WorldWideScience

Sample records for net non-conservative o2

  1. Electrospun nylon-6 spider-net like nanofiber mat containing TiO(2) nanoparticles: a multifunctional nanocomposite textile material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Hem Raj; Bajgai, Madhab Prasad; Nam, Ki Taek; Seo, Yun A; Pandeya, Dipendra Raj; Hong, Seong Tshool; Kim, Hak Yong

    2011-01-15

    In this study, electrospun nylon-6 spider-net like nanofiber mats containing TiO(2) nanoparticles (TiO(2) NPs) were successfully prepared. The nanofiber mats containing TiO(2) NPs were characterized by SEM, FE-SEM, TEM, XRD, TGA and EDX analyses. The results revealed that fibers in two distinct sizes (nano and subnano scale) were obtained with the addition of a small amount of TiO(2) NPs. In low TiO(2) content nanocomposite mats, these nanofiber weaves were found uniformly loaded with TiO(2) NPs on their wall. The presence of a small amount of TiO(2) NPs in nylon-6 solution was found to improve the hydrophilicity (antifouling effect), mechanical strength, antimicrobial and UV protecting ability of electrospun mats. The resultant nylon-6/TiO(2) antimicrobial spider-net like composite mat with antifouling effect may be a potential candidate for future water filter applications, and its improved mechanical strength and UV blocking ability will also make it a potential candidate for protective clothing. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Annual Net Community Production in the Western Subtropical North Pacific Determined from Argo-O2 Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, B.; Emerson, S. R.; Bushinsky, S. M.

    2016-02-01

    Export of organic carbon from the surface ocean to depth (the biological pump) helps maintain the pCO2 of the atmosphere and the O2 content of the oxygen minimum zones of the ocean. In the upper ocean, at steady state over a seasonal cycle the net organic carbon export is equal to the Annual Net Community Production (ANCP). The geographic distribution of this quantity determined by satellite-predicted Net Primary Production (NPP) and the recycling efficiency in the euphotic zone is more heterogeneous than the limited experimental estimates of ANCP. We evaluate the relationship between these two estimates of ANCP in the subtropical Western North Pacific Ocean ( 165o E and 20o N) using oxygen measurements on Argo Floats. In January of 2015 we deployed four floats with Anderaa oxygen sensors attached to a 60 cm stick on top of the float end cap, which can be readily calibrated against atmospheric pO2. We present data from these floats and air-sea oxygen flux calculations. The degree of oxygen supersaturation in summer is 1-2 percent, and in winter it fluctuates between being over and undersaturated. Evaluating the role of bubbles in winter is critical to an accurate determination of the annual flux. While there is not a full year of data at the time of writing this abstract, there will be when the Ocean Science meeting is held. So far, after nine months of measurements, there is a net flux of oxygen to the atmosphere, indicating that photosynthesis exceeds respiration. In February we will present a full annual cycle of air-sea oxygen flux and an estimate of ANCP in this very rarely studied region of the ocean.

  3. Mycorrhiza-induced lower oxidative burst is related with higher antioxidant enzyme activities, net H2O2 effluxes, and Ca2+ influxes in trifoliate orange roots under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ying-Ning; Huang, Yong-Ming; Wu, Qiang-Sheng; He, Xin-Hua

    2015-02-01

    Mechanisms of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM)-induced lower oxidative burst of host plants under drought stress (DS) are not elucidated. A noninvasive microtest technology (NMT) was used to investigate the effects of Funneliformis mosseae on net fluxes of root hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and calcium ions (Ca2+) in 5-month-old Poncirus trifoliata, in combination with catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities as well as tissue superoxide radical (O2•-) and H2O2 concentrations under DS and well-watered (WW) conditions. A 2-month DS (55% maximum water holding capacity of growth substrates) significantly inhibited AM fungal root colonization, while AM symbiosis significantly increased plant biomass production, irrespective of water status. F. mosseae inoculation generally increased SOD and CAT activity but decreased O2•- and H2O2 concentrations in leaves and roots under WW and DS. Compared with non-AM seedlings, roots of AM seedlings had significantly higher net H2O2 effluxes and net Ca2+ influxes, especially in the meristem zone, but lower net H2O2 efflux in the elongation zone. Net Ca2+ influxes into roots were significantly positively correlated with root net H2O2 effluxes but negatively with root H2O2 concentrations. Results from this study suggest that AM-induced lower oxidative burst is related with higher antioxidant enzyme activities, root net H2O2 effluxes, and Ca2+ influxes under WW and DS.

  4. Improved performance of Bis-GMA/TEGDMA dental composites by net-like structures formed from SiO2 nanofiber fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Cai, Qing; Zhang, Xuehui; Wei, Yan; Xu, Mingming; Yang, Xiaoping; Ma, Qi; Cheng, Yali; Deng, Xuliang

    2016-02-01

    The major objective of this study was to explore the effects of silicon dioxide (SiO2) nanofibers on the performance of 2, 2-bis-[4-(methacryloxypropoxy)-phenyl]-propane (Bis-GMA)/tri-(ethyleneglycol) dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) dental composites. At first, the mechanical properties of Bis-GMA/TEGDMA (50/50, w/w) resins containing different contents of SiO2 nanofibers were evaluated to identify the appropriate composition to achieve the significant reinforcing effect. Secondly, optimized contents (5 or 10wt.%) of SiO2 nanofibers were mixed into resins together with SiO2 microparticles, which was 60wt.% of the resin. Controls for comparison were Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resins containing only SiO2 microparticles (60wt.%) or with additional SiO2 nanoparticles (5 or 10wt.%). Properties including abrasion, polymerization shrinkage and mechanical properties were evaluated to determine the contribution of SiO2 nanofibers. In comparison with SiO2 nanoparticles, SiO2 nanofibers improved the overall performance of Bis-GMA/TEGDMA composite resins, especially in improving abrasion resistance and decreasing polymerization shrinkage. The explanations were that one-dimensional SiO2 nanofibers were able to shield particular fillers from being abraded off, and able to form a kind of overlapped fibrous network to resist polymerization shrinkage. With these approaches, SiO2 nanofiber-containing Bis-GMA composite resins were envisioned a promising choice to achieve long-term durable restorations in clinical therapies. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Neural network-based estimates of Southern Ocean net community production from in situ O2 / Ar and satellite observation: a methodological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C.-H.; Johnson, N. C.; Cassar, N.

    2014-06-01

    Southern Ocean organic carbon export plays an important role in the global carbon cycle, yet its basin-scale climatology and variability are uncertain due to limited coverage of in situ observations. In this study, a neural network approach based on the self-organizing map (SOM) is adopted to construct weekly gridded (1° × 1°) maps of organic carbon export for the Southern Ocean from 1998 to 2009. The SOM is trained with in situ measurements of O2 / Ar-derived net community production (NCP) that are tightly linked to the carbon export in the mixed layer on timescales of one to two weeks and with six potential NCP predictors: photosynthetically available radiation (PAR), particulate organic carbon (POC), chlorophyll (Chl), sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height (SSH), and mixed layer depth (MLD). This nonparametric approach is based entirely on the observed statistical relationships between NCP and the predictors and, therefore, is strongly constrained by observations. A thorough cross-validation yields three retained NCP predictors, Chl, PAR, and MLD. Our constructed NCP is further validated by good agreement with previously published, independent in situ derived NCP of weekly or longer temporal resolution through real-time and climatological comparisons at various sampling sites. The resulting November-March NCP climatology reveals a pronounced zonal band of high NCP roughly following the Subtropical Front in the Atlantic, Indian, and western Pacific sectors, and turns southeastward shortly after the dateline. Other regions of elevated NCP include the upwelling zones off Chile and Namibia, the Patagonian Shelf, the Antarctic coast, and areas surrounding the Islands of Kerguelen, South Georgia, and Crozet. This basin-scale NCP climatology closely resembles that of the satellite POC field and observed air-sea CO2 flux. The long-term mean area-integrated NCP south of 50° S from our dataset, 17.9 mmol C m-2 d-1, falls within the range of 8.3 to 24 mmol

  6. Neural network-based estimates of Southern Ocean net community production from in-situ O2 / Ar and satellite observation: a methodological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C.-H.; Johnson, N. C.; Cassar, N.

    2013-10-01

    Southern Ocean organic carbon export plays an important role in the global carbon cycle, yet its basin-scale climatology and variability are uncertain due to limited coverage of in situ observations. In this study, a neural network approach based on the self-organizing map (SOM) is adopted to construct weekly gridded (1° × 1°) maps of organic carbon export for the Southern Ocean from 1998 to 2009. The SOM is trained with in situ measurements of O2 / Ar-derived net community production (NCP) that are tightly linked to the carbon export in the mixed layer on timescales of 1-2 weeks, and six potential NCP predictors: photosynthetically available radiation (PAR), particulate organic carbon (POC), chlorophyll (Chl), sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height (SSH), and mixed layer depth (MLD). This non-parametric approach is based entirely on the observed statistical relationships between NCP and the predictors, and therefore is strongly constrained by observations. A thorough cross-validation yields three retained NCP predictors, Chl, PAR, and MLD. Our constructed NCP is further validated by good agreement with previously published independent in situ derived NCP of weekly or longer temporal resolution through real-time and climatological comparisons at various sampling sites. The resulting November-March NCP climatology reveals a pronounced zonal band of high NCP roughly following the subtropical front in the Atlantic, Indian and western Pacific sectors, and turns southeastward shortly after the dateline. Other regions of elevated NCP include the upwelling zones off Chile and Namibia, Patagonian Shelf, Antarctic coast, and areas surrounding the Islands of Kerguelen, South Georgia, and Crozet. This basin-scale NCP climatology closely resembles that of the satellite POC field and observed air-sea CO2 flux. The long-term mean area-integrated NCP south of 50° S from our dataset, 14 mmol C m-2 d-1, falls within the range of 8.3-24 mmol C m-2 d-1 from other model

  7. Radiation Reaction as a Non-conservative Force

    CERN Document Server

    Aashish, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    We study a system of a finite-size charged particle and electromagnetic field by exploiting the Hamilton's principle for classical non-conservative systems introduced recently by Galley[1] and obtain the equation of motion of the charged particle which turns out to be the same as obtained by Jackson[2]. We show that radiation reaction stems from the non-conservative potential of the effective Lagrangian. We derive the Abraham-Lorentz equation using the effective non-conservative Lagrangian for a point charge. We establish a correspondence between a charge interacting with its own electromagnetic field and that of a particle interacting with infinite bath oscillators which in turn affords a way to justify the non-conservative nature of the former system.

  8. Parity and time-reversal non-conservation in atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn, B.W.

    1984-08-01

    We examine the implications of parity and time-reversal non-conservation for atomic physics. We conclude that a determination of Q/sub W//N to 10% would give an indirect determination of M/sub Z/ competitive with that available from high-energy physics, limits on the electric dipole moments of neutrons and electrons give non-trivial constraints on model building of CP non-conservation.

  9. Stability and response bounds of non-conservative linear systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kliem, Wolfhard; Pommer, Christian

    2004-01-01

    This paper develops a stability theorem and response bounds for non-conservative systems of the form MX + (D + G)x + (K + N)x = f(t), with hermitian positive-definite matrices M, D and K, and skew-hermitian matrices G and N. To this end, we first find a Lyapunov function by solving the Lyapunov...... matrix equation. Then, if a system satisfies the condition of the stability theorem, the associated Lyapunov function can be used to obtain response bounds for the norms as well as for the individual coordinates of the solution. Examples from rotor dynamics illustrate the results....

  10. Helicity non-conserving form factor of the proton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voutier, E.; Furget, C.; Knox, S. [Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France)] [and others

    1994-04-01

    The study of the hadron structure in the high Q{sup 2} range contributes to the understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the confinement of quarks and gluons. Among the numerous experimental candidates sensitive to these mechanisms, the helicity non-conserving form factor of the proton is a privileged observable since it is controlled by non-perturbative effects. The authors investigate here the feasibility of high Q{sup 2} measurements of this form factor by means of the recoil polarization method in the context of the CEBAF 8 GeV facility. For that purpose, they discuss the development of a high energy proton polarimeter, based on the H({rvec p},pp) elastic scattering, to be placed at the focal plane of a new hadron spectrometer. It is shown that this experimental method significantly improves the knowledge of the helicity non-conserving form factor of the proton up to 10 GeV{sup 2}/c{sup 2}.

  11. Mixing measures in non-conservative transport systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engdahl, N. B.; Fogg, G. E.

    2012-12-01

    Predictions of the fate of reactive solutes in porous media are often made by using the mixing state of the system to determine effective reaction rates. This approach can be useful when the mixing measure accurately characterizes the behavior of the solutes, but, in many cases, the behavior of the mixing measure depends on the reaction system itself. Quantifying mixing is further complicated because the mixing measures often require complete knowledge of the concentration field which is never available in practice. Here we investigate the behavior of the scalar dissipation rate, the dilution index, the variance, and total solute mass in non-conservative transport systems for three component kinetic reactions in large, but finite, monitoring areas. The effects of different reaction rates, mass transfer, mobility, and different initial conditions are considered for these mixing measures. Mass transfer can cause a delay in the time required for the reaction system to reach an equilibrium state, and the magnitude of the delay depends on the mass transfer rate. The effects of this multi-step equilibrium process can manifest contrarily for different mixing measures, and these effects are amplified when the reaction product is immobile. For precipitation-dissolution reactions, the mass transfer rate may depend on the concentration of an immobile precipitate. This process causes sharp transitions in the mixing measures that are the result of a lingering chemical disequilibrium, caused by the concentration dependent mass transfer rates. The immobile domain and the initial conditions can have strong effects on the mixing state for long times, and, without knowledge of immobile concentrations, these effects could easily be attributed to measurement errors.

  12. Prospects for Parity Non-conservation Experiments with Highly Charged Heavy Ions

    OpenAIRE

    Maul, M.; Schäfer, A.; Greiner, W.; Indelicato, P.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the prospects for parity non-conservation experiments with highly charged heavy ions. Energy levels and parity mixing for heavy ions with two to five electrons are calculated. We investigate two-photon-transitions and the possibility to observe interference effects between weak-matrix elements and Stark matrix elements for periodic electric field configurations.

  13. Relative Stabilities of Conserved and Non-Conserved Structures in the OB-Fold Superfamily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei T. Alexandrescu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The OB-fold is a diverse structure superfamily based on a β-barrel motif that is often supplemented with additional non-conserved secondary structures. Previous deletion mutagenesis and NMR hydrogen exchange studies of three OB-fold proteins showed that the structural stabilities of sites within the conserved β-barrels were larger than sites in non-conserved segments. In this work we examined a database of 80 representative domain structures currently classified as OB-folds, to establish the basis of this effect. Residue-specific values were obtained for the number of Cα-Cα distance contacts, sequence hydrophobicities, crystallographic B-factors, and theoretical B-factors calculated from a Gaussian Network Model. All four parameters point to a larger average flexibility for the non-conserved structures compared to the conserved β-barrels. The theoretical B-factors and contact densities show the highest sensitivity.Our results suggest a model of protein structure evolution in which novel structural features develop at the periphery of conserved motifs. Core residues are more resistant to structural changes during evolution since their substitution would disrupt a larger number of interactions. Similar factors are likely to account for the differences in stability to unfolding between conserved and non-conserved structures.

  14. Development of Non-Conservative Joints in Beam Networks for Vibration Energy Flow Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jee-Hun Song

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Our work aims to find a general solution for the vibrational energy flow through a plane network of beams on the basis of an energy flow analysis. A joint between two semi-infinite beams are modeled by three sets of springs and dashpots. Thus, the results can incorporate the case of complaint and non-conservative in all the three degrees of freedom. In the cases of finite coupled structures connected at a certain angle, the derived non-conservative joints and developed wave energy equation were applied. The joint properties, the frequency, the coupling angle, and the internal loss factor were changed to evaluate the proposed methods for predicting medium-to-high frequency vibrational energy and intensity distributions.

  15. Precision non-conservative force modelling for Low Earth Orbiting spacecraft

    OpenAIRE

    Sibthorpe, Anthony John

    2006-01-01

    Low Earth Orbiting spacecraft are used in various ways for remote observation and measurement of system Earth some classes of measurements are only useful when modelled in a spatial reference frame. As the position of a satellite at a particular epoch is used to provide a fixed point of reference, it is vital that we know these positions both accurately and precisely. Non-conservative forces, which change the energy state of a spacecraft system, can have a dramatic effect on the estimated pos...

  16. Statistical Mechanics of Colloidal Particles in Non-Conservative Force Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakil Moyses, Henrique

    Systems that are in mechanical equilibrium but are driven away from thermodynamic equilibrium present directed motion when in a thermal bath. This thesis explores this motion when systems are out of thermodynamic equilibrium due to the presence of non-conservative force fields. The first system we explored are Brownian vortexes. These are stochastic machines that use static non-conservative force fields to bias random thermal fluctuations into steadily circulating currents. The archetype for this class of systems is a colloidal sphere in an optical tweezer. Trapped near the focus of a strongly converging beam of light, the particle is displaced by random thermal kicks into the nonconservative part of the optical force field arising from radiation pressure, which then biases its diffusion. Assuming the particle remains localized within the trap, its time-averaged trajectory traces out a toroidal vortex. Unlike trivial Brownian vortexes, such as the biased Brownian pendulum, which circulate preferentially in the direction of the bias, the general Brownian vortex can change direction and even topology in response to temperature changes. In this thesis we introduce a theory based on a perturbative expansion of the Fokker-Planck equation for weak non-conservative driving. We show that the first-order solution takes the form of a modified Boltzmann relation and accounts for the rich phenomenology observed in experiments on micrometer-scale colloidal spheres in optical tweezers. Another system we explore are colloidal Janus particles composed of an optically absorbing and transparent faces. When illuminated by a defocused optical tweezer these particles swim vigorously, without requiring any chemical fuel. Most surprisingly, these optically activated colloidal swimmers circulate back and forth through the beam of light, tracing out regular sinuous patterns. In this thesis we propose a model for this class of light-activated swimmers in which a combination of radiation

  17. Spectroscopy with Laser-cooled Francium and Progress on Atomic Parity Non-conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiehang

    Francium, the heaviest alkali, possesses a unique combination of structural simplicity and great sensitivity to effects such as atomic parity non-conservation (APNC). We report in this thesis our progress towards measuring weak-interaction physics in a low energy system: the francium atom. We have built a new generation of high-efficiency laser cooling and trapping facility at TRIUMF national laboratory in Canada. We constructed a precision science chamber and demonstrate francium atom transfer into the precision trap, where the electromagnetic field environments can be exquisitely controlled such that weak-interaction studies via optical and microwave excitations can take place. We perform laser spectroscopy measurements of the hyperfine structure and isotope shifts in a chain of francium isotopes near the neutron closed shell (N = 126), including both ground and isomeric nuclear states. These measurements provide a basis for benchmarking state of the art atomic theory, as well as future nuclear structure calculations in Fr, necessary for interpreting the weak-interaction studies. These developments lay important foundations for precision parity non-conservation measurements with francium.

  18. Evolution of wealth in a non-conservative economy driven by local Nash equilibria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degond, Pierre; Liu, Jian-Guo; Ringhofer, Christian

    2014-11-13

    We develop a model for the evolution of wealth in a non-conservative economic environment, extending a theory developed in Degond et al. (2014 J. Stat. Phys. 154, 751-780 (doi:10.1007/s10955-013-0888-4)). The model considers a system of rational agents interacting in a game-theoretical framework. This evolution drives the dynamics of the agents in both wealth and economic configuration variables. The cost function is chosen to represent a risk-averse strategy of each agent. That is, the agent is more likely to interact with the market, the more predictable the market, and therefore the smaller its individual risk. This yields a kinetic equation for an effective single particle agent density with a Nash equilibrium serving as the local thermodynamic equilibrium. We consider a regime of scale separation where the large-scale dynamics is given by a hydrodynamic closure with this local equilibrium. A class of generalized collision invariants is developed to overcome the difficulty of the non-conservative property in the hydrodynamic closure derivation of the large-scale dynamics for the evolution of wealth distribution. The result is a system of gas dynamics-type equations for the density and average wealth of the agents on large scales. We recover the inverse Gamma distribution, which has been previously considered in the literature, as a local equilibrium for particular choices of the cost function. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Net Locality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Gordon, Eric

    Provides an introduction to the new theory of Net Locality and the profound effect on individuals and societies when everything is located or locatable. Describes net locality as an emerging form of location awareness central to all aspects of digital media, from mobile phones, to Google Maps...... of emerging technologies, from GeoCities to GPS, Wi-Fi, Wiki Me, and Google Android....

  20. Net Neutrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej

    2017-01-01

    Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else.......Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else....

  1. The FrPNC experiment at TRIUMF: Atomic parity non-conservation in francium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, S.; Gomez, E.; Behr, J. A.; Pearson, M. R.; Sheng, D.; Zhang, J.; Collister, R.; Melconian, D.; Flambaum, V. V.; Sprouse, G. D.; Orozco, L. A.; Gwinner, G.

    2012-09-01

    The FrPNC collaboration has begun the construction of an on-line laser cooling and trapping apparatus at TRIUMF to measure atomic parity non-conservation (PNC) and the nuclear anapole moment in a string of artificially produced francium isotopes. Atomic PNC experiments provide unique high precision tests of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model at very low energies. Furthermore, precision measurements of spin-dependent atomic PNC can determine nuclear anapole moments and probe the weak force within the nucleus. Francium is an excellent candidate for precision measurements of atomic PNC due to its simple electronic structure and enhanced parity violation: both the optical PNC and anapole moment signals are expected to be over an order of magnitude larger than in cesium.

  2. Parity Non-Conservation in Nuclei: the Case of $^{180m}$Hf Revisited

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The technique of low temperature nuclear orientation (LTNO) has been used frequently to observe parity (P) non-conservation in weak interactions. The strongest effect reported so far has been observed in the 501 keV 8$\\!^{-}\\!\\rightarrow$6$^{+}$ transition in $^{180m}$Hf. The techniques used were circular polarisation of $\\gamma$-rays from an un-oriented source and LTNO in late 1960's and early 1970's. However, careful examination of these thirty year old results indicates that the considerable improvements in technique of the experiment, available now at ISOLDE, should be applied to the $^{180m}$Hf system to confirm or deny results of these landmark experiments.

  3. Family number non-conservation induced by the supersymmetric mixing of scalar leptons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, M.J.S.

    1987-08-01

    The most egregious aspect of (N = 1) supersymmetric theories is that each particle state is accompanied by a 'super-partner', a state with identical quantum numbers save that it differs in spin by one half unit. For the leptons these are scalars and are called ''sleptons'', or scalar leptons. These consist of the charged sleptons (selectron, smuon, stau) and the scalar neutrinos ('sneutrinos'). We examine a model of supersymmetry with soft breaking terms in the electroweak sector. Explicit mixing among the scalar leptons results in a number of effects, principally non-conservation of lepton family number. Comparison with experiment permits us to place constraints upon the model. 49 refs., 12 figs.

  4. Bidimensional nano-optomechanics and topological backaction in a non-conservative radiation force field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloppe, A; Verlot, P; Dupont-Ferrier, E; Siria, A; Poncharal, P; Bachelier, G; Vincent, P; Arcizet, O

    2014-11-01

    Optomechanics, which explores the fundamental coupling between light and mechanical motion, has made important advances in manipulating macroscopic mechanical oscillators down to the quantum level. However, dynamical effects related to the vectorial nature of the optomechanical interaction remain to be investigated. Here we study a nanowire with subwavelength dimensions coupled strongly to a tightly focused beam of light, enabling an ultrasensitive readout of the nanoresonator dynamics. We determine experimentally the vectorial structure of the optomechanical interaction and demonstrate that a bidimensional dynamical backaction governs the nanowire dynamics. Moreover, the spatial topology of the optomechanical interaction is responsible for novel canonical signatures of strong coupling between mechanical modes, which leads to a topological instability that underlies the non-conservative nature of the optomechanical interaction. These results have a universal character and illustrate the increased sensitivity of nanomechanical devices towards spatially varying interactions, opening fundamental perspectives in nanomechanics, optomechanics, ultrasensitive scanning force microscopy and nano-optics.

  5. Evidence of a non-conservative mass transfer for XTE J0929-314

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, A.; Di Salvo, T.; Gambino, A. F.; Iaria, R.; Burderi, L.; Matranga, M.; Sanna, A.; Riggio, A.

    2017-07-01

    Context. In 1998 the first accreting millisecond pulsar, SAX J1808.4-3658, was discovered and to date 18 systems showing coherent, high frequency (>100 Hz) pulsations in low-mass X-ray binaries are known. Since their discovery, this class of sources has shown interesting and sometimes puzzling behaviours. In particular, apart from a few exceptions, they are all transient with very long X-ray quiescent periods implying a quite low averaged mass accretion rate onto the neutron star. Among these sources, XTE J0929-314 has been detected in outburst just once in about 15 years of continuous monitoring of the X-ray sky. Aims: We aim to demonstrate that a conservative mass transfer in this system will result in an X-ray luminosity that is higher than the observed, long-term averaged X-ray luminosity. Methods: Under the hypothesis of a conservative mass transfer driven by gravitational radiation, as expected for this system given the short orbital period of about 43.6 min and the low-mass of the companion implied by the mass function derived from timing techniques, we calculate the expected mass transfer rate in this system and predict the long-term averaged X-ray luminosity. This is compared with the averaged, over 15 years, X-ray flux observed from the system, and a lower limit of the distance to the source is inferred. Results: This distance is shown to be >7.4 kpc in the direction of the Galactic anticentre, implying a large height, >1.8 kpc, of the source with respect to the Galactic plane, placing the source in an empty region of the Galaxy. We suggest that the inferred value of the distance is unlikely. Conclusions: This problem can be solved if we hypothesize that the source is undergoing a non-conservative mass transfer, in which most of the mass transferred from the companion star is ejected from the system, probably because of the (rotating magnetic dipole) radiation pressure of the pulsar. If confirmed by future observations, this may be another piece of

  6. Precision non-conservative force modelling for Low Earth Orbiting spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibthorpe, Anthony John

    2006-10-01

    Low Earth Orbiting spacecraft are used in various ways for remote observation and measurement of system Earth some classes of measurements are only useful when modelled in a spatial reference frame. As the position of a satellite at a particular epoch is used to provide a fixed point of reference, it is vital that we know these positions both accurately and precisely. Non-conservative forces, which change the energy state of a spacecraft system, can have a dramatic effect on the estimated position of a satellite if unmodelled or, as is often the case, are modelled only crudely. Downstream Earth observation data can inherit significant errors as a result. As an example of this, it has been recognised that apparent long wavelength signals can be introduced into interferometric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images by orbit error. Such images are used to monitor surface deformation, and may provide an indication of strain accumulation as a pre-cursor to Earthquake activity. It makes sense therefore to better model these non-conservative forces, thus improving the quality of the Earth observation data. This project develops precise methodologies for modelling of solar radiation pressure / thermal re-radiation / eclipse modelling / Earth radiation pressure / spacecraft internal heat distribution / on-board instrument power output, and applies these techniques to the European Space Agency's ENVISAT satellite. This complicated satellite has necessitated the development of a significant number of new algorithms for dealing with a large number of geometric primitives. A graphical display tool, developed during this research, allows rapid model development and improved error checking. Resultant models are incorporated into the GEODYN II orbit determination software, developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Centre. Precise orbits computed using tracking data in combination with the newly developed force models are compared against precise orbits generated using nominal force

  7. RESTful NET

    CERN Document Server

    Flanders, Jon

    2008-01-01

    RESTful .NET is the first book that teaches Windows developers to build RESTful web services using the latest Microsoft tools. Written by Windows Communication Foundation (WFC) expert Jon Flanders, this hands-on tutorial demonstrates how you can use WCF and other components of the .NET 3.5 Framework to build, deploy and use REST-based web services in a variety of application scenarios. RESTful architecture offers a simpler approach to building web services than SOAP, SOA, and the cumbersome WS- stack. And WCF has proven to be a flexible technology for building distributed systems not necessa

  8. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Associate Professor of. Computer Science and. Automation at the Indian. Institute of Science,. Bangalore. His research interests are broadly in the areas of stochastic modeling and scheduling methodologies for future factories; and object oriented modeling. GENERAL I ARTICLE. Petri Nets. 1. Overview and Foundations.

  9. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 8. Petri Nets - Overview and Foundations. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 8 August 1999 pp ... Author Affiliations. Y Narahari1. Department ot Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  10. Neutralizer for TRIUMF's experiment for measurements of parity non-conservation in francium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelov, Alexandre; Behr, J. A.; Kalita, M. R.; Pearson, M. R.; Tandecki, M.,; L, D.; Aubin, S.; Collister, R.; Dehart, A. C.; Gwinner, G.; Gomez, E.; Orozco, L. A.; Z, J.

    2016-09-01

    The experiment at TRIUMF for measurements of parity non-conservation (PNC) effects in magneto-optically trapped (MOT) isotopes of francium to test the Standard Model at low energies underwent significant development. In particular, we have overhauled the design of the neutralizer, which catches ionized atoms from the ISAC radioactive beam facility and releases them in neutral form for trapping. We have adopted the design idea, proposed by group of researchers from State University of New York, Stony Brook. It assumed sequential collecting of radioactive species on cold foil, transport them to capture cell and release during short time heating of the foil. We have modified original electric connections to the foil, the way of mounting foil and replaced yttrium foil by zirconium one, more robust. Such modifications allowed us to ensure an operation of the neutralizer through more than 500,000 cycles (this makes possible continuous taking of data during 2 months) with the release about 10% of embedded atoms per cycle. This work is supported by the DOE and NSF (USA), CONACYT (Mexico) and NSERC (Canada). TRIUMF receives federal funding via a contribution agreement with the National Research Council of Canada.

  11. An analytical model for non-conservative pollutants mixing in the surf zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ki, Seo Jin; Hwang, Jin Hwan; Kang, Joo-Hyon; Kim, Joon Ha

    2009-01-01

    Accurate simulation of the surf zone is a prerequisite to improve beach management as well as to understand the fundamentals of fate and transport of contaminants. In the present study, a diagnostic model modified from a classic solute model is provided to illuminate non-conservative pollutants behavior in the surf zone. To readily understand controlling processes in the surf zone, a new dimensionless quantity is employed with index of kappa number (K, a ratio of inactivation rate to transport rate of microbial pollutant in the surf zone), which was then evaluated under different environmental frames during a week simulation period. The sensitivity analysis showed that hydrodynamics and concentration gradients in the surf zone mostly depend on n (number of rip currents), indicating that n should be carefully adjusted in the model. The simulation results reveal, furthermore, that large deviation typically occurs in the daytime, signifying inactivation of fecal indicator bacteria is the main process to control surf zone water quality during the day. Overall, the analytical model shows a good agreement between predicted and synthetic data (R(2) = 0.51 and 0.67 for FC and ENT, respectively) for the simulated period, amplifying its potential use in the surf zone modelling. It is recommended that when the dimensionless index is much larger than 0.5, the present modified model can predict better than the conventional model, but if index is smaller than 0.5, the conventional model is more efficient with respect to time and cost.

  12. Speeding up Monte Carlo molecular simulation by a non-conservative early rejection scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Kadoura, Ahmad Salim

    2015-04-23

    Monte Carlo (MC) molecular simulation describes fluid systems with rich information, and it is capable of predicting many fluid properties of engineering interest. In general, it is more accurate and representative than equations of state. On the other hand, it requires much more computational effort and simulation time. For that purpose, several techniques have been developed in order to speed up MC molecular simulations while preserving their precision. In particular, early rejection schemes are capable of reducing computational cost by reaching the rejection decision for the undesired MC trials at an earlier stage in comparison to the conventional scheme. In a recent work, we have introduced a ‘conservative’ early rejection scheme as a method to accelerate MC simulations while producing exactly the same results as the conventional algorithm. In this paper, we introduce a ‘non-conservative’ early rejection scheme, which is much faster than the conservative scheme, yet it preserves the precision of the method. The proposed scheme is tested for systems of structureless Lennard-Jones particles in both canonical and NVT-Gibbs ensembles. Numerical experiments were conducted at several thermodynamic conditions for different number of particles. Results show that at certain thermodynamic conditions, the non-conservative method is capable of doubling the speed of the MC molecular simulations in both canonical and NVT-Gibbs ensembles. © 2015 Taylor & Francis

  13. Comparison of the reduced dynamical orbit parametrization and precise non-conservative orbit force modeling for DORIS satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanek, P.; Rodriguez-Solano, C.; Filler, V.; Hugentobler, U.

    2011-12-01

    The focus of the studies is the analysis of the comparison between two different approaches for LEO satellite orbit estimation employing DORIS measurements. The first one is the reduced-dynamical model, based on the orbit modeling by using the empirical and the pseudo-stochastic parameters. The second approach includes the attitude models and the CNES-developed satellite macromodels, with modeling of non-conservative acceleration, i.e., Sun radiation pressure, Earth radiation pressure and atmospheric drag. Both approaches are used at analysis centers providing DORIS solutions. The reduced-dynamical modeling is currently used by the GOP analysis center, which achieves similar accuracy of the free-network solutions as the other centers utilizing a precise non-conservative force modeling. The GOP works with a modified version of the Bernese GPS Software that has not included the non-conservative modeling. This limitation is now overcome by the new scientific modification of the software, which opens the unique possibility to compare both approaches by using the same software platform. We compare external and internal precision of the estimated orbits. We also analyze the individual satellite free-network DORIS solutions and time-series of derived parameters, i.e., station coordinates, TRF scale, the geocenter variations and the Earth rotation parameters. The studies highlight the main differences in the results that should answer the question whether the modeling of non-conservative forces including the CNES box-wing satellite models actually brings a significant improvement to the DORIS solutions.

  14. Multi-scale coarse-graining of non-conservative interactions in molecular liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izvekov, Sergei, E-mail: sergiy.izvyekov.civ@mail.mil; Rice, Betsy M. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21005 (United States)

    2014-03-14

    A new bottom-up procedure for constructing non-conservative (dissipative and stochastic) interactions for dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) models is described and applied to perform hierarchical coarse-graining of a polar molecular liquid (nitromethane). The distant-dependent radial and shear frictions in functional-free form are derived consistently with a chosen form for conservative interactions by matching two-body force-velocity and three-body velocity-velocity correlations along the microscopic trajectories of the centroids of Voronoi cells (clusters), which represent the dissipative particles within the DPD description. The Voronoi tessellation is achieved by application of the K-means clustering algorithm at regular time intervals. Consistently with a notion of many-body DPD, the conservative interactions are determined through the multi-scale coarse-graining (MS-CG) method, which naturally implements a pairwise decomposition of the microscopic free energy. A hierarchy of MS-CG/DPD models starting with one molecule per Voronoi cell and up to 64 molecules per cell is derived. The radial contribution to the friction appears to be dominant for all models. As the Voronoi cell sizes increase, the dissipative forces rapidly become confined to the first coordination shell. For Voronoi cells of two and more molecules the time dependence of the velocity autocorrelation function becomes monotonic and well reproduced by the respective MS-CG/DPD models. A comparative analysis of force and velocity correlations in the atomistic and CG ensembles indicates Markovian behavior with as low as two molecules per dissipative particle. The models with one and two molecules per Voronoi cell yield transport properties (diffusion and shear viscosity) that are in good agreement with the atomistic data. The coarser models produce slower dynamics that can be appreciably attributed to unaccounted dissipation introduced by regular Voronoi re-partitioning as well as by larger

  15. Atomic parity non-conservation: the francium anapole project of the FrPNC collaboration at TRIUMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, S.; Behr, J. A.; Collister, R.; Flambaum, V. V.; Gomez, E.; Gwinner, G.; Jackson, K. P.; Melconian, D.; Orozco, L. A.; Pearson, M. R.; Sheng, D.; Sprouse, G. D.; Tandecki, M.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Y.

    2013-03-01

    We present a method for measuring the nuclear anapole in a string of francium isotopes. The anapole is a parity non-conserving electromagnetic moment that enables parity-forbidden transitions between ground state hyperfine levels of an atom. The experiment is run by the FrPNC collaboration and relies on a beam of artificially-produced francium from the ISAC facility at TRIUMF.

  16. Atomic parity non-conservation: the francium anapole project of the FrPNC collaboration at TRIUMF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubin, S. [College of William and Mary, Dept. Physics (United States); Behr, J. A. [TRIUMF (Canada); Collister, R. [University of Manitoba, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Flambaum, V. V. [University of New South Wales, School of Physics (Australia); Gomez, E. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Instituto de Fisica (Mexico); Gwinner, G. [University of Manitoba, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Jackson, K. P. [TRIUMF (Canada); Melconian, D. [Texas A and M University, Cyclotron Institute (United States); Orozco, L. A., E-mail: lorozco@umd.edu [University of Maryland, JQI, Dept. of Physics, and NIST (United States); Pearson, M. R. [TRIUMF (Canada); Sheng, D. [Princeton University (United States); Sprouse, G. D. [Stony Brook University, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy (United States); Tandecki, M. [TRIUMF (Canada); Zhang, J. [University of Maryland, JQI, Dept. of Physics, and NIST (United States); Zhao, Y. [Shanxi University, State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices (China)

    2013-03-15

    We present a method for measuring the nuclear anapole in a string of francium isotopes. The anapole is a parity non-conserving electromagnetic moment that enables parity-forbidden transitions between ground state hyperfine levels of an atom. The experiment is run by the FrPNC collaboration and relies on a beam of artificially-produced francium from the ISAC facility at TRIUMF.

  17. Design and sol-gel preparation of SiO2/TiO2 and SiO2/SnO2/SiO2-SnO2 multilayer antireflective coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jindi; Ge, Juanjuan; Hou, Haigang; Wang, Mingsong; Liu, Guiwu; Qiao, Guanjun; Wang, Yongsheng

    2017-11-01

    Interference-type antireflective coatings with homogeneous multilayers have been designed and prepared. Optical thin film design of a 6-layer SiO2/TiO2 and a tri-layer SiO2/SnO2/SiO2-SnO2 was investigated. The optical constants of the source materials for optical design were directly extracted from the sol-gel-prepared oxide thin films. The designed 6-layer SiO2/TiO2 exhibits a high average transmittance (98.3%) over a large bandwidth (400-700 nm) compared to a starting λ/4-λ/2 stack of SiO2/TiO2. Sol-gel coating of sub-10 nm ultrathin film for the multilayer was circumvented by employing diluted sols. A λ/4-λ/4-λ/4 stack of SiO2/SnO2/SiO2-SnO2 was also constructed, with its antireflective performance optimized by tuning the refractive index of the SiO2-SnO2 composite layer. In spite of some thickness deviation from the design value, a peak transmittance of 98.2% and 98.6% has been reached for the sol-gel SiO2/TiO2 and SiO2/SnO2/SiO2-SnO2 multilayers, respectively. The results obtained in this work demonstrate the great advantage of combining design with sol-gel preparation for antireflective coatings.

  18. From Instantons To Sphalerons Thermal Baryon Non-conservation In The Weak Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Frost, K L

    1999-01-01

    The Weinberg-Salam theory of the weak interactions predicts that net baryon number can be altered by non-perturbative topological transitions of SU(2) gauge fields. These topological transitions are intimately related with the existence and properties of topologically non-trivial solutions of the classical field equations of four- dimensional SU(2)-Higgs theory. As is well known, in this theory there is a static solution, the sphaleron, which represents the top of an energy barrier separating bosonic vacua with different baryon number. There are also instanton configurations in Euclidean space, which approach minimal action as the instanton size goes to zero, and represent tunneling from one vacuum to another. We solved numerically for periodic, spherically symmetric, classical solutions of SU(2)- Higgs theory in four-dimensional Euclidean space. In the limit of short periods, these solutions approach small instanton - anti- instanton superpositions while, for longer periods, the solutions merge with the stat...

  19. The Modeling of Time-Varying Stream Water Age Distributions: Preliminary Investigations with Non-Conservative Solutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilusz, D. C.; Harman, C. J.; Ball, W. P.

    2014-12-01

    Modeling the dynamics of chemical transport from the landscape to streams is necessary for water quality management. Previous work has shown that estimates of the distribution of water age in streams, the transit time distribution (TTD), can improve prediction of the concentration of conservative tracers (i.e., ones that "follow the water") based on upstream watershed inputs. A major challenge however has been accounting for climate and transport variability when estimating TDDs at the catchment scale. In this regard, Harman (2014, in review) proposed the Omega modeling framework capable of using watershed hydraulic fluxes to approximate the time-varying TTD. The approach was previously applied to the Plynlimon research watershed in Wales to simulate stream concentration dynamics of a conservative tracer (chloride) including 1/f attenuation of the power spectra density. In this study we explore the extent to which TTDs estimated by the Omega model vary with the concentration of non-conservative tracers (i.e., ones whose concentrations are also affected by transformations and interactions with other phases). First we test the hypothesis that the TTD calibrated in Plynlimon can explain a large part of the variation in non-conservative stream water constituents associated with storm flow (acidity, Al, DOC, Fe) and base flow (Ca, Si). While controlling for discharge, we show a correlation between the percentage of water of different ages and constituent concentration. Second, we test the hypothesis that TTDs help explain variation in stream nitrate concentration, which is of particular interest for pollution control but can be highly non-conservative. We compare simulation runs from Plynlimon and the agricultural Choptank watershed in Maryland, USA. Following a top-down approach, we estimate nitrate concentration as if it were a conservative tracer and examine the structure of residuals at different temporal resolutions. Finally, we consider model modifications to

  20. Stress response and tolerance of Zea mays to CeO2 nanoparticles: cross talk among H2O2, heat shock protein, and lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lijuan; Peng, Bo; Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose A; Rico, Cyren; Sun, Youping; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Tang, Xiaolei; Niu, Genhua; Jin, Lixin; Varela-Ramirez, Armando; Zhang, Jian-ying; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2012-11-27

    The rapid development of nanotechnology will inevitably release nanoparticles (NPs) into the environment with unidentified consequences. In addition, the potential toxicity of CeO(2) NPs to plants and the possible transfer into the food chain are still unknown. Corn plants (Zea mays) were germinated and grown in soil treated with CeO(2) NPs at 400 or 800 mg/kg. Stress-related parameters, such as H(2)O(2), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), lipid peroxidation, cell death, and leaf gas exchange were analyzed at 10, 15, and 20 days post-germination. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to image H(2)O(2) distribution in corn leaves. Results showed that the CeO(2) NP treatments increased accumulation of H(2)O(2), up to day 15, in phloem, xylem, bundle sheath cells and epidermal cells of shoots. The CAT and APX activities were also increased in the corn shoot, concomitant with the H(2)O(2) levels. Both 400 and 800 mg/kg CeO(2) NPs triggered the up-regulation of the HSP70 in roots, indicating a systemic stress response. None of the CeO(2) NPs increased the level of thiobarbituric acid reacting substances, indicating that no lipid peroxidation occurred. CeO(2) NPs, at both concentrations, did not induce ion leakage in either roots or shoots, suggesting that membrane integrity was not compromised. Leaf net photosynthetic rate, transpiration, and stomatal conductance were not affected by CeO(2) NPs. Our results suggest that the CAT, APX, and HSP70 might help the plants defend against CeO(2) NP-induced oxidative injury and survive NP exposure.

  1. A Study of Cosmic Expansion Generated by Non-conservation of Matter in the Framework of Brans-Dicke Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Sudipto

    2016-01-01

    The present study, on the expansion of universe, is based on an assumption regarding the possibility of inter-conversion between matter and dark energy, through some interaction of matter with the scalar field in the framework of Brans-Dicke theory. The field equations for a spatially flat space-time have been solved using an empirical dependence of scalar field parameter upon the scale factor. To represent the behaviour regarding the non-conservation of matter, a function, expressed in terms of the Hubble parameter, has been empirically incorporated into the field equations. Their solution shows that, this function, whose value is proportional to the matter content of the universe, decreases monotonically with time. This matter-field interaction generates late time acceleration, causing the deceleration parameter to change its sign from positive to negative. Time dependence of the proportion of dark energy component of the universe has been determined and shown graphically. Time variation of gravitational co...

  2. Theory of Metastable State Relaxation for Non-Critical Binary Systems with Non-Conserved Order Parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmailov, Alexander; Myerson, Allan S.

    1993-01-01

    A new mathematical ansatz for a solution of the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau non-linear partial differential equation is developed for non-critical systems such as non-critical binary solutions (solute + solvent) described by the non-conserved scalar order parameter. It is demonstrated that in such systems metastability initiates heterogeneous solute redistribution which results in formation of the non-equilibrium singly-periodic spatial solute structure. It is found how the time-dependent period of this structure evolves in time. In addition, the critical radius r(sub c) for solute embryo of the new solute rich phase together with the metastable state lifetime t(sub c) are determined analytically and analyzed.

  3. The non-conserved region of MRP is involved in the virulence of Streptococcus suis serotype 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Quan; Fu, Yang; Ma, Caifeng; He, Yanan; Yu, Yanfei; Du, Dechao; Yao, Huochun; Lu, Chengping; Zhang, Wei

    2017-10-03

    Muramidase-released protein (MRP) of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2) is an important epidemic virulence marker with an unclear role in bacterial infection. To investigate the biologic functions of MRP, 3 mutants named Δmrp, Δmrp domain 1 (Δmrp-d1), and Δmrp domain 2 (Δmrp-d2) were constructed to assess the phenotypic changes between the parental strain and the mutant strains. The results indicated that MRP domain 1 (MRP-D1, the non-conserved region of MRP from a virulent strain, a.a. 242-596) played a critical role in adherence of SS2 to host cells, compared with MRP domain 1* (MRP-D1*, the non-conserved region of MRP from a low virulent strain, a.a. 239-598) or MRP domain 2 (MRP-D2, the conserved region of MRP, a.a. 848-1222). We found that MRP-D1 but not MRP-D2, could bind specifically to fibronectin (FN), factor H (FH), fibrinogen (FG), and immunoglobulin G (IgG). Additionally, we confirmed that mrp-d1 mutation significantly inhibited bacteremia and brain invasion in a mouse infection model. The mrp-d1 mutation also attenuated the intracellular survival of SS2 in RAW246.7 macrophages, shortened the growth ability in pig blood and decreased the virulence of SS2 in BALB/c mice. Furthermore, antiserum against MRP-D1 was found to dramatically impede SS2 survival in pig blood. Finally, immunization with recombinant MRP-D1 efficiently enhanced murine viability after SS2 challenge, indicating its potential use in vaccination strategies. Collectively, these results indicated that MRP-D1 is involved in SS2 virulence and eloquently demonstrate the function of MRP in pathogenesis of infection.

  4. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Rosener, B. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host ``na-net.ornl.gov`` at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message ``send index`` to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user`s perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  5. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Rosener, B. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host na-net.ornl.gov'' at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message send index'' to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user's perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  6. Photo degradation of methyl orange by attapulgite-SnO2-TiO2 nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Lv, Fujian; Zhang, Weiguang; Li, Rongqing; Zhong, Hui; Zhao, Yijiang; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Xin

    2009-11-15

    Photocatalytic removal of methyl orange under ultraviolet radiation has been studied using attapulgite (ATT) composites, which were synthesized by depositing SnO(2)-TiO(2) hybrid oxides on the surface of ATT to form a composite photocatalyst (denoted ATT-SnO(2)-TiO(2)) using an in situ sol-gel technique. Results showed that SnO(2)-TiO(2) nanocomposite particles with average size of about 10nm were loaded successfully on to the surface of ATT fibers and were widely dispersed. Correspondingly, the photocatalytic activity of ATT was improved significantly by loading SnO(2)-TiO(2). The photoactivity of the composite photocatalyst decreased in the sequence ATT-SnO(2)-TiO(2)>ATT-SnO(2)>ATT-TiO(2)>ATT. In order to achieve the best photocatalyst, the molar ratio of SnO(2) and TiO(2) in the ATT-SnO(2)-TiO(2) composites was adjusted to give a series with proportions r=n(Ti)/(n(Ti)+n(Sn))=0.0, 0.25, 0.33, 0.50, 0.67, 0.75, 0.80, 0.82, 0.86, 1.0. Results indicated that the proportion of SnO(2) and TiO(2) had a critical effect on the photocatalytic activity, which increased as the content of TiO(2) increased to r0.82. The highest degradation rate of methyl orange was 99% within 30 min obtained by using ATT-SnO(2)-TiO(2) with r=0.82. The repeated use of the composite photocatalyst was also confirmed.

  7. The release of TiO2 and SiO2 nanoparticles from nanocomposites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the development of nanocomposites consisting of organic polymers and TiO2 or amorphous SiO2 nanoparticles. These nanoparticles may be released from nanocomposites. There is evidence that amorphous SiO2 and TiO2 nanoparticles can be hazardous. Thus, in the design of

  8. Modest net autotrophy in the oligotrophic ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letscher, Robert T.; Moore, J. Keith

    2017-04-01

    The metabolic state of the oligotrophic subtropical ocean has long been debated. Net community production (NCP) represents the balance of autotrophic carbon fixation with heterotrophic respiration. Many in vitro NCP estimates based on oxygen incubation methods and the corresponding scaling relationships used to predict the ecosystem metabolic balance have suggested the ocean gyres to be net heterotrophic; however, all in situ NCP methods find net autotrophy. Reconciling net heterotrophy requires significant allochthonous inputs of organic carbon to the oligotrophic gyres to sustain a preponderance of respiration over in situ production. Here we use the first global ecosystem-ocean circulation model that contains representation of the three allochthonous carbon sources to the open ocean, to show that the five oligotrophic gyres exhibit modest net autotrophy throughout the seasonal cycle. Annually integrated rates of NCP vary in the range 1.5-2.2 mol O2 m-2 yr-1 across the five gyre systems; however, seasonal NCP rates are as low as 1 ± 0.5 mmol O2 m-2 d-1 for the North Atlantic. Volumetric NCP rates are heterotrophic below the 10% light level; however, they become net autotrophic when integrated over the euphotic zone. Observational uncertainties when measuring these modest autotrophic NCP rates as well as the metabolic diversity encountered across space and time complicate the scaling up of in vitro measurements to the ecosystem scale and may partially explain the previous reports of net heterotrophy. The oligotrophic ocean is autotrophic at present; however, it could shift toward seasonal heterotrophy in the future as rising temperatures stimulate respiration.

  9. Synthesis of TiO 2-doped SiO 2 composite films and its applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The TiO2-doped SiO2 composite films were prepared by two-step sol–gel method and then it was applied in the degradation of methylene red (MR) as photocatalysts. In XRD, FT–IR, and TEM investigations of these TiO2-doped SiO2 composite films, the titanium oxide species are highly dispersed in the SiO2 matrixes and ...

  10. Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux is defined as the year-over-year change in Total Ecosystem Carbon Stock, or the net rate of carbon exchange between an ecosystem and the...

  11. H2O2: A Dynamic Neuromodulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Margaret E.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence implicates hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as an intra- and intercellular signaling molecule that can influence processes from embryonic development to cell death. Most research has focused on relatively slow signaling, on the order of minutes to days, via second messenger cascades. However, H2O2 can also mediate subsecond signaling via ion channel activation. This rapid signaling has been examined most thoroughly in the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) pathway, which plays a key role in facilitating movement mediated by the basal ganglia. In DA neurons of the substantia nigra, endogenously generated H2O2 activates ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels that inhibit DA neuron firing. In the striatum, H2O2 generated downstream from glutamatergic AMPA receptor activation in medium spiny neurons acts as a diffusible messenger that inhibits axonal DA release, also via KATP channels. The source of dynamically generated H2O2 is mitochondrial respiration; thus, H2O2 provides a novel link between activity and metabolism via KATP channels. Additional targets of H2O2 include transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. In contrast to the inhibitory effect of H2O2 acting via KATP channels, TRP channel activation is excitatory. This review describes emerging roles of H2O2 as a signaling agent in the nigrostriatal pathway and other basal ganglia neurons. PMID:21666063

  12. Phase segregation and spontaneous symmetry breaking in a bidirectional two-channel non-conserving model with narrow entrances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Natasha; Gupta, A. K.

    2017-04-01

    Motivated by connections between the inputs and outputs of several transport mechanisms and multi-species functionalities, we studied an open system of a two-species totally asymmetric simple exclusion process with narrow entrances, which assimilate the synergy of the particles with the surrounding environment through Langmuir kinetics (LK). We analyzed the model within the framework of mean-field theory, and examined complex phenomena such as boundary-induced phase transitions and spontaneous symmetry breaking for variant conditions of attachment and detachment rates. Based on the theoretical investigations we obtained the phase boundaries for various symmetric and asymmetric phases. Our finding displays a prolific behavior, highlighting the significant effect of LK rates on symmetry breaking. It is found that for lower orders of LK rates, the number of symmetrical and asymmetrical phases increases notably, while for their higher orders symmetry breaking disappears, revealing that the presence of bulk non-conserving processes can resume/break the uniformity between two species. The critical value of LK rates beyond which the asymmetrical phases disappears is identified. The theoretical findings are explored by extensive Monte Carlo simulations. The effect of the system size and symmetry breaking incident on the Monte Carlo simulation results has also been examined based on particle density histograms.

  13. Evidence for non-conservative current-induced forces in the breaking of Au and Pt atomic chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Sabater

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This experimental work aims at probing current-induced forces at the atomic scale. Specifically it addresses predictions in recent work regarding the appearance of run-away modes as a result of a combined effect of the non-conservative wind force and a ‘Berry force’. The systems we consider here are atomic chains of Au and Pt atoms, for which we investigate the distribution of break down voltage values. We observe two distinct modes of breaking for Au atomic chains. The breaking at high voltage appears to behave as expected for regular break down by thermal excitation due to Joule heating. However, there is a low-voltage breaking mode that has characteristics expected for the mechanism of current-induced forces. Although a full comparison would require more detailed information on the individual atomic configurations, the systems we consider are very similar to those considered in recent model calculations and the comparison between experiment and theory is very encouraging for the interpretation we propose.

  14. Non-conservative surface decoration of hemoglobin: influence of neutralization of positive charges at PEGylation sites on molecular and functional properties of PEGylated hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongxia; Hu, Tao; Manjula, Belur N; Acharya, Seetharama A

    2008-10-01

    High hydrodynamic volume, high viscosity and high colloidal osmotic pressure (COP) of PEGylated hemoglobin (Hb) have been suggested to neutralize the vasoactivity of acellular Hb. Consequences of non-conservative PEGylation (positive charge of the amino groups at the PEGylation sites is neutralized) using succinimidyl-ester of propionic acid PEG5K on the properties of PEGylated Hb have now been investigated. Non-conservative PEGylation of Hb leads to a much higher increase in the COP and viscosity of Hb than conservative extension arm facilitated (EAF) PEGylation of Hb. Introduction of alphaalpha-fumaryl crosslinking decreased the COP of non-conservative PEGylated Hb by stabilization of interdimeric interactions. Compared to the EAF-PEGylated alphaalpha-fumaryl Hb, non-conservative PEGylated product shows a comparable COP and higher viscosity. Conservative PEGylation of alphaalpha-fumaryl Hb by reductive alkylation chemistry does not increase the COP to this level, but enhanced the molecular volume and viscosity comparable to EAF-PEGylated product. Thus, the molecular properties of PEGylated Hb can be fine tuned using different PEGylation platforms and provide a unique opportunity for the design of second generation PEGylated Hbs.

  15. The break-up of Ekman theory in a flow subjected to background rotation and driven by a non-conservative body force

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duran-Matute, M.; Di Nitto, G.; Trieling, R.R.; Kamp, L.P.J.; van Heijst, G.J.F.

    2012-01-01

    We present an experimental/numerical study of a dipolar flow structure in a shallow layer of electrolyte driven by electromagnetic forcing and subjected to background rotation. The aim of this study is to determine the influence of a non-conservative body force on the range of applicability of the

  16. Search for supersymmetric particles assuming R-parity non-conservation in e(+)e(-) collisions at root s=192 to 208 GeV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdallah, J.; Blom, M.R.; Drees, J.; Siebel, M.; van Dam, P.A.; Zupan, M.

    2004-01-01

    Searches for pair-production of supersymmetric particles under the assumption of non-conservation of R-parity with a dominant LLĒ or ŪD̄D̄ term have been performed using the data collected by the DELPHI experiment at LEP in e

  17. Professional Enterprise NET

    CERN Document Server

    Arking, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Comprehensive coverage to help experienced .NET developers create flexible, extensible enterprise application code If you're an experienced Microsoft .NET developer, you'll find in this book a road map to the latest enterprise development methodologies. It covers the tools you will use in addition to Visual Studio, including Spring.NET and nUnit, and applies to development with ASP.NET, C#, VB, Office (VBA), and database. You will find comprehensive coverage of the tools and practices that professional .NET developers need to master in order to build enterprise more flexible, testable, and ext

  18. Antiferromagnets Structure in Adsorbed O2 Monolayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mourits; McTague, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    Neutron diffraction from monolayers of O2 adsorbed on graphite shows structural arrangements similar to the dense planes of bulk O2. At monolayer completion and above, a magnetic superlattice reflection shows well-developed antiferromagnetic order for T ⩽ 10 K. The submonolayer phase also shows s...

  19. Photoelectrochemical Properties of CuS-GeO2-TiO2 Composite Coating Electrode.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyu Wen

    Full Text Available The ITO (indium tin oxide conductive glass-matrix CuS-GeO2-TiO2 composite coating was generated via EPD (electrophoretic deposition and followed by a sintering treatment at 450°C for 40 minutes. Characterizations of the CuS-GeO2-TiO2 composite coating were taken by SEM (scanning electron microscope, XRD (X-ray diffraction, EDX (energy dispersive X-ray, UV-Vis DRS (ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflection spectrum, and FT-IR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Results showed that CuS and GeO2 had dispersed in this CuS-GeO2-TiO2 composite coating (mass percentages for CuS and GeO2 were 1.23% and 2.79%, respectively. The electrochemical studies (cyclic voltammetry (CV, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and Tafel polarization of this CuS-GeO2-TiO2 composite coating electrode were performed in pH = 9.51 Na2CO3-NaHCO3 buffer solution containing 0.50 mol/L CH3OH under the conditions of visible light, ultraviolet light (λ = 365 nm, and dark (without light irradiation as control, respectively. Electrochemical studies indicated that this CuS-GeO2-TiO2 composite coating electrode had better photoelectrocatalytic activity than the pure TiO2 electrode in the electrocatalysis of methanol under visible light.

