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Sample records for net nitrate uptake

  1. Residence time control on hot moments of net nitrate production and uptake in the hyporheic zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Martin A.; Lautz, Laura K.; Hare, Danielle K.

    2014-01-01

    The retention capacity for biologically available nitrogen within streams can be influenced by dynamic hyporheic zone exchange, a process that may act as either a net source or net sink of dissolved nitrogen. Over 5 weeks, nine vertical profiles of streambed chemistry (NO3- and NH4+) were collected above two beaver dams along with continuous high-resolution vertical hyporheic flux data. The results indicate a non-linear relation of net NO3- production followed by net uptake in the hyporheic zone as a function of residence time. This Lagrangian-based relation is consistent through time and across varied morphology (bars, pools, glides) above the dams, even though biogeochemical and environmental factors varied. The empirical continuum between net NO3- production and uptake and residence time is useful for identifying two crucial residence time thresholds: the transition to anaerobic respiration, which corresponds to the time of peak net nitrate production, and the net sink threshold, which is defined by a net uptake in NO3- relative to streamwater. Short-term hyporheic residence time variability at specific locations creates hot

  2. The contributions of nitrate uptake and efflux to isotope fractionation during algal nitrate assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsh, K. L.; Trull, T. W.; Sigman, D. M.; Thompson, P. A.; Granger, J.

    2014-05-01

    In order to strengthen environmental application of nitrate N and O isotopes, we measured the N and O isotopic fractionation associated with cellular nitrate uptake and efflux in the nitrate-assimilating marine diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii. We isolated nitrate uptake and efflux from nitrate reduction by growing the cells in the presence of tungsten, which substitutes for molybdenum in assimilatory nitrate reductase, yielding an inactive enzyme. After growth on ammonium and then N starvation, cells were exposed to nitrate. Numerical models fit to the evolution of intracellular nitrate concentration and N and O isotopic composition yielded distinct N isotope effects (15ɛ) for nitrate uptake and nitrate efflux (2.0 ± 0.3‰ and 1.2 ± 0.4‰, respectively). The O isotope effects (18ɛ) for nitrate uptake and nitrate efflux were indistinguishable (2.8 ± 0.6‰), yielding a ratio of O to N isotopic fractionation for uptake of 1.4 ± 0.4 and for efflux of 2.3 ± 0.9. The 15ɛ for nitrate uptake can account for at most 40% of the organism-level N isotope effect (15ɛorg) measured in laboratory studies of T. weissflogii and in the open ocean (typically 5‰ or greater). This observation supports previous evidence that most isotope fractionation during nitrate assimilation is due to intracellular nitrate reduction, with nitrate efflux allowing the signal to be communicated to the environment. An O to N fractionation ratio (18ɛorg:15ɛorg) of ˜1 has been measured for nitrate assimilation in algal cultures and linked to the N and O isotope effects of nitrate reductase. Our results suggest that the ratios of O to N fractionation for both nitrate uptake and efflux may be distinct from a ratio of 1, to a degree that could cause the net 18ɛorg:15ɛorg to rise appreciably above 1 when 15ɛorg is low (e.g., yielding a ratio of 1.1 when 15ɛorg is 5‰). However, field and culture studies have consistently measured nearly equivalent fractionation of N and O isotopes in

  3. Effect of NaCl salinity on nitrate uptake in Plantago maritima L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubinigg, Michael; Posthumus, F.S; Elzenga, J.T.M.; Stulen, I.

    2005-01-01

    Exposure of plants to NaCl salinity reduces the rate of nitrate net uptake by the roots. Previous studies showed that this effect was due to a reduced nitrate influx, which could only partially be explained by a lower demand of nitrate for growth. In the present work we tested the hypothesis that

  4. A theoretical model for explaining the effect of physical manipulation on nitrate uptake in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    terSteege, MW; Stulen, [No Value

    1997-01-01

    Experiments with spinach (Spinacia oleracea L., cv. Subito) plants in which net nitrate uptake rate (NNUR) and nitrate influx and efflux were measured showed that handling the plants affected the results considerably. Both nitrate influx and efflux changed after physical manipulation of the plants,

  5. Relationships between nitrate uptake and nitrate reductase activity in Cucumis sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Kłobus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-NR IgG fragments obtained after papain digestion of polyclonal antibodies gave the positive immunological reaction with both, a soluble and plasma membrane-bound nitrate reductase. Anti-NR antibody as well as IgG fragments almost totally inhibited the nitrate reductase activity in cytosol proving a crossreaction of antibody with the catalytic site of a soluble NR. Anti-NR IgG fragments, but not undigested polyclonal antibodies affected the activity of the nitrate reductase associated with plasma membranes. Discrepancy in the action of intact antibodies and fragments obtained after they digestion were interpreted as a consequence of same differences in the ability of those molecules to the penetration through the membrane. Undigested anti-NR antibody have no effect on the nitrate uptake by intact plants, as well as by the right-side plasma membrane vesicles. On the other hand, IgG fragments of polyclonal antibodies abolished almost totally the nitrate uptake in the case of intact seedlings, but have only slight effect on the N03 uptake in plasma membranes. On the basis of above findings, some relations between nitrate uptake and its assimilation inside the cell are suggested. Since IgG fragments only slightly changed the N03 absorption in vesicles whereas the activity of plasmalemma associated nitrate reductase was strongly repressed, we concluded that the PM-NR is not structurally involved in the nitrate transport through the membrane.

  6. Evidence for a plasma-membrane-bound nitrate reductase involved in nitrate uptake of Chlorella sorokiniana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischner, R.; Ward, M. R.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1989-01-01

    Anti-nitrate-reductase (NR) immunoglobulin-G (IgG) fragments inhibited nitrate uptake into Chlorella cells but had no affect on nitrate uptake. Intact anti-NR serum and preimmune IgG fragments had no affect on nitrate uptake. Membrane-associated NR was detected in plasma-membrane (PM) fractions isolated by aqueous two-phase partitioning. The PM-associated NR was not removed by sonicating PM vesicles in 500 mM NaCl and 1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and represented up to 0.8% of the total Chlorella NR activity. The PM NR was solubilized by Triton X-100 and inactivated by Chlorella NR antiserum. Plasma-membrane NR was present in ammonium-grown Chlorella cells that completely lacked soluble NR activity. The subunit sizes of the PM and soluble NRs were 60 and 95 kDa, respectively, as determined by sodium-dodecyl-sulfate electrophoresis and western blotting.

  7. Nitrate and nitrite uptake and reduction by intact sunflower plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agüera, E; de la Haba, P; Fontes, A G; Maldonado, J M

    1990-08-01

    Nitrogen-starved sunflower plants (Helianthus annuus L. cv. Peredovic) cannot absorb NO 3 (-) or NO 2 (-) upon initial exposure to these anions. Ability of the plants to take up NO 3 (-) and NO 2 (-) at high rates from the beginning was induced by a pretreatment with NO 3 (-) . Nitrite also acted as inducer of the NO 2 (-) -uptake system. The presence of cycloheximide during NO 3 (-) -pretreatment prevented the subsequent uptake of NO 3 (-) and NO 2 (-) , indicating that both uptake systems are synthesized de novo when plants are exposed to NO 3 (-) . Cycloheximide also suppressed nitrate-reductase (EC 1.6.6.1) and nitrite-reductase (EC 1.7.7.1) activities in the roots. The sulfhydryl-group reagent N-ethylmaleimide greatly inhibited the uptake of NO 3 (-) and NO 2 (-) . Likewise, N-ethylmaleimide promoted in vivo the inactivation of nitrate reductase without affecting nitrite-reductase activity. Rates of NO 3 (-) and NO 2 (-) uptake as a function of external anion concentration exhibited saturation kinetics. The calculated Km values for NO 3 (-) and NO 2 (-) uptake were 45 and 23 μM, respectively. Rates of NO 3 (-) uptake were four to six times higher than NO 3 (-) -reduction rates in roots. In contrast, NO 2 (-) -uptake rates, found to be very similar to NO 3 (-) -uptake rates, were much lower (about 30 times) than NO 2 (-) -reduction rates. Removal of oxygen from the external solution drastically suppressed NO 3 (-) and NO 2 (-) uptake without affecting their reduction. Uptake and reduction were also differentially affected by pH. The results demonstrate that uptake of NO 3 (-) and NO 2 (-) into sunflower plants is mediated by energy-dependent inducible-transport systems distinguishable from the respective enzymatic reducing systems.

  8. Nitrogen uptake by heterotrophic bacteria and phytoplankton in the nitrate-rich Thames estuary

    OpenAIRE

    J. J. Middelburg; Nieuwenhuize, J.

    2000-01-01

    The uptake of ammonium, nitrate, amino acids and urea was examined in the nitrate-rich Thames estuary and adjacent area in the North Sea during February 1999. The majority of uptake was by heterotrophic bacteria, as demonstrated by addition of a prokaryotic inhibitor that lowered uptake rates by 82, 66, 49 and 86 % for ammonium, nitrate, amino acids and urea, respectively. Amino acids were preferred over ammonium and urea, which in turn were preferred over nitrate. Urea was not important as n...

  9. Vertical migration, nitrate uptake and denitrification: survival mechanisms of foraminifers (Globobulimina turgida) in low oxygen conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koho, K.A.; Piña-Ochoa, E.; Geslin, E.; Risgaard-Petersen, N.

    2011-01-01

    15NO3− isotope labelling experiments were performed to investigate foraminiferal nitrate uptake strategies and the role of pseudopodial networks in nitrate uptake. Globobulimina turgida were placed below the nitrate penetration depth in homogenized sediment cores incubated in artificial seawater

  10. Nitrogen uptake by heterotrophic bacteria and phytoplankton in the nitrate-rich Thames estuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelburg, J.J.; Nieuwenhuize, J.

    2000-01-01

    The uptake of ammonium, nitrate, amino acids and urea was examined in the nitrate-rich Thames estuary and adjacent area in the North Sea during February 1999. The majority of uptake was by heterotrophic bacteria, as demonstrated by addition of a prokaryotic inhibitor that lowered uptake rates by 82,

  11. Spring Hydrology Determines Summer Net Carbon Uptake in Northern Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yonghong; Kimball, John; Reichle, Rolf H.

    2014-01-01

    Increased photosynthetic activity and enhanced seasonal CO2 exchange of northern ecosystems have been observed from a variety of sources including satellite vegetation indices (such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index; NDVI) and atmospheric CO2 measurements. Most of these changes have been attributed to strong warming trends in the northern high latitudes (greater than or equal to 50N). Here we analyze the interannual variation of summer net carbon uptake derived from atmospheric CO2 measurements and satellite NDVI in relation to surface meteorology from regional observational records. We find that increases in spring precipitation and snow pack promote summer net carbon uptake of northern ecosystems independent of air temperature effects. However, satellite NDVI measurements still show an overall benefit of summer photosynthetic activity from regional warming and limited impact of spring precipitation. This discrepancy is attributed to a similar response of photosynthesis and respiration to warming and thus reduced sensitivity of net ecosystem carbon uptake to temperature. Further analysis of boreal tower eddy covariance CO2 flux measurements indicates that summer net carbon uptake is positively correlated with early growing-season surface soil moisture, which is also strongly affected by spring precipitation and snow pack based on analysis of satellite soil moisture retrievals. This is attributed to strong regulation of spring hydrology on soil respiration in relatively wet boreal and arctic ecosystems. These results document the important role of spring hydrology in determining summer net carbon uptake and contrast with prevailing assumptions of dominant cold temperature limitations to high-latitude ecosystems. Our results indicate potentially stronger coupling of boreal/arctic water and carbon cycles with continued regional warming trends.

  12. Herbivores, tidal elevation, and species richness simultaneously mediate nitrate uptake by seaweed assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Matthew E S; Jones, Emily; Williams, Susan L

    2011-05-01

    In order for research into the consequences of biodiversity changes to be more applicable to real-world ecosystems, experiments must be conducted in the field, where a variety of factors other than diversity can affect the rates of key biogeochemical and physiological processes. Here, we experimentally evaluate the effects of two factors known to affect the diversity and composition of intertidal seaweed assemblages--tidal elevation and herbivory--on nitrate uptake by those assemblages. Based on surveys of community composition at the end of a 1.5-year press experiment, we found that both tide height and herbivores affected seaweed community structure. Not surprisingly, seaweed species richness was greater at lower tidal elevations. Herbivores did not affect richness, but they altered the types of species that were present; seaweed species characterized by higher rates of nitrate uptake were more abundant in herbivore-removal plots. Both tide height and herbivores affected nitrate uptake by seaweed assemblages. Individual seaweed species, as well as entire seaweed assemblages, living higher on the shore had greater rates of biomass-specific nitrate uptake, particularly at high ambient nitrate concentrations. Grazed seaweed assemblages exhibited reduced nitrate uptake, but only at low nitrate concentrations. We evaluated the effect of seaweed richness on nitrate uptake, both alone and after accounting for effects of tidal elevation and herbivores. When only richness was considered, we found no effect on uptake. However, when simultaneous effects of richness, tide height, and herbivores on uptake were evaluated, we found that all three had relatively large and comparable effects on nitrate uptake coefficients and that there was a negative relationship between seaweed richness and nitrate uptake. Particularly because effects of richness on uptake were not apparent unless the effects of tide height and herbivory were also considered, these results highlight the

  13. Effects of NaCl salinity on nitrate uptake and partitioning of N and C in Festuca rubra L. in relation to growth rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubinigg, M; Elzenga, JTM; Stulen, G

    2002-01-01

    The effect of salinity on nitrate net uptake rate was studied in the moderately salt tolerant halophyte Festuca rubra L., in relation to changes in relative growth rate, root weight ratio and nitrogen and carbon partitioning. Plants were grown for 21 days on nutrient solution containing 50, 100 and

  14. Understanding nitrate uptake, signaling and remobilisation for improving plant nitrogen use efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Surya

    2018-02-01

    The majority of terrestrial plants use nitrate as their main source of nitrogen. Nitrate also acts as an important signalling molecule in vital physiological processes required for optimum plant growth and development. Improving nitrate uptake and transport, through activation by nitrate sensing, signalling and regulatory processes, would enhance plant growth, resulting in improved crop yields. The increased remobilisation of nitrate, and assimilated nitrogenous compounds, from source to sink tissues further ensures higher yields and quality. An updated knowledge of various transporters, genes, activators, and microRNAs, involved in nitrate uptake, transport, remobilisation, and nitrate-mediated root growth, is presented. An enhanced understanding of these components will allow for their orchestrated fine tuning in efforts to improving nitrogen use efficiency in plants. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Uptake and resource allocation of ammonium and nitrate in temperate seagrasses Posidonia and Amphibolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, S; Collings, G J; Miller, D J; Bryars, S; Cheshire, A C

    2010-09-01

    Ecologically relevant estimates of seasonal variability in nitrogen uptake and allocation in two species of temperate seagrasses were obtained using in situ isotope-labelling approach. Significantly higher uptake rates of ammonium by leaves, roots and epiphytes of Amphibolis than Posidonia were observed. Overall, root uptake rates were lower than other components. Effect of season was not significant for leaves, roots or epiphytes of the two species. However, plankton uptake varied seasonally with higher rates in winter (0.98 mg N g(-1)D Wh(-1)). In contrast, nitrate uptake rates for various components were significantly affected by seasons. Uptake rates by plankton were highest ranging from 0.003 mg N g(-1)D Wh(-1) (summer, Amphibolis) to 0.69 mg N g(-1)DWh(-1) (winter, Posidonia). Uptake of nitrate by roots was negligible. Biotic uptake rates for nitrate were an order of magnitude slower than ammonium, demonstrating an affinity for ammonium over nitrate as a preferred inorganic nitrogen source. Adelaide coastal waters have lost over 5000 ha of seagrasses, much of this attributed to nutrient inputs from wastewater, industrial and stormwater. Managing these inputs into future requires better understanding of the fate of nutrients, particularly biological uptake. This study attempts to quantify uptake rates of nitrogen by seagrasses. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nitrate Uptake Capacity and Efficiency of Upper Mississippi River Flow-Regulated Backwaters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    James, William F; Richardson, William B; Soballe, David M

    2007-01-01

    In-stream uptake and processing of nitrate nitrite-N may be improved in large river systems by increasing hydrological connectivity between the main channel and adjoining backwaters, wetlands, and floodplain areas...

  17. Nitrate Uptake Capacity and Efficiency of Upper Mississippi River Flow-Regulated Backwaters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    James, William F; Richardson, William B; Soballe, David M

    2007-01-01

    .... Engineering designs to increase connectivity and loading to backwaters need to consider nitrate nitrite-N uptake capacity and efficiency in relation to hydraulic loading and residence time in order...

  18. Depletion of carbohydrate reserves limits nitrate uptake during early regrowth in Lolium perenne L.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Guo, Q.; Turnbull, M.; Song, J.; Roche, J.; Novák, Ondřej; Späth, J.; Jameson, P. E.; Love, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 7 (2017), s. 1569-1583 ISSN 0022-0957 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-06613S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Carbohydrate * Carbon * Cytokinin * Fructan * Lolium perenne * Nitrate transporter (NRT) * Nitrate uptake * Nitrogen * Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) * Perennial ryegrass Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 5.830, year: 2016

  19. The influence of hydrologic connectivity on ecosystem metabolism and nitrate uptake in an active beaver meadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, P.; Covino, T. P.; Wohl, E.; Kampf, S. K.; Lacy, S.

    2015-12-01

    Wetlands have been widely demonstrated to provide important watershed services, such as the sequestration of carbon (C) and removal of nitrate (NO3-) from through-flowing water. Hydrologic connectivity (degree of water and associated material exchange) between floodplain water bodies (e.g., side channels, ponds) and the main channel influence rates of C accumulation and NO3- uptake, and the degree to which wetlands contribute to enhanced water quality at the catchment scale. However, environmental engineers have largely ignored the role of hydrologic connectivity in providing essential ecosystem services, and constructed wetlands are commonly built using compacted clay and berms that result in less groundwater and surface water exchange than observed in natural wetlands. In a study of an active beaver meadow (multithreaded, riparian wetland) in Rocky Mountain National Park, CO, we show how shifts in hydrology (connectivity, residence times, flow paths) from late spring snowmelt (high connectivity) to autumn/winter baseflow (low connectivity) influence ecosystem metabolism metrics (e.g., gross primary production, ecosystem respiration, and net ecosystem productivity) and NO3- uptake rates. We use a combination of mixing analyses, tracer tests, and hydrometric methods to evaluate shifts in surface and subsurface hydrologic connections between floodplain water bodies from snowmelt to baseflow. In the main channel and three floodplain water bodies, we quantify metabolism metrics and NO3- uptake kinetics across shifting flow regimes. Results from our research indicate that NO3- uptake and metabolism dynamics respond to changing levels of hydrologic connectivity to the main channel, emphasizing the importance of incorporating connectivity in wetland mitigation practices that seek to enhance water quality at the catchment scale.

  20. Coumarin enhances nitrate uptake in maize roots throughout a modulation of plasma membrane H+ -ATPase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupini, Antonio; Araniti, Fabrizio; Mauceri, Antonio; Princi, Maria Polsia; Sorgonà, Agostino; Sunseri, Francesco; Varanini, Zeno; Abenavoli, Maria Rosa

    2017-11-27

    1.Coumarin is one of the simplest plant secondary metabolite widely distributed in plant kingdom affecting root form and function, including anatomy, morphology and nutrient uptake. Although, some plant responses to coumarin have been described, comprehensive knowledge of the physiological and molecular mechanisms is lacking. 2.Maize seedlings exposed to different coumarin concentrations, alone or in combination with 200 μM nitrate (NO3- ), were analyzed, through a physiological and molecular approach, to elucidate action of coumarin on net NO3- uptake rate (NNUR). In detail, the time course of NNUR, plasma membrane (PM) H+ -ATPase activity, the proton pumping, and related gene expressions (ZmNPF6.3, ZmNRT2.1, ZmNAR2.1, ZmHA3 and ZmHA4) were evaluated. 3.Coumarin alone did not affect nitrate uptake, the PM H+ -ATPase activity as well as the transcript levels of ZmNRT2.1 and ZmHA3. By contrast, coumarin alone increased ZmNPF6.3, ZmNAR2.1 and ZmHA4 expression, as observed in response to abiotic stress. When coumarin and NO3- were concurrently added to the nutrient solution, a significant increase in the NNUR, PM H+ -ATPase activity together with ZmNAR2.1:ZmNRT2.1 and ZmHA4 expressions were observed, suggesting that coumarin affected the inducible component of high affinity transport system (iHATS), and this effect appeared to be mediated by nitrate. Moreover, the results with vanadate, an inhibitor of the PM H+ -ATPase, suggested that this enzyme could be a main target of coumarin. 4.Surprisingly, coumarin did not affect the PM H+ -ATPase activity by direct contact with plasma membrane vesicle isolated from maize roots, indicating its possible elicitor role in the gene transcription. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Efficiency of nitrate uptake in spinach : impact of external nitrate concentration and relative growth rate on nitrate influx and efflux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Steege, MW; Stulen, [No Value; Wiersema, PK; Posthumus, F; Vaalburg, W

    1999-01-01

    Regulation of nitrate influx and efflux in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L., cv. Subito), was studied in short-term label experiments with N-13- and N-15-nitrate. Nitrate fluxes were examined in relation to the N demand for growth, defined as relative growth rate (RGR) times plant N concentration.

  2. Annual nitrate drawdown observed by SOCCOM profiling floats and the relationship to annual net community production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kenneth S.; Plant, Joshua N.; Dunne, John P.; Talley, Lynne D.; Sarmiento, Jorge L.

    2017-08-01

    Annual nitrate cycles have been measured throughout the pelagic waters of the Southern Ocean, including regions with seasonal ice cover and southern hemisphere subtropical zones. Vertically resolved nitrate measurements were made using in situ ultraviolet spectrophotometer (ISUS) and submersible ultraviolet nitrate analyzer (SUNA) optical nitrate sensors deployed on profiling floats. Thirty-one floats returned 40 complete annual cycles. The mean nitrate profile from the month with the highest winter nitrate minus the mean profile from the month with the lowest nitrate yields the annual nitrate drawdown. This quantity was integrated to 200 m depth and converted to carbon using the Redfield ratio to estimate annual net community production (ANCP) throughout the Southern Ocean south of 30°S. A well-defined, zonal mean distribution is found with highest values (3-4 mol C m-2 yr-1) from 40 to 50°S. Lowest values are found in the subtropics and in the seasonal ice zone. The area weighted mean was 2.9 mol C m-2 yr-1 for all regions south of 40°S. Cumulative ANCP south of 50°S is 1.3 Pg C yr-1. This represents about 13% of global ANCP in about 14% of the global ocean area.Plain Language SummaryThis manuscript reports on 40 annual cycles of nitrate observed by chemical sensors on SOCCOM profiling floats. The annual drawdown in nitrate concentration by phytoplankton is used to assess the spatial variability of annual net community production in the Southern Ocean. This ANCP is a key component of the global carbon cycle and it exerts an important control on atmospheric carbon dioxide. We show that the results are consistent with our prior understanding of Southern Ocean ANCP, which has required decades of observations to accumulate. The profiling floats now enable annual resolution of this key process. The results also highlight spatial variability in ANCP in the Southern Ocean.

  3. Modeling biotic uptake by periphyton and transient hyporrheic storage of nitrate in a natural stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Brian K.A.; Jackman, Alan P.; Triska, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    To a convection-dispersion hydrologic transport model we coupled a transient storage submodel (Bencala, 1984) and a biotic uptake submodel based on Michaelis-Menten kinetics (Kim et al., 1990). Our purpose was threefold: (1) to simulate nitrate retention in response to change in load in a third-order stream, (2) to differentiate biotic versus hydrologie factors in nitrate retention, and (3) to produce a research tool whose properties are consistent with laboratory and field observations. Hydrodynamic parameters were fitted from chloride concentration during a 20-day chloride-nitrate coinjection (Bencala, 1984), and biotic uptake kinetics were based on flume studies by Kim et al. (1990) and Triska et al. (1983). Nitrate concentration from the 20-day coinjection experiment served as a base for model validation. The complete transport retention model reasonably predicted the observed nitrate concentration. However, simulations which lacked either the transient storage submodel or the biotic uptake submodel poorly predicted the observed nitrate concentration. Model simulations indicated that transient storage in channel and hyporrheic interstices dominated nitrate retention within the first 24 hours, whereas biotic uptake dominated thereafter. A sawtooth function for Vmax ranging from 0.10 to 0.17 μg NO3-N s−1gAFDM−1 (grams ash free dry mass) slightly underpredicted nitrate retention in simulations of 2–7 days. This result was reasonable since uptake by other nitrate-demanding processes were not included. The model demonstrated how ecosystem retention is an interaction between physical and biotic processes and supports the validity of coupling separate hydrodynamic and reactive submodels to established solute transport models in biological studies of fluvial ecosystems.

  4. Molecular and physiological interactions of urea and nitrate uptake in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinton, Roberto; Tomasi, Nicola; Zanin, Laura

    2016-01-01

    While nitrate acquisition has been extensively studied, less information is available on transport systems of urea. Furthermore, the reciprocal influence of the two sources has not been clarified, so far. In this review, we will discuss recent developments on plant response to urea and nitrate nutrition. Experimental evidence suggests that, when urea and nitrate are available in the external solution, the induction of the uptake systems of each nitrogen (N) source is limited, while plant growth and N utilization is promoted. This physiological behavior might reflect cooperation among acquisition processes, where the activation of different N assimilatory pathways (cytosolic and plastidic pathways), allow a better control on the nutrient uptake. Based on physiological and molecular evidence, plants might increase (N) metabolism promoting a more efficient assimilation of taken-up nitrogen. The beneficial effect of urea and nitrate nutrition might contribute to develop new agronomical approaches to increase the (N) use efficiency in crops.

  5. The uptake and accumulation of phosphorous and nitrates and the activity of nitrate reductase in cucumber seedlings treated with PbCl2 or CdCl2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Burzyński

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of 4-day-old cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. seedlings with PbCl2 or CdCl2 caused a significant increase in the accumulation of heavy metals by the plants, especially in the roots. The accumulated Pb initially enhanced the uptake of phosphorous after the plants had been transferred to a nutrient medium (6, 24 hrs, but after only 48 Ins the uptake had dropped to below control level. The plants treated with Cd exhibited a constant decreased phosphorous uptake level. The accumulated lead and cadmium also inhibited nitrate uptake and the activity of nitrate reductase. It is suggested that the reason for the decreased nitrate reductase activity lay rather in the lower nitrate uptake than in a direct effect of the heavy metals on the enzyme.

  6. The effects of pH and temperature on phosphate and nitrate uptake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results revealed optimum pH ranges for the uptake of phosphate and nitrate to be 7 to 9 and 5 to 7, respectively. Maximum nutrient uptake was found to occur at 25oC with phosphate concentration decreasing from 64.74 to 10.21 mg/l, 63.09 to 8.54 mg/l and 64.47 to 6.36 mg/l, for isolates 'A', 'B' and 'C', respectively.

  7. Oxalate synthesis in leaves is associated with root uptake of nitrate and its assimilation in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao Xia; Zhou, Kai; Hu, Yan; Jin, Rong; Lu, Ling Li; Jin, Chong Wei; Lin, Xian Yong

    2015-08-15

    Excessive accumulation of oxalate in numerous vegetables adversely affects their quality as food. While it is known that nitrate could effectively stimulate oxalate accumulation in many vegetables, little information is available about the mechanism of nitrate-induced oxalate accumulation. In this study, we examined the association of oxalate synthesis with nitrate uptake and assimilation in two genotypes of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), Heizhenzhu and Weilv. Increasing nitrate levels resulted in enhanced synthesis of oxalate, as well as increased root uptake of nitrate and leaf activities of nitrate reductase (NR) and glutamine synthetase (GS) for both genotypes. Correlation analysis revealed that oxalate accumulation in spinach leaves was positively related with rate of nitrate uptake by roots, as well as leaf activities of NR and GS. Addition of plasmalemma H(+)-ATPase inhibitor sodium vanadate (Na3VO4) significantly decreased leaf oxalate accumulation in both genotypes. Presence of NR or GS inhibitors led to reduction of leaf oxalate contents, GS/NR activities and decreased nitrate uptake rate. Significantly higher levels of nitrate root uptake, leaf NR and GS activities were observed in the high-oxalate genotype Heizhenzhu than in Weilv. Oxalate synthesis in leaves of spinach is not only positively associated with root uptake of nitrate, but also with its assimilation within the plants. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Nitrate uptake varies with tide height and nutrient availability in the intertidal seaweed Fucus vesiculosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benes, Kylla M; Bracken, Matthew E S

    2016-10-01

    Intertidal seaweeds must cope with a suite of stressors imposed by aerial exposure at low tide, including nutrient limitation due to emersion. Seaweeds can access nutrients only when submerged, so individuals living higher compared to lower on the shore may have adaptations allowing them to acquire sufficient amounts of nutrients to survive and maintain growth. Using a combination of observations and experiments, we aimed to identify intraspecific variation in nitrate uptake rates across the intertidal distribution of F. vesiculosus, as well as test for acclimation in response to a change in tide height. We replicated our study at sites spanning nearly the entire Gulf of Maine coastline, to examine how local environmental variability may alter intraspecific variation in nitrate uptake. We found that average nitrate uptake rates were ~18% higher in upper compared to lower intertidal Fucus vesiculosus. Furthermore, we found evidence for both acclimation and adaptation to tide height during a transplant experiment. F. vesiculosus transplanted from the lower to the upper intertidal zone was characterized by increased nitrate uptake, but individuals transplanted from the upper to the lower intertidal zone retained high uptake rates. Our observations differed among Gulf of Maine regions and among time points of our study. Importantly, these differences may reflect associations between nitrate uptake rates and abiotic environmental conditions and seaweed nutrient status. Our study highlights the importance of long-term variation in ambient nutrient supply in driving intraspecific variation of seaweeds across the intertidal gradient and local and seasonal variation in ambient nutrient levels in mediating intraspecific differences. © 2016 Phycological Society of America.

  9. Growth requirement for N as a criterion to assess the effects of physical manipulation on nitrate uptake fluxes in spinach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Steege, MW; Stulen, [No Value; Wiersema, PK; Paans, AJM; Vaalburg, W; Kuiper, PJC; Clarkson, DT

    The effects of physical manipulation of hydroponically grown plants of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L., cvs Subito and Glares) on nitrate uptake fluxes were studied in a long-term experiment (3 days), and in short-term label experiments (2 h) with N-13-nitrate and N-15-nitrate. In the long-term

  10. Net community production at Ocean Station Papa observed with nitrate and oxygen sensors on profiling floats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Joshua N.; Johnson, Kenneth S.; Sakamoto, Carole M.; Jannasch, Hans W.; Coletti, Luke J.; Riser, Stephen C.; Swift, Dana D.

    2016-06-01

    Six profiling floats equipped with nitrate and oxygen sensors were deployed at Ocean Station P in the Gulf of Alaska. The resulting six calendar years and 10 float years of nitrate and oxygen data were used to determine an average annual cycle for net community production (NCP) in the top 35 m of the water column. NCP became positive in February as soon as the mixing activity in the surface layer began to weaken, but nearly 3 months before the traditionally defined mixed layer began to shoal from its winter time maximum. NCP displayed two maxima, one toward the end of May and another in August with a summertime minimum in June corresponding to the historical peak in mesozooplankton biomass. The average annual NCP was determined to be 1.5 ± 0.6 mol C m-2 yr-1 using nitrate and 1.5 ± 0.7 mol C m-2 yr-1 using oxygen. The results from oxygen data proved to be quite sensitive to the gas exchange model used as well as the accuracy of the oxygen measurement. Gas exchange models optimized for carbon dioxide flux generally ignore transport due to gas exchange through the injection of bubbles, and these models yield NCP values that are two to three time higher than the nitrate-based estimates. If nitrate and oxygen NCP rates are assumed to be related by the Redfield model, we show that the oxygen gas exchange model can be optimized by tuning the exchange terms to reproduce the nitrate NCP annual cycle.

  11. Nitrate Uptake by Roots as Regulated by Nitrate Assimilation in the Shoot of Castor Oil Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby, Ernest A.; Armstrong, Michael J.

    1980-01-01

    Ricinus communis was used to test the Ben Zioni-Dijkshoorn hypothesis that NO3 uptake by roots can be regulated by NO3 assimilation in the shoot. The rate of the anion charge from assimilated NO3− (and SO42−) was followed in its distribution between organic acid anion accumulation and HCO3− efflux into the nutrient solution. In plants adequately supplied with NO3−, HCO3− efflux accounted for between 56 and 63% of the anion charge. When the plants were subjected to a low NO3 regime HCO3− excretion accounted for only 23% of the charge. A comparison of mature plants growing for a 10-day period at the two levels of NO3 nutrition revealed that the uptake of NO3− at the higher level was increased 3-fold, whereas K uptake was unaltered. To trace ion movement within the plant, the ionic constituents of xylem and phloem sap were determined. In xylem sap these constituents were found to be predominantly K+, Ca2+, and NO3−, whereas in the phloem sap they were mainly K+ and organic acid anions. Results have been obtained which may be interpreted as providing direct evidence of NO3 uptake by roots regulated by NO3 reduction in the tops, the process being facilitated by the recirculation of K+ in the plant. PMID:16661175

  12. Coupling Hyporheic Nitrification-Denitrification: Evaluating Net Nitrate Source-Sink Dynamics as a Function of Transport and Reaction Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnetske, J. P.; Haggerty, R.; Wondzell, S. M.; Bokil, V. A.; Gonzalez Pinzon, R. A.

    2011-12-01

    The fate of biologically-available nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) in stream ecosystems is controlled by the coupling of physical transport and biogeochemical reaction kinetics. However, determining the relative role of physical and biogeochemical controls at different temporal and spatial scales is difficult. Hyporheic and riparian zones, where ground waters and stream waters mix, can be important locations controlling N and C transformations because they create strong gradients in both the physical and biogeochemical conditions that control redox biogeochemistry. We evaluated the coupling of physical transport and biogeochemical redox reactions by linking an advection, dispersion, and residence time model with a multiple Monod kinetics model simulating the concentrations of oxygen (O2), ammonium (NH4), nitrate (NO3), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The model successfully simulated the O2, NH4, NO3 and DOC concentration profiles observed in the hyporheic zone at our study site. We then used global Monte Carlo sensitivity analyses with a nondimensional form of the model to examine coupled nitrification-denitrification dynamics across many scales of transport and reaction conditions. Results demonstrated that the residence time of water in hyporheic systems and the uptake rate of O2 from either respiration and/or nitrification determined whether a hyporheic system was a source or a sink of NO3 to the stream. We further show that the net NO3 source or sink function of a hyporheic system is determined by the ratio of characteristic transport time to the characteristic reaction time of O2 (i.e., the Damköhler number, DaO2), where hyporheic systems with DaO2 > 1 will be net denitrification environments. Our coupling of the hydrologic and biogeochemical limitations of N transformations across different temporal and spatial scales within hyporheic zones allows us to explain the widely contrasting results of previous investigations of hyporheic N dynamics which variously

  13. Soluble fractions and kinetics parameters of nitrate and ammonium uptake in sunflower (“Neon” Hybrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiziene Soares Alves

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sunflower plants are source of oilseeds with great importance for agroenergy. Nitrogen deficiency is considered one of the factors limiting growth and yield. The objective of this study was to assess the nitrogen uptake (high and low supply of nitrate and ammonium and to determine the uptake kinetics parameters (Km and Vmax of these ions in sunflower plants (Neon hybrid. The experiment was carried out in a growth chamber using a hydroponic system. The following treatments were applied: 0.2 and 2.0 mmol L-1 of N-NO3- and N-NH4+. The two kinetics parameters (Km and Vmax involved in the uptake of nitrate and ammonium were determined, as well as the soluble fractions (N-NO3-, N-NH4+, amino-N and sugars and total N, in different plant tissues. The plants grown with ammonium showed higher Vmax than those cultivated with nitrate. High ammonium rates caused reduction of root volume and the plants supplied with 2.0 mmol L-1 of N-NO3- produced more biomass from the roots and aerial part. The highest concentrations of NNO3- were found in the petioles. Analyzed together, the data suggest a greater potential for use of nitric-N as a nitrogen source for fertilization in the cultivation of sunflower.

  14. Nitrate uptake improvement by modified activated carbons developed from two species of pine cones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunell, G V; Fernandez, M E; Bonelli, P R; Cukierman, A L

    2015-02-15

    Activated carbons from two species of pine cones (Pinus canariensis and Cupressus sempervirens) were prepared by phosphoric acid activation and tested for the removal of nitrate ions from aqueous solution. To investigate the feasibility of improving their nitrate adsorption capacity, two different post-treatments—a thermal treatment and a treatment with saturated urea solution—were also applied to the prepared activated carbons. Comparison of the treated and untreated activated carbons showed that both post-treatments improved the nitrate adsorption performance more than twice. The maximum adsorption capacity, as evaluated from determination of the adsorption isotherms for the P. canariensis based carbons, and their proper representation by the Langmuir model, demonstrated that the post-treatment with the urea solution led to activated carbons with increased nitrate removal effectiveness, even superior to other reported results. Enhancements in their adsorption capacity could be mainly ascribed to higher contents of nitrogen and basic functional groups, whereas porous structure of the activated carbons did not seem to play a key role in the nitrate uptake. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Land use impact on long term nitrogen trends and stream network nitrate uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, M.; Dupas, R.; Yang, X.; Jomaa, S.

    2016-12-01

    Uunderstanding of the effect of land use and agriculture practices on in-stream nitrogen fluxes is still not fully achieved. Primarily land use controls nitrogen losses from land to water. Long term land us effects can be evaluated by data driven time series analyses if detailed spatial analyses are not in the focus. New findings suggest that additionally land use can modify nitrogen removal from stream networks. To fully understand the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of nitrate losses to and uptake in river networks distributed grid-based hydrological water quality models are required. Our new findings reveal that dynamic harmonic regression time series analysis of long term river water quality data allow to detect changes from chemodynamic to more chemostatic behavior over several decades and we suggest that this seems to be a general trend in long term heavily anthropogenically used agricultural catchments in central Europe. This is a sign of long-term homogenisation of nitrate concentrations distribution over depth of the soil and subsoil. We show that detailed physical understanding of nitrate dynamics across time scales can be obtained only through combined analysis of long-term records including also high-resolution sensor data. New experimental analyses indicate that land use can modify in-stream assimilatory uptake through riparian vegetation induced changes of light regime. Furthermore straitening of streams and rivers due to increasing land use pressure may also change in-stream nitrogen removal through reduced stream benthic area and increased flow velocity. We introduce a new modelling approach based on the multi-scale Hydrological Model (mHM) which allows considering both spatially distributed nitrogen leaching as well as high spatial resolution river network uptake including the impact of riparian vegetation and stream bottom area. We compare seasonal variation of model in-stream nitrate uptake predictions with calculated values using a

  16. Light environment alters ozone uptake per net photosynthetic rate in black cherry trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredericksen, T S; Kolb, T E; Skelly, J M; Steiner, K C; Joyce, B J; Savage, J E

    1996-05-01

    Foliar ozone uptake rates of different-sized black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) trees were compared within a deciduous forest and adjacent openings in north-central Pennsylvania during one growing season. Study trees included open-grown seedlings and saplings, forest understory seedlings and saplings, and sunlit and shaded portions of mature canopy tree crowns. Instantaneous ozone uptake rates were highest in high-light environments primarily because of higher stomatal conductances. Low ozone uptake rates of seedlings and saplings in the forest understory could be attributed partially to lower average ambient ozone concentrations compared to the canopy and open environments. Among the tree size and light combinations tested, ozone uptake rates were highest in open-grown seedlings and lowest in forest-grown seedlings. Despite lower ozone uptake rates of foliage in shaded environments, ozone uptake per net photosynthesis of foliage in shaded environments was significantly higher than that of foliage in sunlit environments because of weaker coupling between net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in shaded environments. The potential for greater ozone injury in shaded environments as a result of greater ozone uptake per net photosynthesis is consistent with previous reports of greater ozone injury in shaded foliage than in sunlit foliage.

  17. Ammonium reduces oxalate accumulation in different spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) genotypes by inhibiting root uptake of nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoxia; Lu, Lingli; Chen, Qiuhui; Ding, Wenya; Dai, Peibin; Hu, Yan; Yu, Yan; Jin, Chongwei; Lin, Xianyong

    2015-11-01

    Excessive accumulation of oxalate negatively affects nutritional value of many vegetables, such as spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). Mixed solution of ammonium and nitrate could effectively reduce oxalate accumulation, while the mechanism involved remains unknown. High (Heizhenzhu) and low (Weilv) oxalate-accumulated spinach genotypes were used in this study to investigate the association of oxalate accumulation and root uptake of nitrogen. Exposure of increasing nitrate or mixed-nitrogen (nitrate:ammonium = 1:1) significantly increased leaf total and soluble oxalate contents. In contrast, increasing ammonium did not result in elevation of leaf oxalate. Correlation analysis confirmed that leaf oxalate accumulation was positively associated with root uptake of nitrate but not ammonium. Moreover, addition of ammonium significantly reduced nitrate uptake rate, and subsequently decreased leaf oxalate accumulation. The results suggest that oxalate synthesis in spinach leaves is associated with its root uptake of nitrate, and ammonium is able to reduce oxalate accumulation by inhibiting uptake of nitrate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. IntermIttent PreventIve treatment and Bed nets uPtake among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IntErMIttEnt PrEvEntIvE trEAtMEnt And BEd nEts uPtAkE AMong PrEgnAnt woMEn. In kEnyA s. M. karoki, Bsc, MsC, Ministry of ... The use of intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) and long-lasting insecticide treated nets ..... was conducted through the structured operational research and training Initiative (sort.

  19. Hexavalent chromium stress enhances the uptake of nitrate but reduces the uptake of ammonium and glycine in pak choi (Brassica chinensis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingxu; Cao, Xiaochuang; Ma, Jinzhao; Tan, Xiaoli; Xie, Yinan; Xiao, Han; Wu, Lianghuan

    2017-05-01

    Chromium (Cr) pollution affects plant growth and biochemical processes, so, the relative uptake of glycine, nitrate, and ammonium by pak choi (Brassica chinensis) seedlings in treatments with 0mgL(-1) and 10mgL(-1) Cr (VI) were detected by substrate-specific (15)N-labelling in a sterile environment. The short-term uptake of (15)N-labelled sources and (15)N-enriched amino acids were detected by gas chromatography mass spectrometry to explore the mechanism by which Cr stress affects glycine uptake and metabolism, which showing that Cr stress hindered the uptake of ammonium and glycine but increased significantly the uptake of nitrate. Cr stress did not decrease the active or passive uptake of glycine, but it inhibited the conversion of glycine to serine in pak choi roots, indicating that the metabolism of glycine to serine in roots, rather than the root uptake, was the limiting step in glycine contribution to total N uptake in pak choi. Since Cr affects the relative uptake of different N sources, a feasible way to reduce Cr-induced stress is application of selective fertilization, in particular nitrate, in pak choi cultivation on Cr-polluted soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Provision of nitrogen as ammonium rather than nitrate increases silicon uptake in sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeping, Malcolm G; Rutherford, R Stuart; Sewpersad, C; Miles, Neil

    2014-12-01

    Silicon (Si) is important in mitigating abiotic and biotic plant stresses, yet many agricultural soils, such as those of the rainfed production areas of the South African sugar industry, are deficient in plant-available Si, making Si supplementation necessary. However, Si uptake by sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) is limited even where silicate amendments improve soil Si status. Rhizosphere pH, which can affect Si uptake, can be manipulated using different N-form fertilizers. We tested whether (i) fertilization with [Formula: see text] (rhizosphere acidification) increased Si uptake compared with [Formula: see text] (rhizosphere alkalinization); and (ii) uptake differed between an N-efficient, more acid-tolerant cultivar (N12) and an N-inefficient, less acid-tolerant cultivar (N14). Two pot trials with low-Si soil were fertilized with calcium silicate (Ca2SiO4) slag, plus N from ammonium sulphate [(NH4)2SO4], ammonium thiosulphate [(NH4)2S2O3] and calcium nitrate [Ca(NO3)2] (Trial 1) or N from (NH4)2S2O3 and Ca(NO3)2 only (Trial 2). Trial 2 included cultivars N12 and N14. Nitrate treatments significantly increased soil pH and soil Si compared with [Formula: see text] However, [Formula: see text] treatments significantly increased leaf and stalk Si content compared with [Formula: see text] reflected in a significant negative relationship between soil pH and leaf Si. Acid-extracted soil Si was negatively related to leaf and stalk Si, likely due to adsorption of silicic acid to soil surfaces under higher pH of the [Formula: see text] treatment and its reduced availability for plant uptake. We conclude that [Formula: see text] increased Si uptake into leaf and stalk, and propose that reduced rhizosphere pH solubilized Si from Ca2SiO4 and increased silicic acid availability for plant uptake. By contrast, [Formula: see text] may have reduced Si uptake due to adsorption of Si to soil surfaces at higher pH. Our results indicate that ammoniacal fertilizers, such as (NH4

  1. Nitrate uptake across biomes and the influence of elemental stoichiometry: A new look at LINX II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wymore, Adam S.; Coble, Ashley A.; Rodríguez-Cardona, Bianca; McDowell, William H.

    2016-08-01

    Considering recent increases in anthropogenic N loading, it is essential to identify the controls on N removal and retention in aquatic ecosystems because the fate of N has consequences for water quality in streams and downstream ecosystems. Biological uptake of nitrate (NO3-) is a major pathway by which N is removed from these ecosystems. Here we used data from the second Lotic Intersite Nitrogen eXperiment (LINX II) in a multivariate analysis to identify the primary drivers of variation in NO3- uptake velocity among biomes. Across 69 study watersheds in North America, dissolved organic carbon:NO3- ratios and photosynthetically active radiation were identified as the two most important predictor variables in explaining NO3- uptake velocity. However, within a specific biome the predictor variables of NO3- uptake velocity varied and included various physical, chemical, and biological attributes. Our analysis demonstrates the broad control of elemental stoichiometry on NO3- uptake velocity as well as the importance of biome-specific predictors. Understanding this spatial variation has important implications for biome-specific watershed management and the downstream export of NO3-, as well as for development of spatially explicit global models that describe N dynamics in streams and rivers.

  2. Nitrate concentration effects on NO3-N uptake and reduction, growth, and fruit yield in strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnell, R. L.; Stutte, G. W.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Strawberries (Fragaria xananassa Duch. 'Osogrande') were grown hydroponically with three NO3-N concentrations (3.75, 7.5, or 15.0 mM) to determine effects of varying concentration on NO3-N uptake and reduction rates, and to relate these processes to growth and fruit yield. Plants were grown for 32 weeks, and NO3-N uptake and nitrate reductase (NR) activities in roots and shoots were measured during vegetative and reproductive growth. In general, NO3-N uptake rates increased as NO3-N concentration in the hydroponics system increased. Tissue NO3- concentration also increased as external NO3-N concentration increased, reflecting the differences in uptake rates. There was no effect of external NO3-N concentration on NR activities in leaves or roots during either stage of development. Leaf NR activity averaged approximately 360 nmol NO2 formed/g fresh weight (FW)/h over both developmental stages, while NR activity in roots was much lower, averaging approximately 115 nmol NO2 formed/g FW/h. Vegetative organ FW, dry weight (DW), and total fruit yield were unaffected by NO3-N concentration. These data suggest that the inability of strawberry to increase growth and fruit yield in response to increasing NO3-N concentrations is not due to limitations in NO3-N uptake rates, but rather to limitations in NO3- reduction and/or assimilation in both roots and leaves.

  3. Nitrate removal in stream ecosystems measured by 15N addition experiments: Total uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R.O.; Tank, J.L.; Sobota, D.J.; Mulholland, P.J.; O'Brien, J. M.; Dodds, W.K.; Webster, J.R.; Valett, H.M.; Poole, G.C.; Peterson, B.J.; Meyer, J.L.; McDowell, W.H.; Johnson, S.L.; Hamilton, S.K.; Grimm, N. B.; Gregory, S.V.; Dahm, Clifford N.; Cooper, L.W.; Ashkenas, L.R.; Thomas, S.M.; Sheibley, R.W.; Potter, J.D.; Niederlehner, B.R.; Johnson, L.T.; Helton, A.M.; Crenshaw, C.M.; Burgin, A.J.; Bernot, M.J.; Beaulieu, J.J.; Arangob, C.P.

    2009-01-01

    We measured uptake length of 15NO-3 in 72 streams in eight regions across the United States and Puerto Rico to develop quantitative predictive models on controls of NO-3 uptake length. As part of the Lotic Intersite Nitrogen eXperiment II project, we chose nine streams in each region corresponding to natural (reference), suburban-urban, and agricultural land uses. Study streams spanned a range of human land use to maximize variation in NO-3 concentration, geomorphology, and metabolism. We tested a causal model predicting controls on NO-3 uptake length using structural equation modeling. The model included concomitant measurements of ecosystem metabolism, hydraulic parameters, and nitrogen concentration. We compared this structural equation model to multiple regression models which included additional biotic, catchment, and riparian variables. The structural equation model explained 79% of the variation in log uptake length (S Wtot). Uptake length increased with specific discharge (Q/w) and increasing NO-3 concentrations, showing a loss in removal efficiency in streams with high NO-3 concentration. Uptake lengths shortened with increasing gross primary production, suggesting autotrophic assimilation dominated NO-3 removal. The fraction of catchment area as agriculture and suburban-urban land use weakly predicted NO-3 uptake in bivariate regression, and did improve prediction in a set of multiple regression models. Adding land use to the structural equation model showed that land use indirectly affected NO-3 uptake lengths via directly increasing both gross primary production and NO-3 concentration. Gross primary production shortened SWtot, while increasing NO-3 lengthened SWtot resulting in no net effect of land use on NO- 3 removal. ?? 2009.

  4. Rain events decrease boreal peatland net CO2 uptake through reduced light availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijp, Jelmer J; Limpens, Juul; Metselaar, Klaas; Peichl, Matthias; Nilsson, Mats B; van der Zee, Sjoerd E A T M; Berendse, Frank

    2015-06-01

    Boreal peatlands store large amounts of carbon, reflecting their important role in the global carbon cycle. The short-term exchange and the long-term storage of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) in these ecosystems are closely associated with the permanently wet surface conditions and are susceptible to drought. Especially, the single most important peat forming plant genus, Sphagnum, depends heavily on surface wetness for its primary production. Changes in rainfall patterns are expected to affect surface wetness, but how this transient rewetting affects net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) remains unknown. This study explores how the timing and characteristics of rain events during photosynthetic active periods, that is daytime, affect peatland NEE and whether rain event associated changes in environmental conditions modify this response (e.g. water table, radiation, vapour pressure deficit, temperature). We analysed an 11-year time series of half-hourly eddy covariance and meteorological measurements from Degerö Stormyr, a boreal peatland in northern Sweden. Our results show that daytime rain events systematically decreased the sink strength of peatlands for atmospheric CO2 . The decrease was best explained by rain associated reduction in light, rather than by rain characteristics or drought length. An average daytime growing season rain event reduced net ecosystem CO2 uptake by 0.23-0.54 gC m(-2) . On an annual basis, this reduction of net CO2 uptake corresponds to 24% of the annual net CO2 uptake (NEE) of the study site, equivalent to a 4.4% reduction of gross primary production (GPP) during the growing season. We conclude that reduced light availability associated with rain events is more important in explaining the NEE response to rain events than rain characteristics and changes in water availability. This suggests that peatland CO2 uptake is highly sensitive to changes in cloud cover formation and to altered rainfall regimes, a process hitherto largely

  5. IntermIttent PreventIve treatment and Bed nets uPtake among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Medical Journal Vol: 93 No. 10 (Supplement) October 2016. IntErMIttEnt PrEvEntIvE trEAtMEnt And BEd nEts uPtAkE AMong PrEgnAnt woMEn. In kEnyA s. M. karoki, Bsc, MsC, Ministry of Health, national Malaria Control Programme, nairobi, kenya, L. kariuki, Bsc, vector Borne disease unit, nairobi, kenya, P. o.

  6. Elevated CO2 maintains grassland net carbon uptake under a future heat and drought extreme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Jacques; Picon-Cochard, Catherine; Augusti, Angela; Benot, Marie-Lise; Thiery, Lionel; Darsonville, Olivier; Landais, Damien; Piel, Clément; Defossez, Marc; Devidal, Sébastien; Escape, Christophe; Ravel, Olivier; Fromin, Nathalie; Volaire, Florence; Milcu, Alexandru; Bahn, Michael; Soussana, Jean-François

    2016-05-31

    Extreme climatic events (ECEs) such as droughts and heat waves are predicted to increase in intensity and frequency and impact the terrestrial carbon balance. However, we lack direct experimental evidence of how the net carbon uptake of ecosystems is affected by ECEs under future elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations (eCO2). Taking advantage of an advanced controlled environment facility for ecosystem research (Ecotron), we simulated eCO2 and extreme cooccurring heat and drought events as projected for the 2050s and analyzed their effects on the ecosystem-level carbon and water fluxes in a C3 grassland. Our results indicate that eCO2 not only slows down the decline of ecosystem carbon uptake during the ECE but also enhances its recovery after the ECE, as mediated by increases of root growth and plant nitrogen uptake induced by the ECE. These findings indicate that, in the predicted near future climate, eCO2 could mitigate the effects of extreme droughts and heat waves on ecosystem net carbon uptake.

  7. Uptake and elimination kinetics of silver nanoparticles and silver nitrate by Raphidocelis subcapitata: The influence of silver behaviour in solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro, Fabianne; Gallego-Urrea, Julián Alberto; Goodhead, Rhys M.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Moeger, Julian; Soares, Amadeu M.V.M.; Loureiro, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Raphidocelis subcapitata is a freshwater algae species that constitutes the basis of many aquatic trophic chains. In this study, R. subcapitata was used as a model species to investigate the kinetics of uptake and elimination of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) in comparison to silver nitrate

  8. Greater deciduous shrub abundance extends tundra peak season and increases modeled net CO2 uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Shannan K; Griffin, Kevin L; Steltzer, Heidi; Gough, Laura; Boelman, Natalie T

    2015-06-01

    Satellite studies of the terrestrial Arctic report increased summer greening and longer overall growing and peak seasons since the 1980s, which increases productivity and the period of carbon uptake. These trends are attributed to increasing air temperatures and reduced snow cover duration in spring and fall. Concurrently, deciduous shrubs are becoming increasingly abundant in tundra landscapes, which may also impact canopy phenology and productivity. Our aim was to determine the influence of greater deciduous shrub abundance on tundra canopy phenology and subsequent impacts on net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) during the growing and peak seasons in the arctic foothills region of Alaska. We compared deciduous shrub-dominated and evergreen/graminoid-dominated community-level canopy phenology throughout the growing season using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). We used a tundra plant-community-specific leaf area index (LAI) model to estimate LAI throughout the green season and a tundra-specific NEE model to estimate the impact of greater deciduous shrub abundance and associated shifts in both leaf area and canopy phenology on tundra carbon flux. We found that deciduous shrub canopies reached the onset of peak greenness 13 days earlier and the onset of senescence 3 days earlier compared to evergreen/graminoid canopies, resulting in a 10-day extension of the peak season. The combined effect of the longer peak season and greater leaf area of deciduous shrub canopies almost tripled the modeled net carbon uptake of deciduous shrub communities compared to evergreen/graminoid communities, while the longer peak season alone resulted in 84% greater carbon uptake in deciduous shrub communities. These results suggest that greater deciduous shrub abundance increases carbon uptake not only due to greater leaf area, but also due to an extension of the period of peak greenness, which extends the period of maximum carbon uptake. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Reduction of Net Sulfide Production Rate by Nitrate in Wastewater Bioreactors. Kinetics and Changes in the Microbial Community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villahermosa, Desiree; Corzo, Alfonso; Gonzalez, J M

    2013-01-01

    Nitrate addition stimulated sulfide oxidation by increasing the activity of nitrate-reducing sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB), decreasing the concentration of dissolved H2S in the water phase and, consequently, its release to the atmosphere of a pilot-scale anaerobic bioreactor. The effect...... of four different concentrations of nitrate (0.12, 0.24, 0.50, and 1.00 mM) was investigated for a period of 3 days in relation to sulfide concentration in two bioreactors set up at Guadalete wastewater treatment plant (Jerez de la Frontera, Spain). Physicochemical variables were measured in water and air......, and the activity of bacteria implicated in the sulfur and nitrogen cycles was analyzed in the biofilms and in the water phase of the bioreactors. Biofilms were a net source of sulfide for the water and gas phases (7.22 ± 5.3 μmol s−1) in the absence of nitrate dosing. Addition of nitrate resulted in a quick...

  10. Drought Rapidly Diminishes the Large Net CO2 Uptake in 2011 Over Semi-Arid Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xuanlong; Huete, Alfredo; Cleverly, James; Eamus, Derek; Chevallier, Frederic; Joiner, Joanna; Poulter, Benjamin; Zhang, Yongguang; Guanter, Luis; Meyer, Wayne; hide

    2016-01-01

    Each year, terrestrial ecosystems absorb more than a quarter of the anthropogenic carbon emissions, termed as land carbon sink. An exceptionally large land carbon sink anomaly was recorded in 2011, of which more than half was attributed to Australia. However, the persistence and spatially attribution of this carbon sink remain largely unknown. Here we conducted an observation-based study to characterize the Australian land carbon sink through the novel coupling of satellite retrievals of atmospheric CO2 and photosynthesis and in-situ flux tower measures. We show the 2010-11 carbon sink was primarily ascribed to savannas and grasslands. When all biomes were normalized by rainfall, shrublands however, were most efficient in absorbing carbon. We found the 2010-11 net CO2 uptake was highly transient with rapid dissipation through drought. The size of the 2010-11 carbon sink over Australia (0.97 Pg) was reduced to 0.48 Pg in 2011-12, and was nearly eliminated in 2012-13 (0.08 Pg). We further report evidence of an earlier 2000-01 large net CO2 uptake, demonstrating a repetitive nature of this land carbon sink. Given a significant increasing trend in extreme wet year precipitation over Australia, we suggest that carbon sink episodes will exert greater future impacts on global carbon cycle.

