WorldWideScience

Sample records for net longwave radiation

  1. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, Net Longwave Radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Net Longwave Radiation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  2. Single interval longwave radiation scheme based on the net exchanged rate decomposition with bracketing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Geleyn, J.- F.; Mašek, Jan; Brožková, Radmila; Kuma, P.; Degrauwe, D.; Hello, G.; Pristov, N.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 143, č. 704 (2017), s. 1313-1335 ISSN 0035-9009 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Keywords : numerical weather prediction * climate models * clouds * parameterization * atmospheres * formulation * absorption * scattering * accurate * database * longwave radiative transfer * broadband approach * idealized optical paths * net exchanged rate decomposition * bracketing * selective intermittency Impact factor: 3.444, year: 2016

  3. A more accurate formula for calculating the net longwave radiation flux in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Zapadka

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A new, more accurate formula for calculating the net longwave radiation fluxLW ↑↓ has been devised for the Baltic Sea region. To this end,the following sets of simultaneously measured data regarding the longwave radiation of the sea andthe atmosphere were used: the temperatures of the sea surface and its contiguous air layer,the water vapour pressure in the air above the water, and the cloud cover.These data were gathered during numerous research cruises in the Baltic in 2000-03 and were supplemented by satellitedata from Karlsson (2001 characterising the cloud cover over the whole Baltic. The formulaestablished for LW ↑↓ can be written in the form of three alternative equations,differing with respect to their cloud cover functions:LW ↑↓ =0.985σT4s - σT4a (0.685+0.00452e{(1 + d n2 average for all cloud types (Z1(1 + din2 separately for low-, mid- and high-level clouds (Z2(1 + dinϒi separately for low-, mid- and high-level clouds (Z3where σ - Stefan-Boltzmann constant; Ts - sea surface temperature [K]; Ta - air temperature [K]; e - water vapour pressure [mbar]; n - total cloud amount [0 - 1]; d - mean empirical dimensionless coefficient, determined for all cloud types or for particular months (see Tables 3 and 4; da - empirical coefficient determined for the quadratic function: d1 = 0.39 for low-level clouds, d2 = 0.305 for mid-level clouds, d3 = 0.22 for high-level clouds; di - empirical coefficient determined as follows: d1 = 0.39 for low-level clouds when γ1 = 1.3, d2 = 0.29 for mid-level clouds when γ2 = 1.1; d3 = 0.17 for high-level clouds when γ3 = 0.96. The improved accuracy of this formula (RMSE ≅ 10 W m-2 is due chiefly to the establishment of functions and coefficients characterising the cloud cover over the Baltic in particular months of the year and their incorporation into it.

  4. The impacts of light scattering by clouds on longwave radiative transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, C. P.; Yang, P.; Huang, X.; Feldman, D.; Flanner, M.

    2016-12-01

    In the longwave spectrum, clouds modulate energy budgets in the climate system through scattering, absorbing and emitting radiation. On the average, ice clouds tend to warm the climate, while liquid water clouds cool the climate, due to the distinct physical and optical properties of ice and liquid water clouds. General circulation models (GCMs) are the most popular tool to investigate the influences of clouds on climate. However, most GCMs, due to computational complexity, neglect multiple scattering effects in longwave radiative transfer calculations. To evaluate the potential impacts of neglecting longwave multiple scattering, we conduct sensitivity studies, utilizing the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) reanalysis atmospheric profiles, a modified RRTMG_LW (Longwave Rapid Radiative Transfer Model for GCM applications) and the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) collection 6 level 3 cloud retrieval products. The modified RRTMG_LW uses the 16-stream DISORT (Discrete Ordinates Radiative Transfer Program for a Multi-Layered Plane-Parallel Medium) as a robust radiative solver to calculate longwave fluxes. In the study, the bias in longwave flux (simulated without, minus simulated with, light scattering by ice and liquid water clouds) represents the influence of neglecting light scattering. Biases of upward flux at the top of the atmosphere, downward flux at the surface, and net flux into the atmosphere are presented. The preliminary results show that the absence of longwave light scattering could lead to considerable biases in global and regional flux simulations.

  5. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, Longwave Radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Incoming Longwave Radiation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  6. Outgoing Longwave Radiation Daily Climate Data Record (OLR Daily CDR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The product contains the 1-degree by 1-degree daily mean outgoing longwave radiation flux at the top of the atmosphere derived from HIRS radiance observations...

  7. Climatic features of the Mediterranean Sea detected by the analysis of the longwave radiative bulk formulae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Schiano

    Full Text Available Some important climatic features of the Mediterranean Sea stand out from an analysis of the systematic discrepancies between direct measurements of longwave radiation budget and predictions obtained by the most widely used bulk formulae. In particular, under clear-sky conditions the results show that the surface values of both air temperature and humidity over the Mediterranean Sea are larger than those expected over an open ocean with the same amount of net longwave radiation. Furthermore, the twofold climatic regime of the Mediterranean region strongly affects the downwelling clear-sky radiation. This study suggests that a single bulk formula with constant numerical coefficients is unable to reproduce the fluxes at the surface for all the seasons.

    Key words: Meteorology and Atmospheric dynamics (radiative processes – Oceanography: general (marginal and semienclosed seas; marine meteorology

  8. Measuring Longwave Radiative Flux Divergence in an Urban Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soux, A.; Oke, T. R.; Nunez, M.; Wilson, M.

    2003-12-01

    There has been very little measurement of longwave radiation divergence since the urban studies of Fuggle, Oke and Nunez in the mid 1970's or the rural work of Funk in the early 1960's. Although radiative divergence has been widely ignored for sometime there is the belief that it may play an important role in balancing nocturnal energy budgets in a range of environments. For example, in urban environments surface temperature relates well to the energy balance whereas air temperature does not, even in non-turbulent conditions. This is probably due at least in part to the effects of longwave divergence. To help answer issues related to longwave divergence a new dual-channel infrared radiometer (DCIR) has been developed. The DCIR, as the name implies, measures the directional infrared radiation in two wavebands and can, through differencing of the signals and further signal processing, give a direct measurement of longwave radiative flux divergence. The DCIR was deployed for the first time as part of a larger study (BUBBLE) of the urban boundary layer of Basel, Switzerland. The objective is to further study the thermal regime of a city at the canyon scale. To this end, a street canyon was carefully selected, in the city of Basel. The canyon surface and air volume were instrumented, including turbulent and conductive fluxes, and standard meteorological variables in addition to radiation. A unique data set was obtained to allow the complete energy balance of the canyon system to be evaluated without the need to resort to using residuals to quantify the magnitude of the longwave radiative flux divergence. Measured values of longwave flux-divergence are converted to cooling rates to compare with measured air temperature cooling. Preliminary results show that at the onset of canyon air-volume cooling, measured cooling rates are slightly lower than radiative cooling rates. The differences are less than 0.5° C. This contrasts sharply with previously measured above roof

  9. Relationships between outgoing longwave radiation and diabatic heating in reanalyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Randel, William J.; Fu, Rong

    2017-10-01

    This study investigates relationships between daily variability in National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), as a proxy for deep convection, and the global diabatic heat budget derived from reanalysis data sets. Results are evaluated based on data from ECMWF Reanalysis (ERA-Interim), Japanese 55-year Reanalysis (JRA-55) and Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA2). The diabatic heating is separated into components linked to `physics' (mainly latent heat fluxes), plus longwave (LW) and shortwave (SW) radiative tendencies. Transient variability in deep convection is highly correlated with diabatic heating throughout the troposphere and stratosphere. Correlation patterns and composite analyses show that enhanced deep convection (lower OLR) is linked to amplified heating in the tropical troposphere and in the mid-latitude storm tracks, tied to latent heat release. Enhanced convection is also linked to radiative cooling in the lower stratosphere, due to weaker upwelling LW from lower altitudes. Enhanced transient deep convection increases LW and decreases SW radiation in the lower troposphere, with opposite effects in the mid to upper troposphere. The compensating effects in LW and SW radiation are largely linked to variations in cloud fraction and water content (vapor, liquid and ice). These radiative balances in reanalyses are in agreement with idealized calculations using a column radiative transfer model. The overall relationships between OLR and diabatic heating are robust among the different reanalyses, although there are differences in radiative tendencies in the tropics due to large differences of cloud water and ice content among the reanalyses. These calculations provide a simple statistical method to quantify variations in diabatic heating linked to transient deep convection in the climate system.

  10. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Monthly Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR), Version 2.2-1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Climate Data Record (CDR) of monthly mean High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) flux at the top of the atmosphere...

  11. Shortwave and longwave radiative contributions to global warming under increasing CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohoe, Aaron; Armour, Kyle C; Pendergrass, Angeline G; Battisti, David S

    2014-11-25

    In response to increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO2, high-end general circulation models (GCMs) simulate an accumulation of energy at the top of the atmosphere not through a reduction in outgoing longwave radiation (OLR)—as one might expect from greenhouse gas forcing—but through an enhancement of net absorbed solar radiation (ASR). A simple linear radiative feedback framework is used to explain this counterintuitive behavior. It is found that the timescale over which OLR returns to its initial value after a CO2 perturbation depends sensitively on the magnitude of shortwave (SW) feedbacks. If SW feedbacks are sufficiently positive, OLR recovers within merely several decades, and any subsequent global energy accumulation is because of enhanced ASR only. In the GCM mean, this OLR recovery timescale is only 20 y because of robust SW water vapor and surface albedo feedbacks. However, a large spread in the net SW feedback across models (because of clouds) produces a range of OLR responses; in those few models with a weak SW feedback, OLR takes centuries to recover, and energy accumulation is dominated by reduced OLR. Observational constraints of radiative feedbacks—from satellite radiation and surface temperature data—suggest an OLR recovery timescale of decades or less, consistent with the majority of GCMs. Altogether, these results suggest that, although greenhouse gas forcing predominantly acts to reduce OLR, the resulting global warming is likely caused by enhanced ASR.