  20. Electrochemical Generation of Individual O2 Nanobubbles via H2O2 Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hang; German, Sean R; Edwards, Martin A; Chen, Qianjin; White, Henry S

    2017-06-01

    Herein, we use Pt nanodisk electrodes (apparent radii from 4 to 80 nm) to investigate the nucleation of individual O2 nanobubbles generated by electrooxidation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). A single bubble reproducibly nucleates when the dissolved O2 concentration reaches ∼0.17 M at the Pt electrode surface. This nucleation concentration is ∼130 times higher than the equilibrium saturation concentration of O2 and is independent of electrode size. Moreover, in acidic H2O2 solutions (1 M HClO4), in addition to producing an O2 nanobubble through H2O2 oxidation at positive potentials, individual H2 nanobubbles can also be generated at negative potentials. Alternating generation of single O2 and H2 bubbles within the same experiment allows direct comparison of the critical concentrations for nucleation of each nanobubble without knowing the precise size/geometry of the electrode or the exact viscosity/temperature of the solution.

  1. Embedding CeO2 nanocontainers in a TiO2 coating on glass surfaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jacinthe Gagnon; Rachel A. Caruso; Katharina M. Fromm

    2017-01-01

    .... However, the attachment of such containers onto implant surfaces may be a challenge. In this study, it is demonstrated that CeO2 nanocontainers can be added to a TiO2 coating on glass surfaces...

  2. Sandwich structure of Pd doped nanostructure TiO2 film as O2 sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hairong; Sun, Quantao; Chen, Lei; Zhao, Yulong

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we investigated the sensing properties of sandwich structure of TiO2/Pd/TiO2 thin films at various operating temperatures and oxygen partial pressures. The nanostructure TiO2 thin films were prepared by the sol-gel method. Various thickness of Pd buried layer was deposited by magnetron sputtering of a pure Pd target. The films were characterized using X-ray diffraction analysis and SEM. It was found that TiO2/Pd/TiO2 thin films have the p-type behavior while the pure TiO2 thin film is n-type semiconductor materials. We found that the structure of TiO2/Pd/TiO2 thin films with 10 s sputtering Pd layer has a better stability at 240 °C.

  3. Differentiating between apparent and actual rates of H2O2 metabolism by isolated rat muscle mitochondria to test a simple model of mitochondria as regulators of H2O2 concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treberg, Jason R.; Munro, Daniel; Banh, Sheena; Zacharias, Pamela; Sotiri, Emianka

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are often regarded as a major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in animal cells, with H2O2 being the predominant ROS released from mitochondria; however, it has been recently demonstrated that energized brain mitochondria may act as stabilizers of H2O2 concentration (Starkov et al. [1]) based on the balance between production and the consumption of H2O2, the later of which is a function of [H2O2] and follows first order kinetics. Here we test the hypothesis that isolated skeletal muscle mitochondria, from the rat, are able to modulate [H2O2] based upon the interaction between the production of ROS, as superoxide/H2O2, and the H2O2 decomposition capacity. The compartmentalization of detection systems for H2O2 and the intramitochondrial metabolism of H2O2 leads to spacial separation between these two components of the assay system. This results in an underestimation of rates when relying solely on extramitochondrial H2O2 detection. We find that differentiating between these apparent rates found when using extramitochondrial H2O2 detection and the actual rates of metabolism is important to determining the rate constant for H2O2 consumption by mitochondria in kinetic experiments. Using the high rate of ROS production by mitochondria respiring on succinate, we demonstrate that net H2O2 metabolism by mitochondria can approach a stable steady-state of extramitochondrial [H2O2]. Importantly, the rate constant determined by extrapolation of kinetic experiments is similar to the rate constant determined as the [H2O2] approaches a steady state. PMID:26001520

  4. Differentiating between apparent and actual rates of H2O2 metabolism by isolated rat muscle mitochondria to test a simple model of mitochondria as regulators of H2O2 concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treberg, Jason R; Munro, Daniel; Banh, Sheena; Zacharias, Pamela; Sotiri, Emianka

    2015-08-01

    Mitochondria are often regarded as a major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in animal cells, with H2O2 being the predominant ROS released from mitochondria; however, it has been recently demonstrated that energized brain mitochondria may act as stabilizers of H2O2 concentration (Starkov et al. [1]) based on the balance between production and the consumption of H2O2, the later of which is a function of [H2O2] and follows first order kinetics. Here we test the hypothesis that isolated skeletal muscle mitochondria, from the rat, are able to modulate [H2O2] based upon the interaction between the production of ROS, as superoxide/H2O2, and the H2O2 decomposition capacity. The compartmentalization of detection systems for H2O2 and the intramitochondrial metabolism of H2O2 leads to spacial separation between these two components of the assay system. This results in an underestimation of rates when relying solely on extramitochondrial H2O2 detection. We find that differentiating between these apparent rates found when using extramitochondrial H2O2 detection and the actual rates of metabolism is important to determining the rate constant for H2O2 consumption by mitochondria in kinetic experiments. Using the high rate of ROS production by mitochondria respiring on succinate, we demonstrate that net H2O2 metabolism by mitochondria can approach a stable steady-state of extramitochondrial [H2O2]. Importantly, the rate constant determined by extrapolation of kinetic experiments is similar to the rate constant determined as the [H2O2] approaches a steady state. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Alleviation of drought stress by mycorrhizas is related to increased root H2O2 efflux in trifoliate orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong-Ming; Zou, Ying-Ning; Wu, Qiang-Sheng

    2017-02-08

    The Non-invasive Micro-test Technique (NMT) is used to measure dynamic changes of specific ions/molecules non-invasively, but information about hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) fluxes in different classes of roots by mycorrhiza is scarce in terms of NMT. Effects of Funneliformis mosseae on plant growth, H2O2, superoxide radical (O2·-), malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, and H2O2 fluxes in the taproot (TR) and lateral roots (LRs) of trifoliate orange seedlings under well-watered (WW) and drought stress (DS) conditions were studied. DS strongly inhibited mycorrhizal colonization in the TR and LRs, whereas mycorrhizal inoculation significantly promoted plant growth and biomass production. H2O2, O2·-, and MDA concentrations in leaves and roots were dramatically lower in mycorrhizal seedlings than in non-mycorrhizal seedlings under DS. Compared with non-mycorrhizal seedlings, mycorrhizal seedlings had relatively higher net root H2O2 effluxes in the TR and LRs especially under WW, as well as significantly higher total root H2O2 effluxes in the TR and LRs under WW and DS. Total root H2O2 effluxes were significantly positively correlated with root colonization but negatively with root H2O2 and MDA concentrations. It suggested that mycorrhizas induces more H2O2 effluxes of the TR and LRs, thus, alleviating oxidative damage of DS in the host plant.

  6. Underwater photosynthesis and respiration in leaves of submerged wetland plants: gas films improve CO2 and O2 exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colmer, Timothy David; Pedersen, Ole

    2007-01-01

    Many wetland plants have gas films on submerged leaf surfaces. We tested the hypotheses that leaf gas films enhance CO(2) uptake for net photosynthesis (P(N)) during light periods, and enhance O(2) uptake for respiration during dark periods. Leaves of four wetland species that form gas films, and......(N) was enhanced up to sixfold. Gas films on submerged leaves enable continued gas exchange via stomata and thus bypassing of cuticle resistance, enhancing exchange of O(2) and CO(2) with the surrounding water, and therefore underwater P(N) and respiration.......Many wetland plants have gas films on submerged leaf surfaces. We tested the hypotheses that leaf gas films enhance CO(2) uptake for net photosynthesis (P(N)) during light periods, and enhance O(2) uptake for respiration during dark periods. Leaves of four wetland species that form gas films......, and two species that do not, were used. Gas films were also experimentally removed by brushing with 0.05% (v/v) Triton X. Net O(2) production in light, or O(2) consumption in darkness, was measured at various CO(2) and O(2) concentrations. When gas films were removed, O(2) uptake in darkness was already...

  7. Thermodynamic study of BaCuO2 and BaCu2O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimpo, Ryokichi; Nakamura, Yasushi

    1994-06-01

    The Gibbs energy changes for the syntheses of the interceramic compounds of BaCuO2 and BaCu2O2 were investigated as a basic study in the Y-Ba-Cu-O system that includes a superconductor, YBa2Cu3O6.5+ x . For the compound BaCuO2, thermogravimetry with CO2-O2-N2 gas mixtures was employed, and equilibrium temperatures were determined at which CO2 partial pressures in the gas mixtures were equilibrated with mixed powder of BaCuO2, CuO, and BaCO3. The Gibbs energy change for the reaction of BaCO3 + CuO = BaCuO2 + CO2 was determined from the relation between CO2 partial pressure and equilibrium temperature, taking into consideration the effect of CO2 dissolution in BaCuO2. For the study on BaCu2O2, electromotive force (emf) measurement using yttria-stabilized zirconia solid electrolyte was conducted. A technique using two cells was applied to the emf measurement for minimizing the effect of dispersion of oxygen from samples, and the Gibbs energy change for the reaction of BaCuO2 + CuO = BaCu2O2 + 1/2O2 was decided from the measured O2 partial pressure.

  8. Hazards of TiO2 and amorphous SiO2 nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.; Kahn, H.A.; Arif, I.A.

    2012-01-01

    TiO2 and amorphous SiO2 nanoparticles have been described as ‘safe’, ‘non-toxic’ and ‘environment friendly’ in scientific literature. However, though toxicity data are far from complete, there is evidence that these nanoparticles are hazardous. TiO2 nanoparticles have been found hazardous to humans

  9. O2 Reduction in Enzymatic Biofuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Nicolas; de Poulpiquet, Anne

    2017-09-20

    Catalytic four-electron reduction of O2 to water is one of the most extensively studied electrochemical reactions due to O2 exceptional availability and high O2/H2O redox potential, which may in particular allow highly energetic reactions in fuel cells. To circumvent the use of expensive and inefficient Pt catalysts, multicopper oxidases (MCOs) have been envisioned because they provide efficient O2 reduction with almost no overpotential. MCOs have been used to elaborate enzymatic biofuel cells (EBFCs), a subclass of fuel cells in which enzymes replace the conventional catalysts. A glucose/O2 EBFC, with a glucose oxidizing anode and a O2 reducing MCO cathode, could become the in vivo source of electricity that would power sometimes in the future integrated medical devices. This review covers the challenges and advances in the electrochemistry of MCOs and their use in EBFCs with a particular emphasis on the last 6 years. First basic features of MCOs and EBFCs are presented. Clues provided by electrochemistry to understand these enzymes and how they behave once connected at electrodes are described. Progresses realized in the development of efficient biocathodes for O2 reduction relying both on direct and mediated electron transfer mechanism are then discussed. Some implementations in EBFCs are finally presented.

  10. WaveNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Coastal Inlets Research Program WaveNet WaveNet is a web-based, Graphical-User-Interface ( GUI ) data management tool developed for Corps coastal...generates tabular and graphical information for project planning and design documents. The WaveNet is a web-based GUI designed to provide users with a...data from different sources, and employs a combination of Fortran, Python and Matlab codes to process and analyze data for USACE applications

  11. SiO2 and TiO2 nanoparticles synergistically trigger macrophage inflammatory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsugita, Misato; Morimoto, Nobuyuki; Nakayama, Masafumi

    2017-04-11

    Silicon dioxide (SiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) NPs are the most widely used inorganic nanomaterials. Although the individual toxicities of SiO2 and TiO2 NPs have been extensively studied, the combined toxicity of these NPs is much less understood. In this study, we observed unexpected and drastic activation of the caspase-1 inflammasome and production of IL-1β in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages stimulated simultaneously with SiO2 and TiO2 NPs at concentrations at which these NPs individually do not cause macrophage activation. Consistent with this, marked lung inflammation was observed in mice treated intratracheally with both SiO2 and TiO2 NPs. In macrophages, SiO2 NPs localized in lysosomes and TiO2 NPs did not; while only TiO2 NPs produced ROS, suggesting that these NPs induce distinct cellular damage leading to caspase-1 inflammasome activation. Intriguingly, dynamic light scattering measurements revealed that, although individual SiO2 and TiO2 NPs immediately aggregated to be micrometer size, the mixture of these NPs formed a stable and relatively monodisperse complex with a size of ~250 nm in the presence of divalent cations. Taken together, these results suggest that SiO2 and TiO2 NPs synergistically induce macrophage inflammatory responses and subsequent lung inflammation. Thus, we propose that it is important to assess the synergistic toxicity of various combinations of nanomaterials.

  12. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes how Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets) have been developed — from being a promising theoretical model to being a full-fledged language for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems (and other systems in which human beings and...... use of CP-nets — because it means that the function representation and the translations (which are a bit mathematically complex) no longer are parts of the basic definition of CP-nets. Instead they are parts of the invariant method (which anyway demands considerable mathematical skills...

  13. Game Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of game coloured Petri nets. This allows the modeler to explicitly model what parts of the model comprise the modeled system and what parts are the environment of the modeled system. We give the formal definition of game coloured Petri nets, a means of reachability...... analysis of this net class, and an application of game coloured Petri nets to automatically generate easy-to-understand visualizations of the model by exploiting the knowledge that some parts of the model are not interesting from a visualization perspective (i.e. they are part of the environment...

  14. Programming NET Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Alex

    2007-01-01

    Web services are poised to become a key technology for a wide range of Internet-enabled applications, spanning everything from straight B2B systems to mobile devices and proprietary in-house software. While there are several tools and platforms that can be used for building web services, developers are finding a powerful tool in Microsoft's .NET Framework and Visual Studio .NET. Designed from scratch to support the development of web services, the .NET Framework simplifies the process--programmers find that tasks that took an hour using the SOAP Toolkit take just minutes. Programming .NET

  15. Annotating Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Bo; Wells, Lisa Marie

    2002-01-01

    -net. An example of such auxiliary information is a counter which is associated with a token to be able to do performance analysis. Modifying colour sets and arc inscriptions in a CP-net to support a specific use may lead to creation of several slightly different CP-nets – only to support the different uses...... a method which makes it possible to associate auxiliary information, called annotations, with tokens without modifying the colour sets of the CP-net. Annotations are pieces of information that are not essential for determining the behaviour of the system being modelled, but are rather added to support...

  16. Nanocrystalline TiO2/SnO2 heterostructures for gas sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyson-Sypien, Barbara; Kusior, Anna; Rekas, Mieczylaw; Zukrowski, Jan; Gajewska, Marta; Michalow-Mauke, Katarzyna; Graule, Thomas; Radecka, Marta; Zakrzewska, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research is to study the role of nanocrystalline TiO2/SnO2 n-n heterojunctions for hydrogen sensing. Nanopowders of pure SnO2, 90 mol % SnO2/10 mol % TiO2, 10 mol % SnO2/90 mol % TiO2 and pure TiO2 have been obtained using flame spray synthesis (FSS). The samples have been characterized by BET, XRD, SEM, HR-TEM, Mössbauer effect and impedance spectroscopy. Gas-sensing experiments have been performed for H2 concentrations of 1-3000 ppm at 200-400 °C. The nanomaterials are well-crystallized, anatase TiO2, rutile TiO2 and cassiterite SnO2 polymorphic forms are present depending on the chemical composition of the powders. The crystallite sizes from XRD peak analysis are within the range of 3-27 nm. Tin exhibits only the oxidation state 4+. The H2 detection threshold for the studied TiO2/SnO2 heterostructures is lower than 1 ppm especially in the case of SnO2-rich samples. The recovery time of SnO2-based heterostructures, despite their large responses over the whole measuring range, is much longer than that of TiO2-rich samples at higher H2 flows. TiO2/SnO2 heterostructures can be intentionally modified for the improved H2 detection within both the small (1-50 ppm) and the large (50-3000 ppm) concentration range. The temperature Tmax at which the semiconducting behavior begins to prevail upon water desorption/oxygen adsorption depends on the TiO2/SnO2 composition. The electrical resistance of sensing materials exhibits a power-law dependence on the H2 partial pressure. This allows us to draw a conclusion about the first step in the gas sensing mechanism related to the adsorption of oxygen ions at the surface of nanomaterials.

  17. Nanocrystalline TiO2/SnO2 heterostructures for gas sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Lyson-Sypien

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study the role of nanocrystalline TiO2/SnO2 n–n heterojunctions for hydrogen sensing. Nanopowders of pure SnO2, 90 mol % SnO2/10 mol % TiO2, 10 mol % SnO2/90 mol % TiO2 and pure TiO2 have been obtained using flame spray synthesis (FSS. The samples have been characterized by BET, XRD, SEM, HR-TEM, Mössbauer effect and impedance spectroscopy. Gas-sensing experiments have been performed for H2 concentrations of 1–3000 ppm at 200–400 °C. The nanomaterials are well-crystallized, anatase TiO2, rutile TiO2 and cassiterite SnO2 polymorphic forms are present depending on the chemical composition of the powders. The crystallite sizes from XRD peak analysis are within the range of 3–27 nm. Tin exhibits only the oxidation state 4+. The H2 detection threshold for the studied TiO2/SnO2 heterostructures is lower than 1 ppm especially in the case of SnO2-rich samples. The recovery time of SnO2-based heterostructures, despite their large responses over the whole measuring range, is much longer than that of TiO2-rich samples at higher H2 flows. TiO2/SnO2 heterostructures can be intentionally modified for the improved H2 detection within both the small (1–50 ppm and the large (50–3000 ppm concentration range. The temperature Tmax at which the semiconducting behavior begins to prevail upon water desorption/oxygen adsorption depends on the TiO2/SnO2 composition. The electrical resistance of sensing materials exhibits a power-law dependence on the H2 partial pressure. This allows us to draw a conclusion about the first step in the gas sensing mechanism related to the adsorption of oxygen ions at the surface of nanomaterials.

  18. High photoactive TiO2/SnO2 nanocomposites prepared by laser pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarisoreanu, Monica; Fleaca, Claudiu; Morjan, Ion; Niculescu, Ana-Maria; Luculescu, Catalin; Dutu, Elena; Ilie, Alina; Morjan, Iuliana; Florescu, Lavinia Gavrila; Vasile, Eugeniu; Fort, Carmen Ioana

    2017-10-01

    TiO2/SnO2 nanocomposites have been prepared by laser pyrolysis of volatile TiCl4 and SnCl4 precursors introduced together or separately in the reaction zone in the presence of air as oxidant and ethylene as sensitizer. Prior to the obtaining of TiO2/SnO2 nanocomposites with the different Sn concentrations (1.1-4.8 at.%), the best experimental conditions were identified for preparing pure anatase phase TiO2 samples considered as photoactive reference sample. The TiO2/SnO2 composites were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) techniques. The structural results show the presence of both TiO2 main phases: anatase (65-82% - the majority one) and rutile, as well as of small amounts of SnO2 tetragonal phase, all those with mean crystallite dimensions in the 8-22 nm range. Laser synthesized TiO2/SnO2 samples have a lower band gap energy and some of them (containing 1.8 or 4.8 at.% Sn) show higher photoactivity in the process of Methyl Orange solutions UV discoloration when compared with the P25 Degussa commercial sample.

  19. Sol-gel preparation of self-cleaning SiO2-TiO2/SiO2-TiO2 double-layer antireflective coating for solar glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wensheng; Zheng, Jiaxian; Yan, Lianghong; Zhang, Xinxiang

    2018-03-01

    Self-cleaning SiO2-TiO2/SiO2-TiO2 double-layer antireflective (AR) coating is prepared by sol-gel process. SiO2 sol is prepared by using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as precursor and ammonia as catalyst, while TiO2 sol was prepared by using tetrabutyl orthotitanate (TBOT) as precursor and hydrochloric acid as catalyst. The effect of TiO2 content on refractive index, abrasion-resistance and photo-catalytic activity of SiO2-TiO2 hybrid thin films or powders is systematically investigated. It is found that the refractive index of SiO2-TiO2 hybrid thin films increases gradually from 1.18 to 1.53 as the weight ratio of TiO2 to SiO2 increased from 0 to 1.0. The SiO2-TiO2 hybrid thin film and powder possesses good abrasion-resistance and photo-catalytic activity, respectively, as the weight ratio of TiO2 to SiO2 is 0.4. The degradation degree of Rhodamine B by SiO2-TiO2 hybrid powder is 88.3%. Finally, SiO2-TiO2/SiO2-TiO2 double-layer AR coating with high transmittance, abrasion-resistance and self-cleaning property is realized.

  20. Measured electrical charge of SiO2 in polar and nonpolar media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokot, G; Bespalova, M I; Krishnan, M

    2016-11-21

    We present measurements of the net electrical surface charge of silicon dioxide (SiO2) in contact with solvents of dielectric constants between 5 and 80. Our experimental approach relies on observing the thermal motion of single silica particles confined in an electrostatic fluidic trap created by SiO2 surfaces. We compare the experimentally measured functional form of the trapping potential with that from free energy calculations and thereby determine the net surface charge in the system. Our findings clearly demonstrate that contrary to popular perception, even in the absence of surfactants, the net electrical charge of ionizable surfaces in contact with apolar solvents can be large enough to lead to significant repulsive forces. A charge regulation model for SiO2 surfaces with a single tunable parameter explains our measurements. This model may find general applicability in estimating the net charge of ionizable surfaces, given system parameters such as the dissociation or association constants of the ionizable groups and the pH, ionic strength, and dielectric constant of the solvent phase.

  1. Measured electrical charge of SiO2 in polar and nonpolar media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokot, G.; Bespalova, M. I.; Krishnan, M.

    2016-11-01

    We present measurements of the net electrical surface charge of silicon dioxide (SiO2) in contact with solvents of dielectric constants between 5 and 80. Our experimental approach relies on observing the thermal motion of single silica particles confined in an electrostatic fluidic trap created by SiO2 surfaces. We compare the experimentally measured functional form of the trapping potential with that from free energy calculations and thereby determine the net surface charge in the system. Our findings clearly demonstrate that contrary to popular perception, even in the absence of surfactants, the net electrical charge of ionizable surfaces in contact with apolar solvents can be large enough to lead to significant repulsive forces. A charge regulation model for SiO2 surfaces with a single tunable parameter explains our measurements. This model may find general applicability in estimating the net charge of ionizable surfaces, given system parameters such as the dissociation or association constants of the ionizable groups and the pH, ionic strength, and dielectric constant of the solvent phase.

  2. Net zero water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lindeque, M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Is it possible to develop a building that uses a net zero amount of water? In recent years it has become evident that it is possible to have buildings that use a net zero amount of electricity. This is possible when the building is taken off...

  3. SolNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Ulrike; Vajen, Klaus; Bales, Chris

    2014-01-01

    SolNet, founded in 2006, is the first coordinated International PhD education program on Solar Thermal Engineering. The SolNet network is coordinated by the Institute of Thermal Engineering at Kassel University, Germany. The network offers PhD courses on solar heating and cooling, conference...

  4. Kunstige neurale net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørning, Annette

    1994-01-01

    Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse.......Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse....

  5. Chemical effects in ion mixing of a ternary system (metal-SiO2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwell, T.; Nicolet, M.-A.; Sands, T.; Grunthaner, P. J.

    1987-01-01

    The mixing of Ti, Cr, and Ni thin films with SiO2 by low-temperature (- 196-25 C) irradiation with 290 keV Xe has been investigated. Comparison of the morphology of the intermixed region and the dose dependences of net metal transport into SiO2 reveals that long range motion and phase formation probably occur as separate and sequential processes. Kinetic limitations suppress chemical effects in these systems during the initial transport process. Chemical interactions influence the subsequent phase formation.

  6. Comparisons between TiO2- and SiO2-flux assisted TIG welding processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Kuang-Hung; Chen, Kuan-Lung

    2012-08-01

    This study investigates the effects of flux compounds on the weld shape, ferrite content, and hardness profile in the tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding of 6 mm-thick austenitic 316 L stainless steel plates, using TiO2 and SiO2 powders as the activated fluxes. The metallurgical characterizations of weld metal produced with the oxide powders were evaluated using ferritoscope, optical microscopy, and Vickers microhardness test. Under the same welding parameters, the penetration capability of TIG welding with TiO2 and SiO2 fluxes was approximately 240% and 292%, respectively. A plasma column made with SiO2 flux exhibited greater constriction than that made with TiO2 flux. In addition, an anode root made with SiO2 flux exhibited more condensation than that made with TiO2 flux. Results indicate that energy density of SiO2-flux assisted TIG welding is higher than that of TiO2-flux assisted TIG welding.

  7. Thermoelectric Properties of Self Assembled TiO2/SnO2 Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynys, Fred; Sayir, Ali; Sehirlioglu, Alp

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in improving efficiency of thermoelectric materials are linked to nanotechnology. Thermodynamically driven spinodal decomposition was utilized to synthesize bulk nanocomposites. TiO2/SnO2 system exhibits a large spinodal region, ranging from 15 to 85 mole % TiO2. The phase separated microstructures are stable up to 1400 C. Semiconducting TiO2/SnO2 powders were synthesized by solid state reaction between TiO2 and SnO2. High density samples were fabricated by pressureless sintering. Self assemble nanocomposites were achieved by annealing at 1000 to 1350 C. X-ray diffraction reveal phase separation of (Ti(x)Sn(1-x))O2 type phases. The TiO2/SnO2 nanocomposites exhibit n-type behavior; a power factor of 70 W/mK2 at 1000 C has been achieved with penta-valent doping. Seebeck, thermal conductivity, electrical resistivity and microstructure will be discussed in relation to composition and doping.

  8. Thermoelectric Properties of Self Assemble TiO2/SnO2 Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynys, Fred; Sayir, Ali; Sehirlioglu, Alp

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in improving efficiency of thermoelectric materials are linked to nanotechnology. Thermodynamically driven spinodal decomposition was utilized to synthesize bulk nanocomposites. TiO2/SnO2 system exhibits a large spinodal region, ranging from 15 to 85 mole % TiO2. The phase separated microstructures are stable up to 1400 C. Semiconducting TiO2/SnO2 powders were synthesized by solid state reaction between TiO2 and SnO2. High density samples were fabricated by pressureless sintering. Self assemble nanocomposites were achieved by annealing at 1000 to 1350 C. X-ray diffraction reveal phase separation of (Ti(x)Sn(1-x))O2 type phases. The TiO2/SnO2 nanocomposites exhibit n-type behavior; a power factor of 70 (mu)W/m sq K at 1000 C has been achieved with penta-valent doping. Seebeck, thermal conductivity, electrical resistivity and microstructure will be discussed in relation to composition and doping.

  9. Artificial O2 carriers: status in 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahn, Donat R; Kocian, Roman

    2005-01-01

    Donor blood is a limited resource and its transfusion is associated with significant adverse effects. Therefore, alternatives have been searched, the ultimate being artificial oxygen (O2) carriers. There are two main groups of artificial O2 carriers: hemoglobin based and perfluorocarbon emulsions. The hemoglobin molecule in hemoglobin based artificial O2 carriers needs to be stabilized to prevent dissociation of the alpha2beta2-hemoglobin tetramer into alphabeta-dimers in order to prolong intravascular retention and to eliminate nephrotoxicity. Other modifications serve to decrease O2 affinity in order to improve O2 off-loading to tissues. In addition, polyethylene glycol may be surface conjugated to increase molecular size. Finally, certain products are polymerized to increase the hemoglobin concentration at physiologic colloid oncotic pressure. Perfluorocarbons are carbon-fluorine compounds characterized by a high gas dissolving capacity for O2 and CO2 and chemical and biologic inertness. Perfluorocarbons are not miscible with water and therefore need to be brought into emulsion for intravenous application. Development, product specification, physiologic effects, efficacy to decrease the need for donor blood in surgery and side effects of the following products are described: Diaspirin cross-linked hemoglobin (HemAssist), human recombinant hemoglobin (rHb1.1 and rHb2.0), polymerized bovine hemoglobin-based O2 carrier (HBOC-201), human polymerized hemoglobin (PolyHeme), hemoglobin raffimer (Hemolink), maleimide-activated polyethylene glycol-modified hemoglobin (MP4) and perflubron emulsion (Oxygent). In addition, enzyme cross-linked poly-hemoglobin, hemoglobin containing vesicles (nano-dimension artificial red blood cells) and an allosteric modifier (RSR13) are discussed. The most advanced products are in clinical phase III trials but no product has achieved market approval yet in the US, Europe or Canada.

  10. Study on O2-supplying characteristics of Azolla in Controlled Ecological Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Deng, Sufang; Yang, Youquang; Huang, Yibing; Liu, Zhongzhu

    Azolla has high growth and propagation rate, strong photosynthetic O2-releasing ability and rich nutrient value. It is able to be used as salad-type vegetable, and can also be cultured on wet bed in multi-layer condition. Hence, it possesses a potential functioning as providing O2, fresh vegetable and absorbing CO2 for Controlled Ecological Life Support System in space. In this study, we try to make clear the O2-providing characteristics of Azolla in controlled close chamber under manned condition in order to lay a foundation for Azolla as a biological component in the next ground simulated experiment and space application. A closed test cham-ber of Controlled Ecological Life Support System and Azolla wet-culturing devices were built to measure the changes of atmospheric O2-CO2 concentration inside chamber under "Azolla-fish -men" coexisting condition. The results showed that, the amount of O2 consumption is 80.49 83.07 ml/h per kilogram fish, the amount of CO2 emissions is 70.49 73.56 ml/(kg • h); O2 consumption of trial volunteers is 19.71 L/h, the volume of respiration release CO2 18.90 L/h .Artificial light intensity of Azolla wet culture under 70009000 Lx, people respiration and Azolla photosynthesis complemented each other, the atmospheric O2-CO2 concentration inside chamber maintained equilibration. Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations in close chamber have obvious effects on enhancing Azolla net photosynthesis efficiency. This shows that Azolla has strong photosynthetic O2-releasing ability, which equilibrates the O2-CO2 concentration inside chamber in favor of human survival, and then verifies the prospect of Azolla in space application.

  11. A first-principles study of the SnO2 monolayer with hexagonal structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wen-Zhi; Xiao, Gang; Wang, Ling-Ling

    2016-11-07

    We report the structural, electronic, magnetic, and elastic properties of a two-dimensional (2D) honeycomb stannic oxide (SnO2) monolayer based on comprehensive first-principles calculations. The free-standing and well-ordered 2D centered honeycomb SnO2 (T-SnO2) monolayer with D3d point-group symmetry has good dynamical stability, as well as thermal stability at 500 K. The T-SnO2 monolayer is a nonmagnetic wide-bandgap semiconductor with an indirect bandgap of 2.55/4.13 eV obtained by the generalized gradient approximation with the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof/Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof hybrid functional, but it acquires a net magnetic moment upon creation of a Sn vacancy defect. The elastic constants obtained from the relaxed ion model show that the T-SnO2 monolayer is much softer than MoS2. The bandgap monotonically decreases with increasing strain from -8% to 15%. An indirect-to-direct bandgap transition occurs upon applying biaxial strain below -8%. Synthesis of the T-SnO2 monolayer is proposed. We identify the Zr(0001) surface as being suitable to grow and stabilize the T-SnO2 monolayer. The unique structure and electronic properties mean that the T-SnO2 monolayer has promising applications in nanoelectronics. We hope that the present study on the stable free-standing SnO2 monolayer will inspire researchers to further explore its importance both experimentally and theoretically.

  12. Pro NET Best Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, Stephen D

    2011-01-01

    Pro .NET Best Practices is a practical reference to the best practices that you can apply to your .NET projects today. You will learn standards, techniques, and conventions that are sharply focused, realistic and helpful for achieving results, steering clear of unproven, idealistic, and impractical recommendations. Pro .NET Best Practices covers a broad range of practices and principles that development experts agree are the right ways to develop software, which includes continuous integration, automated testing, automated deployment, and code analysis. Whether the solution is from a free and

  13. Getting to Net Zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-01

    The technology necessary to build net zero energy buildings (NZEBs) is ready and available today, however, building to net zero energy performance levels can be challenging. Energy efficiency measures, onsite energy generation resources, load matching and grid interaction, climatic factors, and local policies vary from location to location and require unique methods of constructing NZEBs. It is recommended that Components start looking into how to construct and operate NZEBs now as there is a learning curve to net zero construction and FY 2020 is just around the corner.

  14. Instant Lucene.NET

    CERN Document Server

    Heydt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A step-by-step guide that helps you to index, search, and retrieve unstructured data with the help of Lucene.NET.Instant Lucene.NET How-to is essential for developers new to Lucene and Lucene.NET who are looking to get an immediate foundational understanding of how to use the library in their application. It's assumed you have programming experience in C# already, but not that you have experience with search techniques such as information retrieval theory (although there will be a l

  15. Itinerant Antiferromagnetism in RuO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlijn, T.; Snijders, P. C.; Delaire, O.; Zhou, H.-D.; Maier, T. A.; Cao, H.-B.; Chi, S.-X.; Matsuda, M.; Wang, Y.; Koehler, M. R.; Kent, P. R. C.; Weitering, H. H.

    2017-02-01

    Bulk rutile RuO2 has long been considered a Pauli paramagnet. Here we report that RuO2 exhibits a hitherto undetected lattice distortion below approximately 900 K. The distortion is accompanied by antiferromagnetic order up to at least 300 K with a small room temperature magnetic moment of approximately 0.05 μB as evidenced by polarized neutron diffraction. Density functional theory plus U (DFT +U ) calculations indicate that antiferromagnetism is favored even for small values of the Hubbard U of the order of 1 eV. The antiferromagnetism may be traced to a Fermi surface instability, lifting the band degeneracy imposed by the rutile crystal field. The combination of high Néel temperature and small itinerant moments make RuO2 unique among ruthenate compounds and among oxide materials in general.

  16. Cyclic mononucleotides modulate potassium and calcium flux responses to H2O2 in Arabidopsis roots

    KAUST Repository

    Ordoñez, Natalia Maria

    2014-02-13

    Cyclic mononucleotides are messengers in plant stress responses. Here we show that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induces rapid net K+-efflux and Ca2+-influx in Arabidopsis roots. Pre-treatment with either 10 μM cAMP or cGMP for 1 or 24 h does significantly reduce net K+-leakage and Ca2+-influx, and in the case of the K+-fluxes, the cell permeant cyclic mononucleotides are more effective. We also examined the effect of 10 μM of the cell permeant 8-Br-cGMP on the Arabidopsis microsomal proteome and noted a specific increase in proteins with a role in stress responses and ion transport, suggesting that cGMP is sufficient to directly and/or indirectly induce complex adaptive changes to cellular stresses induced by H2O2. © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Core-Shell MnO2-SiO2 Nanorods for Catalyzing the Removal of Dyes from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presented a novel core-shell MnO2@m-SiO2 for catalyzing the removal of dyes from wastewater. MnO2 nanorods were sequentially coated with polydopamine (PDA and polyethyleneimine (PEI forming MnO2@PDA-PEI. By taking advantage of the positively charged amine groups, MnO2@PDA-PEI was further silicificated, forming MnO2@PDA-PEI-SiO2. After calcination, the composite MnO2@m-SiO2 was finally obtained. MnO2 nanorod is the core and mesoporous SiO2 (m-SiO2 is the shell. MnO2@m-SiO2 has been used to degrade a model dye Rhodamine B (RhB. The shell m-SiO2 functioned to adsorb/enrich and transfer RhB, and the core MnO2 nanorods oxidized RhB. Thus, MnO2@m-SiO2 combines multiple functions together. Experimental results demonstrated that MnO2@m-SiO2 exhibited a much higher efficiency for degradation of RhB than MnO2. The RhB decoloration and degradation efficiencies were 98.7% and 84.9%, respectively. Consecutive use of MnO2@m-SiO2 has demonstrated that MnO2@m-SiO2 can be used to catalyze multiple cycles of RhB degradation. After six cycles of reuse of MnO2@m-SiO2, the RhB decoloration and degradation efficiencies were 98.2% and 71.1%, respectively.

  18. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Musall, Eike

    2010-01-01

    and identify possible renewable energy supply options which may be considered in calculations. Finally, the gap between the methodology proposed by each organisation and their respective national building code is assessed; providing an overview of the possible changes building codes will need to undergo......The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...... parameters used in the calculations are discussed and the various renewable supply options considered in the methodologies are summarised graphically. Thus, the paper helps to understand different existing approaches to calculate energy balance in Net ZEBs, highlights the importance of variables selection...

  19. PhysioNet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The PhysioNet Resource is intended to stimulate current research and new investigations in the study of complex biomedical and physiologic signals. It offers free...

  20. NetSig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Heiko; Lawrence, Michael S; Chouinard, Candace R

    2018-01-01

    Methods that integrate molecular network information and tumor genome data could complement gene-based statistical tests to identify likely new cancer genes; but such approaches are challenging to validate at scale, and their predictive value remains unclear. We developed a robust statistic (Net......Sig) that integrates protein interaction networks with data from 4,742 tumor exomes. NetSig can accurately classify known driver genes in 60% of tested tumor types and predicts 62 new driver candidates. Using a quantitative experimental framework to determine in vivo tumorigenic potential in mice, we found that Net......Sig candidates induce tumors at rates that are comparable to those of known oncogenes and are ten-fold higher than those of random genes. By reanalyzing nine tumor-inducing NetSig candidates in 242 patients with oncogene-negative lung adenocarcinomas, we find that two (AKT2 and TFDP2) are significantly amplified...

  1. TideNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    query tide data sources in a desired geographic region of USA and its territories (Figure 1). Users can select a tide data source through the Google Map ...select data sources according to the desired geographic region. It uses the Google Map interface to display data from different sources. Recent...Coastal Inlets Research Program TideNet The TideNet is a web-based Graphical User Interface (GUI) that provides users with GIS mapping tools to

  2. Building Neural Net Software

    OpenAIRE

    Neto, João Pedro; Costa, José Félix

    1999-01-01

    In a recent paper [Neto et al. 97] we showed that programming languages can be translated on recurrent (analog, rational weighted) neural nets. The goal was not efficiency but simplicity. Indeed we used a number-theoretic approach to machine programming, where (integer) numbers were coded in a unary fashion, introducing a exponential slow down in the computations, with respect to a two-symbol tape Turing machine. Implementation of programming languages in neural nets turns to be not only theo...

  3. Interaction Nets in Russian

    OpenAIRE

    Salikhmetov, Anton

    2013-01-01

    Draft translation to Russian of Chapter 7, Interaction-Based Models of Computation, from Models of Computation: An Introduction to Computability Theory by Maribel Fernandez. "In this chapter, we study interaction nets, a model of computation that can be seen as a representative of a class of models based on the notion of 'computation as interaction'. Interaction nets are a graphical model of computation devised by Yves Lafont in 1990 as a generalisation of the proof structures of linear logic...

  4. Programming NET 35

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Bestselling author Jesse Liberty and industry expert Alex Horovitz uncover the common threads that unite the .NET 3.5 technologies, so you can benefit from the best practices and architectural patterns baked into the new Microsoft frameworks. The book offers a Grand Tour" of .NET 3.5 that describes how the principal technologies can be used together, with Ajax, to build modern n-tier and service-oriented applications. "

  5. SnO 2 /SiO 2 Nanocomposite Catalyzed One-pot, Four-component ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nanocomposite (SnO2/SiO2) catalytic material has been synthesized by using the sol-gel method. The prepared catalytic materials were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform ...

  6. O2(a1Δ) Quenching In The O/O2/O3 System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azyazov, V. N.; Mikheyev, P. A.; Postell, D.; Heaven, M. C.

    2010-10-01

    The development of discharge singlet oxygen generators (DSOG's) that can operate at high pressures is required for the power scaling of the discharge oxygen iodine laser. In order to achieve efficient high-pressure DSOG operation it is important to understand the mechanisms by which singlet oxygen (O2(a1Δ)) is quenched in these devices. It has been proposed that three-body deactivation processes of the type O2(a1Δ)+O+M→2O2+M provide significant energy loss channels. To further explore these reactions the physical and reactive quenching of O2(a1Δ) in O(3P)/O2/O3/CO2/He/Ar mixtures has been investigated. Oxygen atoms and singlet oxygen molecules were produced by the 248 nm laser photolysis of ozone. The kinetics of O2(a1Δ) quenching were followed by observing the 1268 nm fluorescence of the O2a1Δ-X3∑ transition. Fast quenching of O2(a1Δ) in the presence of oxygen atoms and molecules was observed. The mechanism of the process has been examined using kinetic models, which indicate that quenching by vibrationally excited ozone is the dominant reaction.

  7. Cytotoxicity Property of Nano-TiO2 Sol and Nano-TiO2 Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingting He

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A homogeneous and transparent titania (TiO2 sol with nanosized anatase TiO2 particles was prepared by hydrothermal synthesis method. The transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the structure and morphology of particulates in the TiO2 sol and purchased TiO2 powder. The results show that the homogeneous anatase crystalline phase was formed and the size of the spindle-like particle in sol was about 20 nm in width and 150 nm in average length, and the particulates of the purchased powder were globular-like about 50 nm in diameter. In addition, a consistent set of in vitro experimental protocols was used to study the effects of nano-TiO2 sol as prepared and nano-TiO2 powder on mouse peritoneal macrophage. The cytotoxicity tests in vitro indicate that, with the increasing of TiO2 sol concentration contaminated with the cells, the relative proliferation rate of macrophage cells was improved slightly after the cells contaminated for 24 h, but it reduced rapidly after contaminated for 48 h. The purchased nano-TiO2 powder inhibited the growth of the cells obviously as cultivating with macrophage both for 24 h and 48 h.

  8. Spray deposited CeO2–TiO2 counter electrode for electrochromic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 38; Issue 2. Spray deposited ... Yxy and *** coordinates signify CeO2–TiO2 films and it also exhibits the application as counter electrode in electrochromic smart windows in which they are able to retain their transparency under charge insertion/extraction.

  9. Synthesis, Characterization and Properties of CeO2-doped TiO2 Composite Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oman ZUAS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pure TiO2 and CeO2-doped TiO2 (3 % CeO2-97 %TiO2 composite nanocrystals were synthesized via co-precipitation method and characterized using TGA, XRD, FTIR, DR-UV-vis and TEM. The XRD data revealed that the phase structure of the synthesized samples was mainly in pure anatase having crystallite size in the range of 7 nm – 11 nm. Spherical shapes with moderate aggregation of the crystal particles were observed under the TEM observation. The presence of the CeO2 at TiO2 site has not only affected morphologically but also induced the electronic property of the TiO2 by lowering the band gap energy from 3.29 eV (Eg-Ti to 3.15 eV (Eg-CeTi. Performance evaluation of the synthesized samples showed that both samples have a strong adsorption capacity toward Congo red (CR dye in aqueous solution at room temperature experiment, where  the capacity of the CeTi was higher than the Ti sample. Based on DR-UV data, the synthesized samples obtained in this study may also become promising catalysts for photo-assisted removal of synthetic dye in aqueous solution. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.4.2732

  10. Synthesis and characterization of TiO2–SiO2 nanoparticles as ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    from the isomorphous substitution of cations in the crys- tal structure of one oxide by cations of different elements. (Thomas 1949; Hu et al 2003). TiO2–SiO2 mixed oxides can be considered as attractive materials for catalytic appli- cations due to their high catalytic activity and selectivity either as catalysts or catalyst supports ...

  11. Preparation and characterization of Fe–V/TiO2–SiO2 nanocatalyst ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    catalytic properties and by the use of an allocated sup- port, the activity and selectivity of the catalyst can be ameliorated (Hu and Waches 1995). By using a combina- tion of titania and silica as a support, their intrinsic char- acteristics can be detected. Therefore the combined TiO2–. SiO2 mixed oxide shows a novel category ...

  12. Activity and Selectivity for O-2 Reduction to H2O2 on Transition Metal Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siahrostami, Samira; Verdaguer Casadevall, Arnau; Karamad, Mohammadreza

    2013-01-01

    Industrially viable electrochemical production of H2O2 requires active, selective and stable electrocatalyst materials to catalyse the oxygen reduction reaction to H2O2. On the basis of density functional theory calculations, we explain why single site catalysts such as Pd/Au show improved...

  13. Catalytic combustion of trichloroethylene over TiO2-SiO2 supported catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulazynski, M.; van Ommen, J.G.; Trawczynski, J.; Walendziewski, J.

    2002-01-01

    Combustion of trichloroethylene (TCE) on Cr2O3, V2O5, Pt or Pd catalysts supported on TiO2-SiO2 as a carrier has been investigated. It was found that oxide catalysts are very active but their activity quickly diminishes due to loss of the active component, especially at higher reaction temperatures

  14. Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity of ZrO2-SiO2 Nanoparticles by Platinum Doping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad W. Kadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ZrO2-SiO2 mixed oxides were prepared via the sol-gel method. Photo-assisted deposition was utilized for doping the prepared mixed oxide with 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 wt% of Pt. XRD spectra showed that doping did not result in the incorporation of Pt within the crystal structure of the material. UV-reflectance spectrometry showed that the band gap of ZrO2-SiO2 decreased from 3.04 eV to 2.48 eV with 0.4 wt% Pt doping. The results show a specific surface area increase of 20%. Enhanced photocatalysis of Pt/ZrO2-SiO2 was successfully tested on photo degradation of cyanide under illumination of visible light. 100% conversion was achieved within 20 min with 0.3 wt% of Pt doped ZrO2-SiO2.

  15. Thermoelectric Properties in the TiO2/SnO2 System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynys, F.; Sayir, A.; Sehirlioglu, A.; Berger, M.

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnology has provided a new interest in thermoelectric technology. A thermodynamically driven process is one approach in achieving nanostructures in bulk materials. TiO2/SnO2 system exhibits a large spinodal region with exceptional stable phase separated microstructures up to 1400 C. Fabricated TiO2/SnO2 nanocomposites exhibit n-type behavior with Seebeck coefficients greater than -300 .V/K. Composites exhibit good thermal conductance in the range of 7 to 1 W/mK. Dopant additions have not achieved high electrical conductivity (<1000 S/m). Formation of oxygen deficient composites, TixSn1-xO2-y, can change the electrical conductivity by four orders of magnitude. Achieving higher thermoelectric ZT by oxygen deficiency is being explored. Seebeck coeffcient, thermal conductivity, electrical conductance and microstructure will be discussed in relation to composition and doping.

  16. [Electrochemical oxidation of ammonia nitrogen wastewater using Ti/RuO2-TiO2-IrO2-SnO2 electrode].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li-li; Shi, Han-chang; Chen, Jin-luan

    2007-09-01

    Electrochemical oxidation ammonia is a new method of ammonia nitrogen wastewater treatment. A study was undertaken of electrochemical oxidation ammonia wastewater in cycle mobil-electrobath. The anode was Ti/RuO2-TiO2-IrO2-SnO2 expanded metal sheet electrode. The cathode was expanded metal sheet electrode. The parameters investigated were the optimal available time for the measurement of ammonia nitrogen, flowrate and current density. The energy consumption, anode efficiency and current efficiency were analysed in different current densities. Experimental results show that when the concentration of the chlorine ion was 400 mg/L and the initial ammoniac nitrogen concentration was 40 mg/L, the flowrate had little impact on ammonia nitrogen removal, but current density had greater impact. Under the condition with flowrate 600 mL/min, current density 20 mA/cm2, electrolytic time 90 min, ammonia nitrogen removal ratio was 99.37%. The energy consumption was 500 kW x h and the anode efficiency was 2.68 h x m2 x A per kg NH4+ -N removed, and instantaneous current efficiency (ICE) was 0.28. Research has shown that electrochemical oxidation ammonia wastewater has better prospects.

  17. Electrochemical and optical properties of CeO2-SnO2 and CeO2-SnO2:X (X = Li, C, Si films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berton Marcos A.C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin solid films of CeO2-SnO2 (17 mol% Sn and CeO2-SnO2:X (X = Li, C and Si were prepared by the sol-gel route, using an aqueous-based process. The addition of Li, C and Si to the precursor solution leads to films with different electrochemical performances. The films were deposited by the dip-coating technique on ITO coated glass (Donnelly Glass at a speed of 10 cm/min and submitted to a final thermal treatment at 450 °C during 10 min in air. The electrochemical and optical properties of the films were determined from the cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry measurements using 0.1 M LiOH as supporting electrolyte. The ion storage capacity of the films was investigated using in situ spectroelectrochemical method and during the insertion/extraction process the films remained transparent. The powders were characterized by thermal analysis (DSC/TGA and X-ray diffraction.

  18. Search for supersymmetric particles assuming R-parity non-conservation in $e^+e^-$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 192 to 208 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, J.; Adam, W.; Adzic, P.; Albrecht, T.; Alderweireld, T.; Alemany-Fernandez, R.; Allmendinger, T.; Allport, P.P.; Amaldi, U.; Amapane, N.; Amato, S.; Anashkin, E.; Andreazza, A.; Andringa, S.; Anjos, N.; Antilogus, P.; Apel, W.D.; Arnoud, Y.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Augustin, J.E.; Augustinus, A.; Baillon, P.; Ballestrero, A.; Bambade, P.; Barbier, R.; Bardin, D.; Barker, G.J.; Baroncelli, A.; Battaglia, M.; Baubillier, M.; Becks, K.H.; Begalli, M.; Behrmann, A.; Ben-Haim, E.; Benekos, N.; Benvenuti, A.; Berat, C.; Berggren, M.; Berntzon, L.; Bertrand, D.; Besancon, M.; Besson, N.; Bloch, D.; Blom, M.; Bluj, M.; Bonesini, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, P.S.L.; Borisov, G.; Botner, O.; Bouquet, B.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Boyko, I.; Bracko, M.; Brenner, R.; Brodet, E.; Bruckman, P.; Brunet, J.M.; Bugge, L.; Buschmann, P.; Calvi, M.; Camporesi, T.; Canale, V.; Carena, F.; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cavallo, F.; Chapkin, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Checchia, P.; Chierici, R.; Chliapnikov, P.; Chudoba, J.; Chung, S.U.; Cieslik, K.; Collins, P.; Contri, R.; Cosme, G.; Cossutti, F.; Costa, M.J.; Crennell, D.; Cuevas, J.; D'Hondt, J.; Dalmau, J.; da Silva, T.; Da Silva, W.; Della Ricca, G.; De Angelis, A.; De Boer, W.; De Clercq, C.; De Lotto, B.; De Maria, N.; De Min, A.; de Paula, L.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Simone, A.; Doroba, K.; Drees, J.; Dris, M.; Eigen, G.; Ekelof, T.; Ellert, M.; Elsing, M.; Espirito Santo, M.C.; Fanourakis, G.; Fassouliotis, D.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J.; Ferrer, A.; Ferro, F.; Flagmeyer, U.; Foeth, H.; Fokitis, E.; Fulda-Quenzer, F.; Fuster, J.; Gandelman, M.; Garcia, C.; Gavillet, Ph.; Gazis, Evangelos; Gokieli, R.; Golob, B.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncalves, P.; Graziani, E.; Grosdidier, G.; Grzelak, K.; Guy, J.; Haag, C.; Hallgren, A.; Hamacher, K.; Hamilton, K.; Haug, S.; Hauler, F.; Hedberg, V.; Hennecke, M.; Herr, H.; Hoffman, J.; Holmgren, S.O.; Holt, P.J.; Houlden, M.A.; Hultqvist, K.; Jackson, John Neil; Jarlskog, G.; Jarry, P.; Jeans, D.; Johansson, Erik Karl; Johansson, P.D.; Jonsson, P.; Joram, C.; Jungermann, L.; Kapusta, Frederic; Katsanevas, S.; Katsoufis, E.; Kernel, G.; Kersevan, B.P.; Kerzel, U.; Kiiskinen, A.; King, B.T.; Kjaer, N.J.; Kluit, P.; Kokkinias, P.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Kouznetsov, O.; Krumstein, Z.; Kucharczyk, M.; Lamsa, J.; Leder, G.; Ledroit, Fabienne; Leinonen, L.; Leitner, R.; Lemonne, J.; Lepeltier, V.; Lesiak, T.; Liebig, W.; Liko, D.; Lipniacka, A.; Lopes, J.H.; Lopez, J.M.; Loukas, D.; Lutz, P.; Lyons, L.; MacNaughton, J.; Malek, A.; Maltezos, S.; Mandl, F.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Marechal, B.; Margoni, M.; Marin, J.C.; Mariotti, C.; Markou, A.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Masik, J.; Mastroyiannopoulos, N.; Matorras, F.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mazzucato, F.; Mazzucato, M.; McNulty, R.; Meroni, C.; Migliore, E.; Mitaroff, W.; Mjoernmark, U.; Moa, T.; Moch, M.; Monig, Klaus; Monge, R.; Montenegro, J.; Moraes, D.; Moreno, S.; Morettini, P.; Mueller, U.; Muenich, K.; Mulders, M.; Mundim, L.; Murray, W.; Muryn, B.; Myatt, G.; Myklebust, T.; Nassiakou, M.; Navarria, F.; Nawrocki, K.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nikolenko, M.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Olshevski, A.; Onofre, A.; Orava, R.; Osterberg, K.; Ouraou, A.; Oyanguren, A.; Paganoni, M.; Paiano, S.; Palacios, J.P.; Palka, H.; Papadopoulou, Th.D.; Pape, L.; Parkes, C.; Parodi, F.; Parzefall, U.; Passeri, A.; Passon, O.; Peralta, L.; Perepelitsa, V.; Perrotta, A.; Petrolini, A.; Piedra, J.; Pieri, L.; Pierre, F.; Pimenta, M.; Piotto, E.; Podobnik, T.; Poireau, V.; Pol, M.E.; Polok, G.; Pozdniakov, V.; Pukhaeva, N.; Pullia, A.; Rames, J.; Read, Alexander L.; Rebecchi, P.; Rehn, J.; Reid, D.; Reinhardt, R.; Renton, P.; Richard, F.; Ridky, J.; Rivero, M.; Rodriguez, D.; Romero, A.; Ronchese, P.; Roudeau, P.; Rovelli, T.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Ryabtchikov, D.; Sadovsky, A.; Salmi, L.; Salt, J.; Sander, C.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schwickerath, U.; Segar, A.; Sekulin, R.; Siebel, M.; Sisakian, A.; Smadja, G.; Smirnova, O.; Sokolov, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sosnowski, R.; Spassov, T.; Stanitzki, M.; Stocchi, A.; Strauss, J.; Stugu, B.; Szczekowski, M.; Szeptycka, M.; Szumlak, T.; Tabarelli, T.; Taffard, A.C.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Timmermans, Jan; Tkatchev, L.; Tobin, M.; Todorovova, S.; Tome, B.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortosa, P.; Travnicek, P.; Treille, D.; Tristram, G.; Trochimczuk, M.; Troncon, C.; Turluer, M.L.; Tyapkin, I.A.; Tyapkin, P.; Tzamarias, S.; Uvarov, V.; Valenti, G.; Van Dam, Piet; Van Eldik, J.; Van Lysebetten, A.; van Remortel, N.; Van Vulpen, I.; Vegni, G.; Veloso, F.; Venus, W.; Verdier, P.; Verzi, V.; Vilanova, D.; Vitale, L.; Vrba, V.; Wahlen, H.; Washbrook, A.J.; Weiser, C.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Winter, M.; Witek, M.; Yushchenko, O.; Zalewska, A.; Zalewski, P.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zimine, N.I.; Zintchenko, A.; Zupan, M.

    2004-01-01

    Searches for pair-production of supersymmetric particles under the assumption of non-conservation of R-parity with a dominant LLEbar or UbarDbarDbar term have been performed using the data collected by the DELPHI experiment at LEP in e+e- collisions at centre-of-mass energies from 192 up to 208 GeV. No excess of data above Standard Model expectations was observed. The results were used to constrain the MSSM parameter space and to derive limits on the masses of supersymmetric particles.

  19. Asymmetrical distribution of non-conserved regulatory sequences at PHOX2B is reflected at the ENCODE loci and illuminates a possible genome-wide trend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCallion Andrew S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcriptional regulatory elements are central to development and interspecific phenotypic variation. Current regulatory element prediction tools rely heavily upon conservation for prediction of putative elements. Recent in vitro observations from the ENCODE project combined with in vivo analyses at the zebrafish phox2b locus suggests that a significant fraction of regulatory elements may fall below commonly applied metrics of conservation. We propose to explore these observations in vivo at the human PHOX2B locus, and also evaluate the potential evidence for genome-wide applicability of these observations through a novel analysis of extant data. Results Transposon-based transgenic analysis utilizing a tiling path proximal to human PHOX2B in zebrafish recapitulates the observations at the zebrafish phox2b locus of both conserved and non-conserved regulatory elements. Analysis of human sequences conserved with previously identified zebrafish phox2b regulatory elements demonstrates that the orthologous sequences exhibit overlapping regulatory control. Additionally, analysis of non-conserved sequences scattered over 135 kb 5' to PHOX2B, provides evidence of non-conserved regulatory elements positively biased with close proximity to the gene. Furthermore, we provide a novel analysis of data from the ENCODE project, finding a non-uniform distribution of regulatory elements consistent with our in vivo observations at PHOX2B. These observations remain largely unchanged when one accounts for the sequence repeat content of the assayed intervals, when the intervals are sub-classified by biological role (developmental versus non-developmental, or by gene density (gene desert versus non-gene desert. Conclusion While regulatory elements frequently display evidence of evolutionary conservation, a fraction appears to be undetected by current metrics of conservation. In vivo observations at the PHOX2B locus, supported by our analyses of in

  20. Photoelectrochemical detection of glutathione by IrO2-hemin-TiO2 nanowire arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jing; Kong, Biao; Wang, Yongcheng; Xu, Ming; Wang, Yanli; Wu, Hao; Zheng, Gengfeng

    2013-01-01

    We have developed sensitive detection of glutathione using the IrO2-hemin-TiO2 nanowire arrays. Single-crystalline TiO2 nanowires are synthesized by a hydrothermal reaction, followed by surface functionalization of ~3 nm thick hemin and ~1-2 nm diameter IrO2 nanoparticles. The IrO2-hemin-TiO2 nanowire arrays offer much enhanced photocurrent with ∼100% increase compared to the pristine TiO2 nanowires and allow for label-free, real-time, sensitive photoelectrochemical detection of glutathione. The sensitivity achieved is ~10 nM in buffer, comparable to or better than most of the existing glutathione detection methods. Furthermore, cell extracts containing glutathione are robustly detected, with ~8000 cells/mL for HeLa cells and ~5000 cells/mL for human embryonic kidney 293T cells. This nanowire PEC sensor assay exhibits excellent selectivity and stability, suggesting a potential detection platform for analyzing the glutathione level in biosamples.