  11. Drought rapidly diminishes the large net CO2 uptake in 2011 over semi-arid Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xuanlong; Huete, Alfredo; Cleverly, James; Eamus, Derek; Chevallier, Frédéric; Joiner, Joanna; Poulter, Benjamin; Zhang, Yongguang; Guanter, Luis; Meyer, Wayne; Xie, Zunyi; Ponce-Campos, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Each year, terrestrial ecosystems absorb more than a quarter of the anthropogenic carbon emissions, termed as land carbon sink. An exceptionally large land carbon sink anomaly was recorded in 2011, of which more than half was attributed to Australia. However, the persistence and spatially attribution of this carbon sink remain largely unknown. Here we conducted an observation-based study to characterize the Australian land carbon sink through the novel coupling of satellite retrievals of atmospheric CO2 and photosynthesis and in-situ flux tower measures. We show the 2010–11 carbon sink was primarily ascribed to savannas and grasslands. When all biomes were normalized by rainfall, shrublands however, were most efficient in absorbing carbon. We found the 2010–11 net CO2 uptake was highly transient with rapid dissipation through drought. The size of the 2010–11 carbon sink over Australia (0.97 Pg) was reduced to 0.48 Pg in 2011–12, and was nearly eliminated in 2012–13 (0.08 Pg). We further report evidence of an earlier 2000–01 large net CO2 uptake, demonstrating a repetitive nature of this land carbon sink. Given a significant increasing trend in extreme wet year precipitation over Australia, we suggest that carbon sink episodes will exert greater future impacts on global carbon cycle. PMID:27886216

  12. Increase in observed net carbon dioxide uptake by land and oceans during the past 50 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, A P; Alden, C B; Miller, J B; Tans, P P; White, J W C

    2012-08-02

    One of the greatest sources of uncertainty for future climate predictions is the response of the global carbon cycle to climate change. Although approximately one-half of total CO(2) emissions is at present taken up by combined land and ocean carbon reservoirs, models predict a decline in future carbon uptake by these reservoirs, resulting in a positive carbon-climate feedback. Several recent studies suggest that rates of carbon uptake by the land and ocean have remained constant or declined in recent decades. Other work, however, has called into question the reported decline. Here we use global-scale atmospheric CO(2) measurements, CO(2) emission inventories and their full range of uncertainties to calculate changes in global CO(2) sources and sinks during the past 50 years. Our mass balance analysis shows that net global carbon uptake has increased significantly by about 0.05 billion tonnes of carbon per year and that global carbon uptake doubled, from 2.4 ± 0.8 to 5.0 ± 0.9 billion tonnes per year, between 1960 and 2010. Therefore, it is very unlikely that both land and ocean carbon sinks have decreased on a global scale. Since 1959, approximately 350 billion tonnes of carbon have been emitted by humans to the atmosphere, of which about 55 per cent has moved into the land and oceans. Thus, identifying the mechanisms and locations responsible for increasing global carbon uptake remains a critical challenge in constraining the modern global carbon budget and predicting future carbon-climate interactions.

  13. Nitrate transporters in leaves and their potential roles in foliar uptake of nitrogen dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbo eHu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available While plant roots are specialized organs for the uptake and transport of water and nutrients, the absorption of gaseous or liquid mineral elements by aerial plant parts has been recognized since more than one century. Nitrogen (N is an essential macronutrient which generally absorbed either as nitrate (NO3- or ammonium (NH4+ by plant roots. Gaseous nitrogen pollutants like N dioxide (NO2 can also be absorbed by plant surfaces and assimilated via the NO3– assimilation pathway. The subsequent NO3– flux may induce or repress the expression of various NO3–-responsive genes encoding for instance, the transmembrane transporters, NO3–/NO2– (nitrite reductase, or assimilatory enzymes involved in N metabolism. Based on the existing information, the aim of this review was to theoretically analyze the potential link between foliar NO2 absorption and N transport and metabolism. For such purpose, an overview of the state of knowledge on the NO3– transporter genes identified in leaves or shoots of various species and their roles for NO3– transport across the tonoplast and plasma membrane, in addition to the process of phloem loading is briefly provided. It is assumed that a NO2-induced ac-cumulation of NO3–/NO2– may alter the expression of such genes, hence linking transmembrane NO3– transporters and foliar uptake of NO2. It is likely that NRT1/NRT2 gene expression and spe-cies-dependent apoplastic buffer capacity may be also related to the species-specific foliar NO2 uptake process. It is concluded that further work focusing on the expression of NRT1 (NRT1.1, NRT1.7, NRT1.11 and NRT1.12, NRT2 (NRT2.1, NRT2.4 and NRT2.5 and chloride channel family genes (CLCa and CLCd may help us elucidate the physiological and metabolic response of plants fumigated with NO2.

  14. Nitrate supply and phytoplankton uptake kinetics in the euphotic layer of a Gulf Stream warm-core ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, James J.; Garside, Chris; Nevins, John L.

    1992-03-01

    Chcmiluminescent nitrate analysis was used in conjuction with 15N-labeled B=-BeB=-Bek uptake by phytoplankton in warm-core ring 82B. The relatively high precision of this method compared to conventional B=-Bek analyses permits reliable estimates of B=-Bek uptake in oligotrophic waters. Aggregation of uptake data from six profiles from 2 days of observation permitted the calculation of B=-Bek turnover times ranging from about 4 h near the surface to 150 h at the top of the nitracline. Turnover times in the euphotic zone and the observed half saturation constant of 93 nmol kg -1 for B=-Bek uptake imply nitrogen limitation for these populations. Extrapolation from the linear portion of the kinetic curve revealed that a B=-Bek threshold concentration of about 16 nmol kg -1 was required for the initiation of uptake. These highly precise uptake measurements were used in a one-dimensional model to estimate the vertical flux of B=-Bek. Maximum near-surface and deep-euphotic-zone eddy diffusivity values ( Kz)were 3 × 10 -3 and 5 × 10 -4 m 2 s -1, respectively, prior toamajor storm. Following the storm Kz values were substantially greater.

  15. Ground vegetation reduces forest floor net CH4 uptake in a boreal upland forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihlatie, Mari; Kieloaho, Antti-Jussi; Halmeenmäki, Elisa; Ryhti, Kira; Heinonsalo, Jussi

    2017-04-01

    Boreal upland forests are considered as an important sink for the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) due to CH4 oxidizing microbes in the soil. Recent studies have reported significant CH4 emissions from trees in both upland and wetland forests, however, contribution of ground vegetation to the net CH4 exchange has not been assessed. As the processes and process drivers of the CH4 emissions from vegetation are still poorly understood, partitioning the CH4 exchange in forest ecosystems to soil, ground vegetation and trees is a way to improve our understanding of the CH4 cycling processes in forest ecosystems. We measured the forest floor CH4 exchange at a Scots pine dominated boreal upland forest in Southern Finland (SMEAR II station) during the growing season 2015. The forest floor consisted of mostly shrubs of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea), heather (Calluna vulgaris), and forest floor mosses (Pleurozium schreberi, Hylocomium splendens, and Dicranum polysetum). We measured the CH4 fluxes using transparent chambers under three vegetation treatments: normal vegetation (normal), shrubs only (shrubs), and non-vegetated (cut), and under three soil trenching treatments: control, 50 μm mesh (roots of trees and shrubs excluded), and 1 μm mesh (roots of trees and shrubs, and microbes excluded). Forest floor acted as a sink of CH4 in all the vegetation and trenching treatments. Presence of ground layer vegetation significantly reduced the forest floor CH4 uptake, whereas soil trenching did not affect the CH4 exchange. Over the period of May - October 2015, the mean forest floor CH4 fluxes were -53.7 (± 3.1 SE), -96.7 (± 3.7), and -91.4 (± 4.3) μg CH4 m2 h-1 from normal, shrubs and cut treatments, respectively. The presence of ground vegetation hence nearly halved the forest floor CH4 uptake compared to the shrubs only and cut treatments. As the largest difference between normal and shrubs treatments were the absence of mosses, our

  16. Hydroponics versus field lysimeter studies of urea, ammonium and nitrate uptake by oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkoun, Mustapha; Sarda, Xavier; Jannin, Laëtitia; Laîné, Philippe; Etienne, Philippe; Garcia-Mina, José-Maria; Yvin, Jean-Claude; Ourry, Alain

    2012-09-01

    N-fertilizer use efficiencies are affected by their chemical composition and suffer from potential N-losses by volatilization. In a field lysimeter experiment, (15)N-labelled fertilizers were used to follow N uptake by Brassica napus L. and assess N-losses by volatilization. Use of urea with NBPT (urease inhibitor) showed the best efficiency with the lowest N losses (8% of N applied compared with 25% with urea alone). Plants receiving ammonium sulphate, had similar yield achieved through a better N mobilization from vegetative tissues to the seeds, despite a lower N uptake resulting from a higher volatilization (43% of applied N). Amounts of (15)N in the plant were also higher when plants were fertilized with ammonium nitrate but N-losses reached 23% of applied N. In parallel, hydroponic experiments showed a deleterious effect of ammonium and urea on the growth of oilseed rape. This was alleviated by the nitrate supply, which was preferentially taken up. B. napus was also characterized by a very low potential for urea uptake. BnDUR3 and BnAMT1, encoding urea and ammonium transporters, were up-regulated by urea, suggesting that urea-grown plants suffered from nitrogen deficiency. The results also suggested a role for nitrate as a signal for the expression of BnDUR3, in addition to its role as a major nutrient. Overall, the results of the hydroponic study showed that urea itself does not contribute significantly to the N nutrition of oilseed rape. Moreover, it may contribute indirectly since a better use efficiency for urea fertilizer, which was further increased by the application of a urease inhibitor, was observed in the lysimeter study.

  17. Traditional Nets Interfere with the Uptake of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets in the Peruvian Amazon: The Relevance of Net Preference for Achieving High Coverage and Use

    OpenAIRE

    Koen Peeters Grietens; Joan Muela Ribera; Veronica Soto; Alex Tenorio; Sarah Hoibak; Angel Rosas Aguirre; Elizabeth Toomer; Hugo Rodriguez; Alejandro Llanos Cuentas; Umberto D'Alessandro; Dionicia Gamboa; Annette Erhart

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: While coverage of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLIN) has steadily increased, a growing number of studies report gaps between net ownership and use. We conducted a mixed-methods social science study assessing the importance of net preference and use after Olyset(R) LLINs were distributed through a mass campaign in rural communities surrounding Iquitos, the capital city of the Amazonian region of Peru. METHODS: The study was conducted in the catchment area of the Paujil a...

  18. Effects of polymer-coated urea on nitrate leaching and nitrogen uptake by potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Melissa L; Rosen, Carl J; Moncrief, John F

    2010-01-01

    Increasing groundwater nitrate concentrations in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production regions have prompted the need to identify alternative nitrogen management practices. A new type of polymer-coated urea (PCU) called Environmentally Smart Nitrogen (Agrium, Inc., Calgary, AB) is significantly lower in cost than comparable PCUs, but its potential to reduce nitrate leaching and improve fertilizer recovery has not been extensively studied in potato. In 2006 and 2007, four rates of PCU applied at emergence were compared with equivalent rates of soluble N split-applied at emergence and post-hilling. Additional treatments included a 0 N control, two PCU timing treatments (applied at preplant or planting), and a soluble N fertigation simulation. Nitrate leaching, fertilizer N recovery, N use efficiency (NUE), and residual soil inorganic N were measured. Both 2006 and 2007 were low leaching years. Nitrate leaching with PCU (21.3 kg NO(3)-N ha(-1) averaged over N rates) was significantly lower than with split-applied soluble N (26.9 kg NO(3)-N ha(-1)). The soluble N fertigation treatment resulted in similar leaching as PCU at equivalent N rates. Apparent fertilizer N recovery with PCU (65% averaged over four rates) tended to be higher than split-applied soluble N (55%) at equivalent rates (p = 0.059). Residual soil N and NUE were not significantly affected by N source. Under the conditions of this study, PCU significantly reduced leaching and tended to improved N recovery over soluble N applied in two applications and resulted in similar N recovery and nitrate leaching as soluble N applied in six applications.

  19. Provision of nitrogen as ammonium rather than nitrate increases silicon uptake in sugarcane

    OpenAIRE

    Keeping, Malcolm G.; Rutherford, R. Stuart; Sewpersad, C.; Miles, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Silicon (Si) is important in mitigating abiotic and biotic plant stresses, yet many agricultural soils, such as those of the rainfed production areas of the South African sugar industry, are deficient in plant-available Si, making Si supplementation necessary. However, Si uptake by sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) is limited even where silicate amendments improve soil Si status. Rhizosphere pH, which can affect Si uptake, can be manipulated using different N-form fertilizers. We tested whet...

  20. Traditional nets interfere with the uptake of long-lasting insecticidal nets in the Peruvian Amazon: the relevance of net preference for achieving high coverage and use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Peeters Grietens

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While coverage of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLIN has steadily increased, a growing number of studies report gaps between net ownership and use. We conducted a mixed-methods social science study assessing the importance of net preference and use after Olyset® LLINs were distributed through a mass campaign in rural communities surrounding Iquitos, the capital city of the Amazonian region of Peru. METHODS: The study was conducted in the catchment area of the Paujil and Cahuide Health Centres (San Juan district between July 2007 and November 2008. During a first qualitative phase, participant observation and in-depth interviews collected information on key determinants for net preference and use. In a second quantitative phase, a survey among recently confirmed malaria patients evaluated the acceptability and use of both LLINs and traditional nets, and a case control study assessed the association between net preference/use and housing structure (open vs. closed houses. RESULTS: A total of 10 communities were selected for the anthropological fieldwork and 228 households participated in the quantitative studies. In the study area, bed nets are considered part of the housing structure and are therefore required to fulfil specific architectural and social functions, such as providing privacy and shelter, which the newly distributed Olyset® LLINs ultimately did not. The LLINs' failure to meet these criteria could mainly be attributed to their large mesh size, transparency and perceived ineffectiveness to protect against mosquitoes and other insects, resulting in 63.3% of households not using any of the distributed LLINs. Notably, LLIN usage was significantly lower in houses with no interior or exterior walls (35.2% than in those with walls (73.8% (OR = 5.2, 95CI [2.2; 12.3], p<0.001. CONCLUSION: Net preference can interfere with optimal LLIN use. In order to improve the number of effective days of LLIN protection per dollar

  1. Traditional nets interfere with the uptake of long-lasting insecticidal nets in the Peruvian Amazon: the relevance of net preference for achieving high coverage and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grietens, Koen Peeters; Muela Ribera, Joan; Soto, Veronica; Tenorio, Alex; Hoibak, Sarah; Aguirre, Angel Rosas; Toomer, Elizabeth; Rodriguez, Hugo; Llanos Cuentas, Alejandro; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Gamboa, Dionicia; Erhart, Annette

    2013-01-01

    While coverage of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLIN) has steadily increased, a growing number of studies report gaps between net ownership and use. We conducted a mixed-methods social science study assessing the importance of net preference and use after Olyset® LLINs were distributed through a mass campaign in rural communities surrounding Iquitos, the capital city of the Amazonian region of Peru. The study was conducted in the catchment area of the Paujil and Cahuide Health Centres (San Juan district) between July 2007 and November 2008. During a first qualitative phase, participant observation and in-depth interviews collected information on key determinants for net preference and use. In a second quantitative phase, a survey among recently confirmed malaria patients evaluated the acceptability and use of both LLINs and traditional nets, and a case control study assessed the association between net preference/use and housing structure (open vs. closed houses). A total of 10 communities were selected for the anthropological fieldwork and 228 households participated in the quantitative studies. In the study area, bed nets are considered part of the housing structure and are therefore required to fulfil specific architectural and social functions, such as providing privacy and shelter, which the newly distributed Olyset® LLINs ultimately did not. The LLINs' failure to meet these criteria could mainly be attributed to their large mesh size, transparency and perceived ineffectiveness to protect against mosquitoes and other insects, resulting in 63.3% of households not using any of the distributed LLINs. Notably, LLIN usage was significantly lower in houses with no interior or exterior walls (35.2%) than in those with walls (73.8%) (OR = 5.2, 95CI [2.2; 12.3], ppreference can interfere with optimal LLIN use. In order to improve the number of effective days of LLIN protection per dollar spent, appropriate quantitative and qualitative methods for collecting

  2. Nitrogen nutrition of Canna indica: Effects of ammonium versus nitrate on growth, biomass allocation, photosynthesis, nitrate reductase activity and N uptake rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konnerup, Dennis; Brix, Hans

    2010-01-01

    The effects of inorganic nitrogen (N) source (NH4+, NO3- or both) on growth, biomass allocation, photosynthesis, N uptake rate, nitrate reductase activity and mineral composition of Canna indica were studied in hydroponic culture. The relative growth rates (0.05-0.06 g g-1 d-1), biomass allocation...... and was induced by NO3- in the culture solutions corresponding to the pattern seen in fast growing terrestrial species. Plants fed with only NO3- had high NRA (22 and 8 μmol NO2- g-1 DW h-1 in leaves and roots, respectively) whereas NRA in NH4+ fed plants was close to zero. Plants supplied with both forms of N...... had intermediate NRA suggesting that C. indica takes up and assimilate NO3- in the presence of NH4+. Our results show that C. indica is relatively indifferent to inorganic N source, which together with its high growth rate contributes to explain the occurrence of this species in flooded wetland soils...

  3. Uptake and distribution of /sup 15/N enriched nitrate by three rootstock cultivars grafted to Chenin blanc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conradie, W.J. (Viticultural and Oenological Research Inst. Stellenbosch, South Africa)

    1983-01-01

    The uptake and distribution of nitrogen by the rootstocks 99R,101-14 Mgt and 140 Ruggeri grafted to Chenin blanc in sand culture, were determined using /sup 15/N enriched potassium nitrate. The K/sup 15/NO/sub 3/ was applied at the end of rapid shoot growth and the vines were sampled at veraison. Although vines grafted on 99R showed less aerial- and root growth than those on 101-14Mgt and 140 Ruggeri, nitrogen was absorbed equally well by all three rootstocks. The distribution of newly absorbed nitrogen could be accurately determined by means of /sup 15/N, and at veraison more than half of newly absorbed N was found in the leaves and shoots, and about 15% in the bunches. It was clear that nitrogen which accumulated in the bunches during the period of investigation, was derived primarily from previously assimilated N in the roots and mature wood.

  4. Uptake, transport and distribution of molybdenum in two oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) cultivars under different nitrate/ammonium ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shi-Yu; Sun, Xue-Cheng; Hu, Cheng-Xiao; Tan, Qi-Ling; Zhao, Xiao-Hu

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the effects of different nitrate sources on the uptake, transport, and distribution of molybdenum (Mo) between two oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) cultivars, L0917 and ZS11. A hydroponic culture experiment was conducted with four nitrate/ammonium (NO3-:NH4+) ratios (14:1, 9:6, 7.5:7.5, and 1:14) at a constant nitrogen concentration of 15 mmol/L. We examined Mo concentrations in roots, shoots, xylem and phloem sap, and subcellular fractions of leaves to contrast Mo uptake, transport, and subcellular distribution between ZS11 and L0917. Both the cultivars showed maximum biomass and Mo accumulation at the 7.5:7.5 ratio of NO3-:NH4+ while those were decreased by the 14:1 and 1:14 treatments. However, the percentages of root Mo (14.8% and 15.0% for L0917 and ZS11, respectively) were low under the 7.5:7.5 treatment, suggesting that the equal NO3-:NH4+ ratio promoted Mo transportation from root to shoot. The xylem sap Mo concentration and phloem sap Mo accumulation of L0917 were lower than those of ZS11 under the 1:14 treatment, which suggests that higher NO3-:NH4+ ratio was more beneficial for L0917. On the contrary, a lower NO3-:NH4+ ratio was more beneficial for ZS11 to transport and remobilize Mo. Furthermore, the Mo concentrations of both the cultivars' leaf organelles were increased but the Mo accumulations of the cell wall and soluble fraction were reduced significantly under the 14:1 treatment, meaning that more Mo was accumulated in organelles under the highest NO3-:NH4+ ratio. This investigation demonstrated that the capacities of Mo absorption, transportation and subcellular distribution play an important role in genotype-dependent differences in Mo accumulation under low or high NO3-:NH4+ ratio conditions.

  5. Superposition of Individual Activities: Urea-Mediated Suppression of Nitrate Uptake in the Dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum Revealed at the Population and Single-Cell Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matantseva, Olga; Skarlato, Sergei; Vogts, Angela; Pozdnyakov, Ilya; Liskow, Iris; Schubert, Hendrik; Voss, Maren

    2016-01-01

    Dinoflagellates readily use diverse inorganic and organic compounds as nitrogen sources, which is advantageous in eutrophied coastal areas exposed to high loads of anthropogenic nutrients, e.g., urea, one of the most abundant organic nitrogen substrates in seawater. Cell-to-cell variability in nutritional physiology can further enhance the diversity of metabolic strategies among dinoflagellates of the same species, but it has not been studied in free-living microalgae. We applied stable isotope tracers, isotope ratio mass spectrometry and nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) to investigate the response of cultured nitrate-acclimated dinoflagellates Prorocentrum minimum to a sudden input of urea and the effect of urea on the concurrent nitrate uptake at the population and single-cell levels. We demonstrate that inputs of urea lead to suppression of nitrate uptake by P. minimum, and urea uptake exceeds the concurrent uptake of nitrate. Individual dinoflagellate cells within a population display significant heterogeneity in the rates of nutrient uptake and extent of the urea-mediated inhibition of the nitrate uptake, thus forming several groups characterized by different modes of nutrition. We conclude that urea originating from sporadic sources is rapidly utilized by dinoflagellates and can be used in biosynthesis or stored intracellularly depending on the nutrient status; therefore, sudden urea inputs can represent one of the factors triggering or supporting harmful algal blooms. Significant physiological heterogeneity revealed at the single-cell level is likely to play a role in alleviation of intra-population competition for resources and can affect the dynamics of phytoplankton populations and their maintenance in natural environments.

  6. Superposition of Individual Activities: Urea-mediated Suppression of Nitrate Uptake in the Dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum Revealed at the Population and Single-cell Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Matantseva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Dinoflagellates readily use diverse inorganic and organic compounds as nitrogen sources, which is advantageous in eutrophied coastal areas exposed to high loads of anthropogenic nutrients, e.g. urea, one of the most abundant organic nitrogen substrates in seawater. Cell-to-cell variability in nutritional physiology can further enhance the diversity of metabolic strategies among dinoflagellates of the same species, but it has not been studied in free-living microalgae. We applied stable isotope tracers, isotope ratio mass spectrometry and nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS to investigate the response of cultured nitrate-acclimated dinoflagellates Prorocentrum minimum to a sudden input of urea and the effect of urea on the concurrent nitrate uptake at the population and single-cell levels. We demonstrate that inputs of urea lead to suppression of nitrate uptake by P. minimum, and urea uptake exceeds the concurrent uptake of nitrate. Individual dinoflagellate cells within a population display significant heterogeneity in the rates of nutrient uptake and extent of the urea-mediated inhibition of the nitrate uptake, thus forming several groups characterized by different modes of nutrition. We conclude that urea originating from sporadic sources is rapidly utilized by dinoflagellates and can be used in biosynthesis or stored intracellularly depending on the nutrient status; therefore, sudden urea inputs can represent one of the factors triggering or supporting harmful algal blooms. Significant physiological heterogeneity revealed at the single-cell level is likely to play a role in alleviation of intra-population competition for resources and can affect the dynamics of phytoplankton populations and their maintenance in natural environments.

  7. Proximity to safety-net clinics and HPV vaccine uptake among low-income, ethnic minority girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Jennifer; Singhal, Rita; Rodriguez, Hector P; Gee, Gilbert C; Glenn, Beth A; Bastani, Roshan

    2013-04-12

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake remains low. Although publicly funded programs provide free or low cost vaccines to low-income children, barriers aside from cost may prevent disadvantaged girls from getting vaccinated. Prior studies have shown distance to health care as a potential barrier to utilizing pediatric preventive services. This study examines whether HPV vaccines are geographically accessible for low-income girls in Los Angeles County and whether proximity to safety-net clinics is associated with vaccine initiation. Interviews were conducted in multiple languages with largely immigrant, low-income mothers of girls ages 9 to 18 via a county health hotline to assess uptake and correlates of uptake. Addresses of respondents and safety-net clinics that provide the HPV vaccine for free or low cost were geo-coded and linked to create measures of geographic proximity. Logistic regression models were estimated for each proximity measure on HPV vaccine initiation while controlling for other factors. On average, 83% of the 468 girls had at least one clinic within 3-miles of their residence. The average travel time on public transportation to the nearest clinic among all girls was 21min. Average proximity to clinics differed significantly by race/ethnicity. Latinas had both the shortest travel distances (2.2 miles) and public transportation times (16min) compared to other racial/ethnic groups. The overall HPV vaccine initiation rate was 25%. Increased proximity to the nearest clinic was not significantly associated with initiation. By contrast, daughter's age and insurance status were significantly associated with increased uptake. This study is among the first to examine geographic access to HPV vaccines for underserved girls. Although the majority of girls live in close proximity to safety-net vaccination services, rates of initiation were low. Expanding clinic outreach in this urban area is likely more important than increasing geographic access to the

  8. Towards a Mechanistic Understanding of Anaerobic Nitrate Dependent Iron Oxidation: Balancing Electron Uptake and Detoxification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Karl Carlson

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The anaerobic oxidation of Fe(II by subsurface microorganisms is an important part of biogeochemical cycling in the environment, but the biochemical mechanisms used to couple iron oxidation to nitrate respiration are not well understood. Based on our own work and the evidence available in the literature, we propose a mechanistic model for anaerobic nitrate dependent iron oxidation. We suggest that anaerobic iron oxidizing microorganisms likely exist along a continuum including: 1 bacteria that inadvertently oxidize Fe(II by abiotic or biotic reactions with enzymes or chemical intermediates in their metabolic pathways (e.g. denitrification and suffer from toxicity or energetic penalty, 2 Fe(II tolerant bacteria that gain little or no growth benefit from iron oxidation but can manage the toxic reactions, and 3 bacteria that efficiently accept electrons from Fe(II to gain a growth advantage while preventing or mitigating the toxic reactions. Predictions of the proposed model are highlighted and experimental approaches are discussed.

  9. Effects of NaCl salinity on N-15-nitrate fluxes and specific root length in the halophyte Plantago maritima L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubinigg, M; Posthumus, F; Ferschke, M; Elzenga, JTM; Stulen, [No Value

    The effect of salinity on nitrate influx, efflux, nitrate net uptake rate and net nitrogen translocation to the shoot was assessed in a N-15 steady state labelling experiment in the halophyte Plantago maritima L. raised for 14 days on solution supplied with 50, 100 and 200 mol m(-3) sodium chloride

  10. The importance of biomass net uptake for a trace metal budget in a forest stand in north-eastern France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandois, L. [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, INP, EcoLab - Laboratoire d' ecologie fonctionnelle, ENSAT, Avenue de l' Agrobiopole, F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); CNRS, EcoLab, F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); Nicolas, M. [ONF, Direction technique RENECOFOR, Bd de Constance 77300 Fontainebleau (France); VanderHeijden, G. [INRA, centre de Nancy, Equipe BEF, 54280 Champenoux (France); Probst, A., E-mail: anne.probst@ensat.fr [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, INP, EcoLab -Laboratoire d' ecologie fonctionnelle, ENSAT, Avenue de l' Agrobiopole, F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); CNRS, EcoLab, F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France)

    2010-11-01

    The trace metal (TM: Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) budget (stocks and annual fluxes) was evaluated in a forest stand (silver fir, Abies alba Miller) in north-eastern France. Trace metal concentrations were measured in different tree compartments in order to assess TM partitioning and dynamics in the trees. Inputs included bulk deposition, estimated dry deposition and weathering. Outputs were leaching and biomass exportation. Atmospheric deposition was the main input flux. The estimated dry deposition accounted for about 40% of the total trace metal deposition. The relative importance of leaching (estimated by a lumped parameter water balance model, BILJOU) and net biomass uptake (harvesting) for ecosystem exportation depended on the element. Trace metal distribution between tree compartments (stem wood and bark, branches and needles) indicated that Pb was mainly stored in the stem, whereas Zn and Ni, and to a lesser extent Cd and Cu, were translocated to aerial parts of the trees and cycled in the ecosystem. For Zn and Ni, leaching was the main output flux (> 95% of the total output) and the plot budget (input-output) was negative, whereas for Pb the biomass net exportation represented 60% of the outputs and the budget was balanced. Cadmium and Cu had intermediate behaviours, with 18% and 30% of the total output relative to biomass exportation, respectively, and the budgets were negative. The net uptake by biomass was particularly important for Pb budgets, less so for Cd and Cu and not very important for Zn and Ni in such forest stands.

  11. High net calcium uptake explains the hypersensitivity of the freshwater pulmonate snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, to chronic lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosell, Martin; Brix, Kevin V

    2009-03-09

    Previous studies have shown that freshwater pulmonate snails of the genus Lymnaea are exceedingly sensitive to chronic Pb exposure. An EC20 of influx was significantly inhibited (39%) and corresponding net Ca(2+) flux was significantly reduced from 224 to -23nmolg(-1)h(-1). An 85% increase in Cl(-) influx was also observed, while Na(+) ion transport appeared unaffected. Finally, a marked alkalosis of extracellular fluid was observed with pH increasing from 8.35 in the control to 8.65 in the 18.9microgl(-1) Pb-exposed group. Results based on direct measurement of Ca(2+) influx in 1g snails gave an influx nearly an order of magnitude higher (750nmolg(-1)h(-1)) than in comparably sized fish in similar water chemistry. Under control conditions, specific growth rate in newly hatched snails was estimated at 16.7% per day over the first 38-day post-hatch and whole body Ca(2+) concentrations were relatively constant at approximately 1100nmolg(-1) over this period. Based on these data, it is estimated that newly hatched snails have net Ca(2+) uptake rates on the order of 7600nmolg(-1)h(-1). A model was developed integrating these data and measured inhibition of Ca(2+) influx rates of 13.4% and 38.7% in snails exposed to 2.7 and 18.9microgl(-1)Pb, respectively. The model estimates 45% and 83% reductions in newly hatched snail growth after 30-day exposure in these two Pb-exposed groups. These results compare well with previous direct measurements of 47% and 90% reductions in growth at similar Pb concentrations, indicating the high net Ca(2+) uptake is the controlling factor in observed Pb hypersensitivity.

  12. Accelerating Net Terrestrial Carbon Uptake During the Warming Hiatus Due to Reduced Respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, Ashley; Smith, William; Anderegg, William; Kauppi, Pekka; Sarmiento, Jorge; Tans, Pieter; Shevliakova, Elena; Pan, Yude; Poulter, Benjamin; Anav, Alessandro; hide

    2017-01-01

    The recent warming hiatus presents an excellent opportunity to investigate climate sensitivity of carbon cycle processes. Here we combine satellite and atmospheric observations to show that the rate of net biome productivity (NBP) has significantly accelerated from - 0.007 +/- 0.065 PgC yr(exp -2) over the warming period (1982 to 1998) to 0.119 +/- 0.071 PgC yr(exp -2) over the warming hiatus (19982012). This acceleration in NBP is not due to increased primary productivity, but rather reduced respiration that is correlated (r = 0.58; P = 0.0007) and sensitive ( y = 4.05 to 9.40 PgC yr(exp -1) per C) to land temperatures. Global land models do not fully capture this apparent reduced respiration over the warming hiatus; however, an empirical model including soil temperature and moisture observations better captures the reduced respiration.

  13. Summer nitrate uptake and denitrification in an upper Mississippi River backwater lake: The role of rooted aquatic vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiling, Rebecca M.; Richardson, W.B.; Cavanaugh, J.C.; Bartsch, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    In-stream nitrogen processing in the Mississippi River has been suggested as one mechanism to reduce coastal eutrophication in the Gulf of Mexico. Aquatic macrophytes in river channels and flood plain lakes have the potential to temporarily remove large quantities of nitrogen through assimilation both by themselves and by the attached epiphyton. In addition, rooted macrophytes act as oxygen pumps, creating aerobic microsites around their roots where coupled nitrification-denitrification can occur. We used in situ 15N-NO3- tracer mesocosm experiments to measure nitrate assimilation rates for macrophytes, epiphyton, and microbial fauna in the sediment in Third Lake, a backwater lake of the upper Mississippi River during June and July 2005. We measured assimilation over a range of nitrate concentrations and estimated a nitrate mass balance for Third Lake. Macrophytes assimilated the most nitrate (29.5 mg N m-2 d-1) followed by sediment microbes (14.4 mg N m-2 d-1) and epiphytes (5.7 mg N m-2d-1. Assimilation accounted for 6.8% in June and 18.6% in July of total nitrate loss in the control chambers. However, denitrification (292.4 mg N m-2 d-1) is estimated to account for the majority (82%) of the nitrate loss. Assimilation and denitrification rates generally increased with increasing nitrate concentration but denitrification rates plateaued at about 5 mg N L-1. This suggests that backwaters have the potential to remove a relatively high amount of nitrate but will likely become saturated if the load becomes too large. ?? 2010 US Government.

  14. 2'-Deoxymugineic acid promotes growth of rice (Oryza sativa L.) by orchestrating iron and nitrate uptake processes under high pH conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Ryoichi; Kousaka, Kayoko; Namba, Kosuke; Murata, Yoshiko; Murata, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Poaceae plants release 2'-deoxymugineic acid (DMA) and related phytosiderophores to chelate iron (Fe), which often exists as insoluble Fe(III) in the rhizosphere, especially under high pH conditions. Although the molecular mechanisms behind the biosynthesis and secretion of DMA have been studied extensively, little information is known about whether DMA has biological roles other than chelating Fe in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that hydroponic cultures of rice (Oryza sativa) seedlings show almost complete restoration in shoot height and soil-plant analysis development (SPAD) values after treatment with 3-30 μm DMA at high pH (pH 8.0), compared with untreated control seedlings at normal pH (pH 5.8). These changes were accompanied by selective accumulation of Fe over other metals. While this enhanced growth was evident under high pH conditions, DMA application also enhanced seedling growth under normal pH conditions in which Fe was fairly accessible. Microarray and qRT-PCR analyses revealed that exogenous DMA application attenuated the increased expression levels of various genes related to Fe transport and accumulation. Surprisingly, despite the preferential utilization of ammonium over nitrate as a nitrogen source by rice, DMA application also increased nitrate reductase activity and the expression of genes encoding high-affinity nitrate transporters and nitrate reductases, all of which were otherwise considerably lower under high pH conditions. These data suggest that exogenous DMA not only plays an important role in facilitating the uptake of environmental Fe, but also orchestrates Fe and nitrate assimilation for optimal growth under high pH conditions. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Nitrogen nutrition of Salvinia natans: Effects of inorganic nitrogen form on growth, morphology, nitrate reductase activity and uptake kinetics of ammonium and nitrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jampeetong, Arunothai; Brix, Hans

    2009-01-01

    In this study we assessed the growth, morphological responses, and N uptake kinetics of Salvinia natans when supplied with nitrogen as NO3-, NH4+, or both at equimolar concentrations (500 μM). Plants supplied with only NO3- had lower growth rates (0.17 ± 0.01 g g-1 d-1), shorter roots, smaller......+ is probably the main N source for S. natans, but plants probably also exploit NO3- when NH4+ concentrations are low. This is suggested based on the observation that the plants maintain high NRA in the roots at relatively high NH4+ levels in the water, even though the uptake capacity for NO3- is reduced under...

  16. Effects of oxygen delivery, dietary nitrate, intensified training and prior exercise on oxygen uptake kinetics and performance in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Møller

    benefits from supplementing with nitrate to improve exercise efficiency and performance in endurance trained subjects. Furthermore it appears difficult to improve VO2 kinetics with intensified training in trained athletes; however intense exercise can amplify the VO2 response during subsequent high...... the understanding of which mechanisms are regulating VO2 kinetics, in particular at the onset of exercise, five studies were performed manipulating oxygen delivery, dietary nitrate, training intensity and prior exercise intensity. Also the influence on performance capacity was evaluated with some...... was limiting VO2 in the first exercise bout. In study III increased dietary nitrate intake in the form of beetroot juice – expected to increase nitric oxide levels - did not improve exercise economy or performance in highly trained cyclists unlike previous observations in untrained or moderately trained...

  17. The Effects of Source and Rate of Nitrogen Fertilizer and Irrigation on Nitrogen Uptake of Silage Corn and Residual Soil Nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Khodshenas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Growing irrigation demand for corn production, along side with draws of ground water from stressed water sources, should be limited due to scarce resources and environmental protection aspects. Nitrogen fertilizer applied at rates higher than the optimum requirement for crop production may cause an increase in nitrate accumulation below the root zone and pose a risk of nitrate leaching. Improving nitrogen management for corn production has a close relation with soil water content. In this study, we investigated the effects of source and rate of nitrogen fertilizer and irrigation on silage corn production and nitrogen concentration, nitrogen uptake and residual soil nitrate in two depths. Materials and Methods: This experiment carried out as split spli- plot in a Randomized Complete Block design (RCBD with three replications, in Arak station (Agricultural research center of markazi province, 34.12 N, 49.7 E; 1715 m above mean sea level during three years. The soil on the site was classified as a Calcaric Regosols (loamy skeletal over fragmental, carbonatic, thermic, calcixerollic xerochrepts. Main plots were irrigation treatments based on 70, 100 and 130 mm cumulative evaporation from A class Pan. Sub plots were two kinds of nitrogen fertilizers (Urea and Ammonium nitrate and sub sub-plots were five levels of nitrogen rates (0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 kgN.ha-1. Nitrogen fertilizer rates were split into three applications: 1/3 was applied at planting, 1/3 at 7-9 leaf stage and 1/3 remainder was applied before tasseling as a banding method. Phosphorus was applied at a rate of 150 kg.ha-1in each season and potassium at a rate of 30kg.ha-1 (only in first growth season based on soil testing as triple super phosphate and potassium sulfate, respectively. The corn variety of single cross 704 was planted at 20 m2 plots. The plants were sampled at dough stage from the two rows and weighted in each plot. Plant samples were dried in a forced air

  18. Effects of dietary protein concentration on ammonia volatilization, nitrate leaching, and plant nitrogen uptake from dairy manure applied to lysimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    This lysimeter experiment was designed to investigate the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) concentration on nitrate-N (NO3-N) and ammonia (NH3) losses from dairy manure applied to soil and manure N use for plant growth. Lactating dairy cows were fed diets with 16.7 (HighCP) or 14.8% (LowCP) cru...

  19. Exploring Lemna gibba thresholds to nutrient and chemical stressors: differential effects of triclosan on internal stoichiometry and nitrate uptake across a nitrogen:phosphorus gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Barry A; Brain, Richard A; Usenko, Sascha; Back, Jeffrey A; Brooks, Bryan W

    2010-10-01

    Nutrient enrichment often co-occurs with chemical stressors in aquatic ecosystems, but the impacts of these multiple stressors across nutrient gradients is poorly understood and not typically addressed in ecotoxicity studies of lower trophic level models. Moreover, laboratory assays performed to determine threshold responses of aquatic macrophytes to contaminants typically use growth and morphometric endpoints to establish threshold effects and seldom report other important functional responses of lower trophic levels. Using the aquatic macrophyte Lemna gibba, we examined influences of varying nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) levels in combination with triclosan, a widely used antimicrobial agent in consumer care products, on internal carbon (C):N:P and NO(3) (-) uptake kinetics. Triclosan modulated L. gibba tissue N and P content, and these stoichiometric responses for P-limited plants to triclosan exposure were more sensitive than growth endpoints employed in standardized phytotoxicity assays. Nitrate uptake capacities were also differentially inhibited by triclosan exposure according to external nutrient levels. Uptake rates for plants cultured and exposed under saturating N-levels were inhibited by more than threefold compared with N-limited plants. The results suggest that stoichiometric and nutrient uptake responses to chemical stressors provide useful information regarding adverse ecological thresholds not defined in standardized phytotoxicity assays with aquatic macrophytes. Our findings further indicate that site-specific impacts of chemicals associated with the wide ambient ranges of N and P typical of surface waters may be anticipated in lower trophic levels. Future studies should examine adverse effects of other stressors to these ecologically relevant endpoints, which may be useful in environmental assessment and management. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2010;29:2363-2370. © 2010 SETAC.

  20. Perchlorate, Nitrate, and Iodine Uptake and Distribution in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and Potential Impact on Background Levels in Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, W.; Jackson, A.

    2010-01-01

    Much focus has been placed on the impact of exposure to perchlorate (ClO4-) from drinking water. Recently, it has become more apparent that a significant percentage of the total ClO4- exposure may be due to ingestion of food. Most studies have only evaluated the uptake and distribution of ClO4- by

  1. Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Grain Protein Concentration Is Related to Early Post-Flowering Nitrate Uptake under Putative Control of Plant Satiety Level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Taulemesse

    Full Text Available The strong negative correlation between grain protein concentration (GPC and grain yield (GY in bread wheat complicates the simultaneous improvement of these traits. However, earlier studies have concluded that the deviation from this relationship (grain protein deviation or GPD has strong genetic basis. Genotypes with positive GPD have an increased ability to uptake nitrogen (N during the post-flowering period independently of the amount of N taken up before flowering, suggesting that genetic variability for N satiety could enable the breakage of the negative relationship. This study is based on two genotypes markedly contrasted for GPD grown under semi-hydroponic conditions differentiated for nitrate availability both before and after flowering. This allows exploration of the genetic determinants of post-flowering N uptake (PANU by combining whole plant sampling and targeted gene expression approaches. The results highlights the correlation (r² = 0.81 with GPC of PANU occurring early during grain development (flowering-flowering + 250 degree-days independently of GY. Early PANU was in turn correlated (r² = 0.80 to the stem-biomass increment after flowering through its effect on N sink activity. Differences in early PANU between genotypes, despite comparable N statuses at flowering, suggest that genetic differences in N satiety could be involved in the establishment of the GPC. Through its strong negative correlation with genes implied in N assimilation, root nitrate concentration appears to be a good marker for evaluating instantaneous plant N demand, and may provide valuable information on the genotypic N satiety level. This trait may help breeders to identify genotypes having high GPC independently of their GY.

  2. The Effect of Nitrate Levels and Harvest Times on Fe, Zn, Cu, and K, Concentrations and Nitrate Reductase Activity in Lettuce and Spinach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Gheshlaghi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Leafy vegetables are considered as the main sources of nitrate in the human diet. In order to investigate the effect of nitrate levels and harvest times on nitrate accumulation, nitrate reductase activity, concentrations of Fe, Zn, Cu and K in Lettuce and Spinach and their relation to nitrate accumulation in these leafy vegetables, two harvest times (29 and 46 days after transplanting, two vegetable species of lettuce and spinach and two concentrations of nitrate (10 and 20 mM were used in a hydroponics greenhouse experiment with a completely randomized design and 3 replications. Modified Hoagland and Arnon nutrient solutions were used for the experiment. The results indicated that by increasing nitrate concentration of solution, nitrate accumulation in roots and shoots of lettuce and spinach increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05, and the same trend was observed for the nitrate reductase activity in the shoots of the two species. Increasing the nitrate concentrations of solution, reduced the shoot dry weight and the concentration of Fe and Cu in both species, where as it increased the K and Zn concentrations in the shoots of the two species in each both harvest times, the nitrate accumulation increased, but the nitrate reductase activity decreased in the shoots of the two species over the course of the growth. The Concentration of Fe, Cu and K decreased in the shoots of lettuce and the spinach with the time, despite the increase in Zn concentration in the shoots. The results also indicated that increasing nitrate concentrations of solution to the levels greater than the plant capacity for reduction and net uptake of nitrate, leads to the nitrate accumulation in the plants. Nitrate accumulation in plant tissue led to decreases in fresh shoot yield and Fe and Cu concentrations and nitrate reductase activities in both lettuce and spinach.

  3. Multispectral confocal microscopy images and artificial neural nets to monitor the photosensitizer uptake and degradation in Candida albicans cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Renan A.; Pratavieira, Sebastião.; da Silva, Ana P.; Kurachi, Cristina; Guimarães, Francisco E. G.

    2017-07-01

    This study clearly demonstrates that multispectral confocal microscopy images analyzed by artificial neural networks provides a powerful tool to real-time monitoring photosensitizer uptake, as well as photochemical transformations occurred.

  4. Root-zone acidity and nitrogen source affects Typha latifolia L. growth and uptake kinetics of ammonium and nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brix, Hans; Dyhr-Jensen, Kirsten; Lorenzen, Bent

    2002-12-01

    The NH(4)(+) and NO(3)(-) uptake kinetics by Typha latifolia L. were studied after prolonged hydroponics growth at constant pH 3.5, 5.0, 6.5 or 7.0 and with NH(4)(+) or NO(3)(-) as the sole N-source. In addition, the effects of pH and N source on H(+) extrusion and adenine nucleotide content were examined. Typha latifolia was able to grow with both N sources at near neutral pH levels, but the plants had higher relative growth rates, higher tissue concentrations of the major nutrients, higher contents of adenine nucleotides, and higher affinity for uptake of inorganic nitrogen when grown on NH(4)(+). Growth almost completely stopped at pH 3.5, irrespective of N source, probably as a consequence of pH effects on plasma membrane integrity and H(+) influx into the root cells. Tissue concentrations of the major nutrients and adenine nucleotides were severely reduced at low pH, and the uptake capacity for inorganic nitrogen was low, and more so for NO(3)(-)-fed than for NH(4)(+)-fed plants. The maximum uptake rate, V(max), was highest for NH(4)(+) at pH 6.5 (30.9 micro mol h(-1) g(-1) root dry weight) and for NO(3)(-) at pH 5.0 (31.7 micro mol h(-1) g(-1) root dry weight), and less than 10% of these values at pH 3.5. The affinity for uptake as estimated by the half saturation constant, K((1/2)), was lowest at low pH for NH(4)(+) and at high pH for NO(3)(-). The changes in V(max) and K((1/2)) were thus consistent with the theory of increasing competition between cations and H(+) at low pH and between anions and OH(-) at high pH. C(min) was independent of pH, but slightly higher for NO(3)(-) than for NH(4)(+) (C(min)(NH(4)(+)) approximately 0.8 mmol m(-3); C(min)(NO(3)(-)) approximately 2.8 mmol m(-3)). The growth inhibition at low pH was probably due to a reduced nutrient uptake and a consequential limitation of growth by nutrient stress. Typha latifolia seems to be well adapted to growth in wetland soils where NH(4)(+) is the prevailing nitrogen compound, but very low p

  5. Downregulation of net phosphorus-uptake capacity is inversely related to leaf phosphorus-resorption proficiency in four species from a phosphorus-impoverished environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, Mariana C R; Pearse, Stuart J; Oliveira, Rafael S; Lambers, Hans

    2013-03-01

    Previous research has suggested a trade-off between the capacity of plants to downregulate their phosphorus (P) uptake capacity and their efficiency of P resorption from senescent leaves in species from P-impoverished environments. To investigate this further, four Australian native species (Banksia attenuata, B. menziesii, Acacia truncata and A. xanthina) were grown in a greenhouse in nutrient solutions at a range of P concentrations [P]. Acacia plants received between 0 and 500 µm P; Banksia plants received between 0 and 10 µm P, to avoid major P-toxicity symptoms in these highly P-sensitive species. For both Acacia species, the net P-uptake rates measured at 10 µm P decreased steadily with increasing P supply during growth. In contrast, in B. attenuata, the net rate of P uptake from a solution with 10 µm P increased linearly with increasing P supply during growth. The P-uptake rate of B. menziesii showed no significant response to P supply in the growing medium. Leaf [P] of the four species supported this finding, with A. truncata and A. xanthina showing an increase up to a saturation value of 19 and 21 mg P g(-1) leaf dry mass, respectively (at 500 µm P), whereas B. attenuata and B. menziesii both exhibited a linear increase in leaf [P], reaching 10 and 13 mg P g(-1) leaf dry mass, respectively, without approaching a saturation point. The Banksia plants grown at 10 µm P showed mild symptoms of P toxicity, i.e. yellow spots on some leaves and drying and curling of the tips of the leaves. Leaf P-resorption efficiency was 69 % (B. attenuata), 73 % (B. menziesii), 34 % (A. truncata) and 36 % (A. xanthina). The P-resorption proficiency values were 0·08 mg P g(-1) leaf dry mass (B. attenuata and B. menziesii), 0·32 mg P g(-1) leaf dry mass (A. truncata) and 0·36 mg P g(-1) leaf dry mass (A. xanthina). Combining the present results with additional information on P-remobilization efficiency and the capacity to downregulate P-uptake capacity for two other

  6. Response of canopy nitrogen uptake to a rapid decrease in bulk nitrate deposition in two eastern Canadian boreal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, D; Marty, C; Duchesne, L

    2015-01-01

    A few studies have reported a recent and rapid decline in NO3(-) deposition in eastern North America. Whether this trend can be observed at remote boreal sites with low rates of N deposition and how it could impact canopy uptake (CU) of N remain unknown. Here we report trends between 1997/1999 and 2012 for precipitation, throughfall N deposition as well as inorganic N CU for two boreal forest sites of Quebec, Canada, with contrasted N deposition rates and tree species composition. NO3(-) bulk deposition declined by approximately 50% at both sites over the studied period while no change was observed for NH4(+). As a result, the contribution of NH4(+) to inorganic N deposition changed from ~33% to more than 50% during the study period. On average, 52-59% of N deposition was intercepted by the canopy, the retention being higher for NH4(+) (60-67%) than for NO3(-) (45-54%). The decrease in NO3(-) bulk deposition and the increase in the NH4(+):NO3(-) ratio had important impacts on N-canopy interactions. The contribution of NH4(+) CU to that of total inorganic N CU increased at both sites but the trend was significant only at Tirasse (lowest N deposition). At this site, absolute NO3(-) CU significantly decreased (as did total N CU) during the study period, a consequence of the strong relationship (r(2) = 0.88) between NO3(-) bulk deposition and NO3(-) CU. Our data suggest that N interactions with forest canopies may change rapidly with changes in N deposition as well as with tree species composition.

  7. Increasing summer net CO2 uptake in high northern ecosystems inferred from atmospheric inversions and comparisons to remote-sensing NDVI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welp, Lisa R.; Patra, Prabir K.; Rödenbeck, Christian; Nemani, Rama; Bi, Jian; Piper, Stephen C.; Keeling, Ralph F.

    2016-07-01

    Warmer temperatures and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations over the last several decades have been credited with increasing vegetation activity and photosynthetic uptake of CO2 from the atmosphere in the high northern latitude ecosystems: the boreal forest and arctic tundra. At the same time, soils in the region have been warming, permafrost is melting, fire frequency and severity are increasing, and some regions of the boreal forest are showing signs of stress due to drought or insect disturbance. The recent trends in net carbon balance of these ecosystems, across heterogeneous disturbance patterns, and the future implications of these changes are unclear. Here, we examine CO2 fluxes from northern boreal and tundra regions from 1985 to 2012, estimated from two atmospheric inversions (RIGC and Jena). Both used measured atmospheric CO2 concentrations and wind fields from interannually variable climate reanalysis. In the arctic zone, the latitude region above 60° N excluding Europe (10° W-63° E), neither inversion finds a significant long-term trend in annual CO2 balance. The boreal zone, the latitude region from approximately 50-60° N, again excluding Europe, showed a trend of 8-11 Tg C yr-2 over the common period of validity from 1986 to 2006, resulting in an annual CO2 sink in 2006 that was 170-230 Tg C yr-1 larger than in 1986. This trend appears to continue through 2012 in the Jena inversion as well. In both latitudinal zones, the seasonal amplitude of monthly CO2 fluxes increased due to increased uptake in summer, and in the arctic zone also due to increased fall CO2 release. These findings suggest that the boreal zone has been maintaining and likely increasing CO2 sink strength over this period, despite browning trends in some regions and changes in fire frequency and land use. Meanwhile, the arctic zone shows that increased summer CO2 uptake, consistent with strong greening trends, is offset by increased fall CO2 release, resulting in a net neutral

  8. Increasing summer net CO2 uptake in high northern ecosystems inferred from atmospheric inversions and comparisons to remote-sensing NDVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. Welp

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Warmer temperatures and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations over the last several decades have been credited with increasing vegetation activity and photosynthetic uptake of CO2 from the atmosphere in the high northern latitude ecosystems: the boreal forest and arctic tundra. At the same time, soils in the region have been warming, permafrost is melting, fire frequency and severity are increasing, and some regions of the boreal forest are showing signs of stress due to drought or insect disturbance. The recent trends in net carbon balance of these ecosystems, across heterogeneous disturbance patterns, and the future implications of these changes are unclear. Here, we examine CO2 fluxes from northern boreal and tundra regions from 1985 to 2012, estimated from two atmospheric inversions (RIGC and Jena. Both used measured atmospheric CO2 concentrations and wind fields from interannually variable climate reanalysis. In the arctic zone, the latitude region above 60° N excluding Europe (10° W–63° E, neither inversion finds a significant long-term trend in annual CO2 balance. The boreal zone, the latitude region from approximately 50–60° N, again excluding Europe, showed a trend of 8–11 Tg C yr−2 over the common period of validity from 1986 to 2006, resulting in an annual CO2 sink in 2006 that was 170–230 Tg C yr−1 larger than in 1986. This trend appears to continue through 2012 in the Jena inversion as well. In both latitudinal zones, the seasonal amplitude of monthly CO2 fluxes increased due to increased uptake in summer, and in the arctic zone also due to increased fall CO2 release. These findings suggest that the boreal zone has been maintaining and likely increasing CO2 sink strength over this period, despite browning trends in some regions and changes in fire frequency and land use. Meanwhile, the arctic zone shows that increased summer CO2 uptake, consistent with strong greening trends, is offset by

  9. The Influence of Nitrate and Chloride Uptake on Expressed Sap pH, Organic Acid Synthesis, and Potassium Accumulation in Higher Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blevins, D G; Hiatt, A J; Lowe, R H

    1974-07-01

    The influence of NO(3) (-) uptake and reduction on ionic balance in barley seedlings (Hordeum vulgare, cv. Compana) was studied. KNO(3) and KCl treatment solutions were used for comparison of cation and anion uptake. The rate of Cl(-) uptake was more rapid than the rate of NO(3) (-) uptake during the first 2 to 4 hours of treatment. There was an acceleration in rate of NO(3) (-) uptake after 4 hours resulting in a sustained rate of NO(3) (-) uptake which exceeded the rate of Cl(-) uptake. The initial (2 to 4 hours) rate of K(+) uptake appeared to be independent of the rate of anion uptake. After 4 hours the rate of K(+) uptake was greater with the KNO(3) treatment than with the KCl treatment, and the solution pH, cell sap pH, and organic acid levels with KNO(3) increased, relative to those with the KCl treatment. When absorption experiments were conducted in darkness, K(+) uptake from KNO(3) did not exceed K(+) uptake from KCl. We suggest that the greater uptake and accumulation of K(+) in NO(3) (-)-treated plants resulted from (a) a more rapid, sustained uptake and transport of NO(3) (-) providing a mobile counteranion for K(+) transport, and (b) the synthesis of organic acids in response to NO(3) (-) reduction increasing the capacity for K(+) accumulation by providing a source of nondiffusible organic anions.

  10. Nitrate transport in cucumber leaves is an inducible process involving an increase in plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity and abundance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolic Miroslav

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanisms by which nitrate is transported into the roots have been characterized both at physiological and molecular levels. It has been demonstrated that nitrate is taken up in an energy-dependent way by a four-component uptake machinery involving high- and low- affinity transport systems. In contrast very little is known about the physiology of nitrate transport towards different plant tissues and in particular at the leaf level. Results The mechanism of nitrate uptake in leaves of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Chinese long plants was studied and compared with that of the root. Net nitrate uptake by roots of nitrate-depleted cucumber plants proved to be substrate-inducible and biphasic showing a saturable kinetics with a clear linear non saturable component at an anion concentration higher than 2 mM. Nitrate uptake by leaf discs of cucumber plants showed some similarities with that operating in the roots (e.g. electrogenic H+ dependence via involvement of proton pump, a certain degree of induction. However, it did not exhibit typical biphasic kinetics and was characterized by a higher Km with values out of the range usually recorded in roots of several different plant species. The quantity and activity of plasma membrane (PM H+-ATPase of the vesicles isolated from leaf tissues of nitrate-treated plants for 12 h (peak of nitrate foliar uptake rate increased with respect to that observed in the vesicles isolated from N-deprived control plants, thus suggesting an involvement of this enzyme in the leaf nitrate uptake process similar to that described in roots. Molecular analyses suggest the involvement of a specific isoform of PM H+-ATPase (CsHA1 and NRT2 transporter (CsNRT2 in root nitrate uptake. At the leaf level, nitrate treatment modulated the expression of CsHA2, highlighting a main putative role of this isogene in the process. Conclusions Obtained results provide for the first time evidence that a saturable

  11. Differential nitrate accumulation, nitrate reduction, nitrate reductase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Differential nitrate accumulation, nitrate reduction, nitrate reductase activity, protein production and carbohydrate biosynthesis in response to potassium and sodium ... due to the positive effects of potassium on the enzyme activity, sugars transport, water and nutrient transport, protein synthesis and carbohydrate metabolism.

  12. Soluble soil aluminum alters the relative uptake of mineral nitrogen forms by six mature temperate broadleaf tree species: possible implications for watershed nitrate retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark B. Burnham; Jonathan R. Cumming; Mary Beth Adams; William T. Peterjohn

    2017-01-01

    Increased availability of monomeric aluminum ( Al3+) in forest soils is an important adverse effect of acidic deposition that reduces root growth and inhibits nutrient uptake. There is evidence that Al3+ exposure interferes with NO3− uptake. If true for overstory trees, the...

  13. Iron availability, nitrate uptake, and exportable new production in the subarctic Pacific. [phytoplankton population growth support and atmospheric CO2 removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banse, Karl

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a critique of experimental data and papers by Martin et al. (1989, 1990), who suggested that the phytoplankton growth is iron-limited and that, small additions of iron to large subarctic ocean areas might be a way of removing significant amounts of atmospheric CO2 by increasing phytoplancton growth. Data are presented to show that, in the summer of 1987, the phytoplankton assemblage as a whole was not iron limited, as measured by the bulk removal of nitrate or by the increase of chlorophyll. It is suggested that grazing normally prevents the phytoplankton from reaching concentrations that reduce the iron (and nitrate) to levels that depress division rates drastically.