  12. Study of outgoing longwave radiation anomalies associated with Haiti earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Xiong

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis by using the methods of Eddy field calculation mean and wavelet maxima to detect seismic anomalies within the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR data based on time and space. The distinguishing feature of the method of Eddy field calculation mean is that we can calculate "the total sum of the difference value" of "the measured value" between adjacent points, which could highlight the singularity within data. The identified singularities are further validated by wavelet maxima, which using wavelet transformations as data mining tools by computing the maxima that can be used to identify obvious anomalies within OLR data. The two methods has been applied to carry out a comparative analysis of OLR data associated with the earthquake recently occurred in Haiti on 12 January 2010. Combining with the tectonic explanation of spatial and temporal continuity of the abnormal phenomena, the analyzed results have indicated a number of singularities associated with the possible seismic anomalies of the earthquake and from the comparative experiments and analyses by using the two methods, which follow the same time and space, we conclude that the singularities observed from 19 to 24 December 2009 could be the earthquake precursor of Haiti earthquake.

  13. NUCAPS: NOAA Unique Combined Atmospheric Processing System Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) from the NOAA Unique Combined Atmospheric Processing System (NUCAPS). NUCAPS was developed by the...

  14. Estimation of sea surface salinity in the Bay of Bengal using Outgoing Longwave Radiation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, V.S.N.; Subrahmanyam, B.; Sarma, M.S.S.; Tilvi, V.; RameshBabu, V.

    A new technique for retrieval of sea surface salinity (SSS) from space-borne satellite measurements of Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) through the 'Effective Oceanic Layer (EOL)' is explained in this paper. The OLR is used to study the convection...

  15. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Daily Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR), Version 1.2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Climate Data Record (CDR) contains the daily mean Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) time series in global 1 degree x 1 degree equal-angle gridded maps spanning...

  16. Local-Scale Urban Meteorological Parameterization Scheme (LUMPS): Longwave Radiation Parameterization and Seasonality-Related Developments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Loridan, Thomas; Grimmond, C. S. B; Offerle, Brian D; Young, Duick T; Smith, Thomas E. L; Järvi, Leena; Lindberg, Fredrik

    2011-01-01

    .... The incoming component of the longwave radiation (L[down arrow]) in NARP is improved through a simple relation derived using cloud cover observations from a ceilometer collected in central London, England. The new L[down arrow...

  17. Comparison of the performance of net radiation calculation models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærsgaard, Jeppe Hvelplund; Cuenca, R H; Martinez-Cob, A

    2009-01-01

    values of net radiation were calculated using three net outgoing long-wave radiation models and compared to measured values. Four meteorological datasets representing two climate regimes, a sub-humid, high-latitude environment and a semi-arid mid-latitude environment, were used to test the models...... or developed for specific climate regimes, the predictions of the physically based model had slightly lower bias and scatter than the empirical models. When used with their original model coefficients, the physically based model had a higher bias than the measurement error of the net radiation instruments used...

  18. Testing longwave radiation parameterizations under clear and overcast skies at Storglaciären, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sedlar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy balance based glacier melt models require accurate estimates of incoming longwave radiation but direct measurements are often not available. Multi-year near-surface meteorological data from Storglaciären, Northern Sweden, were used to evaluate commonly used longwave radiation parameterizations in a glacier environment under clear-sky and all-sky conditions. Parameterizations depending solely on air temperature performed worse than those which include water vapor pressure. All models tended to overestimate incoming longwave radiation during periods of low longwave radiation, while incoming longwave was underestimated when radiation was high. Under all-sky conditions root mean square error (RMSE and mean bias error (MBE were 17 to 20 W m−2 and −5 to 1 W m−2, respectively. Two attempts were made to circumvent the need of cloud cover data. First cloud fraction was parameterized as a function of the ratio, τ, of measured incoming shortwave radiation and calculated top of atmosphere radiation. Second, τ was related directly to the cloud factor (i.e. the increase in sky emissivity due to clouds. Despite large scatter between τ and both cloud fraction and the cloud factor, resulting calculations of hourly incoming longwave radiation for both approaches were only slightly more variable with RMSE roughly 3 W m−2 larger compared to using cloud observations as input. This is promising for longwave radiation modeling in areas where shortwave radiation data are available but cloud observations are not.

  19. Exploring the Longwave Radiative Effects of Dust Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansell, Richard A., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Dust aerosols not only affect air quality and visibility where they pose a significant health and safety risk, but they can also play a role in modulating the energy balance of the Earth-atmosphere system by directly interacting with local radiative fields. Consequently, dust aerosols can impact regional climate patterns such as changes in precipitation and the evolution of the hydrological cycle. Assessing the direct effect of dust aerosols at the solar wavelengths is fairly straightforward due in part to the relatively large signal-to-noise ratio in broadband irradiance measurements. The longwave (LW) impacts, on the other hand, are rather difficult to ascertain since the measured dust signal level (10 Wm-2) is on the same order as the instrumental uncertainties. Moreover, compared to the shortwave (SW), limited experimental data on the LW optical properties of dust makes it a difficult challenge for constraining the LW impacts. Owing to the strong absorption features found in many terrestrial minerals (e.g., silicates and clays), the LW effects, although much smaller in magnitude compared to the SW, can still have a sizeable impact on the energetics of the Earth-atmosphere system, which can potentially trigger changes in the heat and moisture surface budgets, and dynamics of the atmosphere. The current endeavor is an integral part of an on-going research study to perform detailed assessments of dust direct aerosol radiative effects (DARE) using comprehensive global datasets from NASA Goddards mobile ground-based facility (cf. http://smartlabs.gsfc.nasa.gov/) during previous field experiments near key dust source regions. Here we examine and compare the results from two of these studies: the 2006 NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Activities and the 2008 Asian Monsoon Years. The former study focused on transported Saharan dust at Sal Island (16.73N, 22.93W), Cape Verde along the west coast of Africa while the latter focused on Asian dust at Zhangye China (39

  20. Downward Atmospheric longwave radiation in the city of São Paulo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbaro, E.W.; Oliveira, A.P.; Soares, J.; Ferreira, M.J.; Boznar, M.Z.; Mlakar, P.

    2009-01-01

    This work evaluates objectively the consistency and quality of a 9 year dataset based on 5 minute average values of downward longwave atmospheric (LW) emission, shortwave radiation, temperature and relative humidity. All these parameters were observed simultaneously and continuously from 1997 to

  1. Does Sub-canopy Longwave Radiation Enhancement Affect Boreal Snowmelt Dynamics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loranty, M. M.; Rutter, N.; Fletcher, C. G.; Kropp, H.; Derksen, C.; Mudryk, L.; Thackeray, C. W.; Todt, M.; Wang, L.

    2016-12-01

    Climate models currently underestimate the effects of warming air temperatures on springtime snow retreat across the northern hemisphere. This effect is particularly pronounced in boreal forests, where rates of warming are among the most rapid on earth. Inaccuracies in the timing of springtime snow retreat effectively alter land surface albedo and subsequently atmospheric temperatures, contributing to uncertainty in projections of future climate. Enhanced emission of longwave radiation beneath forest canopies is a potential mechanism for inaccurate model snowmelt dynamics. Specifically, the absorption of shortwave radiation and downward subsequent re-emission of longwave radiation by forest canopies is not accounted for in most climate models. Several observational studies have demonstrated enhanced downwelling longwave radiation fluxes beneath forest canopies, yet there has been little research as to whether this phenomenon affects snowmelt dynamics. In this study we examine the rate of decline in snow water equivalent (SWE) per unit temperature increase (i.e. mm °C-1) across the northern high-latitude regions using monthly GlobSnow and CRU data in conjunction with the GLC2000 vegetation map and several geospatial indicators of vegetation cover. We find greater reductions in SWE per unit temperature increase in boreal forests than in tundra. Within boreal forests, SWE reduction per unit temperature increase exhibits a significant positive correlation with forest canopy cover, and this relationship varies between dominant forest types. Greater declines in SWE per unit temperature increase in areas with higher forest canopy cover suggests that enhanced downwelling longwave radiation fluxes are stronger than canopy-shading effects on understory microclimate for determining rates of spring snowmelt across the boreal biome. Accurate process representation of sub-canopy longwave radiation fluxes may help to improve climate model representations of springtime snow cover

  2. A Paradigm shift to an Old Scheme for Outgoing Longwave Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Alastair B.

