggests, however, that this policy will not increase significantly US production of crude oil, will not reduce significantly OPEC's influence, and it will distort the US macroeconomy. Even if allowed, production from the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge will have a negligible impact on the world oil markets. Further subsidies to the oil industry will divert resources from other more productive investments. Conservation and energy efficiency merit greater emphasis in US energy policy given their ability to reduce the use of cost-effective and environmentally beneficial ways

  14. Oil supply and oil politics: Deja Vu all over again

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleveland, C.J.; Kaufmann, R.K.

    2003-01-01

    President Bush has identified US dependence on imported oil as an urgent energy, economic, and national security concern. The President's energy plan promotes the development of domestic resources, based on the assumption that economic incentives and the opening of frontier areas for exploration will increase domestic production. If realized, this will reduce dependence on imported oil and reduce OPEC's ability to affect aggregate oil supply and price. The evidence suggests, however, that this policy will not increase significantly US production of crude oil, will not reduce significantly OPEC's influence, and it will distort the US macroeconomy. Even if allowed, production from the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge will have a negligible impact on the world oil markets. Further subsidies to the oil industry will divert resources from other more productive investments. Conservation and energy efficiency merit greater emphasis in US energy policy given their ability to reduce the use of cost-effective and environmentally beneficial ways. (author)

  15. Application of modified Martinez-Silva algorithm in determination of net cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanowicz, Łukasz; Grobelna, Iwona

    2016-12-01

    In the article we present the idea of modifications of Martinez-Silva algorithm, which allows for determination of place invariants (p-invariants) of Petri net. Their generation time is important in the parallel decomposition of discrete systems described by Petri nets. Decomposition process is essential from the point of view of discrete system design, as it allows for separation of smaller sequential parts. The proposed modifications of Martinez-Silva method concern the net cover by p-invariants and are focused on two important issues: cyclic reduction of invariant matrix and cyclic checking of net cover.

  16. Jojoba oil and derivates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisniak, T

    1977-01-01

    Jojoba oil differs from all known seed oils by its almost complete absence of glycerides, making it more a liquid wax than a fat. It has become important as a possible substitute for sperm-whale oil to produce lubricants, lubricant additives and other products. The plant occurs naturally in southern Arizona and N.W. Mexico and its oil has long been used by Indians for medicinal, culinary, ritual and other purposes. It tolerates extreme daily fluctuations of temperature and grows well under the difficult soil and moisture conditions of the region. In the first part of this review the plant and its uses are described, including its floral, fruit and seed anatomy and the use of liquid wax during germination. Stored coryledon wax is used up by the embryo as a linear function of time during the first 30 days of germination and growth. Before germination, seeds weight about 0.59 mg and contain about 54% wax. The second and greater part of the review deals with jojoba oil (its extraction, properties, molecular description, toxicity and composition), jojoba meal, which remains after the oil has been extracted, and the chemical modification of the oil.

  17. Emergency Preparedness and Response: A Safety Net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaltonen, H., E-mail: hannele.aaltonen@stuk.fi [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Helsinki (Finland)

    2014-10-15

    Full text: The objective of nuclear regulatory work is to prevent accidents. Nevertheless, possibility of a severe accident cannot be totally excluded, which makes a safety net, efficient emergency preparedness and response, necessary. Should the possibility of accidents be rejected, the result would be in the worst case inadequate protection of population, functions of society, and environment from harmful effects of radiation. Adequate resources for maintenance and development of emergency arrangement are crucial. However, they need to be balanced taking into account risks assessments, justified expectations of society, and international requirements. To successfully respond to an emergency, effective emergency preparedness, such as up-to-date plans and procedures, robust arrangements and knowledgeable and regularly trained staff are required. These, however, are not enough without willingness and proactive attitude to • communicate in a timely manner; • co-operate and coordinate actions; • provide and receive assistance; and • evaluate and improve emergency arrangements. In the establishment and development of emergency arrangements, redundant and diverse means or tools used are needed in, for example, communication and assessment of hazard. Any severe nuclear emergency would affect all countries either directly or indirectly. Thus, national emergency arrangements have to be compatible to the extent practicable with international emergency arrangements. It is important to all countries that the safety nets of emergency arrangements are reliable - and operate efficiently in a coordinated manner when needed - on national, regional and international level. (author)

  18. IEA Shows Concerns Over China's Oil Stockpiling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Reportedly, China's oil imports accounted for nearly one third of the world's total oil supply in 2003. The country's oil imports are estimated at 110~120 million tons in 2004,equal to 2.2~2.4 million barrels per day, much higher than 91 million tons in 2003. International Energy Agency has helped the Chinese government with the country's strategic oil stockpiling plan by offering the training. The Paris-based IEA has urged China to take into consideration how to operate and maintain the national strategic oil stockpiling system and clarify the roles of the enterprises and the State in oil stockpiling.

  19. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Turkey 2013 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Oil has been one of the main energy sources in Turkey, accounting for some 28% of the country’s total primary energy supply (TPES) in 2011. Turkey’s oil demand slightly increased from 637 kb/d in 2003 to 670 kb/d in 2012, although it dropped down from 678 kb/d in 2009 to 650 kb/d in 2010. The transport sector accounted for half of total oil consumption in 2010. Domestic oil production is in decline in Turkey, amounting to 45 kb/d or about 6.7% of total consumption in 2012. In 2012, Turkey imported 712 kb/d, consisting of about 392 kb/d of crude oil and some 320 kb/d refined products. Around 39% of total crude oil imports came from Iran. Crude oil and petroleum products are mainly undertaken by tankers and two major international pipelines running through the country with a total annual handling capacity of 2.8 mb/d. In the country, there are four operational refineries with a total crude distillation capacity of around 610 kb/d. Turkey meets its 90-day stockholding obligation to the IEA by placing a minimum stockholding obligation on industry. Under the relevant acts, refineries and fuel distribution companies are obliged to hold at least 20 days of product stocks based on the average daily sales of previous year, while eligible consumers that use more than 20,000 tonnes annually are required to hold 15 days’ consumption of each type of liquid fuel. Turkey held some 61 million barrels of oil stocks at the end of January 2013, equating to 99 days of 2011 net-imports. Around 55% of total oil stocks are held in the form of crude oil. The use of emergency oil stocks is central to Turkey’s emergency response policy, which can be complemented by demand restraint measures. The share of natural gas in the country’s TPES significantly increased at 32% in 2011. Turkey’s gas demand significantly increased from 0.7 billion cubic meters (2 mcm/d) in 1987 to 45.3 bcm (124 mcm/d) in 2012, while indigenous natural gas production totalled some 0.63 bcm in the same year

  20. Traditional nets interfere with the uptake of long-lasting insecticidal nets in the Peruvian Amazon: the relevance of net preference for achieving high coverage and use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Peeters Grietens

    Full Text Available While coverage of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLIN has steadily increased, a growing number of studies report gaps between net ownership and use. We conducted a mixed-methods social science study assessing the importance of net preference and use after Olyset® LLINs were distributed through a mass campaign in rural communities surrounding Iquitos, the capital city of the Amazonian region of Peru.The study was conducted in the catchment area of the Paujil and Cahuide Health Centres (San Juan district between July 2007 and November 2008. During a first qualitative phase, participant observation and in-depth interviews collected information on key determinants for net preference and use. In a second quantitative phase, a survey among recently confirmed malaria patients evaluated the acceptability and use of both LLINs and traditional nets, and a case control study assessed the association between net preference/use and housing structure (open vs. closed houses.A total of 10 communities were selected for the anthropological fieldwork and 228 households participated in the quantitative studies. In the study area, bed nets are considered part of the housing structure and are therefore required to fulfil specific architectural and social functions, such as providing privacy and shelter, which the newly distributed Olyset® LLINs ultimately did not. The LLINs' failure to meet these criteria could mainly be attributed to their large mesh size, transparency and perceived ineffectiveness to protect against mosquitoes and other insects, resulting in 63.3% of households not using any of the distributed LLINs. Notably, LLIN usage was significantly lower in houses with no interior or exterior walls (35.2% than in those with walls (73.8% (OR = 5.2, 95CI [2.2; 12.3], p<0.001.Net preference can interfere with optimal LLIN use. In order to improve the number of effective days of LLIN protection per dollar spent, appropriate quantitative and qualitative

  1. NET 40 Generics Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Sudipta

    2012-01-01

    This is a concise, practical guide that will help you learn Generics in .NET, with lots of real world and fun-to-build examples and clear explanations. It is packed with screenshots to aid your understanding of the process. This book is aimed at beginners in Generics. It assumes some working knowledge of C# , but it isn't mandatory. The following would get the most use out of the book: Newbie C# developers struggling with Generics. Experienced C++ and Java Programmers who are migrating to C# and looking for an alternative to other generic frameworks like STL and JCF would find this book handy.