  1. MnO2/CeO2 for catalytic ultrasonic degradation of methyl orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, He; Zhang, Guangming; Zhang, Quanling

    2014-05-01

    Catalytic ultrasonic degradation of aqueous methyl orange was studied in this paper. Heterogeneous catalyst MnO2/CeO2 was prepared by impregnation of manganese oxide on cerium oxide. Morphology and specific surface area of MnO2/CeO2 catalyst were characterized and its composition was determined. Results showed big differences between fresh and used catalyst. The removal efficiency of methyl orange by MnO2/CeO2 catalytic ultrasonic process was investigated. Results showed that ultrasonic process could remove 3.5% of methyl orange while catalytic ultrasonic process could remove 85% of methyl orange in 10 min. The effects of free radical scavengers were studied to determine the role of hydroxyl free radical in catalytic ultrasonic process. Results showed that methyl orange degradation efficiency declined after adding free radical scavengers, illustrating that hydroxyl free radical played an important role in degrading methyl orange. Theoretic analysis showed that the resonance size of cavitation bubbles was comparable with the size of catalyst particles. Thus, catalyst particles might act as cavitation nucleus and enhance ultrasonic cavitation effects. Measurement of H2O2 concentration in catalytic ultrasonic process confirmed this hypothesis. Effects of pre-adsorption on catalytic ultrasonic process were examined. Pre-adsorption significantly improved methyl orange removal. The potential explanation was that methyl orange molecules adsorbed on catalysts could enter cavitation bubbles and undergo stronger cavitation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Enhanced Activity and Durability of Nanosized Pt-SnO2/IrO2/CNTs Catalyst for Methanol Electrooxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongjuan; Wang, Xiaohui; Zheng, Jiadao; Peng, Feng; Yu, Hao

    2015-05-01

    Pt-SnO2/IrO2/CNTs anode catalyst for direct methanol fuel cell was designed and prepared with IrO2/CNTs as support for the subsequent immobilization of Pt and SnO2 at the same time. The structure of the catalysts and their catalytic performance in methanol electrooxidation were investigated and the roles of IrO2 and SnO2 in methanol electrooxidation were discussed as well. Results show that Pt-SnO2/IrO2/CNTs catalyst exhibits the best activity and durability for methanol electrooxidation when compared with Pt/CNTs, Pt/IrO2/CNTs and Pt-SnO2/CNTs. According to the results of electrochemical tests and physicochemical characterizations, the enhancements of Pt-SnO2/IrO2/CNTs were attributed to the special properties of IrO2 and SnO2, in which IrO2 mainly increases the methanol oxidation activity and SnO2 mainly improves the CO oxidation ability and durability. Therefore, Pt-SnO2/IrO2/CNTs exhibits excellent performance for methanol oxidation with higher electrocatalytic activity (I(f) of 1054 A g(Pt(-1)) and powerful anti-poisoning ability (the onset potential for CO oxidation of 0.3 V) and outstanding durability (the sustained time t in CP of 617 s), revealing a suitable anode catalyst for DMFCs.

  3. Equilibrium constant for the reversible reaction ClO + O2 - ClO-O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demore, W. B.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown here that the equilibrium constant for the reversible reaction ClO + O2 - ClO-O2 at stratospheric temperatures must be at least three orders of magnitude less than the current NASA upper limit. The new upper limit greatly diminishes the possible role of ClO-O2 in the chlorine-photosensitized decomposition of O3. Nevertheless, it does not preclude the possibility that it is a significant reservoir of ClO, as well as a possible reactant, at low temperatures characteristic of polar vortices.

  4. Aerosols correction of the OMI tropospheric NO2 retrievals over cloud-free scenes: Different methodologies based on the O2-O2 477 nm band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimot, Julien; Vlemmix, Tim; Veefkind, Pepijn; Levelt, Pieternel

    2016-04-01

    Numerous studies have drawn attention to the complexities related to the retrievals of tropospheric NO2 columns derived from satellite UltraViolet-Visible (UV-Vis) measurements in the presence of aerosols. Correction for aerosol effects will remain a challenge for the next generation of air quality satellite instruments such as TROPOMI on Sentinel-5 Precursor, Sentinel-4 and Sentinel-5. The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) instrument has provided daily global measurements of tropospheric NO2 for more than a decade. However, aerosols are not explicitly taken into account in the current operational OMI tropospheric NO2 retrieval chain (DOMINO v2 [Boersma et al., 2011]). Our study analyses 2 approaches for an operational aerosol correction, based on the use of the O2-O2 477 nm band. The 1st approach is the cloud-model based aerosol correction, also named "implicit aerosol correction", and already used in the operational chain. The OMI O2-O2 cloud retrieval algorithm, based on the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) approach, is applied both to cloudy and to cloud-free scenes with aerosols present. Perturbation of the OMI cloud retrievals over scenes dominated by aerosols has been observed in recent studies led by [Castellanos et al., 2015; Lin et al., 2015; Lin et al., 2014]. We investigated the causes of these perturbations by: (1) confronting the OMI tropospheric NO2, clouds and MODIS AQUA aerosol products; (2) characterizing the key drivers of the aerosol net effects, compared to a signal from clouds, in the UV-Vis spectra. This study has focused on large industrialised areas like East-China, over cloud-free scenes. One of the key findings is the limitation due to the coarse sampling of the employed cloud Look-Up Table (LUT) to convert the results of the applied DOAS fit into effective cloud fraction and pressure. This leads to an underestimation of tropospheric NO2 amount in cases of particles located at elevated altitude. A higher sampling of the

  5. La plataforma .NET

    OpenAIRE

    Fornas Estrada, Miquel

    2008-01-01

    L'aparició de la plataforma .NET Framework ha suposat un canvi molt important en la forma de crear i distribuir aplicacions, degut a que incorpora una sèrie d'innovacions tècniques i productives que simplifiquen molt les tasques necessàries per desenvolupar un projecte. La aparición de la plataforma. NET Framework ha supuesto un cambio muy importante en la forma de crear y distribuir aplicaciones, debido a que incorpora una serie de innovaciones técnicas y productivas que simplifican mucho...

  6. Biological Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Wingender, E

    2011-01-01

    It was suggested some years ago that Petri nets might be well suited to modeling metabolic networks, overcoming some of the limitations encountered by the use of systems employing ODEs (ordinary differential equations). Much work has been done since then which confirms this and demonstrates the usefulness of this concept for systems biology. Petri net technology is not only intuitively understood by scientists trained in the life sciences, it also has a robust mathematical foundation and provides the required degree of flexibility. As a result it appears to be a very promising approach to mode

  7. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1BXSA-2O2PB [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1BXSA-2O2PB 1BXS 2O2P A B DVPAPLT----NLQFK-YTKIFINNEWHSSVSGKKFPVFNPATEEKLCEVEEGDKE...2O2P B 2O2PB KLTLQMPYQLF ...2O2P B 2O2PB TIPINQARPNRNLT...2O2P B 2O2PB ISRFADGDVDAV...2O2P B 2O2PB KEAFE-NGLWG

  8. Electrodeposition and characterization of Ni–W/ZrO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. Ni–W/ZrO2 nanocomposite coatings were prepared by electrodeposition in Ni–W plating bath containing ZrO2 nanoparticles. The influences of preparation parameter, such as ZrO2 nanoparticles concen- tration, current density and stirring rate, on weight percentage of codeposited ZrO2 nanoparticles in the.

  9. Electrodeposition and characterization of Ni–W/ZrO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ni–W/ZrO2 nanocomposite coatings were prepared by electrodeposition in Ni–W plating bath containing ZrO2 nanoparticles. The influences of preparation parameter, such as ZrO2 nanoparticles concentration, current density and stirring rate, on weight percentage of codeposited ZrO2 nanoparticles in the nanocomposite ...

  10. Petri Nets-Applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 9. Petri Nets - Applications. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 9 September 1999 pp 44-52. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/09/0044-0052. Author Affiliations. Y Narahari ...

  11. Safety nets or straitjackets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Does regulation of working hours at national and sector level impose straitjackets, or offer safety nets to employees seeking working time flexibility? This article compares legislation and collective agreements in the metal industries of Denmark, Germany and the USA. The industry has historically...

  12. Coloured Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. This book introduces the constructs of the CPN modelling language and presents the related analysis methods. It provides a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN.

  13. Boom Booom Net Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Yong, Louisa; Dobie, Ian

    1999-01-01

    of an existing Internet radio station; Boom Booom Net Radio. Whilst necessity dictates some use of technology-related terminology, wherever possible we have endeavoured to keep such jargon to a minimum and to either explain it in the text or to provide further explanation in the appended glossary....

  14. Game Theory .net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Mikhael

    2003-01-01

    States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of GameTheory.net is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…

  15. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism...

  16. Freestanding MnO2@carbon papers air electrodes for rechargeable Li-O2 batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Leilei; Zhang, Feifei; Huang, Gang; Wang, Jianwei; Du, Xinchuan; Qin, Yuling; Wang, Limin

    2014-09-01

    We have designed the air electrode for rechargeable Li-O2 batteries by adapting conventional current collectors-carbon papers (CPs), as freestanding substrates. The MnO2@CP electrodes are prepared by simply floating CPs on KMnO4 solution at room temperature. CPs act as the reducing agents as well as the freestanding substrates. Birnessite-type MnO2 nanosheets are observed to in situ grow vertically from the surface of CPs, thus building 3D porous architecture. The nanosheets are uniformly distributed and interconnected each other, which contributes to an improved electrical connection among the MnO2 catalyst and CPs. The cycling tests using the electrode as the cathode in rechargeable Li-O2 batteries exhibit high reversibility and superior cycling stability, over 90 cycles with a capacity of more than 1000 mA h (g MnO2)-1 and a high coulombic efficiency of around 100% in the voltage rang of 2.2-4.4 V.

  17. High temperature phase transition of mixed (PuO2 + ThO2) investigated by laser melting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Böhler, R.; Cakir, P.; Benes, O.; Hein, H.; Konings, R.J.M.; Manara, D.

    2014-01-01

    A laser heating approach combined with fast pyrometry in a thermal arrest method was used to provide new data for the melting/solidification phase transition in mixed (PuO2 + ThO2) at high temperature. At low concentration of ThO2 in PuO2 a minimum in the solidification temperature in the pseudo

  18. TiO2 and Cu/TiO2 Thin Films Prepared by SPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Roy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Titanium oxide (TiO2 and copper (Cu doped titanium oxide (Cu/TiO2 thin films have been prepared by spray pyrolysis technique. Titanium chloride (TiCl4 and copper acetate (Cu(CH3COO2.H2O were used as source of Ti and Cu. The doping concentration of Cu was varied from 1-10 wt. %. The X-ray diffraction studies show that TiO2 thin films are tetragonal structure and Cu/TiO2 thin films implies CuO has present with monoclinic structure. The optical properties of the TiO2 thin films have been investigated as a function of Cu-doping level. The optical transmission of the thin films was found to increase from 88 % to 94 % with the addition of Cu up to 8 % and then decreases for higher percentage of Cu doping. The optical band gap (Eg for pure TiO2 thin film is found to be 3.40 eV. Due to Cu doping, the band gap is shifted to lower energies and then increases further with increasing the concentration of Cu. The refractive index of the TiO2 thin films is found to be 2.58 and the variation of refractive index is observed due to Cu doped. The room temperature resistivity of the films decreases with increasing Cu doping and is found to be 27.50 - 23.76 W·cm. It is evident from the present study that the Cu doping promoted the thin film morphology and thereby it is aspect for various applications.

  19. Low temperature synthesis of layered NaxCoO2 and KxCoO2 from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. We report a low temperature synthesis of layered Na0⋅20CoO2 and. K0⋅44CoO2 phases from NaOH and KOH fluxes at 400°C. These layered oxides are employed to prepare hexagonal HCoO2, LixCoO2 and Delafossite AgCoO2 phases by ion exchange method. The resulting oxides were characterised by ...

  20. Low temperature synthesis of layered NaxCoO2 and KxCoO2 from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We report a low temperature synthesis of layered Na0.20CoO2 and K0.44CoO2 phases from NaOH and KOH fluxes at 400°C. These layered oxides are employed to prepare hexagonal HCoO2, LiCoO2 and Delafossite AgCoO2 phases by ion exchange method. The resulting oxides were characterised by powder X-ray ...

  1. Water Adsorption on TiO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Bjørk; Wendt, Stefan; Besenbacher, Flemming

    2010-01-01

    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) studies and Density Functional Theory (DFT) investigations of the interaction of water with the rutile TiO2 (110) surface are summarized. From high-resolution STM the following reactions have been revealed: water adsorption and diffusion in the Ti troughs, water...... dissociation in bridging oxygen vacancies, assembly of adsorbed water monomers into rapidly diffusing water dimers, and formation of water dimers by reduction of oxygen molecules. The STM results are rationalized based on DFT calculations, revealing the bonding geometries and reaction pathways of the water...

  2. Odd oxygen formation in the laser irradiation of O2 at 248 nm - Evidence for reactions of O2 in the Herzberg states with ground state O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jichun; Barker, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Two O3 formation processes (initiation and autocatalytic) are studied in pure O2 and in O2+N2 and O2+Ar mixtures at pressures between 200 and 1600 torr and at temperatures between 298 and 370 K. Evidence is presented that the initiation process produces O3 through chemical reactions between ground state O2 and excited O2 in the Herzberg states, which are produced by the photoabsorption of O2 at 248 nm. For the autocatalytic process, the results are consistent with the proposal that the O3 formation is accelerated by photodissociating vibrationally excited O2(nu), produced in the photolysis of O3 following its initial formation. It is argued that the O2 Herzberg states and O2(nu) may play important roles in the odd oxygen chemistry in the middle atmosphere. It is estimated that the O2(A3Sigma-u(+))+O2 reaction may yield up to about 6 percent of the total odd oxygen production rate near 50 km.

  3. Nanostructured porous RuO2/MnO2 as a highly efficient catalyst for high-rate Li-O2 batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoqing; Huang, Liliang; Huang, Wei; Xie, Jian; Du, Gaohui; Zhang, Shichao; Zhu, Peiyi; Cao, Gaoshao; Zhao, Xinbing

    2015-12-28

    Despite the recent advancements in Li-O(2) (or Li-air) batteries, great challenges still remain to realize high-rate, long-term cycling. In this work, a binder-free, nanostructured RuO(2)/MnO(2) catalytic cathode was designed to realize the operation of Li-O(2) batteries at high rates. At a current density as high as 3200 mA g(-1) (or ∼1.3 mA cm(-2)), the RuO(2)/MnO(2) catalyzed Li-O(2) batteries with LiI can sustain stable cycling of 170 and 800 times at limited capacities of 1000 and 500 mA h g(-1), respectively, with low charge cutoff potentials of ∼4.0 and electric vehicles.

  4. Neutral O2 and Ion O2+ Sources from Rings into the Inner Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrod, M. K.; Johnson, R. E.; Cassidy, T. A.; Wilson, R. J.; Tseng, W.; Ip, W.

    2009-12-01

    The primary source of neutral O2 for Saturn’s magnetosphere is due to solar UV photons protons that produce O2 from H2O ice decomposition over the main rings as well as the tenuous F and G rings resulting in a tenuous O2 atmosphere (Johnson et. al. 2006). The O2 atmosphere is very thin to the point of being nearly collisionless. Our model of the atmosphere predict that as it interacts with the ring particles, the O2 is adsorbed and desorbed from the rings causing changes in the trajectories, which in turn, allows for a distribution of O2 from the rings throughout the magnetosphere (Tokar et. al. 2005; Tseng et. al. 2009). Predominately through photo-ionization and ion-exchange these O2 neutrals from the ice grains become a source for O2+ ions in the inner magnetosphere. Once the O2 becomes ionized to become O2+ the ions then follow the field lines. The ions interact with the ice particles in the rings to stick to the ring particles effectively reducing the ion density. As a result the ion density is greater over the Cassini Division and the area between the F and G ring where the optical depth due to the ice grain is less. Accordingly, the neutral O2 densities would tend to be high over the higher optical depth of the B and A main rings where the source rates are higher. Models of the neutral densities have shown high densities over the main rings, with a tail through the magnetosphere. Analysis of the CAPS (Cassini Plasma Spectrometer) data from the Saturn Orbit Insertion (SOI) in 2004 shows a peak in density over the Cassini Division and a higher peak in O2+ ion density between the F and G rings. References: Johnson, R.E., J.G. Luhmann, R.L. Tokar, M. Bouhram, J.J. Berthelier, E.C. Siler, J.F. Cooper, T.W. Hill, H.T. Smith, M. Michael, M. Liu, F.J. Crary, D.T. Young, "Production, Ionization and Redistribution of O2 Saturn's Ring Atmosphere" Icarus 180, 393-402 (2006).(pdf) Tokar, R.L., and 12 colleagues, 2005. Cassini Observations of the Thermal Plasma in the

  5. Food Safety Nets:

    OpenAIRE

    Haggblade, Steven; Diallo, Boubacar; Staatz, John; Theriault, Veronique; Traoré, Abdramane

    2013-01-01

    Food and social safety nets have a history as long as human civilization. In hunter gatherer societies, food sharing is pervasive. Group members who prove unlucky in the short run, hunting or foraging, receive food from other households in anticipation of reciprocal consideration at a later time (Smith 1988). With the emergence of the first large sedentary civilizations in the Middle East, administrative systems developed specifically around food storage and distribution. The ancient Egyptian...

  6. Net technical assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Wegmann, David G.

    1989-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The present and near term military balance of power between the U.S. and the Soviet Union can be expressed in a variety of net assessments. One can examine the strategic nuclear balance, the conventional balance in Europe, the maritime balance, and many others. Such assessments are essential not only for policy making but for arms control purposes and future force structure planning. However, to project the future military balance, on...

  7. O2 plasma sintering study of TiO2 photoelectrodes in dye solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, R. S.; Gonçalves, A. D.; Stegemann, C.; da Silva Sobrinho, A. S.; Miyakawa, W.; Massi, M.

    2017-08-01

    The development of more efficient photoelectrochemical solar cells has been, over the years, the subject of many scientific researches. In this paper a methodology was established to carry out the sintering process of nanoporous TiO2 layer by using plasma, which was compared with sintered layers made by the conventional sintering process in a furnace. The TiO2 commercial paste was spread by doctor-blading technique and subjected to different sintering processes. Porous layer samples were subjected to structural and morphological analyses. Then photoelectrodes dye-loading was measured by optical spectrophotometry. The quality of the layers under plasma sintering process in terms of weight loss and removal of organic compounds was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis, mass spectrometry and FT-IR. The results showed that the plasma sintering process favors the adsorption of dye on the layer surface due to the creation of active states caused by O2 reactive plasma. Furthermore the O2 plasma process provides enough energy for removing organic compounds arising from the TiO2 paste and for providing nanoparticle sintering. Solar cells assembled with the plasma-sintered layers had a power conversion efficiency 20.1% higher than the obtained in solar cells sintered in a conventional furnace, proving the efficiency of the plasma sintering process.

  8. Enhanced silicon oxidation in O 2 and O 2:F 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerofolini, G. F.; La Bruna, G.; Meda, L.

    1995-08-01

    Rate equations are proposed for the description of the enhanced kinetics observed in the early stages of silicon oxidation in dry O 2 at usual temperature ( T ≥ 600° C) or during the oxidation in O 2:F 2 at a moderate temperature (400-550° C). Both these equations admit as an approximate solution the time-logarithm law usually known as the Elovich isotherm, thus showing that this equation is able to describe not only oxidation at room or slightly higher temperature (as well known from the first observation of the time logarithm law in 1922), but also oxidation at much higher temperatures. The physical model advocated for explaining both the early stages of oxidation in dry O 2 and enhanced oxidation in O 2:F 2 is based on the hypothesis of weakening of the Si-Si backbonds to highly polar silicon bonds like =Si(O sbnd ) 2 or ≡Si sbnd F at the Si sbnd SiO 2 interface.

  9. Using WordNet for Building WordNets

    CERN Document Server

    Farreres, X; Farreres, Xavier; Rodriguez, Horacio; Rigau, German

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarises a set of methodologies and techniques for the fast construction of multilingual WordNets. The English WordNet is used in this approach as a backbone for Catalan and Spanish WordNets and as a lexical knowledge resource for several subtasks.

  10. Enhancement of sludge anaerobic biodegradability by combined microwave-H2O2 pretreatment in acidic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eswari, Parvathy; Kavitha, S; Kaliappan, S; Yeom, Ick-Tae; Banu, J Rajesh

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to increase the sludge disintegration and reduce the cost of microwave (MW) pretreatment. Thermodynamic analysis of MW hydrolysis revealed the best fit with a first-order kinetic model at a specific energy of 18,600 kJ/kg total solids (TS). Combining H2O2 with MW resulted in a significant increment in solubilization from 30 to 50 % at 18,600 kJ/kg TS. The pH of H2O2-assisted MW-pretreated sludge (MW + H2O2) was in the alkaline range (pH 9-10), and it made the sludge unfavorable for subsequent anaerobic digestion and inhibits methane production. In order to nullify the alkaline effect caused by the MW + H2O2 combination, the addition of acid was considered for pH adjustment. H2O2-assisted MW-pretreated sludge in acidic conditions (MW + H2O2 + acid) showed a maximum methane production of 323 mL/g volatile solids (VS) than others during anaerobic biodegradability. A cost analysis of this study reveals that MW + H2O2 + acid was the most economical method with a net profit of 59.90 €/t of sludge.

  11. Photocatalytic application of TiO2/SiO2-based magnetic nanocomposite (Fe3O4@SiO2/TiO2) for reusing of textile wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Laleh Enayati Ahangar; Karim Movassaghi; Masoomeh Emadi; Fatemeh Yaghoobi

    2016-01-01

    In this research we have developed a treatment method for textile wastewater by TiO2/SiO2-based magnetic nanocomposite. Textile wastewater includes a large variety of dyes and chemicals and needs treatments. This manuscript presents a facile method for removing dyes from the textile wastewater by using TiO2/SiO2-based nanocomposite (Fe3O4@SiO2/TiO2) under UV irradiation. This magnetic nanocomposite, as photocatalytically active composite, is synthesized via solution method in mild conditions....

  12. Rich stochastic dynamics of co-doped Er:Yb fluorescence upconversion nanoparticles in the presence of thermal, non-conservative, harmonic and optical forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nome, Rene A.; Sorbello, Cecilia; Jobbágy, Matías; Barja, Beatriz C.; Sanches, Vitor; Cruz, Joyce S.; Aguiar, Vinicius F.

    2017-03-01

    The stochastic dynamics of individual co-doped Er:Yb upconversion nanoparticles (UCNP) were investigated from experiments and simulations. The UCNP were characterized by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and zeta potential measurements. Single UCNP measurements were performed by fluorescence upconversion micro-spectroscopy and optical trapping. The mean-square displacement (MSD) from single UCNP exhibited a time-dependent diffusion coefficient which was compared with Brownian dynamics simulations of a viscoelastic model of harmonically bound spheres. Experimental time-dependent two-dimensional trajectories of individual UCNP revealed correlated two-dimensional nanoparticle motion. The measurements were compared with stochastic trajectories calculated in the presence of a non-conservative rotational force field. Overall, the complex interplay of UCNP adhesion, thermal fluctuations and optical forces led to a rich stochastic behavior of these nanoparticles.

  13. Nonohmic behavior of SnO2.MnO2-based ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo O. Orlandi

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes the nonohmic behavior of the SnO2.MnO-based system and analyzes the influence of the sintering time and the Nb2O5 concentration on this system's electrical properties. A nonlinear coefficient of ~7 was obtained for a 0.2 mol%-doped Nb2O5 composition, which is comparable to other values reported in the literature for the ternary SnO2-based systems. A recent barrier formation model proposed in the literature to explain the nonlinear electrical behavior of SnO2-based systems is used to clarify the role of the MnO constituent in the formation of the barrier, taking into account the influence of segregated atoms, precipitated phase and oxygen species in the grain boundary region.

  14. On the rutile alpha-PbO"2-type phase boundary of TiO"2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J.S.; Gerward, Leif; Jiang, Jianzhong

    1999-01-01

    The high-pressure, high-temperature phase quilibria of TiO"2 have been studied with special emphasis on the rutile and alpha-PbO"2-type phases. It is found that the phase boundary, when plotted in a pressure-temperature diagram, changes from having a negative to having a positive slope...... with increasing temperature at about 6GPa and 850^oC. For nanophase material, the phase boundary is shifted towards lower pressure. The room-temperature bulk moduli are 210(120)GPa, 258(8)GPa and 290(20)GPa for rutile, the alpha-PbO"2-type phase and the baddeleyite-type phase, respectively....

  15. State-specific dissociation in O2-O2 collisions by quasiclassical trajectory method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrienko, Daniil A.; Boyd, Iain D.

    2017-07-01

    State-specific dissociation rate coefficients of oxygen in collisions with another oxygen molecule are obtained using the quasiclassical trajectory method on a six-dimensional potential energy surface at high temperatures characteristic of hypersonic flows. The present results indicate that O2-O2 rate coefficients can not be obtained by a simple scaling of a simpler O2-O dataset. A difference is observed between the present rate coefficients and those obtained via the preferential dissociation and forced harmonic oscillator models. Depletion via an exchange mechanism significantly contributes to the total dissociation rate at low temperatures and at low vibrational energies. The new set of rate coefficients is used in a one-dimensional shock flow simulation. The computed vibrational temperature is then compared to data obtained by absorption spectroscopy in the Schumann-Runge bands. A better agreement with the experimental data is achieved at moderate levels of nonequilibrium when the new dataset is implemented.

  16. Influence of exercise intensity on skeletal muscle blood flow, O2 extraction and O2 uptake on-kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Andrew M; Krustrup, Peter; Wilkerson, Daryl P

    2012-01-01

    limit O(2) uptake kinetics during high-intensity exercise. In this study, we made frequent measurements of muscle blood flow, arterial-to-venous O(2) difference (a- difference) and O(2) uptake following the onset of multiple transitions of both low-intensity and high-intensity knee-extension exercise...... in the same subjects. We show that although blood flow kinetics is slower for high-intensity compared with low-intensity exercise, this does not result in slower O(2) uptake kinetics. These results indicate that muscle O(2) delivery does not limit O(2) uptake during knee-extension exercise in healthy humans.......Key points Following the start of low-intensity exercise in healthy humans, it has been established that the kinetics of muscle O(2) delivery is faster than, and does not limit, the kinetics of muscle O(2) uptake. Direct data are lacking, however, on the question of whether O(2) delivery might...

  17. SnO 2 nanowires decorated with forsythia-like TiO 2 for photoenergy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ik Jae; Park, Sangbaek; Kim, Dong Hoe; Jeong, Heesu; Lee, Sangwook

    2017-09-01

    We report forsythia-like TiO2-decorated SnO2 nanowires on fluorine-doped SnO2 electrode as a photoelectrode of dye-sensitized solar cells. When SnO2 nanowires grown via vapor-liquid-solid reaction were soaked in TiCl4 solution, leaf-shaped rutile TiO2 was grown onto the surface of the nanowires. The TiO2 decoration increases the short circuit current (Jsc), open circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF) of dye-sensitized solar cells. Further, electron lifetime increased by employing an atomic-layer-deposited TiO2 nanoshell between the TiO2 leaves and the SnO2 nanowire, due to preventing charge recombination at the nanowire/electrolyte interface.

  18. Morphologically controlled synthesis, structural and optical properties of CeO2/SnO2 nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Usharani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available CeO2/SnO2 nanocomposites with different dimensional nanostructures were synthesized by a wet chemical method, using various surfactants such as SDS, CTAB and Triton X-100. The prepared CeO2/SnO2 samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM, UV-Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy (UV-DRS, and Photoluminescence (PL spectroscopy. The XRD patterns reveal the presence of a mixed phase of SnO2 and CeO2; The TEM analysis showed the mixed morphology of uniformly dispersed spherical with ellipsoidal shape in the SDS assisted CeO2/SnO2 nanocomposites; whereas the nanostructure with spherical with hexagonal shapes was observed for the Triton X-100 assisted CeO2/SnO2 nanocomposites. The one dimensional (1D nanorod like structure observed for the CTAB assisted CeO2/SnO2 nanocomposites shows CTAB acting as a face-specific capping agent to form rod-shaped micelles. The room temperature photoluminescence emission studies of the CeO2/SnO2 nanocomposites showed strong peaks in the UV region, and several peaks in the visible region, which are likely to have originated from the oxygen vacancies and are potential materials for optoelectronic device applications. The UV results showed the absorption edges shifted to a high energy region and the blue shifts that occurred in all the samples.

  19. TiO2 nanoparticles doped SiO2 films with ordered mesopore channels: a catalytic nanoreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Jony; Mitra, Anuradha; Dandapat, Anirban; De, Goutam

    2014-04-07

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) incorporated ordered 2D hexagonal mesoporous silica (SiO2) films on a glass substrate were fabricated for use as a catalytic nanoreactor. Films were prepared using a tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) derived SiO2 sol and a commercially available dispersion of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) in the presence of pluronic P123 as the structure directing agent. The effect of TiO2 doping (4-10 mol% with respect to the equivalent SiO2) into the ordered mesoporous SiO2 matrix was thoroughly investigated. The undoped SiO2 film showed a mesostructural transformation after heat-treatment at 350 °C whereas incorporation of TiO2 restricted such a transformation. Among all the TiO2 incorporated films, TEM showed that the 7 equivalent mol% TiO2 doped SiO2 film (ST-7) had an optimal composition which could retain the more organized 2D hexagonal (space group p6mm)-like mesostructures after heat-treatment. The catalytic activities of the TiO2 doped (4-10 mol%) films were investigated for the reduction of toxic KMnO4 in an aqueous medium. ST-7 film showed the maximum catalytic activity, as well as reusability. A TEM study on the resultant solution after KMnO4 reduction revealed the formation of MnO2 nanowires. It was understood that the embedded TiO2 NPs bonded SiO2 matrix increased the surface hydroxyl groups of the composite films resulting in the generation of acidic sites. The catalytic process can be explained by this enhanced surface acidity. The mesoporous channel of the ST-7 films with TiO2 doping can be used as a nanoreactor to form extremely thin MnO2 nanowires.

  20. Proof nets for lingusitic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moot, R.C.A.

    2002-01-01

    This book investigates the possible linguistic applications of proof nets, redundancy free representations of proofs, which were introduced by Girard for linear logic. We will adapt the notion of proof net to allow the formulation of a proof net calculus which is soundand complete for the

  1. Teaching Tennis for Net Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Bryce

    1989-01-01

    A program for teaching tennis to beginners, NET (Net Easy Teaching) is described. The program addresses three common needs shared by tennis students: active involvement in hitting the ball, clearing the net, and positive reinforcement. A sample lesson plan is included. (IAH)

  2. Net4Care Ecosystem Website

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius; Rasmussen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    is a tele-monitoring scenario in which Net4Care clients are deployed in a gateway in private homes. Medical devices then connect to these gateways and transmit their observations to a Net4Care server. In turn the Net4Care server creates valid clinical HL7 documents, stores them in a national XDS repository...

  3. Impact of a Permo-Carboniferous high O2 event on the terrestrial carbon cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerling, D. J.; Berner, R. A.

    2000-01-01

    Independent models predicting the Phanerozoic (past 600 million years) history of atmospheric O2 partial pressure (pO2) indicate a marked rise to approximately 35% in the Permo-Carboniferous, around 300 million years before present, with the strong potential for altering the biogeochemical cycling of carbon by terrestrial ecosystems. This potential, however, would have been modified by the prevailing atmospheric pCO2 value. Herein, we use a process-based terrestrial carbon cycle model forced with a late Carboniferous paleoclimate simulation to evaluate the effects of a rise from 21 to 35% pO2 on terrestrial biosphere productivity and assess how this response is modified by current uncertainties in the prevailing pCO2 value. Our results indicate that a rise in pO2 from 21 to 35% during the Carboniferous reduced global terrestrial primary productivity by 20% and led to a 216-Gt (1 Gt = 1012 kg) C reduction in the vegetation and soil carbon storage, in an atmosphere with pCO2 = 0.03%. However, in an atmosphere with pCO2 = 0.06%, the CO2 fertilization effect is larger than the cost of photorespiration, and ecosystem productivity increases leading to the net sequestration of 117 Gt C into the vegetation and soil carbon reservoirs. In both cases, the effects result from the strong interaction between pO2, pCO2, and climate in the tropics. From this analysis, we deduce that a Permo-Carboniferous rise in pO2 was unlikely to have exerted catastrophic effects on ecosystem productivity (with pCO2 = 0.03%), and if pCO2 levels at this time were >0.04%, the water-use efficiency of land plants may even have improved. PMID:11050154

  4. Optical properties of ZrO2, SiO2 and TiO2-SiO2 xerogels and coatings doped with Eu3+ and Eu2+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogéria R. Gonçalves

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Eu3+ doped bulk monoliths and thin films were obtained by sol-gel methods in the ZrO2, SiO2 and SiO2-TiO2 systems. Eu3+ 5D0 ® 7FJ emission and decay time characteristics were measured during the entire experimental preparation route from the initial sol to the final xerogels. The crystalline phases identified were tetragonal ZrO2 and mixtures of rutile and anatase TiO2 at high temperature treatments in bulk samples. Good quality thin films were obtained for all systems by dip-coating optical glasses (Schott BK270. The same spectroscopic features were observed either for the bulk monoliths or the films. By appropriate heat treatments under H2 atmosphere Eu2+ containing samples could be obtained in the SiO2-TiO2 system.

  5. Master Robotic Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Lipunov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the MASTER-Net project is to produce a unique fast sky survey with all sky observed over a single night down to a limiting magnitude of 19-20. Such a survey will make it possible to address a number of fundamental problems: search for dark energy via the discovery and photometry of supernovae (including SNIa, search for exoplanets, microlensing effects, discovery of minor bodies in the Solar System, and space-junk monitoring. All MASTER telescopes can be guided by alerts, and we plan to observe prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts synchronously in several filters and in several polarization planes.

  6. Art/Net/Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik; Lindstrøm, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    The seminar Art|Net|Work deals with two important changes in our culture. On one side, the network has become essential in the latest technological development. The Internet has entered a new phase, Web 2.0, including the occurrence of as ‘Wiki’s’, ‘Peer-2-Peer’ distribution, user controlled...... the praxis of the artist. We see different kinds of interventions and activism (including ‘hacktivism’) using the network as a way of questioning the invisible rules that govern public and semi-public spaces. Who ‘owns’ them? What kind of social relationships do they generate? On what principle...

  7. Synthesis And Characterization Of SiO2, SnO2 And TiO2 Metal Oxide Shells Covering Cu2O Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Ri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work is described a means of improving the chemical stability of Cu2O@SiO2, Cu2O@SnO2 and Cu2O@TiO2 materials. The SiO2, SnO2 and TiO2 coated samples were stable from pH 3 to pH 10 for up to seven days. To determine the stability of the coated nanoparticles, and their colloidal solutions under acidic and basic conditions, colloidal nanoparticle solutions with various pH values were prepared and monitored over time. Details of the effect of variations in pH on the phase stability of core-shell type Cu2O were characterized using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction.

  8. Promoting effect of CeO 2 on cyclohexanol conversion over CeO 2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cyclohexanol conversion reaction was carried out on these catalytic materials to investigate the effect of rare earth oxide on the activity and selectivity. It was found that CeO2 promotes the activity of ZnO without affecting the selectivity to cyclohexanone significantly. The factors such as reaction temperature and WHSV have ...

  9. HfO2 and SiO2 as barriers in magnetic tunneling junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Gokaran; Archer, Thomas; Sanvito, Stefano

    2017-05-01

    SiO2 and HfO2 are both high-k, wide-gap semiconductors, currently used in the microelectronic industry as gate barriers. Here we investigate whether the same materials can be employed to make magnetic tunnel junctions, which in principle can be amenable for integration in conventional Si technology. By using a combination of density functional theory and the nonequilibrium Green's functions method for quantum transport we have studied the transport properties of Co [0001 ] /SiO2[001 ] /Co [0001 ] and Fe [001 ] /HfO2[001 ] /Fe [001 ] junctions. In both cases we found a quite large magnetoresistance, which is explained through the analysis of the real band structure of the magnets and the complex one of the insulator. We find that there is no symmetry spin filtering for the Co-based junction since the high transmission Δ2' band crosses the Fermi level, EF, for both spin directions. However, the fact that Co is a strong ferromagnet makes the orbital contribution to the two Δ2' spin subbands different, yielding magnetoresistance. In contrast for the Fe-based junction symmetry filtering is active for an energy window spanning between the Fermi level and 1 eV below EF, with Δ1 symmetry contributing to the transmission.

  10. Photocatalytic activity of the binary composite CeO2/SiO2 for degradation of dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phanichphant, Sukon; Nakaruk, Auppatham; Channei, Duangdao

    2016-11-01

    In this study, CeO2 photocatalyst was modified by composite with SiO2 to increase efficiency and improve photocatalytic activity. The as-prepared SiO2 particles have been incorporated into the precursor mixture of CeO2 by homogeneous precipitation and subsequent calcination process. The phase compositions of CeO2 before and after compositing with SiO2 were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The morphology and particle size of CeO2/SiO2 composite was analyzed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The results showed SiO2 spheres with the particle size approximately 100-120 nm, and a uniform layer of CeO2 nanoparticles with a diameter of about 5-7 nm that were fully composite to the surfaces of SiO2. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technique was carried out in order to characterize the change in valence state and composite characteristic by shifted peaks of binding energies. The photocatalytic activity was studied through the degradation of Rhodamine B in aqueous solution under visible light exposure. The highest photocatalytic efficiency of CeO2/SiO2 composite was also obtained. To explain the high photocatalytic efficiency of CeO2/SiO2 composite, the proposed mechanism involves the high surface properties of the CeO2/SiO2 composite, as measured by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method.

  11. Transparent, Adherent, and Photocatalytic SiO2-TiO2 Coatings on Polycarbonate for Self-Cleaning Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay S. Latthe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic TiO2 coatings are famously known for their excellent self-cleaning behavior, where very thin water layer formed on the superhydrophilic surface can easily wash-off the dirt particles while flowing. Here we report the preparation of the optically transparent, adherent, highly wettable towards water and photocatalytic SiO2-TiO2 coatings on polycarbonate (PC substrate for self-cleaning applications. The silica barrier layer was applied on UV-treated PC substrate before spin coating the SiO2-TiO2 coatings. The effect of different vol% of SiO2 in TiO2 and its influence on the surface morphology, mechanical stability, wettability, and photocatalytic properties of the coatings were studied in detail. The coatings prepared from 7 vol% of SiO2 in TiO2 showed smooth, crack-free surface morphology and low surface roughness compared to the coatings prepared from the higher vol% of SiO2 in TiO2. The water drops on this coating acquires a contact angle less than 10° after UV irradiation for 30 min. All the coatings prepared from different vol% (7 to 20 of SiO2 in TiO2 showed high transparency in the visible range.

  12. MnO2/CeO2 for catalytic ultrasonic decolorization of methyl orange: Process parameters and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, He; Zhang, Guangming; Chong, Shan; Zhang, Nan; Liu, Yucai

    2015-11-01

    MnO2/CeO2 catalyst was prepared and characterized by means of Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) method, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The characterization showed that MnO2/CeO2 had big specific surface area and MnO2 was dispersed homogeneously on the surface of CeO2. Excellent degradation efficiency of methyl orange was achieved by MnO2/CeO2 catalytic ultrasonic process. Operating parameters were studied and optimized. The optimal conditions were 10 min of ultrasonic irradiation, 1.0 g/L of catalyst dose, 2.6 of pH value and 1.3 W/ml of ultrasonic density. Under the optimal conditions, nearly 90% of methyl orange was removed. The mechanism of methyl orange degradation was further studied. The decolorization mechanism in the ultrasound-MnO2/CeO2 system was quite different with that in the ultrasound-MnO2 system. Effects of manganese and cerium in catalytic ultrasonic process were clarified. Manganese ions in solution contributed to generating hydroxyl free radical. MnO2/CeO2 catalyst strengthened the oxidation ability of ultrasound and realized complete decolorization of methyl orange. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Helminth.net: expansions to Nematode.net and an introduction to Trematode.net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, John; Rosa, Bruce A.; Ozersky, Philip; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Zhang, Xu; Bhonagiri-Palsikar, Veena; Tyagi, Rahul; Wang, Qi; Choi, Young-Jun; Gao, Xin; McNulty, Samantha N.; Brindley, Paul J.; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2015-01-01

    Helminth.net (http://www.helminth.net) is the new moniker for a collection of databases: Nematode.net and Trematode.net. Within this collection we provide services and resources for parasitic roundworms (nematodes) and flatworms (trematodes), collectively known as helminths. For over a decade we have provided resources for studying nematodes via our veteran site Nematode.net (http://nematode.net). In this article, (i) we provide an update on the expansions of Nematode.net that hosts omics data from 84 species and provides advanced search tools to the broad scientific community so that data can be mined in a useful and user-friendly manner and (ii) we introduce Trematode.net, a site dedicated to the dissemination of data from flukes, flatworm parasites of the class Trematoda, phylum Platyhelminthes. Trematode.net is an independent component of Helminth.net and currently hosts data from 16 species, with information ranging from genomic, functional genomic data, enzymatic pathway utilization to microbiome changes associated with helminth infections. The databases’ interface, with a sophisticated query engine as a backbone, is intended to allow users to search for multi-factorial combinations of species’ omics properties. This report describes updates to Nematode.net since its last description in NAR, 2012, and also introduces and presents its new sibling site, Trematode.net. PMID:25392426

  14. Controlled Directional Growth of TiO2 Nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In, Su-il; Hou, Yidong; Abrams, Billie

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate how the anodization direction and growth rate of vertically aligned, highly ordered TiO2 nanotube (NT) arrays can be controlled and manipulated by the local concentration of O-2 in the electrolyte. This leads to the growth of highly active TiO2 NT arrays directly on nonconducting s...

  15. Facile hydrothermal synthesis of CeO2 nanopebbles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cerium oxide (CeO2) nanopebbles have been synthesized using a facile hydrothermal method. X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy analyses confirm the presence of CeO2 nanopebbles. XRD shows the formation of cubic fluorite CeO2 and the average particle size estimated from the ...

  16. Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polyaniline (PANI) as a promising conducting polymer has been used to prepare polyaniline/TiO2 (PANI/TiO2) nanocomposite with core-shell structure as photocatalyst. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles with an average crystal size of 21 nm were encapsulated by PANI via the in situ polymerization of aniline on the ...

  17. Air to muscle O2 delivery during exercise at altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, J.A.; Lundby, C.

    2009-01-01

    and LBF achieve values similar to normoxia. Although the Po2 gradient driving O2 diffusion into the muscles is reduced in hypoxia, similar levels of muscle O2 diffusion are observed during small-mass exercise in chronic hypoxia and in normoxia, indicating that humans have a functional reserve in muscle O2...

  18. Effect of O2 concentrations on Sulfolobus solfataricus P2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, G.; Walther, J.; Zabeti, N.; Combet-Blanc, Y.; Auria, R.; Oost, van der J.; Casalot, L.

    2009-01-01

    Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 was grown aerobically at various O(2) concentrations. Based on growth parameters in microcosms, four types of behavior could be distinguished. At 35% O(2) (v/v; gas phase), the cultures did not grow, indicating a lethal dose of oxygen. For 26-32% O(2), the growth was

  19. Photocatalytic Removal of Phenol under Natural Sunlight over N-TiO2-SiO2 Catalyst: The Effect of Nitrogen Composition in TiO2-SiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viet-Cuong Nguyen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this present work, high specific surface area and strong visible light absorption nitrogen doped TiO2-SiO2 photocatalyst was synthesized by using sol-gel coupled with hydrothermal treatment method. Nitrogen was found to improve the specific surface area while it also distorted the crystal phase of the resulting N-TiO2-SiO2 catalyst. As the N/ (TiO2-SiO2 molar ratio was more than 10%, the derived catalyst presented the superior specific surface area up to 260 m2/g. Nevertheless, its photoactivity towards phenol removal was observed to significantly decrease, which could results from the too low crystallinity. The nitrogen content in N-TiO2-SiO2 catalyst was therefore necessary to be optimized in terms of phenol removal efficiency and found at ca. 5%. Under UVA light and natural sunlight irradiation of 80 min, N(5%-TiO2-SiO2 catalyst presented the phenol decomposition efficiencies of 68 and 100%, respectively. It was also interestingly found in this study that the reaction rate was successfully expressed using a Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H model, indicating the L-H nature of photocatalytic phenol decomposition reaction on the N-TiO2-SiO2 catalyst.

  20. NETS FOR PEACH PROTECTED CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelia Schettini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the radiometric properties of coloured nets used to protect a peach cultivation. The modifications of the solar spectral distribution, mainly in the R and FR wavelength band, influence plant photomorphogenesis by means of the phytochrome and cryptochrome. The phytochrome response is characterized in terms of radiation rate in the red wavelengths (R, 600-700 nm to that in the farred radiation (FR, 700-800 nm, i.e. the R/FR ratio. The effects of the blue radiation (B, 400-500 nm is investigated by the ratio between the blue radiation and the far-red radiation, i.e. the B/FR ratio. A BLUE net, a RED net, a YELLOW net, a PEARL net, a GREY net and a NEUTRAL net were tested in Bari (Italy, latitude 41° 05’ N. Peach trees were located in pots inside the greenhouses and in open field. The growth of the trees cultivated in open field was lower in comparison to the growth of the trees grown under the nets. The RED, PEARL, YELLOW and GREY nets increased the growth of the trees more than the other nets. The nets positively influenced the fruit characteristics, such as fruit weight and flesh firmness.

  1. The role of LiO2 solubility in O2 reduction in aprotic solvents and its consequences for Li-O2 batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lee; Li, Chunmei; Liu, Zheng; Chen, Yuhui; Freunberger, Stefan A.; Ashok, Praveen C.; Praveen, Bavishna B.; Dholakia, Kishan; Tarascon, Jean-Marie; Bruce, Peter G.

    2014-12-01

    When lithium-oxygen batteries discharge, O2 is reduced at the cathode to form solid Li2O2. Understanding the fundamental mechanism of O2 reduction in aprotic solvents is therefore essential to realizing their technological potential. Two different models have been proposed for Li2O2 formation, involving either solution or electrode surface routes. Here, we describe a single unified mechanism, which, unlike previous models, can explain O2 reduction across the whole range of solvents and for which the two previous models are limiting cases. We observe that the solvent influences O2 reduction through its effect on the solubility of LiO2, or, more precisely, the free energy of the reaction LiO2* ⇌ Li(sol)+ + O2-(sol) + ion pairs + higher aggregates (clusters). The unified mechanism shows that low-donor-number solvents are likely to lead to premature cell death, and that the future direction of research for lithium-oxygen batteries should focus on the search for new, stable, high-donor-number electrolytes, because they can support higher capacities and can better sustain discharge.

  2. Production of O2 through dismutation of H2O2 during water ice desorption: a key to understanding comet O2 abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulieu, F.; Minissale, M.; Bockelée-Morvan, D.

    2017-01-01

    Context. Detection of molecular oxygen and prediction of its abundance have long been a challenge for astronomers. The low abundances observed in few interstellar sources are well above the predictions of current astrochemical models. During the Rosetta mission, an unexpectedly high abundance of O2 was discovered in the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko's coma. A strong correlation between O2 and H2O productions is observed, whereas no such correlation is observed between O2 and either of CO or N2. Aims: We suggest that the O2 molecule may be formed during the evaporation of water ice. We propose a possible reaction: the dismutation of H2O2 (2 H2O2-→ 2 H2O + O2), a molecule which should be co-produced during the water ice mantle growth on dust grains. We aim to test this hypothesis under realistic experimental conditions. Methods: We performed two sets of experiments. They consist of producing a mixture of D2O and D2O2 via the reaction of O2 and D on a surface held at 10 K. The first set is made on a silicate substrate, and explores the limit of thin films, in order to prevent any complication due to trapping during the desorption. The second set is performed on a pre-deposited H2O ice substrate and mimics the desorption of mixed ice. Results: In thin films, O2 is produced by the dismutation of H2O2, even at temperatures as low as 155 K. Mixed with water, H2O2 desorbs after the water ice sublimation and even more desorption of O2 is observed. Conclusions: H2O2, synthesised during the growth of interstellar ices (or by later processing), desorbs at the latest stage of the water sublimation and undergoes the dismutation reaction. Therefore an O2 release in the gas phase should occur at the end of the evaporation of ice mantles. Temperature gradients along the geometry of clouds, or interior of comets, should blend the different stages of the sublimation. Averaged along the whole process, a mean value of the O2/H2O ratio of a few percent in the gas phase seems

  3. Organic degradation potential of a TiO2/H2O2/UV-Vis system for dental applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Janson, Oscar; Unosson, Erik; Strömme, Maria; Engqvist, Håkan; Welch, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The combination of TiO2 and H2O2 under light activation constitutes a promising method for disinfection of dental prosthetics and implants, due to production of reactive oxygen species (ROS...

  4. Influence of exercise intensity on skeletal muscle blood flow, O2 extraction and O2 uptake on‐kinetics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Andrew M; Krustrup, Peter; Wilkerson, Daryl P; Berger, Nicolas J; Calbet, José A; Bangsbo, Jens

    2012-01-01

    •  Following the start of low‐intensity exercise in healthy humans, it has been established that the kinetics of muscle O 2 delivery is faster than, and does not limit, the kinetics of muscle O 2 uptake...

  5. Highly sensitive and thermal stable CO gas sensor based on SnO2 modified by SiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Zili; Chen, Juling; Guan, Shaokang; Si, Lifen; Zhang, Pengshuai

    2013-02-01

    Effects of surface chemical modification with SiO2 on the thermal stability and CO gas-sensing properties of SnO2 were investigated. The SiO2 on the SnO2 surface effectively inhibits the nanocrystal growth of SnO2. The average size of modified SnO2 sintered at 600 degrees C is 5.8 nm. The gas sensitivity to CO was found to be markedly enhanced by the surface chemical modification. The CO gas as low as 5 ppm can be effectively detected by the modified SnO2-based sensors. At the same time, the modified SnO2-based sensor has excellent selectivity to CO, fast response and recovery properties.

  6. Upper ocean O2 trends: 1958-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takamitsu; Minobe, Shoshiro; Long, Matthew C.; Deutsch, Curtis

    2017-05-01

    Historic observations of dissolved oxygen (O2) in the ocean are analyzed to quantify multidecadal trends and variability from 1958 to 2015. Additional quality control is applied, and the resultant oxygen anomaly field is used to quantify upper ocean O2 trends at global and hemispheric scales. A widespread negative O2 trend is beginning to emerge from the envelope of interannual variability. Ocean reanalysis data are used to evaluate relationships with changes in ocean heat content (OHC) and oxygen solubility (O2,sat). Global O2 decline is evident after the 1980s, accompanied by an increase in global OHC. The global upper ocean O2 inventory (0-1000 m) changed at the rate of -243 ± 124 T mol O2 per decade. Further, the O2 inventory is negatively correlated with the OHC (r = -0.86; 0-1000 m) and the regression coefficient of O2 to OHC is approximately -8.2 ± 0.66 nmol O2 J-1, on the same order of magnitude as the simulated O2-heat relationship typically found in ocean climate models. Variability and trends in the observed upper ocean O2 concentration are dominated by the apparent oxygen utilization component with relatively small contributions from O2,sat. This indicates that changing ocean circulation, mixing, and/or biochemical processes, rather than the direct thermally induced solubility effects, are the primary drivers for the observed O2 changes. The spatial patterns of the multidecadal trend include regions of enhanced ocean deoxygenation including the subpolar North Pacific, eastern boundary upwelling systems, and tropical oxygen minimum zones. Further studies are warranted to understand and attribute the global O2 trends and their regional expressions.

  7. Electrical characteristics of SiO2/ZrO2 hybrid tunnel barrier for charge trap flash memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jaeho; Bae, Juhyun; Ahn, Jaeyoung; Hwang, Kihyun; Chung, Ilsub

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we investigate the electrical characteristics of SiO2/ZrO2 hybrid tunnel oxide in metal-Al2O3-SiO2-Si3N4-SiO2-silicon (MAONOS) structure in an effort to improve program and erase speed as well as retention characteristics. Inserting ZrO2 into the conventional MAONOS structure increased the programmed V th variation to 6.8 V, and increased the erased V th variation to -3.7 V at 17 MV/cm. The results can be understood in terms of reducing the Fowler-Nordheim (F/N) tunneling barrier due to high-k ZrO2 in the tunneling oxide. In addition, Zr diffusion in SiO2 caused the formation of Zr x Si1- x O2 at the interface region, which reduced the energy band gap of SiO2. The retention property of the hybrid tunnel oxide varied depending on the thickness of SiO2. For thin SiO2 less than 30 Å, the retention properties of the tunneling oxides were poor compared with those of the SiO2 only tunneling oxides. However, the hybrid tunneling oxides with SiO2 thickness thicker than 40 Å yielded improved retention behavior compared with those of the SiO2-only tunneling oxides. The detailed analysis in charge density of ZrO2 was carried out by ISPP test. The obtained charge density was quite small compared to that of the total charge density, which indicates that the inserted ZrO2 layer serves as a tunneling material rather than charge storage dielectric.

  8. TiO2 Nanoparticles Are Phototoxic to Marine Phytoplankton

    OpenAIRE

    Robert J Miller; Samuel Bennett; Keller, Arturo A.; Scott Pease; Lenihan, Hunter S.

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticulate titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) is highly photoactive, and its function as a photocatalyst drives much of the application demand for TiO(2). Because TiO(2) generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) when exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UVR), nanoparticulate TiO(2) has been used in antibacterial coatings and wastewater disinfection, and has been investigated as an anti-cancer agent. Oxidative stress mediated by photoactive TiO(2) is the likely mechanism of its toxicity, and experiment...

  9. Deep reactive ion etching of commercial PMMA in O2/CHF3, and O2/Ar-based discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Congchun; Yang, Chunsheng; Ding, Duifu

    2004-05-01

    The reactive ion etching of PMMA in O2, O2/CHF3 and O2/Ar discharges has been examined as a function of bias voltage, flow rate and composition of the gas mixtures. Etching in O2, O2/CHF3 and O2/Ar plasmas (with a flow ratio of Ar/O2 leq 50%) shows higher ion-enhanced chemical etching dependence than in O2/Ar (with a flow ratio of Ar/O2 geq 50%). In Ar/O2 plasmas, with an increasing proportion of Ar, the dominant process changed from an ion-enhanced chemical process with high values of etch rate to a physical sputtering etch process. PMMA etched in O2 (10 sccm)/Ar (40 sccm) produced a smooth and vertical sidewall. With an increasing amount of CHF3, the etch rates of PMMA show a larger dependence on physical sputtering and a gradual decrease. When the depth of PMMA etched in O2 (25 sccm)/CHF3 (25 sccm) is about 100 µm the profile is vertical, but the sidewall surface is rough.

  10. Facile fabrication of robust TiO2@SnO2@C hollow nanobelts for outstanding lithium storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qinghua; Li, Lingxiangyu; Chen, Jizhang; Yang, Li; Hirano, Shin-ichi

    2018-02-01

    Elaborate fabrication of state-of-the-art nanostructure SnO2@C-based composites greatly contributes to alleviate the huge volume expansion issue of the SnO2 anodes. But the preparation processes of most of them are complicated and tedious, which is generally adverse to the development of SnO2@C-based composite anodes. Herein, a unique nanostructure of TiO2@SnO2@C hollow nanobelts (TiO2@SnO2@C HNBs), including the characteristics of one-dimensional architecture, sandwich protection, hollow structure, carbon coating, and a mechanically robust TiO2 support, has been fabricated by a facile approach for the first time. As anodes for lithium-ion batteries, the as-fabricated TiO2@SnO2@C HNBs exhibit an outstanding lithium storage performance, delivering capacity of 804.6 and 384. 5 mAh g-1 at 200 and even 1000 mA g-1 after 500 cycles, respectively. It is demonstrated that thus outstanding performance is mainly attributed to the unique nanostructure of TiO2@SnO2@C HNBs.

  11. The equivalency between logic Petri workflow nets and workflow nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue

    2015-01-01

    Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented.

  12. Preparation of SiO2-Protecting Metallic Fe Nanoparticle/SiO2 Composite Spheres for Biomedical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin-Wei Hsieh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Functionalized Fe nanoparticles (NPs have played an important role in biomedical applications. In this study, metallic Fe NPs were deposited on SiO2 spheres to form a Fe/SiO2 composite. To protect the Fe from oxidation, a thin SiO2 layer was coated on the Fe/SiO2 spheres thereafter. The size and morphology of the SiO2@Fe/SiO2 composite spheres were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The iron form and its content and magnetic properties were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD, inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS and a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID. The biocompatibility of the SiO2@Fe/SiO2 composite spheres was examined by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8 and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH tests. The intracellular distribution of the SiO2@Fe/SiO2 composite spheres was observed using TEM. XRD analysis revealed the formation of metallic iron on the surface of the SiO2 spheres. According to the ICP-MS and SQUID results, using 0.375 M FeCl3·6H2O for Fe NPs synthesis resulted in the highest iron content and magnetization of the SiO2@Fe/SiO2 spheres. Using a dye loading experiment, a slow release of a fluorescence dye from SiO2@Fe/SiO2 composite spheres was confirmed. The SiO2@Fe/SiO2 composite spheres co-cultured with L929 cells exhibit biocompatibility at concentrations <16.25 µg/mL. The TEM images show that the SiO2@Fe/SiO2 composite spheres were uptaken into the cytoplasm and retained in the endosome. The above results demonstrate that the SiO2@Fe/SiO2 composite spheres could be used as a multi-functional agent, such as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI contrast agent or drug carriers in biomedical applications.

  13. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    studies that illustrate the practical use of CPN modelling and validation for design, specification, simulation, verification and implementation in various application domains. Their presentation primarily aims at readers interested in the practical use of CPN. Thus all concepts and constructs are first......Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism...... and the immense number of possible execution sequences. In this textbook, Jensen and Kristensen introduce the constructs of the CPN modelling language and present the related analysis methods in detail. They also provide a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN by showcasing selected industrial case...

  14. H2O2 space shuttle APU

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A cryogenic H2-O2 auxiliary power unit (APU) was developed and successfully demonstrated. It has potential application as a minimum weight alternate to the space shuttle baseline APU because of its (1) low specific propellant consumption and (2) heat sink capabilities that reduce the amount of expendable evaporants. A reference system was designed with the necessary heat exchangers, combustor, turbine-gearbox, valves, and electronic controls to provide 400 shp to two aircraft hydraulic pumps. Development testing was carried out first on the combustor and control valves. This was followed by development of the control subsystem including the controller, the hydrogen and oxygen control valves, the combustor, and a turbine simulator. The complete APU system was hot tested for 10 hr with ambient and cryogenic propellants. Demonstrated at 95 percent of design power was 2.25 lb/hp-hr. At 10 percent design power, specific propellant consumption was 4 lb/hp-hr with space simulated exhaust and 5.2 lb/hp-hr with ambient exhaust. A 10 percent specific propellant consumption improvement is possible with some seal modifications. It was demonstrated that APU power levels could be changed by several hundred horsepower in less than 100 msec without exceeding allowable turbine inlet temperatures or turbine speed.