    2016-04-01

    There are many cases where the climate models do not agree with the empirical data. For instance, the data from radiosondes (and MSUs) do not show the amount of warming in the upper troposphere that is predicted by the models (Thorne et al. 2011). The current scheme for outgoing longwave radiation can be traced back to the great 19th Century French mathematician J-B Joseph Fourier. His anachronistic idea was that the radiation balance at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) is maintained by the conduction of heat from the surface (Fourier 1824). It was based on comparing the atmosphere to the 18th Century Swiss scientist H-B de Saussure's hotbox which he had invented to show that solar radiation is only slightly absorbed by the atmosphere. Saussure also showed that thermal radiation existed and argued that the warmth of the air near the surface of the Earth is due to absorption of that infra red radiation (Saussure 1786). Hence a paradigm shift to Saussure's scheme, where the thermal radiation is absorbed at the base of the atmosphere, rather than throughout the atmosphere as in Fourier's scheme, may solve many climate models problems. In this new paradigm the boundary layer continually exchanges radiation with the surface. Thus only at two instants during the day is there no net gain or loss of heat by the boundary layer from the surface, and so that layer is not in LTE. Moreover, since the absorption of outgoing longwave radiation is saturated within the boundary layer, it has little influence on the TOA balance. That balance is mostly maintained by changes in albedo, e.g. clouds and ice sheets. Use of this paradigm can explain why the excess warming in south western Europe was caused by water vapour close to the surface (Philipona et al. 2005), and may also explain why there are difficulties in closing the surface radiation balance (Wild et al. 2013) and in modelling abrupt climate change (White et al. 2013). References: Fourier, Joseph. 1824. 'Remarques G

  3. The link between outgoing longwave radiation and the altitude at which a spaceborne lidar beam is fully attenuated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillant de Guélis, Thibault; Chepfer, Hélène; Noel, Vincent; Guzman, Rodrigo; Dubuisson, Philippe; Winker, David M.; Kato, Seiji

    2017-12-01

    According to climate model simulations, the changing altitude of middle and high clouds is the dominant contributor to the positive global mean longwave cloud feedback. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of this longwave cloud altitude feedback and its magnitude have not yet been verified by observations. Accurate, stable, and long-term observations of a metric-characterizing cloud vertical distribution that are related to the longwave cloud radiative effect are needed to achieve a better understanding of the mechanism of longwave cloud altitude feedback. This study shows that the direct measurement of the altitude of atmospheric lidar opacity is a good candidate for the necessary observational metric. The opacity altitude is the level at which a spaceborne lidar beam is fully attenuated when probing an opaque cloud. By combining this altitude with the direct lidar measurement of the cloud-top altitude, we derive the effective radiative temperature of opaque clouds which linearly drives (as we will show) the outgoing longwave radiation. We find that, for an opaque cloud, a cloud temperature change of 1 K modifies its cloud radiative effect by 2 W m-2. Similarly, the longwave cloud radiative effect of optically thin clouds can be derived from their top and base altitudes and an estimate of their emissivity. We show with radiative transfer simulations that these relationships hold true at single atmospheric column scale, on the scale of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instantaneous footprint, and at monthly mean 2° × 2° scale. Opaque clouds cover 35 % of the ice-free ocean and contribute to 73 % of the global mean cloud radiative effect. Thin-cloud coverage is 36 % and contributes 27 % of the global mean cloud radiative effect. The link between outgoing longwave radiation and the altitude at which a spaceborne lidar beam is fully attenuated provides a simple formulation of the cloud radiative effect in the longwave domain and so helps us to

  4. Longwave atmospheric radiation as a possible indicator of the aviation impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaitseva, N.A. [Central Aerological Observatory of the Russian Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    Aircraft emissions changing composition of the atmospheric air should be sensed by radiation parameters, such as downward (in first turn) and upward long-wave fluxes. It might be supposed that the accurate measurements of long-wave (LW) radiation fluxes in regions of crowded aircraft routes time outside these regions, could detect the influence. Main transformation of the long-wave radiation (LWR) proceeds in the troposphere which absorbs and irradiates the LWR. The only mass method of the LWR measurements in the free atmosphere became the radiometer probe. In the former USSR it was successfully developed in 1961, and since 1963 the special radiometer sounding network started to make regular observations over the USSR territory. Rather small spatial variations of the downward LWR flux was observed indicating rather high homogeneity of the atmosphere composition. Analysis of the seasonal variations of the downward LWR has revealed that over some stations it has the opposite course of changes from summer to winter and it is mainly observed at rather high levels. (R.P.) 10 refs.

  5. Improving representation of canopy temperatures for modeling subcanopy incoming longwave radiation to the snow surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Clare; Rutter, Nick; Jonas, Tobias

    2017-09-01

    A comprehensive analysis of canopy surface temperatures was conducted around a small and large gap at a forested alpine site in the Swiss Alps during the 2015 and 2016 snowmelt seasons (March-April). Canopy surface temperatures within the small gap were within 2-3°C of measured reference air temperature. Vertical and horizontal variations in canopy surface temperatures were greatest around the large gap, varying up to 18°C above measured reference air temperature during clear-sky days. Nighttime canopy surface temperatures around the study site were up to 3°C cooler than reference air temperature. These measurements were used to develop a simple parameterization for correcting reference air temperature for elevated canopy surface temperatures during (1) nighttime conditions (subcanopy shortwave radiation is 0 W m-2) and (2) periods of increased subcanopy shortwave radiation >400 W m-2 representing penetration of shortwave radiation through the canopy. Subcanopy shortwave and longwave radiation collected at a single point in the subcanopy over a 24 h clear-sky period was used to calculate a nighttime bulk offset of 3°C for scenario 1 and develop a multiple linear regression model for scenario 2 using reference air temperature and subcanopy shortwave radiation to predict canopy surface temperature with a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 0.7°C. Outside of these two scenarios, reference air temperature was used to predict subcanopy incoming longwave radiation. Modeling at 20 radiometer locations throughout two snowmelt seasons using these parameterizations reduced the mean bias and RMSE to below 10 W m s-2 at all locations.

  6. Characteristics of longwave radiation through the statistical analysis of downward and upward longwave radiation and inter-comparison of two sites in Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashiardis, S.; Kalogirou, S. A.; Pelengaris, A.

    2017-11-01

    In this study, three years of hourly longwave downward and upward irradiance measurements for two sites in Cyprus representing two different climate regimes (inland vs coastal locations) are used to analyse and compare them. The quality control process was based on physically possible, extremely rare and climatological limits. Furthermore, comparison tests between the two longwave components as well as with air and ground surface temperatures were used to evaluate the hourly values of longwave irradiances. The annual mean daily downward longwave irradiation at Athalassa is 29.1 MJ m-2 and at Larnaca it is slightly higher (31.3 MJ m-2). On the other hand, the annual mean daily upward longwave irradiation at Athalassa is 38.2 MJ m-2, while at Larnaca it is slightly lower (37.4 MJ m-2). The performance of various models in estimating the daylight downward and upward longwave irradiances under clear-sky and all-sky conditions was evaluated. Root-mean-square errors, mean bias errors, and linear regression correlations have been used to compare measured and estimated values. The results of this comparison for the station of Athalassa, showed that Idso's model perform well and it can be used to estimate downward longwave irradiance under clear-sky conditions. Furthermore, Idso's model was extended to estimate the daylight downward longwave irradiance under all-sky conditions by taking into account the ratio of global to the clear-sky global solar irradiance. The RMSE of the local calibrated coefficients scheme of Idso's model was 17.70 W m-2. For the estimation of the daylight upward longwave irradiance under all-sky conditions, the calibrated Dognieux and Lemoine model was used which performed well. The RMSE in this case was 12.75 W m-2.

  7. A Study of Longwave Radiation Codes for Climate Studies: Validation with ARM Observations and Tests in General Circulation Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert G. Ellingson

    2004-09-28

    One specific goal of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program is to improve the treatment of radiative transfer in General Circulation Models (GCMs) under clear-sky, general overcast and broken cloud conditions. Our project was geared to contribute to this goal by attacking major problems associated with one of the dominant radiation components of the problem --longwave radiation. The primary long-term project objectives were to: (1) develop an optimum longwave radiation model for use in GCMs that has been calibrated with state-of-the-art observations for clear and cloudy conditions, and (2) determine how the longwave radiative forcing with an improved algorithm contributes relatively in a GCM when compared to shortwave radiative forcing, sensible heating, thermal advection and convection. The approach has been to build upon existing models in an iterative, predictive fashion. We focused on comparing calculations from a set of models with operationally observed data for clear, overcast and broken cloud conditions. The differences found through the comparisons and physical insights have been used to develop new models, most of which have been tested with new data. Our initial GCM studies used existing GCMs to study the climate model-radiation sensitivity problem. Although this portion of our initial plans was curtailed midway through the project, we anticipate that the eventual outcome of this approach will provide both a better longwave radiative forcing algorithm and from our better understanding of how longwave radiative forcing influences the model equilibrium climate, how improvements in climate prediction using this algorithm can be achieved.

  8. Observational Characterization of the Downward Atmospheric Longwave Radiation at the Surface in the City of São Paulo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde Barbaro, E.; Oliveira, A.P.; Soares, J.; Codato, G.; Ferreira, M.J.; Mlakar, P.; Boznar, M.Z.; Escobedo, J.

    2010-01-01

    This work describes the seasonal and diurnal variations of downward longwave atmospheric irradiance (LW) at the surface in São Paulo, Brazil, using 5-min-averaged values of LW, air temperature, relative humidity, and solar radiation observed continuously and simultaneously from 1997 to 2006 on a

  9. Instantaneous longwave radiative impact of ozone: an application on IASI/MetOp observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Doniki

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ozone is an important greenhouse gas in terms of anthropogenic radiative forcing (RF. RF calculations for ozone were until recently entirely model based, and significant discrepancies were reported due to different model characteristics. However, new instantaneous radiative kernels (IRKs calculated from hyperspectral thermal IR satellites have been able to help adjudicate between different climate model RF calculations. IRKs are defined as the sensitivity of the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR flux with respect to the ozone vertical distribution in the full 9.6 μm band. Previous methods applied to measurements from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES on Aura rely on an anisotropy approximation for the angular integration. In this paper, we present a more accurate but more computationally expensive method to calculate these kernels. The method of direct integration is based on similar principles to the anisotropy approximation, but it deals more precisely with the integration of the Jacobians. We describe both methods and highlight their differences with respect to the IRKs and the ozone longwave radiative effect (LWRE, i.e., the radiative impact in OLR due to absorption by ozone, for both tropospheric and total columns, from measurements of the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI onboard MetOp-A. Biases between the two methods vary from −25 to +20 % for the LWRE, depending on the viewing angle. These biases point to the inadequacy of the anisotropy method, especially at nadir, suggesting that the TES-derived LWREs are biased low by around 25 % and that chemistry–climate model OLR biases with respect to TES are underestimated. In this paper we also exploit the sampling performance of IASI to obtain first daily global distributions of the LWRE, for 12 days (the 15th of each month in 2011, calculated with the direct integration method. We show that the temporal variation of global and latitudinal averages of the LWRE

  10. Assessment of the methods for determining net radiation at different time-scales of meteorological variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni An

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available When modeling the soil/atmosphere interaction, it is of paramount importance to determine the net radiation flux. There are two common calculation methods for this purpose. Method 1 relies on use of air temperature, while Method 2 relies on use of both air and soil temperatures. Nowadays, there has been no consensus on the application of these two methods. In this study, the half-hourly data of solar radiation recorded at an experimental embankment are used to calculate the net radiation and long-wave radiation at different time-scales (half-hourly, hourly, and daily using the two methods. The results show that, compared with Method 2 which has been widely adopted in agronomical, geotechnical and geo-environmental applications, Method 1 is more feasible for its simplicity and accuracy at shorter time-scale. Moreover, in case of longer time-scale, daily for instance, less variations of net radiation and long-wave radiation are obtained, suggesting that no detailed soil temperature variations can be obtained. In other words, shorter time-scales are preferred in determining net radiation flux.

