WorldWideScience

Sample records for net nacl transport

  1. Research of the relationship between delayed fluorescence and net photosynthesis rate in spinach under NaCl stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingrui; Xing, Da

    2006-09-01

    Under NaCl stress conditions, the relationship between delayed fluorescence (DF) and net photosynthesis rate (Pn) in detached leaves of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) was surveyed. Results showed that the changes in DF intensity of the spinach leaves directly exposed to different NaCl concentrations demonstrated considerably high consistency with that in Pn. Incubation of the leaves in 200mmol/L NaCl induced a gradual increase and subsequent decline of the DF intensity and Pu, whereas incubation of the leaves in 300mmol/L NaCl induced a continuous decline of the DF intensity and Pn, suggesting that DF bad the same response to duration of treatment of different NaC1 concentrations with Pn. Both DF and Pn showed maximal Ca 2+ antagonism effects on stress of high concentration NaC1 when the concentration of CaC1 II reached l5mmolfL. All the results demonstrated that DF has an excellent correlation with Pn and can be used as a sensitive test for the state of photosynthetic apparatus under salt stress physiology.

  2. ANALYSIS OF A TRANSPORT PROCESS USING HYBRID PETRI NETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeta Mihaela CIORTEA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the paper is to analyze the Petri net model, to describe the transport process, part of amanufacturing system and its dynamics.A hibrid Petri net model is built to describe the dinamics of the transport process manufacturingsystem. Mathematical formulation of the dinamycs processes a detailed description. Based on this model, theanalysis of the transport process is designed to be able to execute a production plan and resolve any conflictsthat may arise in the system.In the analysis dinamics known two stages: in the continuous variables are discrete hybrid system in thehibrid discrete variables are used as safety control with very well defined responsibilities.In terms of the chosen model, analyze transport process is designed to help execute a production planand resolve conflicts that may arise in the process, and then the ones in the system

  3. Annual variation in the net longshore sediment transport rate

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schoonees, JS

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available from wave data spanning a number of years, or by measuring continuously the longshore transport over a number of years. In both cases, it must be known over how many consecutive years either the computations or the measurements should be done. Ž... the annual variation in the net longshore transport rates over a period of 7 years. In a study Ž . Žby Shi-Leng and Teh-Fu 1987 , a longshore sediment transport formula the Bijker, .1967 method was calibrated against short-term measurements at Nouakchott...

  4. Net transport of suspended matter due to tidal straining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S. E.; Jago, C. F.; Simpson, J. H.; Rippeth, T. P.

    2003-04-01

    Net transport of suspended particulate matter (SPM) is well-known in tidal regions where there is time-velocity asymmetry due to frictional modification of the tide in shallow water. We present here observations which show a new mechanism for net flux of SPM in response to tidal straining in a region of freshwater influence (ROFI). In situ measurements of the particle size of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and turbulent energy dissipation have been made at a site in Liverpool Bay (Irish Sea) where there is significant resuspension of particles from the muddy sand substrate during spring tides. This is a ROFI where tidal straining dominates the temporal development of turbulence. On a spring tide the water column tries to stratify on the ebb and destratify on the flood, but these tendencies are masked by mixing due to tidal stirring. Nevertheless, there is a marked excess of TKE dissipation rate E on the flood, especially in the upper part of the water column. Resuspension occurs on both flood and ebb, but SPM flux is strongly asymmetric with a net shorewards component. Asymmetry is most pronounced for the larger particles which comprise most of the mass. Enhanced ? on the flood mixes large particles upwards into faster flowing water, which increases the flux. Comparable upwards mixing of large particles does not occur on the ebb where enhanced E is confined to slower bottom waters. The net flux is not seen on neap tides because, although there is more stratification due to tidal straining, there is essentially no resuspension. The net flux on springs is undoubtedly an important component of SPM transport (and any comparable particulates) in coastal regions.

  5. Role of aquaporins in root water transport of ectomycorrhizal jack pine (Pinus banksiana) seedlings exposed to NaCl and fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seong Hee; Calvo-Polanco, Mónica; Chung, Gap Chae; Zwiazek, Janusz J

    2010-05-01

    Effects of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungus Suillus tomentosus on water transport properties were studied in jack pine (Pinus banksiana) seedlings. The hydraulic conductivity of root cortical cells (L(pc)) and of the whole root system (L(pr)) in ECM plants was higher by twofold to fourfold compared with the non-ECM seedlings. HgCl2 had a greater inhibitory effect on L(pc) in ECM compared with non-ECM seedlings, suggesting that the mercury-sensitive, aquaporin (AQP)-mediated water transport was largely responsible for the differences in L(pc) between the two groups of plants. L(pc) was rapidly and drastically reduced by the 50 mM NaCl treatment. However, in ECM plants, the initial decline in L(pc) was followed by a quick recovery to the pre-treatment level, while the reduction of L(pc) in non-ECM seedlings progressed over time. Treatments with fluoride reduced L(pc) by about twofold in non-ECM seedlings and caused smaller reductions of L(pc) in ECM plants. When either 2 mM KF or 2 mM NaF were added to the 50 mM NaCl treatment solution, the inhibitory effect of NaCl on L(pc) was rapidly reversed in both groups of plants. The results suggest that AQP-mediated water transport may be linked to the enhancement of salt stress resistance reported for ECM plants.

  6. Regulation of the Na+,Cl- Coupled Creatine Transporter CreaT (SLC6A8) by the Janus Kinase JAK3

    OpenAIRE

    Myriam Fezai; Jamshed Warsi; Florian Lang

    2015-01-01

    Background: The creatine transporter CreaT (SLC6A8), a Na+,Cl- coupled transporter is expressed in diverse tissues including the brain. Genetic defects of SLC6A8 result in mental retardation with seizures. The present study explored the regulation of CreaT by Janus kinase JAK3, which is expressed in a variety of tissues including the brain and participates in the regulation of cell survival and differentiation of neuronal precursor cells. Methods: CreaT was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes...

  7. Effects of NaCl and CaCl2 on Water Transport across Root Cells of Maize (Zea mays L.) Seedlings 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaizeh, Hassan; Gunse, Benito; Steudle, Ernst

    1992-01-01

    ). The results demonstrate that NaCl has adverse effects on water transport parameters of root cells. Extra calcium could, in part, compensate for these effects. The data suggest a considerable apoplasmic water flow in the root cortex. However, the cell-to-cell path also contributed to the overall water transport in maize roots and appeared to be responsible for the decrease in root hydraulic conductivity reported earlier (Azaizeh H, Steudle E [1991] Plant Physiol 97: 1136-1145). Accordingly, the effect of high salinity on the cell Lp was much larger than that on root Lpr. PMID:16669016

  8. Regulation of the Na+,Cl- Coupled Creatine Transporter CreaT (SLC6A8) by the Janus Kinase JAK3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fezai, Myriam; Warsi, Jamshed; Lang, Florian

    2015-01-01

    The creatine transporter CreaT (SLC6A8), a Na+,Cl- coupled transporter is expressed in diverse tissues including the brain. Genetic defects of SLC6A8 result in mental retardation with seizures. The present study explored the regulation of CreaT by Janus kinase JAK3, which is expressed in a variety of tissues including the brain and participates in the regulation of cell survival and differentiation of neuronal precursor cells. CreaT was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes with or without wild-type JAK3, constitutively active A568V JAK3 and inactive K851A JAK3. Creatine transport in those oocytes was quantified utilizing dual electrode voltage clamp. Electrogenic creatine transport was observed in CreaT expressing oocytes but not in water-injected oocytes. In CreaT expressing oocytes co-expression of JAK3 or A568VJAK3, but not co-expression of K851A JAK3 was followed by a significant decrease of creatine induced current. According to kinetic analysis JAK3 significantly decreased the maximal creatine transport rate. In CreaT and JAK3 expressing oocytes the creatine induced current was significantly increased by JAK3 inhibitor WHI-P154 (22 µM). JAK3 is a powerful negative regulator of the creatine transporter CreaT. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Regulation of the Na+,Cl- Coupled Creatine Transporter CreaT (SLC6A8 by the Janus Kinase JAK3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Fezai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The creatine transporter CreaT (SLC6A8, a Na+,Cl- coupled transporter is expressed in diverse tissues including the brain. Genetic defects of SLC6A8 result in mental retardation with seizures. The present study explored the regulation of CreaT by Janus kinase JAK3, which is expressed in a variety of tissues including the brain and participates in the regulation of cell survival and differentiation of neuronal precursor cells. Methods: CreaT was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes with or without wild-type JAK3, constitutively active A568VJAK3 and inactive K851AJAK3. Creatine transport in those oocytes was quantified utilizing dual electrode voltage clamp. Results: Electrogenic creatine transport was observed in CreaT expressing oocytes but not in water-injected oocytes. In CreaT expressing oocytes co-expression of JAK3 or A568VJAK3, but not co-expression of K851AJAK3 was followed by a significant decrease of creatine induced current. According to kinetic analysis JAK3 significantly decreased the maximal creatine transport rate. In CreaT and JAK3 expressing oocytes the creatine induced current was significantly increased by JAK3 inhibitor WHI-P154 (22 µM. Conclusion: JAK3 is a powerful negative regulator of the creatine transporter CreaT.

  10. Modeling and dynamics of the inward-facing state of a Na+/Cl- dependent neurotransmitter transporter homologue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saher Afshan Shaikh

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The leucine transporter (LeuT has recently commanded exceptional attention due mainly to two distinctions; it provides the only crystal structures available for a protein homologous to the pharmacologically relevant neurotransmitter: sodium symporters (NSS, and, it exhibits a hallmark 5-TM inverted repeat ("LeuT-fold", a fold recently discovered to also exist in several secondary transporter families, underscoring its general role in transporter function. Constructing the transport cycle of "LeuT-fold" transporters requires detailed structural and dynamic descriptions of the outward-facing (OF and inward-facing (IF states, as well as the intermediate states. To this end, we have modeled the structurally unknown IF state of LeuT, based on the known crystal structures of the OF state of LeuT and the IF state of vSGLT, a "LeuT-fold" transporter. The detailed methodology developed for the study combines structure-based alignment, threading, targeted MD and equilibrium MD, and can be applied to other proteins. The resulting IF-state models maintain the secondary structural features of LeuT. Water penetration and solvent accessibility calculations show that TM1, TM3, TM6 and TM8 line the substrate binding/unbinding pathway with TM10 and its pseudosymmetric partner, TM5, participating in the extracellular and intracellular halves of the lumen, respectively. We report conformational hotspots where notable changes in interactions occur between the IF and OF states. We observe Na2 exiting the LeuT-substrate- complex in the IF state, mainly due to TM1 bending. Inducing a transition in only one of the two pseudosymmetric domains, while allowing the second to respond dynamically, is found to be sufficient to induce the formation of the IF state. We also propose that TM2 and TM7 may be facilitators of TM1 and TM6 motion. Thus, this study not only presents a novel modeling methodology applied to obtain the IF state of LeuT, but also describes structural

  11. Down-Regulation of the Na+,Cl- Coupled Creatine Transporter CreaT (SLC6A8) by Glycogen Synthase Kinase GSK3ß.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fezai, Myriam; Jemaà, Mohamed; Fakhri, Hajar; Chen, Hong; Elsir, Bhaeldin; Pelzl, Lisann; Lang, Florian

    2016-01-01

    The Na+,Cl- coupled creatine transporter CreaT (SLC6A8) is expressed in a variety of tissues including the brain. Genetic defects of CreaT lead to mental retardation with seizures. The present study explored the regulation of CreaT by the ubiquitously expressed glycogen synthase kinase GSK3ß, which contributes to the regulation of neuroexcitation. GSK3ß is phosphorylated and thus inhibited by PKB/Akt. Moreover, GSK3ß is inhibited by the antidepressant lithium. The present study thus further tested for the effects of PKB/Akt and of lithium. CreaT was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes with or without wild-type GSK3ß or inactive K85RGSK3ß. CreaT and GSK3ß were further expressed without and with additional expression of wild type PKB/Akt. Creatine transport in those oocytes was quantified utilizing dual electrode voltage clamp. Electrogenic creatine transport was observed in CreaT expressing oocytes but not in water-injected oocytes. In CreaT expressing oocytes, co-expression of GSK3ß but not of K85RGSK3ß, resulted in a significant decrease of creatine induced current. Kinetic analysis revealed that GSK3ß significantly decreased the maximal creatine transport rate. Exposure of CreaT and GSK3ß expressing oocytes for 24 hours to Lithium was followed by a significant increase of the creatine induced current. The effect of GSK3ß on CreaT was abolished by co-expression of PKB/Akt. GSK3ß down-regulates the creatine transporter CreaT, an effect reversed by treatment with the antidepressant Lithium and by co-expression of PKB/Akt. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Down-Regulation of the Na+,Cl- Coupled Creatine Transporter CreaT (SLC6A8 by Glycogen Synthase Kinase GSK3ß

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Fezai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Na+,Cl- coupled creatine transporter CreaT (SLC6A8 is expressed in a variety of tissues including the brain. Genetic defects of CreaT lead to mental retardation with seizures. The present study explored the regulation of CreaT by the ubiquitously expressed glycogen synthase kinase GSK3ß, which contributes to the regulation of neuroexcitation. GSK3ß is phosphorylated and thus inhibited by PKB/Akt. Moreover, GSK3ß is inhibited by the antidepressant lithium. The present study thus further tested for the effects of PKB/Akt and of lithium. Methods: CreaT was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes with or without wild-type GSK3ß or inactive K85RGSK3ß. CreaT and GSK3ß were further expressed without and with additional expression of wild type PKB/Akt. Creatine transport in those oocytes was quantified utilizing dual electrode voltage clamp. Results: Electrogenic creatine transport was observed in CreaT expressing oocytes but not in water-injected oocytes. In CreaT expressing oocytes, co-expression of GSK3ß but not of K85RGSK3ß, resulted in a significant decrease of creatine induced current. Kinetic analysis revealed that GSK3ß significantly decreased the maximal creatine transport rate. Exposure of CreaT and GSK3ß expressing oocytes for 24 hours to Lithium was followed by a significant increase of the creatine induced current. The effect of GSK3ß on CreaT was abolished by co-expression of PKB/Akt. Conclusion: GSK3ß down-regulates the creatine transporter CreaT, an effect reversed by treatment with the antidepressant Lithium and by co-expression of PKB/Akt.

  13. KM3NeT tower data acquisition and data transport electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolau C.A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the KM3Net European project, the production stage of a large volume underwater neutrino telescope has started. The forthcoming installation includes 8 towers and 24 strings, that will be installed 100 km off-shore Capo Passero (Italy at 3500 m depth. The KM3NeT tower, whose layout is strongly based on the NEMO Phase-2 prototype tower deployed in March 2013, has been re-engineered and partially re-designed in order to optimize production costs, power consumption, and usability. This contribution gives a description of the main electronics, including front-end, data transport and clock distribution system, of the KM3NeT tower detection unit.

  14. Net sediment transport in tidal basins: quantifying the tidal barotropic mechanisms in a unified framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Vincenzo Marco; van Prooijen, Bram Christiaan; Wang, Zheng Bing

    2017-11-01

    Net sediment transport in tidal basins is a subtle imbalance between large fluxes produced by the flood/ebb alternation. The imbalance arises from several mechanisms of suspended transport. Lag effects and tidal asymmetries are regarded as dominant, but defined in different frames of reference (Lagrangian and Eulerian, respectively). A quantitative ranking of their effectiveness is therefore missing. Furthermore, although wind waves are recognized as crucial for tidal flats' morphodynamics, a systematic analysis of the interaction with tidal mechanisms has not been carried out so far. We review the tide-induced barotropic mechanisms and discuss the shortcomings of their current classification for numerical process-based models. Hence, we conceive a unified Eulerian framework accounting for wave-induced resuspension. A new methodology is proposed to decompose the sediment fluxes accordingly, which is applicable without needing (semi-) analytical approximations. The approach is tested with a one-dimensional model of the Vlie basin, Wadden Sea (The Netherlands). Results show that lag-driven transport is dominant for the finer fractions (silt and mud). In absence of waves, net sediment fluxes are landward and spatial (advective) lag effects are dominant. In presence of waves, sediment can be exported from the tidal flats and temporal (local) lag effects are dominant. Conversely, sand transport is dominated by the asymmetry of peak ebb/flood velocities. We show that the direction of lag-driven transport can be estimated by the gradient of hydrodynamic energy. In agreement with previous studies, our results support the conceptualization of tidal flats' equilibrium as a simplified balance between tidal mechanisms and wave resuspension.

  15. Geographic Information Systems-Transportation ISTEA management systems server-net prototype pooled fund study: Phase B summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza, J. Jr.; Dean, C.D.; Armstrong, H.M. [and others

    1997-06-01

    The Geographic Information System-Transportation (GIS-T) ISTEA Management Systems Server Net Prototype Pooled Fund Study represents the first national cooperative effort in the transportation industry to address the management and monitoring systems as well as the statewide and metropolitan transportation planning requirements of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). The Study was initiated in November 1993 through the Alliance for Transportation Research and under the leadership of the New Mexico State Highway and Transportation Department. Sandia National Laboratories, an Alliance partner, and Geographic Paradigm Computing. Inc. provided technical leadership for the project. In 1992, the Alliance for Transportation Research, the New Mexico State Highway and Transportation Department, Sandia National Laboratories, and Geographic Paradigm Computing, Inc., proposed a comprehensive research agenda for GIS-T. That program outlined a national effort to synthesize new transportation policy initiatives (e.g., management systems and Intelligent Transportation Systems) with the GIS-T server net ideas contained in the NCHRP project {open_quotes}Adaptation of GIS to Transportation{close_quotes}. After much consultation with state, federal, and private interests, a project proposal based on this agenda was prepared and resulted in this Study. The general objective of the Study was to develop GIS-T server net prototypes supporting the ISTEA requirements for transportation planning and management and monitoring systems. This objective can be further qualified to: (1) Create integrated information system architectures and design requirements encompassing transportation planning activities and data. (2) Encourage the development of functional GIS-T server net prototypes. (3) Demonstrate multiple information systems implemented in a server net environment.

  16. Petri Net Approach of Collision Prevention Supervisor Design in Port Transport System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danko Kezić

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern port terminals are equipped with various localtransport systems, which have the main task to transport cargobetween local storehouses and transport resources (ships,trains, trucks in the fastest and most efficient way, and at thelowest possible cost. These local transport systems consist offully automated transport units (AGV- automatic guided vehiclewhich are controlled by the computer system. The portcomputer system controls the fully automated transport units inthe way to avoid possible deadlocks and collisions betweenthem. However, beside the fully automated local transportunits, there are human operated transport units (fork-lifttrucks, cranes etc. which cross the path oftheAGVfrom timeto time. The collision of human operated transp011 unit andA GV is possible due to human inattention. To solve this problem,it is necesswy to design a supe1vismy control system thatcoordinates and controls both human driven transport unit andA G V In other words, the human-machine interactions need tobe supen·ised. The supen•ising system can be realized in the waythat the port terminal is divided into zones. Vehicle movementsare supen•ised by a video system which detects the moving ofparticular l'ehicles as a discrete event. Based on detected events,dangerous moving of certain vehicles is blocked by the supe1visi11gsystem. The paper considers the design of collision preventionsupen•isor by using discrete event dynamic themy. The portterminal is modeled by using ordi1za1y Petri nets. The design ofcollision prevention supe1visor is cmTied out by using the P-inl'ariantmethod. The verification of the supervisor is done bycomputer simulation.

  17. Low rate loading-induced convection enhances net transport into the intervertebral disc in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullbrand, Sarah E; Peterson, Joshua; Mastropolo, Rosemarie; Roberts, Timothy T; Lawrence, James P; Glennon, Joseph C; DiRisio, Darryl J; Ledet, Eric H

    2015-05-01

    The intervertebral disc primarily relies on trans-endplate diffusion for the uptake of nutrients and the clearance of byproducts. In degenerative discs, diffusion is often diminished by endplate sclerosis and reduced proteoglycan content. Mechanical loading-induced convection has the potential to augment diffusion and enhance net transport into the disc. The ability of convection to augment disc transport is controversial and has not been demonstrated in vivo. To determine if loading-induced convection can enhance small molecule transport into the intervertebral disc in vivo. Net transport was quantified via postcontrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) into the discs of the New Zealand white rabbit lumbar spine subjected to in vivo cyclic low rate loading. Animals were administered the MRI contrast agent gadodiamide intravenously and subjected to in vivo low rate loading (0.5 Hz, 200 N) via a custom external loading apparatus for either 2.5, 5, 10, 15, or 20 minutes. Animals were then euthanized and the lumbar spines imaged using postcontrast enhanced MRI. The T1 constants in the nucleus, annulus, and cartilage endplates were quantified as a measure of gadodiamide transport into the loaded discs compared with the adjacent unloaded discs. Microcomputed tomography was used to quantify subchondral bone density. Low rate loading caused the rapid uptake and clearance of gadodiamide in the nucleus compared with unloaded discs, which exhibited a slower rate of uptake. Relative to unloaded discs, low rate loading caused a maximum increase in transport into the nucleus of 16.8% after 5 minutes of loading. Low rate loading increased the concentration of gadodiamide in the cartilage endplates at each time point compared with unloaded levels. Results from this study indicate that forced convection accelerated small molecule uptake and clearance in the disc induced by low rate mechanical loading. Low rate loading may, therefore, be therapeutic to the disc as it

  18. Basolateral P2X receptors mediate inhibition of NaCl transport in mouse medullary thick ascending limb (mTAL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marques, Rita D; de Bruijn, Pauline I.A.; Sørensen, Mads Vaarby

    2012-01-01

    TAL) including luminal and basolateral P2Y(2) receptors. In addition, we found evidence for a basolateral P2X receptor. Here we investigate the effect of basolateral ATP on NaCl absorption in isolated, perfused mouse mTALs using the electrical measurement of equivalent short circuit current (I'(sc)). Non...

  19. Building waste management core indicators through Spatial Material Flow Analysis: net recovery and transport intensity indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font Vivanco, David; Puig Ventosa, Ignasi; Gabarrell Durany, Xavier

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, the material and spatial characterization of the flows within a municipal solid waste (MSW) management system are combined through a Network-Based Spatial Material Flow Analysis. Using this information, two core indicators are developed for the bio-waste fraction, the Net Recovery Index (NRI) and the Transport Intensity Index (TII), which are aimed at assessing progress towards policy-related sustainable MSW management strategies and objectives. The NRI approaches the capacity of a MSW management system for converting waste into resources through a systematic metabolic approach, whereas the TII addresses efficiency in terms of the transport requirements to manage a specific waste flow throughout the entire MSW management life cycle. Therefore, both indicators could be useful in assessing key MSW management policy strategies, such as the consecution of higher recycling levels (sustainability principle) or the minimization of transport by locating treatment facilities closer to generation sources (proximity principle). To apply this methodological approach, the bio-waste management system of the region of Catalonia (Spain) has been chosen as a case study. Results show the adequacy of both indicators for identifying those points within the system with higher capacity to compromise its environmental, economic and social performance and therefore establishing clear targets for policy prioritization. Moreover, this methodological approach permits scenario building, which could be useful in assessing the outcomes of hypothetical scenarios, thus proving its adequacy for strategic planning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Short-term modulation of distal tubule fluid nitric oxide in vivo by loop NaCl reabsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, David Z; Burns, Kevin D; Jaffey, James; Iacovitti, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    Intrarenal nitric oxide (NO) production and signaling effects are influenced by NaCl loading. To gain further insight into NO mechanisms we determined whether rat distal tubular fluid (DTF) [NO] and collected NO may acutely change when NaCl loop delivery is altered. An NO microelectrode was used to measure real-time DTF [NO] and DT-collected NO. With proximal flow blocked (open system), 150 mmol/L NaCl, with and without 10(-4) mol/L furosemide was perfused with measurement of loop [Cl] reabsorption. Using a closed system, DTF [NO] was also determined using several different loop perfusates. In the open system, perfusion with 40 nL/min of 150 mmol/L NaCl to which 10(-4) mol/L furosemide was added, DT [NO] and DT-collected NO was approximately twice that measured with perfusion of 150 mmol/L NaCl alone, while loop Cl reabsorption decreased by half. In the closed system, perfusion at 10 nL/min of 150 mmol/L NaCl + furosemide 10(-4) mol/L also induced a significant rise in DTF [NO] and collected NO. Perfusion of 10(-3) mol/L S-methyl-L-thiocitrulline (SMTC) with 150 mmol/L NaCl, induces a significant drop in DT [NO], but without a significant increase in collected NO. Furthermore, with addition of 10(-3) mol/L SMTC to the 150 mmol/L NaCl + 10(-4) furosemide perfusate, the rise in DT [NO] was prevented. Analysis of covariance showed that flow changes within, or between all groups, had no significant additional effect. In both open and closed loop perfusion systems, 10(-4) mol/L furosemide inhibition of NaCl transport stimulates net loop NO emission independent of flow; 10(-3) mol/L SMTC + 150 mmol/L NaCl reduces DT [NO], but not DT-collected NO. Short-term net NO emission from the entire loop, as collected in distal tubule fluid, increases with inhibition of loop NaCl transport.

  1. Building waste management core indicators through Spatial Material Flow Analysis: Net recovery and transport intensity indexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Font Vivanco, David, E-mail: font@cml.leidenuniv.nl [Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambientals (ICTA), Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Puig Ventosa, Ignasi [ENT Environment and Management, Carrer Sant Joan 39, First Floor, 08800 Vilanova i la Geltru, Barcelona (Spain); Gabarrell Durany, Xavier [Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambientals (ICTA), Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sustainability and proximity principles have a key role in waste management. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Core indicators are needed in order to quantify and evaluate them. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A systematic, step-by-step approach is developed in this study for their development. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transport may play a significant role in terms of environmental and economic costs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Policy action is required in order to advance in the consecution of these principles. - Abstract: In this paper, the material and spatial characterization of the flows within a municipal solid waste (MSW) management system are combined through a Network-Based Spatial Material Flow Analysis. Using this information, two core indicators are developed for the bio-waste fraction, the Net Recovery Index (NRI) and the Transport Intensity Index (TII), which are aimed at assessing progress towards policy-related sustainable MSW management strategies and objectives. The NRI approaches the capacity of a MSW management system for converting waste into resources through a systematic metabolic approach, whereas the TII addresses efficiency in terms of the transport requirements to manage a specific waste flow throughout the entire MSW management life cycle. Therefore, both indicators could be useful in assessing key MSW management policy strategies, such as the consecution of higher recycling levels (sustainability principle) or the minimization of transport by locating treatment facilities closer to generation sources (proximity principle). To apply this methodological approach, the bio-waste management system of the region of Catalonia (Spain) has been chosen as a case study. Results show the adequacy of both indicators for identifying those points within the system with higher capacity to compromise its environmental, economic and social performance and therefore establishing clear targets for policy

  2. Net Fluorescein Flux Across Corneal Endothelium Strongly Suggests Fluid Transport is due to Electro-osmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, J M; Cacace, V; Kusnier, C F; Nelson, R; Rubashkin, A A; Iserovich, P; Fischbarg, J

    2016-08-01

    We have presented prior evidence suggesting that fluid transport results from electro-osmosis at the intercellular junctions of the corneal endothelium. Such phenomenon ought to drag other extracellular solutes. We have investigated this using fluorescein-Na2 as an extracellular marker. We measured unidirectional fluxes across layers of cultured human corneal endothelial (HCE) cells. SV-40-transformed HCE layers were grown to confluence on permeable membrane inserts. The medium was DMEM with high glucose and no phenol red. Fluorescein-labeled medium was placed either on the basolateral or the apical side of the inserts; the other side carried unlabeled medium. The inserts were held in a CO2 incubator for 1 h (at 37 °C), after which the entire volume of the unlabeled side was collected. After that, label was placed on the opposite side, and the corresponding paired sample was collected after another hour. Fluorescein counts were determined with a (Photon Technology) DeltaScan fluorometer (excitation 380 nm; emission 550 nm; 2 nm bwth). Samples were read for 60 s. The cells utilized are known to transport fluid from the basolateral to the apical side, just as they do in vivo in several species. We used 4 inserts for influx and efflux (total: 20 1-h periods). We found a net flux of fluorescein from the basolateral to the apical side. The flux ratio was 1.104 ± 0.056. That difference was statistically significant (p = 0.00006, t test, paired samples). The endothelium has a definite restriction at the junctions. Hence, an asymmetry in unidirectional fluxes cannot arise from osmosis, and can only point instead to paracellular solvent drag. We suggest, once more, that such drag is due to electro-osmotic coupling at the paracellular junctions.

  3. [Effects of NaCl stress on photosynthesis characteristics and fast chlorophyll fluorescence induction dynamics of Pistacia chinensis leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu-Xin; Liu, Bing-Xiang; Guo, Zhi-Tao; Chang, Yue-Xia; He, Lei; Chen, Fang; Lu, Bing-She

    2013-09-01

    By using fast chlorophyll fluorescence induction dynamics analysis technique (JIP-test), this paper studied the photosynthesis characteristics and fast chlorophyll fluorescence induction dynamics of 1-year old Pistacia chinensis seedlings under the stress of NaCl at the concentrations 0% (CK), 0.15%, 0.3%, 0.45%, and 0.6%. With the increasing concentration of NaCl, the contents of Chl a, Chl b, and Chl (a+b) in the seedlings leaves decreased, the Chl a/b ratio decreased after an initial increase, and the carotenoid content increased. The net photosynthetic rate (P(n)) and stomatal conductance (g(s)) decreased gradually with increasing NaCl concentration. The decrease of P(n) was mainly attributed to the stomatal limitation when the NaCl concentration was lower than 0.3%, and to the non-stomatal limitation when the NaCl concentration was higher than 0.3%. The trapped energy flux per RC (TR0/CS0), electron transport flux per RC (ET0/CS0), density of RCs (RC/CS0), and yield or flux ratio (psi(0) or phi(E0)) decreased, but the absorption flux per CS (ABS/CS0) and the K phase (W(k)) and J phase (V) in the O-J-I-P chlorophyll fluorescence induction curves increased distinctly, indicating that NaCl stress damaged the leaf oxygen-evolving complex (OEC), donor sides, and PS II reaction centers. When the NaCl concentration reached 0.3%, the maximum photochemical efficiency (F(v)/F(m)) and performance index (PI(ABS)) decreased 17.7% and 36.6%, respectively, as compared with the control.

  4. Coupling Hyporheic Nitrification-Denitrification: Evaluating Net Nitrate Source-Sink Dynamics as a Function of Transport and Reaction Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnetske, J. P.; Haggerty, R.; Wondzell, S. M.; Bokil, V. A.; Gonzalez Pinzon, R. A.

    2011-12-01

    The fate of biologically-available nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) in stream ecosystems is controlled by the coupling of physical transport and biogeochemical reaction kinetics. However, determining the relative role of physical and biogeochemical controls at different temporal and spatial scales is difficult. Hyporheic and riparian zones, where ground waters and stream waters mix, can be important locations controlling N and C transformations because they create strong gradients in both the physical and biogeochemical conditions that control redox biogeochemistry. We evaluated the coupling of physical transport and biogeochemical redox reactions by linking an advection, dispersion, and residence time model with a multiple Monod kinetics model simulating the concentrations of oxygen (O2), ammonium (NH4), nitrate (NO3), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The model successfully simulated the O2, NH4, NO3 and DOC concentration profiles observed in the hyporheic zone at our study site. We then used global Monte Carlo sensitivity analyses with a nondimensional form of the model to examine coupled nitrification-denitrification dynamics across many scales of transport and reaction conditions. Results demonstrated that the residence time of water in hyporheic systems and the uptake rate of O2 from either respiration and/or nitrification determined whether a hyporheic system was a source or a sink of NO3 to the stream. We further show that the net NO3 source or sink function of a hyporheic system is determined by the ratio of characteristic transport time to the characteristic reaction time of O2 (i.e., the Damköhler number, DaO2), where hyporheic systems with DaO2 > 1 will be net denitrification environments. Our coupling of the hydrologic and biogeochemical limitations of N transformations across different temporal and spatial scales within hyporheic zones allows us to explain the widely contrasting results of previous investigations of hyporheic N dynamics which variously

  5. Use of a multi-species reactive transport model to simulate chloride ingress in mortar exposed to NaCl solution or sea-water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Mønster; De Weerdt, K.; Johannesson, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Simulations of ion ingress in Portland cement mortar using a multi-species reactive mass transport model are compared with experimental test results. The model is an extended version of the Poisson–Nernst–Planck equations, accounting for chemical equilibrium. Saturated mortar samples were exposed...... after 8 days of hydration to a NaCl-solution or natural sea-water in a laboratory controlled environment for the experimental part. The samples were analyzed for the total chloride content after 21, 90 and 180 days of exposure, at varying depths from the exposed surface. The applicability...

  6. 26 CFR 1.172-8 - Net operating loss carryovers for regulated transportation corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... intrastate, suburban, municipal, or interurban electric railroad, (b) On an intrastate, municipal, or suburban trackless trolley system, (c) On a municipal or suburban bus system, or (d) By motor vehicle not... and are substantially as favorable to users and consumers as are the regulated rates, transportation...

  7. Ca2+ transport by reconstituted synaptosomal ATPase is associated with H+ countertransport and net charge displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, J M; Inesi, G; Rigaud, J L; Mata, A M

    1998-07-17

    The synaptosomal plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA) purified from pig brain was reconstituted with liposomes prepared by reverse phase evaporation at a lipid to protein ratio of 150/1 (w/w). ATP-dependent Ca2+ uptake and H+ ejection by the reconstituted proteoliposomes were demonstrated by following light absorption and fluorescence changes undergone by arsenazo III and 8-hydroxy-1,3, 6-pyrene trisulfonate, respectively. Ca2+ uptake was increased up to 2-3-fold by the H+ ionophore carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone, consistent with relief of an inhibitory transmembrane pH gradient (i.e. lumenal alkalinization) generated by H+ countertransport. The stoichiometric ratio of Ca2+/H+ countertransport was 1.0/0.6, and the ATP/Ca2+ coupling stoichiometry was 1/1 at 25 degrees C. The electrogenic character of the Ca2+/H+ countertransport was demonstrated by measuring light absorption changes undergone by oxonol VI. It was shown that a 20 mV steady state potential (positive on the lumenal side) was formed as a consequence of net charge transfer associated with the 1/1 Ca2+/H+ countertransport. Calmodulin stimulated ATPase activity, Ca2+ uptake, and H+ ejection, demonstrating that these parameters are linked by the same mechanism of PMCA regulation.

  8. Electron scattering in graphene with adsorbed NaCl nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drabińska, Aneta, E-mail: Aneta.Drabinska@fuw.edu.pl; Kaźmierczak, Piotr; Bożek, Rafał; Karpierz, Ewelina; Wysmołek, Andrzej; Kamińska, Maria [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Wołoś, Agnieszka [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Pasternak, Iwona; Strupiński, Włodek [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wólczyńska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Krajewska, Aleksandra [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wólczyńska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-01-07

    In this work, the results of contactless magnetoconductance and Raman spectroscopy measurements performed for a graphene sample after its immersion in NaCl solution were presented. The properties of the immersed sample were compared with those of a non-immersed reference sample. Atomic force microscopy and electron spin resonance experiments confirmed the deposition of NaCl nanoparticles on the graphene surface. A weak localization signal observed using contactless magnetoconductance showed the reduction of the coherence length after NaCl treatment of graphene. Temperature dependence of the coherence length indicated a change from ballistic to diffusive regime in electron transport after NaCl treatment. The main inelastic scattering process was of the electron-electron type but the major reason for the reduction of the coherence length at low temperatures was additional, temperature independent, inelastic scattering. We associate it with spin flip scattering, caused by NaCl nanoparticles present on the graphene surface. Raman spectroscopy showed an increase in the D and D′ bands intensities for graphene after its immersion in NaCl solution. An analysis of the D, D′, and G bands intensities proved that this additional scattering is related to the decoration of vacancies and grain boundaries with NaCl nanoparticles, as well as generation of new on-site defects as a result of the decoration of the graphene surface with NaCl nanoparticles. The observed energy shifts of 2D and G bands indicated that NaCl deposition on the graphene surface did not change carrier concentration, but reduced compressive biaxial strain in the graphene layer.

  9. The mechanism by which NaCl treatment alleviates PSI photoinhibition under chilling-light treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng; Zhang, Zi-shan; Gao, Hui-yuan; Fan, Xing-li; Liu, Mei-jun; Li, Xiang-dong

    2014-11-01

    The effects of chilling-light stress combined with additional stress on PSI and PSII photoinhibition and their interrelationship have not been known. To explore whether NaCl affects the PSI and PSII photoinhibition and their interrelationship under chilling-light treatment, the PSI and PSII activities were studied under chilling-light with or without NaCl treatment. The results showed that the extent of PSI and PSII photoinhibition both increased under chilling-light, while NaCl aggravated PSII photoinhibition and severely damaged cytochrome b₆/f complex but alleviated PSI photoinhibition. Moreover, DCMU had a similar effect as NaCl in this study, which indicates that NaCl alleviated PSI photoinhibition through reducing electrons transported to PSI. It was also showed that the increased damage to PSII by NaCl did not depend on the inhibition of PSII repair and PSI electron transportation. In conclusion, NaCl alleviated PSI photoinhibition by inhibiting electron transport from PSII under chilling-light conditions. In addition, PSII photoinhibition was not affected by PSI photoinhibition because of a full inhibition of PSII repair by chilling-light treatment. We also speculate that NaCl aggravates PSII photoinhibition by enhancing the damage instead of inhibiting the repair of it under chilling-light conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Determining littoral sediment transport paths adjacent to an eroding carbonate beach through net sediment grain-size trend analysis: Lanikai Beach, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochicchio, C. J.; Fletcher, C.; Vitousek, S.; Romine, B.; Smith, T.

    2007-12-01

    Identifying long-term trends of sediment transport in coastal environments is a fundamental goal shared by coastal scientists, engineers, and resource managers. Historical photographic analysis and predictive computer models have served as the primary approaches to charactering long-term trends in sediment flux. Net sediment grain-size trend analysis is an empirical, sedimentologically based technique that uses physical sediment samples to identify long-term sediment transport pathways. Originally developed by McLaren and Bowles (1985), net sediment grain-size trend analysis identifies progressive trends in grain-size parameters (mean size, sorting, and skewness) in sediment samples. Ultimately, the results give an indication of long-shore sediment transport, a visualization of individual littoral cells, and a better understanding of sediment processes in the near- shore region. We applied two methodologies put forth by Gao and Collins (1992) and Roux (1994) to 214 samples collected off Lanikai Beach, Hawaii; an excellent example of a coastal environment with chronic beach erosion. The Gao methodology searches point-to-point search for the two trend types used by McLaren. The Roux methodology simultaneously searches between five adjacent points for four trend types. Despite significant differences, similar trends dominate in both sets of results. The Gao methodology produces generalized trends while the Roux methodology shows finer details of sediment transport. Long-shore transport direction is shown to be northward for the majority of the study area, implying a sediment supply to the south. Therefore erosion is instigated if the sediment supply south of Lanikai Beach is cut off. A strong onshore sediment transport trend fails to accrete a beach in an armored section of the southern Lanikai coastline, demonstrating the erosive effect of increased wave refraction from coastal armoring. Results of the sediment trend analyses agree well with tidal current models

  11. Effect of NaCl salinity on nitrate uptake in Plantago maritima L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubinigg, Michael; Posthumus, F.S; Elzenga, J.T.M.; Stulen, I.

    2005-01-01

    Exposure of plants to NaCl salinity reduces the rate of nitrate net uptake by the roots. Previous studies showed that this effect was due to a reduced nitrate influx, which could only partially be explained by a lower demand of nitrate for growth. In the present work we tested the hypothesis that

  12. Na+/H+-transporter, H+-pumps and an aquaporin in light and heavy tonoplast membranes from organic acid and NaCl accumulating vacuoles of the annual facultative CAM plant and halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epimashko, Svetlana; Fischer-Schliebs, Elke; Christian, Anna-Luise; Thiel, Gerhard; Lüttge, Ulrich

    2006-09-01

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) was induced in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L. by either NaCl- or high light (HL)- stress. This generated in mesophyll cells predominantly of NaCl-stressed plants two different types of vacuoles: the generic acidic vacuoles for malic acid accumulation and additionally less acidic ("neutral") vacuoles for NaCl sequestration. To examine differences in the tonoplast properties of the two types of vacuoles, we separated microsomal membranes of HL- and NaCl-stressed M. crystallinum plants by centrifugation in sucrose density gradients. Positive immunoreactions of a set of antibodies directed against tonoplast specific proteins and tonoplast specific ATP- and PPi-hydrolytic activity were used as markers for vacuolar membranes. With these criteria tonoplast membranes were detected in both HL- and NaCl-stressed plants in association with the characteristic low sucrose density but also at an unusual high sucrose density. In HL-stressed plants most of the ATP- and PPi-hydrolytic activity and cross reactivity with antibodies including that directed against the Na+/H+-antiporter from Arabidopsis thaliana was detected with light sucrose density. This relationship was inverted in NaCl-stressed plants; they exhibited most pump activity and immunoreactivity in the heavy fraction. The relative abundance of the heavy membrane fraction reflects the relative occurrence of "neutral" vacuoles in either HL- or NaCl-stressed plants. This suggests that tonoplasts of the "neutral" vacuoles sediment at high sucrose densities. This is consistent with the view that this type of vacuoles serves for Na+ sequestration and is accordingly equipped with a high capacity of proton pumping and Na+ uptake via the Na+/H+-antiporter.

  13. CAX-ing a wide net: Cation/H(+) transporters in metal remediation and abiotic stress signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cation/proton exchangers (CAXs) are a class of secondary energised ion transporter that are being implicated in an increasing range of cellular and physiological functions. CAXs are primarily Ca(2+) efflux transporters that mediate the sequestration of Ca(2+) from the cytosol, usually into the vacuo...

  14. Anomalous transport properties of a two-phase system of HTSC + NiTiO sub 3 paramagnetics, forming the net of random Josephson junctions

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, M I; Shajkhutdinov, K A; Popkov, S I

    2002-01-01

    The magnetoresistive properties of the 92.5 at % Y sub 3 sub / sub 4 Lu sub 1 sub / sub 4 Ba sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7 + 7.5 at % NiTiO sub 3 composites, representing the net of random tunnel transitions of the Josephson type, are synthesized and studied. The area, whereon R does not depend on the j-current and slightly depends on the H magnetic field is identified on the temperature dependences of the electric resistance R(T) of the composites with the NiTiO sub 3 paramagnetic compound below the temperature of the HTSC T sub c transition. The anomalous behavior of the HTSC + NiTiO sub 3 composites is explained by the effect of the Ni atoms magnetic moments in the dielectric barriers on the current transport

  15. Net Locality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Gordon, Eric

    Provides an introduction to the new theory of Net Locality and the profound effect on individuals and societies when everything is located or locatable. Describes net locality as an emerging form of location awareness central to all aspects of digital media, from mobile phones, to Google Maps...... of emerging technologies, from GeoCities to GPS, Wi-Fi, Wiki Me, and Google Android....

  16. Net Neutrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej

    2017-01-01

    Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else.......Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else....

  17. Blockade of the high-affinity noradrenaline transporter (NET) by the selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor escitalopram: an in vivo microdialysis study in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hai T; Guiard, Bruno P; Bacq, Alexandre; David, Denis J; David, Indira; Quesseveur, Gaël; Gautron, Sophie; Sanchez, Connie; Gardier, Alain M

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Escitalopram, the S(+)-enantiomer of citalopram is the most selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor approved. Although all 5-HT selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) increase extracellular levels of 5-HT ([5-HT]ext). some also enhance, to a lesser extent, extracellular levels of noradrenaline ([NA]ext). However, the mechanisms by which SSRIs activate noradrenergic transmission in the brain remain to be determined. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH This study examined the effects of escitalopram, on both [5-HT]ext and [NA]ext in the frontal cortex (FCx) of freely moving wild-type (WT) and mutant mice lacking the 5-HT transporter (SERT−/−) by using intracerebral microdialysis. We explored the possibilities that escitalopram enhances [NA]ext, either by a direct mechanism involving the inhibition of the low- or high-affinity noradrenaline transporters, or by an indirect mechanism promoted by [5-HT]ext elevation. The forced swim test (FST) was used to investigate whether enhancing cortical [5-HT]ext and/or [NA]ext affected the antidepressant-like activity of escitalopram. KEY RESULTS In WT mice, a single systemic administration of escitalopram produced a significant increase in cortical [5-HT]ext and [NA]ext. As expected, escitalopram failed to increase cortical [5-HT]ext in SERT−/− mice, whereas its neurochemical effects on [NA]ext persisted in these mutants. In WT mice subjected to the FST, escitalopram increased swimming parameters without affecting climbing behaviour. Finally, escitalopram, at relevant concentrations, failed to inhibit cortical noradrenaline and 5-HT uptake mediated by low-affinity monoamine transporters. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These experiments suggest that escitalopram enhances, although moderately, cortical [NA]extin vivo by a direct mechanism involving the inhibition of the high-affinity noradrenaline transporter (NET). PMID:22233336

  18. Modification of vortex dynamics and transport properties of transitional axisymmetric jets using zero-net-mass-flux actuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Önder, Asim; Meyers, Johan, E-mail: johan.meyers@mech.kuleuven.be [Department of Mechanical Engineering, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 300A, B3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2014-07-15

    We study the near field of a zero-net-mass-flux (ZNMF) actuated round jet using direct numerical simulations. The Reynolds number of the jet Re{sub D} = 2000 and three ZNMF actuators are used, evenly distributed over a circle, and directed towards the main jet. The actuators are triggered in phase, and have a relatively low momentum coefficient of C{sub μ} = 0.0049 each. We study four different control frequencies with Strouhal numbers ranging from St{sub D} = 0.165 to St{sub D} = 1.32; next to that, also two uncontrolled baseline cases are included in the study. We find that this type of ZNMF actuation leads to strong deformations of the near-field jet region that are very similar to those observed for non-circular jets. At the end of the jet's potential core (x/D = 5), the jet-column cross section is deformed into a hexagram-like geometry that results from strong modifications of the vortex structures. Two mechanisms lead to these modifications, i.e., (i) self-deformation of the jet's primary vortex rings started by distortions in their azimuthal curvature by the actuation, and (ii) production of side jets by the development and subsequent detachment of secondary streamwise vortex pairs. Further downstream (x/D = 10), the jet transforms into a triangular pattern, as the sharp corner regions of the hexagram entrain fluid and spread. We further investigate the global characteristics of the actuated jets. In particular when using the jet preferred frequency, i.e., St{sub D} = 0.33, parameters such as entrainment, centerline decay rate, and mean turbulent kinetic energy are significantly increased. Furthermore, high frequency actuation, i.e., St{sub D} = 1.32, is found to suppress the mechanisms leading to large scale structure growth and turbulent kinetic energy production. The simulations further include a passive scalar equation, and passive scalar mixing is also quantified and visualized.

  19. RESTful NET

    CERN Document Server

    Flanders, Jon

    2008-01-01

    RESTful .NET is the first book that teaches Windows developers to build RESTful web services using the latest Microsoft tools. Written by Windows Communication Foundation (WFC) expert Jon Flanders, this hands-on tutorial demonstrates how you can use WCF and other components of the .NET 3.5 Framework to build, deploy and use REST-based web services in a variety of application scenarios. RESTful architecture offers a simpler approach to building web services than SOAP, SOA, and the cumbersome WS- stack. And WCF has proven to be a flexible technology for building distributed systems not necessa

  20. Phytoplankton growth balanced by clam and zooplankton grazing and net transport into the low-salinity zone of the San Francisco Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmerer, Wim J.; Thompson, Janet K.

    2014-01-01

    We estimated the influence of planktonic and benthic grazing on phytoplankton in the strongly tidal, river-dominated northern San Francisco Estuary using data from an intensive study of the low salinity foodweb in 2006–2008 supplemented with long-term monitoring data. A drop in chlorophyll concentration in 1987 had previously been linked to grazing by the introduced clam Potamocorbula amurensis, but numerous changes in the estuary may be linked to the continued low chlorophyll. We asked whether phytoplankton continued to be suppressed by grazing and what proportion of the grazing was by benthic bivalves. A mass balance of phytoplankton biomass included estimates of primary production and grazing by microzooplankton, mesozooplankton, and clams. Grazing persistently exceeded net phytoplankton growth especially for larger cells, and grazing by microzooplankton often exceeded that by clams. A subsidy of phytoplankton from other regions roughly balanced the excess of grazing over growth. Thus, the influence of bivalve grazing on phytoplankton biomass can be understood only in the context of limits on phytoplankton growth, total grazing, and transport.

  1. P2Y2 receptor knock-out mice display normal NaCl absorption in medullary thick ascending limb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marques, Rita D; Praetorius, Helle A; Leipziger, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Local purinergic signals modulate renal tubular transport. Acute activation of renal epithelial P2 receptors causes inhibition of epithelial transport and thus, should favor increased water and salt excretion by the kidney. So far only a few studies have addressed the effects of extracellular...... no apparent effect on transepithelial ion transport. Here we studied, if the absence of the P2Y2 receptor causes chronic alterations in mTAL NaCl absorption by comparing basal and AVP-stimulated transepithelial transport rates. We used perfused mouse mTALs to electrically measure NaCl absorption in juvenile...

  2. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Associate Professor of. Computer Science and. Automation at the Indian. Institute of Science,. Bangalore. His research interests are broadly in the areas of stochastic modeling and scheduling methodologies for future factories; and object oriented modeling. GENERAL I ARTICLE. Petri Nets. 1. Overview and Foundations.

  3. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 8. Petri Nets - Overview and Foundations. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 8 August 1999 pp ... Author Affiliations. Y Narahari1. Department ot Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  4. Daily Changes in CO2 and Water Vapor Exchange, Chlorophyll Fluorescence, and Leaf Water Relations in the Halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum during the Induction of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism in Response to High NaCl Salinity 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Klaus; Gademann, Rolf

    1991-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements of net CO2 exchange, water vapor exchange, and leaf water relations were performed in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum during the development of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) in response to high NaCl salinity in the rooting medium. Determinations of chlorophyll a fluorescence were used to estimate relative changes in electron transport rate. Alterations in leaf mass per unit area, which—on a short-term basis—largely reflect changes in water content, were recorded continuously with a beta-gauge. Turgor pressure of mesophyll cells was determined with a pressure probe. As reported previously (K Winter, DJ von Willert [1972] Z Pflanzenphysiol 67: 166-170), recently expanded leaves of plants grown under nonsaline conditions showed gas-exchange characteristics of a C3 plant. Although these plants were not exposed to any particular stress treatment, water content and turgor pressure regularly decreased toward the end of the 12 hour light periods and recovered during the following 12 hours of darkness. When the NaCl concentration of the rooting medium was raised to 400 millimolar, in increments of 100 millimolar given at the onset of the photoperiods for 4 consecutive days, leaf water content and turgor pressure decreased by as much as 30 and 60%, respectively, during the course of the photoperiods. These transient decreases probably triggered the induction of the biochemical machinery which is required for CAM to operate. After several days at 400 millimolar NaCl, when leaves showed features typical of CAM, overall turgor pressure and leaf mass per unit area had increased above the levels before onset of the salt treatment, and diurnal alterations in leaf water content were reduced. Net carbon gain during photoperiods and average intercellular CO2 partial pressures at which net CO2 uptake occurred, progressively decreased upon salinization. Reversible diurnal depressions in leaf conductance and net CO2 uptake, with minima recorded in the

  5. Increased Ratio of Electron Transport to Net Assimilation Rate Supports Elevated Isoprenoid Emission Rate in Eucalypts under Drought1[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dani, Kaidala Ganesha Srikanta; Jamie, Ian McLeod; Prentice, Iain Colin; Atwell, Brian James

    2014-01-01

    Plants undergoing heat and low-CO2 stresses emit large amounts of volatile isoprenoids compared with those in stress-free conditions. One hypothesis posits that the balance between reducing power availability and its use in carbon assimilation determines constitutive isoprenoid emission rates in plants and potentially even their maximum emission capacity under brief periods of stress. To test this, we used abiotic stresses to manipulate the availability of reducing power. Specifically, we examined the effects of mild to severe drought on photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR) and net carbon assimilation rate (NAR) and the relationship between estimated energy pools and constitutive volatile isoprenoid emission rates in two species of eucalypts: Eucalyptus occidentalis (drought tolerant) and Eucalyptus camaldulensis (drought sensitive). Isoprenoid emission rates were insensitive to mild drought, and the rates increased when the decline in NAR reached a certain species-specific threshold. ETR was sustained under drought and the ETR-NAR ratio increased, driving constitutive isoprenoid emission until severe drought caused carbon limitation of the methylerythritol phosphate pathway. The estimated residual reducing power unused for carbon assimilation, based on the energetic status model, significantly correlated with constitutive isoprenoid emission rates across gradients of drought (r2 > 0.8) and photorespiratory stress (r2 > 0.9). Carbon availability could critically limit emission rates under severe drought and photorespiratory stresses. Under most instances of moderate abiotic stress levels, increased isoprenoid emission rates compete with photorespiration for the residual reducing power not invested in carbon assimilation. A similar mechanism also explains the individual positive effects of low-CO2, heat, and drought stresses on isoprenoid emission. PMID:25139160

  6. Alternative splice variant of the thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tutakhel, Omar A Z; Jeleń, Sabina; Valdez-Flores, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter (NCC) is an important pharmacological target in the treatment of hypertension. Human SLC12A3 gene, encoding NCC, gives rise to three isoforms. Only the 3(rd) isoform has been extensively investigated. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to establ......The thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter (NCC) is an important pharmacological target in the treatment of hypertension. Human SLC12A3 gene, encoding NCC, gives rise to three isoforms. Only the 3(rd) isoform has been extensively investigated. The aim of the present study was, therefore...... subjects significantly reduces the abundance of NCC1/2 in urinary exosomes. The present study highlights that previously underrepresented NCC1/2 is a fully functional thiazide-sensitive NaCl-transporting protein. Being significantly expressed in the kidney it may constitute a unique route of renal NaCl...