  2. Features and application of amino acid oil gelatinizer for controlling oil spills on the sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uemura, Hiroyuki

    1987-10-01

    Diffusion of oil spills is prevented and the oil can be easily recovered if it is solidified. Features and application of gelling agent for amino acid series oil are introduced. The gelatinizer for amino acid is made of amino acid derivative with solvent added thereto so that oil can be gelatinized by mere spraying of the agent over oil spills. The agent can be intermixed with oil because it floats on the sea. Oil spill is gelatinized instantly and diffusion of the oils is prevented. The oil can easily be recovered with a fishing net and the like. The influence of oil spills to living aquatic resources is greatly lessened, and the gel is safe for workers. It can gelatinize everything except alcohol. Gelatinization has the depressor effect for volatization and is effective for the prevention of fire. The gelatized oil can be burnt up although it contains 10-20 % of water. Oil film on the water can be completely controlled when the agent is sprayed over it. It contributes to the purification of nature since it is readily decomposed. (1 fig, 4 tabs, 3 refs)

  3. Neste in 1996: Oil integration and new Chemicals plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihamuotila, J.

    1997-01-01

    Neste's net sales in 1996 continued at the previous year's level. Although trading losses weakened the Group's performance, the debt burden decreased substantially and there was a fundamental improvement in the equity-to-assets ratio. Neste's integrated downstream oil business began operations, oil production in Norway and Oman increased, and Chemicals commissioned several production units. In addition, a number of interesting oil and natural gas pipeline projects were moving forward. (orig.)

  4. Mitigation of Oil in Water Column: Mitigation Prototype Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    designed with an open end to allow aquatic animals to escape. After the treated foam becomes saturated with submerged oil, the net would be lifted...needed openings to allow the frame to pass through the water column without causing severe drag resistance . However, this also allows oil to flow...to the water and should only help the regions of hypoxia caused by microbial degradation of the oil. However, the proposed field set up with

  5. Accounting for Depletion of Oil and Gas Resources in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Othman, Jamal; Jafari, Yaghoob

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an assessment of the changes in the availability of oil and gas resources in Malaysia. The physical and monetary balance sheets for crude oil and natural gas for the period 2000- 2007 was constructed. The net present value of expected future incomes to reflect the value of resource change was calculated based on a physical extraction and a resource rent scenario. Resource rent is gross operating surplus less the estimated user cost of produced capital in the crude oil and ...

  6. Hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foorwood, G F; Taplay, J G

    1916-12-12

    Hydrocarbon oils are hydrogenated, cracked, or treated for the removal of sulfur by bringing their vapors mixed with steam at temperatures between 450 and 600/sup 0/C into contact with a form of carbon that is capable of decomposing steam with the production of nascent hydrogen at those temperatures. The forms of carbon used include lamp-black, soot, charcoals derived from wood, cellulose, and lignite, and carbons obtained by carbonizing oil residues and other organic bodies at temperatures below 600/sup 0/C. The process is applied to the treatment of coal oil, shale oil, petroleum, and lignite oil. In examples, kerosene is cracked at 570/sup 0/C, cracked spirit is hydrogenated at 500/sup 0/C, and shale spirit is desulfurized at 530/sup 0/C. The products are led to a condenser and thence to a scrubber, where they are washed with creosote oil. After desulfurization, the products are washed with dilute caustic soda to remove sulfurretted hydrogen.

  7. Oil crises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linderoth, H.

    1992-01-01

    The author's aim was to give very precise information on the many causes and effects of the oil crises that have occurred since 1900, and at the same time offer the reader the possibility to build up a basic knowledge of the oil industry and market, as he feels that the public is often subjected to misleading information. Political and economical aspects are elaborated. First-hand sources such as statistics and investigations have been used as far as possible to give information on the oil market. An oil crisis is defined by the author as a significant change in the price of oil compared to prices of other goods. Changes can be in the form of either rising or falling prices. A special chapter concentrates on Denmark in relation to the oil crises. (AB) (165 refs.)

  8. Strategic thinking on oil development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Keyu; Shan Weiguo

    2005-01-01

    It is expected that crude oil production in China will maintain its current level until 2020. Driven by higher living standards and the rapid development of energy intensive industries, China's oil demand will increase rapidly and might lead to heavier import dependency. Three cases of demand forecasts are presented, but for the sake of sustainable economic and social development, neither the high nor the middle case is favourable for China. Thus, China must seek a path of oil saving economic development, and limit oil consumption to no more than 350MT in 2010 and 450MT in 2020. Meanwhile, in order to secure the oil supply, the following strategies should be adopted: save oil and develop alternative energies; stabilise domestic oil production and to diversify oil imports and overseas oil exploration and development; accelerate the gas industry and introduce strategic petroleum reserves. (author)

  9. Oil and the political economy of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matutinovic, Igor [GfK-Center for Market Research, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2009-11-15

    The key issues concerning oil exploitation are still open for discussion: there is no agreement about where we presently stand in the world oil extraction curve, what is its exact shape, and how far can oil price grow before it changes irreversibly the world economy and consumer behavior. The paper proposes an alternative scenario to the Hubbert's bell-shaped model of oil exploitation, based on more realistic assumptions regarding political agendas in oil-exporting countries and consumer behavior dynamics in oil-importing countries. Under this scenario, the joint impact of markets and public policy in oil importing countries together with 'resource pragmatism' policy in oil-exporting countries allows for a less steep oil supply curve with a much fatter tail compared to the Hubbert's model. (author)

  10. Oil and the political economy of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matutinovic, Igor

    2009-01-01

    The key issues concerning oil exploitation are still open for discussion: there is no agreement about where we presently stand in the world oil extraction curve, what is its exact shape, and how far can oil price grow before it changes irreversibly the world economy and consumer behavior. The paper proposes an alternative scenario to the Hubbert's bell-shaped model of oil exploitation, based on more realistic assumptions regarding political agendas in oil-exporting countries and consumer behavior dynamics in oil-importing countries. Under this scenario, the joint impact of markets and public policy in oil importing countries together with 'resource pragmatism' policy in oil-exporting countries allows for a less steep oil supply curve with a much fatter tail compared to the Hubbert's model.

  11. Uncertainty in oil projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limperopoulos, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents an oil project valuation under uncertainty by means of two well-known financial techniques: The Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) and The Black-Scholes Option Pricing Formula. CAPM gives a linear positive relationship between expected rate of return and risk but does not take into consideration the aspect of flexibility which is crucial for an irreversible investment as an oil price is. Introduction of investment decision flexibility by using real options can increase the oil project value substantially. Some simple tests for the importance of uncertainty in stock market for oil investments are performed. Uncertainty in stock returns is correlated with aggregate product market uncertainty according to Pindyck (1991). The results of the tests are not satisfactory due to the short data series but introducing two other explanatory variables the interest rate and Gross Domestic Product make the situation better. 36 refs., 18 figs., 6 tabs

  12. Oil and entrepreneurship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majbouri, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Economic theory predicts that rents produced from natural resources, especially oil and gas, can increase opportunities for entrepreneurship, but they may also reduce engagement in entrepreneurial activities as they change incentives towards rent-seeking. Using Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) annual surveys, this study provides empirical evidence that more per capita profit from oil and gas reduces entrepreneurship only in corrupt environments. The more the corruption is, the larger is the impact. The results have important implications for policy makers, especially in resource rich developing countries. - Highlights: •Profits from oil and gas have positive and negative impacts on entrepreneurship. •This study explains these impacts and provides empirical evidence on them. •It uses Global Entrepreneurship Monitor and WB Subsoil and Forest rents datasets. •It employs a dynamic panel data estimation with country fixed effects. •It shows that the negative impact dominates as corruption and oil and gas rents increase.