  11. Role of Longwave Cloud-Radiation Feedback in the Simulation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daehyun; Ahn, Min-Seop; Kang, In-Sik; Del Genio, Anthony D.

    2015-01-01

    The role of the cloud-radiation interaction in the simulation of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) is investigated. A special focus is on the enhancement of column-integrated diabatic heating due to the greenhouse effects of clouds and moisture in the region of anomalous convection. The degree of this enhancement, the greenhouse enhancement factor (GEF), is measured at different precipitation anomaly regimes as the negative ratio of anomalous outgoing longwave radiation to anomalous precipitation. Observations show that the GEF varies significantly with precipitation anomaly and with the MJO cycle. The greenhouse enhancement is greater in weak precipitation anomaly regimes and its effectiveness decreases monotonically with increasing precipitation anomaly. The GEF also amplifies locally when convection is strengthened in association with the MJO, especially in the weak precipitation anomaly regime (less than 5 mm day(exp -1)). A robust statistical relationship is found among CMIP5 climate model simulations between the GEF and the MJO simulation fidelity. Models that simulate a stronger MJO also simulate a greater GEF, especially in the weak precipitation anomaly regime (less than 5 mm day(exp -1)). Models with a greater GEF in the strong precipitation anomaly regime (greater than 30 mm day(-1)) represent a slightly slower MJO propagation speed. Many models that lack the MJO underestimate the GEF in general and in particular in the weak precipitation anomaly regime. The results herein highlight that the cloud-radiation interaction is a crucial process for climate models to correctly represent the MJO.

  12. Evaluation of ACCMIP outgoing longwave radiation from tropospheric ozone using TES satellite observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. W. Bowman

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We use simultaneous observations of tropospheric ozone and outgoing longwave radiation (OLR sensitivity to tropospheric ozone from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES to evaluate model tropospheric ozone and its effect on OLR simulated by a suite of chemistry-climate models that participated in the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP. The ensemble mean of ACCMIP models show a persistent but modest tropospheric ozone low bias (5–20 ppb in the Southern Hemisphere (SH and modest high bias (5–10 ppb in the Northern Hemisphere (NH relative to TES ozone for 2005–2010. These ozone biases have a significant impact on the OLR. Using TES instantaneous radiative kernels (IRK, we show that the ACCMIP ensemble mean tropospheric ozone low bias leads up to 120 mW m−2 OLR high bias locally but zonally compensating errors reduce the global OLR high bias to 39 ± 41 m Wm−2 relative to TES data. We show that there is a correlation (R2 = 0.59 between the magnitude of the ACCMIP OLR bias and the deviation of the ACCMIP preindustrial to present day (1750–2010 ozone radiative forcing (RF from the ensemble ozone RF mean. However, this correlation is driven primarily by models whose absolute OLR bias from tropospheric ozone exceeds 100 m Wm−2. Removing these models leads to a mean ozone radiative forcing of 394 ± 42 m Wm−2. The mean is about the same and the standard deviation is about 30% lower than an ensemble ozone RF of 384 ± 60 m Wm−2 derived from 14 of the 16 ACCMIP models reported in a companion ACCMIP study. These results point towards a profitable direction of combining satellite observations and chemistry-climate model simulations to reduce uncertainty in ozone radiative forcing.

  13. First Satellite-detected Perturbations of Outgoing Longwave Radiation Associated with Blowing Snow Events over Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuekui; Palm, Stephen P.; Marshak, Alexander; Wu, Dong L.; Yu, Hongbin; Fu, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    We present the first satellite-detected perturbations of the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) associated with blowing snow events over the Antarctic ice sheet using data from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization and Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System. Significant cloud-free OLR differences are observed between the clear and blowing snow sky, with the sign andmagnitude depending on season and time of the day. During nighttime, OLRs are usually larger when blowing snow is present; the average difference in OLRs between without and with blowing snow over the East Antarctic Ice Sheet is about 5.2 W/m2 for the winter months of 2009. During daytime, in contrast, the OLR perturbation is usually smaller or even has the opposite sign. The observed seasonal variations and day-night differences in the OLR perturbation are consistent with theoretical calculations of the influence of blowing snow on OLR. Detailed atmospheric profiles are needed to quantify the radiative effect of blowing snow from the satellite observations.

  14. BOREAS RSS-14 Level-2 GOES-7 Shortwave and Longwave Radiation Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Gu, Jiujing; Smith, Eric A.

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS RSS-14 team collected and processed several GOES-7 and GOES-8 image data sets that covered the BOREAS study region. This data set contains images of shortwave and longwave radiation at the surface and top of the atmosphere derived from collected GOES-7 data. The data cover the time period of 05-Feb-1994 to 20-Sep-1994. The images missing from the temporal series were zero-filled to create a consistent sequence of files. The data are stored in binary image format files. Due to the large size of the images, the level-1a GOES-7 data are not contained on the BOREAS CD-ROM set. An inventory listing file is supplied on the CD-ROM to inform users of what data were collected. The level-1a GOES-7 image data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). See sections 15 and 16 for more information. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  15. Longwave radiative effects of Saharan dust during the ICE-D campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, Jennifer; Havemann, Stephan; Ryder, Claire; O'Sullivan, Debbie

    2017-04-01

    The Havemann-Taylor Fast Radiative Transfer Code (HT-FRTC) is a fast radiative transfer model based on Principal Components. Scattering has been incorporated into HT-FRTC which allows simulations of aerosol as well as clear-sky atmospheres. This work evaluates the scattering scheme in HT-FRTC and investigates dust-affected brightness temperatures using in-situ observations from Ice in Clouds Experiment - Dust (ICE-D) campaign. The ICE-D campaign occurred during August 2015 and was based from Cape Verde. The ICE-D campaign is a multidisciplinary project which achieved measurements of in-situ mineral dust properties of the dust advected from the Sahara, and on the aerosol-cloud interactions using the FAAM BAe-146 research aircraft. ICE-D encountered a range of low (0.3), intermediate (0.8) and high (1.3) aerosol optical depths, AODs, and therefore provides a range of atmospheric dust loadings in the assessment of dust scattering in HT-FRTC. Spectral radiances in the thermal infrared window region (800 - 1200 cm-1) are sensitive to the presence of mineral dust; mineral dust acts to reduce the upwelling infrared radiation caused by the absorption and re-emission of radiation by the dust layer. ARIES (Airborne Research Interferometer Evaluation System) is a nadir-facing interferometer, measuring infrared radiances between 550 and 3000 cm-1. The ARIES spectral radiances are converted to brightness temperatures by inversion of the Planck function. The mineral dust size distribution is important for radiative transfer applications as it provides a measure of aerosol scattering. The longwave spectral mineral dust optical properties including the mass extinction coefficients, single scattering albedos and the asymmetry parameter have been derived from the mean ICE-D size distribution. HT-FRTC scattering simulations are initialised with vertical mass fractions which can be derived from extinction profiles from the lidar along with the specific extinction coefficient, kext (m2

  16. An Improved Approach for Estimating Daily Net Radiation over the Heihe River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingfang Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Net radiation plays an essential role in determining the thermal conditions of the Earth’s surface and is an important parameter for the study of land-surface processes and global climate change. In this paper, an improved satellite-based approach to estimate the daily net radiation is presented, in which sunshine duration were derived from the geostationary meteorological satellite (FY-2D cloud classification product, the monthly empirical as and bs Angstrom coefficients for net shortwave radiation were calibrated by spatial fitting of the ground data from 1997 to 2006, and the daily net longwave radiation was calibrated with ground data from 2007 to 2010 over the Heihe River Basin in China. The estimated daily net radiation values were validated against ground data for 12 months in 2008 at four stations with different underlying surface types. The average coefficient of determination (R2 was 0.8489, and the averaged Nash-Sutcliffe equation (NSE was 0.8356. The close agreement between the estimated daily net radiation and observations indicates that the proposed method is promising, especially given the comparison between the spatial distribution and the interpolation of sunshine duration. Potential applications include climate research, energy balance studies and the estimation of global evapotranspiration.

  17. Uncertainties of parameterized surface downward clear-sky shortwave and all-sky longwave radiation.

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    S. Gubler

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As many environmental models rely on simulating the energy balance at the Earth's surface based on parameterized radiative fluxes, knowledge of the inherent model uncertainties is important. In this study we evaluate one parameterization of clear-sky direct, diffuse and global shortwave downward radiation (SDR and diverse parameterizations of clear-sky and all-sky longwave downward radiation (LDR. In a first step, SDR is estimated based on measured input variables and estimated atmospheric parameters for hourly time steps during the years 1996 to 2008. Model behaviour is validated using the high quality measurements of six Alpine Surface Radiation Budget (ASRB stations in Switzerland covering different elevations, and measurements of the Swiss Alpine Climate Radiation Monitoring network (SACRaM in Payerne. In a next step, twelve clear-sky LDR parameterizations are calibrated using the ASRB measurements. One of the best performing parameterizations is elected to estimate all-sky LDR, where cloud transmissivity is estimated using measured and modeled global SDR during daytime. In a last step, the performance of several interpolation methods is evaluated to determine the cloud transmissivity in the night.