  7. An open-label, randomized positron emission tomography (PET) study in healthy male volunteers consisiting of Part A and Part B. Part A: Clinical validation of norepinephrine transporter (NET) PET ligand, (S,S)-[11C]O-methylreboxetine ([11C]MRB) using different doses of oral atomoxetine as NET reuptake inhibitor. Part B: Evaluation of NET occupancy, as measured by [11C]MRB, with multiple dosing regimens of orally administered GSK372475.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, Joanna

    2007-08-31

    Results from human studies with the PET radiotracer (S,S)-[(11)C]O-methyl reboxetine ([(11)C](S,S)-MRB), a ligand targeting the norepinephrine transporter (NET), are reported. Quantification methods were determined from test/retest studies, and sensitivity to pharmacological blockade was tested with different doses of atomoxetine (ATX), a drug that binds to the NET with high affinity (K(i)=2-5 nM). METHODS: Twenty-four male subjects were divided into different groups for serial 90-min PET studies with [(11)C](S,S)-MRB to assess reproducibility and the effect of blocking with different doses of ATX (25, 50 and 100 mg, po). Region-of-interest uptake data and arterial plasma input were analyzed for the distribution volume (DV). Images were normalized to a template, and average parametric images for each group were formed. RESULTS: [(11)C](S,S)-MRB uptake was highest in the thalamus (THL) and the midbrain (MBR) [containing the locus coeruleus (LC)] and lowest for the caudate nucleus (CDT). The CDT, a region with low NET, showed the smallest change on ATX treatment and was used as a reference region for the DV ratio (DVR). The baseline average DVR was 1.48 for both the THL and MBR with lower values for other regions [cerebellum (CB), 1.09; cingulate gyrus (CNG) 1.07]. However, more accurate information about relative densities came from the blocking studies. MBR exhibited greater blocking than THL, indicating a transporter density approximately 40% greater than THL. No relationship was found between DVR change and plasma ATX level. Although the higher dose tended to induce a greater decrease than the lower dose for MBR (average decrease for 25 mg=24+/-7%; 100 mg=31+/-11%), these differences were not significant. The different blocking between MBR (average decrease=28+/- 10%) and THL (average decrease=17+/-10%) given the same baseline DVR indicates that the CDT is not a good measure for non-NET binding in both regions. Threshold analysis of the difference between the

  8. Morphological, Physiological, and Structural Responses of Two Species of Artemisia to NaCl Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Yong Guan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of salt stress on Artemisia scoparia and A. vulgaris “Variegate” were examined. A. scoparia leaves became withered under NaCl treatment, whereas A. vulgaris “Variegate” leaves were not remarkably affected. Chlorophyll content decreased in both species, with a higher reduction in A. scoparia. Contents of proline, MDA, soluble carbohydrate, and Na+ increased in both species under salt stress, but A. vulgaris “Variegate” had higher level of proline and soluble carbohydrate and lower level of MDA and Na+. The ratios of K+/Na+, Ca2+/Na+, and Mg2+/Na+ in A. vulgaris “Variegate” under NaCl stress were higher. Moreover, A. vulgaris “Variegate” had higher transport selectivity of K+/Na+ from root to stem, stem to middle mature leaves, and upper newly developed leaves than A. scoparia under NaCl stress. A. vulgaris “Variegate” chloroplast maintained its morphological integrity under NaCl stress, whereas A. scoparia chloroplast lost integrity. The results indicated that A. scoparia is more sensitive to salt stress than A. vulgaris “Variegate.” Salt tolerance is mainly related to the ability of regulating osmotic pressure through the accumulation of soluble carbohydrates and proline, and the gradient distribution of K+ between roots and leaves was also contributed to osmotic pressure adjustment and improvement of plant salt tolerance.

  9. Explosive phenomena in heavily irradiated NaCl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    denHartog, HW; Vainshtein, DI; Matthews, GE; Williams, RT

    1997-01-01

    In heavily irradiated NaCl crystals explosive phenomena can be initiated during irradiation or afterwards when samples are heated to temperatures between 100 and 250 degrees C. During irradiation of NaCl Na and Cl-2 precipitates and void structures are produced along with the accumulation of stored

  10. Effects of different NaCl Concentrations on germination and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    drate content of the Mung bean plant. Ratnakar and Rai. (2013) observed while studying effects of NaCl salinity on seed germination and early seedling growth of Trigonella foenum-Graecum L. Var Peb that increasing NaCl concentrations caused a gradual decrease in root length, shoot length, fresh weight and dry weight ...

  11. Dissociation of methane hydrate in aqueous NaCl solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagasaki, Takuma; Matsumoto, Masakazu; Andoh, Yoshimichi; Okazaki, Susumu; Tanaka, Hideki

    2014-10-09

    Molecular dynamics simulations of the dissociation of methane hydrate in aqueous NaCl solutions are performed. It is shown that the dissociation of the hydrate is accelerated by the formation of methane bubbles both in NaCl solutions and in pure water. We find two significant effects on the kinetics of the hydrate dissociation by NaCl. One is slowing down in an early stage before bubble formation, and another is swift bubble formation that enhances the dissociation. These effects arise from the low solubility of methane in NaCl solution, which gives rise to a nonuniform spatial distribution of solvated methane in the aqueous phase. We also demonstrate that bubbles form near the hydrate interface in dense NaCl solutions and that the hydrate dissociation proceeds inhomogeneously due to the bubbles.

  12. A REVIEW OF ASSESSMENTS CONDUCTED ON BIO-ETHANOL AS A TRANSPORTATION FUEL FROM A NET ENERGY, GREENHOUSE GAS, AND ENVIRONMENTAL LIFE CYCLE PERSPECTIVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interest in producing ethanol from bio-mass in an attempt to make transportation ecologically sustainable continues to grow. In recent years, a large number of assessments have been conducted to assess the environmental merit of biofuels. Two detailed reviews that looked at the s...

  13. Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    container. It now permits free transit of shipping containers from their western ports, if transported by rail directly to the U.S. ( Mireles , 2005, p...Transportation Industry Study Seminar. Mireles , Richard, Castillo. (2005, January). A Cure for West Coast Congestion. Logistics Today, Vol. 46, Issue 1. 1

  14. P2Y2 receptor knock-out mice display normal NaCl absorption in medullary thick ascending limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Delgado Marques

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Local purinergic signals modulate renal tubular transport. Acute activation of renal epithelial P2 receptors causes inhibition of epithelial transport and thus, should favor increased water and salt excretion by the kidney. So far only a few studies have addressed the effects of extracellular nucleotides on ion transport in the thick ascending limb. In the medullary thick ascending limb (mTAL, basolateral P2X receptors markedly (~25% inhibit NaCl absorption. Although this segment does express both apical and basolateral P2Y2 receptors, acute activation of the basolateral P2Y2 receptors had no apparent effect on transepithelial ion transport. Here we studied, if the absence of the P2Y2 receptor causes chronic alterations in mTAL NaCl absorption by comparing basal and AVP-stimulated transepithelial transport rates. We used perfused mouse mTALs to electrically measure NaCl absorption in juvenile (35 days male mice. Using microelectrodes, we determined the transepithelial voltage (Vte and the transepithelial resistance (Rte and thus, transepithelial NaCl absorption (equivalent short circuit current, I’sc.We find that mTALs from adult wild type (WT mice have significantly lower NaCl absorption rates when compared to mTALs from juvenile WT mice. This could be attributed to significantly higher Rte values in mTALs from adult WT mice. This pattern was not observed in mTALs from P2Y2 receptor knockout (KO mice. In addition, adult P2Y2 receptor KO mTALs have significantly lower Vte values compared to the juvenile. No difference in absolute I´sc was observed when comparing mTALs from WT and KO mice. AVP stimulated the mTALs to similar increases of NaCl absorption irrespective of the absence of the P2Y2 receptor. No difference was observed in the medullary expression level of NKCC2 in between the genotypes.These data indicate that the lack of P2Y2 receptors does not cause substantial differences in resting and AVP-stimulated NaCl absorption in

  15. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Rosener, B. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host ``na-net.ornl.gov`` at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message ``send index`` to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user`s perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  16. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Rosener, B. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host na-net.ornl.gov'' at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message send index'' to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user's perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  17. 24-Epibrassinolide ameliorates the adverse effect of salt stress (NaCl on pepper (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibn Maaouia-Houimli Samira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the role of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL in inducing plant tolerance to salinity. Seedlings of pepper (Capsicum annuum L. were grown in the presence of 70 mM NaCl and were sprayed with 10-6 M EBL at 7 days after transplantation and were sampled at 28 day. The plants exposed to NaCl exhibited a significant decline in relative growth rate, net CO2 assimilation, stomatal conductance, transpiration and water use efficiency. However, the follow up treatment with EBL significantly improved the above parameters. EBL treated plants had greater relative growth rate compared to untreated plants when exposed to salt stress. Application of EBL increased photosynthesis by increasing stomatal conductance in both control and salt stressed plants and may have contributed to the enhanced growth. The water use efficiency was improved because CO2 assimilation is more important than the transpiration.

  18. The tolerance of Jatropha curcas seedlings to NaCl: an ecophysiological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-López, Leyanes; Gimeno, Vicente; Lidón, Vicente; Simón, Inma; Martínez, Vicente; García-Sánchez, Francisco

    2012-05-01

    Jatropha curcas L. is a biodiesel crop that is resistant to drought stress. However, the salt tolerance of this plant has not yet been studied. To address this question, J. curcas seedlings were grown in a fertilised substrate to evaluate the effects of salinity stress on growth, leaf water relation and organic solutes, leaf and root mineral concentrations, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, and carbohydrate concentration. The experiment consisted of six treatments with different concentrations of NaCl in the irrigation water: 0 (control), 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 mM. The total biomass exhibited a salt-induced decrease in the 60 mM or higher NaCl concentrations. The Cl(r) concentration was higher than the Na(+) concentration in all of the plant tissues. The water potential and relative water content of the leaves were not affected by any of the salt treatments. However, salinity induced a decline in the leaf K(+) concentration, together with a significant enhancement in the leaf P, S, Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu levels. The net assimilation of CO₂ also decreased with the salt treatment, due in part to non-stomatal limitation from the increase in C(a)/C(i) and a decrease in the maximum quantum efficiency (F(v)/F(m)) of photosystem II and soil plant analysis development (SPAD) units. This work suggests that J. curcas seedlings exhibit a moderate tolerance to salinity, as the plants were able to tolerate up to 4 dS m(-1) (EC water irrigation; 30 mM NaCl). The negative influences of salinity in this crop are mainly due to Cl(r) and/or Na(+) toxicity and to a nutritional imbalance caused by an increase in the Na(+)/K(+) ratio. The osmotic effect of salinity in this species is negligible, perhaps due to its strong control of leaf transpiration, which reduces water loss. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux is defined as the year-over-year change in Total Ecosystem Carbon Stock, or the net rate of carbon exchange between an ecosystem and the...

  20. Fluctuation functions in aqueous NaCl and urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, David; Koga, Yoshikata

    2005-09-08

    We earlier devised a set of fluctuation functions that provide relative qualitative differences of the amplitude (intensity) and the wavelength (extensity) of fluctuations in entropy and volume and the entropy-volume cross fluctuations. We discuss the mixing schemes in aqueous NaCl and urea using these fluctuation functions. Our earlier studies by using the second and third derivatives of Gibbs energy indicated that their effects on H2O are qualitatively different. An NaCl hydrates 7.5 molecules of H2O but leaves the bulk H2O away from the hydration shell unperturbed. Urea, on the other hand, connects onto the hydrogen bond network of H2O but retards the degree of fluctuation inherent in H2O. The behavior of the fluctuation functions calculated here are consistent with the above mixing schemes. Furthermore, urea was found to reduce the wavelength of fluctuation more strongly than NaCl.

  1. Professional Enterprise NET

    CERN Document Server

    Arking, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Comprehensive coverage to help experienced .NET developers create flexible, extensible enterprise application code If you're an experienced Microsoft .NET developer, you'll find in this book a road map to the latest enterprise development methodologies. It covers the tools you will use in addition to Visual Studio, including Spring.NET and nUnit, and applies to development with ASP.NET, C#, VB, Office (VBA), and database. You will find comprehensive coverage of the tools and practices that professional .NET developers need to master in order to build enterprise more flexible, testable, and ext

  2. Transportes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidalgo Fernández-Cano, Amalio

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available El movimiento de materiales dentro de la Factoría está atendido por tres principales medios de transporte, en consonancia con las características del material y de los desplazamientos. Así se han establecido: sistemas de cintas transportadoras, una red ferroviaria de ancho normal y una completa malla de caminos enlazando funcionalmente las instalaciones.

  3. Melting of sodium clusters in electron irradiated NaCl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sugonyako, AV; Vainshtein, DI; Turkin, AA; den Hartog, HW; Bukharaev, AA

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of the first systematic investigation of the geometrical properties of sodium nanoclusters in NaCl using the combined results of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The melting behaviour of the sodium nanoclusters which had

  4. Covering Surface Nanobubbles with a NaCl Nanoblanket

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkelaar, R.P.; Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.; Lohse, Detlef

    2013-01-01

    By letting a NaCl aqueous solution of low (0.01 M) concentration evaporate on a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface, it is possible to form a thin film of salt. However, pre-existing surface nanobubbles prevent the homogeneous coverage of the surface with the salt, keeping the

  5. Tolerance of soil flagellates to increased NaCl levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Flemming

    2002-01-01

    on a freshwater medium from a non-exposed soil were unable to thrive at salinities above 15 ppt, and showed reduced growth rates even at low salt salinities (1-5 ppt). The findings suggest that heterotrophic soil flagellates are less tolerant to NaCl than their aquatic relatives, possibly due to their long...

  6. Workload of official contests, net cost of transport, and metabolic power of Mangalarga Marchador horses of marcha batida or picada gaits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, J; Fonseca, M G; de Barros, G G M; Feringer-Júnior, W H; Pereira, G T; Ferraz, G C

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to characterize the maximum heart rate (HR) and the intensity of official marcha contests (OMC) and to compare the cost of transport (COT) and metabolic power (Pmet) of Mangalarga Marchador (MM) horses of marcha batida (MB) and marcha picada (MP) gaits. Twenty-two MM horses participated in this study. The experiment was conducted in 3 phases: 1) maximum effort test (MET), 2) OMC, and 3) standardized marcha test (SMT). To characterize the HR, 19 horses (14 MB and 5 MP) underwent a MET. Of those, 13 (9 MB and 4 MP) were monitored during the OMC, which consisted of 4 stages: marcha, walk, functional trial, and rest. The average heart rate (HR) in each stage of the OMC was related to the HR to determine their relative intensity. The SMT was performed with 14 horses (9 MB and 5 MP), of which 11 had already participated in the previous stages. The COT and Pmet were calculated from the HR values obtained during the SMT. Blood samples were collected to analyze plasma lactate concentration ([Lac]). One-way ANOVA or 1-way repeated-measures ANOVA followed by the Tukey's test ( 0.05). This indicated that horses of both groups had the same physical fitness levels. The OMC stages defined in our study differed ( < 0.05) regarding the relative intensity of the HR, except for the walk and standing stages, which were similar ( = 0.0875). The MP group presented greater COT ( = 0.0247) and Pmet ( = 0.0193). It can be concluded that the mean HR of MM horses (MB and MP) is 212 ± 11 bpm. The OMC of the MM breed can be characterized as an effort of intermittent and submaximal intensity. In addition, the locomotion of the MB horses is probably more energetically efficient than that of MP horses.

  7. WaveNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Coastal Inlets Research Program WaveNet WaveNet is a web-based, Graphical-User-Interface ( GUI ) data management tool developed for Corps coastal...generates tabular and graphical information for project planning and design documents. The WaveNet is a web-based GUI designed to provide users with a...data from different sources, and employs a combination of Fortran, Python and Matlab codes to process and analyze data for USACE applications

  8. Ion transport and osmotic adjustment in Escherichia coli in response to ionic and non-ionic osmotica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabala, Lana; Bowman, John; Brown, Janelle; Ross, Tom; McMeekin, Tom; Shabala, Sergey

    2009-01-01

    Bacteria respond to osmotic stress by a substantial increase in the intracellular osmolality, adjusting their cell turgor for altered growth conditions. Using Escherichia coli as a model organism we demonstrate here that bacterial responses to hyperosmotic stress specifically depend on the nature of osmoticum used. We show that increasing acute hyperosmotic NaCl stress above approximately 1.0 Os kg(-1) causes a dose-dependent K(+) leak from the cell, resulting in a substantial decrease in cytosolic K(+) content and a concurrent accumulation of Na(+) in the cell. At the same time, isotonic sucrose or mannitol treatment (non-ionic osmotica) results in a gradual increase of the net K(+) uptake. Ion flux data are consistent with growth experiments showing that bacterial growth is impaired by NaCl at the concentration resulting in a switch from net K(+) uptake to efflux. Microarray experiments reveal that about 40% of upregulated genes shared no similarity in their responses to NaCl and sucrose treatment, further suggesting specificity of osmotic adjustment in E. coli to ionic and non-ionic osmotica. The observed differences are explained by the specificity of the stress-induced changes in the membrane potential of bacterial cells highlighting the importance of voltage-gated K(+) transporters for bacterial adaptation to hyperosmotic stress.

  9. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes how Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets) have been developed — from being a promising theoretical model to being a full-fledged language for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems (and other systems in which human beings and...... use of CP-nets — because it means that the function representation and the translations (which are a bit mathematically complex) no longer are parts of the basic definition of CP-nets. Instead they are parts of the invariant method (which anyway demands considerable mathematical skills...

  10. Game Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of game coloured Petri nets. This allows the modeler to explicitly model what parts of the model comprise the modeled system and what parts are the environment of the modeled system. We give the formal definition of game coloured Petri nets, a means of reachability...... analysis of this net class, and an application of game coloured Petri nets to automatically generate easy-to-understand visualizations of the model by exploiting the knowledge that some parts of the model are not interesting from a visualization perspective (i.e. they are part of the environment...

  11. Programming NET Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Alex

    2007-01-01

    Web services are poised to become a key technology for a wide range of Internet-enabled applications, spanning everything from straight B2B systems to mobile devices and proprietary in-house software. While there are several tools and platforms that can be used for building web services, developers are finding a powerful tool in Microsoft's .NET Framework and Visual Studio .NET. Designed from scratch to support the development of web services, the .NET Framework simplifies the process--programmers find that tasks that took an hour using the SOAP Toolkit take just minutes. Programming .NET

  12. Annotating Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Bo; Wells, Lisa Marie

    2002-01-01

    -net. An example of such auxiliary information is a counter which is associated with a token to be able to do performance analysis. Modifying colour sets and arc inscriptions in a CP-net to support a specific use may lead to creation of several slightly different CP-nets – only to support the different uses...... a method which makes it possible to associate auxiliary information, called annotations, with tokens without modifying the colour sets of the CP-net. Annotations are pieces of information that are not essential for determining the behaviour of the system being modelled, but are rather added to support...

  13. The effect of NaCl on room-temperature-processed indium oxide nanoparticle thin films for printed electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Häming, M., E-mail: Marc.Haeming@yahoo.de [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation (IPS), D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Baby, T.T. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Nanotechnology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Garlapati, S.K. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Nanotechnology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Technische Universität Darmstadt, KIT-TUD Joint Research Laboratory for Nanomaterials, Jovanka-Bontschits-Str. 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Krause, B. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation (IPS), D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Hahn, H. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Nanotechnology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Technische Universität Darmstadt, KIT-TUD Joint Research Laboratory for Nanomaterials, Jovanka-Bontschits-Str. 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Helmholtz Institute Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Dasgupta, S. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Nanotechnology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Weinhardt, L.; Heske, C. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation (IPS), D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Chemical Technology and Polymer Chemistry (ITCP), 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Las Vegas, NV 89154-4003 (United States)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • The effect of NaCl ink additive on indium oxide nanoparticle thin films is analyzed. • NaCl changes the thin film morphology and its chemical structure. • NaCl decomposes the nanoparticle shell leading to lower charge transport barriers. • Explanation of the increase in field effect mobility from 1 to >12 cm{sup 2}/Vs. • Understanding of the ink drying process and the nanoparticle agglomeration behavior. - Abstract: One of the major challenges in flexible electronics industry is the fabrication of high-mobility field-effect transistors (FETs) at ambient conditions and on inexpensive polymer substrates compatible with roll-to-roll printing technology. In this context, a novel and general route towards room-temperature fabrication of printed FETs with remarkably high field-effect mobility (μ{sub FET}) above 12 cm{sup 2}/Vs has recently been developed. A detailed understanding of the chemical structure of the involved nanoparticle (NP) thin films, prepared by chemical flocculation, is essential for further optimization of the charge transport properties of such devices. In this study, we thus analyze indium oxide NP thin films with and without NaCl additive using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). It is demonstrated that the introduction of a sodium chloride additive to the ink leads to a strongly altered film morphology and a modification of the NP shell. The results suggest that, as a consequence of the additive, the charge-transport barriers between individual indium oxide NPs are lowered, facilitating long-range charge percolation paths despite the presence of a significant concentration of carbonaceous residues.

  14. Net zero water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lindeque, M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Is it possible to develop a building that uses a net zero amount of water? In recent years it has become evident that it is possible to have buildings that use a net zero amount of electricity. This is possible when the building is taken off...

  15. SolNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Ulrike; Vajen, Klaus; Bales, Chris

    2014-01-01

    SolNet, founded in 2006, is the first coordinated International PhD education program on Solar Thermal Engineering. The SolNet network is coordinated by the Institute of Thermal Engineering at Kassel University, Germany. The network offers PhD courses on solar heating and cooling, conference...

  16. Kunstige neurale net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørning, Annette

    1994-01-01

    Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse.......Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse....

  17. Acrylamide Mitigation in Potato Chips by Using NaCl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Granby, Kit; Risum, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    In April 2002, Swedish researchers shocked the world when they presented preliminary findings on the presence of acrylamide in fried and baked foods, most notably potato chips and French fries, at levels of 30–2,300 ppb. The objective of this research was to study the effect of immersing potato...... slices in a NaCl solution over the acrylamide formation in the resultant potato chips. Potato slices (Verdi variety, diameter 40 mm, width 2.0 mm) were fried at 170 °C for 5 min (final moisture content of ∼2.0%). Prior to frying, the potato slices were treated in one of the following ways: (1) control...... blanched at 90 °C for 5 min plus immersed in distilled water at 25 °C for 5 min; and (6) slices blanched at 90 °C for 5 min in a 3 g/100 g NaCl solution. Blanching followed by the immersion of potato slices in 1 g/100 g NaCl solution was effective in reducing acrylamide content in ∼62%; however, almost...

  18. Analysis of technologies for natural gas transportation in Brazil: results comparison of the application of payback and NPV (Net Present Value) methods; Analise de tecnologias de transporte de gas natural no Brasil: comparacao dos resultados da aplicacao dos metodos 'payback' e VPL (Valor Presente Liquido)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baioco, Juliana Souza; Santarem, Clarissa Andrade [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo; Bone, Rosemarie Broeker; Ferreira Filho, Virgilio Jose Martins [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Industrial

    2008-07-01

    The increased demand for natural gas leads to global integration of markets, leading to decisions that cover the various technologies of transportation, noting the specific locations. The transport of natural gas considered more traditional (Liquefied Natural Gas and Pipeline) often unviable economically areas of operation due to cost. In this case, there are alternative technologies to reduce those costs. The article is to compare the technologies of transport, using the methodology of the Net Present Value (VPL) to identify one that has more positive VPL, which is the most profitable. Thus, in search of validate the results of SUBERO et al. (2004) for gas transport by Pipelines, Liquefied Natural Gas and Compressed Natural Gas. In addition, they are compared these results with the method of VPL and with the economic analysis presented in using the payback period of CHANG (2001) and SANTAREM et al. (2007). It was found that the results obtained in Brazil were identical to those obtained by CHANG (2001) and SUBERO et al. (2007), saving only some differences in magnitude due to the specific characteristics of the Brazilian economy. In other words, for the Brazilian case, the technology of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) was the most economically viable with the method of VPL, followed by technology, Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), regardless of the interest rates of 10% and 6.5% and periods of 20 and 30 years. The contribution of this work is to show that despite of the method, payback or VPL, the various alternatives for transporting natural gas to Brazil have the same ranking and economic viability. (author)

  19. Pro NET Best Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, Stephen D

    2011-01-01

    Pro .NET Best Practices is a practical reference to the best practices that you can apply to your .NET projects today. You will learn standards, techniques, and conventions that are sharply focused, realistic and helpful for achieving results, steering clear of unproven, idealistic, and impractical recommendations. Pro .NET Best Practices covers a broad range of practices and principles that development experts agree are the right ways to develop software, which includes continuous integration, automated testing, automated deployment, and code analysis. Whether the solution is from a free and

  20. Getting to Net Zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-01

    The technology necessary to build net zero energy buildings (NZEBs) is ready and available today, however, building to net zero energy performance levels can be challenging. Energy efficiency measures, onsite energy generation resources, load matching and grid interaction, climatic factors, and local policies vary from location to location and require unique methods of constructing NZEBs. It is recommended that Components start looking into how to construct and operate NZEBs now as there is a learning curve to net zero construction and FY 2020 is just around the corner.

  1. Instant Lucene.NET

    CERN Document Server

    Heydt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A step-by-step guide that helps you to index, search, and retrieve unstructured data with the help of Lucene.NET.Instant Lucene.NET How-to is essential for developers new to Lucene and Lucene.NET who are looking to get an immediate foundational understanding of how to use the library in their application. It's assumed you have programming experience in C# already, but not that you have experience with search techniques such as information retrieval theory (although there will be a l

  2. Swelling/deswelling of polyacrylamide gels in aqueous NaCl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swelling kinetics of water-swollen polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogels (WSG) was investigated in various concentrations of aqueous NaCl by macroscopic swelling measurements. For lower concentration of NaCl, WSG showed exponential swelling whereas at higher concentration of NaCl it underwent deswelling at short ...

  3. NaCl salinity affects lateral root development in Plantago maritima

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubinigg, M; Wenisch, J; Elzenga, JTM; Stulen, [No Value

    2004-01-01

    Root growth and morphology were assessed weekly in hydroponically-grown seedlings of the halophyte Plantago maritima L. during exposure to 0, 50, 100 and 200 mM NaCl for 21 d. Relative growth rate was reduced by 25% at 200 mM NaCl. The lower NaCl treatments did not affect relative growth rates.

  4. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Musall, Eike

    2010-01-01

    and identify possible renewable energy supply options which may be considered in calculations. Finally, the gap between the methodology proposed by each organisation and their respective national building code is assessed; providing an overview of the possible changes building codes will need to undergo......The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...... parameters used in the calculations are discussed and the various renewable supply options considered in the methodologies are summarised graphically. Thus, the paper helps to understand different existing approaches to calculate energy balance in Net ZEBs, highlights the importance of variables selection...

  5. PhysioNet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The PhysioNet Resource is intended to stimulate current research and new investigations in the study of complex biomedical and physiologic signals. It offers free...

  6. NetSig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Heiko; Lawrence, Michael S; Chouinard, Candace R

    2018-01-01

    Methods that integrate molecular network information and tumor genome data could complement gene-based statistical tests to identify likely new cancer genes; but such approaches are challenging to validate at scale, and their predictive value remains unclear. We developed a robust statistic (Net......Sig) that integrates protein interaction networks with data from 4,742 tumor exomes. NetSig can accurately classify known driver genes in 60% of tested tumor types and predicts 62 new driver candidates. Using a quantitative experimental framework to determine in vivo tumorigenic potential in mice, we found that Net......Sig candidates induce tumors at rates that are comparable to those of known oncogenes and are ten-fold higher than those of random genes. By reanalyzing nine tumor-inducing NetSig candidates in 242 patients with oncogene-negative lung adenocarcinomas, we find that two (AKT2 and TFDP2) are significantly amplified...

  7. TideNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    query tide data sources in a desired geographic region of USA and its territories (Figure 1). Users can select a tide data source through the Google Map ...select data sources according to the desired geographic region. It uses the Google Map interface to display data from different sources. Recent...Coastal Inlets Research Program TideNet The TideNet is a web-based Graphical User Interface (GUI) that provides users with GIS mapping tools to

  8. Building Neural Net Software

    OpenAIRE

    Neto, João Pedro; Costa, José Félix

    1999-01-01

    In a recent paper [Neto et al. 97] we showed that programming languages can be translated on recurrent (analog, rational weighted) neural nets. The goal was not efficiency but simplicity. Indeed we used a number-theoretic approach to machine programming, where (integer) numbers were coded in a unary fashion, introducing a exponential slow down in the computations, with respect to a two-symbol tape Turing machine. Implementation of programming languages in neural nets turns to be not only theo...

  9. Interaction Nets in Russian

    OpenAIRE

    Salikhmetov, Anton

    2013-01-01

    Draft translation to Russian of Chapter 7, Interaction-Based Models of Computation, from Models of Computation: An Introduction to Computability Theory by Maribel Fernandez. "In this chapter, we study interaction nets, a model of computation that can be seen as a representative of a class of models based on the notion of 'computation as interaction'. Interaction nets are a graphical model of computation devised by Yves Lafont in 1990 as a generalisation of the proof structures of linear logic...

  10. Programming NET 35

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Bestselling author Jesse Liberty and industry expert Alex Horovitz uncover the common threads that unite the .NET 3.5 technologies, so you can benefit from the best practices and architectural patterns baked into the new Microsoft frameworks. The book offers a Grand Tour" of .NET 3.5 that describes how the principal technologies can be used together, with Ajax, to build modern n-tier and service-oriented applications. "

  11. Mechanisms of renal NaCl retention in proteinuric disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Per; Friis, Ulla G; Versland, Jostein B

    2013-01-01

    In diseases with proteinuria, for example nephrotic syndrome and pre-eclampsia, there often are suppression of plasma renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system components, expansion of extracellular volume and avid renal sodium retention. Mechanisms of sodium retention in proteinuria are reviewed...... pressure. Aberrant filtration of plasminogen and conversion within the urinary space to plasmin may activate gamma ENaC proteolytically and contribute to inappropriate NaCl retention and oedema in acute proteinuric conditions and to hypertension in diseases with chronic microalbuminuria/proteinuria....

  12. Computer modelling of ballistic particle ejection from NaCl

    CERN Document Server

    Ramasawmy, D; Smith, R

    2003-01-01

    The impact of positively charged sodium ions incident normally on the (1 0 0) surface of NaCl is studied by molecular dynamics simulations in the energy regime where nuclear collisions dominate (1 keV). It is found that there is a large amount of channelling and a relatively low sputtering yield of 0.36. In contrast to metals the angular distribution of the ejected particles contains less structural information about the underlying lattice, with less well-defined angular distribution patterns and a larger number of dimers emitted. The energy distribution of ejected particles peaks at below 1 eV. Mechanisms are investigated which explain these phenomena.

  13. KAJIAN EKSPERIMENTAL KUAT TEKAN MORTAR YANG MENGANDUNG AIR LAUT DAN NaCl

    OpenAIRE

    PUTRI, TRYSHA AMANDANIA

    2015-01-01

    Kebutuhan air bersih akan sulit dijangkau di pulau-pulau terpencil sehingga perlu memikirkan alternatif penggunaan air laut untuk pekerjaan konstruksi dan mengetahui pengaruh air laut dan NaCl untuk jangka waktu lama. Penelitian ini bersifat eksperimental investigasi dengan 4 variasi benda uji, yaitu mortar RAL (rendam angkat air laut), mortar AL (air laut sebagai air pencampur), mortar NaCl 2% (air tawar dan 2% NaCl sebagai air pencampur) dan mortar NaCl 5% (air tawar dan 5% NaCl sebagai air...

  14. TUGAS AKHIR KAJIAN EKSPERIMENTAL KUAT TEKAN MORTAR YANG MENGANDUNG AIR LAUT DAN NaCl

    OpenAIRE

    PUTRI, TRYSHA AMANDANIA

    2015-01-01

    Kebutuhan air bersih akan sulit dijangkau di pulau-pulau terpencil sehingga perlu memikirkan alternatif penggunaan air laut untuk pekerjaan konstruksi dan mengetahui pengaruh air laut dan NaCl untuk jangka waktu lama. Penelitian ini bersifat eksperimental investigasi dengan 4 variasi benda uji, yaitu mortar RAL (rendam angkat air laut), mortar AL (air laut sebagai air pencampur), mortar NaCl 2% (air tawar dan 2% NaCl sebagai air pencampur) dan mortar NaCl 5% (air tawar dan 5% NaCl sebagai air...

  15. Preparation an Mechanical Properties of NaCl Ceramics; NaCl seramikkusu no sakusei to kikaiteki seishitsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sata, Toshiyuki. [Kumamoto Institute of Technology, Kumamoto (Japan), Department of Industrial Chmistry

    1999-02-01

    NaCl powder specimens composed of equally sized (approximately 108 {mu}m), cubic single crystals were prepared by additions of acetone to saturated NaCl solution at -21 degree C under various preparation conditions. Grain growth during storage of the powder specimens was found to be greatly influenced by moisture in the ambient atmosphere. Storage of the specimens n a furnace at 400 degree C prevented grain growth. Compacts of the powder specimens produced by cold pressing (CP) and cold isostatic pressing (CIP) were sintered, or the powders were directly hot-pressed (HP). Relative densities (RD) of the resulting sintered bodies depended on the compaction or sintering conditions. From these sintered bodies, appropriate equationsrealating bending strength with porosity and grain size were obtained. The high-temperature bending strength increased up to 300 degree C and then decreased at higher temperatures. Deflections observed in the bending tests incerased with sintering temperature, that is, with the increase in grain size. Observed tensile strength values (5-10 MPa) were smaller than observed bending strength values (8-20 MP). Measured values of the Weibull coefficient and fracture toughness were m=5.34 and K{sub 1c}=1.05 MPa{center_dot}m{sup 1/2}, respectively. Single crystal specimens obtained frommelts by the Czochralski method were also subjected to bending test. These specimens showed large deflections above 200 degree C, and strain-hardening phenomena were also observed. Tension tests for single crystal whiskers prepared by condensatin of vaporized NaCl in a flowing air conducted along the [100] direction, and showed that the strength increased with the whisker cross sectional area up to a maximumvalue and then decreased. The highest strength value was obtained in vacuum with lower values being obtained in dry air and moist air because of the effects of oxygen and moisture, respectively. (author)

  16. Sodium reduction in margarine using NaCl substitutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLA GONÇALVES

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sodium chloride is traditionally used as a food additive in food processing. However, because of its high sodium content, NaCl has been associated with chronic diseases. Margarine is a popular product that is used in several preparations, but it includes high sodium content; therefore, it is among the products whose sodium content should be reduced. Thus, the objective of this study was to produce margarines with reduced sodium content prepared using a salt mixture. The following 4 margarine formulations were prepared: Formulation A (control - 0% sodium reduction, Formulation B (20.8% less sodium, Formulation C (33.0% less sodium and Formulation D (47.4% less sodium. The low sodium formulations were produced using a salt mixture consisting of NaCl, KCl, and monosodium glutamate at different concentrations. The margarines were evaluated using an acceptance test and descriptive tests: time-intensity and temporal dominance of sensations. The mixture used is a good alternative for preparing low sodium margarine because the low sodium formulations feature equal salinity and do not produce a strange or bad taste. Furthermore, it may be possible to prepare margarines with up to 47.4% less sodium and that are acceptable to consumers.

  17. Phase Changes of Monosulfoaluminate in NaCl Aqueous Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seyoon; Ha, Juyoung; Chae, Sejung Rosie; Kilcoyne, David A; Jun, Yubin; Oh, Jae Eun; Monteiro, Paulo J M

    2016-05-21

    Monosulfoaluminate (Ca₄Al₂(SO₄)(OH)12∙6H₂O) plays an important role in anion binding in Portland cement by exchanging its original interlayer ions (SO₄(2-) and OH(-)) with chloride ions. In this study, scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to investigate the phase change of monosulfoaluminate due to its interaction with chloride ions. Pure monosulfoaluminate was synthesized and its powder samples were suspended in 0, 0.1, 1, 3, and 5 M NaCl solutions for seven days. At low chloride concentrations, a partial dissolution of monosulfoaluminate formed ettringite, while, with increasing chloride content, the dissolution process was suppressed. As the NaCl concentration increased, the dominant mechanism of the phase change became ion exchange, resulting in direct phase transformation from monosulfoaluminate to Kuzel's salt or Friedel's salt. The phase assemblages of the NaCl-reacted samples were explored using thermodynamic calculations and least-square linear combination (LC) fitting of measured XANES spectra. A comprehensive description of the phase change and its dominant mechanism are discussed.

  18. Phase Changes of Monosulfoaluminate in NaCl Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyoon Yoon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Monosulfoaluminate (Ca4Al2(SO4(OH12∙6H2O plays an important role in anion binding in Portland cement by exchanging its original interlayer ions (SO42− and OH− with chloride ions. In this study, scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM, X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD were used to investigate the phase change of monosulfoaluminate due to its interaction with chloride ions. Pure monosulfoaluminate was synthesized and its powder samples were suspended in 0, 0.1, 1, 3, and 5 M NaCl solutions for seven days. At low chloride concentrations, a partial dissolution of monosulfoaluminate formed ettringite, while, with increasing chloride content, the dissolution process was suppressed. As the NaCl concentration increased, the dominant mechanism of the phase change became ion exchange, resulting in direct phase transformation from monosulfoaluminate to Kuzel’s salt or Friedel’s salt. The phase assemblages of the NaCl-reacted samples were explored using thermodynamic calculations and least-square linear combination (LC fitting of measured XANES spectra. A comprehensive description of the phase change and its dominant mechanism are discussed.

  19. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Subtask 5 (hydrogen utilization worldwide clean energy system technology) (WE-NET) (development of hydrogen transportation/storage technology. 2. development of the liquid hydrogen transportation tanker); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 5 suiso yuso chozo gijutsu no kaihatsu dai 2 hen ekitai suiso yuso tanker no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Technology development is being conducted for construction of the long distance transportation tanker of large quantity liquid hydrogen. In fiscal 1997, test pieces of thermal insulating materials to be planned for fiscal 1998 were designed and studied. The purpose of the test is to confirm thermal insulating performance and behaviors of each material under the temperature of liquid hydrogen. The inside of the outer tank of the experimental equipment was held at vacuum of 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -7} Torr to exclude thermal convection effects and evaluate only heat coming from heater through the test piece. The heat from the heater at the lower part of the test piece is through the test piece and makes the liquid hydrogen of the upper tank evaporate. Thermal conductivity of the test piece is calculated from the evaporation quantity. As to PUF (polyurethane foam) panels, studied were reformation preventive measures, influential evaluation of the side transfer heat quantity, and the time required for vacuuming. In the vacuum panel, study subjects were extracted on the selection of core materials, reformation preventive measures, deterioration with age, the practical manufacturing method of experimental panels, etc. As to the super insulation, subjects were studied on the performance measuring method/accuracy, measures against heat transfer from the inside of the experimental equipment, control of the vacuum degree, etc. 10 refs., 45 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Renal response to graded intravenous hypertonic NaCl infusion in healthy and hypertensive subjects:dose-related impairment in distal NaCl reabsorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radó, J.P.; Juhos, E.; Dorhout Mees, E.J.

    The effects of graded acute intravenous hypertonic NaCl loads on the baseline relationship between osmolal clearance and free water reabsorption established during high NaCl dietary intake and on the fractional excretion of various ions were investigated in 15 healthy subjects and in 12 “normal

  1. La plataforma .NET

    OpenAIRE

    Fornas Estrada, Miquel

    2008-01-01

    L'aparició de la plataforma .NET Framework ha suposat un canvi molt important en la forma de crear i distribuir aplicacions, degut a que incorpora una sèrie d'innovacions tècniques i productives que simplifiquen molt les tasques necessàries per desenvolupar un projecte. La aparición de la plataforma. NET Framework ha supuesto un cambio muy importante en la forma de crear y distribuir aplicaciones, debido a que incorpora una serie de innovaciones técnicas y productivas que simplifican mucho...

  2. Biological Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Wingender, E

    2011-01-01

    It was suggested some years ago that Petri nets might be well suited to modeling metabolic networks, overcoming some of the limitations encountered by the use of systems employing ODEs (ordinary differential equations). Much work has been done since then which confirms this and demonstrates the usefulness of this concept for systems biology. Petri net technology is not only intuitively understood by scientists trained in the life sciences, it also has a robust mathematical foundation and provides the required degree of flexibility. As a result it appears to be a very promising approach to mode

  3. Lithium fluxes indicate presence of Na-Cl cotransport (NCC) in human lens epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauf, Peter K; Chimote, Ameet A; Adragna, Norma C

    2008-01-01

    During regulatory volume decrease (RVD) of human lens epithelial cells (hLECs) by clotrimazole (CTZ)-sensitive K fluxes, Na-K-2Cl cotransport (NKCC) remains active and K-Cl cotransport (KCC) inactive. To determine whether such an abnormal behavior was caused by RVD-induced cell shrinkage, NKCC was measured in the presence of either CTZ or in high K media to prevent RVD. NKCC transports RbCl + NaCl, and LiCl + KCl; thus ouabain-insensitive, bumetanide-sensitive (BS) or Cl-dependent (ClD) Rb and Li fluxes were determined in hyposmotic high NaCl media with CTZ, or in high KCl media alone, or with sulfamate (Sf) or nitrate as Cl replacement at varying Rb, Li or Cl mol fractions (MF). Unexpectedly, NKCC was inhibited by 80% with CTZ (IC(50) = 31 microM). In isosmotic (300 mOsM) K, Li influx was approximately 1/3 of Rb influx in Na, 50% lower in Sf, and bumetanide-insensitive (BI). In hypotonic (200 mOsM) K, only the ClD but not BS Li fluxes were detected. At Li MFs from 0.1-1, Li fluxes fitted a bell-shaped curve maxing at approximately 0.6 Li MF, with the BS fluxes equaling approximately 1/4 of the ClD-Li influx. The difference, i.e. the BI/ClD Li influx, saturated with increasing Li and Cl MFs, with K(ms) for Li of 11 with, and 7 mM without K, and of approximately 46 mM for Cl. Inhibition of this K-independent Li influx by thiazides was weak whilst furosemide (<100 microM) was ineffective. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blots verified presence of both NKCC1 and Na-Cl cotransport (NCC). In conclusion, in hyposmotic high K media, which prevents CTZ-sensitive K flux-mediated RVD in hLECs, NKCC1, though molecularly expressed, was functionally silent. However, a K-independent and moderately thiazide-sensitive ClD-Li flux, i.e. LiCC, likely occurring through NCC was detected operationally and molecularly. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Computer simulation of aqueous Na-Cl electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummer, G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Soumpasis, D.M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Biophysikalische Chemie (Karl-Friedrich-Bonhoeffer-Institut), Goettingen (Germany); Neumann, M. [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik

    1993-11-01

    Equilibrium structure of aqueous Na-Cl electrolytes between 1 and 5 mol/l is studied by means of molecular dynamics computer simulation using interaction site descriptions of water and ionic components. Electrostatic interactions are treated both with the newly developed charged-clouds scheme and with Ewald summation. In the case of a 5 mol/l electrolyte, the results for pair correlations obtained by the two methods are in excellent agreement. However, the charged-clouds technique is much faster than Ewald summation and makes simulations at lower salt concentrations feasible. It is found that both ion-water and ion-ion correlation functions depend only weakly on the ionic concentration. Sodium and chloride ions exhibit only a negligible tendency to form contact pairs. In particular, no chloride ion pairs in contact are observed.

  5. Petri Nets-Applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 9. Petri Nets - Applications. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 9 September 1999 pp 44-52. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/09/0044-0052. Author Affiliations. Y Narahari ...

  6. Safety nets or straitjackets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Does regulation of working hours at national and sector level impose straitjackets, or offer safety nets to employees seeking working time flexibility? This article compares legislation and collective agreements in the metal industries of Denmark, Germany and the USA. The industry has historically...

  7. Coloured Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. This book introduces the constructs of the CPN modelling language and presents the related analysis methods. It provides a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN.

  8. Boom Booom Net Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Yong, Louisa; Dobie, Ian

    1999-01-01

    of an existing Internet radio station; Boom Booom Net Radio. Whilst necessity dictates some use of technology-related terminology, wherever possible we have endeavoured to keep such jargon to a minimum and to either explain it in the text or to provide further explanation in the appended glossary....

  9. Game Theory .net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Mikhael

    2003-01-01

    States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of GameTheory.net is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…

  10. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism...

  11. Crystallographic characterization of cement pastes hydrated with NaCl; Caracterizacao cristalografica de pastas de cimento hidratadas com NaCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Carina Gabriela de Melo e; Martinelli, Antonio Eduardo; Melo, Dulce Maria Araujo; Melo, Marcus Antonio de Freitas; Melo, Vitor Rodrigo de Melo e [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    One of the major current challenges faced by oil companies is the exploration of pre salt basins. Salt layers deposited upon the evaporation of ocean water and continental separation are mainly formed by NaCl and isolate immense oil reservoirs. The mechanical stability and zonal isolation of oil wells that run through salt layers must be fulfilled by cement sheaths saturated with NaCl to assure chemical compatibility between cement and salt layer. The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of NaCl addition on the hydration of oil well cement slurries as well as identifying the nature of crystalline phases present in the hardened cement. To that end, cement slurries containing NaCl were mixed, hardened and characterized by X-ray diffraction. The results revealed that the presence of NaCl affects the formation of hydration products by the presence of Friedel's salt. The intensity of the corresponding peaks increase as the contents of NaCl in the slurry increase. High concentrations of NaCl in Portland slurries increase the setting time of cement and the presence of Friedel's salt decreases the strength of the hardened cement. (author)

  12. Food Safety Nets:

    OpenAIRE

    Haggblade, Steven; Diallo, Boubacar; Staatz, John; Theriault, Veronique; Traoré, Abdramane

    2013-01-01

    Food and social safety nets have a history as long as human civilization. In hunter gatherer societies, food sharing is pervasive. Group members who prove unlucky in the short run, hunting or foraging, receive food from other households in anticipation of reciprocal consideration at a later time (Smith 1988). With the emergence of the first large sedentary civilizations in the Middle East, administrative systems developed specifically around food storage and distribution. The ancient Egyptian...

  13. Net technical assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Wegmann, David G.

    1989-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The present and near term military balance of power between the U.S. and the Soviet Union can be expressed in a variety of net assessments. One can examine the strategic nuclear balance, the conventional balance in Europe, the maritime balance, and many others. Such assessments are essential not only for policy making but for arms control purposes and future force structure planning. However, to project the future military balance, on...

  14. Using WordNet for Building WordNets

    CERN Document Server

    Farreres, X; Farreres, Xavier; Rodriguez, Horacio; Rigau, German

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarises a set of methodologies and techniques for the fast construction of multilingual WordNets. The English WordNet is used in this approach as a backbone for Catalan and Spanish WordNets and as a lexical knowledge resource for several subtasks.

  15. CO2 Fixation by Membrane Separated NaCl Electrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Sic Park

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2, a major cause of global warming, have been rising due to industrial development. Carbon capture and storage (CCS, which is regarded as the most effective way to reduce such atmospheric CO2 concentrations, has several environmental and technical disadvantages. Carbon capture and utilization (CCU, which has been introduced to cover such disadvantages, makes it possible to capture CO2, recycling byproducts as resources. However, CCU also requires large amounts of energy in order to induce reactions. Among existing CCU technologies, the process for converting CO2 into CaCO3 requires high temperature and high pressure as reaction conditions. This study proposes a method to fixate CaCO3 stably by using relatively less energy than existing methods. After forming NaOH absorbent solution through electrolysis of NaCl in seawater, CaCO3 was precipitated at room temperature and pressure. Following the experiment, the resulting product CaCO3 was analyzed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR; field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM image and X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns were also analyzed. The results showed that the CaCO3 crystal product was high-purity calcite. The study shows a successful method for fixating CO2 by reducing carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere while forming high-purity CaCO3.

  16. Electrokinetic desalination of sandstones for NaCl removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Christensen, Iben V.

    2012-01-01

    Salt induced decay is a serious threat to many historic stone and brick buildings and monuments. Further salt decay can be problematic in more recent buildings, as well, causing repeated plaster and paint peeling and increased hygroscopic moisture content. There is a need for development of relia......Salt induced decay is a serious threat to many historic stone and brick buildings and monuments. Further salt decay can be problematic in more recent buildings, as well, causing repeated plaster and paint peeling and increased hygroscopic moisture content. There is a need for development...... of reliable methods to remove the damaging salts in order to stop the decay. Electrokinetic desalination of fired clay bricks have previously shown efficient in laboratory scale and in the present work the method is tested for desalination of Cotta and Posta sandstones, which both have lower porosity than...... the bricks studied. The stones were contaminated with NaCl by submersion prior to the desalination experiments, where an electric DC field was applied to the stones from electrodes placed in clay poultice. Two poultice types were tested: calcareous clay used brick production and a mixture of kaolinite...

  17. Proof nets for lingusitic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moot, R.C.A.

    2002-01-01

    This book investigates the possible linguistic applications of proof nets, redundancy free representations of proofs, which were introduced by Girard for linear logic. We will adapt the notion of proof net to allow the formulation of a proof net calculus which is soundand complete for the

  18. Teaching Tennis for Net Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Bryce

    1989-01-01

    A program for teaching tennis to beginners, NET (Net Easy Teaching) is described. The program addresses three common needs shared by tennis students: active involvement in hitting the ball, clearing the net, and positive reinforcement. A sample lesson plan is included. (IAH)

  19. Net4Care Ecosystem Website

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius; Rasmussen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    is a tele-monitoring scenario in which Net4Care clients are deployed in a gateway in private homes. Medical devices then connect to these gateways and transmit their observations to a Net4Care server. In turn the Net4Care server creates valid clinical HL7 documents, stores them in a national XDS repository...

  20. The effect of NaCl stress on the germination of seed and growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Under a 200 mmol/L NaCl treatment, the growth of Moneymaker was strongly inhibited, and accompanied by chlorosis, but PI365967 maintained a good growth trend. Moreover, the degree of inhibition was small. Whilst gradually increasing the concentration of NaCl to 200 mmol/L, we found that the adaptation of the two ...

  1. Combined Effects of Boron and NaCl on Wheat Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHEN Mei-nan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the combined effects of boron(Band NaCl on the growth of wheat, a pot experiment was conducted using wheat (Triticum aestivum Linn.seedlings. Boron concentrations of culture medium were set as 0, 50 mg·kg-1 and 100 mg·kg-1, and NaCl concentrations were 0, 1 g·kg-1 and 2 g·kg-1. The results showed that both boron and NaCl could significantly inhibit wheat growth. At 50 mg B·kg-1, NaCl aggravated growth inhibition caused by boron. At 100 mg B·kg-1, however, NaCl alleviated the inhibition caused by boron. The combined stress of boron and NaCl significantly increased the root to shoot ratio of wheat. NaCl inhibited the uptake of boron by wheat. It suggests that under severe boron stress, NaCl is able to alleviate boron toxicity in wheat by increasing root to shoot ratio and reducing boron uptake.

  2. Effect of mycorrhiza symbiosis on the Nacl salinity in Sorghum bicolor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to determine mycorrhizal symbiosis on the Nacl salinity tolerance in Sorghum bicolor (aspydfyd cultivar), an experiment with two factors was done in Damghan Islamic Azad University laboratory (Iran) in 2007. The first factor with two levels (mycorihizal and non-mycorihizal) and second factor with six levels Nacl ...

  3. Regeneration of plantlets under NaCl stress from NaN3 treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-16

    Nov 16, 2011 ... plant regeneration under NaCl stressed conditions was assessed in some sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) cultivars ... cell is a useful work for the establishment of pure form of species. It can facilitate .... Sub-cultures of NaN3 treated explants on different NaCl stressed cultures a. Callus proliferation ...

  4. Master Robotic Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Lipunov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the MASTER-Net project is to produce a unique fast sky survey with all sky observed over a single night down to a limiting magnitude of 19-20. Such a survey will make it possible to address a number of fundamental problems: search for dark energy via the discovery and photometry of supernovae (including SNIa, search for exoplanets, microlensing effects, discovery of minor bodies in the Solar System, and space-junk monitoring. All MASTER telescopes can be guided by alerts, and we plan to observe prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts synchronously in several filters and in several polarization planes.

  5. Art/Net/Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik; Lindstrøm, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    The seminar Art|Net|Work deals with two important changes in our culture. On one side, the network has become essential in the latest technological development. The Internet has entered a new phase, Web 2.0, including the occurrence of as ‘Wiki’s’, ‘Peer-2-Peer’ distribution, user controlled...... the praxis of the artist. We see different kinds of interventions and activism (including ‘hacktivism’) using the network as a way of questioning the invisible rules that govern public and semi-public spaces. Who ‘owns’ them? What kind of social relationships do they generate? On what principle...

  6. Helminth.net: expansions to Nematode.net and an introduction to Trematode.net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, John; Rosa, Bruce A.; Ozersky, Philip; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Zhang, Xu; Bhonagiri-Palsikar, Veena; Tyagi, Rahul; Wang, Qi; Choi, Young-Jun; Gao, Xin; McNulty, Samantha N.; Brindley, Paul J.; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2015-01-01

    Helminth.net (http://www.helminth.net) is the new moniker for a collection of databases: Nematode.net and Trematode.net. Within this collection we provide services and resources for parasitic roundworms (nematodes) and flatworms (trematodes), collectively known as helminths. For over a decade we have provided resources for studying nematodes via our veteran site Nematode.net (http://nematode.net). In this article, (i) we provide an update on the expansions of Nematode.net that hosts omics data from 84 species and provides advanced search tools to the broad scientific community so that data can be mined in a useful and user-friendly manner and (ii) we introduce Trematode.net, a site dedicated to the dissemination of data from flukes, flatworm parasites of the class Trematoda, phylum Platyhelminthes. Trematode.net is an independent component of Helminth.net and currently hosts data from 16 species, with information ranging from genomic, functional genomic data, enzymatic pathway utilization to microbiome changes associated with helminth infections. The databases’ interface, with a sophisticated query engine as a backbone, is intended to allow users to search for multi-factorial combinations of species’ omics properties. This report describes updates to Nematode.net since its last description in NAR, 2012, and also introduces and presents its new sibling site, Trematode.net. PMID:25392426

  7. NETS FOR PEACH PROTECTED CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelia Schettini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the radiometric properties of coloured nets used to protect a peach cultivation. The modifications of the solar spectral distribution, mainly in the R and FR wavelength band, influence plant photomorphogenesis by means of the phytochrome and cryptochrome. The phytochrome response is characterized in terms of radiation rate in the red wavelengths (R, 600-700 nm to that in the farred radiation (FR, 700-800 nm, i.e. the R/FR ratio. The effects of the blue radiation (B, 400-500 nm is investigated by the ratio between the blue radiation and the far-red radiation, i.e. the B/FR ratio. A BLUE net, a RED net, a YELLOW net, a PEARL net, a GREY net and a NEUTRAL net were tested in Bari (Italy, latitude 41° 05’ N. Peach trees were located in pots inside the greenhouses and in open field. The growth of the trees cultivated in open field was lower in comparison to the growth of the trees grown under the nets. The RED, PEARL, YELLOW and GREY nets increased the growth of the trees more than the other nets. The nets positively influenced the fruit characteristics, such as fruit weight and flesh firmness.