  15. Vibrational Spectroscopy of He-O_2H^+ and O_2H^+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohguchi, Hiroshi; Yamada, Koichi MT; Jusko, Pavol; Schlemmer, Stephan; Asvany, Oskar

    2017-06-01

    The elusive protonated oxygen, O_2H^+, has been characterized by vibrational action spectroscopy in a cryogenic 22-pole ion trap. On the one hand, the vibrational bands of the tagged He-O_2H^+ have been investigated, using a table-top OPO system for the known OH-stretch^a, whereas the FELIX^b light source has been used to detect the hitherto unknown low-frequency O-O-H bend and O-O stretch. On the other hand, the untagged O_2H^+ has been detected for the first time by high-resolution rovibrational spectroscopy via its ν_1 OH-stretch motion. 38 ro-vibrational fine structure transitions with partly resolved hyperfine satellites were measured (56 resolved lines in total). Spectroscopic parameters were determined by a fit to an asymmetric rotor model with a ^3A'' electronic ground state. The band center is at 3016.73 \\wn, which is in good agreement with experimental^a and ab initio^{c,d} predictions. Based on the spectroscopic parameters, the rotational spectrum is predicted, but not detected yet. ^a S. A. Nizkorodov et al., Chem. Phys. Lett., 278, 26, 1997 ^b D. Oepts et al., Infrared Phys. Technol., 36, 297, 1995 ^c S. L. W. Weaver et al., Astrophys. J., 697, 601, 2009 ^d X. Huang and T. J. Lee, J. Chem. Phys., 129, 044312, 2008

  16. Natural CaO-TiO2-SiO2 based ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Pantić

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lešnica river deposits consist of a large number of minerals of different grain sizes including sphene. Since it is very difficult to obtain pure monophase titanite by different synthetic routes (sol-gel, coprecipitation, combustion, spray pyrolysis and hydrothermal method, the aim of this work was to study the structure of the sphene from the Lešnica river deposits and possibility of using it as a natural precursor for CaO-TiO2-SiO2 based ceramics. The sphene from Lešnica was analyzed by different methods: tristimulus colorimetry, infrared spectroscopy, electron microprobe and X-ray single crystal diffraction. It was confirmed that Al, Fe, Mn and P are present in the sphene structure and proposed that corresponding structural formula could be: (Ca2+1.008 Mn2+0.0021.010(Ti4+0.901 Fe3+0.033 Al3+0.060 P5+0.0010.995 Si4+1.024 O2-5.

  17. Minimal Edge-Transitive Nets for the Design and Construction of Metal-Organic Frameworks

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2017-04-05

    desired hexagonal prism building unit, and combined with the complementary 4-c copper paddlewheel [Cu2(O2C−)4] cluster or 6-c metal trinuclear [M3O(O2C−)6] clusters/ zinc tetranulcear [Zn4O(O2C−)6] clusters to credibly afford the construction of new MOF structures with underlying topologies based on derived shp and alb nets.

  18. Heterogeneous Ag-TiO2-SiO2 composite materials as novel catalytic systems for selective epoxidation of cyclohexene by H2O2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    Full Text Available TiO2-SiO2 composites were synthesized using cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB as the structure directing template. Self-assembly hexadecyltrimethyl- ammonium bromide TiO2-SiO2/(CTAB were soaked into silver nitrate (AgNO3 aqueous solution. The Ag-TiO2-SiO2(Ag-TS composite were prepared via a precipitation of AgBr in soaking process and its decomposition at calcination stage. Structural characterization of the materials was carried out by various techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, N2 adsorption-desorption and ultraviolet visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis. Characterization results revealed that Ag particles were incorporated into hierarchical TiO2-SiO2 without significantly affecting the structures of the supports. Further heating-treatment at 723 K was more favorable for enhancing the stability of the Ag-TS composite. The cyclohexene oxide was the major product in the epoxidation using H2O2 as the oxidant over the Ag-TS catalysts. Besides, the optimum catalytic activity and stability of Ag-TS catalysts were obtained under operational conditions of calcined at 723 K for 2 h, reaction time of 120 min, reaction temperature of 353 K, catalyst amount of 80 mg, aqueous H2O2 (30 wt.% as oxidant and chloroform as solvent. High catalytic activity with conversion rate up to 99.2% of cyclohexene oxide could be obtainable in water-bathing. The catalyst was found to be stable and could be reused three times without significant loss of catalytic activity under the optimized reaction conditions.

  19. Amperometric determination of H2O2 at nano-TiO2/DNA/thionin nanocomposite modified electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Po-Hsun; Kumar, S Ashok; Chen, Shen-Ming

    2008-10-15

    We report electrochemical preparation and characterization of a new biosensor made of nanostructured titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) particles and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Thionin (TN) redox mediator was electrochemically deposited onto DNA/nano-TiO2 modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The X-ray diffraction analysis, atomic force microscope (AFM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used for surface analysis of TN/DNA/nano-TiO2 film. In neutral buffer solution, TN/DNA/nano-TiO2/GCE biosensor exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and oxygen (O2). The biosensor shows excellent analytical performance for amperometric determination of H2O2, at reduced overpotential (-0.2V). The detection limit and liner calibration range were found to be 0.05 mM (S/N=3) and 0.05-22.3 mM, respectively. In addition, determination of H2O2 in real samples was carried out using the new biosensor with satisfactory results. The TN/DNA/nano-TiO2/GCE showed stable and reproducible analytical performance towards the reduction of H2O2. This biosensor can be used as an amperometric biosensor for the determination of H2O2 in real samples.

  20. Efficient photodegradation of methyl violet dye using TiO2/Pt and TiO2/Pd photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Khalid; Khan, Idrees; Gul, Tamanna; Sadiq, Mohammad

    2017-11-01

    Titanium oxide supported palladium (TiO2/Pd) and titanium oxide supported platinum (TiO2/Pt) nanoparticles were prepared from their precursors through the incipient wetness method. The TiO2/Pd and TiO2/Pt nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-rays (EDX), while the photodegradation study of methyl violet was performed by UV/VIS spectrophotometry. The morphological study shows that the Pd and Pt were well deposited on the surface of TiO2, which was confirmed by EDX. Both TiO2/Pd and TiO2/Pt nanoparticles were used as photocatalysts for the photodegradation of methyl violet in aqueous media under UV-light irradiation. The photodegradation study revealed that the TiO2/Pd and TiO2/Pt nanoparticles degraded about 95 and 78% of dye within 20 min, respectively. The effect of various parameters such as catalyst dosage, concentration of dye, and medium on the photocatalytic degradation was examined. The activity of recovered TiO2/Pd and TiO2/Pt nanoparticles was studied.

  1. Interfacial contributions of H2O2 decomposition-induced reaction current on mesoporous Pt/TiO2 systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Nathan J.; Styrov, Vladislav V.; Karpov, Eduard G.

    2017-12-01

    We report on conversion of energy released due to chemical reactions into current for the decomposition of aqueous hydrogen peroxide solution on single phases Pt and TiO2, in addition to Pt and TiO2 simultaneously. We observe that H2O2 decomposition-induced current on TiO2 drastically overshadows the current generated by H2O2 decomposition on Pt. Photo-effects avoided, H2O2 decomposition was found to yield a conversion efficiency of 10-3 electrons generated per H2O2 molecule. Further understanding of chemical reaction-induced current shows promise as a metric with which the surface reaction may be monitored and could be greatly extended into the field of analytical chemistry.

  2. Selective aerobic oxidation mediated by TiO(2) photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Xianjun; Ma, Wanhong; Chen, Chuncheng; Ji, Hongwei; Zhao, Jincai

    2014-02-18

    TiO2 is one of the most studied metal oxide photocatalysts and has unparal-leled efficiency and stability. This cheap, abundant, and non-toxic material has the potential to address future environmental and energy concerns. Understanding about the photoinduced interfacial redox events on TiO2 could have profound effect on the degradation of organic pollutants, splitting of H2O into H2 and O2, and selective redox organic transformations. Scientists traditionally accept that for a semiconductor photocatalyst such as TiO2 under the illumination of light with energy larger than its band gap, two photocarriers will be created to carry out their independent reduction and oxidation processes. However, our recent discoveries indicate that it is the concerted rather than independent effect of both photocarriers of valence band hole (hvb(+)) and conduction band electron (ecb(-)) that dictate the product formation during interfacial oxidation event mediated by TiO2 photocatalysis. In this Account, we describe our recent findings on the selective oxidation of organic substrates with O2 mediated by TiO2 photocatalysis. The transfer of O-atoms from O2 to the corresponding products dominates the selective oxidation of alcohols, amines, and alkanes mediated by TiO2 photocatalysis. We ascribe this to the concerted effect of both hvb(+) and ecb(-) of TiO2 in contribution to the oxidation products. These findings imply that O2 plays a unique role in its transfer into the products rather than independent role of ecb(-) scavenger. More importantly, ecb(-) plays a crucial role to ensure the high selectivity for the oxygenation of organic substrates. We can also use the half reactions such as those of the conduction band electron of TiO2 for efficient oxidation reactions with O2. To this end, efficient selective oxidation of organic substrates such as alcohols, amines, and aromatic alkanes with O2 mediated by TiO2 photocatalysis under visible light irradiation has been achieved. In

  3. Fabrication of a TiO2-P25/(TiO2-P25+TiO2 nanotubes junction for dye sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Huy Hao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC, which converts solar light into electric energy, is expected to be a promising renewable energy source for today's world. In this work, dye sensitized solar cells, one containing a single layer and one containing a double layer, were fabricated. In the double layer DSSC structure, the under-layer was TiO2-P25 film, and the top layer consisted of a mixture of TiO2-P25 and TiO2 nanotubes. The results indicated that the efficiency of the DSSC with the double layer structure was a significant improvement in comparison to the DSSC consisting of only a single film layer. The addition of TiO2-P25 in the top layer caused an improvement in the adsorption of dye molecules on the film rather than on the TiO2 nanotubes only. The presence of the TiO2 nanotubes together with TiO2-P25 in the top layer revealed the enhancement in harvesting the incident light and an improvement of electron transport through the film.

  4. Corrosion Protection of Copper Using Al2O3, TiO2, ZnO, HfO2, and ZrO2Atomic Layer Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daubert, James S; Hill, Grant T; Gotsch, Hannah N; Gremaud, Antoine P; Ovental, Jennifer S; Williams, Philip S; Oldham, Christopher J; Parsons, Gregory N

    2017-02-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a viable means to add corrosion protection to copper metal. Ultrathin films of Al 2 O 3 , TiO 2 , ZnO, HfO 2 , and ZrO 2 were deposited on copper metal using ALD, and their corrosion protection properties were measured using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). Analysis of ∼50 nm thick films of each metal oxide demonstrated low electrochemical porosity and provided enhanced corrosion protection from aqueous NaCl solution. The surface pretreatment and roughness was found to affect the extent of the corrosion protection. Films of Al 2 O 3 or HfO 2 provided the highest level of initial corrosion protection, but films of HfO 2 exhibited the best coating quality after extended exposure. This is the first reported instance of using ultrathin films of HfO 2 or ZrO 2 produced with ALD for corrosion protection, and both are promising materials for corrosion protection.

  5. Influence of SiO2 Particles on Microstructures and Properties of Ni-W-P-CeO2-SiO2 Nano-Composite Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Ruidong; Wang Junli; Guo Zhongcheng; Wang Hua

    2007-01-01

    Ni-W-P-CeO2-SiO2 nano-composite coatings were prepared on the carbon steel surface by pulse co-deposition of nickel, tungsten, phosphorus, nano-CeO2 and nano-SiO2 particles. The influence of nano-SiO2 particles concentrations in electrolyte on microstructures and properties of the nano-composite coatings were researched, and the characteristics were assessed by chemical compositions, element distribution, deposition rate, microhardness and microstructures. The results indicate that when nano-SiO2 particles concentrations in electrolyte are controlled at 20g·L-1, the deposition rate with 27.07μm·h-1 and the microhardness with 666 Hv of the nano-composite coatings are highest, element line scanning and area scanning analyses show that the average contents of elements W, P, Si and Ce in the nano-composite coatings are close. displaying that the distribution of every element within the nano-composite coatings is even. An increase in nano-SiO2 particles concentrations in electrolyte (when lower than 20g·L-1) leads to refinement in grain structure of nano-composite coatings, but when it improved to 30g·L-1, the crystallite sizes increase again and in the meantime there are a lot of small boss with nodulation shape appearing on the surface of nano-composite coatings.

  6. Photo response of silver-TiO2 film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viernes, M A J; Mahinay, C L S; Villamayor, M M S; Ramos, H J

    2014-02-01

    Silver and TiO2 films were deposited on glass substrates via the plasma sputter type negative ion source and a compact planar magnetron, respectively. A silver target was biased and is sputtered by argon plasma for 30 min. TiO2 was deposited by sputtering a titanium disk and introducing oxygen in a 1:13 ratio with argon plasma for 2 h. The resulting composite films (silver on TiO2 and TiO2 on silver) were analyzed by its transmissivity in the UV-VIS region showing increased optical absorbance. The synthesized films were used in the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue showing an increase in photocatalytic degradation when only TiO2 is used. The introduction of silver with TiO2 inhibited the effective photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue.

  7. Structural, optical and photocatalytic properties of TiO2/SnO2 and SnO2/TiO2 core-shell nanocomposites: An experimental and DFT investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetri, Pawan; Basyach, Priyanka; Choudhury, Amarjyoti

    2014-04-01

    We employed an efficient and cost effective method to synthesize core-shell TiO2/SnO2 and inverted core-shell SnO2/TiO2 nanocomposites and investigated their visible light photo catalytic activity for degradation of dye methyl orange. We carried out techniques such as XRD and TEM for the structural verification while UV-Visible and photoluminescence spectra for the optical characterization. BET is done to reveal pore diameter and surface area of prepared nanosystems. We have also performed DFT based calculation using VASP 5.2 to calculate density of states. The analyses of density of states indicate a higher photocatalytic efficiency of core-shell TiO2/SnO2 nanostructures and which we indeed observe through experiment as well.

  8. Hydroxyapatite-TiO2-SiO2-Coated 316L Stainless Steel for Biomedical Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidane, Djahida; Khireddine, Hafit; Bir, Fatima; Yala, Sabeha; Montagne, Alex; Chicot, Didier

    2017-07-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of titania (TiO2) as a reinforcing phase in the hydroxyapatite (HAP) coating and silica (SiO2) single layer as a bond coat between the TiO2-reinforced hydroxyapatite (TiO2/HAP) top layer and 316L stainless steel (316L SS) substrate on the corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of the underlying 316L SS metallic implant. Single layer of SiO2 film was first deposited on 316L SS substrate and studied separately. Water contact angle measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer analysis were used to evaluate the hydroxyl group reactivity at the SiO2 outer surface. The microstructural and morphological results showed that the reinforcement of HAP coating with TiO2 and SiO2 reduced the crystallite size and the roughness surface. Indeed, the deposition of 50 vol pct TiO2-reinforced hydroxyapatite layer enhanced the hardness and the elastic modulus of the HAP coating, and the introduction of SiO2 inner layer on the surface of the 316L SS allowed the improvement of the bonding strength and the corrosion resistance as confirmed by scratch studies, nanoindentation, and cyclic voltammetry tests.

  9. ESTIMATIONS OF HEAT CAPACITIES FOR ACTINIDE DIOXIDE: UO2, NpO2, ThO2, AND PuO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. ESER

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of thermal properties of actinide oxide fuels is a problem of high importance for the development of new generation reactors. In the present study, an expression obtained for n-dimensional Debye functions is used to derive a simple analytical expression for the specific heat capacity of nuclear fuels. To test the validity and reliability of this expression, the analytical expression is applied to UO2, NpO2, ThO2, and PuO2. It is seen that the formula was in agreement with the experimental and theoretical results reported in the literature.

  10. Kinetics of Valeric Acid Ketonization and Ketenization in Catalytic Pyrolysis on Nanosized SiO2 , γ-Al2 O3 , CeO2 /SiO2 , Al2 O3 /SiO2 and TiO2 /SiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulyk, Kostiantyn; Palianytsia, Borys; Alexander, John D; Azizova, Liana; Borysenko, Mykola; Kartel, Mykola; Larsson, Mats; Kulik, Tetiana

    2017-07-19

    Valeric acid is an important renewable platform chemical that can be produced efficiently from lignocellulosic biomass. Upgrading of valeric acid by catalytic pyrolysis has the potential to produce value added biofuels and chemicals on an industrial scale. Understanding the different mechanisms involved in the thermal transformations of valeric acid on the surface of nanometer-sized oxides is important for the development of efficient heterogeneously catalyzed pyrolytic conversion techniques. In this work, the thermal decomposition of valeric acid on the surface of nanoscale SiO2 , γ-Al2 O3 , CeO2 /SiO2 , Al2 O3 /SiO2 and TiO2 /SiO2 has been investigated by temperature-programmed desorption mass spectrometry (TPD MS). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) has also been used to investigate the structure of valeric acid complexes on the oxide surfaces. Two main products of pyrolytic conversion were observed to be formed depending on the nano-catalyst used-dibutylketone and propylketene. Mechanisms of ketene and ketone formation from chemisorbed fragments of valeric acid are proposed and the kinetic parameters of the corresponding reactions were calculated. It was found that the activation energy of ketenization decreases in the order SiO2 >γ-Al2 O3 >TiO2 /SiO2 >Al2 O3 /SiO2 , and the activation energy of ketonization decreases in the order γ-Al2 O3 >CeO2 /SiO2 . Nano-oxide CeO2 /SiO2 was found to selectively catalyze the ketonization reaction. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Biotemplated Mesoporous TiO2/SiO2 Composite Derived from Aquatic Plant Leaves for Efficient Dye Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiying Yan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The biotemplating technique is an environmental-protective high-efficiency new technology by which the resulting TiO2 may simultaneously attain the duplication of structure and self-doping elements from biotemplate materials, which is highly desirable for photocatalytic applications. In this paper, aquatic plant leaves—including reed, water hyacinth, and duckweed—were used as both templates and silicon precursors to successfully synthesize biomorphic TiO2/SiO2 composite with mesoporous structures. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, N2 adsorption–desorption, and UV–visible diffuse reflectance spectra were applied to characterize the microstructures of the samples. The results show that all TiO2/SiO2 composites are mainly composed of an anatase phase with mesoporous structure and possess high specific surface area. Compared with commercial Degussa P25 TiO2, all TiO2/SiO2 samples display intensive light-harvesting efficiency, particularly in the visible light range. The activities were evaluated by using gentian violet as a target for photocatalytic degradation experiments under simulated solar irradiation. The TiO2/SiO2 samples templated by reed and water hyacinth leaves exhibit high activity, while the TiO2/SiO2 samples obtained from duckweed are inferior to P25 in the degradation of gentian violet. A synergistic effect of SiO2 incorporation and structural construction through biotemplating is proposed to be beneficial to photocatalytic activity.

  12. Compatibility of RuO2 electrodes with PZT ceramics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    ween RuO2 and lead zirconate–titanate (PZT) solid solu- tions. Phase diagrams of the component ternary systems provide a visual summary of compatibility relations. Ther- modynamic data provide the input for the calculations. 2.1 Phase relations. The subsolidus phase diagrams for the system PbO–. RuO2–TiO2 given by ...

  13. Linear Logic on Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn

    This article shows how individual Petri nets form models of Girard's intuitionistic linear logic. It explores questions of expressiveness and completeness of linear logic with respect to this interpretation. An aim is to use Petri nets to give an understanding of linear logic and give some apprai...

  14. Reference Guide Microsoft.NET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee M van der; Verspaij GJ; Rosbergen S; IMP; NMD

    2003-01-01

    Developers, administrators and managers can get more understanding of the .NET technology with this report. They can also make better choices how to use this technology. The report describes the results and conclusions of a study of the usability for the RIVM of this new generation .NET development

  15. Net neutrality and audiovisual services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.; Nikoltchev, S.

    2011-01-01

    Net neutrality is high on the European agenda. New regulations for the communication sector provide a legal framework for net neutrality and need to be implemented on both a European and a national level. The key element is not just about blocking or slowing down traffic across communication

  16. Structure of a model TiO2 photocatalytic interface

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, H.; Tocci, G.; Woolcot, T.; Torrelles, X.; Pang, C. L.; Humphrey, D. S.; Yim, C. M.; Grinter, D. C.; Cabailah, G.; Bikondoa, O.; Lindsay, Robert; Zegenhagen, J.; Michaelides, A; Thornton, G.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of water with TiO2 is crucial to many of its practical applications, including photocatalytic water splitting. Following the first demonstration of this phenomenon 40 years ago there have been numerous studies of the rutile single-crystal TiO2(110) interface with water. This has provided an atomic-level understanding of the water–TiO2 interaction. However, nearly all of the previous studies of water/TiO2 interfaces involve water in the vapour phase. Here, we explore the interf...

  17. Silicon protected with atomic layer deposited TiO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seger, Brian; Tilley, S. David; Pedersen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    /electrolyte interface if the potential is significantly more anodic than the TiO2 conduction band due to moderate to large band bending. This means that the lesser doped TiO2 can be used to prevent the inadvertent oxidation of sensitive species on the surface (e.g. H2 evolution catalysts) as long as the redox...... potential of the material is significantly more anodic than the TiO2 conduction band. Conversely, for situations where an oxidative process on the surface is desired, highly doped TiO2 may be used to enable current flow via tunneling....

  18. A Small Universal Petri Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A. Zaitsev

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A universal deterministic inhibitor Petri net with 14 places, 29 transitions and 138 arcs was constructed via simulation of Neary and Woods' weakly universal Turing machine with 2 states and 4 symbols; the total time complexity is exponential in the running time of their weak machine. To simulate the blank words of the weakly universal Turing machine, a couple of dedicated transitions insert their codes when reaching edges of the working zone. To complete a chain of a given Petri net encoding to be executed by the universal Petri net, a translation of a bi-tag system into a Turing machine was constructed. The constructed Petri net is universal in the standard sense; a weaker form of universality for Petri nets was not introduced in this work.

  19. Growth and phase stabilization of HfO 2 thin films by ALD using novel precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinistö, Jaakko; Mäntymäki, Miia; Kukli, Kaupo; Costelle, Leila; Puukilainen, Esa; Ritala, Mikko; Leskelä, Markku

    2010-01-01

    HfO 2 thin films were grown at temperatures between 250 and 400 °C by atomic layer deposition using novel cyclopentadienyl-alkylamido precursors, namely CpHf(NMe 2) 3 and (CpMe)Hf(NMe 2) 3 (Cp, cyclopentadienyl=C 5H 5). Ozone was used as the oxygen source. The self-limiting growth mode was verified at 300 °C with a growth rate of 0.7-0.8 Å/cycle, depending on the precursor. Thermal decomposition started to have an effect on the growth mechanism at temperatures near 350 °C. As compared to the widely applied Hf(NEtMe) 4 precursor, these novel precursors with higher thermal stability resulted in HfO 2 films with lower impurity contents. The carbon and hydrogen contents below 0.5 and 1.0 at.%, respectively, were characterized for films deposited at 300 °C from both novel precursors. The 50-nm-thick HfO 2 films deposited at 300 °C or above were crystallized in mixture of monoclinic and cubic or tetragonal phases. Doping with low amounts of yttrium and subsequent annealing of 7-nm-thick film on TiN stabilized the preferred high-permittivity cubic or tetragonal phases, resulting in low capacitance equivalent thickness and leakage current density.

  20. Sol-hydrothermal synthesis of inorganic-framework molecularly imprinted TiO2/SiO2 nanocomposite and its preferential photocatalytic degradation towards target contaminant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Fang; Liu, Yin; Luo, Xubiao; Wu, Shaolin; Luo, Shenglian; Au, Chaktong; Qi, Ruoxi

    2014-08-15

    Inorganic-framework molecularly imprinted TiO2/SiO2 nanocomposite (MIP-TiO2/SiO2) was successfully prepared by sol-hydrothermal method using 4-nitrophenol as template. The morphology, structure, optical property, zeta-potential and photocurrent of MIP-TiO2/SiO2 were characterized. The adsorption performance and photocatalytic selectivity were also studied. MIP-TiO2/SiO2 shows higher adsorption capacity and selectivity than the non-imprinted TiO2/SiO2 (NIP-TiO2/SiO2). Kinetics results show that the adsorption equilibrium of 4-nitrophenol on MIP-TiO2/SiO2 is established within 20 min, and the adsorption process obeys the pseudo-second-order model. Moreover, MIP-TiO2/SiO2 can completely degrade 4-nitrophenol within 30 min, while NIP-TiO2/SiO2 takes 110 min. It was found that the MIP-TiO2/SiO2 photocatalyst shows molecular recognition ability, leading to selective adsorption and molecular recognitive photocatalytic degradation of 4-nitrophenol. Furthermore, because of its inorganic framework, MIP-TiO2/SiO2 shows excellent reusability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Synthesis of Nanocrystalline SnO2 Modified TiO2:a Material for Carbon Monoxide Gas Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. BODADE

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline SnO2 doped TiO2 having average crystallite size of 45-50 nm were synthesized by the sol-gel method and studied for gas sensing behavior to reducing gases like CO, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG, NH3 and H2. The material characterization was done by using X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and scanning electron microscope (SEM. The sensitivity measurements were carried out as a function of different operating temperature in SnO2 doped TiO2. The 15 wt.% SnO2 doped TiO2 based CO sensor shows better sensitivity at an operating temperature 240°C Incorporation of 0.5 wt% Pd improved the sensitivity, selectivity, response time and reduced the operating temperature from 240°C to 200°C for CO sensor.

  2. Characteristics of SnO2 nanofiber/TiO2 nanoparticle composite for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiawei Gong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available SnO2 nanofibers and their composites based photoanodes were fabricated and investigated in the application of dye-sensitized solar cells. The photoanode made of SnO2/TiO2 composites yielded an over 2-fold improvement in overall conversion efficiency. The microstructure of SnO2 nanofibers was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. A compact morphology of composites was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. A long charge diffusion length (62.42 μm in the composites was derived from time constant in transient photovoltage and photocurrent analysis. These experimental results demonstrate that one-dimensional nanostructured SnO2/TiO2 composites have a great potential for application in solar cells.

  3. Synthesis and photolysis of NaYF4@SiO2@TiO2 core-shell nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guoyou; Mao, Yifu; Ren, Guozhong; Gong, Lunjun; Zhi, Zhugong

    2014-12-01

    Monodisperse β-NaYF4 nanocrystals were synthesized with oleic acid as capping ligands by solvothermal method, and then, SiO2 and TiO2 were coated successively. Intense ultraviolet light is emitted from NaYF4:Yb/Tm under the 980 nm laser and the intensity of ultraviolet light reduce dramatically after these nanocrystals were coated with SiO2 and TiO2 shells, which means NaYF4@SiO2@TiO2 core-shell nanocomposites can be used to realize the infared photocatalysis. Photocatalytic activity of these nanocomposites is demonstrated using methyl orange (MO) as a chemical probe under the 980 nm laser excitation.

  4. First-Principles Study of CuGaO2 Polymorphs: Delafossite α-CuGaO2 and Wurtzite β-CuGaO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Issei; Nagatani, Hiraku; Kita, Masao; Iguchi, Yuki; Sato, Chiyuki; Yanagi, Hiroshi; Ohashi, Naoki; Omata, Takahisa

    2016-08-01

    The electronic structures of delafossite α-CuGaO2 and wurtzite β-CuGaO2 were calculated based on density functional theory using the local density approximation functional including the Hubbard correction (LDA+U). The differences in the electronic structure and physical properties between the two polymorphs were investigated in terms of their crystal structures. Three major structural features were found to influence the electronic structure. The first feature is the atomic arrangements of cations. In the conduction band of α-CuGaO2 with a layered structure of Cu2O and Ga2O3, Cu and Ga states do not mix well; the lower part of the conduction band mainly consists of Cu 4s and 4p states, and the upper part consists of Ga 4s and 4p states. By contrast, in β-CuGaO2, which is composed of CuO4 and GaO4 tetrahedra, Cu and Ga states are well-mixed. The second feature is the coordination environment of Cu atoms; the breaking of degeneracy of Cu 3d orbitals is determined by the crystal field. Dispersion of the Cu 3d valence band of β-CuGaO2, in which Cu atoms are tetrahedrally coordinated to oxygen atoms, is smaller than those in α-CuGaO2, in which Cu atoms are linearly coordinated to oxygen atoms; this results in a larger absorption coefficient and larger hole effective mass in β-CuGaO2 than in α-CuGaO2. The interatomic distance between Cu atoms-the third feature-also influences the dispersion of the Cu 3d valence band (i.e., the effective hole mass); the effective hole mass decreases with decreasing interatomic distance between Cu atoms in each structure. The results obtained are valuable for understanding the physical properties of oxide semiconductors containing monovalent copper and silver.

  5. Reduction of NO2 in flue gas by CO and propylene over CuO-CeO2/SiO2 in the presence of O-2.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Mo-Hong; Li, M.; Shan, Yu-Hua; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Lefferts, Leonardus

    2008-01-01

    Catalytic reduction of NO2 with CO and/or propylene in the presence of NO and excess oxygen, a model mixture for flue gas, was studied over a series of CuO-CeO2/SiO2 catalysts between 120-260 °C. The effect of HCl, an impurity in flue gas, on the activity of the catalysts was evaluated. It was found

  6. Organic degradation potential of a TiO2/H2O2/UV-vis system for dental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, Oscar; Unosson, Erik; Strømme, Maria; Engqvist, Håkan; Welch, Ken

    2017-12-01

    The combination of TiO 2 and H 2 O 2 under light activation constitutes a promising method for disinfection of dental prosthetics and implants, due to production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of this work was to investigate the organic degradation ability of TiO 2 particles in combination with H 2 O 2 and under light activation utilizing the organic dye rhodamine B (RhB). Five different types of TiO 2 particles, consisting of anatase, rutile, or a mixture of these crystalline phases, were combined with H 2 O 2 and RhB, and subsequently exposed to UV (365nm) or visible (405nm) light at an irradiance of 2.1mW/cm 2 . It was found that rutile in combination with low concentrations of H 2 O 2 (1.0-3.5mM) resulted in a degradation of RhB of 96% and 77% after 10min exposure to 365nm and 405nm light, respectively, which was the highest degradation of all test groups. Control measurements performed without light irradiation or irradiation at 470nm, or without TiO 2 particles resulted in little or no degradation of RhB. Low H 2 O 2 concentrations (1.0mM-3.5mM) and visible light (405nm) used in combination with rutile TiO 2 particles showed the highest RhB degradation capacity. A combination of TiO 2 particles and H 2 O 2 exposed to low energy UV or high energy visible light has an organic degradation capability that could be utilized in applications to kill or inactivate bacteria on medical devices such as dental implants for treatment against, e.g., peri-implantitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. O2(1Δ) production in He/O2 mixtures in flowing low pressure plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, D. Shane; Kushner, Mark J.

    2004-09-01

    Chemical oxygen-iodine lasers (COIL) are attractive for diverse industrial applications because they are capable of high efficiency, high power operation, and because the 1.315μm wavelength can be transmitted through fiber optics and couples efficiently with most metals. Conventional COILs are pumped with O2(Δ1) that is generated by reaction of Cl2 in a basic H2O2 solution. Current trends in pumping COILs involve producing the O2(Δ1) in electric discharges, thereby circumventing the hazards, complexity, and weight associated with pumping and storing caustic liquids. In this work, we have investigated the scaling of O2(Δ1) yields with specific energy deposition in He /O2 mixtures in flowing radio frequency (rf) discharges at pressures of a few to tens of Torr using a global plasma kinetics model. We found that O2(Δ1) yield increases nearly linearly with specific energy deposition in O2 molecules up to a few eV per molecule, with yields peaking around 30% by 5-8eV. Further increases in specific energy deposition serve only to increase O2 dissociation and gas heating, thereby reducing the O2(Δ1) yield. We also found that variations in peak yields at a given specific energy deposition are caused by secondary effects resulting from dilution, pressure, and power level. We show that these secondary effects alter the O2(Δ1) yield by shifting the O2(Σ1)/O2(Δ1) ratio.

  8. Crystallization of a Li2O2SiO2 Glass under High Hydrostatic Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuss, T.; Day, D. E.; Lesher, C. E.; Ray, C. S.

    2004-01-01

    The crystallization behavior of a Li2O.2SiO2 (LS2) glass subjected to a uniform hydrostatic pressure of 4.5 or 6 GPa was investigated between 550 and 800 C using XRD, IR, Raman, TEM, NMR, and DTA. The density of the glass subjected to 6 GPa was between 2.52 plus or minus 0.01 and 2.57 plus or minus 0.01 grams per cubic centimeters, depending upon the processing temperatures, and was higher than that of the stoichiometric LS2 crystals, 2.46 plus or minus 0.01 grams per cubic centimeter. Thus, crystallization in 6 GPa glass occurred in a condition of negative volume dilatation, deltaV = V(sub glass) - V(sub crystal), while that for the 4.5 GPa glass occurred in the condition deltaV greater than 0. For deltaV greater than 0, which also includes the control glass at ambient (one atmosphere) pressure, the glasses always crystallize Li2Si2O5 (orthorhombic, Ccc2) crystals, but for deltaV less than 0 (6 GPa), the glasses crystallize Li2SiO3 crystals with a slightly deformed structure. The crystal growth rate vs. temperature curve moved to higher temperature with increasing pressure, and was independent of the sign of deltaV. These results for the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the crystallization of LS2 glass were discussed from thermodynamic considerations.

  9. Faster Proton dynamics of water on SnO2 compared to TiO2.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Nitin [ORNL; Kent, Paul R [ORNL; Bandura, Andrei V. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia; Kubicki, James D. [Pennsylvania State University; Wesolowski, David J [ORNL; Cole, David R [ORNL; Sofo, Jorge O. [Pennsylvania State University

    2011-01-01

    Proton jump processes in the hydration layer on the iso-structural TiO2 rutile (110) and SnO2 cassiterite (110) surfaces were studied with density functional theory molecular dynamics. We find that the proton jump rate is more than three times faster on cassiterite compared with rutile. A local analysis based on the correlation between the stretching band of the O H vibrations and the strength of H-bonds indicates that the faster proton jump activity on cassiterite is produced by a stronger H-bond formation between the surface and the hydration layer above the surface. The origin of the increased H-bond strength on cassiterite is a combined effect of stronger covalent bonding and stronger electrostatic interactions due to differences of its electronic structure. The bridging oxygens form the strongest H-bonds between the surface and the hydration layer. This higher proton jump rate is likely to affect reactivity and catalytic activity on the surface. A better understanding of its origins will enable methods to control these rates. 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3509386

  10. Estimation of net ecosystem metabolism of seagrass meadows in the coastal waters of the East Sea and Black Sea using the noninvasive eddy covariance technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Seong; Kang, Dong-Jin; Hineva, Elitsa; Slabakova, Violeta; Todorova, Valentina; Park, Jiyoung; Cho, Jin-Hyung

    2017-06-01

    We measured the community-scale metabolism of seagrass meadows in Bulgaria (Byala [BY]) and Korea (Hoopo Bay [HP]) to understand their ecosystem function in coastal waters. A noninvasive in situ eddy covariance technique was applied to estimate net O2 flux in the seagrass meadows. From the high-quality and high-resolution time series O2 data acquired over > 24 h, the O2 flux driven by turbulence was extracted at 15-min intervals. The spectrum analysis of vertical flow velocity and O2 concentration clearly showed well-developed turbulence characteristics in the inertial subrange region. The hourly averaged net O2 fluxes per day ranged from -474 to 326 mmol O2 m-2 d-1 (-19 ± 41 mmol O2 m-2 d-1) at BY and from -74 to 482 mmol O2 m-2 d-1 (31 ± 17 mmol O2 m-2 d-1) at HP. The net O2 production rapidly responded to photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) and showed a good relationship between production and irradiance (P-I curve). The hysteresis pattern of P-I relationships during daytime also suggested increasing heterotrophic respiration in the afternoon. With the flow velocity between 3.30 and 6.70 cm s-1, the community metabolism during daytime and nighttime was significantly increased by 20 times and 5 times, respectively. The local hydrodynamic characteristics may be vital to determining the efficiency of community photosynthesis. The net ecosystem metabolism at BY was estimated to be -17 mmol O2 m-2 d-1, which was assessed as heterotrophy. However, that at HP was 36 mmol O2 m-2 d-1, which suggested an autotrophic state.

  11. Preparation of SnO2 -TiO2 /Fly Ash Cenospheres and its Application in Phenol Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaomin; Zhu, Jinglin; Yang, Qing; Xu, Pengpeng; Ge, Jianhua; Guo, Xuetao

    2015-11-01

    SnO2 -TiO2 /fly ash cenospheres (FAC) were prepared via hydrothermal method and used as an active photocatalyst in a photocatalytic system. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and N2 adsorption-desorption measurements were used to determine the structure and optical property of SnO2 -TiO2 /FAC. Phenol was selected as the model substance for photocatalytic reactions to evaluate catalytic ability. Results showed that the degradation efficiency of phenol by SnO2 -TiO2 /FAC was 90.7% higher than that decomposed by TiO2 /FAC. Increased efficiency could be due to the enhanced synergistic effect of semiconductors and FAC could provide more adsorption sites for the pollutant in the photocatalytic reaction. Furthermore, SnO2 -TiO2 /FAC composites exhibited excellent photocatalytic stability in four reuse cycles. Radical-trapping experiments further revealed the dominating functions of holes in the photocatalytic reaction. © 2015 The American Society of Photobiology.

  12. H-TiO2/C/MnO2 nanocomposite materials for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Jing; Fu, Xincui; Zheng, Huajun; Jia, Yi

    2015-06-01

    Functionalized TiO2 nanotube arrays with decoration of MnO2 nanoparticles (denoted as H-TiO2/C/MnO2) have been synthesized in the application of electrochemical capacitors. To improve both areal and gravimetric capacitance, hydrogen treatment and carbon coating process were conducted on TiO2 nanotube arrays. By scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, it is confirmed that the nanostructure is formed by the uniform incorporation of MnO2 nanoparticles growing round the surface of the TiO2 nanotube arrays. Impedance analysis proves that the enhanced capacitive is due to the decrease of charge transfer resistance and diffusion resistance. Electrochemical measurements performed on this H-TiO2/C/MnO2 nanocomposite when used as an electrode material for an electrochemical pseudocapacitor presents quasi-rectangular shaped cyclic voltammetry curves up to 100 mV/s, with a large specific capacitance (SC) of 299.8 F g-1 at the current density of 0.5 A g-1 in 1 M Na2SO4 electrolyte. More importantly, the electrode also exhibits long-term cycling stability, only 13 % of SC loss after 2000 continuous charge-discharge cycles. Based on the concept of integrating active materials on highly ordered nanostructure framework, this method can be widely applied to the synthesis of high-performance electrode materials for energy storage.

  13. Preparation of Nano-TiO2-Coated SiO2 Microsphere Composite Material and Evaluation of Its Self-Cleaning Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijia Sun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the dispersion of nano-TiO2 particles and enhance its self-cleaning properties, including photocatalytic degradation of pollutants and surface hydrophilicity, we prepared nano-TiO2-coated SiO2 microsphere composite self-cleaning materials (SiO2–TiO2 by co-grinding SiO2 microspheres and TiO2 soliquid and calcining the ground product. The structure, morphology, and self-cleaning properties of the SiO2–TiO2 were characterized. The characterization results showed that the degradation efficiency of methyl orange by SiO2–TiO2 was 97%, which was significantly higher than that obtained by pure nano-TiO2. The minimum water contact angle of SiO2–TiO2 was 8°, indicating strong hydrophilicity and the good self-cleaning effect. The as-prepared SiO2–TiO2 was characterized by the nano-TiO2 particles uniformly coated on the SiO2 microspheres and distributed in the gap among the microspheres. The nano-TiO2 particles were in an anatase phase with the particle size of 15–20 nm. The nano-TiO2 particles were combined with SiO2 microspheres via the dehydroxylation of hydroxyl groups on their surfaces.

  14. Preparation of Nano-TiO2-Coated SiO2 Microsphere Composite Material and Evaluation of Its Self-Cleaning Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sijia; Deng, Tongrong; Ding, Hao; Chen, Ying; Chen, Wanting

    2017-01-01

    In order to improve the dispersion of nano-TiO2 particles and enhance its self-cleaning properties, including photocatalytic degradation of pollutants and surface hydrophilicity, we prepared nano-TiO2-coated SiO2 microsphere composite self-cleaning materials (SiO2–TiO2) by co-grinding SiO2 microspheres and TiO2 soliquid and calcining the ground product. The structure, morphology, and self-cleaning properties of the SiO2–TiO2 were characterized. The characterization results showed that the degradation efficiency of methyl orange by SiO2–TiO2 was 97%, which was significantly higher than that obtained by pure nano-TiO2. The minimum water contact angle of SiO2–TiO2 was 8°, indicating strong hydrophilicity and the good self-cleaning effect. The as-prepared SiO2–TiO2 was characterized by the nano-TiO2 particles uniformly coated on the SiO2 microspheres and distributed in the gap among the microspheres. The nano-TiO2 particles were in an anatase phase with the particle size of 15–20 nm. The nano-TiO2 particles were combined with SiO2 microspheres via the dehydroxylation of hydroxyl groups on their surfaces. PMID:29099774

  15. Pronounced gradients of light, photosynthesis and O2 consumption in the tissue of the brown alga Fucus serratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Mads; Kühl, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Macroalgae live in an ever-changing light environment affected by wave motion, self-shading and light-scattering effects, and on the thallus scale, gradients of light and chemical parameters influence algal photosynthesis. However, the thallus microenvironment and internal gradients remain underexplored. In this study, microsensors were used to quantify gradients of light, O2 concentration, variable chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthesis and O2 consumption as a function of irradiance in the cortex and medulla layers of Fucus serratus. The two cortex layers showed more efficient light utilization compared to the medulla, calculated both from electron transport rates through photosystem II and from photosynthesis-irradiance curves. At moderate irradiance, the upper cortex exhibited onset of photosynthetic saturation, whereas lower thallus layers exhibited net O2 consumption. O2 consumption rates in light varied with depth and irradiance and were more than two-fold higher than dark respiration. We show that the thallus microenvironment of F. serratus exhibits a highly stratified balance of production and consumption of O2 , and when the frond was held in a fixed position, high incident irradiance levels on the upper cortex did not saturate photosynthesis in the lower thallus layers. We discuss possible photoadaptive responses and consequences for optimizing photosynthetic activity on the basis of vertical differences in light attenuation coefficients. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    High-level Petri nets are now widely used in both theoretical analysis and practical modelling of concurrent systems. The main reason for the success of this class of net models is that they make it possible to obtain much more succinct and manageable descriptions than can be obtained by means...... of low-level Petri nets - while, on the other hand, they still offer a wide range of analysis methods and tools. The step from low-level nets to high-level nets can be compared to the step from assembly languages to modern programming languages with an elaborated type concept. In low-level nets...... there is only one kind of token and this means that the state of a place is described by an integer (and in many cases even by a boolean). In high-level nets each token can carry a complex information/data - which, e.g., may describe the entire state of a process or a data base. Today most practical...

  17. Alkalinity Enrichment Enhances Net Calcification of a Coral Reef Flat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, R.; Caldeira, K.

    2015-12-01

    Ocean acidification is projected to shift reefs from a state of net accretion to one of net dissolution sometime this century. While retrospective studies show large-scale changes in coral calcification over the last several decades, it is not possible to unequivocally link these results to ocean acidification due to confounding factors of temperature and other environmental parameters. Here, we quantified the calcification response of a coral reef flat to alkalinity enrichment to test whether reef calcification increases when ocean chemistry is restored to near pre-industrial conditions. We used sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to increase the total alkalinity of seawater flowing over a reef flat, with the aim of increasing carbonate ion concentrations [CO32-] and the aragonite saturation state (Ωarag) to values that would have been attained under pre-industrial atmospheric pCO2 levels. We developed a dual tracer regression method to estimate alkalinity uptake (i.e., calcification) in response to alkalinity enrichment. This approach uses the change in ratios between a non-conservative tracer (alkalinity) and a conservative tracer (a non-reactive dye, Rhodamine WT) to assess the fraction of added alkalinity that is taken up by the reef as a result of an induced increase in calcification rate. Using this method, we estimate that an average of 17.3% ± 2.3% of the added alkalinity was taken up by the reef community. In providing results from the first seawater chemistry manipulation experiment performed on a natural coral reef community (without artificial confinement), we demonstrate that, upon increase of [CO32-] and Ωarag to near pre-industrial values, reef calcification increases. Thus, we conclude that, the impacts of ocean acidification are already being felt by coral reefs. This work is the culmination of years of work in the Caldeira lab at the Carnegie Institution for Science, involving many people including Jack Silverman, Kenny Schneider, and Jana Maclaren.

  18. Distinction between SnO2 nanoparticles synthesized using co ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Distinction between SnO2 nanoparticles synthesized using co-precipitation and solvothermal methods for the photovoltaic efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells ... The energy conversion efficiency of the solvothermal SnO2 powders was considerably higher than that formed by co-precipitation powders; ∼ 3.20% ...

  19. Dielectrical properties of PANI/TiO2 nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturmukha, V. S.; Naveen, C. S.; Rajeeva, M. P.; Avinash, B. S.; Jayanna, H. S.; Lamani, Ashok R.

    2016-05-01

    Conducting polyaniline/titanium dioxide (PANI/TiO2) composites have been succesfully synthesized by insitu polymerization technique. The PANI/TiO2 nanocomposites of different compositions were prepared by varying weight percentage of TiO2 nanoparticles such as 10 wt%, 20 wt%, 30 wt%, 40 wt% and 50 wt% into the fixed amount of the aniline monomer. The prepared powder samples were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM). The intensity of diffraction peaks for PANI/TiO2 composites is lower than that for TiO2. SEM pictures show that the nanocomposite were prepared in the form of long PANi chains decorated with TiO2 nanoparticles. The dielectric properties and AC conductivity were studied in the frequency range1K Hz-10M Hz. At higher frequencies, the composites exhibit almost zero dielectric loss and maximum value of σac is found for a concentration of 20 wt% TiO2 in polyaniline. The interface between polyaniline and TiO2 plays an important role in yielding a large dielectric constant in nanocomposites.

  20. Reining in H2O2 for Safe Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Planson, Anne-Gaëlle; Delaunay‐Moisan, Agnès

    2010-01-01

    Mammalian cells use hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) not only to kill invading pathogens, but also as a signaling modulator. Woo et al. (2010) now show that the local inactivation of a H(2)O(2)-degrading enzyme ensures that the production of this oxidant is restricted to the signaling site.

  1. Electrochemical sensing and photocatalysis using Ag-TiO 2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anatase Ag-TiO2 microwires with high sensitivity and photocatalytic activity were synthesized via polyol synthesis route followed by a simple surface modification and chemical reduction approach for attachment of silver. The superior performance of the Ag-TiO2 composite microwires is attributed to improved surface ...

  2. Pro asynchronous programming with .NET

    CERN Document Server

    Blewett, Richard; Ltd, Rock Solid Knowledge

    2014-01-01

    Pro Asynchronous Programming with .NET teaches the essential skill of asynchronous programming in .NET. It answers critical questions in .NET application development, such as: how do I keep my program responding at all times to keep my users happy how do I make the most of the available hardware how can I improve performanceIn the modern world, users expect more and more from their applications and devices, and multi-core hardware has the potential to provide it. But it takes carefully crafted code to turn that potential into responsive, scalable applications.With Pro Asynchronous Programming

  3. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André

    2017-08-01

    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  4. Hormetic Effect of H2O2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halyna M. Semchyshyn PhD

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the relationship between target of rapamycin (TOR and H2O2-induced hormetic response in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown on glucose or fructose. In general, our data suggest that: (1 hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 induces hormesis in a TOR-dependent manner; (2 the H2O2-induced hormetic dose–response in yeast depends on the type of carbohydrate in growth medium; (3 the concentration-dependent effect of H2O2 on yeast colony growth positively correlates with the activity of glutathione reductase that suggests the enzyme involvement in the H2O2-induced hormetic response; and (4 both TOR1 and TOR2 are involved in the reciprocal regulation of the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glyoxalase 1.

  5. Measurement of the maximum oxygen uptake V̇o2max: V̇o2peak is no longer acceptable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, David C; Jones, Andrew M

    2017-04-01

    The maximum rate of O2 uptake (i.e., V̇o2max), as measured during large muscle mass exercise such as cycling or running, is widely considered to be the gold standard measurement of integrated cardiopulmonary-muscle oxidative function. The development of rapid-response gas analyzers, enabling measurement of breath-by-breath pulmonary gas exchange, has facilitated replacement of the discontinuous progressive maximal exercise test (that produced an unambiguous V̇o2-work rate plateau definitive for V̇o2max) with the rapidly incremented or ramp testing protocol. Although this is more suitable for clinical and experimental investigations and enables measurement of the gas exchange threshold, exercise efficiency, and V̇o2 kinetics, a V̇o2-work rate plateau is not an obligatory outcome. This shortcoming has led to investigators resorting to so-called secondary criteria such as respiratory exchange ratio, maximal heart rate, and/or maximal blood lactate concentration, the acceptable values of which may be selected arbitrarily and result in grossly inaccurate V̇o2max estimation. Whereas this may not be an overriding concern in young, healthy subjects with experience of performing exercise to volitional exhaustion, exercise test naïve subjects, patient populations, and less motivated subjects may stop exercising before their V̇o2max is reached. When V̇o2max is a or the criterion outcome of the investigation, this represents a major experimental design issue. This CORP presents the rationale for incorporation of a second, constant work rate test performed at ~110% of the work rate achieved on the initial ramp test to resolve the classic V̇o2-work rate plateau that is the unambiguous validation of V̇o2max The broad utility of this procedure has been established for children, adults of varying fitness, obese individuals, and patient populations. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Homogeneous synthesis of SiO2@TiO2 nanocomposites with controllable shell thickness and their enhanced photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yong; Zhang, Ming-Zhen; Chen, Jun; Zhao, Yuan-Di

    2013-01-28

    Here we report the use of sulfuric acid as a catalyst for the facile and homogeneous synthesis of core-shell SiO(2)@TiO(2) nanocomposites using simple apparatus, under ambient pressure and temperature. The resultant SiO(2)@TiO(2) exhibits an ideal core-shell structure with uniform nanoscale TiO(2) coverage. The shell thickness of SiO(2)@TiO(2) can be conveniently tuned through adjustment of the esterification reaction parameters. Moreover, SiO(2)@TiO(2) shows improved catalytic activity in the photodegradation of methyl orange.

  7. Petri Net Tool Overview 1986

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Feldbrugge, Frits

    1987-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the characteristics of all currently available net based tools. It is a compilation of information provided by tool authors or contact persons. A concise one page overview is provided as well....

  8. Understanding Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salom, Jaume; Widén, Joakim; Candanedo, José

    2011-01-01

    Although several alternative definitions exist, a Net-Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) can be succinctly described as a grid-connected building that generates as much energy as it uses over a year. The “net-zero” balance is attained by applying energy conservation and efficiency measures...... and by incorporating renewable energy systems. While based on annual balances, a complete description of a Net ZEB requires examining the system at smaller time-scales. This assessment should address: (a) the relationship between power generation and building loads and (b) the resulting interaction with the power grid....... This paper presents and categorizes quantitative indicators suitable to describe both aspects of the building’s performance. These indicators, named LMGI - Load Matching and Grid Interaction indicators, are easily quantifiable and could complement the output variables of existing building simulation tools...

  9. PolicyNet Publication System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The PolicyNet Publication System project will merge the Oracle-based Policy Repository (POMS) and the SQL-Server CAMP system (MSOM) into a new system with an Oracle...

  10. KM3NeT

    CERN Multimedia

    KM3NeT is a large scale next-generation neutrino telescope located in the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea, optimized for the discovery of galactic neutrino sources emitting in the TeV energy region.

  11. Net Neutrality: Background and Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilroy, Angele A

    2006-01-01

    .... The move to place restrictions on the owners of the networks that compose and provide access to the Internet, to ensure equal access and nondiscriminatory treatment, is referred to as "net neutrality...

  12. Preparation, characterization, and infrared emissivity property of optically active polyurethane/TiO 2/SiO 2 multilayered microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Zhou, Yuming; Ge, Jianhua; Wang, Yongjuan; Zhu, Yunxia

    2011-10-01

    Optically active polyurethane/titania/silica (LPU/TiO 2/SiO 2) multilayered core-shell composite microspheres were prepared by the combination of titania deposition on the surface of silica spheres and subsequent polymer grafting. LPU/TiO 2/SiO 2 was characterized by FT-IR, UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), SEM and TEM, and the infrared emissivity value (8-14 μm) was investigated in addition. The results indicated that titania and polyurethane had been successfully coated onto the surfaces of silica microspheres. LPU/TiO 2/SiO 2 exhibited clearly multilayered core-shell construction. The infrared emissivity values reduced along with the increase of covering layers thus proved that the interfacial interactions had direct influence on the infrared emissivity. Besides, LPU/TiO 2/SiO 2 multilayered microspheres based on the optically active polyurethane took advantages of the orderly secondary structure and strengthened interfacial synergistic actions. Consequently, it possessed the lowest infrared emissivity value.

  13. Catalytic Oxidation of NO over MnOx–CeO2 and MnOx–TiO2 Catalysts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zeng, Xiaolan; Huo, Xiaoyue; Zhu, Tianle; Hong, Xiaowei; Sun, Ye

    2016-01-01

      A series of MnOx-CeO2 and MnOx-TiO2 catalysts were prepared by a homogeneous precipitation method and their catalytic activities for the NO oxidation in the absence or presence of SO2 were evaluated...

  14. Sol-gel synthesis of ternary phosphate-ZrO2-SiO2 catalysts for alcohol dehydration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhuang, Quan; Miller, Jack M

    2001-01-01

    ..., DRIFTS. Résumé : On a synthétisé des catalyseurs phosphate–ZrO 2 –SiO 2 par la méthode sol-gel utilisant du phosphite de triéthyle, du propylate de zirconium et de l’orthosilicate de té...

  15. Dynamic shock compaction of a ZrO2-RuO2 electronic nanocomposite: toward functionally graded materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zyl, W.E.; Carton, Erik P.; Raming, T.P.; ten Elshof, Johan E.; Verweij, H.

    2005-01-01

    An electronic ZrO2-RuO2 nanocomposite was fabricated by dynamic compaction (DC) at 1.5 GPa resulting in a maximum relative density of 88% in the material. The DC process formed pristine elongated conical-shaped compacts 3 cm in length. The compacts retained their original nanometer-sized grains (~20

  16. The comparison of photocatalytic activity of synthesized TiO 2 and ZrO 2 nanosize onto wool fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moafi, Hadi Fallah; Shojaie, Abdollah Fallah; Zanjanchi, Mohammad Ali

    2010-04-01

    TiO 2 and ZrO 2 nanocrystals were successfully synthesized and deposited onto wool fibers using the sol-gel technique at low temperature. The photocatalytic activities of TiO 2-coated and ZrO 2-coated wool fibers were measured by studying photodegradation of methylene blue and eosin yellowish dyes. The initial and the treated samples were characterized by several techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and X-ray diffraction. The TEM study shows dispersed particles with 10-30 nm in size for TiO 2-coated and 20-40 nm in size for ZrO 2-coated samples on the fiber surface. Comparison of the photocatalytic activity of the coated samples reveals superiority of TiO 2 modified sample with respect to that of ZrO 2 for degradation of both dyes. Our observations indicate that by applying this technique to the fabrics, self-cleaning materials could be designed for practical application.

  17. O2(a1Δ) quenching in O/O2/O3/CO2/He/Ar mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azyazov, V. N.; Mikheyev, P. A.; Postell, D.; Heaven, M. C.

    2010-02-01

    The development of discharge singlet oxygen generators (DSOG's) that can operate at high pressures is required for the power scaling of the discharge oxygen iodine laser. In order to achieve efficient high-pressure DSOG operation it is important to understand the mechanisms by which singlet oxygen (O2(a1Δ)) is quenched in these devices. It has been proposed that three-body deactivation processes of the type O2(a1Δ))+O+M-->2O2+M provide significant energy loss channels. To further explore these reactions the physical and reactive quenching of O2(a1Δ)) in O(3P)/O2/O3/CO2/He/Ar mixtures has been investigated. Oxygen atoms and singlet oxygen molecules were produced by the 248 nm laser photolysis of ozone. The kinetics of O2(a1Δ)) quenching were followed by observing the 1268 nm fluorescence of the O2 a1Δ-X3Ε transition. Fast quenching of O2(a1Δ)) in the presence of oxygen atoms and molecules was observed. The mechanism of the process has been examined using kinetic models, which indicate that quenching by vibrationally excited ozone is the dominant reaction.

  18. Synthesis of hybrid cellulose nanocomposite bonded with dopamine SiO2/TiO2 and its antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Sivalingam; Kim, Gwang-Hoon; Kim, Jaehwan; Kim, Joo-Hyung

    2015-04-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid material based cellulose was synthesized by the sol-gel approach. The explosion of activity in this area in the past decade has made tremendous progress in industry or academic both fundamental understanding of sol-gel process and applications of new functionalized hybrid materials. In this present research work, we focused on cellulose-dopamine functionalized SiO2/TiO2 hybrid nanocomposite by sol-gel process. The cellulose-dopamine hybrid nanocomposite was synthesized via γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (γ-APTES) coupling agent by in-situ sol-gel process. The chemical structure of cellulose-amine functionalized dopamine bonding to cellulose structure with covalent cross linking hybrids was confirmed by FTIR spectral analysis. The morphological analysis of cellulose-dopamine nanoSiO2/TiO2 hybrid nanocomposite materials was characterized by XRD, SEM and TEM. From this different analysis results indicate that the optical transparency, thermal stability, control morphology of cellulose-dopamine-SiO2/TiO2 hybrid nanocomposite. Furthermore cellulose-dopamine-SiO2/TiO2 hybrid nanocomposite was tested against pathogenic bacteria for antimicrobial activity.