  13. Oil pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankabady, Samir.

    1994-08-01

    Oil enters the marine environment when it is discharged, or has escaped, during transport, drilling, shipping, accidents, dumping and offshore operations. This book serves as a reference both on the various complex international operational and legal matters of oil pollution using examples such as the Exxon Valdez, the Braer and Lord Donaldson's report. The chapters include the development of international rules on the marine environment, the prevention of marine pollution from shipping activities, liability for oil pollution damage, the conflict of the 1990 Oil Pollution Act and the 1992 protocols and finally the cooperation and response to pollution incidents. (UK)

  14. Determination of Calorific Ability of Fuel Briquettes on the Basis of Oil and Oil Slimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedyaeva, O. A.; Poshelyuzhnaya, E. G.; Rakhmatulina, E. M.; Zakharov, V. A.; Fisenko, T. E.

    2018-01-01

    Utilization and neutralization of oil slimes is one of important environmental problems of the oil-extracting, oil-processing and petrochemical industry. The easiest and economic way of utilization of oil slimes is their use as a part of the bricketed boiler fuel. In this work the highest calorific ability of crude oil, the oil slimes and fuel briquettes made on their basis is defined. A research problem was carrying out the technical analysis of oil fuels on the content in them analytical moisture, the cindery rest and volatiles. It is established that in comparison with oil slimes crude oil possesses bigger highest calorific ability, has smaller humidity and an ash-content. The highest calorific abilities of the boiler briquettes made of samples of crude oil, oil slimes and peat made 14 - 26 MJ/kg.

  15. Fault Diagnosis System of Wind Turbine Generator Based on Petri Net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han

    Petri net is an important tool for discrete event dynamic systems modeling and analysis. And it has great ability to handle concurrent phenomena and non-deterministic phenomena. Currently Petri nets used in wind turbine fault diagnosis have not participated in the actual system. This article will combine the existing fuzzy Petri net algorithms; build wind turbine control system simulation based on Siemens S7-1200 PLC, while making matlab gui interface for migration of the system to different platforms.

  16. Life cycle GHG emissions from Malaysian oil palm bioenergy development: The impact on transportation sector's energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Mohd Nor Azman; Jaramillo, Paulina; Griffin, W. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Malaysia's transportation sector accounts for 41% of the country's total energy use. The country is expected to become a net oil importer by the year 2011. To encourage renewable energy development and relieve the country's emerging oil dependence, in 2006 the government mandated blending 5% palm-oil biodiesel in petroleum diesel. Malaysia produced 16 million tonnes of palm oil in 2007, mainly for food use. This paper addresses maximizing bioenergy use from oil-palm to support Malaysia's energy initiative while minimizing greenhouse-gas emissions from land-use change. When converting primary and secondary forests to oil-palm plantations between 270-530 and 120-190 g CO 2 -equivalent per MJ of biodiesel produced, respectively, is released. However, converting degraded lands results in the capture of between 23 and 85 g CO 2 -equivalent per MJ of biodiesel produced. Using various combinations of land types, Malaysia could meet the 5% biodiesel target with a net GHG savings of about 1.03 million tonnes (4.9% of the transportation sector's diesel emissions) when accounting for the emissions savings from the diesel fuel displaced. These findings are used to recommend policies for mitigating GHG emissions impacts from the growth of palm oil use in the transportation sector. - Research highlights: → We modeled greenhouse gas emissions in the production of palm-biodiesel. → Five land types were included to model emissions associated with land-use change. → Land-use change has the biggest impact on the emissions in making palm-biodiesel. → Emissions from fertilizer use and effluent treatment are still significant. → At 5% biodiesel grown on suitable lands Malaysia would obtain an emissions savings.

  17. Life cycle GHG emissions from Malaysian oil palm bioenergy development: The impact on transportation sector's energy security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Mohd Nor Azman, E-mail: mohdnorh@andrew.cmu.ed [Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15203 (United States); Jaramillo, Paulina [Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15203 (United States); Griffin, W. Michael [Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15203 (United States); Tepper School of Business, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15203 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Malaysia's transportation sector accounts for 41% of the country's total energy use. The country is expected to become a net oil importer by the year 2011. To encourage renewable energy development and relieve the country's emerging oil dependence, in 2006 the government mandated blending 5% palm-oil biodiesel in petroleum diesel. Malaysia produced 16 million tonnes of palm oil in 2007, mainly for food use. This paper addresses maximizing bioenergy use from oil-palm to support Malaysia's energy initiative while minimizing greenhouse-gas emissions from land-use change. When converting primary and secondary forests to oil-palm plantations between 270-530 and 120-190 g CO{sub 2}-equivalent per MJ of biodiesel produced, respectively, is released. However, converting degraded lands results in the capture of between 23 and 85 g CO{sub 2}-equivalent per MJ of biodiesel produced. Using various combinations of land types, Malaysia could meet the 5% biodiesel target with a net GHG savings of about 1.03 million tonnes (4.9% of the transportation sector's diesel emissions) when accounting for the emissions savings from the diesel fuel displaced. These findings are used to recommend policies for mitigating GHG emissions impacts from the growth of palm oil use in the transportation sector. - Research highlights: {yields} We modeled greenhouse gas emissions in the production of palm-biodiesel. {yields} Five land types were included to model emissions associated with land-use change. {yields} Land-use change has the biggest impact on the emissions in making palm-biodiesel. {yields} Emissions from fertilizer use and effluent treatment are still significant. {yields} At 5% biodiesel grown on suitable lands Malaysia would obtain an emissions savings.

  18. Pro-Nets versus No-Nets: Differences in Urban Older Adults' Predilections for Internet Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresci, M. Kay; Yarandi, Hossein N.; Morrell, Roger W.

    2010-01-01

    Enthusiasm for information technology (IT) is growing among older adults. Many older adults enjoy IT and the Internet (Pro-Nets), but others have no desire to use it (No-Nets). This study found that Pro-Nets and No-Nets were different on a number of variables that might predict IT use. No-Nets were older, had less education and income, were…

  19. Net nitrogen mineralization in natural ecosystems across the conterminous US

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeeAnna Y. Chapman; Steven G. McNulty; Ge Sun; Yang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen is the primary nutrient limiting ecosystem productivity over most of the US. Although soil nitrogen content is important, knowledge about its spatial extent at the continental scale is limited. The objective of this study was to estimate net nitrogen mineralization for the conterminous US (CONUS) using an empirical modeling approach by scaling up site level...

  20. Report on the oil and gas industry in 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Illustrated by graphs and tables of data, this report discuss the recent evolutions of world oil and gas markets in 2009, of the oil and gas exploration and production in the world, of the issue of European gas supplies, of the exploration and production in France, of the oil industry and oil services, of hydrocarbon imports, of refining activities in France, of the quality of fuels, of substitution fuels, of the domestic transportation of oil products, of gas infrastructures, of oil product storage, of oil and gas products consumption, of hydrocarbon taxing, of gas price for the end consumer, of oil product prices, and of the retailing of oil products

  1. Report on the oil and gas industry 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Illustrated by graphs and tables of data, this report discusses the recent evolutions and trends of world oil and gas markets in 2010, of oil and gas exploration and production in the world, of the issue of European gas supplies, of exploration and production in France, of the oil industry and oil services, of hydrocarbon imports, of refining activities in France, of the quality of fuels, of substitution fuels, of the domestic transportation of oil products, of the issue of strategic storage, of oil product storage, of oil and gas products consumption, of hydrocarbon taxing, of the retailing of oil products, of oil product prices, and of gas price for the end consumer

  2. Drag of Clean and Fouled Net Panels--Measurements and Parameterization of Fouling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Christian Gansel

    Full Text Available Biofouling is a serious problem in marine aquaculture and it has a number of negative impacts including increased forces on aquaculture structures and reduced water exchange across nets. This in turn affects the behavior of fish cages in waves and currents and has an impact on the water volume and quality inside net pens. Even though these negative effects are acknowledged by the research community and governmental institutions, there is limited knowledge about fouling related effects on the flow past nets, and more detailed investigations distinguishing between different fouling types have been called for. This study evaluates the effect of hydroids, an important fouling organism in Norwegian aquaculture, on the forces acting on net panels. Drag forces on clean and fouled nets were measured in a flume tank, and net solidity including effect of fouling were determined using image analysis. The relationship between net solidity and drag was assessed, and it was found that a solidity increase due to hydroids caused less additional drag than a similar increase caused by change in clean net parameters. For solidities tested in this study, the difference in drag force increase could be as high as 43% between fouled and clean nets with same solidity. The relationship between solidity and drag force is well described by exponential functions for clean as well as for fouled nets. A method is proposed to parameterize the effect of fouling in terms of an increase in net solidity. This allows existing numerical methods developed for clean nets to be used to model the effects of biofouling on nets. Measurements with other types of fouling can be added to build a database on effects of the accumulation of different fouling organisms on aquaculture nets.