  8. Physiological effects of NaCl on Apocynum venetum seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Cao, Ling

    2016-04-01

    The physiological effects of NaCl on the Apocynum venetum seedlings were investigated, including the chlorophyll a fluorescence, leaf potential and growth rate, etc. The findings indicated that along with hardness index increasing, the leaf sample's chlorophyll content assumed the fluctuation condition which dropped firstly elevated again; the leaf water potential maintained stable basically; the energy of light absorption, the assignment and the dissipation balanced at 10 g/L and the growth rate presented the maximum value 9.8 mm/d; Along with the stress extension, the greatest quantum yield Fv/Fm dropped, metallic ion's absorption increased. In the 21st day, non-photochemical quenching coefficient NPQ presented the maximum value, absorbed energy proportion parameter Y(II) dropped firstly restored again, 3 kind of energy absorptions, the assignment dissipation parameter proportion stabilized in 10 g/L at Y(II):Y(NO):Y(NPQ) = 65%:20%:15%.The results suggested that in the A. venetum nursery process in the southern edge of Taklimakan Desert, phased tending should be adopted according to the seedling stage: 5-10 g/L salinity water should be used in irrigation in the seedling stage to maintain a more high leaf water potential which could prevent the decomposition of chlorophyll in which higher proportion of photochemical energy conversion could be stable using 10 g/L salt water irrigation to give A. venetum a full play of stronger salt adaptability to the southern margin of the Taklimakan Desert Oasis-Desert Ecotone in its restoration and construction. Key words: saline water irrigation; leaf water potential; energy allocation strategies; growth rate

  9. Radium geochemistry in Na-Cl type groundwater in Niigata Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Junpei; Satake, Hiroshi; Fukuyama, Taijiro; Sasaki, Keiichi; Sakaguchi, Aya; Yamamoto, Masayoshi

    2010-03-01

    Radium isotopes in 23 Na-Cl type groundwater sampled mainly from deep wells in Niigata Prefecture, which is the site of the largest oil- and gas-fields in Japan, were measured along with U isotopes, chemical components and hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios to elucidate the distribution and behavior of Ra in a brackish environment underground. Also analyzed were U and Th isotopes in 38 rock samples collected from outcrops at 17 locations. Ra-226 concentrations (8.86-1637 mBq kg(-1)) of groundwater samples roughly correlated with total dissolved solid (TDS) concentrations and other alkaline earth contents. Their (228)Ra/(226)Ra activity ratios (0.32-5.2) were similar to or higher than the (232)Th/(238)U activity ratios (0.6-1.7) in the rocks. The most likely transport mechanism of Ra isotopes into groundwater was due to their alpha-recoil from the solid phase, probably from the water-rock interface where Th isotopes had accumulated, and adsorption/desorption reaction based on the increase in (226)Ra contents with TDS. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The equivalency between logic Petri workflow nets and workflow nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue

    2015-01-01

    Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented.

  11. Novel vasopressin-regulated phosphorylation site of the NaCl co-transporter, NCC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbæk, Lena Lindtoft; Knepper, Mark A; Fenton, Robert A.

    at the plasma membrane. Similar observations were apparent after rats were fed a low salt diet. Kinase profiling assays using a synthetic peptide corresponding to the region surrounding S124 against the protein kinases mTOR/FRAP, ERK5, NLK, p38d, and ERK2 showed either weak or no significant activity. Funded...

  12. Impact of nitric oxide-mediated vasodilation on outer medullary NaCl transport and oxygenation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edwards, Aurélie; Layton, Anita T

    2012-01-01

    ...) diameter and blood flow. Our model predicts that the segregation of long DVR in the center of vascular bundles, away from tubular segments, gives rise to large radial NO concentration gradients that in turn result...

  13. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    studies that illustrate the practical use of CPN modelling and validation for design, specification, simulation, verification and implementation in various application domains. Their presentation primarily aims at readers interested in the practical use of CPN. Thus all concepts and constructs are first......Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism...... and the immense number of possible execution sequences. In this textbook, Jensen and Kristensen introduce the constructs of the CPN modelling language and present the related analysis methods in detail. They also provide a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN by showcasing selected industrial case...

  14. Constant enthalpy change value during pyrophosphate hydrolysis within the physiological limits of NaCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakai, Satoshi; Kidokoro, Shun-ichi; Masaki, Kazuo; Nakasone, Kaoru; Sambongi, Yoshihiro

    2013-10-11

    A decrease in water activity was thought to result in smaller enthalpy change values during PPi hydrolysis, indicating the importance of solvation for the reaction. However, the physiological significance of this phenomenon is unknown. Here, we combined biochemistry and calorimetry to solve this problem using NaCl, a physiologically occurring water activity-reducing reagent. The pyrophosphatase activities of extremely halophilic Haloarcula japonica, which can grow at ∼4 M NaCl, and non-halophilic Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were maximal at 2.0 and 0.1 M NaCl, respectively. Thus, halophilic and non-halophilic pyrophosphatases exhibit distinct maximal activities at different NaCl concentration ranges. Upon calorimetry, the same exothermic enthalpy change of -35 kJ/mol was obtained for the halophile and non-halophiles at 1.5-4.0 and 0.1-2.0 M NaCl, respectively. These results show that solvation changes caused by up to 4.0 M NaCl (water activity of ∼0.84) do not affect the enthalpy change in PPi hydrolysis. It has been postulated that PPi is an ATP analog, having a so-called high energy phosphate bond, and that the hydrolysis of both compounds is enthalpically driven. Therefore, our results indicate that the hydrolysis of high energy phosphate compounds, which are responsible for biological energy conversion, is enthalpically driven within the physiological limits of NaCl.

  15. Effect of NaCl treatments on glucosinolate metabolism in broccoli sprouts*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rong-fang; Yuan, Gao-feng; Wang, Qiao-mei

    2013-01-01

    To understand the regulation mechanism of NaCl on glucosinolate metabolism in broccoli sprouts, the germination rate, fresh weight, contents of glucosinolates and sulforaphane, as well as myrosinase activity of broccoli sprouts germinated under 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mmol/L of NaCl were investigated in our experiment. The results showed that glucoerucin, glucobrassicin, and 4-hydroxy glucobrassicin in 7-d-old broccoli sprouts were significantly enhanced and the activity of myrosinase was inhibited by 100 mmol/L of NaCl. However, the total glucosinolate content in 7-d-old broccoli sprouts was markedly decreased although the fresh weight was significantly increased after treatment with NaCl at relatively low concentrations (20, 40, and 60 mmol/L). NaCl treatment at the concentration of 60 mmol/L for 5 d maintained higher biomass and comparatively higher content of glucosinolates in sprouts of broccoli with decreased myrosinase activity. A relatively high level of NaCl treatment (100 mmol/L) significantly increased the content of sulforaphane in 7-d-old broccoli sprouts compared with the control. These results indicate that broccoli sprouts grown under a suitable concentration of NaCl could be desirable for human nutrition. PMID:23365011

  16. Evaluation of NaCl Effect on Vibration-Delaminated Metal-Polymer Composites by Improved Micro-Raman Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Zumelzu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene terephthalate (PET is a polymer coating that protects the electrolytic chromium coated steel (ECCS against aggressive electrolytes like NaCl. It is widely accepted by manufacturers that NaCl has no effect on the PET coating, which is inert. However, we showed that there are some effects at the structural level, caused by vibrations, and facilitated by defects on the layers. The vibrations occurring during the transportation of food containers produce delaminations at given points of the metal-polymer interface, known as antinodes, which in turn may produce PET degradation affecting food quality. The former can be determined by electrochemical measurements, and the changes in composition or structural order can be characterized by Raman. The present work applied this latter technique in experimental samples of PET-coated ECCS sheets by performing perpendicular and parallel analyses to the surface, and determined that it constitutes a new potential methodology to determine the behavior of the composite under the above conditions. The results demonstrated that the delamination areas on the PET facilitated polymer degradation by the electrolyte. Moreover, the Raman characterization evidenced the presence of multilayers and crystalline orderings, which limited its functionality as a protective coating.

  17. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of a Palmitoyl-Oleoyl Phosphatidylserine Bilayer with Na + Counterions and NaCl

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mukhopadhyay, Parag; Monticelli, Luca; Tieleman, D. Peter

    2004-01-01

    ...) lipid bilayer in the liquid crystalline phase with Na(+) counterions and NaCl were carried out to investigate the structure of the negatively charged lipid bilayer and the effect of salt (NaCl...

  18. Growth of NaCl on thin epitaxial KCl films on Ag(100) studied by SPA-LEED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Christian; Paulheim, Alexander; Sokolowski, Moritz

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the growth of NaCl on thin (100)-oriented films of KCl by spot profile analysis of low energy electron diffraction (SPA-LEED). The underlying question of this investigation was how the system accommodates to the misfit of - 10% between the NaCl and KCl lattices. The KCl films (3 atomic layers thick) were epitaxially grown on a Ag(100) single crystal. We studied the heteroepitaxial growth of NaCl on KCl at 300 K and at 500 K, respectively. At 300 K, the first NaCl monolayer (ML) grows pseudomorphically on the KCl film. From the second layer onward, the NaCl lattice relaxes. The NaCl multilayers roughen, and a small rotational disorder (± 4°) of the NaCl domains is observed. The roughening results from the formation of multilayer islands of limited lateral size due to the misfit to the pseudomorphic first NaCl layer. At a growth temperature of 500 K, no pseudomorphic NaCl layer forms, instead relaxed multilayer island growth of NaCl is observed from the first layer onward. Similarly to the growth at 300 K, we find NaCl multilayer islands of limited lateral size. For both temperatures, we explain this growth behavior by the misfit that makes the adsorption sites at the island edges of the first relaxed NaCl layer less favorable for larger islands, promoting nucleation of multilayer islands.

  19. An Electrically Tight In Vitro Blood-Brain Barrier Model Displays Net Brain-to-Blood Efflux of Substrates for the ABC Transporters, P-gp, Bcrp and Mrp-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Hans Christian; Hersom, Maria; Kuhlmann, Louise Borella

    2014-01-01

    Efflux transporters of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily including breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp/Abcg2), P-glycoprotein (P-gp/Abcb1) and multidrug resistance-associated proteins (Mrp's/Abcc's) are expressed in the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The aim of this study was to investigate......, zosuquidar, reversan and MK 571 alone or in combinations. Digoxin was mainly transported via P-gp, estrone-3-sulphate via Bcrp and Mrp's and etoposide via P-gp and Mrp's. The expression of P-gp, Bcrp and Mrp-1 was confirmed using immunocytochemistry. The findings indicate that P-gp, Bcrp and at least one...... isoform of Mrp are functionally expressed in our bovine/rat co-culture model and that the model is suitable for investigations of small molecule transport....

  20. Effects of NaCl on the rheological behavior of collagen solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Lian; Li, Jiheng; Li, Conghu; Li, Guoying

    2013-08-01

    The effects of NaCl on the rheological properties of collagen solutions were studied by steady shear test and thixotropic loop test. The results showed the rheological properties of the collagen solutions with different NaCl concentrations were quite different. With low NaCl concentrations (0 to 0.1 mol/L), the collagen solutions exhibited salting in effect. The pseudoplastic behavior of the solutions became weak, while the thixotropy became strong. The collagen solutions with high NaCl concentrations (0.1 to 0.3 mol/L) exhibited salting out effect. The pseudoplastic behavior of the solutions became strong and the thixotropy had no obvious variation. In addition, Ostwald de-waele model, Carreau model and Herschel-Bulkley model were used to fit the experimental data. The superimposed experimental data and the model curves indicated the suitability of the models used, except for the up curves in thixotropic loop test.

  1. Effect of dissolved NaCl on freezing curves of kaolinite, montmorillonite, and sand pastes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grant, S. A; Boitnott, Greg; Tice, A. R

    1999-01-01

    We developed a chemical-thermodynamic procedure for calculating the capillary pressures of aqueous NaCl solutions in a porous medium at temperatures below 0 deg C by extending the treatment by Brun et al. (1977...

  2. Excess Enthalpies of Mixing of Binary Mixtures of NaCl, KCl, NaBr ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    2004-07-01

    Jul 1, 2004 ... bDepartment of Chemical Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749, Korea. ... interactions play a key role in the solution chemistry of solutes.1–6 ..... I = 1.000 mol kg–1. KBr (1) + KCl (2). NaBr (1) + NaCl (2). KBr (1) + NaCl (2). 0.1093. 22. 0.1208. 10. 0.1128. 19. 0.1582. 36. 0.2118. 14. 0.1818. 28.

  3. Linear Logic on Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn

    This article shows how individual Petri nets form models of Girard's intuitionistic linear logic. It explores questions of expressiveness and completeness of linear logic with respect to this interpretation. An aim is to use Petri nets to give an understanding of linear logic and give some apprai...

  4. Reference Guide Microsoft.NET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee M van der; Verspaij GJ; Rosbergen S; IMP; NMD

    2003-01-01

    Developers, administrators and managers can get more understanding of the .NET technology with this report. They can also make better choices how to use this technology. The report describes the results and conclusions of a study of the usability for the RIVM of this new generation .NET development

  5. Net neutrality and audiovisual services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.; Nikoltchev, S.

    2011-01-01

    Net neutrality is high on the European agenda. New regulations for the communication sector provide a legal framework for net neutrality and need to be implemented on both a European and a national level. The key element is not just about blocking or slowing down traffic across communication

  6. Hygroscopic growth and deliquescence of NaCl nanoparticles coated with surfactant AOT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshawa, Ahmad; Dopfer, Otto; Harmon, Christopher W; Nizkorodov, Sergey A; Underwood, Joelle S

    2009-07-02

    Aerosolized nanoparticles of NaCl coated with variable amounts of surfactant AOT were generated by electrospraying AOT/NaCl aqueous solutions, followed by neutralizing and drying the resulting particles. A tandem differential mobility analyzer was used to select a narrow size distribution of particles with mobility equivalent diameters below 20 nm and monitor their hygroscopic growth as a function of relative humidity. Effects of the particle size and relative amount of surfactant on the hygroscopic growth of NaCl were studied. For pure NaCl nanoparticles, the deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) increased as the particle size was decreased, in full agreement with previous measurements. Below the DRH the NaCl nanoparticles had an equivalent of one-four monolayers of water adsorbed on the surface. The addition of a sub-monolayer AOT coating reduced the DRH and suppressed the hygroscopic growth of the NaCl core. At AOT coverage levels exceeding one monolayer, a clear deliquescence transition was no longer discernible. The Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) model failed to predict the observed growth factors of mixed AOT/NaCl nanoparticles reflecting a large contribution of the interfacial interactions between NaCl and AOT to the total free energy of the particles. There were indications that AOT/NaCl nanoparticles prepared by the electrospray aerosol source were enhanced in the relative mass fraction of AOT in comparison with the solution from which they were electrosprayed.

  7. A Small Universal Petri Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A. Zaitsev

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A universal deterministic inhibitor Petri net with 14 places, 29 transitions and 138 arcs was constructed via simulation of Neary and Woods' weakly universal Turing machine with 2 states and 4 symbols; the total time complexity is exponential in the running time of their weak machine. To simulate the blank words of the weakly universal Turing machine, a couple of dedicated transitions insert their codes when reaching edges of the working zone. To complete a chain of a given Petri net encoding to be executed by the universal Petri net, a translation of a bi-tag system into a Turing machine was constructed. The constructed Petri net is universal in the standard sense; a weaker form of universality for Petri nets was not introduced in this work.

  8. Effect of NaCl concentration on productivity and mineral composition of Salicornia europaea as a potential crop for utilization NaCl in LSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushakova, S. A.; Kovaleva, N. P.; Gribovskaya, I. V.; Dolgushev, V. A.; Tikhomirova, N. A.

    The accumulation of solid and liquid wastes in manmade ecosystems presents a problem that has not been efficiently solved yet. Urine, containing NaCl, are part of these products. This is an obstacle to the creation of biological systems with a largely closed material cycling, because the amount of solid and liquid wastes in them must be reduced to a minimum. A possible solution to the problem is to select plant species capable of utilizing sufficiently high concentrations of NaCl, edible for humans, and featuring high productivity. Until recently, the life support systems have included the higher plants that were either sensitive to salinization (wheat, many of the legumes, carrot, potato, maize) or relatively salt-resistant (barley, sugar beet, spinach). Salicomia europaea, whose above-ground part is fully edible for humans, is one of the most promising candidates to be included in life support systems. It is reported in the literature that this plant is capable of accumulating up to 50% NaCl (dry basis). Besides, excessive accumulation of sodium ions should bring forth a decrease in the uptake of potassium ions and other biogenic elements. The aim of this work is to study the feasibility of using S. europaea plants in growth chambers to involve NaCl into material cycling. Plants were grown in vegetation chambers at the irradiance of 100 or 150 W/m 2 PAR (photosynthetically active radiation) and the air temperature 24 °C, by two methods. The first method was to grow the plants on substrate - peat. The peat was supplemented with either 3% NaCl (Variant 1) or 6% NaCl (Variant 2) of the oven-dry mass of the peat. The second method was to grow the plants in water culture, using the solution with a full complement of nutrients, which contained 0.0005% of NaCl, 1% or 2%. The study showed that the addition of NaCl to the substrate or to the solution resulted in the formation of more succulent plants, which considerably increased their biomass. The amount of NaCl uptake

  9. Worldwide clean energy system technology using hydrogen (WE-NET). subtask 5. Development of hydrogen transfer and storage technology (research and development of technologies for hydrogen transport and storage by hydrogen absorbing alloys); Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). subtask 5. Suiso yuso chozo gijutsu no kaihatsu (bunsan yuso chozoyo suiso kyuzo gokin no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report describes a guiding principle of new hydrogen absorbing alloy design, case studies on the stationary hydrogen storage systems for multiple dwelling houses using hydrogen absorbing alloys and on the hydrogen fuel tank systems for a motor vehicle, and survey on development status in the world. As a result of the investigation of alloys, it was concluded that realization of hydrogen absorbing alloys with new target properties of the WE-NET Project is not easy through the current technology. It was found that two kinds of Mg-based and V-based high capacity materials must be selected as target alloys among current alloys, and that three techniques, i.e., ultra-fine microstructure, composite, and amorphousness, are effective for improving the hydrogen discharge property which has been a problem of these alloys. It was desired that the latest techniques are established by integrating these materials and techniques. It is necessary to promote the development of brake-through new materials by new concepts and technologies through the cooperation of national institutes, universities, and companies. 124 refs., 56 figs., 11 tabs.

  10. High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    High-level Petri nets are now widely used in both theoretical analysis and practical modelling of concurrent systems. The main reason for the success of this class of net models is that they make it possible to obtain much more succinct and manageable descriptions than can be obtained by means...... of low-level Petri nets - while, on the other hand, they still offer a wide range of analysis methods and tools. The step from low-level nets to high-level nets can be compared to the step from assembly languages to modern programming languages with an elaborated type concept. In low-level nets...... there is only one kind of token and this means that the state of a place is described by an integer (and in many cases even by a boolean). In high-level nets each token can carry a complex information/data - which, e.g., may describe the entire state of a process or a data base. Today most practical...

  11. Experimental determination of the H2O + 15 wt% NaCl and H2O + 25 wt% NaCl liquidi to 1.4 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, P.; Schmidt, C.

    2009-12-01

    The binary H2O+NaCl is one of the most important model systems for chloridic fluids in many geologic environments such as the Earth’s crust, upper mantle, and subducting slabs, and is also applicable to extraterrestrial icy planetary bodies (e.g., Manning 2004, Zolensky et al., 1999). The knowledge on phase equilibria and PVTx properties of this system is still fragmentary at high pressures, e.g., very little has been reported on liquidi at compositions diamond-anvil cell (Bassett et al. 1993) modified for Raman spectroscopy and accurate temperature measurements. A quartz chip, halite, and water were loaded into the sample chamber, which also contained a small trapped air bubble (10 vol%) when it was sealed. The actual salinity was then determined from measurement of the vapor-saturated liquidus temperature. The sample chamber was then compressed until the bubble disappeared. After freezing, phase transitions occurring with increasing temperature were observed optically, and the pressure was determined from the frequency shift of the 464 cm-1 Raman line of quartz (Schmidt and Ziemann 2000). The sample chamber was then compressed further, and the experiment was repeated at various bulk densities until a pressure of ~1.4 GPa was attained. At some conditions, Raman spectra were acquired for identification of the phase assemblage. The solution always crystallized to a single phase upon cooling above ~0.15 GPa at 25 wt% NaCl and above ~1 GPa at 15 wt% NaCl. Raman spectra in the OH stretching region indicate that this phase contains or is a NaCl hydrate other than hydrohalite, probably in solid solution with ice. Melting of this phase produced liquid and hydrohalite and/or ice VI. Ice VI was the last solid that dissolved upon heating, between 1100 MPa, 3 °C and 1370 MPa, 17 °C for 15 wt% NaCl and at 1380 MPa, 12.7°C for 25 wt% NaCl. At lower pressures (except at 0.1 MPa and 15 wt%NaCl), the last solid was hydrohalite. Hydrohalite was identified based on crystal

  12. Achievement report for fiscal 2000 on the phase II research and development for hydrogen utilizing international clean energy system technology (WE-NET). Task 9. Development of liquid hydrogen transportation and storage technologies - 1; 2000 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) dai 2 ki kenkyu kaihatsu. Task 9. Ekitai suiso yuso chozo gijutsu no kaihatsu - 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in fiscal 2000 from the development of liquid hydrogen transportation and storage technologies. Discussions were given on the following three types of specimens as the heat insulation performance test structures: the vacuum panel type (polyurethane foam coated with SUS sheet, while the inside is kept in the vacuum state); the solid vacuum type (combination of polyurethane foam with vacuum heat insulation); and the powder under normal pressure type (a structure in which the ambient of powder pearlite heat insulating material becomes the atmospheric pressure, whereas a SUS case is set up to separate vacuum layer of the test apparatus from atmosphere layer of the specimen, with the SUS case filled with pearlite). Adding the two types of specimens used in the previous fiscal year, five test specimens in total were discussed on the result of the performance tests to advance the database management. As a low temperature strength test for the insulating materials, the compression test was performed on a microsphere being a kind of solid vacuum (normal pressure) heat insulating materials at room temperature, the liquid nitrogen temperature and in liquid hydrogen atmosphere. The compression strength under liquid hydrogen is 1,044 MPa, which is two times greater than the normal temperature strength of 496 MPa, representing the compression strength rising in proportion with temperature drop. Problems were extracted in developing a small capacity liquid hydrogen transportation and storage system. (NEDO)

  13. Pro asynchronous programming with .NET

    CERN Document Server

    Blewett, Richard; Ltd, Rock Solid Knowledge

    2014-01-01

    Pro Asynchronous Programming with .NET teaches the essential skill of asynchronous programming in .NET. It answers critical questions in .NET application development, such as: how do I keep my program responding at all times to keep my users happy how do I make the most of the available hardware how can I improve performanceIn the modern world, users expect more and more from their applications and devices, and multi-core hardware has the potential to provide it. But it takes carefully crafted code to turn that potential into responsive, scalable applications.With Pro Asynchronous Programming

  14. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André

    2017-08-01

    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  15. The market performance and determinants of net returns to artisanal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result of the multiple regression analysis showed that age, household size, farming experience and access to credit were significant determinants of fishermen net returns while age, educational level, price of the product (fish) and transport cost were significant determinants of the marketers'(wholesalers and retailers) ...

  16. Inhibition of NaCl appetite when DOCA-treated rats drink saline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Edward M; Bushey, Michael A; Hoffmann, Myriam L; McGhee, Marilyn; Cason, Angela M; Smith, James C

    2007-01-01

    Marked increases in the consumption of concentrated NaCl solution were elicited in rats by daily injection of the synthetic mineralocorticoid, deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA). DOCA-treated rats drank different volumes of NaCl solution depending on its concentration (between 0.15 M and 0.50 M), with less consumed (in milliliters) the more concentrated the fluid was. In consequence, total Na(+) intake (in milliequivalents) was roughly similar in all groups. Gastric emptying of Na(+) also diminished as the concentration of the ingested NaCl solution increased, and the delivery of Na(+) to the small intestine was remarkably similar in all groups. Cumulative volume of ingested fluid in the stomach and small intestine was very closely related to intake (in milliliters) of the concentrated NaCl solutions. Systemic plasma Na(+) levels did not increase until after rats stopped consuming concentrated NaCl solution, although they were elevated at the onset of water ingestion. The situation appeared to be different when 0.15 M NaCl was consumed. This isotonic solution emptied and was absorbed relatively rapidly, and DOCA-treated rats drank larger amounts of it throughout a 1-h test period than when they drank concentrated NaCl solutions. Collectively, these findings suggest that saline consumption by DOCA-treated rats may be inhibited by two presystemic factors, one related to the volume of ingested fluid (i.e., distension of the stomach and small intestine) and one related to its concentration (i.e., elevated osmolality of fluid in the small intestine and/or in adjacent visceral tissue).

  17. Petri Net Tool Overview 1986

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Feldbrugge, Frits

    1987-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the characteristics of all currently available net based tools. It is a compilation of information provided by tool authors or contact persons. A concise one page overview is provided as well....

  18. Understanding Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salom, Jaume; Widén, Joakim; Candanedo, José

    2011-01-01

    Although several alternative definitions exist, a Net-Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) can be succinctly described as a grid-connected building that generates as much energy as it uses over a year. The “net-zero” balance is attained by applying energy conservation and efficiency measures...... and by incorporating renewable energy systems. While based on annual balances, a complete description of a Net ZEB requires examining the system at smaller time-scales. This assessment should address: (a) the relationship between power generation and building loads and (b) the resulting interaction with the power grid....... This paper presents and categorizes quantitative indicators suitable to describe both aspects of the building’s performance. These indicators, named LMGI - Load Matching and Grid Interaction indicators, are easily quantifiable and could complement the output variables of existing building simulation tools...

  19. PolicyNet Publication System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The PolicyNet Publication System project will merge the Oracle-based Policy Repository (POMS) and the SQL-Server CAMP system (MSOM) into a new system with an Oracle...

  20. KM3NeT

    CERN Multimedia

    KM3NeT is a large scale next-generation neutrino telescope located in the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea, optimized for the discovery of galactic neutrino sources emitting in the TeV energy region.

  1. Net Neutrality: Background and Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilroy, Angele A

    2006-01-01

    .... The move to place restrictions on the owners of the networks that compose and provide access to the Internet, to ensure equal access and nondiscriminatory treatment, is referred to as "net neutrality...

  2. Petri Nets in Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A process language for security protocols is presented together with a semantics in terms of sets of events. The denotation of process is a set of events, and as each event specifies a set of pre and postconditions, this denotation can be viewed as a Petri net. By means of an example we illustrate...... how the Petri-net semantics can be used to prove security properties....

  3. The Economics of Net Neutrality

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, Robert W.; Wallsten, Scott

    2006-01-01

    This essay examines the economics of "net neutrality" and broadband Internet access. We argue that mandating net neutrality would be likely to reduce economic welfare. Instead, the government should focus on creating competition in the broadband market by liberalizing more spectrum and reducing entry barriers created by certain local regulations. In cases where a broadband provider can exercise market power the government should use its antitrust enforcement authority to police anticompetitiv...

  4. Growth and antioxidant production of Spirulina in different NaCl concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Li, Lu-Jia; Wu, Chun-Yuan; Guo, Kang-Ning; Li, Jian-Hong

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the quantity of Spirulina cultured in seawater, salt-tolerant strains were screened out and their growth and antioxidant accumulation were studied in different salt concentrations Salt tolerance of five Spirulina strains were investigated with modified Zarrouk medium (with 200-800 mM NaCl). All strains grew well with 400 mM NaCl; their growth rates were almost same as in the control medium. Spirulina strains FACHB-843 (SP843) and FACHB-972 (SP972) had the highest salt tolerance their growth rates in 600 mM NaCl were nearly same as the control. Both strains produced more carotene, phycocyanin, polysaccharides, proline and betaine in 400-600 mM NaCl than the control. Salt stress also induced them to produce higher activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase. Total antioxidant capacities of SP843 and SP972 peaked at 600 and 400 mM NaCl, respectively. Spirulina strains cultured with seawater accumulate more bioactive substances and will have a higher nutritive value.

  5. Measurement and modeling of CO2 solubility in NaCl brine and CO2–saturated NaCl brine density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Huang, Shengli; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2011-01-01

    over climate change and energy security. This work is an experimental and modeling study of two fundamental properties in high pressure CO2–NaCl brine equilibrium, i.e., CO2 solubility in NaCl brine and CO2–saturated NaCl brine density. A literature review of the available data was presented first....... The corresponding density data at the same conditions were also measured. For solubility, two models used in the Eclipse simulator were tested: the correlations of Chang et al. and the Søreide and Whitson equation of state (EoS) model. The latter model was modified to improve its performance for high salinity brine...... of CO2 increases the brine density only if the apparent mass density of CO2 in brine is higher than the brine density at the same conditions....

  6. 26 CFR 1.904(f)-3 - Allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation of net operating losses and net....904(f)-3 Allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses. For rules relating to the allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses, see § 1.904(g)-3T. ...

  7. 29 CFR 4204.13 - Net income and net tangible assets tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Net income and net tangible assets tests. 4204.13 Section....13 Net income and net tangible assets tests. (a) General. The criteria under this section are that either— (1) Net income test. The purchaser's average net income after taxes for its three most recent...

  8. A Forward Reachability Algorithm for Bounded Timed-Arc Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Jacobsen, Lasse; Jacobsen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Timed-arc Petri nets (TAPN) are a well-known time extension of thePetri net model and several translations to networks of timedautomata have been proposed for this model.We present a direct, DBM-basedalgorithm for forward reachability analysis of bounded TAPNs extended with transport arcs...

  9. Light-induced DELTApH and DELTApsi in halobacterial vesicles related to sodium transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamo, N.; Racanclli, T.; Packer, L.

    1986-01-01

    Membranes of Halobacterium halobium contain two retinoproteins, baceteriorhodopsin (BR/sub 568nm/) and halorhodopsin (HR/sub 588nm/). We have investigated the light- and sodium-dependent activities in vesicles from the HR containing R/sub 1/mR strain, and the BR + HR containing S/sub 9/ strain to study energy conversion and ion flow mechanisms. Simultaneous ..delta..pH and ..delta..psi measurements have been made with electrodes. In R/sub 1/mR vesicles, -..delta..psi and H/sup +/ uptake occurs in NaCl but not in KCl medium. In S/sub 9/ vesicles, net H/sup +/ extrusion is reduced at high light intensity in NaCl but not KCl medium. Such results indicate Na/sup +//H/sup +/ exchange in vesicles from both strains. As S/sub 9/ contains BR + HR, it is unclear whether the Na/sup +/ extrusion is due to a Na/sup +//H/sup +/ antiporter and/or HR which has been proposed to be a light driven Na/sup +/ pump. To evaluate these concepts for Na/sup +/ transport, the light intensity dependence and action of several membrane transport active agents have been compared. Digitoxin, electro-neutral exchangers (triphenyltin and monensin), and phloretin yielded similar results for HR (R/sub 1/mR) and HR + BR (S/sub 9/) vesicles. Moreover treatment of vesicles with carboxyl reacting reagents inhibited Na/sup +/ dependent activity in both types of vesicles. Thus, common mechanisms of Na/sup +/ transport are indicated in S/sub 9/ and R/sub 1/mR vesicles. 22 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Influence of NaCl and sorbitol on the stability of conformations of cytochrome c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bágel'ová, J; Fedunová, D; Gazová, Z; Fabian, M; Antalík, M

    2008-06-01

    Influence of ionic (NaCl) and non-ionic (sorbitol) additives on structural transitions of cytochrome c was investigated by circular dichroism, optical and EPR spectroscopy. Transformations of cytochrome c, induced by the acidification of solution and temperature perturbation, were monitored in the heme pocket together with changes in the secondary structure. NaCl and sorbitol exhibited antagonistic effect on the acid-induced transition of the protein. Sorbitol enhanced the stability of native conformation while NaCl destabilized this state. The midpoints of acid-induced transitions in the axial coordination of heme as well as in the secondary structure occurred nearly at the same pH values. However, temperature-induced transitions in the unfolding of the secondary structure were almost coincidental with the cleavage of Met80-Fe bond only in the sorbitol solutions. In the salt solution the Met80-Fe bond was markedly more labile than the secondary structure.

  11. The solvation of NaCl in model water with different hydrogen bond strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, B; Zhang, F S; Wang, Z P; Zhou, H Y

    2008-11-14

    Based on hybrid water models, we design a series of solvent environments with different hydrogen bond strength and study the solvation of NaCl in them. The microstructures and dynamical behaviors of solvents and ion solutes are presented in detail to trace the correlations between the hydrogen bond strength of water and the solvation mechanism of the ions. In the process of the solvation of NaCl, the balance of the competition between breaking original solvent structures and formation of hydration shells around ions is sensitive to the hydrogen bonding ability of water. The results indicate that NaCl is most ideally dissolved in natural water with the strongest hydration effects around both cations and anions. In solvents with both reduced and enhanced hydrogen bond strength, the ions are more inclined to be in contact or aggregate into clusters of different sizes. These phenomena show that appropriate hydrogen bond strength is crucial for water's natural dissolving capacity.

  12. An Application of Specific Sensors For The Monitoring of NaCl in Soft Cheeses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lvova, Larisa; Mielle, Patrick; Salles, Christian; Denis, Sylvain; Vergoignan, Catherine; Barra, Aurélien; Di Natale, Corrado; Paolesse, Roberto; Temple-Boyer, Pierre; Feron, Gilles

    2011-09-01

    The commercial sensors and prototype ISEs array (Ion Selective Electrodes array) were utilized for NaCl concentration measurements in soft cheeses, in particular in vitro gut process and in commercial Italian mozzarella cheeses. The values obtained from the sensors were compared with HPLC analysis. The results showed the feasibility of the ISE array application to monitor NaCl in soft cheese during the breakdown in the digester. The best results were obtained with the use of ISEs array combining, in particular, Cl- and Na+ detections. The salinity of commercial mozzarella cheese samples and the originally utilized milk type (cow or buffalo) were also satisfactory determined with the developed ISE array.

  13. Dichtefunktionaltheorie und Quantenchemische Untersuchungen auf reinen und benetzten NaCl(001)

    OpenAIRE

    Li, B.

    2009-01-01

    Gewöhnliches Kochsalz, Natriumchlorid (NaCl), ist ein aus dem Alltag bekannter Stoff, mit dem wir alle vertraut sind. Mindestens seit dem Mittelalter, als (Koch-)Salz auf Grund seiner Verwendung als Konservierungsstoff asl "weißes Gold" bekannt war, hat es eine Faszination auf Menschen ausgeübt und eine zentrale Rolle in der Gesellschaft gespielt. Viele fundamentale physikalische und chemische Eigenschaften von NaCl und insbesondere Oberflächen von Kochsalzkristallen sind jedoch noch immer un...

  14. Physiological adjustment to salt stress in Jatropha curcas is associated with accumulation of salt ions, transport and selectivity of K+, osmotic adjustment and K+/Na+ homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, E N; Silveira, J A G; Rodrigues, C R F; Viégas, R A

    2015-09-01

    This study assessed the capacity of Jatropha curcas to physiologically adjust to salinity. Seedlings were exposed to increasing NaCl concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100 mm) for 15 days. Treatment without NaCl was adopted as control. Shoot dry weight was strongly reduced by NaCl, reaching values of 35% to 65% with 25 to 100 mm NaCl. The shoot/root ratio was only affected with 100 mm NaCl. Relative water content (RWC) increased only with 100 mm NaCl, while electrolyte leakage (EL) was much enhanced with 50 mm NaCl. The Na(+) transport rate to the shoot was more affected with 50 and 100 mm NaCl. In parallel, Cl(-) transport rate increased with 75 and 100 mm NaCl, while K(+) transport rate fell from 50 mm to 100 mm NaCl. In roots, Na(+) and Cl(-) transport rates fell slightly only in 50 mm (to Na(+)) and 50 and 100 mm (to Cl(-)) NaCl, while K(+) transport rate fell significantly with increasing NaCl. In general, our data demonstrate that J. curcas seedlings present changes in key physiological processes that allow this species to adjust to salinity. These responses are related to accumulation of Na(+) and Cl(-) in leaves and roots, K(+)/Na(+) homeostasis, transport of K(+) and selectivity (K-Na) in roots, and accumulation of organic solutes contributing to osmotic adjustment of the species. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  15. SIMULATION OF NET INFILTRATION FOR MODERN AND POTENTIAL FUTURE CLIMATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.A. Heveal

    2000-06-16

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) describes enhancements made to the infiltration model documented in Flint et al. (1996) and documents an analysis using the enhanced model to generate spatial and temporal distributions over a model domain encompassing the Yucca Mountain site, Nevada. Net infiltration is the component of infiltrated precipitation, snowmelt, or surface water run-on that has percolated below the zone of evapotranspiration as defined by the depth of the effective root zone, the average depth below the ground surface (at a given location) from which water is removed by evapotranspiration. The estimates of net infiltration are used for defining the upper boundary condition for the site-scale 3-dimensional Unsaturated-Zone Ground Water Flow and Transport (UZ flow and transport) Model (CRWMS M&O 2000a). The UZ flow and transport model is one of several process models abstracted by the Total System Performance Assessment model to evaluate expected performance of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in terms of radionuclide transport (CRWMS M&O 1998). The net-infiltration model is important for assessing potential repository-system performance because output from this model provides the upper boundary condition for the UZ flow and transport model that is used to generate flow fields for evaluating potential radionuclide transport through the unsaturated zone. Estimates of net infiltration are provided as raster-based, 2-dimensional grids of spatially distributed, time-averaged rates for three different climate stages estimated as likely conditions for the next 10,000 years beyond the present. Each climate stage is represented using a lower bound, a mean, and an upper bound climate and corresponding net-infiltration scenario for representing uncertainty in the characterization of daily climate conditions for each climate stage, as well as potential climate variability within each climate stage. The set of nine raster grid maps provide spatially

  16. Energy transport in crystalline DNA composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaoli Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports on the synthesis of crystalline DNA-composited films and microfibers, and details the study of thermal energy transport in them. The transient electro-thermal technique is used to characterize the thermal transport in DNA composite microfibers, and the photothermal technique is used to explore the thermal transport in the thickness direction of DNA films. Compared with microfibers, the DNA films are found to have a higher thermal transport capacity, largely due to the carefully controlled crystallization process in film synthesis. In high NaCl concentration solutions, the bond of the Na+ ion and phosphate group aligns the DNA molecules with the NaCl crystal structure during crystallization. This results in significant enhancement of thermal transport in the DNA films with aligned structure.

  17. Effect of NaCl on ionic content and distribution in suspension-cultured cells of the halophyte Sonneratia alba versus the glycophyte Oryza sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayatsu, Manabu; Suzuki, Suechika; Hasegawa, Ai; Tsuchiya, Shinpei; Sasamoto, Hamako

    2014-09-15

    The effect of a high concentration of NaCl on the intra- (cytoplasmic matrix and vacuole) and extracellular (cell wall) distribution of Na, Cl, K, Mg, Ca, S, and P was investigated in suspension-cultured cells of the mangrove halophyte Sonneratia alba and compared to cultured cells of glycophytic rice (Oryza sativa). No significant differences were observed in ultrastructural features of cluster cells of both species cultured with and without 50mM NaCl. Quantitative X-ray microanalysis of cryosections of the cells cultured in the presence of 50mM NaCl showed that the Na concentration ([Na]) and Cl concentration ([Cl]) significantly increased in all three cell components measured. In S. alba, the [Na] was highest in the vacuole and lowest in the cytoplasmic matrix, while the [Cl] was highest in the cell wall and lowest in the cytoplasmic matrix. In O. sativa, however, the [Na] and [Cl] were highest in the cell wall, and the [Na] was lowest in the cytoplasmic matrix. Thus, the possible activities for Na and Cl transport from the cytoplasmic matrix into the vacuole were greater in S. alba than in O. sativa, suggesting that halophilic mangrove cells gain salt tolerance by transporting Na and Cl into their vacuoles. In O. sativa, the addition of NaCl to the culture medium caused no significant changes to the intracellular concentrations of various elements, such as K, P, S, Ca, and Mg, which suggests the absence of a direct relationship with the transport Na and Cl. In contrast, a marked decrease in the Ca concentration ([Ca]) in the cytoplasmic matrix and vacuole and an approximately two-fold increase in the P concentration ([P]) in the cytoplasmic matrix were found in S. alba, suggesting that the decrease in the [Ca] is related to the halophilic nature of S. alba (as indicated by the inward movement of Na(+) and Cl(-)). The possible roles of a Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange mechanism in halophilism and the effect of the [P] on the metabolic activity under saline conditions are

  18. TimeNET Optimization Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Bodenstein

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a novel tool for simulation-based optimization and design-space exploration of Stochastic Colored Petri nets (SCPN is introduced. The working title of this tool is TimeNET Optimization Environment (TOE. Targeted users of this tool are people modeling complex systems with SCPNs in TimeNET who want to find parameter sets that are optimal for a certain performance measure (fitness function. It allows users to create and simulate sets of SCPNs and to run different optimization algorithms based on parameter variation. The development of this tool was motivated by the need to automate and speed up tests of heuristic optimization algorithms to be applied for SCPN optimization. A result caching mechanism is used to avoid recalculations.

  19. An Efficient Translation of Timed-Arc Petri Nets to Networks of Timed Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byg, Joakim; Jørgensen, Kenneth Yrke; Srba, Jiri

    2009-01-01

    to enforce urgency and with transport arcs to generalise the read-arcs. We also describe a novel translation from the extended timed-arc Petri net model to networks of timed automata. The translation is implemented in the tool TAPAAL and it uses UPPAAL as the verification engine. Our experiments confirm......Bounded timed-arc Petri nets with read-arcs were recently proven equivalent to networks of timed automata, though the Petri net model cannot express urgent behaviour and the described mutual trans- lations are rather inefficient. We propose an extension of timed-arc Petri nets with invariants...

  20. Implementing NetScaler VPX

    CERN Document Server

    Sandbu, Marius

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow guide with detailed step-by step-instructions on how to implement the different key components in NetScaler, with real-world examples and sample scenarios.If you are a Citrix or network administrator who needs to implement NetScaler in your virtual environment to gain an insight on its functionality, this book is ideal for you. A basic understanding of networking and familiarity with some of the different Citrix products such as XenApp or XenDesktop is a prerequisite.

  1. Net4Care PHMR Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the SimpleClinicalDocument......The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the Simple...

  2. Pro DLR in NET 4

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Chaur

    2011-01-01

    Microsoft's Dynamic Language Runtime (DLR) is a platform for running dynamic languages such as Ruby and Python on an equal footing with compiled languages such as C#. Furthermore, the runtime is the foundation for many useful software design and architecture techniques you can apply as you develop your .NET applications. Pro DLR in .NET 4 introduces you to the DLR, showing how you can use it to write software that combines dynamic and static languages, letting you choose the right tool for the job. You will learn the core DLR components such as LINQ expressions, call sites, binders, and dynami

  3. Hierarchies in Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Peter; Jensen, Kurt; Shapiro, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    The paper shows how to extend Coloured Petri Nets with a hierarchy concept. The paper proposes five different hierarchy constructs, which allow the analyst to structure large CP-nets as a set of interrelated subnets (called pages). The paper discusses the properties of the proposed hierarchy...... constructs, and it illustrates them by means of two examples. The hierarchy constructs can be used for theoretical considerations, but their main use is to describe and analyse large real-world systems. All of the hierarchy constructs are supported by the editing and analysis facilities in the CPN Palette...

  4. Gustatory Plasticity in "C. elegans" Involves Integration of Negative Cues and NaCl Taste Mediated by Serotonin, Dopamine, and Glutamate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hukema, Renate K.; Rademakers, Suzanne; Jansen, Gert

    2008-01-01

    While naive "Caenorhabditis elegans" individuals are attracted to 0.1-200 mM NaCl, they become strongly repelled by these NaCl concentrations after prolonged exposure to 100 mM NaCl. We call this behavior gustatory plasticity. Here, we show that "C. elegans" displays avoidance of low NaCl concentrations only when pre-exposure to NaCl is combined…

  5. Growth responses of NaCl stressed rice ( Oryza sativa L.) plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth responses of NaCl stressed rice ( Oryza sativa L.) plants germinated from seed in aseptic nutrient cultures supplemented with proline. ... Among cultures, leaf demography (cell size) was affected significantly; this may be the reflection of accumulation of proline, Na+ and Cl- and exclusion of K+ in developed rice ...

  6. Alternative splice variant of the thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tutakhel, Omar A Z; Jeleń, Sabina; Valdez-Flores, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter (NCC) is an important pharmacological target in the treatment of hypertension. Human SLC12A3 gene, encoding NCC, gives rise to three isoforms. Only the 3(rd) isoform has been extensively investigated. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to establ...

  7. PLASMA-MEMBRANE LIPID ALTERATIONS INDUCED BY NACL IN WINTER-WHEAT ROOTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MANSOUR, MMF; VANHASSELT, PR; KUIPER, PJC

    1994-01-01

    A highly enriched plasma membrane fraction was isolated by two phase partitioning from wheat roots (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Vivant) grown with and without 100 mM NaCl. The lipids of the plasma membrane fraction were extracted and characterized. Phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine were

  8. AFM of metallic nano-particles and nano-structures in heavily irradiated NaCl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaynutdinov, R; Vainshtein, DI; Hak, SJ; Tolstikhina, A; Den Hartog, HW

    2003-01-01

    AFM investigations are reported for heavily, electron irradiated NaCl crystals in ultra high vacuum (UHV) in the non-contact mode-with an UHV AFM/STM Omicron system. To avoid chemical reactions between the radiolytic Na and oxygen and water, the irradiated samples were cleaved and prepared for the

  9. Effects of NaCl treatment on the antioxidant enzymes of oilseed rape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of NaCl treatment on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in leaves of oilseed rape seedlings (Brassica napus L.) were studied. The results showed that the relative water content from leaves of oilseed rape seedlings was gradually decreased and the electronic conductivity was increased during 0 - 24 h under 200 ...

  10. The effect of NaCl on proline metabolism in Saussurea amara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-11

    Apr 11, 2011 ... turbance of the uptake and translocation of nutritional ... Figure 1. A schematic diagram of proline metabolism in plants (Song et al., 2005). .... treated plants. The activities of ProDH significantly decreased with increasing NaCl concentration and treatment duration in both leaves and roots (P < 0.05).

  11. Effects of NaCl stress on seed germination, early seedling growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of salt stress on seed germination, early seedling growth and some physiological characteristics were evaluated for four cauliflower species in seven treatments of salinity including 0 (control), 34, 68, 102, 136, 170 and 204 mM NaCl in a three replicated randomized completely block design (RCBD). This result shows ...

  12. Effect of NaCl on the spectral and kinetic properties of cresyl violet ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 115; Issue 4. Effect of NaCl on the spectral and kinetic properties of cresyl violet (CV)-sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) complex. K I Priyadarsini Hari Mohan. Physical and Theoretical Volume 115 Issue 4 August 2003 pp 299-306 ...

  13. The effect of NaCl substitution by KCl on telemea cheese properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai ANGHELOIU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of partial or total substitution of sodium chloride by potassium chloride on the chemical composition, texture profile and sensory properties of Telemea cheese during 28 days of ripening at 4°C was evaluated in the current study. Telemea cheese was ripened in 4 different brine solutions (20%, wt/wt made from different NaCl:KCl ratios as follows: (NaCl (A, KCl (B, 1NaCl:1KCl (C and 1NaCl:2KCl (D. The physicochemical properties of Telemea cheese (dry matter, fat, protein, ash, pH, total nitrogen (TN, water soluble nitrogen (WSN and ripening degree values were determined after 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of ripening. Dry matter, pH and ripening degree values were significantly (p < 0.05 affected during ripening. The results of this study indicated that replacing 66% NaCl with KCl influenced the texture profile and sensorial characteristics of Telemea cheese.

  14. Terahertz reflection spectroscopy of aqueous NaCl and LiCl solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter Uhd; Merbold, Hannes

    2010-01-01

    frequencies. Whereas both the real and imaginary part of the permittivity of NaCl increases with concentration,we see that the imaginary part of the permittivity of LiCl (related to the absorption)decreases with increasing salt concentration. We relate these changes to the behavior...

  15. The influence of NaCl salinity on some vegetative and chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, 500, 1000 and 1500 mg l-1 salt applications in Kabarla and Gloria cultivars of strawberry in solid media culture were performed along with Hoagland nutrient solution. In the experiment, some vegetative growth and chemical changes were determined in the plants to which salt (NaCl) was applied compared with ...

  16. Elevated NaCl concentration improves cryotolerance and developmental competence of porcine oocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, L; Du, Y; Liu, Y

    2009-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure has been reported to improve the fertilizing or developmental ability of mammalian spermatozoa, oocytes and embryos. This study investigated the effect of another stress, temporarily increased NaCl concentration, on cryotolerance and developmental competence of porcine o...

  17. Galvanostatic response of AA2024 aluminium alloy in 3.5% NaCl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and G E THOMPSON. Corrosion and Protection Centre, School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK. MS received 5 August 2015; accepted 15 April 2016. Abstract. Galvanostatic responses of AA2024T3 alloy in de-aerated and naturally aerated 3.5% NaCl solution have been investigated.

  18. The effect of conditioning with NaCl, KCl and HCl on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2+ and Co2+ was investigated in order to consider its viability in the removal of metal cations from aqueous solutions. The effect of chemical conditioning was investigated using sodium chloride (NaCl), hydrochloric acid (HCl) and potassium ...

  19. Galvanostatic response of AA2024 aluminium alloy in 3.5% NaCl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Galvanostatic responses of AA2024T3 alloy in de-aerated and naturally aerated 3.5% NaCl solution have been investigated. In the de-aerated condition, two distinct stages of polarization were revealed. From the first stage, the relationships between the pitting incubation time, pitting potential and applied current density for ...

  20. The release of stored energy in heavily irradiated NaCl explosive reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vainshtein, D.; Bemt, M. van den; Seinen, J.; Datema, H.C.; Hartog, H.W. den

    1995-01-01

    During irradiation of NaCl with ionizing radiation at moderate temperatures (50-150 degrees C) irregular structures of very fine Na and Cl nano-precipitates are formed. The increase of the temperature to a value between 50 and 250 degrees C might induce explosive reactions between radiolytic Na and

  1. Color kinetics and acrylamide formation in NaCl soaked potato chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Bustos, Oscar; Mery, Domingo

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the kinetics of color development in blanched and blanched-NaCl impregnated potato slices during frying by using the dynamic method and also to evaluate the effect of NaCl in reducing acrylamide formation in potato chips. The measurement of color was done b...

  2. Effects of NaCl treatment on the antioxidant enzymes of oilseed rape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... The effects of NaCl treatment on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in leaves of oilseed rape seedlings. (Brassica napus L.) were studied. The results showed that the relative water content from leaves of oilseed rape seedlings was gradually decreased and the electronic conductivity was increased during 0.

  3. NaCl as a physiological modulator of proline metabolism and antioxidant potential in Phyllanthus amarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaleel, Cheruth Abdul; Manivannan, Paramasivam; Lakshmanan, Ganapathy Murugan Alagu; Sridharan, Ramalingam; Panneerselvam, Rajaram

    2007-11-01

    Some medicinal plants need to be cultivated commercially in order to meet the ever-increasing demand for medicinal plants for the indigenous systems of medicine as well as for the pharmaceutical industry; in this regard, it seems significant to test the important medicinal plants for their salt-tolerance capacity, with a view to exploiting the saline lands for medicinal plant cultivation. Phyllanthus amarus plants were grown in the presence of NaCl in order to study the effect of NaCl (80 mM NaCl) in the induction of oxidative stress in terms of lipid peroxidation (TBARS content), H2O2 content, osmolyte concentration, proline(PRO)-metabolizing enzymes, and antioxidant enzyme activities. Groundwater was used for irrigation of control plants. Plants were uprooted randomly on 90 days after sowing (DAS). NaCl-stressed plants showed increased TBARS, H2O2, glycine betaine (GB), and PRO contents, whereas NaCl uptake decreased proline oxidase (PROX) activity and increased gamma-glutamyl kinase (gamma-GK) activity when compared to control. The antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX) and catalase (CAT) were increased under salinity.