  19. Photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange: influence of H2O2 in the TiO2-based system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronic, Luminita; Manolache, Simona; Duta, Anca

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the photocatalytic oxidation of a reactive azo dye. The photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 was studied using a reactor equipped with UV-A sources, with maximum emission at 365 nm. The photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 powder (99.9% anatase) and thin films has been measured through the decomposition of methyl orange solutions. The thin film was prepared by doctor blade and spray pyrolysis deposition (SPD). The TiO2 suspensions were prepared at 1 g/L concentration, and the initial methyl orange concentration was fixed at 7.8125 mg/L. The influence of the TiO2 (powder or thin films) and/or O2 and H2O2 on the photobleaching rate, was tested under different experiments, at pH = 5. Thin films (doctor blade) of TiO2 formed of mezo-sized aggregates formed of nanosized anatase crystallites show better photobleaching efficiency than thin film (SPD) due to their large internal surface. The rate is even higher in H2O2 compared to oxygen environment.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of a binary oxide ZrO2–TiO2 and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 38; Issue 5. Synthesis and characterization of a binary oxide ZrO2–TiO2 and its application in chlorophyll dye-sensitized solar cell with reduced graphene oxide as counter electrodes. Asha R Pai Bipin Nair. Volume 38 Issue 5 September 2015 pp 1129-1133 ...

  1. Oxygen evolution reaction of Ti/IrO2–SnO2 electrode: a study by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    contribution to the electrochemically active surface area of Ti/IrO2–SnO2 anodes. It was found that the stability and ... as oxidizing organics in wastewater, even the wastewater contains low amount of chloride ions. To the best ... phology with dried-mud cracks is very classical for thermally prepared DSAs and those cracked ...

  2. Magnetic Excitations in the Stacked Quantum Magnets NaNiO2 and LiNiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, J. P.; Gaulin, B. D.; Ruff, J. P. C.; Ross, K. A.; van Gastel, G. J.; Abernathy, D. L.; Stone, M. B.

    2009-03-01

    NaNiO2 and LiNiO2 are isostructural stacked triangular lattice quantum magnets, in which magnetism is conventionally thought to arise due to spin 1/2 moments carried by Ni^3+ ions. Surprisingly, while NaNiO2 undergoes a cooperative Jahn-Teller transition at 480K and magnetically orders below TN ˜ 23K, LiNiO2 undergoes a glass transition at Tg ˜ 9K and remains disordered down to the lowest measured temperatures. The absence of long-range magnetic order in LiNiO2 has been attributed to either geometric frustration caused by mixing of the Li and Ni sublattices, or orbital degeneracy due to the absence of a coherent Jahn-Teller distortion. We have performed time of flight neutron scattering measurements on polycrystalline samples of NaNiO2 and LiNiO2 using the wide Angular-Range Chopper Spectrometer (ARCS) at the SNS. Our measurements reveal previously unobserved magnetic excitations at relatively high energy transfers, which we associate with ferromagnetic spin waves mediated by in-plane interactions. We also find evidence of critical scattering in NaNiO2 near the magnetic phase transition at TN. These results will be compared with previous measurements collected using the DCS at NIST.

  3. Synergetic inactivation of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus mutansin a TiO2/H2O2/UV system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unosson, Erik; Tsekoura, Eleni K; Engqvist, Håkan; Welch, Ken

    2013-01-01

    TiO 2 photocatalysis can be used to kill surface adherent bacteria on biomaterials, and is particularly interesting for use with percutaneous implants and devices. Its efficiency and safety, however, depend on the activation energy required. This in vitro study investigates synergetic effects against the clinically relevant strains S. epidermidis and S. mutans when combining photocatalytic surfaces with H2O2. After 20 min exposure to 0.1 wt% H2O2 and UV light on TiO2 surfaces, viabilities of S. epidermidis and S. mutans were reduced by 99.7% and 98.9%, respectively. Without H2O2 the corresponding viability reduction was 86% for S. epidermidis and 65% for S. mutans. This study indicates that low concentrations of H2O2 can enhance the efficiency of photocatalytic TiO2 surfaces, which could potentially improve current techniques used for decontamination and debridement of TiO2 coated biomedical implants and devices.

  4. In situ XANES study on TiO2-SiO2 aerogels and flame made materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunwaldt, J.D.; Beck, C.; Stark, W.

    2002-01-01

    The structures of TiO2-SiO2 based aerogels and flame made particles, used as epoxidation catalysts, are compared by X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and in situ XANES during dehydration of the calcined catalyst samples. The results are interpreted in terms of the titanium...

  5. SiO $ _2 $/TiO $ _2 $ multi-layered thin films with self-cleaning and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Self-cleaning, high transmittance glazing was obtained by cold spray deposition for glazings. The thin films contain TiO 2 , SiO 2 and Au nanoparticles in different structures which allow for tailoring the optical, hydrophilic and photocatalytic properties. The crystallinity, morphology and surface energy were correlated with the ...

  6. Petri Nets in Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A process language for security protocols is presented together with a semantics in terms of sets of events. The denotation of process is a set of events, and as each event specifies a set of pre and postconditions, this denotation can be viewed as a Petri net. By means of an example we illustrate...... how the Petri-net semantics can be used to prove security properties....

  7. The Economics of Net Neutrality

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, Robert W.; Wallsten, Scott

    2006-01-01

    This essay examines the economics of "net neutrality" and broadband Internet access. We argue that mandating net neutrality would be likely to reduce economic welfare. Instead, the government should focus on creating competition in the broadband market by liberalizing more spectrum and reducing entry barriers created by certain local regulations. In cases where a broadband provider can exercise market power the government should use its antitrust enforcement authority to police anticompetitiv...

  8. Efectos de fotodegradación propiciados por recubrimientos de TiO2 y TiO2-SiO2 obtenidos por Sol-Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez Paez, J. E.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Photodegradation effect is widely used for water purification this contributes to preservation and protection of environment. Titanium oxide, (TiO2, is a compound that shows up this phenomenon. TiO2 is a semiconductor which may degradate pollutants through of a oxidation process. It permit the treatment of the residual water. It this work we has conformed coatings of TiO2 y TiO2-SiO2, utilized Sol-Gel method and investigated the degradation of the blue Methylene. For this, we introduced these coatings in the blue methylene solution which was illuminated with radiation of λ=365nm to activate its photocatilist properties. The structures of the coatings were characterized using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS.El efecto de fotodegradación es ampliamente utilizado para la purificación del agua, acción que contribuye a la conservación y protección del medio ambiente; el óxido de titanio (TiO2 es uno de los semiconductores que pueden degradar contaminantes mediante procesos de oxidación, lo que lo hace apto para el tratamiento de aguas residuales. En este trabajo se conformaron recubrimientos de TiO2 y TiO2-SiO2, por el método Sol-Gel, y se estudio la degradación que experimentaba una solución de azul de metileno al introducirle estos recubrimientos e iluminarlos con una radiación de λ=365nm para activar su propiedad fotocatalítica. Los recubrimientos fueron caracterizados microestructuralmente utilizando Microscopía de Fuerza Atómica (MFA y Espectroscopía de Fotoelectrones de rayos X (XPS. Los resultados obtenidos de los ensayos de fotodegradación indican que los recubrimientos con una cantidad pequeña de silicio presentan un mayor efecto de fotodegradación indicando que el silicio puede generar puntos de anclaje que facilitan las reacciones de fotocatálisis. Por otro lado, la formación de centros activos, constituidos principalmente por carbono, también contribuyeron al desarrollo de estas

  9. PERANAN KATALIS TiO2/SiO2-MONTMORILLONIT PADA REAKSI KONVERSI SITRONELAL MENJADI ISOPULEGOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Is Fatimah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic conversion of citronellal to isopulegol over TiO2/SiO2-montmorillonite catalyst was studied for citronellal isolated from Cymbopogon leaf oil. The role of physico-chemical characteristics of montmorillonite and SiO2-montmorillonit catalyst on total conversion, activity and selectivity to produce isopulegol was studied. Activity test was conducted for citronellal cyclication for 4 hour. The total conversion, catalyst activity and catalyst selectivity to produce isopulegol were evaluated based on product composition obtained by GC-MS analysis. The experimental result showed that TiO2/SiO2-montmorillonite plays role in the increase of total conversion significantly from 87.80% over SiO2-montmorillonit and 85.38% over natural montmorillonite become 95.53%. Total conversion and selectivity of the catalyst to produce isopulegol increase could be related to Lewis acidity of TiO2/SiO2-montmorillonite, and also specific surface area enhancement. However, in the range of 1:1.25 to 1:5.0 catalyst to citronellal mass ratio, there was no influence on total conversion and selectivity to produce isopulegol. This may be caused by dominant influence of Lewis acidity compared to other physico-chemical characteristic of material. Kinetics study of the reaction showed that TiO2 dispersion on SiO2-montmorillonite almost doubles the reaction rate constant with the factor of 1.955. Konversi katalitik sitronelal menjadi isopulegol menggunakan katalis TiO2/SiO2-montmorillonit dipelajari terhadap sitronelal hasil isolasi minyak daun sereh. Peranan karakter fisikokimiawi material katalis montmorillonit alam dan SiO2-montmorillonit terhadap konversi total, aktivitas dan selektivitas dalam pembentukan isopulegol dipelajari. Uji aktivitas katalis dilakukan pada reaksi siklisasi sitronelal selama 4 jam. Konversi total, aktivitas katalis dan selektivitas terhadap isopulegol dihitung berdasar perubahan komposisi hasil reaksi yang ditentukan menggunakan GC-MS. Hasil

  10. Cathodoluminescence properties of SiO2:Pr3+and ZnO.SiO2:Pr3+ phosphor nanopowders

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mhlongo, GH

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O nanoparticles in Pr3+-doped SiO2 using a sol–gel process is reported. SiO2:Pr 3+ gels, with or without ZnO nanoparticles, were dried at room temperature and annealed at 600 °C. On the basis of the X-ray Diffraction (XRD) results, the SiO2 was amorphous... of 1-5 keV and a fixed beam current of 8.5 μA. The effects of accelerating voltage on the CL intensity and the CL degradation of SiO2:Pr 3+ and ZnO·SiO2:Pr 3+were also investigated using Auger electron spectroscopy coupled with an Ocean Optics S2000...

  11. Feasibility of light-emitting diode uses for annular reactor inner-coated with TiO2 or nitrogen-doped TiO2 for control of dimethyl sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Wan-Kuen; Eun, Sung-Soo; Shin, Seung-Ho

    2011-01-01

    Limited environmental pollutants have only been investigated for the feasibility of light-emitting diodes (LED) uses in photocatalytic decomposition (PD). The present study investigated the applicability of LEDs for annular photocatalytic reactors by comparing PD efficiencies of dimethyl sulfide (DMS), which has not been investigated with any LED-PD system, between photocatalytic systems utilizing conventional and various LED lamps with different wavelengths. A conventional 8 W UV/TiO(2) system exhibited a higher DMS PD efficiency as compared with UV-LED/TiO(2) system. Similarly, a conventional 8 W visible-lamp/N-enhanced TiO(2) (NET) system exhibited a higher PD efficiency as compared with six visible-LED/NET systems. However, the ratios of PD efficiency to the electric power consumption were rather high for the photocatalytic systems using UV- or visible-LED lamps, except for two LED lamps (yellow- and red-LED lamps), compared to the photocatalytic systems using conventional lamps. For the photocatalytic systems using LEDs, lower flow rates and input concentrations and shorter hydraulic diameters exhibited higher DMS PD efficiencies. An Fourier-transformation infrared analysis suggested no significant absorption of byproducts on the catalyst surface. Consequently, it was suggested that LEDs can still be energy-efficiently utilized as alternative light sources for the PD of DMS, under the operational conditions used in this study. © 2011 The Authors. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2011 The American Society of Photobiology.

  12. Impact of nano and bulk ZrO2, TiO2 particles on soil nutrient contents and PGPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakaran, Gopalu; Suriyaprabha, Rangaraj; Manivasakan, Palanisamy; Yuvakkumar, Rathinam; Rajendran, Venkatachalam; Kannan, Narayanasamy

    2013-01-01

    Currently, nanometal oxides are used extensively in different industries such as medicine, cosmetics and food. The increased consumption of nanoparticles (NPs) leads the necessity to understand the fate of the nanoparticles in the environment. The present study focused on the ecotoxicological behaviour of bulk and nano ZrO2 (Zirconia) and TiO2 (Titania) particles on PGPR (plant growth promoting rhizobacteria), soil and its nutrient contents. The microbial susceptibility study showed that nano TiO2 had 13 +/- 0.9 mm (B. megaterium), 15 +/- 0.2 mm (P. fluorescens), 16 +/- 0.2 mm (A. vinelandii) and 12 +/- 0.3 mm (B. brevis) zones of inhibition. However, nano and bulk ZrO2 particles were non-toxic to PGPR. In addition, it was found that toxicity varied depends on the medium of reaction. The soil study showed that nano TiO2 was found to be highly toxic, whereas bulk TiO2 was less toxic towards soil bacterial populations at 1000 mg L(-1). In contrast, nano and bulk ZrO2 were found to be inert at 1000 mg L(-1). The observed zeta potential and hydrophobicity of TiO2 particles causes more toxic than ZrO2 in parallel with particle size. However, nano TiO2 decreases the microbial population as well as nutrient level of the soil but not zirconia. Our finding shows that the mechanism of toxicity depends on size, hydrophobic potential and zeta potential of the metal oxide particles. Thus, it is necessary to take safety measures during the disposal and use of such toxic nanoparticles in the soil to prevent their hazardous effects.

  13. High pressure synthesis of amorphous TiO2 nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanjun Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous TiO2 nanotubes with diameters of 8-10 nm and length of several nanometers were synthesized by high pressure treatment of anatase TiO2 nanotubes. The structural phase transitions of anatase TiO2 nanotubes were investigated by using in-situ high-pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD method. The starting anatase structure is stable up to ∼20GPa, and transforms into a high-density amorphous (HDA form at higher pressure. Pressure-modified high- to low-density transition was observed in the amorphous form upon decompression. The pressure-induced amorphization and polyamorphism are in good agreement with the previous results in ultrafine TiO2 nanoparticles and nanoribbons. The relationship between the LDA form and α-PbO2 phase was revealed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM study. In addition, the bulk modulus (B0 = 158 GPa of the anatase TiO2 nanotubes is smaller than those of the corresponding bulks and nanoparticles (180-240 GPa. We suggest that the unique open-ended nanotube morphology and nanosize play important roles in the high pressure phase transition of TiO2 nanotubes.

  14. Structure of a model TiO2 photocatalytic interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, H.; Tocci, G.; Woolcot, T.; Torrelles, X.; Pang, C. L.; Humphrey, D. S.; Yim, C. M.; Grinter, D. C.; Cabailh, G.; Bikondoa, O.; Lindsay, R.; Zegenhagen, J.; Michaelides, A.; Thornton, G.

    2017-04-01

    The interaction of water with TiO2 is crucial to many of its practical applications, including photocatalytic water splitting. Following the first demonstration of this phenomenon 40 years ago there have been numerous studies of the rutile single-crystal TiO2(110) interface with water. This has provided an atomic-level understanding of the water-TiO2 interaction. However, nearly all of the previous studies of water/TiO2 interfaces involve water in the vapour phase. Here, we explore the interfacial structure between liquid water and a rutile TiO2(110) surface pre-characterized at the atomic level. Scanning tunnelling microscopy and surface X-ray diffraction are used to determine the structure, which is comprised of an ordered array of hydroxyl molecules with molecular water in the second layer. Static and dynamic density functional theory calculations suggest that a possible mechanism for formation of the hydroxyl overlayer involves the mixed adsorption of O2 and H2O on a partially defected surface. The quantitative structural properties derived here provide a basis with which to explore the atomistic properties and hence mechanisms involved in TiO2 photocatalysis.

  15. Photocatalytic application of TiO2/SiO2-based magnetic nanocomposite (Fe3O4@SiO2/TiO2 for reusing of textile wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laleh Enayati Ahangar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research we have developed a treatment method for textile wastewater by TiO2/SiO2-based magnetic nanocomposite. Textile wastewater includes a large variety of dyes and chemicals and needs treatments. This manuscript presents a facile method for removing dyes from the textile wastewater by using TiO2/SiO2-based nanocomposite (Fe3O4@SiO2/TiO2 under UV irradiation. This magnetic nanocomposite, as photocatalytically active composite, is synthesized via solution method in mild conditions. A large range of cationic, anionic and neutral dyes including: methyl orange, methylene blue, neutral red, bromocresol green and methyl red are used for treatment investigations. Neutral red and bromocresol green have good results in reusing treatment. The high surface area of nanocomposites improve the kinetic of wastewater treatment. In this method, by using the magnetic properties of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, TiO2-based photocatalyst could be separated and reused for 3 times. The efficiency of this method is respectively 100% and 65% for low concentration (10 ppm and high concentration (50 ppm of neutral red and bromocrosol green after 3 h treatment. The efficiency of treatment using the second used nanocomposite was 90% for 10 ppm of the same dyes.

  16. SYNTESIST AND CHARACTERISATION TiO2-Cu PHOTOCATALYST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapti Riyani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study begins with the manufacture of TiO2 -Cu photocatalyst by means of wet impregnation and fotodeposisi, the mole ratio of TiO2: Cu2+ is 100: 0; 99: 1; 98: 2; 97: 3 and 96: 4. Photocatalysts were characterized using SEM, UV-Vis DRS, FTIR and XRD. The results showed has been successfully carried out the synthesis of TiO2-Cu. From SEM characterization shows that the addition of Cu metal will alter the morphology of TiO2 photocatalysts. Based on analysis of UV-Vis DRS, the addition of Cu metal dopant to decrease the energy band gap of TiO2. From XRD analysis appears 2θ value at 29.607 and 48.401 which indicates the formation of monoclinic crystal H2Ti3O7. FTIR analysis results indicate a change in the specific uptake of TiO2 indicating a change in the structure of TiO2

  17. Oriented epitaxial TiO2 nanowires for water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wenting; Cortez, Pablo; Wuhrer, Richard; Macartney, Sam; Bozhilov, Krassimir N.; Liu, Rong; Sheppard, Leigh R.; Kisailus, David

    2017-06-01

    Highly oriented epitaxial rutile titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanowire arrays have been hydrothermally grown on polycrystalline TiO2 templates with their orientation dependent on the underlying TiO2 grain. Both the diameter and areal density of the nanowires were tuned by controlling the precursor concentration, and the template surface energy and roughness. Nanowire tip sharpness was influenced by precursor solubility and diffusivity. A new secondary ion mass spectrometer technique has been developed to install additional nucleation sites in single crystal TiO2 templates and the effect on nanowire growth was probed. Using the acquired TiO2 nanowire synthesis knowhow, an assortment of nanowire arrays were installed upon the surface of undoped TiO2 photo-electrodes and assessed for their photo-electrochemical water splitting performance. The key result obtained was that the presence of short and dispersed nanowire arrays significantly improved the photocurrent when the illumination intensity was increased from 100 to 200 mW cm-2. This is attributed to the alignment of the homoepitaxially grown nanowires to the [001] direction, which provides the fastest charge transport in TiO2 and an improved pathway for photo-holes to find water molecules and undertake oxidation. This result lays a foundation for achieving efficient water splitting under conditions of concentrated solar illumination.

  18. Pyruvate Protects Pathogenic Spirochetes from H2O2 Killing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troxell, Bryan; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Bourret, Travis J.; Zeng, Melody Yue; Blum, Janice; Gherardini, Frank; Hassan, Hosni M.; Yang, X. Frank

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic spirochetes cause clinically relevant diseases in humans and animals, such as Lyme disease and leptospirosis. The causative agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, and the causative agent of leptospirosis, Leptospria interrogans, encounter reactive oxygen species (ROS) during their enzootic cycles. This report demonstrated that physiologically relevant concentrations of pyruvate, a potent H2O2 scavenger, and provided passive protection to B. burgdorferi and L. interrogans against H2O2. When extracellular pyruvate was absent, both spirochetes were sensitive to a low dose of H2O2 (≈0.6 µM per h) generated by glucose oxidase (GOX). Despite encoding a functional catalase, L. interrogans was more sensitive than B. burgdorferi to H2O2 generated by GOX, which may be due to the inherent resistance of B. burgdorferi because of the virtual absence of intracellular iron. In B. burgdorferi, the nucleotide excision repair (NER) and the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) pathways were important for survival during H2O2 challenge since deletion of the uvrB or the mutS genes enhanced its sensitivity to H2O2 killing; however, the presence of pyruvate fully protected ΔuvrB and ΔmutS from H2O2 killing further demonstrating the importance of pyruvate in protection. These findings demonstrated that pyruvate, in addition to its classical role in central carbon metabolism, serves as an important H2O2 scavenger for pathogenic spirochetes. Furthermore, pyruvate reduced ROS generated by human neutrophils in response to the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) agonist zymosan. In addition, pyruvate reduced neutrophil-derived ROS in response to B. burgdorferi, which also activates host expression through TLR2 signaling. Thus, pathogenic spirochetes may exploit the metabolite pyruvate, present in blood and tissues, to survive H2O2 generated by the host antibacterial response generated during infection. PMID:24392147

  19. O2 (1Δg) detection using broadband CARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinbo; Guo, Jingwei; Cai, Xianglong; Gai, Baodong; Meng, Qingkun; Jin, Yuqi

    2015-02-01

    1 Δg oxygen was the active medium of chemical oxygen iodine laser (COIL), the concentration and distribution of 1 Δg oxygen was important for the output power and beam quality. However, the current test technique, such as fluorescence detection method, absorption spectrum method could not get accurate 1 Δg oxygen information, due to the interference from the iodine fluorescence or the rigorous request of the laser source and optics and detection elements. The anti-stokes Raman spectrum of 1 Δg oxygen was regarded as a potential technique to obtain desirable signal, and the coherent anti-stokes Raman scatter (CARS) was the most feasible technique to get better signal to noise ratio (SNR). In this paper, we reported a broadband nanosecond coherent anti-stokes Raman scatter (CARS) detecting system built up for the detection of the concentration and distribution of O2( 1 Δg) in COIL:The second harmonic of a Nd: YAG pulse laser was separated into two parts, one part was used to pump a broadband nanosecond dye laser to generate light of 578-580 nm, which covered both stokes lines of O2 ( 1 Δg)and O2 (3 ∑) The other part was combined with dye laser output by a dichroic mirror, and then introduced into the detection region of COIL through a focus lens. CARS signals for O2(1 Δg)and O2 (3 ∑)have different wavelengths, and their intensity was proportional to the square of the concentration of O2(1 Δg) and O2( 3 ∑). By changing the focus spot of pump and stokes laser, the concentration distribution of O2(1 Δg) and O2(3 ∑)at different position could be obtained.

  20. 26 CFR 1.904(f)-3 - Allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation of net operating losses and net....904(f)-3 Allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses. For rules relating to the allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses, see § 1.904(g)-3T. ...

  1. 29 CFR 4204.13 - Net income and net tangible assets tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Net income and net tangible assets tests. 4204.13 Section....13 Net income and net tangible assets tests. (a) General. The criteria under this section are that either— (1) Net income test. The purchaser's average net income after taxes for its three most recent...

  2. Reflectance modulation using SiO2/TiO2 multilayer structures prepared by sol-gel spin coating process for optical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, R. S.; Ganesan, V.

    2017-11-01

    Passive devices made of SiO2/TiO2 bilayers have been demanded for the molding of electromagnetic waves in optical waveguides, microcavities, solar cells, sensors and so on. Here, we present the fabrication and characterization of SiO2/TiO2 multilayer structures as reflectors. The refractive indices were found to be 1.43 & 2.0 with thicknesses 230 & 70 nm corresponding to the SiO2 and TiO2 films respectively. AFM surface topography study showed little bit large surface roughness of the TiO2 as compared to SiO2 film due to its large grain size. The corresponding reflectance enhancement was noticed with the increased number of bilayers of SiO2/TiO2 films. Furthermore, six alternate layers of SiO2/TiO2 demonstrated the as much as 78% reflectance in the near-infrared wavelength range.

  3. Cerebral desaturation during exercise reversed by O2 supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H B; Boushel, Robert Christopher; Madsen, P

    1999-01-01

    The combined effects of hyperventilation and arterial desaturation on cerebral oxygenation (ScO2) were determined using near-infrared spectroscopy. Eleven competitive oarsmen were evaluated during a 6-min maximal ergometer row. The study was randomized in a double-blind fashion with an inspired O2...... +/- 2% (P changes in deoxy- (DeltaHb) and oxyhemoglobin (DeltaHbO2) of the vastus lateralis muscle increased 22 +/- 3 microM and decreased 14 +/- 3 microM, respectively (P

  4. Comparative Study of the Optical and Textural Properties of Tetrapyrrole Macrocycles Trapped Within ZrO2, TiO2, and SiO2 Translucent Xerogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Salas-Bañales

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The entrapping of physicochemical active molecules inside mesoporous networks is an appealing field of research due to the myriad of potential applications in optics, photocatalysis, chemical sensing, and medicine. One of the most important reasons for this success is the possibility of optimizing the properties that a free active species displays in solution but now trapped inside a solid substrate. Additionally it is possible to modulate the textural characteristics of substrates, such as pore size, specific surface area, polarity and chemical affinity of the surface, toward the physical or chemical adhesion of a variety of adsorbates. In the present document, two kinds of non-silicon metal alkoxides, Zr and Ti, are employed to prepare xerogels containing entrapped tetrapyrrolic species that could be inserted beforehand in analogue silica systems. The main goal is to develop efficient methods for trapping or binding tetrapyrrole macrocycles inside TiO2 and ZrO2 xerogels, while comparing the properties of these systems against those of the SiO2 analogues. Once the optimal synthesis conditions for obtaining translucent monolithic xerogels of ZrO2 and TiO2 networks were determined, it was confirmed that these substrates allowed the entrapment, in monomeric form, of macrocycles that commonly appear as aggregates within the SiO2 network. From these experiments, it could be determined that the average pore diameters, specific surface areas, and water sorption capacities depicted by each one of these substrates, are a consequence of their own nature combined with the particular structure of the entrapped tetrapyrrole macrocycle. Furthermore, the establishment of covalent bonds between the intruding species and the pore walls leads to the obtainment of very similar pore sizes in the three different metal oxide (Ti, Zr, and Si substrates as a consequence of the templating effect of the encapsulated species.

  5. The relationship between mixed venous and hepatic venous O2 saturation in patients with septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier-Hellmann, A; Hannemann, L; Specht, M; Schaffartzik, W; Spies, C; Reinhart, K

    1994-01-01

    It was the purpose of this study to measure the relationship between hepatic venous O2 saturation (ShvO2) and mixed venous O2 saturation (SvO2) in septic patients (n = 21) following treatment with various catecholamines (epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, dopexamine). At baseline mean SvO2 was 74 +/- 5% while mean ShvO2 was 59 +/- 12%. Alpha-mimetic substances such as epinephrine and norepinephrine reduced ShvO2 and increased the difference between SvO2 and ShvO2.Beta2-mimetic and dopaminergic substances (dopexamine, dopamine) did not change the difference between SvO2 and ShvO2. These results show that SvO2 does not necessarily reflect all changes of ShvO2. Monitoring ShvO2 may be helpful in managing septic shock by adding information on adequacy of O2 supply/consumption ratio in the crucial splanchnic region.

  6. Degradation of Pentachlorophenol in Aqueous Solution by the UV/ZrO 2 /H 2 O 2 Photocatalytic Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Samarghandi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pentachlorophenol (PCP, which is one of the resistant phenolic compounds, has been classified in the category of EPA’s priority pollutants due to its high toxicity and carcinogenic potential. Therefore, its removal from water and wastewater is very important. Various methods have been studied for removing the compound, among which advanced oxidation processes (AOPs have attracted much attention because of ease of application and high efficiency. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of the UV/ZrO2/H2O2 process, as an AOP, for PCP removal from aquatic environments. The effects of several parameters such as ultraviolet (UV exposure time, initial PCP concentration, pH, concentration of zirconium dioxide (ZrO2 nanoparticles, and H2O2 concentration were studied. Kinetics of the reaction was also detected. The concentration of the stated materials in the samples was determined using a spectrophotometer at 500 nm. The results showed that the highest efficiency (approximately 100% was reached at optimized conditions of pH 6, contact time of 30 minutes, initial PCP concentration of 20 mg/L, the nanoparticles concentration of 0.1 g/L and H2O2 concentration of 14.7 mM/L. Also, the process followed the first order kinetics reaction. The obtained results illustrated that the UV/ZrO2/H2O2 process has a high ability in removing PCP.

  7. PdO/TiO2 and Pd/TiO2 heterostructured nanobelts with enhanced photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weijia; Guan, Yu; Wang, Dongzhou; Zhang, Xinhai; Liu, Duo; Jiang, Huaidong; Wang, Jiyang; Liu, Xiaogang; Liu, Hong; Chen, Shaowei

    2014-06-01

    Heterostructures play an important role not only in the manufacture of semiconductor devices, but also in the field of catalysis. Herein, we report the synthesis of PdO/TiO2 and Pd/TiO2 heterostructured nanobelts by means of a simple co-precipitation method, followed by a reduction process using surface-modified TiO2 nanobelts as templates. The as-obtained heterostructures were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV/Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. PdO and Pd nanoparticles with a size of about 1.3 and 1.6 nm were assembled uniformly on the surface of TiO2 nanobelts, respectively. Compared with TiO2 nanobelts, PdO/TiO2 and Pd/TiO2 hybrid nanobelts exhibit enhanced photocatalytic activity upon UV and visible-light irradiation. Photoelectrochemical technology was used to study the heterostructure effect on enhanced photocatalytic activity. Our mechanistic investigation revealed that energy-band matching is the major factor in the observed enhancement of photocatalytic activity. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Plasma-assisted adsorption of elemental mercury on CeO2/TiO2 at low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Zheng, Chenghang; Gao, Xiang

    2017-11-01

    Mercury is a kind of pollutants contained in flue gas which is hazardous for human beings. In this work, CeO2 was packed in the discharge zone of a plasma reactor to adsorb elemental mercury at low temperatures. Plasma-catalyst reactor can remove Hg0 efficiently with CeO2/TiO2 catalysts packed in the discharge zone. The Hg0 concentration continued to decrease gradually when the plasma was turned on, but not sank rapidly. This tendency was different with other catalysts. The treatment of plasma to CeO2/TiO2 catalysts has a promotion effect on the adsorption of Hg0. Plasma has the effect of changing the surface properties of the catalysts and the changes would restitute if the condition changed. The long-running test demonstrated that this method is an effective way to remove Hg0. The removal efficiency remained at above 99% throughout 12 hours when plasma had been turned on (15kV, 0.5 g packed CeO2/TiO2).

  9. Bi3+ Luminescence in ABiO2Cl (A = Sr, Ba) and BaBiO2Br

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter-Chapman, Yetta D.; Bourret-Courchesne, Edith E.; Derenzo,Stephen E.

    2007-01-18

    Trivalent bismuth luminescence is reported in three Sillenbismuth oxyhalide phases, SrBiO2Cl, BaBiO2Cl, and BaBiO2Br. Thesecompounds exhibit Bi 6s6->6 s2 emission under UV and X-ray radiation.At room temperature, BaBiO2Cl shows the most intense light emission, withspectral and decay properties similar to those found in Bi4Ge3O12 (BGO).At low temperatures, each phase show an increase in the photoluminescenceintensities and a narrowing of the emission peaks. In contrast to thetemperature dependence of BGO, X-ray excited luminescence intensities ofall three phases remain relatively constant throughout the temperaturerange 10 - 295 K. This result indicates that the Sillen phases undergoless thermal quenching than BGO. The low temperature and room temperatureradio-luminescence decay times were determined from pulsed x-raymeasurements. At room temperature, SrBiO2Cl exhibits faster decays thanBGO, while, BaBiO2Cl and BaBiO2Br have decay times similar toBGO.

  10. Ultrahigh broadband photoresponse of SnO2 nanoparticle thin film/SiO2/p-Si heterojunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Cuicui; Guo, Tianchao; Lu, Wenbo; Xiong, Ya; Zhu, Lei; Xue, Qingzhong

    2017-06-29

    The SnO2/Si heterojunction possesses a large band offset and it is easy to control the transportation of carriers in the SnO2/Si heterojunction to realize high-response broadband detection. Therefore, we investigated the potential of the SnO2 nanoparticle thin film/SiO2/p-Si heterojunction for photodetectors. It is demonstrated that this heterojunction shows a stable, repeatable and broadband photoresponse from 365 nm to 980 nm. Meanwhile, the responsivity of the device approaches a high value in the range of 0.285-0.355 A W(-1) with the outstanding detectivity of ∼2.66 × 10(12) cm H(1/2) W(-1) and excellent sensitivity of ∼1.8 × 10(6) cm(2) W(-1), and its response and recovery times are extremely short (graphene (photosensitivity of 7.5 × 10(5) cm(2) W(-1) and detectivity of ∼2.5 × 10(11) cm H(1/2) W(-1)). The excellent device performance is attributed to the large Fermi energy difference between the SnO2 nanoparticle thin film and Si, SnO2 nanostructure, oxygen vacancy defects and thin SiO2 layer. Consequently, practical highly-responsive broadband PDs may be actualized in the future.

  11. Photolysis of H2O-H2O2 Mixtures: The Destruction of H2O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, M. J.; Fama, M.; Baragiola, R. A.; Carlson, R. W.

    2013-01-01

    We present laboratory results on the loss of H2O2 in solid H2O + H2O2 mixtures at temperatures between 21 and 145 K initiated by UV photolysis (193 nm). Using infrared spectroscopy and microbalance gravimetry, we measured the decrease of the 3.5 micrometer infrared absorption band during UV irradiation and obtained a photodestruction cross section that varies with temperature, being lowest at 70 K. We use our results, along with our previously measured H2O2 production rates via ionizing radiation and ion energy fluxes from the spacecraft to compare H2O2 creation and destruction at icy satellites by ions from their planetary magnetosphere and from solar UV photons. We conclude that, in many cases, H2O2 is not observed on icy satellite surfaces because the H2O2 photodestruction rate is much higher than the production rate via energetic particles, effectively keeping the H2O2 infrared signature at or below the noise level.

  12. Nanocrystalline ZrO2 and Pt-doped ZrO2 catalysts for low-temperature CO oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Singhania

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Zirconia (ZrO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by solution combustion using urea as an organic fuel. Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET, X-ray diffraction (XRD, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, UV–vis and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR measurements were performed in order to characterize the catalyst. The calculated crystallite size of ZrO2, calculated with the help of the Scherrer equation, was around 30.3 nm. The synthesized ZrO2 was scrutinized regarding its role as catalyst in the oxidation of carbon monoxide (CO. It showed 100% CO conversion at 240 °C, which is the highest conversion rate reported for ZrO2 in literature to date. It is found that through solution combustion, Pt2+ ions replace Zr4+ ions in the ZrO2 lattice and because of this, oxygen vacancies are formed due to charge imbalance and lattice distortion in ZrO2. 1% Pt was doped into ZrO2 and yielded excellent CO oxidation. The working temperature was lowered by 150 °C in comparison to pure ZrO2. Further, it is highly stable for the CO reaction (time-on-stream ≈ 40 h. This is because of a synergic effect between Pt and Zr components, which results in an increase of the oxygen mobility and oxygen vacancies and improves the activity and stability of the catalyst. The effects of gas hourly space velocity (GHSV and initial CO concentration on the CO oxidation over Pt(1%-ZrO2 were studied.

  13. Nanocrystalline ZrO2 and Pt-doped ZrO2 catalysts for low-temperature CO oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhania, Amit; Gupta, Shipra Mital

    2017-01-01

    Zirconia (ZrO2) nanoparticles were synthesized by solution combustion using urea as an organic fuel. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) measurements were performed in order to characterize the catalyst. The calculated crystallite size of ZrO2, calculated with the help of the Scherrer equation, was around 30.3 nm. The synthesized ZrO2 was scrutinized regarding its role as catalyst in the oxidation of carbon monoxide (CO). It showed 100% CO conversion at 240 °C, which is the highest conversion rate reported for ZrO2 in literature to date. It is found that through solution combustion, Pt(2+) ions replace Zr(4+) ions in the ZrO2 lattice and because of this, oxygen vacancies are formed due to charge imbalance and lattice distortion in ZrO2. 1% Pt was doped into ZrO2 and yielded excellent CO oxidation. The working temperature was lowered by 150 °C in comparison to pure ZrO2. Further, it is highly stable for the CO reaction (time-on-stream ≈ 40 h). This is because of a synergic effect between Pt and Zr components, which results in an increase of the oxygen mobility and oxygen vacancies and improves the activity and stability of the catalyst. The effects of gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) and initial CO concentration on the CO oxidation over Pt(1%)-ZrO2 were studied.

  14. Epitaxial TiO 2/SnO 2 core-shell heterostructure by atomic layer deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Nie, Anmin

    2012-01-01

    Taking TiO 2/SnO 2 core-shell nanowires (NWs) as a model system, we systematically investigate the structure and the morphological evolution of this heterostructure synthesized by atomic layer deposition/epitaxy (ALD/ALE). All characterizations, by X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction and Raman spectra, reveal that single crystalline rutile TiO 2 shells can be epitaxially grown on SnO 2 NWs with an atomically sharp interface at low temperature (250 °C). The growth behavior of the TiO 2 shells highly depends on the surface orientations and the geometrical shape of the core SnO 2 NW cross-section. Atomically smooth surfaces are found for growth on the {110} surface. Rough surfaces develop on {100} surfaces due to (100) - (1 × 3) reconstruction, by introducing steps in the [010] direction as a continuation of {110} facets. Lattice mismatch induces superlattice structures in the TiO 2 shell and misfit dislocations along the interface. Conformal epitaxial growth has been observed for SnO 2 NW cores with an octagonal cross-section ({100} and {110} surfaces). However, for a rectangular core ({101} and {010} surfaces), the shell also derives an octagonal shape from the epitaxial growth, which was explained by a proposed model based on ALD kinetics. The surface steps and defects induced by the lattice mismatch likely lead to improved photoluminescence (PL) performance for the yellow emission. Compared to the pure SnO 2 NWs, the PL spectrum of the core-shell nanostructures exhibits a stronger emission peak, which suggests potential applications in optoelectronics. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012.

  15. Spatial H2O2 signaling specificity: H2O2 from chloroplasts and peroxisomes modulates the plant transcriptome differentially.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewelam, Nasser; Jaspert, Nils; Van Der Kelen, Katrien; Tognetti, Vanesa B; Schmitz, Jessica; Frerigmann, Henning; Stahl, Elia; Zeier, Jürgen; Van Breusegem, Frank; Maurino, Veronica G

    2014-07-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) operates as a signaling molecule in eukaryotes, but the specificity of its signaling capacities remains largely unrevealed. Here, we analyzed whether a moderate production of H2O2 from two different plant cellular compartments has divergent effects on the plant transcriptome. Arabidopsis thaliana overexpressing glycolate oxidase in the chloroplast (Fahnenstich et al., 2008; Balazadeh et al., 2012) and plants deficient in peroxisomal catalase (Queval et al., 2007; Inzé et al., 2012) were grown under non-photorespiratory conditions and then transferred to photorespiratory conditions to foster the production of H2O2 in both organelles. We show that H2O2 originating in a specific organelle induces two types of responses: one that integrates signals independently from the subcellular site of H2O2 production and another that is dependent on the H2O2 production site. H2O2 produced in peroxisomes induces transcripts involved in protein repair responses, while H2O2 produced in chloroplasts induces early signaling responses, including transcription factors and biosynthetic genes involved in production of secondary signaling messengers. There is a significant bias towards the induction of genes involved in responses to wounding and pathogen attack by chloroplastic-produced H2O2, including indolic glucosinolates-, camalexin-, and stigmasterol-biosynthetic genes. These transcriptional responses were accompanied by the accumulation of 4-methoxy-indol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate and stigmasterol. © The Author 2014. Published by the Molecular Plant Shanghai Editorial Office in association with Oxford University Press on behalf of CSPB and IPPE, SIBS, CAS.

  16. Dielectric properties of PMMA-SiO2 hybrid films

    KAUST Repository

    Morales-Acosta, M. D.

    2010-03-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid films were synthesized by a modified sol-gel process. PMMASiO2 films were prepared using methylmethacrylate (MMA), tetraethil-orthosilicate (TEOS) as silicon dioxide source, and 3-trimetoxi-silil-propil-methacrylate (TMSPM) as coupling agent. FTIR measurements were performed on the hybrid films to confirm the presence of PMMA-SiO2 bonding. In addition, metal-insulator-metal (MIM) devices were fabricated to study the dielectric constant of the films as function of frequency (1 KHz to 1 MHz). Electrical results show a weak trend of the dielectric constant of the hybrid films with MMA molar ratio. More importantly, the PMMA-SiO2 hybrid films showed a higher dielectric constant than SiO2 and PMMA layers, which is likely due to the presence of additional C-O-C bond. © (2010) Trans Tech Publications.

  17. Biological signatures in clumped isotopes of O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Laurence Y.; Ash, Jeanine L.; Young, Edward D.

    2015-04-01

    The abundances of molecules containing more than one rare isotope have been applied broadly to determine formation temperatures of natural materials. These applications of “clumped” isotopes rely on the assumption that isotope-exchange equilibrium is reached, or at least approached, during the formation of those materials. In a closed-system terrarium experiment, we demonstrate that biological oxygen (O2) cycling drives the clumped-isotope composition of O2 away from isotopic equilibrium. Our model of the system suggests that unique biological signatures are present in clumped isotopes of O2—and not formation temperatures. Photosynthetic O2 is depleted in 18O18O and 17O18O relative to a stochastic distribution of isotopes, unlike at equilibrium, where heavy-isotope pairs are enriched. Similar signatures may be widespread in nature, offering new tracers of biological and geochemical cycling.

  18. Preparation and Photocatalytic Activity of Magnetic Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rijing Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple sol-gel method was used to prepare magnetic Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 composites with core-shell structure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM have been applied to investigate the structure and morphology of the resultant composites. The obtained composites showed excellent magnetism and higher photodegradation ability than pure TiO2. The photocatalytic mechanism was also discussed. The magnetic composites should be extended to various potential applications, such as photodegradation, catalysis, separation, and purification processes.

  19. Optical properties of CeO2 thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cerium oxide (CeO2) thin films have been prepared by electron beam evaporation technique onto glass substrate at a pressure of about 6 × 10-6 Torr. The thickness of CeO2 films ranges from 140–180 nm. The optical properties of cerium oxide films are studied in the wavelength range of 200–850 nm. The film is highly ...

  20. The intent to exercise influences the cerebral O(2)/carbohydrate uptake ratio in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Mads K; Ide, Kojiro; Cai, Yan

    2002-01-01

    to 3.7 +/- 0.2 in the first minutes of the recovery (P exercise did not change the uptake ratio significantly. Yet, in a second experiment, when submaximal exercise required a maximal effort due to partial neuromuscular blockade, the ratio decreased and remained low (4.9 +/- 0.2......During and after maximal exercise there is a 15-30 % decrease in the metabolic uptake ratio (O(2)/[glucose + 1/2 lactate]) and a net lactate uptake by the human brain. This study evaluated if this cerebral metabolic uptake ratio is influenced by the intent to exercise, and whether a change could......) in the early recovery (n = 10; P 2) when the brain is activated by exhaustive exercise, and that such metabolic changes are influenced by the will to exercise. We speculate that the uptake ratio...

  1. Preparation, chromatographic evaluation and application of adenosine 5'-monophosphate modified ZrO2/SiO2 stationary phase in hydrophilic interaction chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Luo, Zhi-Yuan; Ye, Mao; Wang, Yu-Zhuo; Xu, Li; Shi, Zhi-Guo; Xu, Lanying

    2015-02-27

    The zirconia-coated silica (ZrO2/SiO2) material was obtained by coupling layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly method and sol-gel technology, to take dual advantages of the suitable porous structure of SiO2 and basic resistance of ZrO2. Adenosine 5'-monophosphate (5'-AMP) was then self-assembled onto ZrO2/SiO2 via Lewis acid-base interaction, generating 5'-AMP-ZrO2/SiO2. The chromatographic properties of 5'-AMP-ZrO2/SiO2 were systemically studied by evaluating the effect of acetonitrile content, pH and buffer concentration in the mobile phase. The results demonstrated that the 5'-AMP-ZrO2/SiO2 possessed hydrophilic interaction chromatographic (HILIC) property comprising hydrophilic, hydrogen-bonding, electrostatic and ion-exchange interactions. For basic analytes, the column efficiency of ZrO2/SiO2 and 5'-AMP-ZrO2/SiO2 was superior to the bare ZrO2, and different selectivity was obtained after the introduction of 5'-AMP. For acidic analytes, good resolution was obtained on 5'-AMP-ZrO2/SiO2 while the analysis failed on the bare ZrO2 column owing to strong adsorption. Hence, the proposed 5'-AMP-ZrO2/SiO2 had great potential in analyzing acidic compounds in HILIC mode. It was an extended application of ZrO2 based SP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. O2-GIDNC: Beyond instantly decodable network coding

    KAUST Repository

    Aboutorab, Neda

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we are concerned with extending the graph representation of generalized instantly decodable network coding (GIDNC) to a more general opportunistic network coding (ONC) scenario, referred to as order-2 GIDNC (O2-GIDNC). In the O2-GIDNC scheme, receivers can store non-instantly decodable packets (NIDPs) comprising two of their missing packets, and use them in a systematic way for later decodings. Once this graph representation is found, it can be used to extend the GIDNC graph-based analyses to the proposed O2-GIDNC scheme with a limited increase in complexity. In the proposed O2-GIDNC scheme, the information of the stored NIDPs at the receivers and the decoding opportunities they create can be exploited to improve the broadcast completion time and decoding delay compared to traditional GIDNC scheme. The completion time and decoding delay minimizing algorithms that can operate on the new O2-GIDNC graph are further described. The simulation results show that our proposed O2-GIDNC improves the completion time and decoding delay performance of the traditional GIDNC. © 2013 IEEE.

  3. Interactions of atomic hydrogen with amorphous SiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yunliang; Wang, Jianwei; Zhang, Yuqi; Song, Yu; Zuo, Xu

    2018-03-01

    Dozens of models are investigated by the first-principles calculations to simulate the interactions of an atomic hydrogen with a defect-free random network of amorphous SiO2 (a-SiO2) and oxygen vacancies. A wide variety of stable configurations are discovered due to the disorder of a-SiO2, and their structures, charges, magnetic moments, spin densities, and density of states are calculated. The atomic hydrogen interacts with the defect-free a-SiO2 in positively or negatively charged state, and produces the structures absent in crystalline SiO2. It passivates the neutral oxygen vacancies and generates two neutral hydrogenated E‧ centers with different Si dangling bond projections. Electron spin resonance parameters, including Fermi contacts, and g-tensors, are calculated for these centers. The atomic hydrogen interacts with the positive oxygen vacancies in dimer configuration, and generate four different positive hydrogenated defects, two of which are puckered like the Eγ‧ centers. This research helps to understand the interactions between an atomic hydrogen, and defect-free a-SiO2 and oxygen vacancies, which may generate the hydrogen-complexed defects that play a key role in the degeneration of silicon/silica-based microelectronic devices.

  4. Lake Metabolism: Comparison of Lake Metabolic Rates Estimated from a Diel CO2- and the Common Diel O2-Technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Peeters

    Full Text Available Lake metabolism is a key factor for the understanding of turnover of energy and of organic and inorganic matter in lake ecosystems. Long-term time series on metabolic rates are commonly estimated from diel changes in dissolved oxygen. Here we present long-term data on metabolic rates based on diel changes in total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC utilizing an open-water diel CO2-technique. Metabolic rates estimated with this technique and the traditional diel O2-technique agree well in alkaline Lake Illmensee (pH of ~8.5, although the diel changes in molar CO2 concentrations are much smaller than those of the molar O2 concentrations. The open-water diel CO2- and diel O2-techniques provide independent measures of lake metabolic rates that differ in their sensitivity to transport processes. Hence, the combination of both techniques can help to constrain uncertainties arising from assumptions on vertical fluxes due to gas exchange and turbulent diffusion. This is particularly important for estimates of lake respiration rates because these are much more sensitive to assumptions on gradients in vertical fluxes of O2 or DIC than estimates of lake gross primary production. Our data suggest that it can be advantageous to estimate respiration rates assuming negligible gradients in vertical fluxes rather than including gas exchange with the atmosphere but neglecting vertical mixing in the water column. During two months in summer the average lake net production was close to zero suggesting at most slightly autotrophic conditions. However, the lake emitted O2 and CO2 during the entire time period suggesting that O2 and CO2 emissions from lakes can be decoupled from the metabolism in the near surface layer.

  5. Lake Metabolism: Comparison of Lake Metabolic Rates Estimated from a Diel CO2- and the Common Diel O2-Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Frank; Atamanchuk, Dariia; Tengberg, Anders; Encinas-Fernández, Jorge; Hofmann, Hilmar

    2016-01-01

    Lake metabolism is a key factor for the understanding of turnover of energy and of organic and inorganic matter in lake ecosystems. Long-term time series on metabolic rates are commonly estimated from diel changes in dissolved oxygen. Here we present long-term data on metabolic rates based on diel changes in total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) utilizing an open-water diel CO2-technique. Metabolic rates estimated with this technique and the traditional diel O2-technique agree well in alkaline Lake Illmensee (pH of ~8.5), although the diel changes in molar CO2 concentrations are much smaller than those of the molar O2 concentrations. The open-water diel CO2- and diel O2-techniques provide independent measures of lake metabolic rates that differ in their sensitivity to transport processes. Hence, the combination of both techniques can help to constrain uncertainties arising from assumptions on vertical fluxes due to gas exchange and turbulent diffusion. This is particularly important for estimates of lake respiration rates because these are much more sensitive to assumptions on gradients in vertical fluxes of O2 or DIC than estimates of lake gross primary production. Our data suggest that it can be advantageous to estimate respiration rates assuming negligible gradients in vertical fluxes rather than including gas exchange with the atmosphere but neglecting vertical mixing in the water column. During two months in summer the average lake net production was close to zero suggesting at most slightly autotrophic conditions. However, the lake emitted O2 and CO2 during the entire time period suggesting that O2 and CO2 emissions from lakes can be decoupled from the metabolism in the near surface layer.

  6. TimeNET Optimization Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Bodenstein

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a novel tool for simulation-based optimization and design-space exploration of Stochastic Colored Petri nets (SCPN is introduced. The working title of this tool is TimeNET Optimization Environment (TOE. Targeted users of this tool are people modeling complex systems with SCPNs in TimeNET who want to find parameter sets that are optimal for a certain performance measure (fitness function. It allows users to create and simulate sets of SCPNs and to run different optimization algorithms based on parameter variation. The development of this tool was motivated by the need to automate and speed up tests of heuristic optimization algorithms to be applied for SCPN optimization. A result caching mechanism is used to avoid recalculations.

  7. Nano-MnO2@TiO2 microspheres: A novel structure and excellent performance as anode of lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhiguang; Chen, Xiaoqiao; Xing, Lidang; Liao, Youhao; Xu, Mengqing; Li, Xiaoping; Liu, Xiang; Li, Weishan

    2018-03-01

    A structurally hierarchical MnO2/TiO2 composite (Nano-MnO2@TiO2) is fabricated by calcining MnCO3 microspheres and coating a thin layer of TiO2 through the heat decomposition of tetrabutyl titanate, and evaluated as anode of gravimetrically and volumetrically high energy density lithium ion battery. The characterizations from FESEM, TEM, HRTEM and XRD, indicate that the resulting Nano-MnO2@TiO2 takes a spherical morphology with a core of about 2 μm in diameter, consisting of compact MnO2 nanoparticles, and a shell of 60 nm thick, consisting of smaller TiO2 nanoparticles. The charge/discharge tests demonstrate that Nano-MnO2@TiO2 exhibits excellent performance as anode of lithium ion battery, delivering a capacity of 938 mAh g-1 at 300 mA g-1 after 200 cycles, compared to the 103 mAh g-1 of the uncoated sample. The microsphere consisting of compact nanoparticles provides Nano-MnO2@TiO2 with high specific gravity. The dimensionally and structurally stable TiO2 maintains the integrity of MnO2 microspheres and facilitates lithium insertion/extraction. This unique structure yields the excellent cyclic stability and rate capability of Nano-MnO2@TiO2.

  8. Preparation of transparent fluorocarbon/TiO2-SiO2 composite coating with improved self-cleaning performance and anti-aging property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianping; Tan, Zhongyuan; Liu, Zhilei; Jing, Mengmeng; Liu, Wenjie; Fu, Wanli

    2017-02-01

    This work reports a facile method to fabricate transparent self-cleaning fluorocarbon coatings filled by semicrystalline colloidal particles of TiO2-SiO2 composite oxide presenting a particle size ranging from 6 to 10 nm. Anatase-TiO2 crystallites were successfully obtained after microwave heating treatment of the TiO2-SiO2 colloidal particles as confirmed by XRD, TEM and FTIR measurements. The fluorocarbon/TiO2-SiO2 composite coatings exhibited a superior hydrophilicity and an improved photocatalytic activity in contrast to the TiO2-filled coatings. In particular, a water contact angle (WCA) value of 4.5° and a decolorization ratio relative to methyl orange as high as 96.0% were achieved for the composite coatings containing 1.5 wt% of TiO2-SiO2 colloidal particles. The results of the anti-soiling experiments indicated that the fluorocarbon/TiO2-SiO2 composite coatings exhibited a prominent self-cleaning performance, while the accelerated aging experiments revealed that the fluorocarbon/TiO2-SiO2 composite coatings were highly stable toward UV irradiation when compared to the TiO2-filled fluorocarbon coatings. These findings indicated that the fluorocarbon/TiO2-SiO2 composite coatings could be a very attractive solution for many practical areas, especially for outdoor applications.

  9. Multifunctional Roles of TiO 2 Nanoparticles for Architecture of Complex Core−Shells and Hollow Spheres of SiO 2 −TiO 2 −Polyaniline System

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Dan Ping

    2009-10-27

    Nanoparticles are often used as seeds to grow one-dimensional nanomaterials or as core materials to prepare core-shell nanostructures. On the other hand, the presynthesized inorganic nanoparticles can also be used as starting building blocks to prepare inorganic-polymer nanocomposites. In this work, we explore the roles of metal-oxide nanoparticles (anatase TiO2) in the area of constructional synthesis of highly complex core-shell and hollow sphere nanostructures comprising SiO2, TiO2, and polyaniline (PAN). In particular, multifunctional roles of oleate-surfactant-protected TiO2 nanoparticles have been revealed in this study: they provide starting sites for polymerization of aniline on the surface of SiO2 mesospheres; they land on the inner surface of polyaniline shell to form a secondary material phase; they work as initial crystalline seeds for homogeneous growth of interior TiO2 shell; and they serve as primary nanobuilding blocks to form exterior TiO2 shell on the polyaniline via self-assembly. With the assistance of the TiO2 nanoparticles, a total of six complex core-shell and hollow sphere nanocomposites (SiO 2/TiO2, SiO2/TiO2/PAN, SiO 2/TiO2/PAN/TiO2, TiO2/PAN, TiO 2/PAN/TiO2, and TiO2/TiO2) have been made in this work through controlled self-assembly, templating growth, polymerization, and homogeneous seeded growth. Applicability of these nanostructures in photocatalytic applications has also been demonstrated by our preliminary investigations. The easy separation of used catalysts after reaction seems to be advantageous because of relatively large external diameters of the lightweight nanocomposites. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  10. Enhanced PEC performance of nanoporous Si photoelectrodes by covering HfO2 and TiO2 passivation layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Zhuo; Ren, Feng; Wu, Hengyi; Wu, Liang; Wang, Xuening; Wang, Jingli; Wan, Da; Zhang, Guozhen; Jiang, Changzhong

    2017-03-02

    Nanostructured Si as the high efficiency photoelectrode material is hard to keep stable in aqueous for water splitting. Capping a passivation layer on the surface of Si is an effective way of protecting from oxidation. However, it is still not clear in the different mechanisms and effects between insulating oxide materials and oxide semiconductor materials as passivation layers. Here, we compare the passivation effects, the photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties, and the corresponding mechanisms between the HfO2/nanoporous-Si and the TiO2/nanoporous-Si by I-V curves, Motte-schottky (MS) curves, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Although the saturated photocurrent densities of the TiO2/nanoporous Si are lower than that of the HfO2/nanoporous Si, the former is more stable than the later.

  11. Effects of SiO 2 and TiO 2 fillers on thermal and dielectric properties ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2 and TiO2 fillers on thermal and dielectric properties of eco-friendly bismuth glass microcomposites of plasma display panels. Shiv Prakash Singh Karan Pal Anal Tarafder Mousumi Das Kalyandurg Annapurna Basudeb Karmakar. Composites ...

  12. TiO2-ITO and TiO2-ZnO nanocomposites: application on water treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessais B.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most promising ideas to enhance the photocatalytic efficiency of the TiO2 is to couple this photocatalyst with other semiconductors. In this work, we report on the development of photo-catalytic properties of two types of composites based on TiO2 – ITO (Indium Tin Oxide and TiO2 – ZnO deposited on conventional ceramic substrates. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM. The photo-catalytic test was carried out under UV light in order to reduce/oxidize a typical textile dye (Cibacron Yellow. The experiment was carried out in a bench scale reactor using a solution having a known initial dye concentration. After optimization, we found that both nanocomposites exhibit better photocatalytic activity compared to the standard photocatalyst P25 TiO2.

  13. Coastal upwelling fluxes of O2, N2O, and CO2 assessed from continuous atmospheric observations at Trinidad, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Lueker

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous atmospheric records of O2/N2, CO2 and N2O obtained at Trinidad, California document the effects of air-sea exchange during coastal upwelling and plankton bloom events. The atmospheric records provide continuous observations of air-sea fluxes related to synoptic scale upwelling events over several upwelling seasons. Combined with satellite, buoy and local meteorology data, calculated anomalies in O2/N2 and N2O were utilized in a simple atmospheric transport model to compute air-sea fluxes during coastal upwelling. CO2 fluxes were linked to the oceanic component of the O2 fluxes through local hydrographic data and estimated as a function of upwelling intensity (surface ocean temperature and wind speed. Regional air-sea fluxes of O2/N2, N2O, and CO2 during coastal upwelling were estimated with the aid of satellite wind and SST data. Upwelling CO2 fluxes were found to represent ~10% of export production along the northwest coast of North America. Synoptic scale upwelling events impact the net exchange of atmospheric CO2 along the coastal margin, and will vary in response to the frequency and duration of alongshore winds that are subject to climate change.