  14. Assessing climate change impacts on winter cover crop nitrate uptake efficiency on the coastal plain of the Chesapeake Bay watershed using the SWAT model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change is expected to exacerbate water quality degradation in the Chesapeake Bay watershed (CBW). Winter cover crops (WCCs) have been widely implemented in this region owing to their high effectiveness at reducing nitrate loads. However, little is known about climate change impacts on the ef...

  15. NITROGEN UPTAKE AND ASSIMILATION IN ENTEROMORPHA INTESTINALIS (L.) LINK (CHLOROPHYTA): USING 15N TO DETERMINE PREFERENCE DURING SIMULTANEOUS PULSES OF NITRATE AND AMMONIUM. (R827637)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the ability of Enteromorpha intestinalis (L.) Link to take up pulses of different species of nitrogen simultaneously, as this would be an important mechanism to enhance bloom ability in estuaries. Uptake rates and preference for NH4+

  16. Nitrate reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziewinski, Jacek J.; Marczak, Stanislaw

    2000-01-01

    Nitrates are reduced to nitrogen gas by contacting the nitrates with a metal to reduce the nitrates to nitrites which are then contacted with an amide to produce nitrogen and carbon dioxide or acid anions which can be released to the atmosphere. Minor amounts of metal catalysts can be useful in the reduction of the nitrates to nitrites. Metal salts which are formed can be treated electrochemically to recover the metals.

  17. Controls and forecasts of nitrate yields in forested watersheds: A view over mainland Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, F A L; Santos, R M B; Sanches Fernandes, L F; Pereira, M G; Cortes, R M V

    2015-12-15

    A study on nitrate yields was conducted in forested watersheds of mainland Portugal. The prime goal was to rank parameters in descending order of their contribution to the export of nitrate towards streams and lakes. To attain the goal, variables like soil loss, rainfall intensity, topography, soil type, forest composition and environmental disturbances such as hardwood harvesting or wildfires were organized in a conceptual yield model. Because some parameters were potentially collinear, a robust multivariate statistical technique was selected to execute the conceptual model and perform the aforementioned ranking, namely Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression. This technique was tested with a sample of 60 forested watersheds (>70% of forest occupation), being subject to a double-validation process to ensure prediction capability. According to final regression coefficients, soil erosion seems to regulate nitrate distribution across the basins, because soil loss and type, rainfall intensity and topography explained around 60% of nitrate yield variance. The major importance of erosion is followed by a moderate role of biochemical processes such as nitrification or nutrient uptake, which accounted for approximately 15% of nitrate yield variance. In this case, deciduous forests and scrubland seem to behave as net sinks of nitrate while coniferous and mixed forests seem to act dually, as net sources or sinks. The least important parameters are the environmental disturbances, explaining no more than 5% of nitrate yield variance. The results of PLS regression were coupled in a scenario analysis with measures designed to protect soil from erosion and surface water from eutrophication. These interventions are to be implemented until 2045, according to regional plans of forest management. Considering the key role of erosion in explaining nitrate dynamics across the catchments, it was not surprising to verify that soil protection measures may reduce nitrate yields by some 35

  18. Influence of 15N enrichment on the net isotopic fractionation factor during the reduction of nitrate to nitrous oxide in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathieu, O.; Levegue, J.; Henault, C.

    2007-01-01

    or relatively low (15)N enrichment levels and requires a good knowledge of the isotopic fractionation effect inherent to this biological mechanism. This paper reports the measurement of the net and instantaneous isotopic fractionation factor (alpha(i)(s/p)) during the denitrification of NO(3)(-) to N(2)O over...... a range of (15)N substrate enrichments (0.37 to 1.00 atom% (15)N). At natural abundance level, the isotopic fractionation effect reported falls well within the range of data previously observed. For (15)N-enriched substrate, the value of alpha(i)(s/p) was not constant and decreased from 1.024 to 1......Nitrous oxide, a greenhouse gas, is mainly emitted from soils during the denitrification process. Nitrogen stable-isotope investigations can help to characterise the N(2)O source and N(2)O production mechanisms. The stable-isotope approach is increasingly used with (15)N natural abundance...

  19. Differential nitrate accumulation, nitrate reduction, nitrate reductase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-07

    Dec 7, 2011 ... biosynthesis. Carbohydrate metabolism produces both the carbon skeletons and ferredoxin for nitrate assimilation. Inhibition of photosynthesis prevents the production of the reduced ferredoxin required for nitrite reduction in chloroplasts, which leads to nitrate and nitrite accumulation (Commichau et al., ...

  20. Incidence of increased 68Ga-DOTANOC uptake in the pancreatic head in a large series of extrapancreatic NET patients studied with sequential PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellucci, Paolo; Pou Ucha, Javier; Fuccio, Chiara; Rubello, Domenico; Ambrosini, Valentina; Montini, Gian Carlo; Pettinato, Vincenzina; Malizia, Claudio; Lodi, Filippo; Fanti, Stefano

    2011-06-01

    The aim of our retrospective study was to assess the incidence of increased uptake of (68)Ga-DOTANOC in the head of the pancreas among a large population of patients with extrapancreatic neuroendocrine tumors studied with serial (68)Ga-DOTANOC PET/CT. Patients who had undergone at least two (68)Ga-DOTANOC PET/CT studies over time were included. Uptake in the head of the pancreas was measured and compared with uptake in normal liver parenchyma (target-to-liver ratio). Patients were followed up for 6-24 mo. We reviewed 245 studies performed on 100 patients and classified the pancreatic uptake as either diffuse or focal. Twenty-three patients (66 scans) showed diffuse uptake; 8 patients (16 scans) showed focal uptake. None of these 31 patients had negative findings on their subsequent scans, and vice versa. During follow-up, localization of neuroendocrine tumors in the pancreas was not suspected in any patient. Focal and diffuse uptake of (68)Ga-DOTANOC in the head of the pancreas occurred, respectively, in 23% and 8% of the patients. The main finding of our study was that increased pancreatic uptake was stable over time.

  1. Nitrogen uptake kinetics of freshly isolated zooxanthellae

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, M.V.M.; Wafar, S.; Rajkumar, R.

    Zooxanthellae freshly isolated from the coral host Pocillopora damicornis exhibited substrate-saturable uptake kinetics for ammonium, nitrate and urea. Maximum uptake velocity for ammonium [10.1 nmol. ( mu chl-a)./1h/1] was greater than...

  2. Regulation of Nitrate Transport in Citrus Rootstocks Depending on Nitrogen Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezo, Miguel; Camañes, Gemma; Flors, Víctor; Primo-Millo, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    Previously, we reported that in Citrus plants, nitrate influx through the plasmalemma of roots cells follows a biphasic pattern, suggesting the existence of at least two different uptake systems, a high and low affinity transport system (HATS and LATS, respectively). Here, we describe a novel inducible high affinity transport system (iHATS). This new nitrate transport system has a high capacity to uptake nitrate in two different Citrus rootstocks (Cleopatra mandarin and Troyer citrange). The iHATS was saturable, showing higher affinity than constitutive high affinity transport system (cHATS) to the substrate NO3−. The Vmax for this saturable component iHATS was higher than cHATS, reaching similar values in both rootstocks. Additionally, we studied the regulation of root NO3− uptake mediated by both HATS (iHATS and cHATS) and LATS. In both rootstocks, cHATS is constitutive and independent of N-status. Concerning the regulation of iHATS, this system is upregulated by NO3− and down-regulated by the N status and by NO3− itself when plants are exposed to it for a longer period of time. LATS in Cleopatra mandarin and Troyer citrange rootstocks is repressed by the N-status. The use of various metabolic uncouplers or inhibitors indicated that NO3− net uptake mediated by iHATS and LATS was an active transport system in both rootstocks. PMID:19516998

  3. Impacts of Watershed Characteristics and Crop Rotations on Winter Cover Crop Nitrate-Nitrogen Uptake Capacity within Agricultural Watersheds in the Chesapeake Bay Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangchul; Yeo, In-Young; Sadeghi, Ali M; McCarty, Gregory W; Hively, W Dean; Lang, Megan W

    2016-01-01

    The adoption rate of winter cover crops (WCCs) as an effective conservation management practice to help reduce agricultural nutrient loads in the Chesapeake Bay (CB) is increasing. However, the WCC potential for water quality improvement has not been fully realized at the watershed scale. This study was conducted to evaluate the long-term impact of WCCs on hydrology and NO3-N loads in two adjacent watersheds and to identify key management factors that affect the effectiveness of WCCs using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and statistical methods. Simulation results indicated that WCCs are effective for reducing NO3-N loads and their performance varied based on planting date, species, soil characteristics, and crop rotations. Early-planted WCCs outperformed late-planted WCCs on the reduction of NO3-N loads and early-planted rye (RE) reduced NO3-N loads by ~49.3% compared to the baseline (no WCC). The WCCs were more effective in a watershed dominated by well-drained soils with increased reductions in NO3-N fluxes of ~2.5 kg N·ha-1 delivered to streams and ~10.1 kg N·ha-1 leached into groundwater compared to poorly-drained soils. Well-drained agricultural lands had higher transport of NO3-N in the soil profile and groundwater due to increased N leaching. Poorly-drained agricultural lands had lower NO3-N due to extensive drainage ditches and anaerobic soil conditions promoting denitrification. The performance of WCCs varied by crop rotations (i.e., continuous corn and corn-soybean), with increased N uptake following soybean crops due to the increased soil mineral N availability by mineralization of soybean residue compared to corn residue. The WCCs can reduce N leaching where baseline NO3-N loads are high in well-drained soils and/or when residual and mineralized N availability is high due to the cropping practices. The findings suggested that WCC implementation plans should be established in watersheds according to local edaphic and agronomic

  4. Impacts of Watershed Characteristics and Crop Rotations on Winter Cover Crop Nitrate-Nitrogen Uptake Capacity within Agricultural Watersheds in the Chesapeake Bay Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangchul; Yeo, In-Young; Sadeghi, Ali M.; McCarty, Gregory W.; Hively, W. Dean; Lang, Megan W.

    2016-01-01

    The adoption rate of winter cover crops (WCCs) as an effective conservation management practice to help reduce agricultural nutrient loads in the Chesapeake Bay (CB) is increasing. However, the WCC potential for water quality improvement has not been fully realized at the watershed scale. This study was conducted to evaluate the long-term impact of WCCs on hydrology and NO3-N loads in two adjacent watersheds and to identify key management factors that affect the effectiveness of WCCs using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and statistical methods. Simulation results indicated that WCCs are effective for reducing NO3-N loads and their performance varied based on planting date, species, soil characteristics, and crop rotations. Early-planted WCCs outperformed late-planted WCCs on the reduction of NO3-N loads and early-planted rye (RE) reduced NO3-N loads by ~49.3% compared to the baseline (no WCC). The WCCs were more effective in a watershed dominated by well-drained soils with increased reductions in NO3-N fluxes of ~2.5 kg N·ha-1 delivered to streams and ~10.1 kg N·ha-1 leached into groundwater compared to poorly-drained soils. Well-drained agricultural lands had higher transport of NO3-N in the soil profile and groundwater due to increased N leaching. Poorly-drained agricultural lands had lower NO3-N due to extensive drainage ditches and anaerobic soil conditions promoting denitrification. The performance of WCCs varied by crop rotations (i.e., continuous corn and corn-soybean), with increased N uptake following soybean crops due to the increased soil mineral N availability by mineralization of soybean residue compared to corn residue. The WCCs can reduce N leaching where baseline NO3-N loads are high in well-drained soils and/or when residual and mineralized N availability is high due to the cropping practices. The findings suggested that WCC implementation plans should be established in watersheds according to local edaphic and agronomic

  5. Sensitivity of nitrate aerosols to ammonia emissions and to nitrate chemistry: implications for present and future nitrate optical depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Paulot

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We update and evaluate the treatment of nitrate aerosols in the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL atmospheric model (AM3. Accounting for the radiative effects of nitrate aerosols generally improves the simulated aerosol optical depth, although nitrate concentrations at the surface are biased high. This bias can be reduced by increasing the deposition of nitrate to account for the near-surface volatilization of ammonium nitrate or by neglecting the heterogeneous production of nitric acid to account for the inhibition of N2O5 reactive uptake at high nitrate concentrations. Globally, uncertainties in these processes can impact the simulated nitrate optical depth by up to 25 %, much more than the impact of uncertainties in the seasonality of ammonia emissions (6 % or in the uptake of nitric acid on dust (13 %. Our best estimate for fine nitrate optical depth at 550 nm in 2010 is 0.006 (0.005–0.008. In wintertime, nitrate aerosols are simulated to account for over 30 % of the aerosol optical depth over western Europe and North America. Simulated nitrate optical depth increases by less than 30 % (0.0061–0.010 in response to projected changes in anthropogenic emissions from 2010 to 2050 (e.g., −40 % for SO2 and +38 % for ammonia. This increase is primarily driven by greater concentrations of nitrate in the free troposphere, while surface nitrate concentrations decrease in the midlatitudes following lower concentrations of nitric acid. With the projected increase of ammonia emissions, we show that better constraints on the vertical distribution of ammonia (e.g., convective transport and biomass burning injection and on the sources and sinks of nitric acid (e.g., heterogeneous reaction on dust are needed to improve estimates of future nitrate optical depth.

  6. Multiple mechanisms of nitrate sensing by Arabidopsis nitrate transceptor NRT1.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouguyon, E; Brun, F; Meynard, D; Kubeš, M; Pervent, M; Leran, S; Lacombe, B; Krouk, G; Guiderdoni, E; Zažímalová, E; Hoyerová, K; Nacry, P; Gojon, A

    2015-03-02

    In Arabidopsis the plasma membrane nitrate transceptor (transporter/receptor) NRT1.1 governs many physiological and developmental responses to nitrate. Alongside facilitating nitrate uptake, NRT1.1 regulates the expression levels of many nitrate assimilation pathway genes, modulates root system architecture, relieves seed dormancy and protects plants from ammonium toxicity. Here, we assess the functional and phenotypic consequences of point mutations in two key residues of NRT1.1 (P492 and T101). We show that the point mutations differentially affect several of the NRT1.1-dependent responses to nitrate, namely the repression of lateral root development at low nitrate concentrations, and the short-term upregulation of the nitrate-uptake gene NRT2.1, and its longer-term downregulation, at high nitrate concentrations. We also show that these mutations have differential effects on genome-wide gene expression. Our findings indicate that NRT1.1 activates four separate signalling mechanisms, which have independent structural bases in the protein. In particular, we present evidence to suggest that the phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated forms of NRT1.1 at T101 have distinct signalling functions, and that the nitrate-dependent regulation of root development depends on the phosphorylated form. Our findings add to the evidence that NRT1.1 is able to trigger independent signalling pathways in Arabidopsis in response to different environmental conditions.

  7. Net Locality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Gordon, Eric

    Provides an introduction to the new theory of Net Locality and the profound effect on individuals and societies when everything is located or locatable. Describes net locality as an emerging form of location awareness central to all aspects of digital media, from mobile phones, to Google Maps...... of emerging technologies, from GeoCities to GPS, Wi-Fi, Wiki Me, and Google Android....

  8. Net Neutrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej

    2017-01-01

    Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else.......Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else....

  9. Uptake of dissolved inorganic nitrogen in turbid, tidal estuaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelburg, J.J.; Nieuwenhuize, J.

    2000-01-01

    Ammonium and nitrate uptake was measured in 6 European tidal estuaries (Ems, Rhine, Scheldt, Loire, Gironde and Douro) using N-15-tracer techniques. Uptake rates of ammonium and nitrate ranged from 0.005 to 1.56 mu mol N l(-1) h(-1) and 0.00025 to 0.25 mu mol N l(-1) h(-1), respectively, and

  10. Absorção e redução de nitrato em duas cultivares de arroz na presença de alumínio Uptake and reduction of nitrate in two rice cultivars in the presence of aluminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Costa Justino

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar os efeitos do alumínio (Al sobre a absorção e a redução de nitrato, em duas cultivares de arroz: Fernandes (tolerante e Maravilha (sensível, expostas a 0 e 500 µM de Al. Depois de 21 dias de crescimento, foram determinados o comprimento, a produção de matéria seca, os teores de Al e de nitrato e a atividade in vitro da redutase do nitrato (RN, nas raízes e na parte aérea, bem como as constantes cinéticas de absorção de nitrato pelas raízes. O Al reduziu o crescimento em comprimento e a produção de matéria seca, nas duas partes das plantas, apenas da cultivar Maravilha. Os teores de Al aumentaram nas raízes e parte aérea das plantas nas duas cultivares, enquanto o teor de nitrato sofreu redução apenas nas raízes da cultivar Maravilha. A Vmax não se modificou, enquanto o Km da absorção de nitrato diminuiu cerca de 11% na cultivar Fernandes e aumentou 310% na Maravilha. Em presença de Al, houve redução na atividade da RN nas raízes das duas cultivares, e na parte aérea apenas da cultivar Maravilha. A cultivar tolerante foi mais eficiente na absorção e na redução de nitrato, o que indica que esses processos são importantes componentes da tolerância ao Al em arroz.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of Al on the nitrate uptake and reduction in two rice cultivars, Fernandes (Al tolerant and Maravilha (Al sensitive, exposed to 0 and 500 µM Al. After 21 days of Al treatment, growth in size and dry matter yield, Al and nitrate contents and in vitro nitrate reductase activity (NR in the tops and roots, and the kinetic constants of root nitrate uptake were determined. Aluminum reduced the growth and dry matter yield of both plant parts only in the Maravilha cultivar. Aluminum content increased in the tops and roots of both cultivars, while nitrate content decreased only in the roots of Maravilha cultivar. Vmax did not change, while Km of the nitrate uptake

  11. Nitrate transport processes in Fagus-Laccaria-mycorrhizae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreuzwieser, J; Stulen, [No Value; Wiersema, P; Vaalburg, W; Rennenberg, H

    2000-01-01

    The contribution of influx and efflux of NO3- on NO3- net uptake has been studied in excised mycorrhizae of 18-20 week old beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) trees. Net uptake rates of NO3- followed uniphasic Michaelis-Menten kinetics in the concentration range between 10 mu M and 1.0 mM external NO3-, with

  12. Nitrate retention in a sand plains stream and the importance of groundwater discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert S. Stelzer; Damion R. Drover; Susan L. Eggert; Maureen A. Muldoon

    2011-01-01

    We measured net nitrate retention by mass balance in a 700-m upwelling reach of a third-order sand plains stream, Emmons Creek, from January 2007 to November 2008. Surface water and ground-water fluxes of nitrate were determined from continuous records of discharge and from nitrate concentrations based on weekly and biweekly sampling at three surface water stations and...

  13. Variation for N uptake system in maize: genotypic response to N supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor eGarnett

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of the adaptations made by plants in their nitrogen (N uptake systems in response to reduced N supply is important to the development of cereals with enhanced N uptake efficiency (NUpE. Twenty seven diverse genotypes of maize (Zea mays, L. were grown in hydroponics for three weeks with limiting or adequate N supply. Genotype response to N was assessed on the basis of biomass characteristics and the activities of the nitrate (NO3- and ammonium (NH4+ high-affinity transport systems. Genotypes differed greatly for the ability to maintain biomass with reduced N. Genotypes that maintained biomass at reduced N maintained net N uptake with no change in size of the root relative to the shoot. The root uptake capacity for both NO3- and NH4+ increased with reduced N. Transcript levels of putative NO3- and NH4+ transporter genes in the root tissue of a subset of the genotypes revealed that is was predominately putative ZmNRT2s whose transcript levels responded to N treatments. The correlation between the ratio of transcripts of ZmNRT2.2 between the two N levels and a genotypes ability to maintain biomass with reduced N suggests a role in enhancing N uptake efficiency. The observed variation in the ability to capture N at low N provides scope for both improving NUpE in maize and also to better understand the N uptake system in cereals.

  14. Nutrient uptake by greenhouse net melonAcúmulo de nutrientes e rendimento de óleo em plantas de girassol influenciados pelo vigor dos aquênios e pela densidade de semeadura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana da Silva Cardoso

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available For presenting more commercial value, the net melon (Cucumis melo L. var reticulatus Naud. has been an option of greenhouse planting for the horticulturists. This work was carried out in Piracicaba, Brazil with the aim of evaluating the nutrient uptake from this melon cultivated in greenhouse. To obtain the nutrients accumulation in the different stages of the plant development, plants were collected in the transplant day (seedling, in the vegetative stage, in the beginning of the flowering stage, in the beginning and in the middle of fruit production period and in the harvest period. It was verified that the greatest increase of nutrient uptake happened between the beginning of the flowering and the beginning of the fruit production. The greatest dry matter accumulation happened between the beginning of the fruit production and the middle of fruit production period. The decrescent order of nutrients accumulated in the above ground part of the plant was: potassium > nitrogen > calcium > magnesium > sulphur > phosphorus > iron > manganese > zinc > copper ~ boron. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o acúmulo de nutrientes e o rendimento de óleo dos aquênios em plantas de girassol produzidas sob a influência do vigor dos aquênios e da densidade de semeadura. Para isto, foi instalado um experimento no campo experimental no município de Seropédica/RJ, em outubro de 2006, com três distintos lotes de aquênios de girassol cv Embrapa 122 V2000, classificados como de baixo, de médio e de alto vigor, sob duas densidades de semeadura (45.000 e 75.000 sementes ha-1. Aos 20, 60 e 100 dias após a semeadura (DAS, foram coletadas as plantas para avaliação da massa de matéria seca e do acúmulo de nitrogênio, de fósforo, de potássio e de cálcio, no caule, nas folhas e nos capítulos. Nas plantas coletadas aos 100 DAS, foi feita também a avaliação do rendimento de aquênios (kg ha-1, do teor de óleo e do rendimento de óleo (kg ha-1. Observou

  15. NH4+ enrichment and UV radiation interact to affect the photosynthesis and nitrogen uptake of Gracilaria lemaneiformis (Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiguang; Gao, Kunshan

    2012-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR, 280-400 nm) is known to inhibit the photosynthesis of macroalgae, whereas nitrogen availability may alter the sensitivity of the algae to UVR. Here, we show that UV-B (280-315 nm) significantly reduced the net photosynthetic rate of Gracilaria lemaneiformis. This inhibition was alleviated by enrichment with ammonia, which also caused a decrease in dark respiration. The presence of both UV-A (315-400 nm) and UV-B stimulated the accumulation of UV-absorbing compounds. However, this stimulation was not affected by enrichment with ammonia. The content of phycoerythrin (PE) was increased by the enrichment of ammonia only in the absence of UVR. Ammonia uptake and the activity of nitrate reductase were repressed by UVR. However, exposure to UVR had an insignificant effect on the rate of nitrate uptake. In conclusion, increased PE content associated with ammonia enrichment played a protective role against UVR in this alga, and UVR differentially affected the uptake of nitrate and ammonia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. RESTful NET

    CERN Document Server

    Flanders, Jon

    2008-01-01

    RESTful .NET is the first book that teaches Windows developers to build RESTful web services using the latest Microsoft tools. Written by Windows Communication Foundation (WFC) expert Jon Flanders, this hands-on tutorial demonstrates how you can use WCF and other components of the .NET 3.5 Framework to build, deploy and use REST-based web services in a variety of application scenarios. RESTful architecture offers a simpler approach to building web services than SOAP, SOA, and the cumbersome WS- stack. And WCF has proven to be a flexible technology for building distributed systems not necessa

  17. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Associate Professor of. Computer Science and. Automation at the Indian. Institute of Science,. Bangalore. His research interests are broadly in the areas of stochastic modeling and scheduling methodologies for future factories; and object oriented modeling. GENERAL I ARTICLE. Petri Nets. 1. Overview and Foundations.

  18. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 8. Petri Nets - Overview and Foundations. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 8 August 1999 pp ... Author Affiliations. Y Narahari1. Department ot Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  19. Modeled Wet Nitrate Deposition

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Modeled data on nitrate wet deposition was obtained from Dr. Jeff Grimm at Penn State Univ. Nitrate wet depostion causes acidification and eutrophication of surface...

  20. Scepticism towards insecticide treated mosquito nets for malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study explores reasons for scepticism and low uptake of insecticide treated mosquito nets (ITNs) that were promoted through social marketing strategy for malaria control prior to the introduction of long lasting nets (LLN). The paper breaks from traditional approach that tend to study low uptake of health interventions in ...

  1. 1 Scepticism towards insecticide treated mosquito nets for malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study explores reasons for scepticism and low uptake of insecticide treated mosquito nets (ITNs) that were promoted through social marketing strategy for malaria control prior to the introduction of long lasting nets (LLN). The paper breaks from traditional approach that tend to study low uptake of health interventions in ...

  2. Ipso Nitration. Regiospecific Nitration via Ipso Nitration Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-20

    borohydride in methanol followed by vacuum evaporation and low temperature liquid-liquid extraction . As a com- plementary method, means of preparing 1,4...or phenyl acetate. The reaction is formally an elimination of the elements of nitrous acid and has been characterized as an El-like elimination...diastereomeric adducts formed by nitration of furfural diacetate and methyl furoate with acetyl nitrate. The solvolytic chemistry of these adducts has been

  3. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate are subject to prior sanctions issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for use as sources of...

  4. Nitrate accumulation in spinach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steingröver, Eveliene Geertruda

    1986-01-01

    Leafy vegetables, like spinach, may contain high concentrations of nitrate. In the Netherlands, about 75% of mean daily intake of nitrate orginates from the consumption of vegatables. Hazards to human health are associated with the reduction of nitrate to nitrite. Acute nitrite poisoning causes

  5. Absorção de cátions e ânions pelo capim-coastcross adubado com uréia e nitrato de amônio Cations and anions uptake by coastcross grass fertilized with urea and ammonium nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cândida Primavesi

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Os processos fisiológicos das plantas são afetados pelo balanço de cátions e ânions absorvidos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a absorção de cátions e ânions quando plantas de capim-coastcross receberam doses elevadas de nitrogênio. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições, num esquema fatorial 2x5 - duas fontes de N: uréia e nitrato de amônio, e cinco doses de N: 0, 25, 50, 100, 200 kg ha-1 corte-1 . As doses de N foram aplicadas após cada corte num total de cinco cortes, durante a época das chuvas. A absorção de cátions e de ânions pelo capim-coastcross aumentou com o acréscimo das doses de N dos dois fertilizantes, sendo maior com o nitrato de amônio. Com doses crescentes de N, verificou-se entre os cátions maior absorção do K+, e do Cl- entre os ânions. Com exceção do N, a absorção do K+ foi superior à dos demais nutrientes, com redução no teor relativo de cálcio. Doses altas de N aplicadas em capim-coastcross, na forma de uréia ou de nitrato de amônio, favorecem a absorção de cátions e de ânions.Physiologic processes of plants are affected by uptake of cations and anions. The aim of this work was to determine the uptake of cations and anions when plants of coastcross grass received high doses of nitrogen. The experimental design was a randomized block, in a 2x5 factorial arrangement - two N sources: urea and ammonium nitrate and five N rates: 0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 kg ha-1 cutting-1 - with four replications. Treatments were applied after each of five consecutive cutting in the rainy season. Uptake of cations and anions by coastcross grass increased with increasing of N rates with both fertilizers, but was higher with ammonium nitrate. Increasing rates of N caused higher K+ uptake in relation to other cations, and in Cl- among the anions. Except for N, K+ uptake was greater than that of other nutrients, with a reduction on the relative content of Ca2

  6. Ammonium nitrate explosion hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negovanović Milanka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium nitrate (AN primarily is used as a fertilizer but it is also very important compound in the production of industrial explosives. The application of ammonium nitrate in the production of industrial explosives was related with the early era of Nobel dynamite and widely increased with the appearance of blasting agents such as ANFO and Slurry, in the middle of the last Century. Throughout the world millions of tons of ammonium nitrate are produced annually and handled without incident. Although ammonium nitrate generally is used safely, accidental explosions involving AN have high impact resulting in loss of lives and destruction of property. The paper presents the basic properties of ammonium nitrate as well as hazards in handling of ammonium nitrate in order to prevent accidents. Several accidents with explosions of ammonium nitrate resulted in catastrophic consequences are listed in the paper as examples of non-compliance with prescribed procedures.

  7. Nitrate, Nitrite, and Ammonium Variability in Drinking Water Distribution Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schullehner, Jörg; Stayner, Leslie; Hansen, Birgitte

    2017-03-09

    Accurate assessments of exposure to nitrate in drinking water is a crucial part of epidemiological studies investigating long-term adverse human health effects. However, since drinking water nitrate measurements are usually collected for regulatory purposes, assumptions on (1) the intra-distribution system variability and (2) short-term (seasonal) concentration variability have to be made. We assess concentration variability in the distribution system of nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium, and seasonal variability in all Danish public waterworks from 2007 to 2016. Nitrate concentrations at the exit of the waterworks are highly correlated with nitrate concentrations within the distribution net or at the consumers' taps, while nitrite and ammonium concentrations are generally lower within the net compared with the exit of the waterworks due to nitrification. However, nitrification of nitrite and ammonium in the distribution systems only results in a relatively small increase in nitrate concentrations. No seasonal variation for nitrate, nitrite, or ammonium was observed. We conclude that nitrate measurements taken at the exit of the waterworks are suitable to calculate exposures for all consumers connected to that waterworks and that sampling frequencies in the national monitoring programme are sufficient to describe temporal variations in longitudinal studies.

  8. NarK is a nitrite-extrusion system involved in anaerobic nitrate respiration by Escherichia coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rowe, John J.; Ubbink-Kok, Trees; Molenaar, Douwe; Konings, Wilhelmus; Driessen, Arnold J.M.

    Escherichia coli can use nitrate as a terminal electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration. A polytopic membrane protein, termed NarK, has been implicated in nitrate uptake and nitrite excretion and is thought to function as a nitrate/nitrite antiporter. The longest-lived radioactive isotope of

  9. Cloning and nitrate induction of nitrate reductase mRNA

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Chi-Lien; Dewdney, Julia; Kleinhofs, Andris; Goodman, Howard M.

    1986-01-01

    Nitrate is the major source of nitrogen taken from the soil by higher plants but requires reduction to ammonia prior to incorporation into amino acids. The first enzyme in the reducing pathway is a nitrate-inducible enzyme, nitrate reductase (EC 1.6.6.1). A specific polyclonal antiserum raised against purified barley nitrate reductase has been used to immunoprecipitate in vivo labeled protein and in vitro translation products, demonstrating that nitrate induction increases nitrate reductase p...

  10. Coupled transport and reaction kinetics control the nitrate source-sink function of hyporheic zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnetske, Jay P.; Haggerty, Roy; Wondzell, Steven M.; Bokil, Vrushali A.; GonzáLez-Pinzón, Ricardo

    2012-11-01

    The fate of biologically available nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) in stream ecosystems is controlled by the coupling of physical transport and biogeochemical reaction kinetics. However, determining the relative role of physical and biogeochemical controls at different temporal and spatial scales is difficult. The hyporheic zone (HZ), where groundwater-stream water mix, can be an important location controlling N and C transformations because it creates strong gradients in both the physical and biogeochemical conditions that control redox biogeochemistry. We evaluated the coupling of physical transport and biogeochemical redox reactions by linking an advection, dispersion, and residence time model with a multiple Monod kinetics model simulating the concentrations of oxygen (O2), ammonium (NH4), nitrate (NO3), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). We used global Monte Carlo sensitivity analyses with a nondimensional form of the model to examine coupled nitrification-denitrification dynamics across many scales of transport and reaction conditions. Results demonstrated that the residence time of water in the HZ and the uptake rate of O2 from either respiration and/or nitrification determined whether the HZ was a source or a sink of NO3 to the stream. We further show that whether the HZ is a net NO3 source or net NO3 sink is determined by the ratio of the characteristic transport time to the characteristic reaction time of O2 (i.e., the Damköhler number, DaO2), where HZs with DaO2 < 1 will be net nitrification environments and HZs with DaO2 ≪ 1 will be net denitrification environments. Our coupling of the hydrologic and biogeochemical limitations of N transformations across different temporal and spatial scales within the HZ allows us to explain the widely contrasting results of previous investigations of HZ N dynamics which variously identify the HZ as either a net source or sink of NO3. Our model results suggest that only estimates of residence times and O2uptake rates

  11. Climatic and oceanic forcing of new, net, and diatom production in the North Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Jean-Eric; Gratton, Yves; Fauchot, Juliette; Price, Neil M.

    New, net, and diatom production in the North Water were estimated during May to July 1998 from in vitro measurements of nitrate uptake and mesoscale temporal changes in the inventories of nitrate, silicate, oxygen, and inorganic carbon (DIC). Sampling stations were divided into two domains according to the position of the dominant water types: the silicate-rich Arctic water (SRAW) and Baffin Bay Water (BBW). BBW dominated in the southeast and was associated with relatively shallow upper mixed layers (UMLs) and weak horizontal advection. A phytoplankton bloom started in late April in BBW and grew slowly over 7 weeks, during which time the build-up of particulate organic nitrogen and carbon accounted for ca. 80% of the nitrate and DIC deficit, respectively. Over half of the new production (1.37 g C m -2 d -1) during this period was attributed to wind-driven replenishment of nitrate in the euphotic zone. The bloom culminated when seasonally declining winds and rising temperatures severed the UML from the deep nutrient reservoir. The same change in weather induced ice melt, stratification, and bloom development in northern SRAW, which had previously been characterized by deep UMLs. Collectively, the results imply that the timing and magnitude of blooms in the North Water are controlled by a succession of oceanic and climatic forcings. New C production in the North Water during April to July (1.11 g C m -2 d -1) was an order of magnitude higher than in adjacent waters and up to 8 times higher than in the Northeast Water polynya. As much as 80% of this production was mediated by diatoms >5 μm, suggesting potentially high and efficient C transfer to the herbivorous food web and deep waters.

  12. Regulation of transcript level and synthesis of nitrate reductase by phytochrome and nitrate in turions of Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleiden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appenroth, K J; Oelmüller, R; Schuster, C; Mohr, H

    1992-11-01

    Control by light and nitrate of the appearance of nitrate reductase (NR; EC 1.6.6.1) in the turions of Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schieiden was investigated during the pre-germination phase, i.e. up to 120 h after the transfer from after-ripening to germination conditions. Turions are particularily suited for this type of coaction study since control of nitrate uptake by light and long-distance transport of nitrate do not play a role. Control of NR gene expression was mainly studied between 72 and 120 h after transfer to germination conditions (phase II of the pre-germination process). It was found that the effect of light on NR appearance is exerted via phytochrome. The light effect on enzyme synthesis was only observed in the presence of nitrate. On the other hand, in darkness, the NR level decreased to almost zero even in the presence of an optimum supply of nitrate. It is concluded that in phase II a coaction of light (phytochrome) and nitrate is required to bring about NR synthesis. However, when nitrate was applied to turions - following a dark incubation without nitrate - the turions responded to nitrate even in darkness with strong NR synthesis. This response was augmented by light. The highest transcript levels were observed in the presence of both factors, light and nitrate. As a single factor, light was more effective in stimulating the transcript level than nitrate. However, no correlation between the transcript level and the rate of enzyme synthesis was observed. This is consistent with the previous conclusion (Schuster et al. 1988, Planta 174, 426-432) that in higher plants control at the transcript level is only coarse and does not determine quantitatively the output at the level of enzyme protein.

  13. Long-term record of atmospheric and snow surface nitrate from Dome C (Central Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traversi, Rita; Becagli, Silvia; Brogioni, Marco; Caiazzo, Laura; Ciardini, Virginia; Giardi, Fabio; Legrand, Michel; Macelloni, Giovanni; Petkov, Boyan; Preunkert, Suzanne; Scarchilli, Claudio; Severi, Mirko; Vitale, Vito; Udisti, Roberto

    2017-04-01

    a major nitrate event showed the occurrence of a stratosphere-troposphere exchange in the sampled days. The sampling of both matrices carried out at high resolution at the same time allowed detecting a recurring lag, about one-month long, of summer maxima in snow with respect to aerosol. Such a temporal shift can be explained only by taking into account deposition and post-deposition processes taking place at the atmosphere-snow interface, including likely both a net uptake of gaseous nitric acid and a replenishment of the uppermost surface layers driven by a larger temperature gradient in summer. Such a possibility was tested in a preliminary way by a comparison with measurements of surface layers temperature carried out in 2012-13 time period. A comparison with nitrate concentration in the gas phase and total nitrate obtained from Dome C (2012-13) showed the major role of gaseous HNO3 to total nitrate budget hinting to the need of further investigation of the gas-to-particle conversion processes.

  14. Removal of Nitrate From Aqueous Solution Using Rice Chaff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehghani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Nitrate is largely dissolved in the surface and ground water, due to its high solubility. Continual uptake of nitrite through drinking water can lead to problems and diseases (such as blue baby for humans, especially children. Objectives The aim of this study was to develop a new and inexpensive method for the removal of nitrate from water. In this regard, the possibility of using chaff for removal of nitrate from aqueous solutions was studied and the optimum operating conditions of nitrate removal was determined. Materials and Methods This is a cross-sectional study conducted in laboratory scale. The UV spectrophotometer at a wavelength of maximum absorbance (220 nm was used to determine the nitrate concentration. The effect of pH, amount of chaff, temperature, and contact time were investigated. Results The result of this study revealed that chaff as an absorbent could remove nitrate from solutions, and the efficiency of adsorption increased as contact time increased from 5 to 30 minutes, amount of chaff increased from 1 to 3 g, temperature increased in a range of 300 - 400°C and the amount of pH decreased from 10 to 3. The maximum adsorption rate was around pH 3 (53.14%. Conclusions It was shown that the removal efficiency of nitrate was directly proportional to the amount of chaff, temperature, and contact time but inversely to the pH. This study showed that nitrate removal by chaff is a promising technique.

  15. Nitrate Supplementation's Improvement of 10-km Time-Trial Performance in Trained Cyclists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cermak, N.M.; Gibala, M.J.; van Loon, L.J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Six days of dietary nitrate supplementation in the form of beetroot juice (~0.5 L/d) has been reported to reduce pulmonary oxygen uptake (VO2) during submaximal exercise and increase tolerance of high-intensity work rates, suggesting that nitrate can be a potent ergogenic aid. Limited data are

  16. Nitrate leaching from short-hydroperiod floodplain soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, B.; Luster, J.; Bernasconi, S. M.; Shrestha, J.; Graf Pannatier, E.

    2012-11-01

    Numerous studies have shown the importance of riparian zones to reduce nitrate (NO3-) contamination coming from adjacent agricultural land. Much less is known about nitrogen (N) transformations and nitrate fluxes in riparian soils with short hydroperiods (1-3 days of inundation) and there is no study that could show whether these soils are a N sink or source. Within a restored section of the Thur River in NE Switzerland, we measured nitrate concentrations in soil solutions as an indicator of the net nitrate production. Samples were collected along a quasi-successional gradient from frequently inundated gravel bars to an alluvial forest, at three different depths (10, 50 and 100 cm) over a one-year period. Along this gradient we quantified N input (atmospheric deposition and sedimentation) and N output (leaching) to create a nitrogen balance and assess the risk of nitrate leaching from the unsaturated soil to the groundwater. Overall, the main factor explaining the differences in nitrate concentrations was the field capacity (FC). In subsoils with high FCs and VWC near FC, high nitrate concentrations were observed, often exceeding the Swiss and EU groundwater quality criterions of 400 and 800 μmol L-1, respectively. High sedimentation rates of river-derived nitrogen led to apparent N retention up to 200 kg N ha-1 yr-1 in the frequently inundated zones. By contrast, in the mature alluvial forest, nitrate leaching exceeded total N input most of the time. As a result of the large soil N pools, high amounts of nitrate were produced by nitrification and up to 94 kg N-NO3- ha-1 yr-1 were leached into the groundwater. Thus, during flooding when water fluxes are high, nitrate from soils can contribute up to 11% to the total nitrate load in groundwater.

  17. Agricultural nitrate pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Helle Tegner

    2015-01-01

    Despite the passing of almost 25 years since the adoption of the EU Nitrates Directive, agricultural nitrate pollution remains a major concern in most EU Member States. This is also the case in Denmark, although a fairly strict regulatory regime has resulted in almost a 50 per cent reduction...... in nitrogen leaching since the mid-80s. Nevertheless, further effort is needed, particularly in ecologically sensitive areas. This article discusses different regulatory approaches – and in particular the need for a differentiated nitrate regulation tailored to meet site-specific ecological demands – from...... of the mandatory specification standards of the Nitrates Directive combined with additional instruments to address the need for severe restrictions on fertiliser use or cultivation practices in the most ecologically vulnerable areas....

  18. Inorganic nitrogen uptake kinetics and whole-plant nitrogen budget in the seagrass Zostera noltii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexandre, A.; Silva, J.; Bouma, T.J.; Santos, R.

    2011-01-01

    The uptake rates of ammonium and nitrate through the leaves and roots, the leaf–root interactions in the nitrogen uptake and the internal translocation of incorporated nitrogen were simultaneously investigated in the seagrass Zostera noltii. Leaf and root uptake rates, which were measured using

  19. Effect of Phloem-Translocated Malate on NO3− Uptake by Roots of Intact Soybean Plants 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touraine, Bruno; Muller, Bertrand; Grignon, Claude

    1992-01-01

    In soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cv Kingsoy), NO3− assimilation in leaves resulted in production and transport of malate to roots (B Touraine, N Grignon, C Grignon [1988] Plant Physiol 88: 605-612). This paper examines the significance of this phenomenon for the control of NO3− uptake by roots. The net NO3− uptake rate by roots of soybean plants was stimulated by the addition of K-malate to the external solution. It was decreased when phloem translocation was interrupted by hypocotyl girdling, and partially restored by malate addition to the medium, whereas glucose was ineffective. Introduction of K-malate into the transpiration stream using a split root system resulted in an enrichment of the phloem sap translocated back to the roots. This treatment resulted in an increase in both NO3− uptake and C excretion rates by roots. These results suggest that NO3− uptake by roots is dependent on the availability of shoot-borne, phloem-translocated malate. Shoot-to-root transport of malate stimulated NO3− uptake, and excretion of HCO3− ions was probably released by malate decarboxylation. NO3− uptake rate increased when the supply of NO3− to the shoot was increased, and decreased when the activity of nitrate reductase in the shoot was inhibited by WO42−. We conclude that in situ, NO3− reduction rate in the shoot may control NO3− uptake rate in the roots via the translocation rate of malate in the phloem. PMID:16668978

  20. Nitration of petroleum porphyrins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailova, R.V.; Aksenov, V.S.; Isobayev, M.D.; Numanov, I.U.

    1983-01-01

    The reaction of nitration of demetallized porphyrins (Pr) from oils from the Kichik Bel deposit is studied and an attempt is made to evaluate the reactivity of the meso and pyrrole positions in the porphyrine system and to note the ways to produce new, promising chemical substances on the basis of the oil. The fractions isolated and chromatographically purified were analyzed through an electron absorption spectroscopy method. The demetallization of the vanadylporphyrines was conducted by orthophosphoric acid. A concentrate of demetallized porphyrines, liberated from impurities through a method of tower chromatography in Al203, was used for the nitration. A number of nitrating agents were tested, including concentrated HNO3, HNO3 plus CH5COOH (polar), HNO3 plus H2SO4. A proton magnetic resonance (PMR) and spectroscopic method showed that a mole of the porphyrines in the concentrate on the average contains 2 pyrrole and 3 to 4 unsubstituted mesopositions.

  1. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Rosener, B. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host ``na-net.ornl.gov`` at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message ``send index`` to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user`s perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  2. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Rosener, B. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host na-net.ornl.gov'' at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message send index'' to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user's perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  3. Nitrate reductase activity in cabbage (Brassica oleracae var. capitata seedlings affected by the different nitrogen fertilizer forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Turan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different nitrogen fertilizer (potassium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulphate, urea and farmyard manure on nitrate reductase activity in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata seedlings were studied. pH of the plant growth niedia was higher in the nitrate fertilizer treatment than the ammonium and other fertilizer forms. NO3--N application increased NRA in plant, but NH4+-N decreased NRA in plant. Harvesting date and different fertilizer doses increased NRA while NH4+-N decreased plant nitrate uptake. There was a significant relationship between NRA and fertilizer types.

  4. Variation for N Uptake System in Maize: Genotypic Response to N Supply

    KAUST Repository

    Garnett, Trevor

    2015-11-09

    An understanding of the adaptations made by plants in their nitrogen (N) uptake systems in response to reduced N supply is important to the development of cereals with enhanced N uptake efficiency (NUpE). Twenty seven diverse genotypes of maize (Zea mays, L.) were grown in hydroponics for 3 weeks with limiting or adequate N supply. Genotypic response to N was assessed on the basis of biomass characteristics and the activities of the nitrate (NO−3) and ammonium (NH+4) high-affinity transport systems. Genotypes differed greatly for the ability to maintain biomass with reduced N. Although, the N response in underlying biomass and N transport related characteristics was less than that for biomass, there were clear relationships, most importantly, lines that maintained biomass at reduced N maintained net N uptake with no change in size of the root relative to the shoot. The root uptake capacity for both NO−3 and NH+4 increased with reduced N. Transcript levels of putative NO−3 and NH+4 transporter genes in the root tissue of a subset of the genotypes revealed that predominately ZmNRT2 transcript levels responded to N treatments. The correlation between the ratio of transcripts of ZmNRT2.2 between the two N levels and a genotype\\'s ability to maintain biomass with reduced N suggests a role for these transporters in enhancing NUpE. The observed variation in the ability to capture N at low N provides scope for both improving NUpE in maize and also to better understand the N uptake system in cereals.

  5. Yttrium Nitrate mediated Nitration of Phenols at room temperature in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rapid nitration of electron rich phenols using Y(NO₃)₃.6H₂O in glacial acetic acid at room temperature was observed with good yield. The method allows nitration of phenols without oxidation, and isolation of nitration product in a rapid and simple way. The described method is selective for phenols.

  6. Nitrate Leaching from Sand and Pumice Geomedia Amended with Pyrogenic Carbon Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihoon Kang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in using pyrogenic carbon as an adsorbent for aqueous contaminants in stormwater. The objective of this study was to investigate pyrogenic carbon materials as an amendment to geomedia to reduce nitrate leaching. Batch adsorption and column experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of a commercial activated carbon and two biochars incorporated (5% by weight into sand and pumice columns. The batch adsorption with 50 mg L−1 of nitrate solution showed that only activated carbon resulted in a substantial adsorption for nitrate up to 41%. Tested biochars were not effective in removing aqueous nitrate and even released nitrate (<1% with 1 h reaction time. Column experiment with a pulse input of nitrate solution (50 mg L−1 confirmed that the sand or pumice columns amended with biochars were not as effective as those amended with activated carbon for reducing nitrate leaching. Our results suggested that net negatively charged surfaces of biochar may inhibit nitrate anion adsorption while activated carbon has reactive sites containing acidic functional groups to improve nitrate retention. There was no difference between sand and pumice for nitrate retention in any of the carbon amendments. Additional surface activation process during biochar production may be needed to improve adsorptive capacity of biochar for aqueous nitrate removal.

  7. 4-Methoxyanilinium nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajer Rahmouni

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C7H10NO+·NO3−, crystallized with two p-ansidinium cations and two nitrate anions in the asymmetric unit. As well as Columbic and van der Waals forces, moleucles interact via multiple bifurcated N—H...O hydrogen bonds that help consolidate the crystal packing, resulting in a three-dimensional network.

  8. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses ... the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is a ...

  9. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses ... the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is a ...

  10. Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux is defined as the year-over-year change in Total Ecosystem Carbon Stock, or the net rate of carbon exchange between an ecosystem and the...

  11. Influence of nitrogen supply on uptake and translocation of strontium and calcium in wheat seedlings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A. J.; Jackson, W. A.

    1971-01-01

    Supplying nitrate to N-depleted wheat seedlings (Triticum vulgare cv. Knox) stimulated the uptake and translocation of both 83Sr and 45Ca. Since the increase in 45Ca accumulation was greater, the 85Sr/45Ca ratio in the plant tissue was decreased. Nitrate had relatively little influence...... on the amount of the divalent cations and 85Sr/45Ca ratio in the exchangeable fraction on the root surfaces, whereas it greatly increased the uptake into root tissue and translocation to shoots. The increase in percent transported to shoots occurred largely in the period of most rapid nitrate uptake. A split...... root study indicated that nitrate was ineffective when it was supplied to a different portion of the root system than that exposed to 85Sr and 45Ca. Nevertheless, ammonium and urea also increased the translocation of the two cations, indicating that the effects of nitrate could not entirely be ascribed...

  12. Influence of carbon source on nitrate removal by nitrate-tolerant Klebsiella oxytoca CECT 4460 in batch and chemostat cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinar, G.; Ramos, J.L. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Granada (Spain); Kovarova, K.; Egli, T. [Swiss Federal Inst. for Environmental Science and Technology, Duebendorf (Switzerland). Dept. of Microbiology

    1998-08-01

    The nitrate-tolerant organism Klebsiella oxytoca CECT-4460 tolerates nitrate at concentrations up to 1 M and is used to treat wastewater with high nitrate loads in industrial wastewater treatment plants. The authors studied the influence of the C source (glycerol or sucrose or both) on the growth rate and the efficiency of nitrate removal under laboratory conditions. With sucrose as the sole C source the maximum specific growth rate was 0.3 h{sup {minus}1}, whereas with glycerol it was 0.45 h{sup {minus}1}. In batch cultures K. oxytoca cells grown on sucrose or glycerol were able to immediately use sucrose as a sole C source, suggesting that sucrose uptake and metabolism were constitutive. In contrast, glycerol uptake occurred preferentially in glycerol-grown cells. Independent of the preculture conditions, when sucrose and glycerol were added simultaneously to batch cultures, the sucrose was used first, and once the supply of sucrose was exhausted, the glycerol was consumed. Utilization of nitrate as an N source occurred without nitrite of ammonium accumulation when glycerol was used, but nitrite accumulated when sucrose was used. In chemostat cultures K. oxytoca CECT 4460 efficiently removed nitrate without accumulation of nitrite or ammonium when sucrose, glycerol, or mixtures of these two C sources were used. The growth yields and the efficiencies of C and N utilization were determined at different growth rates in chemostat cultures. Regardless of the C source, yield carbon (Y{sub C}) ranged between 1.3 and 1.0 g (dry weight) per g of sucrose C or glycerol C consumed. Regardless of the specific growth rate and the C source, yield nitrogen (Y{sub N}) ranged from 17.2 to 12.5 g (dry weight) per g of nitrate N consumed.

  13. Dietary nitrate and nitrite and the risk of thyroid cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kilfoy, Briseis A.; Zhang, Yawei; Park, Yikyung; Holford, Theodore R.; Schatzkin, Arthur; Hollenbeck, Albert; Ward, Mary H.

    2010-01-01

    During the past several decades, an increasing incidence of thyroid cancer has been observed worldwide. Nitrate inhibits iodide uptake by the thyroid, potentially disrupting thyroid function. An increased risk of thyroid cancer associated with nitrate intake was recently reported in a cohort study of older women in Iowa. We evaluated dietary nitrate and nitrite intake and thyroid cancer risk overall and for subtypes in the National Institutes of Health-American Association of Retired Persons ...

  14. Professional Enterprise NET

    CERN Document Server

    Arking, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Comprehensive coverage to help experienced .NET developers create flexible, extensible enterprise application code If you're an experienced Microsoft .NET developer, you'll find in this book a road map to the latest enterprise development methodologies. It covers the tools you will use in addition to Visual Studio, including Spring.NET and nUnit, and applies to development with ASP.NET, C#, VB, Office (VBA), and database. You will find comprehensive coverage of the tools and practices that professional .NET developers need to master in order to build enterprise more flexible, testable, and ext

  15. 4-Methoxybenzylammonium nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Umarani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the title salt, C8H12NO+·NO3−, the 4-methoxybenzylammonium cation lies in the mirror plane m of space group Pnma and is thus planar by symmetry. The nitrate anion is also planar by symmetry, with an N...;O group in the mirror plane and one O atom in a general position. The dihedral angle between the benzene ring and the planar nitrate anion is constrained to be exactly 90°, because of the relative special positions for both ions. In the crystal, the cations are connected to the anions by C—H...O, C—H...N, N—H...N and N—H...O hydrogen bonds. Further, the crystal structure also features two C—H...π interactions involving the benzene ring of the cation, forming a three-dimensional network.

  16. Nitrate in drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schullehner, Jörg; Hansen, Birgitte; Sigsgaard, Torben

    Annual nationwide exposure maps for nitrate in drinking water in Denmark from the 1970s until today will be presented based on the findings in Schullehner & Hansen (2014) and additional work on addressing the issue of private well users and estimating missing data. Drinking water supply in Denmark...... is highly decentralized and fully relying on simple treated groundwater. At the same time, Denmark has an intensive agriculture, making groundwater resources prone to nitrate pollution. Drinking water quality data covering the entire country for over 35 years are registered in the public database Jupiter....... In order to create annual maps of drinking water quality, these data had to be linked to 2,852 water supply areas, which were for the first time digitized, collected in one dataset and connected to the Jupiter database. Analyses of the drinking water quality maps showed that public water supplies...

  17. Nitrogen uptake by size-fractionated phytoplankton in mangrove waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dham, V.V.; Wafar, M.V.M.; Heredia, A.M.

    and estuarine waters this is an indicator of the ecosystem’s ability to cope with spatially and tempo- rally varying loads of different forms of N, especially as nitrate and ammonium, from fluvial and anthropogenic sources. The preference for either ammonium... temperatures a lack of substrate could lead to a reduction in nitrate uptake. This was, however, not the case here, as shown by the positive relationship be- tween temperature and nitrate concentrations (Fig. 9), a situation that might be due to an increase...

  18. Nitrates and nitrites intoxications’ management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Trif

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The study pointed out the major sources for clinical and subclinical intoxications with nitrates/nitrites (drinking water and nitrates containing fertilizers, circumstances that determine fertilizers to became sources of intoxication (excessive fertilization/consecutive high level of nitrates in fodders, free access of animals to the fertilizers, administration into the diet instead of natrium chloride, factors that determine high nitrates accumulation in fodders despite optimal fertilization (factors related to the plants, soil, clime, harvest methods, storage, agrotechnical measures, nitrates/nitrites toxicity (over 45 ppm nitrates in drinking water, over 0.5 g nitrate/100 g D.M fodder/diet, the factors that influence nitrates/nitrites toxicity ( species, age, rate of feeding, diet balance especially energetically, pathological effects and symptoms (irritation and congestions on digestive tract, resulting diarrhoea, transformation of hemoglobin into methemoglobin determining severe respiratory insufficiency, vascular collapse, low blood pressure inthe acute nitrates intoxication; hypotiroidism, hypovitaminosis A, reproductive disturbances(abortion, low rate of fertility, dead born offspring, diarrhoea and/or respiratory insufficiency in new born e.g. calves, immunosuppression, decrease of milk production in chronic intoxication. There were presented some suggestions concerning management practices to limit nitrate intoxication (analyze of nitrates/nitrites in water and fodders, good management of the situation of risk ,e .g. dilution of the diet with low nitrate content fodders, feeding with balanced diet in energy, protein, minerals and vitamins, accommodation to high nitrate level diet, avoid grazing one week after a frost period, avoid feeding chop green fodders stored a couple of days, monitoring of health status of animals fed with fodders containing nitrates at risk level, a.o..

  19. Hydrological controls on DOC  :  nitrate resource stoichiometry in a lowland, agricultural catchment, southern UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppell, Catherine M.; Binley, Andrew; Trimmer, Mark; Darch, Tegan; Jones, Ashley; Malone, Ed; Collins, Adrian L.; Johnes, Penny J.; Freer, Jim E.; Lloyd, Charlotte E. M.

    2017-09-01

    The role that hydrology plays in governing the interactions between dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen in rivers draining lowland, agricultural landscapes is currently poorly understood. In light of the potential changes to the production and delivery of DOC and nitrate to rivers arising from climate change and land use management, there is a pressing need to improve our understanding of hydrological controls on DOC and nitrate dynamics in such catchments. We measured DOC and nitrate concentrations in river water of six reaches of the lowland river Hampshire Avon (Wiltshire, southern UK) in order to quantify the relationship between BFI (BFI) and DOC : nitrate molar ratios across contrasting geologies (Chalk, Greensand, and clay). We found a significant positive relationship between nitrate and BFI (p 5 throughout the year, whilst groundwater-dominated reaches underlain by Chalk, with a high BFI have DOC : nitrate ratios in surface waters that are an order of magnitude lower (< 0.5). Our analysis also reveals significant seasonal variations in DOC : nitrate transport and highlights critical periods of nitrate export (e.g. winter in sub-catchments underlain by Chalk and Greensand, and autumn in drained, clay sub-catchments) when DOC : nitrate molar ratios are low, suggesting low potential for in-stream uptake of inorganic forms of nitrogen. Consequently, our study emphasizes the tight relationship between DOC and nitrate availability in agricultural catchments, and further reveals that this relationship is controlled to a great extent by the hydrological setting.