  4. RADIATION-DAMAGE IN NACL .1. OPTICAL-ABSORPTION EXPERIMENTS ON HEAVILY IRRADIATED SAMPLES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WEERKAMP, JRW; GROOTE, JC; SEINEN, J; DENHARTOG, HW

    1994-01-01

    Results of optical-absorption experiments on heavily irradiated NaCl single crystals are presented. The dose rates were between 4 and 250 Mrad/h; the doses between 1 and 7 Grad. The irradiation temperatures were in the range of 20-150-degrees-C. Because of the intense optical bands, the thickness of

  5. Osmotic effects of NaCl on cell hydraulic conductivity of corn roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xianchong

    2010-05-15

    In this study, whether the effect of salt (NaCl) stress on cell hydraulic conductivity (L(p)) is via osmotic pressure or ion toxicity and whether abscisic acid (ABA) can release the salt adverse effect were tested. Immediate effects of NaCl and ABA on root cortical cell L(p) of maize (Zea mays L.) were detected by measuring changes in half time of water exchange (T(1/2)) and turgor of individual single cells with a cell pressure probe for at least 1 h. The results showed that stepwise additions of NaCl (50 mM) significantly (P osmotic strength of 0.25 MPa, significantly reduced L(p) at the early stage of the treatments. The declined L(p) in the salinized cell gradually and partially recovered after 2 days, whereas the L(p) with the mannitol and sorbitol mixture treatment was all time inhibited. With long-time treatment, ABA (500 nM) significantly (P osmotic stress. ABA could not instantaneously change water permeability of the corn root cortical cell subjected to NaCl stress; however, with long-time treatment, ABA was able to in part relieve the salt stress likely by osmotic adjustment.

  6. The effect of NaCl stress on the germination of seed and growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-03-27

    Mar 27, 2012 ... Effect of NaCl Stress to Osmotic Adjustment Substances of Tomato. Anhui Agric. Sci. Bull. 16(3): 43-44, p. 107. Ma HY (2008). Study on Salinity Tolerance of Tomatoes during Seed. Germination under Different Salt Stress Conditions. J. Anhui Agric. Sci. 36(32): 13947-13948, 13956. Ma CP, Cui GW (2006).

  7. Excess Enthalpies of Mixing of Binary Mixtures of NaCl, KCl, NaBr ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    2004-07-01

    Jul 1, 2004 ... Excess enthalpies of mixing for six possible binary combinations of solutions of NaCl, KCl, NaBr and KBr in mixed ternary solvents composed of ... practical interest for industrial and geochemical applications. Interest in ... Pitzer,11–16 where the excess Gibbs energy of the system is repre- sented by a ...

  8. Evaluation of Potential Effects of NaCl and Sorbic Acid on Staphylococcal Enterotoxin A Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoleta Zeaki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The prophage-encoded staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA is recognized as the main cause of staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP, a common foodborne intoxication disease, caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Studies on the production of SEA suggest that activation of the SOS response and subsequent prophage induction affect the regulation of the sea gene and the SEA produced, increasing the risk for SFP. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of NaCl and sorbic acid, in concentrations relevant to food production, on SOS response activation, prophage induction and SEA production. The impact of stress was initially evaluated on steady state cells for a homogenous cell response. NaCl 2% was found to activate the SOS response, i.e., recA expression, and trigger prophage induction, in a similar way as the phage-inducer mitomycin C. In contrast, sorbic acid decreased the pH of the culture to a level where prophage induction was probably suppressed, even when combined with NaCl stress. The impact of previous physiological state of the bacteria was also addressed on cells pre-exposed to NaCl, and was found to potentially affect cell response upon exposure to further stress. The results obtained highlight the possible SFP-related risks arising from the use of preservatives during food processing.

  9. Evaluation of Potential Effects of NaCl and Sorbic Acid on Staphylococcal Enterotoxin A Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeaki, Nikoleta; Rådström, Peter; Schelin, Jenny

    2015-09-17

    The prophage-encoded staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) is recognized as the main cause of staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP), a common foodborne intoxication disease, caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Studies on the production of SEA suggest that activation of the SOS response and subsequent prophage induction affect the regulation of the sea gene and the SEA produced, increasing the risk for SFP. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of NaCl and sorbic acid, in concentrations relevant to food production, on SOS response activation, prophage induction and SEA production. The impact of stress was initially evaluated on steady state cells for a homogenous cell response. NaCl 2% was found to activate the SOS response, i.e., recA expression, and trigger prophage induction, in a similar way as the phage-inducer mitomycin C. In contrast, sorbic acid decreased the pH of the culture to a level where prophage induction was probably suppressed, even when combined with NaCl stress. The impact of previous physiological state of the bacteria was also addressed on cells pre-exposed to NaCl, and was found to potentially affect cell response upon exposure to further stress. The results obtained highlight the possible SFP-related risks arising from the use of preservatives during food processing.

  10. [Effects of NaCl stress on cation contents in different pumpkin cultivars' seedlings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Xin; Chen, Gui-Lin; Ren, Liang-Yu; Wang, Peng

    2008-03-01

    With the seedlings of 19 pumpkin cultivars as test materials, this paper studied the variations of Na+, K+, Ca2+, Na+/K+, Na+/Ca2+, SN+, K+ and SNa+, ca2+ in their shoots and roots under the stress of 300 mmol NaCl x L(-1). The results showed that after an 8-day exposure to 300 mmol NaCl x L(-1), the Na+ content in the seedlings increased significantly while the K+ content decreased, resulting in the brokenness of ion balance. The root Na+ content, shoot Na+/K+ and Na+/Ca2+ ratios, and SNa+, K+ and SNa+, Ca2+ of Cucurbita moschata (Q1) were significantly higher than those of C. maxima (H2) and C. ficifolia (H3). The variation tendency of these parameters of different pumpkin cultivars' seedlings were nearly consistent with the salt injury index of the seedlings under NaCl stress, which further proved that the strong salt-tolerance of Q1 was related to the lower values of shoot Na+/K+, Na+/Ca2+, SNa+, K+ and SNa+, Ca2+, and the high contents of K+ and Ca2+, while the salt-sensitivity of H2 and H3 was related to the higher values of shoot Na+/K+, Na+/Ca2+, SNa+, K+ and SNa+, Ca2+, and low contents of K+ and Ca2+ under NaCl stress.

  11. Effect of ENaC Modulators on Rat Neural Responses to NaCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mummalaneni, Shobha; Qian, Jie; Phan, Tam-Hao T.; Rhyu, Mee-Ra; Heck, Gerard L.; DeSimone, John A.; Lyall, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    The effects of small molecule ENaC activators N,N,N-trimethyl-2-((4-methyl-2-((4-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)thio)pentanoyl)oxy)ethanaminium iodide (Compound 1) and N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-methyl-2-((4-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)thio)pentanamide (Compound 2), were tested on the benzamil (Bz)-sensitive NaCl chorda tympani (CT) taste nerve response under open-circuit conditions and under ±60 mV applied lingual voltage-clamp, and compared with the effects of known physiological activators (8-CPT-cAMP, BAPTA-AM, and alkaline pH), and an inhibitor (ionomycin+Ca2+) of ENaC. The NaCl CT response was enhanced at −60 mV and suppressed at +60 mV. In every case the CT response (r) versus voltage (V) curve was linear. All ENaC activators increased the open-circuit response (ro) and the voltage sensitivity (κ, negative of the slope of the r versus V curve) and ionomycin+Ca2+ decreased ro and κ to zero. Compound 1 and Compound 2 expressed a sigmoidal-saturating function of concentration (0.25–1 mM) with a half-maximal response concentration (k) of 0.49 and 1.05 mM, respectively. Following treatment with 1 mM Compound 1, 8-CPT-cAMP, BAPTA-AM and pH 10.3, the Bz-sensitive NaCl CT response to 100 mM NaCl was enhanced and was equivalent to the Bz-sensitive CT response to 300 mM NaCl. Plots of κ versus ro in the absence and presence of the activators or the inhibitor were linear, suggesting that changes in the affinity of Na+ for ENaC under different conditions are fully compensated by changes in the apical membrane potential difference, and that the observed changes in the Bz-sensitive NaCl CT response arise exclusively from changes in the maximum CT response (rm). The results further suggest that the agonists enhance and ionomycin+Ca2+ decreases ENaC function by increasing or decreasing the rate of release of Na+ from its ENaC binding site to the receptor cell cytosol, respectively. Irrespective of agonist type, the Bz-sensitive NaCl CT response demonstrated a maximum response enhancement

  12. Effect of ENaC modulators on rat neural responses to NaCl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobha Mummalaneni

    Full Text Available The effects of small molecule ENaC activators N,N,N-trimethyl-2-((4-methyl-2-((4-methyl-1H-indol-3-ylthiopentanoyloxyethanaminium iodide (Compound 1 and N-(2-hydroxyethyl-4-methyl-2-((4-methyl-1H-indol-3-ylthiopentanamide (Compound 2, were tested on the benzamil (Bz-sensitive NaCl chorda tympani (CT taste nerve response under open-circuit conditions and under ±60 mV applied lingual voltage-clamp, and compared with the effects of known physiological activators (8-CPT-cAMP, BAPTA-AM, and alkaline pH, and an inhibitor (ionomycin+Ca2+ of ENaC. The NaCl CT response was enhanced at -60 mV and suppressed at +60 mV. In every case the CT response (r versus voltage (V curve was linear. All ENaC activators increased the open-circuit response (ro and the voltage sensitivity (κ, negative of the slope of the r versus V curve and ionomycin+Ca2+ decreased ro and κ to zero. Compound 1 and Compound 2 expressed a sigmoidal-saturating function of concentration (0.25-1 mM with a half-maximal response concentration (k of 0.49 and 1.05 mM, respectively. Following treatment with 1 mM Compound 1, 8-CPT-cAMP, BAPTA-AM and pH 10.3, the Bz-sensitive NaCl CT response to 100 mM NaCl was enhanced and was equivalent to the Bz-sensitive CT response to 300 mM NaCl. Plots of κ versus ro in the absence and presence of the activators or the inhibitor were linear, suggesting that changes in the affinity of Na+ for ENaC under different conditions are fully compensated by changes in the apical membrane potential difference, and that the observed changes in the Bz-sensitive NaCl CT response arise exclusively from changes in the maximum CT response (rm. The results further suggest that the agonists enhance and ionomycin+Ca2+ decreases ENaC function by increasing or decreasing the rate of release of Na+ from its ENaC binding site to the receptor cell cytosol, respectively. Irrespective of agonist type, the Bz-sensitive NaCl CT response demonstrated a maximum response enhancement

  13. Nitric oxide inhibition of NaCl secretion in the opercular epithelium of seawater-acclimated killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Lucie; Jensen, Frank B; Madsen, Steffen S; Marshall, William S

    2016-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) modulates epithelial ion transport pathways in mammals, but this remains largely unexamined in fish. We explored the involvement of NO in controlling NaCl secretion by the opercular epithelium of seawater killifish using an Ussing chamber approach. Pharmacological agents were used to explore the mechanism(s) triggering NO action. A modified Biotin-switch technique was used to investigate S-nitrosation of proteins. Stimulation of endogenous NO production via the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) substrate l-arginine (2.0 mmol l(-1)), and addition of exogenous NO via the NO donor SNAP (10(-6) to 10(-4) mol l(-1)), decreased the epithelial short-circuit current (Isc). Inhibition of endogenous NO production by the NOS inhibitor l-NAME (10(-4) mol l(-1)) increased Isc and revealed a tonic control of ion transport by NO in unstimulated opercular epithelia. The NO scavenger PTIO (10(-5) mol l(-1)) supressed the NO-mediated decrease in Isc, and confirmed that the effect observed was elicited by release of NO. The effect of SNAP on Isc was abolished by inhibitors of the soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), ODQ (10(-6) mol l(-1)) and Methylene Blue (10(-4) mol l(-1)), revealing NO signalling via the sGC/cGMP pathway. Incubation of opercular epithelium and gill tissues with SNAP (10(-4) mol l(-1)) led to S-nitrosation of proteins, including Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Blocking of NOS with l-NAME (10(-6) mol l(-1)) or scavenging of NO with PTIO during hypotonic shock suggested an involvement of NO in the hypotonic-mediated decrease in Isc Yohimbine (10(-4) mol l(-1)), an inhibitor of α2-adrenoceptors, did not block NO effects, suggesting that NO is not involved in the α-adrenergic control of NaCl secretion. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. NaCl reflection coefficients in proximal tubule apical and basolateral membrane vesicles. Measurement by induced osmosis and solvent drag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, D; Verkman, A S

    1989-01-01

    Two independent methods, induced osmosis and solvent drag, were used to determine the reflection coefficients for NaCl (sigma NaCl) in brush border and basolateral membrane vesicles isolated from rabbit proximal tubule. In the induced osmosis method, vesicles loaded with sucrose were subjected to varying inward NaCl gradients in a stopped-flow apparatus. sigma NaCl was determined from the osmolality of the NaCl solution required to cause no initial osmotic water flux as measured by light scattering (null point). By this method sigma NaCl was greater than 0.92 for both apical and basolateral membranes with best estimates of 1.0. sigma NaCl was determined by the solvent drag method using the Cl-sensitive fluorescent indicator, 6-methoxy-N-[3-sulfopropyl]quinolinium (SPQ), to detect the drag of Cl into vesicles by inward osmotic water movement caused by an outward osmotic gradient. sigma NaCl was determined by comparing experimental data with theoretical curves generated using the coupled flux equations of Kedem and Katchalsky. By this method we found that sigma NaCl was greater than 0.96 for apical and greater than 0.98 for basolateral membrane vesicles, with best estimates of 1.0 for both membranes. These results demonstrate that sigma NaCl for proximal tubule apical and basolateral membranes are near unity. Taken together with previous results, these data suggest that proximal tubule water channels are long narrow pores that exclude NaCl. PMID:2765660

  15. NaCl and sugar release, salivation and taste during mastication of salted chewing gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyraud, Eric; Prinz, Jon; Dransfield, Eric

    2003-09-01

    Salt perception impacts on food acceptability and nutrition and depends upon salt release from foods that was determined in situ during mastication of chewing gum with up to 10% (1800 mmol/kg) added NaCl. The mechanical action of chewing increased salivation, which was further increased by the presence of salt, particularly above 180 mmol NaCl/kg gum or above 100 mM NaCl in saliva. The average resting salivary flow rate was 1 ml/min, increasing to 4 and 6 ml/min with gums containing low and high salt, respectively. Thus, stimulation of salivation by salt occurred at a concentration well above the taste threshold of 20 mM NaCl. NaCl concentration in nonstimulated saliva was about 10 mM and increased to 500 mM after 30 s chewing of the 10% NaCl gum and returned to near nonstimulated levels after 4 min chewing. Changes in pH of saliva were more gradual, increasing to a maximum at about 2 min and remaining elevated after 4 min. Salty taste was related to the free chloride ion concentration in saliva irrespective of the initial salt concentration in the gum with an indication of adaptation after 3 min chewing. During chewing, salty taste increased ahead of the increase in salivary conductivity and the salt concentration in the sublingual saliva varied in a cyclic fashion about every 20 s. This is consistent with a cyclic swallowing of saliva and replacement with newly secreted saliva of low salt content and mastication releasing further salt from the gum.

  16. Acclimation to NaCl and light stress of heterotrophic Chlamydomonas reinhardtii for lipid accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianhua; Zheng, Lvhong

    2017-09-01

    Salt stress has been proven very effective in enhancing the lipid content among many photoautotrophically grown microalgae species including marine and freshwater algae. Nevertheless, its effect on heterotrophic grown cells and lipid accumulation is scarcely known. This study sought to demonstrate a new train of thought for cost-effective biofuels production by heterotrophic culture of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii coupling with subsequent salt and light stress. NaCl treatments (25-200 mM) gradually suppressed the cell growth. After one day's acclimation, the cells restored slow growth with light supplement (200 μmol/m2/s) in low salt concentration (0-50 mM). However, high concentration of NaCl (200 mM) dose caused permanent damage, with over 47% cells death after 3 days treatment. The highest lipid content of 35.8% and lipid productivity of 28.6 mg/L/d were achieved by 50 mM NaCl stress and light treatment upon heterotrophic grown cells. Cells lost their green pigmentation and became yellowish under 100-200 mM NaCl conditions, whereas cells grown in 0-50 mM NaCl retained their dark-green pigmentation. Variable-to-maximum fluorescence ratio (Fv/Fm) and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) value were markedly influenced under salt and light stress, indicating that severe inhibition of photosynthetic ability was occurred. Moreover, we further demonstrated the dynamic changes of cell growth and lipid accumulation would potentially be caused by the increase of intracellular redox state. To our knowledge, this study is the first instance in which C. reinhardtii was applied to oil accumulation by using combination of heterotrophic culture and multiple stress, and opened up a new territory for the further development of microalgae-based biofuels production. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. NaCl strongly modifies the physicochemical properties of aluminum hydroxide vaccine adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Art, Jean-François; Vander Straeten, Aurélien; Dupont-Gillain, Christine C

    2017-01-30

    The immunostimulation capacity of most vaccines is enhanced through antigen adsorption on aluminum hydroxide (AH) adjuvants. Varying the adsorption conditions, i.e. pH and ionic strength (I), changes the antigen adsorbed amount and therefore the ability of the vaccine to stimulate the immune system. Vaccine formulations are thus resulting from an empirical screening of the adsorption conditions. This work aims at studying the physicochemical effects of adjusting the ionic strength of commercial AH adjuvant particles suspensions with sodium chloride (NaCl). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data show that AH particles surface chemical composition is neither altered by I adjustment with NaCl nor by deposition on gold surfaces. The latter result provides the opportunity to use AH-coated gold surfaces as a platform for advanced surface analysis of adjuvant particles, e.g. by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The morphology of adjuvant particles recovered from native and NaCl-treated AH suspensions, as studied by scanning electron microscopy and AFM, reveals that AH particles aggregation state is significantly altered by NaCl addition. This is further confirmed by nitrogen adsorption experiments: I adjustment to 150mM with NaCl strongly promotes AH particles aggregation leading to a strong decrease of the developed specific surface area. This work thus evidences the effect of NaCl on AH adjuvant structure, which may lead to alteration of formulated vaccines and to misinterpretation of data related to antigen adsorption on adjuvant particles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. D.NET case study

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    lremy

    developing products, marketing tools and building capacity of the grass root telecentre workers. D.Net recognized that it had several ideas worth developing into small interventions that would make big differences, but resource constraints were a barrier for scaling-up these initiatives. More demands, limited resources.

  19. Surgery for GEP-NETs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, Ulrich; Hansen, Carsten Palnæs

    2012-01-01

    Surgery is the only treatment that may cure the patient with gastroentero-pancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumours (NET) and neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC) and should always be considered as first line treatment if R0/R1 resection can be achieved. The surgical and interventional procedures for GEP...

  20. Net Neutrality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.

    2014-01-01

    The Netherlands is among the first countries that have put specific net neutrality standards in place. The decision to implement specific regulation was influenced by at least three factors. The first was the prevailing social and academic debate, partly due to developments in the United States. The

  1. Complexity Metrics for Workflow Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; van der Aalst, Wil M.P.

    2009-01-01

    Process modeling languages such as EPCs, BPMN, flow charts, UML activity diagrams, Petri nets, etc.\\ are used to model business processes and to configure process-aware information systems. It is known that users have problems understanding these diagrams. In fact, even process engineers and system...

  2. Development of Network Interface Cards for TRIDAQ systems with the NaNet framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammendola, R.; Biagioni, A.; Cretaro, P.; Di Lorenzo, S.; Fiorini, M.; Frezza, O.; Lamanna, G.; Lo Cicero, F.; Lonardo, A.; Martinelli, M.; Neri, I.; Paolucci, P. S.; Pastorelli, E.; Piandani, R.; Pontisso, L.; Rossetti, D.; Simula, F.; Sozzi, M.; Valente, P.; Vicini, P.

    2017-03-01

    NaNet is a framework for the development of FPGA-based PCI Express (PCIe) Network Interface Cards (NICs) with real-time data transport architecture that can be effectively employed in TRIDAQ systems. Key features of the architecture are the flexibility in the configuration of the number and kind of the I/O channels, the hardware offloading of the network protocol stack, the stream processing capability, and the zero-copy CPU and GPU Remote Direct Memory Access (RDMA). Three NIC designs have been developed with the NaNet framework: NaNet-1 and NaNet-10 for the CERN NA62 low level trigger and NaNet3 for the KM3NeT-IT underwater neutrino telescope DAQ system. We will focus our description on the NaNet-10 design, as it is the most complete of the three in terms of capabilities and integrated IPs of the framework.

  3. Caught in the Net: Perineuronal Nets and Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Slaker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to drugs of abuse induces plasticity in the brain and creates persistent drug-related memories. These changes in plasticity and persistent drug memories are believed to produce aberrant motivation and reinforcement contributing to addiction. Most studies have explored the effect drugs of abuse have on pre- and postsynaptic cells and astrocytes; however, more recently, attention has shifted to explore the effect these drugs have on the extracellular matrix (ECM. Within the ECM are unique structures arranged in a net-like manner, surrounding a subset of neurons called perineuronal nets (PNNs. This review focuses on drug-induced changes in PNNs, the molecules that regulate PNNs, and the expression of PNNs within brain circuitry mediating motivation, reward, and reinforcement as it pertains to addiction.

  4. ESR study of Na-Colloids in heavily irradiated NaCl : Size effects and inter-precipitate interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vainshtein, DJ; den Hartog, H.W.

    1996-01-01

    Compared with other materials, the radiolysis processes in alkali halides and in particular NaCl have been investigated extensively. From these investigations we have obtained a rather clear picture of the radiolysis processes in these model materials. During irradiation of NaCl crystals at 50-150

  5. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Army Net Zero Training Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-20

    sensors were strategically placed throughout the installation by magnetically attaching them to water main valve stems. The sensors check sound...Recycle Wrap  Substitutes for Packaging Materials  Re-Use of Textiles and Linens  Setting Printers to Double-Sided Printing Net Zero Waste...can effectively achieve source reduction. Clean and Re-Use Shop Rags - Shop rags represent a large textile waste stream at many installations. As a

  6. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Net Zero Waste Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-20

    Anaerobic Digesters – Although anaerobic digestion is not a new technology and has been used on a large-scale basis in wastewater treatment , the...technology and has been used on a large-scale basis in wastewater treatment , the use of the technology should be demonstrated with other...approaches can be used for cardboard and cellulose -based packaging materials. This approach is in line with the Net Zero Waste hierarchy in terms of

  7. The effect of NaCl 0.9% and NaCl 0.45% on sodium, chloride, and acid-base balance in a PICU population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Helena Isabel; Mascarenhas, Maria Inês; Loureiro, Helena Cristina; Abadesso, Clara S; Nunes, Pedro S; Moniz, Marta S; Machado, Maria Céu

    2015-01-01

    To study the effect of two intravenous maintenance fluids on plasma sodium (Na), and acid-base balance in pediatric intensive care patients during the first 24h of hospitalization. A prospective randomized controlled study was performed, which allocated 233 patients to groups: (A) NaCl 0.9% or (B) NaCl 0.45%. Patients were aged 1 day to 18 years, had normal electrolyte concentrations, and suffered an acute insult (medical/surgical). change in plasma sodium. Parametric tests: t-tests, ANOVA, X(2) statistical significance level was set at α=0.05. Group A (n=130): serum Na increased by 2.91 (±3.9)mmol/L at 24h (p<0.01); 2% patients had Na higher than 150 mmol/L. Mean urinary Na: 106.6 (±56.8)mmol/L. No change in pH at 0 and 24h. Group B (n=103): serum Na did not display statistically significant changes. Fifteen percent of the patients had Na<135 mmol/L at 24h. The two fluids had different effects on respiratory and post-operative situations. The use of saline 0.9% was associated with a lower incidence of electrolyte disturbances. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of NaCl 0.9% and NaCl 0.45% on sodium, chloride, and acid-base balance in a PICU population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Isabel Almeida

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of two intravenous maintenance fluids on plasma sodium (Na, and acid-base balance in pediatric intensive care patients during the first 24 h of hospitalization. METHODS: A prospective randomized controlled study was performed, which allocated 233 patients to groups: (A NaCl 0.9% or (B NaCl 0.45%. Patients were aged 1 day to 18 years, had normal electrolyte concentrations, and suffered an acute insult (medical/surgical. Main outcome measured: change in plasma sodium. Parametric tests: t-tests, ANOVA, X 2 statistical significance level was set at a = 0.05. RESULTS: Group A (n = 130: serum Na increased by 2.91 (±3.9 mmol/L at 24 h (p < 0.01; 2% patients had Na higher than 150 mmol/L. Mean urinary Na: 106.6 (±56.8 mmol/L. No change in pH at 0 and 24 h. Group B (n = 103: serum Na did not display statistically significant changes. Fifteen percent of the patients had Na < 135 mmol/L at 24 h. The two fluids had different effects on respiratory and post-operative situations. CONCLUSIONS: The use of saline 0.9% was associated with a lower incidence of electrolyte disturbances.

  9. Avaliação do desempenho logístico do transporte rodoviário de madeira de áreas de fomento florestal com o uso de rede de Petri Evaluation of the wood hauling logistic performance in farm forest areas using Petri net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cardoso Machado

    2009-12-01

    of optimizing physical resources, guaranteeing a flow of uninterrupted provisioning and appropriate volume of wood entrance in the regional deposits. The operational cycle of wood transport is organized by the activities of wood loading in the field, wood hauling, wood unloading in the deposit and unhauling. The Temporal Petri Net was used, because it works with two times - sensitization duration. Simulations were carried out with the ARP and ARP software systems, in order to simulate, analyze and evaluate the operational performance. The variations employed in each scenery are due to the quality of the highway, under the current conditions, as for the vertical and horizontal geometry and the irregularity quotient, in each deposit, for the different types of vehicle and form of the adopted wood loading. In the areas of uneven topography, the improvement of the highways altering their quality level has a higher influence for the increase in the performance of the vehicles, and Toco and Truck presented better results. In the areas of plains, the choice of the vehicle has a higher influence in the increase of the performance of the transport, since the topography and the quality of the current highways already contribute to the performance. In these cases, the relation between transported ton and distance and time will be higher for the vehicles with higher capacity of liquid load.

  10. Low-field NMR determination of water distribution in meat batters with NaCl and polyphosphate addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jun-Hua; Deng, Ya-Min; Jia, Na; Li, Ru-Ren; Cao, Jin-Xuan; Liu, Deng-Yong; Li, Jian-Rong

    2016-06-01

    The objective was to elucidate the influence of NaCl and polyphosphates in the stage of protein swelling on the water-holding capacity (WHC) of meat batter. The meat batters were formulated with salt in different ways by adding established amounts of only NaCl, only polyphosphates, jointly adding NaCl and polyphosphates, and a control without any salt. An increase (ppolyphosphates was used. A high textural parameter was observed in the two treatments with NaCl, but not in the group with only polyphosphate. For the polyphosphate group, T22 was lower (ppolyphosphate, but polyphosphate could not be an equal substitute for NaCl given its resulting lowest textural properties and poor microstructure. By presenting different hydration states in the protein swelling stage, the meat batter qualities were differentiated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. NaCl stress impact on the key enzymes in glycolysis from Lactobacillus bulgaricus during freeze-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun; Sun, Jinwei; Qi, Xiaoxi; Liu, Libo

    2015-01-01

    The viability of Lactobacillus bulgaricus in freeze-drying is of significant commercial interest to dairy industries. In the study, L.bulgaricus demonstrated a significantly improved (p enzymes in glycolysis during 2% NaCl stress were studied. NaCl stress significantly enhanced (p enzymes (phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase) decreased during freeze-drying, and NaCl stress were found to improve activities of these enzymes before and after freeze-drying. However, a transcriptional analysis of the corresponding genes suggested that the effect of NaCl stress on the expression of the pfk2 gene was not obvious. The increased survival of freeze-dried cells of L. bulgaricus under NaCl stress might be due to changes in only the activity or translation level of these enzymes in different environmental conditions but have no relation to their mRNA transcription level.

  12. Study on the Spectrum of Photonic Crystal Cavity and Its Application in Measuring the Concentration of NaCl Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun; Xie, Xun; Yang, Ze-Kun; Hao, Jiong-Ju; Xu, Zhi-Gang; Yang, Hong-Wei

    2017-04-01

    In this article, we propose an approach to measure solution concentrations by using photonic crystal cavities. Based on the experimental data, the refractive index of a NaCl solution is proportional to the concentration. Filling the proposed photonic crystal cavity with a NaCl solution, we calculate the spectral transmission using the transfer matrix method. We found that the cavity transmittance was proportional to the refractive index of the NaCl solution, and thus we obtained a linear relationship between cavity transmittance and the concentration of the NaCl solution. The formula was found by fitting the simulation results with experimental data. Such a formula can be applied to the measurement of an unknown concentration of NaCl solution utilizing a photonic crystal cavity.

  13. Study on the spectrum of photonic crystal cavity and its application in measuring the concentration of NaCl solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yun [Nanjing Agricultural Univ., Nanjing (China). Dept. of Physics; Wuxi Institute of Commerce, Wuxi (China). School of Electromechanical Technology; Xie, Xun; Hao, Jiong-Ju; Yang, Hong-Wei [Nanjing Agricultural Univ., Nanjing (China). Dept. of Physics; Yang, Ze-Kun [Lanzhou Univ. (China). School of Information Science and Engineering; Xu, Zhi-Gang [Nanjing Agricultural Univ., Nanjing (China). College of Agriculture

    2017-07-01

    In this article, we propose an approach to measure solution concentrations by using photonic crystal cavities. Based on the experimental data, the refractive index of a NaCl solution is proportional to the concentration. Filling the proposed photonic crystal cavity with a NaCl solution, we calculate the spectral transmission using the transfer matrix method. We found that the cavity transmittance was proportional to the refractive index of the NaCl solution, and thus we obtained a linear relationship between cavity transmittance and the concentration of the NaCl solution. The formula was found by fitting the simulation results with experimental data. Such a formula can be applied to the measurement of an unknown concentration of NaCl solution utilizing a photonic crystal cavity.

  14. Differential tolerance of 3 self-rooted Citrus limon cultivars to NaCl stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsabarducas, V; Chatzistathis, T; Therios, I; Koukourikou-Petridou, M; Tananaki, C

    2015-12-01

    One-year-old self-rooted cuttings of three Citrus limon cultivars (Nouvel Athos, Lisbon, Maglini) were grown in 1 L black plastic bags, containing a mixture of sand: perlite (1:1), in order to investigate: i) if genotypic differences to salt stress existed, ii) if KNO3 can alleviate salinity stress, iii) the role of carbohydrates (such as the sugars fructose, glucose and sucrose) and proline as possible osmoregulators in C. limon osmoprotection, and iv) if genotypic differences to salt stress tolerance exist among the 3 studied cultivars. The experiment included 3 treatments: i) control (C), i.e. 25% modified Hoagland (No2) solution (MHS)-NaCl, ii) T1, 25% MHS+80 mM NaCl, iii) T2, 25% MHS+80 mM NaCl+5 mM KNO3. Plant growth was negatively affected by high NaCl (T1); the highest Cl and Na quantities have been absorbed by Lisbon, while the lowest ones by Maglini. Salt stress reduced macronutrient and Zn concentrations, as well as the total carbohydrate concentration, and increased peroxidase (POD) activity and chlorophyll fluorescence in the leaves of the 3 C. limon cultivars studied; five mM KNO3 application alleviated the harmful effect of salt stress on leaf total carbohydrate concentration and leaf N and K concentrations. Sucrose was dramatically reduced in all the three genotypes studied, while leaf fructose concentration was significantly increased in Nouvel Nouvel Nouvel Athos and Maglini under salt stress. Leaf proline concentration of Maglini was significantly decreased by the high NaCl concentration, while Nouvel Athos and Lisbon had high proline concentration in their leaves. In conclusion, from the significantly decreased levels of proline for Maglini, together with the greatest reduction of the ratio Fv/Fm and the least enhancement of POD activity-compared to the other two cultivars-it can be concluded that Maglini was more susceptible to salinity, and should not be preferred for cultivation under NaCl stress. Finally, rich KNO3 application

  15. The Salty Scrambled Egg: Detection of NaCl Toward CRL 2688

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highberger, J. L.; Thomson, K. J.; Young, P. A.; Arnett, D.; Ziurys, L. M.

    2003-08-01

    NaCl has been detected toward the circumstellar envelope of the post-AGB star CRL 2688 using the IRAM 30 m telescope, the first time this molecule has been identified in a source other than IRC +10216. The J=7-->6, 11-->10, 12-->11, and 18-->17 transitions of NaCl at 1, 2, and 3 mm have been observed, as well as the J=8-->7 line of the 37Cl isotopomer. The J=12-->11 line was also measured at the ARO 12 m telescope. An unsuccessful search was additionally conducted for AlCl toward CRL 2688, although in the process new transitions of NaCN were observed. Both NaCl and NaCN were found to be present in the AGB remnant wind, as suggested by their U-shaped line profiles, indicative of emission arising from an optically thin, extended shell-like source of radius ~10"-12". These data contrast with past results in IRC +10216, where the distribution of both molecules is confined to within a few arcseconds of the star. A high degree of excitation is required for the transitions observed for NaCl and NaCN; therefore, these two species likely arise in the region where the high-velocity outflow has collided with the remnant wind. Here the effects of shocks and clumping due to Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities have raised the densities and temperatures significantly. The shell source is thus likely to be clumpy and irregular. The chemistry producing the sodium compounds is consequently more complex than simple LTE formation. Abundances of NaCl and NaCN, relative to H2, are f~1.6×10-10 and ~5.2×10-9, respectively, while the upper limit to AlCl is f<2×10-9. These values differ substantially from those in IRC +10216, where AlCl has an abundance near 10-7. The NaCl observations additionally indicate a chlorine isotope ratio of 35Cl/37Cl=2.1+/-0.8 in CRL 2688, suggestive of s-process enhancement of chlorine 37.

  16. HANPP Collection: Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity (NPP) portion of the Human Appropriation of Net Primary...

  17. Hydrodynamic characteristics of plane netting used for aquaculture net cages in uniform current

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DONG, SHUCHUANG; HU, FUXIANG; KUMAZAWA, TAISEI; SIODE, DAISUKE; TOKAI, TADASHI

    2016-01-01

      The hydrodynamic characteristics of polyethylene (PE) netting and chain link wire netting with different types of twine diameter and mesh size for aquaculture net cages were examined by experiments in a flume tank...

  18. Isolated unit tests in .Net

    OpenAIRE

    Haukilehto, Tero

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis isolation in unit testing is studied to get a precise picture of the isolation frameworks available for .Net environment. At the beginning testing is discussed in theory with the benefits and the problems it may have been linked with. The theory includes software development in general in connection with testing. Theory of isolation is also described before the actual isolation frameworks are represented. Common frameworks are described in more detail and comparable informa...

  19. On the transition from the wurtzite to the NaCl type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowa, H

    2001-03-01

    A crystallographic interpretation of a possible transition mechanism from the wurtzite to the NaCl type is given. For this purpose, different atoms in the structures of both types are replaced by like ones, resulting in lonsdaleite-type configurations and in cubic primitive lattices, respectively. The atomic arrangements of both types correspond to homogeneous sphere packings. It is shown that a lonsdaleite configuration may be deformed into a cubic primitive lattice within the Wyckoff position Cmcm 8(f) m. 0,y,z. Such a transition is displacive since no bonds have to be broken. The corresponding phase transformation from the wurtzite to the NaCl type can be described as a deformation of a heterogeneous sphere packing. The intermediate structure would have the symmetry Cmc2(1).

  20. Electrochemical Behavior of Al-B₄C Metal Matrix Composites in NaCl Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yu-Mei; Chen, X-Grant

    2015-09-21

    Aluminum based metal matrix composites (MMCs) have received considerable attention in the automotive, aerospace and nuclear industries. One of the main challenges using Al-based MMCs is the influence of the reinforcement particles on the corrosion resistance. In the present study, the corrosion behavior of Al-B₄C MMCs in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution were investigated using potentiodynamic polarization (PDP) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. Results indicated that the corrosion resistance of the composites decreased when increasing the B₄C volume fraction. Al-B₄C composite was susceptible to pitting corrosion and two types of pits were observed on the composite surface. The corrosion mechanism of the composite in the NaCl solution was primarily controlled by oxygen diffusion in the solution. In addition, the galvanic couples that formed between Al matrix and B₄C particles could also be responsible for the lower corrosion resistance of the composites.

  1. Calculation of inelastic helium atom scattering from H2/ NaCl(001)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruch, L.W.; Hansen, Flemming Yssing; Traeger, F.

    2011-01-01

    The one-phonon inelastic low energy helium atom scattering theory is adapted to cases where the target monolayer is a p(1 × 1) commensurate square lattice. Experimental data for para-H2/NaCl(001) are re-analyzed and the relative intensities of energy loss peaks in the range 6 to 9 meV are determi......The one-phonon inelastic low energy helium atom scattering theory is adapted to cases where the target monolayer is a p(1 × 1) commensurate square lattice. Experimental data for para-H2/NaCl(001) are re-analyzed and the relative intensities of energy loss peaks in the range 6 to 9 me...

  2. Effect of Acacia Gum, NaCl, and Sucrose on Physical Properties of Lotus Stem Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritika Puri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer preferences in east Asian part of the world pave the way for consumption of lotus stem starch (LSS in preparations such as breakfast meals, fast foods, and traditional confectioneries. The present study envisaged the investigation and optimization of additives, that is, acacia gum, sodium chloride (NaCl, and sucrose, on water absorption (WA, water absorption index (WAI, and water solubility index (WSI of LSS employing response surface methodology (RSM. Acacia gum resulted in increased water uptake and swelling of starch; however, NaCl reduced the swelling power of starch by making water unavailable to starch and also due to starch-ion electrostatic interaction. Sucrose restricted the water absorption by binding free water and decreased amylose leaching by building bridges with starch chains and thus forming rigid structure.

  3. Evaluation of NaCl Salinity Stress Using Three Different Laboratory Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Laleh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of different salinity levels of NaCl on germination of safflower (cv. Esfahan 24 seeds under three different incubation methods, a factorial experiment was carried out based on a complete randomize design with three replications. Salinity levels were 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 dSm-1 (NaCl and incubation methods were sandwich method, and using petri dishes with open or closed doors. The results showed that among investigated traits, including germination percentage and rate, length, fresh and dry weight of root and shoot, salinity had the highest negative correlation with germination percentage. There was not a significant difference in germination percentage between 5 dSm-1 and control, but increasing salinity levels to 10, 15 and 20 dSm-1 led to 13, 23.50 and 39.74 % reduction in germination percentage, respectively, compared to control (P

  4. Adsorptive removal of methylene blue by agar: effects of NaCl and ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Adsorption of methylene blue (MB) on agar was investigated as a function of temperature (308-328 K), different concentrations of NaCl and HCl and various weight percentages of binary mixtures of ethanol with water. It was observed that the maximum experimental adsorption capacity, qm, exp, in water is up to 50 mg g-1 and decreases with increase in weight percentage of ethanol and NaCl and HCl concentration compared to that of water. Analysis of data using ARIAN model showed that MB adsorbs as monomer and dimer on the surface of agar. Binding constants of MB to agar were calculated using the Temkin isotherm. The process is exothermic in water and other solutions. The mean adsorption energy (E) value indicated binding of MB to agar is chemical adsorption. Kinetics of this interaction obeys from the pseudo-second-order model and diffusion of the MB molecules into the agar is the main rate-controlling step. PMID:22339759

  5. Solubility of NaCl in aqueous electrolyte solutions from 10 to 100°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clynne, M.A.; Potter, R.W.; Haas, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    The solubilities of NaCl in aqueous KCl, MgCl2, CaCl2, and mixed CaCl2-KCl solutions have been determined from 10 to 100??C. The data were fit to an equation, and the equation was used to calculate values of the change in solubility of NaCl, ???[NaCl]/???T. These values are required for calculations of the rate of migration of fluids in a thermal gradient in rock salt. The data obtained here indicate that the values of ???[NaCl]/???T are 36-73% greater for solutions containing divalent ions than for the NaCl-H2O system.

  6. Zirconium and zirconia thin films prepared on NaCl by ion beam deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, S.-W.; Hsieh, T.-Y. [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Mao, S.-W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chinese Military Academy, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Gan Dershin [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: dgan@mail.nsysu.edu.tw; Shen Pouyan [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2007-09-15

    Nanocrystalline condensates were deposited on the NaCl (1 0 0) plane at 25-450 deg. C by radio frequency ion beam sputtering from a pure 99.9% Zr disk. The nanocondensates were identified by transmission electron microscopy to be quasi-amorphous {alpha}-Zr, {alpha}-Zr + ZrO and {alpha}-Zr + ZrO + c-ZrO{sub 2} phase assemblages with increasing substrate temperature. At 400 deg. C and under 1-20 sccm oxygen, c- and t-ZrO{sub 2} nanocondensates were assembled on NaCl (1 0 0) and showed strong preferred orientation. The c- and/or t-ZrO{sub 2} were retained by small grain size, low-valence Zr cation and 2D matrix constraint of the film.

  7. Zn(BH ) /2NaCl: A Novel Reducing System for Efficient Reduction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Under this protocol, reduction of conju- gated ketones such as benzylidenacetone (Table 2, entry 24) and chalcone (Table 2, entry 25) were achieved efficiently with 1 mo- lar equivalents of Zn(BH4)2/2NaCl at room temperature in. CH3CN in excellent yields (95–97 %). In order to show the efficiency of this reducing system, ...

  8. Combinations of nisin with salt (NaCl) to control Listeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the effect of combinations of nisin with salt (NaCl) to control Listeria monocytogenes on sheep natural sausage casings. Casings were inoculated with 3.0 x 105 cfu/g final inocula of L. monocytogenes, stored at 6°C in different solutions of nisin at 0, 100, 150 and 200 ìg/g. Each combined with salt at 0, 4, ...

  9. Copper electrodeposition from a copper acid baths in the presence of PEG and NaCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. JOVIC

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Copper electrodeposition from copper acid solutions containing PEG and NaCl has been investigated onto Cu(111, Cu(100 and polycrystalline copper electrodes using polarization and EIS measurements. The adsorption of sulphate and chloride anions, and PEG molecules, was investigated onto Cu(111 and Cu(100 by cyclic voltammetry and differential capacitance measurements. Differential capacitance vs. potential curves recorded onto Cu(100 in solutions containing 0.1 M H2SO4, 0.1 M H2SO4 + 10-3 M PEG and 0.1 M H2SO4 + 10-3 M PEG + 10-3 M NaCl confirm that “specific adsorption” of PEG molecules occurs in the absence of NaCl in the solution, in the potential region of copper electrodeposition, e.g., between –1.0 V and –0.5 V vs. SSE. In the presence of chloride ions, the adsorption of PEG molecules is suppressed and there is no evidence of adsorption of neutral PEG molecules. It is shown that hysteresis, appearing on the polarization curves of copper electrodeposition, is not a consequence of competition between inhibition provided by the Cl-PEG/Cu2+/Cu+/Cu interface and the catalytic effects of Cl-MPSA/Cu2+/Cu+/Cu interaction, because hysteresis is present in the solution containing only PEG and NaCl, e.g., in the absence of MPSA. EIS measurements confirm the simultaneous occurrence of two processes during copper electrodeposition: deposition of copper by discharge of Cu2+ ions and “specific adsorption” and discharge of some heavily charged species, most probably containing Cu, PEG and Cl.

  10. Regeneration of plantlets under NaCl stress from NaN3 treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maximum of 8.41 ± 0.36 plantlets callus-1 were regenerated in MS4 (control) culture of Thatta-10, and 4.94 ± 0.05 plantlets of CPF-237 in 25 mol m-3 NaCl stressed plant regeneration (MS4a) medium. Plant regeneration on MS4b (2.21 ± 0.17 plantlets callus-1) was observed in CPF-237 only. Regenerated plantlets were ...

  11. Event hierarchies in DanNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bolette Sandford; Nimb, Sanni

    2008-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler udarbejdelsen af et verbumshierarki i det leksikalsk-semantiske ordnet, DanNet.......Artiklen omhandler udarbejdelsen af et verbumshierarki i det leksikalsk-semantiske ordnet, DanNet....

  12. The Uniframe .Net Web Service Discovery Service

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berbeco, Robert W

    2003-01-01

    Microsoft .NET allows the creation of distributed systems in a seamless manner Within NET small, discrete applications, referred to as Web services, are utilized to connect to each other or larger applications...

  13. Long Term RadNet Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This RadNet Quality Data Asset includes all data since initiation and when ERAMS was expanded to become RadNet, name changed to reflect new mission. This includes...

  14. Dissolution of NaCl nanocrystals: an ab initio molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Nico; Chen, Jian-Cheng; Foster, Adam S; Laasonen, Kari

    2014-09-07

    The dissolution of NaCl has been systematically investigated by employing ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) on different NaCl nanocrystals as well as on a surface system immersed in water. We discovered a complex dissolution process simultaneously involving multiple ions initiated at the corner sites of the crystal. Our simulations indicated a difference in the dissolution rates of sodium and chlorine. While sodiums readily became partially solvated, chlorines more frequently transitioned into the fully solvated state leading to an overall greater dissolution rate for Cl. We determined that this difference arises due to faster water mediated elongations of individual ionic bonds to Na, but a significantly slower process for the last bond in comparison to Cl. In an attempt to investigate this phenomenon further, we performed metadynamics based free energy simulations on a surface slab presenting corner sites similar to those in cubic crystals, aiming to extract the dissolution free energy profile of corner ions. In qualitative agreement with the nanocrystal simulations, this revealed a shallower first free energy minimum for Na, but no statistically significant difference in the corresponding barriers and inconclusive results for the latter stage. Finally, simulations of smaller NaCl crystals illustrated how dissolution proceeds beyond the point of crystal lattice collapse, highlighting the strength of solvated ion interactions.

  15. Effects of dilute aqueous NaCl solution on caffeine aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bhanita; Paul, Sandip

    2013-11-21

    The effect of salt concentration on association properties of caffeine molecule was investigated by employing molecular dynamics simulations in isothermal-isobaric ensemble of eight caffeine molecules in pure water and three different salt (NaCl) concentrations, at 300 K temperature and 1 atm pressure. The concentration of caffeine was taken almost at the solubility limit. With increasing salt concentration, we observe enhancement of first peak height and appearance of a second peak in the caffeine-caffeine distribution function. Furthermore, our calculated solvent accessible area values and cluster structure analyses suggest formation of higher order caffeine cluster on addition of salt. The calculated hydrogen bond properties reveal that there is a modest decrease in the average number of water-caffeine hydrogen bonds on addition of NaCl salt. Also observed are: (i) decrease in probability of salt contact ion pair as well as decrease in the solvent separated ion pair formation with increasing salt concentration, (ii) a modest second shell collapse in the water structure, and (iii) dehydration of hydrophobic atomic sites of caffeine on addition of NaCl.

  16. Supercooling of aqueous NaCl and KCl solutions under acoustic levitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Y J; Wei, B

    2006-10-14

    The supercooling capability of aqueous NaCl and KCl solutions is investigated at containerless state by using acoustic levitation method. The supercooling of water is obviously enhanced by the alkali metal ions and increases linearly with the augmentation of concentrations. Furthermore, the supercooling depends on the nature of ions and is 2-3 K larger for NaCl solution than that for KCl solution in the present concentration range: Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to reveal the intrinsic correlation between supercoolability and microstructure. The translational and orientational order parameters are applied to quantitatively demonstrate the effect of ionic concentration on the hydrogen-bond network and ice melting point. The disrupted hydrogen-bond structure determines essentially the concentration dependence of supercooling. On the other hand, the introduced acoustic pressure suppresses the increase of supercooling by promoting the growth and coalescence of microbubbles, the effective nucleation catalysts, in water. However, the dissolved ions can weaken this effect, and moreover the degree varies with the ion type. This results in the different supercoolability for NaCl and KCl solutions under the acoustic levitation conditions.

  17. Forward flux sampling calculation of homogeneous nucleation rates from aqueous NaCl solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Haji-Akbari, Amir; Debenedetti, Pablo G.; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z.

    2018-01-01

    We used molecular dynamics simulations and the path sampling technique known as forward flux sampling to study homogeneous nucleation of NaCl crystals from supersaturated aqueous solutions at 298 K and 1 bar. Nucleation rates were obtained for a range of salt concentrations for the Joung-Cheatham NaCl force field combined with the Extended Simple Point Charge (SPC/E) water model. The calculated nucleation rates are significantly lower than the available experimental measurements. The estimates for the nucleation rates in this work do not rely on classical nucleation theory, but the pathways observed in the simulations suggest that the nucleation process is better described by classical nucleation theory than an alternative interpretation based on Ostwald's step rule, in contrast to some prior simulations of related models. In addition to the size of NaCl nucleus, we find that the crystallinity of a nascent cluster plays an important role in the nucleation process. Nuclei with high crystallinity were found to have higher growth probability and longer lifetimes, possibly because they are less exposed to hydration water.

  18. Dynamic of Saline Soil Cations after NaCl Application on Rice Growth and Yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanti Mindari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Saline soil cation dynamic is determined by the proportion of salt cations dissolved either acidic or alkaline. Common base cations in saline soil are in the proportion of Na > Ca > Mg > K. They affects the availability of water, nutrients, and plant growth. The six level of NaCl were 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75 mM and two types of soil (saline and non saline from Gununganyar and Mojokerto were evaluated to soil sample cations taken from depth of 0-5, 5-10, 10-15, and 15-20 cm. Rice growth and yields were measured. The experiment indicated that increasing doses of NaCl increased the soil Na after rice harvest and decreased K, Ca and Mg contents, both of non-saline and saline soil, decreased of rice growth and yield (straw, grain, number of tiller. NaCl up to 30 mM caused highest Ca:Mg ratio, about 8, suppressed nutrient available, inhibited root growth and reduced nutrient uptake.

  19. Influence of NaCl salinity on growth analysis of strawberry cv. Camarosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mirdehghan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study of salinity effect on growth analysis of strawberry, a greenhouse experiment was conducted in Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan in 2010. This study was carried out RCBD design with 4 replications to determine the influence of salinity (30, 60, 90 Mmol and control with distilled water on strawberry growth analysis. Results indicated that relative growth rate (RGR, crop growth rate (CGR, leaf area ratio (LAR and dry matter accumulation were decreased with increasing salinity. The lowest RGR, CGR and LAR were observed in 90 Mmol NaCl salinity. Results also indicated that maximum dry matter accumulations were observed in 1050, 1200 and 1400 degree days in 30, 60 and 90 Mmol NaCl salinity, respectively. Water salinity more than 30 Mmol NaCl L-1 will decreased fresh fruit yield more than 50 percent in hydroponics strawberry production. Dry mass partitioning in NaCl-stressed plants was in favor of crown and petioles and at expense of root, stem and leaf whereas leaf, stem and root DM progressively declined with an increase in salinity.

  20. Effects of dilute aqueous NaCl solution on caffeine aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bhanita; Paul, Sandip

    2013-11-01

    The effect of salt concentration on association properties of caffeine molecule was investigated by employing molecular dynamics simulations in isothermal-isobaric ensemble of eight caffeine molecules in pure water and three different salt (NaCl) concentrations, at 300 K temperature and 1 atm pressure. The concentration of caffeine was taken almost at the solubility limit. With increasing salt concentration, we observe enhancement of first peak height and appearance of a second peak in the caffeine-caffeine distribution function. Furthermore, our calculated solvent accessible area values and cluster structure analyses suggest formation of higher order caffeine cluster on addition of salt. The calculated hydrogen bond properties reveal that there is a modest decrease in the average number of water-caffeine hydrogen bonds on addition of NaCl salt. Also observed are: (i) decrease in probability of salt contact ion pair as well as decrease in the solvent separated ion pair formation with increasing salt concentration, (ii) a modest second shell collapse in the water structure, and (iii) dehydration of hydrophobic atomic sites of caffeine on addition of NaCl.

  1. Recuperación de fenol de aguas residuales industriales por tratamiento con NaCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveth Serna

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se explora una técnica para la recuperación de fenol de aguas residuales que hasta el momento se ha realizado en forma empírica en algunas industrias locales. Se realizó un diseño experimental donde se tomó la concentración de NaCl como variable de entrada del proceso y el porcentaje de recuperación de fenol como variable de salida. El análisis estadístico de los datos muestra que la concentración de NaCl es una variable de suma importancia en el proceso. Se determinó que el mejor punto de operación está a 25º C, con un pH inicial entre 2 y 3, una concentración inicial de fenol de 6% y concentración inicial de NaCl de 21,5%, logrando una recuperación del fenol del 79 % con una concentración de fenol en la fase orgánica del 83 %. Además de la parte experimental, en el trabajo se exponen algunas teorías desarrolladas acerca de la separación de una solución de no electrolito y agua por adición de sal.

  2. Effects of dilute aqueous NaCl solution on caffeine aggregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Bhanita; Paul, Sandip, E-mail: sandipp@iitg.ernet.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati 781039, Assam (India)

    2013-11-21

    The effect of salt concentration on association properties of caffeine molecule was investigated by employing molecular dynamics simulations in isothermal-isobaric ensemble of eight caffeine molecules in pure water and three different salt (NaCl) concentrations, at 300 K temperature and 1 atm pressure. The concentration of caffeine was taken almost at the solubility limit. With increasing salt concentration, we observe enhancement of first peak height and appearance of a second peak in the caffeine-caffeine distribution function. Furthermore, our calculated solvent accessible area values and cluster structure analyses suggest formation of higher order caffeine cluster on addition of salt. The calculated hydrogen bond properties reveal that there is a modest decrease in the average number of water-caffeine hydrogen bonds on addition of NaCl salt. Also observed are: (i) decrease in probability of salt contact ion pair as well as decrease in the solvent separated ion pair formation with increasing salt concentration, (ii) a modest second shell collapse in the water structure, and (iii) dehydration of hydrophobic atomic sites of caffeine on addition of NaCl.