  14. Can Electron-Rich Oxygen (O2-) Withdraw Electrons from Metal Centers? A DFT Study on Oxoanion-Caged Polyoxometalates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takazaki, Aki; Eda, Kazuo; Osakai, Toshiyuki; Nakajima, Takahito

    2017-10-12

    The answer to the question "Can electron-rich oxygen (O2-) withdraw electrons from metal centers?" is seemingly simple, but how the electron population on the M atom behaves when the O-M distance changes is a matter of controversy. A case study has been conducted for Keggin-type polyoxometalate (POM) complexes, and the first-principles electronic structure calculations were carried out not only for real POM species but also for "hypothetical" ones whose heteroatom was replaced with a point charge. From the results of natural population analysis, it was proven that even an electron-rich O2-, owing to its larger electronegativity as a neutral atom, withdraws electrons when electron redistribution occurs by the change of the bond length. In the case where O2- coexists with a cation having a large positive charge (e.g., P5+(O2-)4 = [PO4]3-), the gross electron population (GEP) on the M atom seemingly increases as the O atom comes closer, but this increment in GEP is not due to the role of the O atom but due to a Coulombic effect of the positive charge located on the cation. Furthermore, it was suggested that not GEP but net electron population (NEP) should be responsible for the redox properties.

  15. Implementing NetScaler VPX

    CERN Document Server

    Sandbu, Marius

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow guide with detailed step-by step-instructions on how to implement the different key components in NetScaler, with real-world examples and sample scenarios.If you are a Citrix or network administrator who needs to implement NetScaler in your virtual environment to gain an insight on its functionality, this book is ideal for you. A basic understanding of networking and familiarity with some of the different Citrix products such as XenApp or XenDesktop is a prerequisite.

  16. Net4Care PHMR Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the SimpleClinicalDocument......The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the Simple...

  17. Pro DLR in NET 4

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Chaur

    2011-01-01

    Microsoft's Dynamic Language Runtime (DLR) is a platform for running dynamic languages such as Ruby and Python on an equal footing with compiled languages such as C#. Furthermore, the runtime is the foundation for many useful software design and architecture techniques you can apply as you develop your .NET applications. Pro DLR in .NET 4 introduces you to the DLR, showing how you can use it to write software that combines dynamic and static languages, letting you choose the right tool for the job. You will learn the core DLR components such as LINQ expressions, call sites, binders, and dynami

  18. Hierarchies in Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Peter; Jensen, Kurt; Shapiro, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    The paper shows how to extend Coloured Petri Nets with a hierarchy concept. The paper proposes five different hierarchy constructs, which allow the analyst to structure large CP-nets as a set of interrelated subnets (called pages). The paper discusses the properties of the proposed hierarchy...... constructs, and it illustrates them by means of two examples. The hierarchy constructs can be used for theoretical considerations, but their main use is to describe and analyse large real-world systems. All of the hierarchy constructs are supported by the editing and analysis facilities in the CPN Palette...

  19. Genotoxicity of inhaled nanosized TiO(2) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Hanna K; Falck, Ghita C-M; Catalán, Julia; Koivisto, Antti J; Suhonen, Satu; Järventaus, Hilkka; Rossi, Elina M; Nykäsenoja, Heli; Peltonen, Yrjö; Moreno, Carlos; Alenius, Harri; Tuomi, Timo; Savolainen, Kai M; Norppa, Hannu

    2012-06-14

    In vitro studies have suggested that nanosized titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) is genotoxic. The significance of these findings with respect to in vivo effects is unclear, as few in vivo studies on TiO(2) genotoxicity exist. Recently, nanosized TiO(2) administered in drinking water was reported to increase, e.g., micronuclei (MN) in peripheral blood polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) and DNA damage in leukocytes. Induction of micronuclei in mouse PCEs was earlier also described for pigment-grade TiO(2) administered intraperitoneally. The apparent systemic genotoxic effects have been suggested to reflect secondary genotoxicity of TiO(2) due to inflammation. However, a recent study suggested that induction of DNA damage in mouse bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells after intratracheal instillation of nanosized or fine TiO(2) is independent of inflammation. We examined here, if inhalation of freshly generated nanosized TiO(2) (74% anatase, 26% brookite; 5 days, 4 h/day) at 0.8, 7.2, and (the highest concentration allowing stable aerosol production) 28.5 mg/m(3) could induce genotoxic effects in C57BL/6J mice locally in the lungs or systematically in peripheral PCEs. DNA damage was assessed by the comet assay in lung epithelial alveolar type II and Clara cells sampled immediately following the exposure. MN were analyzed by acridine orange staining in blood PCEs collected 48 h after the last exposure. A dose-dependent deposition of Ti in lung tissue was seen. Although the highest exposure level produced a clear increase in neutrophils in BAL fluid, indicating an inflammatory effect, no significant effect on the level of DNA damage in lung epithelial cells or micronuclei in PCEs was observed, suggesting no genotoxic effects by the 5-day inhalation exposure to nanosized TiO(2) anatase. Our inhalation exposure resulted in much lower systemic TiO(2) doses than the previous oral and intraperitoneal treatments, and lung epithelial cells probably received considerably less TiO(2) than

  20. Raman scattering study of delafossite magnetoelectric multiferroic compounds: CuFeO2 and CuCrO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, O.; Truong, K. D.; Otani, T.; Balakrishnan, G.; Clouter, M. J.; Kimura, T.; Quirion, G.

    2012-01-01

    Ultrasonic velocity measurements on the magnetoelectric multiferroic compound CuFeO2 reveal that the antiferromagnetic transition observed at TN1 = 14 K might be induced by an R\\bar {3}m\\rightharpoonup C 2/m pseudoproper ferroelastic transition [1]. In that case, the group theory states that the order parameter associated with the structural transition must belong to a two-dimensional irreducible representation Eg (x2 - y2, xy). Since this type of transition can be driven by a Raman Eg mode, we performed Raman scattering measurements on CuFeO2 between 5 and 290 K. Considering that the isostructural multiferroic compound CuCrO2 might show similar structural deformations at the antiferromagnetic transition TN1 = 24.3 K, Raman measurements have also been performed for comparison. At ambient temperature, the Raman modes in CuFeO2 are observed at ωEg = 352 cm-1 and ωA1g = 692 cm-1, while these modes are detected at ωEg = 457 cm-1 and ωA1g = 709 cm-1 in CuCrO2. The analysis of the temperature dependence of the modes in both compounds shows that the frequencies of all modes increase with decreasing temperature. This typical behavior is attributed to anharmonic phonon-phonon interactions. These results clearly indicate that none of the Raman active modes observed in CuFeO2 and CuCrO2 drive the pseudoproper ferroelastic transitions observed at the Néel temperature TN1. Finally, a broad band at about 550 cm-1 observed in the magnetoelectric phase of CuCrO2 below TN2 could be associated with magnons.

  1. Para, ferro and antiferromagnetic properties of MnO2 and Ce1- x Mn x O2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayyappagari, Balaraju; Shaik, Kaleemulla

    2018-01-01

    Manganese-substituted cerium oxide nanoparticles (Ce1- x Mn x O2) at x = 0.00, 0.03 and 0.05 were prepared using ball milling technique and the milled powder samples were subjected to different characterization techniques such as X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays and vibrating sample magnetometer to study the structural, morphology and magnetic properties, respectively. From XRD, it was confirmed that the prepared samples were in Cubic structure at all Mn-doping concentrations and no evidence of impurities were found. The crystallite sizes of the powders were in the range of 30-44 nm and it decreased with increase of Mn substitution. The SEM images reflected that the grains are uniform in size and are in spherical shape. From magnetic studies, it was found that the bulk MnO2 was paramagnetic in nature, whereas the CeO2 nanoparticles were soft ferromagnetic at room temperature. The pure CeO2 nanoparticles exhibited a magnetization of 4.79 memu/g, coercivity of 389 Oe, and retentivity of 2.08 memu/g. A drastic change in magnetic behaviour of CeO2 nanoparticles was found by the substitution of Mn into the CeO2 host lattice. The Ce1- x Mn x O2 nanoparticles exhibited soft ferromagnetism at low field and antiferromagnetism at high applied magnetic fields. No magnetic saturation was found in Ce1- x Mn x O2 nanoparticles even when the magnetic field is increased to 15 kOe.

  2. Raman scattering study of delafossite magnetoelectric multiferroic compounds: CuFeO2 and CuCrO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, O; Truong, K D; Otani, T; Balakrishnan, G; Clouter, M J; Kimura, T; Quirion, G

    2012-01-25

    Ultrasonic velocity measurements on the magnetoelectric multiferroic compound CuFeO(2) reveal that the antiferromagnetic transition observed at T(N1) = 14 K might be induced by an R3m --> pseudoproper ferroelastic transition. In that case, the group theory states that the order parameter associated with the structural transition must belong to a two-dimensional irreducible representation E(g) (x(2) - y(2), xy). Since this type of transition can be driven by a Raman E(g) mode, we performed Raman scattering measurements on CuFeO(2) between 5 and 290 K. Considering that the isostructural multiferroic compound CuCrO(2) might show similar structural deformations at the antiferromagnetic transition T(N1) = 24.3 K, Raman measurements have also been performed for comparison. At ambient temperature, the Raman modes in CuFeO(2) are observed at ω(E(g)) = 352 cm(-1) and ω(A(1g)) = 692 cm(-1), while these modes are detected at ω(E(g)) = 457 cm(-1) and ω(A(1g)) = 709 cm(-1) in CuCrO(2). The analysis of the temperature dependence of the modes in both compounds shows that the frequencies of all modes increase with decreasing temperature. This typical behavior is attributed to anharmonic phonon-phonon interactions. These results clearly indicate that none of the Raman active modes observed in CuFeO(2) and CuCrO(2) drive the pseudoproper ferroelastic transitions observed at the Néel temperature T(N1). Finally, a broad band at about 550 cm(-1) observed in the magnetoelectric phase of CuCrO(2) below T(N2) could be associated with magnons.

  3. Lithium insertion in nanostructured TiO(2)(B) architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dylla, Anthony G; Henkelman, Graeme; Stevenson, Keith J

    2013-05-21

    Electric vehicles and grid storage devices have potentialto become feasible alternatives to current technology, but only if scientists can develop energy storage materials that offer high capacity and high rate capabilities. Chemists have studied anatase, rutile, brookite and TiO2(B) (bronze) in both bulk and nanostructured forms as potential Li-ion battery anodes. In most cases, the specific capacity and rate of lithiation and delithiation increases as the materials are nanostructured. Scientists have explained these enhancements in terms of higher surface areas, shorter Li(+) diffusion paths and different surface energies for nanostructured materials allowing for more facile lithiation and delithiation. Of the most studied polymorphs, nanostructured TiO2(B) has the highest capacity with promising high rate capabilities. TiO2(B) is able to accommodate 1 Li(+) per Ti, giving a capacity of 335 mAh/g for nanotubular and nanoparticulate TiO2(B). The TiO2(B) polymorph, discovered in 1980 by Marchand and co-workers, has been the focus of many recent studies regarding high power and high capacity anode materials with potential applications for electric vehicles and grid storage. This is due to the material's stability over multiple cycles, safer lithiation potential relative to graphite, reasonable capacity, high rate capability, nontoxicity, and low cost (Bruce, P. G.; Scrosati, B.; Tarascon, J.-M. Nanomaterials for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed.2008, 47, 2930-2946). One of the most interesting properties of TiO2(B) is that both bulk and nanostructured forms lithiate and delithiate through a surface redox or pseudocapacitive charging mechanism, giving rise to stable high rate charge/discharge capabilities in the case of nanostructured TiO2(B). When other polymorphs of TiO2 are nanostructured, they still mainly intercalate lithium through a bulk diffusion-controlled mechanism. TiO2(B) has a unique open crystal structure and low energy Li

  4. Dynamics of fibronectin adsorption on TiO2 surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, S R; Brás, M Manuela; Moradas-Ferreira, P; Barbosa, M A

    2007-06-19

    In the present work we analyze the dynamics of fibronectin (FN) adsorption on two different stable titanium oxides, with varied surface roughness, and chemically similar to those used in clinical practice. The two types of titanium oxide surfaces used were TiO2 sputtered on Si (TiO2 sp) and TiO2 formed on commercially pure titanium after immersion in H2O2 (TiO2 cp). Surface characterization was previously carried out using different techniques (Sousa, S. R.; Moradas-Ferreira, P.; Melo, L. V.; Saramago, B.; Barbosa, M. A. Langmuir 2004, 20 (22), 9745-9754). Imaging and roughness analysis before and after FN adsorption used atomic force microscopy (AFM) in tapping mode, in air, and in magnetic alternating current mode, in liquid (water). FN adsorption as a function of time was followed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), by radiolabeling of FN with 125I (125I-FN), and by ellipsometry. Exchangeability studies were performed using FN and HSA. AFM roughness analysis revealed that, before FN adsorption, both TiO2 surfaces exhibited a lower root-mean-square (Rq) and maximum peak with the depth of the maximum valley (Rmax) roughness in air than in water, due to TiO2 hydration. After protein adsorption, the same behavior was observed for the TiO2 sp substrate, while Rq and Rmax roughness values in air and in water were similar in the case of the TiO2 cp substrate, for the higher FN concentration used. Surface roughness was always significantly higher on the TiO2 cp surfaces. AFM led to direct visualization of adsorbed FN on both surfaces tested, indicating that after 10 min of FN incubation the TiO2 sp surface was partially covered by FN. The adsorbed protein seems to form globular aggregates or ellipsoids, and FN aggregates coalesce, forming clusters as the time of adsorption and the concentration increase. Radiolabeling of FN revealed that a rapid adsorption occurs on both surfaces and the amount adsorbed increased with time, reaching a maximum after 60 min of

  5. Influence of SiO2 Addition on Properties of PTFE/TiO2 Microwave Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ying; Wang, Jie; Yao, Minghao; Tang, Bin; Li, Enzhu; Zhang, Shuren

    2018-01-01

    Composite substrates for microwave circuit applications have been fabricated by filling polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) polymer matrix with ceramic powder consisting of rutile TiO2 ( D 50 ≈ 5 μm) partially substituted with fused amorphous SiO2 ( D 50 ≈ 8 μm) with composition x vol.% SiO2 + (50 - x) vol.% TiO2 ( x = 0, 3, 6, 9, 12), and the effects of SiO2 addition on characteristics such as the density, moisture absorption, microwave dielectric properties, and thermal properties systematically investigated. The results show that the filler was well distributed throughout the matrix. High dielectric constant ( ɛ r > 7.19) and extremely low moisture absorption (<0.02%) were obtained, resulting from the relatively high density of the composites. The ceramic particles served as barriers and improved the thermal stability of the PTFE polymer, retarding its decomposition. The temperature coefficient of dielectric constant ( τ ɛ ) of the composites shifted toward the positive direction (from - 309 ppm/°C to - 179 ppm/°C) as the SiO2 content was increased, while the coefficient of thermal expansion remained almost unchanged (˜ 35 ppm/°C).

  6. Hierarchical Porous Structured SiO2/SnO2 Nanofibrous Membrane with Superb Flexibility for Molecular Filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Haoru; Wang, Xueqin; Shi, Feihao; Yan, Jianhua; Yu, Jianyong; Ding, Bin

    2017-06-07

    The separation and purification of chemical molecules from organic media under harsh chemical environments are of vital importance in the fields of water treatment, biomedical engineering, and organic recycling. Herein, we report the preparation of a flexible SiO2/SnO2 nanofibrous membrane (SiO2/SnO2 NFM) with high surface area and hierarchical porous structure by selecting poly(vinyl butyral) as pore-forming agent and embedding crystalline phase into amorphous matrix without using surfactant as sacrificial template. Benefiting from the uniform micropore size on the fibers and negatively charged properties, the membranes exhibit a precise selectivity toward molecules based on electrostatic interaction and size exclusion, which could separate organic molecule mixtures with the same electrostatic charges and different molecular sizes with a high efficiency of more than 97%. Furthermore, the highly tortuous open-porous structures and high porosity give rise to a high permeate flux of 288 000 L m-2 h-1. In addition, the membrane also displays excellent stability and can be reused for ten consecutive filtration-regeneration cycles. The integration of high filtration efficiency, large permeate flux, good reutilization, and easy to industrialization provides the SiO2/SnO2 NFM for potential applications in practical molecular purification and separation science.

  7. Influence of SiO2 Addition on Properties of PTFE/TiO2 Microwave Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ying; Wang, Jie; Yao, Minghao; Tang, Bin; Li, Enzhu; Zhang, Shuren

    2017-10-01

    Composite substrates for microwave circuit applications have been fabricated by filling polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) polymer matrix with ceramic powder consisting of rutile TiO2 (D 50 ≈ 5 μm) partially substituted with fused amorphous SiO2 (D 50 ≈ 8 μm) with composition x vol.% SiO2 + (50 - x) vol.% TiO2 (x = 0, 3, 6, 9, 12), and the effects of SiO2 addition on characteristics such as the density, moisture absorption, microwave dielectric properties, and thermal properties systematically investigated. The results show that the filler was well distributed throughout the matrix. High dielectric constant (ɛ r > 7.19) and extremely low moisture absorption (polymer, retarding its decomposition. The temperature coefficient of dielectric constant (τ ɛ ) of the composites shifted toward the positive direction (from - 309 ppm/°C to - 179 ppm/°C) as the SiO2 content was increased, while the coefficient of thermal expansion remained almost unchanged (˜ 35 ppm/°C).

  8. Graphene oxide-MnO2 nanocomposite for supercapacitor application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammed Shafi, P.; Vishal, Jose K.; Chandra Bose, A.

    2016-09-01

    Increased depletion of fossil fuels along with global warming and climate change made the society to think about alternate green and sustainable energy sources and better energy storage devices. Extensive research has been performed on the development of solar cells, fuel cells, Lithium- ion battery and supercapacitors to combat the green house effect and its consequences, and to meet the increased energy crisis. Supercapacitors, also known as electrochemical capacitors are gained a great attention because of their pulse power supply, long cycle life (>100,000), simple principle and high dynamic of charge propagation. Its greater power density than lithium- ion battery and much larger energy density than conventional capacitors brought super capacitors to a promising energy storage device to meet the increased energy demands. Here we demonstrate supercapacitor electrode materials with graphene oxide (electric double layer capacitor) and α-MnO2 nanomaterial (pseudo-capacitor), as well as composite of these materials, which means that the bulk of the material undergoes a fast redox reaction to provide the capacitive response and they exhibit superior specific energies in addition to the carbon-based supercapacitors (double-layer capacitors). A simple soft chemical route is utilized to synthesize graphene oxide, α-MnO2 and graphene oxide-MnO2 composite. The phase and the structure of the synthesized materials are studied using X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The functional group and the presence of impurities are understood from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra. The capacitive properties of the graphene oxide, graphene oxide - MnO2 nanocomposite and α-MnO2 are tested with the help of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge - discharge techniques using 1 M Na2SO4 in aqueous solution as electrolyte. It was found that graphene oxide - MnO2 nanocomposite shows better electrochemical behaviour compared to individual graphene oxide and α-MnO2 nanomaterial.

  9. Controlled synthesis of monodisperse SiO(2)--TiO(2) microspheres with a yolk-shell structure as effective photocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jung Bo; Yoo, Hyo Jin; Lim, Byung Wook; Lee, Kang Hyuk; Kim, Mi Hyun; Kang, Donghyeon; Hur, Nam Hwi

    2012-12-01

    Monodisperse yolk-shell SiO(2) -TiO(2) microspheres were synthesized using core-shell silica microspheres as templates. In the absence of prior surface modifications, a uniform coating of the TiO(2) layer on the core-shell silica was achieved through a sol-gel route. Mesoporous silica shells between the outer TiO(2) shell and the SiO(2) core were selectively removed by using a weak base, yielding yolk-shell SiO(2) -TiO(2) microspheres (ys-SiO(2) @TiO(2) ). Using the same templates, we synthesized Pt-encased microspheres (SiO(2) @Pt-TiO(2) ), in which Pt nanoparticles are embedded between the SiO(2) core and the TiO(2) shell. Selective etching of the silica shells in SiO(2) @Pt-TiO(2) yields Pt-encased yolk-shell SiO(2) -TiO(2) microspheres (ys-SiO(2) @TiO(2) ), which contain void spaces suitable for use as nanoreactors. The ys-SiO(2) @TiO(2) catalyst shows enhanced hydrogen production from water under UV-light irradiation presumably as a result of multiple reflections within the void spaces and can be reused without losing their activity. Moreover, this core-shell template method is effective for the synthesis of other yolk-shell microspheres with different metal oxides. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Synthesis of coral-globular-like composite Ag/TiO2-SnO2 and its photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B under multiple modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Q; Li, L; Zhuo, N; Zhang, H N; Chen, X; Li, Y X

    2017-10-01

    Taking cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as the template and using TiO2 as the substrate, coral-globular-like composite Ag/TiO2-SnO2 (CTAB) was successfully synthesized by the sol-gel combined with a temperature-programmed treatment method. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, SEM combined with X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, and N2 adsorption-desorption tests were employed to characterize samples' crystalline phase, chemical composition, morphology and surface physicochemical properties. Results showed that composites not only had TiO2 anatase structure, but also had some generated SnTiO4, and the silver species was metallic Ag(0). Ag/TiO2-SnO2 (CTAB) possessed a coral-globular-like structure with nanosheets in large quantities. The photocatalytic activity of Ag/TiO2-SnO2 (CTAB) had studied by degrading organic dyes under multi-modes, mainly using rhodamine B as the model molecule. Results showed that the coral-globular-like Ag/TiO2-SnO2 (CTAB) was higher photocatalytic activity than that of commercial TiO2, Ag/TiO2-SnO2, TiO2-SnO2 (CTAB), and TiO2-SnO2 under ultraviolet light irradiation. Moreover, Ag/TiO2-SnO2 (CTAB) composite can significantly affect the photocatalytic degradation under multi-modes including UV light, visible light, simulated solar light and microwave-assisted irradiation. Meanwhile, the photocatalytic activity of Ag/TiO2-SnO2 (CTAB) was maintained even after three cycles, indicating that the catalyst had good usability.

  11. Biochemical effects of six TiO2 and four CeO2 nanomaterials in HepG2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochemical effects of six TiO2 and four CeO2 nanomaterials in HepG2 cellsBecause of their growing number of uses, nanoparticles composed of CeO2 (cosmetics, polishing materials and automotive fuel additives) and TiO2 (pigments, sunscreens and photocatalysts) are of particular to...

  12. Experimental and Computational Analysis of the Solvent-Dependent O2/Li(+)-O2(-) Redox Couple: Standard Potentials, Coupling Strength, and Implications for Lithium-Oxygen Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwabi, David G; Bryantsev, Vyacheslav S; Batcho, Thomas P; Itkis, Daniil M; Thompson, Carl V; Shao-Horn, Yang

    2016-02-24

    Understanding and controlling the kinetics of O2 reduction in the presence of Li(+)-containing aprotic solvents, to either Li(+)-O2(-) by one-electron reduction or Li2 O2 by two-electron reduction, is instrumental to enhance the discharge voltage and capacity of aprotic Li-O2 batteries. Standard potentials of O2 /Li(+)-O2(-) and O2/O2(-) were experimentally measured and computed using a mixed cluster-continuum model of ion solvation. Increasing combined solvation of Li(+) and O2(-) was found to lower the coupling of Li(+)-O2(-) and the difference between O2/Li(+)-O2(-) and O2/O2(-) potentials. The solvation energy of Li(+) trended with donor number (DN), and varied greater than that of O2 (-) ions, which correlated with acceptor number (AN), explaining a previously reported correlation between Li(+)-O2(-) solubility and DN. These results highlight the importance of the interplay between ion-solvent and ion-ion interactions for manipulating the energetics of intermediate species produced in aprotic metal-oxygen batteries. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. D.NET case study

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    lremy

    developing products, marketing tools and building capacity of the grass root telecentre workers. D.Net recognized that it had several ideas worth developing into small interventions that would make big differences, but resource constraints were a barrier for scaling-up these initiatives. More demands, limited resources.

  14. Surgery for GEP-NETs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, Ulrich; Hansen, Carsten Palnæs

    2012-01-01

    Surgery is the only treatment that may cure the patient with gastroentero-pancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumours (NET) and neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC) and should always be considered as first line treatment if R0/R1 resection can be achieved. The surgical and interventional procedures for GEP...

  15. Net Neutrality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.

    2014-01-01

    The Netherlands is among the first countries that have put specific net neutrality standards in place. The decision to implement specific regulation was influenced by at least three factors. The first was the prevailing social and academic debate, partly due to developments in the United States. The

  16. Complexity Metrics for Workflow Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; van der Aalst, Wil M.P.

    2009-01-01

    Process modeling languages such as EPCs, BPMN, flow charts, UML activity diagrams, Petri nets, etc.\\ are used to model business processes and to configure process-aware information systems. It is known that users have problems understanding these diagrams. In fact, even process engineers and system...

  17. High Photocatalytic Activity of Fe3O4-SiO2-TiO2 Functional Particles with Core-Shell Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Chenyang Xue; Qiang Zhang; Junyang Li; Xiujian Chou; Wendong Zhang; Hua Ye; Zhanfeng Cui; Dobson, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a novel method of synthesizing Fe3O4-SiO2-TiO2 functional nanoparticles with the core-shell structure. The Fe3O4 cores which were mainly superparamagnetic were synthesized through a novel carbon reduction method. The Fe3O4 cores were then modified with SiO2 and finally encapsulated with TiO2 by the sol-gel method. The results of characterizations showed that the encapsulated 700 nm Fe3O4-SiO2-TiO2 particles have a relatively uniform size distribution, an anatase TiO2 she...

  18. Exploration of LiO2 by the method of electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance in TEGDME based Li-O2 battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yong; Tong, Shengfu; Qiu, Feilong; Jiang, Jie; Feng, Ningning; Zhang, Xueping; He, Ping; Zhou, Haoshen

    2016-10-01

    We confirmed the existence of LiO2 by electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) in TEGDME based Li-O2 batteries. Our results indicated that Li2O2 is generated through stepwise electrochemical reactions rather than disproportionation. We report for the first time that the formed Li2O2 oxidizes to LiO2 at relative negative potential and O2 at positive potential respectively. Our conclusions were based on both experimental observations and quantitative analysis. This may enlighten us to reconsider the Li-O2 batteries mechanisms in a quantitative way.

  19. Photocatalytic Performance of Carbon Monolith/TiO2 Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Maletić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The new and simple approach for deposition of catalytically active TiO2 coating on carbon monolith (CM carrier was presented. CM photocatalysts were impregnated with TiO2 using titanium solution and thermal treatment, and their photocatalytic activity was investigated in the process of methylene blue (MB photodegradation. For the purpose of comparison, CM composite photocatalysts were prepared by dip-coating method, which implies binder usage. The presence of TiO2 on CM carrier was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The sorption characteristics of CM and the role of adsorption in the overall process of MB removal were evaluated through amount of surface oxygen groups obtained by temperature-programmed desorption and specific surface area determined by BET method. CM has shown good adsorption properties toward MB due to high amount of surface oxygen groups and relatively high specific surface area. It was concluded that photocatalytic activity increases with CM disc thickness due to increase of MB adsorption and amount of deposited TiO2. Good photocatalytic activity achieved for samples obtained by thermal treatment is the result of better accessibility of MB solution to the TiO2 particles induced by binder absence.

  20. Electrochemical, H2O2-Boosted Catalytic Oxidation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akse, James R.; Thompson, John O.; Schussel, Leonard J.

    2004-01-01

    An improved water-sterilizing aqueous-phase catalytic oxidation system (APCOS) is based partly on the electrochemical generation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). This H2O2-boosted system offers significant improvements over prior dissolved-oxygen water-sterilizing systems in the way in which it increases oxidation capabilities, supplies H2O2 when needed, reduces the total organic carbon (TOC) content of treated water to a low level, consumes less energy than prior systems do, reduces the risk of contamination, and costs less to operate. This system was developed as a variant of part of an improved waste-management subsystem of the life-support system of a spacecraft. Going beyond its original intended purpose, it offers the advantage of being able to produce H2O2 on demand for surface sterilization and/or decontamination: this is a major advantage inasmuch as the benign byproducts of this H2O2 system, unlike those of systems that utilize other chemical sterilants, place no additional burden of containment control on other spacecraft air- or water-reclamation systems.

  1. Thermal stability of HfO2 nanotube arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Xiaofeng [ORNL; Howe, Jane Y [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL; Tuncer, Enis [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Thermal stability of highly ordered hafnium oxide (HfO2) nanotube arrays prepared through an electrochemical anodization method in the presence of ammonium fluoride is investigated in a temperature range of room temperature to 900 C in flowing argon atmosphere. The formation of the HfO2 nanotube arrays was monitored by current density transient characteristics during anodization of hafnium metal foil. Morphologies of the as-grown and post-annealed HfO2 nanotube arrays were analyzed by powder Xray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Although monoclinic HfO2 is thermally stable up to 2000K in bulk, the morphology of HfO2 nanotube arrays degraded at 900 C. A detailed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study revealed that the thermal treatment significantly impacted the composition and the chemical environment of the core elements (Hf and O), as well as F content coming from the electrolyte. Possible reasons for the degradation of the nanotube at high temperature were discussed based on XPS study and possible future improvements have also been suggested. Moreover, dielectric measurements were carried out on both the as-grown amorphous film and 500 C post-annealed crystalline film. This study will help us to understand the temperature impact on the morphology of nanotube arrays, which is important to its further applications at elevated temperatures.

  2. O:2-CRM(197) conjugates against Salmonella Paratyphi A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micoli, Francesca; Rondini, Simona; Gavini, Massimiliano; Lanzilao, Luisa; Medaglini, Donata; Saul, Allan; Martin, Laura B

    2012-01-01

    Enteric fevers remain a common and serious disease, affecting mainly children and adolescents in developing countries. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi was believed to cause most enteric fever episodes, but several recent reports have shown an increasing incidence of S. Paratyphi A, encouraging the development of a bivalent vaccine to protect against both serovars, especially considering that at present there is no vaccine against S. Paratyphi A. The O-specific polysaccharide (O:2) of S. Paratyphi A is a protective antigen and clinical data have previously demonstrated the potential of using O:2 conjugate vaccines. Here we describe a new conjugation chemistry to link O:2 and the carrier protein CRM(197), using the terminus 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid (KDO), thus leaving the O:2 chain unmodified. The new conjugates were tested in mice and compared with other O:2-antigen conjugates, synthesized adopting previously described methods that use CRM(197) as carrier protein. The newly developed conjugation chemistry yielded immunogenic conjugates with strong serum bactericidal activity against S. Paratyphi A.

  3. Photocatalytic Properties of TiO2 Porous Network Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lianqing; Zhi, Qianqian; Huang, Chengxing; Zhang, Yaping; Dong, Kaituo; Neppolian, B

    2015-09-01

    Three-dimensional porous network TiO2 film (PW-film) and nanoparticles film were synthesized on surface of the Ti foil by a facile method to investigate both the photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic properties. The prepared samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD) techniques. Methylene blue was used as a target molecule to estimate the photocatalytic activity of the films. Results revealed that the hydrothermal temperature and time have great influence on the crystal type and film morphology of TiO2 catalysts. A higher hydrothermal temperature is benefit for the formation of anatase phase of TiO2 nanotubes with PW-film, which had a large number of nodes. After investigation of the photoelectrochemical properties, a maximum photoconversion efficiency of 4.79% is observed for nanoparticles film with rutile phase of TiO2 under UV light illumination, which was incredible 2 times higher than that of the PW-film with anatase phase. It was shown that the morphology of TiO2 film contributes more significant effect on photocatalytic and photoelectric performance than its crystal type.

  4. Improvement of resistive switching performances via an amorphous ZrO2 layer formation in TiO2-based forming-free resistive random access memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Baiwen; Xu, Dinglin; Tang, Minghua; Xiao, Yongguang; Zhou, Yuzhou; Xiong, Rongxin; Li, Zheng; Zhou, Yichun

    2014-09-01

    We present the effects of an amorphous ZrO2 layer on the TiO2-based bipolar resistive switching memory device where the ZrO2 layer plays an important role as a supplementary reservoir of oxygen vacancies. Compared with Pt/TiO2/Pt monolayer device, a remarkably improved uniformity of switching parameters such as switching voltages and resistances in high/low states is demonstrated in the Pt/ZrO2/TiO2/Pt system. The resistive switching mechanism of memory devices incorporating the ZrO2/TiO2 bilayer structure can be attributed to multiple conducting filaments through the occurrence of redox reactions at the ZrO2/TiO2 surface.

  5. The relation between residual stress, interfacial structure and the joint property in the SiO2f/SiO2-Nb joints

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Qiang; Li, Zhuo Ran; Yang, Lai Shan; Lin, Jing Huang; Ba, Jin; Wang, Ze Yu; Qi, Jun Lei; Feng, Ji Cai

    2017-01-01

    In order to achieve a high-quality joint between SiO2f/SiO2 and metals, it is necessary to address the poor wettability of SiO2f/SiO2 and the high residual stress in SiO2f/SiO2-Nb joint. Here, we simultaneously realize good wettability and low residual stress in SiO2f/SiO2-Nb joint by combined method of HF etching treatment and Finite Element Analysis (FEA). After etching treatment, the wettability of E-SiO2f/SiO2 was improved, and the residual stress in the joint was decreased. In order to b...

  6. Anatase TiO2 sheet-assisted synthesis of Ti(3+) self-doped mixed phase TiO2 sheet with superior visible-light photocatalytic performance: Roles of anatase TiO2 sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojie; Zuo, Guoqing; Lu, Xin; Tang, Changqing; Cao, Shuo; Yu, Miao

    2017-03-15

    On the basis of measurements, such as field emission scanning electron microscope, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra, X-ray diffraction, electron paramagnetic resonance, photoluminescence spectra, and photocurrent measurements, the roles of anatase TiO2 sheet on synthesizing Ti(3+) self-doped mixed phase TiO2 nanosheets (doped TiO2 (A/R, TiO2 (A))) and on improving the performance for photocatalytic CO2 reduction were explored systematically. High surface area anatase TiO2 nanosheets (TiO2 (A)) as a substrate, structure directing agent, and inhibitor, mediated the synthesis of Ti(3+) self-doped mixed phase TiO2 nanosheets. Addition of TiO2 (A) significantly improved not only visible light absorption of doped TiO2 (A/R, TiO2 (A)), but also the efficiency of photo-excited charges separations due to the existence of interfacial regions of anatase-rutile TiO2 junctions. Finally, a possible mechanism for interfacial charge transfer at the anatase-rutile TiO2 interface and for photocatalytic CO2 reduction over Pt loaded doped TiO2 (A/R, TiO2 (A)) were proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Efficiency of clay-TiO2 nanocomposites on the photocatalytic eliminationof a model hydrophobic air pollutant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kibanova, Daria; Cervini-Silva, Javiera; Destaillats, Hugo

    2009-01-01

    2. In all cases, reaction rates peaked at 10percent RH, with Tr values between 10 and 50percent higher than those measured under dry air. However, a net inhibition was observed as RH increased to 33percent and 66percent, indicating that water molecules competed effectively with toluene for reactive surface sites and limited the overall photocatalytic conversion. Compared to P25, inhibition by co-adsorbed water was less significant for Kao-TiO2 samples, but was more dramatic for Hecto-TiO2 due to the high water uptake capacity of hectorite.

  8. Structural studies of gels and gel-glasses in the SiO2-GeO2 system using vibrational spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Shyama P.; Sharma, Shiv K.

    1986-01-01

    GeO2 gel and gels in the SiO2-GeO2 system synthesized by the hydrolytic polycondensation of metal alkoxides have been studied by infrared and Raman spectroscopic techniques. The molecular structures, hydroxyl contents, and crystallinity of gels and gel-glasses in relation to the thermal history and GeO2 concentration were investigated. The binary compositions having up to 70 mol percent GeO2 were examined.

  9. Caught in the Net: Perineuronal Nets and Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Slaker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to drugs of abuse induces plasticity in the brain and creates persistent drug-related memories. These changes in plasticity and persistent drug memories are believed to produce aberrant motivation and reinforcement contributing to addiction. Most studies have explored the effect drugs of abuse have on pre- and postsynaptic cells and astrocytes; however, more recently, attention has shifted to explore the effect these drugs have on the extracellular matrix (ECM. Within the ECM are unique structures arranged in a net-like manner, surrounding a subset of neurons called perineuronal nets (PNNs. This review focuses on drug-induced changes in PNNs, the molecules that regulate PNNs, and the expression of PNNs within brain circuitry mediating motivation, reward, and reinforcement as it pertains to addiction.

  10. Effect of O2+, H2++ O2+, and N2++ O2+ ion-beam irradiation on the field emission properties of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña, J. J. S.; Escobar, M.; Goyanes, S. N.; Candal, R. J.; Zanatta, A. R.; Alvarez, F.

    2011-06-01

    The effect of O2+, H2++ O2+, and N2++ O2+ ion-beam irradiation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) films on the chemical and electronic properties of the material is reported. The CNTs were grown by the chemical vapor deposition technique (CVD) on silicon TiN coated substrates previously decorated with Ni particles. The Ni decoration and TiN coating were successively deposited by ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD) and afterwards the nanotubes were grown. The whole deposition procedure was performed in situ as well as the study of the effect of ion-beam irradiation on the CNTs by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Raman scattering, field-effect emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM), and field emission (FE) measurements were performed ex situ. The experimental data show that: (a) the presence of either H2+ or N2+ ions in the irradiation beam determines the oxygen concentration remaining in the samples as well as the studied structural characteristics; (b) due to the experimental conditions used in the study, no morphological changes have been observed after irradiation of the CNTs; (c) the FE experiments indicate that the electron emission from the CNTs follows the Fowler-Nordheim model, and it is dependent on the oxygen concentration remaining in the samples; and (d) in association with FE results, the XPS data suggest that the formation of terminal quinone groups decreases the CNTs work function of the material.

  11. Effects of optical design modifications on thermal performance of a highly reflective HfO2/SiO2/TiO2 three material coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocak, M.; Sert, C.; Okutucu-Özyurt, T.

    2018-02-01

    Effects of layer thickness modifications on laser induced temperature distribution inside three material, highly reflective thin film coatings are studied with numerical simulations. As a base design, a 21 layer coating composed of HfO2, SiO2 and TiO2 layers of quarter wave thickness is considered. First, the laser induced temperature distribution in this base design is obtained. Then the layer thicknesses of the base design are modified and the corresponding temperature distributions in four alternative non-quarter wave coatings are evaluated. The modified thicknesses are determined using an in-house code developed to shift the electric field intensity (EFI) peak from the first high/low layer interface towards the adjacent low index layer that has a higher thermal conductivity, hence, higher laser damage resistance. Meanwhile, the induced increase in the EFI peak is kept at a user defined upper limit. The laser endurance of the base and alternative designs are compared in terms of their estimated temperature distributions. The results indicated that both the peak temperature and the highest interface temperature are decreased by at least 32%, in non-dimensional form, when alternative designs are used instead of the base design. The total reflection of the base design is only decreased from 99.8% to at most 99.4% when alternative designs are used. The study is proved to be successful in improving the laser endurance of three material thin film coatings by lowering the peak and interface temperatures.

  12. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Army Net Zero Training Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-20

    sensors were strategically placed throughout the installation by magnetically attaching them to water main valve stems. The sensors check sound...Recycle Wrap  Substitutes for Packaging Materials  Re-Use of Textiles and Linens  Setting Printers to Double-Sided Printing Net Zero Waste...can effectively achieve source reduction. Clean and Re-Use Shop Rags - Shop rags represent a large textile waste stream at many installations. As a

  13. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Net Zero Waste Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-20

    Anaerobic Digesters – Although anaerobic digestion is not a new technology and has been used on a large-scale basis in wastewater treatment , the...technology and has been used on a large-scale basis in wastewater treatment , the use of the technology should be demonstrated with other...approaches can be used for cardboard and cellulose -based packaging materials. This approach is in line with the Net Zero Waste hierarchy in terms of

  14. A Pleistocene ice core record of atmospheric O2 concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolper, D A; Bender, M L; Dreyfus, G B; Yan, Y; Higgins, J A

    2016-09-23

    The history of atmospheric O2 partial pressures (Po2) is inextricably linked to the coevolution of life and Earth's biogeochemical cycles. Reconstructions of past Po2 rely on models and proxies but often markedly disagree. We present a record of Po2 reconstructed using O2/N2 ratios from ancient air trapped in ice. This record indicates that Po2 declined by 7 per mil (0.7%) over the past 800,000 years, requiring that O2 sinks were ~2% larger than sources. This decline is consistent with changes in burial and weathering fluxes of organic carbon and pyrite driven by either Neogene cooling or increasing Pleistocene erosion rates. The 800,000-year record of steady average carbon dioxide partial pressures (Pco2) but declining Po2 provides distinctive evidence that a silicate weathering feedback stabilizes Pco2 on million-year time scales. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Gas Sensing Properties of Ordered Mesoporous SnO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Tiemann

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available We report on the synthesis and CO gas-sensing properties of mesoporoustin(IV oxides (SnO2. For the synthesis cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTABr wasused as a structure-directing agent; the resulting SnO2 powders were applied as films tocommercially available sensor substrates by drop coating. Nitrogen physisorption showsspecific surface areas up to 160 m2·g-1 and mean pore diameters of about 4 nm, as verifiedby TEM. The film conductance was measured in dependence on the CO concentration inhumid synthetic air at a constant temperature of 300 °C. The sensors show a high sensitivityat low CO concentrations and turn out to be largely insensitive towards changes in therelative humidity. We compare the materials with commercially available SnO2-basedsensors.

  16. Enhanced bonding between TiO2-Graphene oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naknikham, Usuma; Boffa, Vittorio; Yue, Yuanzheng

    as photocatalysts, which can efficiently react with organic species under solar light and can enhance the adsorption of water pollutants [3]. Many studies have shown that TiO2-GO heterostructures can quickly mineralize organic dyes in solution under UV-light. However, it is not clear if these materials can provide...... the same performances under sunlight and with complex real water systems. Hence, this research aims to study the photocatalystic property on GO-TiO2 composites with aqueous solutions of selected emerging pollutants under visible light. The samples were synthesized via the in-situ sol-gel nucleation......Since an increasing number of emerging pollutants has been found in wastewater and natural water systems [1], many researchers are developing new synergy-effective methods for their abatement [2]. In this context, we fabricate titanium dioxide-graphene oxide (TiO2-GO) heterostructures...

  17. Supercritical Flow Synthesis of TiO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellstern, Henrik Christian; Becker, Jacob; Hald, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A new, up-scaled supercritical flow synthesis apparatus has been constructed in Aarhus. A module based system allows for a range of parameter studies with improved parameter control. The dual-reactor setup enables both single phase and core-shell nanoparticle synthesis. TiO2 is a well-known mater......A new, up-scaled supercritical flow synthesis apparatus has been constructed in Aarhus. A module based system allows for a range of parameter studies with improved parameter control. The dual-reactor setup enables both single phase and core-shell nanoparticle synthesis. TiO2 is a well......-known material and has been synthesized to evaluate the performance of the new super critical reactor setup. TiO2 will form the basis for planned core-shell syntheses....

  18. Lattice dynamics of KxRhO2 single crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin-Bin Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of crystals KxRhO2 (x = 0.72, 0.63, 0.55, 0.39, and 0.24 have been synthesized and their vibrational properties have been studied by first principles calculations, Raman spectroscopy, and inelastic neutron scattering. The measured vibrational spectra of KxRhO2 for x = 0.72 and 0.63 are consistent with the theoretical prediction for the stoichiometric KRhO2. For samples with x = 0.55, 0.39 and 0.24, extra vibrational modes have been observed and they are believed to be due to the symmetry reduction and the loss of translational symmetry induced by K disorder. The good agreement was found for the phonon density of states among the Raman spectroscopic observations, inelastic neutron scattering and the first principles calculations, as an evidence for the generation of structure disorder by K deficiency.

  19. Hydrothermal Synthesis of TiO2@SnO2 Hybrid Nanoparticles in a Continuous-Flow Dual-Stage Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellstern, Henrik L; Bremholm, Martin; Mamakhel, Aref; Becker, Jacob; Iversen, Bo B

    2016-03-08

    TiO2@SnO2 hybrid nanocomposites were successfully prepared in gram scale using a dual-stage hydrothermal continuous-flow reactor. Temperature and pH in the secondary reactor were found to selectively direct nucleation and growth of the secondary material into either heterogeneous nanocomposites or separate intermixed nanoparticles. At low pH, 2 nm rutile SnO2 nanoparticles were deposited on 9 nm anatase TiO2 particles; the presence of TiO2 was found to suppress formation of larger SnO2 particles. At high pH SnO2 formed separate particles and no deposition on TiO2 was observed. Ball-milling of TiO2 and SnO2 produced no TiO2@SnO2 composites. This verifies that the composite particles must be formed by nucleation and growth of the secondary precursor on the TiO2 . High concentration of secondary precursor led to formation of TiO2 particles embedded in aggregates of SnO2 nanoparticles. The results demonstrate how nanocomposites may be produced in high yield by green chemistry. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Antimicrobial property, cytocompatibility and corrosion resistance of Zn-doped ZrO2/TiO2 coatings on Ti6Al4V implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruoyun; He, Xiaojing; Gao, Yuee; Zhang, Xiangyu; Yao, Xiaohong; Tang, Bin

    2017-06-01

    Zn-doped ZrO2/TiO2 porous coatings (Zn-ZrO2/TiO2) were prepared on the surface of titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) by a hybrid approach of magnetron sputtering and micro-arc oxidation (MAO). The microstructures, phase constituents and elemental states of the coating were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results demonstrate that the Zn-ZrO2/TiO2 coatings are porous and its thickness is approximately 13μm. The major phases in the oxidation coating are tetragonal ZrO2 (t-ZrO2), cubic ZrO2 (c-ZrO2) and rutile TiO2. XPS result reveals that Zn exists as ZnO in the Zn-ZrO2/TiO2 coatings. The biological experiments indicate that Zn-ZrO2/TiO2 coatings exhibit not only excellent antibacterial property against Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), but also favorable cytocompatibility. In addition, the corrosion resistance of the coating is also appreciably improved in the simulated body fluids (SBF), which can ensure better biocompatibility in body fluids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Reflections on O2 as a Biosignature in Exoplanetary Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Victoria S.

    2017-10-01

    Oxygenic photosynthesis is Earth's dominant metabolism, having evolved to harvest the largest expected energy source at the surface of most terrestrial habitable zone planets. Using CO2 and H2O - molecules that are expected to be abundant and widespread on habitable terrestrial planets - oxygenic photosynthesis is plausible as a significant planetary process with a global impact. Photosynthetic O2 has long been considered particularly robust as a sign of life on a habitable exoplanet, due to the lack of known "false positives" - geological or photochemical processes that could also produce large quantities of stable O2. O2 has other advantages as a biosignature, including its high abundance and uniform distribution throughout the atmospheric column and its distinct, strong absorption in the visible and near-infrared. However, recent modeling work has shown that false positives for abundant oxygen or ozone could be produced by abiotic mechanisms, including photochemistry and atmospheric escape. Environmental factors for abiotic O2 have been identified and will improve our ability to choose optimal targets and measurements to guard against false positives. Most of these false-positive mechanisms are dependent on properties of the host star and are often strongest for planets orbiting M dwarfs. In particular, selecting planets found within the conservative habitable zone and those orbiting host stars more massive than 0.4 M⊙ (M3V and earlier) may help avoid planets with abundant abiotic O2 generated by water loss. Searching for O4 or CO in the planetary spectrum, or the lack of H2O or CH4, could help discriminate between abiotic and biological sources of O2 or O3. In advance of the next generation of telescopes, thorough evaluation of potential biosignatures - including likely environmental context and factors that could produce false positives - ultimately works to increase our confidence in life detection.

  2. Theoretical study of CO and O2 adsorption and CO oxidation on linear-shape gold molecules (LGMn (n=2, 4, 8, 16, and 24

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Ohkawa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Density functional theory is used to study the effect of increase of the number of Au atom in the adsorption of CO and O2 as well as CO oxidation on anionic, neutral, and cationic Linear-shape Gold Molecules (LGMn (n=2, 4, 8, 16, and 24. The more the number of Au atom increases, the more the adsorption energies of CO lower and larger in the cationic and anionic LGMnCO complexes, respectively. In contrast, the adsorption energies of both CO and O2 on neutral LGMn exhibit approximately constant values. There are little differences of both adsorption energies and net charge of CO and O2 on the number of Au atom in LGM regardless of each charge state. This indicates that the charge state of LGM plays a less important role for the adsorption of CO and O2 with increase of the number of Au atom in LGM. The trend of the overall activation energies of reaction pathway is switched between LGM4−1 and LGM8−1 with increase of the number of Au atom in LGM, and OC-OO intermediate of the initial state in LGMn−1 (n=8, 16, and 24 are unstable compared to the separated reactants (LGMn, CO, O2. These are caused by the values of charge of O2 of OC-OO intermediate.

  3. Effect of TiO2 on the Gas Sensing Features of TiO2/PANi Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duong Ngoc Huyen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A nanocomposite of titanium dioxide (TiO2 and polyaniline (PANi was synthesized by in-situ chemical polymerization using aniline (ANi monomer and TiCl4 as precursors. SEM pictures show that the nanocomposite was created in the form of long PANi chains decorated with TiO2 nanoparticles. FTIR, Raman and UV-Vis spectra reveal that the PANi component undergoes an electronic structure modification as a result of the TiO2 and PANi interaction. The electrical resistor of the nanocomposite is highly sensitive to oxygen and NH3 gas, accounting for the physical adsorption of these gases. A nanocomposite with around 55% TiO2 shows an oxygen sensitivity of 600–700%, 20–25 times higher than that of neat PANi. The n-p contacts between TiO2 nanoparticles and PANi matrix give rise to variety of shallow donors and acceptor levels in the PANi band gap which enhance the physical adsorption of gas molecules.

  4. Ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of Hf1-xZrxO2 and pure ZrO2 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starschich, S.; Schenk, T.; Schroeder, U.; Boettger, U.

    2017-05-01

    Ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of Hf1-xZrxO2 (HZO) and pure ZrO2 films with a layer thickness of up to 390 nm prepared by chemical solution deposition (CSD) are investigated. The piezoelectric properties are measured using a double-beam laser interferometer (DBLI) and piezoresponse force microscopy. It is shown that for 100 nm thick films, the maximum remanent polarization is found for pure ZrO2 and reduces for the increasing hafnium content. A stable remanent polarization of 8 μC/cm2 is observed for ZrO2 film thicknesses between 195 and 390 nm. A piezoelectric coefficient of 10 pm/V is extracted from unipolar DBLI measurements. The observed thickness limitation for atomic layer deposition deposited HZO based ferroelectrics can be overcome by the CSD deposition technique presented in this work. Thick ZrO2 films are promising candidates for energy related applications such as pyroelectric and piezoelectric energy harvesting and electrocaloric cooling as well as for microelectromechanical systems.

  5. Magnetic properties of CuFe1-xCrxO2 nanoparticles surrounded by amorphous SiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, K.; Hachisu, M.; Yamazaki, T.; Ichiyanagi, Y.

    2015-05-01

    CuFe1-xCrxO2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1.0) nanoparticles surrounded by amorphous SiO2 with an average diameter of 30-50 nm were synthesized using a wet chemical method. The annealing temperatures were controlled to yield various sizes of single-phase CuFe1-xCrxO2 nanoparticles. CuFeO2 bulk crystal is known to have a multiferroic delafossite structure with two Néel temperatures of 11 and 14 K; however, the transition temperature shifted higher as the Cr-ion doping level increased. In addition, the lattice constants decreased in accordance with increased Cr-ion doping, which was confirmed by X-ray diffraction measurements. The magnetization curves showed weak ferromagnetic behavior and no coercivity was observed. Hence, frustration in the triangular lattice of the delafossite structure can be released by Cr-ion doping and higher magnetization can be expected. A fine structure analysis through X-ray absorption fine structure measurements was also conducted. It was found that the structure of the Cu ion is similar to that of Cu2O, and the c axis of the CuFe1-xCrxO2 should be shortened by the Cr-ion doping.

  6. Effect of TiO2 on the gas sensing features of TiO2/PANi nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Ngoc Huyen; Nguyen, Trong Tung; Nguyen, Duc Thien; Le, Hai Thanh

    2011-01-01

    A nanocomposite of titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) and polyaniline (PANi) was synthesized by in-situ chemical polymerization using aniline (ANi) monomer and TiCl(4) as precursors. SEM pictures show that the nanocomposite was created in the form of long PANi chains decorated with TiO(2) nanoparticles. FTIR, Raman and UV-Vis spectra reveal that the PANi component undergoes an electronic structure modification as a result of the TiO(2) and PANi interaction. The electrical resistor of the nanocomposite is highly sensitive to oxygen and NH(3) gas, accounting for the physical adsorption of these gases. A nanocomposite with around 55% TiO(2) shows an oxygen sensitivity of 600-700%, 20-25 times higher than that of neat PANi. The n-p contacts between TiO(2) nanoparticles and PANi matrix give rise to variety of shallow donors and acceptor levels in the PANi band gap which enhance the physical adsorption of gas molecules.

  7. Optical characterization of surface plasmon resonance of Pt nanoparticles in TiO2-SiO2 nanocomposite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, T. D.; Yoon, Jong-Gul

    2017-10-01

    The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of Pt nanoparticles (NPs) in TiO2-SiO2 nanocomposite films, in which Pt NPs of about 5 nm are incorporated, is investigated by using spectroscopic ellipsometry. After obtaining the dielectric functions of Pt NPs from the Pt-SiO2 nanocomposite film, Pt-TiO2-SiO2 nanocomposite films are analyzed by applying a homogenous single layer model with an effective medium approximation. The effects of Pt NPs on the optical properties of the nanocomposite films are clearly revealed in the imaginary part of the dielectric functions, showing an increase in broadband absorption near the band gap of the films with the increasing volume fraction of Pt NPs in the films. Particularly, the maximum of extinction cross-section of Pt NPs in the films coincides with the broadband absorption, indicating that the localized SPR of Pt NPs is responsible for the enhanced light absorption at the visible-light wavelengths. This work emphasizes that, although SPR absorption of Pt NPs is not so distinctive in the visible-light wavelengths, proper tuning of the dielectric environment as well as the volume fraction of Pt NPs can enhance the photoactivity of the nanocomposite films.

  8. Luminescence of nanostructured SnO2-SiO2 glass-ceramics prepared by sol-gel method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del-Castillo, J; Yanesl, A C; Méndez-Ramos, J; Rodríguez, V D

    2008-04-01

    Nanostructured silica based glass-ceramics samples of composition (100 - x)SiO2-xSnO2, with x from 1 to 10, have been synthesized by thermal treatment of precursor sol-gel glasses. The average size of the obtained SnO2 nanocrystals, calculated by using the X-ray diffraction, can be predetermined by using well-controlled concentration of tin precursor. The mean radius ranging from 1.6 to 5.5 nm, is comparable to the exciton Bohr radius, corresponding to wide band-gap semiconductor quantum-dots in an insulator SiO2 glass. A spectroscopy study in terms of optical absorption and photoluminescence spectra has been carried out as a function of SnO2 concentration. Size-dependent red-shifts of excitation and emission bands, with increasing of tin precursor concentration, point to the quantum confinement effect. The nanocrystal sizes have been obtained and compared by using the Brus and Scherrer equations. The band gap increase is in agreement with results, based on the effective mass model. The recombination of conduction band electron with oxygen vacancies is proposed to explain the luminescence red-shift.

  9. HIDROGENACIÓN DE CITRONELAL SOBRE CATALIZADORES DE Ir/TiO2/SiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Rojas

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudió la hidrogenación selectiva de citronelal sobre sistemas de Ir/TiO2, Ir/SiO2, e Ir soportado en óxidos mixtos (Ir/TiO2-SiO2 reducidos a 473 y 773 K. Se analizó el efecto de la adición de TiO2 al soporte y de las temperaturas de reducción de los catalizadores para evaluar el posible efecto de especies TiOx parcialmente reducidas, sobre la actividad y selectividad de la reacción. Los sólidos resultantes se caracterizaron por quimisorción de hidrógeno a temperatura ambiente, adsorción de nitrógeno a 77 K, DRX, TEM y XPS. Los resultados indican que los catalizadores reducidos a alta temperatura (HT: 773 K favorecen la producción del alcohol insaturado debido al efecto de interacción fuerte metal-soporte conocido como SMSI. Los catalizadores reducidos a baja temperatura (LT: 473 K llevan a la ciclización del anillo produciendo isopulegol. Estos catalizadores mostraron una alta actividad y unamenor selectividad hacia el alcohol insaturado.

  10. H2O2_COD_EPA; MEC_acclimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    H2O2_COD_EPA: Measurements of hydrogen peroxide and COD concentrations for water samples from the MEC reactors.MEC_acclimation: raw data for current and voltage of the anode in the MEC reactor.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Sim, J., J. An, E. Elbeshbishy, R. Hodon, and H. Lee. Characterization and optimization of cathodic conditions for H2O2 synthesis in microbial electrochemical cells. Bioresource Technology. Elsevier Online, New York, NY, USA, 195: 31-36, (2015).

  11. Revisiting Hudson’s (1992) OO = O2 hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shibuya, Yoshikata; Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2017-01-01

    from a number of unfortunate assumptions within mainstream formal theories of linguistics at the time, the OO = O2 hypothesis itself is problematic in the perspective of contemporary cognitive linguistics. This paper addresses the hypothesis from the perspective of usage-based construction grammar......In an important paper on the English “double-object”, or ditransitive, construction, Richard Hudson proposes a hypothesis that conflates the ditransitive direct object, or O2, and the monotransitive direct object, or OO, into the same syntactic functional category. While making important departures......-based variationist account in defining syntactic functional categories....

  12. NASA Lewis H2-O2 MHD program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.; Nichols, L. D.; Seikel, G. R.

    1974-01-01

    Performance and power costs of H2-O2 combustion powered steam-MHD central power systems are estimated. Hydrogen gas is assumed to be transmitted by pipe from a remote coal gasifier into the city and converted to electricity in a steam MHD plant having an integral gaseous oxygen plant. These steam MHD systems appear to offer an attractive alternative to both in-city clean fueled conventional steam power plants and to remote coal fired power plants with underground electric transmission into the city. Status and plans are outlined for an experimental evaluation of H2-O2 combustion-driven MHD power generators at NASA Lewis Research Center.

  13. Three-Dimensional Structure of CeO2 Nanocrystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Joyce Pei Ying; Tan, Hui Ru; Boothroyd, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Visualization of three-dimensional (3D) structures of materials at the nanometer scale can shed important information on the performance of their applications and provide insight into the growth mechanism of shape-controlled nanomaterials. In this paper, the 3D structures and growth pathway of CeO2...... in samples synthesized under different conditions. The homogeneous growth environment in solution with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) molecules led to the formation of regular octahedral CeO2 nanocrystals with small {001} facet truncations. When the PVP surfactant was removed, the aggregation of regular...