  3. Dynamics of world oil crops market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Marija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the harvested area, oil crops are the second most important crops after cereals. Soybean is the most important oil crop in terms of production and trade of oilseeds and meals, and second most important in terms of production and trade of vegetable oils after palm oil. Dynamics of prices of derived oil crop products in the international market is conditioned by the relationship between supply and demand in the overall market of oil crops. The substitution of animal fats with vegetable oils in human nutrition, the expansion of biodiesel industry and intensification of livestock production have led to increased demand for oil crops. The objective of this paper was to identify trends in production, consumption and trade of soybeans, rapeseed and sunflower and their derived products.

  4. Optimal coal import strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.Y.; Shih, L.H.

    1992-01-01

    Recently, the main power company in Taiwan has shifted the primary energy resource from oil to coal and tried to diversify the coal supply from various sources. The company wants to have the imported coal meet the environmental standards and operation requirements as well as to have high heating value. In order to achieve these objectives, establishment of a coal blending system for Taiwan is necessary. A mathematical model using mixed integer programming technique is used to model the import strategy and the blending system. 6 refs., 1 tab

  5. Bound states in string nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Marc Daniel; Dusuel, Sébastien; Vidal, Julien

    2016-11-01

    We discuss the emergence of bound states in the low-energy spectrum of the string-net Hamiltonian in the presence of a string tension. In the ladder geometry, we show that a single bound state arises either for a finite tension or in the zero-tension limit depending on the theory considered. In the latter case, we perturbatively compute the binding energy as a function of the total quantum dimension. We also address this issue in the honeycomb lattice where the number of bound states in the topological phase depends on the total quantum dimension. Finally, the internal structure of these bound states is analyzed in the zero-tension limit.

  6. -Net Approach to Sensor -Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusco Giordano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensors rely on battery power, and in many applications it is difficult or prohibitive to replace them. Hence, in order to prolongate the system's lifetime, some sensors can be kept inactive while others perform all the tasks. In this paper, we study the -coverage problem of activating the minimum number of sensors to ensure that every point in the area is covered by at least sensors. This ensures higher fault tolerance, robustness, and improves many operations, among which position detection and intrusion detection. The -coverage problem is trivially NP-complete, and hence we can only provide approximation algorithms. In this paper, we present an algorithm based on an extension of the classical -net technique. This method gives an -approximation, where is the number of sensors in an optimal solution. We do not make any particular assumption on the shape of the areas covered by each sensor, besides that they must be closed, connected, and without holes.

  7. The Net Reclassification Index (NRI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pepe, Margaret S.; Fan, Jing; Feng, Ziding

    2015-01-01

    The Net Reclassification Index (NRI) is a very popular measure for evaluating the improvement in prediction performance gained by adding a marker to a set of baseline predictors. However, the statistical properties of this novel measure have not been explored in depth. We demonstrate the alarming...... result that the NRI statistic calculated on a large test dataset using risk models derived from a training set is likely to be positive even when the new marker has no predictive information. A related theoretical example is provided in which an incorrect risk function that includes an uninformative...... marker is proven to erroneously yield a positive NRI. Some insight into this phenomenon is provided. Since large values for the NRI statistic may simply be due to use of poorly fitting risk models, we suggest caution in using the NRI as the basis for marker evaluation. Other measures of prediction...

  8. Appropriate Determination of Net Working Capital in Corporate Financial Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Motlíček

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquidity and working capital management belongs to one of the fundamental tasks of short-term financial management. However, in the context of net working capital, the issue of management of current assets and liabilities significantly overlaps with long-term financial management, in which the effects of various decisions have long-term consequences, with considerable inertia and possibility of high losses. The present study is therefore focused on the determination of appropriate amount of working capital, as an important part of financial decision making process in the company. The paper presents an empirical research aiming to identify the appropriate approach to accurate calculations of net working capital and determining its needs. The main contribution of the study can be found in the verification of calculation method of net working capital needs, which, according to the authors, may be beneficial both for business practice and teaching of financial management at universities.

  9. Net Neutrality in Canada and what it means for libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Guindon

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Net Neutrality, the idea that the Internet should be provided to all without discrimination based on content or applications, has been an important policy issue in the last few years. A lack of net neutrality could negatively impact libraries, intellectual freedom, cultural diversity, and the right to privacy. This paper looks at the issues that underline the net neutrality debate and describes how they are shaped by the different actors that are concerned with the future of the Internet. Technological issues, such as traffic shaping by Internet Service Providers, and legal issues in the context of Canada’s Telecommunications Act, are also addressed. Finally, the paper reviews the recent CRTC policy on Internet Traffic Management Practices.

  10. seed oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wara

    Neem seed oil from the neem tree (Azadiracta indica) finds wide usage one of which is its utilization for cosmetics particularly .... obtained which is higher than that of olive oil 17. mgKOH/g (Davine ... The skin tolerance of shea fat employed as ...

  11. An Estimate of Recoverable Heavy Oil Resources of the Orinoco Oil Belt, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.

    2009-01-01

    The Orinoco Oil Belt Assessment Unit of the La Luna-Quercual Total Petroleum System encompasses approximately 50,000 km2 of the East Venezuela Basin Province that is underlain by more than 1 trillion barrels of heavy oil-in-place. As part of a program directed at estimating the technically recoverable oil and gas resources of priority petroleum basins worldwide, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated the recoverable oil resources of the Orinoco Oil Belt Assessment Unit. This estimate relied mainly on published geologic and engineering data for reservoirs (net oil-saturated sandstone thickness and extent), petrophysical properties (porosity, water saturation, and formation volume factors), recovery factors determined by pilot projects, and estimates of volumes of oil-in-place. The U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean volume of 513 billion barrels of technically recoverable heavy oil in the Orinoco Oil Belt Assessment Unit of the East Venezuela Basin Province; the range is 380 to 652 billion barrels. The Orinoco Oil Belt Assessment Unit thus contains one of the largest recoverable oil accumulations in the world.

  12. NETS - Danish participation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsen, S. (Grontmij - Carl Bro, Glostrup (Denmark)); Theel, C. (Baltic Sea Solutions, Holeby (Denmark))

    2008-12-15

    Within the NICe-funded project 'Nordic Environmental Technology Solutions (NETS)' a new type of networking at the Nordic level was organized in order to jointly exploit the rapidly growing market potential in the environmental technology sector. The project aimed at increased and professionalized commercialization of Nordic Cleantech in energy and water business segments through 1) closer cooperation and joint marketing activities, 2) a website, 3) cleantech product information via brochures and publications 4) and participating in relevant trade fairs and other industry events. Facilitating business-to-business activities was another core task for the NETS project partners from Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark with the aim to encourage total solutions for combined Cleantech system offers. The project has achieved to establish a Cleantech register of 600 Nordic Cleantech companies, a network of 86 member enterprises, produced several publications and brochures for direct technology promotion and a website for direct access to company profiles and contact data. The project partners have attended 14 relevant international Cleantech trade fairs and conferences and facilitated business-to-business contacts added by capacity building offers through two company workshops. The future challenge for the project partners and Nordic Cleantech will be to coordinate the numerous efforts within the Nordic countries in order to reach concerted action and binding of member companies for reliable services, an improved visibility and knowledge exchange. With Cleantech's growing market influence and public awareness, the need to develop total solutions is increasing likewise. Marketing efforts should be encouraged cross-sectional and cross-border among the various levels of involved actors from both the public and the private sector. (au)

  13. NETS - Danish participation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsen, S [Grontmij - Carl Bro, Glostrup (Denmark); Theel, C [Baltic Sea Solutions, Holeby (Denmark)