  3. Interaction of NaCl and behavioral stress on endogenous sodium pump ligands in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorova, O V; Anderson, D E; Lakatta, E G; Bagrov, A Y

    2001-07-01

    Our study investigated the hypothesis that the combination of a high NaCl diet and social isolation stress would increase systolic blood pressure (SBP) and endogenous sodium pump ligands (SPL), ouabainlike compound (OLC), and marinobufagenin (MBG). Excretion of MBG and OLC, SBP, and organ weights were studied in four groups (n = 8) of male Fisher 344 x Norwegian brown rats: controls, socially isolated (Iso), 4% NaCl diet (Salt), and the combination of Salt and Iso (Iso+Salt). In Salt, MBG excretion increased by 78% (P < 0.01), whereas SBP and OLC remained unchanged. In Iso, SBP and MBG did not change, but OLC peaked on day 1. In the Iso+Salt, SBP increased by 9 mmHg, MBG excretion increased (42.0 +/- 7.6 vs. 10.0 +/- 1.5 pmol/24 h, P < 0.01), whereas OLC peaked at day 1 (25.0 +/- 2.5 vs. 10.0 +/- 2.0 pmol/24 h, P < 0.01) and remained elevated. Heart and kidney weights were increased in Salt and Iso+Salt. Aortic weights were increased in Iso and Iso+Salt. Thus a high NaCl intake stimulates MBG excretion, whereas isolation stress stimulates OLC. The combination of Salt and Iso is accompanied by marked stimulation of both SPL.

  4. Phosphorylation of the norepinephrine transporter at threonine 258 and serine 259 is linked to protein kinase C-mediated transporter internalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jayanthi, Lankupalle D; Annamalai, Balasubramaniam; Samuvel, Devadoss J

    2006-01-01

    an hypothesis that PKC-mediated phosphorylation of NET is required for transporter internalization. Phosphoamino acid analysis of 32P-labeled native NETs from rat placental trophoblasts and heterologously expressed wild type human NET (WT-hNET) from human placental trophoblast cells revealed that the phorbol....... Most interestingly, the plasma membrane insertion of the WT-hNET and hNET double mutant were not affected by beta-PMA. Although the WT-hNET showed increased endocytosis and redistribution from caveolin-rich plasma membrane domains following beta-PMA treatment, the hNET double mutant was completely...

  5. The role of zinc ions in reverse transport mediated by monoamine transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholze, Petra; Nørregaard, Lene; Singer, Ernst A

    2002-01-01

    and the norepinephrine transporter (hNET). Mutation of the Zn2+ coordinating residue His(193) to Lys (the corresponding residue in hNET) eliminated the effect of Zn2+ on efflux. Conversely, the reciprocal mutation (K189H) conferred Zn2+ sensitivity to hNET. The intracellular [3H]MPP+ concentration was varied to generate......-diffusion and support the concept that inward and outward transport represent discrete operational modes of the transporter. In addition, they indicate a physiological role of Zn2+, because Zn2+ also facilitated transport reversal of DAT in rat striatal slices....

  6. PsychoNet: a psycholinguistc commonsense ontology

    OpenAIRE

    Mohtasseb, Haytham; Ahmed, Amr

    2010-01-01

    Ontologies have been widely accepted as the most advanced knowledge representation model. This paper introduces PsychoNet, a new knowledgebase that forms the link between psycholinguistic taxonomy, existing in LIWC, and its semantic textual representation in the form of commonsense semantic ontology, represented by ConceptNet. The integration of LIWC and ConceptNet and the added functionalities facilitate employing ConceptNet in psycholinguistic studies. Furthermore, it simplifies utilization...

  7. Copper transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, M C; Wooten, L; Cerveza, P; Cotton, S; Shulze, R; Lomeli, N

    1998-05-01

    In adult humans, the net absorption of dietary copper is approximately 1 mg/d. Dietary copper joins some 4-5 mg of endogenous copper flowing into the gastrointestinal tract through various digestive juices. Most of this copper returns to the circulation and to the tissues (including liver) that formed them. Much lower amounts of copper flow into and out of other major parts of the body (including heart, skeletal muscle, and brain). Newly absorbed copper is transported to body tissues in two phases, borne primarily by plasma protein carriers (albumin, transcuprein, and ceruloplasmin). In the first phase, copper goes from the intestine to the liver and kidney; in the second phase, copper usually goes from the liver (and perhaps also the kidney) to other organs. Ceruloplasmin plays a role in this second phase. Alternatively, liver copper can also exit via the bile, and in a form that is less easily reabsorbed. Copper is also present in and transported by other body fluids, including those bathing the brain and central nervous system and surrounding the fetus in the amniotic sac. Ceruloplasmin is present in these fluids and may also be involved in copper transport there. The concentrations of copper and ceruloplasmin in milk vary with lactational stage. Parallel changes occur in ceruloplasmin messenger RNA expression in the mammary gland (as determined in pigs). Copper in milk ceruloplasmin appears to be particularly available for absorption, at least in rats.

  8. 78 FR 72451 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BL74 Net Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service...). These regulations provide guidance on the computation of net investment income. The regulations affect... lesser of: (A) The individual's net investment income for such taxable year, or (B) the excess (if any...

  9. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net investment. 69.302 Section 69.302... Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B Rural...) Investment in Accounts 2002, 2003 and to the extent such inclusions are allowed by this Commission, Account...

  10. 47 CFR 65.450 - Net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.450 Section 65.450... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.450 Net income. (a) Net income shall consist of all revenues derived from the provision of interstate telecommunications services...

  11. 47 CFR 65.500 - Net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.500 Section 65.500... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Interexchange Carriers § 65.500 Net income. The net income methodology specified in § 65.450 shall be utilized by all interexchange carriers that are...

  12. NetBeans IDE 8 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Salter, David

    2014-01-01

    If you're a Java developer of any level using NetBeans and want to learn how to get the most out of NetBeans, then this book is for you. Learning how to utilize NetBeans will provide a firm foundation for your Java application development.

  13. Characterizing behavioural congruences for Petri nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Priese, Lutz; Sassone, Vladimiro

    1995-01-01

    We exploit a notion of interface for Petri nets in order to design a set of net combinators. For such a calculus of nets, we focus on the behavioural congruences arising from four simple notions of behaviour, viz., traces, maximal traces, step, and maximal step traces, and from the corresponding...

  14. 27 CFR 4.37 - Net contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the volume of wine within the container, except that the following tolerances shall be allowed: (1... THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.37 Net contents. (a) Statement of net contents. The net contents of wine for which a standard of fill is...

  15. Determination of oxidative stress in wheat leaves as influenced by boron toxicity and NaCl stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Sajid; Saleh, Livia; Witzel, Katja; Plieth, Christoph; Mühling, Karl H

    2012-07-01

    Boron (B) toxicity symptoms are visible in the form of necrotic spots and may worsen the oxidative stress caused by salinity. Hence, the interactive effects of combined salinity and B toxicity stress on antioxidative activities (TAC, LUPO, SOSA, CAT, and GR) were investigated by novel luminescence assays and standard photometric procedures. Wheat plants grown under hydroponic conditions were treated with 2.5 μM H₃BO₃ (control), 75 mM NaCl, 200 μM H₃BO₃, or 75 mM NaCl + 200 μM H₃BO₃, and analysed 6 weeks after germination. Shoot fresh weight (FW), shoot dry weight (DW), and relative water content (RWC) were significantly reduced, whereas the antioxidative activity of all enzymes was increased under salinity compared with the control. High B application led to necrotic leaf spots but did not influence growth parameters. Following NaCl + B treatment, shoot DW, RWC, SOSA, GR, and CAT activities remained the same compared with NaCl alone, whereas the TAC and LUPO activities were increased under the combined stress compared with NaCl alone. However, shoot FW was significantly reduced under NaCl + B compared with NaCl alone, as an additive effect of combined stress. Thus, we found an adjustment of antioxidative enzyme activity to the interactive effects of NaCl and high B. The stress factor "salt" mainly produced more oxidative stress than that of the factor "high B". Furthermore, addition of higher B in the presence of NaCl increases TAC and LUPO demonstrating that increased LUPO activity is an important physiological response in wheat plants against multiple stresses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Self-assembly of 3D neat porous carbon aerogels with NaCl as template and flux for sodium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuxiang; Zhang, Zhian; Lai, Yanqing; Shi, Xiaodong; Li, Junming; Chen, Xiaobin; Zhang, Kai; Li, Jie

    2017-08-01

    3D porous carbons have shown great potential in electrochemical energy storage. However, traditional template assisted methods suffer from complicated synthesis processes as well as the difficulty of removing template. In this paper, 3D neat porous carbon aerogels have been designed and synthesized by a green and novel way via self-assembly of hydrogel with NaCl as the template and the flux during in-situ polymerization and carbonization. NaCl can be easily recovered with simple recrystallization in the end of synthesis. The as-synthesized 3D porous carbon aerogels display excellent structural stability, large specific surface area (1665.5 m2 g-1), porous structure centered at microporous (0.71 nm and 1.24 nm) and macropores for ionic diffusion and electrolyte transport, as well as large interlayer spacings (0.386 nm) for sodium storage. When employed as anode materials for sodium-ions batteries, the electrodes exhibit high reversible specific capacity of 287 mAh g-1 at 50 mA g-1 after 100 cycles, superior cycling stability of 154 mAh g-1 at 500 mA g-1 after 1000 cycles as well as excellent rate capability of 139 mAh g-1 at 1000 mA g-1. This work inspires a new strategy in the fabrication of advanced carbon structures for sodium-ion batteries and other applications.

  17. VitisNet: "Omics" integration through grapevine molecular networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Grimplet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genomic data release for the grapevine has increased exponentially in the last five years. The Vitis vinifera genome has been sequenced and Vitis EST, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic tools and data sets continue to be developed. The next critical challenge is to provide biological meaning to this tremendous amount of data by annotating genes and integrating them within their biological context. We have developed and validated a system of Grapevine Molecular Networks (VitisNet. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The sequences from the Vitis vinifera (cv. Pinot Noir PN40024 genome sequencing project and ESTs from the Vitis genus have been paired and the 39,424 resulting unique sequences have been manually annotated. Among these, 13,145 genes have been assigned to 219 networks. The pathway sets include 88 "Metabolic", 15 "Genetic Information Processing", 12 "Environmental Information Processing", 3 "Cellular Processes", 21 "Transport", and 80 "Transcription Factors". The quantitative data is loaded onto molecular networks, allowing the simultaneous visualization of changes in the transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome for a given experiment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: VitisNet uses manually annotated networks in SBML or XML format, enabling the integration of large datasets, streamlining biological functional processing, and improving the understanding of dynamic processes in systems biology experiments. VitisNet is grounded in the Vitis vinifera genome (currently at 8x coverage and can be readily updated with subsequent updates of the genome or biochemical discoveries. The molecular network files can be dynamically searched by pathway name or individual genes, proteins, or metabolites through the MetNet Pathway database and web-portal at http://metnet3.vrac.iastate.edu/. All VitisNet files including the manual annotation of the grape genome encompassing pathway names, individual genes, their genome identifier, and chromosome

  18. NET 40 Generics Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Sudipta

    2012-01-01

    This is a concise, practical guide that will help you learn Generics in .NET, with lots of real world and fun-to-build examples and clear explanations. It is packed with screenshots to aid your understanding of the process. This book is aimed at beginners in Generics. It assumes some working knowledge of C# , but it isn't mandatory. The following would get the most use out of the book: Newbie C# developers struggling with Generics. Experienced C++ and Java Programmers who are migrating to C# and looking for an alternative to other generic frameworks like STL and JCF would find this book handy.

  19. The Net Reclassification Index (NRI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pepe, Margaret S.; Fan, Jing; Feng, Ziding

    2015-01-01

    The Net Reclassification Index (NRI) is a very popular measure for evaluating the improvement in prediction performance gained by adding a marker to a set of baseline predictors. However, the statistical properties of this novel measure have not been explored in depth. We demonstrate the alarming...... marker is proven to erroneously yield a positive NRI. Some insight into this phenomenon is provided. Since large values for the NRI statistic may simply be due to use of poorly fitting risk models, we suggest caution in using the NRI as the basis for marker evaluation. Other measures of prediction...

  20. Osmotic and ionic effects of NaCl and Na2SO4 salinity on Phragmites australis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagter, Majken; Bragato, Claudia; Malagoli, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Osmotic and ion-specific effects of NaCl and Na2SO4 on Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin ex. Steud. were investigated in a laboratory experiment by examining effects of iso-osmotic solutions of NaCl and Na2SO4 on growth, osmolality of cell sap, proline content, elemental composition and gas exchange...... and partly Cl ions from the leaves. Incomplete exclusion of Cl from the leaves may affect aboveground biomass production, which was significantly more reduced by NaCl than Na2SO4. Stomatal conductance was negatively influenced by decreasing water potentials caused by NaCl or Na2SO4, implying that a non...

  1. Chemical processes related to net ozone tendencies in the free troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bozem

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ozone (O3 is an important atmospheric oxidant, a greenhouse gas, and a hazard to human health and agriculture. Here we describe airborne in situ measurements and model simulations of O3 and its precursors during tropical and extratropical field campaigns over South America and Europe, respectively. Using the measurements, net ozone formation/destruction tendencies are calculated and compared to 3-D chemistry–transport model simulations. In general, observation-based net ozone tendencies are positive in the continental boundary layer and the upper troposphere at altitudes above  ∼  6 km in both environments. On the other hand, in the marine boundary layer and the middle troposphere, from the top of the boundary layer to about 6–8 km altitude, net O3 destruction prevails. The ozone tendencies are controlled by ambient concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NOx. In regions with net ozone destruction the available NOx is below the threshold value at which production and destruction of O3 balance. While threshold NO values increase with altitude, in the upper troposphere NOx concentrations are generally higher due to the integral effect of convective precursor transport from the boundary layer, downward transport from the stratosphere and NOx produced by lightning. Two case studies indicate that in fresh convective outflow of electrified thunderstorms net ozone production is enhanced by a factor 5–6 compared to the undisturbed upper tropospheric background. The chemistry–transport model MATCH-MPIC generally reproduces the pattern of observation-based net ozone tendencies but mostly underestimates the magnitude of the net tendency (for both net ozone production and destruction.

  2. Chemical processes related to net ozone tendencies in the free troposphere

    OpenAIRE

    Bozem, Heiko; Butler, Tim M.; Lawrence, Mark G.; Harder, Hartwig; Martinez, Monica; Kubistin, Dagmar; Lelieveld, Jos; Fischer, Horst

    2017-01-01

    Ozone (O3) is an important atmospheric oxidant, a greenhouse gas, and a hazard to human health and agriculture. Here we describe airborne in-situ measurements and model simulations of O3 and its precursors during tropical and extratropical field campaigns over South America and Europe, respectively. Using the measurements, net ozone formation/destruction tendencies are calculated and compared to 3D chemistry-transport model simulations. In general, observation-based net ozone tendencies are p...

  3. Chemical processes related to net ozone tendencies in the free troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozem, Heiko; Butler, Tim M.; Lawrence, Mark G.; Harder, Hartwig; Martinez, Monica; Kubistin, Dagmar; Lelieveld, Jos; Fischer, Horst

    2017-09-01

    Ozone (O3) is an important atmospheric oxidant, a greenhouse gas, and a hazard to human health and agriculture. Here we describe airborne in situ measurements and model simulations of O3 and its precursors during tropical and extratropical field campaigns over South America and Europe, respectively. Using the measurements, net ozone formation/destruction tendencies are calculated and compared to 3-D chemistry-transport model simulations. In general, observation-based net ozone tendencies are positive in the continental boundary layer and the upper troposphere at altitudes above ˜ 6 km in both environments. On the other hand, in the marine boundary layer and the middle troposphere, from the top of the boundary layer to about 6-8 km altitude, net O3 destruction prevails. The ozone tendencies are controlled by ambient concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NOx). In regions with net ozone destruction the available NOx is below the threshold value at which production and destruction of O3 balance. While threshold NO values increase with altitude, in the upper troposphere NOx concentrations are generally higher due to the integral effect of convective precursor transport from the boundary layer, downward transport from the stratosphere and NOx produced by lightning. Two case studies indicate that in fresh convective outflow of electrified thunderstorms net ozone production is enhanced by a factor 5-6 compared to the undisturbed upper tropospheric background. The chemistry-transport model MATCH-MPIC generally reproduces the pattern of observation-based net ozone tendencies but mostly underestimates the magnitude of the net tendency (for both net ozone production and destruction).

  4. Quantifying the net social benefits of vehicle trip reductions : guidance for customizing the TRIMMS(c) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    This study details the development of a series of enhancements to the Trip Reduction Impacts of : Mobility Management Strategies (TRIMMS) model. TRIMMS allows quantifying the net social : benefits of a wide range of transportation demand management...

  5. High NaCl- and urea-induced posttranslational modifications that increase glycerophosphocholine by inhibiting GDPD5 phosphodiesterase

    OpenAIRE

    Topanurak, Supachai; Ferraris, Joan D.; Li, Jinxi; Izumi, Yuichiro; Williams, Chester K.; Gucek, Marjan; Wang, Guanghui; Zhou, Xiaoming; Burg, Maurice B.

    2013-01-01

    Glycerophosphocholine (GPC) is high in cells of the renal inner medulla where high interstitial NaCl and urea power concentration of the urine. GPC protects inner medullary cells against the perturbing effects of high NaCl and urea by stabilizing intracellular macromolecules. Degradation of GPC is catalyzed by the glycerophosphocholine phosphodiesterase activity of glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase domain containing 5 (GDPD5). We previously found that inhibitory posttranslational modifi...

  6. Avaliação do desempenho logístico do transporte rodoviário de madeira utilizando rede de petri em uma empresa florestal de Minas Gerais Evalution of logistic performance of wood hauling using petri net in a forest industry of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raiane Ribeiro Machado

    2006-12-01

    wood transport cycle time consists of wood loading, wood hauling, wood unloading, garage and wood unhauling. A cellulose producing company in the State of Minas Gerais was used as case study. Initially, the logistics and supply chain of the company was diagnosed to know the main existent obstacles along the chain; defining their preliminary vary key parameters, based on the characterization of their structure and operation; finally, the main directors that condition their efficiency and competitiveness were identified and evaluated. The model of chain logistics of wood transport used the Temporal Petri Net for working with two times that correspond to a sensitization period. Their properties are as follows: simulation (working with hypothetical scenarios, dynamic (exit values depend on the entrance values; determinist (exit variables are not random; continuous (time is measured by real numbers; and temporal in the transitions. Scenarios, with the same variations in the two wood-producing regionals were created, and simulations with the JARP and ARP software were carried out to evaluate the operational and economic performance. The variations applied to the scenarios were: improvement of the forest roads; increase of loader numbers, and improvement of garage efficiency. For both regionals, the scenario with the three variations (Scenario 7 presented the largest reduction in cycle times of wood transport in relation to the current situation, being 19.24% and 21.48%, respectively, for Rio Doce and Cocais das Estrelas. The analyzed operational cost is the value paid for the freight, not including the investment costs. Both regionals, Rio Doce and Cocais das Estrelas, presented a larger reduction in the Scenario 7, of 20.09% and 21.22%, respectively.

  7. H+ homeostasis, osmolality, and body temperature during controlled NaCl and H2O intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J W; Jennings, D B

    1988-07-01

    Arterial PCO2, arterial [H+] ([H+]a), electrolytes, and osmolality, as well as rectal temperature (Tre), were monitored in six awake dogs over sequential 12- or 13-day periods in which their NaCl intake was first less than 5 meq/day, then approximately 120 meq/day, and finally less than 5 meq/day. Water intake was maintained constant at 77 ml.kg-1.day-1 throughout. During low-NaCl periods, decreases in body and plasma water, indicated by weight loss did not prevent lower arterial [Na+] ([Na+]a), arterial [Cl-] ([Cl-]a), and osmolality relative to the high-NaCl period. During high dietary NaCl, the arterial strong ion difference [[SID]a = ([Na+]a + [K+]a) - (arterial [lactate-] + [Cl-]a)] was lower. From physicochemistry, this lowered [SID]a results in a higher [H+]a. However, independent of NaCl intake, [H+]a was positively correlated with plasma osmolality; moreover, [H+]a, relative to plasma osmolality, was higher at lower Tre than at higher Tre. We speculate that this spectrum of plasma osmolality and body temperature may contribute to the creation of an appropriate protein pK to match plasma [H+]a. We also found that the difference between plasma [protein] (measured by the biuret test) and [ATOT]a (an estimation of plasma protein as total weak acid from physicochemistry) was related to plasma osmolality, [SID]a, and [Na+]a. These latter relations may reflect the effect of plasma water concentration (osmolality) and strong ions on the pK of plasma proteins.

  8. Proteomic and Physiological Analyses Reveal Putrescine Responses in Roots of Cucumber Stressed by NaCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghui Yuan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is a major environmental constraint that threatens agricultural productivity. Different strategies have been developed to improve crop salt tolerance, among which the effects of polyamines have been well reported. To gain a better understanding of the cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. responses to NaCl and unravel the underlying mechanism of exogenous putrescine (Put alleviating salt-induced damage, comparative proteomic analysis was conducted on cucumber roots treated with NaCl and/or Put for 7 days. The results showed that exogenous Put restored the root growth inhibited by NaCl. 62 differentially expressed proteins implicated in various biological processes were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. The four largest categories included proteins involved in defense response (24.2%, protein metabolism (24.2%, carbohydrate metabolism (19.4% and amino acid metabolism (14.5%. Exogenous Put up-regulated most identified proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, implying an enhancement in energy generation. Proteins involved in defense response and protein metabolism were differently regulated by Put, which indicated the roles of Put in stress resistance and proteome rearrangement. Put also increased the abundance of proteins involved in amino acid metabolism. Meanwhile, physiological analysis showed that Put could further up-regulated the levels of free amino acids in salt stressed-roots. In addition, Put also improved endogenous polyamines contents by regulating the transcription levels of key enzymes in polyamine metabolism. Taken together, these results suggest that Put may alleviate NaCl-induced growth inhibition through degradation of misfolded/damaged proteins, activation of stress defense, and the promotion of carbohydrate metabolism to generate more energy.

  9. Reptation Quantum Monte Carlo Calculation of Charge Transfer in The Na-Cl Dimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yi; Kanai, Yosuke

    2015-03-01

    Reptation Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) calculations are performed to describe the charge transfer behavior in a NaCl dimer. Influence of fixed node approximation on the charge transfer was examined by obtaining electron density via reputation QMC. We employ Slater-Jastrow wavefunction as the trial wavefunction, and the fermion nodes are obtained from single particle orbitals of Hartree-Fock and Density Functional Theory (DFT) with several exchange-correlation approximations. We will discuss our QMC results together with DFT calculations to give insights into observed dependence of the charge transfer behavior on the fixed-node approximation.

  10. Hydroxyl radical oxidation of phospholipid-coated NaCl particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilbeck, Christopher W; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J

    2013-06-28

    Biological organic compounds mixed with NaCl and other inorganic compounds in sea-salt aerosol particles react in air with oxidants such as ozone and hydroxyl (OH) radicals. Laboratory studies of model systems can provide insight into these reactions. We report here studies of the kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of unsaturated 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) on NaCl by gas phase OH in air at room temperature and 1 atm pressure using diffuse reflection infrared Fourier transform spectrometry (DRIFTS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) to identify possible structures of surface-bound reaction products. For comparison, some studies were also carried out on the saturated 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) on NaCl. The calculated concentration of hydroxyl radicals, generated by photolysis of isopropyl nitrite, was (1.6-6.4) × 10(8) radicals cm(-3). Surface-bound aldehydes, ketones, organic nitrates and nitrate ions were identified as products of these reactions and structures of potential products were proposed based on mechanistic considerations combined with the MALDI-TOF-MS and DRIFTS spectra. The loss rate of vinyl hydrogen, =C-H, at 3008 cm(-1) was used to obtain a lower limit for the rate constant (k1) for addition of OH to the double bond, k1 > (3 ± 1) × 10(-13) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) (1s), corresponding to a reaction probability of γ(add) > (4 ± 1) × 10(-3) (1s). Assuming that abstraction from -CH2- groups in POPC is the same as for DPPC, the percentage of the reaction that occurs by addition is ~80%. This is similar to the percent addition predicted using structure-reactivity relationships for gas-phase reactions. Decreasing the amount of POPC relative to NaCl resulted in more nitrate ion formation and less relative loss of POPC, and increasing the OH concentration resulted in a more rapid loss of POPC and faster product formation. These studies

  11. Mini-review: regulation of the renal NaCl cotransporter by hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Vega, Lorena; Gamba, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    The renal thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter, NCC, is the major pathway for salt reabsorption in the distal convoluted tubule. The activity of this cotransporter is critical for regulation of several physiological variables such as blood pressure, serum potassium, acid base metabolism, and urinary calcium excretion. Therefore, it is not surprising that numerous hormone-signaling pathways regulate NCC activity to maintain homeostasis. In this review, we will provide an overview of the most recent evidence on NCC modulation by aldosterone, angiotensin II, vasopressin, glucocorticoids, insulin, norepinephrine, estradiol, progesterone, prolactin, and parathyroid hormone. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Heteroepitaxial strain in alkali halide thin films: KCl on NaCl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, J.; Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1999-01-01

    We have pet-formed Monte Carlo simulations of the properties of a NaCl (001) surface covered by full or partial layers of KCl, for coverages up to 5 monolayers (ML). A wide variety of structures of the film is found. For integer ML coverages we find the continuous, so-called floating mode rumple...... (1995)], but it is two-dimensional modulated, rather than the rowlike stacking fault structure proposed by Henzler et al. Also, at a coverage of similar to 0.8 ML there is a stable 3:4 structure. Other structures are found at intermediate coverages, corresponding to regular arrays of dislocation lines...

  13. -Net Approach to Sensor -Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusco Giordano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensors rely on battery power, and in many applications it is difficult or prohibitive to replace them. Hence, in order to prolongate the system's lifetime, some sensors can be kept inactive while others perform all the tasks. In this paper, we study the -coverage problem of activating the minimum number of sensors to ensure that every point in the area is covered by at least sensors. This ensures higher fault tolerance, robustness, and improves many operations, among which position detection and intrusion detection. The -coverage problem is trivially NP-complete, and hence we can only provide approximation algorithms. In this paper, we present an algorithm based on an extension of the classical -net technique. This method gives an -approximation, where is the number of sensors in an optimal solution. We do not make any particular assumption on the shape of the areas covered by each sensor, besides that they must be closed, connected, and without holes.

  14. FPGA shore station demonstrator for KM3NeT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anassontzis, E.G. [Physics Department, University of Athens (Greece); Belias, A.; Koutsoukos, S.; Koutsoumpos, V. [NESTOR Institute for Astroparticle Physics, National Observatory of Athens, 24001 Pylos (Greece); Manolopoulos, K., E-mail: kmanolo@phys.uoa.gr [NESTOR Institute for Astroparticle Physics, National Observatory of Athens, 24001 Pylos (Greece); Resvanis, L.K. [Physics Department, University of Athens (Greece); NESTOR Institute for Astroparticle Physics, National Observatory of Athens, 24001 Pylos (Greece)

    2013-10-11

    The KM3NeT readout concept is based on a point-to-point optical network connecting the 10,000 optical modules in the deep-sea neutrino telescope with the shore station. The numerous fiber optic channels arriving at the shore station will be concentrated on the shore electronics systems, which will receive, merge and time order the data, and send them to the DAQ system. Although the network functionality is bi-directional, the physical channel allocation is asymmetric; most channels are assigned to the data reception and only a few channels are used for control with data transport from shore to the telescope. We will discuss the FPGA based platform systems for the shore station and the appropriate firmware implementation for the data gathering and broadcast demands of a neutrino telescope. We will present our experiences based on FPGA evaluation platforms suitable to build a demonstrator of the KM3NeT shore station.

  15. NETS - Danish participation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsen, S. (Grontmij - Carl Bro, Glostrup (Denmark)); Theel, C. (Baltic Sea Solutions, Holeby (Denmark))

    2008-12-15

    Within the NICe-funded project 'Nordic Environmental Technology Solutions (NETS)' a new type of networking at the Nordic level was organized in order to jointly exploit the rapidly growing market potential in the environmental technology sector. The project aimed at increased and professionalized commercialization of Nordic Cleantech in energy and water business segments through 1) closer cooperation and joint marketing activities, 2) a website, 3) cleantech product information via brochures and publications 4) and participating in relevant trade fairs and other industry events. Facilitating business-to-business activities was another core task for the NETS project partners from Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark with the aim to encourage total solutions for combined Cleantech system offers. The project has achieved to establish a Cleantech register of 600 Nordic Cleantech companies, a network of 86 member enterprises, produced several publications and brochures for direct technology promotion and a website for direct access to company profiles and contact data. The project partners have attended 14 relevant international Cleantech trade fairs and conferences and facilitated business-to-business contacts added by capacity building offers through two company workshops. The future challenge for the project partners and Nordic Cleantech will be to coordinate the numerous efforts within the Nordic countries in order to reach concerted action and binding of member companies for reliable services, an improved visibility and knowledge exchange. With Cleantech's growing market influence and public awareness, the need to develop total solutions is increasing likewise. Marketing efforts should be encouraged cross-sectional and cross-border among the various levels of involved actors from both the public and the private sector. (au)

  16. Sediment transport along the Goa-north Karnataka Coast, western India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.

    of sediment transport. Although sediment-transport direction is bi-directional, net major sediment transport is southward. The geomorphic study identified possible sediment sources and sinks. Contributions of sources and losses due to sinks are assessed...

  17. Genetic moderation of child maltreatment effects on depression and internalizing symptoms by serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), norepinephrine transporter (NET), and corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) genes in African American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A

    2014-11-01

    Genetic moderation of the effects of child maltreatment on depression and internalizing symptoms was investigated in a sample of low-income maltreated and nonmaltreated African American children (N = 1,096). Lifetime child maltreatment experiences were independently coded from Child Protective Services records and maternal report. Child depression and internalizing problems were assessed in the context of a summer research camp by self-report on the Children's Depression Inventory and adult counselor report on the Teacher Report Form. DNA was obtained from buccal cell or saliva samples and genotyped for polymorphisms of the following genes: serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), norepinephrine transporter, and corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1. Analyses of covariance with age and gender as covariates were conducted, with maltreatment status and respective polymorphism as main effects and their Gene × Environment (G × E) interactions. Maltreatment consistently was associated with higher Children's Depression Inventory and Teacher Report Form symptoms. The results for child self-report symptoms indicated a G × E interaction for BDNF and maltreatment. In addition, BDNF and triallelic 5-HTTLPR interacted with child maltreatment in a G × G × E interaction. Analyses for counselor report of child anxiety/depression symptoms on the Teacher Report Form indicated moderation of child maltreatment effects by triallelic 5-HTTLPR. These effects were elaborated based on variation in developmental timing of maltreatment experiences. Norepinephrine transporter was found to further moderate the G × E interaction of 5-HTTLPR and maltreatment status, revealing a G × G × E interaction. This G × G × E was extended by consideration of variation in maltreatment subtype experiences. Finally, G × G × E effects were observed for the co-action of BDNF and the corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1

  18. Application and Theory of Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 13th International Conference onApplication and Theory of Petri Nets, held in Sheffield, England, in June 1992. The aim of the Petri net conferences is to create a forum for discussing progress in the application and theory of Petri nets. Typically....... Balbo and W. Reisig, 18 submitted papers, and seven project papers. The submitted papers and project presentations were selectedby the programme committee and a panel of referees from a large number of submissions....

  19. Are You Neutral About Net Neutrality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-20

    Information Resources Management College National Defense University Are You Neutral About Net Neutrality ? A presentation for Systems & Software...author uses Verizon FiOS for phone, TV, and internet service 3 Agenda Net Neutrality —Through 2 Lenses Who Are the Players & What Are They Saying...Medical Treatment Mini-Case Studies Updates Closing Thoughts 4 Working Definitions of Net Neutrality "Network Neutrality" is the concept that

  20. Texture Based Image Analysis With Neural Nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilovici, Irina S.; Ong, Hoo-Tee; Ostrander, Kim E.

    1990-03-01

    In this paper, we combine direct image statistics and spatial frequency domain techniques with a neural net model to analyze texture based images. The resultant optimal texture features obtained from the direct and transformed image form the exemplar pattern of the neural net. The proposed approach introduces an automated texture analysis applied to metallography for determining the cooling rate and mechanical working of the materials. The results suggest that the proposed method enhances the practical applications of neural nets and texture extraction features.

  1. Factors associated with mosquito net use by individuals in households owning nets in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graves Patricia M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ownership of insecticidal mosquito nets has dramatically increased in Ethiopia since 2006, but the proportion of persons with access to such nets who use them has declined. It is important to understand individual level net use factors in the context of the home to modify programmes so as to maximize net use. Methods Generalized linear latent and mixed models (GLLAMM were used to investigate net use using individual level data from people living in net-owning households from two surveys in Ethiopia: baseline 2006 included 12,678 individuals from 2,468 households and a sub-sample of the Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS in 2007 included 14,663 individuals from 3,353 households. Individual factors (age, sex, pregnancy; net factors (condition, age, net density; household factors (number of rooms [2006] or sleeping spaces [2007], IRS, women's knowledge and school attendance [2007 only], wealth, altitude; and cluster level factors (rural or urban were investigated in univariate and multi-variable models for each survey. Results In 2006, increased net use was associated with: age 25-49 years (adjusted (a OR = 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.2-1.7 compared to children U5; female gender (aOR = 1.4; 95% CI 1.2-1.5; fewer nets with holes (Ptrend = 0.002; and increasing net density (Ptrend [all nets in HH good] = 1.6; 95% CI 1.2-2.1; increasing net density (Ptrend [per additional space] = 0.6, 95% CI 0.5-0.7; more old nets (aOR [all nets in HH older than 12 months] = 0.5; 95% CI 0.3-0.7; and increasing household altitude (Ptrend Conclusion In both surveys, net use was more likely by women, if nets had fewer holes and were at higher net per person density within households. School-age children and young adults were much less likely to use a net. Increasing availability of nets within households (i.e. increasing net density, and improving net condition while focusing on education and promotion of net use, especially in school-age children

  2. Passivity and Semiconducting Behavior of a High Nitrogen Stainless Steel in Acidic NaCl Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxin Qiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The passivity and semiconducting behaviors of a high nitrogen-containing nickel-free stainless steel (HNSS in 0.05 mol/L H2SO4 + 0.5 mol/L NaCl have been investigated. Results indicated that HNSS offered excellent pitting corrosion resistance in corrosive environments. Three corrosion potential values were observed in potentiodynamic polarization response, indicating the existence of an unstable system. The current transient and Mott-Schottky plots demonstrated that the stability of passive films decreased with the increase of applied potentials. The angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectrometric results revealed that the primary constituents of passive films formed in 0.05 mol/L H2SO4 + 0.5 mol/L NaCl solution were composed of iron oxides, manganese oxides, Cr2O3, and Cr(OH3. Meanwhile, it indicated that molybdenum oxides did not exist in the oxide layer, but chloride ions were present in the passive films.

  3. Effective NaCl and dye rejection of hybrid graphene oxide/graphene layered membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelos-Gomez, Aaron; Cruz-Silva, Rodolfo; Muramatsu, Hiroyuki; Ortiz-Medina, Josue; Araki, Takumi; Fukuyo, Tomoyuki; Tejima, Syogo; Takeuchi, Kenji; Hayashi, Takuya; Terrones, Mauricio; Endo, Morinobu

    2017-11-01

    Carbon nanomaterials are robust and possess fascinating properties useful for separation technology applications, but their scalability and high salt rejection when in a strong cross flow for long periods of time remain challenging. Here, we present a graphene-based membrane that is prepared using a simple and environmentally friendly method by spray coating an aqueous dispersion of graphene oxide/few-layered graphene/deoxycholate. The membranes were robust enough to withstand strong cross-flow shear for a prolonged period (120 h) while maintaining NaCl rejection near 85% and 96% for an anionic dye. Experimental results and molecular dynamic simulations revealed that the presence of deoxycholate enhances NaCl rejection in these graphene-based membranes. In addition, these novel hybrid-layered membranes exhibit better chlorine resistance than pure graphene oxide membranes. The desalination performance and aggressive shear and chlorine resistance of these scalable graphene-based membranes are promising for use in practical water separation applications.

  4. PSL study of irradiated food: NaCl as possible reference material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuochi, P.G.; Alberti, A. [Istituto per la Sintesi Organica e la Fotoreattivita, CNR, Bologna (Italy); Bortolin, E. [Technology and Health Department, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy)], E-mail: emanuela.bortolin@iss.it; Corda, U. [Istituto per la Sintesi Organica e la Fotoreattivita, CNR, Bologna (Italy); La Civita, S.; Onori, S. [Technology and Health Department, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy)

    2008-02-15

    Gamma-irradiated NaCl samples of different origin were studied with the aim to find a reliable, easy-to-use, low-cost standard for the PSL technique, an increasingly used screening method for irradiated food identification. Five different natural salt types (rock and sea salts) purchased in the local markets were studied along with a laboratory-grade NaCl. High sensitivity and reproducibility of the PSL response are good properties of salt, but the pronounced fading of the signal may be a severe limitation of its use as a reference material. The high sensitivity along with the linear dose dependence of the PSL response opens up the interesting possibility of salt as suitable material for retrospective and environmental dosimetry, especially in the case of accidental irradiation or malevolent use of ionizing radiation. Again, the extreme sensitivity of the PSL signal to light and the pronounced fading must be considered limiting factors, and further basic research is required before practical applications of salt be feasible.

  5. Diffusion plus explosion mechanism of void-crack transition in irradiated NaCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinko, V. I.; Turkin, A. A.; Vainshtein, D. I.; Hartog, H. W. Den

    Experimental and theoretical results are presented on the formation of large vacancy voids and cracks in NaCl under irradiation. The crack length increases gradually with increasing stored energy, which is explained by a new mechanism of diffusion accumulation and explosive release of energy in voids and cracks. It is shown that the colloid number density, which determines the critical void radius that triggers the explosion process, has a drastic effect on the ultimate mechanical stability of material. If it is low as in NaCl doped with Br then the critical void radius is large and difficult to reach. If it is high as in NaCl:KBF4 it takes a high colloid volume fraction to initiate the void-crack transition, which progresses rather slowly. The materials doped with Ba or K, and natural rock salts show the transitional behavior, which is characterized by an early start and a rapid progress of the void-crack transition, resulting in a subsequent fracture of the material.

  6. Corrosion behavior of Mg–Gd–Zn based alloys in aqueous NaCl solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Srinivasan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behavior of Mg-10Gd–xZn (x = 2, 6 wt.% alloys in 0.5 wt.% NaCl solution was investigated. Microstructures of both the alloys consisted of (Mg,Zn3Gd phase and lamellar long period stacking ordered (LPSO phase. The morphology of the second phase at the grain boundary differed in both alloys: it was a continuous network structure in Mg–10Gd–6Zn, whereas it was relatively discrete in Mg–10Gd–2Zn. The dendrites were finer in size and highly branched in Mg–10Gd–6Zn. The corrosion results indicated that the increase in Zn content increased the corrosion rate in Mg–10Gd–xZn alloys. Micro-galvanic corrosion occurred near the grain boundary in both alloys initially as the grain boundary phase was stable and acted as a cathode, however, filiform corrosion dominated in the later stage, which was facilitated by the LPSO phase in the matrix. Severe micro-galvanic corrosion occurred in Mg–10Gd–6Zn due to the higher volume of second phase. The stability of the second phase at the grain boundary was altered and dissolved after the long immersion times. Probably the NaCl solution chemically reacted with the grain boundary phase and de-stabilized it during the long immersion times, and was removed by the chromic acid used for the corrosion product removal.

  7. Electrochemical Behavior of Al-B4C Metal Matrix Composites in NaCl Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Mei Han

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum based metal matrix composites (MMCs have received considerable attention in the automotive, aerospace and nuclear industries. One of the main challenges using Al-based MMCs is the influence of the reinforcement particles on the corrosion resistance. In the present study, the corrosion behavior of Al-B4C MMCs in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution were investigated using potentiodynamic polarization (PDP and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS techniques. Results indicated that the corrosion resistance of the composites decreased when increasing the B4C volume fraction. Al-B4C composite was susceptible to pitting corrosion and two types of pits were observed on the composite surface. The corrosion mechanism of the composite in the NaCl solution was primarily controlled by oxygen diffusion in the solution. In addition, the galvanic couples that formed between Al matrix and B4C particles could also be responsible for the lower corrosion resistance of the composites.

  8. Thermoluminescence response of previously heated NaCl : Eu crystals to UV radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondragon-Galicia, G; Mendoza-Anaya, D [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Departmento TecnologIa de Materiales, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Edo. de Mexico, C.P. 52750 (Mexico); Nicho-Diaz, M E [Centro de Investigacion en IngenierIa y Ciencias Aplicadas. Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, C.P. 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Garcia-Garcia, R; Reyes-Gasga, J [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico, D.F. Mexico (Mexico)

    2008-02-21

    In this work we report the modification in the thermoluminescent (TL) response to ultraviolet (UV) radiation of Czochralski-grown NaCl : Eu crystals when they are pre-heated. The crystals were pre-heated at 273, 473, 573, 673, 773 and 873 K for 2 h in an inert atmosphere, observing the highest response in crystals pre-heated at 573 K and the lowest in crystals pre-heated at 473 K. To correlate the TL response with the thermal treatment and, in a certain way, with the microstructure developed in the crystals, they were observed with a low vacuum scanning electron microscope. At 373 K the crystals showed spherical precipitates of 100 nm size homogeneously distributed, whereas at 473 and 573 K, the crystals showed, besides spherical precipitates, wire-like precipitates from 1.0 to 7.0 {mu}m in length. The precipitates changed to a square 4 {mu}m in size at 673 K which diminished to 1.0 {mu}m in size in crystals heated at 773 and 873 K. Clearly the shape of the precipitates has an influence on the TL response of the NaCl : Eu crystals.

  9. NaCl protects against Cd and Cu-induced toxicity in the halophyte Atriplex halimus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bankaji, I.; Sleimi, N.; Gómez-Cadenas, A.; Pérez-Clemente, R.M.

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate the extent of Cd- and Cu-induced oxidative stress and the antioxidant response triggered in the halophyte species Atriplex halimus after metallic trace elements exposure. Plants were treated for one month with Cd2+ or Cu2+ (400 µM) in the absence or presence of 200 mM NaCl in the irrigation solution. The interaction between salinity and heavy metal stress was analyzed in relation to plant growth, tissue ion contents (Na+, K+ and Mg2+), oxidative damage and antioxidative metabolism. Data indicate that shoot and root weight significantly decreased as a consequence of Cd2+- or Cu2+-induced stress. Metallic stress leads to unbalanced nutrient uptake by reducing the translocation of K+ and Mg2+ from the root to the shoot. The levels of malondialdehyde increased in root tissue when Cd, and especially Cu, were added to the irrigation solution, indicating that oxidative damage occurred. Results showed that NaCl gave a partial protection against Cd and Cu induced toxicity, although these contaminants had distinct influence on plant physiology. It can be concluded that salinity drastically modified heavy metal absorption and improved plant growth. Salinity also decreased oxidative damage, but differently in plants exposed to Cd or Cu stress.

  10. Thermoluminescence analysis of co-doped NaCl at low temperature irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz-Zaragoza, E., E-mail: ecruz@nucleares.unam.m [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-543, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Ortiz, A. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-543, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria de Ingenieria y Tecnologias Avanzadas, IPN, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2580, Col. La Laguna Ticoman, 07340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Furetta, C. [Touro University Rome, Circne Gianicolense 15-17, 00153 Rome (Italy); Flores J, C.; Hernandez A, J.; Murrieta S, H. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 20-364, 01000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2011-02-15

    The thermoluminescent response and kinetics parameters of NaCl, doubly activated by Ca-Mn and Cd-Mn ions, exposed to gamma radiation are analyzed. The doped NaCl samples were irradiated at relative low temperature, i.e. at the liquid nitrogen temperature (LNT) and at dry ice temperature (DIT), and the glow curves obtained after 2 Gy of gamma irradiation were analyzed using the computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD). An evident variation in the glow curve structure after LNT and DIT was observed. It seems that different kinds of trapping levels are activated at relative low temperature. The original two prominent peaks in compositions A (Ca,Mn) and B (Ca,Mn) have been changed in only one main peak with satellites in the low temperature side of the glow curves. In compositions C (Cd,Mn) and D (Cd,Mn), low temperature peaks become stronger and prominent than the high temperature peaks; this effect could be explained considering that the trapping probability for low temperature traps, the one very close to the conduction band, is enhanced by low temperatures during irradiation.

  11. Anatase nanoparticle surface reactivity in NaCl media: a CD-MUSIC model interpretation of combined experimental and density functional theory studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, Moira K; Machesky, Michael L; Kubicki, James D

    2013-07-09

    The effect of particle size on the primary charging behavior of a suite of monodisperse nanometer diameter (4, 20, and 40 nm) anatase samples has been quantitatively examined with macroscopic experimental studies. The experimental results were evaluated using surface complexation modeling, which explicitly incorporated corresponding molecular-scale information from density functional theory (DFT) simulation studies. Potentiometric titrations were completed in NaCl media, at five ionic strengths (from 0.005 to 0.3 m), and over a wide pH range (3-11), at a temperature of 25 °C. From the experimental results, the pH of zero net proton charge (pHznpc) for the 4 and 20 nm diameter samples was 6.42, whereas the pHznpc was 6.22 for the 40 nm sample. The slopes of the net proton charge curves increased with an increase in particle size. Multisite surface complexation and charge distribution (CD) models, with a Basic Stern layer description of the electric double layer, were developed to describe all experimental data. Fits to the experimental data included an inner-sphere Na-bidentate species, an outer-sphere Na-monodentate species, and outer-sphere Cl-monodentate species. DFT simulations found the Na-bidentate species to be the most stable species on the (101) anatase surface (the predominant crystal face). The CD value for the Na-bidentate species was calculated using a bond valence interpretation of the DFT-optimized geometry. The Stern layer capacitance value varied systematically with particle size. The collective experimental and modeling studies show that subtle differences exist in the interface reactivity of nanometer diameter anatase samples. These results should help to further elucidate an understanding of the solid-aqueous solution interface reactivity of nanosized particles.

  12. Pro Agile NET Development with Scrum

    CERN Document Server

    Blankenship, Jerrel; Millett, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Pro Agile .NET Development with SCRUM guides you through a real-world ASP.NET project and shows how agile methodology is put into practice. There is plenty of literature on the theory behind agile methodologies, but no book on the market takes the concepts of agile practices and applies these in a practical manner to an end-to-end ASP.NET project, especially the estimating, requirements and management aspects of a project. Pro Agile .NET Development with SCRUM takes you through the initial stages of a project - gathering requirements and setting up an environment - through to the development a

  13. Pro ASP.NET MVC 4

    CERN Document Server

    Freeman, Adam

    2012-01-01

    The ASP.NET MVC 4 Framework is the latest evolution of Microsoft's ASP.NET web platform. It provides a high-productivity programming model that promotes cleaner code architecture, test-driven development, and powerful extensibility, combined with all the benefits of ASP.NET. ASP.NET MVC 4 contains a number of significant advances over previous versions. New mobile and desktop templates (employing adaptive rendering) are included together with support for jQuery Mobile for the first time. New display modes allow your application to select views based on the browser that's making the request whi

  14. Professional Visual Basic 2010 and .NET 4

    CERN Document Server

    Sheldon, Bill; Sharkey, Kent

    2010-01-01

    Intermediate and advanced coverage of Visual Basic 2010 and .NET 4 for professional developers. If you've already covered the basics and want to dive deep into VB and .NET topics that professional programmers use most, this is your book. You'll find a quick review of introductory topics-always helpful-before the author team of experts moves you quickly into such topics as data access with ADO.NET, Language Integrated Query (LINQ), security, ASP.NET web programming with Visual Basic, Windows workflow, threading, and more. You'll explore all the new features of Visual Basic 2010 as well as all t

  15. NASA Net Zero Energy Buildings Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless, S.; Scheib, J.; Torcellini, P.; Hendron, B.; Slovensky, M.

    2014-10-01

    In preparation for the time-phased net zero energy requirement for new federal buildings starting in 2020, set forth in Executive Order 13514, NASA requested that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a roadmap for NASA's compliance. NASA detailed a Statement of Work that requested information on strategic, organizational, and tactical aspects of net zero energy buildings. In response, this document presents a high-level approach to net zero energy planning, design, construction, and operations, based on NREL's first-hand experience procuring net zero energy construction, and based on NREL and other industry research on net zero energy feasibility. The strategic approach to net zero energy starts with an interpretation of the executive order language relating to net zero energy. Specifically, this roadmap defines a net zero energy acquisition process as one that sets an aggressive energy use intensity goal for the building in project planning, meets the reduced demand goal through energy efficiency strategies and technologies, then adds renewable energy in a prioritized manner, using building-associated, emission- free sources first, to offset the annual energy use required at the building; the net zero energy process extends through the life of the building, requiring a balance of energy use and production in each calendar year.

  16. Towards a Standard for Modular Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart; Petrucci, Laure

    2009-01-01

    When designing complex systems, mechanisms for structuring, composing, and reusing system components are crucial. Today, there are many approaches for equipping Petri nets with such mechanisms. In the context of defining a standard interchange format for Petri nets, modular PNML was defined....... Moreover, we present and discuss some more advanced features of modular Petri nets that could be included in the standard. This way, we provide a formal foundation and a basis for a discussion of features to be included in the upcoming standard of a module concept for Petri nets in general and for high...

  17. Experiments and simulation of a net closing mechanism for tether-net capture of space debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, Inna; Thomsen, Benjamin; Botta, Eleonora M.; Misra, Arun K.

    2017-10-01

    This research addresses the design and testing of a debris containment system for use in a tether-net approach to space debris removal. The tether-net active debris removal involves the ejection of a net from a spacecraft by applying impulses to masses on the net, subsequent expansion of the net, the envelopment and capture of the debris target, and the de-orbiting of the debris via a tether to the chaser spacecraft. To ensure a debris removal mission's success, it is important that the debris be successfully captured and then, secured within the net. To this end, we present a concept for a net closing mechanism, which we believe will permit consistently successful debris capture via a simple and unobtrusive design. This net closing system functions by extending the main tether connecting the chaser spacecraft and the net vertex to the perimeter and around the perimeter of the net, allowing the tether to actuate closure of the net in a manner similar to a cinch cord. A particular embodiment of the design in a laboratory test-bed is described: the test-bed itself is comprised of a scaled-down tether-net, a supporting frame and a mock-up debris. Experiments conducted with the facility demonstrate the practicality of the net closing system. A model of the net closure concept has been integrated into the previously developed dynamics simulator of the chaser/tether-net/debris system. Simulations under tether tensioning conditions demonstrate the effectiveness of the closure concept for debris containment, in the gravity-free environment of space, for a realistic debris target. The on-ground experimental test-bed is also used to showcase its utility for validating the dynamics simulation of the net deployment, and a full-scale automated setup would make possible a range of validation studies of other aspects of a tether-net debris capture mission.