  20. Gross nitrous oxide production drives net nitrous oxide fluxes across a salt marsh landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wendy H; Silver, Whendee L

    2016-06-01

    Sea level rise will change inundation regimes in salt marshes, altering redox dynamics that control nitrification - a potential source of the potent greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2 O) - and denitrification, a major nitrogen (N) loss pathway in coastal ecosystems and both a source and sink of N2 O. Measurements of net N2 O fluxes alone yield little insight into the different effects of redox conditions on N2 O production and consumption. We used in situ measurements of gross N2 O fluxes across a salt marsh elevation gradient to determine how soil N2 O emissions in coastal ecosystems may respond to future sea level rise. Soil redox declined as marsh elevation decreased, with lower soil nitrate and higher ferrous iron in the low marsh compared to the mid and high marshes (P < 0.001 for both). In addition, soil oxygen concentrations were lower in the low and mid-marshes relative to the high marsh (P < 0.001). Net N2 O fluxes differed significantly among marsh zones (P = 0.009), averaging 9.8 ± 5.4 μg N m(-2)  h(-1) , -2.2 ± 0.9 μg N m(-2)  h(-1) , and 0.67 ± 0.57 μg N m(-2)  h(-1) in the low, mid, and high marshes, respectively. Both net N2 O release and uptake were observed in the low and high marshes, but the mid-marsh was consistently a net N2 O sink. Gross N2 O production was highest in the low marsh and lowest in the mid-marsh (P = 0.02), whereas gross N2 O consumption did not differ among marsh zones. Thus, variability in gross N2 O production rates drove the differences in net N2 O flux among marsh zones. Our results suggest that future studies should focus on elucidating controls on the processes producing, rather than consuming, N2 O in salt marshes to improve our predictions of changes in net N2 O fluxes caused by future sea level rise. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Organic nitrate chemistry and its implications for nitrogen budgets in an isoprene- and monoterpene-rich atmosphere: constraints from aircraft (SEAC4RS) and ground-based (SOAS) observations in the Southeast US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jenny A.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Travis, Katherine R.; Kim, Patrick S.; Marais, Eloise A.; Miller, Christopher Chan; Yu, Karen; Zhu, Lei; Yantosca, Robert M.; Sulprizio, Melissa P.; Mao, Jingqiu; Wennberg, Paul O.; Crounse, John D.; Teng, Alex P.; Nguyen, Tran B.; St. Clair, Jason M.; Cohen, Ronald C.; Romer, Paul; Nault, Benjamin A.; Wooldridge, Paul J.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Day, Douglas A.; Hu, Weiwei; Shepson, Paul B.; Xiong, Fulizi; Blake, Donald R.; Goldstein, Allen H.; Misztal, Pawel K.; Hanisco, Thomas F.; Wolfe, Glenn M.; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Wisthaler, Armin; Mikoviny, Tomas

    2016-05-01

    Formation of organic nitrates (RONO2) during oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs: isoprene, monoterpenes) is a significant loss pathway for atmospheric nitrogen oxide radicals (NOx), but the chemistry of RONO2 formation and degradation remains uncertain. Here we implement a new BVOC oxidation mechanism (including updated isoprene chemistry, new monoterpene chemistry, and particle uptake of RONO2) in the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model with ~ 25 x 25 km2 resolution over North America. We evaluate the model using aircraft (SEAC4RS) and ground-based (SOAS) observations of NOx, BVOCs, and RONO2 from the Southeast US in summer 2013. The updated simulation successfully reproduces the concentrations of individual gas- and particle-phase RONO2 species measured during the campaigns. Gas-phase isoprene nitrates account for 25-50 % of observed RONO2 in surface air, and we find that another 10 % is contributed by gas-phase monoterpene nitrates. Observations in the free troposphere show an important contribution from long-lived nitrates derived from anthropogenic VOCs. During both campaigns, at least 10 % of observed boundary layer RONO2 were in the particle phase. We find that aerosol uptake followed by hydrolysis to HNO3 accounts for 60 % of simulated gas-phase RONO2 loss in the boundary layer. Other losses are 20 % by photolysis to recycle NOx and 15 % by dry deposition. RONO2 production accounts for 20 % of the net regional NOx sink in the Southeast US in summer, limited by the spatial segregation between BVOC and NOx emissions. This segregation implies that RONO2 production will remain a minor sink for NOx in the Southeast US in the future even as NOx emissions continue to decline.

  2. Organic nitrate chemistry and its implications for nitrogen budgets in an isoprene- and monoterpene-rich atmosphere: constraints from aircraft (SEAC4RS and ground-based (SOAS observations in the Southeast US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Fisher

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Formation of organic nitrates (RONO2 during oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs: isoprene, monoterpenes is a significant loss pathway for atmospheric nitrogen oxide radicals (NOx, but the chemistry of RONO2 formation and degradation remains uncertain. Here we implement a new BVOC oxidation mechanism (including updated isoprene chemistry, new monoterpene chemistry, and particle uptake of RONO2 in the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model with  ∼  25  ×  25 km2 resolution over North America. We evaluate the model using aircraft (SEAC4RS and ground-based (SOAS observations of NOx, BVOCs, and RONO2 from the Southeast US in summer 2013. The updated simulation successfully reproduces the concentrations of individual gas- and particle-phase RONO2 species measured during the campaigns. Gas-phase isoprene nitrates account for 25–50 % of observed RONO2 in surface air, and we find that another 10 % is contributed by gas-phase monoterpene nitrates. Observations in the free troposphere show an important contribution from long-lived nitrates derived from anthropogenic VOCs. During both campaigns, at least 10 % of observed boundary layer RONO2 were in the particle phase. We find that aerosol uptake followed by hydrolysis to HNO3 accounts for 60 % of simulated gas-phase RONO2 loss in the boundary layer. Other losses are 20 % by photolysis to recycle NOx and 15 % by dry deposition. RONO2 production accounts for 20 % of the net regional NOx sink in the Southeast US in summer, limited by the spatial segregation between BVOC and NOx emissions. This segregation implies that RONO2 production will remain a minor sink for NOx in the Southeast US in the future even as NOx emissions continue to decline.

  3. Coupling Key Transport and Reaction Kinetics to Evaluate the Nitrate Source-Sink Function of Groundwater-Surface Water Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnetske, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater-surface water exchange environments, including groundwater discharge to coastal ecosystems, are characterized by strong hydrological and biogeochemical gradients. These gradients control the fate and transport of important ecosystem solutes, such as biologically-available nitrogen (N) and carbon. However, it is difficult to quantify the spatiotemporal coupling of these physical and biogeochemical gradients. Our recent investigations of N in groundwater-surface water environments (GSEs) help determine the relative role of these physical and biogeochemical controls across a range of temporal and spatial scales. For example, we used an advection, dispersion, and residence time model coupled with multiple Monod kinetic models to simulate the GSE concentrations of oxygen (O2), ammonium (NH4), nitrate (NO3), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). This modeling showed how physical transport and biogeochemical reaction kinetics couple in GSEs to control the fate of NO3. Further, we examined coupled nitrification-denitrification (N source-sink) dynamics across many scales of transport and reaction conditions with global Monte Carlo sensitivity analyses and a nondimensional form of the models. Results demonstrated that the residence time of water in the GSE and the uptake rate of O2 from either respiration and/or nitrification determined whether the GSE was a source or a sink of NO3 to the surface waters. We further show that whether the GSE is a net NO3 source or net NO3 sink is determined by the ratio of the characteristic transport time to the characteristic reaction time of O2 (i.e., the Damköhler number, DaO2), where GSEs with DaO2 > 1 will be net denitrification environments. Previous investigations of N dynamics variously identified stream GSEs as either a net source or sink of NO3. Our coupling of the hydrological and biogeochemical limitations of N transformations across different temporal and spatial scales within the GSE of streams allows us to explain

  4. Nitrate biosensors and biological methods for nitrate determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohail, Manzar; Adeloju, Samuel B

    2016-06-01

    The inorganic nitrate (NO3‾) anion is present under a variety of both natural and artificial environmental conditions. Nitrate is ubiquitous within the environment, food, industrial and physiological systems and is mostly present as hydrated anion of a corresponding dissolved salt. Due to the significant environmental and toxicological effects of nitrate, its determination and monitoring in environmental and industrial waters are often necessary. A wide range of analytical techniques are available for nitrate determination in various sample matrices. This review discusses biosensors available for nitrate determination using the enzyme nitrate reductase (NaR). We conclude that nitrate determination using biosensors is an excellent non-toxic alternative to all other available analytical methods. Over the last fifteen years biosensing technology for nitrate analysis has progressed very well, however, there is a need to expedite the development of nitrate biosensors as a suitable alternative to non-enzymatic techniques through the use of different polymers, nanostructures, mediators and strategies to overcome oxygen interference. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Totomatix: a novel automatic set-up to control diurnal, diel and long-term plant nitrate nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamowicz, Stéphane; Le Bot, Jacques; Huanosto Magaña, Ruth; Fabre, José

    2012-01-01

    Background Stand-alone nutritional set-ups are useful tools to grow plants at defined nutrient availabilities and to measure nutrient uptake rates continuously, in particular that for nitrate. Their use is essential when the measurements are meant to cover long time periods. These complex systems have, however, important drawbacks, including poor long-term reliability and low precision at high nitrate concentration. This explains why the information dealing with diel dynamics of nitrate uptake rate is scarce and concerns mainly young plants grown at low nitrate concentration. Scope The novel system detailed in this paper has been developed to allow versatile use in growth rooms, greenhouses or open fields at nitrate concentrations ranging from a few micro- to several millimoles per litres. The system controls, at set frequencies, the solution nitrate concentration, pH and volumes. Nitrate concentration is measured by spectral deconvolution of UV spectra. The main advantages of the set-up are its low maintenance (weekly basis), an ability to diagnose interference or erroneous analyses and high precision of nitrate concentration measurements (0·025 % at 3 mm). The paper details the precision of diurnal nitrate uptake rate measurements, which reveals sensitivity to solution volume at low nitrate concentration, whereas at high concentration, it is mostly sensitive to the precision of volume estimates. Conclusions This novel set-up allows us to measure and characterize the dynamics of plant nitrate nutrition at high temporal resolution (minutes to hours) over long-term experiments (up to 1 year). It is reliable and also offers a novel method to regulate up to seven N treatments by adjusting the daily uptake of test plants relative to controls, in variable environments such as open fields and glasshouses. PMID:21985796

  6. WaveNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Coastal Inlets Research Program WaveNet WaveNet is a web-based, Graphical-User-Interface ( GUI ) data management tool developed for Corps coastal...generates tabular and graphical information for project planning and design documents. The WaveNet is a web-based GUI designed to provide users with a...data from different sources, and employs a combination of Fortran, Python and Matlab codes to process and analyze data for USACE applications

  7. Effect of acute nitrate ingestion on V̇O2response at different exercise intensity domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiarone, Thaysa; Ataide-Silva, Thays; Bertuzzi, Romulo; McConell, Glenn Kevin; Lima-Silva, Adriano Eduardo

    2017-11-01

    While nitrate supplementation influences oxygen uptake (V̇O 2 ) response to exercise, this effect may be intensity dependent. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of acute nitrate supplementation on V̇O 2 response during different exercise intensity domains in humans. Eleven men ingested 10 mg·kg -1 body mass (8.76 ± 1.35 mmol) of sodium nitrate or sodium chloride (placebo) 2.5 h before cycling at moderate (90% of gas exchange threshold; GET), heavy (GET + 40% of the difference between GET and peak oxygen uptake (V̇O 2peak ), Δ 40) or severe (GET + 80% of the difference between GET and V̇O 2peak , Δ 80) exercise intensities. Volunteers performed exercise for 10 min (moderate), 15 min (heavy) or until exhaustion (severe). Acute nitrate supplementation had no effect on any V̇O 2 response parameters during moderate and severe exercise intensities. However, the V̇O 2 slow amplitude (nitrate: 0.93 ± 0.36 L·min -1 vs. placebo: 1.13 ± 0.59 L·min -1 , p = 0.04) and V̇O 2 slow gain (nitrate: 5.81 ± 2.37 mL·min -1 ·W -1 vs. placebo: 7.09 ± 3.67 mL·min -1 ·W -1 , p = 0.04) were significantly lower in nitrate than in placebo during the heavy exercise intensity. There was no effect of nitrate on plasma lactate during any exercise intensity (p > 0.05). Time to exhaustion during the severe exercise intensity was also not affected by nitrate (p > 0.05). In conclusion, acute nitrate supplementation reduced the slow component of V̇O 2 only when performing heavy-intensity exercise, which might indicate an intensity-dependent effect of nitrate on V̇O 2 response.

  8. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes how Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets) have been developed — from being a promising theoretical model to being a full-fledged language for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems (and other systems in which human beings and...... use of CP-nets — because it means that the function representation and the translations (which are a bit mathematically complex) no longer are parts of the basic definition of CP-nets. Instead they are parts of the invariant method (which anyway demands considerable mathematical skills...

  9. Game Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of game coloured Petri nets. This allows the modeler to explicitly model what parts of the model comprise the modeled system and what parts are the environment of the modeled system. We give the formal definition of game coloured Petri nets, a means of reachability...... analysis of this net class, and an application of game coloured Petri nets to automatically generate easy-to-understand visualizations of the model by exploiting the knowledge that some parts of the model are not interesting from a visualization perspective (i.e. they are part of the environment...

  10. Programming NET Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Alex

    2007-01-01

    Web services are poised to become a key technology for a wide range of Internet-enabled applications, spanning everything from straight B2B systems to mobile devices and proprietary in-house software. While there are several tools and platforms that can be used for building web services, developers are finding a powerful tool in Microsoft's .NET Framework and Visual Studio .NET. Designed from scratch to support the development of web services, the .NET Framework simplifies the process--programmers find that tasks that took an hour using the SOAP Toolkit take just minutes. Programming .NET

  11. Annotating Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Bo; Wells, Lisa Marie

    2002-01-01

    -net. An example of such auxiliary information is a counter which is associated with a token to be able to do performance analysis. Modifying colour sets and arc inscriptions in a CP-net to support a specific use may lead to creation of several slightly different CP-nets – only to support the different uses...... a method which makes it possible to associate auxiliary information, called annotations, with tokens without modifying the colour sets of the CP-net. Annotations are pieces of information that are not essential for determining the behaviour of the system being modelled, but are rather added to support...

  12. Nitrate leaching from short-hydroperiod floodplain soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Huber

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have shown the importance of riparian zones to reduce nitrate (NO3 contamination coming from adjacent agricultural land. Much less is known about nitrogen (N transformations and nitrate fluxes in riparian soils with short hydroperiods (1–3 days of inundation and there is no study that could show whether these soils are a N sink or source. Within a restored section of the Thur River in NE Switzerland, we measured nitrate concentrations in soil solutions as an indicator of the net nitrate production. Samples were collected along a quasi-successional gradient from frequently inundated gravel bars to an alluvial forest, at three different depths (10, 50 and 100 cm over a one-year period. Along this gradient we quantified N input (atmospheric deposition and sedimentation and N output (leaching to create a nitrogen balance and assess the risk of nitrate leaching from the unsaturated soil to the groundwater. Overall, the main factor explaining the differences in nitrate concentrations was the field capacity (FC. In subsoils with high FCs and VWC near FC, high nitrate concentrations were observed, often exceeding the Swiss and EU groundwater quality criterions of 400 and 800 μmol L−1, respectively. High sedimentation rates of river-derived nitrogen led to apparent N retention up to 200 kg N ha−1 yr−1 in the frequently inundated zones. By contrast, in the mature alluvial forest, nitrate leaching exceeded total N input most of the time. As a result of the large soil N pools, high amounts of nitrate were produced by nitrification and up to 94 kg N-NO3 ha−1 yr−1 were leached into the groundwater. Thus, during flooding when water fluxes are high, nitrate from soils can contribute up to 11% to the total nitrate load in groundwater.

  13. Evaluating Ecosystem Services for Reducing Groundwater Nitrate Contamination: Nitrate Attenuation in the Unsaturated and Saturated Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.

    2013-12-01

    Nitrates are the most common type of groundwater contamination in agricultural regions. Environmental policies targeting nitrates have focused on input control (e.g., restricted fertilizer application), intermediate loads control (e.g., reduce nitrate leached from crop fields), and final loads control (e.g., reduce catchment nitrate loads). Nitrate loads can be affected by hydrological processes in both unsaturated and saturated zones. Although many of these processes have been extensively investigated in literature, they are commonly modeled as exogenous to farm management. A couple of recent studies by scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory show that in some situations nitrate attenuation processes in the unsaturated/saturated zone, particularly denitrification, can be intensified by certain management practices to mitigate nitrate loads. Therefore, these nitrate attenuation processes can be regarded as a set of ecosystem services that farmers can take advantage of to reduce their cost of complying with environmental policies. In this paper, a representative California dairy farm is used as a case study to show how such ecosystem attenuation services can be framed within the farm owner's decision-making framework as an option for reducing groundwater nitrate contamination. I develop an integrated dynamic model, where the farmer maximizes discounted net farm profit over multiple periods subject to environmental regulations. The model consists of three submodels: animal-waste-crop, hydrologic, and economic model. In addition to common choice variables such as irrigation, fertilization, and waste disposal options, the farmer can also endogenously choose from three water sources: surface water, deep groundwater (old groundwater in the deep aquifer that is not affected by farm effluent in the short term), and shallow groundwater (drainage water that can be recycled via capture wells at the downstream end of the farm). The capture wells not only

  14. Inhibition of nitrate transport by anti-nitrate reductase IgG fragments and the identification of plasma membrane associated nitrate reductase in roots of barley seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, M. R.; Tischner, R.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1988-01-01

    Membrane associated nitrate reductase (NR) was detected in plasma membrane (PM) fractions isolated by aqueous two-phase partitioning from barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var CM 72) roots. The PM associated NR was not removed by washing vesicles with 500 millimolar NaCl and 1 millimolar EDTA and represented up to 4% of the total root NR activity. PM associated NR was stimulated up to 20-fold by Triton X-100 whereas soluble NR was only increased 1.7-fold. The latency was a function of the solubilization of NR from the membrane. NR, solubilized from the PM fraction by Triton X-100 was inactivated by antiserum to Chlorella sorokiniana NR. Anti-NR immunoglobulin G fragments purified from the anti-NR serum inhibited NO3- uptake by more than 90% but had no effect on NO2- uptake. The inhibitory effect was only partially reversible; uptake recovered to 50% of the control after thorough rinsing of roots. Preimmune serum immunoglobulin G fragments inhibited NO3- uptake 36% but the effect was completely reversible by rinsing. Intact NR antiserum had no effect on NO3- uptake. The results present the possibility that NO3- uptake and NO3- reduction in the PM of barley roots may be related.

  15. Net zero water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lindeque, M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Is it possible to develop a building that uses a net zero amount of water? In recent years it has become evident that it is possible to have buildings that use a net zero amount of electricity. This is possible when the building is taken off...

  16. SolNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Ulrike; Vajen, Klaus; Bales, Chris

    2014-01-01

    SolNet, founded in 2006, is the first coordinated International PhD education program on Solar Thermal Engineering. The SolNet network is coordinated by the Institute of Thermal Engineering at Kassel University, Germany. The network offers PhD courses on solar heating and cooling, conference...

  17. Kunstige neurale net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørning, Annette

    1994-01-01

    Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse.......Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse....

  18. Nitrate storage and dissimilatory nitrate reduction by eukaryotic microbes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Anja; Høgslund, Signe; Risgaard-Petersen, Nils

    2015-01-01

    The microbial nitrogen cycle is one of the most complex and environmentally important element cycles on Earth and has long been thought to be mediated exclusively by prokaryotic microbes. Rather recently, it was discovered that certain eukaryotic microbes are able to store nitrate intracellularly...... and use it for dissimilatory nitrate reduction in the absence of oxygen. The paradigm shift that this entailed is ecologically significant because the eukaryotes in question comprise global players like diatoms, foraminifers, and fungi. This review article provides an unprecedented overview of nitrate...... storage and dissimilatory nitrate reduction by diverse marine eukaryotes placed into an eco-physiological context. The advantage of intracellular nitrate storage for anaerobic energy conservation in oxygen-depleted habitats is explained and the life style enabled by this metabolic trait is described...

  19. Evaluation of nitrate destruction methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, P.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kurath, D.E.; Guenther, R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-03-30

    A wide variety of high nitrate-concentration aqueous mixed [radioactive and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous] wastes are stored at various US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. These wastes will ultimately be solidified for final disposal, although the waste acceptance criteria for the final waste form is still being determined. Because the nitrates in the wastes will normally increase the volume or reduce the integrity of all of the waste forms under consideration for final disposal, nitrate destruction before solidification of the waste will generally be beneficial. This report describes and evaluates various technologies that could be used to destroy the nitrates in the stored wastes. This work was funded by the Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development, through the Chemical/Physical Technology Support Group of the Mixed Waste Integrated Program. All the nitrate destruction technologies will require further development work before a facility could be designed and built to treat the majority of the stored wastes. Several of the technologies have particularly attractive features: the nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) process produces an insoluble waste form with a significant volume reduction, electrochemical reduction destroys nitrates without any chemical addition, and the hydrothermal process can simultaneously treat nitrates and organics in both acidic and alkaline wastes. These three technologies have been tested using lab-scale equipment and surrogate solutions. At their current state of development, it is not possible to predict which process will be the most beneficial for a particular waste stream.

  20. TREATMENT OF AMMONIUM NITRATE SOLUTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, T.W.; MacHutchin, J.G.; Yaffe, L.

    1958-06-10

    The treatment of waste solutions obtained in the processing of neutron- irradiated uranium containing fission products and ammonium nitrate is described. The object of this process is to provide a method whereby the ammonium nitrate is destroyed and removed from the solution so as to permit subsequent concentration of the solution.. In accordance with the process the residual nitrate solutions are treated with an excess of alkyl acid anhydride, such as acetic anhydride. Preferably, the residual nitrate solution is added to an excess of the acetic anhydride at such a rate that external heat is not required. The result of this operation is that the ammonium nitrate and acetic anhydride react to form N/sub 2/ O and acetic acid.

  1. 4-Methoxybenzamidinium nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Irrera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The title salt, C8H11N2O+·NO3−, was synthesized by a reaction between 4-methoxybenzamidine (4-amidinoanisole and nitric acid. The asymmetric unit comprises a non-planar 4-methoxybenzamidinium cation and a nitrate anion. In the cation, the amidinium group has two similar C—N bond lengths [1.302 (3 and 1.313 (3 Å] and its plane forms a dihedral angle of 32.66 (5° with the mean plane of the benzene ring. The nitrate–amidinium ion pair is not planar, as the dihedral angle between the planes defined by the CN2+ and NO3− units is 19.28 (6°. The ionic components are associated in the crystal via N—H...O hydrogen bonds, resulting in a three-dimensional network.

  2. Some History of Nitrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnum, Dennis W.

    2003-12-01

    The history of saltpeter is an interesting combination of chemistry, world trade, technology, politics, and warfare. Originally it was obtained from the dirt floors of stables, sheep pens, pigeon houses, caverns, and even peasants' cottages; any place manure and refuse accumulated in soil under dry conditions. When these sources became inadequate to meet demand it was manufactured on saltpeter plantations, located in dry climates, where piles of dirt, limestone, and manure were allowed to stand for three to five years while soil microbes oxidized the nitrogen to nitrate—an example of early bioengineering. Extensive deposits of sodium nitrate were mined in the Atacama Desert in northern Chile from 1830 until the mid 1920s when the mines were displaced by the Haber Ostwald process.

  3. Uptake of dissolved inorganic nitrogen, urea and amino acids in the Scheldt estuary: comparison of organic carbon and nitrogen uptake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andersson, M.G.I.; Van Rijswijk, P.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    Uptake of dissolved ammonium, nitrate, nitrite, urea and amino acids was studied in the Scheldt estuary in different seasons over a salinity gradient. The importance of inorganic nitrogen sources was compared to that of urea and amino acids and the relative use of urea and amino acid nitrogen and

  4. Pro NET Best Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, Stephen D

    2011-01-01

    Pro .NET Best Practices is a practical reference to the best practices that you can apply to your .NET projects today. You will learn standards, techniques, and conventions that are sharply focused, realistic and helpful for achieving results, steering clear of unproven, idealistic, and impractical recommendations. Pro .NET Best Practices covers a broad range of practices and principles that development experts agree are the right ways to develop software, which includes continuous integration, automated testing, automated deployment, and code analysis. Whether the solution is from a free and

  5. Getting to Net Zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-01

    The technology necessary to build net zero energy buildings (NZEBs) is ready and available today, however, building to net zero energy performance levels can be challenging. Energy efficiency measures, onsite energy generation resources, load matching and grid interaction, climatic factors, and local policies vary from location to location and require unique methods of constructing NZEBs. It is recommended that Components start looking into how to construct and operate NZEBs now as there is a learning curve to net zero construction and FY 2020 is just around the corner.

  6. Instant Lucene.NET

    CERN Document Server

    Heydt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A step-by-step guide that helps you to index, search, and retrieve unstructured data with the help of Lucene.NET.Instant Lucene.NET How-to is essential for developers new to Lucene and Lucene.NET who are looking to get an immediate foundational understanding of how to use the library in their application. It's assumed you have programming experience in C# already, but not that you have experience with search techniques such as information retrieval theory (although there will be a l

  7. Kinetics of Indigenous Nitrate Reducing Sulfide Oxidizing Activity in Microaerophilic Wastewater Biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villahermosa, Desirée; Corzo, Alfonso; Garcia-Robledo, Emilio; González, Juan M.; Papaspyrou, Sokratis

    2016-01-01

    Nitrate decreases sulfide release in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), but little is known on how it affects the microzonation and kinetics of related microbial processes within the biofilm. The effect of nitrate addition on these properties for sulfate reduction, sulfide oxidation, and oxygen respiration were studied with the use of microelectrodes in microaerophilic wastewater biofilms. Mass balance calaculations and community composition analysis were also performed. At basal WWTP conditions, the biofilm presented a double-layer system. The upper microaerophilic layer (~300 μm) showed low sulfide production (0.31 μmol cm-3 h-1) and oxygen consumption rates (0.01 μmol cm-3 h-1). The anoxic lower layer showed high sulfide production (2.7 μmol cm-3 h-1). Nitrate addition decreased net sulfide production rates, caused by an increase in sulfide oxidation rates (SOR) in the upper layer, rather than an inhibition of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). This suggests that the indigenous nitrate reducing-sulfide oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB) were immediately activated by nitrate. The functional vertical structure of the biofilm changed to a triple-layer system, where the previously upper sulfide-producing layer in the absence of nitrate split into two new layers: 1) an upper sulfide-consuming layer, whose thickness is probably determined by the nitrate penetration depth within the biofilm, and 2) a middle layer producing sulfide at an even higher rate than in the absence of nitrate in some cases. Below these layers, the lower net sulfide-producing layer remained unaffected. Net SOR varied from 0.05 to 0.72 μmol cm-3 h-1 depending on nitrate and sulfate availability. Addition of low nitrate concentrations likely increased sulfate availability within the biofilm and resulted in an increase of both net sulfate reduction and net sulfide oxidation by overcoming sulfate diffusional limitation from the water phase and the strong coupling between SRB and NR-SOB syntrophic

  8. Evaluation of uptake kinetics during a wastewater diversion into nearshore coastal waters in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudela, Raphael M.; Howard, Meredith D. A.; Hayashi, Kendra; Beck, Carly

    2017-02-01

    The global eutrophication of coastal ecosystems from anthropogenic nutrients is one of the most significant issues affecting changes to coastal oceans today. A three-week diversion of wastewater effluent from the normal offshore discharge pipe (7 km offshore, 56 m depth) to a shorter outfall located in 16 m water (2.2 km offshore) as part of the 2012 Orange County Sanitation District Diversion provided an opportunity to evaluate the impacts of anthropogenic nitrogen on phytoplankton community response. Nitrogen uptake kinetic parameters were used to evaluate the short-term physiological response of the phytoplankton community to the diverted wastewater and to determine if potential ammonium suppression of nitrate uptake was observed. Despite expectations, there was a muted response to the diversion in terms of biomass accumulation and ambient nutrients remained low. At ambient nitrogen concentrations, calculated uptake rates strongly favored ammonium. During the diversion based on the kinetic parameters determined during short-term experiments, the phytoplankton community was using all three N substrates at low concentrations, and had the capacity to use urea, then ammonium, and then nitrate at high concentrations. Ammonium suppression of nitrate uptake was evident throughout the experiment, with increasing suppression through time. Despite this interaction, there was evidence for simultaneous utilization of nitrate, ammonium, and urea during the experiment. The general lack of phytoplankton response as evidenced by low biomass during the diversion was therefore not obviously linked to changes in uptake rates, physiological capacity, or ammonium suppression of nitrate uptake.

  9. Transcriptomic analysis highlights reciprocal interactions of urea and nitrate for nitrogen acquisition by maize roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanin, Laura; Zamboni, Anita; Monte, Rossella; Tomasi, Nicola; Varanini, Zeno; Cesco, Stefano; Pinton, Roberto

    2015-03-01

    Even though urea and nitrate are the two major nitrogen (N) forms applied as fertilizers in agriculture and occur concomitantly in soils, the reciprocal influence of these two N sources on the mechanisms of their acquisition are poorly understood. Therefore, molecular and physiological aspects of urea and nitrate uptake were investigated in maize (Zea mays), a crop plant consuming high amounts of N. In roots, urea uptake was stimulated by the presence of urea in the external solution, indicating the presence of an inducible transport system. On the other hand, the presence of nitrate depressed the induction of urea uptake and, at the same time, the induction of nitrate uptake was depressed by the presence of urea. The expression of about 60,000 transcripts of maize in roots was monitored by microarray analyses and the transcriptional patterns of those genes involved in nitrogen acquisition were analyzed by real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). In comparison with the treatment without added N, the exposure of maize roots to urea modulated the expression of only very few genes, such as asparagine synthase. On the other hand, the concomitant presence of urea and nitrate enhanced the overexpression of genes involved in nitrate transport (NRT2) and assimilation (nitrate and nitrite reductase, glutamine synthetase 2), and a specific response of 41 transcripts was determined, including glutamine synthetase 1-5, glutamine oxoglutarate aminotransferase, shikimate kinase and arogenate dehydrogenase. Also based on the real-time RT-PCR analysis, the transcriptional modulation induced by both sources might determine an increase in N metabolism promoting a more efficient assimilation of the N that is taken up. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Musall, Eike

    2010-01-01

    and identify possible renewable energy supply options which may be considered in calculations. Finally, the gap between the methodology proposed by each organisation and their respective national building code is assessed; providing an overview of the possible changes building codes will need to undergo......The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...... parameters used in the calculations are discussed and the various renewable supply options considered in the methodologies are summarised graphically. Thus, the paper helps to understand different existing approaches to calculate energy balance in Net ZEBs, highlights the importance of variables selection...

  11. PhysioNet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The PhysioNet Resource is intended to stimulate current research and new investigations in the study of complex biomedical and physiologic signals. It offers free...

  12. NetSig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Heiko; Lawrence, Michael S; Chouinard, Candace R

    2018-01-01

    Methods that integrate molecular network information and tumor genome data could complement gene-based statistical tests to identify likely new cancer genes; but such approaches are challenging to validate at scale, and their predictive value remains unclear. We developed a robust statistic (Net......Sig) that integrates protein interaction networks with data from 4,742 tumor exomes. NetSig can accurately classify known driver genes in 60% of tested tumor types and predicts 62 new driver candidates. Using a quantitative experimental framework to determine in vivo tumorigenic potential in mice, we found that Net......Sig candidates induce tumors at rates that are comparable to those of known oncogenes and are ten-fold higher than those of random genes. By reanalyzing nine tumor-inducing NetSig candidates in 242 patients with oncogene-negative lung adenocarcinomas, we find that two (AKT2 and TFDP2) are significantly amplified...

  13. TideNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    query tide data sources in a desired geographic region of USA and its territories (Figure 1). Users can select a tide data source through the Google Map ...select data sources according to the desired geographic region. It uses the Google Map interface to display data from different sources. Recent...Coastal Inlets Research Program TideNet The TideNet is a web-based Graphical User Interface (GUI) that provides users with GIS mapping tools to

  14. Building Neural Net Software

    OpenAIRE

    Neto, João Pedro; Costa, José Félix

    1999-01-01

    In a recent paper [Neto et al. 97] we showed that programming languages can be translated on recurrent (analog, rational weighted) neural nets. The goal was not efficiency but simplicity. Indeed we used a number-theoretic approach to machine programming, where (integer) numbers were coded in a unary fashion, introducing a exponential slow down in the computations, with respect to a two-symbol tape Turing machine. Implementation of programming languages in neural nets turns to be not only theo...

  15. Interaction Nets in Russian

    OpenAIRE

    Salikhmetov, Anton

    2013-01-01

    Draft translation to Russian of Chapter 7, Interaction-Based Models of Computation, from Models of Computation: An Introduction to Computability Theory by Maribel Fernandez. "In this chapter, we study interaction nets, a model of computation that can be seen as a representative of a class of models based on the notion of 'computation as interaction'. Interaction nets are a graphical model of computation devised by Yves Lafont in 1990 as a generalisation of the proof structures of linear logic...

  16. Programming NET 35

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Bestselling author Jesse Liberty and industry expert Alex Horovitz uncover the common threads that unite the .NET 3.5 technologies, so you can benefit from the best practices and architectural patterns baked into the new Microsoft frameworks. The book offers a Grand Tour" of .NET 3.5 that describes how the principal technologies can be used together, with Ajax, to build modern n-tier and service-oriented applications. "

  17. Impact of mineral dust on nitrate, sulfate, and ozone in transpacific Asian pollution plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Fairlie

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We use a 3-D global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem to interpret aircraft observations of nitrate and sulfate partitioning in transpacific dust plumes during the INTEX-B campaign of April–May 2006. The model includes explicit transport of size-resolved mineral dust and its alkalinity, nitrate, and sulfate content. The observations show that particulate nitrate is primarily associated with dust, sulfate is primarily associated with ammonium, and Asian dust remains alkaline across the Pacific. This can be reproduced in the model by using a reactive uptake coefficient for HNO3 on dust (γ(HNO3 ~10−3 much lower than commonly assumed in models and possibly reflecting limitation of uptake by dust dissolution. The model overestimates gas-phase HNO3 by a factor of 2–3, typical of previous model studies; we show that this cannot be corrected by uptake on dust. We find that the fraction of aerosol nitrate on dust in the model increases from ~30% in fresh Asian outflow to 80–90% over the Northeast Pacific, reflecting in part the volatilization of ammonium nitrate and the resulting transfer of nitrate to the dust. Consumption of dust alkalinity by uptake of acid gases in the model is slow relative to the lifetime of dust against deposition, so that dust does not acidify (at least not in the bulk. This limits the potential for dust iron released by acidification to become bio-available upon dust deposition. Observations in INTEX-B show no detectable ozone depletion in Asian dust plumes, consistent with the model. Uptake of HNO3 by dust, suppressing its recycling to NOx, reduces Asian pollution influence on US surface ozone in the model by 10–15% or up to 1 ppb.

  18. Urban Stream Burial Increases Watershed-Scale Nitrate Export.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake J Beaulieu

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N uptake in streams is an important ecosystem service that reduces nutrient loading to downstream ecosystems. Here we synthesize studies that investigated the effects of urban stream burial on N-uptake in two metropolitan areas and use simulation modeling to scale our measurements to the broader watershed scale. We report that nitrate travels on average 18 times farther downstream in buried than in open streams before being removed from the water column, indicating that burial substantially reduces N uptake in streams. Simulation modeling suggests that as burial expands throughout a river network, N uptake rates increase in the remaining open reaches which somewhat offsets reduced N uptake in buried reaches. This is particularly true at low levels of stream burial. At higher levels of stream burial, however, open reaches become rare and cumulative N uptake across all open reaches in the watershed rapidly declines. As a result, watershed-scale N export increases slowly at low levels of stream burial, after which increases in export become more pronounced. Stream burial in the lower, more urbanized portions of the watershed had a greater effect on N export than an equivalent amount of stream burial in the upper watershed. We suggest that stream daylighting (i.e., uncovering buried streams can increase watershed-scale N retention.

  19. Yttrium Nitrate mediated Nitration of Phenols at room temperature in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mg(NO3)2,6 VO(NO3)3, Fe(NO3)3, (Me4N)NO3, Ph2. PCl/I2/AgNO3,7 and Zirconyl Nitrate8 were used as the source of nitronium ion. However, these methods need extra reagents such as solid acid or ionic liquids and heating condition. Therefore, finding a green nitration method at ambient temperature is highly desirable.

  20. Nitrate storage and dissimilatory nitrate reduction by eukaryotic microbes

    OpenAIRE

    Anja eKamp; Signe eHøgslund; Nils eRisgaard-Petersen; Peter eStief

    2015-01-01

    The microbial nitrogen cycle is one of the most complex and environmentally important element cycles on Earth and has long been thought to be mediated exclusively by prokaryotic microbes. Rather recently, it was discovered that certain eukaryotic microbes are able to store nitrate intracellularly and use it for dissimilatory nitrate reduction in the absence of oxygen. The paradigm shift that this entailed is ecologically significant because the eukaryotes in question comprise global players l...

  1. Nitrate and Nitrogen Oxides: Sources, Health Effects and Their Remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakeem, Khalid Rehman; Sabir, Muhammad; Ozturk, Munir; Akhtar, Mohd Sayeed; Ibrahim, Faridah Hanum

    Increased use of nitrogenous (N) fertilizers in agriculture has significantly altered the global N-cycle because they release nitrogenous gases of environmental concerns. The emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) contributes to the global greenhouse gas accumulation and the stratospheric ozone depletion. In addition, it causes nitrate leaching problem deteriorating ground water quality. The nitrate toxicity has been reported in a number of studies showing the health hazards like methemoglobinemia in infants and is a potent cause of cancer. Despite these evident negative environmental as well as health impacts, consumption of N fertilizer cannot be reduced in view of the food security for the teeming growing world population. Various agronomic and genetic modifications have been practiced to tackle this problem. Some agronomic techniques adopted include split application of N, use of slow-release fertilizers, nitrification inhibitors and encouraging the use of organic manure over chemical fertilizers. As a matter of fact, the use of chemical means to remediate nitrate from the environment is very difficult and costly. Particularly, removal of nitrate from water is difficult task because it is chemically non-reactive in dilute aqueous solutions. Hence, the use of biological means for nitrate remediation offers a promising strategy to minimize the ill effects of nitrates and nitrites. One of the important goals to reduce N-fertilizer application can be effectively achieved by choosing N-efficient genotypes. This will ensure the optimum uptake of applied N in a balanced manner and exploring the molecular mechanisms for their uptake as well as metabolism in assimilatory pathways. The objectives of this paper are to evaluate the interrelations which exist in the terrestrial ecosystems between the plant type and characteristics of nutrient uptake and analyze the global consumption and demand for fertilizer nitrogen in relation to cereal production, evaluate the various methods

  2. Nitrate-based bioremediation of JP-4 jet fuel: Pilot-scale demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchins, S.R.; Miller, D.E.; Beck, F.P. [Environmental Protection Agency, Ada, OK (United States). R.S. Kerr Environmental Research Lab.; Thomas, A. [Air Force Armstrong Lab., Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Williams, S.E. [Environmental Restoration Program, Eglin AFB, FL (United States); Willis, G.D. [EA Engineering, Science and Technology, Shalimar, FL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Data are presented for the first 4.5 months of operation of a pilot-scale treatment demonstration on nitrate-based bioremediation at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida. Two 30-m x 30-m treatment cells were delineated for treatment, one of which receives recharge amended to yield 10 to 20 mg/L NO{sub 3}-N and the other which receives no amendments. Application is by sprinklers at 11 gpm/cell. Movement of tracers and nitrate were monitored routinely through the use of both fully-penetrating wells and cluster wells. In the centers of both treatment cells, the tracers have penetrated to beneath the lower contaminated regions located 3 m beneath ground surface, 2.1 to 2.4 m below the water table. In the nitrate treatment cell, nitrate has also penetrated to this depth, but concentrations have decreased rapidly relative to the tracer at all depths. Lysimeter data show that about half of the applied nitrate is contacting the contaminated zone. Although total contaminant concentrations have not declined with nitrate addition to date, water quality analyses show some preferential degradation of labile compounds in the nitrate cell. Radiolabel microcosm studies confirm mineralization of toluene and m-xylene under denitrifying conditions. Part of the system has been modified to minimize vegetative uptake of nitrate.

  3. The Net Physiological Cost of Dribbling a Soccer Ball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Thomas; Ball, David

    1984-01-01

    To establish the net energy cost of dribbling a soccer ball, eight males ran on a treadmill while dribbling a ball against a rebound box. Oxygen uptake, perceived exertion, and blood lactate levels were measured and compared with results from subjects running without dribbling. Results are discussed. (Author/DF)

  4. Isotopic tracers for net primary productivity for a terrestrial esocystem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The coupling effect of vapour release and CO2 uptake during photosynthesis plays an important role in the carbon and hydrologic cycles. The water use efficiency (WUE) for transpiration was used in calculating the net primary productivity (NPP) for terrestrial ecosystem. Three parameters were used in calculating the water ...

  5. Dietary nitrate protects submandibular gland from hyposalivation in ovariectomized rats via suppressing cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yipu; Pang, Baoxing; Hu, Liang; Feng, Xiaoyu; Hu, Lei; Wang, Jingsong; Zhang, Chunmei; Wang, Songlin

    2018-02-09

    Xerostomia, a major oral symptom of menopause, is a subjective feeling of dry mouth associated with oral pain and difficulties in deglutition and speech, which significantly reduces patient's quality of life. Dietary nitrate, which can be converted to nitric oxide, has multiple physiological functions in the body, including antioxidant activity and vasodilatation; however, its protective effect against xerostomia remains poorly understood. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary nitrate on estrogen deficiency-induced xerostomia. We established an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model, which included five groups: sham-operated, OVX, OVX + 0.4 mM nitrate, OVX + 2 mM nitrate, and OVX + 4 mM nitrate (n = 6). After ovariectomy, animals in the nitrate treatment groups received appropriate amounts of sodium nitrate dissolved in distilled water for 3 months. The results showed that nitrate treatment reduced body weight and water intake, and increased serum nitrate and nitrite levels. Furthermore, nitrate uptake increased saliva secretion as evidenced by saliva flow rates and aquaporin 5 expression, and alleviated histological lesions as evidenced by reduction of the fibrotic area and cell atrophy in the salivary glands. Although protective effects of nitrate against estrogen deficiency-induced xerostomia were observed at all doses, treatment with 2 mM nitrate was more effective than that with 0.4 mM and 4 mM nitrate. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and caspase-3 expression analyses showed that nitrate also protected cells from apoptosis, possibly through upregulation of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn SOD) known to inhibit oxidative stress-related apoptosis. Our findings indicate that nitrate could improve functional activity of the salivary glands in OVX rats by suppressing apoptosis and upregulating Cu-Zn SOD expression, suggesting that dietary nitrate may potentially prevent hyposalivation in menopausal

  6. Physiological and Transcriptomic Aspects of Urea Uptake and Assimilation in Arabidopsis Plants1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mérigout, Patricia; Lelandais, Maud; Bitton, Frédérique; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Briand, Xavier; Meyer, Christian; Daniel-Vedele, Françoise

    2008-01-01

    Urea is the major nitrogen (N) form supplied as fertilizer in agriculture, but it is also an important N metabolite in plants. Urea transport and assimilation were investigated in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Uptake studies using 15N-labeled urea demonstrated the capacity of Arabidopsis to absorb urea and that the urea uptake was regulated by the initial N status of the plants. Urea uptake was stimulated by urea but was reduced by the presence of ammonium nitrate in the growth medium. N deficiency in plants did not affect urea uptake. Urea exerted a repressive effect on nitrate influx, whereas urea enhanced ammonium uptake. The use of [15N]urea and [15N]ammonium tracers allowed us to show that urea and ammonium assimilation pathways were similar. Finally, urea uptake was less efficient than nitrate uptake, and urea grown-plants presented signs of N starvation. We also report the first analysis, to our knowledge, of Arabidopsis gene expression profiling in response to urea. Our transcriptomic approach revealed that nitrate and ammonium transporters were transcriptionally regulated by urea as well as key enzymes of the glutamine synthetase-glutamate synthase pathway. AtDUR3, a high-affinity urea transporter in Arabidopsis, was strongly up-regulated by urea. Moreover, our transcriptomic data suggest that other genes are also involved in urea influx. PMID:18508958

  7. Physiological and transcriptomic aspects of urea uptake and assimilation in Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mérigout, Patricia; Lelandais, Maud; Bitton, Frédérique; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Briand, Xavier; Meyer, Christian; Daniel-Vedele, Françoise

    2008-07-01

    Urea is the major nitrogen (N) form supplied as fertilizer in agriculture, but it is also an important N metabolite in plants. Urea transport and assimilation were investigated in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Uptake studies using (15)N-labeled urea demonstrated the capacity of Arabidopsis to absorb urea and that the urea uptake was regulated by the initial N status of the plants. Urea uptake was stimulated by urea but was reduced by the presence of ammonium nitrate in the growth medium. N deficiency in plants did not affect urea uptake. Urea exerted a repressive effect on nitrate influx, whereas urea enhanced ammonium uptake. The use of [(15)N]urea and [(15)N]ammonium tracers allowed us to show that urea and ammonium assimilation pathways were similar. Finally, urea uptake was less efficient than nitrate uptake, and urea grown-plants presented signs of N starvation. We also report the first analysis, to our knowledge, of Arabidopsis gene expression profiling in response to urea. Our transcriptomic approach revealed that nitrate and ammonium transporters were transcriptionally regulated by urea as well as key enzymes of the glutamine synthetase-glutamate synthase pathway. AtDUR3, a high-affinity urea transporter in Arabidopsis, was strongly up-regulated by urea. Moreover, our transcriptomic data suggest that other genes are also involved in urea influx.

  8. Nitration Reactions of Ethyl Centralite

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-05-01

    seront utilisees dans les etudes de stabilite du vieillissement accglgre des poudres ä canon. (NC) ABSTRACT Preliminary experiments are described where...quantity for definite characterization. Detailed examination by thin layer chromato- graphy of residues from nitration experiments, however

  9. The influence of ammonium and chloride on potassium and nitrate absorption by barley roots depends on time of exposure and cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, A J; Finazzo, J

    1986-05-01

    Net uptakes of K(+) and NO(3) (-) were monitored simultaneously and continuously for two barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivars, Prato and Olli. The cultivars had similar rates of net K(+) and NO(3) (-) uptake in the absence of NH(4) (+) or Cl(-). Long-term exposure (over 6 hours) to media which contained equimolar mixtures of NH(4) (+), K(+), Cl(-), or NO(3) (-) affected the cultivars very differently: (a) the presence of NH(4) (+) as NH(4)Cl stimulated net NO(3) (-) uptake in Prato barley but inhibited net NO(3) (-) uptake in Olli barley; (b) Cl(-) inhibited net NO(3) (-) uptake in Prato but had little effect in Olli; and (c) NH(4) (+) as (NH(4))(2)SO(4) inhibited net K(+) uptake in Prato but had little effect in Olli. Moreover, the immediate response to the addition of an ion often varied significantly from the long-term response; for example, the addition of Cl(-) initially inhibited net K(+) uptake in Olli barley but, after a 4 hour exposure, it was stimulatory. For both cultivars, net NH(4) (+) and Cl(-) uptake did not change significantly with time after these ions were added to the nutrient medium. These data indicate that, even within one species, there is a high degree of genotypic variation in the control of nutrient absorption.

  10. Physiological and metabolic analysis of nitrate reduction on poly-gamma-glutamic acid synthesis in Bacillus licheniformis WX-02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Gou, Xiangyong; Long, Dan; Ji, Zhixia; Hu, Lifang; Xu, Dihong; Liu, Jun; Chen, Shouwen

    2014-11-01

    Nitrate is an important nitrogen source for organism, but whether and how nitrate improves poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) production of bacterial is not clear. The effect of nitrate on γ-PGA production of Bacillus licheniformis WX-02 was investigated. By addition of 50 mmol/L nitrate, the γ-PGA yield reached 12.3 ± 0.21 g/L, which increased 2.3-fold compared to the control. The mechanism of enhanced γ-PGA production was further investigated by analysis of nitrate reduction, physiology, pyruvate overflow metabolism and energy synthesis. Nitrate reduction was only carried out in the middle stage of γ-PGA fermentation. The result of consumption of nutrients showed that glucose uptake was not effected and the L-glutamic acid utilization efficiency increased from 48.3 to 77.0 %. The date of overflow metabolism obtained from high-performance liquid chromatography showed that the metabolism of pyruvate, formate, lactate and acetoin was both heightened by nitrate reduction, while the 2,3-butanediol biosynthesis was decreased. Meanwhile, the change of energy indicated that more ATP was synthesized during nitrate reduction. In summary, nitrate was a positive effector of γ-PGA biosynthesis in B. licheniformis WX-02 and nitrate reduction affected multi-metabolism pathways, including glycolysis, overflow metabolism and energy metabolism.

  11. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified... sablefish, smoked, cured salmon, and smoked, cured shad, so that the level of sodium nitrate does not exceed...

  12. Nitrogen Uptake in Spinach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, J.; VanBenthem, P.

    2013-12-01

    A plant's absorption of nitrogen can be encouraged by a variety of environmental factors, especially the application of fertilizers. As a common limiting factor in plant growth, not up taking enough nitrogen can be a result of an unhealthy plant. Moreover, as farmers seek out methods to increase growth of plants, fertilizers are used as a solution to the issue of nitrogen deficiency to incorporate additional nitrogen from chemical or organic sources, by not using the right fertilizer can greatly affect the plats. The point of this research project is to determine the effect of various fertilizers on the plant growth, and to correlate the measured nitrogen, water and chlorophyll content in spinach leaves. Spinach leaves were used because they are known to quickly uptake chemicals in the environment. The spinach plants were exposed to four different growing parameters, which are referred to as control, ammonium nitrate, MiracleGro , and organic. The spinach was originally placed in nitrogen deficient soil with only 2.2x10 4 weight percent (wt. %) nitrogen. The leaves in the control group were grown in this nitrogen deficient soil without any fertilizer added. Ammomium nitrate and MiracleGro were added to the spinach in the A and MG groups, respectively, and organic chicken stool was used for the O group. By using a spectral imaging system and flame combustion techniques, the chlorophyll content can be related to the nitrogen content in the spinach leaves. In these spinach leaves, nitrogen and chlorophyll content were measured, chlorophyll is a green pigment that plays a crucial role in producing nutrients for green plants. The lack of chlorophyll will allow the plant to become susceptible to diseases, so it is extremely important that the plants have a high content of chlorophyll. The role of nitrogen in chlorophyll is very important and helps in the creation of chlorophyll; therefore it is necessary that an appropriate amount of nitrogen is added for optimal growth

  13. Nitrate content in a collection of higher mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bóbics, Renáta; Krüzselyi, Dániel; Vetter, János

    2016-01-30

    Data of mushroom nitrate content from scientific studies is limited. There have been two such recent investigations (mainly regarding certain cultivated species). To obtain comparable analytical data, we analyzed 134 samples of 54 taxa gathered and prepared by our department. The mushroom species were evaluated according to their nutritional types: saprotrophic, mycorrhizal and wood-decaying groups. Low and relatively invariable contents were found in the mycorrhizal (216.5 mg kg(-1) dry matter (DM) and wood-decaying groups (228.6 mg kg(-1) DM), but in the saprotrophic group we observed a wide variability (151.4-12 715 mg kg(-1) DM). A considerable nitrate content was found in samples of seven 'accumulator' species (Clitocybe nebularis, C. odora, Lepista nuda, L. personata, L. irina, Macrolepiota rachodes and M. procera). The toxicological relevance of daily uptake of acceptable nitrate content via mushrooms only is not presumable, but the 'accumulator' saprotrophic species can be 'contributors' to our nitrate intake in foods. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is ... code: Phone no: Thank you! Do you have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story ...

  15. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... known as a thyroid uptake. It is a measurement of thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. ... eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. Jewelry and other metallic accessories should be left ...

  16. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... limitations of the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is ... top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is used to ...

  17. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is used to determine ...

  18. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is ... taking our brief survey: Survey Do you have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story ...

  19. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the limitations of the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid ... body converts food to energy. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The ...

  20. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Uptake? A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) ... of thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that ...

  1. La plataforma .NET

    OpenAIRE

    Fornas Estrada, Miquel

    2008-01-01

    L'aparició de la plataforma .NET Framework ha suposat un canvi molt important en la forma de crear i distribuir aplicacions, degut a que incorpora una sèrie d'innovacions tècniques i productives que simplifiquen molt les tasques necessàries per desenvolupar un projecte. La aparición de la plataforma. NET Framework ha supuesto un cambio muy importante en la forma de crear y distribuir aplicaciones, debido a que incorpora una serie de innovaciones técnicas y productivas que simplifican mucho...

  2. Biological Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Wingender, E

    2011-01-01

    It was suggested some years ago that Petri nets might be well suited to modeling metabolic networks, overcoming some of the limitations encountered by the use of systems employing ODEs (ordinary differential equations). Much work has been done since then which confirms this and demonstrates the usefulness of this concept for systems biology. Petri net technology is not only intuitively understood by scientists trained in the life sciences, it also has a robust mathematical foundation and provides the required degree of flexibility. As a result it appears to be a very promising approach to mode

  3. Nitrate metabolism in the gromiid microbial universe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgslund, Signe; Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Cedhagen, Tomas

    Eukaryotic nitrate respiration supported by intracellular nitrate storages contributes substantially to the nitrogen cycle. Research focus is currently directed towards two phyla: Foraminifera and diatoms, but the widespread Gromia in the Rhizaria may be another key organism. These giant protists...... to the findings of eukaryotic mediated nitrate reduction in some foraminifera and diatoms, nitrate respiration in gromiids seems to be mediated by bacterial endosymbionts. The role of endobionts in nitrate accumulating eukaryotes is of fundamental importance for understanding the evolutionary path...

  4. Looking for simplicity in complex groundwater-surface water interfaces: A "simple" approach for determining hyporheic nitrate source-sink function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnetske, Jay

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater-surface water interfaces (GSIs) are characterized by complex hydrological and biogeochemical gradients that control the fate of many important ecosystem solutes, such as biologically-available nitrogen (N). However, this complexity limits our ability to predict their biogeochemical function across scales. Our research on N in GSIs strives to develop "simple" approaches that determine the biogeochemical function of stream GSIs (i.e., hyporheic and parafluvial zones), while recognizing the many sources of complexity. This research helps determine the relative role of the physical and biogeochemical controls on function across a range of temporal and spatial scales. For example, we used an advection, dispersion, and residence time model coupled with multiple Monod kinetic models to simulate the GSI concentrations of oxygen (O2), ammonium (NH4), nitrate (NO3), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). These models when coupled with sensitivity analyses explored wide ranges of observed physical transport and biogeochemical kinetic conditions. These analyses revealed that GSI water residence time and O2 uptake rate (via respiration and/or nitrification) dictates GSI function as either a source or a sink of NO3 to surface waters. Furthermore, it showed that whether the GSI is a net NO3 source or net NO3 sink is determined by the ratio of the characteristic transport time to the characteristic reaction time of O2 (i.e., the Damköhler number, DaO2), where GSIs with DaO2 > 1 will be net denitrification environments. This coupling of the hydrological and biogeochemical limitations of N transformations across different spatiotemporal scales allowed us to explain the mechanisms behind the widely contrasting GSI functional results seen in previous field studies. Ultimately, these model results suggest that only estimates of residence times and O2 uptake rates are necessary to predict net nitrification-denitrification function thresholds in stream GSIs. Therefore, the DaO2

  5. Sodium nitrate ingestion increases skeletal muscle nitrate content in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyakayiru, Jean; Kouw, Imre W K; Cermak, Naomi M; Senden, Joan M; van Loon, Luc J C; Verdijk, Lex B

    2017-09-01

    Nitrate ([Formula: see text]) ingestion has been shown to have vasoactive and ergogenic effects that have been attributed to increased nitric oxide (NO) production. Recent observations in rodents suggest that skeletal muscle tissue serves as an endogenous [Formula: see text] "reservoir." The present study determined [Formula: see text] contents in human skeletal muscle tissue in a postabsorptive state and following ingestion of a sodium nitrate bolus (NaNO 3 ). Seventeen male, type 2 diabetes patients (age 72 ± 1 yr; body mass index 26.5 ± 0.5 kg/m 2 ; means ± SE) were randomized to ingest a dose of NaNO 3 (NIT; 9.3 mg [Formula: see text]/kg body wt) or placebo (PLA; 8.8 mg NaCl/kg body wt). Blood and muscle biopsy samples were taken before and up to 7 h following [Formula: see text] or placebo ingestion to assess [Formula: see text] [and plasma nitrite ([Formula: see text])] concentrations. Additionally, basal plasma and muscle [Formula: see text] concentrations were assessed in 10 healthy young (CON-Y; age 21 ± 1 yr) and 10 healthy older (CON-O; age 75 ± 1 yr) control subjects. In all groups, baseline [Formula: see text] concentrations were higher in muscle (NIT, 57 ± 7; PLA, 61 ± 7; CON-Y, 80 ± 10; CON-O, 54 ± 6 µmol/l) than in plasma (NIT, 35 ± 3; PLA, 32 ± 3; CON-Y, 38 ± 3; CON-O, 33 ± 3 µmol/l; P ≤ 0.011). Ingestion of NaNO 3 resulted in a sustained increase in plasma [Formula: see text], plasma [Formula: see text], and muscle [Formula: see text] concentrations (up to 185 ± 25 µmol/l) in the NIT group (time effect P nitrate ingestion is usually limited to the changes observed in plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations. The present investigation assessed the skeletal muscle nitrate content in humans during the postabsorptive state, as well as following dietary nitrate ingestion. We show that basal nitrate content is higher in skeletal muscle tissue than in plasma and that ingestion of a dietary nitrate bolus strongly increases both plasma

  6. Long-term fate of nitrate fertilizer in agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebilo, Mathieu; Mayer, Bernhard; Nicolardot, Bernard; Pinay, Gilles; Mariotti, André

    2013-11-05

    Increasing diffuse nitrate loading of surface waters and groundwater has emerged as a major problem in many agricultural areas of the world, resulting in contamination of drinking water resources in aquifers as well as eutrophication of freshwaters and coastal marine ecosystems. Although empirical correlations between application rates of N fertilizers to agricultural soils and nitrate contamination of adjacent hydrological systems have been demonstrated, the transit times of fertilizer N in the pedosphere-hydrosphere system are poorly understood. We investigated the fate of isotopically labeled nitrogen fertilizers in a three-decade-long in situ tracer experiment that quantified not only fertilizer N uptake by plants and retention in soils, but also determined to which extent and over which time periods fertilizer N stored in soil organic matter is rereleased for either uptake in crops or export into the hydrosphere. We found that 61-65% of the applied fertilizers N were taken up by plants, whereas 12-15% of the labeled fertilizer N were still residing in the soil organic matter more than a quarter century after tracer application. Between 8-12% of the applied fertilizer had leaked toward the hydrosphere during the 30-y observation period. We predict that additional exports of (15)N-labeled nitrate from the tracer application in 1982 toward the hydrosphere will continue for at least another five decades. Therefore, attempts to reduce agricultural nitrate contamination of aquatic systems must consider the long-term legacy of past applications of synthetic fertilizers in agricultural systems and the nitrogen retention capacity of agricultural soils.