    2008-12-15

    Within the NICe-funded project 'Nordic Environmental Technology Solutions (NETS)' a new type of networking at the Nordic level was organized in order to jointly exploit the rapidly growing market potential in the environmental technology sector. The project aimed at increased and professionalized commercialization of Nordic Cleantech in energy and water business segments through 1) closer cooperation and joint marketing activities, 2) a website, 3) cleantech product information via brochures and publications 4) and participating in relevant trade fairs and other industry events. Facilitating business-to-business activities was another core task for the NETS project partners from Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark with the aim to encourage total solutions for combined Cleantech system offers. The project has achieved to establish a Cleantech register of 600 Nordic Cleantech companies, a network of 86 member enterprises, produced several publications and brochures for direct technology promotion and a website for direct access to company profiles and contact data. The project partners have attended 14 relevant international Cleantech trade fairs and conferences and facilitated business-to-business contacts added by capacity building offers through two company workshops. The future challenge for the project partners and Nordic Cleantech will be to coordinate the numerous efforts within the Nordic countries in order to reach concerted action and binding of member companies for reliable services, an improved visibility and knowledge exchange. With Cleantech's growing market influence and public awareness, the need to develop total solutions is increasing likewise. Marketing efforts should be encouraged cross-sectional and cross-border among the various levels of involved actors from both the public and the private sector. (au)

  14. Higher-moment measurements of net-kaon, net-charge and net-proton multiplicity distributions at STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Amal

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report the measurements of the various moments, such as mean, standard deviation (σ), skewness (S) and kurtosis (κ) of the net-kaon, net-charge and net-proton multiplicity distributions at mid-rapidity in Au + Au collisions from √(s NN )=7.7 to 200 GeV with the STAR experiment at RHIC. This work has been done with the aim to locate the critical point on the QCD phase diagram. These moments and their products are related to the thermodynamic susceptibilities of conserved quantities such as net baryon number, net charge, and net strangeness as well as to the correlation length of the system which diverges in an ideal infinite thermodynamic system at the critical point. For a finite system, existing for a finite time, a non-monotonic behavior of these variables would indicate the presence of the critical point. Furthermore, we also present the moment products Sσ, κσ 2 of net-kaon, net-charge and net-proton multiplicity distributions as a function of collision centrality and energy. The energy and the centrality dependence of higher moments and their products have been compared with different models

  15. The role of reserves and production in the market capitalization of oil and gas companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, Bradley T.; Thompson, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    We examine the role proved reserves and production play in the market capitalization of publicly traded oil and gas companies engaged in the exploration and production of hydrocarbons. The paper provides two important contributions to the literature. First, we extend the existing research by utilizing the method of Robust Least Squares to estimate a multivariate market capitalization model that controls for firm type. Second, we document the impacts that oil and gas reserves to production ratios have on market capitalization. This is a key finding in the context of discounted net cash flow models and the findings suggest there is an optimal tradeoff between current and future production, given current volumes of reserves, the latter of which is valued positively by the market. Moreover, this optimal tradeoff or the optimal profit-maximizing intertemporal production choice is unique to the type of hydrocarbon being considered. Additionally, our findings highlight the importance of capital structure in the heavily capital intensive oil and gas industry. The results from this research should benefit both oil and gas companies and investors. Specifically, the results provide new and robust information as to the empirical relationships between key determinants of oil and gas company market valuations. - Highlights: • We utilized Robust Least Squares to estimate a multivariate market capitalization model. • There is a differential impact that oil and gas reserves to production ratios have on market capitalization. • The optimal profit-maximizing intertemporal production choice is unique to the type of hydrocarbon being considered. • Results provide new information as to the relationships between key determinants of oil and gas company market valuations.

  16. Net survival after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins: the Yusho study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozuka, Daisuke; Hirata, Teruaki; Furue, Masutaka

    2014-12-01

    Net survival is an important measure of the overall outcome of disease management. This net survival is the most appropriate for international comparisons of disease impact between countries or time periods with different patterns of all-cause mortality because it is not influenced by other causes of death. However, little information is available on net survival among Yusho patients, who were accidentally exposed to PCBs and other dioxin-related compounds. We estimated the net survival of 1664 Yusho patients (860 males, 804 females) as Yusho cohort subjects using the unbiased Pohar-Perme method. Among males, 1-, 5-, 10-, and 15-year net survival were 99.5% (95% confidence interval (CI): 97.9, 99.9), 99.1% (CI: 95.0, 99.9), 97.4% (CI: 86.5, 99.5), and 97.4% (CI: 84.2, 99.6), respectively. Among females, net survival remained almost constant. 1-, 5-, 10-, and 15-year net survival were generally higher in females than in males. This study provides the first unbiased estimations of net survival among Yusho patients. We confirmed that older male Yusho patients have experienced a significant decrease in net survival. Our results suggest that the excess hazard of PCBs and dioxins must be taken into account when evaluating unbiased estimates of net survival. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Wave-induced mixing and transport of buoyant particles: application to the Statfjord A oil spill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Drivdal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on how wave–current and wave–turbulence interactions modify the transport of buoyant particles in the ocean. Here the particles can represent oil droplets, plastic particles, or plankton such as fish eggs and larvae. Using the General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM, modified to take surface wave effects into account, we investigate how the increased mixing by wave breaking and Stokes shear production, as well as the stronger veering by the Coriolis–Stokes force, affects the drift of the particles. The energy and momentum fluxes, as well as the Stokes drift, depend on the directional wave spectrum obtained from a wave model. As a first test, the depth and velocity scales from the model are compared with analytical solutions based on a constant eddy viscosity (i.e., classical Ekman theory. Secondly, the model is applied to a case in which we investigate the oil drift after an oil spill off the west coast of Norway in 2007. During this accident the average net drift of oil was observed to be both slower and more deflected away from the wind direction than predicted by oil-drift models. In this case, using wind and wave forcing from the ERA Interim archive it is shown that the wave effects are important for the resultant drift and have the potential to improve drift forecasting.

  18. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  19. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence

  20. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence

  1. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  2. The oil world war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafargue, F.

    2008-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 21. century, a war has started between the USA, China and India. The USA, first oil consuming and importing country in the world, has now to take into account the increasing energy consumption of China and India. China is now, just behind Japan, the third oil importing country and India ranked number seven. From the Gulf of Guinea to the Arabic peninsula, from the Orenoque basin to the Caspian sea banks, Washington, Beijing and New Delhi covet the same oil fields. This rivalry exacerbates the political tensions in many regions of the Earth and already provokes a latent food crisis. This black gold war is changing the World's face and should provoke serious armed conflicts. (J.S.)

  3. Application and Theory of Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 13th International Conference onApplication and Theory of Petri Nets, held in Sheffield, England, in June 1992. The aim of the Petri net conferences is to create a forum for discussing progress in the application and theory of Petri nets. Typically....... Balbo and W. Reisig, 18 submitted papers, and seven project papers. The submitted papers and project presentations were selectedby the programme committee and a panel of referees from a large number of submissions....

  4. TwiddleNet: Smartphones as Personal Servers

    OpenAIRE

    Gurminder, Singh; Center for the Study of Mobile Devices and Communications

    2012-01-01

    TwiddleNet uses smartphones as personal servers to enable instant content capture and dissemination for firstresponders. It supports the information sharing needs of first responders in the early stages of an emergency response operation. In TwiddleNet, content, once captured, is automatically tagged and disseminated using one of the several networking channels available in smartphones. TwiddleNet pays special attention to minimizing the equipment, network set-up time, and content...

  5. Mechanical recovery of oil in ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solsberg, L.B.; McGrath, M.

    1992-01-01

    A literature review was performed on the mechanical systems used for removing oil in ice. The most promising spill cleanup techniques were identified along with recommendations for future work. Catalogued data in the review focused on skimmers, of which rope mop machines were considered as having the most versatile approach. The performance of the Foxtail VAB 8-14 skimmer was then assessed in North Slope crude oil and diesel fuel at a test site in Alaska. The skimmer operates through a remote power pack and pump, and incorporates eight vertically oriented rope mops. It weighs 900 kg and is suspended from a crane when deployed. Three independent test parameters were measured: oil type, slick thickness, and ice cover. A test strategy was devised to isolate the effects of individual parameters on skimming in order to optimize machine performance. Skimmer performance was based on the percent oil in the recovered oil/water mixture and the net oil collection rate. Skimmer performance was found to be optimal at rope mop speeds of 0.2-0.3 m/s in medium range viscosity oils. The unit tested was significantly less effective in diesel. Overall, the Foxtail skimmer was found to comprise an oil recovery concept that has excellent potential and affords versatility for many oil-in-ice applications. 4 figs., 1 tab

  6. Demand elasticity of oil in Barbados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Alvon, E-mail: armoore@centralbank.org.bb [Economist, Central Bank of Barbados, Toms Adams Financial Centre, Bridgetown (Barbados)

    2011-06-15

    The importation of oil is a significant component of Barbados' imports, rising from 7% of imports in 1998 to over 20% in 2009. This increase has impacted greatly on the level of foreign reserves. As a price-taker, relying entirely on imported oil for our energy needs could prove a continuous drain on the economy. With a view to formulating an appropriate energy policy for Barbados, this paper analyses the demand for oil using monthly data from 1998 to 2009. The paper estimates the elasticities of demand for oil by employing single equation cointegration approach and comparing the results with countries that rely heavily on imported oil and whose policy objective are to alter their energy structure to rely less on imported oil. The results show that the demand for oil imports is price inelastic in the long run. The consumption of oil is responsive to past consumption, prices, income, electricity consumption and the number of appliances imported in the short-run. A policy framework to reduce the use of oil for electricity consumption via alternative energy sources should be considered and the taxation of oil imports given its elasticity is a good source of revenue. - Highlights: > Demand for oil is price inelastic in the long-run (-0.552). > The relationship between oil demand and income is insignificant in the long run. > As electricity consumption increases by 1%, the demand for oil rises by 1.43%. > Need to determine if investments in alternative sources can offset demand for oil. > Investment in alternative resources may be required before gains are realised.