  18. A comparative study of functional properties of normal and wooden breast broiler chicken meat with NaCl addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Tong; Zhao, Xue; Han, Minyi; Cai, Linlin; Deng, Shaolin; Zhou, Guanghong; Xu, Xinglian

    2017-09-01

    The selection of broilers for augmented growth rate and breast has brought about wooden-breast (WB) muscle abnormalities, which caused substantial economic losses. The objective of this study was to compare water holding capacity, water mobility and distribution, salt-soluble protein (SSP) content, and protein profiles of normal and WB chicken meat with different additions of NaCl. Thirty WB and 30 normal chicken breasts were selected from a deboning line of a major Chinese processing plant at 2 to 3 h post mortem. Two different meat batters were formulated to 150 mg/g meat protein and different NaCl contents (0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4%). Results indicated that as NaCl contents increased, the cooking loss of meat batters decreased (P meat showed different protein profiles, with myosin heavy chain exhibiting a higher intensity at ≥3% salt level. Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR)revealed an increased T22 and higher P22 in raw WB meat compared to normal meat (P meat batters, WB meat batters had reduced T21 and lower immobilized water proportions at low NaCl contents (meat gels. Meat gels prepared from WB had a lower proportion of water within the myofibrillar protein matrix and a greater proportion of exuded bulk water at NaCl contents water retention capacity. In conclusion, for raw meat, meat batters and gels, water distribution and mobility of WB exhibited significant differences compared to normal meat. The addition of NaCl affected water mobility and distributions in meat batters, with a level of 3% NaCl eliminating the differences between processed normal and WB meat products. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. PEMANFAATAN LIMBAH CAIR GARAM BAHAN BAKU 30˚ Be UNTUK PENGASINAN IKAN GABUS RENDAH NACl DAN MENGANDUNG Mg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilawati Nilawati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pengasinan merupakan metode pengawetan yang sudah lama dengan menggunakan garam krosok namun pengasinan dengan  limbah cair garam 30˚ Be belum banyak dilakukan. Keuntungan dengan metode ini akan menghasilkan produk ikan asin yang rendah NaCl dan tinggi kandungan Mg. Penelitian ini menggunakan 1 variabel yaitu konsentrasi limbah cair garam 30˚ Be  yaitu B0 (0 persen- kontrol, B10 (10 persen. B20 (20 persen, B30 (30 persen,  B40(40 persen, B50 (50 persen  dan kontrol  B100 (100 persen  serta kontrol pembanding penggaraman kering dengan garam bahan baku G100 (100 persen atau dikenal garam krosok. Hasil penelitian diperoleh kandungan NaCl murni pada pemakaian larutan 30˚ Be sebanyak 10 persen  sebesar 6,952 persen. Dan pada konsentrasi limbah cair garam 30˚ Be dengan konsentrasi   50 persen diperoleh kndungan NaCl murni sebesar 15,478 persen, namun untuk kontrol yang menggunakan garam krosok maka NaCl nya paling tinggi, sedangkan kontrol dengan 100 persen larutan 30˚ Be kandungan NaCl murninya sampai 25,134 persen, yang menggunakan garam bahan baku  kandungan NaCl sebesar 43,864 persen.  Perlakuan yang terbaik diperoleh pada pemakaian larutan garam 30˚ Be pada konsentrasi 40 persen. Kandungan Magnesium pada     penelitian ini berkisar antara 0,387 Sampai  3,444  persen.  Perlakuan mulai konsentrasi 30 persen keatas   penampakan ikan asin putih kecoklatan , empuk, bersih, namun kalau dibawah 30 persen penampakannya kecoklatan muda, daging liat agak keras namun NaCl nya rendah

  20. Effect of NaCl upon an Al-Si casting alloy hipoeutec; Efecto del NaCl sobre una aleacion de Al-Si hipoeutectica vaciada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Delgado, E.J.; Ortega de la Rosa, R. [Istituto Tecnologico de Zacatecas, Zacatecas (Mexico)]. E-mail: enriquemartinez_1999@yahoo.com; rubin_ortega_2002@yahoo.com.mx; Cisneros Guerrero, M.A. [Instituto Tecnologico de Saltillo, Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico)]. E-mail: cisneros@its.mx; Haro Rodriguez, S. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas, Zacatecas (Mexico)]. E-mail: haros907@hotmail.com

    2009-10-15

    This work, comprehends the study about the effect of NaCl kind Halite upon the morphology of eutectic Silicon and porosity in a cast hipoeutectic Al-Si alloy. The melting was carried out in two furnaces, the first to combustion of LP gas in graphite crucible to increase the content of Si in the alloy from 0.13 to 5% wt using metallic silicon with a purity of 99.35% wt, and the second of electric resistances in the same kind of crucible to control the temperature at 750 degrees Celsius. The melting material was casting into molds of sand shell. To add the salt into the metallic bath, two techniques were used; one with injection by means of Argon gas and the other on by gravity, both cases three quantities of salt were used, 0.5, 1.5 and 2.5% wt respectively, powdered and preheated at 150 degrees Celsius during 60 min. The obtained samples were analyzed metallographily evidencing the modification of the eutectic Si, presenting the best results the samples with 1.5 and 2.5% wt of salt added by gravity. Too was obtained effect of Salt upon the degassing of bath metallic, where the simples with 1.5% wt presented the best results. Finally, by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy, the precipitates present were characterized in the samples. [Spanish] Este trabajo comprende el estudio del efecto del NaCl tipo Halita sobre la morfologia del Si eutectico y la porosidad en una aleacion fundida Al-Si hipoeutectica. La fusion se llevo a cabo en dos hornos, el primero a combustion con gas LP en crisol de grafito con la finalidad de incrementar el contenido de Si en la aleacion de 0.13 a 5% en peso, utilizando silicio metalico con una pureza de 99.35%, y el segundo de resistencias electricas en el mismo tipo de crisol para controlar la temperatura a 750 grados Celsios. El material fundido fue vaciado en modelos de arena. La sal se anadio al bano metalico a 0.5, 1.5 y 2.5% en peso, respectivamente, pulverizada y precalentada a 150 grados Celsios durante 60 min, mediante dos

  1. Vasopressin alters the mechanism of apical Cl- entry from Na+:Cl- to Na+:K+:2Cl- cotransport in mouse medullary thick ascending limb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, A.; Grossman, E.B.; Lombardi, M.; Hebert, S.C. (Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (USA))

    1991-02-01

    Experiments were performed using in vitro perfused medullary thick ascending limbs of Henle (MTAL) and in suspensions of MTAL tubules isolated from mouse kidney to evaluate the effects of arginine vasopressin (AVP) on the K+ dependence of the apical, furosemide-sensitive Na{sup +}:Cl{sup {minus}} cotransporter and on transport-related oxygen consumption (QO{sub 2}). In isolated perfused MTAL segments, the rate of cell swelling induced by removing K+ from, and adding one mM ouabain to, the basolateral solution (ouabain(zero-K+)) provided an index to apical cotransporter activity and was used to evaluate the ionic requirements of the apical cotransporter in the presence and absence of AVP. In the absence of AVP cotransporter activity required Na{sup +} and Cl{sup {minus}}, but not K{sup +}, while the presence of AVP the apical cotransporter required all three ions. {sup 86}Rb{sup +} uptake into MTAL tubules in suspension was significant only after exposure of tubules to AVP. Moreover, {sup 22}Na{sup +} uptake was unaffected by extracellular K+ in the absence of AVP while after AVP exposure {sup 22}Na{sup +} uptake was strictly K{sup +}-dependent. The AVP-induced coupling of K{sup +} to the Na{sup +}:Cl{sup {minus}} cotransporter resulted in a doubling in the rate of NaCl absorption without a parallel increase in the rate of cellular {sup 22}Na{sup +} uptake or transport-related oxygen consumption. These results indicate that arginine vasopressin alters the mode of a loop diuretic-sensitive transporter from Na{sup +}:Cl{sup {minus}} cotransport to Na{sup +}:K{sup +}:2Cl{sup {minus}} cotransport in the mouse MTAL with the latter providing a distinct metabolic advantage for sodium transport. A model for AVP action on NaCl absorption by the MTAL is presented and the physiological significance of the coupling of K{sup +} to the apical Na{sup +}:Cl{sup {minus}} cotransporter in the MTAL and of the enhanced metabolic efficiency are discussed.

  2. HANPP Collection: Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) as a Percentage of Net Primary Product (NPP) portion of the HANPP Collection represents a map identifying...

  3. Price smarter on the Net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, W; Marn, M; Zawada, C

    2001-02-01

    Companies generally have set prices on the Internet in two ways. Many start-ups have offered untenably low prices in a rush to capture first-mover advantage. Many incumbents have simply charged the same prices on-line as they do off-line. Either way, companies are missing a big opportunity. The fundamental value of the Internet lies not in lowering prices or making them consistent but in optimizing them. After all, if it's easy for customers to compare prices on the Internet, it's also easy for companies to track customers' behavior and adjust prices accordingly. The Net lets companies optimize prices in three ways. First, it lets them set and announce prices with greater precision. Different prices can be tested easily, and customers' responses can be collected instantly. Companies can set the most profitable prices, and they can tap into previously hidden customer demand. Second, because it's so easy to change prices on the Internet, companies can adjust prices in response to even small fluctuations in market conditions, customer demand, or competitors' behavior. Third, companies can use the clickstream data and purchase histories that it collects through the Internet to segment customers quickly. Then it can offer segment-specific prices or promotions immediately. By taking full advantage of the unique possibilities afforded by the Internet to set prices with precision, adapt to changing circumstances quickly, and segment customers accurately, companies can get their pricing right. It's one of the ultimate drivers of e-business success.

  4. NaCl Induces Flavonoid Biosynthesis through a Putative Novel Pathway in Post-harvest Ginkgo Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jun; Hao, Juan; Jiang, Zhifang; Zhan, Xiaori; Dong, Lixiang; Yang, Xiuli; Sun, Zhehang; Xu, Wenya; Wang, Zhikun; Xu, Maojun

    2017-01-01

    The flavonoids in the extracts of Ginkgo leaves have been shown to have great medical value: thus, a method to increase the flavonoid contents in these extracts is of significant importance for human health. In the present study, we investigated the changes in flavonoid contents and the corresponding gene expression levels in post-harvest Ginkgo leaves after various treatments. We found that both ultraviolet-B and NaCl treatment induced flavonoid accumulation. However, gene expression analysis showed that the increases in flavonoid contents were achieved by different pathways. Furthermore, post-harvest Ginkgo leaves responded differently to NaCl treatment compared with naturally grown leaves in both flavonoid contents and corresponding gene expression. In addition, combined treatment with ultraviolet-B and NaCl did not further increase the flavonoid contents compared with ultraviolet-B or NaCl treatment alone. Our results indicate the existence of a novel mechanism in response to NaCl treatment in post-harvest Ginkgo leaves, and provide a technique to increase flavonoid content in the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:28659935

  5. Shape-memory NiTi foams produced by replication of NaCl space-holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansiddhi, A; Dunand, D C

    2008-11-01

    NiTi foams were created with a structure (32-36% open pores 70-400 microm in size) and mechanical properties (4-25 GPa stiffness, >1000 MPa compressive strength, >42% compressive ductility, and shape-memory strains up to 4%) useful for bone implant applications. A mixture of NiTi and NaCl powders was hot-isostatically pressed at 950 and 1065 degrees C and the NaCl phase was then dissolved in water. The resulting NiTi foams show interconnected pores that replicate the shape and size of the NaCl powders, indicating that NiTi powders densified significantly before NaCl melted at 801 degrees C. Densifying NiTi or other metal powders above the melting point of the space-holder permits the use of NaCl, with the following advantages compared with higher-melting, solid space-holders such as oxides and fluorides used to date: (i) no temperature limit for densification; (ii) lower cost; (iii) greater flexibility in powder (and thus pore) shape; (iv) faster dissolution; (v) reduced metal corrosion during dissolution; (vi) lower toxicity if space-holder residues remain in the foam.

  6. Study Effect of NaCl Salinity and Nitrogen Form on Composition of Canola (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad BYBORDI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of two N forms ( NH+4 and NO-3 and NaCl on accumulation of some essential mineral nutrients was examined in canola (Brassica napus L. cv. ‘SLM046’. Eight-day- ld plants of were subjected for 21 day to Hoagland’s nutrient solution containing 10 mM NH+4 and NO-3 and salinized with 0, 50, 100 and 150 mm NaCl. N form and addition of NaCl to the growth had no significant effect on total N. However, root N of NH+4 supplied plants decreased significantly with increase in NaCl concentration, whereas that of NO3- supplied plants remained unaffected. Salinity of the rooting also did not show any significant effect on Na+ concentration of leaves or roots of plants subjected to two different forms of nitrogen. NH+4 treated plants generally had greater concentration of Cl- in leaves and roots and lower K+ content in leaves than NO3- supplied plants. Ca2+ concentration of leaves and roots concentration of leaves decreased in NH+4- supplied plants due to NaCl, but they remained unaffected in NO3- treated plants.

  7. Impact of NaCl reduction on lactic acid bacteria during fermentation of Nocellara del Belice table olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinno, Paola; Guantario, Barbara; Perozzi, Giuditta; Pastore, Gianni; Devirgiliis, Chiara

    2017-05-01

    Table olives are widely consumed worldwide but, due to the presence of NaCl in fermenting brines, they contain high levels of sodium. A promising strategy to lower sodium content is the reduction or substitution of NaCl in brines with other chlorides. However, these procedures may impact safety, spoilage, as well as quality and technological properties, including the evolution and final composition of the fermenting microbiota. In the present work the effects of partially replacing NaCl with KCl in fermenting brines on the microbiological quality of Nocellara del Belice olives produced by Spanish style (Sivigliano) or Castelvetrano methods have been analyzed. In both cases, the fermentation steps were performed in parallel, in brines containing either NaCl alone, or partially replaced with different proportions of KCl (25, 50 and 75%), while maintaining a final saline concentration of 9% (Sivigliano method) or 7% (Castelvetrano). To compare microbial dynamics in the experimental brines, changes in bacterial ecology were monitored during fermentation with a polyphasic approach, including both microbiological methods and culture-independent techniques based on DGGE and NGS analysis. The main microbial groups detected in the olive microbiota from both production procedures were LAB and yeasts. Overall, the data demonstrate that partial replacement of NaCl with KCl does not increase the risk of contamination, nor the overgrowth of pathogens or spoiler microbes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of NaCl Addition on Rheological Behaviors of Commercial Gum-Based Food Thickener Used for Dysphagia Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun-Moon; Yoo, Whachun; Yoo, Byoungseung

    2015-06-01

    Rheological properties of thickened fluids used for consumption by people with dysphagia (swallowing difficulty) are very sensitive to several factors, such as thickener type, temperature, pH, sugar, protein, and NaCl. In this study, steady and dynamic rheological properties of thickened water samples mixed with five commercial xanthan gum-based food thickeners (A~E) were studied in the presence of NaCl at different concentrations (0.3%, 0.6%, 0.9%, and 1.2%). The magnitudes of apparent viscosity (ηa,50), consistency index (K), yield stress (σoc), and dynamic moduli (G' and G″) showed significant differences in rheological behaviors between thickened samples with various NaCl concentrations. Dynamic moduli values of all thickened samples, except for samples with thickener C, were much higher than those of the control (0% NaCl). All rheological parameter values (K, G', and G″) in a thickener A were much higher than those in other thickeners. These results suggest that rheological properties of thickened samples containing NaCl are strongly affected by xanthan gum-NaCl interaction and depended on the type of thickener.

  9. 78 FR 72393 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Investment Income Tax; Final and Proposed Rules #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 231 / Monday, December... Parts 1 and 602 RIN 1545-BK44 Net Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury... Investment Income Tax and the computation of Net Investment Income. The regulations affect individuals...

  10. 77 FR 72611 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... December 5, 2012 Part V Department of the Treasury Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 Net Investment... Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking...) the individual's net investment income for such taxable year, or (B) the excess (if any) of (i) the...

  11. Net analyte signal based statistical quality control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skibsted, E.T.S.; Boelens, H.F.M.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Smilde, A.K.; Broad, N.W.; Rees, D.R.; Witte, D.T.

    2005-01-01

    Net analyte signal statistical quality control (NAS-SQC) is a new methodology to perform multivariate product quality monitoring based on the net analyte signal approach. The main advantage of NAS-SQC is that the systematic variation in the product due to the analyte (or property) of interest is

  12. Asynchronous stream processing with S-Net

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grelck, C.; Scholz, S.-B.; Shafarenko, A.

    2010-01-01

    We present the rationale and design of S-Net, a coordination language for asynchronous stream processing. The language achieves a near-complete separation between the application code, written in any conventional programming language, and the coordination/communication code written in S-Net. Our

  13. Using the MVC architecture on . NET platform

    OpenAIRE

    Ježek, David

    2011-01-01

    This thesis deals with usage of MVC (Model View Controller) technology in web development on ASP.NET platform from Microsoft. Mainly it deals with latest version of framework ASP.NET MVC 3. First part describes MVC architecture and the second describes usage of MVC in certain parts of web application an comparing with PHP.

  14. Analysis of Petri Nets and Transition Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eike Best

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a stand-alone, no-frills tool supporting the analysis of (labelled place/transition Petri nets and the synthesis of labelled transition systems into Petri nets. It is implemented as a collection of independent, dedicated algorithms which have been designed to operate modularly, portably, extensibly, and efficiently.

  15. 27 CFR 7.27 - Net contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net contents. 7.27 Section 7.27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... the net contents are displayed by having the same blown, branded, or burned in the container in...

  16. Petri nets and other models of concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Sassone, Vladimiro

    1998-01-01

    This paper retraces, collects, and summarises contributions of the authors - in collaboration with others - on the theme of Petri nets and their categorical relationships to other models of concurrency.......This paper retraces, collects, and summarises contributions of the authors - in collaboration with others - on the theme of Petri nets and their categorical relationships to other models of concurrency....

  17. Delta Semantics Defined By Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    This report is identical to an earlier version of May 1978 except that Chapter 5 has been revised. A new paper: "A Petri Net Definition of a System Description Language", DAIMI, April 1979, 20 pages, extends the Petri net model to include a data state representing the program variables. Delta...

  18. Net neutrality and inflation of traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peitz, M.; Schütt, Florian

    Under strict net neutrality Internet service providers (ISPs) are required to carry data without any differentiation and at no cost to the content provider. We provide a simple framework with a monopoly ISP to evaluate the short-run effects of different net neutrality rules. Content differs in its

  19. Net Neutrality and Inflation of Traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peitz, M.; Schütt, F.

    2015-01-01

    Under strict net neutrality Internet service providers (ISPs) are required to carry data without any differentiation and at no cost to the content provider. We provide a simple framework with a monopoly ISP to evaluate different net neutrality rules. Content differs in its sensitivity to delay.

  20. The Net Neutrality Debate: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Rich

    2006-01-01

    Rich Greenfield examines the basics of today's net neutrality debate that is likely to be an ongoing issue for society. Greenfield states the problems inherent in the definition of "net neutrality" used by Common Cause: "Network neutrality is the principle that Internet users should be able to access any web content they choose and…

  1. Dynamic response of the thermometric net radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. D. Wilson; W. J. Massman; G. E. Swaters

    2009-01-01

    We computed the dynamic response of an idealized thermometric net radiometer, when driven by an oscillating net longwave radiation intended roughly to simulate rapid fluctuations of the radiative environment such as might be expected during field use of such devices. The study was motivated by curiosity as to whether non-linearity of the surface boundary conditions...

  2. Teaching and Learning with the Net Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Kassandra; Marateo, Raymond C.; Ferris, S. Pixy

    2007-01-01

    As the Net Generation places increasingly greater demands on educators, students and teachers must jointly consider innovative ways of teaching and learning. In this, educators are supported by the fact that the Net Generation wants to learn. However, these same educators should not fail to realize that this generation learns differently from…

  3. Verification of Timed-Arc Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lasse; Jacobsen, Morten; Møller, Mikael Harkjær

    2011-01-01

    Timed-Arc Petri Nets (TAPN) are an extension of the classical P/T nets with continuous time. Tokens in TAPN carry an age and arcs between places and transitions are labelled with time intervals restricting the age of tokens available for transition firing. The TAPN model posses a number...

  4. A Brief Introduction to Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1997-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets or CPN) is a graphical oriented language for design, specification, simulation and verification of systems. It is in particular well- suited for systems in which communication, synchronisation and resource sharing are important. Typical examples of application areas a...

  5. Investigation of influence of NaOH and NaCl activating solutions on bentonite stabilization in suspension fertilizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Krystyna; Hoffmann, Józef; Mikła, Daniel; Huculak-Mä Czka, Marta; Skut, Jakub

    2010-05-01

    1. INTRODUCTION Regular plants growth and their metabolic activity are determined by the macro- (C, H, O, N, P, S, K, Ca, Mg) and micronutrients (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, B, Mo, Cl, Ni). The role of these elements is very important, the excess as well as the deficiency have the negative influence on their development [1]. In order to increase yields and quality of crops a mineral, organic and mineral-organic fertilizers are applied. In the last years suspension fertilizers have been of great significance, taking the agricultural benefits into consideration. Suspension fertilizers are products of a new generation on account of higher nutrients concentrations than in the majority of other fertilizers, what makes them more efficient. Suspension fertilizers differ from solid fertilizers in more regular distribution on field. Nutrients are more concentrated what is economically relevant on account of the facilitated transportation. Examinations indicated, that nutrients from suspension fertilizers are more available than from solid fertilizers. The high concentration of nutrients in fertilizer is obtained by introducing a substance which holds them regularly in the suspension. Bentonites are the substances used for stabilization of suspension fertilizers most often [2,3]. Bentonites belong to ore of clay minerals, primarily made from minerals of smectite group, montmorillonite especially [4]. Bentonite loams were formulated as a result of Aluminium Silicate-bearing Rocks weathering and subsequent sedimentation in the aqueous environment. Characteristic features of rocks of the smectite group are their ability to absorb water (swelling), to form thixotrophic suspensions which aren't undergoing sedimentation process for a long time; as well as susceptibility to absorb cations and organic substances [4,5]. Therefore investigations have been carried out in order to evaluate the possibility of application of diverse loamy raw materials as suspension stabilizers for fertilizer

  6. Gill net and trammel net selectivity in the northern Aegean Sea, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Saadet Karakulak

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Fishing trials were carried out with gill nets and trammel nets in the northern Aegean Sea from March 2004 to February 2005. Four different mesh sizes for the gill nets and the inner panel of trammel nets (16, 18, 20 and 22 mm bar length were used. Selectivity parameters for the five most economically important species, bogue (Boops boops, annular sea bream (Diplodus annularis, striped red mullet (Mullus surmuletus, axillary sea bream (Pagellus acarne and blotched picarel (Spicara maena, caught by the two gears were estimated. The SELECT method was used to estimate the selectivity parameters of a variety of models. Catch composition and catch proportion of several species were different in gill and trammel nets. The length frequency distributions of the species caught by the two gears were significantly different. The bi-modal model selectivity curve gave the best fit for gill net and trammel net data, and there was little difference between the modal lengths of these nets. However, a clear difference was found in catching efficiency. The highest catch rates were obtained with the trammel net. Given that many discard species and small fish are caught by gill nets and trammel nets with a mesh size of 16 mm, it is clear that these nets are not appropriate for fisheries. Consequently, the best mesh size for multispecies fisheries is 18 mm. This mesh size will considerably reduce the numbers of small sized individuals and discard species in the catch.

  7. Discrete, continuous, and hybrid petri nets

    CERN Document Server

    David, René

    2004-01-01

    Petri nets do not designate a single modeling formalism. In fact, newcomers to the field confess sometimes to be a little puzzled by the diversity of formalisms that are recognized under this "umbrella". Disregarding some extensions to the theoretical modeling capabilities, and looking at the level of abstraction of the formalisms, Condition/Event, Elementary, Place/Transition, Predicate/Transition, Colored, Object Oriented... net systems are frequently encountered in the literature. On the other side, provided with appropriate interpretative extensions, Controled Net Systems, Marking Diagrams (the Petri net generalization of State Diagrams), or the many-many variants in which time can be explicitly incorporated -Time(d), Deterministic, (Generalized) Stochastic, Fuzzy...- are defined. This represents another way to define practical formalisms that can be obtained by the "cro- product" of the two mentioned dimensions. Thus Petri nets constitute a modeling paradigm, understandable in a broad sense as "the total...

  8. Optically stimulated luminescence of natural NaCl mineral from Dead Sea exposed to gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman L, J.; Cruz Z, E. [UNAM, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Pina L, Y. I. [UNAM, Facultad de Ciencias, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Marcazzo, J., E-mail: jesus.roman@nucleares.unam.mx [Instituto de Fisica Arroyo Seco - UNICEN, Pinto 399, 7000 Tandil (Argentina)

    2016-10-15

    Luminescence properties such as radioluminescence, thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence have been studied on natural sodium chloride (NaCl) for dosimetric purposes in retrospective dosimetry (Timar-Gabor et al., 2013; Druzhyna et al., 2016). In this work, the optically stimulated luminescence (Cw-OSL) emissions of natural salt minerals, collected from Dead Sea in summer of 2015, were studied. The Cw-OSL dose response of natural salt was analyzed in the range between 0.2 and 10 Gy gamma dose of {sup 60}Co. Samples exposed at 3 Gy exhibited good repeatability with a variation coefficient of 4.6%. The thermal stability of the Cw-OSL response was analyzed to different temperatures from 50 up to 250 degrees Celsius using a heating rate of 5 degrees Celsius. The results showed that the natural Dead Sea salt minerals could be applied as natural dosimeter of gamma radiation. (Author)

  9. Metallic Na formation in NaCl crystals with irradiation of electron or vacuum ultraviolet photon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owaki, Shigehiro [Osaka Prefecture Univ., Sakai, Osaka (Japan). Coll. of Integrated Arts and Sciences; Koyama, Shigeko; Takahashi, Masao; Kamada, Masao; Suzuki, Ryouichi

    1997-03-01

    Metallic Na was formed in NaCl single crystals with irradiation of a variety of radiation sources and analyzed the physical states with several methods. In the case of irradiation of 21 MeV electron pulses to the crystal blocks, the optical absorption and lifetime measurement of positron annihilation indicated appearance of Na clusters inside. Radiation effects of electron beam of 30 keV to the crystals in vacuum showed the appearance of not only metallic Na but atomic one during irradiation with Auger electron spectroscopy. Intense photon fluxes in vacuum ultraviolet region of synchrotron radiation were used as another source and an analyzing method of ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. The results showed the metallic Na layered so thick that bulk plasmon can exist. (author)

  10. The study of some physico-chemical properties of melt KCl - NaCl mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtech Špeťuch

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to examine the surface tension of the melt mixture of salts NaCl and KCl at temperatures 750, 800 and 850 °C by maximum bubble pressure method. Some difference between measured values of the surface tension as dependence on the method of calculation was observed. This difference results from the diameter of used capillary and does not depend on the temperature. The differences between experimentally measured values of surface tension and literary sources are trivial. The experimental results are in accordance with the literature data confirming unsuitability of maximum bubble pressure method for measurement of the melt density. The experimental result will be used as a base for the study of melt salts ternary systems. On the other side maximum bubble pressure method is the most suitable method for measurement of surface tension of melt salts, but it is unsuitable for measurement of the melt density.

  11. MARINATED WITH EFFECT OF NaCl AND SODIUM TRIPOLYPHOSPHATE BROMATOLOGICAL PROPERTIES ON THE MEAT GOAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Peña F.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Goat meat has all the significant nutritional characteristics by consumers to be an excellent alternative supply; therefore, this study proposes the use of a mixture of NaCl, sodium tripolyphosphate, laurel and rosemary extracts as marginalisers agents using maceration technique marinade as facilitator system and applying vacuum packaging and storage at refrigeration of an overall strategy of modernization. In the finished product bromatologic variables pH, fat, protein, water holding capacity, tenderness and moisture during the days 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 were evaluated in chilled storage. The results showed that the treatment is marinated improves water retention, protein retention and raises the pH of the product from the first day of storage because we can say that the application of the marinating process by mashing influences bromatological significantly on properties of meat goat breed Santander , becoming an alternative to industrialization

  12. Critical parameters controlling mechanical stability of NaCl under irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainshtein, D. I.; Hartog, H. W. Den; Dubinko, V. I.; Turkin, A. A.

    A new concept of the radiation-induced microstructural evolution in ionic crystals has been verified experimentally by phenomena observed in heavily irradiated NaCl, such as the formation of large vacancy voids followed by a sudden explosion-like fracture of crystalline samples. The new concept can be a prototype of an adequate description of the long-term behavior of important insulating materials in intense radiation fields, which can be employed for an evaluation of the critical effects expected under conditions of storage of high level nuclear waste and development of radiation resistant materials. In this paper, we present some new data on the microstructural parameters of materials doped with different impurities and summarize the critical microstructural, irradiation and material parameters that control mechanical stability of rock salt materials under irradiation.

  13. Corrosion Behavior of Mg-Al/TiC Composites in NaCl Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Falcon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behavior of TiC particles reinforced Mg-Al alloy in 3.5% NaCl solution has been evaluated using electrochemical techniques. Tested alloys included an Mg-9Al (Mg AZ91E alloy with and without 56 wt. % TiC particles. Electrochemical techniques included potentiodynamic polarization curves, linear polarization resistance, electrochemical noise, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. All techniques showed that the composite exhibited a lower corrosion rate than the base alloy. Evidence of galvanic effects that increased the composite corrosion rate was found between the matrix and the TiC particles. Additionally, the tendency to suffer from pitting corrosion was higher for the base alloy than that for the composite. Electrochemical impedance results showed the importance of adsorption/diffusion phenomena in both materials.

  14. Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations of Na+-Cl- ion pair in liquid water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M.Khalack

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous solvation shell of a Na+-Cl- pair is studied using Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations. Water-mediated and contact states of the ion pair are investigated. The first hydration shell of the Na+ ion is found to be octahedral with one vacant position for both states. In the contact state one of the water molecules is substituted by the Cl- ion. The first hydration shell of the Cl- is less structured and strongly effected by the proximity of the Na+ in the contact state. The oxygen coordination numbers for Na+ and Cl- are 4.9 and 5.6 for the water-mediated state, and 3.6 and 6.4 for the contact state. The corresponding hydrogen coordination numbers are 10.9 and 5.2; 9.2 and 3.9, respectively.

  15. Sliding wear behaviour of steel carburized using Na2CO3-NaCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liew Willey Y. H.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments have been carried out to investigate the effect of carburization process on the sliding wear resistance of mild steel. The carburization process was conducted in carbonate salts mixtures of Na2CO3-NaCl. Carburization followed by water quenching resulted in the formation of martensite with a hardness of 900 HV in the subsurface, up to the depth of 400 μm. This hardness value was substantially higher than the non-carburized steel which had a hardness of 520 HV. In the initial stage of sliding in air, abrasive wear and cluster of fine cavities due to adhesion were formed. This was followed by the formation of large-scale fracture at the cavities. The high hardness of the carburized steel reduced the severity of adhesive wear and thus the tendency of the worn surface to fracture.

  16. Pro visual C++/CLI and the net 35 platform

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Pro Visual C++/CLI and the .NET 3.5 Platform is about writing .NET applications using C++/CLI. While readers are learning the ins and outs of .NET application development, they will also be learning the syntax of C++, both old and new to .NET. Readers will also gain a good understanding of the .NET architecture. This is truly a .NET book applying C++ as its development language not another C++ syntax book that happens to cover .NET.

  17. Investigation into the role of NaCl deposited on oxide and metal substrates in the initiation of hot corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birks, N.

    1981-01-01

    Morphological aspects of the conversion to Na2SO4 of NaCl deposits over the temperature range 500-700 C, in air with added SO2 and H2O. Progress of the reaction was observed by withdrawing samples at various times and examining them under the scanning electron microscope using EDAX to assess the extent of chloride to sulfate conversion. These initial results show that the conversion to Na2SO4 proceeds directly on the sodium chloride surface as well as on the surrounding substrate due to evaporation of NaCl from the solid particle. The mechanism of this reaction could involve reaction in the vapor to produce Na2SO4 which then deposits, alternatively Na2SO4 could form directly on the substrate surface due to direct reaction there between the vapors NaCl, SO2 and O2.

  18. A Multifunctional Sensor for Concentrations of Ternary Solution with NaCl and Sucrose Employed in Osmotic Dehydration Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Guo; Shida, Katsunori

    2003-08-01

    Ternary solution with NaCl and sucrose is widely employed in the osmotic dehydration process of food. In this paper we present a multifunctional sensor capable of directly sensing temperature and two physical parameters of solutions, namely ultrasonic velocity and electrical conductivity. By combination measurement of these three measurable parameters, the concentrations of various components in ternary solution with NaCl and sucrose can be simultaneously determined. A regression algorithm based on natural cubic spline interpolation and the least squares method is developed to estimate the concentrations of NaCl and sucrose, which considers the temperature influence on the multifunctional sensor and then enables decoupling of the reconstruction of concentrations in 4D space into 3D space. This sensor could prove valuable as a process control sensor in food industry.

  19. High NaCl- and urea-induced posttranslational modifications that increase glycerophosphocholine by inhibiting GDPD5 phosphodiesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topanurak, Supachai; Ferraris, Joan D; Li, Jinxi; Izumi, Yuichiro; Williams, Chester K; Gucek, Marjan; Wang, Guanghui; Zhou, Xiaoming; Burg, Maurice B

    2013-04-30

    Glycerophosphocholine (GPC) is high in cells of the renal inner medulla where high interstitial NaCl and urea power concentration of the urine. GPC protects inner medullary cells against the perturbing effects of high NaCl and urea by stabilizing intracellular macromolecules. Degradation of GPC is catalyzed by the glycerophosphocholine phosphodiesterase activity of glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase domain containing 5 (GDPD5). We previously found that inhibitory posttranslational modification (PTM) of GDPD5 contributes to high NaCl- and urea-induced increase of GPC. The purpose of the present studies was to identify the PTM(s). We find at least three such PTMs in HEK293 cells: (i) Formation of a disulfide bond between C25 and C571. High NaCl and high urea increase reactive oxygen species (ROS). The ROS increase disulfide bonding between GDPD5-C25 and -C571, which inhibits GDPD5 activity, as supported by the findings that the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine prevents high NaCl- and urea-induced inhibition of GDPD5; GDPD5-C25S/C571S mutation or over expression of peroxiredoxin increases GDPD5 activity; H2O2 inhibits activity of wild type GDPD5, but not of GDPD5-C25S/C571S; and peroxiredoxin is relatively low in the renal inner medulla where GPC is high. (ii) Dephosphorylation of GDPD5-T587. GDPD5 threonine 587 is constitutively phosphorylated. High NaCl and high urea dephosphorylate GDPD5-T587. Mutation of GDPD5-T587 to alanine, which cannot be phosphorylated, decreases GPC-PDE activity of GDPD5. (iii) Alteration at an unknown site mediated by CDK1. Inhibition of CDK1 protein kinase reduces GDE-PDE activity of GDPD5 without altering phosphorylation at T587, and CDK1/5 inhibitor reduces activity of GDPD5- C25S/C571S-T587A.

  20. Effects of NaCl on Fermentative Metabolism of Mature Green Tomatoes cv. Ailsa Craig in Brine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotirios Fragkostefanakis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of osmotic strength on gene expression and activity of the major enzymes of fermentative metabolism of mature green tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Ailsa Craig has been studied by exposing fruit to brine containing 0 (water, 5 and 10 % NaCl. The fruits were surface sterilized prior to treatment to prevent the growth of microbes naturally present on the skin of the fruit. Changes in fruit expression of fermentation genes and the activity of the respective enzymes as well as physicochemical quality characteristics (soluble solid content, titratable acidity, pH and firmness were studied in both fruit and brine for 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 7 and 14 days. Discrepancies in responses that resulted from the different salt concentrations were obtained at molecular and quality levels. The complex kinetics of solutes between the fruit and the surrounding solution due to osmotic potential has led to different responses of the tissue to fermentation. Tomato fruit showed cracking soon after storage in water; water-stored fruit had higher titratable acidity, lower soluble solid content, and higher induction of anaerobic metabolism as indicated by the expression or the activity of the fermentation enzymes compared to fruit stored in brine with 5 or 10 % NaCl. No cracking was observed in fruit stored in 5 (isotonic or 10 % NaCl (hypertonic brine, though in the latter, signs of dehydration were observed. The presence of salt in brine reduced the intensity of fermentative metabolism as indicated by the lower gene expression and enzyme activity. However, fruit stored in brine with 5 % NaCl survived longer than with 0 or 10 % NaCl. The presence of 5 % NaCl in brine caused mild changes of both the fermentative metabolism and the physicochemical characteristics and prevented fruit deterioration during storage.

  1. NetCTLpan: pan-specific MHC class I pathway epitope predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stranzl, Thomas; Larsen, Mette Voldby; Lundegaard, Claus

    2010-01-01

    Reliable predictions of immunogenic peptides are essential in rational vaccine design and can minimize the experimental effort needed to identify epitopes. In this work, we describe a pan-specific major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I epitope predictor, NetCTLpan. The method integrates...... ligands and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes. It has been reported that MHC molecules are differentially dependent on TAP transport and proteasomal cleavage. Here, we did not find any consistent signs of such MHC dependencies, and the NetCTLpan method is implemented with fixed weights for proteasomal...... cleavage and TAP transport for all MHC molecules. The predictive performance of the NetCTLpan method was shown to outperform other state-of-the-art CTL epitope prediction methods. Our results further confirm the importance of using full-type human leukocyte antigen restriction information when identifying...

  2. Artificial neural nets application in the cotton yarn industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Clóvis Antoneli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The competitiveness in the yarn production sector has led companies to search for solutions to attain quality yarn at a low cost. Today, the difference between them, and thus the sector, is in the raw material, meaning processed cotton and its characteristics. There are many types of cotton with different characteristics due to its production region, harvest, storage and transportation. Yarn industries work with cotton mixtures, which makes it difficult to determine the quality of the yarn produced from the characteristics of the processed fibers. This study uses data from a conventional spinning, from a raw material made of 100% cotton, and presents a solution with artificial neural nets that determine the thread quality information, using the fibers’ characteristics values and settings of some process adjustments. In this solution a neural net of the type MultiLayer Perceptron with 11 entry neurons (8 characteristics of the fiber and 3 process adjustments, 7 output neurons (yarn quality and two types of training, Back propagation and Conjugate gradient descent. The selection and organization of the production data of the yarn industry of the cocamar® indústria de fios company are described, to apply the artificial neural nets developed. In the application of neural nets to determine yarn quality, one concludes that, although the ideal precision of absolute values is lacking, the presented solution represents an excellent tool to define yarn quality variations when modifying the raw material composition. The developed system enables a simulation to define the raw material percentage mixture to be processed in the plant using the information from the stocked cotton packs, thus obtaining a mixture that maintains the stability of the entire productive process.

  3. Mediating relaxation and polarization of hydrogen-bonds in water by NaCl salting and heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Yan, Tingting; Huang, Yongli; Ma, Zengsheng; Liu, Xinjuan; Zou, Bo; Sun, Chang Q

    2014-12-07

    Infrared spectroscopy and contact-angle measurements revealed that NaCl salting has the same effect as heating on O:H phonon softening and H-O phonon stiffening, but has the opposite effect on skin polarization of liquid water. The mechanics of thermal modulation of O-O Coulomb repulsion [Sun, et al., J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 2013, 4, 3238] may suggest a possible mechanism for this NaCl involved Hofmeister effect, aqueous solution modulated surface tension and its abilities in protein dissolution, from the perspective of Coulomb mediation of interaction within the O:H-O bond.

  4. Inhibition Effect of Glycerol on the Corrosion of Copper in NaCl Solutions at Different pH Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Lorenzo Chi-Ucán

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitory effect of glycerol on copper corrosion in aerated NaCl (0.5 M solutions at three pH values (4, 7, and 10 was evaluated. Inhibition efficiency was assessed with conventional electrochemical techniques: open circuit potential, potentiodynamic polarization, and electrochemical impedance analysis. Glycerol reduced the corrosion rate of copper in NaCl solutions. The best inhibition effect (η≈83% was produced in alkaline (pH 10 chloride media. This effect can be ascribed to increased viscosity and the presence of copper-glycerol complexes.

  5. The effects of hydraulic loading and NaCl concentrations on the regeneration of exhausted homoionic natural zeolite

    OpenAIRE

    Milán, Zhenia; Montalvo, Silvio; Pozas, Carlos de las; Monroy, Oscar; Sánchez, Enrique; Borja Padilla, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    A study of the suitable operational conditions for the regeneration of exhausted homoionic natural zeolite with ammonium was carried out. Laboratory-scale columns using NaCl solutions with concentrations of 2 and 4 mol/L and hydraulic loadings of 4, 6 and 8 bed volumes per hour (BV/h) were assessed. For both NaCl concentrations studied, the hydraulic load of 6 BV/h showed the highest ammonia nitrogen output from the exhausted zeolite bed. Results showed that the hydraulic load (BV/h) had a gr...

  6. KONVERGENSI DALAM PROGRAM NET CITIZEN JOURNALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhafidilla Vebrynda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Di dalam artikel ini, peneliti ingin melihat perkembangan teknologi di Indonesia sebagai sebuah peluang untuk menjalankan sebuah program berita berbasis video kiriman masyarakat. Perkembangan teknologi tersebut adalah teknologi penyiaran, teknologi sosial media dan teknologi dalam proses produksi sebuah video. Di Indonesia, jumlah televisi semakin banyak. Setiap stasiun televisi harus bersaing untuk dapat bertahan hidup. Net TV merupakan sebuah stasiun televisi baru di Indonesia yang harus memiliki berbagai program unggulan baru agar dapat bersaing dengan televisi lainnya yang sudah ada. Net TV menggunakan berbagai platform media untuk menjalankan program Net Citizen Journalism (Net CJ. Penggunaan berbagai platform media dikenal dengan istilah multiplatform dan secara teoritis dikenal dengan istilah konvergensi. Konvergensi yaitu saat meleburnya domain-domain dalam berbagai media komunikasi. Artikel ini menggunakan metode studi kasus untuk melihat bagaimana konvergensi terjadi dalam proses pengelolaan program Net CJ. Teknik pengumpulan data adalah dengan wawancara mendalam, observasi dan studi dokumen. Wawancara mendalam dilakukan dari tiga sudut pandang yaitu dari pengelola program, pengguna/audience dan pengamat media. Penelitian ini menemukan bahwa dengan menggunakan berbagai platform media yang fungsinya berbeda, memiliki satu tujuan yang sama yaitu untuk menjalankan program Net CJ. Adapun berbagai platform dalam proses produksi program yaitu tayangan TV konvensional, streaming TV, website, aplikasi Net CJ, facebook, twitter, instagram dan path. Konvergensi media dijalankan dalam dua proses, yaitu proses produksi dan proses promosi program berita.

  7. Net Neutrality: Media Discourses and Public Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Quail

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes media and public discourses surrounding net neutrality, with particular attention to public utility philosophy, from a critical perspective. The article suggests that further public education about net neutrality would be beneficial. The first portion of this paper provides a survey of the existing literature surrounding net neutrality, highlighting the contentious debate between market-based and public interest perspectives. In order to contextualize the debate, an overview of public utility philosophy is provided, shedding light on how the Internet can be conceptualized as a public good. Following this discussion, an analysis of mainstream media is presented, exploring how the media represents the issue of net neutrality and whether or not the Internet is discussed through the lens of public utility. To further examine how the net neutrality debate is being addressed, and to see the potential impacts of media discourses on the general public, the results of a focus group are reported and analyzed. Finally, a discussion assesses the implications of the net neutrality debate as presented through media discourses, highlighting the future of net neutrality as an important policy issue.

  8. Approximation methods for stochastic petri nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungnitz, Hauke Joerg

    1992-01-01

    Stochastic Marked Graphs are a concurrent decision free formalism provided with a powerful synchronization mechanism generalizing conventional Fork Join Queueing Networks. In some particular cases the analysis of the throughput can be done analytically. Otherwise the analysis suffers from the classical state explosion problem. Embedded in the divide and conquer paradigm, approximation techniques are introduced for the analysis of stochastic marked graphs and Macroplace/Macrotransition-nets (MPMT-nets), a new subclass introduced herein. MPMT-nets are a subclass of Petri nets that allow limited choice, concurrency and sharing of resources. The modeling power of MPMT is much larger than that of marked graphs, e.g., MPMT-nets can model manufacturing flow lines with unreliable machines and dataflow graphs where choice and synchronization occur. The basic idea leads to the notion of a cut to split the original net system into two subnets. The cuts lead to two aggregated net systems where one of the subnets is reduced to a single transition. A further reduction leads to a basic skeleton. The generalization of the idea leads to multiple cuts, where single cuts can be applied recursively leading to a hierarchical decomposition. Based on the decomposition, a response time approximation technique for the performance analysis is introduced. Also, delay equivalence, which has previously been introduced in the context of marked graphs by Woodside et al., Marie's method and flow equivalent aggregation are applied to the aggregated net systems. The experimental results show that response time approximation converges quickly and shows reasonable accuracy in most cases. The convergence of Marie's method and flow equivalent aggregation are applied to the aggregated net systems. The experimental results show that response time approximation converges quickly and shows reasonable accuracy in most cases. The convergence of Marie's is slower, but the accuracy is generally better. Delay

  9. Visual Studio 2010 and NET 4 Six-in-One

    CERN Document Server

    Novak, Istvan; Granicz, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Complete coverage of all key .NET 4 and Visual Studio 2010 languages and technologies. .NET 4 is Microsoft's latest version of their core programming platform, and Visual Studio 2010 is the toolset that helps write .NET 4 applications. This comprehensive resource offers one-stop shopping for all you need to know to get productive with .NET 4. Experienced author and .NET guru Mitchel Sellers reviews all the important new features of .NET 4, including .NET charting and ASP.NET charting, ASP.NET dynamic data and jQuery, and the addition of F# as a supported package language. The expansive coverag

  10. Application and Theory of Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , the conferences have 150-200 participants, one third of these coming from industry and the rest from universities and research institutions. The 1992 conference was organized by the School of Computing and Management Sciences at Sheffield City Polytechnic, England. The volume contains twoinvited papers, by G......This volume contains the proceedings of the 13th International Conference onApplication and Theory of Petri Nets, held in Sheffield, England, in June 1992. The aim of the Petri net conferences is to create a forum for discussing progress in the application and theory of Petri nets. Typically...

  11. Performance Analysis using Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wells, Lisa Marie

    an explicit separation between modelling the behaviour of a system and monitoring the behaviour of the model. As a result, cleaner and more understandable models can be created. The third paper presents a novel method for adding auxiliary information to coloured Petri net models. Coloured Petri nets models...... in a very limited and predictable manner, and it is easy to enable and disable the auxiliary information. The fourth paper is a case study in which the performance of a web server was analysed using coloured Petri nets. This case study has shown that it is relatively easy to analyse the performance...

  12. The KM3NeT project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, U.F., E-mail: katz@physik.uni-erlangen.d [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics (ECAP), University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2011-01-21

    The KM3NeT research infrastructure in the deep Mediterranean Sea will host a multi-cubic-kilometre neutrino telescope and provide connectivity for continuous, long-term measurements of earth and sea sciences, such as geology, marine biology and oceanography. The KM3NeT neutrino telescope will complement the IceCube telescope currently being installed at the South Pole in its field of view and surpass its sensitivity by a substantial factor. In this document the major aspects of the KM3NeT technical design are described and the expected physics sensitivity is discussed. Finally, the expected time line towards construction is presented.

  13. The net neutrality debate on Twitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf J. Schünemann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The internet has been seen as a medium that empowers individual political actors in relation to established political elites and media gatekeepers. The present article discusses this “net empowerment hypothesis” and tests it empirically by analysing Twitter communication on the regulation of net neutrality. We extracted 503.839 tweets containing #NetNeutrality posted between January and March 2015 and analysed central developments and the network structure of the debate. The empirical results show that traditional actors from media and politics still maintain a central role.

  14. Net currents in the wave bottom boundary layer: on waveshape streaming and progressive wave streaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, Wouter; Ribberink, Jan S.; Uittenbogaard, R.E.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.

    2012-01-01

    The net current (streaming) in a turbulent bottom boundary layer under waves above a flat bed, identified as potentially relevant for sediment transport, is mainly determined by two competing mechanisms: an onshore streaming resulting from the horizontal non-uniformity of the velocity field under

  15. Net energy output from harvesting small-diameter trees using a mechanized system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei Pan; Han-Sup Han; Leonard R. Johnson; William J. Elliot

    2008-01-01

    What amount of extra energy can be generated after subtracting the total energy consumed to produce the biomass energy? Knowing the ratio between energy output and input is a valid question when highly mechanized systems that consume fossil fuels are used to harvest and transport forest biomass for energy. We estimated the net energy generated from mechanical fuel...

  16. [Axolemmal transporters for neurotransmitter uptake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-López, M

    Neurotransmission is a fundamental process in interneuronal communication. It starts with the release of the neurotransmitter following a nerve impulse and ends either by uptake by specific specific transporters or by metabolization to an inactive compound. In this review we will consider the molecular, ion dependence and electrogenic properties of the axolemal transporters for neurotransmitters and also the pathological consequences of their impairment as well as the drugs that can interact with them. Most axolemmal transporters have been cloned and grouped into two large families according to their molecular characteristics and electrogenic properties: 1. Those dependent on Na+/Cl- include transporters of GABA, noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin, choline, proline, betaine, glycine and taurine, and 2. Those dependent on Na+/K+, which include the transporters of glutamate, alanine, serine and cysteine. The clonation of transporters has permitted (and will continue to permit) the correlation of molecular alterations of transporters with different neuro-degenerative disorders (e.g. multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease), with brain lesions (e.g. cerebral ischemia, status epilepticus) and with psychiatric alterations (e.g. schizophrenia, depression). In this respect, chemical synthesis of new selective drugs which interact with the different systems for uptake of neurotransmitters will offer new approaches to the treatment of many disorders of the central nervous system which still have no satisfactory drug treatment.

  17. Planning long lasting insecticide treated net campaigns: should households' existing nets be taken into account?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukich, Joshua; Bennett, Adam; Keating, Joseph; Yukich, Rudy K; Lynch, Matt; Eisele, Thomas P; Kolaczinski, Kate

    2013-06-14

    Mass distribution of long-lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLINs) has led to large increases in LLIN coverage in many African countries. As LLIN ownership levels increase, planners of future mass distributions face the challenge of deciding whether to ignore the nets already owned by households or to take these into account and attempt to target individuals or households without nets. Taking existing nets into account would reduce commodity costs but require more sophisticated, and potentially more costly, distribution procedures. The decision may also have implications for the average age of nets in use and therefore on the maintenance of universal LLIN coverage over time. A stochastic simulation model based on the NetCALC algorithm was used to determine the scenarios under which it would be cost saving to take existing nets into account, and the potential effects of doing so on the age profile of LLINs owned. The model accounted for variability in timing of distributions, concomitant use of continuous distribution systems, population growth, sampling error in pre-campaign coverage surveys, variable net 'decay' parameters and other factors including the feasibility and accuracy of identifying existing nets in the field. Results indicate that (i) where pre-campaign coverage is around 40% (of households owning at least 1 LLIN), accounting for existing nets in the campaign will have little effect on the mean age of the net population and (ii) even at pre-campaign coverage levels above 40%, an approach that reduces LLIN distribution requirements by taking existing nets into account may have only a small chance of being cost-saving overall, depending largely on the feasibility of identifying nets in the field. Based on existing literature the epidemiological implications of such a strategy is likely to vary by transmission setting, and the risks of leaving older nets in the field when accounting for existing nets must be considered. Where pre-campaign coverage

  18. Planning long lasting insecticide treated net campaigns: should households’ existing nets be taken into account?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Mass distribution of long-lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLINs) has led to large increases in LLIN coverage in many African countries. As LLIN ownership levels increase, planners of future mass distributions face the challenge of deciding whether to ignore the nets already owned by households or to take these into account and attempt to target individuals or households without nets. Taking existing nets into account would reduce commodity costs but require more sophisticated, and potentially more costly, distribution procedures. The decision may also have implications for the average age of nets in use and therefore on the maintenance of universal LLIN coverage over time. Methods A stochastic simulation model based on the NetCALC algorithm was used to determine the scenarios under which it would be cost saving to take existing nets into account, and the potential effects of doing so on the age profile of LLINs owned. The model accounted for variability in timing of distributions, concomitant use of continuous distribution systems, population growth, sampling error in pre-campaign coverage surveys, variable net ‘decay’ parameters and other factors including the feasibility and accuracy of identifying existing nets in the field. Results Results indicate that (i) where pre-campaign coverage is around 40% (of households owning at least 1 LLIN), accounting for existing nets in the campaign will have little effect on the mean age of the net population and (ii) even at pre-campaign coverage levels above 40%, an approach that reduces LLIN distribution requirements by taking existing nets into account may have only a small chance of being cost-saving overall, depending largely on the feasibility of identifying nets in the field. Based on existing literature the epidemiological implications of such a strategy is likely to vary by transmission setting, and the risks of leaving older nets in the field when accounting for existing nets must be considered

  19. Evaluation of common methods for sampling invertebrate pollinator assemblages: net sampling out-perform pan traps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony J Popic

    Full Text Available Methods for sampling ecological assemblages strive to be efficient, repeatable, and representative. Unknowingly, common methods may be limited in terms of revealing species function and so of less value for comparative studies. The global decline in pollination services has stimulated surveys of flower-visiting invertebrates, using pan traps and net sampling. We explore the relative merits of these two methods in terms of species discovery, quantifying abundance, function, and composition, and responses of species to changing floral resources. Using a spatially-nested design we sampled across a 5000 km(2 area of arid grasslands, including 432 hours of net sampling and 1296 pan trap-days, between June 2010 and July 2011. Net sampling yielded 22% more species and 30% higher abundance than pan traps, and better reflected the spatio-temporal variation of floral resources. Species composition differed significantly between methods; from 436 total species, 25% were sampled by both methods, 50% only by nets, and the remaining 25% only by pans. Apart from being less comprehensive, if pan traps do not sample flower-visitors, the link to pollination is questionable. By contrast, net sampling functionally linked species to pollination through behavioural observations of flower-visitation interaction frequency. Netted specimens are also necessary for evidence of pollen transport. Benefits of net-based sampling outweighed minor differences in overall sampling effort. As pan traps and net sampling methods are not equivalent for sampling invertebrate-flower interactions, we recommend net sampling of invertebrate pollinator assemblages, especially if datasets are intended to document declines in pollination and guide measures to retain this important ecosystem service.

  20. RadNet Air Quality (Deployable) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RadNet Deployable Monitoring is designed to collect radiological and meteorological information and data asset needed to establish the impact of radiation levels on...

  1. A Lightweight TwiddleNet Portal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rimikis, Antonios M

    2008-01-01

    TwiddleNet is a distributed architecture of personal servers that harnesses the power of the mobile devices, enabling real time information and file sharing of multiple data types from commercial-off-the-shelf platforms...

  2. Homology Groups of a Pipeline Petri Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Husainov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Petri net is said to be elementary if every place can contain no more than one token. In this paper, it is studied topological properties of the elementary Petri net for a pipeline consisting of n functional devices. If the work of the functional devices is considered continuous, we can come to some topological space of “intermediate” states. In the paper, it is calculated the homology groups of this topological space. By induction on n, using the Addition Sequence for homology groups of semicubical sets, it is proved that in dimension 0 and 1 the integer homology groups of these nets are equal to the group of integers, and in the remaining dimensions are zero. Directed homology groups are studied. A connection of these groups with deadlocks and newsletters is found. This helps to prove that all directed homology groups of the pipeline elementary Petri nets are zeroth.

  3. Tolerancia de plantas de feijoa (Acca sellowiana [Berg] Burret a la salinidad por NaCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casierra-Posada Fánor Ernesto

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Los efectos de la salinidad por NaCl sobre la producción y la distribución de la biomasa, la toma de agua y el área foliar total fueron investigados en plantas de feijoa (Acca sellowiana [Berg] Burret cultivadas en materas con suelo bajo condiciones de invernadero, durante ocho meses. Los tratamientos con la sal comenzaron 60 d después del transplante. El NaCl fue agregado en diferentes concentraciones: 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 mM de NaCl en el suelo. Estas concentraciones correspondieron a conductividades eléctricas de 2,8; 4,6; 6,1; 8,4 y 11,1 dS· m-1, respectivamente. Para evitar el choque osmótico, el tratamiento salino fue impuesto progresivamente, aumentando la concentración de sal cada semana hasta alcanzar la

  4. Effect of cholera toxin on glucose absorption and net movements of water and electrolytes in the intestinal loop of sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, H S; Onaga, T; Mineo, H; Kim, J T; Kato, S

    1996-12-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of cholera toxin on glucose absorption and net movement of water and electrolytes in the jejunal loop of sheep. Intraluminal perfusion was performed at the rate of 1 ml/min with isotonic 10 mM glucose solution. Osmolality was adjusted by adding NaCl, and the outflow solution was collected every 10 min. After a 30 min control period, cholera toxin was applied intraluminally for 30 min at doses of 30, 60, and 120 micrograms/loop. In the control period, water, sodium and chloride were absorbed, while potassium and bicarbonate were secreted. Cholera toxin reversed the net absorption of water, sodium and chloride to net secretions, and this secretory response to cholera toxin was dose-dependent. Bicarbonate secretion was stimulated dose-dependently by cholera toxin. Potassium secretion was also increased at all doses, though this response was not dose-dependent. The net glucose absorption was decreased dose-dependently by cholera toxin. In conclusion, these results indicate that cholera toxin stimulates water and electrolyte secretion, and inhibits glucose absorption in the jejunal loop of sheep.