  7. Petri Nets-Applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 9. Petri Nets - Applications. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 9 September 1999 pp 44-52. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/09/0044-0052. Author Affiliations. Y Narahari ...

  8. Safety nets or straitjackets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Does regulation of working hours at national and sector level impose straitjackets, or offer safety nets to employees seeking working time flexibility? This article compares legislation and collective agreements in the metal industries of Denmark, Germany and the USA. The industry has historically...

  9. Coloured Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. This book introduces the constructs of the CPN modelling language and presents the related analysis methods. It provides a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN.

  10. Boom Booom Net Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Yong, Louisa; Dobie, Ian

    1999-01-01

    of an existing Internet radio station; Boom Booom Net Radio. Whilst necessity dictates some use of technology-related terminology, wherever possible we have endeavoured to keep such jargon to a minimum and to either explain it in the text or to provide further explanation in the appended glossary....

  11. Game Theory .net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Mikhael

    2003-01-01

    States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of GameTheory.net is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…

  12. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism...

  13. Organic Nitrate Chemistry and Its Implications for Nitrogen Budgets in an Isoprene- and Monoterpene-Rich Atmosphere: Constraints From Aircraft (SEAC4RS) and Ground-Based (SOAS) Observations in the Southeast US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jenny; Jacob, D. J.; Travis, K. R.; Kim, P. S.; Marais, E. A.; Miller, C. Chan; Yu, K.; Zhu, L.; Yantosca, R. M.; Sulprizio, M. P.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Formation of organic nitrates (RONO2) during oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs: isoprene, monoterpenes) is a significant loss pathway for atmospheric nitrogen oxide radicals (NOx), but the chemistry of RONO2 formation and degradation remains uncertain. Here we implement a new BVOC oxidation mechanism (including updated isoprene chemistry, new monoterpene chemistry, and particle uptake of RONO2) in the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model with approximately 25 times 25 km(exp 2) resolution over North America. We evaluate the model using aircraft (SEAC4RS) and ground-based (SOAS) observations of NOx, BVOCs, and RONO2 from the Southeast US in summer 2013. The updated simulation successfully reproduces the concentrations of individual gas- and particle-phase RONO2 species measured during the campaigns. Gas-phase isoprene nitrates account for 2550 of observed RONO2 in surface air, and we find that another 10 is contributed by gas-phase monoterpene nitrates. Observations in the free troposphere show an important contribution from long-lived nitrates derived from anthropogenic VOCs. During both campaigns, at least 10 of observed boundary layer RONO2 were in the particle phase. We find that aerosol uptake followed by hydrolysis to HNO3 accounts for 60 of simulated gas-phase RONO2 loss in the boundary layer. Other losses are 20 by photolysis to recycle NOx and 15 by dry deposition. RONO2 production accounts for 20 of the net regional NOx sink in the Southeast US in summer, limited by the spatial segregation between BVOC and NOx emissions. This segregation implies that RONO2 production will remain a minor sink for NOx in the Southeast US in the future even as NOx emissions continue to decline. XXXX We have used airborne and ground-based observations from two summer 2013 campaigns in the Southeast US (SEAC4RS, SOAS) to better understand the chemistry and impacts of alkyl and multi-functional organic nitrates (RONO2). We used the observations, along

  14. Nitrate Intake and the Risk of Thyroid Cancer and Thyroid Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Mary H.; Kilfoy, Briseis A.; Weyer, Peter J.; Anderson, Kristin E.; Folsom, Aaron R.; Cerhan, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Nitrate is a contaminant of drinking water in agricultural areas and is found at high levels in some vegetables. Nitrate competes with uptake of iodide by the thyroid, thus potentially affecting thyroid function. Methods We investigated the association of nitrate intake from public water supplies and diet with the risk of thyroid cancer and self-reported hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism in a cohort of 21,977 older women in Iowa who were enrolled in 1986 and who had used the same water supply for >10 years. We estimated nitrate ingestion from drinking water using a public database of nitrate measurements (1955–1988). Dietary nitrate intake was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire and levels from the published literature. Cancer incidence was determined through 2004. Results We found an increased risk of thyroid cancer with higher average nitrate levels in public water supplies and with longer consumption of water exceeding 5 mg/L nitrate-N (for ≤5 years at >5 mg/L, relative risk [RR] = 2.6 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.1–6.2]). We observed no association with prevalence of hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism. Increasing intake of dietary nitrate was associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer (highest vs. lowest quartile, RR = 2.9 [1.0–8.1]; P for trend = 0.046) and with the prevalence of hypothyroidism (odds ratio = 1.2 [95% CI = 1.1–1.4]), but not hyperthyroidism. Conclusions Nitrate may play a role in the etiology of thyroid cancer and warrants further study. PMID:20335813

  15. Response of photosynthesis in the leaves of cucumber seedlings to light intensity and CO2 concentration under nitrate stress

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Xiufeng; Wei, Min

    2014-01-01

    The effects of 2 nitrate levels, 14 (CK) and 140 mmol L-1 (T), on the leaf gas exchange variables of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Xintaimici) seedlings grown in hydroponic culture were investigated. Photosynthetic light- and CO2-response curves from CK and T seedlings were determined and used for the analysis of photosynthetic capacity. The results showed that nitrate stress resulted in a significant reduction of net photosynthesis of T seedlings compared with CK. At the same time, the ap...

  16. Light intensity affects the uptake and metabolism of glycine by pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingxu; Cao, Xiaochuang; Wu, Lianghuan; Mi, Wenhai; Feng, Ying

    2016-02-01

    The uptake of glycine by pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.), when supplied as single N-source or in a mixture of glycine and inorganic N, was studied at different light intensities under sterile conditions. At the optimal intensity (414 μmol m-2 s-1) for plant growth, glycine, nitrate, and ammonium contributed 29.4%, 39.5%, and 31.1% shoot N, respectively, and light intensity altered the preferential absorption of N sources. The lower 15N-nitrate in root but higher in shoot and the higher 15N-glycine in root but lower in shoot suggested that most 15N-nitrate uptake by root transported to shoot rapidly, with the shoot being important for nitrate assimilation, and the N contribution of glycine was limited by post-uptake metabolism. The amount of glycine that was taken up by the plant was likely limited by root uptake at low light intensities and by the metabolism of ammonium produced by glycine at high light intensities. These results indicate that pakchoi has the ability to uptake a large quantity of glycine, but that uptake is strongly regulated by light intensity, with metabolism in the root inhibiting its N contribution.

  17. Structural basis for dynamic mechanism of nitrate/nitrite antiport by NarK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Masahiro; Takeda, Hironori; Kato, Hideaki E; Doki, Shintaro; Ito, Koichi; Maturana, Andrés D; Ishitani, Ryuichiro; Nureki, Osamu

    2015-05-11

    NarK belongs to the nitrate/nitrite porter (NNP) family in the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) and plays a central role in nitrate uptake across the membrane in diverse organisms, including archaea, bacteria, fungi and plants. Although previous studies provided insight into the overall structure and the substrate recognition of NarK, its molecular mechanism, including the driving force for nitrate transport, remained elusive. Here we demonstrate that NarK is a nitrate/nitrite antiporter, using an in vitro reconstituted system. Furthermore, we present the high-resolution crystal structures of NarK from Escherichia coli in the nitrate-bound occluded, nitrate-bound inward-open and apo inward-open states. The integrated structural, functional and computational analyses reveal the nitrate/nitrite antiport mechanism of NarK, in which substrate recognition is coupled to the transport cycle by the concomitant movement of the transmembrane helices and the key tyrosine and arginine residues in the substrate-binding site.

  18. Nitrate reduction functional genes and nitrate reduction potentials persist in deeper estuarine sediments. Why?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Papaspyrou, Sokratis; Smith, Cindy J; Dong, Liang F; Whitby, Corinne; Dumbrell, Alex J; Nedwell, David B

    2014-01-01

    Denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) are processes occurring simultaneously under oxygen-limited or anaerobic conditions, where both compete for nitrate and organic carbon...

  19. Nitrate in watersheds: straight from soils to streams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudduth, Elizabeth B.; Perakis, Steven S.; Bernhardt, Emily S.

    2013-01-01

    Human activities are rapidly increasing the global supply of reactive N and substantially altering the structure and hydrologic connectivity of managed ecosystems. There is long-standing recognition that N must be removed along hydrologic flowpaths from uplands to streams, yet it has proven difficult to assess the generality of this removal across ecosystem types, and whether these patterns are influenced by land-use change. To assess how well upland nitrate (NO3-) loss is reflected in stream export, we gathered information from >50 watershed biogeochemical studies that reported nitrate concentrations ([NO3-]) for stream water and for either upslope soil solution or groundwater NO3- to examine whether stream export of NO3- accurately reflects upland NO3- losses. In this dataset, soil solution and streamwater [NO3-] were correlated across 40 undisturbed forest watersheds, with streamwater [NO3-] typically half (median = 50%) soil solution [NO3-]. A similar relationship was seen in 10 disturbed forest watersheds. However, for 12 watersheds with significant agricultural or urban development, the intercept and slope were both significantly higher than the relationship seen in forest watersheds. Differences in concentration between soil solution or groundwater and stream water may be attributed to biological uptake, microbial processes including denitrification, and/or preferential flow routing. The results of this synthesis are consistent with the hypotheses that undisturbed watersheds have a significant capacity to remove nitrate after it passes below the rooting zone and that land use changes tend to alter the efficiency or the length of watershed flowpaths, leading to reductions in nitrate removal and increased stream nitrate concentrations.

  20. The relationship between the nitrogen and nitrate content and nitrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The interrelationships between the nitrate-N and nitrogen content and dry matter yield of Midmar ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum cv. Midmar) were investigated. Data were collected from N fertility trials, from two seasons (1985 and 1987) on four soil sites (Metz, Griffin, Clovelly and Katspruit) with N fertilizer rates ranging from 0 ...

  1. Food Safety Nets:

    OpenAIRE

    Haggblade, Steven; Diallo, Boubacar; Staatz, John; Theriault, Veronique; Traoré, Abdramane

    2013-01-01

    Food and social safety nets have a history as long as human civilization. In hunter gatherer societies, food sharing is pervasive. Group members who prove unlucky in the short run, hunting or foraging, receive food from other households in anticipation of reciprocal consideration at a later time (Smith 1988). With the emergence of the first large sedentary civilizations in the Middle East, administrative systems developed specifically around food storage and distribution. The ancient Egyptian...

  2. Net technical assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Wegmann, David G.

    1989-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The present and near term military balance of power between the U.S. and the Soviet Union can be expressed in a variety of net assessments. One can examine the strategic nuclear balance, the conventional balance in Europe, the maritime balance, and many others. Such assessments are essential not only for policy making but for arms control purposes and future force structure planning. However, to project the future military balance, on...

  3. Exploring Estimates of Net Community Production and Export Along the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP), 1993-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducklow, H. W.; Stukel, M. R.; Bowman, J. S.; Kim, H.; Cassar, N.; Eveleth, R.; Li, Z.; Doney, S. C.; Sailley, S. F.; Jickells, T. D.; Baker, A. R.; Chance, R.

    2016-12-01

    In this presentation, we will compare different estimates of net community production (NCP) and export production (EP), including both traditional (changes in nutrient inventories and biological incubations) and newer measurements (Oxygen-Argon ratio, Thorium-234 disequilibrium, Iodide accumulation). Palmer Long Term Ecological Research (PAL-LTER) has been conducting observations of core biogeochemical (nutrient and carbon inventories, sediment trap flux) and ecological (standing stocks, production and grazing rates) processes along the WAP since 1993. Datasets include both temporally-intensive (semiweekly, Oct-April) observations in two nearshore locations at Palmer Station, and regionally-extensive observations over a 200 x 700 km grid of stations extending across the shelf into deep ocean water (>3000 m) each January. These observations provide a long term temporal and spatial context for more recent and focused measurements of net NCP and EP from the euphotic zone. For example, long-term net drawdown of nitrate averaged 415 mmol N m-2 season-1 (33 gC m-2 Season-1) at Palmer Station and 557 mmol N m-2 Season-1 (45 gC m-2 Season-1) over the regional grid. In comparison, discrete bottle-based O2/Ar estimates of NCP averaged 44 mmol O2 m-2 d-1 (0.37 gC m-2 d-1) regionally in January 2008-11. Th234 export was 684 dpm-2 d-1 (0.15 gC m-2 d-1) in January 2012, sourced from 15NO3 uptake-based new production of 4.1 mmol N m-2 d-1 (0.37 gC m-2 d-1). Intercomparison of these estimates is not straightforward. Measurements are based on several elemental currencies (C, N, O2, Th). We do not fully understand the processes each method claims to address. Is NCP the same as new production? Different processes and their measurements proceed over timescales of hours (new and net PP) to weeks (O2/Ar, 234Th) to months (inventory drawdowns). As implied above, assignment of time duration of net drawdown processes is uncertain for changes in water column inventories. Models provide

  4. Using WordNet for Building WordNets

    CERN Document Server

    Farreres, X; Farreres, Xavier; Rodriguez, Horacio; Rigau, German

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarises a set of methodologies and techniques for the fast construction of multilingual WordNets. The English WordNet is used in this approach as a backbone for Catalan and Spanish WordNets and as a lexical knowledge resource for several subtasks.

  5. 2,5-Dimethylanilinium nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajda Smirani

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In the title salt, C8H12N+·NO3−, all non-H atoms of the cation lie on mirror planes. The nitrate counteranion has m symmetry and acts as a hydrogen-bond acceptor of N—H...O hydrogen bonds, connecting the cations and anions into layers running parallel to the ab plane.

  6. Proof nets for lingusitic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moot, R.C.A.

    2002-01-01

    This book investigates the possible linguistic applications of proof nets, redundancy free representations of proofs, which were introduced by Girard for linear logic. We will adapt the notion of proof net to allow the formulation of a proof net calculus which is soundand complete for the

  7. Teaching Tennis for Net Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Bryce

    1989-01-01

    A program for teaching tennis to beginners, NET (Net Easy Teaching) is described. The program addresses three common needs shared by tennis students: active involvement in hitting the ball, clearing the net, and positive reinforcement. A sample lesson plan is included. (IAH)

  8. Net4Care Ecosystem Website

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius; Rasmussen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    is a tele-monitoring scenario in which Net4Care clients are deployed in a gateway in private homes. Medical devices then connect to these gateways and transmit their observations to a Net4Care server. In turn the Net4Care server creates valid clinical HL7 documents, stores them in a national XDS repository...

  9. Ammonium nitrate and iron nutrition effects on some nitrogen assimilation enzymes and metabolites in Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esen, Merve; Ozturk Urek, Raziye

    2015-01-01

    The effect of various concentrations of ammonium nitrate (5-60 mM), an economical nitrogen source, on the growth, nitrate-ammonium uptake rates, production of some pigments and metabolites, and some nitrogen assimilation enzymes such as nitrate reductase (NR), nitrite reductase (NiR), glutamine synthetase (GS), and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) in Spirulina platensis (Gamont) Geitler was investigated. Ten millimolars of ammonium nitrate stimulated the growth, production of pigments and the other metabolites, and enzyme activities, whereas 30 and 60 mM ammonium nitrate caused inhibition. In the presence of 10 mM ammonium nitrate, different concentrations of iron were tried in the growth media of S. platensis. After achieving the best growth, levels of metabolite and pigment production, and enzyme activities in the presence of 10 mM ammonium nitrate as a nitrogen source, different iron concentrations (10-100 µM) were tried in the growth medium of S. platensis. The highest growth, pigment and metabolite levels, and enzyme activities were determined in the medium containing 50 µM iron and 10 mM ammonium nitrate. In this optimum condition, the highest dry biomass level, chlorophyll a, and pyruvate contents were obtained as 55.42 ± 3.8 mg mL(-1) , 93.114 ± 7.9 µg g(-1) , and 212.5 ± 18.7 µg g(-1) , respectively. The highest NR, NiR, GS, and GOGAT activities were 67.16 ± 5.1, 777.92 ± 52, 0.141 ± 0.01, and 44.45 ± 3.6, respectively. Additionally, 10 mM ammonium nitrate is an economical and efficient nitrogen source for nitrogen assimilation of S. platensis, and 50 µM iron is optimum for the growth of S. platensis. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Nitrate Removal from Ground Water: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Archna; Surinder K. Sharma; Ranbir Chander Sobti

    2012-01-01

    Nitrate contamination of ground water resources has increased in Asia, Europe, United States, and various other parts of the world. This trend has raised concern as nitrates cause methemoglobinemia and cancer. Several treatment processes can remove nitrates from water with varying degrees of efficiency, cost, and ease of operation. Available technical data, experience, and economics indicate that biological denitrification is more acceptable for nitrate removal than reverse osmosis and ion ex...

  11. Plasma nitrate and nitrite are increased by a high nitrate supplement, but not by high nitrate foods in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gary D.; Marsh, Anthony P.; Dove, Robin W.; Beavers, Daniel; Presley, Tennille; Helms, Christine; Bechtold, Erika; King, S. Bruce; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the effect of dietary nitrate on the nitrate/nitrite/NO (nitric oxide) cycle in older adults. We examined the effect of a 3-day control diet vs. high nitrate diet, with and without a high nitrate supplement (beetroot juice), on plasma nitrate and nitrite kinetics, and blood pressure using a randomized four period cross-over controlled design. We hypothesized that the high nitrate diet would show higher levels of plasma nitrate/nitrite and blood pressure compared to the control diet, which would be potentiated by the supplement. Participants were eight normotensive older men and women (5 female, 3 male, 72.5±4.7 yrs) with no overt disease or medications that affect NO metabolism. Plasma nitrate and nitrite levels and blood pressure were measured prior to and hourly for 3 hours after each meal. The mean daily changes in plasma nitrate and nitrite were significantly different from baseline for both control diet+supplement (p<0.001 and =0.017 for nitrate and nitrite, respectively) and high nitrate diet+supplement (p=0.001 and 0.002), but not for control diet (p=0.713 and 0.741) or high nitrate diet (p=0.852 and 0.500). Blood pressure decreased from the morning baseline measure to the three 2 hr post-meal follow-up time-points for all treatments, but there was no main effect for treatment. In healthy older adults, a high nitrate supplement consumed at breakfast elevated plasma nitrate and nitrite levels throughout the day. This observation may have practical utility for the timing of intake of a nitrate supplement with physical activity for older adults with vascular dysfunction. PMID:22464802

  12. Ozone flux over a Norway spruce forest and correlation with net ecosystem production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapletal, Milos, E-mail: milos.zapletal@ekotoxa.cz [Ekotoxa s.r.o. - Centre for Environment and Land Assessment, Oticka 37, 746 01 Opava (Czech Republic); Silesian University at Opava, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Masarykova 37, 746 01 Opava (Czech Republic); Cudlin, Pavel [Institute of Systems Biology and Ecology of the AS CR, v.v.i., Na Sadkach 7, 37005 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Chroust, Petr [Ekotoxa s.r.o. - Centre for Environment and Land Assessment, Oticka 37, 746 01 Opava (Czech Republic); Urban, Otmar; Pokorny, Radek [Institute of Systems Biology and Ecology of the AS CR, v.v.i., Porici 3b, 60300 Brno (Czech Republic); Edwards-Jonasova, Magda [Institute of Systems Biology and Ecology of the AS CR, v.v.i., Na Sadkach 7, 37005 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Czerny, Radek; Janous, Dalibor; Taufarova, Klara [Institute of Systems Biology and Ecology of the AS CR, v.v.i., Porici 3b, 60300 Brno (Czech Republic); Vecera, Zbynek; Mikuska, Pavel [Institute of Analytical Chemistry of the AS CR, v.v.i., Veveri 97, 60200 Brno (Czech Republic); Paoletti, Elena [Institute of Plant Protection, National Research Council of Italy, via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2011-05-15

    Daily ozone deposition flux to a Norway spruce forest in Czech Republic was measured using the gradient method in July and August 2008. Results were in good agreement with a deposition flux model. The mean daily stomatal uptake of ozone was around 47% of total deposition. Average deposition velocity was 0.39 cm s{sup -1} and 0.36 cm s{sup -1} by the gradient method and the deposition model, respectively. Measured and modelled non-stomatal uptake was around 0.2 cm s{sup -1}. In addition, net ecosystem production (NEP) was measured by using Eddy Covariance and correlations with O{sub 3} concentrations at 15 m a.g.l., total deposition and stomatal uptake were tested. Total deposition and stomatal uptake of ozone significantly decreased NEP, especially by high intensities of solar radiation. - Highlights: > We estimate ozone deposition flux to a Norway spruce forest using the gradient method and model. > The mean stomatal uptake of ozone is approximately 47% of the total deposition. > We measure net ecosystem production (NEP) using Eddy Covariance. > We test whether elevated total deposition and stomatal uptake of O{sub 3} imply a reduction of NEP. > Deposition and stomatal uptake of O{sub 3} decrease NEP, especially by high intensities of solar radiation. - Net ecosystem production of a Norway spruce forest decreases with increasing deposition and stomatal uptake of ozone.

  13. Nitrate reductase assay using sodium nitrate for rapid detection of multidrug resistant tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Maíra Bidart; Groll, Andrea Von; Fissette, Krista; Palomino, Juan Carlos; da Silva, Pedro Eduardo Almeida; Martin, Anandi

    2012-01-01

    We validated the nitrate reductase assay (NRA) for the detection of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-TB) using sodium nitrate (NaNO3) in replacement of potassium nitrate (KNO3) as nitrate source. NaNO3 is cheaper than KNO3 and has no restriction on use which facilitates the implementation of NRA to detect MDR-TB. PMID:24031916

  14. Nitrate reductase assay using sodium nitrate for rapid detection of multidrug resistant tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Macedo, Ma?ra Bidart; Groll, Andrea Von; Fissette, Krista; Palomino, Juan Carlos; da Silva, Pedro Eduardo Almeida; Martin, Anandi

    2012-01-01

    We validated the nitrate reductase assay (NRA) for the detection of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-TB) using sodium nitrate (NaNO3) in replacement of potassium nitrate (KNO3) as nitrate source. NaNO3 is cheaper than KNO3 and has no restriction on use which facilitates the implementation of NRA to detect MDR-TB.

  15. Impact of organic pig production systems on CO2 emission, C sequestration and nitrate pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halberg, Niels; Hermansen, John Erik; Kristensen, Ib Sillebak

    2010-01-01

    Organic rules for grazing and access to outdoor areas in pig production may be met in different ways, which express compromises between considerations for animal welfare, feed self-reliance and negative environmental impact such as greenhouse gas emissions and nitrate pollution. This article...... these had an estimated net soil carbon sequestration. When carbon sequestration was included in the LCA then the organic systems had lower greenhouse gas emissions compared with conventional pig production. Eutrophication in nitrate equivalents per kg pig was 21-65% higher in the organic pig systems...

  16. Nitrate tolerance impairs nitric oxide-mediated vasodilation in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Jørn Bech; Boesgaard, Søren; Poulsen, Henrik E.

    1996-01-01

    Nitrates, Nitrate tolerence, Nitric oxide, acetylcholine, N-acetylcholine, N-acetylcysteine, L-NAME, Rat, Anesthetized......Nitrates, Nitrate tolerence, Nitric oxide, acetylcholine, N-acetylcholine, N-acetylcysteine, L-NAME, Rat, Anesthetized...

  17. 76 FR 47238 - Ammonium Nitrate From Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... COMMISSION Ammonium Nitrate From Russia Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... order on ammonium nitrate from Russia would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... Commission are contained in USITC Publication 4249 (August 2011), entitled Ammonium Nitrate from Russia...

  18. 76 FR 11273 - Ammonium Nitrate From Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... COMMISSION Ammonium Nitrate From Russia AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the suspended investigation on ammonium nitrate from Russia... investigation on ammonium nitrate from Russia would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material...

  19. Reduction of nitrates in Cucumis sativus L. seedlings II. Influence of tungsten and vanadium on nitrate reductase and adenosine triphosphatase activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Buczek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ATPases isolated from the roots of cucumber seedlings activated by Mg+2 ions in experiments in vitro, were fairly distinctly inhibited by Ca-2 ions, very slightly inhibited by fluorides and molybdenum ions while NO3- anions had no effect on the level of ATPase activity studied. Introduction into the nutrient of 10-4 M Na2WO4 or 10-3 M Na VO3 (inhibitors of nitrate reductase NR distinctly inhibited activity of the ATPase under study especially of fractions IIa and III, and inhibited NR activity and lowered uptake of NO3-. WO4-2 and VO3 inhibited to the same extent absorption and reduction of NO3- in the initial phase of NR induction, whereas at a later stage both inhibitors checked reduction to a greater degree than uptake of NO3-. The results indicate the possibility of certain ATPase participation in assimilating nitrates, and suggest that in the initial stage of biosynthesis of the NR enzyme system, activity of the enzyme is distinctly dependent upon NO3- transport and the level of NR activity limited by the amount of nitrate taken up. At a later an additional mechanism of NO3- transport probably functions, not connected with simultaneous reduction of nitrates. On the basis of results the Butz and Jackson (1977 hypothesis concerning a model for the absorption and reduction of NO3- by plant tissues is discussed.

  20. Master Robotic Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Lipunov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the MASTER-Net project is to produce a unique fast sky survey with all sky observed over a single night down to a limiting magnitude of 19-20. Such a survey will make it possible to address a number of fundamental problems: search for dark energy via the discovery and photometry of supernovae (including SNIa, search for exoplanets, microlensing effects, discovery of minor bodies in the Solar System, and space-junk monitoring. All MASTER telescopes can be guided by alerts, and we plan to observe prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts synchronously in several filters and in several polarization planes.

  1. Art/Net/Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik; Lindstrøm, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    The seminar Art|Net|Work deals with two important changes in our culture. On one side, the network has become essential in the latest technological development. The Internet has entered a new phase, Web 2.0, including the occurrence of as ‘Wiki’s’, ‘Peer-2-Peer’ distribution, user controlled...... the praxis of the artist. We see different kinds of interventions and activism (including ‘hacktivism’) using the network as a way of questioning the invisible rules that govern public and semi-public spaces. Who ‘owns’ them? What kind of social relationships do they generate? On what principle...

  2. Dissolved nitrogen uptake in the inner bay of Cadiz (Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Engeland, T.; Bouma, T.J.; Morris, E.P.; Brun, F.G.; Peralta, G.; Lara, M.; Hendriks, I.E.; Van Rijswijk, P.; Veuger, B.; Soetaert, K.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the uptake of inorganic and organic nitrogen compounds by several macrophytes, epiphytes and phytoplankton in a seagrass meadow. Using double labeled (13C and 15N) substrates of differential complexity, the net transfers from the dissolved nitrogen and carbon pools to phytoplankton,

  3. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is also known as a thyroid uptake. ...

  4. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is also known as a thyroid uptake. ... a patient’s immediate response to therapeutic interventions. Nuclear ... medical tests that help physicians diagnose and evaluate medical conditions. ...

  5. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 24 hours later. Often, two separate uptake measurements are obtained at different times. For example, you may have uptake measurements at ... of exposing the fetus to radiation. These tests are also not recommended for ... medicine procedures can be time consuming. It can take several hours to days ...

  6. Helminth.net: expansions to Nematode.net and an introduction to Trematode.net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, John; Rosa, Bruce A.; Ozersky, Philip; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Zhang, Xu; Bhonagiri-Palsikar, Veena; Tyagi, Rahul; Wang, Qi; Choi, Young-Jun; Gao, Xin; McNulty, Samantha N.; Brindley, Paul J.; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2015-01-01

    Helminth.net (http://www.helminth.net) is the new moniker for a collection of databases: Nematode.net and Trematode.net. Within this collection we provide services and resources for parasitic roundworms (nematodes) and flatworms (trematodes), collectively known as helminths. For over a decade we have provided resources for studying nematodes via our veteran site Nematode.net (http://nematode.net). In this article, (i) we provide an update on the expansions of Nematode.net that hosts omics data from 84 species and provides advanced search tools to the broad scientific community so that data can be mined in a useful and user-friendly manner and (ii) we introduce Trematode.net, a site dedicated to the dissemination of data from flukes, flatworm parasites of the class Trematoda, phylum Platyhelminthes. Trematode.net is an independent component of Helminth.net and currently hosts data from 16 species, with information ranging from genomic, functional genomic data, enzymatic pathway utilization to microbiome changes associated with helminth infections. The databases’ interface, with a sophisticated query engine as a backbone, is intended to allow users to search for multi-factorial combinations of species’ omics properties. This report describes updates to Nematode.net since its last description in NAR, 2012, and also introduces and presents its new sibling site, Trematode.net. PMID:25392426

  7. NETS FOR PEACH PROTECTED CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelia Schettini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the radiometric properties of coloured nets used to protect a peach cultivation. The modifications of the solar spectral distribution, mainly in the R and FR wavelength band, influence plant photomorphogenesis by means of the phytochrome and cryptochrome. The phytochrome response is characterized in terms of radiation rate in the red wavelengths (R, 600-700 nm to that in the farred radiation (FR, 700-800 nm, i.e. the R/FR ratio. The effects of the blue radiation (B, 400-500 nm is investigated by the ratio between the blue radiation and the far-red radiation, i.e. the B/FR ratio. A BLUE net, a RED net, a YELLOW net, a PEARL net, a GREY net and a NEUTRAL net were tested in Bari (Italy, latitude 41° 05’ N. Peach trees were located in pots inside the greenhouses and in open field. The growth of the trees cultivated in open field was lower in comparison to the growth of the trees grown under the nets. The RED, PEARL, YELLOW and GREY nets increased the growth of the trees more than the other nets. The nets positively influenced the fruit characteristics, such as fruit weight and flesh firmness.

  8. Mechanisms of nitrate capture in biochar: Are they related to biochar properties, post-treatment and soil environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimo, Giulia; Haller, Andreas; Spokas, Kurt; Novak, Jeff; Ippolito, Jim; Löhnertz, Otmar; Kammann, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    Biochar use in soils is assumed to increase soil fertility and the efficiency of nutrient use, particularly nitrogen. It was demonstrated recently that biochar is able to capture considerable amounts of the mobile anion nitrate which was observed in co-composted as well as field aged biochar1,2. Moreover the nitrate was not sufficiently extractable with standard methods from biochar particles; extractions had to be repeated to effectively remove the nitrate1. Subsequently the co-composted nitrate-enriched biochar stimulated plant growth due to N supply to the plants2. However, in a field study in sandy soil in Germany, a different biochar also captured nitrate, increasing the topsoil nitrate concentration and likely reducing nitrate leaching to subsoils1. This was particularly seen after a dry year in the re-picked and analysed particles. However, in the field experiment this aged, nitrate-enriched biochar did not improve crop yields3. To better understand the way biochar interacts with nitrate we undertook several laboratory experiments with 13 well characterized biochars produced from cypress, pine and grapewood at 350, 500, 700 and 900 °C including one Kon-Tiki produced grapewood biochar (600-700°C). Our results showed that (1) pure, pristine (not post-treated) biochar captured more nitrate when they were air-moist and not totally dry; that (2) letting biochar particles dry in nitrate solution forces more nitrate into biochar particles than incubating them in the solution, but (3) that shaking during drying nevertheless caused a higher nitrate uptake into biochar particles; that(4) the counter ion K+ in nitrate solution was more effective than Na+ for N-loading of biochar; (5)that drying a soil-biochar mix in nitrate solution produced a higher nitrate loading of the mixture (i.e. the biochar) than drying both components separately in the same solution; (6)that a higher biochar production temperature caused higher nitrate capture up to 700-900°C. Furthermore

  9. Nitrate Removal from Ground Water: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate contamination of ground water resources has increased in Asia, Europe, United States, and various other parts of the world. This trend has raised concern as nitrates cause methemoglobinemia and cancer. Several treatment processes can remove nitrates from water with varying degrees of efficiency, cost, and ease of operation. Available technical data, experience, and economics indicate that biological denitrification is more acceptable for nitrate removal than reverse osmosis and ion exchange. This paper reviews the developments in the field of nitrate removal processes which can be effectively used for denitrifying ground water as well as industrial water.

  10. The Relative Importance of Aqueous vs. Vapor-Pressure Dependent Pathways for Particulate Organic Nitrate Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, A.; Pye, H. O. T.; Cohen, R. C.

    2016-12-01

    Formation of biogenic derived organic nitrates is known as an important immediate sink of atmospheric nitrogen oxides. Although, subsequent oxidation and photolysis of organic nitrates can return a part of the sequestered NOx to the atmosphere, other removal pathways in combination with wet and dry deposition and hydrolysis of particulate organic nitrates is of central importance in irreversible NOx removal from the atmosphere. The aim of this work is to understand how and to what degree the particle phase participates in removal of NOx. We implement a new BVOC oxidation gas phase mechanism (including a detailed representation of OH- and NO3-initiated organic nitrates) and an explicit representation of organic nitrate aerosols formation, including irreversible aqueous-phase uptake and reversible partitioning onto pre-existing organic aerosol, into the CMAQ model. Using these mechanisms, we simulate observations from the SOAS field campaigns over the southeast US in summer 2013 and examine the relative role of water-mediated vs vapor pressure processes in determining aerosol from organic nitrates.

  11. Nitrification rates, nitrite and nitrate distribution in the Almeria-Oran frontal systems (eastern Alboran Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, M.; Morin, P.; Le Corre, P.

    1994-08-01

    In the western Mediterranean Sea, the Almeria-Oran frontal zone constitutes the eastern boundary of the Alboran Sea. During the "Almofront-1" cruise (April-May 1991) physical, chemical and biological features of the front and surrounding Atlantic and Mediterranean Waters were investigated. In the present study, the nitrite and nitrate concentrations and nitrification rates were measured. The nitracline was close to the surface in the north, close to the Spanish coast and in the south on the left side of the jet. The highest concentration of nitrite (0.25 μM) was located in the incoming Atlantic Waters. The ammonium oxidation rates were from 0 to 16 nmol 1 -1 d -1, except in Atlantic Waters in which the rates reached 28-42 nmol 1 -1 d -1. For all types of superficial water, i.e. Atlantic, jet core, Mediterranean, the nitrite produced by nitrification could account for the in situ concentrations in less time than the ages of the water masses. In contrast, to reach the ambient concentration, the production of nitrate would need more time than the lifetime of the water masses, except for the Atlantic Waters. In these Atlantic Waters, showing an increased rate of nitrate production, the in situ concentration of nitrate would be reached within its lifetime. The contribution of the nitrate produced by nitrification to the nitrate uptake by primary producers was estimated to range from 7% (Mediterranean Waters) to 40% (Atlantic Waters).

  12. Biogeochemistry of beetle-killed forests: explaining a weak nitrate response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Charles C; McCutchan, James H; Cooper, Leigh A; Clow, David; Detmer, Thomas M; Briggs, Jennifer S; Stednick, John D; Veblen, Thomas T; Ertz, Rachel M; Likens, Gene E; Lewis, William M

    2013-01-29

    A current pine beetle infestation has caused extensive mortality of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) in forests of Colorado and Wyoming; it is part of an unprecedented multispecies beetle outbreak extending from Mexico to Canada. In United States and European watersheds, where atmospheric deposition of inorganic N is moderate to low (<10 kg⋅ha⋅y), disturbance of forests by timber harvest or violent storms causes an increase in stream nitrate concentration that typically is close to 400% of predisturbance concentrations. In contrast, no significant increase in streamwater nitrate concentrations has occurred following extensive tree mortality caused by the mountain pine beetle in Colorado. A model of nitrate release from Colorado watersheds calibrated with field data indicates that stimulation of nitrate uptake by vegetation components unaffected by beetles accounts for significant nitrate retention in beetle-infested watersheds. The combination of low atmospheric N deposition (<10 kg⋅ha⋅y), tree mortality spread over multiple years, and high compensatory capacity associated with undisturbed residual vegetation and soils explains the ability of these beetle-infested watersheds to retain nitrate despite catastrophic mortality of the dominant canopy tree species.

  13. Heterogeneous Nitration of Tyrosine by NO­3 and N2O5: Rates, Mechanisms and Product Yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, R. K.; Witkowski, B.; Burkholder, J. B.; Roberts, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Nitration of protein-bound tyrosine has been identified as a casual connection between air pollution and human health. Tyrosine is a common amino acid, 4-hydroxyphenylalanine, HO-C6H4-CH2-CH(NH2)-C(O)OH), and is present in many atmospheric bio-aerosols. Nitration of the aromatic units of protein molecules in polluted air enhances their allergenicity. The mechanism of heterogeneous nitration process of bio-aerosols by common nitrating agents in the atmosphere, O3/NO2, NO3, N2O5 is not well understood. This chemistry is thought to proceed via reactions with O3 and NO2 on particle surfaces, through mechanisms that are still uncertain. The possible role of higher nitrogen oxides also remains uncertain, partly due to a lack of measurements of fundamental chemical and physical parameters. In this work, we undertook measurements of reactive uptake of NO3, N2O5, as a function of relative humidity and temperature in a tyrosine coated flow tube reactor with chemical ionization mass spectrometric (CIMS) detection. Uptake coefficients on tyrosine coated flow tube were small under low relative humidity but were enhanced by an order of magnitude in the presence of high relative humidity, particularly for N2O5. The measured uptake coefficients were mostly due to reaction with water adsorbed on the surface of the flow tube. Only ~10% of the reactive uptake could be attributed to reaction with tyrosine. Following uptake, the contents of the flow tube were extracted, and analyzed using electrospray ionization - mass spectrometer (ESI-MS) to identify and quantify the products of the nitration reaction. The only organic reaction product detected was 3-nitro-tyrosine (3-NT). The measured uptake coefficients, mechanism of the title reactions and the possible atmospheric implications of these findings will be discussed.

  14. Dietary nitrate supplementation and exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew M

    2014-05-01

    Dietary nitrate is growing in popularity as a sports nutrition supplement. This article reviews the evidence base for the potential of inorganic nitrate to enhance sports and exercise performance. Inorganic nitrate is present in numerous foodstuffs and is abundant in green leafy vegetables and beetroot. Following ingestion, nitrate is converted in the body to nitrite and stored and circulated in the blood. In conditions of low oxygen availability, nitrite can be converted into nitric oxide, which is known to play a number of important roles in vascular and metabolic control. Dietary nitrate supplementation increases plasma nitrite concentration and reduces resting blood pressure. Intriguingly, nitrate supplementation also reduces the oxygen cost of submaximal exercise and can, in some circumstances, enhance exercise tolerance and performance. The mechanisms that may be responsible for these effects are reviewed and practical guidelines for safe and efficacious dietary nitrate supplementation are provided.

  15. The equivalency between logic Petri workflow nets and workflow nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue

    2015-01-01

    Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented.

  16. 5-Chloro-8-hydroxyquinolinium nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seik Weng Ng

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The 5-chloro-8-hydroxyquinolinium cation in the the title ion pair, C9H7ClNO+·NO3−, is approximately coplanar with the nitrate anion [dihedral angle = 16.1 (1°]. Two ion pairs are hydrogen bonded (2 × O—H...O and 2 × N—H...O about a center of inversion, generating an R44(14 ring.

  17. 2-Amino-5-chloropyridinium nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donia Zaouali Zgolli

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The title structure, C5H6ClN2+·NO3−, is held together by extensive hydrogen bonding between the NO3− ions and 2-amino-5-chloropyridinium H atoms. The cation–anion N—H...O hydrogen bonds link the ions into a zigzag- chain which develops parallel to the b axis. The structure may be compared with that of the related 2-amino-5-cyanopyridinium nitrate.

  18. Simulation of nitrate, sulfate, and ammonium aerosols over the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Walker

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric concentrations of inorganic gases and aerosols (nitrate, sulfate, and ammonium are simulated for 2009 over the United States using the chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. Predicted aerosol concentrations are compared with surface-level measurement data from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE, the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET, and the California Air Resources Board (CARB. Sulfate predictions nationwide are in reasonably good agreement with observations, while nitrate and ammonium are over-predicted in the East and Midwest, but under-predicted in California, where observed concentrations are the highest in the country. Over-prediction of nitrate in the East and Midwest is consistent with results of recent studies, which suggest that nighttime nitric acid formation by heterogeneous hydrolysis of N2O5 is over-predicted based on current values of the N2O5 uptake coefficient, γ, onto aerosols. After reducing the value of γ by a factor of 10, predicted nitrate levels in the US Midwest and East still remain higher than those measured, and over-prediction of nitrate in this region remains unexplained. Comparison of model predictions with satellite measurements of ammonia from the Tropospheric Emissions Spectrometer (TES indicates that ammonia emissions in GEOS-Chem are underestimated in California and that the nationwide seasonality applied to ammonia emissions in GEOS-Chem does not represent California very well, particularly underestimating winter emissions. An ammonia sensitivity study indicates that GEOS-Chem simulation of nitrate is ammonia-limited in southern California and much of the state, suggesting that an underestimate of ammonia emissions is likely the main cause for the under-prediction of nitrate aerosol in many areas of California. An approximate doubling of ammonia emissions is needed to reproduce observed nitrate concentrations in

  19. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    studies that illustrate the practical use of CPN modelling and validation for design, specification, simulation, verification and implementation in various application domains. Their presentation primarily aims at readers interested in the practical use of CPN. Thus all concepts and constructs are first......Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism...... and the immense number of possible execution sequences. In this textbook, Jensen and Kristensen introduce the constructs of the CPN modelling language and present the related analysis methods in detail. They also provide a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN by showcasing selected industrial case...

  20. Natural abundance 15N in soil and litter across a nitrate-output gradient in New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    L.H. Pardo; H.F. Hemond; J.P. Montoya; J. Pett-Ridge

    2007-01-01

    Stable isotopes of nitrogen are potentially a valuable tool for regional assessments of nitrogen saturation because they provide an integrated measure of the past nitrogen cycling history of a site. We measured δ15N of soil and litter, as well as net nitrification potential, at three sites across a nitrate-loss gradient in the White...

  1. Long-term monitoring of nitrate transport to drainage from three agricultural clayey till fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstsen, Vibeke; Olsen, Preben; Rosenbom, Annette E.

    2015-01-01

    precipitation, high concen-tration of nitrate-N, and short-term low intensity drainage at air temperatures often below 5 ◦C; (ii) medium net precip-itation, medium concentration of nitrate-N, and short-term medium-intensity drainage at air temperatures often above 5 ◦C; and (iii) high net precipitation, low...... concentration of nitrate-N and long-term high intensity drainage at air tem-peratures above 5 ◦C. For each type, on-field water manage-ment actions, such as the selection of crop types and in-troduction of catch crops, appeared relevant, whereas off-field actions only seemed relevant for the latter two field types...

  2. Effects of nitrate supplementation in trained and untrained muscle are modest with initial high plasma nitrite levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Møller; Petersen, Nanna K; Friis, Signe N

    2017-01-01

    Nitrate (NO3(-) ) supplementation resulting in higher plasma nitrite (NO2(-) ) is reported to lower resting mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and oxygen uptake (VO2 ) during submaximal exercise in non-athletic populations, whereas effects in general are absent in endurance trained individuals. T...

  3. Effect of nitrate on microbial perchlorate reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y.; Coates, J. D.

    2007-12-01

    Over the last decade perchlorate has been recognized as an important emerging water contaminant that poses a significant public health threat. Because of its chemical stability, low ionic charge density, and significant water solubility microbial remediation has been identified as the most feasible method for its in situ attenuation. Our previous studies have demonstrated that dissimilatory perchlorate reducing bacteria (DPRB) capable of the respiratory reduction of perchlorate into innocuous chloride are ubiquitous in soil and sedimentary environments. As part of their metabolism these organisms reduce perchlorate to chlorite which is subsequently dismutated into chloride and molecular oxygen. These initial steps are mediated by the perchlorate reductase and chlorite dismutase enzymes respectively. Previously we found that the activity of these organisms is dependent on the presence of molybdenum and is inhibited by the presence of oxygen and to different extents nitrate. However, to date, there is little understanding of the mechanisms involved in the regulation of perchlorate reduction by oxygen and nitrate. As a continuation of our studies into the factors that control DPRB activity we investigated these regulatory mechanisms in more detail as a model organism, Dechloromonas aromatica strain RCB, transitions from aerobic metabolism through nitrate reduction to perchlorate reduction. In series of growth transition studies where both nitrate and perchlorate were present, preference for nitrate to perchlorate was observed regardless of the nitrate to perchlorate ratio. Even when the organism was pre-grown anaerobically in perchlorate, nitrate was reduced prior to perchlorate. Using non-growth washed cell suspension, perchlorate- grown D. aromatica was capable of reducing both perchlorate and nitrate concomitantly suggesting the preferentially utilization of nitrate was not a result of enzyme functionality. To elucidate the mechanism for preferential utilization of

  4. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for the imaging to begin, you will lie down on a moveable examination table with your head ... each thyroid uptake is five minutes or less. top of page What will I experience during and ...

  5. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... for several hours before your exam because eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. Jewelry ... small hand-held device resembling a microphone that can detect and measure the amount of the radiotracer ...

  6. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is taken by mouth, in either liquid or capsule form, it is typically swallowed up to 24 ... I-123 or I-131) in liquid or capsule form to swallow. The thyroid uptake will begin ...

  7. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... scan and uptake uses small amounts of radioactive materials called radiotracers, a special camera and a computer ... last two months that used iodine-based contrast material. Your doctor will instruct you on how to ...

  8. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Actual scanning time for each thyroid uptake is five minutes or less. top of page What will ... diagnostic procedures have been used for more than five decades, and there are no known long-term ...

  9. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is ... thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that uses ...

  10. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... several hours before your exam because eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. Jewelry and ... often unattainable using other imaging procedures. For many diseases, nuclear medicine scans yield the most useful information ...

  11. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... RAIU) is also known as a thyroid uptake. It is a measurement of thyroid function, but does ... they offer the potential to identify disease in its earliest stages as well as a patient’s immediate ...

  12. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Because nuclear medicine procedures are able to pinpoint molecular activity within the body, they offer the potential ... or imaging device that produces pictures and provides molecular information. The thyroid scan and thyroid uptake provide ...

  13. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... information about your thyroid’s size, shape, position and function that is often unattainable using other imaging procedures. ... thyroid uptake. It is a measurement of thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is ...

  14. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... scan and thyroid uptake provide information about the structure and function of the thyroid. The thyroid is ... computer, create pictures offering details on both the structure and function of organs and tissues in your ...

  15. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... procedures within the last two months that used iodine-based contrast material. Your doctor will instruct you ... a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is also known as a ...

  16. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eat for several hours before your exam because eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. ... often unattainable using other imaging procedures. For many diseases, nuclear medicine scans yield the most useful information ...

  17. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... When radiotracer is taken by mouth, in either liquid or capsule form, it is typically swallowed up ... radioactive iodine (I-123 or I-131) in liquid or capsule form to swallow. The thyroid uptake ...

  18. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... nuclear medicine include the gamma camera and single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT). The gamma camera, also ... to 24 hours later. Often, two separate uptake measurements are obtained at different times. For example, you ...

  19. Long-term monitoring of nitrate transport to drainage from three agricultural clayey till fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernstsen, V.; Olsen, P.; Rosenbom, A. E.

    2015-08-01

    The application of nitrogen (N) fertilisers to crops grown on tile-drained fields is required to sustain most modern crop production, but it poses a risk to the aquatic environment since tile drains facilitate rapid transport pathways with no significant reduction in nitrate. To maintain the water quality of the aquatic environment and the provision of food from highly efficient agriculture in line with the EU's Water Framework Directive and Nitrates Directive, field-scale knowledge is essential for introducing water management actions on-field or off-field and producing an optimal differentiated N-regulation in future. This study strives to provide such knowledge by evaluating on 11 years of nitrate-N concentration measurements in drainage from three subsurface-drained clayey till fields (1.3-2.3 ha) representing approximately 71 % of the surface sediments in Denmark dominated by clay. The fields differ in their inherent hydrogeological field settings (e.g. soil-type, geology, climate, drainage and groundwater table) and the agricultural management of the fields (e.g. crop type, type of N fertilisers and agricultural practices). The evaluation revealed three types of clayey till fields characterised by: (i) low net precipitation, high concentration of nitrate-N, and short-term low intensity drainage at air temperatures often below 5 °C; (ii) medium net precipitation, medium concentration of nitrate-N, and short-term medium-intensity drainage at air temperatures often above 5 °C; and (iii) high net precipitation, low concentration of nitrate-N and long-term high intensity drainage at air temperatures above 5 °C. For each type, on-field water management actions, such as the selection of crop types and introduction of catch crops, appeared relevant, whereas off-field actions only seemed relevant for the latter two field types given the temperature-dependent reduction potential of nitrate off-field. This initial well-documented field-scale knowledge from fields

  20. Genetic control of nitrate assimilation in Klebsiella oxytoca. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Valley J.

    2001-04-01

    Some microorganisms can use nitrate as the sole source of nitrogen for biosynthesis. This project focused on the bacterium Klebsiella oxytoca, an enterobacterium found in soil and water. Mutagenesis and molecular cloning identified the nasFEDCBA operon encoding enzymes for the uptake and reduction of nitrate and nitrite to ammonium, and the adjacent nasR regulatory gene. Analysis of nasF operon expression revealed that transcription is activated by the Ntr (general nitrogen regulation ) system in response to nitrogen limitation. Transcription antitermination control in response to nitrate and nitrite is mediated by the NasR protein. Additional work established that the NasR protein is an RNA-binding protein that interacts with nasF operon leader RNA to control transcription readthrough.

  1. Leaching of nitrate from temperate forests - effects of air pollution and forest management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundersen, Per; Schmidt, Inger Kappel; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    2006-01-01

    deposition (> 8-10 kg ha(-1) a(-1)). We synthesized the current understanding of factors controlling N leaching in relation to three primary causes of N cycle disruption: (i) Increased N input (air pollution, fertilization, N-2 fixing plants). In European forests, elevated N deposition explains approximately...... half of the variability in N leaching, some of the remaining variability could be explained by differences in N availability or "N status". For coniferous forests, needle N content above 1.4% and (or) forest floor C:N ratio lower than 25 were thresholds for elevated nitrate leaching. At adjacent sites...... conifer forests receive higher N deposition and exhibit higher nitrate loss than deciduous forests; an exception is alder that shows substantial nitrate leaching through N fixation input. Fertilization with N poses limited risk to water quality, when applied to N-limited forests. (ii) Reduced plant uptake...

  2. Effects of glucose on the uptake and metabolism of glycine in pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.) exposed to various nitrogen sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingxu; Cao, Xiaochuang; Xie, Yinan; Xiao, Han; Tan, Xiaoli; Wu, Lianghuan

    2017-03-02

    Plants can absorb amino acids as a nitrogen (N) source, and glucose is an important part of root rhizodeposition and the soil sugar pool, which participates in the regulation of plant growth and uptake. In pakchoi, the effect of glucose concentration on the glycine N uptake from a nutrient mixture composed of glycine, ammonium, and nitrate, or from a single N solution of glycine alone was studied using specific substrate 15N-labeling and 15N-gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The optimal glucose concentration for plant growth was 4.5 μM or 25 μM when supplied with glycine alone or the N mixture, respectively, and resulted in a >25% increase in seedling biomass. The addition of glucose affected the relative contribution from organic or inorganic sources to overall N uptake. When glucose was added at optimal concentrations, glycine was preferentially used as an N source, while the relative contribution from nitrate was reduced. The limiting step for glycine N contribution was active uptake in the roots in high glucose and single-N-source conditions; however, root metabolism of glycine to serine was limiting in high-glucose and mixed-N-source conditions. The addition of low concentrations of glucose increased the relative uptake of organic nitrogen and reduced the uptake of nitrate, suggesting a feasible way to decrease nitrate content and increase the edible quality of vegetables.

  3. Nitrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cover all of the possible uses, warnings, side effects, or interactions with other medicines and vitamin or herbal supplements. ... you should check with your doctor. Common side effects: Dizziness Headaches Flushing of your face and neck Upset stomach or throwing up Low ...

  4. [Relationship between vegetable nutrition and nitrate content].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huihe; Wang, Zhengyin; Li, Baozhen

    2004-09-01

    Nitrate accumulation in vegetables, which related well to vegetable nutrition, becomes one of the limiting factors of non-pollution vegetables production. Preference to nitrate is the nutritional characteristic of vegetables. Nitrate is absorbed by vegetables through high-affinity transport system (HATS) and low-affinity transport system (LATS), and is reduced and transformed under the effect of such essential elements as molybdenum, manganese, iron, copper, sulphur and phosphorus. In this paper, the effects of essential elements on nitrate absorption and reductive transform were reviewed, and the relationships of nitrate accumulation in vegetables with vegetable nutrition of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and mid-and microelements as well as with balanced fertilization were discussed. The research keys in the field were prospected for controlling nitrate accumulation, improving vegetables' quality and producing non-pollution vegetables.

  5. Nitrate contamination of groundwater and its countermeasures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitamura, Hisayoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-03-01

    The inevitable increases of food production and energy consumption with an increase in world population become main causes of an increase of nitrate load to the environment. Although nitrogen is essential for the growth of animal and plant as a constituent element of protein, excessive nitrate load to the environment contaminates groundwater resources used as drinking water and leads to seriously adverse effects on the health of man and livestock. In order to clarify the problem of nitrate contamination of groundwater and search a new trend of technology development from the viewpoint of environment remediation and protection, the present paper has reviewed adverse effects of nitrate on human health, the actual state of nitrogen cycle, several kinds of nitrate sources, measures for reducing nitrate level, etc. (author)

  6. Groundwater Head Control of Catchment Nitrate Export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musolff, A.; Schmidt, C.; Rode, M.; Fleckenstein, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    Elevated nutrient fluxes from agricultural catchments affect downstream water resources. A method to assess nutrient fluxes is the evaluation of the export regime. The export regime classifies the relation between concentration and discharge and integrates mobilization as well as retention processes. Solutes can be exported chemostatically (variance of concentration regimes of nitrate in a series of neighboring sub-catchments of the Central German River Bode catchment. We found an accretion pattern of nitrate with increasing concentration when discharge is increasing and thus a chemodynamic export regime. Here we follow a nested approach and have a closer look at the controls of nitrate export in the small (1.4 km2) headwater catchment of the Sauerbach stream. The Sauerbach catchment is dominated by agricultural land use and is characterized by tile drains. We hypothesize that discharge as well as nitrate export is controlled by the groundwater head variability over time. To that end we follow a joint data analysis of discharge, groundwater heads and nitrate concentrations in groundwater, tile drains and surface water. At the gauging station the nitrate export is chemodynamic exhibiting the typical accretion pattern also found at the larger scale. Our data analysis shows that nitrate export regime is in two ways controlled by the depth to groundwater and the groundwater head variability: Discharge increases with increasing groundwater heads due to the activation of tile drains. On the other hand, depth to groundwater and passage through the unsaturated zone is the major control of aquifer nitrate concentration. At wells with larger depth to groundwater nitrate concentrations are significantly lower than at more shallow wells indicating retention processes in the unsaturated zone. Therefore the concentration in the stream increases with increasing heads since the activated tiles drain shallow groundwater with higher nitrate concentrations. We can thus show that the

  7. Phylogenetic, expression and functional characterizations of the maize NLP transcription factor family reveal a role in nitrate assimilation and signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhangkui; Zhang, Lei; Sun, Ci; Gu, Riliang; Mi, Guohua; Yuan, Lixing

    2018-01-24

    Although nitrate represents an important nitrogen (N) source for maize, a major crop of dryland areas, the molecular mechanisms of nitrate uptake and assimilation remain poorly understood. Here, we identified nine maize NIN-like protein (ZmNLP) genes and analyzed the function of one member, ZmNLP3.1, in nitrate nutrition and signaling. The NLP family genes were clustered into three clades in a phylogenic tree. Comparative genomic analysis showed that most ZmNLP genes had collinear relationships to the corresponding NLPs in rice, and that the expansion of the ZmNLP family resulted from segmental duplications in the maize genome. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed the expression of ZmNLP2.1, ZmNLP2.2, ZmNLP3.1, ZmNLP3.2, ZmNLP3.3, and ZmNLP3.4 was induced by nitrate in maize roots. The function of ZmNLP3.1 was investigated by overexpressing it in the Arabidopsis nlp7-1 mutant, which is defective in the AtNLP7 gene for nitrate signaling and assimilation. Ectopic expression of ZmNLP3.1 restored the N-deficient phenotypes of nlp7-1 under nitrate-replete conditions in terms of shoot biomass, root morphology and nitrate assimilation. Furthermore, the nitrate induction of NRT2.1, NIA1, and NiR1 gene expression was recovered in the 35S::ZmNLP3.1/nlp7-1 transgenic lines, indicating that ZmNLP3.1 plays essential roles in nitrate signaling. Taken together, these results suggest that ZmNLP3.1 plays an essential role in regulating nitrate signaling and assimilation processes, and represents a valuable candidate for developing transgenic maize cultivars with high N-use efficiency. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Modeled nitrate levels in well water supplies and prevalence of abnormal thyroid conditions among the Old Order Amish in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Heltshe, Sonya L; Nuckols, John R; Sabra, Mona M; Shuldiner, Alan R; Mitchell, Braxton D; Airola, Matt; Holford, Theodore R; Zhang, Yawei; Ward, Mary H

    2012-02-17

    Nitrate is a widespread contaminant of drinking water supplies, especially in agricultural areas. Nitrate intake from drinking water and dietary sources can interfere with the uptake of iodide by the thyroid, thus potentially impacting thyroid function. We assessed the relation of estimated nitrate levels in well water supplies with thyroid health in a cohort of 2,543 Old Order Amish residing in Lancaster, Chester, and Lebanon counties in Pennsylvania for whom thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were measured during 1995-2008. Nitrate measurement data (1976-2006) for 3,613 wells in the study area were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey and we used these data to estimate concentrations at study participants' residences using a standard linear mixed effects model that included hydrogeological covariates and kriging of the wells' residuals. Nitrate levels estimated by the model ranged from 0.35 mg/L to 16.4 mg/L N-NO3(-), with a median value of 6.5 mg/L, which was used as the cutpoint to define high and low nitrate exposure. In a validation analysis of the model, we calculated that the sensitivity of the model was 67% and the specificity was 93%. TSH levels were used to define the following outcomes: clinical hyperthyroidism (n = 10), clinical hypothyroidism (n = 56), subclinical hyperthyroidism (n = 25), and subclinical hypothyroidism (n = 228). In women, high nitrate exposure was significantly associated with subclinical hypothyroidism (OR = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.11-2.32). Nitrate was not associated with subclinical thyroid disease in men or with clinical thyroid disease in men or women. Although these data do not provide strong support for an association between nitrate in drinking water and thyroid health, our results do suggest that further exploration of this hypothesis is warranted using studies that incorporate individual measures of both dietary and drinking water nitrate intake.