  7. Demand elasticity of oil in Barbados

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Alvon

    2011-01-01

    The importation of oil is a significant component of Barbados' imports, rising from 7% of imports in 1998 to over 20% in 2009. This increase has impacted greatly on the level of foreign reserves. As a price-taker, relying entirely on imported oil for our energy needs could prove a continuous drain on the economy. With a view to formulating an appropriate energy policy for Barbados, this paper analyses the demand for oil using monthly data from 1998 to 2009. The paper estimates the elasticities of demand for oil by employing single equation cointegration approach and comparing the results with countries that rely heavily on imported oil and whose policy objective are to alter their energy structure to rely less on imported oil. The results show that the demand for oil imports is price inelastic in the long run. The consumption of oil is responsive to past consumption, prices, income, electricity consumption and the number of appliances imported in the short-run. A policy framework to reduce the use of oil for electricity consumption via alternative energy sources should be considered and the taxation of oil imports given its elasticity is a good source of revenue. - Highlights: → Demand for oil is price inelastic in the long-run (-0.552). → The relationship between oil demand and income is insignificant in the long run. → As electricity consumption increases by 1%, the demand for oil rises by 1.43%. → Need to determine if investments in alternative sources can offset demand for oil. → Investment in alternative resources may be required before gains are realised.

  8. Calendula oil processing : seed classification, oil extraction, refining process development and oil quality aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, R.J.J.

    2000-01-01

    The difference in Calendula oil quality from fractions obtained after seed classification is enormous. The oil quality varies from excellent to very poor, according to important aspects such as in the hulls and dust fraction, high free fatty acid values (13% vs. 0.6%) are found. This can be

  9. Net Operating Working Capital, Capital Budgeting, and Cash Budgets: A Teaching Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuner, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Many introductory finance texts present information on the capital budgeting process, including estimation of project cash flows. Typically, estimation of project cash flows begins with a calculation of net income. Getting from net income to cash flows requires accounting for non-cash items such as depreciation. Also important is the effect of…

  10. Values in the Net Neutrality Debate: Applying Content Analysis to Testimonies from Public Hearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, An-Shou

    2012-01-01

    The Net neutrality debate is an important telecommunications policy issue that closely tied to technological innovation, economic development, and information access. Existing studies on Net neutrality have focused primarily on technological requirements, economic analysis, and regulatory justifications. Since values, technology, and policy are…

  11. Professional Visual Basic 2010 and .NET 4

    CERN Document Server

    Sheldon, Bill; Sharkey, Kent

    2010-01-01

    Intermediate and advanced coverage of Visual Basic 2010 and .NET 4 for professional developers. If you've already covered the basics and want to dive deep into VB and .NET topics that professional programmers use most, this is your book. You'll find a quick review of introductory topics-always helpful-before the author team of experts moves you quickly into such topics as data access with ADO.NET, Language Integrated Query (LINQ), security, ASP.NET web programming with Visual Basic, Windows workflow, threading, and more. You'll explore all the new features of Visual Basic 2010 as well as all t

  12. NASA Net Zero Energy Buildings Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless, S.; Scheib, J.; Torcellini, P.; Hendron, B.; Slovensky, M.

    2014-10-01

    In preparation for the time-phased net zero energy requirement for new federal buildings starting in 2020, set forth in Executive Order 13514, NASA requested that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a roadmap for NASA's compliance. NASA detailed a Statement of Work that requested information on strategic, organizational, and tactical aspects of net zero energy buildings. In response, this document presents a high-level approach to net zero energy planning, design, construction, and operations, based on NREL's first-hand experience procuring net zero energy construction, and based on NREL and other industry research on net zero energy feasibility. The strategic approach to net zero energy starts with an interpretation of the executive order language relating to net zero energy. Specifically, this roadmap defines a net zero energy acquisition process as one that sets an aggressive energy use intensity goal for the building in project planning, meets the reduced demand goal through energy efficiency strategies and technologies, then adds renewable energy in a prioritized manner, using building-associated, emission- free sources first, to offset the annual energy use required at the building; the net zero energy process extends through the life of the building, requiring a balance of energy use and production in each calendar year.

  13. Pro Agile NET Development with Scrum

    CERN Document Server

    Blankenship, Jerrel; Millett, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Pro Agile .NET Development with SCRUM guides you through a real-world ASP.NET project and shows how agile methodology is put into practice. There is plenty of literature on the theory behind agile methodologies, but no book on the market takes the concepts of agile practices and applies these in a practical manner to an end-to-end ASP.NET project, especially the estimating, requirements and management aspects of a project. Pro Agile .NET Development with SCRUM takes you through the initial stages of a project - gathering requirements and setting up an environment - through to the development a

  14. Oils; gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, D T

    1922-09-18

    Oils and gas are obtained from shale or oil-bearing sand by immersing the shale in and passing it through a bath of liquid oil, cracking the oil-soaked shale, and condensing the vapor and using the condensate to replenish the bath, preferably by passing the gases and vapors direct into the oil-bath container. Shale is fed continuously from a hopper to a bath of oil in an inclined chamber, is carried to the outlet by a conveyer, and through cracking tubes to an outlet pipe by conveyers. The gases and vapors escape by the pipe, a part condensing in the chamber and a run-back pipe and replenishing the bath, and the remainder passing through a condensing tower and condenser connected to reservoirs; the gas is further passed through a scrubber and a pipe to the burner of the retort. The oil condensed in the chamber overflows to the reservoir through a pipe provided with an open pipe to prevent siphoning. The conveyers and a valve on the pipe are operated by gearing. The operation may be conducted at reduced, normal, or increased pressure, e.g., 70 lbs. The temperature of the retort should be about 900 to 1400/sup 0/F, that of the inside of the tubes about 550 to 700/sup 0/F, and that of the chamber about 300/sup 0/F. The chamber and pipe may be insulated or artificially cooled.

  15. A functional and transcriptomic analysis of NET1 bioactivity in gastric cancer

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bennett, Gayle

    2011-02-01

    downregulated in NET1 knockdown cells. Conclusions NET1 plays an important role in GC cell migration and invasion, key aspects of GC progression. Furthermore, the gene expression profile further elucidates the molecular mechanisms underpinning NET1-mediated aggressive GC cell behaviour.