  5. Net accumulation of the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilsholm, Sissi; Christensen, Jens Hesselbjerg; Dethloff, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    improvement compared to the driving OAGCM. Estimates of the regional net balance are also better represented by the RCM. In the future climate the net balance for the Greenland Ice Sheet is reduced in all the simulation, but discrepancies between the amounts when based on ECHAM4/OPYC3 and HIRHAM are found....... In both scenarios, the estimated melt rates are larger in HIRHAM than in the driving model....

  6. CDMA and TDMA based neural nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, J C

    2001-06-01

    CDMA and TDMA telecommunication techniques were established long time ago, but they have acquired a renewed presence due to the rapidly increasing mobile phones demand. In this paper, we are going to see they are suitable for neural nets, if we leave the concept "connection" between processing units and we adopt the concept "messages" exchanged between them. This may open the door to neural nets with a higher number of processing units and flexible configuration.

  7. Mastering AngularJD for .NET developers

    CERN Document Server

    Majid, Mohammad Wadood

    2015-01-01

    This book is envisioned for traditional developers and programmers who want to develop client-side applications using the AngularJS framework and ASP.NET Web API 2 with Visual Studio. .NET developers who have already built web applications or web services and who have a fundamental knowledge of HTML, JavaScript, and CSS and want to explore single-page applications will also find this guide useful. Basic knowledge of AngularJS would be helpful.

  8. .NET 4.5 parallel extensions

    CERN Document Server

    Freeman, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    This book contains practical recipes on everything you will need to create task-based parallel programs using C#, .NET 4.5, and Visual Studio. The book is packed with illustrated code examples to create scalable programs.This book is intended to help experienced C# developers write applications that leverage the power of modern multicore processors. It provides the necessary knowledge for an experienced C# developer to work with .NET parallelism APIs. Previous experience of writing multithreaded applications is not necessary.

  9. A Lightweight TwiddleNet Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    designed to exploit the multiple networking modalities available in the current generation of smartphones . TwiddleNet enables well-organized and well...of Sonopia and will have a comprehensive review of the service in the coming weeks [12]. Twango, which was acquired by Nokia in July 2007, is an...EXPERIMENTATION As already mentioned the main purpose of this thesis is the development of a TwiddleNet portal running on a smartphone or a PDA, which can allow

  10. CCS - and its relationship to net theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens

    1987-01-01

    In this paper we give a short introduction to Milner's Calculus for Communicating Systems - a paradigm for concurrent computation. We put special emphasis on the basic concepts and tools from the underlying "algebraic approach", and their relationship to the approach to concurrency within net...... theory. Furthermore, we provide an operational version of the language CCS with "true concurrency" in the sense of net theory, and a discussion of the possible use of such a marriage of the two theories of concurrency....

  11. Ice nucleation from aqueous NaCl droplets with and without marine diatoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Alpert

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ice formation in the atmosphere by homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation is one of the least understood processes in cloud microphysics and climate. Here we describe our investigation of the marine environment as a potential source of atmospheric IN by experimentally observing homogeneous ice nucleation from aqueous NaCl droplets and comparing against heterogeneous ice nucleation from aqueous NaCl droplets containing intact and fragmented diatoms. Homogeneous and heterogeneous ice nucleation are studied as a function of temperature and water activity, aw. Additional analyses are presented on the dependence of diatom surface area and aqueous volume on heterogeneous freezing temperatures, ice nucleation rates, ωhet, ice nucleation rate coefficients, Jhet, and differential and cumulative ice nuclei spectra, k(T and K(T, respectively. Homogeneous freezing temperatures and corresponding nucleation rate coefficients are in agreement with the water activity based homogeneous ice nucleation theory within experimental and predictive uncertainties. Our results confirm, as predicted by classical nucleation theory, that a stochastic interpretation can be used to describe the homogeneous ice nucleation process. Heterogeneous ice nucleation initiated by intact and fragmented diatoms can be adequately represented by a modified water activity based ice nucleation theory. A horizontal shift in water activity, Δaw, het = 0.2303, of the ice melting curve can describe median heterogeneous freezing temperatures. Individual freezing temperatures showed no dependence on available diatom surface area and aqueous volume. Determined at median diatom freezing temperatures for aw from 0.8 to 0.99, ωhet~0.11+0.06−0.05 s−1, Jhet~1.0+1.16−0.61×104 cm−2

  12. Pretreatment with hypertonic NaCl protects MDCK cells against high urea concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhofer, W; Müller, E; Burger-Kentischer, A; Fraek, M L; Thurau, K; Beck, F

    1998-02-01

    In antidiuresis, the cells of the renal medulla are exposed to high extracellular concentrations of NaCl and urea. Since urea equilibrates with the intracellular compartment and is known to perturb intracellular macromolecules, high urea concentrations may well disturb the structure and function of cell proteins. Two types of organic substances are believed to counteract the adverse effects of high intracellular urea concentrations: specific organic osmolytes of the trimethylamine family [betaine and glycerophosphorylcholine (GPC)], which accumulate in renal medullary cells during prolonged periods of antidiuresis and cytoprotective heat shock proteins (HSPs), the tissue content of two of which (HSPs 27 and 72) is much higher in the inner medulla than in the iso-osmotic renal cortex. To evaluate the contribution of trimethylamines and HSPs to cytoprotection in the presence of high urea concentrations, the effect of HSP induction and osmolyte accumulation prior to exposure to high urea concentrations was examined in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Accumulation of organic osmolytes and synthesis of HSP27 and HSP72 was initiated by hypertonic stress (increasing the osmolality of the medium from 290 to 600 mosmol/kg H2O by NaCl addition). Control, non-conditioned cells remained in the isotonic medium for the same period. Upon subsequent exposure to an additional 600 mM urea in the medium for 24 h, 90% of the osmotically conditioned cells but only 15% of non-conditioned cells survived. The HSP72 and trimethylamine contents of the NaCl-conditioned MDCK cells, but not HSP27 content, correlated positively with cell survival. To separate the effects of organic osmolytes and HSP72, chronically NaCl-adapted MDCK cells were returned to isotonic medium for 1 or 2 days, so depleting them of trimethylamine osmolytes. HSP72, with its longer half life, remained elevated. Subsequent exposure of these cells to 600 mM urea in the medium resulted in about 80% survival. These

  13. Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation during baking of biscuits: NaCl and temperature-time profile effects and kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels, van der H.J.; Capuano, E.; Nguyen, H.T.; Mogol, B.A.; Kocadagli, T.; Goncuoglu Tas, N.; Hamzalioglu, A.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Gokmen, V.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of recipe and temperature–time on the formation of acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) during biscuit baking. Baking experiments were performed with biscuits of two different recipes, with and without NaCl, at 180 °C, 190 °C and 200 °C.

  14. Systematic UHV-AFM experiments on Na nano-particles and nano-structures in NaCl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sugonyako, A.V.; Turkin, A.A.; Gaynutdinov, R.; Vainshtein, D.I.; Hartog, H.W. den; Bukharaev, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    Results of systematic AFM (atomic force microscopy) experiments on heavily and moderatly irradiated NaCl samples are presented. The sodium nanoparticles and structures of nanoparticles are poduced in sodium chloride during irradiation. The AFM images of the nanoparticles have been obtained in ultra

  15. Synthesis and characterization of AgCl nanoparticles produced by laser ablation of Ag in NaCl solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodi, Afsaneh; Shoorshinie, Seyedeh Zahra; Dorranian, Davoud

    2016-04-01

    In this work, the structural and optical properties of silver chloride nanoparticles produced by laser ablation of Ag plate in NaCl solution were investigated. Five different concentrations of NaCl solution were used as the ablation environment. The beam of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser of 1064 nm wavelength and 7 ns pulse width was employed to irradiate the Ag target in NaCl solutions. Fluence of laser pulse was 1.5 J/cm2, and repetition rate was 5 Hz. Samples were prepared using 1500 pulses. Produced nanoparticles were characterized using UV-visible-NIR absorption, and transmission spectrum, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction pattern, photoluminescence spectrum, and dynamic light scattering method. Results show that laser ablation is a promising method to produce AgCl nanoparticles. Size of nanoparticles, their lattice structure, and bandgap energy as well as the production rate may be controlled by the concentration of NaCl in the ablation environment.

  16. The Effect of NaCl and CMA on the Growth and Morphology of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (Kinnikinnick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane P. Young

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have described the negative effects of the commonly used deicer, NaCl, on plants; this has led to research on less toxic alternatives, for example, calcium magnesium acetate (CMA. The present research investigated the native ground cover species, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (kinnikinnick, as a possible candidate for landscaping in high salt conditions. The effect of NaCl and CMA on the growth, morphology, and survival of A. uva-ursi plants was examined to explore the use of CMA as a potential environmentally friendly alternative deicing agent to that of NaCl. The influence of these deicing agents on selected soil properties was also investigated. It was found that this ground cover species was able to tolerate moderate-to-high levels of NaCl and even greater concentrations of CMA. Therefore, A. uva-ursi proved to be a candidate for landscaping use in a north central city of Canada, where deicing agents are used in winter months.

  17. Hydrochlorothiazide treatment increases the abundance of the NaCl cotransporter in urinary extracellular vesicles of essential hypertensive patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pathare, G.T.; Tutakhel, O.A.Z.; Wel, M.C. van der; Shelton, L.M.; Deinum, J.; Lenders, J.W.M.; Hoenderop, J.G.J.; Bindels, R.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    The thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter (NCC), located apically in distal convoluted tubule epithelia, regulates the fine-tuning of renal sodium excretion. Three isoforms of NCC are generated through alternative splicing of the transcript, of which the third isoform has been the most extensively

  18. Synthesis of NaCl Single Crystals with Defined Morphologies as Templates for Fabricating Hollow Nano/micro-structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, B.B.; Jin, P.; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2015-01-01

    . These naturally abundant NaCl single crystal templates are water-soluble, environmentally-friendly and uniform in both geometry and size, and hence are ideal for preparing high quality hollow nano/micro structures. The new approach may have the potential to replace the conventional hard or soft template...

  19. Effect of NaCl Salts on the Activation Energy of Excited-State Proton Transfer Reaction of Coumarin 183.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Joonyoung F; Kim, Sangin; Park, Sungnam

    2015-12-17

    Coumarin 183 (C183) was used as a photoacid to study excited-state proton transfer (ESPT) reactions. Here, we studied the effect of ions on the ESPT of C183 in aqueous NaCl solutions using a steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy and time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) method. The acid dissociation equilibrium of excited-state C183 and the activation energy for the ESPT of C183 were determined as a function of NaCl concentration. The change in the equilibrium constant was found to be correlated with the solvation energy of deprotonated C183. Frequency-resolved TCSPC signals measured at several temperatures were analyzed by using a global fitting analysis method which enabled us to extract all the rate constants involving the ESPT reaction and the spectra of individual species. The activation energy for the ESPT reaction of C183 was highly dependent on NaCl concentration. Quantum chemical calculations were used to calculate the local hydrogen-bond (H-bond) configurations around C183 in aqueous NaCl solutions. It was found that the activation energy for the ESPT was determined by the local H-bond configurations around C183 which were significantly influenced by the dissolved ions.

  20. [Effects of NaCl stress on the growth, antioxidant enzyme activities and reactive oxygen metabolism of grafted eggplant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng-Lu; Zhu, Yue-Lin; Hu, Chun-Mei; Wei, Guo-Ping; Yang, Li-Fei; Zhang, Gu-Wen

    2007-03-01

    By the method of hydroponics and with the salt-tolerant eggplant cultivar 'Torvum Vigor' (Solanum torvum) from Japan as rootstock and the cultivar 'Suqiqie' (Solanum melongena L. ) as scion, this paper studied the differences between grafted and own-root seedlings in their photosynthetic characteristics, antioxidant enzyme activities, and reactive oxygen metabolism under 80 mmol x L(-1) NaCl stress. The results showed that under NaCl stress, the dry mass, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate of grafted seedlings were 67.8%, 8. 8% and 31.1% higher than those of own-root seedlings, respectively, and the antioxidant enzyme activities were significantly higher while the O2* producing rate and the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondiadehyde (MDA) contents were significantly lower in grafted seedlings leaves than in own-root seedlings. For both grafted and own-root seedlings, NaCl stress reduced the chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate, but increased the O2* producing rate and the H2O2 and MDA contents significantly. However, the growth of grafted seedlings was less affected by NaCl stress. The stronger salt tolerance of grafted eggplant seedlings was related to their higher antioxidant enzyme activities and less oxidative damage.

  1. Effect of concentration of hyaluronic acid and NaCl on corrosion behavior of 316L austenitic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansod, Ankur V.; Khobragade, Nilay N.; Giradkar, Karansagar V.; Patil, Awanikumar P.

    2017-11-01

    Due to low cost and easily available material, 316L stainless steel (SS) is used for biomedical implants. The electrochemical corrosion behavior of 316L (SS) was studied as a function of the concentration of simulated biological fluid (hyaluronic acid), the influence of Cl‑ and the combined effect of NaCl and hyaluronic acid (HA). For the electrochemical tests, potentiodynamic polarization test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were undertaken. With the increase in HA concentration, corrosion rate increases. Whereas, with the addition of NaCl to HA the solution, the corrosion resistance of the sample was enhanced. Also, in pure NaCl solution, the corrosion current density (i corr) increased as compared to bare HA and HA  +  NaCl. This is due to the adhesion property of the HA on the sample surface. EIS result agrees with the findings of potentiodynamic polarization tests. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was executed to analyze the passive film formed in the solution of HA and NaCl on 316L SS. XPS spectra confirms the formation of the passive film containing chromium oxide and hydroxides. Also, the formation of MoO2 helps in improving better corrosion resistance. The peak of nitrogen was observed in the sample immersed in HA solution. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was carried out to analyze the surface morphology.

  2. Alternative splice variant of the thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter: a novel player in renal salt handling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tutakhel, O.A.Z.; Jelen, S.K.; Valdez-Flores, M.; Dimke, H.; Piersma, S.R.; Jimenez, C.R.; Deinum, J.; Lenders, J.W.; Hoenderop, J.G.; Bindels, R.J.

    2016-01-01

    The thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter (NCC) is an important pharmacological target in the treatment of hypertension. The human SLC12A3 gene, encoding NCC, gives rise to three isoforms. Only the third isoform has been extensively investigated. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to

  3. Effect of NaCl, Gum Arabic and Microbial Transglutaminase on the Gel and Emulsion Characteristics of Porcine Myofibrillar Proteins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davaatseren, Munkhtugs; Hong, Geun-Pyo

    2014-01-01

    ...) on the functional properties of porcine myofibrillar protein (MP). As an indicator of functional property, heat-set gel and emulsion characteristics of MP treated with GA and/or TG were explored under varying NaCl concentrations (0.1-0.6 M...

  4. Densities of L-Glutamic Acid HCl Drug in Aqueous NaCl and KCl Solutions at Different Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryshetti, Suresh; Raghuram, Noothi; Rani, Emmadi Jayanthi; Tangeda, Savitha Jyostna

    2016-04-01

    Densities (ρ ) of (0.01 to 0.07) {mol}{\\cdot } {kg}^{-1} L-Glutamic acid HCl (L-HCl) drug in water, and in aqueous NaCl and KCl (0.5 and 1.0) {mol}{\\cdot } {kg}^{-1} solutions have been reported as a function of temperature at T = (298.15, 303.15, 308.15, and 313.15) K and atmospheric pressure. The accurate density (ρ ) values are used to estimate the various parameters such as the apparent molar volume (V_{2,{\\upphi }}), the partial molar volume (V2^{∞}), the isobaric thermal expansion coefficient (α 2), the partial molar expansion (E2^{∞}), and Hepler's constant (partial 2V2^{∞}/partial T2)P. The Cosphere overlap model is used to understand the solute-solvent interactions in a ternary mixture (L-HCl drug + NaCl or KCl + water). Hepler's constant (partial 2V2^{∞}/partial T2)_P is utilized to interpret the structure-making or -breaking ability of L-HCl drug in aqueous NaCl and KCl solutions, and the results are inferred that L-HCl drug acts as a structure maker, i.e., kosmotrope in aqueous NaCl solutions and performs as a structure breaker, i.e., chaotrope in aqueous KCl solutions.

  5. Effect of seed priming with NaCl on salinity tolerance of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L. at seedling stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Khan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to improve the hot pepper seed performance under salinity stress conditions. The effects of priming with an optimized dose (1 mM of sodium chloride (NaCl were assessed for improving seedling vigour and salt stress tolerance in seedlings of the hot pepper. Seeds primed with NaCl solution (1 mM were examined at different salinity levels [0, 3, 6 and 9 dS m-1] in relation to early growth stage. Priming with NaCl was effective in alleviating the adverse effects of salinity. Significant increase in germination percentage, germination index and germination speed, vigour index, plumule and radicle length, and dry weight of the seedlings as compared to control was recorded. On the other hand, mean germination time, time to reach 50% germination and fresh weight of seedlings were non-significant against control. In this experiment, it was concluded that seed priming with NaCl has been found to be better treatment as compared to non-primed seeds in case of hot pepper for improving the seedling vigour and seedling establishment under salt-stressed conditions.

  6. Formation of the sodium 1-D structures in doped NaCl by high energy electron irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherkasov, FG; Mustafin, RG; L'vov, SG; Khaibullin, RI; den Hartog, HW; Vainshtein, DI; Vitol, AY; L’vov, S.G.

    1998-01-01

    An investigation of the formation and properties of linear sodium structures in electron-irradiated potassium doped NaCl crystals was carried out by means of electron spin resonance (ESR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). It has been found that the behavior of ESR and NMR signals depends on the

  7. Extracting Tenebrio molitor protein while preventing browning: effect of pH and NaCl on protein yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yi, L.; Boekel, van T.; Lakemond, C.M.M.

    2017-01-01

    The potential of insects as an alternative protein source for food applications was investigated by studying the effect of pH and NaCl on extraction yield of water-soluble proteins from Tenebrio molitor, while preventing browning due to polyphenol oxidation. Minimum protein solubility (29.6%) was at

  8. Field and laboratory investigations on the effects of road salt (NaCl) on stream macroinvertebrate communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasius, B.J.; Merritt, R.W

    2002-12-01

    Short-term exposure to road salt did not significantly affect stream macro-invertebrate communities. - Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the effects of road salt (NaCl) on stream macroinvertebrates. Field studies investigated leaf litter processing rates and functional feeding group composition at locations upstream and downstream from point source salt inputs in two Michigan, USA streams. Laboratory studies determined the effects of increasing NaCl concentrations on aquatic invertebrate drift, behavior, and survival. Field studies revealed that leaves were processed faster at upstream reference sites than at locations downstream from road salt point source inputs. However, it was sediment loading that resulted in partial or complete burial of leaf packs, that affected invertebrate activity and confounded normal leaf pack colonization. There were no significant differences that could be attributed to road salt between upstream and downstream locations in the diversity and composition of invertebrate functional feeding groups. Laboratory drift and acute exposure studies demonstrated that drift of Gammarus (Amphipoda) may be affected by NaCl at concentrations greater than 5000 mg/l for a 24-h period. This amphipod and two species of limnephilid caddisflies exhibited a dose response to salt treatments with 96-h LC{sub 50} values of 7700 and 3526 mg NaCl/l, respectively. Most other invertebrate species and individuals were unaffected by NaCl concentrations up to 10,000 mg/l for 24 and 96 h, respectively.

  9. Visual Studio 2013 and .NET 4.5 expert cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Sur, Abhishek

    2014-01-01

    If you are a Visual Studio 2013 or .NET developer who would like to sharpen your existing skill set and adapt to new .NET technologies, this is the book for you. A basic understanding of .NET and C# is required.

  10. HANPP Collection: Global Patterns in Net Primary Productivity (NPP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Patterns in Net Primary Productivity (NPP) portion of the Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) Collection maps the net amount of solar...

  11. Hydrogen and oxygen isotope fractionation between brucite and aqueous NaCl solutions from 250 to 450°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccocia, Peter J.; Seewald, Jeffrey S.; Shanks, Wayne C.

    1998-01-01

    Hydrogen and oxygen isotope fractionation factors between brucite and aqueous NaCl solutions (1000lnαbr-sw) have been calibrated by experiment from 250 to 450°C at 0.5 Kb. For D/H fractionation, 1000lnα br-sw values are as follows: −32 ± 6‰ (250°C, 3.2 wt% NaCl), −21 ± 2‰ (350°C, 10.0 wt% NaCl), and −22 ± 2‰ (450°C, 3.2 wt% NaCl), indicating that brucite is depleted in D relative to coexisting aqueous NaCl solutions. These results are in good agreement with previous D/H fractionation factors determined in the brucite-water system, indicating that any effects of dissolved salt on D/H fractionation are relatively small, particularly in solutions with near seawater salinity. The maximum salt effect (+4‰) was observed in 10.0 wt% NaCl solutions at 350°C, suggesting that the addition of dissolved NaCl increases the amount of deuterium fractionated into mineral structures. For 18O/16O fractionation, 1000lnαbr-sw values in 3.0 wt% NaCl solutions are −6.0 ± 1.3‰, −5.6 ± 0.7‰ and −4.1 ± 0.2‰, at 250, 350, and 450°C, respectively, and −5.8 ± 0.6‰ in 10.0 wt % NaCl at 350°C. These data indicate that brucite is depleted in 18O relative to coexisting aqueous NaCl solutions and that the degree of depletion decreases slightly with increasing temperature and is not strongly dependent on salinity. We calculated 18O/16O brucite-water fractionation factors from available calibrations of the salt-effect on 18O/16O fractionation between coexisting phases. The resulting values were fit to the following equation that is valid from 250 to 450°C 1000ln αbr-w = 9.54 × 106T−2 − 3.53 × 104T−1 + 26.58 where T is temperature in Kelvins. These new data have been used to improve the prediction of 18O/16O fractionation factors in the talc-water and serpentine-water systems by modifying existing empirical bond-water models. The results of this analysis indicate that the δ18O composition of talc-brucite and serpentine

  12. ASP.NET web API build RESTful web applications and services on the .NET framework

    CERN Document Server

    Kanjilal, Joydip

    2013-01-01

    This book is a step-by-step, practical tutorial with a simple approach to help you build RESTful web applications and services on the .NET framework quickly and efficiently.This book is for ASP.NET web developers who want to explore REST-based services with C# 5. This book contains many real-world code examples with explanations whenever necessary. Some experience with C# and ASP.NET 4 is expected.

  13. Thermoluminescence and F centers of manganese doped NaCl and NaCl-CKl crystals exposed to gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somera, L.; Cruz Z, E.; Roman L, J. [UNAM, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Hernandez A, J. M.; Murrieta S, H., E-mail: ecruz@nucleares.unam.mx [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Alkali halides crystals doped with rare earths or transition metals have been widely studied due to the luminescence properties. In particular, NaCl and KCl single crystals present thermally stimulated luminescence (Tl) after gamma irradiation. The NaCl and the NaCl KCl mixed crystal doped with manganese (MnCl{sub 2}) impurity were grown by using the Czochralski method. The emission characteristic of Mn{sup 2+} was observed at 543 nm. The crystals were exposed between 0.02 and 10 kGy gamma dose from {sup 60}Co irradiator. Optical absorption at room temperature shows the peaked band at 452 nm corresponding to the manganese impurity. The F bands, was ascribed to the electron trapped in the anion vacancy in the lattice, were obtained at 452 nm and 455 nm belonging to NaCl:Mn and NaCl KCl:Mn, respectively. The F band increases as the doses increase and it was bleaching by the UV light at 470 nm. The glow curves of the samples show the first glow peak between 92-103 degrees C, while the second main peak was observed at 183 degrees C for the undoped NaCl and at 148 and 165 degrees C for the NaCl:Mn and NaCl-KCl:Mn, respectively. The main peak was slowly bleaching when the irradiated sample was illuminated with F (470 nm) light. Optical bleaching confirms that the F center has an important participation in the thermoluminescent response. The glow curves structure from the thermal bleaching suggests the participation of different kind of traps. Also, the kinetics parameters such as activation energy (E), frequency factor (s) and the kinetic order (b) were investigated. (Author)

  14. Activity of two histidine decarboxylases from Photobacterium phosphoreum at different temperatures, pHs, and NaCl concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morii, Hideaki; Kasama, Kentaro

    2004-08-01

    The major causative agent of scombroid poisoning is histamine formed by bacterial decarboxylation of histidine. The authors reported previously that histamine was exclusively formed by the psychrotrophic halophilic bacteria Photobacterium phosphoreum in scombroid fish during storage at or below 10 degrees C. Moreover, histamine-forming ability was affected by two histidine decarboxylases: constitutive and inducible enzymes. This article reports the effect of various growth and reaction conditions, such as temperature, pH, and NaCl concentration, on the activity of two histidine decarboxylases that were isolated and separated by gel chromatography from cell-free extracts of P. phosphoreum. The histidine decarboxylase activity of the cell-free extracts was highest in 7 degrees C culture; in 5% NaCl, culture growth was inhibited, and growth was best in the culture grown at pH 6.0. Moreover, percent activity of the constitutive and inducible enzymes was highest for the inducible enzyme in cultures grown at 7 degrees C and pH 7.5 and in 5% NaCl. The temperature and pH dependences of histidine decarboxylase differed between the constitutive and inducible enzymes; that is, the activity of histidine decarboxylases was optimum at 30 degrees C and pH 6.5 for the inducible enzyme and 40 degrees C and pH 6.0 for the constitutive enzyme. The differences in the temperature and pH dependences between the two enzymes extended the activity range of histidine decarboxylase under reaction conditions. On the other hand, histidine decarboxylase activity was optimum in 0% NaCl for the two enzymes. Additionally, the effects of reaction temperature, pH, and NaCl concentration on the constitutive enzyme activity of the cell-free extracts were almost the same as those on the whole histidine decarboxylase activity of the cell-free extracts, suggesting that the constitutive enzyme activity reflected the whole histidine decarboxylase activity.

  15. Defense potentials to NaCl in a mangrove, Bruguiera parviflora: differential changes of isoforms of some antioxidative enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parida, Asish Kumar; Das, Anath Bandhu; Mohanty, Prasanna

    2004-05-01

    In order to assess the role of the antioxidative defense system against salt treatment, the activities of some antioxidative enzymes and levels of antioxidants were monitored in a true mangrove, Bruguiera parviflora, subjected to varying levels of NaCl under hydroponic culture. In the leaves of B. parviflora, salt treatment preferentially enhanced the content of H2O2 as well as the activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), whereas it induced the decrease of total ascorbate and glutathione (GSH+GSSG) content as well as catalase (CAT) activity. Analysis of isoforms of antioxidative enzymes by native PAGE and activity staining revealed that leaves of B. parviflora had one isoform each of Mn-SOD and Cu/Zn-SOD and three isoforms of Fe-SOD. Expression of Mn-SOD and Fe-SOD-2 was preferentially elevated by NaCl. Similarly, out of the six isoforms of GPX, the GPX-1, 2, 3 and 6 were enhanced by salt treatment but the levels of GPX-4 and -5 changed minimally as compared to those of a control. Activity staining gel revealed only one prominent isoform of APX and two isoforms of GR (GR-1 and GR-2), all of these isoforms increased upon salt exposure. Four CAT-isoforms were identified, among which the prominent CAT-2 isoform level was maximally reduced, suggesting differential down regulation of CAT isoforms by NaCl. The concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), a product of lipid peroxidation, remained unchanged in leaves of the plant treated with different concentrations of NaCl. This suggests that plants are protected against activated oxygen species by the elevated levels of certain antioxidative enzymes, thus avoiding lipid peroxidation during salt exposure. The differential changes in the levels of the isoforms due to NaCl treatment may be useful as markers for recognizing salt tolerance in mangroves.

  16. The effects of temperature and NaCl concentration on tetragonal lysozyme face growth rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Elizabeth; Pusey, Marc Lee

    1994-01-01

    Measurements were made of the (110) and (101) face growth rates of the tetragonal form of hen egg white lysozyme at 0.1M sodium acetate buffer, pH 4.0, from 4 to 22 C and with 3.0%, 5.0%, and 7.0% NaCl used as the precipitating salt. The data were collected at supersaturation ratios ranging from approximately 4 to approximately 63. Both decreasing temperature and increasing salt concentrations shifted plots of the growth rate versus C/C(sat) to the right, i.e. higher supersaturations were required for comparable growth rates. The observed trends in the growth data are counter to those expected from the solubility data. If tetragonal lysozyme crystal growth is by addition of ordered aggregates from the solution, then the observed growth data could be explained as a result of the effects of lowered temperature and increased salt concentration on the kinetics and equilibrium processes governing protein-protein interactions in solution. The data indicate that temperature would be a more tractable means of controlling the growth rate for tetragonal lysozyme crystals contrary to the usual practice in, e.g., vapor diffusion protein crystal growth, where both the precipitant and protein concentrations are simultaneously increased. However, the available range for control is dependent upon the protein concentration, with the greatest growth rate control being at the lower concentration.

  17. Reptation Quantum Monte Carlo calculation of charge transfer: The Na-Cl dimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yi; Kanai, Yosuke

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of ion pairing in aqueous solutions is of widespread importance in chemistry and physics, and charge transfer between the ions plays a significant role. We examine the performance of quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) calculations for describing the charge transfer behavior in a NaCl dimer. The influence of the fermion nodes is investigated by obtaining the electron density using the reptation Monte Carlo approach. The fermion nodes are given by single-particle orbitals in Slater-Jastrow trial wavefunctions. We consider the single-particle orbitals from Hartree-Fock and density functional theory calculations with several exchange-correlation approximations. Appreciable dependence of the charge transfer on the fixed-node approximation was found although the total energy was found to be rather insensitive. Our work shows that a careful examination of the fixed-node approximation is necessary for quantifying charge transfer in QMC calculations even when other properties such as reaction energetics are insensitive to the approximation.

  18. Ion disturbance and clustering in the NaCl water solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Xia; Zhao, Dong-Xia

    2013-02-01

    Ion clustering and the solvation properties in the NaCl solutions are explored by molecular dynamics simulations with several popular force fields. The existence of ions has a negligible disturbance to the hydrogen bond structures and rotational mobility of water beyond the first ion solvation shells, which is suggested by the local hydrogen bond structures and the rotation times of water. The potential of mean force (PMF) of ion pair in the dilute solution presents a consistent view with the populations of ion clusters in the electrolyte solutions. The aggregation level of ions is sensitive to the force field used in the simulations. The ion-ion interaction potential plays an important role in the forming of the contact ion pair. The entropy of water increases as the ion pair approaches each other and the association of ion pair is driven by the increment of water entropy according to the results from the selected force fields. The kinetic transition from the single solvent separated state to the contact ion pair is controlled by the enthalpy loss of solution.

  19. Controllable synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles in porous NaCl matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurapov, Yury A.; E Litvin, Stanislav; Romanenko, Sergey M.; Didikin, Gennadii G.; Oranskaya, Elena I.

    2017-03-01

    The paper gives the results of studying the structure of porous condensates of Fe + NaCl composition, chemical and phase compositions and dimensions of nanoparticles produced from the vapor phase by EB-PVD. Iron nanoparticles at fast removal from the vacuum oxidize in air and possess significant sorption capacity relative to oxygen and moisture. At heating in air, reduction of porous condensate weight occurs right to the temperature of 650 °C, primarily, due to desorption of physically sorbed moisture. Final oxidation of Fe3O4 to Fe2O3 proceeds in the range of 380 °C-650 °C, due to the remaining fraction of physically adsorbed oxygen. At iron concentrations of up to 10-15 at%, condensate sorption capacity is markedly increased with increase of iron concentration, i.e. of the quantity of fine particles. Increase of condensation temperature is accompanied by increase of nanoparticle size, resulting in a considerable reduction of the total area of nanoparticle surface, and, hence of their sorption capacity. In addition to condensation temperature, the size and phase composition of nanoparticles can also be controlled by heat treatment of initial condensate, produced at low condensation temperatures. Magnetite nanoparticles can be transferred into stable colloid systems.

  20. Effects of NaCl on metabolic heat evolution rates by barley roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criddle, R. S.; Hansen, L. D.; Breidenbach, R. W.; Ward, M. R.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of salinity stress on metabolic heat output of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) root tips was measured by isothermal microcalorimetry. Several varieties differing in tolerance to salinity were compared and differences quantified. Two levels of inhibition by increasing salt were found. Following the transition from the initial rate of the first level, inhibition remained at about 50% with further increases in salt concentration up to 150 millimolar. The concentration of salt required to inhibit to this level was cultivar dependent. At highter concentrations (>150 millimolar) of salt, metabolism was further decreased. This decrease was not cultivar dependent. The decreased rate of metabolic heat output at the first transition could be correlated with decreases in uptake of NO3-, NH4+, and Pi that occurred as the salt concentration was increased. The high degree of dependence of the inhibition of metabolic heat output on NaCl concentration points to a highly cooperative reaction responsible for the general inhibition of metabolism and nutrient uptake. The time required to attain the first level of salt inhibition is less than 20 minutes. Inhibition of root tips was not reversible by washing with salt free solutions. In addition to revealing these features of salt inhibition, isothermal microcalorimetry is a promising method for convenient and rapid determination of varietal differences in response to increasing salinity.

  1. Temperature dependence of ion diffusion coefficients in NaCl electrolyte confined within graphene nanochannels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Jing; Bo, Zheng; Yang, Huachao; Yang, Jinyuan; Shuai, Xiaorui; Yan, Jianhua; Cen, Kefa

    2017-03-15

    The behavior of ion diffusion in nano-confined spaces and its temperature dependence provide important fundamental information about electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) employing nano-sized active materials. In this work, the ion diffusion coefficients of NaCl electrolyte confined within neutral and charged graphene nanochannels at different temperatures are investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. The results show that ions confined in neutral nanochannels diffuse faster (along the graphene surfaces) than those in bulk solution, which could be attributed to the relatively smaller concentration in confined spaces and the solvophobic nature of graphene surfaces. In charged nanochannels where the electrostatic interactions between counter-ions and charged channel surfaces govern the motion of ions, the diffusion coefficients are found to be lower than those in the neutral counterparts. The increase of temperature will lead to enhanced vibrant thermal motion of ions. Due to the significant role of ion-surface interactions, ion diffusion coefficients in nano-confined spaces are more stable, that is, insensitive to the temperature variation, than those in bulk solution. The electrical conductivity is further estimated using the Nernst-Einstein equation. The findings of the current work could provide basic data and information for research studies on the thermal effects of graphene-based EDLCs.

  2. Nucleation and growth of sodium colloids in NaCl under irradiation: theory and experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubinko, V.I.; Turkin, A.A.; Abyzov, A.S. [National Science Center, Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, 310108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Sugonyako, A.V.; Vainshtein, D.I.; Hartog, H.W. den [Solid State Physics Laboratory, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, NL-9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    A mechanism of radiation-induced emission of Schottky defects from extended defects proposed originally for metals has recently been applied to ionic crystals, where it is based on interactions of excitons with extended defects such as dislocations and colloids. Exciton trapping and decay at colloids may result in the emission of F centers and consequent shrinkage of the colloid. In the present paper, the radiation-induced emission of F centers is taken into account in the modeling of nucleation and growth of sodium colloids and chlorine bubbles in NaCl exposed to electron or gamma irradiation. The evolution of colloid and bubble number densities and volume fractions with increasing irradiation dose is modeled in the framework of a modified rate theory and compared with experimental data. Experimental values of the colloid volume fractions and number densities have been estimated on the basis of latent heat of melting of metallic Na obtained with combined differential scanning calorimetry experiments and atomic force microscopy investigations of metallic clusters. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Electrical conductance of a sandstone partially saturated with varying concentrations of NaCl solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umezawa, R.; Nishiyama, N.; Katsura, M.; Nakashima, S.

    2017-05-01

    Electrical conductance G at 100 kHz of Berea sandstone initially saturated with varying NaCl concentrations was measured by an impedance meter at decreasing water saturation. The obtained conductance G values can be well simulated by the model equation composed of conductance of bulk pore water and that of mineral surfaces by introducing both tortuosities of bulk pore water τb and mineral surfaces τs. The surface conductivity Σs = 2.1 × 10- 10 S and the tortuosity of mineral surfaces τs = 2.6 in this equation can be valid for most of the data at varying water saturation except for the lowest water saturation (Sw = 0.05). The tortuosity of pore water τb increased from 1.7 at Sw = 1.0 to 15 at Sw = 0.05 with a power law relationship. The present electrical conduction model with double tortuosities of bulk pore water τb and mineral surfaces τs can be considered as an alternative expression of the combined Archie's first and second laws in terms of tortuosities and would be useful for describing conductance of electrolyte containing partially saturated rocks including very low water saturation.

  4. Hygroscopic Behavior of Multicomponent Aerosols Involving NaCl and Dicarboxylic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chao; Jing, Bo; Guo, Yu-Cong; Zhang, Yun-Hong; Ge, Mao-Fa

    2016-02-25

    Atmospheric aerosols are usually complex mixtures of inorganic and organic compounds. The hygroscopicity of mixed particles is closely related to their chemical composition and interactions between components, which is still poorly understood. In this study, the hygroscopic properties of submicron particles composed of NaCl and dicarboxylic acids including oxalic acid (OA), malonic acid (MA), and succinic acid (SA) with various mass ratios are investigated with a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) system. Both the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) method and extended aerosol inorganics model (E-AIM) are applied to predict the water uptake behaviors of sodium chloride/dicarboxylic acid mixtures. For NaCl/OA mixed particles, the measured growth factors were significantly lower than predictions from the model methods, indicating a change in particle composition caused by chloride depletion. The hygroscopic growth of NaCl/MA particles was well described by E-AIM, and that of NaCl/SA particles was dependent upon mixing ratio. Compared with model predictions, it was determined that water uptake of the NaCl/OA mixture could be enhanced and could be closer to the predictions by addition of levoglucosan or malonic acid, which retained water even at low relative humidity (RH), leading to inhibition of HCl evaporation during dehydration. These results demonstrate that the coexisting hygroscopic species have a strong influence on the phase state of particles, thus affecting chemical interactions between inorganic and organic compounds as well as the overall hygroscopicity of mixed particles.

  5. The effects of temperature and NaCl concentration on tetragonal lysozyme face growth rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Elizabeth; Lee Pusey, Marc

    1994-05-01

    Measurements were made of the (110) and (101) face growth rates of the tetragonal form of hen egg white lysozyme at 0.1M sodium acetate buffer, pH 4.0, from 4 to 22°C and with 3.0%, 5.0%, and 7.0% NaCl used as the precipitating salt. The data were collected at supersaturation ratios ranging from ˜4 to ˜63. Both decreasing temperature and increasing salt concentrations shifted plots of the growth rate versus C/ Csat to the right, i.e. higher supersaturations were required for comparable growth rates. The observed trends in the growth data are counter to those expected from the solubility data. If tetragonal lysozyme crystal growth is by addition of ordered aggregates from the solution, then the observed growth data could be explained as a result of the effects of lowered temperature and increased salt concentration on the kinetics and equilibrium processes governing protein-protein interactions in solution. The data indicate that temperature would be a more tractable means of controlling the growth rate for tetragonal lysozyme crystals contrary to the usual practice in, e.g., vapor diffusion protein crystal growth, where both the precipitant and protein concentrations are simultaneously increased. However, the available range for control is dependent upon the protein concentration, with the greatest growth rate control being at the lower concentration.

  6. Freeze-out conditions from net-proton and net-charge fluctuations at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alba, Paolo; Alberico, Wanda [Department of Physics, Torino University and INFN, Sezione di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Bellwied, Rene [Department of Physics, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Bluhm, Marcus [Department of Physics, Torino University and INFN, Sezione di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Mantovani Sarti, Valentina [Department of Physics, Torino University and INFN, Sezione di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Nahrgang, Marlene [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708-0305 (United States); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Ratti, Claudia [Department of Physics, Torino University and INFN, Sezione di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2014-11-10

    We calculate ratios of higher-order susceptibilities quantifying fluctuations in the number of net-protons and in the net-electric charge using the Hadron Resonance Gas (HRG) model. We take into account the effect of resonance decays, the kinematic acceptance cuts in rapidity, pseudo-rapidity and transverse momentum used in the experimental analysis, as well as a randomization of the isospin of nucleons in the hadronic phase. By comparing these results to the latest experimental data from the STAR Collaboration, we determine the freeze-out conditions from net-electric charge and net-proton distributions and discuss their consistency.

  7. Interaction of antidepressants with the serotonin and norepinephrine transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lena; Andersen, Jacob; Thomsen, Mette

    2012-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) and the norepinephrine transporter (NET) are sodium-dependent neurotransmitter transporters responsible for reuptake of released serotonin and norepinephrine, respectively, into nerve terminals in the brain. A wide range of inhibitors of SERT and NET are used...... as treatment of depression and anxiety disorders or as psychostimulant drugs of abuse. Despite their clinical importance, the molecular mechanisms by which various types of antidepressant drugs bind and inhibit SERT and NET are still elusive for the majority of the inhibitors, including the molecular basis...

  8. Modest net autotrophy in the oligotrophic ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letscher, Robert T.; Moore, J. Keith

    2017-04-01

    The metabolic state of the oligotrophic subtropical ocean has long been debated. Net community production (NCP) represents the balance of autotrophic carbon fixation with heterotrophic respiration. Many in vitro NCP estimates based on oxygen incubation methods and the corresponding scaling relationships used to predict the ecosystem metabolic balance have suggested the ocean gyres to be net heterotrophic; however, all in situ NCP methods find net autotrophy. Reconciling net heterotrophy requires significant allochthonous inputs of organic carbon to the oligotrophic gyres to sustain a preponderance of respiration over in situ production. Here we use the first global ecosystem-ocean circulation model that contains representation of the three allochthonous carbon sources to the open ocean, to show that the five oligotrophic gyres exhibit modest net autotrophy throughout the seasonal cycle. Annually integrated rates of NCP vary in the range 1.5-2.2 mol O2 m-2 yr-1 across the five gyre systems; however, seasonal NCP rates are as low as 1 ± 0.5 mmol O2 m-2 d-1 for the North Atlantic. Volumetric NCP rates are heterotrophic below the 10% light level; however, they become net autotrophic when integrated over the euphotic zone. Observational uncertainties when measuring these modest autotrophic NCP rates as well as the metabolic diversity encountered across space and time complicate the scaling up of in vitro measurements to the ecosystem scale and may partially explain the previous reports of net heterotrophy. The oligotrophic ocean is autotrophic at present; however, it could shift toward seasonal heterotrophy in the future as rising temperatures stimulate respiration.

  9. The Asian Dust and Aerosol Lidar Observation Network (AD-NET: Strategy and Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishizawa Tomoaki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have operated a ground-based lidar network AD-Net using dual wavelength (532, 1064nm depolarization Mie lidar continuously and observed movement of Asian dust and air pollution aerosols in East Asia since 2001. This lidar network observation contributed to understanding of the occurrence and transport mechanisms of Asian dust, validation of chemical transport models, data assimilation and epidemiologic studies. To better understand the optical and microphysical properties, externally and internally mixing states, and the movements of Asian dust and airpollution aerosols, we go forward with introducing a multi-wavelength Raman lidar to the AD-Net and developing a multi-wavelength technique of HSRL in order to evaluate optical concentrations of more aerosol components. We will use this evolving AD-Net for validation of Earth-CARE satellite observation and data assimilation to evaluate emissions of air pollution and dust aerosols in East Asia. We go forward with deploying an in-situ instrument polarization optical particle counter (POPC, which can measure size distributions and non-sphericity of aerosols, to several main AD-Net sites and conducting simultaneous observation of POPC and lidar to clarify internally mixed state of Asian dust and air pollution aerosols transported from the Asian continent to Japan.

  10. Effects of Nutrient and NaCl Salinity on Growth, Yield, Quality and Composition of Pepper Grown in Soilless Closed System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giuffrida, F.; Graziani, G.; Fogliano, V.; Scuderia, D.; Romano, D.; Leonardi, C.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of nutrient or sodium chloride (NaCl) salinity on pepper grown in closed soilless culture systems were studied. A control (2 dS m-1) and two saline nutrient solutions (4 dS m-1) differing in the salt sources (fertilizers or NaCl) were studied. Shoot biomass production as well as total

  11. A model of airport security work flow based on petri net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xinming

    2017-09-01

    Extremely long lines at airports in the United States have been sharply criticized. In order to find out the bottleneck in the existing security system and put forward reasonable improvement plans and proposal, the Petri net model and the Markov Chain are introduced in this paper. This paper uses data collected by transportation Security Agency (TSA), assuming the data can represent the average level of all airports in the Unites States, to analysis the performance of security check system. By calculating the busy probabilities and the utilization probabilities, the bottleneck is found. Moreover, recommendation is given based on the parameters’ modification in Petri net model.

  12. SOCIAL NET: A CASE STUDY OF THE UNIVERSITY NET OF POPULAR COOPERATIVES TECHNOLOGICAL INCUBATORS (PCTIS NET FROM THE INTERACTION AMONG THE INCUBATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Matos Pereira Lopes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this assignment was to identify if the University Net of Popular Cooperatives Technological Incubators (PCTIs Net is a social net. The research was an exploratory nature study with descriptive character, the technical procedure of the present research was the case study. The questionnaire was applied in 82% of the incubators belonging to the PCTIs Net, and interviews. The information acquired through the questionnaire was gathered and tabulated to compose the characterization of the net incubators and the social analyzer. With the Pajek program was created the social analyzer and the centralizing box. Was performed to compare the results with previous work Rennó et al. (2010 proposed that the same goal using a different approach. Ending the analysis guided by the characteristics of a social net, it was observed that the PCTIs Net is a social net, however it was emphasized that the existing communication is a point where the net needs to be fortified.

  13. Activation of PAD4 in NET formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda eRohrbach

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Peptidyl arginine deiminases, or PADs, convert arginine residues to the non-ribosomally encoded amino acid citrulline in a variety of protein substrates. PAD4 is expressed in granulocytes and is essential for the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs via PAD4-mediated histone citrullination. Citrullination of histones is thought to promote NET formation by inducing chromatin decondensation and facilitating the expulsion of chromosomal DNA that is coated with antimicrobial molecules. Numerous stimuli have been reported to lead to PAD4 activation and NET formation. However, how this signaling process proceeds and how PAD4 becomes activated in cells is largely unknown. Herein, we describe the various stimuli and signaling pathways that have been implicated in PAD4 activation and NET formation, including the role of reactive oxygen species generation. To provide a foundation for the above discussion, we first describe PAD4 structure and function, and how these studies led to the development of PAD-specific inhibitors. A comprehensive survey of the receptors and signaling pathways that regulate PAD4 activation will be important for our understanding of innate immunity, and the identification of signaling intermediates in PAD4 activation may also lead to the generation of pharmaceuticals to target NET-related pathogenesis.

  14. The net charge at interfaces between insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristowe, N. C.; Littlewood, P. B.; Artacho, Emilio

    2011-03-01

    The issue of the net charge at insulating oxide interfaces is briefly reviewed with the ambition of dispelling myths of such charges being affected by covalency and related charge density effects. For electrostatic analysis purposes, the net charge at such interfaces is defined by the counting of discrete electrons and core ion charges, and by the definition of the reference polarization of the separate, unperturbed bulk materials. The arguments are illustrated for the case of a thin film of LaAlO3 over SrTiO3 in the absence of free carriers, for which the net charge is exactly 0.5e per interface formula unit, if the polarization response in both materials is referred to zero bulk values. Further consequences of the argument are extracted for structural and chemical alterations of such interfaces, in which internal rearrangements are distinguished from extrinsic alterations (changes of stoichiometry, redox processes), only the latter affecting the interfacial net charge. The arguments are reviewed alongside the proposal of Stengel and Vanderbilt (2009 Phys. Rev. B 80 241103) of using formal polarization values instead of net interfacial charges, based on the interface theorem of Vanderbilt and King-Smith (1993 Phys. Rev. B 48 4442-55). Implications for non-centrosymmetric materials are discussed, as well as for interfaces for which the charge mismatch is an integer number of polarization quanta.

  15. Automating Ontological Annotation with WordNet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Chappell, Alan R.; Whitney, Paul D.; Posse, Christian; Paulson, Patrick R.; Baddeley, Bob L.; Hohimer, Ryan E.; White, Amanda M.

    2006-01-22

    Semantic Web applications require robust and accurate annotation tools that are capable of automating the assignment of ontological classes to words in naturally occurring text (ontological annotation). Most current ontologies do not include rich lexical databases and are therefore not easily integrated with word sense disambiguation algorithms that are needed to automate ontological annotation. WordNet provides a potentially ideal solution to this problem as it offers a highly structured lexical conceptual representation that has been extensively used to develop word sense disambiguation algorithms. However, WordNet has not been designed as an ontology, and while it can be easily turned into one, the result of doing this would present users with serious practical limitations due to the great number of concepts (synonym sets) it contains. Moreover, mapping WordNet to an existing ontology may be difficult and requires substantial labor. We propose to overcome these limitations by developing an analytical platform that (1) provides a WordNet-based ontology offering a manageable and yet comprehensive set of concept classes, (2) leverages the lexical richness of WordNet to give an extensive characterization of concept class in terms of lexical instances, and (3) integrates a class recognition algorithm that automates the assignment of concept classes to words in naturally occurring text. The ensuing framework makes available an ontological annotation platform that can be effectively integrated with intelligence analysis systems to facilitate evidence marshaling and sustain the creation and validation of inference models.

  16. Ontological Annotation with WordNet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Chappell, Alan R.; Whitney, Paul D.; Posse, Christian; Paulson, Patrick R.; Baddeley, Bob; Hohimer, Ryan E.; White, Amanda M.

    2006-06-06

    Semantic Web applications require robust and accurate annotation tools that are capable of automating the assignment of ontological classes to words in naturally occurring text (ontological annotation). Most current ontologies do not include rich lexical databases and are therefore not easily integrated with word sense disambiguation algorithms that are needed to automate ontological annotation. WordNet provides a potentially ideal solution to this problem as it offers a highly structured lexical conceptual representation that has been extensively used to develop word sense disambiguation algorithms. However, WordNet has not been designed as an ontology, and while it can be easily turned into one, the result of doing this would present users with serious practical limitations due to the great number of concepts (synonym sets) it contains. Moreover, mapping WordNet to an existing ontology may be difficult and requires substantial labor. We propose to overcome these limitations by developing an analytical platform that (1) provides a WordNet-based ontology offering a manageable and yet comprehensive set of concept classes, (2) leverages the lexical richness of WordNet to give an extensive characterization of concept class in terms of lexical instances, and (3) integrates a class recognition algorithm that automates the assignment of concept classes to words in naturally occurring text. The ensuing framework makes available an ontological annotation platform that can be effectively integrated with intelligence analysis systems to facilitate evidence marshaling and sustain the creation and validation of inference models.

  17. Development of net cage acoustic alarm system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Shih-Wei; Wei, Ruey-Chang

    2004-05-01

    In recent years, the fishery production has been drastically decreased in Taiwan, mainly due to overfishing and coast pollution; therefore, fishermen and corporations are encouraged by government to invest in ocean net cage aquaculture. However, the high-price fishes in the net cage are often coveted, so incidences of fish stealing and net cage breaking were found occasionally, which cause great economical loss. Security guards or a visual monitoring system has limited effect, especially in the night when these intrusions occur. This study is based on acoustic measure to build a net cage alarm system, which includes the sonobuoy and monitor station on land. The sonobuoy is a passive sonar that collects the sounds near the net cage and transmits the suspected signal to the monitor station. The signals are analyzed by the control program on the personal computer in the monitor station, and the alarms at different stages could be activated by the sound levels and durations of the analyzed data. To insure long hours of surveillance, a solar panel is applied to charge the battery, and a photodetector is used to activate the system.