    We show that clear-sky direct, diffuse and global SDR is adequately represented by the model when using measurements of the atmospheric parameters precipitable water and aerosol content at Payerne. If the atmospheric parameters are estimated and used as a fix value, the relative mean bias deviance (MBD and the relative root mean squared deviance (RMSD of the clear-sky global SDR scatter between between −2 and 5%, and 7 and 13% within the six locations. The small errors in clear-sky global SDR can be attributed to compensating effects of modeled direct and diffuse SDR since an overestimation of aerosol content in the atmosphere results in underestimating the direct, but overestimating the diffuse SDR. Calibration of LDR parameterizations

  18. Ag-Ag2S/reduced graphene oxide hybrids used as long-wave UV radiation emitting nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyao; Xu, Ruoyu; Ling, Min; He, Guanjie

    2017-10-01

    We report a facile thermal decomposition approach to synthesize Ag-Ag2S/reduced graphene oxide (Ag-Ag2S/rGO), the Ag-Ag2S nanoparticles uniformly dispersed on reduced graphene oxide with diameters of 10-20 nm. The photoluminescence spectra of Ag-Ag2S/rGO showed two obvious emission peaks at 327 and 339 nm with the excitation wavelength at 287 nm. Compared with Ag-Ag2S heterostructured clusters with two peaks at 407 and 430 nm, it showed a big blue shift and higher intensity, which makes it a novel candidate for long-wave UV radiation emitting nanocomposite.

  19. Alterations in lectin binding to the epidermis following treatment with 8-methoxypsoralen plus long-wave ultraviolet radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danno, K.; Takigawa, M.; Horio, T.

    1984-02-01

    The alterations in lectin fluorescence stainings to the epidermis were examined in guinea pig skin treated with topical application of a 1% 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) solution plus long-wave ultraviolet (UVA) radiation (1.5-3.5 J/cm2) (PUVA). Serial biopsy specimens taken up to 21 days postirradiation were stained with 8 commercially available lectins labeled with either fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) or biotin (followed by avidin D-FITC): Bandeiraea simplicifolia agglutinin I (BSA), concanavalin A (Con-A), Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), peanut agglutinin (PNA), Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA), soybean agglutinin (SBA), Ulex europeus agglutinin I (UEA), and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA). In normal guinea pig skin UEA staining was absent. Following PUVA treatment, UEA and DBA stainings became apparent or stronger in intensity after days 7-14 (UEA) and days 4-7 (DBA), respectively, and returned to negative or weak by days 14-21. Stainings with Con-A, SBA, and WGA gave remarkable decreases in intensity after days 2-4 and recovered to the baseline by days 7-14. Intensity of BSA, PNA, and RCA stainings was decreased to a lesser degree than the other lectins. Such changes were not produced by application of 8-MOP, UVA radiation (less than 10 J/cm2), UVB radiation (900-2700 mJ/cm2), or tape stripping. These results suggest that PUVA treatment perturbs the composition or organization of epidermal cell surface glycoconjugates to induce alterations in lectin stainings.

  20. Seasonal co-variability of surface downwelling longwave radiation for the 1982-2009 period in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccolari, Mauro; Parmiggiani, Flavio

    2017-06-01

    Trends and variability of the Arctic sea ice extent depend on various physical processes, including those related to changes in radiative fluxes, which are associated with cloudiness and water vapour and, in turn, with the atmospheric moisture transport over the Arctic. Aim of this work was: (i) to extract seasonal spatial patterns of the co-variability between the sea ice concentration (SIC) and the surface downwelling longwave radiation (SDL) in the Arctic Ocean during the 1982-2009 period; and (ii) to estimate the correlation coefficients between these patterns and the indices associated to some climate oscillation modes (AO, NAO, PNA, PDO and AMO). Maximum Covariance Analysis (MCA) was the main technique used in this study. Among our results, we highlight two areas of maximum co-variability SIC/SDL centered over the Barents Sea in winter and over the Chukchi Sea in summer. In addition, some statistically significant correlations (at 95 %) between the spatial patterns of co-variability and climate oscillation indices were assessed, e.g. with PDO and AMO in November-January, with NAO and AMO in May-July, and with PNA in August-October.

  1. Seasonal co-variability of surface downwelling longwave radiation for the 1982–2009 period in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Boccolari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Trends and variability of the Arctic sea ice extent depend on various physical processes, including those related to changes in radiative fluxes, which are associated with cloudiness and water vapour and, in turn, with the atmospheric moisture transport over the Arctic. Aim of this work was: (i to extract seasonal spatial patterns of the co-variability between the sea ice concentration (SIC and the surface downwelling longwave radiation (SDL in the Arctic Ocean during the 1982–2009 period; and (ii to estimate the correlation coefficients between these patterns and the indices associated to some climate oscillation modes (AO, NAO, PNA, PDO and AMO. Maximum Covariance Analysis (MCA was the main technique used in this study. Among our results, we highlight two areas of maximum co-variability SIC/SDL centered over the Barents Sea in winter and over the Chukchi Sea in summer. In addition, some statistically significant correlations (at 95 % between the spatial patterns of co-variability and climate oscillation indices were assessed, e.g. with PDO and AMO in November–January, with NAO and AMO in May–July, and with PNA in August–October.

  2. Dynamic response of the thermometric net radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. D. Wilson; W. J. Massman; G. E. Swaters

    2009-01-01

    We computed the dynamic response of an idealized thermometric net radiometer, when driven by an oscillating net longwave radiation intended roughly to simulate rapid fluctuations of the radiative environment such as might be expected during field use of such devices. The study was motivated by curiosity as to whether non-linearity of the surface boundary conditions...

  3. Long-Term Validation and Variability of the Shortwave and Longwave Radiation Data of the GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Taiping; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.; Gupta, Shashi K.; Cox, Stephan J.; Mikovitz, Colleen; Hinkelman, Laura M.

    2006-01-01

    In this investigation, we make systematic Surface Radiation Budget-Baseline Surface Radiation Network (SRB-BSRN), Surface Radiation Data Centre (SRB-WRDC) and Surface Radiation Budget-Global Energy Balance Archive (SRB-GEBA) comparisons for both shortwave and longwave daily and monthly mean radiation fluxes at the Earth's surface. We first have an overview of all the comparable pairs of data in scatter or scatter density plots. Then we show the time series of the SRB data at grids in which there are ground sites where longterm records of data are available for comparison. An overall very good agreement between the SRB data and ground observations is found. To see the variability of the SRB data during the 21.5 years, we computed the global mean and its linear trend. No appreciable trend is detected at the 5% level. The empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) of the SRB deseasonalized shortwave downward flux are computed over the Pacific region, and the first EOF coefficient is found to be correlated with the ENSO Index at a high value of coefficient of 0.7083.

  4. Comparative Assessment of Satellite-Retrieved Surface Net Radiation: An Examination on CERES and SRB Datasets in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Pan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Surface net radiation plays an important role in land–atmosphere interactions. The net radiation can be retrieved from satellite radiative products, yet its accuracy needs comprehensive assessment. This study evaluates monthly surface net radiation generated from the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES and the Surface Radiation Budget project (SRB products, respectively, with quality-controlled radiation data from 50 meteorological stations in China for the period from March 2000 to December 2007. Our results show that surface net radiation is generally overestimated for CERES (SRB, with a bias of 26.52 W/m2 (18.57 W/m2 and a root mean square error of 34.58 W/m2 (29.49 W/m2. Spatially, the satellite-retrieved monthly mean of surface net radiation has relatively small errors for both CERES and SRB at inland sites in south China. Substantial errors are found at northeastern sites for two datasets, in addition to coastal sites for CERES. Temporally, multi-year averaged monthly mean errors are large at sites in western China in spring and summer, and in northeastern China in spring and winter. The annual mean error fluctuates for SRB, but decreases for CERES between 2000 and 2007. For CERES, 56% of net radiation errors come from net shortwave (NSW radiation and 44% from net longwave (NLW radiation. The errors are attributable to environmental parameters including surface albedo, surface water vapor pressure, land surface temperature, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI of land surface proxy, and visibility for CERES. For SRB, 65% of the errors come from NSW and 35% from NLW radiation. The major influencing factors in a descending order are surface water vapor pressure, surface albedo, land surface temperature, NDVI, and visibility. Our findings offer an insight into error patterns in satellite-retrieved surface net radiation and should be valuable to improving retrieval accuracy of surface net radiation. Moreover, our

  5. Revising shortwave and longwave radiation archives in view of possible revisions of the WSG and WISG reference scales: methods and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nyeki

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A large number of radiometers are traceable to the World Standard Group (WSG for shortwave radiation and the interim World Infrared Standard Group (WISG for longwave radiation, hosted by the Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos/World Radiation Centre (PMOD/WRC, Davos, Switzerland. The WSG and WISG have recently been found to over- and underestimate radiation values, respectively (Fehlmann et al., 2012; Gröbner et al., 2014, although research is still ongoing. In view of a possible revision of the reference scales of both standard groups, this study discusses the methods involved and the implications on existing archives of radiation time series, such as the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN. Based on PMOD/WRC calibration archives and BSRN data archives, the downward longwave radiation (DLR time series over the 2006–2015 period were analysed at four stations (polar and mid-latitude locations. DLR was found to increase by up to 3.5 and 5.4 W m−2 for all-sky and clear-sky conditions, respectively, after applying a WISG reference scale correction and a minor correction for the dependence of pyrgeometer sensitivity on atmospheric integrated water vapour content. Similar increases in DLR may be expected at other BSRN stations. Based on our analysis, a number of recommendations are made for future studies.