  16. A functional and transcriptomic analysis of NET1 bioactivity in gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, Gayle; Sadlier, Denise; Doran, Peter P; MacMathuna, Padraic; Murray, David W

    2011-01-01

    . NET1 plays an important role in GC cell migration and invasion, key aspects of GC progression. Furthermore, the gene expression profile further elucidates the molecular mechanisms underpinning NET1-mediated aggressive GC cell behaviour

  17. High freight rates hinder oil markets' return to equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2005-01-01

    Hurricane damage to refineries in the US has created shortages of refined products there, boosting imports and sending freight rates across the Atlantic to record levels. The situation was made worse for a time by a strike at France's main oil terminals in the Mediterranean, which prevented some oil tankers from being rapidly redeployed to routes across the Atlantic. Worldscale (WS) rates for routes from the UK and Europe to the US Atlantic and Gulf Coasts rose well above WS500 for clean tonnage during October. High rates were nevertheless not simply confined to product tankers crossing the Atlantic. Rates for crude tankers to the US have also risen, and tightness has begun to appear in some other markets as well. The net result has been to slow down the movement of oil from regions of surplus to those of scarcity, depressing prices in the former and keeping them at high levels in the latter. Atlantic tanker markets look like remaining tight for the rest of the year and perhaps beyond. (author)

  18. Oil goldenberry (Physalis peruviana L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Mohamed F; Mörsel, Jörg-T

    2003-02-12

    Whole berries, seeds, and pulp/peel of goldenberry (Physalis peruviana L.) were compared in terms of fatty acids, lipid classes, triacylglyerols, phytosterols, fat-soluble vitamins, and beta-carotene. The total lipid contents in the whole berries, seeds, and seedless parts were 2.0, 1.8, and 0.2% (on a fresh weight basis), respectively. Linoleic acid was the dominating fatty acid followed by oleic acid as the second major fatty acid. Palmitic and stearic acids were the major saturates. In pulp/peel oil, the fatty acid profile was characterized by higher amounts of saturates, monoenes, and trienes than in whole berry and seed oils. Neutral lipids comprised >95% of total lipids in whole berry oil and seed oil, while neutral lipids separated in lower level in pulp/peel oil. Triacylglycerols were the predominant neutral lipid subclass and constituted ca. 81.6, 86.6, and 65.1% of total neutral lipids in whole berry, seed, and pulp/peel oils, respectively. Nine triacylglycerol molecular species were detected, wherein three species, C54:3, C52:2, and C54:6, were presented to the extent of approximately 91% or above. The highest level of phytosterols was estimated in pulp/peel oil that contained the highest level of unsaponifiables. In both whole berry and seed oils, campesterol and beta-sitosterol were the sterol markers, whereas Delta5-avenasterol and campesterol were the main 4-desmethylsterols in pulp/peel oil. The tocopherols level was much higher in pulp/peel oil than in whole berry and seed oils. beta- and gamma-tocopherols were the major components in whole berry and seed oils, whereas gamma- and alpha-tocopherols were the main constituents in pulp/peel oil. beta-Carotene and vitamin K(1) were also measured in markedly high levels in pulp/peel oil followed by whole berry oil and seed oil, respectively. Information provided by the present work is of importance for further chemical investigation of goldenberry oil and industrial utilization of the berries as a raw

  19. Oil refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer, S.; Winter, B.

    2001-01-01

    In refineries in particular attention is paid to the minimization of the generation of waste. Therefor catalysts in many processes are regenerated, absorbents are recycled and oily by-products are re-refined or used as fuels. This study discusses the origin and utilization of by-products from the oil industry. The processing of crude oils causes by-products and waste resulting from the crude oil itself or from cleaning measures for water pre-treatment, effluent treatment and flue gas treatment. (author)

  20. A Generalised Approach to Petri Nets and Algebraic Specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivertsen, Terje

    1998-02-01

    The present report represents a continuation of the work on Petri nets and algebraic specifications. The reported research has focused on generalising the approach introduced in HWR-454, with the aim of facilitating the translation of a wider class of Petri nets into algebraic specification. This includes autonomous Petri nets with increased descriptive power, as well as non-autonomous Petri nets allowing the modelling of systems (1) involving extensive data processing; (2) with transitions synchronized on external events; (3) whose evolutions are time dependent. The generalised approach has the important property of being modular in the sense that the translated specifications can be gradually extended to include data processing, synchronization, and timing. The report also discusses the relative merits of state-based and transition-based specifications, and includes a non-trivial case study involving automated proofs of a large number of interrelated theorems. The examples in the report illustrate the use of the new HRP Prover. Of particular importance in this context is the automatic transformation between state-based and transitionbased specifications. It is expected that the approach introduced in HWR-454 and generalised in the present report will prove useful in future work on combination of wide variety of specification techniques

  1. Price smarter on the Net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, W; Marn, M; Zawada, C

    2001-02-01

    Companies generally have set prices on the Internet in two ways. Many start-ups have offered untenably low prices in a rush to capture first-mover advantage. Many incumbents have simply charged the same prices on-line as they do off-line. Either way, companies are missing a big opportunity. The fundamental value of the Internet lies not in lowering prices or making them consistent but in optimizing them. After all, if it's easy for customers to compare prices on the Internet, it's also easy for companies to track customers' behavior and adjust prices accordingly. The Net lets companies optimize prices in three ways. First, it lets them set and announce prices with greater precision. Different prices can be tested easily, and customers' responses can be collected instantly. Companies can set the most profitable prices, and they can tap into previously hidden customer demand. Second, because it's so easy to change prices on the Internet, companies can adjust prices in response to even small fluctuations in market conditions, customer demand, or competitors' behavior. Third, companies can use the clickstream data and purchase histories that it collects through the Internet to segment customers quickly. Then it can offer segment-specific prices or promotions immediately. By taking full advantage of the unique possibilities afforded by the Internet to set prices with precision, adapt to changing circumstances quickly, and segment customers accurately, companies can get their pricing right. It's one of the ultimate drivers of e-business success.

  2. China Likely to Resume Oil Futures Soon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Tianle

    2002-01-01

    @@ China is likely to resume operation of its oil futures this year, according to reports from the media about a futures conference organized by the Shanghai Futures Exchange (SHFE) in late May. "As China has become an important oil producer and consumer,the demand for our own oil futures market emerges,which will help China oil-related enterprises hedge risks," said Li Ruisheng, vice president of PetroChina's refining and marketing company.

  3. The central question for the oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The principal question for the world's oil industry is how to replace today's and tomorrow's consumption of oil with new reserves. This is very important for the oil companies. Reduced reserves mean reduced values, which immediately has an impact on the balance sheet and the share price. The next ten years the world will consume over 300 billion barrels of oil and it may appear very difficult to replace this with new reserves

  4. NucNet's growing impact on the media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carle, Remy [Electricite de France (France)

    1995-07-01

    In the four years since the birth of NucNet there has been a gradual but radical change In the original concept of the network. In the beginning, the focus of attention was to make nuclear communicators better-informed and more efficient. What had been desperately needed for some time was an Information exchange system which would enable those communicators to do a better Job whether working proactlvely or reactively. The idea was primarily for positive nuclear news from Europe to be disseminated to people on the network so that they could pass it on to media contacts in their respective countries, as part of their regular dialogue with journalists. However, once NucNet was up-and-running a strong body of opinion emerged, arguing in favour of NucNet's most urgent, important or off-beat news - the 'A' category releases - to be sent direct to national and international news agencies. Quite rightly, it was felt that, in this way, the nuclear community could clearly demonstrate Its transparency and Its desire to Inform the public openly. At the same time, it was clear that sending to just a few national news agencies in Europe would not be enough. It was clear that NucNet would have to expand into a truly worldwide network and that, to reflect this, the main International news agencies would have to be put online as well. NucNet's growing impact on the media is a result of teamwork, and this teamwork takes different forms. It is: between the network's information suppliers and Central Office, among the Central Office staff themselves, between Central Office and the agencies, and between network members and their news media contacts. Through this continuing teamwork process, NucNet will achieve its goal of providing the media and the public with a balanced picture of nuclear energy.