  14. HANPP Collection: Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity (NPP) portion of the Human Appropriation of Net Primary...

  15. Hydrodynamic characteristics of plane netting used for aquaculture net cages in uniform current

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DONG, SHUCHUANG; HU, FUXIANG; KUMAZAWA, TAISEI; SIODE, DAISUKE; TOKAI, TADASHI

    2016-01-01

      The hydrodynamic characteristics of polyethylene (PE) netting and chain link wire netting with different types of twine diameter and mesh size for aquaculture net cages were examined by experiments in a flume tank...

  16. Scalable Synthesis of Triple-Core-Shell Nanostructures of TiO2 @MnO2 @C for High Performance Supercapacitors Using Structure-Guided Combustion Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dongjoon; Shin, Jungho; Yeo, Taehan; Hwang, Hayoung; Park, Seonghyun; Choi, Wonjoon

    2018-01-22

    Core-shell nanostructures of metal oxides and carbon-based materials have emerged as outstanding electrode materials for supercapacitors and batteries. However, their synthesis requires complex procedures that incur high costs and long processing times. Herein, a new route is proposed for synthesizing triple-core-shell nanoparticles of TiO2 @MnO2 @C using structure-guided combustion waves (SGCWs), which originate from incomplete combustion inside chemical-fuel-wrapped nanostructures, and their application in supercapacitor electrodes. SGCWs transform TiO2 to TiO2 @C and TiO2 @MnO2 to TiO2 @MnO2 @C via the incompletely combusted carbonaceous fuels under an open-air atmosphere, in seconds. The synthesized carbon layers act as templates for MnO2 shells in TiO2 @C and organic shells of TiO2 @MnO2 @C. The TiO2 @MnO2 @C-based electrodes exhibit a greater specific capacitance (488 F g-1 at 5 mV s-1 ) and capacitance retention (97.4% after 10 000 cycles at 1.0 V s-1 ), while the absence of MnO2 and carbon shells reveals a severe degradation in the specific capacitance and capacitance retention. Because the core-TiO2 nanoparticles and carbon shell prevent the deformation of the inner and outer sides of the MnO2 shell, the nanostructures of the TiO2 @MnO2 @C are preserved despite the long-term cycling, giving the superior performance. This SGCW-driven fabrication enables the scalable synthesis of multiple-core-shell structures applicable to diverse electrochemical applications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Design of flexible PANI-coated CuO-TiO2-SiO2 heterostructure nanofibers with high ammonia sensing response values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Zengyuan; Nie, Qingxin; Lv, Pengfei; Yu, Jian; Huang, Fenglin; Wei, Qufu

    2017-06-01

    We report a room-temperature ammonia sensor with extra high response values and ideal flexibility, including polyaniline (PANI)-coated titanium dioxide-silicon dioxide (TiO2-SiO2) or copper oxide-titanium dioxide-silicon dioxide (CuO-TiO2-SiO2) composite nanofibers. Such flexible inorganic TiO2-SiO2 and CuO-TiO2-SiO2 composite nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning, followed by calcination. Then, in situ polymerization of aniline monomers was carried out with inorganic TiO2-SiO2 and CuO-TiO2-SiO2 composite nanofibers as templates. Gas sensing tests at room temperature indicated that the obtained CuO-TiO2-SiO2/PANI composite nanofibers had much higher response values to ammonia gas (ca. 45.67-100 ppm) than most of those reported before as well as the prepared TiO2-SiO2/PANI composite nanofibers here. These excellent sensing properties may be due to the P-N, P-P heterojunctions and a structure similar to field-effect transistors formed on the interfaces between PANI, TiO2, and CuO, which is p-type, n-type, and p-type semiconductor, respectively. In addition, the prepared free-standing CuO-TiO2-SiO2/PANI composite nanofiber membrane was easy to handle and possessed ideal flexibility, which is promising for potential applications in wearable sensors in the future.

  18. Design of flexible PANI-coated CuO-TiO2-SiO2 heterostructure nanofibers with high ammonia sensing response values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Zengyuan; Nie, Qingxin; Lv, Pengfei; Yu, Jian; Huang, Fenglin; Wei, Qufu

    2017-06-02

    We report a room-temperature ammonia sensor with extra high response values and ideal flexibility, including polyaniline (PANI)-coated titanium dioxide-silicon dioxide (TiO2-SiO2) or copper oxide-titanium dioxide-silicon dioxide (CuO-TiO2-SiO2) composite nanofibers. Such flexible inorganic TiO2-SiO2 and CuO-TiO2-SiO2 composite nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning, followed by calcination. Then, in situ polymerization of aniline monomers was carried out with inorganic TiO2-SiO2 and CuO-TiO2-SiO2 composite nanofibers as templates. Gas sensing tests at room temperature indicated that the obtained CuO-TiO2-SiO2/PANI composite nanofibers had much higher response values to ammonia gas (ca. 45.67-100 ppm) than most of those reported before as well as the prepared TiO2-SiO2/PANI composite nanofibers here. These excellent sensing properties may be due to the P-N, P-P heterojunctions and a structure similar to field-effect transistors formed on the interfaces between PANI, TiO2, and CuO, which is p-type, n-type, and p-type semiconductor, respectively. In addition, the prepared free-standing CuO-TiO2-SiO2/PANI composite nanofiber membrane was easy to handle and possessed ideal flexibility, which is promising for potential applications in wearable sensors in the future.

  19. Electrochemical degradation of linuron in aqueous solution using Pb/PbO2 and C/PbO2 electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Abu Ghalwa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Two modified electrodes (Pb/PbO2 and C/PbO2 were prepared by electrodeposition and used as anodes for electrochemical degradation of linuron (phenylurea pesticide in aqueous solution. Different operating conditions and factors affecting the treatment process including current density, temperature, initial concentration of linuron, pH, conductive electrolyte and time of electrolysis were studied and optimized. The best degradation occurred in the presence of NaCl (1 gL−1 as conductive electrolyte. After 30 min, nearly complete degradation of linuron was achieved (92% and 84% using C/PbO2 and Pb/PO2 electrodes at pH 7 and 1.5, respectively. Higher degradation efficiency was obtained at low temperature (5–10 °C. The optimum current density for the degradation of linuron on both electrodes was (150 mAcm−2.

  20. Isolated unit tests in .Net

    OpenAIRE

    Haukilehto, Tero

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis isolation in unit testing is studied to get a precise picture of the isolation frameworks available for .Net environment. At the beginning testing is discussed in theory with the benefits and the problems it may have been linked with. The theory includes software development in general in connection with testing. Theory of isolation is also described before the actual isolation frameworks are represented. Common frameworks are described in more detail and comparable informa...

  1. Understanding the remarkable luminescence enhancement via SiO2 coating on TiO2:Eu3+ nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Meiqi; Song, Yanhua; Sheng, Ye; Chen, Jie; Zou, Haifeng

    2017-07-05

    TiO2:Eu3+ nanofibers diameters can be tuned by changing the mixed solvent ratio are synthesized via the electrospinning technique. Concentration quenching phenomena and the relationship of the PL intensity ratio I(5D0-7F2)/I(5D0-7F1) with the Eu doping concentration are discussed. Notably, the luminescence intensity is enhanced by about 7.8 fold by coating SiO2 gel layer on the TiO2:Eu3+ nanofibers, which is successfully performed via a sol-gel process followed by calcination. Furthermore, these fibers are characterized systematically via X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Additionally, their Judd-Ofelt and spectral parameters are calculated to investigate their local structures. The relatively low Ω2 value of the coated samples reveals a decrease in covalency in the Eu-O bonds and an increase in the symmetric nature of Eu3+, which indicate that the perturbation effect of the crystal field in the solid system is larger than that of the uncoated samples. FT-IR analysis indicates the formation of Ti-O-Si bonds, which provide the ligand field in the interface between the TiO2:Eu3+ nanofibers and SiO2 layer and can repair the surface unsaturated bonds. This reduces the selection rules for radiative transitions, thereby the state of the Eu3+ ions is converted from dormant to activated. Moreover, the silica coating stabilizes the surface of the TiO2:Eu3+ nanofibers and eliminates the surface defects. Finally, a detailed mechanism is proposed to explain the luminescence enhancement behavior.

  2. The relation between residual stress, interfacial structure and the joint property in the SiO2f/SiO2-Nb joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qiang; Li, Zhuo Ran; Yang, Lai Shan; Lin, Jing Huang; Ba, Jin; Wang, Ze Yu; Qi, Jun Lei; Feng, Ji Cai

    2017-06-23

    In order to achieve a high-quality joint between SiO2f/SiO2 and metals, it is necessary to address the poor wettability of SiO2f/SiO2 and the high residual stress in SiO2f/SiO2-Nb joint. Here, we simultaneously realize good wettability and low residual stress in SiO2f/SiO2-Nb joint by combined method of HF etching treatment and Finite Element Analysis (FEA). After etching treatment, the wettability of E-SiO2f/SiO2 was improved, and the residual stress in the joint was decreased. In order to better control the quality of joints, efforts were made to understand the relationship between surface structure of E-SiO2f/SiO2 and residual stress in joint using FEA. Based on the direction of FEA results, a relationship between residual stress, surface structure and joint property in the brazed joints were investigated by experiments. As well the FEA and the brazing test results both realized the high-quality joint of E-SiO2f/SiO2-Nb and the shear strength of the joint reached 61.9 MPa.

  3. Emission and Performance Analysis of ZrO2 And CeO2 Coated Piston Using Refined Vegetable Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemanandh, J.; Narayanan, K. V.; Manoj, Vemuri

    2017-05-01

    Increase in global warming and pollution leads to look for an alternative fuel. The aim of this paper to improve the performance and to reduce the emissions in DI diesel engine. The 80% of ZrO2 and 20% of CeO2 were mixed and coated on the piston head using plasma spray method. The B10 fuel of various refined vegetable oil methyl esters were used as fuel. The test was conducted in the 4-stroke DI diesel engine at a constant speed of 1500 rpm. The results show that the brake thermal efficiency, NOx and BSFC was increased. The CO and HC were decreased.

  4. Structural and spectroscopic properties of high temperature prepared ZrO2-TiO2 mixed oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gionco, Chiara; Battiato, Alfio; Vittone, Ettore; Paganini, Maria Cristina; Giamello, Elio

    2013-05-01

    ZrO2-TiO2 mixed oxides of various composition, with the molar fraction of TiO2 ranging from 0.1% to 15%, have been prepared via sol-gel synthesis and then calcined at 1273 K to check both their thermal stability and physicochemical properties. These solids are usually employed in photocatalytic processes and as active phase supports in heterogeneous catalysis. As indicated by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy, solid solutions based on Ti ions diluted in the ZrO2 matrix are formed in the whole range of Ti molar fraction examined. Materials with low Ti loading (0.1%-1%) are basically constituted by the monoclinic phase of ZrO2 while the tetragonal phase becomes prevalent at 15% of TiO2 molar fraction. The presence of Ti ions modify the electronic structure of the solid as revealed by investigation of the optical properties. The typical band gap transition of ZrO2 undergoes, in fact, a red shift roughly proportional to the Ti loading which reach the remarkable value of 1.6 eV for the sample with 10% of molar Ti concentration. Comparing chemical analysis of the solids with XPS data it has been put into evidence that the titanium ions distribution into the solid is not uniform and the concentration of Ti4+ tend to be higher in subsurface layers than in the crystal bulk. The introduction of titanium ions in the structure increases the reducibility of the solid. Annealing under vacuum at various temperatures causes oxygen depletion with consequent reduction of the solid which shows up mainly in terms of formation of Ti3+ reduced centres which are characterized by a typical EPR signal. Ti3+ defects forms, as also forecast by theoretical modelling of the solid, as their energy is lower than that of other possible reduced defective centers. The reduced solids are able to transfer electrons to adsorbed oxygen molecules in mild condition resulting in the formation of surface superoxide anions (O2•-) which are stabilized on surface Zr4+ or, alternatively, on Ti4+ ions

  5. Preliminary spectroscopic investigation of tacrolimus TiO2 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todica, Mihai; Udrescu, Luciana

    2011-12-01

    The effect of air and UV exposure on the tacrolimus was observed by Raman and UV VIS spectroscopy. For moderate time exposure the chemical structure of tacrolimus is not affected. The absorption property of tacrolimus was enhanced by addition of TiO2.

  6. Low voltage varistor ceramics based on SnO2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Low voltage varistor ceramics based on SnO2. S R DHAGE*, V RAVI. † and O B YANG. School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756, South Korea. †. Physical and Materials Chemistry Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411 008, India. MS received 21 May ...

  7. Impedance spectroscopy studies of surface engineered TiO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. Dielectric analysis of nanometre range size ceramic particles like TiO2 is very important in the understanding of the performance and design of their polymer nanocomposites for energy storage and other applications. In recent times, impedance spectroscopy is shown to be a very powerful tool to investigate the.

  8. Facile hydrothermal synthesis of CeO2 nanopebbles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Ostwald ripening and oriented attachment process, res- pectively. In the hydrothermal process after the nuclea- tion stage, where the small nanocrystals are dissolved or re-precipitated to grow the larger crystals by the Ostwald ripening process, resulting in the formation of CeO2 nanopebbles.24 Figure 2f shows the ...

  9. Low temperature electroreflectance of TiO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, K.; Krusemeyer, H.J.

    1974-01-01

    Franz-Keldysh type electroreflectance finestructure has been observed on single crystals of TiO2 between 3.0 and 3.7 eV at LNT. Critical points have been designated to two sets of oscillations which are dependent on the direction of polarization of the light and of the applied field.

  10. High-pressure polymorphs of anatase TiO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlt, T.; Bermejo, M.; Blanco, M. A.

    2000-01-01

    The equation of state of anatase TiO2 has been determined experimentally-using polycrystalline as well as single-crystal material-and compared with theoretical calculations using the ab initio perturbed ion model. The results are highly consistent, the zero-pressure bulk modulus being 179(2) GPa ...

  11. Selective effects of H2O2 on cyanobacterial photosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drabkova, M.; Matthijs, H.C.P.; Admiraal, W.; Marsalek, B.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: The sensitivity of phytoplankton species for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was analyzed by pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry. The inhibition of photosynthesis was more severe in five tested cyanobacterial species than in three green algal species and one diatom species. Hence the

  12. Supercapacitive performance of hydrous ruthenium oxide (RuO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 36; Issue 7. Supercapacitive performance of hydrous ruthenium oxide (RuO2.H2O) thin films synthesized by chemical route at low temperature. P R Deshmukh S N Pusawale R N Bulakhe C D Lokhande. Volume 36 Issue 7 December 2013 pp 1171-1176 ...

  13. Stability of Anthocyanin Sensitized TiO2 Photoelectrochemical (PEC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Highly porous dye sensitized TiO2 thin film solar cells have been prepared by the sol gel process. Sensitization was achieved by use of anthocyanin pigment extracted from delphinidin purple and cyanidin 3-5 diglucose (C35D). Sensitization was also studied on ruthenium complex RuL* sensitization dye. Dye sensitized ...

  14. Lithium intercalation into layered LiMnO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitins, G.; West, Keld

    1997-01-01

    Recently Armstrong and Bruce(1) reported a layered modification of lithium manganese oxide, LiMnO2, isostructural with LiCoO2. LiMnO2 obtained by ion exchange from alpha-NaMnO2 synthesized in air is characterized by x-ray diffraction and by electrochemical insertion and extraction of lithium...... in a series of voltage ranges between 1.5 and 4.5 V relative to a lithium electrode. During cycling voltage plateaus at 3.0 and 4.0 V vs. Li develop, indicating that the material is converted from its original layered structure to a spinel structure. This finding is confirmed by x-ray diffraction. Contrary...... to expectations based on thermodynamics, insertion of larger amounts of lithium leads to a more complete conversion. We suggest that a relatively high mobility of manganese leaves Li and Mn randomly distributed in the close-packed oxygen lattice after a deep discharge. This isotropic Mn distribution can...

  15. Growth and characterization of CNT–TiO2 heterostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucheng Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A thriving field in nanotechnology is to develop synergetic functions of nanomaterials by taking full advantages of unique properties of each component. In this context, combining TiO2 nanocrystals and carbon nanotubes (CNTs offers enhanced photosensitivity and improved photocatalytic efficiency, which is key to achieving sustainable energy and preventing environmental pollution. Hence, it has aroused a tremendous research interest. This report surveys recent research on the topic of synthesis and characterization of the CNT–TiO2 interface. In particular, atomic layer deposition (ALD offers a good control of the size, crystallinity and morphology of TiO2 on CNTs. Analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM techniques such as electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS in scanning transmission mode provides structural, chemical and electronic information with an unprecedented spatial resolution and increasingly superior energy resolution, and hence is a necessary tool to characterize the CNT–TiO2 interface, as well as other technologically relevant CNT–metal/metal oxide material systems.

  16. Diffusive charge transport in graphene on SiO 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.-H.; Jang, C.; Ishigami, M.; Xiao, S.; Cullen, W. G.; Williams, E. D.; Fuhrer, M. S.

    2009-07-01

    We review our recent work on the physical mechanisms limiting the mobility of graphene on SiO 2. We have used intentional addition of charged scattering impurities and systematic variation of the dielectric environment to differentiate the effects of charged impurities and short-range scatterers. The results show that charged impurities indeed lead to a conductivity linear in density ( σ(n)∝n) in graphene, with a scattering magnitude that agrees quantitatively with theoretical estimates; increased dielectric screening reduces the scattering from charged impurities, but increases the scattering from short-range scatterers. We evaluate the effects of the corrugations (ripples) of graphene on SiO 2 on transport by measuring the height-height correlation function. The results show that the corrugations cannot mimic long-range (charged impurity) scattering effects, and have too small an amplitude-to-wavelength ratio to significantly affect the observed mobility via short-range scattering. Temperature-dependent measurements show that longitudinal acoustic phonons in graphene produce a resistivity that is linear in temperature and independent of carrier density; at higher temperatures, polar optical phonons of the SiO 2 substrate give rise to an activated, carrier density-dependent resistivity. Together the results paint a complete picture of charge carrier transport in graphene on SiO 2 in the diffusive regime.

  17. Synthesis of freestanding HfO2 nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyle Kayla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Two new methods for synthesizing nanostructured HfO2 have been developed. The first method entails exposing HfTe2 powders to air. This simple process resulted in the formation of nanometer scale crystallites of HfO2. The second method involved a two-step heating process by which macroscopic, freestanding nanosheets of HfO2 were formed as a byproduct during the synthesis of HfTe2. These highly two-dimensional sheets had side lengths measuring up to several millimeters and were stable enough to be manipulated with tweezers and other instruments. The thickness of the sheets ranged from a few to a few hundred nanometers. The thinnest sheets appeared transparent when viewed in a scanning electron microscope. It was found that the presence of Mn enhanced the formation of HfO2 by exposure to ambient conditions and was necessary for the formation of the large scale nanosheets. These results present new routes to create freestanding nanostructured hafnium dioxide. PACS: 81.07.-b, 61.46.Hk, 68.37.Hk.

  18. Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    high photocatalytic activity, relatively low cost and nontoxi- city, is one of the most important photoactive reagents which are widely used for degradation of air and water organic po- llutants (Dey et al 2004; Wang et al 2010). TiO2 acts as a photocatalyst in advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) by generation of reactive OH.

  19. PROMOTION OF THE SI(100)-O2 REACTION BY SM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ONSGAARD, J; GHIJSEN, J; JOHNSON, RL; CHRISTIANSEN, M; ORSKOV, F; GODOWSKI, PJ

    1991-01-01

    It is demonstrated that ultrathin and thin films of Sm on Si (001) strongly promote the oxidation of Si. Photoemission measurements of the Si 2p core electrons show binding-energy shifts characteristic of Si2O3 and SiO2. The oxygen binding is conditioned by the presence of Sm, which is also

  20. Synthesis of polyaniline/ZrO2 nanocomposites and their ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Synthesis of polyaniline/ZrO 2 nanocomposites and their performance in AC conductivity and electrochemical supercapacitance ... C.M.R.T.U. Research Centre, Tumkur University, Tumkur 572 101, India; Department of Physics, School of Engineering and Technology, Jain University, Bangalore 562 112, India; Department ...

  1. Anodic incineration of phthalic anhydride using RuO2–IrO2–SnO2–TiO2 coated on Ti anode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chellammal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Phthalic anhydride is a toxic and non-biodegradable organic compound and is widely used for the production of dyes. This paper has investigated the electrochemical oxidation of phthalic anhydride in an undivided cell at different experimental parameters such as pH, current density and supporting electrolytes on the anode of titanium substrate coated with mixed metal oxides of RuO2, IrO2, SnO2 and TiO2 prepared by thermal decomposition method. The surface morphology and the structure of the above anode were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, electron dispersion microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The study shows that the electrode exhibits good electro catalytic activity together with chemical stability during the treatment of the phthalic anhydride. At pH 3, the maximum removal of COD of 88% with energy consumption of 30.5 kW h kg−1 was achieved by the addition of 10 g l−1 NaCl in 0.2 mol dm−3 Na2SO4 at 5 Adm−2. This electrolytic investigation offers an attractive alternative method for the destruction of industrial effluents contaminated with phthalic anhydride.

  2. Protein Corona Prevents TiO2 Phototoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Garvas

    Full Text Available TiO2 nanoparticles have generally low toxicity in the in vitro systems although some toxicity is expected to originate in the TiO2-associated photo-generated radical production, which can however be modulated by the radical trapping ability of the serum proteins. To explore the role of serum proteins in the phototoxicity of the TiO2 nanoparticles we measure viability of the exposed cells depending on the nanoparticle and serum protein concentrations.Fluorescence and spin trapping EPR spectroscopy reveal that the ratio between the nanoparticle and protein concentrations determines the amount of the nanoparticles' surface which is not covered by the serum proteins and is proportional to the amount of photo-induced radicals. Phototoxicity thus becomes substantial only at the protein concentration being too low to completely coat the nanotubes' surface.These results imply that TiO2 nanoparticles should be applied with ligands such as proteins when phototoxic effects are not desired - for example in cosmetics industry. On the other hand, the nanoparticles should be used in serum free medium or any other ligand free medium, when phototoxic effects are desired - as for efficient photodynamic cancer therapy.

  3. Fabrication of graphene–TiO2 nanocomposite with improved ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The crystal phase, special surface area, microscopic analysis of the GR–TiO 2 and also, chemical state of the photocatalysts were studied by powdered X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Raman spectrum, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution scanning ...

  4. Event hierarchies in DanNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bolette Sandford; Nimb, Sanni

    2008-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler udarbejdelsen af et verbumshierarki i det leksikalsk-semantiske ordnet, DanNet.......Artiklen omhandler udarbejdelsen af et verbumshierarki i det leksikalsk-semantiske ordnet, DanNet....

  5. The Uniframe .Net Web Service Discovery Service

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berbeco, Robert W

    2003-01-01

    Microsoft .NET allows the creation of distributed systems in a seamless manner Within NET small, discrete applications, referred to as Web services, are utilized to connect to each other or larger applications...

  6. Long Term RadNet Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This RadNet Quality Data Asset includes all data since initiation and when ERAMS was expanded to become RadNet, name changed to reflect new mission. This includes...

  7. Tricyclic sesquiterpene copaene prevents H2O2-induced neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Turkez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Copaene (COP, a tricyclic sesquiterpene, is present in several essential oils of medicinal and aromatic plants and has antioxidant and anticarcinogenic features. But, very little information is known about the effects of COP on oxidative stress induced neurotoxicity. Method: We used hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 exposure for 6 h to model oxidative stress. Therefore, this experimental design allowed us to explore the neuroprotective potential of COP in H2O2-induced toxicity in rat cerebral cortex cell cultures for the first time. For this purpose, methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release assays were carried out to evaluate cytotoxicity. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC and total oxidative stress (TOS parameters were used to evaluate oxidative changes. In addition to determining of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG levels, the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE or comet assay was also performed for measuring the resistance of neuronal DNA to H2O2-induced challenge. Result: The results of this study showed that survival and TAC levels of the cells decreased, while TOS, 8-OH-dG levels and the mean values of the total scores of cells showing DNA damage increased in the H2O2 alone treated cultures. But pre-treatment of COP suppressed the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative stress which were increased by H2O2. Conclusion: It is proposed that COP as a natural product with an antioxidant capacity in mitigating oxidative injuries in the field of neurodegenerative diseases. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(1.000: 21-28

  8. Relationship among cardiac output, shunt, and inspired O2 concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, P D; Schaffartzik, W; Prediletto, R; Knight, D R

    1991-12-01

    In comparing gas exchange responses of the methacholine- (MCh) challenged mongrel dog with leukotriene receptor blockers and placebo at different inspiratory O2 fractions (FIO2), we previously noted systematically different values of cardiac output as a function of drug administration and/or FIO2. This confounds identification of the effects of FIO2 and/or drugs on gas exchange, because shunt is well known to vary directly with cardiac output when other factors are equal. Accordingly, in six dogs we examined the dependence of combined shunt and low ventilation-perfusion (VA/Q) blood flow ("shunt") on cardiac output in the MCh-challenged mongrel dog. Two dogs breathed 100% O2, another two breathed room air, and the final pair breathed 12% O2 while cardiac output was altered several times by sequentially opening and closing arteriovenous fistulas every 10 min for approximately 90 min after a standard MCh challenge. On 100% O2, shunt increased by 11.0% of the cardiac output per 1-l/min increase in cardiac output. On room air, the value was 7.4%. With 12% O2 breathing shunt rose by only 2.2% per 1-l/min rise in blood flow. This FIO2 -dependent behavior of the shunt-cardiac output relationship was highly reproducible, both within and between animals. It suggests that the increase in shunt with cardiac output depends more on vascular tone of noninjured areas than on tone of the low VA/Q regions (which are hypoxic at all FIO2 values).

  9. Joint Effects of Photoactive TiO2 and Fluoride-Doping on SnO2 Inverse Opal Nanoarchitecture for Solar Water Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gun, Yun; Song, Gwang Yeom; Quy, Vu Hong Vinh; Heo, Jaeyeong; Lee, Hyunjung; Ahn, Kwang-Soon; Kang, Soon Hyung

    2015-09-16

    Inverse opal (IO) films of tin dioxide (SnO2) were fabricated on polystyrene (PS) beads (diameter=350 nm (±20 nm) with a spin coating method. To compensate for the large band gap (Eg=3.8 eV), a thin TiO2 shell was deposited on the SnO2-IO films with atomic layer deposition (ALD), which produced shells with thicknesses of 10-40 nm. The morphological changes and crystalline properties of the SnO2 and TiO2-coated SnO2 (herein after referred to as TiO2/SnO2) IO films were investigated with field-emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively. The photoelectrochemical (PEC) behavior of the samples was tested in a 0.1 M KOH solution under 1 sun illumination (100 mW/cm2 with an AM 1.5 filter). The highest PEC performance was obtained with the TiO2(10 nm)/SnO2 IO films, which produced a photocurrent density (Jsc) of 4.67 mA/cm2 at 0.5 V (vs NHE) and was sequentially followed by the TiO2(20 nm)/SnO2-IO, TiO2(30 nm)/SnO2-IO, TiO2 (40 nm)/SnO2-IO and SnO2 IO films. Overall, the thin TiO2 shell covered on the SnO2-IO core enhanced Jsc by 3 orders of magnitude, which in turn the PEC activity. This is mainly ascribed to the extremely low charge-transfer resistance (Rct) in the photoelectrode/electrolyte and at the TiO2/SnO2 interface, as well as the contribution of the photoactive TiO2 layer, which has an Eg of 3.2 eV. Moreover, to improve the electrical conductivity of the core SnO2 IO film, the films were doped with 10 mol % of F. The F- doped films were labeled as the FTO IO film. The Rct of the FTO-IO films decreased because of the improved electronic conductivity, enhancing the PEC performance of the TiO2(10 nm)/FTO-IO films by approximately 20%. The core-shell nanowire mesh nanoarchitecture is therefore suggested to provide an insight for designing the peculiar structure based on the material's properties and the engineering of their band gap energy for highly efficient PEC performance.

  10. Daylight photocatalytic activity of TiO2/SnO2 core/shell nanostructures: An experimental and density functional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetri, Pawan; Basyach, Priyanka; Choudhury, Amarjyoti

    2014-04-01

    TiO2/SnO2 core/shell nanostructures is prepared via a simple sol-gel process and compared with bare TiO2 nanoparticles. We carried out XRD, TEM and UV-Visible characterization for evaluating structural and optical properties. A better and promising day light photocatalytic activity is observed for TiO2/SnO2 in comparison to TiO2 in the degradation of methyl orange (MO). We have also done DFT calculation based VASP 5.2 to calculate Density of States of both the system. Finally, a correlation is established between theory and experiment.

  11. Poly[aqua-μ-bromido-(μ2-5-methylpyrazine-2-carboxylato-κ4N1,O2:O2,O2′lead(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Yang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title coordination polymer, [PbBr(C6H5N2O2(H2O]n, the PbII atom is coordinated by one pyrazine N atom, two bridging Br atoms, a water molecule and three carboxylate O atoms. Bridging by the two anions generates a layer structure parallel to (001; the layers are linked by O—H...N and O—H...Br hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network. The lone pair is stereochemically active, resulting in a Ψ-dodecahedral coordination environment for PbII.

  12. PsychoNet: a psycholinguistc commonsense ontology

    OpenAIRE

    Mohtasseb, Haytham; Ahmed, Amr

    2010-01-01

    Ontologies have been widely accepted as the most advanced knowledge representation model. This paper introduces PsychoNet, a new knowledgebase that forms the link between psycholinguistic taxonomy, existing in LIWC, and its semantic textual representation in the form of commonsense semantic ontology, represented by ConceptNet. The integration of LIWC and ConceptNet and the added functionalities facilitate employing ConceptNet in psycholinguistic studies. Furthermore, it simplifies utilization...

  13. Daily variation in net primary production and net calcification in coral reef communities exposed to elevated pCO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeau, Steeve; Edmunds, Peter J.; Lantz, Coulson A.; Carpenter, Robert C.

    2017-07-01

    The threat represented by ocean acidification (OA) for coral reefs has received considerable attention because of the sensitivity of calcifiers to changing seawater carbonate chemistry. However, most studies have focused on the organismic response of calcification to OA, and only a few have addressed community-level effects, or investigated parameters other than calcification, such as photosynthesis. Light (photosynthetically active radiation, PAR) is a driver of biological processes on coral reefs, and the possibility that these processes might be perturbed by OA has important implications for community function. Here we investigate how CO2 enrichment affects the relationships between PAR and community net O2 production (Pnet), and between PAR and community net calcification (Gnet), using experiments on three coral communities constructed to match (i) the back reef of Mo'orea, French Polynesia, (ii) the fore reef of Mo'orea, and (iii) the back reef of O'ahu, Hawaii. The results were used to test the hypothesis that OA affects the relationship between Pnet and Gnet. For the three communities tested, pCO2 did not affect the Pnet-PAR relationship, but it affected the intercept of the hyperbolic tangent curve fitting the Gnet-PAR relationship for both reef communities in Mo'orea (but not in O'ahu). For the three communities, the slopes of the linear relationships between Pnet and Gnet were not affected by OA, although the intercepts were depressed by the inhibitory effect of high pCO2 on Gnet. Our result indicates that OA can modify the balance between net calcification and net photosynthesis of reef communities by depressing community calcification, but without affecting community photosynthesis.

  14. Daily variation in net primary production and net calcification in coral reef communities exposed to elevated pCO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Comeau

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The threat represented by ocean acidification (OA for coral reefs has received considerable attention because of the sensitivity of calcifiers to changing seawater carbonate chemistry. However, most studies have focused on the organismic response of calcification to OA, and only a few have addressed community-level effects, or investigated parameters other than calcification, such as photosynthesis. Light (photosynthetically active radiation, PAR is a driver of biological processes on coral reefs, and the possibility that these processes might be perturbed by OA has important implications for community function. Here we investigate how CO2 enrichment affects the relationships between PAR and community net O2 production (Pnet, and between PAR and community net calcification (Gnet, using experiments on three coral communities constructed to match (i the back reef of Mo'orea, French Polynesia, (ii the fore reef of Mo'orea, and (iii the back reef of O'ahu, Hawaii. The results were used to test the hypothesis that OA affects the relationship between Pnet and Gnet. For the three communities tested, pCO2 did not affect the Pnet–PAR relationship, but it affected the intercept of the hyperbolic tangent curve fitting the Gnet–PAR relationship for both reef communities in Mo'orea (but not in O'ahu. For the three communities, the slopes of the linear relationships between Pnet and Gnet were not affected by OA, although the intercepts were depressed by the inhibitory effect of high pCO2 on Gnet. Our result indicates that OA can modify the balance between net calcification and net photosynthesis of reef communities by depressing community calcification, but without affecting community photosynthesis.

  15. 78 FR 72451 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BL74 Net Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service...). These regulations provide guidance on the computation of net investment income. The regulations affect... lesser of: (A) The individual's net investment income for such taxable year, or (B) the excess (if any...

  16. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net investment. 69.302 Section 69.302... Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B Rural...) Investment in Accounts 2002, 2003 and to the extent such inclusions are allowed by this Commission, Account...

  17. 47 CFR 65.450 - Net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.450 Section 65.450... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.450 Net income. (a) Net income shall consist of all revenues derived from the provision of interstate telecommunications services...

  18. 47 CFR 65.500 - Net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.500 Section 65.500... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Interexchange Carriers § 65.500 Net income. The net income methodology specified in § 65.450 shall be utilized by all interexchange carriers that are...

  19. NetBeans IDE 8 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Salter, David

    2014-01-01

    If you're a Java developer of any level using NetBeans and want to learn how to get the most out of NetBeans, then this book is for you. Learning how to utilize NetBeans will provide a firm foundation for your Java application development.

  20. Characterizing behavioural congruences for Petri nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Priese, Lutz; Sassone, Vladimiro

    1995-01-01

    We exploit a notion of interface for Petri nets in order to design a set of net combinators. For such a calculus of nets, we focus on the behavioural congruences arising from four simple notions of behaviour, viz., traces, maximal traces, step, and maximal step traces, and from the corresponding...

  1. 27 CFR 4.37 - Net contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the volume of wine within the container, except that the following tolerances shall be allowed: (1... THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.37 Net contents. (a) Statement of net contents. The net contents of wine for which a standard of fill is...

  2. Photocatalytic, Morphological and Structural Properties of the TiO2-SiO2-Ag Porous Structures Based System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Kovács

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available TiO2-SiO2-based nanocomposites with highly porous structures are gaining ever increasing attention due to their specific properties and large variability of synthesis pathways together with wide information on the impact of the synthesis on the activity of the catalyst. This thereby offers an alternative approach to traditional/commercially available photocatalysts. In our work TiO2-SiO2 based aerogels were obtained and modified with various amount of Ag nanoparticles, using different synthesis pathways. In the first instance their photocatalytic activity was examined in detail, by observing major differences toward salicylic acid and correlating them with their morphological and structural properties (investigating their mesoporous character, band-gap values, crystallinity grade etc.. Applying different techniques such as diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS, X-ray diffraction measurements (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Raman- and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS the nanoparticles and their composite morphological and structural details were successfully evaluated. Major differences were observed in the activity towards salicylic acid.

  3. Influence of TiO2 particle size and conductivity of the CuCrO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-11-28

    35 nm), was reported to be around. 0.037% [24]. Xiong et al [6] have reported an overall power conversion efficiency of 0.132% with CuCr0.9Mg0.1O2 dye- sensitized photocathode under optimized conditions, but with. P1 dye.

  4. Novel Fe@C-TiO2 and Fe@C-SiO2 water-dispersible magnetic nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleaca, Claudiu Teodor; Dumitrache, Florian; Morjan, Ion; Alexandrescu, Rodica; Luculescu, Catalin; Niculescu, Ana; Vasile, Eugeniu; Kuncser, Victor

    2013-08-01

    We report the synthesis of novel nanocomposites based on Fe@C nanoparticles obtained from Fe(CO)5 and C2H4/H2 by laser pyrolysis technique using a three nozzles injector. The αFe-FexCy@C particles (below 24 nm diameter) were first functionalized with hydrophilic groups using Na carboxymethylcellulose. Oxidic precursors (Si(OC2H5)4 or Ti(OC2H5)4) dissolved in ethanol were mixed with ethanolic suspensions of hydrophilized Fe@C nanoparticles using strong ultrasonication, then with water (at different pH values) and finally the Fe-containing composites were recovered by magnetic separation. The SiO2 and TiO2-coated powders were characterized by XRD, FT-IR and TEM techniques and their magnetic hysteresis curves were recorded at different temperatures. Both composites contain submicron aggregates of Fe@C nanoparticles embedded in/surrounded by a disordered porous oxidic matrix/shell. Near superparamagnetic behavior and room temperature and 26 A m2/kg (for Fe@C/SiO2) or 57 A m2/kg (for Fe@C/TiO2) saturation magnetization values were recorded and a blocking temperature around 500 K was extrapolated.

  5. Reliability of peak O2 uptake and O2 uptake kinetics in step exercise tests in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Paulo de Tarso; Christofoletti, Gustavo; Zagatto, Alessandro Moura; Paulin, Fernanda Viana; Neder, J Alberto

    2015-02-01

    To date little is known about the reliability of peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2PEAK) in incremental metronome paced step tests (IST) and the reliability of on-kinetics V˙O2 has never been studied. We aimed to study the reliability of both tests. Eleven healthy subjects performed two ISTs until exhaustion. On two different days two duplicate 4min constant metronome paced step tests (CST) were performed. V˙O2PEAK, mean response time (MRT) and phase II time constant (τ) were tested for reproducibility using the paired t-tests, in addition to the limits of agreement (LOA) and within subject coefficient of variation (COV). With a 95% LOA of 0.38 to 0.26Lmin(-1), -8.7 to 9.1s and -9.9 to 10.5s they exhibit a COV of 3%, 4.5% and 6.9% for V˙O2PEAK, MRT and τ respectively. ST are sufficiently reliable for maximal and submaximal aerobic power assessments in healthy subjects and new studies of oxygen uptake kinetics in selected patient groups are warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Plasma-treated Ce/TiO2-SiO2catalyst for the NH3-SCR of NOx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kaige; Chen, Ruoyu; Cang, Hui; Mao, Airong; Tang, Zhe; Xu, Qi

    2017-06-19

    Ce/TiO 2 -SiO 2 catalysts with different Ti/Si molar ratios are prepared by the incipient impregnation method and their NH 3 -SCR activities are evaluated at 100-500°C on a fixed reactor. The Ce/TiO 2 -SiO 2 (3/1) catalyst, modified by non-thermal plasma (NTP) treatment and then activated by thermal treatment at 500°C for 4 h, exhibits best performance. Comprehensive deNO x performance of the catalyst is evidently improved and its efficiency reaches up to 99.21% at 350°C. NO conversion efficiency of the treated catalyst doped with K remains about 90.23% at 300°C and the catalyst also shows improved activity at lower temperatures. Various characterization methods show that the activity enhancement is correlated only with NTP treatment, as it increases the number of Ce 3+ species, which generates more chemisorbed oxygen, leads to improved dispersion of Brønsted and Lewis acidic sites and finally has an inherent etching effect.

  7. In Situ Raman Spectroscopy of Supported Chromium Oxide Catalysts: ^18 O2- ^16 O2 Isotopic Labeling Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Wachs, I.E.

    1996-01-01

    The isothermal isotopic exchange reaction of 18 O2 with 16 O of chromium(VI) oxide supported on zirconia, alumina, and titania has been investigated with in situ laser Raman spectroscopy. The isotopic exchange reaction is dependent on the support type, the Cr loading, and the reaction temperature.

  8. In Situ Raman Spectroscopy of Supported Chromium Oxide Catalysts: 18O2-16O2 Isotopic Labeling Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Wachs, I.E.

    1997-01-01

    The isothermal isotopic exchange reaction of 18O2 with 16O of chromium(VI) oxide supported on zirconia, alumina, and titania has been investigated with in situ laser Raman spectroscopy. The isotopic exchange reaction is dependent on the support type, the Cr loading, and the reaction temperature.

  9. Asymmetric capacitors based on TiO2 and mesoporous MnO2 electrodes using neutral aqueous electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jianmin; Jin, Cuihong; Bian, Zhenpan; Liu, Xin; Li, Siheng; Tang, Shoufeng; Yuan, Deling

    2017-09-01

    Asymmetric capacitor based on TiO2 with the size range from 90 to 410 nm and mesoporous MnO2 (ca. 200-380 nm) electrodes has been successfully constructed and characterized in LiClO4 aqueous electrolyte. The samples of both metal oxides were fully characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), N2 adsorption-desorption, and so on. The electrochemical capacitive performances of both electrode materials were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge in 1 mol/L LiClO4 with a working voltage of 2.0 V. The discharge profile of the asymmetric capacitor exhibited an excellent capacitive behavior and good cycling stability after 2000 cycles. Moreover, the TiO2//MnO2 asymmetric capacitor possesses both higher energy density and power density (7.7 Wh/kg, 762.5 W/kg) than that of Maxsorb//Maxsorb symmetrical capacitor (7.0 Wh/kg, 400.0 W/kg). [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. A Stationary Reaction Current Effect in Mesoporous Pt/ZrO2 System Under H2/O2 Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Nathan J; Hashemian, Mohammad A; Karpov, Eduard G

    2015-12-23

    There have been many works analyzing thermionic currents and chemicurrents generated on various electrolyte-free metal/semiconductor nanostructures. More recently, the chemicurrent phenomenon was reported for mesoporous Pt/semiconductor systems adept at converting surface-released chemical energy into a stationary electrical signal at room-temperature conditions. The present work points out the existence of an entire class of such surface-driven functional nanosystems. Here, the reaction current generation of Pt/ZrO2 systems was studied at room temperature under exposure to oxyhydrogen environments for mesoporous zirconia; this nanostructure was capable of the continuous oxidation of hydrogen, producing a long-standing stationary current. Synthesis parameters during the anodization process were manipulated to control sample pore density and the average pore diameter. Deposited via wide-angle PVD sputtering, the Pt phase forms an electrically continuous topographical nanomesh layer, and thus the Pt/ZrO2/gas interface is regulated through the manipulation of zirconia porosity. We observed reaction current enhancements with increasing porosity due to the lengthening of the Pt/ZrO2 interface. The most porous sample was significantly more sensitive to initial hydrogen additions, pointing toward the spillover of positive ionic charge across the Pt/ZrO2 interface as the origin of the observed electromotive force.

  11. Effects of plasmon excitation on photocatalytic activity of Ag/TiO 2 and Au/TiO2 nanocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sellappan, Raja; González-Posada, Fernando; Chakarov, Dinko

    2013-01-01

    Model nanocomposite photocatalysts consisting of undoped TiO2 films with optically active Ag or Au nanoparticles (NPs) were designed, fabricated, and examined to address the role of plasmon excitations in their performance. Different composition configurations were tested in which the NPs were ei...

  12. Thermally evaporated indium-free, transparent, flexible SnO2/AgPdCu/SnO2 electrodes for flexible and transparent thin film heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Doo-Hee; Cho, Kyung-Su; Kim, Han-Ki

    2017-05-31

    We investigated the characteristics of themally evaporated SnO2/Ag-Pd-Cu (APC)/SnO2 multilayer films for applications as damage-free, indium-free, flexible, and transparent electrodes for high performance flexible and transparent thin film heaters (TFHs). The top and bottom SnO2 layers and APC interlayer were prepared by a multi-source evaporation process, and the effect of the thickness of each layer on the resistivity, optical transmittance, and mechanical flexibility of the SnO2/APC/SnO2 electrodes was investigated in detail. Based on a figure of merit value, we obtained a SnO2/APC/SnO2 electrode with a low sheet resistance of 9.42 Ohm/square and a high optical transmittance of 91.14%. In addition, we examined the mechanical properties of the SnO2/APC/SnO2 electrode using various bending tests such as inner bending, outer bending, dynamic fatigue, and a twisting test. By comparing the crack shape of the SnO2/APC/SnO2 electrode bent beyond the critical bending radius (2~3 mm), we suggest a possible crack formation mechanism for the SnO2/APC/SnO2 electrodes. Furthermore, we evaluated the feasibility of the SnO2/APC/SnO2 electrodes for flexible and transparent TFHs. By correlating the sheet resistance of the SnO2/APC/SnO2 electrode and the performance of TFHs, we show the importance of transparent electrodes for high performance flexible and transparent TFHs.

  13. Surface properties of SiO2 with and without H2O2 treatment as gate dielectrics for pentacene thin-film transistor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Cheng-Chun; Lin, Yow-Jon

    2018-01-01

    The effect of H2O2 treatment on the surface properties of SiO2 is studied. H2O2 treatment leads to the formation of Si(sbnd OH)x at the SiO2 surface that serves to reduce the number of trap states, inducing the shift of the Fermi level toward the conduction band minimum. H2O2 treatment also leads to a noticeable reduction in the value of the SiO2 capacitance per unit area. The effect of SiO2 layers with H2O2 treatment on the behavior of carrier transports for the pentacene/SiO2-based organic thin-film transistor (OTFT) is also studied. Experimental identification confirms that the shift of the threshold voltage towards negative gate-source voltages is due to the reduced number of trap states in SiO2 near the pentacene/SiO2 interface. The existence of a hydrogenated layer between pentacene and SiO2 leads to a change in the pentacene-SiO2 interaction, increasing the value of the carrier mobility.

  14. Synthesis of Ni nanoparticles decorated SiO2/TiO2 magnetic spheres for enhanced photocatalytic activity towards the degradation of azo dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, K. P. O.; Kuo, Dong-Hau

    2015-12-01

    Highly photocatalytic active Ni magnetic nanoparticles-decorated SiO2 core/TiO2 shell (Ni-SiO2/TiO2) particles have been prepared by the simultaneous hydrolysis and condensation of titanium tetra-isopropoxide on SiO2 sphere of ∼300 nm in size followed by the reduction of nickel chloride using hydrazine hydrate as a reducing agent. The crystalline nature, surface morphology, electrochemical impedance spectra and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra of the Ni-SiO2/TiO2 magnetic spheres were characterized by PXRD, FE-SEM, TEM, EIS and UV-vis DRS. The Ni-SiO2/TiO2 magnetic photocatalyst was used for the degradation of Acid Black 1 (AB 1) dye under UV irradiation. The effects of different concentrations of the Ni nanoparticles deposited on the SiO2/TiO2 composite spheres for the photo-mineralization of AB 1 dye were analyzed. The results showed the Ni-SiO2/TiO2 magnetic photocatalyst to be efficient and reusable.

  15. Enhanced Gas Sensing Properties of SnO2 Hollow Spheres Decorated with CeO2 Nanoparticles Heterostructure Composite Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiangyang; Dai, Mingjun; Wang, Tianshuang; Sun, Peng; Liang, Xishuang; Lu, Geyu; Shimanoe, Kengo; Yamazoe, Noboru

    2016-03-01

    CeO2 decorated SnO2 hollow spheres were successfully synthesized via a two-step hydrothermal strategy. The morphology and structures of as-obtained CeO2/SnO2 composites were analyzed by various kinds of techniques. The SnO2 hollow spheres with uniform size around 300 nm were self-assembled with SnO2 nanoparticles and were hollow with a diameter of about 100 nm. The CeO2 nanoparticles on the surface of SnO2 hollow spheres could be clearly observed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results confirmed the existence of Ce(3+) and the increased amount of both chemisorbed oxygen and oxygen vacancy after the CeO2 decorated. Compared with pure SnO2 hollow spheres, such composites revealed excellent enhanced sensing properties to ethanol. When the ethanol concentration was 100 ppm, the sensitivity of the CeO2/SnO2 composites was 37, which was 2.65-times higher than that of the primary SnO2 hollow spheres. The sensing mechanism of the enhanced gas sensing properties was also discussed.

  16. Au-loaded TiO2 and Ag-loaded TiO2 synthesized by modified sol-gel/impregnation method as photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninsonti, Hathaithip; Sriwichai, Saengrawee; Wetchakun, Natda; Kangwansupamonkon, Wiyong; Phanichphant, Sukon

    2016-02-01

    In this work, Au-loaded TiO2 and Ag-loaded TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by modified sol-gel method together with impregnation method. The samples were characterized by their physicochemical properties using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in order to obtain the correlation between structure and photocatalytic properties. XRD results indicated unloaded TiO2, Au-loaded TiO2 and Ag-loaded TiO2 nanoparticles were all in the anatase phase with average crystallite size in the range of 10-13 nm. In addition, XPS analysis confirmed the presence of Au and Ag elements in Au-loaded TiO2 and Ag-loaded TiO2 nanoparticles, respectively. The photocatalytic activities of TiO2, Au-loaded TiO2 and Ag-loaded TiO2 nanoparticles were evaluated through the mineralization of formic acid under UV-light illumination. The results showed that Au-loading and Ag-loading could effectively improve the photocatalytic activities of TiO2. Furthermore, Au-loaded TiO2 exhibited a higher photocatalytic activity than Ag-loaded TiO2.

  17. Recent advances in understanding of the mechanism and control of Li2O2 formation in aprotic Li-O2 batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Zhiyang; Zhou, Yin; Dai, Wenrui; Cui, Xinhang; Lai, Min; Wang, Li; Huo, Fengwei; Huang, Wei; Hu, Zheng; Chen, Wei

    2017-10-02

    Aprotic Li-O2 batteries represent promising alternative devices for electrical energy storage owing to their extremely high energy densities. Upon discharge, insulating solid Li2O2 forms on cathode surfaces, which is usually governed by two growth models, namely the solution model and the surface model. These Li2O2 growth models can largely determine the battery performances such as the discharge capacity, round-trip efficiency and cycling stability. Understanding the Li2O2 formation mechanism and controlling its growth are essential to fully realize the technological potential of Li-O2 batteries. In this review, we overview the recent advances in understanding the electrochemical and chemical processes that occur during the Li2O2 formation. In the beginning, the oxygen reduction mechanisms, the identification of O2(-)/LiO2 intermediates, and their influence on the Li2O2 morphology have been discussed. The effects of the discharge current density and potential on the Li2O2 growth model have been subsequently reviewed. Special focus is then given to the prominent strategies, including the electrolyte-mediated strategy and the cathode-catalyst-tailoring strategy, for controlling the Li2O2 growth pathways. Finally, we conclude by discussing the profound implications of controlling Li2O2 formation for further development in Li-O2 batteries.

  18. CeO2-TiO2 Photocatalyst: Ionic Liquid-Mediated Synthesis, Characterization, and Performance for Diisopropanolamine Visible Light Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagath Retchahan Sivalingam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available CeO2-TiO2 photocatalyst with Ce:Ti molar ratio of 1:9 was synthesized via co-precipitation method in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium octylsulfate, [EMIM][OctSO4] (CeO2-TiO2-IL. The ionic liquid acts as a templating agent for particle growth. The CeO2-TiO2 and TiO2 photocatalysts were also synthesized without any ionic liquid for comparison. Calcination was conducted on the as-synthesized materials at 400˚C for 2 h. The photocatalysts were characterized using diffuse reflectance UV-Vis spectroscopy (DR-UV-Vis, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, and surface area and pore size analyzer (SAP. The presence of CeO2 has changed the optical property of TiO2. It has extended the absorption edge of TiO2 from UV to visible region. The calculated band gap energy decreased from 2.82 eV (TiO2 to 2.30 eV (CeO2-TiO2-IL. The FESEM morphology showed that samples forms aggregates and the surface smoothens when ionic liquid was added. The average crystallite size of TiO2, CeO2-TiO2, and CeO2-TiO2-IL were 20.8 nm, 5.5 nm, and 4 nm. In terms of performance, photodegradation of 1000 ppm of diisopropanolamine (DIPA was conducted in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and visible light irradiation which was provided by a 500 W halogen lamp. The best performance was displayed by CeO2-TiO2-IL calcined at 400˚C. It was able to remove 82.0% DIPA and 54.8% COD after 6 h reaction.  Copyright © 2018 BCREC Group. All rights reserved Received: 26th July 2017; Revised: 22nd October 2017; Accepted: 29th October 2017; Available online: 22nd January 2018; Published regularly: 2nd April 2018 How to Cite: Sivalingam, J.R., Kait, C.F., Wilfred, C.D. (2018. CeO2-TiO2 Photocatalyst: Ionic Liquid-Mediated Synthesis, Characterization, and Performance for Diisopropanolamine Visible Light Degradation. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 13 (1: 170-178 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.13.1.1396.170-178

  19. The influence of SiO2 and SiO2-TiO2 intermediate coatings on bond strength of titanium and Ti6Al4V alloy to dental porcelain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieniaś, Jarosław; Surowska, Barbara; Stoch, Anna; Matraszek, Halina; Walczak, Mariusz

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of commercially pure CPTi and Ti6Al4V alloy with SiO2 and SiO2-TiO2 intermediate coatings to Triceram low-fusing dental porcelain. The multilayered systems were characterized from the standpoint of microstructure analysis (SEM), the mode of failure, the nature of bonding and the influence of intermediate coatings on the improvement of bond strength. The SiO2 and SiO2-TiO2 intermediate coatings were applied on the substrate materials by the sol-gel dipping technique. The metal-ceramic bond strength was investigated according to ISO 9693 standards using the three-point flexure bond test. Statistically significant higher bond strength of the metal-porcelain for Ti6A14V alloy (28.24 MPa), Ti6Al4V/SiO2 (32.17 MPa) and Ti6Al4V/SiO2-TiO2 (36.09 MPa) was noted in comparison to CPTi (23.04 MPa), CPTi/SiO2 (27.98 MPa) and CPTi/SiO2-TiO2 (28.84 MPa), respectively. The nature of metal-intermediate coating-porcelain bonding was both mechanical and chemical. The failure in all systems was cohesive and adhesive, mainly adhesive. The application of SiO2 and SiO2-TiO2 intermediate coatings, produced by the sol-gel method, to both CPTi and Ti6Al4V alloy significantly improves the bond strength of metal-porcelain systems in comparison to the metal substrate only after sandblasting, and may have clinical use.

  20. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of Ce-doped TiO2 and TiO2 nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arruda, L.B.; Pereira, E.A.; Paula, F.R.; Lisboa Filho, P.N. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: One-dimensional nanostructures have been intensively studied, from the point of view of their synthesis and mechanisms of formation, as well as their applications in photonics, solar energy conversion, environmental and photocatalysis, since their properties due high surface area, electrical conductivity and light dispersion effects. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles have been demonstrated to be an effective multifunctional material especially when the particle size is less than 50 nm exhibit photoinduced activities that originate from the semiconductor band gap. TiO2 is semiconductor more used in photocatalysis, for this reason various properties have been thoroughly investigated in order to show that the photocatalytic activity and TiO2 reaction mechanism are influenced by structure, defects and impurities, surface morphology. and interfaces in addition to the concentration of dopants, such as rare-earth elements. Cerium ions, for example, vary between Ce4+ and Ce3 + oxidation state making the cerium oxide appear as CeO2 and Ce2O3 under oxidation and reduction conditions. These different electronic structures of Ce3+ (4f15d0) and Ce4+ (4f05d0) provide different catalytic and optical properties at the TiO2. In this work, samples of Ce-doped TiO2 and TiO2 were synthesized by alkali route, and its photocatalytic activity analyzed in order to create a relationship between the response obtained and the structure and morphology of each sample. Alkali route consists in submitting TiO2 (anatase) powder directly in medium of the NaOH (10M) and maintained at 120°C/20 hours by a glycerin bath with subsequent washed with water and HCl (0.1M) until reaching the desired pH. The synthesized samples were then studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photocatalytic decomposition of rhodamine B (Rh.B) it was performed under UV irradiation and visible light in air. For the obtained

  1. The effects of different substrates on the electron stimulated desorption dynamics of O - from physisorbed O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedhili, M. N.; Parenteau, L.; Huels, M. A.; Azria, R.; Tronc, M.; Sanche, L.

    1997-11-01

    We report condensed phase measurements of kinetic energy (Ek) distributions of O-, produced by dissociative electron attachment (DEA) at 6 eV incident electron energy; they are obtained under identical experimental conditions from submonolayer quantities of 16O2 deposited on disordered multilayer substrates of 18O2, Ar, Kr, Xe, CH4, and C2H6, all condensed at 20 K on polycrystalline platinum (Pt). The results suggest that the desorption dynamics of O- DEA fragments is, in part, determined by large angle elastic scattering of O- prior to desorption, as well as the net image charge potential (Ep) induced in the condensed dielectric solid and the Pt metal. The measurements also indicate that, particularly at small Kr substrate thicknesses, the Ep may not necessarily be uniform across the surface, but may fluctuate due to surface roughness. Thus, in addition to energy losses in the substrate prior to, and during, DEA, these effects may influence the dissociation dynamics of the O2- resonance itself, as well as the desorption of the DEA O- fragment.

  2. Photoelectrocatalytic removal of color from water using TiO2 and TiO2/Cu2O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feleke Zewge

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This work describes, photoelectrocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants by using methyl orange (an azo dye as a model compound. The TiO2 thin film and TiO2/Cu2O composite electrodes were used as semiconductor photo electrodes. Photo catalysis by UV light corresponding to the light intensity range of the solar light was employed with the aim of using renewable and pollution-free energy. Result showed that the rate of removal of color was enhanced when potential bias of 1.5 V was applied. The degradation rate was also increased either in acidic (pH 2 or alkaline (pH 10 conditions. The application of a positive potential higher than the flat-band potential on the TiO2 electrode decreases the rapid charge recombination process, and enhanced the degradation of organic compound. When the TiO2/Cu2O thin film electrode was used, more efficient electron and hole separation was observed in the composite system under very low potential. It is considered that the photo-generated holes migrate towards the interface while the electrons migrate towards TiO2 and then to the back contact transparent fluorine doped tin-oxide-coated glass (TCO, making the behavior of the composite film analogous to that of an n-type semiconductor. In all cases, the kinetics of the photo catalytic oxidation of methyl orange followed a pseudo first order model and the apparent rate constant may depend on several factors such as, the nature and concentration of the organic compound, radiant flux, the solution pH and the presence of other organic substances.