  6. Comparison of the Sensitivity of Surface Downward Longwave Radiation to Changes in Water Vapor at Two High Elevation Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yonghua; Naud, Catherine M.; Rangwala, Imtiaz; Landry, Christopher C.; Miller, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Among the potential reasons for enhanced warming rates in many high elevation regions is the nonlinear relationship between surface downward longwave radiation (DLR) and specific humidity (q). In this study we use ground-based observations at two neighboring high elevation sites in Southwestern Colorado that have different local topography and are 1.3 kilometers apart horizontally and 348 meters vertically. We examine the spatial consistency of the sensitivities (partial derivatives) of DLR with respect to changes in q, and the sensitivities are obtained from the Jacobian matrix of a neural network analysis. Although the relationship between DLR and q is the same at both sites, the sensitivities are higher when q is smaller, which occurs more frequently at the higher elevation site. There is a distinct hourly distribution in the sensitivities at both sites especially for high sensitivity cases, although the range is greater at the lower elevation site. The hourly distribution of the sensitivities relates to that of q. Under clear skies during daytime, q is similar between the two sites, however under cloudy skies or at night, it is not. This means that the DLR-q sensitivities are similar at the two sites during daytime but not at night, and care must be exercised when using data from one site to infer the impact of water vapor feedbacks at another site, particularly at night. Our analysis suggests that care should be exercised when using the lapse rate adjustment to infill high frequency data in a complex topographical region, particularly when one of the stations is subject to cold air pooling as found here.

  7. Hydroxytyrosol, a natural antioxidant from olive oil, prevents protein damage induced by long-wave ultraviolet radiation in melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Stefania; Ingrosso, Diego; Migliardi, Valentina; Sorrentino, Alvara; Donnarumma, Giovanna; Baroni, Adone; Masella, Lucia; Tufano, Maria Antonietta; Zappia, Marcello; Galletti, Patrizia

    2005-04-01

    Previous studies showed that long-wave ultraviolet (UVA) radiation induces severe skin damage through the generation of reactive oxygen species and the depletion of endogenous antioxidant systems. Recent results from our laboratory indicate a dramatic increase of both lipid peroxidation products (TBARS) and abnormal L-isoaspartyl residues, marker of protein damage, in UVA-irradiated human melanoma cells. In this study, the effects of hydroxytyrosol (DOPET), the major antioxidant compound present in olive oil, on UVA-induced cell damages, have been investigated, using a human melanoma cell line (M14) as a model system. In UVA-irradiated M14 cells, a protective effect of DOPET in preventing the uprise of typical markers of oxidative stress, such as TBARS and 2'7'-dichlorofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence intensity, was observed. In addition, DOPET prevents the increase of altered L-isoAsp residues induced by UVA irradiation. These protective effects are dose dependent, reaching the maximum at 400 microM DOPET. At higher concentrations, DOPET causes an arrest of M14 cell proliferation and acts as a proapoptotic stimulus by activating caspase-3 activity. In the investigated model system, DOPET is quantitatively converted into its methylated derivative, endowed with a radical scavenging ability comparable to that of its parent compound. These findings are in line with the hypothesis that the oxidative stress plays a major role in mediating the UVA-induced protein damage. Results suggest that DOPET may exerts differential effects on melanoma cells according to the dose employed and this must always be taken into account when olive oil-derived large consumer products, including cosmetics and functional foods, are employed.

  8. RadNet (Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RadNet, formerly Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System (ERAMS), is a national network of monitoring stations that regularly collect air, precipitation,...

  9. Balance of longwave radiation employing the rate of solar radiation for Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Zanini Righi

    Full Text Available New coefficients were determined for the weighting term for cloudiness in the Brunt-Penman equation using the rate of solar radiation (RK in place of the rate of sunshine duration (n/N. The coefficients in the Brutsaert method proposed for daytime in southern Brazil were also tested and adjusted, and the method was selected which gave the more accurate daily results in relation to the original Brunt-Penman equation, for Santa Maria in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (RS. Meteorological data covering 2,472 days obtained from the automatic and conventional weather stations in Santa Maria were used. The coefficients were adjusted by linear and nonlinear regression methods depending on the model, using 2/3 of the data. The adjusted equations were tested with the remaining 1/3 of the data. The Brunt-Penman equation modified by the term for cloudiness weighted both for solar radiation incident on the surface with no cloudiness (RK,R and for solar radiation incident at the top of the atmosphere (RK,K, were those that resulted in the best statistical indices relative to the original Brunt-Penman equation. In those equations the boundary conditions, 0.3 ≥ RK,R ≥ 1 or RK,K ≤ 0.22, were imposed. Although having similar statistical indices, a sensitivity analysis showed that the Brutsaert equation and other weightings for cloudiness resulted in larger deviations when compared to the original Brunt-Penman equation, in addition to having greater complexity for practical application.

  10. ARM Shortwave and Longwave Radiometer Calibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooraghi, Mike; Kutchenreiter, Mark; Reda, Ibrahim; Habte, Aron; Sengupta, Manajit; Andreas, Afshin; Newman, Martina; Webb, Craig

    2017-03-23

    This presentation provides a high-level overview of shortwave and longwave calibrations performed at the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program Southern Great Plains site.

  11. Derivation of Surface Net Radiation at the Valencia Anchor Station from Top of the Atmosphere Gerb Fluxes by Means of Linear Models and Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraldo Ferreira, A.; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto; Velazquez Blazquez, Almudena; Soria-Olivas, Emilio; Serrano Lopez, Antonio J.; Gomez Chova, Juan

    2012-07-01

    In this work, Linear Models (LM) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) have been developed to estimate net radiation (RN) at the surface. The models have been developed and evaluated by using the synergy between Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB-1) and Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) data, both instruments onboard METEOSAT-9, and ``in situ'' measurements. The data used in this work, corresponding to August 2006 and June to August 2007, proceed from Top of the Atmosphere (TOA) broadband fluxes from GERB-1, every 15 min, and from net radiation at the surface measured, every 10 min, at the Valencia Anchor Station (VAS) area, having measured independently the shortwave and the longwave radiation components (downwelling and upwelling) for different land uses and land cover. The adjustment of both temporal resolutions for the satellite and in situ data was achieved by linear interpolation that showed less standard deviation than the cubic one. The LMs were developed and validated by using satellite TOA RN and ground station surface RN measurements, only considering cloudy free days selected from the ground data. The ANN model was developed both for cloudy and cloudy-free conditions using seven input variables selected for the training/validation sets, namely, hour, day, month, surface RN, solar zenith angle and TOA shortwave and longwave fluxes. Both, LMs and ANNs show remarkably good agreement when compared to surface RN measurements. Therefore, this methodology can be successfully applied to estimate RN at surface from GERB/SEVIRI data.

  12. Long-wave infrared radiation reflected by compression stockings in the treatment of cellulite: a clinical double-blind, randomized and controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagatin, E; Miot, H A; Soares, J L M; Sanudo, A; Afonso, J P J M; de Barros Junior, N; Talarico, S

    2013-10-01

    Cellulite refers to changes in skin relief on the thighs and buttocks of women, with a prevalence of 80-90%, causing dissatisfaction and search for treatment. Etiopathogenesis is multifactorial, as follows: herniation of the hypodermis towards the dermis, facilitated by perpendicular fibrous septa, changes in the dermal extracellular matrix, decreased adiponectin, genetic polymorphism, microcirculation alterations and inflammatory process. There are numerous therapeutic approaches, with little evidence of effectiveness. The long-wave infrared (LWIR) radiation interacts with water, improves microcirculation and stimulates metabolic processes. To date, the use of tissues with potential reflection of LWIR radiation has not been systematically investigated as adjuvant treatment for cellulite. To investigate the efficacy and safety of the treatment of cellulite through the use of compression stockings made with thread reflecting LWIR radiation. Clinical study of therapeutic intervention, controlled and double-blind, including 30 women, aging from 25 to 40 years, with cellulite of grades II and III on the thighs and buttocks who used compression stockings, "pantyhose" model, made with reflector thread of LWIR radiation, on only one randomized side. Women under other treatments for cellulite and with venous and/or blood insufficiencies were excluded. Evaluation of efficacy by clinical parameters, photographs, Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), cutometry and high frequency ultrasonography and security by observation of adverse events and venous EcoDoppler recordings. DLQI scores showed significant reduction; the two-dimensional high-frequency ultrasonography showed an insignificant increase in dermal echogenicity as well as other efficacy parameters demonstrated no or slight improvement, with no differences between the sides exposed or not to LWIR; and there were no severe adverse events. Compression stockings, with or without thread reflector of LWIR, showed slight

  13. Evaluation of clear-sky incoming radiation estimating equations typically used in remote sensing evapotranspiration algorithms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sun, Z

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Net radiation is a key component of the energy balance, whose estimation accuracy has an impact on energy flux estimates from satellite data. In typical remote sensing evapotranspiration (ET) algorithms, the outgoing shortwave and longwave...

  14. Comparison of the Long-Range Climate Memory in Outgoing Longwave Radiation over the Tibetan Plateau and the Indian Monsoon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongping Shen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA method, scaling behaviors of the daily outgoing longwave radiation (OLR from 1979 to 2015 over the Tibetan Plateau (TP and the Indian Monsoon Region (IMR are analyzed. The results show that there is long-term memory for the OLR time series over the TP and IMR. The long-range memory behaviors of OLR over TP are stronger than those over IMR. The averaged values of the scaling exponents over TP and IMR are 0.71 and 0.64; the maximum values in the two regions are 0.81 and 0.75; the minimum values are 0.59 and 0.58. The maximum frequency counts for scaling exponents occur in the range of 0.625 and 0.675 both in TP and in IMR. The spatial distribution of the scaling exponents of the OLR sequence is closely related to the conditions of climatic high cloud cover in the two areas. The high cloud cover over TP is obviously less than that of IMR. In addition, the scaling behaviors of OLR over TP and IMR are caused by the fractal characteristics of time series, which is further proved by randomly disrupting the time series to remove trends and correlation.