  5. NucNet's growing impact on the media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carle, Remy

    1995-01-01

    In the four years since the birth of NucNet there has been a gradual but radical change In the original concept of the network. In the beginning, the focus of attention was to make nuclear communicators better-informed and more efficient. What had been desperately needed for some time was an Information exchange system which would enable those communicators to do a better Job whether working proactlvely or reactively. The idea was primarily for positive nuclear news from Europe to be disseminated to people on the network so that they could pass it on to media contacts in their respective countries, as part of their regular dialogue with journalists. However, once NucNet was up-and-running a strong body of opinion emerged, arguing in favour of NucNet's most urgent, important or off-beat news - the 'A' category releases - to be sent direct to national and international news agencies. Quite rightly, it was felt that, in this way, the nuclear community could clearly demonstrate Its transparency and Its desire to Inform the public openly. At the same time, it was clear that sending to just a few national news agencies in Europe would not be enough. It was clear that NucNet would have to expand into a truly worldwide network and that, to reflect this, the main International news agencies would have to be put online as well. NucNet's growing impact on the media is a result of teamwork, and this teamwork takes different forms. It is: between the network's information suppliers and Central Office, among the Central Office staff themselves, between Central Office and the agencies, and between network members and their news media contacts. Through this continuing teamwork process, NucNet will achieve its goal of providing the media and the public with a balanced picture of nuclear energy

  6. The use of mosquito nets in fisheries: A global perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Short

    Full Text Available Free or subsidised mosquito net (MN distribution has been an increasingly important tool in efforts to combat malaria in recent decades throughout the developing world, making great strides towards eradicating this hugely detrimental disease. However, there has been increasing concern in the natural resource management and healthcare communities over alternative use of MNs, particularly in artisanal fisheries where it has been suggested they pose a threat to sustainability of fish stocks. So far, little evidence has been presented as to the global prevalence and characteristics of MN fishing, limiting global management initiatives and incentives for action across disciplines. We conducted a rapid global assessment of mosquito net fishing (MNF observations from expert witnesses living and/or working in malarial zones using an internet survey. MNF was found to be a broadly pan-tropical activity, particularly prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa. MNF is conducted using a variety of deployment methods and scales including seine nets, scoop/dip nets, set nets and traps. MNF was witnessed in a broad range of marine and freshwater habitats and was seen to exploit a wide range of taxa, with capture of juvenile fish reported in more than half of responses. Perceived drivers of MNF were closely related to poverty, revealing potentially complex and arguably detrimental livelihood and food security implications which we discuss in light of current literature and management paradigms. The key policies likely to influence future impacts of MNF are in health, regarding net distribution, and natural resource management regarding restrictions on use. We outline critical directions for research and highlight the need for a collaborative, interdisciplinary approach to development of both localised and broad-scale policy.

  7. HANPP Collection: Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) as a Percentage of Net Primary Product (NPP) portion of the HANPP Collection represents a map identifying...

  8. The outlook for US oil dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, D.L.; Jones, D.W.; Leiby, P.N.

    1998-01-01

    Oil dependence is defined as a dynamic problem of short- and long-run market power. The potential monopoly power of an oil cartel depends on its market share and the elasticities of oil supply and demand, while the economic vulnerability of oil-consuming states depends most directly on the quantity of oil imported and the oil cost share of gross domestic product (GDP). Of these factors, only the market share of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel and the rate of growth of world oil demand are clearly different than they were 25 years ago. OPEC still holds the majority of world oil and, in the future, will regain market share. A hypothetical 2-year supply reduction in 2005-2006, similar in size to those of 1973-1974 or 1979-1980, illustrates the potential benefits to OPEC and harm to the US economy of a future oil price shock. OPEC's revenues are estimated to increase by roughly $0.7 trillion, while the US economy loses about $0.5 trillion. Strategic petroleum reserves seem ineffective against a determined, multi-year supply curtailment. Increasing the market's price responsiveness by improving the technologies of oil supply and oil demand can greatly reduce the costs of oil dependence. Each element of this interpretation of the oil dependence problem is well supported by previous studies. This paper's contribution is to unite these elements into a coherent explanation and to point out the enormously important implications for energy policy. (Author)

  9. Peppermint Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... T U V W X Y Z Peppermint Oil Share: On This Page Background How Much Do ... sheet provides basic information about peppermint and peppermint oil—common names, usefulness and safety, and resources for ...

  10. OIL BOND®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical product bulletin: this miscellaneous oil spill control agent is a solidifier used in cleanups. It absorbs and solidifies hydrocarbon spills on freshwater and saltwater or land applications. Ring spill with booms or pillows before treatment.

  11. Mineral oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schult-Bornemann, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    The dominant theme in the world energy market was the fall in oil prices in 2014. From 115 US-$/bbl in June it dropped to below 50 US-$/bbl in January 2015. Thereby the shale oil revolution has had the strong impact on the global energy situation, to this point has been predicted for three years. Although no one could predict the exact height of the fall in oil prices, but with oil as a reserve currency for all other fuels, it has not only had an impact on the gas and coal prices, but other commodities, such as copper, have also yielded. About cause and effect, there is a lot of speculation - not all of which are supported by wisdom. [de

  12. Oil vaporizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumontier, F

    1904-03-31

    An oil burner particularly applicable to heavy oils, composed essentially of one or more gasification chambers, heated by the flame from the burners, to which the combustible gases are fed by the collectors suitably fixed on the chambers, all parts of the apparatus and especially the gasification chambers being easily demountable to permit cleaning, and all arranged in such a manner as to avoid fouling by reducing or localizing the deposition of solid deposits in the coking chamber.

  13. Oil on seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerresen, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    The present book discusses the effects of oil spills at sea. Topics covered are as follow: Petroleum properties; oil spills at sea; harmfulness of oil spills; effects from acute oil spills; experience of oil spills; oil spill contingency planning in Norway; oil spill protecting equipment and methods; emergency of unloading equipment. 252 refs., 86 figs., 54 tabs

  14. Rationalization of imports, refineries and distribution of petroleum in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayorga-Alba, E.

    1993-01-01

    Petroleum products currently provide 69% of commercial energy requirements in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), or 21% of total primary energy consumption, including fuelwoods used for household energy needs - a proportion that will increase with the process of modernization in these economies and with the growing difficulties they are experiencing in financing projects for alternative commercial energy sources. In macro-economic terms, securing reliable and cheap petroleum product supplies is of vital importance for maintaining a sustainable level of economic growth. Petroleum products are an important tax base, contributing to nearly 40% of the fiscal revenues in Sub-Saharan countries. With the exceptions of Nigeria, Congo, Cameroon, Angola and Gabon, SSA countries are net importers of oil, devoting on average a third of their hard currency earnings to these imports. There is no other region in the world than SSA - with the lowest GDP per capita - that dependence on oil imports has become such a dominant factor in the macroeconomic calculus. The vulnerability of these economies, most of which depend heavily on donor financing for a large portion of their foreign exchange, can be directly assessed by understanding their increasing difficulty in assuring petroleum supplies. The use of petroleum products in SSA remains largely confined to the transport sector and to the existing light industry. Gasoline, jetfuel and diesel represent more than 2/3rds of the total petroleum consumption. The supply of households, which account for the largest portion of primary energy needs, is still based on fuelwoods and is growing beyond sustainable levels, posing an increasing threat to the environment. To respond to the deforestation problem and to facilitate the transition to more environmentally sound supply systems, African countries need to assess their capacity and means to increase their use of LPGs and other modern household fuels. 6 tabs

  15. Reduction rules for reset/inhibitor nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, H.M.W.; Wynn, M.T.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Hofstede, ter A.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Reset/inhibitor nets are Petri nets extended with reset arcs and inhibitor arcs. These extensions can be used to model cancellation and blocking. A reset arc allows a transition to remove all tokens from a certain place when the transition fires. An inhibitor arc can stop a transition from being

  16. Verifying generalized soundness for workflow nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hee, van K.M.; Oanea, O.I.; Sidorova, N.; Voorhoeve, M.; Virbitskaite, I.; Voronkov, A.

    2007-01-01

    We improve the decision procedure from [10] for the problem of generalized soundness of workflow nets. A workflow net is generalized sound iff every marking reachable from an initial marking with k tokens on the initial place terminates properly, i.e. it can reach a marking with k tokens on the

  17. Net analyte signal based statistical quality control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skibsted, E.T.S.; Boelens, H.F.M.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Smilde, A.K.; Broad, N.W.; Rees, D.R.; Witte, D.T.

    2005-01-01

    Net analyte signal statistical quality control (NAS-SQC) is a new methodology to perform multivariate product quality monitoring based on the net analyte signal approach. The main advantage of NAS-SQC is that the systematic variation in the product due to the analyte (or property) of interest is

  18. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Investment in Accounts 2002, 2003 and to the extent such inclusions are allowed by this Commission, Account... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B Rural...

  19. Asynchronous stream processing with S-Net

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grelck, C.; Scholz, S.-B.; Shafarenko, A.

    2010-01-01

    We present the rationale and design of S-Net, a coordination language for asynchronous stream processing. The language achieves a near-complete separation between the application code, written in any conventional programming language, and the coordination/communication code written in S-Net. Our

  20. Dynamic response of the thermometric net radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. D. Wilson; W. J. Massman; G. E. Swaters

    2009-01-01

    We computed the dynamic response of an idealized thermometric net radiometer, when driven by an oscillating net longwave radiation intended roughly to simulate rapid fluctuations of the radiative environment such as might be expected during field use of such devices. The study was motivated by curiosity as to whether non-linearity of the surface boundary conditions...