  3. The relevance of measuring O2 supply and O2 consumption for assessment of regional tissue oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier-Hellmann, A; Hannemann, L; Schaffartzik, W; Specht, M; Spies, C; Reinhart, K

    1994-01-01

    Septic shock and ARDS are associated with disturbed tissue oxygenation. It has been suggested to increase O2 supply (DO2) above the normal level (> 600 ml/min/m2) to compensate for the tissue hypoxia. The lack of a rise in O2 consumption (VO2) after increases of DO2 has been presumed to indicate adequate tissue oxygenation (negative O2 flux test). We were interested in whether a negative O2 flux test precludes an improvement of regional tissue oxygenation. The pH value of the gastric mucosa (pHi) is considered to be a sensitive marker for hypoxia in the splanchnic region. We measured pHi as well as DO2 and VO2 in 10 patients with hyperdynamic septic shock to assess the effect of volume substitution on tissue oxygenation. The initial therapeutic approach (volume substitution and catecholamines) led to a DO2 of 717 +/- 187 ml/min/m2. However, all patients had pHi values < 7.35 indicating regional tissue hypoxia. An additional increase of DO2 by colloidal volume substitution caused a significant rise of pHi from 7.20 +/- 0.05 to 7.25 +/- 0.05 but did not change VO2. We conclude that a negative O2 flux test does not rule out regional tissue hypoxia, and second, an increase in DO2 may improve tissue oxygenation without measurable changes in VO2. Furthermore, adequate volume substitution is an important step in the treatment of septic shock to increase total body blood flow and more specifically regional blood flow.

  4. Nanocrystalline SnO2 by liquid pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morante, J. R.

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Liquid pyrolysis is presented as a new production method of SnO2 nanocrystalline powders suitable for gas sensor devices. The method is based on a pyrolytic reaction of high tensioned stressed drops of an organic solution of SnCl4•5(H2O. The main advantages of the method are its capability to produce SnO2 nanopowders with high stability, its accurate control over the grain size and other structural characteristics, its high level of repeatability and its low industrialization implementation cost. The characterization of samples of SnO2 nanoparticles obtained by liquid pyrolysis in the range between 200ºC and 900ºC processing temperature is carried out by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Results are analyzed and discussed so as to validate the advantages of the liquid pyrolysis method.La pirólisis líquida se presenta como un nuevo método para producir SnO2 nanocristalino en polvo ideal para sensores de gas. El método se basa en una reacción pirolítica de gotas altamente tensionadas procedentes de una solución orgánica de SnCl4•5(H2O. Las principales ventajas del método son la capacidad para producir nanopartículas de SnO2 con una gran estabilidad, el preciso control sobre el tamaño de grano y sobre otras características estructurales, el alto nivel de repetibilidad y el bajo coste en su implementación industrial.La caracterización de las muestras de las nanopartículas de SnO2 obtenidas por pirólisis líquida en un rango de temperatura de procesado que va de 200ºC a 900ºC se ha realizado mediante difracción de rayos X, microscopía electrónica de transmisión, espectroscopía Raman y espectroscopía fotoelectrónica de rayos X. Los resultados se han analizado y discutido. Éstos validan las ventajas del método de la pirólisis líquida.

  5. NET 40 Generics Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Sudipta

    2012-01-01

    This is a concise, practical guide that will help you learn Generics in .NET, with lots of real world and fun-to-build examples and clear explanations. It is packed with screenshots to aid your understanding of the process. This book is aimed at beginners in Generics. It assumes some working knowledge of C# , but it isn't mandatory. The following would get the most use out of the book: Newbie C# developers struggling with Generics. Experienced C++ and Java Programmers who are migrating to C# and looking for an alternative to other generic frameworks like STL and JCF would find this book handy.

  6. The Net Reclassification Index (NRI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pepe, Margaret S.; Fan, Jing; Feng, Ziding

    2015-01-01

    The Net Reclassification Index (NRI) is a very popular measure for evaluating the improvement in prediction performance gained by adding a marker to a set of baseline predictors. However, the statistical properties of this novel measure have not been explored in depth. We demonstrate the alarming...... marker is proven to erroneously yield a positive NRI. Some insight into this phenomenon is provided. Since large values for the NRI statistic may simply be due to use of poorly fitting risk models, we suggest caution in using the NRI as the basis for marker evaluation. Other measures of prediction...

  7. Effects of hydrophilicity/lipophilicity of nano-TiO2 on surface tension of TiO2-water nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shenghan; Han, Xiaoxue; Tan, Yu; Liang, Kexin

    2018-01-01

    Platinum plate method based on Wilhelmy plate was used to measure the surface tension of hydrophilic nano-titanium dioxide-deionized water (nano-TiO2- DIW) fluids and hydrophilic lipophilic nano-TiO2-DIW fluids. Experimental results show that the surface adsorption of hydrophilic lipophilic nano-TiO2 is positive adsorption, and hydrophilic nano-TiO2 is negative adsorption. The hydrophilic nano-TiO2 in deionized water increases the surface tension of base fluid, and hydrophilic lipophilic nano-TiO2 in deionized water decreases. The surface tension of hydrophilic TiO2-DIW nanofluids increases, and hydrophilic lipophilic TiO2-DIW nanofluids decreases linearly with an increase in the natural logarithm of the molar concentration of nanofluids.

  8. Photocatalytic synthesis of 2-methylquinolines with TiO2 Wackherr and Home Prepared TiO2 – A comparative study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Selvam, Kaliyamoorthy; Swaminathan, Meenakshisundaram

    2017-01-01

    A comparative study was carried out on the efficiency of titanium dioxide specimens Wackherr TiO2, prepared TiO2 and Aeroxide P25 toward the photocatalytic synthesis of pharmaceutically important 2-methylquinolines...

  9. Encapsulation of superparamagnetic Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 core/shell nanoparticles in MnO 2 microflowers with high surface areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yu-Gang; Truong, Tu T.; Liu, Yu-Zi; Hu, Yong-Xing

    2015-02-01

    Microflowers made of interconnected MnO2 nanosheets have been successfully synthesized in a microwave reactor through a hydrothermal reduction of KMnO4 with aqueous HCl at elevated temperatures in the presence of superparamagnetic Fe3O4@SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles. Due to the chemical compatibility between SiO2 and MnO2, the heterogeneous reaction leads to the spontaneous encapsulation of the Fe3O4@SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles in the MnO2 microflowers. The resulting hybrid particles exhibit multiple properties including high surface area associated with the MnO2 nanosheets and superparamagnetism originated from the Fe3O4@SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles, which are beneficial for applications requiring both high surface area and magnetic separation. (C) 2014 Yu-Gang Sun.

  10. Photocatalytic activity of magnetically anatase TiO2 with high crystallinity and stability for dyes degradation: Insights into the dual roles of SiO2 interlayer between TiO2 and CoFe2O4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zewei; Shi, Yingying; Wang, Bing

    2017-03-01

    A novel magnetically separable photocatalyst comprising hollow TiO2-SiO2-CoFe2O4 (TSC) was prepared. In the TSC photocatalyst, an SiO2 interlayer between CoFe2O4 core and TiO2 shell is used to both weaken adverse influence of the magnetic core on photocatalysis and increase the temperature of the transition from anatase to rutile phase TiO2, thus increasing the anatase TiO2 crystallinity. Such an interlayer promotes photocatalytic activity by changing the competition between the injecting process and reacting process of the photogenerated carriers. The photocatalytic activity of TSC was determined for degradation of dye molecules in water under either UV or visible light. The photocatalytic reaction of cationic dyes was governed by rad OH radicals, while O2rad - was the main active species in the initial photoreaction of anionic dyes.

  11. Determination of O2(a1 delta g) and O2(b1 sigma+ g) yields in the reaction O + ClO --> Cl + O2: implications for photochemistry in the atmosphere of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, M. T.; Yung, Y. L.

    1987-01-01

    A discharge flow apparatus with chemiluminescence detector has been used to study the reaction O + ClO --> Cl + O2, where O2 = O2(a1 delta g) or O2(b1 sigma+ g). The measured quantum yields for producing O2(a1 delta g) and O2(b1 sigma+ g) in the above reaction are less than 2.5 x 10(-2) and equal to (4.4 +/- 1.1) x 10(-4), respectively. The observed O2(a1 delta g) airglow of Venus cannot be explained in the context of standard photochemistry using our experimental results and those reported in recent literature. The possibility of an alternative source of O atoms derived from SO2 photolysis in the mesosphere of Venus is suggested.

  12. Laminated CeO2/HfO2 High-K Gate Dielectrics Grown by Pulsed Laser Deposition in Reducing Ambient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karakaya, K.; Barcones Campo, B.; Zinine, A.; Rittersma, Z.M.; Graat, P.; van Berkum, J.G.M.; Verheijen, M.A.; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.; Blank, David H.A.

    2006-01-01

    CeO2 and HfO2 dielectric layers were deposited in an Ar+(5%)H2 gas mixture by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) on Si (100). A CeO2-Ce2O3 transformation is achieved by deposition in reducing ambient. It is also shown that in-situ post deposition anneal efficiently oxidizes Ce2O3 layers to CeO2. The

  13. Seed-mediated photodeposition route to Ag-decorated SiO2@TiO2 microspheres with ideal core-shell structure and enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jianqi; Guo, Xiaohua; Ge, Hongguang; Tian, Guanghui; Zhang, Qiang

    2018-03-01

    Ag-decorated SiO2@TiO2 microspheres (SiO2@TiO2-Ag) with ideal core-shell structure and enhanced photocatalytic activity were successfully fabricated by combining both coating anatase TiO2 on the surface of SiO2 spheres and subsequent depositing face-centered cubic Ag nanoparticles (NPs) on the coated TiO2 surface via novel sol-gel method and Ag-seed-mediated photodeposition (PD) route, respectively. The morphology, structure, composition and optical properties of the resulting composites were characterized in detail. The results reveal that the monodisperse SiO2 spheres of ∼260 nm were covered uniformly and perfectly by the TiO2 nanoparticle coating layer with the thickness of ca. 55 nm by the novel sol-gel method. Further, homogeneously and highly dispersed Ag NPs with an average size of 8 ± 1.5 nm were strongly anchored onto the TiO2 surface in SiO2@TiO2 core-shell spheres by the modified PD process (Ag-seed-mediated PD route), whereas polydispersed Ag aggregates and detached Ag NPs were irregularly deposited over the TiO2 surface in previous works, which is the inherent problem and has not been effectively solved for depositing noble metal NPs such as Au, Ag, Pt, Pd on TiO2 surface by conventional PD method. The formation mechanism of small and uniformly dispersed Ag NPs with narrow size distribution via the modified PD method is tentatively explained by both nucleation kinetics and growth kinetics. The key reason is that the pre-deposited seeds firmly tethered on SiO2@TiO2 spheres served as nucleation sites and anchoring points for the further nucleation and subsequent growth of Ag via photoreduction of Ag+.

  14. Photocorrosion Mechanism of TiO2-Coated Photoanodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjen Didden

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atomic layer deposition was used to coat CdS photoanodes with 7 nm thick TiO2 films to protect them from photocorrosion during photoelectrochemical water splitting. Photoelectrochemical measurements indicate that the TiO2 coating does not provide full protection against photocorrosion. The degradation of the film initiates from small pinholes and shows oscillatory behavior that can be explained by an Avrami-type model for photocorrosion that is halfway between 2D and 3D etching. XPS analysis of corroded films indicates that a thin layer of CdS remains present on the surface of the corroded photoanode that is more resilient towards photocorrosion.

  15. Improved characterization of Si-SiO2 interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, P.

    Silicon is the heart of modern semiconductor devices. The dominance of Si in semiconductor technology depends on the superior quality and properties of thermally grown SiO2 compared with the oxide that can be placed on any other semiconductor. The well established quasistatic and conductance methods used in the study of the Si-SiO2 interface are improved by using an effectively thin composite insulator, low carrier concentration substrates, and most importantly, low level illumination at a wavelength that creates electron hole pairs. The samples investigated had a thermally grown oxide prepared in dry oxygen. They were never exposed to H2 or H2O at an elevated temperature. The composite gate insulator was completed by having an e-gun deposited 250 A layer on LaF3. The resulting interface, subjected to the improved experimental method, yields a wealth of distinctive structure rather than the often reported featureless U-shaped interface-state density.

  16. Polymer brushes on planar TiO2 substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiming; Hou, Liman; Xu, Bin; Zhang, Ning; Liang, Yongjiu; Tian, Wenjing; Dong, Dewen

    2014-07-01

    A facile and universal method is presented for the preparation of polymer brushes on amorphous TiO2 film. Homogeneous and stable poly(methyl methacrylate), polystyrene, poly(4-vinylpyridine), and poly(N-vinyl imidazole) (PNVI) brushes up to 550 nm are directly created onto TiO2 via UV-induced photopolymerization of corresponding monomers. Kinetic studies reveal a linear increase in thickness with the polymerization time. Characterization of the resulting polymer brushes by FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, contact angle, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) indicates an efficient UV-grafting reaction. Finally, we have demonstrated the possibility in converting the PNVI brushes to poly(vinyl imidazolium bromide), i.e., poly(ionic liquid) brushes by polymer-analogous reactions. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Compacting and densification of TiO2 nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Alvarez Roca

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated the compacting and densification behaviour of TiO2 nanoparticles prepared by the simple non-aqueous sol-gel process. The synthesized nanopowder has anatase TiO2 structure with the average crystallite size of 10 nm and agglomerated particles. The compressibility curve shows two well-defined linear parts that intersect at ~380MPa which is a measure of agglomerate compressive strength. The densification process was investigated by the dilatometric analysis using non-isothermal experiments. The apparent activation energy for the densification was calculated (88-102 kJ/mol. Grain rearrangement by grain boundary sliding was proposed as the dominant shrinkage mechanism.

  18. In situ study of hydrothermal MnO2 formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birgisson, Steinar; Shen, Yanbin; Iversen, Bo Brummerstedt

    Our group has designed and successfully implemented an experimental setup capable of in situ measurements of solvothermal reactions. The setup uses synchrotron radiation and a time resolution in the range 1-10 seconds can be acquired [1]. The experiments can be optimized either to measure powder X...... in supercapacitors and positive electrode material in lithium batteries (both primary and secondary) [4, 5]. In this study we investigate the hydrothermal formation of different phases of MnO2 in situ using the experimental setup described above. Alpha-, beta- and delta-MnO2 are synthesized from different aqueous...... precursor solutions at different temperatures ranging from subcritical to supercritical conditions. Measurements are done to obtain both PXRD and TS data. Therefore information about reaction mechanism from precursor solution (containing dissolved species) to final crystalline product can be extracted along...

  19. Na2MoO2As2O7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Jouini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Disodium molybdenum dioxide diarsenate, Na2MoO2As2O7, has been synthesized by a solid-state reaction. The structure is built up from MoAs2O12 linear units sharing corners to form a three-dimensional framework containing tunnels running along the a-axis direction in which the Na+ cations are located. In this framework, the AsV atoms are tetrahedrally coordinated and form an As2O7 group. The MoVI atom is displaced from the center of an octahedron of O atoms. Two Na+ cations are disordered about inversion centres. Structural relationships between different compounds: A2MoO2As2O7 (A = K, Rb, AMOP2O7 (A = Na, K, Rb; M = Mo, Nb and MoP2O7 are discussed.

  20. Properties of Electrospun TiO2 Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Caratão

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium oxide filled polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP composite nanofibers have been prepared via a simple electrospinning technique. The combination of good TiO2 properties with its high surface area leads these nanofibers into having a vast applicability such as cosmetics, scaffolds for tissue engineering, catalytic devices, sensors, solar cells, and optoelectronic devices. The structural and chemical properties of the prepared samples have been studied. The presence of the TiO2 phase on the nanofibers was confirmed. An anatase to rutile transformation was observed at 600°C. Regarding the thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA, the TIP decomposition and the PVP evaporation at 225°C were verified.

  1. Improved Model of TiO2 Memristor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Kolka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of Pickett’s model of the HP TiO2 memristor presented in this paper reveals an ambiguity of its port equation, which may cause non-convergence, numerical errors, and non-physical solutions during time-domain simulation. As there is no easy fix of the original model a new behavioral approximation of static I-V characteristics has been proposed. The approximation matches well the original model and is unambiguous.

  2. Photocatalytic Activity of Immobilized Geometries of TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohestani, Hassan; Sadrnezhaad, Sayed Khatiboleslam

    2015-07-01

    Photocatalysts that are used for waste water treatment are often suspended in the waste water during processing and then must be removed from the water after treatment. To reduce the post-degradation expenses and time, separation is facilitated by an immobilization process. The effect of immobilized TiO2 geometries on the photocatalytic behavior of the photocatalyst is investigated in this work. Powder, fiber, film, and network-shaped TiO2 nanocatalysts were produced by using different templates. The cellulose fiber and ceramic templates were used as substrates for fiber and film/network geometry production. The products were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurement. The photocatalytic performance was determined by methyl orange degradation and cyanide photo-oxidation under ultraviolet irradiation. From the SEM images, the size range of the TiO2 particles in the film and in the network geometries were 20-60 nm. The nanoparticles had covered the surface of the substrate, uniformly. Removal of the cellulose substrate by heat treatment yielded hollow TiO2 fibers with diameters of 0.5-1 µm and lengths of 30 µm. The efficiencies of both photocatalytic reactions were obtained in the following order: powder > network > film > fiber geometry. The rate constant of the dye degradation reaction using powder catalyst was 0.0118 min-1. For network catalyst, it was 0.0083 min-1. Corresponding results for cyanide disinfection were 0.0055 and 0.0046 min-1. Although powder samples had higher rate constants, network geometry was preferred due to its higher immobility.

  3. Photocatalytic Water Treatment on TiO2 Thin Layers.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šolcová, Olga; Spáčilová, L.; Maléterová, Ywetta; Morozová, Magdalena; Ezechiáš, Martin; Křesinová, Zdena

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 25 (2016), s. 11631-11638 ISSN 1944-3994. [International Conference on Protection and Restoration of the Environment /12./. Skiathos Island, 29.06.2014-03.07.2014] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01020804 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : water purification * endocrine disruptor * photocatalytic * TiO2 layers Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering; EE - Microbiology, Virology (MBU-M) Impact factor: 1.631, year: 2016

  4. The Character of Dislocations in LiCoO2

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrisch, H.; Yazami, R.; Fultz, B.

    2002-01-01

    Dislocations in LiCoO2 were observed by transmission electron microscopy, and their Burgers vectors were determined by analysis of diffraction contrast in tilting experiments. The configuration of all dislocations indicates that they are glissile, and dislocation configurations were found that are indicative of active slip planes. Perfect dislocations of a/3 type Burgers vectors were observed on {0001} habit planes. These perfect dislocations sometimes dissociate into Shockley partial disloca...

  5. Selected mucolytic, anti-inflammatory and cardiovascular drugs change the ability of neutrophils to form extracellular traps (NETs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawrotniak, Marcin; Kozik, Andrzej; Rapala-Kozik, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophils form the first line of host defense against infections that combat pathogens using two major mechanisms, the phagocytosis or the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). The netosis (NET formation) exerts additional, unfavorable effects on the fitness of host cells and is also involved at the sites of lung infection, increasing the mucus viscosity and in the circulatory system where it can influence the intravascular clot formation. Although molecular mechanisms underlying the netosis are still incompletely understood, a role of NADPH oxidase that activates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during the initiation of NETs has been well documented. Since several commonly used drugs can affects the netosis, our current study was aimed to determine the effects of selected mucolytic, anti-inflammatory and cardiovascular drugs on NET formation, with a special emphasis on ROS production and NADPH oxidase activity. The treatment of neutrophils with N-acetylcysteine, ketoprofen and ethamsylate reduced the production of ROS by these cells in a dose-dependent manner. NET formation was also modulated by selected drugs. N-acetylcysteine inhibited the netosis but in the presence of H2O2 this neutrophil ability was restored, indicating that N-acetylcysteine may influence the NET formation by modulating ROS productivity. The administration of ethamsylate led to a significant reduction in NET formation and this effect was not restored by H2O2 or S. aureus, suggesting the unexpected additional side effects of this drug. Ketoprofen seemed to promote ROS-independent NET release, simultaneously inhibiting ROS production. The results, obtained in this study strongly suggest that the therapeutic strategies applied in many neutrophil-mediated diseases should take into account the NET-associated effects.

  6. Does residual H2O2 result in inhibitory effect on enhanced anaerobic digestion of sludge pretreated by microwave-H2O2 pretreatment process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jibao; Jia, Ruilai; Wang, Yawei; Wei, Yuansong; Zhang, Junya; Wang, Rui; Cai, Xing

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of residual H2O2 on hydrolysis-acidification and methanogenesis stages of anaerobic digestion after microwave-H2O2 (MW-H2O2) pretreatment of waste activated sludge (WAS). Results showed that high sludge solubilization at 35-45 % was achieved after pretreatment, while large amounts of residual H2O2 remained and refractory compounds were thus generated with high dosage of H2O2 (0.6 g H2O2/g total solids (TS), 1.0 g H2O2/g TS) pretreatment. The residual H2O2 not only inhibited hydrolysis-acidification stage mildly, such as hydrolase activity, but also had acute toxic effect on methanogens, resulting in long lag phase, low methane yield rate, and no increase of cumulative methane production during the 30-day BMP tests. When the low dosage of H2O2 at 0.2 g H2O2/g TS was used in MW-H2O2 pretreatment, sludge anaerobic digestion was significantly enhanced. The cumulative methane production increased by 29.02 %, but still with a lag phase of 1.0 day. With removing the residual H2O2 by catalase, the initial lag phase of hydrolysis-acidification stage decreased from 1.0 to 0.5 day.

  7. Morphological effect of composite TiO2 nanorod-TiO2 nanoparticle/PEDOT:PSS electrodes on triiodide reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Balkan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Composite electrodes consisting of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs-TiO2 nanorods (NRs and poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene-polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS were prepared on a conductive glass substrate. The presence of TiO2 in the composite structure was proved by X-ray diffraction (XRD Raman and FTIR-ATR measurements. The surface morphologies of TiO2 NP-PEDOT:PSS, TiO2 NR-PEDOT:PSS and TiO2 NP-TiO2 NR-PEDOT:PSS electrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. According to the cyclic voltammetry measurement (CV, the electrocatalytic activity of composite electrodes on the reduction of triiodide improved after TiO2 addition compared with pristine PEDOT:PSS and platinum (Pt electrodes. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS showed that the charge transfer resistance (Rct strongly depends on the morphologies (ratio between TiO2 NP and TiO2 NR of the composite electrodes. It was found that Rct decreased by increasing the amount of TiO2 nanorod in the whole mixture of TiO2 nanoparticles and PEDOT:PSS.

  8. The Effect of Film Thickness and TiO2 Content on Film Formation from PS/ TiO2 Nanocomposites Prepared by Dip-Coating Method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M. Selin Sunay; Onder Pekcan; Saziye Ugur

    2012-01-01

    ...) was used for studying film formation from TiO2 covered nanosized polystyrene (PS) latex particles (320 nm). The effects of film thickness and TiO2 content on the film formation and structure properties of PS/TiO2 composites were studied...

  9. CdS/CdSe Co-sensitized Solar Cells Based on Hierarchically Structured SnO2/TiO2 Hybrid Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zeng; Wei, Chaochao; Li, Shengjun; Diao, Chunli; Li, Wei; Kong, Wenping; Zhang, Zhenlong; Zhang, Weifeng

    2016-12-01

    SnO2 nanosheet-structured films were prepared on a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate using ZnO nanosheet as template. The as-prepared SnO2 nanosheets contained plenty of nano-voids and were generally vertical to the substrate. TiO2 nanoparticles were homogeneously deposited into the intervals between the SnO2 nanosheets to prepare a hierarchically structured SnO2/TiO2 hybrid film. The hybrid films were co-sensitized with CdS and CdSe quantum dots. The sensitized solar cells assembled with the SnO2/TiO2 hybrid film showed much higher photoelectricity conversion efficiency than the cells assembled with pure TiO2 films. The lifetime of photoinduced electron was also investigated through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, which showed that the SnO2/TiO2 hybrid film electrode is as long as the TiO2 film electrode.

  10. Synthesis, photocatalytic and antimicrobial properties of SnO2, SnS2 and SnO2/SnS2 nanostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhri, Ali; Behrouz, Sajjad; Pourmand, Melika

    2015-08-01

    Nanoscale SnO2, SnS2 and SnO2/SnS2 were synthesized by hydrothermal treatment method and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) and UV-vis spectra. The photocatalytic activity of SnO2, SnS2 and SnO2/SnS2 were tested with Enrofloxacin antibiotic. The tetragonal and hexagonal SnO2 and SnS2 phase was confirmed through XRD, respectively. The photocatalytic results indicated that the SnO2/SnS2 enhanced the photocatalytic activity and could be effectively used as photocatalyst for degradation of Enrofloxacin antibiotic pollutant. The results of antibacterial experiment under visible light irradiation demonstrate that the SnO2/SnS2 nanocomposite exhibit enhanced antibacterial efficiency compared with pure SnO2 and SnS2. The antifungal activity of the nanoscale SnO2, SnS2 and SnO2/SnS2 against Candida albicans was assessed using the disc-diffusion susceptibility tests. It was seen that the antifungal activity of SnO2/SnS2 nanocomposite is higher than the pure SnO2 and SnS2 toward pathogenic C. albicans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Well-organized meso-macroporous TiO2/SiO2 film derived from amphiphilic rubbery comb copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Harim; Lee, Chang Soo; Patel, Rajkumar; Kim, Jong Hak

    2015-04-15

    We report the facile synthesis of a well-organized meso-macroporous TiO2/SiO2 thin film with high porosity and good interconnectivity from a binary mixture (i.e., titania precursor and polymer template). Our process is based on self-assembly of the amphiphilic rubbery comb copolymer, poly(dimethylsiloxane)-g-poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) (PDMS-g-POEM) with titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP). SiO2 is self-provided by thermal oxidation of PDMS chains during calcination under air. The selective, preferential interaction between TTIP and the hydrophilic POEM chains was responsible for the formation of well-organized TiO2/SiO2 films, as supported by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photospectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction analyses. We investigated in detail the effect of precursor content, solvent type, and polymer concentration on thin film morphology. Photodegradation of methyl orange by the well-organized meso-macroporous TiO2/SiO2 film was greater than that of a dense TiO2 film prepared without PDMS-g-POEM as well as a SiO2-etched TiO2 film. These results indicate that the well-organized structure and SiO2 doping of the TiO2 film play a pivotal role in enhancing its photocatalytic properties.

  12. Effects of calcination temperatures on photocatalytic activity of SnO2/TiO2 composite films prepared by an EPD method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Minghua; Yu, Jiaguo; Liu, Shengwei; Zhai, Pengcheng; Jiang, Li

    2008-06-15

    SnO2/TiO2 composite films were fabricated on transparent electro-conductive glass substrates (F-doped SnO2-coated glass:FTO glass) via an electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method using Degussa P25 as raw materials, and were further characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra and Photoluminescence spectra (PL). XRD and XPS results confirmed that the films were composed of TiO2 and SnO2. FESEM images indicated that the as-prepared TiO2 films had roughness surfaces, which consisted of nano-sized particles. The effects of calcination temperatures on the surface morphology, microstructures and photocatalytic activity of SnO2/TiO2 composite films were further investigated. All the prepared SnO2/TiO2 composite films exhibited high photocatalytic activities for photocatalytic decolorization of Rhodamine-B aqueous solution. At 400 degrees C, the SnO2/TiO2 composite films showed the highest photocatalytic activity due to synergetic effects of low sodium content, good crystallization, appropriate phase composition and slower recombination rate of photogenerated charge carriers.

  13. Earth's early O2 cycle suppressed by primitive continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Matthijs A.; Mezger, Klaus

    2017-10-01

    Free oxygen began to accumulate in Earth's surface environments between 3.0 and 2.4 billion years ago. Links between oxygenation and changes in the composition of continental crust during this time are suspected, but have been difficult to demonstrate. Here we constrain the average composition of the exposed continental crust since 3.7 billion years ago by compiling records of the Cr/U ratio of terrigenous sediments. The resulting record is consistent with a predominantly mafic crust prior to 3.0 billion years ago, followed by a 500- to 700-million-year transition to a crust of modern andesitic composition. Olivine and other Mg-rich minerals in the mafic Archaean crust formed serpentine minerals upon hydration, continuously releasing O2-scavenging agents such as dihydrogen, hydrogen sulfide and methane to the environment. Temporally, the decline in mafic crust capable of such process coincides with the first accumulation of O2 in the oceans, and subsequently the atmosphere. We therefore suggest that Earth's early O2 cycle was ultimately limited by the composition of the exposed upper crust, and remained underdeveloped until modern andesitic continents emerged.

  14. Structure and thermochemistry of ClO2 radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, J. S.; Sander, S. P.

    1993-01-01

    The structure of ClO2 has been calculated for the X 2A-double prime ground state using unrestricted Hartree-Fock (UHF), unrestricted second-order Moller-Plesset perturbation (UMP2), configuration interaction employing single and double excitation (CISD), and quadratic configuration interaction (QCI) ab initio molecular orbital methods. Calculations using UMP2 and CISD wave functions predict a ClO bond length of 1.728 +/- 0.01 A. The single-configuration-based QCI in the singles and doubles space with perturbation inclusion of triple substitutions, denoted QCISD(T), yield a ClO bond length of 2.205 A. The QCI results are consistent with results of Jensen (1990) who showed that the ClO bond length is 2.181 A using annihilated self-consistent methods (AUMP2). The thermochemistry of ClO2 radical has been calculated using MP2 and QCI methods employing an isodesmic scheme. Our scheme predicts the heat of formation for ClO2 at 0 K to be 24.6 +/- 2 kcal/mol.

  15. Amoxicillin photodegradation by nanocrystalline TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosavljević K D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline TiO2, synthesized by sol-gel route and characterized by XRPD, BET and SEM measurements, was applied in the photocatalytic degradation of amoxicillin, using an Osram Ultra-Vitalux® lamp as the light source. Amoxicillin is a semi-synthetic penicillin type antibiotic active against a wide range of grampositive and a limited range of gram-negative organisms. The continuous release of antibiotics and their persistence in the environment may result in serious irreversible effects on aquatic and terrestrial organisms. Heterogeneous catalysis, which uses catalysts like TiO2, is a promising route for the degradation of organic pollutants including antibiotics. The effects of initial concentration of catalyst, initial salt concentration (NaCl and Na2SO4, ethanol and pH on the photocatalytic degradation of amoxicillin were studied. The mineralization of amoxicillin was analyzed by ion chromatography as well as by total organic analysis. The catalytic properties of nanocrystalline TiO2 were compared to Evonik P25 catalyst.

  16. Chemisorption studies of Pt/SnO2 catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kenneth G.; Ohorodnik, Susan K.; Vannorman, John D.; Schryer, Jacqueline; Upchurch, Billy T.; Schryer, David R.

    1990-01-01

    The low temperature CO oxidation catalysts that are being developed and tested at NASA-Langley are fairly unique in their ability to efficiently oxidize CO at low temperatures (approx. 303 K). The bulk of the reaction data that has been collected in the laboratory has been determined using plug flow reactors with a low mass of Pt/SnO2/SiO2 catalyst (approx. 0.1 g) and a modest flow rate (5 to 10 sc sm). The researchers have previously characterized the surface solely in terms of N2 BET surface areas. These surface areas have not been that indicative of reaction rate. Indeed, some of the formulations with high BET surface area have yielded lower reaction rates than those with lower BET surface areas. As a result researchers began a program of determining the chemisorption of the various species involved in the reaction; CO, O2 and CO2. Such a determination of will lead to a better understanding of the mechanism and overall kinetics of the reaction. The pulsed-reactor technique, initially described by Freel, is used to determine the amount of a particular molecule that is adsorbed on the catalyst. Since there is some reaction of CO with the surface to produce CO2, the pulsed reactor had to be coupled with a gas chromatograph in order to distinguish between the loss of CO that is due to adsorption by the surface and the loss that is due to reaction with the surface.

  17. Mechanistic origin of low polarization in aprotic Na-O2 batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shunchao; McKee, William C; Wang, Jiawei; Guo, Limin; Jansen, Martin; Xu, Ye; Peng, Zhangquan

    2017-05-21

    Research interest in aprotic sodium-air (Na-O2) batteries is growing because of their considerably high theoretical specific energy and potentially better reversibility than lithium-air (Li-O2) batteries. While Li2O2 has been unequivocally identified as the major discharge product in Li-O2 batteries containing relatively stable electrolytes, a multitude of discharge products, including NaO2, Na2O2 and Na2O2·2H2O, have been reported for Na-O2 batteries and the corresponding cathodic electrochemistry remains incompletely understood. Herein, we provide molecular-level insights into the key mechanistic differences between Na-O2 and Li-O2 batteries based on gold electrodes in strictly dry, aprotic dimethyl sulfoxide electrolytes through a combination of in situ spectroelectrochemistry and density functional theory based modeling. While like Li-O2 batteries, the formation of oxygen reduction products (i.e., O2-, NaO2 and Na2O2) in Na-O2 batteries depends critically on the electrode potential, two factors lead to a better reversibility of Na-O2 electrochemistry, and are therefore highly beneficial to a viable rechargeable metal-air battery design: (i) only O2- and NaO2, and no Na2O2, form down to as low as ∼1.5 V vs. Na/Na+ during discharge; (ii) solid NaO2 is quite soluble and its formation and oxidation can proceed through micro-reversible EC (a chemical reaction of the product after the electron transfer) and CE (a chemical reaction preceding the electron transfer) processes, respectively, with O2- as the key intermediate.

  18. Ni-CeO2 Cermets Synthesis by Solid State Sintering of Ni/CeO2 Multilayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandras ILJINAS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nickel and gadolinium doped cerium oxide (GDC cermet is intensively investigated for an application as an anode material for solid oxide fuel cells based on various electrolytes. The purpose of the present investigation is to analyze morphology, microstructure, and optical properties of deposited and annealed for one hour in the temperatures from 500 ºC to 900 ºC Ni/CeO2 multilayer thin films deposited by sputtering. The crystallographic structure of thin films was investigated by X-ray diffraction. The morphology of the film cross-section was investigated with scanning electron microscope. The elemental analysis of samples was investigated by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The fitting of the optical reflectance data was made using Abeles matrix method that is used for the design of interference coatings. The film cross-section of the post-annealed samples consisted of four layers. The first CeO2 layer (on Si had the same fine columnar structure with no features of Ni intermixing. The part of Ni (middle-layer after annealing was converted to NiO with grain size exceeding 100 nm. The CeO2 layer deposited on Ni was divided into two layers. Lower layer had small grains not exceeding 25 nm and consisting of NiO and CeO2 mixture. Upper layer consisted of CeO2 columns with approximate thickness of 50 nm. Ni sample annealed at 600 ºC was fully oxidized. The NiO thickness and refraction index were almost steady after annealing in various temperatures. The approximation of experimental reflectance data was successful only for the samples with one transparent homogeneous layer. The reflectance of the Ni/CeO2 samples annealed at intermediate temperatures could not be fitted using one-layer or three-layer model. That may show that a simplified model could not be implemented.  The real system has complicated distribution of refraction index. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.4.3073

  19. Synthesis and high sensing properties of a single Pd-doped SnO2 nanoribbon

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Jiang; Liu, Yingkai; Zhang, Heng; Ai, Peng; Gong, Nailiang; Zhang, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Monocrystal SnO2 and Pd-SnO2 nanoribbons have been successfully synthesized by thermal evaporation, and novel ethanol sensors based on a single Pd-SnO2 nanoribbon and a single SnO2 nanoribbon were fabricated. The sensing properties of SnO2 nanoribbon (SnO2 NB) and Pd-doped SnO2 nanoribbon (Pd-SnO2 NB) sensors were investigated. The results indicated that the SnO2 NB showed a high sensitivity to ethanol and the Pd-SnO2 NB has a much higher sensitivity of 4.3 at 1,000 ppm of ethanol at 230°C, w...

  20. Photodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) by UV/H2O2 and UV/TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qinhai; Zhang, Chunlong; Wang, Zhirong; Chen, Yan; Mao, Kehui; Zhang, Xingqing; Xiong, Yunlong; Zhu, Miaojun

    2008-06-15

    Two UV-based advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), UV/H2O2 and UV/TiO2, were tested in batch reactor systems to evaluate the removal efficiencies and optimal conditions for the photodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). The optimal conditions at an initial MTBE concentration of 1 mM ([MTBE]0=1 mM) were acidic and 15 mM H2O2 in UV/H2O2 system, and pH 3.0 and 2.0 g/l TiO2 in UV/TiO2 suspended slurries system under 254-nm UV irradiation. Under the optimal conditions, MTBE photodegradation during the initial period of 60 min in UV/H2O2 and UV/TiO2 systems reached 98 and 80%, respectively. In both systems, MTBE photodegradation decreased with increasing [MTBE]0. While MTBE photodegradation rates increased with increasing dosage of H2O2 (5-15 mM) and TiO2 (0.5-3 g/l), further increase in the dosage of H2O2 (20 mM) or TiO2 (4 g/l) adversely reduced the MTBE photodegradation. Pseudo first-order kinetics with regard to [MTBE] can be used to describe the MTBE photodegradation in both systems. The pseudo first-order rate constants linearly increased with the increase in the molar ratio of [H2O2]0 to [MTBE]0 in UV/H2O2 system and linearly increased with the decrease in [MTBE]0 in UV/TiO2 system.

  1. Biogenic Hierarchical TiO2/SiO2 Derived from Rice Husk and Enhanced Photocatalytic Properties for Dye Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dalong; Fan, Tongxiang; Zhou, Han; Ding, Jian; Zhang, Di

    2011-01-01

    Background Rice husk, an agricultural bioresource, is utilized as a non-metallic bio-precursor to synthesize biogenic hierarchical TiO2/SiO2 (BH-TiO2/SiO2) and the products are applied to dye degradation. Methodology/Principal Findings The as-prepared BH-TiO2/SiO2 samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction(XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS), nitrogen-adsorption measurement, UV-vis spectroscopy and electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The results show that BH-TiO2/SiO2 possesses both anatase and rutile phases with amorphous SiO2 as background, which contains mesopore structure, and nitrogen derived from original rice husk is self-doped into the lattice. Besides, the light-harvesting within the visible-light range of BH-TiO2/SiO2 has been enhanced. Moreover, the catalytic activity of BH-TiO2/SiO2 has been proven by EPR, and both the photocatalytic activity and stability of BH-TiO2/SiO2 are improved as well, which has been illustrated by cycled degradation of methylene blue dye under irradiation. Conclusions/Significance This work provides a good way to combine natural hierarchical porous structure with synthetic material chemistry based on available biomass in the vast natural environment for the sustainable development of human society, and extends potentials of biomass in applications such as photocatalysts, sunlight splitting water and so forth. PMID:21931853

  2. PENGARUH KONSENTRASI ZrO2 TERHADAP KORELASI PERPINDAHAN PANAS NANOFLUIDA AIR-ZrO2 UNTUK PENDINGIN REAKTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A. Sudjatmi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sejalan dengan perkembangan konsep keselamatan pasif pada sistem keselamatan PLTN, maka sistem perpindahan panas konveksi alam memegang peranan penting. Pemakaian nanofluid sebagai fluida pendingin pada sistem keselamatan nuklir dapat digunakan pada Sistem Pendingin Teras Darurat dan Sistem Pendingin Pengungkung Luar Reaktor. Beberapa peneliti telah melakukan studi desain konseptual aplikasi nanofluid untuk meningkatkan keselamatan AP1000 dan sistem pendingin teras darurat pada reaktor daya eksperimen. Penerapan nanofluida juga mulai dikembangkan melalui hasil penelitian perpindahan panas konveksi alamiah pada sub-buluh dengan nanofluida sebagai fluida kerjanya sangat dibutuhkan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan pengaruh perubahan konsentrasi ZrO2 terhadap korelasi perpindahan panas konveksi alamiah dengan pendekatan eksperimental. Data eksperimental yang diperoleh digunakan untuk mengembangkan korelasi umum empirik perpindahan panas konveksi alamiah. Metode penelitian dengan menggunakan alat uji sub-buluh vertikal dengan geometri segitiga dan segiempat menggunakan air dan nanofluida air-ZrO2 sebagai fluida kerjanya. Konsentrasi nanopartikel dalam larutan yang digunakan sebesar 0,05 %, 0,10% dan 0,15 % dalam persen berat. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa untuk bilangan Rayleigh yang sama, kemampuan pemindahan kalor oleh nanofluida air-ZrO2 lebih baik dari pada pemindahan kalor oleh air. Namun peningkatan konsentrasi nanofluida tidak selalu mendapatkan kemampuan pemindahan kalor yang lebih baik. Kata kunci: nanofluida air-ZrO2, konveksi alamiah, sub-buluh segitiga, sub-buluh segi segiempat   In line with the development of the passive safety concept for the safety systems of nuclear power plants, the natural convection heat transfer system plays an important role. The nanofluid as coolant fluid on nuclear safety system can be used in Emergency core cooling system and in reactor coolant system confinement. Several researchers have

  3. Visible Light Induced Photocatalytic Activity of Polyaniline Modified TiO2 and Clay-TiO2 Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.P. Sandhya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sonochemical synthesis of Titania, Titania-Polyaniline, and Clay-Titania-Polyaniline composites were car-ried out. The composite systems were characterized by various physico-chemical techniques. Photocatalytic activity was tested selecting some common dyes as substrates. Composites exhibited higher activity for the degradation of dyes under visible light in most of the cases. © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 15th May 2013; Revised: 1st September 2013; Accepted: 3rd October 2013[How to Cite: Sandhya, K.P., Haridas, S., Sugunan, S. (2013. Visible Light Induced Photocatalytic Activity of Polyaniline Modified TiO2 and Clay-TiO2 Composites. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 8 (2: 145-153. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.8.2.4949.145-153][Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.8.2.4949.145-153

  4. Modeling char conversion under suspension fired conditions in O2/N2 and O2/CO2 atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Jacob; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2011-01-01

    concentrations between 5 and 28 vol.%. The COal COmbustion MOdel, COCOMO, includes the three char morphologies: cenospheric char, network char and dense char each divided between six discrete particle sizes. Both combustion and gasification with CO2 are accounted for and reaction rates include thermal char...... deactivation, which was found to be important for combustion at high reactor temperatures and high O2 concentrations. COCOMO show in general good agreement with experimental char conversion profiles at conditions covering zone I–III. From the experimental profiles no effect of CO2 gasification on char...... conversion has been found. COCOMO does however suggest that CO2 gasification in oxy-fuel combustion at low O2 concentrations can account for as much as 70% of the overall char consumption rate during combustion in zone III....

  5. Flame-Made Cu/TiO2 and Cu-Pt/TiO2 Photocatalysts for Hydrogen Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Bernareggi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Cu or Cu-Pt nanoparticles in TiO2 photocatalysts prepared by flame spray pyrolysis in one step was investigated in hydrogen production from methanol photo-steam reforming. Two series of titanium dioxide photocatalysts were prepared, containing either (i Cu nanoparticles (0.05–0.5 wt% or (ii both Cu (0 to 0.5 wt% and Pt (0.5 wt% nanoparticles. In addition, three photocatalysts obtained either by grafting copper and/or by depositing platinum by wet methods on flame-made TiO2 were also investigated. High hydrogen production rates were attained with copper-containing photocatalysts, though their photoactivity decreased with increasing Cu loading, whereas the photocatalysts containing both Cu and Pt nanoparticles exhibit a bell-shaped photoactivity trend with increasing copper content, the highest hydrogen production rate being attained with the photocatalyst containing 0.05 wt% Cu.

  6. Thermal Annealing Effect on Optical Properties of Binary TiO2-SiO2 Sol-Gel Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available TiO2-SiO2 binary coatings were deposited by a sol-gel dip-coating method using tetrabutyl titanate and tetraethyl orthosilicate as precursors. The structure and chemical composition of the coatings annealed at different temperatures were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. The refractive indices of the coatings were calculated from the measured transmittance and reflectance spectra. An increase in refractive index with the high temperature thermal annealing process was observed. The Raman and FTIR results indicate that the refractive index variation is due to changes in the removal of the organic component, phase separation and the crystal structure of the binary coatings.

  7. LiCoO2 and SnO2 Thin Film Electrodes for Lithium-Ion Battery Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranchi, Jeffrey P.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Kumta, Prashant N.

    2004-01-01

    There is an increasing need for small dimension, ultra-lightweight, portable power supplies due to the miniaturization of consumer electronic devices. Rechargeable thin film lithium-ion batteries have the potential to fulfill the growing demands for micro-energy storage devices. However, rechargeable battery technology and fabrication processes have not kept paced with the advances made in device technology. Economical fabrication methods lending excellent microstructural and compositional control in the thin film battery electrodes have yet to be fully developed. In this study, spin coating has been used to demonstrate the flexibility of the approach to produce both anode (SnO2) and cathode (LiCoO2) thin films. Results on the microstructure crystal structure and electrochemical properties of the thin film electrodes are described and discussed.

  8. Removal of Hazardous Pollutants from Wastewaters: Applications of TiO2-SiO2 Mixed Oxide Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivatharsiny Rasalingam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The direct release of untreated wastewaters from various industries and households results in the release of toxic pollutants to the aquatic environment. Advanced oxidation processes (AOP have gained wide attention owing to the prospect of complete mineralization of nonbiodegradable organic substances to environmentally innocuous products by chemical oxidation. In particular, heterogeneous photocatalysis has been demonstrated to have tremendous promise in water purification and treatment of several pollutant materials that include naturally occurring toxins, pesticides, and other deleterious contaminants. In this work, we have reviewed the different removal techniques that have been employed for water purification. In particular, the application of TiO2-SiO2 binary mixed oxide materials for wastewater treatment is explained herein, and it is evident from the literature survey that these mixed oxide materials have enhanced abilities to remove a wide variety of pollutants.

  9. Highly efficient photoluminescence of SiO2 and Ce-SiO2 microfibres and microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruso, Juan M; Gravina, A Noel; D'Elía, Noelia L; Messina, Paula V

    2013-06-14

    Semiconductor nanocrystals and nanostructures have been extensively studied in the last few years due to their interesting optical and optoelectronic properties. Nevertheless, combining precise photoluminescence properties with controlled morphologies of SiO2 is a major hurdle for a broad range of basic research and technological applications. Here, we demonstrate that microemulsion droplet interfacial elasticity can be manipulated to induce definite morphologies associated with specific intrinsic and extrinsic photoluminescent defects in the silica matrix. Thus, under precise experimental conditions hollow crystalline and compact amorphous SiO2 spheres showing ultraviolet-photoluminescence and helicoidal fibrils of Ce-doped amorphous silica with violet-blue emissions are obtained. Overall, it is demonstrated that the combination of microemulsions and doping represents an easy strategy for the design of specific nanoscale structures with high efficiency photoluminescence. The detailed structural analysis provided in the present work is expected to be useful as accurate information on assessment of technological nanostructures.

  10. Increasing extracellular H2O2 produces a bi-phasic response in intracellular H2O2, with peroxiredoxin hyperoxidation only triggered once the cellular H2O2-buffering capacity is overwhelmed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomalin, Lewis Elwood; Day, Alison Michelle; Underwood, Zoe Elizabeth; Smith, Graham Robert; Dalle Pezze, Piero; Rallis, Charalampos; Patel, Waseema; Dickinson, Bryan Craig; Bähler, Jürg; Brewer, Thomas Francis; Chang, Christopher Joh-Leung; Shanley, Daryl Pierson; Veal, Elizabeth Ann

    2016-06-01

    Reactive oxygen species, such as H2O2, can damage cells but also promote fundamental processes, including growth, differentiation and migration. The mechanisms allowing cells to differentially respond to toxic or signaling H2O2 levels are poorly defined. Here we reveal that increasing external H2O2 produces a bi-phasic response in intracellular H2O2. Peroxiredoxins (Prx) are abundant peroxidases which protect against genome instability, ageing and cancer. We have developed a dynamic model simulating in vivo changes in Prx oxidation. Remarkably, we show that the thioredoxin peroxidase activity of Prx does not provide any significant protection against external rises in H2O2. Instead, our model and experimental data are consistent with low levels of extracellular H2O2 being efficiently buffered by other thioredoxin-dependent activities, including H2O2-reactive cysteines in the thiol-proteome. We show that when extracellular H2O2 levels overwhelm this buffering capacity, the consequent rise in intracellular H2O2 triggers hyperoxidation of Prx to thioredoxin-resistant, peroxidase-inactive form/s. Accordingly, Prx hyperoxidation signals that H2O2 defenses are breached, diverting thioredoxin to repair damage. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Fibrinogen enhances the inflammatory response of alveolar macrophages to TiO2, SiO2 and carbon nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marucco, Arianna; Gazzano, Elena; Ghigo, Dario; Enrico, Emanuele; Fenoglio, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have shown that the composition of the protein corona dramatically affects the response of cells to nanomaterials (NMs). However, the role of each single protein is still largely unknown. Fibrinogen (FG), one of the most abundant plasma proteins, is believed to mediate foreign-body reactions. Since this protein is absent in cell media used in in vitro toxicological tests the possible FG-mediated effects have not yet been assessed. Here, the effect of FG on the toxicity of three different kinds of inorganic NMs (carbon, SiO2 and TiO2) on alveolar macrophages has been investigated. A set of integrated techniques (UV-vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) have been used to study the strength and the kinetics of interaction of FG with the NMs. The inflammatory response of alveolar macrophages (MH-S) exposed to the three NMs associated with FG has also been investigated. We found that FG significantly enhances the cytotoxicity (lactate dehydrogenase leakage) and the inflammatory response (increase in nitric oxide (NO) concentration and NO synthase activation) induced by SiO2, carbon and TiO2 NMs on alveolar macrophages. This effect appears related to the amount of FG interacting with the NMs. In the case of carbon NMs, the activation of fibrinolysis, likely related to the exposure of cryptic sites of FG, was also observed after 24 h. These findings underline the critical role played by FG in the toxic response to NMs.

  12. Study of ceramic pigments from the ZrO2 – SiO2- Fe2O3 system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilev, S.

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain high temperature ceramic pigments using colorless stable crystal carcasses turns out to be quite suitable in the case of ZrSiO4 and their coloring by introducing different chromophores. In the paper presented experiments have been carried out on synthesis of zircon pigments from the ZrO2-SiO2-Fe2O3 system. The technology of solid phase sintering have been applied for their obtaining. X -ray phase analysis, ESR and Moessbauer spectroscopy have been used to define the phase composition and to checked the Fe ions valency state above the optimal temperature of synthesis. In most pigments the basic phase is obtained at even 900 - 1000 ºC. The best pigments have been added to white faience glaze.La obtención de pigmentos cerámicos de alta temperatura a partir de cristales estables incoloros, puede ser muy viable en el caso del ZrSiO4 y su posterior coloración con diferentes cromóforos. En este artículo se han desarrollado pigmentos de zircón basados en el sistema ZrO2-SiO2-Fe2O3, utilizando la tecnología de sinterización en fase sólida. La composición de las fases se ha efectuado mediante análisis por DRX, ESR y Espectroscopía Moessbauer, comprobándose la valencia de los iones Fe a la temperatura óptima de sinterización. En la mayoría de los pigmentos la fase básica se obtiene en el intervalo 900-1000ºC Los mejores pigmentos se han añadido a un esmalte blanco de loza.

  13. Morphological and humidity sensing characteristics of SnO2 –CuO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    ing of the material in mortar with pestle for 6 h, a very fine powder was obtained. Various ratios e.g. 1 : 0⋅25,. 1 : 0⋅5 and 1 :1 were taken for comparative study. 3.3 Preparation of SnO2–SbO2 (S3). The SnO2–SbO2 composite (S3) was prepared from chlo- rides in the laboratory. The SnO2 solution was prepared.

  14. Degradation of 5-FU by means of advanced (photo)oxidation processes: UV/H2O2, UV/Fe2+/H2O2 and UV/TiO2--Comparison of transformation products, ready biodegradability and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutterbeck, Carlos Alexandre; Wilde, Marcelo Luís; Baginska, Ewelina; Leder, Christoph; Machado, Ênio Leandro; Kümmerer, Klaus

    2015-09-15

    The present study investigates the degradation of the antimetabolite 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) by three different advanced photo oxidation processes: UV/H2O2, UV/Fe(2+)/H2O2 and UV/TiO2. Prescreening experiments varying the H2O2 and TiO2 concentrations were performed in order to set the best catalyst concentrations in the UV/H2O2 and UV/TiO2 experiments, whereas the UV/Fe(2+)/H2O2 process was optimized varying the pH, Fe(2+) and H2O2 concentrations by means of the Box-Behnken design (BBD). 5-FU was quickly removed in all the irradiation experiments. The UV/Fe(2+)/H2O2 and UV/TiO2 processes achieved the highest degree of mineralization, whereas the lowest one resulted from the UV/H2O2 treatment. Six transformation products were formed during the advanced (photo)oxidation processes and identified using low and high resolution mass spectrometry. Most of them were formed and further eliminated during the reactions. The parent compound of 5-FU was not biodegraded, whereas the photolytic mixture formed in the UV/H2O2 treatment after 256 min showed a noticeable improvement of the biodegradability in the closed bottle test (CBT) and was nontoxic towards Vibrio fischeri. In silico predictions showed positive alerts for mutagenic and genotoxic effects of 5-FU. In contrast, several of the transformation products (TPs) generated along the processes did not provide indications for mutagenic or genotoxic activity. One exception was TP with m/z 146 with positive alerts in several models of bacterial mutagenicity which could demand further experimental testing. Results demonstrate that advanced treatment can eliminate parent compounds and its toxicity. However, transformation products formed can still be toxic. Therefore toxicity screening after advanced treatment is recommendable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Fabrication of Carbon Nanotube/SiO2and Carbon Nanotube/SiO2/Ag Nanoparticles Hybrids by Using Plasma Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Haiqing

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Based on plasma-treated single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs, SWCNT/SiO2and thiol groups-functionalized SWCNT/SiO2hybrids have been fabricated through a sol–gel process. By means of thiol groups, Ag nanoparticles have been in situ synthesized and bonded onto the SiO2shell of SWCNT/SiO2in the absence of external reducing agent, resulting in the stable carbon nanotube/SiO2/Ag nanoparticles hybrids. This strategy provides a facile, low–cost, and green methodology for the creation of carbon nanotube/inorganic oxides-metal nanoparticles hybrids.

  16. Thermally evaporated indium-free, transparent, flexible SnO2/AgPdCu/SnO2 electrodes for flexible and transparent thin film heaters

    OpenAIRE

    Doo-Hee Kim; Kyung-Su Cho; Han-Ki Kim

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the characteristics of themally evaporated SnO2/Ag-Pd-Cu (APC)/SnO2 multilayer films for applications as damage-free, indium-free, flexible, and transparent electrodes for high performance flexible and transparent thin film heaters (TFHs). The top and bottom SnO2 layers and APC interlayer were prepared by a multi-source evaporation process, and the effect of the thickness of each layer on the resistivity, optical transmittance, and mechanical flexibility of the SnO2/APC/SnO2 e...

  17. Catalyst Deactivation and Regeneration in Low Temperature Ethanol Steam Reforming with Rh/CeO2-ZrO2 Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Hyun-Seog; Platon, Alex; Wang, Yong; King, David L.

    2006-08-01

    Rh/CeO2-ZrO2 catalysts with various CeO2/ZrO2 ratios have been applied to H2 production from ethanol steam reforming at low temperatures. The catalysts all deactivated with time on stream (TOS) at 350 C. The addition of 0.5% K has a beneficial effect on catalyst stability, while 5% K has a negative effect on catalytic activity. The catalyst could be regenerated considerably even at ambient temperature and could recover its initial activity after regeneration above 200 C with 1% O2. The results are most consistent with catalyst deactivation due to carbonaceous deposition on the catalyst.

  18. Catalase activity is stimulated by H2O2 in rich culture medium and is required for H2O2 resistance and adaptation in yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Dorival Martins; Ann M. English

    2014-01-01

    Catalases are efficient scavengers of H2O2 and protect cells against H2O2 stress. Examination of the H2O2 stimulon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed that the cytosolic catalase T (Ctt1) protein level increases 15-fold on H2O2 challenge in synthetic complete media although previous work revealed that deletion of the CCT1 or CTA1 genes (encoding peroxisomal/mitochondrial catalase A) does not increase the H2O2 sensitivity of yeast challenged in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). This we attributed to...

  19. Study on preparation of SnO2-TiO2/Nano-graphite composite anode and electro-catalytic degradation of ceftriaxone sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaolei; Wan, Jiafeng; Yu, Xiujuan; Lin, Yuhui

    2016-12-01

    In order to improve the electro-catalytic activity and catalytic reaction rate of graphite-like material, Tin dioxide-Titanium dioxide/Nano-graphite (SnO2-TiO2/Nano-G) composite was synthesized by a sol-gel method and SnO2-TiO2/Nano-G electrode was prepared in hot-press approach. The composite was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared, Raman, N2 adsorption-desorption, scanning electrons microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The electrochemical performance of the SnO2-TiO2/Nano-G anode electrode was investigated via cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The electro-catalytic performance was evaluated by the degradation of ceftriaxone sodium and the yield of ·OH radicals in the reaction system. The results demonstrated that TiO2, SnO2 and Nano-G were composited successfully, and TiO2 and SnO2 particles dispersed on the surface and interlamination of the Nano-G uniformly. The specific surface area of SnO2 modified anode was higher than that of TiO2/Nano-G anode and the degradation rate of ceftriaxone sodium within 120 min on SnO2-TiO2/Nano-G electrode was 98.7% at applied bias of 2.0 V. The highly efficient electro-chemical property of SnO2-TiO2/Nano-G electrode was attributed to the admirable conductive property of the Nano-G and SnO2-TiO2/Nano-G electrode. Moreover, the contribution of reactive species ·OH was detected, indicating the considerable electro-catalytic activity of SnO2-TiO2/Nano-G electrode. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of exercise intensity on skeletal muscle blood flow, O2 extraction and O2 uptake on-kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew M; Krustrup, Peter; Wilkerson, Daryl P; Berger, Nicolas J; Calbet, José A; Bangsbo, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Following the start of low-intensity exercise in healthy humans, it has been established that the kinetics of skeletal muscle O2 delivery is faster than, and does not limit, the kinetics of muscle O2 uptake (). Direct data are lacking, however, on the question of whether O2 delivery might limit kinetics during high-intensity exercise. Using multiple exercise transitions to enhance confidence in parameter estimation, we therefore investigated the kinetics of, and inter-relationships between, muscle blood flow (), a– difference and following the onset of low-intensity (LI) and high-intensity (HI) exercise. Seven healthy males completed four 6 min bouts of LI and four 6 min bouts of HI single-legged knee-extension exercise. Blood was frequently drawn from the femoral artery and vein during exercise and , a– difference and were calculated and subsequently modelled using non-linear regression techniques. For LI, the fundamental component mean response time (MRTp) for kinetics was significantly shorter than kinetics (mean ± SEM, 18 ± 4 vs. 30 ± 4 s; P kinetics following the onset of LI or HI knee-extension exercise. PMID:22711961