  9. Modeled nitrate levels in well water supplies and prevalence of abnormal thyroid conditions among the Old Order Amish in Pennsylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aschebrook-Kilfoy Briseis

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nitrate is a widespread contaminant of drinking water supplies, especially in agricultural areas. Nitrate intake from drinking water and dietary sources can interfere with the uptake of iodide by the thyroid, thus potentially impacting thyroid function. Methods We assessed the relation of estimated nitrate levels in well water supplies with thyroid health in a cohort of 2,543 Old Order Amish residing in Lancaster, Chester, and Lebanon counties in Pennsylvania for whom thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH levels were measured during 1995-2008. Nitrate measurement data (1976-2006 for 3,613 wells in the study area were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey and we used these data to estimate concentrations at study participants' residences using a standard linear mixed effects model that included hydrogeological covariates and kriging of the wells' residuals. Nitrate levels estimated by the model ranged from 0.35 mg/L to 16.4 mg/L N-NO3-, with a median value of 6.5 mg/L, which was used as the cutpoint to define high and low nitrate exposure. In a validation analysis of the model, we calculated that the sensitivity of the model was 67% and the specificity was 93%. TSH levels were used to define the following outcomes: clinical hyperthyroidism (n = 10, clinical hypothyroidism (n = 56, subclinical hyperthyroidism (n = 25, and subclinical hypothyroidism (n = 228. Results In women, high nitrate exposure was significantly associated with subclinical hypothyroidism (OR = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.11-2.32. Nitrate was not associated with subclinical thyroid disease in men or with clinical thyroid disease in men or women. Conclusions Although these data do not provide strong support for an association between nitrate in drinking water and thyroid health, our results do suggest that further exploration of this hypothesis is warranted using studies that incorporate individual measures of both dietary and drinking water nitrate intake.

  10. Linear Logic on Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn

    This article shows how individual Petri nets form models of Girard's intuitionistic linear logic. It explores questions of expressiveness and completeness of linear logic with respect to this interpretation. An aim is to use Petri nets to give an understanding of linear logic and give some apprai...

  11. Reference Guide Microsoft.NET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee M van der; Verspaij GJ; Rosbergen S; IMP; NMD

    2003-01-01

    Developers, administrators and managers can get more understanding of the .NET technology with this report. They can also make better choices how to use this technology. The report describes the results and conclusions of a study of the usability for the RIVM of this new generation .NET development

  12. Net neutrality and audiovisual services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.; Nikoltchev, S.

    2011-01-01

    Net neutrality is high on the European agenda. New regulations for the communication sector provide a legal framework for net neutrality and need to be implemented on both a European and a national level. The key element is not just about blocking or slowing down traffic across communication

  13. Root adaptations at stress levels of nitrate, phosphate, or both simultaneously

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutschick, V.P.; Kay, L.E.

    1984-08-01

    Sunflowers in flowing hydroponic culture show reduced growth rates at nitrate levels below 10 ..mu..M nitrate or phosphate levels below 0.3 ..mu..F. At least for phosphate, this level is a very small fraction (0.003) of the K/sub m/ for the uptake systems. We have quantified four major adaptations that enable high growth rates under incipient stress: increased root:shoot ratio; increased uptake capacity (V/sub max/) per unit root mass; nocturnal uptake of nutrients; and (only partially adaptive) reduced tissue concentrations of nutrients. We show that capital energy costs (in root growth) for acquiring nutrients can exceed direct or operational costs of internal metabolism (nitrate reduction, e.g.,); this has implications for the plant-controlled trade-off of NO/sub 3//sup -/-NH/sub 4//sup +/ - N/sub 2/ as N sources for legumes and other plant types. We outline needed further research and suggest guidelines for breeding plants for tolerating nutritional stresses; we also suggest that some measures of nutrient-use efficiency may be misleading. 6 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  14. Inactivation of nitrate reductase alters metabolic branching of carbohydrate fermentation in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xiao; Kumaraswamy, G Kenchappa; Zhang, Shuyi; Gates, Colin; Ananyev, Gennady M; Bryant, Donald A; Dismukes, G Charles

    2016-05-01

    To produce cellular energy, cyanobacteria reduce nitrate as the preferred pathway over proton reduction (H2 evolution) by catabolizing glycogen under dark anaerobic conditions. This competition lowers H2 production by consuming a large fraction of the reducing equivalents (NADPH and NADH). To eliminate this competition, we constructed a knockout mutant of nitrate reductase, encoded by narB, in Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. As expected, ΔnarB was able to take up intracellular nitrate but was unable to reduce it to nitrite or ammonia, and was unable to grow photoautotrophically on nitrate. During photoautotrophic growth on urea, ΔnarB significantly redirects biomass accumulation into glycogen at the expense of protein accumulation. During subsequent dark fermentation, metabolite concentrations--both the adenylate cellular energy charge (∼ATP) and the redox poise (NAD(P)H/NAD(P))--were independent of nitrate availability in ΔnarB, in contrast to the wild type (WT) control. The ΔnarB strain diverted more reducing equivalents from glycogen catabolism into reduced products, mainly H2 and d-lactate, by 6-fold (2.8% yield) and 2-fold (82.3% yield), respectively, than WT. Continuous removal of H2 from the fermentation medium (milking) further boosted net H2 production by 7-fold in ΔnarB, at the expense of less excreted lactate, resulting in a 49-fold combined increase in the net H2 evolution rate during 2 days of fermentation compared to the WT. The absence of nitrate reductase eliminated the inductive effect of nitrate addition on rerouting carbohydrate catabolism from glycolysis to the oxidative pentose phosphate (OPP) pathway, indicating that intracellular redox poise and not nitrate itself acts as the control switch for carbon flux branching between pathways. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Nitrate removal from water by ion exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Nujić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High concentrations of nitrate in water, both in surface and in groundwater, is a consequence of geological composition of soil or human activity. Increased concentrations of nitrate in drinking water is a serious hazard to human health, causing abnormalities such as cancerous growth in human digestion system, while excessive nitrate intake via drinking water can cause methemoglobinemia in infants. Furthermore, the presence of nitrate in aquifers can stimulate eutrophication, which compromise the growth of algae and depletion of dissolved oxygen. Natural and chemical fertilizers in crop production, detergent manufacturing, uncontrolled land discharge of municipal wastewater, and industrial wastes have been identified as the main sources of nitrate in water sources. Nitrate is a stable, highly soluble ion that is difficult to remove by conventional water treatment methods such as coagulation and flocculation. The ion exchange is the most widely used procedure for removing nitrate from water. In this research the possibility of removing nitrate from water was examined by using commercial ion exchangers: Duolite A7 and Relite A490, respectively. The influence of the initial concentration of nitrate (10, 50 and 100 mg/l, the contact time (15 - 1440 min and the mass of the ion exchanger (0.1 to 0.6 g was also examined.

  16. Measurement of isoprene nitrates by GCMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Graham P.; Hiatt-Gipson, Glyn D.; Bew, Sean P.; Reeves, Claire E.

    2016-09-01

    According to atmospheric chemistry models, isoprene nitrates play an important role in determining the ozone production efficiency of isoprene; however this is very poorly constrained through observations as isoprene nitrates have not been widely measured. Measurements have been severely restricted largely due to a limited ability to measure individual isoprene nitrate isomers. An instrument based on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GCMS) and the associated calibration methods are described for the speciated measurements of individual isoprene nitrate isomers. Five of the primary isoprene nitrates which formed in the presence of NOx by reaction of isoprene with the hydroxyl radical (OH) in the Master Chemical Mechanism are identified using known isomers on two column phases and are fully separated on the Rtx-200 column. Three primary isoprene nitrates from the reaction of isoprene with the nitrate radical (NO3) are identified after synthesis from the already identified analogous hydroxy nitrate. A Tenax adsorbent-based trapping system allows the analysis of the majority of the known hydroxy and carbonyl primary isoprene nitrates, although not the (1,2)-IN isomer, under field-like levels of humidity and showed no impact from typical ambient concentrations of NOx and ozone.

  17. Nitrate reduction in sulfate-reducing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marietou, Angeliki

    2016-08-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRBs) gain their energy by coupling the oxidation of organic substrate to the reduction of sulfate to sulfide. Several SRBs are able to use alternative terminal electron acceptors to sulfate such as nitrate. Nitrate-reducing SRBs have been isolated from a diverse range of environments. In order to be able to understand the significance of nitrate reduction in SRBs, we need to examine the ecology and physiology of the nitrate-reducing SRB isolates. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. A Small Universal Petri Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A. Zaitsev

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A universal deterministic inhibitor Petri net with 14 places, 29 transitions and 138 arcs was constructed via simulation of Neary and Woods' weakly universal Turing machine with 2 states and 4 symbols; the total time complexity is exponential in the running time of their weak machine. To simulate the blank words of the weakly universal Turing machine, a couple of dedicated transitions insert their codes when reaching edges of the working zone. To complete a chain of a given Petri net encoding to be executed by the universal Petri net, a translation of a bi-tag system into a Turing machine was constructed. The constructed Petri net is universal in the standard sense; a weaker form of universality for Petri nets was not introduced in this work.

  19. Plant traits related to nitrogen uptake influence plant-microbe competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Delphine; Pivato, Barbara; Bru, David; Busset, Hugues; Deau, Florence; Faivre, Céline; Matejicek, Annick; Strbik, Florence; Philippot, Laurent; Mougel, Christophe

    2015-08-01

    Plant species are important drivers of soil microbial communities. However, how plant functional traits are shaping these communities has received less attention though linking plant and microbial traits is crucial for better understanding plant-microbe interactions. Our objective was to determine how plant-microbe interactions were affected by plant traits. Specifically we analyzed how interactions between plant species and microbes involved in nitrogen cycling were affected by plant traits related to 'nitrogen nutrition in interaction with soil nitrogen availability. Eleven plant species, selected along an oligotrophic-nitrophilic gradient, were grown individually in a nitrogen-poor soil with two levels of nitrate availability. Plant traits for both carbon and nitrogen nutrition were measured and the genetic structure and abundance of rhizosphere. microbial communities, in particular the ammonia oxidizer and nitrate reducer guilds, were analyzed. The structure of the bacterial community in the rhizosphere differed significantly between plant species and these differences depended on nitrogen availability. The results suggest that the rate of nitrogen uptake per unit of root biomass and per day is a key plant trait, explaining why the effect of nitrogen availability on the structure of the bacterial community depends on the plant species. We also showed that the abundance of nitrate reducing bacteria always decreased with increasing nitrogen uptake per unit of root biomass per day, indicating that there was competition for nitrate between plants and nitrate reducing bacteria. This study demonstrates that nitrate-reducing microorganisms may be adversely affected by plants with a high nitrogen uptake rate. Our work puts forward the role of traits related to nitrogen in plant-microbe interactions, whereas carbon is commonly considered as the main driver. It also suggests that plant traits related to ecophysiological processes, such as nitrogen uptake rates, are more

  20. Evaluation of the impact of various agricultural practices on nitrate leaching under the root zone of potato and sugar beet using the STICS soil-crop model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jégo, G; Martínez, M; Antigüedad, I; Launay, M; Sanchez-Pérez, J M; Justes, E

    2008-05-15

    The quaternary aquifer of Vitoria-Gasteiz (Basque Country, Northern Spain) is characterised by a shallow water table mainly fed by drainage water, and thus constitutes a vulnerable zone in regards to nitrate pollution. Field studies were performed with a potato crop in 1993 and a sugar beet crop in 2002 to evaluate their impact on nitrate leaching. The overall predictive quality of the STICS soil-crop model was first evaluated using field data and then the model was used to analyze dynamically the impacts of different crop management practices on nitrate leaching. The model was evaluated (i) on soil nitrate concentrations at different depths and (ii) on crop yields. The simulated values proved to be in satisfactory agreement with measured values. Nitrate leaching was more pronounced with the potato crop than with the sugar beet experiment due to i) greater precipitation, ii) lower N uptake of the potato crop due to shallow root depth, and iii) a shorter period of growth. The potato experiment showed that excessive irrigation could significantly increase nitrate leaching by increasing both drainage and nitrate concentrations. The different levels of N-fertilization examined in the sugar beet study had no notable effects on nitrate leaching due to its high N uptake capacity. Complementary virtual experiments were carried out using the STICS model. Our study confirmed that in vulnerable zones agricultural practices must be adjusted, that is to say: 1) N-fertilizer should not be applied in autumn before winter crops; 2) crops with low N uptake capacity (e.g. potatoes) should be avoided or should be preceded and followed by nitrogen catch crops or cover crops; 3) the nitrate concentration of irrigation water should be taken into account in calculation of the N-fertilization rate, and 4) N-fertilization must be precisely adjusted in particular for potato crops.

  1. Cloning and characterization of nitrate reductase gene in Ulva prolifera (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yang; Wang, Hao Zhe; Wu, Chun Hui; Fu, Hui Hui; Jiang, Peng

    2017-10-01

    Ulva spp. dominates green tides around the world, which are occurring at an accelerated rate. The competitive nitrogen assimilation efficiency in Ulva is suggested to result in ecological success against other seaweeds. However, molecular characterization of genes involved in nitrogen assimilation has not been conducted. Here, we describe the identification of the nitrate reductase (NR) gene from a green seaweed Ulva prolifera, an alga which is responsible for the world's largest green tide in the Yellow Sea. Using rapid amplification of cDNA ends and genome walking, the NR gene from U. prolifera (UpNR) was cloned, which consisted of six introns and seven exons encoding 863 amino acids. According to sequence alignment, the NR in U. prolifera was shown to possess all five essential domains and 21 key invariant residues in plant NRs. The GC content of third codon position of UpNR (82.75%) was as high as those of green microalgae, and the intron number supported a potential loss issue from green microalga to land plant. Real-time quantitative PCR results showed that UpNR transcript level was induced by nitrate and repressed by ammonium, which could not be removed by addition of extra nitrate, indicating that U. prolifera preferred ammonium to nitrate. Urea would not repress NR transcription by itself, while it weakened the induction effect of nitrate, implying it possibly inhibited nitrate uptake rather than nitrate reduction. These results suggest the use of UpNR as a gene-sensor to probe the N assimilation process in green tides caused by Ulva. © 2017 Phycological Society of America.

  2. Silver and Nitrate Oppositely Modulate Antimony Susceptibility through Aquaglyceroporin 1 in Leishmania (Viannia) Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Juvana M; Baba, Elio H; Machado-de-Avila, Ricardo A; Chavez-Olortegui, Carlos; Demicheli, Cynthia P; Frézard, Frédéric; Monte-Neto, Rubens L; Murta, Silvane M F

    2016-08-01

    Antimony (Sb) resistance in leishmaniasis chemotherapy has become one of the major challenges to the control of this spreading worldwide public health problem. Since the plasma membrane pore-forming protein aquaglyceroporin 1 (AQP1) is the major route of Sb uptake in Leishmania, functional studies are relevant to characterize drug transport pathways in the parasite. We generated AQP1-overexpressing Leishmania guyanensis and L. braziliensis mutants and investigated their susceptibility to the trivalent form of Sb (Sb(III)) in the presence of silver and nitrate salts. Both AQP1-overexpressing lines presented 3- to 4-fold increased AQP1 expression levels compared with those of their untransfected counterparts, leading to an increased Sb(III) susceptibility of about 2-fold. Competition assays using silver nitrate, silver sulfadiazine, or silver acetate prior to Sb(III) exposure increased parasite growth, especially in AQP1-overexpressing mutants. Surprisingly, Sb(III)-sodium nitrate or Sb(III)-potassium nitrate combinations showed significantly enhanced antileishmanial activities compared to those of Sb(III) alone, especially against AQP1-overexpressing mutants, suggesting a putative nitrate-dependent modulation of AQP1 activity. The intracellular level of antimony quantified by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry showed that the concomitant exposure to Sb(III) and nitrate favors antimony accumulation in the parasite, increasing the toxicity of the drug and culminating with parasite death. This is the first report showing evidence of AQP1-mediated Sb(III) susceptibility modulation by silver in Leishmania and suggests the potential antileishmanial activity of the combination of nitrate salts and Sb(III). Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Ruminal fermentation of Anti-methanogenic Nitrate- and Nitro-Containing Forages In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin C. Anderson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate, 3-nitro-1-propionic acid (NPA and 3-nitro-1-propanol (NPOH can accumulate in forages and be poisonous to animals if consumed in high enough amounts. These chemicals are also recognized as potent anti-methanogenic compounds, but plants naturally containing these chemicals have been studied little in this regard. Presently, we found that nitrate-, NPA- or NPOH-containing forages effectively decreased methane production, by 35 to 87%, during in vitro fermentation by mixed cultures of ruminal microbes compared to fermentation by cultures incubated similarly with alfalfa. Methane production was further decreased during incubation of mixed cultures also inoculated with Denitrobacterium detoxificans, a ruminal bacterium known to metabolize nitrate, NPA and NPOH. Inhibition of methanogens within the mixed cultures was greatest with the NPA- and NPOH-containing forages. Hydrogen accumulated in all the mixed cultures incubated with forages containing nitrate, NPA or NPOH but was dramatically higher, exceeding 40 µmol hydrogen/mL, in mixed cultures incubated with NPA-containing forage but not inoculated with D. detoxificans. This possibly reflects the inhibition of hydrogenase-catalyzed uptake of hydrogen produced via conversion of 50 µmol added formate per mL to hydrogen. Accumulations of volatile fatty acids revealed compensatory changes in fermentation in mixed cultures incubated with the nitrate-, NPA- and NPOH-containing forages as evidenced by lower accumulations of acetate, and in some cases higher accumulations of butyrate and lower accumulations of ammonia, iso-buytrate and iso-valerate compared to cultures incubated with alfalfa. Results reveal that nitrate, NPA and NPOH that accumulate naturally in forages can be made available within ruminal incubations to inhibit methanogenesis. Further research is warranted to determine if diets can be formulated with nitrate-, NPA- and NPOH-containing forages to achieve efficacious mitigation in

  4. Ruminal Fermentation of Anti-Methanogenic Nitrate- and Nitro-Containing Forages In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robin C; Ripley, Laura H; Bowman, Jan G P; Callaway, Todd R; Genovese, Kenneth J; Beier, Ross C; Harvey, Roger B; Nisbet, David J

    2016-01-01

    Nitrate, 3-nitro-1-propionic acid (NPA) and 3-nitro-1-propanol (NPOH) can accumulate in forages and be poisonous to animals if consumed in high enough amounts. These chemicals are also recognized as potent anti-methanogenic compounds, but plants naturally containing these chemicals have been studied little in this regard. Presently, we found that nitrate-, NPA-, or NPOH-containing forages effectively decreased methane production, by 35-87%, during in vitro fermentation by mixed cultures of ruminal microbes compared to fermentation by cultures incubated similarly with alfalfa. Methane production was further decreased during the incubation of mixed cultures also inoculated with Denitrobacterium detoxificans, a ruminal bacterium known to metabolize nitrate, NPA, and NPOH. Inhibition of methanogens within the mixed cultures was greatest with the NPA- and NPOH-containing forages. Hydrogen accumulated in all the mixed cultures incubated with forages containing nitrate, NPA or NPOH and was dramatically higher, exceeding 40 μmol hydrogen/mL, in mixed cultures incubated with NPA-containing forage but not inoculated with D. detoxificans. This possibly reflects the inhibition of hydrogenase-catalyzed uptake of hydrogen produced via conversion of 50 μmol added formate per milliliter to hydrogen. Accumulations of volatile fatty acids revealed compensatory changes in fermentation in mixed cultures incubated with the nitrate-, NPA-, and NPOH-containing forages as evidenced by lower accumulations of acetate, and in some cases, higher accumulations of butyrate and lower accumulations of ammonia, iso-buytrate, and iso-valerate compared to cultures incubated with alfalfa. Results reveal that nitrate, NPA, and NPOH that accumulate naturally in forages can be made available within ruminal incubations to inhibit methanogenesis. Further research is warranted to determine if diets can be formulated with nitrate-, NPA-, and NPOH-containing forages to achieve efficacious mitigation in

  5. High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    High-level Petri nets are now widely used in both theoretical analysis and practical modelling of concurrent systems. The main reason for the success of this class of net models is that they make it possible to obtain much more succinct and manageable descriptions than can be obtained by means...... of low-level Petri nets - while, on the other hand, they still offer a wide range of analysis methods and tools. The step from low-level nets to high-level nets can be compared to the step from assembly languages to modern programming languages with an elaborated type concept. In low-level nets...... there is only one kind of token and this means that the state of a place is described by an integer (and in many cases even by a boolean). In high-level nets each token can carry a complex information/data - which, e.g., may describe the entire state of a process or a data base. Today most practical...

  6. Pro asynchronous programming with .NET

    CERN Document Server

    Blewett, Richard; Ltd, Rock Solid Knowledge

    2014-01-01

    Pro Asynchronous Programming with .NET teaches the essential skill of asynchronous programming in .NET. It answers critical questions in .NET application development, such as: how do I keep my program responding at all times to keep my users happy how do I make the most of the available hardware how can I improve performanceIn the modern world, users expect more and more from their applications and devices, and multi-core hardware has the potential to provide it. But it takes carefully crafted code to turn that potential into responsive, scalable applications.With Pro Asynchronous Programming

  7. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André

    2017-08-01

    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  8. 4-Methoxy-N,N′-diphenylbenzamidinium nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata S. Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title salt N,N′-diphenyl-4-methoxybenzamidinium nitrate, C20H19N2O+·NO3−, comprises two independent N,N′-diphenyl-4-methoxybenzamidinium cations and two nitrate anions. The crystal structure features N—H...O hydrogen bonds and C—H...O contacts responsible for the packing.

  9. Spectrophotometric Determination of Nitrate and Phosphate Levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2013-04-09

    Apr 9, 2013 ... for drinking, it must meet certain physical, chemical and microbiological criteria set by international organizations such as World Health. Organization (APHA, 1989). Nitrate is a family of chemical compounds containing atoms of nitrogen and oxygen occurring naturally. Nitrate is critical to the continuation of.

  10. Nitrate dynamics in artificially drained nested watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billy, C.; Birgand, F.; Sebilo, M.; Billen, G.; Tournebize, J.; Kao, C.

    There is concern that subsurface drainage, by destroying or by-passing active denitrification areas, may prevent nitrate retention processes and enhance nitrate contamination of surface water by agriculture. To address this question, we studied the flow and concentration signatures of drainage waters and their transformations in a series of 5 nested watersheds, from 1 to 100 km 2 area, in the Brie region near Paris (France). At all scales, nitrate concentrations are generally higher during the winter drainage season compared to the low flow periods (late spring to early fall). High nitrate concentrations characterizing drainage waters are visible at the 1st, 2nd and 3rd stream order but are “diluted” by surface runoff from forested zones and buffered by groundwater contributions. The analysis of nitrate chemographs and nitrate budgets established for the different nested watersheds show significant nitrogen retention. Isotopic measurements indicate that the nitrate pool is enriched in δ 15N- NO3- as its concentration decreases. Direct estimation of benthic denitrification with benthic chambers allowed concluding that benthic denitrification is not the only retention mechanism and that “underground” denitrification, affecting nitrate on its way from the base of the root zone down to the limit of the river bed, may in fact dominate nitrogen retention processes even in this intensively drained watershed.

  11. Intravesical silver nitrate for refractory hemorrhagic cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Brian D; Boorjian, Stephen A; Ziegelmann, Matthew J; Joyce, Daniel D; Linder, Brian J

    2016-09-01

    Hemorrhagic cystitis is a challenging clinical entity with limited evidence available to guide treatment. The use of intravesical silver nitrate has been reported, though supporting literature is sparse. Here, we sought to assess outcomes of patients treated with intravesical silver nitrate for refractory hemorrhagic cystitis. We identified nine patients with refractory hemorrhagic cystitis treated at our institution with intravesical silver nitrate between 2000-2015. All patients had failed previous continuous bladder irrigation with normal saline and clot evacuation. Treatment success was defined as requiring no additional therapy beyond normal saline irrigation after silver nitrate instillation prior to hospital discharge. Median patient age was 80 years (IQR 73, 82). Radiation was the most common etiology for hemorrhagic cystitis 89% (8/9). Two patients underwent high dose (0.1%-0.4%) silver nitrate under anesthesia, while the remaining seven were treated with doses from 0.01% to 0.1% via continuous bladder irrigation for a median of 3 days (range 2-4). All nine patients (100%) had persistent hematuria despite intravesical silver nitrate therapy, requiring additional interventions and red blood cell transfusion during the hospitalization. There were no identified complications related to intravesical silver nitrate instillation. Although well tolerated, we found that intravesical silver nitrate was ineffective for bleeding control, suggesting a limited role for this agent in the management of patients with hemorrhagic cystitis.

  12. Spectrophotometric Determination of Nitrate in Vegetables Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. MIKE HORSFALL

    ABSTRACT: A rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of nitrate in vegetables is described. The method is based on the measurement of the absorbance of yellow sodium nitrophenoxide formed via the reaction of phenol with the vegetable-based nitrate in presence of sulphuric acid.

  13. Spectrophotometric determination of nitrate in vegetables using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of nitrate in vegetables is described. The method is based on the measurement of the absorbance of yellow sodium nitrophenoxide formed via the reaction of phenol with the vegetable-based nitrate in presence of sulphuric acid. The analytical ...

  14. 76 FR 46907 - Ammonium Nitrate Security Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ..., killing hundreds and injuring thousands at the U.S. embassies in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and Nairobi... Congress has aided in evaluating many of the approaches contained in this NPRM. The Department's report can... will address the definition of ammonium nitrate. Congress has defined ammonium nitrate for purposes of...

  15. The crystal structure of urea nitrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harkema, Sybolt; Feil, D.

    1969-01-01

    The structure of urea nitrate has been solved, by the use of three-dimensional X-ray data. Data were collected using Cu Ke and Mo K0~ radiations. The structure consists of layers with urea and nitrate groups held together by hydrogen bonds. The positions of all hydrogen atoms were found. The final R

  16. Process for preparing concentrated byproduct nitrate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rado, T.A.

    1988-07-12

    This patent describes a process for preparing a concentrated aqueous solution of ammonium nitrate, further containing sulfate ions and a substantially reduced portion of calcium ions from a dilute aqueous waste stream. The stream is characterized by having a neutral pH and containing ammonium nitrate and sulfate ions and calcium ions.

  17. Microglass spheres in ammonium nitrate explosives

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Kazakov; G. Turesheva; Olga Golovchenko; N. Bergeneva; R. Seisembayev

    2010-01-01

    Developed consisting the explosive ammonium nitrate, paraffin and mikrosteklosfer. Due to the input of the explosive paraffin increased water resistance of explosives to 60 minutes. By entering into the explosive mikrosteklosfers been improved caking indices, since steklomikrosfers and paraffin was formed seal between the granules of ammonium nitrate.

  18. Microglass spheres in ammonium nitrate explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kazakov

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Developed consisting the explosive ammonium nitrate, paraffin and mikrosteklosfer. Due to the input of the explosive paraffin increased water resistance of explosives to 60 minutes. By entering into the explosive mikrosteklosfers been improved caking indices, since steklomikrosfers and paraffin was formed seal between the granules of ammonium nitrate.

  19. Tackling agricultural diffuse pollution: What might uptake of farmer-preferred measures deliver for emissions to water and air?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, A L; Zhang, Y S; Winter, M; Inman, A; Jones, J I; Johnes, P J; Cleasby, W; Vrain, E; Lovett, A; Noble, L

    2016-03-15

    Mitigation of agricultural diffuse pollution poses a significant policy challenge across Europe and particularly in the UK. Existing combined regulatory and voluntary approaches applied in the UK continue to fail to deliver the necessary environmental outcomes for a variety of reasons including failure to achieve high adoption rates. It is therefore logical to identify specific on-farm mitigation measures towards which farmers express positive attitudes for higher future uptake rates. Accordingly, a farmer attitudinal survey was undertaken during phase one of the Demonstration Test Catchment programme in England to understand those measures towards which surveyed farmers are most receptive to increasing implementation in the future. A total of 29 on-farm measures were shortlisted by this baseline farm survey. This shortlist comprised many low cost or cost-neutral measures suggesting that costs continue to represent a principal selection criterion for many farmers. The 29 measures were mapped onto relevant major farm types and input, assuming 95% uptake, to a national scale multi-pollutant modelling framework to predict the technically feasible impact on annual agricultural emissions to water and air, relative to business as usual. Simulated median emission reductions, relative to current practise, for water management catchments across England and Wales, were estimated to be in the order sediment (20%)>ammonia (16%)>total phosphorus (15%) ≫ nitrate/methane (11%)>nitrous oxide (7%). The corresponding median annual total cost of the modelled scenario to farmers was £3 ha(-1)yr(-1), with a corresponding range of -£84 ha(-1)yr(-1) (i.e. a net saving) to £33 ha(-1)yr(-1). The results suggest that those mitigation measures which surveyed farmers are most inclined to implement in the future would improve the environmental performance of agriculture in England and Wales at minimum to low cost per hectare. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Ga-68 DOTA-NOC uptake in the pancreas: pathological and physiological patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krausz, Yodphat; Rubinstein, Rina; Appelbaum, Liat; Mishani, Eyal; Orevi, Marina; Fraenkel, Merav; Tshori, Sagi; Glaser, Benjamin; Bocher, Moshe; Salmon, Asher; Chisin, Roland; Gross, David J; Freedman, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    Gallium-68 (Ga-68) DOTA-1-NaI3-octreotide (DOTA-NOC) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) is increasingly used for neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), often found primarily in the pancreas. However, physiologic uptake of DOTA-NOC has been described in the uncinate process of the pancreas. We studied DOTA-NOC uptake in this organ. Ninety-six patients underwent 103 DOTA-NOC scans, with pathology-proven pancreatic NET (n = 40) and nonpancreatic NET or biochemical suspicion of NET (n = 63). DOTA-NOC uptake was detected in 35 documented pancreatic tumor sites (SUV: 5.5-165; mean: 25.7 ± 28.8; median: 17.8). Among 63 cases without previous known pathology, uptake was suspicious for tumor in 24 sites (SUV: 4.7-35; mean 16.3 ± 8.0; median: 14.1), and in 38 sites, it was judged as physiological, generally lower relative to adjacent structures (SUV: 2.2-12.6; mean: 6.6 ± 2.2; median: 6.2). In 24 scans with suspected tumor and in 37 of 38 scans with physiological uptake, diagnostic computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging or endoscopic ultrasonography failed to detect tumor. Pancreatic DOTA-NOC uptake must be interpreted with caution, and further studies are required.

  1. Nitrate reduction in an unconfined sandy aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postma, Diederik Jan; Boesen, Carsten; Kristiansen, Henning

    1991-01-01

    Nitrate distribution and reduction processes were investigated in an unconfined sandy aquifer of Quaternary age. Groundwater chemistry was studied in a series of eight multilevel samplers along a flow line, deriving water from both arable and forested land. Results show that plumes of nitrate...... processes of O2 and NO3- occur at rates that are fast compared to the rate of downward water transport. Nitrate-contaminated groundwater contains total contents of dissolved ions that are two to four times higher than in groundwater derived from the forested area. The persistence of the high content...... of total dissolved ions in the NO3- free anoxic zone indicates the downward migration of contaminants and that active nitrate reduction is taking place. Nitrate is apparently reduced to N2 because both nitrite and ammonia are absent or found at very low concentrations. Possible electron donors...

  2. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... probe counter used for thyroid uptake exams. The patient sits with the camera directed at the neck for five minutes, and then the leg for ... Medicine Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Radioactive Iodine (I-131) Therapy Head and ...

  3. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer top of page ... and Neck Cancer Treatment Radioactive Iodine (I-131) Therapy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear ... to Thyroid Scan and Uptake ...

  4. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... type your comment or suggestion into the following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: ... of a typical probe counter used for thyroid uptake exams. The patient sits with the camera directed at the neck for five minutes, and then the leg for ...

  5. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake ...

  6. Genome-wide identification, classification and transcriptional analysis of nitrate and ammonium transporters in Coffea

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Tiago Benedito; Lima, Joni Esrom; Felicio, Mariane Silva; Soares, João Danillo Moura; Domingues, Douglas Silva

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Nitrogen (N) is quantitatively the main nutrient required by coffee plants, with acquisition mainly by the roots and mostly exported to coffee beans. Nitrate (NO3 –) and ammonium (NH4 +) are the most important inorganic sources for N uptake. Several N transporters encoded by different gene families mediate the uptake of these compounds. They have an important role in source preference for N uptake in the root system. In this study, we performed a genome-wide analysis, including in silico expression and phylogenetic analyses of AMT1, AMT2, NRT1/PTR, and NRT2 transporters in the recently sequenced Coffea canephora genome. We analyzed the expression of six selected transporters in Coffea arabica roots submitted to N deficiency. N source preference was also analyzed in C. arabica using isotopes. C. canephora N transporters follow the patterns observed for most eudicots, where each member of the AMT and NRT families has a particular role in N mobilization, and where some of these are modulated by N deficiency. Despite the prevalence of putative nitrate transporters in the Coffea genome, ammonium was the preferential inorganic N source for N-starved C. arabica roots. This data provides an important basis for fundamental and applied studies to depict molecular mechanisms involved in N uptake in coffee trees. PMID:28399192

  7. Petri Net Tool Overview 1986

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Feldbrugge, Frits

    1987-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the characteristics of all currently available net based tools. It is a compilation of information provided by tool authors or contact persons. A concise one page overview is provided as well....

  8. Understanding Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salom, Jaume; Widén, Joakim; Candanedo, José

    2011-01-01

    Although several alternative definitions exist, a Net-Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) can be succinctly described as a grid-connected building that generates as much energy as it uses over a year. The “net-zero” balance is attained by applying energy conservation and efficiency measures...... and by incorporating renewable energy systems. While based on annual balances, a complete description of a Net ZEB requires examining the system at smaller time-scales. This assessment should address: (a) the relationship between power generation and building loads and (b) the resulting interaction with the power grid....... This paper presents and categorizes quantitative indicators suitable to describe both aspects of the building’s performance. These indicators, named LMGI - Load Matching and Grid Interaction indicators, are easily quantifiable and could complement the output variables of existing building simulation tools...

  9. PolicyNet Publication System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The PolicyNet Publication System project will merge the Oracle-based Policy Repository (POMS) and the SQL-Server CAMP system (MSOM) into a new system with an Oracle...

  10. KM3NeT

    CERN Multimedia

    KM3NeT is a large scale next-generation neutrino telescope located in the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea, optimized for the discovery of galactic neutrino sources emitting in the TeV energy region.

  11. Net Neutrality: Background and Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilroy, Angele A

    2006-01-01

    .... The move to place restrictions on the owners of the networks that compose and provide access to the Internet, to ensure equal access and nondiscriminatory treatment, is referred to as "net neutrality...

  12. Comparison of two models in the estimation of nitrogen uptake rates using data from 15-N incubation experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clavery Tungaraza

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares two uptake rate models, Dugdale & Goering's (D&G model and Elskens' model. The aim is to provide an insight into how estimates of uptake processes, i.e. regeneration and loss rates from both dissolved and particulate nitrogen pools, influence the total uptake rates when the two models are compared. The uptake rates of three nitrogenous nutrients (nitrate, ammonium and urea from 15-N incubation experimental data were compared. The comparison indicated that the D&G model underestimated nitrate uptake rates by about 34%, implying a significant regeneration and loss rates of the nutrient. Elskens' model further showed that the loss rates from the dissolved phase were about 40% and 25% for the ammonium and urea pools, respectively, indicating that the D&G model underestimated the experimental uptake rates of the nutrients. On average, nitrification made up about 30% of the total ammonium uptake flux, whereas the sinks from particulate nitrogen and dissolved nitrogen were estimated at 36% and 56%, respectively. The D&G model sometimes overestimated the f-ratio values to about 60% and higher as a result of ammonium and urea uptake rates underestimation. This paper also shows that detritus adsorption, bacterial uptake and cell lysis are equally important processes.

  13. Petri Nets in Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A process language for security protocols is presented together with a semantics in terms of sets of events. The denotation of process is a set of events, and as each event specifies a set of pre and postconditions, this denotation can be viewed as a Petri net. By means of an example we illustrate...... how the Petri-net semantics can be used to prove security properties....

  14. The Economics of Net Neutrality

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, Robert W.; Wallsten, Scott

    2006-01-01

    This essay examines the economics of "net neutrality" and broadband Internet access. We argue that mandating net neutrality would be likely to reduce economic welfare. Instead, the government should focus on creating competition in the broadband market by liberalizing more spectrum and reducing entry barriers created by certain local regulations. In cases where a broadband provider can exercise market power the government should use its antitrust enforcement authority to police anticompetitiv...

  15. Respiratory Nitrate Ammonification by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1▿

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz-García, Claribel; Murray, Alison E.; Klappenbach, Joel A.; Stewart, Valley; Tiedje, James M.

    2006-01-01

    Anaerobic cultures of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 grown with nitrate as the sole electron acceptor exhibited sequential reduction of nitrate to nitrite and then to ammonium. Little dinitrogen and nitrous oxide were detected, and no growth occurred on nitrous oxide. A mutant with the napA gene encoding periplasmic nitrate reductase deleted could not respire or assimilate nitrate and did not express nitrate reductase activity, confirming that the NapA enzyme is the sole nitrate reductase. Hence,...

  16. Dietary nitrate does not reduce oxygen cost of exercise or improve muscle mitochondrial function in patients with mitochondrial myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabben, Miranda; Schmitz, Joep P J; Ciapaite, Jolita; le Clercq, Carlijn M P; van Riel, Natal A; Haak, Harm R; Nicolay, Klaas; de Coo, Irenaeus F M; Smeets, Hubert; Praet, Stephan F; van Loon, Luc J; Prompers, Jeanine J

    2017-05-01

    Muscle weakness and exercise intolerance negatively affect the quality of life of patients with mitochondrial myopathy. Short-term dietary nitrate supplementation has been shown to improve exercise performance and reduce oxygen cost of exercise in healthy humans and trained athletes. We investigated whether 1 wk of dietary inorganic nitrate supplementation decreases the oxygen cost of exercise and improves mitochondrial function in patients with mitochondrial myopathy. Ten patients with mitochondrial myopathy (40 ± 5 yr, maximal whole body oxygen uptake = 21.2 ± 3.2 ml·min-1·kg body wt-1, maximal work load = 122 ± 26 W) received 8.5 mg·kg body wt-1·day-1 inorganic nitrate (~7 mmol) for 8 days. Whole body oxygen consumption at 50% of the maximal work load, in vivo skeletal muscle oxidative capacity (evaluated from postexercise phosphocreatine recovery using 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy), and ex vivo mitochondrial oxidative capacity in permeabilized skinned muscle fibers (measured with high-resolution respirometry) were determined before and after nitrate supplementation. Despite a sixfold increase in plasma nitrate levels, nitrate supplementation did not affect whole body oxygen cost during submaximal exercise. Additionally, no beneficial effects of nitrate were found on in vivo or ex vivo muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity. This is the first time that the therapeutic potential of dietary nitrate for patients with mitochondrial myopathy was evaluated. We conclude that 1 wk of dietary nitrate supplementation does not reduce oxygen cost of exercise or improve mitochondrial function in the group of patients tested. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Tidal pumping facilitates dissimilatory nitrate reduction in intertidal marshes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zheng, Yanling; Hou, Lijun; Liu, Min; Liu, Zhanfei; Li, Xiaofei; Lin, Xianbiao; Yin, Guoyu; Gao, Juan; Yu, Chendi; Wang, Rong; Jiang, Xiaofen

    2016-01-01

    ...s. Intertidal sediments are important hotspots of dissimilatory nitrate reduction and interacting nitrogen cycling microorganisms, but the effect of tides on dissimilatory nitrate reduction, including...

  18. The effects of dietary nitrate, pH and temperature on nitrate reduction in the human oral cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Bojić Danijela V.; Bojić Aleksandar Lj.; Perović Jelica M.

    2004-01-01

    Dietary nitrate is metabolized to nitrite by bacterial flora on the posterior surface of the tongue leading to increased salivary nitrite concentrations. In the acidic environment in the stomach, nitrite forms nitrous acid, a potent nitro sating agent. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of dietary nitrate, pH and temperature on nitrate reduction in the human oral cavity. Nitrate reduction was monitored by nitrate reduction assay based on incubation of nitrate test solutions in t...

  19. 26 CFR 1.904(f)-3 - Allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation of net operating losses and net....904(f)-3 Allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses. For rules relating to the allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses, see § 1.904(g)-3T. ...

  20. 29 CFR 4204.13 - Net income and net tangible assets tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Net income and net tangible assets tests. 4204.13 Section....13 Net income and net tangible assets tests. (a) General. The criteria under this section are that either— (1) Net income test. The purchaser's average net income after taxes for its three most recent...

  1. Depletion of cardiac catecholamine stores impairs cardiac norepinephrine re-uptake by downregulation of the norepinephrine transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreusser, Michael M; Lehmann, Lorenz H; Haass, Markus; Buss, Sebastian J; Katus, Hugo A; Lossnitzer, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    In heart failure (HF), a disturbed cardiac norepinephrine (NE) homeostasis is characterized by depleted cardiac NE stores, impairment of the cardiac NE re-uptake by the neuronal norepinephrine transporter (NET) and enhanced cardiac NE net release. Reduced cardiac NE content appears to be caused by enhanced cardiac NE net release from sympathetic neurons in HF, triggered by neurohumoral activation. However, it remains unclear whether reduced NE itself has an impact on cardiac NE re-uptake, independent of neurohumoral activation. Here, we evaluated whether depletion of cardiac NE stores alone can regulate cardiac NE re-uptake. Treatment of Wistar rats with reserpine (5 mg/kg/d) for one (1d) or five days (5d) resulted in markedly reduced cardiac NE content, comparable to NE stores in experimental HF due to pressure overload. In order to assess cardiac NE re-uptake, the specific cardiac [3H]-NE uptake via the NET in a Langendorff preparation was measured. Reserpine treatment led to decreased NE re-uptake at 1d and 5d compared to saline treatment. Expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme of the NE synthesis, was elevated in left stellate ganglia after reserpine. Mechanistically, measurement of NET mRNA expression in left stellate ganglia and myocardial NET density revealed a post-transcriptional downregulation of the NET by reserpine. In summary, present data demonstrate that depletion of cardiac NE stores alone is sufficient to impair cardiac NE re-uptake via downregulation of the NET, independent of systemic neurohumoral activation. Knowledge about the regulation of the cardiac NE homeostasis may offer novel therapeutic strategies in HF.

  2. North America's net terrestrial CO2 exchange with the atmosphere 1990-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.W. King; R.J. Andres; K J. Davis; M. Hafer; D.J. Hayes; D.N. Huntzinger; B. de Jong; W.A. Kurz; A.D. McGuire; R. Vargas; Y. Wei; T.O. West; C.W. Woodall

    2015-01-01

    Scientific understanding of the global carbon cycle is required for developing national and international policy to mitigate fossil fuel CO2 emissions by managing terrestrial carbon uptake. Toward that understanding and as a contribution to the REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes (RECCAP) project, this paper provides a synthesis of net...

  3. Tomato responses to ammonium and nitrate nutrition under controlled root-zone pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peet, M. M.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Tolley, L. C.; Robarge, W. P.; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1985-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L. Mill. 'Vendor') plants were grown for 21 days in flowing solution culture with N supplied as either 1.0 mM NO3- or 1.0 mM NH4+. Acidity in the solutions was automatically maintained at pH 6.0. Accumulation and distribution of dry matter and total N and net photosynthetic rate were not affected by source of N. Thus, when rhizosphere acidity was controlled at pH 6.0 during uptake, either NO3- or NH4+ can be used efficiently by tomato. Uptake of K+ and Ca2+ were not altered by N source, but uptake of Mg2+ was reduced in NH4(+)-fed plants. This indicates that uptake of Mg2+ was regulated at least partially by ionic balance within the plant.

  4. Photodegradation of Paracetamol in Nitrate Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Cui; Qu, Ruijuan; Liang, Jinyan; Yang, Xi

    2010-11-01

    The photodegradation of paracetamol in nitrate solution under simulated solar irradiation has been investigated. The degradation rates were compared by varying environmental parameters including concentrations of nitrate ion, humic substance and pH values. The quantifications of paracetamol were conducted by HPLC method. The results demonstrate that the photodegradation of paracetamol followed first-order kinetics. The photoproducts and intermediates of paracetamol in the presence of nitrate ions were identified by extensive GC-MS method. The photodegradation pathways involving. OH radicals as reactive species were proposed.

  5. Organic acids enhance the uptake of lead by wheat roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huanhua; Shan, Xiaoquan; Liu, Tao; Xie, Yaning; Wen, Bei; Zhang, Shuzhen; Han, Fang; van Genuchten, Martinus Th

    2007-05-01

    The uptake and bioavailability of lead (Pb) in soil-plant systems remain poorly understood. This study indicates that acetic and malic acids enhance the uptake of Pb by wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) roots under hydroponic conditions. The net concentration-dependent uptake influx of Pb in the presence and absence of organic acids was characterized by Michaelis-Menten type nonsaturating kinetic curves that could be resolved into linear and saturable components. Fitted maximum uptake rates (V (max)) of the Michaelis-Menton saturable component in the presence of acetic and malic acids were, respectively, 2.45 and 1.63 times those of the control, while the Michaelis-Menten K (m) values of 5.5, 3.7 and 2.2 microM, respectively, remained unchanged. Enhanced Pb uptake by organic acids was partially mediated by Ca(2+) and K(+) channels, and also depended upon the physiological function of the plasma membrane P-type ATPase. Uptake may have been further enhanced by an effectively thinner unstirred layer of Pb adjacent to the roots, leading to more rapid diffusion towards roots. X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies provided evidence that the coordination environment of Pb in wheat roots was similar to that of Pb(CH(3)COO)(2)x3H(2)O in that one Pb atom was coordinated to four oxygen atoms via the carboxylate group.

  6. Nitrate dry deposition measurements with surrogate surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiang

    Nitrate dry deposition is one of the most important topics in the study of the dry deposition of acidic and acidifying substances. This study measured nitrate dry deposition to (1) a water surface sampler (WSS) which was recently developed in the Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering at Illinois Institute of Technology, (2) a Nylasorb filter on a knife-edge surrogate surface and (3) a greased strip on a knife-edge surrogate surface. Airborne nitric acid (HNO3), nitrous acid (HNO2), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations were also measured concurrently with the flux measurements. These measurements were then used to evaluate the utility of using surrogate surfaces, and in particular the WSS, to measure nitrate dry deposition. The nitrogen containing species that may be responsible for nitrate dry deposition to the WSS include nitrogen monoxide (NO), NO2, peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), ammonia (NH3) and ammonium (NH4+), HNO2,/ HNO3, and particulate nitrate. Theoretical calculations and experiments showed that HNO3 and particulate nitrate appear to be the major nitrate contributors to the water surface sampler. Nitrate dry deposition to the water surface, Nylasorb filter and the greased strip were measured during the daytime in June and July 1995 and during both the day and night time in September and October 1995. The results showed that during the daytime in June and July the average nitrate dry deposition to the WSS (36.28 mg/m2-day) was much higher than that to the Nylasorb filter (14.04 mg/m2-day). However, during September and October there is no statistically significant difference in nitrate deposition flux between the WSS (average 4.59 mg/m2-day for the nighttime and 10.58 mg/m2-day for the daytime) and the Nylasorb filter (average 4.53 mg/m2-day for the nighttime and 8.87 mg/m2-day). A set of three experiments showed that particulate nitrate fluxes measured with the greased strip were underestimated due to the loss of volatile particulate

  7. Regression Models for Aquifer Vulnerability to Nitrate Pollution in Osona (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boy Roura, M.; Nolan, B. T.; Menció Domingo, A.; Mas-Pla, J.

    2012-12-01

    Regression models were developed at a local scale in the Osona region (1,260 square kilometers) to predict nitrate concentrations in groundwater. Osona is a semi-arid region in northeast Spain, where livestock and agricultural activities are very intensive, and therefore, it is vulnerable to nitrate pollution from agricultural sources (European Nitrate Directive (91/676/EEC)). Nitrate concentrations in groundwater are commonly above 50 mg/L as nitrate, reaching up to 500 mg/L in some of the sampled wells. Regression models were based on explanatory variables such as geology, land use, and nitrogen inputs, which control the fate, transport and attenuation of nitrate in groundwater. Regression has been widely used to determine aquifer vulnerability to nitrate in groundwater at large spatial scales. We developed models with and without site-specific groundwater chemistry data to see the extent to which the latter improved the models. Although chemistry data could explain additional variation in groundwater nitrate concentration, such data were available only at the well locations and therefore were less amenable for spatial extrapolation. The data set consisted of nitrate data from 63 sampled wells and the following explanatory variables: 1) soils data consisting of texture and other physical properties; 2) geology indicating presence or absence of aquifers in the region, and their type (unconfined, leaky or confined); 3) land use (agricultural, urban, forested); 4) nitrogen input as manure; 5) occurrence of irrigated crops; 6) estimates of nitrogen uptake developed for 10 different crops; 7) slope; 8) population density, and 9) groundwater chemistry data comprising major ions and trace elements. Variables 1 and 2 were compiled as point data because their polygons were much larger than the well buffers which represented contributing areas to the sampled wells. Variables 3 to 8 were compiled within a 500-meter radius buffer around wells using a GIS-based weighted

  8. Nitrate retention in riparian ground water at natural and elevated nitrate levels in north central Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, John H; Jackman, Alan P; Triska, Frank J; Sheibley, Richard W; Avanzino, Ronald J

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between local ground water flows and NO(3)(-) transport to the channel was examined in three well transects from a natural, wooded riparian zone adjacent to the Shingobee River, MN. The hillslope ground water originated as recharge from intermittently grazed pasture up slope of the site. In the hillslope transect perpendicular to the stream, ground water NO(3)(-) concentrations decreased from approximately 3 mg N L(-1) beneath the ridge (80 m from the channel) to 0.01 to 1.0 mg N L(-1) at wells 1 to 3 m from the channel. The Cl(-) concentrations and NO(3)/Cl ratios decreased toward the channel indicating NO(3)(-) dilution and biotic retention. In the bankside well transect parallel to the stream, two distinct ground water environments were observed: an alluvial environment upstream of a relict beaver dam influenced by stream water and a hillslope environment downstream of the relict beaver dam. Nitrate was elevated to levels representative of agricultural runoff in a third well transect located approximately 5 m from the stream to assess the effectiveness of the riparian zone as a NO(3)(-) sink. Subsurface NO(3)(-) injections revealed transport of up to 15 mg N L(-1) was nearly conservative in the alluvial riparian environment. Addition of glucose stimulated dissolved oxygen uptake and promoted NO(3)(-) retention under both background and elevated NO(3)(-) levels in summer and winter. Disappearance of added NO(3)(-) was followed by transient NO(2)(-) formation and, in the presence of C(2)H(2), by N(2)O formation, demonstrating potential denitrification. Under current land use, most NO(3)(-) associated with local ground water is biotically retained or diluted before reaching the channel. However, elevating NO(3)(-) levels through agricultural cultivation would likely result in increased NO(3)(-) transport to the channel.

  9. Evolutionary classification of ammonium, nitrate, and peptide transporters in land plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Wittgenstein, Neil J J B; Le, Cuong H; Hawkins, Barbara J; Ehlting, Jürgen

    2014-01-20

    Nitrogen uptake, reallocation within the plant, and between subcellular compartments involves ammonium, nitrate and peptide transporters. Ammonium transporters are separated into two distinct families (AMT1 and AMT2), each comprised of five members on average in angiosperms. Nitrate transporters also form two discrete families (NRT1 and NRT2), with angiosperms having four NRT2s, on average. NRT1s share an evolutionary history with peptide transporters (PTRs). The NRT1/PTR family in land plants usually has more than 50 members and contains also members with distinct activities, such as glucosinolate and abscisic acid transport. Phylogenetic reconstructions of each family across 20 land plant species with available genome sequences were supplemented with subcellular localization and transmembrane topology predictions. This revealed that both AMT families diverged prior to the separation of bryophytes and vascular plants forming two distinct clans, designated as supergroups, each. Ten supergroups were identified for the NRT1/PTR family. It is apparent that nitrate and peptide transport within the NRT1/PTR family is polyphyletic, that is, nitrate and/or peptide transport likely evolved multiple times within land plants. The NRT2 family separated into two distinct clans early in vascular plant evolution. Subsequent duplications occurring prior to the eudicot/monocot separation led to the existence of two AMT1, six AMT2, 31 NRT1/PTR, and two NRT2 clans, designated as groups. Phylogenetic separation of groups suggests functional divergence within the angiosperms for each family. Distinct groups within the NRT1/PTR family appear to separate peptide and nitrate transport activities as well as other activities contained within the family, for example nitrite transport. Conversely, distinct activities, such as abscisic acid and glucosinolate transport, appear to have recently evolved from nitrate transporters.

  10. Urea Uptake and Carbon Fixation by Marine Pelagic Bacteria and Archaea during the Arctic Summer and Winter Seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Tara L.; Baer, Steven E.; Cooper, Joshua T.; Bronk, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    How Arctic climate change might translate into alterations of biogeochemical cycles of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) with respect to inorganic and organic N utilization is not well understood. This study combined 15N uptake rate measurements for ammonium, nitrate, and urea with 15N- and 13C-based DNA stable-isotope probing (SIP). The objective was to identify active bacterial and archeal plankton and their role in N and C uptake during the Arctic summer and winter seasons. We hypothesized that bacteria and archaea would successfully compete for nitrate and urea during the Arctic winter but not during the summer, when phytoplankton dominate the uptake of these nitrogen sources. Samples were collected at a coastal station near Barrow, AK, during August and January. During both seasons, ammonium uptake rates were greater than those for nitrate or urea, and nitrate uptake rates remained lower than those for ammonium or urea. SIP experiments indicated a strong seasonal shift of bacterial and archaeal N utilization from ammonium during the summer to urea during the winter but did not support a similar seasonal pattern of nitrate utilization. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained from each SIP fraction implicated marine group I Crenarchaeota (MGIC) as well as Betaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, SAR11, and SAR324 in N uptake from urea during the winter. Similarly, 13C SIP data suggested dark carbon fixation for MGIC, as well as for several proteobacterial lineages and the Firmicutes. These data are consistent with urea-fueled nitrification by polar archaea and bacteria, which may be advantageous under dark conditions. PMID:25063662

  11. Urea uptake and carbon fixation by marine pelagic bacteria and archaea during the Arctic summer and winter seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Tara L; Baer, Steven E; Cooper, Joshua T; Bronk, Deborah A; Wawrik, Boris

    2014-10-01

    How Arctic climate change might translate into alterations of biogeochemical cycles of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) with respect to inorganic and organic N utilization is not well understood. This study combined 15N uptake rate measurements for ammonium, nitrate, and urea with 15N- and 13C-based DNA stable-isotope probing (SIP). The objective was to identify active bacterial and archeal plankton and their role in N and C uptake during the Arctic summer and winter seasons. We hypothesized that bacteria and archaea would successfully compete for nitrate and urea during the Arctic winter but not during the summer, when phytoplankton dominate the uptake of these nitrogen sources. Samples were collected at a coastal station near Barrow, AK, during August and January. During both seasons, ammonium uptake rates were greater than those for nitrate or urea, and nitrate uptake rates remained lower than those for ammonium or urea. SIP experiments indicated a strong seasonal shift of bacterial and archaeal N utilization from ammonium during the summer to urea during the winter but did not support a similar seasonal pattern of nitrate utilization. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained from each SIP fraction implicated marine group I Crenarchaeota (MGIC) as well as Betaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, SAR11, and SAR324 in N uptake from urea during the winter. Similarly, 13C SIP data suggested dark carbon fixation for MGIC, as well as for several proteobacterial lineages and the Firmicutes. These data are consistent with urea-fueled nitrification by polar archaea and bacteria, which may be advantageous under dark conditions. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Effect of Co-Contaminants Uranium and Nitrate on Iodine Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szecsody, James E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lee, Brady D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lawter, Amanda R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qafoku, Nikolla [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Resch, Charles T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Baum, Steven R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Leavy, Ian I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Freedman, Vicky L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the significance of co-contaminants on the migration and transformation of iodine species in the Hanford subsurface environment. These impacts are relevant because remedies that target individual contaminants like iodine, may not only impact the fate and transport of other contaminants in the subsurface, but also inhibit the effectiveness of a targeted remedy. For example, iodine (as iodate) co-precipitates with calcite, and has been identified as a potential remedy because it immobilizes iodine. Since uranium also co-precipitates with calcite in field sediments, the presence of uranium may also inhibit iodine co-precipitation. Another potentially significant impact from co-existing contaminants is iodine and nitrate. The presence of nitrate has been shown to promote biogeochemical reduction of iodate to iodide, thereby increasing iodine species subsurface mobility (as iodide exhibits less sorption). Hence, this study reports on both laboratory batch and column experiments that investigated a) the change in iodate uptake mass and rate of uptake into precipitating calcite due to the presence of differing amounts of uranium, b) the amount of change of the iodate bio-reduction rate due to the presence of differing nitrate concentrations, and c) whether nitrite can reduce iodate in the presence of microbes and/or minerals acting as catalysts.