  15. Solar and Net Radiation for Estimating Potential Evaporation from Three Vegetation Canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.M. Amatya; R.W. Skaggs; G.W. Cheschier; G.P. Fernandez

    2000-01-01

    Solar and net radiation data are frequent/y used in estimating potential evaporation (PE) from various vegetative surfaces needed for water balance and hydrologic modeling studies. Weather parameters such as air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, solar radiation, and net radiation have been continuously monitored using automated sensors to estimate PE for...

  16. Broken Cloud Field Longwave-Scattering Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takara, E. E.; Ellingson, R. G.

    2000-05-01

    Throughout most of the shortwave spectrum, atmospheric gases do not absorb the abundant amount of incoming solar radiation. The shortwave-scattering albedo of clouds is very large. The combination of large amounts of incoming solar radiation, low gaseous absorptivity, and large cloud-scattering albedo enables clouds at one level of the atmosphere to affect the shortwave radiative transfer at all other atmospheric levels. Absorption by atmospheric gases is much stronger in the longwave. This localizes the effects of clouds in the longwave. Since longwave absorption is weakest in the window region (8-12 m), cloud effects there will have the greatest chance of propagating to other levels of the atmosphere. In partially overcast conditions, individual cloud geometry and optical properties are important factors. Longwave calculations of most GCMs ignore individual cloud geometry. For liquid water clouds, the optical properties of clouds are also ignored.Previous work in the window region by Takara and Ellingson considered opaque clouds with no absorption or emission by atmospheric gases. Under those conditions, the effect of cloud scattering was comparable to cloud geometry. In this work, the comparison of longwave scattering and geometric effects in the window region is improved by including partially transparent clouds and adding absorption and emission by atmospheric gases. The results show that for optically thick water clouds, it is sufficient to model the geometry; scattering can be neglected. The window region errors are less than 5 W m2 for fluxes and 0.05 K day1 for heating rates. The flat-plate approximation worked for ice clouds; the window region flux errors are less than 3 W m2 with heating rate errors less than 0.05 K day1.

  17. Global Surface Net-Radiation at 5 km from MODIS Terra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Verma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Reliable and fine resolution estimates of surface net-radiation are required for estimating latent and sensible heat fluxes between the land surface and the atmosphere. However, currently, fine resolution estimates of net-radiation are not available and consequently it is challenging to develop multi-year estimates of evapotranspiration at scales that can capture land surface heterogeneity and are relevant for policy and decision-making. We developed and evaluated a global net-radiation product at 5 km and 8-day resolution by combining mutually consistent atmosphere and land data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS on board Terra. Comparison with net-radiation measurements from 154 globally distributed sites (414 site-years from the FLUXNET and Surface Radiation budget network (SURFRAD showed that the net-radiation product agreed well with measurements across seasons and climate types in the extratropics (Wilmott’s index ranged from 0.74 for boreal to 0.63 for Mediterranean sites. Mean absolute deviation between the MODIS and measured net-radiation ranged from 38.0 ± 1.8 W∙m−2 in boreal to 72.0 ± 4.1 W∙m−2 in the tropical climates. The mean bias was small and constituted only 11%, 0.7%, 8.4%, 4.2%, 13.3%, and 5.4% of the mean absolute error in daytime net-radiation in boreal, Mediterranean, temperate-continental, temperate, semi-arid, and tropical climate, respectively. To assess the accuracy of the broader spatiotemporal patterns, we upscaled error-quantified MODIS net-radiation and compared it with the net-radiation estimates from the coarse spatial (1° × 1° but high temporal resolution gridded net-radiation product from the Clouds and Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES. Our estimates agreed closely with the net-radiation estimates from the CERES. Difference between the two was less than 10 W·m−2 in 94% of the total land area. MODIS net-radiation product will be a valuable resource for the

  18. Validation of Empirical and Semi-empirical Net Radiation Models versus Observed Data for Cold Semi-arid Climate Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    aliakbar sabziparvar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Solar Net Radiation (Rn is one of the most important component which influences soil heat flux, evapotranspiration rate and hydrological cycle. This parameter (Rn is measured based on the difference between downward and upward shortwave (SW and longwave (LW irradiances reaching the Earth’s surface. Field measurements of Rn are scarce, expensive and difficult due to the instrumental maintenance. As a result, in most research cases, Rn is estimated by the empirical, semi-empirical and physical radiation models. Almorox et al. (2008 suggested a net radiation model based on a linear regression model by using global solar radiation (Rs and sunshine hours. Alados et al. (2003 evaluated the relation between Rn and Rs for Spain. They showed that the models based on shortwave radiation works perfect in estimating solar net radiation. In another work, Irmak et al. (2003 presented two empirical Rn models, which worked with the minimum numbers of weather parameters. They evaluated their models for humid, dry, inland and coastal regions of the United States. They concluded that both Rn models work better than FAO-56 Penman-Monteith model. Sabziparvar et al. (2016 estimated the daily Rn for four climate types in Iran. They examined various net radiation models namely: Wright, Basic Regression Model (BRM, Linacre, Berliand, Irmak, and Monteith. Their results highlighted that on regional averages, the linear BRM model has the superior performance in generating the most accurate daily ET0. They also showed that for 70% of the study sites, the linear Rn models can be reliable candidates instead of sophisticated nonlinear Rn models. Having considered the importance of Rn in determining crop water requirement, the aim of this study is to obtain the best performance Rn model for cold semi-arid climate of Hamedan. Materials and Methods: We employed hourly and daily weather data and Rn data, which were measured during December 2011 to June 2013 in

  19. Downward longwave radiation estimates for clear-sky conditions over northeast Brazil Estimativas da radiação de onda longa incidente para condições de céu claro no nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Costa dos Santos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to assess the performance of nine downward longwave radiation equations for clear-sky condition and develop a locally adjusted equation using the observed vapor pressure and air temperature data. The radiation and atmospheric parameters were measured during the months of October 2005 to June 2006 at a micrometeorological tower installed at the experimental site in a banana orchard in the semiarid region of Northeast Brazil. The comparative statistics for the performance of the downward longwave radiation calculation models during daytime and nighttime compared to measured data have shown that the parameterizations with more physical foundations have the best results. The locally adjusted equation and Sugita and Brutsaert model developed in 1993 showed errors less than 1.0% in comparison with measured values. Downward longwave radiation is one of the most expensive and difficult component of the radiation budget to be monitored in micrometeorological studies. Hence, the locally adjusted equation can be used to estimate downward longwave energy, needed as input to some agricultural and hydrological models, in semi-arid regions of the Northeast Brazil, where this component is not monitored.O principal objetivo desse artigo é avaliar o desempenho de nove equações, para obter radiação de onda longa incidente para condições de céu claro e desenvolver uma equação localmente ajustada utilizando dados observados de pressão de vapor e temperatura do ar. Os parâmetros atmosféricos e de radiação foram medidos durante os meses de outubro/2005 e junho/2006, em uma torre micrometeorológica instalada no sítio experimental, em um pomar de bananeiras na região semi-árida do Nordeste do Brasil. A estatística comparativa para o desempenho dos modelos, para o cálculo da radiação de onda longa durante os períodos diurnos e noturnos, comparados aos dados medidos, tem mostrado que as parametrizações com mais

  20. Estimating daily net radiation in the FAO Penman-Monteith method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, Facundo; Rivas, Raúl; Kruse, Eduardo

    2017-07-01

    In this work, we evaluate the procedures of the Manual No. 56 of the FAO (United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization) for predicting daily net radiation using measures collected in Tandil (Argentina) between March 2007 and June 2010. In addition, a new methodology is proposed for estimating daily net radiation over the reference crop considered in the FAO Penman-Monteith method. The calculated and observed values of daily net radiation are compared. Estimation errors are reduced from ±22 to ±12 W m-2 considering the new model. From spring-summer data, estimation errors of less than ±10 % were observed for the new physical model, which represents an error of just ±0.4 mm d-1 for computing reference evapotranspiration. The new model presented here is not restricted to a climate regime and is mainly appropriate for application in the FAO Penman-Monteith method to determine the reference crop evapotranspiration.

  1. Simulation of the spatial distribution of mineral dust and its direct radiative forcing over Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Alizadeh Choobari

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Direct radiative forcing by mineral dust is important as it significantly affects the climate system by scattering and absorbing short-wave and long-wave radiation. The multi-angle imaging spectro radiometer (MISR and cloud–aerosol lidar with orthogonal polarisation (CALIOP aerosol data are used to observe mineral dust distribution over Australia. In addition, the weather research and forecasting with chemistry (WRF/Chem model is used to estimate direct radiative forcing by dust. At the surface, the model domain clear-sky short-wave and long-wave direct radiative forcing by dust averaged for a 6-month period (austral spring and summer was estimated to be −0.67 W m−2 and 0.13 W m−2, respectively. The long-wave warming effect of dust therefore offsets 19.4% of its short-wave cooling effect. However, over Lake Eyre Basin where coarse particles are more abundant, the long-wave warming effect of dust offsets 60.9% of the short-wave cooling effect. At the top of the atmosphere (TOA, clear-sky short-wave and long-wave direct radiative forcing was estimated to be −0.26 W m−2 and −0.01 W m−2, respectively. This leads to a net negative direct radiative forcing of dust at the TOA, indicating cooling of the atmosphere by an increase in outgoing radiation. Short-wave and long-wave direct radiative forcing by dust is shown to have a diurnal variation due to changes in solar zenith angle and in the intensity of infrared radiation. Atmospheric heating due to absorption of short-wave radiation was simulated, while the interaction of dust with long-wave radiation was associated with atmospheric cooling. The net effect was cooling of the atmosphere near the surface (below 0.2 km, with warming of the atmosphere at higher altitudes.