  18. The NeuroDevNet vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldowitz, Dan; McArthur, Dawn

    2011-03-01

    The NeuroDevNet Network of Centres of Excellence has created the first trans-Canada effort devoted to the study of brain development from basic to clinical to societal perspectives. NeuroDevNet's vision is to accelerate efforts to (i) understand normal brain development; (ii) enhance our ability to make diagnoses of when normal development goes awry; and (iii) develop interventions to improve or prevent neurodevelopmental disorders. An early diagnosis coupled with the right therapies, The NeuroDevNet Network of Centres of Excellence has created the first trans-Canada effort devoted to the study of brain development from basic to clinical to societal perspectives. NeuroDevNet's vision is to accelerate efforts to (i) understand normal brain development; (ii) enhance our ability to make diagnoses of when normal development goes awry; and (iii) develop interventions to improve or prevent neurodevelopmental disorders. An early diagnosis coupled with the right therapies, Demonstration Projects. Funds were also allocated for an Opportunities Initiative. There is a wide of expertise amongst NeuroDevNet members. Researchers are supported by the management centre, three Platforms (Imaging; Genetics/ Epigenetics; Animal Models) and three Cores (Neuroethics; Neuroinformatics; Knowledge Translation). We emphasize multidisciplinary training of young researchers to advance the understanding of brain disorders that affect children. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The net charge at interfaces between insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bristowe, N C; Littlewood, P B [Theory of Condensed Matter Group, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Artacho, Emilio, E-mail: ncb30@cam.ac.uk [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EQ (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-02

    The issue of the net charge at insulating oxide interfaces is briefly reviewed with the ambition of dispelling myths of such charges being affected by covalency and related charge density effects. For electrostatic analysis purposes, the net charge at such interfaces is defined by the counting of discrete electrons and core ion charges, and by the definition of the reference polarization of the separate, unperturbed bulk materials. The arguments are illustrated for the case of a thin film of LaAlO{sub 3} over SrTiO{sub 3} in the absence of free carriers, for which the net charge is exactly 0.5e per interface formula unit, if the polarization response in both materials is referred to zero bulk values. Further consequences of the argument are extracted for structural and chemical alterations of such interfaces, in which internal rearrangements are distinguished from extrinsic alterations (changes of stoichiometry, redox processes), only the latter affecting the interfacial net charge. The arguments are reviewed alongside the proposal of Stengel and Vanderbilt (2009 Phys. Rev. B 80 241103) of using formal polarization values instead of net interfacial charges, based on the interface theorem of Vanderbilt and King-Smith (1993 Phys. Rev. B 48 4442-55). Implications for non-centrosymmetric materials are discussed, as well as for interfaces for which the charge mismatch is an integer number of polarization quanta. (viewpoint)

  20. [Physiological responses of different cucumber cultivars seedlings to iso-osmotic Mg (NO3) 2 and NaCl stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qi-wei; Li, Li-bin; Kong, Su-ping; Qiu, An; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Yun-nan; Sun, Xiao-lei

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the effects of iso-osmotic solution of Mg (NO3) 2 and NaCl on seedling growth, leaf lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities, and osmotic adjustment substance accumulation were investigated using three cucumber cultivars with different ecotypes. Then salt tolerance was evaluated by membership function method. The results revealed that under the stress of 60 and 80 mmol x L(-1) Mg(NO3) 2 solution and its isotonic 90 and 120 mmol x L(-1) NaCl solution, the seedling traits such as height, stem diameter, leaf area, fresh and dry mass of aerial part and underground parts, and antioxidant enzymes activity were obviously decreased with the increasing concentration of Mg( NO3)2 and its isotonic NaCl in the three cucumber cultivars. Moreover, the inhibitory effects became more obvious with the increasing concentration of either Mg(NO3)2 or NaCl solution. MDA content and membrane lipid peroxidation were enhanced in cucumber seedlings. Among the three cultivars, SJ31-1 changed less than the other two cultivars regarding the reduced amplitudes of biomass, and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT), and the increased amplitude of MDA. In addition, Mg (NO3)2 solution inhibited seedling growth more strongly than isotonic NaCl solution did, such difference was relatively significant with increasing the concentration of solution. The contents of proline, soluble amino acids, and soluble sugars varied depending on the cucumber genotype and salt type. The increased amplitude of proline content was the largest in SJ31-1, and that of soluble sugars was the largest in Lubai 19 when growing under salt treatment. The change of these parameters in Xintaimici was in between. Soluble sugars and soluble proteins were predominant osmolytes unde NaCl stress, whereas proline and soluble proteins were main osmolytes under Mg (NO3) 2 stress. Comprehensive evaluation showed that salt tolerance of the three cucumber cultivars was in order

  1. Salinity tolerance of halophyte Atriplex nummularia L. grown under increasing NaCl levels Tolerância à salinidade da halófita Atriplex nummularia L. cultivada em níveis crescentes de NaCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro A.M. de Araújo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study reports effects of salt stress on growth, K+ nutrition and organic composition of Atriplex nummularia. The upper limit of the NaCl gradient imposed on the plants was close to seawater salinity (600 mM. An external NaCl of 150 mM improved the growth of this species, which corroborates its halophytic nature. Evidence show that Atriplex nummularia was responsive to NaCl, but the mechanisms of this response are still not known. In such stress condition, Na+ and Cl- accumulation in leaves was far greater than that in roots; therefore salinity tolerance of Atriplex nummularia is not due to ion exclusion mechanism. In spite of a reduction of K+ content of tissues under salinity conditions, no corresponding physiological relevance of this in terms of growth was found. The high affinity of root cells for Na+ during uptake and, probably, its subsequent sequestration into cell vacuoles and structures of protection seems to contribute to osmotic adjustment as an increase in relative water content (RWC of leaves was observed. NaCl caused a decrease in total soluble proteins and chlorophylls; the relevance of this is discussed in terms of mechanisms of salinity tolerance. The ability of Atriplex nummularia plants to keep Na+ and Cl- away from enzymes and cytosolic structures, together with an effective osmotic adjustment, is suggested as having a role in its tolerance to high salinity.O presente estudo relata os efeitos do estresse salino no crescimento, na nutrição de K+ e na composição orgânica de Atriplex nummularia. A maior concentração de NaCl imposta às plantas foi similar a da salinidade da água do mar (600 mM. Uma concentração externa de 150 mM de NaCl estimulou o crescimento da espécie o que, em parte, explica seu caráter halofítico. As evidências mostram que a Atriplex nummularia foi receptiva ao NaCl, porém os mecanismos envolvidos são ainda esperados. Em tais condições de estresse a acumulação de Na+ e Cl

  2. Association mapping utilizing diverse barley lines reveals net form net blotch seedling resistance/susceptibility loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrenophora teres f. teres is a necrotrophic fungal pathogen and the causal agent of the economically important foliar disease net form net blotch (NFNB) of barley. The deployment of effective and durable resistance against P. teres f. teres has been hindered by the complexity of quantitative resist...

  3. Oscillatory infragravity wave contribution to surf zone sediment transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Troels; Greenwood, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Field measurements reported in the literature demonstrate that suspended sediment transport due to infragravity wave motions can sometimes be very large and dominate the net sediment transport at a given measurement location within the surf zone. At other times, however, this transport component ...

  4. Towards Self-Managed Executable Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Zhang, Weishan; Ingstrup, Mads

    2008-01-01

    An issue in self-managed systems is that different abstractions and programming models are used on different architectural layers, leading to systems that are harder to build and understand. To alleviate this, we introduce a self-management approach which combines high-level Petri nets...... with the capability of distributed communication among nets. Organized in a three-layer goal management, change management, and component control architecture this allows for self-management in distributed systems. We validate the approach through the Flamenco/CPN middleware that allows for self-management of service......-oriented pervasive computing systems through the runtime interpretation of colored Petri nets. The current work focuses on the change management and component control layers....

  5. Professional ASP.NET MVC 2

    CERN Document Server

    Galloway, Jon; Haack, Phil

    2010-01-01

    Top-selling MVC book from a top team at Microsoft—now fully updated!. ASP.NET MVC 2.0 is now available and shipping with Visual Studio 2010 and .NET 4. A new update to Microsoft's Model-View-Controller technologies, MVC 2.0 enables developers to build dynamic, data-driven Web sites. This in-depth book shows you step-by-step how to use MVC 2.0. You'll learn both the theory behind MVC 2.0, as well as walk through practical tutorials, where you'll create a real-world application. Topics include transitioning from ASP.NET development, as well as an overview of related tools and technologies, inclu

  6. .net core application lifecycle on Openshift

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    # .net core application lifecycle on Openshift I will show an example of a lifecycle of an OpenShift application with an emphasis on the continuous integration and deployment. The application compatible with [.net Standard](https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/dotnet/standard/net-standard) can be easily deployed on OpenShift using [Source2Image](https://docs.openshift.com/enterprise/3.0/architecture/core_concepts/builds_and_image_streams.html#source-build) functionality, which doesn't require developers to maintain docker images of the application. I will also present how to efficiently integrate this feature into GitLab pipelines with an automated deployment of the "review" environment, as one its parts.

  7. Application and Theory of Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 13th International Conference onApplication and Theory of Petri Nets, held in Sheffield, England, in June 1992. The aim of the Petri net conferences is to create a forum for discussing progress in the application and theory of Petri nets. Typically......, the conferences have 150-200 participants, one third of these coming from industry and the rest from universities and research institutions. The 1992 conference was organized by the School of Computing and Management Sciences at Sheffield City Polytechnic, England. The volume contains twoinvited papers, by G....... Balbo and W. Reisig, 18 submitted papers, and seven project papers. The submitted papers and project presentations were selectedby the programme committee and a panel of referees from a large number of submissions....

  8. Chapter 17: Estimating Net Savings: Common Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Violette, D. M.; Rathbun, P.

    2014-09-01

    This chapter focuses on the methods used to estimate net energy savings in evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) studies for energy efficiency (EE) programs. The chapter provides a definition of net savings, which remains an unsettled topic both within the EE evaluation community and across the broader public policy evaluation community, particularly in the context of attribution of savings to particular program. The chapter differs from the measure-specific Uniform Methods Project (UMP) chapters in both its approach and work product. Unlike other UMP resources that provide recommended protocols for determining gross energy savings, this chapter describes and compares the current industry practices for determining net energy savings, but does not prescribe particular methods.

  9. Charge and electric field fluctuations in aqueous NaCl electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellner, Bernhard; Valiev, Marat; Kathmann, Shawn M

    2013-09-19

    Crystalloluminescence, the long-lived emission of visible light during the crystallization of certain salts, was first observed over 200 years ago; however, the origin of this luminescence is still not well understood. The observations suggest that the process of crystallization may not be purely classical but also involves an essential electronic structure component. Strong electric field fluctuations may play an important role in this process by providing the necessary driving force for the observed electronic structure changes. The main objective of this work is to provide a basic understanding of the fluctuations in charge, electric potentials, and electric fields for concentrated aqueous NaCl electrolytes. Our charge analysis reveals that the water molecules in the first solvation shell of the ions serve as a sink for electron density originating on Cl(-). We find that the electric fields inside aqueous electrolytes are extremely large (up to several V/Å) and thus may alter the ground and excited electronic states in the condensed phase. Furthermore, our results show that the potential and field distributions are largely independent of concentration. We also find the field component distributions to be Gaussian for the ions and non-Gaussian for the O and H sites (computed in the lab frame of reference), however, these non-Gaussian distributions are readily modeled via an orientationally averaged nonzero mean Gaussian plus a zero mean Gaussian. These calculations and analyses provide the first steps toward understanding the magnitude and fluctuations of charge, electric potentials, and fields in aqueous electrolytes and what role these fields may play in driving charge redistribution/transfer during crystalloluminescence.

  10. How do water striders, Aquarius paludum, react to brackish water simulated by NaCl solutions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Manabu; Fujisaki, Kenji; Harada, Tetsuo

    2006-01-01

    Several stages, from eggs to adults, of the water strider, Aquarius paludum (Fabricius), inhabiting fresh water are sometimes conveyed by heavy flow in the rainy or typhoon seasons in Japan to lotic brackish water in the mouth of rivers. The water striders might then respond to salinity either by remaining to wait for extensive rainfall to reduce osmotic pressure locally before reproducing ("breed here and later tactic") or by flying away to reproduce in fresh waters elsewhere ("breed elsewhere and later tactic"). All first instars died before the first molt when they were exposed to 1.75 and 3.5% NaCl solutions in a laboratory experiment. Living on 0.5 and 0.9% solutions through larval and adult stages slowed down larval growth and suppressed female reproduction. When exposed to the 0.5 and 0.9% solutions, 90 and 92% of males, respectively, showed histolysis of their flight muscles. Therefore, in brackish natural habitats, larvae and adults seem to follow the strategy "breed here and later." When water striders were exposed to 0.9% solution either just after emergence or 20 days later, females showed a higher flight propensity than those kept on fresh waters throughout, and they delayed the deposition of eggs. Therefore, when conveyed to brackish water after emergence by stream flow after heavy rain, adults seem to leave the area by flight, demonstrating the strategy "breed elsewhere and later" tactic. We conclude that water striders use alternative tactics for responding to salinity, depending on the stage of exposure.

  11. Liquid Scintillation Counting Standardization of {sup 2}2NaCl by te CIEMAT/NIST method; Calibracion por Centelleo Liquido del ''22NaCl, mediante el metodo CIEMAT/NIST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Barquero, L.; Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A.

    1995-07-01

    We describe a procedure for preparing a stable solution of ''22NaCl for liquid scintillation counting and its counting stability and spectral evolution in Insta-Gel''R is studied. The solution has been standardised in terms of activity concentration by the CIEMAT/NIST method with discrepancies between experimental and computed efficiencies lower than 0.4 % and an overall uncertainty of 0.35 %. (Author) 4 refs.

  12. The transition from No Net Loss to a Net Gain of biodiversity is far from trivial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, Joseph William; Brownlie, S.

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of No Net Loss and Net Gain have emerged as key principles in conservation policy. Both give rise to mechanisms by which certain unavoidable biodiversity losses associated with development are quantified, and compensated with comparable gains (e.g. habitat restoration). The former...... seeks a neutral outcome for biodiversity after losses and gains are accounted for, and the latter seeks an improved outcome. Policy-makers often assume that the transition from one to the other is straightforward and essentially a question of the amount of compensation provided. Consequently, companies...... increasingly favour Net Gain type commitments, and financial institutions make lending conditional on either objective, depending on the habitat involved. We contend, however, that achieving Net Gain is fundamentally different to achieving No Net Loss, and moving from one to the other is less trivial than...

  13. Physicians' Perceptions of Volunteer Service at Safety-Net Clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgeehan, Laura; Takehara, Michael A; Daroszewski, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    Volunteer physicians are crucial for the operation of safety-net clinics, which provide medical care for uninsured and underinsured populations. Thus, identifying ways to maximize the number of physicians volunteering at such clinics is an important goal. To investigate the perceptions, motivations, functions, and barriers associated with physician volunteering in four safety-net clinics in San Bernardino County, Southern California, a location of great medical need with many barriers to care. The study participants are physicians belonging to the Southern California Permanente Medical Group who use a combination of discretionary time (during regular work hours) and personal time in evening and weekend hours to volunteer their services. The experimental design incorporates a mixed methodology: an online survey of 31 physicians and follow-up interviews with 8 of them. Physicians conveyed uniformly positive perceptions of their volunteer service, and most were motivated by humanitarian or prosocial desires. Volunteering also provided a protective "escape hatch" from the pressures of the physicians' regular jobs. Physicians cited few challenges to volunteering. The most common personal barrier was a lack of time. The most common professional barriers were organizational and supply issues at the clinic, along with the patients' social, transportation, and financial challenges. The results suggest that appealing to physicians' values and faith, and highlighting the burnout-prevention qualities of volunteering, may be key to recruitment and retention of volunteer physicians who serve underserved and underinsured populations in community clinics.

  14. Physicians’ Perceptions of Volunteer Service at Safety-Net Clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeehan, Laura; Takehara, Michael A; Daroszewski, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    Background: Volunteer physicians are crucial for the operation of safety-net clinics, which provide medical care for uninsured and underinsured populations. Thus, identifying ways to maximize the number of physicians volunteering at such clinics is an important goal. Objective: To investigate the perceptions, motivations, functions, and barriers associated with physician volunteering in four safety-net clinics in San Bernardino County, Southern California, a location of great medical need with many barriers to care. Methods: The study participants are physicians belonging to the Southern California Permanente Medical Group who use a combination of discretionary time (during regular work hours) and personal time in evening and weekend hours to volunteer their services. The experimental design incorporates a mixed methodology: an online survey of 31 physicians and follow-up interviews with 8 of them. Results: Physicians conveyed uniformly positive perceptions of their volunteer service, and most were motivated by humanitarian or prosocial desires. Volunteering also provided a protective “escape hatch” from the pressures of the physicians’ regular jobs. Physicians cited few challenges to volunteering. The most common personal barrier was a lack of time. The most common professional barriers were organizational and supply issues at the clinic, along with the patients’ social, transportation, and financial challenges. Conclusion: The results suggest that appealing to physicians’ values and faith, and highlighting the burnout-prevention qualities of volunteering, may be key to recruitment and retention of volunteer physicians who serve underserved and underinsured populations in community clinics. PMID:28241907

  15. Influence of kinematic cuts on the net charge distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Hannah [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Institut für Theoretische Physik, Goethe Universität, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Oliinychenko, Dmytro [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kiev 03680 (Ukraine); Steinheimer, Jan [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Bleicher, Marcus [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Institut für Theoretische Physik, Goethe Universität, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    The higher moments of the net charge distributions, e.g. the skewness and kurtosis, are studied within an infinite hadronic matter calculation in a transport approach. By dividing the box into several parts, the volume dependence of the fluctuations is investigated. After confirming that the initial distributions follow the expectations from a binomial distribution, the influence of quantum number conservation in this case the net charge in the system on the higher moments is evaluated. For this purpose, the composition of the hadron gas is adjusted and only pions and ρ mesons are simulated to investigate the charge conservation effect. In addition, the effect of imposing kinematic cuts in momentum space is analysed. The role of resonance excitations and decays on the higher moments can also be studied within this model. This work is highly relevant to understand the experimental measurements of higher moments obtained in the RHIC beam energy scan and their comparison to lattice results and other theoretical calculations assuming infinite matter.

  16. Effect of ionic solutes on the hydrogen bond network dynamics of water: power spectral analysis of aqueous NaCl solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudi, Anirban; Chakravarty, Charusita

    2006-04-27

    To understand the modifications of the hydrogen bond network of water by ionic solutes, power spectra as well as static distributions of the potential energies of tagged solvent molecules and solute ions have been computed from molecular dynamics simulations of aqueous NaCl solutions. The key power spectral features of interest are the presence of high-frequency peaks due to localized vibrational modes, the existence of a multiple time scale or 1/falpha frequency regime characteristic of networked liquids, and the frequency of crossover from 1/falpha type behavior to white noise. Hydrophilic solutes, such as the sodium cation and the chloride anion, are shown to mirror the multiple time scale behavior of the hydrogen bond network fluctuations, unlike hydrophobic solutes which display essentially white noise spectra. While the power spectra associated with tagged H2O molecules are not very sensitive to concentration in the intermediate frequency 1/falpha regime, the crossover to white noise is shifted to lower frequencies on going from pure solvent to aqueous alkali halide solutions. This suggests that new and relatively slow time scales enter the picture, possibly associated with processes such as migration of water molecules from the hydration shell to the bulk or conversion of contact ion pairs into solvent-separated ion pairs which translate into variations in equilibrium transport properties of salt solutions with concentration. For anions, cations, and solvent molecules, the trends in the alpha exponents of the multiple time scale region and the self-diffusivities are found to be strongly correlated.

  17. APIs de seguridad en .NET Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Domínguez Ruiz, Abel

    2014-01-01

    Este trabajo hace un estudio de algunas de las herramientas de seguridad disponibles en .Net Framework así como la forma de usarlas en un desarrollo web bajo la metodología de desarrollo de ASP.NET siguiendo el modelo Vista-Controlador y usando como entorno de desarrollo Visual Studio. Además de repasar las herramientas disponibles y la forma de uso se ha desarrollado también una aplicación de ejemplo: ItemCoteca-Web; en la que se demuestra cómo resolver el registro de usuarios, la autenticac...

  18. An ECNO semantics for Petri nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart

    2012-01-01

    The Event Coordination Notation (ECNO) allows modelling the behaviour of software on top of structural software models - and to generate program code from these models fully automatically. ECNO distinguishes between the local behaviour of elements (objects) and the global behaviour, which denes t...... work. In this paper, we will show that the ECNO, in turn, can be used for modelling the behaviour of Petri nets in a simple and concise way. What is more, we will show that the ECNO semantics of Place/Transition Systems can easily be extended to so-called signal-event nets....

  19. Introducing NET 40 With Visual Studio 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Mackey, A

    2010-01-01

    Microsoft is introducing a large number of changes to the way that the .NET Framework operates. Familiar technologies are being altered, best practices replaced, and developer methodologies adjusted. Many developers find it hard to keep up with the pace of change across .NET's ever-widening array of technologies. You may know what's happening in C#, but how about the Azure cloud? How is that going to affect your work? What are the limitations of the new pLINQ syntax? What you need is a roadmap. A guide to help you see the innovations that matter and to give you a head start on the opportunitie

  20. Deep Belief Nets for Topic Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaløe, Lars; Arngren, Morten; Winther, Ole

    2015-01-01

    -formative. In this paper we describe large-scale content based collaborative filtering for digital publishing. To solve the digital publishing recommender problem we compare two approaches: latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) and deep be-lief nets (DBN) that both find low-dimensional latent representations for documents....... Efficient retrieval can be carried out in the latent representation. We work both on public benchmarks and digital media content provided by Issuu, an on-line publishing platform. This article also comes with a newly developed deep belief nets toolbox for topic modeling tailored towards performance...

  1. Performance Analysis Using Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wells, Lisa Marie

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of improved facilities for performance analysis using coloured Petri nets. Coloured Petri nets is a formal method that is well suited for modeling and analyzing large and complex systems. The paper describes steps that have been taken to make a distinction between...... modeling the behavior of a system and observing the behavior of a model. Performance-related facilities are discussed, including facilities for collecting data, running multiple simulations, generating statistically reliable simulation output, and comparing alternative system configurations....

  2. Net Gain: A New Method for Preventing Malaria Deaths | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A finely spun net could prevent as many as one-third of all child deaths in Africa, reports IDRC's new publication, Net Gain. Studies conducted in Gambia, Ghana, and Kenya show that the insecticide-treated mosquito net reduced the mortality rate of children under 5 years of age by up to 63 percent. Net Gain reviews and ...

  3. Mars MetNet Mission Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, Ari-Matti; Aleksashkin, Sergei; Arruego, Ignacio; Schmidt, Walter; Genzer, Maria; Vazquez, Luis; Haukka, Harri

    2015-04-01

    New kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is under development in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested. 1. MetNet Lander The MetNet landing vehicles are using an inflatable entry and descent system instead of rigid heat shields and parachutes as earlier semi-hard landing devices have used. This way the ratio of the payload mass to the overall mass is optimized. The landing impact will burrow the payload container into the Martian soil providing a more favorable thermal environment for the electronics and a suitable orientation of the telescopic boom with external sensors and the radio link antenna. It is planned to deploy several tens of MNLs on the Martian surface operating at least partly at the same time to allow meteorological network science. 2. Scientific Payload The payload of the two MNL precursor models includes the following instruments: Atmospheric instruments: 1. MetBaro Pressure device 2. MetHumi Humidity device 3. MetTemp Temperature sensors Optical devices: 1. PanCam Panoramic 2. MetSIS Solar irradiance sensor with OWLS optical wireless system for data transfer 3. DS Dust sensor The descent processes dynamic properties are monitored by a special 3-axis accelerometer combined with a 3-axis gyrometer. The data will be sent via auxiliary beacon antenna throughout the

  4. Changes in growth, carbon and nitrogen enzyme activity and mRNA accumulation in the halophilic microalga Dunaliella viridis in response to NaCl stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongmei; Wang, Weiwei; Xu, Nianjun; Sun, Xue

    2016-12-01

    Many species of microalga Dunaliella exhibit a remarkable tolerance to salinity and are therefore ideal for probing the effects of salinity. In this work, we assessed the effects of NaCl stress on the growth, activity and mRNA level of carbon and nitrogen metabolism enzymes of D. viridis. The alga could grow over a salinity range of 0.44 mol L-1 to 3.00 mol L-1 NaCl, but the most rapid growth was observed at 1.00 mol L-1 NaCl, followed by 2.00 mol L-1 NaCl. Paralleling these growth patterns, the highest initial and total Rubisco activities were detected in the presence of 1.00 mol L-1 NaCl, decreasing to 37.33% and 26.39% of those values, respectively, in the presence of 3.00 mol L-1 NaCl, respectively. However, the highest extracellular carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity was measured in the presence of 2.00 mol L-1 NaCl, followed by 1.00 mol L-1 NaCl. Different from the two carbon enzymes, nitrate reductase (NR) activity showed a slight change under different NaCl concentrations. At the transcriptional level, the mRNAs of Rubisco large subunit ( rbcL), and small subunit ( rbcS), attained their highest abundances in the presence of 1.00 and 2.00 mol L-1 NaCl, respectively. The CA mRNA accumulation was induced from 0.44 mol L-1 to 3.00 mol L-1 NaCl, but the NR mRNA showed the decreasing tendency with the increasing salinity. In conclusion, the growth and carbon fixation enzyme of Rubisco displayed similar tendency in response to NaCl stress, CA was proved be salt-inducible within a certain salinity range and NR showed the least effect by NaCl in D. viridis.

  5. Markets, voucher subsidies and free nets combine to achieve high bed net coverage in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrets Rene PM

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tanzania has a well-developed network of commercial ITN retailers. In 2004, the government introduced a voucher subsidy for pregnant women and, in mid 2005, helped distribute free nets to under-fives in small number of districts, including Rufiji on the southern coast, during a child health campaign. Contributions of these multiple insecticide-treated net delivery strategies existing at the same time and place to coverage in a poor rural community were assessed. Methods Cross-sectional household survey in 6,331 members of randomly selected 1,752 households of 31 rural villages of Demographic Surveillance System in Rufiji district, Southern Tanzania was conducted in 2006. A questionnaire was administered to every consenting respondent about net use, treatment status and delivery mechanism. Findings Net use was 62.7% overall, 87.2% amongst infants (0 to1 year, 81.8% amongst young children (>1 to 5 years, 54.5% amongst older children (6 to 15 years and 59.6% amongst adults (>15 years. 30.2% of all nets had been treated six months prior to interview. The biggest source of nets used by infants was purchase from the private sector with a voucher subsidy (41.8%. Half of nets used by young children (50.0% and over a third of those used by older children (37.2% were obtained free of charge through the vaccination campaign. The largest source of nets amongst the population overall was commercial purchase (45.1% use and was the primary means for protecting adults (60.2% use. All delivery mechanisms, especially sale of nets at full market price, under-served the poorest but no difference in equity was observed between voucher-subsidized and freely distributed nets. Conclusion All three delivery strategies enabled a poor rural community to achieve net coverage high enough to yield both personal and community level protection for the entire population. Each of them reached their relevant target group and free nets only temporarily

  6. Hetastarch and Hetastarch + 7.2% NaCl solution in the treatment of hypovolemic diarrheic calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Çağrı Karakurum

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. In this study, it was aimed to compare the effectiveness of Hydroxyethyl Starch (HTS, HTS +7.2% NaCl combination and Ringer Lactate solutions in the treatment of hypovolemic calves with diarrhea. Materials and methods. A total of 21 holstein calves (12 female, 9 male, weighted 28-52 kg, at the age of 0-30 days, were enrolled in the present study. The calves were randomly divided into 3 groups. Calves in the first group received HTS (10 mL / kg, calves in the second group received Hydroxyethyl starch + 7.2% NaCl combination (4 mL/kg and calves in the third group were treated with lactated Ringer’s solution (32 mL/kg intravenously. Calves in each group were administered with oral rehydration solution immediately, and at 8th and 16th hours after intravenous applications. Clinical examinations and laboratory findings were obtained at 0 hour, 30th minutes, 1st, 2nd, 4th, 12th and 24th hours respectively. Results. Calves in all groups achieved clinical remission with a positive response to treatment and there was no statistically significant difference in the vast majority of the variables examined, although dehydration, capillary refill time, mental status and pulse quality were better in hydroxyethyl starch group and especially in hydroxyethyl starch + 7.2% NaCl group than those of Ringer’s lactate group (p<0.05. Conclusions. In the present study, treatment of hypovolemic calves with diarrhea especially with Hydroxyethyl starch and Hydroxyethyl starch + 7.2% NaCl combination along with oral fluid therapy with the electrolyte solution was considered to be practical and effective.

  7. Ion association in concentrated NaCl brines from ambient to supercritical conditions: results from classical molecular dynamics simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collings Matthew D

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Highly concentrated NaCl brines are important geothermal fluids; chloride complexation of metals in such brines increases the solubility of minerals and plays a fundamental role in the genesis of hydrothermal ore deposits. There is experimental evidence that the molecular nature of the NaCl–water system changes over the pressure–temperature range of the Earth's crust. A transition of concentrated NaCl–H2O brines to a "hydrous molten salt" at high P and T has been argued to stabilize an aqueous fluid phase in the deep crust. In this work, we have done molecular dynamic simulations using classical potentials to determine the nature of concentrated (0.5–16 m NaCl–water mixtures under ambient (25°C, 1 bar, hydrothermal (325°C, 1 kbar and deep crustal (625°C, 15 kbar conditions. We used the well-established SPCE model for water together with the Smith and Dang Lennard-Jones potentials for the ions (J. Chem. Phys., 1994, 100, 3757. With increasing temperature at 1 kbar, the dielectric constant of water decreases to give extensive ion-association and the formation of polyatomic (NanClmn-m clusters in addition to simple NaCl ion pairs. Large polyatomic (NanClmn-m clusters resemble what would be expected in a hydrous NaCl melt in which water and NaCl were completely miscible. Although ion association decreases with pressure, temperatures of 625°C are not enough to overcome pressures of 15 kbar; consequently, there is still enhanced Na–Cl association in brines under deep crustal conditions.

  8. WATER EXTRACT OF PURPLE SWEET POTATO TUBERS REDUCES BLOOD PRESSURE 0F HYPERTENSIVE RATS INDUCED BY NaCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I MADE JAWI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Compliance of hypertensive patients to take medication is one of many determinant factors to achieve successful treatment. Side effects and the expensive price of drugs are the causes of the incompliance of patients taking the medication. Utilization of herbal medicine is a new hope to resolve the issue. Purple sweet potato tuber is a plant part that expected has beneficial effect in lowering blood pressure because it contains anthocyanins which are antioxidants and can preserve endothelial function. To prove these hypothesis, a study was conducted with randomized control group pre and post-test design. The  study was done on 20 adult male Wistar rats that were divided into two groups of 10 rats.  Both groups of rats were made hypertensive by administering high doses of NaCl. Control group of rats given only NaCl alone for 14 days. Treatment group were given NaCl and water extract of purple sweet potato tuber with a dose of 4 cc per day for 14 days. Before treatment and during treatment, blood pressure were taken everyday with special sphygmomanometer. The results indicate a significant difference in blood pressure between the control group with treatment (P = 0.0001. In the treatment group, it was observed that there was a significant decrease in blood pressure compared to the control group (P=0.0001. From the results of this study, it can be concluded that administration of purple sweet potato tuber water extract may lower high blood pressure of rats induced by NaCl.

  9. Data for the qualitative modeling of the osmotic stress response to NaCl in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Delphine Ropers; Aline Métris

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative modeling approaches allow to provide a coarse-grained description of the functioning of cellular networks when experimental data are scarce and heterogeneous. We translate the primary literature data on the response of Escherichia coli to hyperosmotic stress caused by NaCl addition into a piecewise linear (PL) model. We provide a data file of the qualitative model, which can be used for simulation of changes of protein concentrations and of DNA coiling during the physiological res...

  10. Effect of NaCl, Gum Arabic and Microbial Transglutaminase on the Gel and Emulsion Characteristics of Porcine Myofibrillar Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Davaatseren, Munkhtugs; Hong, Geun-Pyo

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of gum arabic (GA) combined with microbial transglutaminase (TG) on the functional properties of porcine myofibrillar protein (MP). As an indicator of functional property, heat-set gel and emulsion characteristics of MP treated with GA and/or TG were explored under varying NaCl concentrations (0.1-0.6 M). The GA improved thermal gelling ability of MP during thermal processing and after cooling, and concomitantly added TG assisted the formation of viscoelasti...

  11. Persaingan Tanaman Jagung (Zea Mays) dan Rumput Teki (Cyperus Rotundus) pada Pengaruh Cekaman Garam (NaCl)

    OpenAIRE

    Pranasari, Rizka Amalia; Nurhidayati, Tutik; Purwani, Kristanti Indah

    2012-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pertumbuhan Zea mays yang bersaing dengan Cyperus rotundus pada pengaruh cekaman garam (NaCl).Metode yang digunakan replacement series menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan 3 ulangan. Dengan perlakuan cekaman garam (NaCl) 0ppm, 500ppm, 1000ppm, dan 1500ppm. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pada kultur tunggal terjadi persaingan intraspesies antara Zea mays maupun Cyperus rotundus sedangkan pada kultur campuran terjadi persaingan interspesies ant...

  12. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis and osmotic adjustment in response to NaCl stress: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Augé

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM symbiosis can enhance plant resistance to NaCl stress in several ways. Two fundamental roles involve osmotic and ionic adjustment. By stimulating accumulation of solutes, the symbiosis can help plants sustain optimal water balance and diminish Na+ toxicity. The size of the AM effect on osmolytes has varied widely and is unpredictable. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine the size of the AM effect on 22 plant solute characteristics after exposure to NaCl and to examine how experimental conditions have influenced the AM effect. Viewed across studies, AM symbioses have had marked effects on plant K+, increasing root and shoot K+ concentrations by an average of 47% and 42%, respectively, and root and shoot K+/Na+ ratios by 47% and 58%, respectively. Among organic solutes, soluble carbohydrates have been most impacted, with AM-induced increases of 28% and 19% in shoots and roots. The symbiosis has had no consistent effect on several characteristics, including root glycine betaine concentration, root or shoot Cl- concentrations, leaf Ψπ, or shoot proline or polyamine concentrations. The AM effect has been very small for shoot Cl- concentration and root concentrations of Na+, Mg++ and proline. Interpretations about AM-conferred benefits regarding these compounds may be best gauged within the context of the individual studies. Shoot and root K+/Na+ ratios and root proline concentration showed significant between-study heterogeneity, and we examined nine moderator variables to explore what might explain the differences in mycorrhizal effects on these parameters. Moderators with significant impacts included AM taxa, host type, presence or absence of AM growth promotion, stress severity, and whether NaCl constituted part or all of the experimental saline stress treatment. Meta-regression of shoot K+/Na+ ratio showed a positive response to root colonization, and root K+/Na+ ratio a negative response to time of exposure to

  13. Effect of NaCl salinity and soil waterlogging on growth characteristics of forage corn in greenhouse conditions

    OpenAIRE

    N. Najafi; E. Sarhangzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Salinity and waterlogging are two important abiotic stresses to plants growth and yield in the world. These two stresses can occur simultaneously and have additive effects on plants, including corn, growth. In a greenhouse experiment, the effects of NaCl salinity and waterlogging and their interactive effect on the growth characteristics of forage corn (Zea mays cv. single cross 704) were studied. A factorial experiment on the basis of completely randomized design with three replications was ...

  14. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis and osmotic adjustment in response to NaCl stress: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augé, Robert M; Toler, Heather D; Saxton, Arnold M

    2014-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis can enhance plant resistance to NaCl stress in several ways. Two fundamental roles involve osmotic and ionic adjustment. By stimulating accumulation of solutes, the symbiosis can help plants sustain optimal water balance and diminish Na(+) toxicity. The size of the AM effect on osmolytes has varied widely and is unpredictable. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine the size of the AM effect on 22 plant solute characteristics after exposure to NaCl and to examine how experimental conditions have influenced the AM effect. Viewed across studies, AM symbioses have had marked effects on plant K(+), increasing root and shoot K(+) concentrations by an average of 47 and 42%, respectively, and root and shoot K(+)/Na(+) ratios by 47 and 58%, respectively. Among organic solutes, soluble carbohydrates have been most impacted, with AM-induced increases of 28 and 19% in shoots and roots. The symbiosis has had no consistent effect on several characteristics, including root glycine betaine concentration, root or shoot Cl(-) concentrations, leaf Ψπ, or shoot proline or polyamine concentrations. The AM effect has been very small for shoot Ca(++) concentration and root concentrations of Na(+), Mg(++) and proline. Interpretations about AM-conferred benefits regarding these compounds may be best gauged within the context of the individual studies. Shoot and root K(+)/Na(+) ratios and root proline concentration showed significant between-study heterogeneity, and we examined nine moderator variables to explore what might explain the differences in mycorrhizal effects on these parameters. Moderators with significant impacts included AM taxa, host type, presence or absence of AM growth promotion, stress severity, and whether NaCl constituted part or all of the experimental saline stress treatment. Meta-regression of shoot K(+)/Na(+) ratio showed a positive response to root colonization, and root K(+)/Na(+) ratio a negative response to time of

  15. Direct synthesis of solid and hollow carbon nanospheres over NaCl crystals using acetylene by chemical vapour deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra Kishore, S.; Anandhakumar, S.; Sasidharan, M., E-mail: sasidharan.m@res.srmuniv.ac.in

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Hollow and solid carbon nanospheres were synthesized by CVD method. • NaCl was used as template for direct growth of carbon nanospheres. • Separation of NaCl from the mixture is made easy by dissolving in water. • The hollow carbon nanospheres exhibit high specific capacity in Li-ion batteries than the graphite anodes. - Abstract: Carbon nanospheres (CNS) with hollow and solid morphologies have been synthesised by a simple chemical vapour deposition method using acetylene as a carbon precursor. Sodium chloride (NaCl) powder as a template was used for the direct growth of CNS via facile and low-cost approach. The effect of various temperatures (500 °C, 600 °C and 700 °C) and acetylene flow rates were investigated to study the structural evolution on the carbon products. The purified CNS thus obtained was characterized by various physicochemical techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Raman spectroscopy, and cyclicvoltametry. The synthesised hollow nanospheres were investigated as anode materials for Li-ion batteries. After 25 cycles of repeated charge/discharge cycles, the discharge and charge capacities were found to be 574 mAh/g and 570 mAh/g, respectively which are significantly higher than the commercial graphite samples.

  16. Preincubation of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 with NaCl Increases Its Attachment to Lettuce Surfaces Compared with Other Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Kazuhisa; Sawai, Jun

    2017-01-01

     The inhibition of microbial attachment to food is important for the prevention of cross-contamination during food processing. The effect of several chemicals that were added in an Escherichia coli growth medium on the attachment of the bacterium to lettuce was investigated. E. coli ATCC 25922, which is reportedly a useful surrogate for E. coli O157:H7 in surface attachment studies, was preincubated in a nutrient broth (NB) containing sodium chloride, potassium chloride, sodium deoxycholate, sodium linear alkylbenzene sulfonate, or sorbic acid. The bacterial cells were placed in contact with cut lettuce in a saline solution at 5℃ for 24 hours. Only the addition of NaCl in the NB influenced the attachment of E. coli, Salmonella enterica subsp. Enteritidis, and Klebsiella pneumoniae to the lettuce. The attachment of E. coli showed the largest significant increase at 2% NaCl. Changes in the attachment levels were not due to surface hydrohobicity or the motility of E. coli cells. Similar results were observed for S. enterica although the variation in the degree of attachment of the latter was quite small. These results suggested that the attachment of E. coli O157:H7 to food surfaces is influenced by the bacterial growth conditions prior to food exposure and prior to the development of the biofilm; furthermore, the environmental NaCl concentration should be controlled during food processing to prevent the cross-contamination of foods with E. coli.

  17. Corrosion mitigation of J55 steel in 3.5% NaCl solution by a macrocyclic inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Ambrish [State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation (Southwest Petroleum University), Chengdu, Sichuan 610500 (China); Department of Chemistry, LFTS, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab 144402 (India); Lin, Yuanhua, E-mail: yhlin28@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation (Southwest Petroleum University), Chengdu, Sichuan 610500 (China); Obot, I.B. [Centre of Research Excellence in Corrosion, Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Ebenso, Eno E. [Department of Chemistry, School of Mathematical & Physical Sciences, North-West University (Mafikeng Campus), Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho 2735 (South Africa); Material Science Innovation & Modelling (MaSIM) Focus Area, Faculty of Agriculture, Science and Technology, North-West University (Mafikeng Campus), Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho 2735 (South Africa); Ansari, K.R.; Quraishi, M.A. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2015-11-30

    Graphical abstract: SECM studies revealed decrease of steady current in the presence of inhibitor while it increased for 3.5% NaCl solution that acted as the conductor. - Highlights: • J55 steel protection in 3.5% NaCl solution saturated with CO{sub 2} by HPT. • Potentiodynamic polarization curves reveal that the actions of HPT are mixed type. • The adsorption of HPT obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. • Scanning electrochemical microscopy is used to discuss the insulated and conductive surface. - Abstract: 1,2,4,7,9,10-Hexaazacyclo-pentadeca-10,15-dien-3,5,6,8-tetraone (HPT) a macrocyclic compound has been studied using electrochemical methods and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) techniques. The R{sub ct} values increased and C{sub dl} values decreased with the increase in concentration of the inhibitor. The corrosion inhibition of J55 steel in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution saturated with CO{sub 2} by polarization studies revealed that HPT acted as a mixed type inhibitor. The adsorption of HPT on the J55 steel surface obeyed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The thermodynamic parameters (K{sub ads}, ΔG°{sub ads}) were also computed and discussed.

  18. Effects of NaCl and seawater induced salinity on survival and reproduction of three soil invertebrate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, C S; Lopes, I; Sousa, J P; Chelinho, S

    2015-09-01

    The increase of global mean temperature is raising serious concerns worldwide due to its potential negative effects such as droughts and melting of glaciers and ice caps leading to sea level rise. Expected impacts on soil compartment include floodings, seawater intrusions and use of saltwater for irrigation, with unknown effects on soil ecosystems and their inhabitants. The present study aimed at evaluating the effects of salinisation on soil ecosystems due to sea level rise. The reproduction and mortality of three standard soil invertebrate species (Folsomia candida, Enchytraeus crypticus, Hypoaspis aculeifer) in standard artificial OECD soil spiked with serial dilutions of seawater/gradient of NaCl were evaluated according to standard guidelines. An increased sensitivity was observed in the following order: H. aculeifer≪E. crypticus≈F. candida consistent with the different exposure pathways: springtails and enchytraeids are exposed by ingestion and contact while mites are mainly exposed by ingestion due to a continuous and thick exoskeleton. Although small differences were observed in the calculated effect electrical conductivity values, seawater and NaCl induced the same overall effects (with a difference in the enchytraeid tests where a higher sensitivity was found in relation to NaCl). The adverse effects described in the present study are observed on soils not considered saline. Therefore, the actual limit to define saline soils (4000 μS cm(-1)) does not reflect the existing knowledge when considering soil fauna. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Impaired renal NaCl absorption in mice lacking the ROMK potassium channel, a model for type II Bartter's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, John N; Baird, Nancy R; Judd, Louise M; Noonan, William T; Andringa, Anastasia; Doetschman, Thomas; Manning, Patrice A; Liu, Lynne H; Miller, Marian L; Shull, Gary E

    2002-10-04

    ROMK is an apical K(+) channel expressed in the thick ascending limb of Henle (TALH) and throughout the distal nephron of the kidney. Null mutations in the ROMK gene cause type II Bartter's syndrome, in which abnormalities of electrolyte, acid-base, and fluid-volume homeostasis occur because of defective NaCl reabsorption in the TALH. To understand better the pathogenesis of type II Bartter's syndrome, we developed a mouse lacking ROMK and examined its phenotype. Young null mutants had hydronephrosis, were severely dehydrated, and approximately 95% died before 3 weeks of age. ROMK-deficient mice that survived beyond weaning grew to adulthood; however, they had metabolic acidosis, elevated blood concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-), reduced blood pressure, polydipsia, polyuria, and poor urinary concentrating ability. Whole kidney glomerular filtration rate was sharply reduced, apparently as a result of hydronephrosis, and fractional excretion of electrolytes was elevated. Micropuncture analysis revealed that the single nephron glomerular filtration rate was relatively normal, absorption of NaCl in the TALH was reduced but not eliminated, and tubuloglomerular feedback was severely impaired. These data show that the loss of ROMK in the mouse causes perturbations of electrolyte, acid-base, and fluid-volume homeostasis, reduced absorption of NaCl in the TALH, and impaired tubuloglomerular feedback.

  20. Effect of NaCl Salinity on Growth and Mineral Composition of Ziziphus spina-christi (L. Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sohail

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Ziziphus spina-christi (L. Willd. is a fruit tree species growing wild in arid and semi-arid areas of Asia and Africa where rural populations intensively use its fruits, leaves, bark and wood. However, little is known about the effects of salinity, a widespread problem in these regions, on early growth and mineral composition of this species. This study was conducted under controlled conditions to contribute to filling this gap. Six weeks old seedlings of Z. spina-christi germinated in a full strength Hoagland solution were subjected to 0, 40, 80 and 160 mM NaCl. Compared to the unstressed control salinity levels of 80 and 160 mM reduced plant height, leaf number, leaf chlorophyll, total leaf area and dry matter by > 50%. Salinity levels of 40, 80 and 160 mM enhanced leaf water contents by 14, 16 and 17%, respectively and 160 mM NaCl raised the concentration of Na and Cl ions in leaf tissues 81- and 21-fold. The K/Na ratio, in contrast, was hardly affected by increasing salinity indicating adaptation or tolerance of Z. spina-christi to low or moderate NaCl salinity. These results suggest that Z. spina-christi could be an interesting species for re-vegetation of moderately degraded saline lands.

  1. Reactivity of NaCl with Secondary Organic Acids: An Important Mechanism of the Chloride Depletion in Sea Salt Particles Mixed with Organic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Laskin, A.; Kelly, S.; Gilles, M. K.; Shilling, J. E.; Zelenyuk, A.; Wilson, J. M.; Tivanski, A.

    2012-12-01

    Sea salt particles, one of the major sources of atmospheric aerosols, undergo complex multi-phase reactions and have profound consequences on their physical and chemical properties, thus on climate. Depletion of chloride in sea salt particles was reported in previous field studies and was attributed to the acid displacement of sea salt chlorides with inorganic acids, such as nitric and sulfuric acids. Some studies have also showed that the chloride deficit cannot be fully compensated for this mechanism. We present an important pathway contributing to this chloride depletion: reactions of weak organic acids with sea salt particles. NaCl particles internally mixed with secondary organic materials generated from the reactions of limonene and alpha-pinene with ozone served as surrogates for sea salt particles mixed with organic materials. Chemical imaging analysis of these particles was conducted using complementary techniques including computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX), scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS), and micro-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (micro-FTIR). Substantial chloride depletion and formation of organic salts were observed along with distinctive changes in particle morphology after hydration/dehydration processes. The results indicate that secondary organic acids can effectively react with NaCl particles resulting in displacement of chloride and release of gaseous HCl. This is consistent with a recent field study showing chloride depletion in sea salt particles mixed with organic materials which cannot be fully compensated by inorganic acid displacement. Although the formation of the organic salts is not thermodynamically favored in bulk aqueous solution, these reactions are driven by the high volatility and evaporation of gaseous HCl in particles, especially during hydration/dehydration processes. The

  2. Na+/H+ antiporters are differentially regulated in response to NaCl stress in leaves and roots of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino, Cristian; Fischer-Schliebs, Elke; Bertl, Adam; Thiel, Gerhard; Homann, Ulrike

    2010-05-01

    Salinity tolerance in plants involves controlled Na(+) transport at the site of Na(+) accumulation and intracellular Na(+) compartmentation. The focus of this study was the identification and analysis of the expression of Na(+)/H(+) antiporters in response to NaCl stress in one particular plant, the facultative halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum Na(+)/H(+) antiporters of M. crystallinum were cloned by RACE-PCR from total mRNA of leaf mesophyll cells. Functional complementation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli mutants was performed. The kinetics of changes in the expression of antiporters were quantified by real-time PCR in leaves and roots. Five Na(+)/H(+) antiporters (McSOS1, McNhaD, McNHX1, McNHX2 and McNHX3) were cloned, representing the entire set of these transporters in M. crystallinum. The functionality of McSOS1, McHX1 and McNhaD was demonstrated in complementation experiments. Quantitative analysis revealed a temporal correlation between salt accumulation and expression levels of genes in leaves, but not in roots, which was most pronounced for McNhaD. Results suggest a physiological role of McSOS1, McNhaD and McNHX1 in Na(+) compartmentation during plant adaptation to high salinity. The study also provides evidence for salt-induced expression and function of the Na(+)/H(+) antiporter McNhaD in chloroplasts and demonstrates that the chloroplast is one of the compartments involved in the response of cells to salt stress.

  3. Molecular determinants for selective recognition of antidepressants in the human serotonin and norepinephrine transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jacob; Stuhr-Hansen, Nicolai; Zachariassen, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Inhibitors of the serotonin transporter (SERT) and norepinephrine transporter (NET) are widely used in the treatment of major depressive disorder. Although SERT/NET selectivity is a key determinant for the therapeutic properties of these drugs, the molecular determinants defining SERT...

  4. EVo: Net Shape RTM Production Line

    OpenAIRE

    Sven Torstrick; Felix Kruse; Martin Wiedemann

    2016-01-01

    EVo research platform is operated by the Center for Lightweight-Production-Technology of the German Aerospace Center in Stade. Its objective is technology demonstration of a fully automated RTM (Resin Transfer Molding) production line for composite parts in large quantities. Process steps include cutting and ply handling, draping, stacking, hot-forming, preform-trimming to net shape, resin injection, curing and demolding.

  5. The Lotto and Expected Net Revenue

    OpenAIRE

    Scoggins, John F.

    1995-01-01

    A multiperiod model (based on sales from the Florida Lotto) is used to estimate revenue and probability that the grand prize will roll over. Results indicate that allocating a greater percentage of ticket sales to the grand prize increases net revenue.

  6. Integrating phenotype ontologies with PhenomeNET

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez-Garcia, Miguel Angel

    2017-12-19

    Background Integration and analysis of phenotype data from humans and model organisms is a key challenge in building our understanding of normal biology and pathophysiology. However, the range of phenotypes and anatomical details being captured in clinical and model organism databases presents complex problems when attempting to match classes across species and across phenotypes as diverse as behaviour and neoplasia. We have previously developed PhenomeNET, a system for disease gene prioritization that includes as one of its components an ontology designed to integrate phenotype ontologies. While not applicable to matching arbitrary ontologies, PhenomeNET can be used to identify related phenotypes in different species, including human, mouse, zebrafish, nematode worm, fruit fly, and yeast. Results Here, we apply the PhenomeNET to identify related classes from two phenotype and two disease ontologies using automated reasoning. We demonstrate that we can identify a large number of mappings, some of which require automated reasoning and cannot easily be identified through lexical approaches alone. Combining automated reasoning with lexical matching further improves results in aligning ontologies. Conclusions PhenomeNET can be used to align and integrate phenotype ontologies. The results can be utilized for biomedical analyses in which phenomena observed in model organisms are used to identify causative genes and mutations underlying human disease.

  7. Soundness of Timed-Arc Workflow Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateo, Jose Antonio; Srba, Jiri; Sørensen, Mathias Grund

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of workflow processes with quantitative aspects like timing is of interest in numerous time-critical applications. We suggest a workflow model based on timed-arc Petri nets and study the foundational problems of soundness and strong (time-bounded) soundness. We explore the decidability o...

  8. Dahl: Time ripe for DHS net assessment

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Article review Center for Homeland Defense and Security instructor Erik Dahl urges the Department of Homeland Security to follow a practice of its military counterparts and establish an Office of Net Assessment that would gauge future threats and the nation's ability to mitigate them.

  9. Regular Event Structures and Finite Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M.; Thiagarajan, P.S.

    2002-01-01

    We present the notion of regular event structures and conjecture that they correspond exactly to finite 1-safe Petri nets. We show that the conjecture holds for the conflict-free case. Even in this restricted setting, the proof is non-trivial and involves a natural subclass of regular event...

  10. Net escapement of Antartic krill in trawls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krafft, B.A.; Krag, Ludvig Ahm; Herrmann, Bent

    This document describes the aims and methodology of a three year project (commenced in 2012) entitled Net Escapement of Antarctic krill in Trawls (NEAT). The study will include a morphology based mathematical modeling (FISHSELECT) of different sex and maturity groups of Antarctic krill (Euphausia...

  11. BioNet Digital Communications Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Kevin; Kuzminsky, Sebastian; Williams, Shea

    2010-01-01

    BioNet v2 is a peer-to-peer middleware that enables digital communication devices to talk to each other. It provides a software development framework, standardized application, network-transparent device integration services, a flexible messaging model, and network communications for distributed applications. BioNet is an implementation of the Constellation Program Command, Control, Communications and Information (C3I) Interoperability specification, given in CxP 70022-01. The system architecture provides the necessary infrastructure for the integration of heterogeneous wired and wireless sensing and control devices into a unified data system with a standardized application interface, providing plug-and-play operation for hardware and software systems. BioNet v2 features a naming schema for mobility and coarse-grained localization information, data normalization within a network-transparent device driver framework, enabling of network communications to non-IP devices, and fine-grained application control of data subscription band width usage. BioNet directly integrates Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) as a communications technology, enabling networked communications with assets that are only intermittently connected including orbiting relay satellites and planetary rover vehicles.

  12. Programming C# Building NET Applications with C#

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Programming C#, the top-selling book on Microsoft's high-performance C# programming language, is now in its fourth edition. Aimed at experienced programmers and web developers, this comprehensive guide focuses on the features and programming patterns that are unique to C#, and fundamental to the programming of web services and web applications on Microsoft's .NET platform.

  13. NetBench. Automated Network Performance Testing

    CERN Document Server

    Cadeddu, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    In order to evaluate the operation of high performance routers, CERN has developed the NetBench software to run benchmarking tests by injecting various traffic patterns and observing the network devices behaviour in real-time. The tool features a modular design with a Python based console used to inject traffic and collect the results in a database, and a web user

  14. Petri Nets as Models of Linear Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn

    1990-01-01

    The chief purpose of this paper is to appraise the feasibility of Girad's linear logic as a specification language for parallel processes. To this end we propose an interpretation of linear logic in Petri nets, with respect to which we investigate the expressive power of the logic...

  15. OK-Net Arable online knowledge platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ilse Ankjær; Jensen, Allan Leck; Jørgensen, Margit Styrbæk

    2017-01-01

    The complexity of organic farming requires farmers to have a very high level of knowledge and skills, but exchange on organic farming techniques remains limited. In order to increase productivity and quality in organic arable cropping in Europe, the thematic network OK-Net Arable under Horizon 20...

  16. Musings on Sketches, Artists, and Mosquito Nets

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-09-23

    Byron Breedlove reads his essay Musings on Sketches, Artists, and Mosquito Nets about the art of James Whistler and the transmission of vector borne diseases.  Created: 9/23/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/20/2014.

  17. Educating College Students of the Net Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Faculty and administrators of higher education today face a challenge with their student populations, many of whom are part of what is known as the net generation. As students become more technologically advanced, faculty must be technologically ready to meet the needs of students. Many college faculty and administrators are from earlier…

  18. State Space Methods for Timed Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren; Jensen, Kurt; Mailund, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    We present two recently developed state space methods for timed Petri nets. The two methods reconciles state space methods and time concepts based on the introduction of a global clock and associating time stamps to tokens. The first method is based on an equivalence relation on states which makes...

  19. Average Costs versus Net Present Value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. van der Laan (Erwin); R.H. Teunter (Ruud)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWhile the net present value (NPV) approach is widely accepted as the right framework for studying production and inventory control systems, average cost (AC) models are more widely used. For the well known EOQ model it can be verified that (under certain conditions) the AC approach gives

  20. Radiation Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbatsch, Todd James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-06-15

    We present an overview of radiation transport, covering terminology, blackbody raditation, opacities, Boltzmann transport theory, approximations to the transport equation. Next we introduce several transport methods. We present a section on Caseology, observing transport boundary layers. We briefly broach topics of software development, including verification and validation, and we close with a section on high energy-density experiments that highlight and support radiation transport.