  13. Skeletal muscle glucose uptake during dynamic exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Kiens, Bente; Saltin, Bengt

    1988-01-01

    To study the role of muscle mass in glucoregulation, six subjects worked with the knee extensors of one leg on a specially constructed cycle ergometer. The knee extensors of one leg worked either alone or in combination with the knee extensors of the other leg and/or with the arms. Substrate usage...... was measured across both knee extensors by femoral arterial and venous catheterization and measurement of femoral venous blood flow. Glucose uptake by the working knee extensors was absolutely (by approximately 20%) or relatively decreased when arm cranking was added to knee extensions. The decrease in glucose...... uptake was not compensated for by increased uptake of free fatty acids but was accompanied by decreases in plasma insulin and increases in plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine. During work with large muscle masses, arterial lactate increased to approximately 6 mM, and net leg lactate release reverted...

  14. Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunuwille, Mihindra; Yoo, Choong-Shik, E-mail: csyoo@wsu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Institute for Shock Physics, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164 (United States)

    2013-12-07

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) is a fertilizer, yet becomes an explosive upon a small addition of chemical impurities. The origin of enhanced chemical sensitivity in impure AN (or AN mixtures) is not well understood, posing significant safety issues in using AN even today. To remedy the situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN and its mixtures with hexane (ANFO–AN mixed with fuel oil) and Aluminum (Ammonal) at high pressures and temperatures, using diamond anvil cells (DAC) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that pure AN decomposes to N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, and H{sub 2}O at the onset of the melt, whereas the mixtures, ANFO and Ammonal, decompose at substantially lower temperatures. The present results also confirm the recently proposed phase IV-IV{sup ′} transition above 17 GPa and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400°C.

  15. Technical Report on Hydroxylamine Nitrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harlow, Donald G. [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States); Felt, Rowland E. [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States); Agnew, Steve [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Barney, G. Scott [B& W Hanford Company, Richland, WA (United States); McKibben, J. Malvyn [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Garber, Robert [Parallax Inc., Rocklin, CA (United States); Lewis, Margie [Parallax Inc., Rocklin, CA (United States)

    1998-02-01

    This report presents the chemical properties and safe conditions for handling and storing solutions of hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN, NH2OH•HNO3 or NH3OH+) in nitric acid (HNO3). Section 1.0 summarizes the accidents experienced within the Department of Energy (DOE) weapons complex involving HAN or hydroxylamine sulfate (HAS), a chemical with similar properties. Section 2.0 describes past and current uses of HAN by DOE, the U.S. Military and foreign countries. Section 3.0 presents the basic chemistry of HAN, including chemical reaction and energy content equations. Section 4.0 provides experience and insights gained from previous uncontrolled reactions involving HAN and experimental data from Hanford & Savannah River Site (SRS). This information was used to develop safe conditions for the storage and handling of HAN as presented in Section 5.0. Section 6.0 summarizes recommendations for safe facility operations involving HAN and future research needs.

  16. The effects of temperature on oxygen uptake and nutrient flux in sediment inhabited by molluscs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Benthic invertebrates play important roles in oxygen uptake and nutrient cycling in the benthic boundary layer. Temperature is an important factor that influences both invertebrate activity and the effects of the bioturbation on biogeochemistry. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of temperature on the sediment oxygen uptake and nutrient flux across the sediment-water interface in sediment inhabited by molluscs, animals that often dominate the benthic community. A microcosm was constructed using sediment, lake water, and molluscs from Lake Taihu, China. The clam Corbicula fluminea (Bivalvia: Corbiculidae and the snail Bellamya aeruginosa (Gastropoda: Viviparidae were selected for the experiment because they dominate the benthic community in the lake. The effect of C. fluminea and B. aeruginosa on sediment oxygen uptake and nutrient flux was simultaneously examined at both 15 and 25℃. The results indicated that C. fluminea significantly increased the sediment oxygen uptake and release of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP and ammonium from the sediment to the overlying water at both temperatures, and the net sediment oxygen uptake, and the net SRP and ammonium fluxes caused by the clams were significantly higher at 25℃ than at 15℃. Moreover, B. aeruginosa significantly increased the sediment oxygen uptake at the two experimental temperatures, however the net sediment oxygen uptake induced by the snail did not differ significantly between 15 and 25℃. The SRP released from the sediment was stimulated significantly by B. aeruginosa at 25℃, and B. aeruginosa also produced significantly more net SRP release at 25℃ than that at 15℃. In contrast, the influence of B. aeruginosa on the net ammonium flux at each temperature was not statistically significant.

  17. Effects of urban stream burial on nitrogen uptake and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanization has resulted in extensive burial and channelization of headwater streams, yet little is known about impacts on stream ecosystem functions critical for reducing downstream nitrogen pollution. To characterize the biogeochemical impact of stream burial, we measured NO3- uptake, using 15N-NO3- isotope tracer releases, and whole stream metabolism, during four seasons in three paired buried and open streams reaches within the Baltimore Ecosystem Study Long-term Ecological Research Network. Stream burial increased NO3- uptake lengths, by a factor of 7.5 (p metabolism were primarily explained by decreased transient storage and light availability in buried streams. We estimate that stream burial increases daily watershed nitrate export by as much as 500% due to decreased in-stream retention and may considerably decrease carbon export via decreased primary production. These results

  18. 77 FR 65532 - Solid Fertilizer Grade Ammonium Nitrate From the Russian Federation: Notice of Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... International Trade Administration Solid Fertilizer Grade Ammonium Nitrate From the Russian Federation: Notice... the antidumping duty order on solid fertilizer grade ammonium nitrate (ammonium nitrate) from the... Administrative Review: Solid Fertilizer Grade Ammonium Nitrate (Ammonium Nitrate) from the Russian Federation...

  19. TimeNET Optimization Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Bodenstein

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a novel tool for simulation-based optimization and design-space exploration of Stochastic Colored Petri nets (SCPN is introduced. The working title of this tool is TimeNET Optimization Environment (TOE. Targeted users of this tool are people modeling complex systems with SCPNs in TimeNET who want to find parameter sets that are optimal for a certain performance measure (fitness function. It allows users to create and simulate sets of SCPNs and to run different optimization algorithms based on parameter variation. The development of this tool was motivated by the need to automate and speed up tests of heuristic optimization algorithms to be applied for SCPN optimization. A result caching mechanism is used to avoid recalculations.

  20. Mechanisms of Peroxynitrite Mediated Nitration of Tyrosine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaydin, Hakan; Houk, K. N.

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms of tyrosine nitration by peroxynitrous acid or nitrosoperoxycarbonate were investigated with the CBS-QB3 method. Either the protonation of peroxynitrite, or a reaction with carbon dioxide gives a reactive peroxide intermediate. Peroxynitrous acid mediated nitration of phenol occurs via the unimolecular decomposition to give nitrogen dioxide and hydroxyl radicals. Nitrosoperoxycarbonate also undergoes unimolecular decomposition to give carbonate and nitrogen dioxide radicals. The reactions of tyrosine with the hydroxyl or carbonate radicals give a phenoxy radical intermediate. The reaction of the nitrogen dioxide with this radical intermediate followed by tautomerization gives nitrated tyrosine in both cases. According to CBS-QB3 calculations, the rate-limiting step for the nitration of phenol is the decomposition of peroxynitrous acid or of nitrosoperoxycarbonate. PMID:19374346

  1. ROE Wet Nitrate Deposition 2011-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The raster data represent the amount of wet nitrate deposition in kilograms per hectare from 2011 to 2013. Summary data in this indicator were provided by EPA’s...

  2. [Nitrate concentrations in tap water in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitoria, Isidro; Maraver, Francisco; Sánchez-Valverde, Félix; Armijo, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    To determine nitrate concentrations in drinking water in a sample of Spanish cities. We used ion chromatography to analyze the nitrate concentrations of public drinking water in 108 Spanish municipalities with more than 50,000 inhabitants (supplying 21,290,707 potential individuals). The samples were collected between January and April 2012. The total number of samples tested was 324. The median nitrate concentration was 3.47 mg/L (range: 0.38-66.76; interquartile range: 4.51). The water from 94% of the municipalities contained less than 15 mg/L. The concentration was higher than 25mg/L in only 3 municipalities and was greater than 50mg/L in one. Nitrate levels in most public drinking water supplies in municipalities inhabited by almost half of the Spanish population are below 15 mg/L. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Nitrate Waste Treatment Sampling and Analysis Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Patrick Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Garcia, Terrence Kerwin [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2017-07-05

    This plan is designed to outline the collection and analysis of nitrate salt-bearing waste samples required by the New Mexico Environment Department- Hazardous Waste Bureau in the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (Permit).

  4. Nitrate reduction in geologically heterogeneous catchments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, Jens Christian; Auken, Esben; Bamberg, Charlotte A.

    2014-01-01

    In order to fulfil the requirements of the EU Water Framework Directive nitrate load from agricultural areas to surface water in Denmark needs to be reduced by about 40%. The regulations imposed until now have been uniform, i.e. the same restrictions for all areas independent of the subsurface...... conditions. Studies have shown that on a national basis about 2/3 of the nitrate leaching from the root zone is reduced naturally, through denitrification, in the subsurface before reaching the streams. Therefore, it is more cost-effective to identify robust areas, where nitrate leaching through the root...... the entire catchment. However, as distributed models often do not include local scale hydrogeological heterogeneities, they are typically not able to make accurate predictions at scales smaller than they are calibrated. We present a framework for assessing nitrate reduction in the subsurface...

  5. ROE Wet Nitrate Deposition 1989-1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The raster data represent the amount of wet nitrate deposition in kilograms per hectare from 1989 to 1991. Summary data in this indicator were provided by EPA’s...

  6. The presence of amino acids affects inorganic N uptake in non-mycorrhizal seedlings of European beech (Fagus sylvatica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoelken, Gunda; Simon, Judy; Ehlting, Barbara; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2010-09-01

    To investigate the impact of organic N compounds for inorganic nitrogen uptake in the rhizosphere, we fed ammonium nitrate with or without amino acids (i.e., glutamine or arginine) to the roots of non-mycorrhizal beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) seedlings under controlled conditions at different levels of N availability. Uptake of individual N sources was determined from ¹⁵N (inorganic N) and ¹⁵N ¹³C (organic N) accumulation in the roots. In addition, gene fragments encoding proteins involved in N uptake and metabolism were cloned from beech for gene expression analyses by quantitative real-time PCR in the roots. Generally, ammonium was preferred over nitrate as N source. Organic N sources were taken up by beech roots as intact molecules. Uptake of organic N was significantly higher than inorganic N uptake, thus contributing significantly to N nutrition of beech. Depending on the level of N availability, inorganic N uptake was negatively affected by the presence of organic N sources. This result indicates an overestimation of the contribution of inorganic N uptake to N nutrition of beech in previous studies. Apparently, association with mycorrhizal fungi is not essential for organic N uptake by beech roots. Gene expression analyses showed that transcriptional regulation of the amino acid transporters FsCAT3, FsCAT5, FsAAT and FsAAP and the ammonium transporter FsAMT1.2 in the roots is involved in N nutrition of beech.

  7. Effects of carbon-to-sulfur (C/S) ratio and nitrate (N) dosage on Denitrifying Sulfur cycle-associated Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal (DS-EBPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mei; Lu, Hui; Wu, Di; Zhao, Qing; Meng, Fangang; Wang, Yudan; Hao, Xiaodi; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the Denitrifying Sulfur cycle-associated Enhanced Biological Phosphorous Removal (DS-EBPR) with 20 mg P/L/d of the volumetric P removal rate was successfully achieved in a Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR). The effects of carbon-to-sulfur (C/S) mass ratio and nitrate (N) dosage were investigated through two batch tests to reveal the role of wastewater compositions in DS-EBPR performance. The optimal specific P release and uptake rates (0.4 and 2.4 mg P/g VSS/h, respectively) were achieved at C/S/P/N mass ratio of 150/200/20/20, and poly-S is supplied as a potential electron and energy storage. The nitrate dosage in a range of 10-50 mg N/L had no significant influence on P uptake rates (2.1 ~ 2.4 mg P/g VSS/h), but significantly affected the storage of inclusion poly-S, the poly-S oxidation rate was increased about 16% while dosing nitrate from 20 to 30 mg N/L. It implies that nitrate is denitrified in the P uptake phase, and excess nitrate is further consumed by poly-S. Moreover, the microbial analysis showed that the functional bacteria should mostly belong to denitrifying bacteria or Unclassified genera.

  8. Effects of carbon-to-sulfur (C/S) ratio and nitrate (N) dosage on Denitrifying Sulfur cycle-associated Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal (DS-EBPR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mei; Lu, Hui; Wu, Di; Zhao, Qing; Meng, Fangang; Wang, Yudan; Hao, Xiaodi; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2016-03-17

    In this study, the Denitrifying Sulfur cycle-associated Enhanced Biological Phosphorous Removal (DS-EBPR) with 20 mg P/L/d of the volumetric P removal rate was successfully achieved in a Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR). The effects of carbon-to-sulfur (C/S) mass ratio and nitrate (N) dosage were investigated through two batch tests to reveal the role of wastewater compositions in DS-EBPR performance. The optimal specific P release and uptake rates (0.4 and 2.4 mg P/g VSS/h, respectively) were achieved at C/S/P/N mass ratio of 150/200/20/20, and poly-S is supplied as a potential electron and energy storage. The nitrate dosage in a range of 10-50 mg N/L had no significant influence on P uptake rates (2.1 ~ 2.4 mg P/g VSS/h), but significantly affected the storage of inclusion poly-S, the poly-S oxidation rate was increased about 16% while dosing nitrate from 20 to 30 mg N/L. It implies that nitrate is denitrified in the P uptake phase, and excess nitrate is further consumed by poly-S. Moreover, the microbial analysis showed that the functional bacteria should mostly belong to denitrifying bacteria or Unclassified genera.

  9. Implementing NetScaler VPX

    CERN Document Server

    Sandbu, Marius

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow guide with detailed step-by step-instructions on how to implement the different key components in NetScaler, with real-world examples and sample scenarios.If you are a Citrix or network administrator who needs to implement NetScaler in your virtual environment to gain an insight on its functionality, this book is ideal for you. A basic understanding of networking and familiarity with some of the different Citrix products such as XenApp or XenDesktop is a prerequisite.

  10. Net4Care PHMR Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the SimpleClinicalDocument......The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the Simple...

  11. Pro DLR in NET 4

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Chaur

    2011-01-01

    Microsoft's Dynamic Language Runtime (DLR) is a platform for running dynamic languages such as Ruby and Python on an equal footing with compiled languages such as C#. Furthermore, the runtime is the foundation for many useful software design and architecture techniques you can apply as you develop your .NET applications. Pro DLR in .NET 4 introduces you to the DLR, showing how you can use it to write software that combines dynamic and static languages, letting you choose the right tool for the job. You will learn the core DLR components such as LINQ expressions, call sites, binders, and dynami

  12. Hierarchies in Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Peter; Jensen, Kurt; Shapiro, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    The paper shows how to extend Coloured Petri Nets with a hierarchy concept. The paper proposes five different hierarchy constructs, which allow the analyst to structure large CP-nets as a set of interrelated subnets (called pages). The paper discusses the properties of the proposed hierarchy...... constructs, and it illustrates them by means of two examples. The hierarchy constructs can be used for theoretical considerations, but their main use is to describe and analyse large real-world systems. All of the hierarchy constructs are supported by the editing and analysis facilities in the CPN Palette...

  13. [Methoxyflurane and ethanol do not inhibit the neuronal uptake of noradrenaline (uptake 1) at the desipramine binding site].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, H G; Schömig, E

    1990-07-01

    We recently demonstrated that the net accumulation of 3H-norepinephrine in the rat pheochromocytoma cell line PC12 was reduced by anesthetic concentrations of n-alkanols and the volatile anesthetics halothane, enflurane, isoflurane, and methoxyflurane. In PC12 cells, as in adrenergic neurons, norepinephrine is transported across the plasma membrane by a saturable, high-affinity, carrier-mediated mechanism (uptake1), which follows Michaelis-Menten kinetics, is energy- and sodium-dependent, and is inhibited by low concentrations of cocaine and the tricyclic antidepressant desipramine. Although uptake1 is the most important process for the removal of norepinephrine from the synaptic cleft, the net accumulation of norepinephrine within the neuron also depends on other factors including its vesicular uptake and storage within the granules, its metabolism by monoamine oxidase (MAO) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), and the efflux of its more lipophilic metabolites. In our previous report we could not exclude the contribution of any of these factors to the observed inhibitory effects of volatile substances. Therefore, the aim of the present study with ethanol and methoxyflurane was: (1) to elucidate further the exact mechanism responsible for the reduction of the norepinephrine accumulation; and (2) to investigate the anesthetics' interaction with the substrate recognition site, which is identical with the desipramine binding site on the norepinephrine carrier. METHODS. For 3H-norepinephrine uptake experiments, PC12 cells were cultured on dishes (60 mm, Nunc) coated with polyornithine. Reserpine (10 microM) was added to the culture 24 h before the experiment to deplete endogenous norepinephrine. The initial carrier-mediated transport rate (60 s) was measured as previously described. 3H-desipramine equilibrium binding was determined with isolated plasma membranes prepared from PC12 cells grown in suspension culture. The carrier-mediated uptake of 3H

  14. Mechanisms of Peroxynitrite Mediated Nitration of Tyrosine

    OpenAIRE

    Gunaydin, Hakan; Houk, K. N.

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms of tyrosine nitration by peroxynitrous acid or nitrosoperoxycarbonate were investigated with the CBS-QB3 method. Either the protonation of peroxynitrite, or a reaction with carbon dioxide gives a reactive peroxide intermediate. Peroxynitrous acid mediated nitration of phenol occurs via the unimolecular decomposition to give nitrogen dioxide and hydroxyl radicals. Nitrosoperoxycarbonate also undergoes unimolecular decomposition to give carbonate and nitrogen dioxide radicals. Th...

  15. Is beetroot juice more effective than sodium nitrate? The effects of equimolar nitrate dosages of nitrate-rich beetroot juice and sodium nitrate on oxygen consumption during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flueck, Joelle Leonie; Bogdanova, Anna; Mettler, Samuel; Perret, Claudio

    2016-04-01

    Dietary nitrate has been reported to lower oxygen consumption in moderate- and severe-intensity exercise. To date, it is unproven that sodium nitrate (NaNO3(-); NIT) and nitrate-rich beetroot juice (BR) have the same effects on oxygen consumption, blood pressure, and plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations or not. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different dosages of NIT and BR on oxygen consumption in male athletes. Twelve healthy, well-trained men (median [minimum; maximum]; peak oxygen consumption: 59.4 mL·min(-1)·kg(-1) [40.5; 67.0]) performed 7 trials on different days, ingesting different nitrate dosages and placebo (PLC). Dosages were 3, 6, and 12 mmol nitrate as concentrated BR or NIT dissolved in plain water. Plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations were measured before, 3 h after ingestion, and postexercise. Participants cycled for 5 min at moderate intensity and further 8 min at severe intensity. End-exercise oxygen consumption at moderate intensity was not significantly different between the 7 trials (p = 0.08). At severe-intensity exercise, end-exercise oxygen consumption was ~4% lower in the 6-mmol BR trial compared with the 6-mmol NIT (p = 0.003) trial as well as compared with PLC (p = 0.010). Plasma nitrite and nitrate concentrations were significantly increased after the ingestion of BR and NIT with the highest concentrations in the 12-mmol trials. Plasma nitrite concentration between NIT and BR did not significantly differ in the 6-mmol (p = 0.27) and in the 12-mmol (p = 0.75) trials. In conclusion, BR might reduce oxygen consumption to a greater extent compared with NIT.

  16. A search for nitrates in Martian meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Monica M.; Wright, I. P.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1995-03-01

    Martian atmospheric nitrogen is highly enriched in N-15; nitrates formed by interaction of the atmosphere with the Martian regolith should therefore also be characterized by an elevated delta N-15 value. A search has been made for nitrates in two Martian meteorites, in order to determine the extent of possible regolith-atmosphere interaction. Shock-produced glass from the Elephant Moraine (EET) A79001 shergottite (E1,149) and a water-soluble extract from Nakhla were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and stepped combustion-stable isotope mass spectrometry. FTIR of both meteorites had features at 1375/cm and 1630/cm, consistent with nitrates. On account of their low thermal stability, nitrates break down at temperatures below 600 C; in this temperature range, E1,149 yeilded approximately 1250 ppb nitrogen with delta N-15 -8 +/- 5%. If this nitrogen is from a nitrate, then it cannot be distinquished from terrestial salts by its isotopic composition. The water-soluble extract from Nakhla also released nitrogen at low temperatures, approximately 17 ppb with delta N-15 approximately -11 +/- 4%. Since Nakhla is an observed 'fall', this is unlikely to be a terrestial weathering product. Nitrates apparently occur in E1,149 and Nakhla, but in very low abundance, and their origin is unclear. The isotopic composition of the salts, which is within the range of that proposed for Martian magmatic volatiles, is far removed from that of nitrogen in the present-day Martian atmosphere. If the nitrates are Martian in origin, they did not form in recent times from reactions involving atmospheric gases. Rather, the nitrates could be the result of an earlier episode of atmospheric interaction with the regolith, or with implantation of magmatic volatiles introduced during degassing.

  17. Putrescine uptake in saintpaulia petals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagni, N; Pistocchi, R

    1985-02-01

    Putrescine uptake and the kinetics of this uptake were studied in petals of Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl. Uptake experiments of [(3)H] or [(14)C] putrescine were done on single petals at room temperature at various pH values. The results show that putrescine uptake occurs against a concentration gradient at low external putrescine concentration (0.5-100 micromolar) and follows a concentration gradient at higher external putrescine concentrations (100 micromolar to 100 millimolar). 2,4-Dinitrophenol and carbonylcyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone, two uncouplers, had no effect on putrescine uptake. Uptake rates were constant for 2 hours, reaching a maximum after 3 to 4 hours. Putrescine uptake depended markedly on the external pH and two maxima were observed: at low external concentrations of putrescine, the optimum was at pH 5 to 5.5; at higher concentrations the optimum was at pH 8.

  18. Uptake and partitioning of simulated atmospheric N inputs in Populus Tremuloides - Pinus Strobus forest mesocosms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nave, Lucas E.; Curtis, Peter S.

    2011-06-15

    This study looked at the effect of Nitrogen (N) inputs on forest growth and carbon storage by studying the relationship between N deposition, tree N uptake and growth. A 15N tracer was used to quantify foliar and root uptake of N deposition by trees; results showed that trees are a small short term sink for N inputs and thus these inputs do not have an important impacts on forest biomass N content or net primary productivity on a short term. .

  19. Nitrate Adsorption on Clay Kaolin: Batch Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Mohsenipour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soils possessing kaolin, gibbsite, goethite, and hematite particles have been found to have a natural capacity to attenuate pollution in aqueous phase. On the other hand, the hydroxyl group in soil increases anion exchange capacity under a low pH condition. The main objective of this paper was to evaluate effects of kaolin on nitrate reduction under acidic condition. In order to analyze the kaolin adsorption behaviour under various conditions, four different concentrations of nitrate, 45, 112.5, 225, and 450 mgNO3-/L, with a constant pH equal to 2, constant temperature equal to 25°C, and exposure period varying from 0 to 150 minutes were considered. The capacity of nitrate adsorption on kaolin has also been studied involving two well-known adsorption isotherm models, namely, Freundlich and Longmuir. The results revealed that approximately 25% of the nitrate present in the solution was adsorbed on clay kaolin. The laboratory experimental data revealed that Freundlich adsorption isotherm model was more accurate than Longmuir adsorption model in predicting of nitrate adsorption. Furthermore, the retardation factor of nitrate pollution in saturated zone has been found to be approximately 4 in presence of kaolin, which indicated that kaolin can be used for natural scavenger of pollution in the environment.

  20. Effects of arsenic on nitrate metabolism in arsenic hyperaccumulating and non-hyperaccumulating ferns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Nandita [Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Fl 32611-0290 (United States); Eco-Auditing group, National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow 226 001 (India); Ma, Lena Q., E-mail: lqma@ufl.ed [Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Fl 32611-0290 (United States); Vu, Joseph C. [Chemistry Research Unit, CMAVE, USDA-ARS, Gainesville, FL 32608-1069 and Agronomy Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-0500 (United States); Raj, Anshita [Eco-Auditing group, National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow 226 001 (India)

    2009-08-15

    This study investigated the effects of arsenic on the in vitro activities of the enzymes (nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase) involved in nitrate metabolism in the roots, rhizomes, and fronds of four-month old Pteris vittata (arsenic - hyperaccumulator) and Pteris ensiformis (non-arsenic--hyperaccumulator) plants. The arsenic treatments (0, 150, and 300 muM as sodium arsenate) in hydroponics had adverse effects on the root and frond dry weights, and this effect was more evident in P. ensiformis than in P. vittata. Nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase activities of arsenate-treated plants were reduced more in P. ensiformis than in P. vittata. This effect was accompanied by similar decreases in tissue NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentrations. Therefore, this decrease is interpreted as being indirect, i.e., the consequence of the reduced NO{sub 3}{sup -} uptake and translocation in the plants. The study shows the difference in the tolerance level of the two Pteris species with varying sensitivity to arsenic. - Arsenic reduced the activity of nitrate and nitrite reductase more in Pteris ensiformis than Pteris vittata.

  1. A preliminary study on estimating extra-cellular nitrate reductase activities in estuarine systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pant H. K.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes catalyzing ammonium (NH4+/nitrate (NO3– into nitrous oxide (N2O/molecular nitrogen (N2, play critical roles in water quality management. The objective of this paper was to investigate the role of extra-cellular enzymes in cycling of nitrogen (N in aquatic systems. It appears that N in estuaries, salt marshes, etc., does not stay long enough to be available for uptake, thus, creating N limited conditions. This study showed that indigenous extra-cellular nitrate reductase along with others involved in N transformations in the waters/sediments of estuarine systems can cause complete removal of NH4+ and NO3– from the waters and available NH4+ and NO3– from the sediments. These results indicate that due to high extra-cellular nitrate reductase and other enzymes associated with N transformations in sediments/waters, substantial amounts of NH4+ and NO3– can be quickly lost from the systems as N2O and/or nitric oxide (NO, in turn, creating N limited conditions in estuarine systems. Such high activities of indigenous nitrate reductase and others are useful in removing readily bioavailable N from the systems, thereby avoidance of eutrophic conditions. However, they might contribute in increasing the N2O, a potent greenhouse gas with global warming potential (GWP of 296, in the atmosphere.

  2. 68Ga-DOTA-TOC uptake in neuroendocrine tumour and healthy tissue: differentiation of physiological uptake and pathological processes in PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroiss, A; Putzer, D; Decristoforo, C; Uprimny, C; Warwitz, B; Nilica, B; Gabriel, M; Kendler, D; Waitz, D; Widmann, G; Virgolini, I J

    2013-04-01

    We wanted to establish the range of (68)Ga-DOTA-TOC uptake in liver and bone metastases of patients with neuroendocrine tumours (NET) and to establish the range of its uptake in pancreatic NET. This would allow differentiation between physiological uptake and tumour-related somatostatin receptor expression in the pancreas (including the uncinate process), liver and bone. Finally, we wanted to test for differences in patients with NET, either treated or not treated with peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). In 249 patients, 390 (68)Ga-DOTA-TOC PET/CT studies were performed. The clinical indications for PET/CT were gastroenteropancreatic NET (194 studies), nongastroenteropancreatic NET (origin in the lung and rectum; 46 studies), NET of unknown primary (111 studies), phaeochromocytoma/glomus tumours (18 studies), and radioiodine-negative metastatic thyroid carcinoma (21 studies). SUVmax (mean ± standard deviation) values of (68)Ga-DOTA-TOC were 29.8 ± 16.5 in 162 liver metastases, 19.8 ± 18.8 in 89 bone metastases and 34.6 ± 17.1 in 43 pancreatic NET (33.6 ± 14.3 in 30 tumours of the uncinate process and 36.3 ± 21.5 in 13 tumours of the pancreatic tail). A significant difference in SUVmax (p TOC is an excellent tracer for the imaging of tumours expressing somatostatin receptors on the tumour cell surface, facilitating the detection of even small tumour lesions. The noninvasive PET/CT approach by measurement of regional SUVmax can offer important clinical information to distinguish between physiological and pathological somatostatin receptor expression, especially in the uncinate process. PRRT does not significantly influence SUVmax, except in liver metastases of patients with NET.

  3. Assessing the impact of changes in landuse and management practices on the diffuse pollution and retention of nitrate in a riparian floodplain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Stefan; Jacobs, Joerg; Voss, Anja; Bronstert, Axel; Zehe, Erwin

    2008-01-15

    In many European lowland rivers and riparian floodplains diffuse nutrient pollution is causing a major risk for the surface waters and groundwater to not achieve a good status as demanded by the European Water Framework Directive. In order to delimit the impact of diffuse nutrient pollution substantial and often controversial changes in landuse and management are under discussion. In this study we investigate the impact of two complex scenarios considering changes in landuse and land management practices on the nitrate loads of a typical lowland stream and the riparian groundwater in the North German Plains. Therefore the impacts of both scenarios on the nitrate dynamics, the attenuation efficiency and the nitrate exchange between groundwater and surface water were investigated for a 998.1 km(2) riparian floodplain of the Lower and Central Havel River and compared with the current conditions. Both scenarios target a substantial improvement of the ecological conditions and the water quality in the research area but promote different typical riparian landscape functions and consider a different grade of economical and legal feasibility of the proposed measures. Scenario 1 focuses on the optimisation of conservation measures for all natural resources of the riparian floodplain, scenario 2 considers measures in order to restore a good status of the water bodies mainly. The IWAN model was setup for the simulation of water balance and nitrate dynamics of the floodplain for a perennial simulation period of the current landuse and management conditions and of the scenario assumptions. The proposed landuse and management changes result in reduced rates of nitrate leaching from the root zone into the riparian groundwater (85% for scenario 1, 43% for scenario 2). The net contributions of nitrate from the floodplain can be reduced substantially for both scenarios. In case of scenario 2 a decrease by 70% can be obtained. For scenario 1 the nitrate exfiltration rates to the

  4. Exosomes: Mechanisms of Uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly J. McKelvey

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes are 30–100 nm microvesicles which contain complex cellular signals of RNA, protein and lipids. Because of this, exosomes are implicated as having limitless therapeutic potential for the treatment of cancer, pregnancy complications, infections, and autoimmune diseases. To date we know a considerable amount about exosome biogenesis and secretion, but there is a paucity of data regarding the uptake of exosomes by immune and non-immune cell types (e.g., cancer cells and the internal signalling pathways by which these exosomes elicit a cellular response. Answering these questions is of paramount importance.

  5. Exosomes: Mechanisms of Uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly J. McKelvey

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes are 30–100 nm microvesicles which contain complex cellular signals of RNA, protein and lipids. Because of this, exosomes are implicated as having limitless therapeutic potential for the treatment of cancer, pregnancy complications, infections, and autoimmune diseases. To date we know a considerable amount about exosome biogenesis and secretion, but there is a paucity of data regarding the uptake of exosomes by immune and non- immune cell types (e.g., cancer cells and the internal signalling pathways by which these exosomes elicit a cellular response. Answering these questions is of para‐ mount importance.

  6. Trace nitrate in oxic waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafiriou, O. C.; Ball, L. A.; Hanley, Q.

    1992-08-01

    We describe a modified (Garside, 1982, Marine Chemistry, 11, 159-167) nitrite method that permits measurements down to subnanomolar concentrations and present datafrom Atlantic and Carribean deepwater profiles for comparison with a published Pacific section. This important intermediate in the nitrogen cycle was detected in all samples. Concentrations were consistently lowest (0.1-0.4 nM) in oligotrophic surface waters. Below 1 km, carribean and Southwest Sargasso sea nitrite concentrations were 0.4-1 nM, decreasing with increasing depth; reported Pacific [NO 2] averages are several times higher. Profiles in the upper kilometer beneath the classical primary nitrate maximum (PNM) were qualitatively similar, exhibiting a smooth supra-exponential drop with depth to vvalues of ˜1-4 nM at 1 km. Then nitrite inventory in this "tail" of the PNM above 1 km with 1 nM ≤[NO 2]≤50 nM roughly equals that in the classical PNM. Significant differences among profiles in the 0.1-1 km regionn are observed, consistent with nitrite pool turnover of 3-7 days estimated from Redfield stoichiometry and tritium-helium ages. Thus seasonal and/or regional variations in factors altering the nitrite production-consumption balance, rather than transport, seem to be responsible for nitrite variability. Nitrite profiles with anomalous midwater or near-bottom fine structure, including multi-point maxima and minima, were found along the Venezuelan continental margin and at ≈ 13°N. These featurers are tentatively ascribed to boundary effects, as hydrographic and circumstantial evidence suggests that these waters interacted previously with the bottom.

  7. Synthesis and uptake of nitric oxide-releasing drugs by the P2 nucleoside transporter in Trypanosoma equiperdum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulère, L; Hoffmann, P; Bringaud, F; Périé, J

    2000-06-19

    A series of S-nitrosothiols, structurally related to the NO*-donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine, and of organic nitrate esters that contain amidine groups which specify a recognition via the trypanosomal purine transporter P2, were synthesized and tested for their ability to inhibit the uptake of [2-(3)H]adenosine on Trypanosoma equiperdum.

  8. Long-term monitoring of nitrate-N transport to drainage from three agricultural clayey till fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernstsen, V.; Olsen, P.; Rosenbom, A. E.

    2015-01-01

    The application of nitrogen (N) fertilisers to crops grown on tile-drained fields is necessary to sustain most modern crop production, but poses a risk to the aquatic environment since tile drains facilitate rapid transport pathways with no significant reduction in nitrate. To maintain the water quality of the aquatic environment and the provision of food from highly efficient agriculture in line with the EU's Water Framework Directive and Nitrates Directive, field-scale knowledge is imperative if there is to be differentiated N-regulation in future. This study describes nitrate-N leaching to drainage based on coherent monitoring of nitrate-N concentrations, the climate, the groundwater table and crop-specific parameters obtained over eleven years (2001-2011) at three subsurface-drained clayey till fields (1.3-2.3 ha). The monitoring results showed significant field differences in nitrate-N transport to drainage. Not only were these caused by periods of bare soil after short-season crops and N-fixing crops (pea), which have been shown to generate high nitrate-N concentrations in drainage, but by the hydrogeological field conditions that were shown to be the controlling factor of nitrate-N transport to drainage. The fields had the following characteristics: (A) the lowest mass transport (13 kg N ha-1) and fertiliser input had short-term and low-intensity drainage with the highest nitrate-N concentrations detected, representing 40% of net precipitation (226 mm) combined with low air temperatures, (B) the medium mass transport (14 kg N ha-1) had medium-term and medium-intensity drainage, representing 42% of net precipitation (471 mm) combined with periods of both low and higher air temperatures, (C) the highest mass transport (19 kg N ha-1) had long-term drainage, representing 68% of net precipitation (617 mm), but had the highest potential for in-situ soil denitrification and post-treatment (e.g. constructed wetlands) due to long periods with both high water

  9. D.NET case study

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    lremy

    developing products, marketing tools and building capacity of the grass root telecentre workers. D.Net recognized that it had several ideas worth developing into small interventions that would make big differences, but resource constraints were a barrier for scaling-up these initiatives. More demands, limited resources.

  10. Surgery for GEP-NETs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, Ulrich; Hansen, Carsten Palnæs

    2012-01-01

    Surgery is the only treatment that may cure the patient with gastroentero-pancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumours (NET) and neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC) and should always be considered as first line treatment if R0/R1 resection can be achieved. The surgical and interventional procedures for GEP...

  11. Net Neutrality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.

    2014-01-01

    The Netherlands is among the first countries that have put specific net neutrality standards in place. The decision to implement specific regulation was influenced by at least three factors. The first was the prevailing social and academic debate, partly due to developments in the United States. The

  12. Complexity Metrics for Workflow Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; van der Aalst, Wil M.P.

    2009-01-01

    Process modeling languages such as EPCs, BPMN, flow charts, UML activity diagrams, Petri nets, etc.\\ are used to model business processes and to configure process-aware information systems. It is known that users have problems understanding these diagrams. In fact, even process engineers and system...

  13. Historical Tracking of Nitrate in Contrasting Vineyard Using Water Isotopes and Nitrate Depth Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenger, M.; Erhardt, M.; Riedel, M.; Weiler, M.

    2015-12-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (EWFD) aims to achieve a good chemical status for the groundwater bodies in Europe by the year 2015. Despite the effort to reduce the nitrate pollution from agriculture within the last two decades, there are still many groundwater aquifers that exceed nitrate concentrations above the EWFD threshold of 50 mg/l. Viticulture is seen as a major contributor of nitrate leaching and sowing of a green cover was shown to have a positive effect on lowering the nitrate loads in the upper 90 cm of the soil. However, the consequences for nitrate leaching into the subsoil were not yet tested. We analyzed the nitrate concentrations and pore water stable isotope composition to a depth of 380 cm in soil profiles under an old vineyard and a young vineyard with either soil tillage or permanent green cover in between the grapevines. The pore water stable isotopes were used to calibrate a soil physical model, which was then used to infer the age of the soil water at different depths. This way, we could relate elevated nitrate concentrations below an old vineyard to tillage processes that took place during the winter two years before the sampling. We further showed that the elevated nitrate concentration in the subsoil of a young vineyard can be related to the soil tillage prior to the planting of the new vineyard. If the soil is kept bare due to tillage, a nitrate concentration of 200 kg NO3--N/ha is found in 290 to 380 cm depth 2.5 years after the installation of the vineyard. The amount of nitrate leaching is considerably reduced due to a seeded green cover between the grapevines that takes up a high share of the mobilized nitrate reducing a potential contamination of the groundwater.

  14. Nitrate and Ammonium Contribute to the Distinct Nitrogen Metabolism of Populus simonii during Moderate Salt Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Sen; Su, Li; Li, Yiming; Wang, Yinjuan; Zhang, Chunxia; Zhao, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Soil salinity is a major abiotic stressor affecting plant growth. Salinity affects nitrification and ammonification in the soil, however, limited information is available on the influence of different N sources on N metabolism during salt stress. To understand the N metabolism changes in response to different N sources during moderate salt stress, we investigated N uptake, assimilation and the transcript abundance of associated genes in Populus simonii seedlings treated with moderate salt stress (75mM NaCl) under hydroponic culture conditions with nitrate (NO3-) or ammonium (NH4+). Salt stress negatively affected plant growth in both NH4+-fed and NO3--fed plants. Both NH4+ uptake and the total N concentration were significantly increased in the roots of the NH4+-fed plants during salt stress. However, the NO3- uptake and nitrate reductase (NR) and nitrite reductase (NiR) activity primarily depended on the NO3- supply and was not influenced by salt stress. Salt stress decreased glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) activity in the roots and leaves. Most genes associated with NO3-uptake, reduction and N metabolism were down-regulated or remained unchanged; while two NH4+ transporter genes closely associated with NH4+ uptake (AMT1;2 and AMT1;6) were up-regulated in response to salt stress in the NH4+-fed plants. The accumulation of different amino acid compounds was observed in the NH4+- and NO3-- fed plants during salt treatment. The results suggested that N metabolism in P. simonii plants exposed to salt enhanced salt resistance in the plants that were fed with NO3- instead of NH4+ as the sole N source.

  15. The effect of different carbon sources on reduction of nitrate in effluent from the mining industry : Olika kolkällors inverkan på reduktion av nitrat i processvatten från gruvindustrin

    OpenAIRE

    Lindberg, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Mine water effluent contains high levels of nitrogen due to residues from undetonated ammonium- nitrate based explosives. Excess nitrogen in aquatic ecosystems can cause eutrophication. Within a mining area, tailings and clarification ponds have the potential to reduce nitrogen levels by biological uptake of nitrogen into growing algae and denitrification in pond sediments. A previous study at the LKAB Kiruna mine investigated the potential nitrogen removal within the tailings and clarificati...

  16. Inositol uptake in rat aorta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapoport, R.M.; Van Gorp, C.; Chang, Ki-Churl (Univ. of Cincinnati College of Medicine, OH (USA))

    1990-01-01

    {sup 3}H-inositol uptake into deendothelialized aorta was linear for at least 2 h and was composed of both a saturable, Na{sup +}-dependent, and a nonsaturable, Na{sup +}-independent component. The Na{sup +}-dependent component of inositol uptake had a K{sub m} of 50 {mu}M and a V{sub max} of 289 pmol/mg prot/h. Exposure to LiCl, ouabain, or Ca{sup 2+} - free Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate solution inhibited uptake. Metabolic poisoning with dinitrophenol, as well as incubation with phloretin, an inhibitor of carrier-mediated hexose transport, also inhibited uptake. Exposure to norepinephrine decreased inositol uptake, while phorbol myristate acetate was without effect. Isobutylmethylxanthine significantly increased inositol uptake, while the increased uptake due to dibutyryl cyclic AMP and forskolin were not statistically significant. Sodium nitroprusside, and activator of guanylate cyclase, and 8-bromo cyclic GMP, were without effect on uptake, as was methylene blue, an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase. Inositol uptake into the aorta was increased when the endothelium was allowed to remain intact, although this effect was likely due to uptake in both the endothelial and smooth muscle cells.

  17. Caught in the Net: Perineuronal Nets and Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Slaker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to drugs of abuse induces plasticity in the brain and creates persistent drug-related memories. These changes in plasticity and persistent drug memories are believed to produce aberrant motivation and reinforcement contributing to addiction. Most studies have explored the effect drugs of abuse have on pre- and postsynaptic cells and astrocytes; however, more recently, attention has shifted to explore the effect these drugs have on the extracellular matrix (ECM. Within the ECM are unique structures arranged in a net-like manner, surrounding a subset of neurons called perineuronal nets (PNNs. This review focuses on drug-induced changes in PNNs, the molecules that regulate PNNs, and the expression of PNNs within brain circuitry mediating motivation, reward, and reinforcement as it pertains to addiction.

  18. Molybdenum isotope fractionation by cyanobacterial assimilation during nitrate utilization and N2fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerkle, A L; Scheiderich, K; Maresca, J A; Liermann, L J; Brantley, S L

    2011-01-01

    We measured the δ98Mo of cells and media from molybdenum (Mo) assimilation experiments with the freshwater cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis, grown with nitrate as a nitrogen (N) source or fixing atmospheric N2. This organism uses a Mo-based nitrate reductase during nitrate utilization and a Mo-based dinitrogenase during N2 fixation under culture conditions here. We also demonstrate that it has a high-affinity Mo uptake system (ModABC) similar to other cyanobacteria, including marine N2-fixing strains. Anabaena variabilis preferentially assimilated light isotopes of Mo in all experiments, resulting in fractionations of −0.2‰ to −1.0‰ ± 0.2‰ between cells and media (εcells–media), extending the range of biological Mo fractionations previously reported. The fractionations were internally consistent within experiments, but varied with the N source utilized and for different growth phases sampled. During growth on nitrate, A. variabilis consistently produced fractionations of −0.3 ± 0.1‰ (mean ± standard deviation between experiments). When fixing N2, A. variabilis produced fractionations of −0.9 ± 0.1‰ during exponential growth, and −0.5 ± 0.1‰ during stationary phase. This pattern is inconsistent with a simple kinetic isotope effect associated with Mo transport, because Mo is likely transported through the ModABC uptake system under all conditions studied. We present a reaction network model for Mo isotope fractionation that demonstrates how Mo transport and storage, coordination changes during enzymatic incorporation, and the distribution of Mo inside the cell could all contribute to the total biological fractionations. Additionally, we discuss the potential importance of biologically incorporated Mo to organic matter-bound Mo in marine sediments. PMID:21092069

  19. Molybdenum isotope fractionation by cyanobacterial assimilation during nitrate utilization and N₂ fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerkle, A L; Scheiderich, K; Maresca, J A; Liermann, L J; Brantley, S L

    2011-01-01

    We measured the δ⁹⁸Mo of cells and media from molybdenum (Mo) assimilation experiments with the freshwater cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis, grown with nitrate as a nitrogen (N) source or fixing atmospheric N₂. This organism uses a Mo-based nitrate reductase during nitrate utilization and a Mo-based dinitrogenase during N₂ fixation under culture conditions here. We also demonstrate that it has a high-affinity Mo uptake system (ModABC) similar to other cyanobacteria, including marine N₂-fixing strains. Anabaena variabilis preferentially assimilated light isotopes of Mo in all experiments, resulting in fractionations of -0.2‰ to -1.0‰ ± 0.2‰ between cells and media (ε(cells-media)), extending the range of biological Mo fractionations previously reported. The fractionations were internally consistent within experiments, but varied with the N source utilized and for different growth phases sampled. During growth on nitrate, A. variabilis consistently produced fractionations of -0.3 ± 0.1‰ (mean ± standard deviation between experiments). When fixing N₂, A. variabilis produced fractionations of -0.9 ± 0.1‰ during exponential growth, and -0.5 ± 0.1‰ during stationary phase. This pattern is inconsistent with a simple kinetic isotope effect associated with Mo transport, because Mo is likely transported through the ModABC uptake system under all conditions studied. We present a reaction network model for Mo isotope fractionation that demonstrates how Mo transport and storage, coordination changes during enzymatic incorporation, and the distribution of Mo inside the cell could all contribute to the total biological fractionations. Additionally, we discuss the potential importance of biologically incorporated Mo to organic matter-bound Mo in marine sediments. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. An unexpected truth: increasing nitrate loading can decrease nitrate export from watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askarizadeh Bardsiri, A.; Grant, S. B.; Rippy, M.

    2015-12-01

    The discharge of anthropogenic nitrate (e.g., from partially treated sewage, return flows from agricultural irrigation, and runoff from animal feeding operations) to streams can negatively impact both human and ecosystem health. Managing these many point and non-point sources to achieve some specific end-point—for example, reducing the annual mass of nitrate exported from a watershed—can be a challenge, particularly in rapidly growing urban areas. Adding to this complexity is the fact that streams are not inert: they too can add or remove nitrate through assimilation (e.g., by stream-associated plants and animals) and microbially-mediated biogeochemical reactions that occur in streambed sediments (e.g., respiration, ammonification, nitrification, denitrification). By coupling a previously published correlation for in-stream processing of nitrate [Mulholland et al., Nature, 2008, 452, 202-205] with a stream network model of the Jacksons Creek watershed (Victoria, Australia) I demonstrate that managing anthropogenic sources of stream nitrate without consideration of in-stream processing can result in a number of non-intuitive "surprises"; for example, wastewater effluent discharges that increase nitrate loading but decrease in-stream nitrate concentrations can reduce the mass of nitrate exported from a watershed.

  1. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Army Net Zero Training Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-20

    sensors were strategically placed throughout the installation by magnetically attaching them to water main valve stems. The sensors check sound...Recycle Wrap  Substitutes for Packaging Materials  Re-Use of Textiles and Linens  Setting Printers to Double-Sided Printing Net Zero Waste...can effectively achieve source reduction. Clean and Re-Use Shop Rags - Shop rags represent a large textile waste stream at many installations. As a

  2. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Net Zero Waste Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-20

    Anaerobic Digesters – Although anaerobic digestion is not a new technology and has been used on a large-scale basis in wastewater treatment , the...technology and has been used on a large-scale basis in wastewater treatment , the use of the technology should be demonstrated with other...approaches can be used for cardboard and cellulose -based packaging materials. This approach is in line with the Net Zero Waste hierarchy in terms of

  3. Seeps regulate stream nitrate concentration in a forested Appalachian catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Driscoll, Michael A; DeWalle, David R

    2010-01-01

    Surface seeps can be defined as locations where upwelling ground water saturates the surface for most of the year and excess ground water can be delivered to the stream channel via surface flowpaths. If a stream is predominantly fed by seeps, then ground water added to the stream via these surface flowpaths may result in reduced interactions with the subsurface riparian zone. It is generally believed that seep ground water that upwells and then flows along surface flowpaths can be subject to diminished denitrification and biologic uptake processes. Seep effects on stream nitrate (NO(3)) concentration were studied in Baldwin Creek (5.35 km(2)), southwestern Pennsylvania. Nitrate retention within seep zones was evaluated over a 1-yr period (May 2002-2003) using a monthly, nested (top and bottom of seep) sampling approach along 15 individual seeps. Seep samples were analyzed for NO(3)-N, NH(3)-N, and dissolved organic carbon, along with stream waters and streamflow measurements at seven stream stations. Seeps were generally NO(3) sinks with concentrations decreasing downseep: 31% median annual reduction and 73% maximum monthly reduction. During cold and wet periods, seeps frequently behaved as NO(3) sources to the stream (NO(3) concentrations increased or remained constant downseep). Seep temperature and discharge were related to seasonal variability in seep NO(3) retention. Seasonal variations in stream NO(3) concentration have been attributed to upland soil and vegetation processes in numerous watersheds. At Baldwin Creek, seep NO(3) processing regulated the seasonal variability of stream NO(3) concentrations. These results suggest that seeps provide important water quality functions and can modulate the effects of elevated regional N deposition in Appalachian catchments.

  4. A dual porosity model of nutrient uptake by root hairs

    KAUST Repository

    Zygalakis, K. C.

    2011-08-09

    Summary: • The importance of root hairs in the uptake of sparingly soluble nutrients is understood qualitatively, but not quantitatively, and this limits efforts to breed plants tolerant of nutrient-deficient soils. • Here, we develop a mathematical model of nutrient uptake by root hairs allowing for hair geometry and the details of nutrient transport through soil, including diffusion within and between soil particles. We give illustrative results for phosphate uptake. • Compared with conventional \\'single porosity\\' models, this \\'dual porosity\\' model predicts greater root uptake because more nutrient is available by slow release from within soil particles. Also the effect of soil moisture is less important with the dual porosity model because the effective volume available for diffusion in the soil is larger, and the predicted effects of hair length and density are different. • Consistent with experimental observations, with the dual porosity model, increases in hair length give greater increases in uptake than increases in hair density per unit main root length. The effect of hair density is less in dry soil because the minimum concentration in solution for net influx is reached more rapidly. The effect of hair length is much less sensitive to soil moisture. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Ozone and haze pollution weakens net primary productivity in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xu; Unger, Nadine; Harper, Kandice; Xia, Xiangao; Liao, Hong; Zhu, Tong; Xiao, Jingfeng; Feng, Zhaozhong; Li, Jing

    2017-05-01

    Atmospheric pollutants have both beneficial and detrimental effects on carbon uptake by land ecosystems. Surface ozone (O3) damages leaf photosynthesis by oxidizing plant cells, while aerosols promote carbon uptake by increasing diffuse radiation and exert additional influences through concomitant perturbations to meteorology and hydrology. China is currently the world's largest emitter of both carbon dioxide and short-lived air pollutants. The land ecosystems of China are estimated to provide a carbon sink, but it remains unclear whether air pollution acts to inhibit or promote carbon uptake. Here, we employ Earth system modeling and multiple measurement datasets to assess the separate and combined effects of anthropogenic O3 and aerosol pollution on net primary productivity (NPP) in China. In the present day, O3 reduces annual NPP by 0.6 Pg C (14 %) with a range from 0.4 Pg C (low O3 sensitivity) to 0.8 Pg C (high O3 sensitivity). In contrast, aerosol direct effects increase NPP by 0.2 Pg C (5 %) through the combination of diffuse radiation fertilization, reduced canopy temperatures, and reduced evaporation leading to higher soil moisture. Consequently, the net effects of O3 and aerosols decrease NPP by 0.4 Pg C (9 %) with a range from 0.2 Pg C (low O3 sensitivity) to 0.6 Pg C (high O3 sensitivity). However, precipitation inhibition from combined aerosol direct and indirect effects reduces annual NPP by 0.2 Pg C (4 %), leading to a net air pollution suppression of 0.8 Pg C (16 %) with a range from 0.6 Pg C (low O3 sensitivity) to 1.0 Pg C (high O3 sensitivity). Our results reveal strong dampening effects of air pollution on the land carbon uptake in China today. Following the current legislation emission scenario, this suppression will be further increased by the year 2030, mainly due to a continuing increase in surface O3. However, the maximum technically feasible reduction scenario could drastically relieve the current level of NPP damage by 70 % in 2030

  6. Dependence of nitrate-induced oxalate accumulation on nitrate reduction in rice leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hua; Jiang, Linrong; Liu, Ee; Zhang, Jianjun; Liu, Fang; Peng, Xinxiang

    2008-06-01

    Oxalate, a common constituent in many plants, is known to play important functional roles in plants. However, excess levels of oxalate in edible parts of plants adversely affect their quality as food. Understanding the regulatory mechanism in plants, particularly in food crops, is of both scientific and practical significance. While a number of studies have shown that nitrate can efficiently induce oxalate accumulation in plants, how it elicits such an effect is not well understood. This study aimed to gain a further insight into the mechanism underlying the nitrate-induced oxalate accumulation. Nitrate-N efficiently caused oxalate accumulation in rice leaves, depending on the nitrate concentrations and treatment time. In contrast, same nitrogen molar levels of the other N forms such as nitrite, ammonium, glutamate and urea either had no effect on the accumulation or even reduced the oxalate level. When glutamate, glutamine, asparate and asparagine were added into the nutrient solution that already contained saturating concentration of nitrate, both oxalate levels and NR activity were correspondingly decreased. In all of these modes of treatment, the change in NR activity was positively paralleled to that in oxalate levels. For a further confirmation, we generated the transgenic rice plants with a NR interference gene introduced. The result further demonstrated that in the transgenic plants, unlike in wild-type plants, oxalate was no longer able to accumulate in response to the nitrate treatment even though the endogenous nitrate levels were substantially elevated. Taken together, our results suggest that the nitrate-induced oxalate accumulation in rice leaves is dependent on the NR-catalyzed nitrate reduction, rather than on nitrate itself or nitrite reduction or its downstream metabolites.

  7. HANPP Collection: Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity (NPP) portion of the Human Appropriation of Net Primary...

  8. Hydrodynamic characteristics of plane netting used for aquaculture net cages in uniform current

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DONG, SHUCHUANG; HU, FUXIANG; KUMAZAWA, TAISEI; SIODE, DAISUKE; TOKAI, TADASHI

    2016-01-01

      The hydrodynamic characteristics of polyethylene (PE) netting and chain link wire netting with different types of twine diameter and mesh size for aquaculture net cages were examined by experiments in a flume tank...

  9. The effect of acute and 7-days dietary nitrate on mechanical efficiency, exercise performance and cardiac biomarkers in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beijers, Rosanne J H C G; Huysmans, Stephanie M D; van de Bool, Coby; Kingma, Boris R M; Verdijk, Lex B; van Loon, Luc J C; Meex, Steven J R; Gosker, Harry R; Schols, Annemie M W J

    2017-10-31

    Many COPD patients have a reduced exercise capacity and mechanical efficiency and are at increased cardiometabolic risk. This study aimed to assess acute and 7-days effects of dietary nitrate on mechanical efficiency, exercise performance and cardiac biomarkers in patients with COPD. This double-blind, randomized cross-over placebo controlled trial included 20 mild-to-moderate COPD patients (66.6 ± 7.5 years) with moderate exercise impairments and decreased mechanical efficiency, normal BMI (26 ± 3 kg/m 2 ) but high prevalence of abdominal obesity (83.3%). Subjects were randomly allocated to the treatment order of 7 days sodium nitrate ingestion (∼8 mmol/day) and 7 days placebo (NaCl solution) or vice versa, separated by a washout period. Before (Day-1) and after (Day-7) both intervention periods resting metabolic rate and the metabolic response during submaximal cycle ergometry, cycling endurance time, plasma nitrate and nitrite levels, cardiac plasma biomarkers (e.g. cardiac troponin T, Nt-proBNP and creatinine kinase) and blood pressure were measured. Subsequently, gross, net and delta mechanical efficiency were calculated. Plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations increased at Day-1 and Day-7 after sodium nitrate but not after placebo ingestion. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure did not change following nitrate ingestion. Furthermore, no differences were observed in gross, net, and delta mechanical efficiency during submaximal exercise, cycling endurance time and cardiac biomarkers between nitrate and placebo on Day-1 and Day-7. Meta-analysis of all available studies in COPD also showed no beneficial effect of beetroot juice on systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Acute as well as 7-days sodium nitrate supplementation does not modulate mechanical efficiency, blood pressure or cardiac biomarkers in mild-to-moderate COPD patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  10. The influence of Glyceria maxima and nitrate input on the composition and nitrate metabolism of the dissimilatory nitrate-reducing bacterial community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijburg, J.W.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of nitrate addition and the presence of Glyceria maxima (reed sweetgrass) on the composition and nitrate metabolism of the dissimilatory nitrate-reducing bacterial community was investigated. Anoxic freshwater sediment was incubated in pots with or without G. maxima and with or without

  11. The influence of Glyceria maxima and nitrate input on the composition and nitrate metabolism of the dissimilatory nitrate-reducing bacterial community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijburg, J.W.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of nitrate addition and the presence of Glyceria maxima (reed sweetgrass) on the composition and nitrate metabolism of the dissimilatory nitrate-reducing bacterial community was investigated. Anoxic freshwater sediment was incubated in pots with or without G. maxima and with or

  12. Multiobjective optimization for Groundwater Nitrate Pollution Control. Application to El Salobral-Los Llanos aquifer (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llopis-Albert, C.; Peña-Haro, S.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Molina, J.

    2012-04-01

    Water quality management is complex due to the inter-relations between socio-political, environmental and economic constraints and objectives. In order to choose an appropriate policy to reduce nitrate pollution in groundwater it is necessary to consider different objectives, often in conflict. In this paper, a hydro-economic modeling framework, based on a non-linear optimization(CONOPT) technique, which embeds simulation of groundwater mass transport through concentration response matrices, is used to study optimal policies for groundwater nitrate pollution control under different objectives and constraints. Three objectives were considered: recovery time (for meeting the environmental standards, as required by the EU Water Framework Directive and Groundwater Directive), maximum nitrate concentration in groundwater, and net benefits in agriculture. Another criterion was added: the reliability of meeting the nitrate concentration standards. The approach allows deriving the trade-offs between the reliability of meeting the standard, the net benefits from agricultural production and the recovery time. Two different policies were considered: spatially distributed fertilizer standards or quotas (obtained through multi-objective optimization) and fertilizer prices. The multi-objective analysis allows to compare the achievement of the different policies, Pareto fronts (or efficiency frontiers) and tradeoffs for the set of mutually conflicting objectives. The constraint method is applied to generate the set of non-dominated solutions. The multi-objective framework can be used to design groundwater management policies taking into consideration different stakeholders' interests (e.g., policy makers, agricultures or environmental groups). The methodology was applied to the El Salobral-Los Llanos aquifer in Spain. Over the past 30 years the area has undertaken a significant socioeconomic development, mainly due to the intensive groundwater use for irrigated crops, which has

  13. Sphagnum mosses--masters of efficient N-uptake while avoiding intoxication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fritz

    Full Text Available Peat forming Sphagnum mosses are able to prevent the dominance of vascular plants under ombrotrophic conditions by efficiently scavenging atmospherically deposited nitrogen (N. N-uptake kinetics of these mosses are therefore expected to play a key role in differential N availability, plant competition, and carbon sequestration in Sphagnum peatlands. The interacting effects of rain N concentration and exposure time on moss N-uptake rates are, however, poorly understood. We investigated the effects of N-concentration (1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500 µM, N-form ((15N-ammonium or nitrate and exposure time (0.5, 2, 72 h on uptake kinetics for Sphagnum magellanicum from a pristine bog in Patagonia (Argentina and from a Dutch bog exposed to decades of N-pollution. Uptake rates for ammonium were higher than for nitrate, and N-binding at adsorption sites was negligible. During the first 0.5 h, N-uptake followed saturation kinetics revealing a high affinity (Km 3.5-6.5 µM. Ammonium was taken up 8 times faster than nitrate, whereas over 72 hours this was only 2 times. Uptake rates decreased drastically with increasing exposure times, which implies that many short-term N-uptake experiments in literature may well have overestimated long-term uptake rates and ecosystem retention. Sphagnum from the polluted site (i.e. long-term N exposure showed lower uptake rates than mosses from the pristine site, indicating an adaptive response. Sphagnum therefore appears to be highly efficient in using short N pulses (e.g. rainfall in pristine areas. This strategy has important ecological and evolutionary implications: at high N input rates, the risk of N-toxicity seems to be reduced by lower uptake rates of Sphagnum, at the expense of its long-term filter capacity and related competitive advantage over vascular plants. As shown by our conceptual model, interacting effects of N-deposition and climate change (changes in rainfall will seriously alter the functioning of Sphagnum

  14. Sphagnum Mosses - Masters of Efficient N-Uptake while Avoiding Intoxication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Christian; Lamers, Leon P. M.; Riaz, Muhammad; van den Berg, Leon J. L.; Elzenga, Theo J. T. M.

    2014-01-01

    Peat forming Sphagnum mosses are able to prevent the dominance of vascular plants under ombrotrophic conditions by efficiently scavenging atmospherically deposited nitrogen (N). N-uptake kinetics of these mosses are therefore expected to play a key role in differential N availability, plant competition, and carbon sequestration in Sphagnum peatlands. The interacting effects of rain N concentration and exposure time on moss N-uptake rates are, however, poorly understood. We investigated the effects of N-concentration (1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500 µM), N-form (15N - ammonium or nitrate) and exposure time (0.5, 2, 72 h) on uptake kinetics for Sphagnum magellanicum from a pristine bog in Patagonia (Argentina) and from a Dutch bog exposed to decades of N-pollution. Uptake rates for ammonium were higher than for nitrate, and N-binding at adsorption sites was negligible. During the first 0.5 h, N-uptake followed saturation kinetics revealing a high affinity (Km 3.5–6.5 µM). Ammonium was taken up 8 times faster than nitrate, whereas over 72 hours this was only 2 times. Uptake rates decreased drastically with increasing exposure times, which implies that many short-term N-uptake experiments in literature may well have overestimated long-term uptake rates and ecosystem retention. Sphagnum from the polluted site (i.e. long-term N exposure) showed lower uptake rates than mosses from the pristine site, indicating an adaptive response. Sphagnum therefore appears to be highly efficient in using short N pulses (e.g. rainfall in pristine areas). This strategy has important ecological and evolutionary implications: at high N input rates, the risk of N-toxicity seems to be reduced by lower uptake rates of Sphagnum, at the expense of its long-term filter capacity and related competitive advantage over vascular plants. As shown by our conceptual model, interacting effects of N-deposition and climate change (changes in rainfall) will seriously alter the functioning of Sphagnum peatlands

  15. Sphagnum mosses--masters of efficient N-uptake while avoiding intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Christian; Lamers, Leon P M; Riaz, Muhammad; van den Berg, Leon J L; Elzenga, Theo J T M

    2014-01-01

    Peat forming Sphagnum mosses are able to prevent the dominance of vascular plants under ombrotrophic conditions by efficiently scavenging atmospherically deposited nitrogen (N). N-uptake kinetics of these mosses are therefore expected to play a key role in differential N availability, plant competition, and carbon sequestration in Sphagnum peatlands. The interacting effects of rain N concentration and exposure time on moss N-uptake rates are, however, poorly understood. We investigated the effects of N-concentration (1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500 µM), N-form ((15)N-ammonium or nitrate) and exposure time (0.5, 2, 72 h) on uptake kinetics for Sphagnum magellanicum from a pristine bog in Patagonia (Argentina) and from a Dutch bog exposed to decades of N-pollution. Uptake rates for ammonium were higher than for nitrate, and N-binding at adsorption sites was negligible. During the first 0.5 h, N-uptake followed saturation kinetics revealing a high affinity (Km 3.5-6.5 µM). Ammonium was taken up 8 times faster than nitrate, whereas over 72 hours this was only 2 times. Uptake rates decreased drastically with increasing exposure times, which implies that many short-term N-uptake experiments in literature may well have overestimated long-term uptake rates and ecosystem retention. Sphagnum from the polluted site (i.e. long-term N exposure) showed lower uptake rates than mosses from the pristine site, indicating an adaptive response. Sphagnum therefore appears to be highly efficient in using short N pulses (e.g. rainfall in pristine areas). This strategy has important ecological and evolutionary implications: at high N input rates, the risk of N-toxicity seems to be reduced by lower uptake rates of Sphagnum, at the expense of its long-term filter capacity and related competitive advantage over vascular plants. As shown by our conceptual model, interacting effects of N-deposition and climate change (changes in rainfall) will seriously alter the functioning of Sphagnum peatlands.

  16. Nitrogen release from differently aged Raphanus sativus L. nitrate catch crops during mineralization at autumn temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Elsgaard, Lars; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind

    2016-01-01

    radish (Raphanus sativus, L.) has emerged as a promising nitrate catch crop in cereal cropping, although the course of remineralization of residue N following termination of this frost-sensitive crucifer remains obscured. We incubated radish residues of different age (different planting and harvest dates......) with a loamy sand soil; mineralization of residue N was determined after 1, 2, 4 and 7 months of incubation at 2 °C and 10 °C. Incubations with soil only and with residues of white mustard (Sinapis alba, L) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne, L.) were included as references. Using linear regression, net N...

  17. High silicate:nitrate ratios in eastern boundary upwelling waters may produce greater carbon drawdown than predicted from Redfield C:N ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugdale, R. C.; Fuller, J. R.; Marchi, A.; Parker, A. E.; Wilkerson, F. P.

    2010-12-01

    The Redfield ratio defines the average ratio of changes in major nutrient concentrations during primary production as 106:16:1, C:N:P. This ratio and the phytoplankton uptake or drawdown of nitrate (new production in the ocean) are often used to estimate carbon production and export of carbon to the deep ocean. Elevated nitrate in upwelled water is rapidly drawn down by diatoms, usually within 3-5 days and the assumption is that carbon drawdown ceases at that end of that time. However, in large-volume enclosure experiments using silicate-rich San Francisco Bay water, silicate drawdown continued well after nitrate was exhausted by phytoplankton growth. Enclosure experiments made with water upwelled at Point. Reyes, northern California followed the same pattern of silicate drawdown continuing past nitrate exhaustion. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) drawdown tracked silicate drawdown after nitrate exhaustion; i.e. the DIC drawdown followed more closely the drawdown of silicate than nitrate. The drawdown of DIC calculated from nitrate drawdown using Redfield resulted in an underestimate of the measured DIC disappearance. In upwelling waters with Si:N ratios of greater than l, the uptake of DIC may be substantially underestimated. The implication of these preliminary results is that coastal upwelling in basins rich in silicate, e.g. in the North Pacific, may account for substantially more drawdown of CO2 than would be calculated from upwelled nitrate concentrations. In eastern boundary upwelling areas, a modification of the Redfield ratio to incorporate C:Si is necessary since these areas are dominated by diatoms. Victor Smetacek’s designation of diatoms as the "workhorses of the sea" becomes more appropriate than ever. Their obligate requirement for Si to construct their frustules makes them responsible for this re-interpretation of estimating carbon drawdown using the Redfield ratio. In these circumstances we may better define new production in terms of silicate

  18. Spatial Dynamics of Nitrate in a Developing Wetland within a Mixed-Use Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, S.; Brown, K.; Mackay, D. S.

    2011-12-01

    Assessing channel dynamics driving nitrate (NO3-) and other nutrient levels in streams and wetland systems is important in devising methods of nutrient reduction for improvements in downstream aquatic health. The Conewango Creek system in Cattaraugus County, New York is a low-order tributary within the Mississippi watershed. High levels of nutrient inputs to the stream from surrounding agricultural and developed areas, along with reduced flow are enhancing eutrophication and changing the stream channel into a wetland system. Riparian landowners immediately downstream of the agricultural areas are requesting that the Conewango be rehabilitated for recreation purposes. This is potentially at odds with the current nutrient retention function served by the developing wetland system. To better understand the significance of this function, three concepts were evaluated for the interpretation of the spatial and temporal variance of groundwater and surface water nitrates: hyporheic zone processes, nutrient flushing, and variations in land use. Spatially intensive groundwater and surface water samples were collected along a 6 km portion of the channel on three dates and analyzed for NO3- concentrations. High variability was found in the ground and surface water [NO3-] between the dates of sample collection. Peaks in groundwater [NO3-] occurred on each sample date suggesting the presence of preferential flow of subsurface nitrate supporting its flushing to the channel. During the recession period following a period of high flow, surface and groundwater nitrates were correlated (P NO3-] increased to toxic levels while the groundwater levels declined. There was also a relationship between channel bottom topography and nitrate peaks, supporting the nutrient flushing hypothesis. Based on the data we could not rule out the potential for hyporheic exchange dictating nitrate concentrations in subsurface samples. To gain further insight on the functioning of the system we employed

  19. Assessing Stream Ecosystem Metabolism and Nitrate Utilization at Reduced Nitrate Levels Using a Chamber-Based Approach: Looking Below, Scaling Up, and Thinking Inside the Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijo, C. J.; Cohen, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    As nitrate levels in lotic systems have increased, nutrient reduction strategies have become the centerpiece of water quality standards to protect and restore stream ecosystems. While reducing anthropogenic nitrate (NO3) loads has many positive effects, we lack a fundamental understanding of how lotic systems respond to changing concentrations and no methods exist to characterize nutrient uptake behavior below ambient levels. Therefore, it is difficult to predict whether nutrient reductions will meet management goals. To fill this knowledge gap, we developed a chamber-based method which allows characterization of NO3 utilization along the two major uptake pathways at reduced NO3 levels. The chamber blocks flow by insertion into upper sediments but allows light in and sediment-water-air interactions to occur. At Gum Slough Springs, Florida, high-resolution in-situ sensors measured water quality while NO3 reduced from ambient levels (1.40 mg N/L) to below regulatory thresholds (ca. 0.20 mg N/L) within one week. Daytime NO3 uptake, resulting from both plant uptake and denitrification, was consistently greater than nighttime uptake, which is denitrification alone. Using this method, we compared NO3 uptake rates (UNO3) and gross primary production (GPP) across three vegetative regimes (i.e. submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV), SAV with epiphytic algae, and algae alone) and related GPP estimates from the chamber to reach scale. Results showed that UNO3 and GPP were greatest in SAV, GPP was negatively correlated to [NO3] in algae, denitrification rates did not vary by vegetation type, and chamber GPP (e.g. 6-8 g O2/m2/day in SAV) was comparable to reach-scale estimates (6-12 g O2/m2/day). Our results suggest UNO3 and GPP differ by vegetation regimes, GPP scales from chamber to reach level, algal presence potentially reduces GPP, and a lack of nutrient limitation even at low [NO3]. Current work includes replicating measurements across systems as well as refining the

  20. Isolated unit tests in .Net

    OpenAIRE

    Haukilehto, Tero

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis isolation in unit testing is studied to get a precise picture of the isolation frameworks available for .Net environment. At the beginning testing is discussed in theory with the benefits and the problems it may have been linked with. The theory includes software development in general in connection with testing. Theory of isolation is also described before the actual isolation frameworks are represented. Common frameworks are described in more detail and comparable informa...

  1. The intent to exercise influences the cerebral O(2)/carbohydrate uptake ratio in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Mads K; Ide, Kojiro; Cai, Yan

    2002-01-01

    to 3.7 +/- 0.2 in the first minutes of the recovery (P exercise did not change the uptake ratio significantly. Yet, in a second experiment, when submaximal exercise required a maximal effort due to partial neuromuscular blockade, the ratio decreased and remained low (4.9 +/- 0.2......During and after maximal exercise there is a 15-30 % decrease in the metabolic uptake ratio (O(2)/[glucose + 1/2 lactate]) and a net lactate uptake by the human brain. This study evaluated if this cerebral metabolic uptake ratio is influenced by the intent to exercise, and whether a change could......) in the early recovery (n = 10; P 2) when the brain is activated by exhaustive exercise, and that such metabolic changes are influenced by the will to exercise. We speculate that the uptake ratio...

  2. Nitrogen uptake, nitrate leaching and root development in winter-grown wheat and fodder radish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Hansen, Elly Møller; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag

    2017-01-01

    Early seeding of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has been proposed as a means to reduce N leaching as an alternative to growing cover crops like fodder radish (Raphanus sativus L.). The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of winter wheat, seeded early and normally, and of fodder...

  3. The effects of pH and temperature on phosphate and nitrate uptake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... Department of Environmental, Water and Earth Sciences, Tshwane University of Technology, P/Bag X680, Pretoria,. 0001, South Africa. Accepted 14 ... when excessively released to the environment can lead to the undesirable growth of ... of carbon sources by other organisms. Despite the fact that protozoa ...

  4. The effects of pH and temperature on phosphate and nitrate uptake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... of carbon sources by other organisms. Despite the fact that protozoa are known to enhance the mineralization of nutrients (phosphorus and nitrogen) in aquatic microcosms and in activated sludge, little is known on the effect of temperature and pH on their nutrient removal efficiency. This then forms the ...

  5. Effects of NH4 +-N/ NO3 --N ratios on growth, nitrate uptake and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When the NH4 +-N/ NO3 --N ratios was decreased from 100:0 to 0:100, the pyruvate, citrate, succinate, fumarate contents were all increased gradually and the malate content was highest at NH4 +-N/ NO3 --N ratio of 25:75. The water soluble oxalate content of the spinach fresh shoot at either NH4 +-N or NO3 --N as sole ...

  6. Nitrate Uptake Capacity and Efficiency of Upper Mississippi River Flow-Regulated Backwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    submersed and emergent macrophyte growth with attached microbial communities and accrete anaerobic organic sedi- ments that provide suitable habitat...similar shallow mor- phometry (Table 1) and are eutrophic (chlorophyll = 55 mg·m-3; total P = 0.082 mg·L-1; soluble reactive P = 0.041mg·L-1... macrophytes occupy large portions of the surface area of Lower Peterson, Third, Second, and First Lakes. In particular, American lotus (Nelumbo lutea

  7. NO3 -N ratios on growth, nitrate uptake and organic acid levels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... -N ratio could increase crop yield and reduce NO3. - content of vegetable (Shen et al., 2003; Dong et al.,. 2004; Chen et al., 2005). Moreover, different ratios of. NH4. +-N/ NO3. --N in a nutrient solution or in soil with con- trolled nitrification not only affected plant growth, but also the organic acid content to a ...

  8. Striking a balance: does nitrate uptake and metabolism regulate both NO generation and scavenging?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mur, Luis A J; Hebelstrup, Kim; Gupta, Kapuganti J

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) influences many aspects of plant development and responses to stress.The concentration of NO can play an important role in influencing its action (for example, in stomatal regulation; Wilson et al., 2009) so that the mechanisms through which NO content is modulated must be an im...

  9. [Can nitrates lead to indirect toxicity?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamon, M

    2007-09-01

    For many years, nitrates have been used, at low dosages, as an additive in salted food. New laws have been promulgated to limit their concentration in water due to increased levels found in soils, rivers and even the aquifer. Although nitrate ions themselves have not toxic properties, bacterial reduction into nitrite ions (occurring even in aqueous medium) can lead to nitrous anhydride, which in turn generates nitrosonium ions. Nitrosium ions react with secondary amine to give nitrosamines, many of which are cancer-inducing agents at very low doses. Opinions on this toxicity are clear-cut and difficult to reconcile. In fact, increased levels are due, in a large part, to the use of nitrates as fertiliéers but also to bacterial transformation of human and animal nitrogenous wastes such as urea.

  10. Event hierarchies in DanNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bolette Sandford; Nimb, Sanni

    2008-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler udarbejdelsen af et verbumshierarki i det leksikalsk-semantiske ordnet, DanNet.......Artiklen omhandler udarbejdelsen af et verbumshierarki i det leksikalsk-semantiske ordnet, DanNet....

  11. The Uniframe .Net Web Service Discovery Service

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berbeco, Robert W

    2003-01-01

    Microsoft .NET allows the creation of distributed systems in a seamless manner Within NET small, discrete applications, referred to as Web services, are utilized to connect to each other or larger applications...

  12. Long Term RadNet Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This RadNet Quality Data Asset includes all data since initiation and when ERAMS was expanded to become RadNet, name changed to reflect new mission. This includes...

  13. Excess nitrate loads to coastal waters reduces nitrate removal efficiency: mechanism and implications for coastal eutrophication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunau, Mirko; Voss, Maren; Erickson, Matthew; Dziallas, Claudia; Casciotti, Karen; Ducklow, Hugh

    2013-05-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems are becoming increasingly nitrogen-saturated due to anthropogenic activities, such as agricultural loading with artificial fertilizer. Thus, more and more reactive nitrogen is entering streams and rivers, primarily as nitrate, where it is eventually transported towards the coastal zone. The assimilation of nitrate by coastal phytoplankton and its conversion into organic matter is an important feature of the aquatic nitrogen cycle. Dissolved reactive nitrogen is converted into a particulate form, which eventually undergoes nitrogen removal via microbial denitrification. High and unbalanced nitrate loads to the coastal zone may alter planktonic nitrate assimilation efficiency, due to the narrow stochiometric requirements for nutrients typically shown by these organisms. This implies a cascade of changes for the cycling of other elements, such as carbon, with unknown consequences at the ecosystem level. Here, we report that the nitrate removal efficiency (NRE) of a natural phytoplankton community decreased under high, unbalanced nitrate loads, due to the enhanced recycling of organic nitrogen and subsequent production and microbial transformation of excess ammonium. NRE was inversely correlated with the amount of nitrate present, and mechanistically controlled by dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), and organic carbon (Corg) availability. These findings have important implications for the management of nutrient runoff to coastal zones. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Uptake of nuclides by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greger, Maria [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Botany

    2004-04-01

    This review on plant uptake of elements has been prepared to demonstrate how plants take up different elements. The work discusses the nutrient elements, as well as the general uptake and translocation in plants, both via roots and by foliar absorption. Knowledge of the uptake by the various elements within the periodic system is then reviewed. The work also discusses transfer factors (TF) as well as difficulties using TF to understand the uptake by plants. The review also focuses on species differences. Knowledge necessary to understand and calculate plant influence on radionuclide recirculation in the environment is discussed, in which the plant uptake of a specific nuclide and the fate of that nuclide in the plant must be understood. Plants themselves determine the uptake, the soil/sediment determines the availability of the nuclides and the nuclides themselves can interact with each other, which also influences the uptake. Consequently, it is not possible to predict the nuclide uptake in plants by only analysing the nuclide concentration of the soil/substrate.

  15. PsychoNet: a psycholinguistc commonsense ontology

    OpenAIRE

    Mohtasseb, Haytham; Ahmed, Amr

    2010-01-01

    Ontologies have been widely accepted as the most advanced knowledge representation model. This paper introduces PsychoNet, a new knowledgebase that forms the link between psycholinguistic taxonomy, existing in LIWC, and its semantic textual representation in the form of commonsense semantic ontology, represented by ConceptNet. The integration of LIWC and ConceptNet and the added functionalities facilitate employing ConceptNet in psycholinguistic studies. Furthermore, it simplifies utilization...

  16. 78 FR 72451 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BL74 Net Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service...). These regulations provide guidance on the computation of net investment income. The regulations affect... lesser of: (A) The individual's net investment income for such taxable year, or (B) the excess (if any...

  17. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net investment. 69.302 Section 69.302... Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B Rural...) Investment in Accounts 2002, 2003 and to the extent such inclusions are allowed by this Commission, Account...

  18. 47 CFR 65.450 - Net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.450 Section 65.450... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.450 Net income. (a) Net income shall consist of all revenues derived from the provision of interstate telecommunications services...

  19. 47 CFR 65.500 - Net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.500 Section 65.500... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Interexchange Carriers § 65.500 Net income. The net income methodology specified in § 65.450 shall be utilized by all interexchange carriers that are...

  20. NetBeans IDE 8 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Salter, David

    2014-01-01

    If you're a Java developer of any level using NetBeans and want to learn how to get the most out of NetBeans, then this book is for you. Learning how to utilize NetBeans will provide a firm foundation for your Java application development.

  1. Characterizing behavioural congruences for Petri nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Priese, Lutz; Sassone, Vladimiro

    1995-01-01

    We exploit a notion of interface for Petri nets in order to design a set of net combinators. For such a calculus of nets, we focus on the behavioural congruences arising from four simple notions of behaviour, viz., traces, maximal traces, step, and maximal step traces, and from the corresponding...

  2. 27 CFR 4.37 - Net contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the volume of wine within the container, except that the following tolerances shall be allowed: (1... THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.37 Net contents. (a) Statement of net contents. The net contents of wine for which a standard of fill is...

  3. Growth and nitrogen uptake kinetics in cultured Prorocentrum donghaiense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangxi Hu

    Full Text Available We compared growth kinetics of Prorocentrum donghaiense cultures on different nitrogen (N compounds including nitrate (NO3-, ammonium (NH4+, urea, glutamic acid (glu, dialanine (diala and cyanate. P. donghaiense exhibited standard Monod-type growth kinetics over a range of N concentraions (0.5-500 μmol N L-1 for NO3- and NH4+, 0.5-50 μmol N L-1 for urea, 0.5-100 μmol N L-1 for glu and cyanate, and 0.5-200 μmol N L-1 for diala for all of the N compounds tested. Cultures grown on glu and urea had the highest maximum growth rates (μm, 1.51±0.06 d-1 and 1.50±0.05 d-1, respectively. However, cultures grown on cyanate, NO3-, and NH4+ had lower half saturation constants (Kμ, 0.28-0.51 μmol N L-1. N uptake kinetics were measured in NO3--deplete and -replete batch cultures of P. donghaiense. In NO3--deplete batch cultures, P. donghaiense exhibited Michaelis-Menten type uptake kinetics for NO3-, NH4+, urea and algal amino acids; uptake was saturated at or below 50 μmol N L-1. In NO3--replete batch cultures, NH4+, urea, and algal amino acid uptake kinetics were similar to those measured in NO3--deplete batch cultures. Together, our results demonstrate that P. donghaiense can grow well on a variety of N sources, and exhibits similar uptake kinetics under both nutrient replete and deplete conditions. This may be an important factor facilitating their growth during bloom initiation and development in N-enriched estuaries where many algae compete for bioavailable N and the nutrient environment changes as a result of algal growth.

  4. Effects of light intensity and temperature on Cryptomonas ovata (Cryptophyceae) growth and nutrient uptake rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, James E.

    1977-01-01

    Specific growth rate of Cryptomonas ovata var. palustris Pringsheim was measured in batch culture at 14 light-temperature combinations. Both the maximum growth rate (μm) and optimum light intensity (Iopt) fit an empirical function that increases exponentially with temperature up to an optimum (Topt), then declines rapidly as temperature exceeds Topt. Incorporation of these functions into Steele's growth equation gives a good estimate of specific growth rate over a wide range of temperature and light intensity. Rates of phosphate, ammonium and nitrate uptake were measured separately at 16 combinations of irradiance and temperature and following a spike addition of all starved cells initially took up nutrient at a rapid rate. This transitory surge was followed by a period of steady, substrate-saturated uptake that persisted until external nutrient concentration fell. Substrate-saturated NO3−-uptake proceeded at very slow rates in the dark and was stimulated by both increased temperature and irradiance; NH4+-uptake apparently proceeded at a basal rate at 8 and l4 C and was also stimulated by increased temperature and irradiance. Rates of NH4−-uptake were much higher than NO3−-uptake at all light-temperature combinations. Below 20 C, PO4−3-uptake was more rapid in dark than in light, but was light enhanced at 26 C.

  5. Insights on nitrate sources at Dome C (East Antarctic Plateau from multi-year aerosol and snow records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Traversi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we present the first multi-year record of nitrate in the atmospheric aerosol (2005–2008 and surface snow (2006–08 from central Antarctica. PM10 and size-segregated aerosol, together with superficial snow, have been collected all year-round at high resolution (daily for all the snow samples and for most of aerosol samples at Dome C since the 2004/05 field season and analysed for main and trace ionic markers. The suitability of the sampling location in terms of possible contamination from the base is shown in detail. In spite of the relevance of nitrate in Antarctic atmosphere, both for better understanding the chemistry of N cycle in the plateau boundary layer and for improving the interpretation of long-term nitrate records from deep ice core records, nitrate sources in Antarctica are not well constrained yet, neither in extent nor in timing. A recurring seasonal pattern was pointed out in both aerosol and snow records, showing summer maxima and winter minima, although aerosol maxima lead the snow ones of 1–2 months, possibly due to a higher acidity in the atmosphere in mid-summer, favouring the repartition of nitrate as nitric acid and thus its uptake by the surface snow layers. On the basis of a meteorological analysis of one major nitrate event, of data related to PSC I extent and of irradiance values, we propose that the high nitrate summer levels in aerosol and snow are likely due to a synergy of enhanced source of nitrate and/or its precursors (such as the stratospheric inputs, higher solar irradiance and higher oxidation rates in this season. Moreover, we show here a further evidence of the substantial contribution of HNO3/NOx re-emission from the snowpack, already shown in previous works, and which can explain a significant fraction of atmospheric nitrate, maintaining the same seasonal pattern in the snow. As concerning snow specifically, the presented data suggest that nitrate is likely to be controlled mainly by atmospheric

  6. Cadmium uptake by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghiri, F.

    1973-01-01

    Absorption of /sup 115m/Cd by soybean (Gylcine max l.) plants via foliar and root systems and translocation into the seed was determined. The uptake of /sup 115m/Cd by soybeans via the root system was more efficient than that of the foliar placement. Growth and Cd concentrations of soybean and wheat (Triticum aestivum l.) tops were influenced by soil-applied Cd. In both crops, the Cd concentration of plant tops increased while yield decreased with increasing levels of applied Cd. Cadmium toxicitiy began to occur in both crops at the lowest level of soil applied Cd (2.5 ppM). With soybean plants, Cd toxicity symptoms resembled fe chlorosis. For wheat plants there were no visual symptoms other than the studied growth. The relative concentration of Cd found in several vegetable crops varied depending on the plant species. The relative Cd concentration in descending order for various vegetables was lettuce (Lactuca sativa l.) > radish top (Raphanus sativus l.) > celery stalk (Apium graveolens l.) > celery leaves greater than or equal to green pepper (Capsicum frutescens l.) > radish roots.

  7. High and Low Affinity Urea Root Uptake: Involvement of NIP5;1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huayiu; Menz, Jochen; Häussermann, Iris; Benz, Martin; Fujiwara, Toru; Ludewig, Uwe

    2015-08-01

    Urea is the most widespread nitrogen (N) fertilizer worldwide and is rapidly degraded in soil to ammonium by urease. Ammonium is either taken up by plant roots or is further processed to nitrate by soil microorganisms. However, urea can be taken up by roots and is further degraded to ammonium by plant urease for assimilation. When urea is supplied under sterile conditions, it acts as a poor N source for seedlings or adult Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Here, the gene expression of young seedlings exposed to urea and ammonium nitrate nutrition was compared. Several primary metabolism and transport genes, including those for nitrate and urea, were differentially expressed in seedlings. However, urease and most major intrinsic proteins were not differentially expressed, with the exception of NIP6;1, a urea-permeable channel, which was repressed. Furthermore, little overlap with the gene expression with ammonium as the sole N source was observed, confirming that pure urea nutrition is not associated with the ammonium toxicity syndrome in seedlings. The direct root uptake of urea was increased under boron deficiency, in both the high and low affinity range. This activity was entirely mediated by the NIP5;1 channel, which was confirmed to transport urea when expressed in oocytes. The uptake of urea in the high and low affinity range was also determined for maize and wheat roots. The urea uptake by maize roots was only about half that of wheat, but was not stimulated by boron deficiency or N deficiency in either species. This analysis identifies novel components of the urea uptake systems in plants, which may become agronomically relevant to urea uptake and utilization, as stabilized urea fertilizers become increasingly popular. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Acclimation of nitrogen uptake capacity of rice to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimono, Hiroyuki; Bunce, James A.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Nitrogen (N) is a major factor affecting yield gain of crops under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations [CO2]. It is well established that elevated [CO2] increases root mass, but there are inconsistent reports on the effects on N uptake capacity per root mass. In the present study, it was hypothesized that the responses of N uptake capacity would change with the duration of exposure to elevated [CO2]. Methods The hypothesis was tested by measuring N uptake capacity in rice plants exposed to long-term and short-term [CO2] treatments at different growth stages in plants grown under non-limiting N conditions in hydroponic culture. Seasonal changes in photosynthesis rate and transpiration rate were also measured. Key Results In the long-term [CO2] study, leaf photosynthetic responses to intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) were not affected by elevated [CO2] before the heading stage, but the initial slope in this response was decreased by elevated [CO2] at the grain-filling stage. Nitrate and ammonium uptake capacities per root dry weight were not affected by elevated [CO2] at panicle initiation, but thereafter they were reduced by elevated [CO2] by 31–41 % at the full heading and mid-ripening growth stages. In the short-term study (24 h exposures), elevated [CO2] enhanced nitrate and ammonium uptake capacities at the early vegetative growth stage, but elevated [CO2] decreased the uptake capacities at the mid-reproductive stage. Conclusions This study showed that N uptake capacity was downregulated under long-term exposure to elevated [CO2] and its response to elevated [CO2] varied greatly with growth stage. PMID:18952623

  9. Land Use Effects on Net Greenhouse Gas Fluxes in the US Great Plains: Historical Trends and Model Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Grosso, S. J.; Parton, W. J.; Ojima, D. S.; Mosier, A. R.; Mosier, A. R.; Paustian, K.; Peterson, G. A.

    2001-12-01

    We present maps showing regional patterns of land use change and soil C levels in the US Great Plains during the 20th century and time series of net greenhouse gas fluxes associated with different land uses. Net greenhouse gas fluxes were calculated by accounting for soil CO2 fluxes, the CO2 equivalents of N2O emissions and CH4 uptake, and the CO2 costs of N fertilizer production. Both historical and modern agriculture in this region have been net sources of greenhouse gases. The primary reason for this, prior to 1950, is that agriculture mined soil C and resulted in net CO2 emissions. When chemical N fertilizer became widely used in the 1950's agricultural soils began to sequester CO2-C but these soils were still net greenhouse gas sources if the effects of increased N2O emissions and decreased CH4 uptake are included. The sensitivity of net greenhouse gas fluxes to conventional and alternative land uses was explored using the DAYCENT ecosystem model. Model projections suggest that conversion to no-till, reduction of the fallow period, and use of nitrification inhibitors can significantly decrease net greenhouse gas emissions in dryland and irrigated systems, while maintaining or increasing crop yields.

  10. NET 40 Generics Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Sudipta

    2012-01-01

    This is a concise, practical guide that will help you learn Generics in .NET, with lots of real world and fun-to-build examples and clear explanations. It is packed with screenshots to aid your understanding of the process. This book is aimed at beginners in Generics. It assumes some working knowledge of C# , but it isn't mandatory. The following would get the most use out of the book: Newbie C# developers struggling with Generics. Experienced C++ and Java Programmers who are migrating to C# and looking for an alternative to other generic frameworks like STL and JCF would find this book handy.

  11. The Net Reclassification Index (NRI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pepe, Margaret S.; Fan, Jing; Feng, Ziding

    2015-01-01

    The Net Reclassification Index (NRI) is a very popular measure for evaluating the improvement in prediction performance gained by adding a marker to a set of baseline predictors. However, the statistical properties of this novel measure have not been explored in depth. We demonstrate the alarming...... marker is proven to erroneously yield a positive NRI. Some insight into this phenomenon is provided. Since large values for the NRI statistic may simply be due to use of poorly fitting risk models, we suggest caution in using the NRI as the basis for marker evaluation. Other measures of prediction...

  12. Silver nitrate masquerading as a radiopaque foreign body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Claragh; Canney, Mark; Murphy, Adrian; Regan, Padraic

    2007-04-01

    Silver nitrate is commonly used as a method of chemical cauterization to areas of hypergranulation. We report two cases wherein silver nitrate in the hand was misinterpreted radiologically as foreign bodies.

  13. Generation of nitryl chloride from chlorotrimethylsilane-acetyl nitrate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    amyl nitrate does not yield NO2Cl with silicon reagent. However, acetyl nitrate reacts successfully with chlorotrimethylsi- lane to give nitryl chloride, which is characterized by its UV spectrum. If it is generated in presence of ketoximes ...

  14. The effect of prolonged dietary nitrate supplementation on atherosclerosis development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsch, Elke; Theelen, Thomas L.; Janssen, Ben J. A.; Briede, Jacco J.; Haenen, Guido R.; Senden, Joan M. G.; van Loon, Lucas J. C.; Poeze, Martijn; Bierau, Jörgen; Gijbels, Marion J.; Daemen, Mat J. A. P.; Sluimer, Judith C.

    2016-01-01

    Short term dietary nitrate or nitrite supplementation has nitric oxide (NO)-mediated beneficial effects on blood pressure and inflammation and reduces mitochondrial oxygen consumption, possibly preventing hypoxia. As these processes are implicated in atherogenesis, dietary nitrate was hypothesized

  15. 76 FR 70366 - Ammonium Nitrate Security Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... benefits of enabling AN Agents to provide AN Purchasers' identity verification information directly to... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ammonium Nitrate Security Program Manager, U.S. Department of Homeland... additional information on public meeting facilities, information on access to those facilities for...

  16. Modular Regiospecific Synthesis of Nitrated Fatty Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hock, Katharina J.; Grimmer, Jennifer; Göbel, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous nitrated fatty acids are an important class of signaling molecules. Herein a modular route for the efficient and regiospecific preparation of nitrooleic acids as well as various analogues is described. The approach is based on a simple set of alkyl halides as common building blocks...

  17. EFFECT OF AMMONIUM NITRATE SOLUTIONS ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EFFECT OF AMMONIUM NITRATE SOLUTIONS ON FERTILIZATION. AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE SEA URCHIN,. PARECHINUS ANGULOSUS. P. J. GREENWOOD & A. C. BROWN. Department o/Zoology, University o/Cape Town. ASTRACT. Eggs and sperm of Parechinus have been placed in sea water containing 1, ...

  18. Standoff Raman measurement of nitrates in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadate, S.; Kassu, A.; Farley, C. W.; Sharma, A.; Hardisty, J.; Lifson, Miles T. K.

    2011-09-01

    The identification and real time detection of explosives and hazardous materials are of great interest to the Army and environmental monitoring/protection agencies. The application and efficiency of the remote Raman spectroscopy system for real time detection and identification of explosives and other hazardous chemicals of interest, air pollution monitoring, planetary and geological mineral analysis at various standoff distances have been demonstrated. In this paper, we report the adequacy of stand-off Raman system for remote detection and identification of chemicals in water using dissolved sodium nitrate and ammonium nitrate for concentrations between 200ppm and 5000ppm. Nitrates are used in explosives and are also necessary nutrients required for effective fertilizers. The nitrates in fertilizers are considered as potential sources of atmospheric and water pollution. The standoff Raman system used in this work consists of a 2-inch refracting telescope for collecting the scattered Raman light and a 785nm laser operating at 400mW coupled with a small portable spectrometer.

  19. Trend Analyses of Nitrate in Danish Groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, B.; Thorling, L.; Dalgaard, Tommy

    2012-01-01

    This presentation assesses the long-term development in the oxic groundwater nitrate concentration and nitrogen (N) loss due to intensive farming in Denmark. Firstly, up to 20-year time-series from the national groundwater monitoring network enable a statistically systematic analysis of distribut......This presentation assesses the long-term development in the oxic groundwater nitrate concentration and nitrogen (N) loss due to intensive farming in Denmark. Firstly, up to 20-year time-series from the national groundwater monitoring network enable a statistically systematic analysis...... of distribution, trends and trend reversals in the groundwater nitrate concentration. Secondly, knowledge about the N surplus in Danish agriculture since 1950 is used as an indicator of the potential loss of N. Thirdly, groundwater recharge CFC (Chlorofluorocarbon) age determination allows linking of the first...... two dataset. The development in the nitrate concentration of oxic groundwater clearly mirrors the development in the national agricultural N surplus, and a corresponding trend reversal is found in groundwater. Regulation and technical improvements in the intensive farming in Denmark have succeeded...

  20. Denitration of High Nitrate Salts Using Reductants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HD Smith; EO Jones; AJ Schmidt; AH Zacher; MD Brown; MR Elmore; SR Gano

    1999-05-03

    This report describes work conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), in conjunction with Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), to remove nitrates in simulated low-activity waste (LAW). The major objective of this work was to provide data for identifying and demonstrating a technically viable and cost-effective approach to condition LAW for immobilization (grout).

  1. Spectrophotometric Determination of Nitrate in Vegetables Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. MIKE HORSFALL

    The method is based on the measurement of the absorbance of yellow sodium nitrophenoxide formed ... The high concentration of nitrogen in soil may lead to ... nitrate-nitrogen. The reaction is quantitative and analogous to that reported by Tanaka et al. (1982). JASEM ISSN 1119-8362. All rights reserved. J. Appl. Sci.

  2. Spectrophotometric Determination of Nitrate and Phosphate Levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twelve drinking water samples from boreholes were collected from various sampling sites around the vicinity of Kura irrigated farmlands using polythene plastic containers and were analysed for the nitrate and phosphate levels using uV – visible spectrophotometer. From the results, it was found that all the samples had ...

  3. Nitrate induced anaemia in home dialysis patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvadori, M.; Martinelli, F.; Comparini, L.; Bandini, S.; Sodi, A.

    1985-01-01

    Many home dialysis patients in Florence and the surrounding area suddenly showed an unusual anaemia. All used a softener for water treatment. They demonstrated methaemoglobinaemia, Heinz bodies and reduction in plasma haptoglobin indicating Hb oxidation. Tap water analysis showed excessive nitrates. The substitution of the softeners with deionisers solved this important and unusual clinical problem.

  4. Nitrate Salt Surrogate Blending Scoping Test Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anast, Kurt Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-13

    Test blending equipment identified in the “Engineering Options Assessment Report: Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing”. Determine if the equipment will provide adequate mixing of zeolite and surrogate salt/Swheat stream; optimize equipment type and operational sequencing; impact of baffles and inserts on mixing performance; and means of validating mixing performance

  5. The Path to Nitrate Salt Disposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funk, David John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-16

    The topic is presented in a series of slides arranged according to the following outline: LANL nitrate salt incident as thermal runaway (thermally sensitive surrogates, full-scale tests), temperature control for processing, treatment options and down selection, assessment of engineering options, anticipated control set for treatment, and summary of the overall steps for RNS.

  6. Nitrate deficiency reduces cadmium and nickel accumulation in chamomile plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovácik, Jozef; Klejdus, Borivoj; Stork, Frantisek; Hedbavny, Josef

    2011-05-11

    The effect of nitrogen (nitrate) deficiency (-N) on the accumulation of cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni) in chamomile ( Matricaria chamomilla ) plants was studied. Elimination of N from the culture medium led to decreases in N-based compounds (free amino acids and soluble proteins) and increases in C-based compounds (reducing sugars, soluble phenols, coumarins, phenolic acids, and partially flavonoids and lignin), being considerably affected by the metal presence. Proline, a known stress-protective amino acid, decreased in all -N variants. The activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase was stimulated only in -N control plants, whereas the activities of polyphenol oxidase and guaiacol peroxidase were never reduced in -N variants in comparison with respective +N counterparts. Among detected phenolic acids, chlorogenic acid strongly accumulated in all N-deficient variants in the free fraction and caffeic acid in the cell wall-bound fraction. Mineral nutrients were rather affected by a given metal than by N deficiency. Shoot and total root Cd and Ni amounts decreased in -N variants. On the contrary, ammonium-fed plants exposed to N deficiency did not show similar changes in Cd and Ni contents. The present findings are discussed with respect to the role of phenols and mineral nutrition in metal uptake.

  7. Attempting to Compensate for Reduced Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase Protein with Nitrate Supplementation Cannot Overcome Metabolic Dysfunction but Rather Has Detrimental Effects in Dystrophin-Deficient mdx Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpani, Cara A; Trewin, Adam J; Stojanovska, Vanesa; Robinson, Ainsley; Goodman, Craig A; Nurgali, Kulmira; Betik, Andrew C; Stepto, Nigel; Hayes, Alan; McConell, Glenn K; Rybalka, Emma

    2017-04-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy arises from the loss of dystrophin and is characterized by calcium dysregulation, muscular atrophy, and metabolic dysfunction. The secondary reduction of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) from the sarcolemma reduces NO production and bioavailability. As NO modulates glucose uptake, metabolism, and mitochondrial bioenergetics, we investigated whether an 8-week nitrate supplementation regimen could overcome metabolic dysfunction in the mdx mouse. Dystrophin-positive control (C57BL/10) and dystrophin-deficient mdx mice were supplemented with sodium nitrate (85 mg/l) in drinking water. Following the supplementation period, extensor digitorum longus and soleus were excised and radioactive glucose uptake was measured at rest (basal) and during contraction. Gastrocnemius was excised and mitochondrial respiration was measured using the Oroboros Oxygraph. Tibialis anterior was analyzed immunohistochemically for the presence of dystrophin, nNOS, nitrotyrosine, IgG and CD45+ cells, and histologically to assess areas of damage and regeneration. Glucose uptake in the basal and contracting states was normal in unsupplemented mdx muscles but was reduced following nitrate supplementation in mdx muscles only. The mitochondrial utilization of substrates was also impaired in mdx gastrocnemius during phosphorylating and maximal uncoupled respiration, and nitrate could not improve respiration in mdx muscle. Although nitrate supplementation reduced mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide emission, it induced mitochondrial uncoupling in red gastrocnemius, increased muscle fiber peroxynitrite (nitrotyrosine), and promoted skeletal muscle damage. Our novel data suggest that despite lower nNOS protein expression and likely lower NO production in mdx muscle, enhancing NO production with nitrate supplementation in these mice has detrimental effects on skeletal muscle. This may have important relevance for those with DMD.

  8. Characterization of the Denitrification-Associated Phosphorus Uptake Properties of “Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis” Clades in Sludge Subjected to Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Myeong; Lee, Hyo Jung; Lee, Dae Sung

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the denitrifying phosphorus (P) uptake properties of “Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis,” a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated with acetate. The SBR operation was gradually acclimated from anaerobic-oxic (AO) to anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A2O) conditions by stepwise increases of nitrate concentration and the anoxic time. The communities of “Ca. Accumulibacter” and associated bacteria at the initial (AO) and final (A2O) stages were compared using 16S rRNA and polyphosphate kinase genes and using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The acclimation process led to a clear shift in the relative abundances of recognized “Ca. Accumulibacter” subpopulations from clades IIA > IA > IIF to clades IIC > IA > IIF, as well as to increases in the abundance of other associated bacteria (Dechloromonas [from 1.2% to 19.2%] and “Candidatus Competibacter phosphatis” [from 16.4% to 20.0%]), while the overall “Ca. Accumulibacter” abundance decreased (from 55.1% to 29.2%). A series of batch experiments combined with FISH/microautoradiography (MAR) analyses was performed to characterize the denitrifying P uptake properties of the “Ca. Accumulibacter” clades. In FISH/MAR experiments using slightly diluted sludge (∼0.5 g/liter), all “Ca. Accumulibacter” clades successfully took up phosphorus in the presence of nitrate. However, the “Ca. Accumulibacter” clades showed no P uptake in the presence of nitrate when the sludge was highly diluted (∼0.005 g/liter); under these conditions, reduction of nitrate to nitrite did not occur, whereas P uptake by “Ca. Accumulibacter” clades occurred when nitrite was added. These results suggest that the “Ca. Accumulibacter” cells lack nitrate reduction capabilities and that P uptake by “Ca. Accumulibacter” is dependent upon nitrite generated by associated nitrate-reducing bacteria such as Dechloromonas and “Ca. Competibacter.” PMID:23335771

  9. Simultaneous removal of nitrate and hydrogen sulfide by autotrophic denitrification in nitrate-contaminated water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongjie; Chen, Nan; Liu, Ying; Liu, Hengyuan; Feng, Chuanping; Li, Miao

    2018-02-23

    Nitrate contamination is a risk to human health and may cause eutrophication, whereas H 2 S is an undesirable constituent in biogas. In order to better understand denitrification using gaseous H 2 S as electron donor, this study investigated denitrification at different molar ratios of sulfur and nitrogen (S/N ratios) and H 2 S dosages. Although nitrate continued to decrease, a lag in sulfate generation was observed, implying the generation of sulfide oxidizing intermediates, which accumulated even though nitrate was in excess at lower S/N ratios of 0.19 and 0.38. More addition of H 2 S could result in a longer lag of sulfate generation. Before depletion of dissolved sulfide, denitrification could proceed with little nitrite accumulation. High throughout sequencing analysis identified two major genera, Thiobacillus and Sulfurimonas, that were responsible for autotrophic denitrification. The simultaneous removal of nitrate and H 2 S using a wide range of concentrations could be able to be achieved.

  10. Impact of Sulfide on Nitrate Conversion in Eutrophic Nitrate-Rich Marine Sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwermer, Carsten U.; Krieger, Bärbel; Lavik, Gaute

    2006-01-01

    and Environmental Sciences, Volcani Research Center, Bet-Dagan, Israel Multiple anaerobic processes are responsible for carbon mineralization in eutrophic nitrate-rich marine environments (e.g., upwelling areas, estuaries, and aquacultures), involving electron acceptors from both the nitrogen and sulfur cycle....... The interaction of these processes is less understood. Our aim was to investigate the functional interaction of nitrate reduction, denitrification and sulfate reduction in an anaerobic marine sludge. We hypothesize that sulfide (from sulfate reduction) (i) causes incomplete denitrification, and (ii) directs......, at the highest sulfide concentration tested (1.6 mM), only 22% and 20% of the nitrate added were converted to N2 and ammonium, respectively, while N2O became the main end product (56%). These findings were corroborated by pure culture experiments with nitrate-reducing and denitrifying isolates from the sludge...

  11. Nitrogen Uptake in the Northeastern Arabian Sea during Winter Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The uptake of dissolved inorganic nitrogen by phytoplankton is an important aspect of the nitrogen cycle of oceans. Here, we present nitrate (NO3- and ammonium (NH4+ uptake rates in the northeastern Arabian Sea using 15N tracer technique. In this relatively underexplored region, productivity is high during winter due to supply of nutrients by convective mixing caused by the cooling of the surface by the northeast monsoon winds. Studies done during different months (January and late February-early March of the northeast monsoon 2003 revealed a fivefold increase in the average euphotic zone integrated NO3- uptake from January (2.3 mmolN m−2d−1 to late February-early March (12.7 mmolN m−2d−1. The f-ratio during January appeared to be affected by the winter cooling effect and increased by more than 50% from the southernmost station to the northern open ocean stations, indicating hydrographic and meteorological control. Estimates of NO3- residence time suggested that NO3- entrained in the water column during January contributed to the development of blooms during late February-early March.

  12. Benefits of Safer Drinking Water: The Value of Nitrate Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Crutchfield, Stephen R.; Cooper, Joseph C.; Hellerstein, Daniel

    1997-01-01

    Nitrates in drinking water, which may come from nitrogen fertilizers applied to crops, are a potential health risk. This report evaluates the potential benefits of reducing human exposure to nitrates in the drinking water supply. In a survey, respondents were asked a series of questions about their willingness to pay for a hypothetical water filter, which would reduce their risk of nitrate exposure. If nitrates in the respondent's drinking water were to exceed the EPA minimum safety standard,...

  13. Identification of nitrate sources and discharge-depending nitrate dynamics in a mesoscale catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Christin; Strachauer, Ulrike; Brauns, Mario; Musolff, Andreas; Kunz, Julia Vanessa; Brase, Lisa; Tarasova, Larisa; Merz, Ralf; Knöller, Kay

    2017-04-01

    During the last decades, nitrate concentrations in surface and groundwater have increased due to land use change and accompanying application of fertilizer in agriculture as well as increased atmospheric deposition. To mitigate nutrient impacts on downstream aquatic ecosystems, it is important to quantify potential nitrate sources, instream nitrate processing and its controls in a river system. The objective of this project is to characterize and quantify (regional) scale dynamics and trends in water and nitrogen fluxes of the entire Holtemme river catchment in central Germany making use of isotopic fingerprinting methods. Here we compare two key date sampling campaigns in 2014 and 2015, with spatially highly resolved measurements of discharge at 23 sampling locations including 11 major tributaries and 12 locations at the main river. Additionally, we have data from continuous runoff measurements at 10 locations operated by the local water authorities. Two waste water treatment plants contribute nitrogen to the Holtemme stream. This contribution impacts nitrate loads and nitrate isotopic signatures depending on the prevailing hydrological conditions. Nitrogen isotopic signatures in the catchment are mainly controlled by different sources (nitrified soil nitrogen in the headwater and manure/ effluents from WWTPs in the lowlands) and increase with raising nitrate concentrations along the main river. Nitrate loads at the outlet of the catchment are extremely different between both sampling campaigns (2014: NO3- = 97 t a-1, 2015: NO3- = 5 t a-1) which is associated with various runoff (2014: 0.8 m3 s-1, 2015: 0.2 m3 s-1). In 2015, the inflow from WWTP's raises the NO3- loads and enriches δ18O-NO3 values. Generally, oxygen isotope signatures from nitrate are more variable and are controlled by biogeochemical processes in concert with the oxygen isotopic composition of the ambient water. Elevated δ18O-NO3 in 2015 are most likely due to higher temperatures and lower

  14. Molten nitrate salt technology development status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carling, R.W.; Kramer, C.M.; Bradshaw, R.W.; Nissen, D.A.; Goods, S.H.; Mar, R.W.; Munford, J.W.; Karnowsky, M.M.; Biefeld, R.N.; Norem, N.J.

    1981-03-01

    Recognizing thermal energy storage as potentially critical to the successful commercialization of solar thermal power systems, the Department of Energy (DOE) has established a comprehensive and aggressive thermal energy storage technology development program. Of the fluids proposed for heat transfer and energy storage molten nitrate salts offer significant economic advantages. The nitrate salt of most interest is a binary mixture of NaNO/sub 3/ and KNO/sub 3/. Although nitrate/nitrite mixtures have been used for decades as heat transfer and heat treatment fluids the use has been at temperatures of about 450/sup 0/C and lower. In solar thermal power systems the salts will experience a temperature range of 350 to 600/sup 0/C. Because central receiver applications place more rigorous demands and higher temperatures on nitrate salts a comprehensive experimental program has been developed to examine what effects, if any, the new demands and temperatures have on the salts. The experiments include corrosion testing, environmental cracking of containment materials, and determinations of physical properties and decomposition mechanisms. This report details the work done at Sandia National Laboratories in each area listed. In addition, summaries of the experimental programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the University of New York, EIC Laboratories, Inc., and the Norwegian Institute of Technology on molten nitrate salts are given. Also discussed is how the experimental programs will influence the near-term central receiver programs such as utility repowering/industrial retrofit and cogeneration. The report is designed to provide easy access to the latest information and data on molten NaNO/sub 3//KNO/sub 3/ for the designers and engineers of future central receiver projects.

  15. Selective Nitrate Binding in Competitive Hydrogen Bonding Solvents: Do Anion–π Interactions Facilitate Nitrate Selectivity?**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Michelle M.; Zakharov, Lev N.

    2013-01-01

    New tripodal urea receptors demonstrate preferential binding of anions over competitive hydrogen bonding solvents. 1H NMR titrations in 10% DMSO-d6/CDCl3 show a higher affinity for nitrate over the halides for the fluorinated receptor, which is lost when the fluorines are removed. An “anion–π” interaction between the nitrate and the π-system of the ethynyl-substituted arene is proposed as the source of this selectivity. PMID:23939999

  16. Mammalian nitrate biosynthesis: mouse macrophages produce nitrite and nitrate in response to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuehr, D.J.; Marletta, M.A.

    1985-11-01

    Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitrate biosynthesis was studied in LPS-sensitive C3H/He and LPS-resistant C3H/HeJ mice. Intraperitoneal injection of 15 ..mu..g of LPS led to a temporary 5- to 6-fold increase in blood nitrate concentration in the C3H/He strain. Levels of nitrate excreted in the urine were also increased. In contrast, no increase was observed in the C3H/HeJ strain with LPS injections up to 175 ..mu..g. Furthermore, thioglycolate-elicited peritoneal macrophages from C3H/He, but not from C3H/HeJ mice, produced nitrite (60%) and nitrate (40%) when cultured with LPS (10 ..mu..g/ml). T-lymphocyte addition/depletion experiments showed the presence of T cells enhanced this response. However, LPS did not cause nitrite or nitrate production in cultures of spleen lymphocytes from either strain. LPS-induced nitrate synthesis was also observed with nude mice and CBA/N mice, indicating that neither functional T lymphocytes nor LPS-responsive B lymphocytes were required for the response in vivo. This was consistent with the in vitro results showing macrophages alone were competent. Mycobacterium bovis infection of C3H/He and C3H/HeJ mice resulted in a large increase in nitrate production over the course of the infection for both strains, suggesting T-lymphocyte-mediated activation of macrophages as a potent stimulus for nitrate biosynthesis. The synthesis of nitrite is significant in that it can directly participate in the endogenous formation of nitrosamines and may also be involved in some aspect of the chemistry of cytotoxicity.

  17. Cellular uptake of metallated cobalamins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Mai Thanh Quynh; Stürup, Stefan; Lambert, Ian Henry

    2016-01-01

    Cellular uptake of vitamin B12-cisplatin conjugates was estimated via detection of their metal constituents (Co, Pt, and Re) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Vitamin B12 (cyano-cob(iii)alamin) and aquo-cob(iii)alamin [Cbl-OH2](+), which differ in the β-axial ligands (CN......(-) and H2O, respectively), were included as control samples. The results indicated that B12 derivatives delivered cisplatin to both cellular cytosol and nuclei with an efficiency of one third compared to the uptake of free cisplatin cis-[Pt(II)Cl2(NH3)2]. In addition, uptake of charged B12 derivatives...

  18. Occurrence of elevated nitrate in groundwaters of Krishna delta, India

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nitrate concentrations were measured in the groundwater samples of Krishna delta, India. The results indicate a large variation of nitrate from 10 - 135 mg/l. In 79 groundwater samples, about 39% shows high nitrate contents (>50 mg/l), which is more than the permissible limits in drinking water. In north Krishna delta 49% ...

  19. Nitrate removal by electro-bioremediation technology in Korean soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jeong-Hee [Korea Electro technology Research Institute, Electric Power Research Division, Electrokinetics Research Group, 70 Boolmosangil, Changwon, 641-120 (Korea, Republic of); Maruthamuthu, Sundaram, E-mail: biocorrcecri@gmail.com [Korea Electro technology Research Institute, Electric Power Research Division, Electrokinetics Research Group, 70 Boolmosangil, Changwon, 641-120 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun-Goo; Ha, Tae-Hyun [Korea Electro technology Research Institute, Electric Power Research Division, Electrokinetics Research Group, 70 Boolmosangil, Changwon, 641-120 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Jeong-Hyo, E-mail: jhbae@keri.re.kr [Korea Electro technology Research Institute, Electric Power Research Division, Electrokinetics Research Group, 70 Boolmosangil, Changwon, 641-120 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    The nitrate concentration of surface has become a serious concern in agricultural industry through out the world. In the present study, nitrate was removed in the soil by employing electro-bioremediation, a hybrid technology of bioremediation and electrokinetics. The abundance of Bacillus spp. as nitrate reducing bacteria were isolated and identified from the soil sample collected from a greenhouse at Jinju City of Gyengsangnamdo, South Korea. The nitrate reducing bacterial species were identified by 16 s RNA sequencing technique. The efficiency of bacterial isolates on nitrate removal in broth was tested. The experiment was conducted in an electrokinetic (EK) cell by applying 20 V across the electrodes. The nitrate reducing bacteria (Bacillus spp.) were inoculated in the soil for nitrate removal process by the addition of necessary nutrient. The influence of nitrate reducers on electrokinetic process was also studied. The concentration of nitrate at anodic area of soil was higher when compared to cathode in electrokinetic system, while adding bacteria in EK (EK + bio) system, the nitrate concentration was almost nil in all the area of soil. The bacteria supplies electron from organic degradation (humic substances) and enhances NO{sub 3}{sup -} reduction (denitrification). Experimental results showed that the electro-bio kinetic process viz. electroosmosis and physiological activity of bacteria reduced nitrate in soil environment effectively. Involvement of Bacillus spp. on nitrification was controlled by electrokinetics at cathode area by reduction of ammonium ions to nitrogen gas. The excellence of the combined electro-bio kinetics technology on nitrate removal is discussed.

  20. Nitrate in ground water of Beed City of Maharashtra (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Raheem, Shaikh; Husain, Sayyed; Farooqui, Mazahar

    2013-10-01

    An attempt was made to investigate the water pollution caused by nitrate in the ground water of Beed City of Maharashtra inIndia. The samples were collected randomly at different time periods from different places of Beed City and analysed for nitrate contents. The level of nitrate was found high and above permissible limit in the groundwater of the city.