  2. Hyperion net: A distributed measurement system for monitoring background ionizing radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šaponjić Đorđe P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The distributed measurement system - HYPERION NET, based on the concept of FieldBus technology, has been developed, implemented, and tested as a pilot project, the first WEB enabled on-line networked ionizing radiation monitoring and measurement system. The Net has layered the structure, tree topology, and is based on the Internet infrastructure and TCP/IP communication protocol. The Net' s core element is an intelligent GM transmitter, based on GM tube, used for measuring the absorbed dose in air in the range of 0.087 to 720 μGy/h. The transmitter makes use of an advanced count rate measurement algorithm capable of suppressing the statistical fluctuations of the measured quantity, which significantly improves its measurement performance making it suitable for environmental radiation measurements.

  3. Kondratieff's Long-Wave Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volland, Craig S.

    1985-01-01

    The legendary Soviet economist's classic work, "Long-Wave Cycle," has been republished. Admirers believe that it explains how the world's economy works. According to Kondratieff, the world economy follows cycles lasting from 48 to 55 years. His cycle theory is discussed. (Author/RM)

  4. An Assessment of the Surface Longwave Direct Radiative Effect of Airborne Dust in Zhangye China During the Asian Monsoon Year Field Experiment (2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansell, Richard A.; Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, N. Christina; Ji, Qiang; Bell, Shaun W.; Holben, Brent N.; Ellsworth, Welton J.; Roush, Ted L.; Zhang, Wu; Huang, J.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Tiny suspensions of solid particles or liquid droplets, called aerosols, hover in earth's atmosphere and can be found over just about anywhere including oceans, deserts, vegetated areas, and other global regions. Aerosols come in a variety of sizes, shapes, and compositions which depend on such factors as their origin and how long they have been in the atmosphere (i.e., their residence time). Some of the more common types of aerosols include mineral dust and sea salt which get lifted from the desert and ocean surfaces, respectively by mechanical forces such as strong winds. Depending on their size, aerosols will either fall out gravitationally, as in the case of larger particles, or will remain resident in the atmosphere where they can undergo further change through interactions with other aerosols and cloud particles. Not only do aerosols affect air quality where they pose a health risk, they can also perturb the distribution of radiation in the earth-atmosphere system which can inevitably lead to changes in our climate. One aerosol that has been in the forefront of many recent studies, particularly those examining its radiative effects, is mineral dust. The large spatial coverage of desert source regions and the fact that dust can radiatively interact with such a large part of the electromagnetic spectrum due to its range in particle size, makes it an important aerosol to study. Dust can directly scatter and absorb solar and infrared radiation which can subsequently alter the amount of radiation that would otherwise be present in the absence of dust at any level of the atmosphere like the surface. This is known as radiative forcing. At the surface dust can block incoming solar energy, however at infrared wavelengths, dust acts to partially compensate the solar losses. Evaluating the solar radiative effect of dust aerosols is relatively straightforward due in part to the relatively large signal-to-noise ratio in the measurements. At infrared wavelengths, on the

  5. Longwave scattering effects on fluxes in broken cloud fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takara, E.E.; Ellingson, R.G. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The optical properties of clouds in the radiative energy balance are important. Most works on the effects of scattering have been in the shortwave; but longwave effects can be significant. In this work, the fluxes above and below a single cloud layer are presented, along with the errors in assuming flat black plate clouds or black clouds. The predicted fluxes are the averaged results of analysis of several fields with the same cloud amount.

  6. Effects of UVB radiation on net community production in the upper global ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Garcia-Corral, Lara S.

    2016-08-31

    Aim Erosion of the stratospheric ozone layer together with oligotrophication of the subtropical ocean is leading to enhanced exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation in ocean surface waters. The impact of increased exposure to UVB on planktonic primary producers and heterotrophs is uncertain. Here we test the null hypothesis that net community production (NCP) of plankton communities in surface waters of the tropical and subtropical ocean is not affected by ambient UVB radiation and extend this test to the global ocean, including the polar oceans and the Mediterranean Sea using previous results. Location We conducted experiments with 131 surface communities sampled during a circumnavigation cruise along the tropical and subtropical ocean and combined these results with 89 previous reports encompassing the Atlantic, Pacific, Arctic and Southern Oceans and the Mediterranean Sea. Methods The use of quartz (transparent to UVB radiation) and borosilicate glass materials (opaque to most UVB) for incubations allowed us to compare NCP between communities where UVB is excluded and those receiving natural UVB radiation. Results We found that NCP varies when exposed to natural UVB radiation compared to those where UVB was removed. NCP of autotrophic communities tended to decrease under natural UVB radiation, whereas the NCP of heterotrophic communities tended to increase. However, these variations showed the opposite trend under higher levels of UVB radiation. Main conclusions Our results suggest that earlier estimates of NCP for surface communities, which were hitherto derived using materials blocking UVB radiation were biased, with the direction and magnitude of this bias depending on the metabolic status of the communities and the underwater penetration of UVB radiation.

  7. Net radiative forcing and air quality responses to regional CO emission reductions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Fry

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO emissions influence global and regional air quality and global climate change by affecting atmospheric oxidants and secondary species. We simulate the influence of halving anthropogenic CO emissions globally and individually from 10 regions on surface and tropospheric ozone, methane, and aerosol concentrations using a global chemical transport model (MOZART-4 for the year 2005. Net radiative forcing (RF is then estimated using the GFDL (Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory standalone radiative transfer model. We estimate that halving global CO emissions decreases global annual average concentrations of surface ozone by 0.45 ppbv, tropospheric methane by 73 ppbv, and global annual net RF by 36.1 mW m−2, nearly equal to the sum of changes from the 10 regional reductions. Global annual net RF per unit change in emissions and the 100 yr global warming potential (GWP100 are estimated as −0.124 mW m−2 (Tg CO−1 and 1.34, respectively, for the global CO reduction, and ranging from −0.115 to −0.131 mW m−2 (Tg CO−1 and 1.26 to 1.44 across 10 regions, with the greatest sensitivities for regions in the tropics. The net RF distributions show widespread cooling corresponding to the O3 and CH4 decreases, and localized positive and negative net RFs due to changes in aerosols. The strongest annual net RF impacts occur within the tropics (28° S–28° N followed by the northern midlatitudes (28° N–60° N, independent of reduction region, while the greatest changes in surface CO and ozone concentrations occur within the reduction region. Some regional reductions strongly influence the air quality in other regions, such as East Asia, which has an impact on US surface ozone that is 93% of that from North America. Changes in the transport of CO and downwind ozone production clearly exceed the direct export of ozone from each reduction region. The small variation in CO GWPs among world regions suggests that future international

  8. Numerical Computation of Net Radiative Heat Transfer within a Non Absorbing Furnace Enclosure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaibu Ndache MOHAMMED

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The numerical evaluation of the net radiative heat transfer rate in a single zone, non absorbing furnace enclosure is reported. In this analysis, simplified mathematical furnace model namely, the long furnace model is used to determine furnace performance. The formulation assumes some known temperature values. Thus, heat transfer equations were set up and solved numerically. A FORTRAN computer program was developed and debugged. Results obtained from this study compare favourably well with the results from the traditional graphical method. Also, the computer program developed can handle variations in furnace operating conditions, temperatures, thermal properties and dimensions.

  9. Net radiative forcing due to changes in regional emissions of tropospheric ozone precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Vaishali; Mauzerall, Denise; Horowitz, Larry; Schwarzkopf, M. Daniel; Ramaswamy, V.; Oppenheimer, Michael

    2005-12-01

    emissions of NOx, CO, and NMHCs, changes in O3 and CH4 concentrations result in a net negative radiative forcing (cooling). Thus we conclude that simultaneous reductions of CO, NMHCs, and NOx lead to a net reduction in radiative forcing due to resulting changes in tropospheric O3 and CH4 while reductions in NOx emissions alone do not.

  10. Longwave infrared compressive hyperspectral imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Julia R.; Kirby, Michael; Cosofret, Bogdan R.

    2015-06-01

    Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) is developing a longwave infrared (LWIR) compressive sensing hyperspectral imager (CS HSI) based on a single pixel architecture for standoff vapor phase plume detection. The sensor employs novel use of a high throughput stationary interferometer and a digital micromirror device (DMD) converted for LWIR operation in place of the traditional cooled LWIR focal plane array. The CS HSI represents a substantial cost reduction over the state of the art in LWIR HSI instruments. Radiometric improvements for using the DMD in the LWIR spectral range have been identified and implemented. In addition, CS measurement and sparsity bases specifically tailored to the CS HSI instrument and chemical plume imaging have been developed and validated using LWIR hyperspectral image streams of chemical plumes. These bases enable comparable statistics to detection based on uncompressed data. In this paper, we present a system model predicting the overall performance of the CS HSI system. Results from a breadboard build and test validating the system model are reported. In addition, the measurement and sparsity basis work demonstrating the plume detection on compressed hyperspectral images is presented.

  11. The Clementine longwave infrared camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priest, R.E.; Lewis, I.T.; Sewall, N.R.; Park, H.S.; Shannon, M.J.; Ledebuhr, A.G.; Pleasance, L.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Massie, M.A. [Pacific Advanced Technology, Solvang, CA (United States); Metschuleit, K. [Amber/A Raytheon Co., Goleta, CA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The Clementine mission provided the first ever complete, systematic surface mapping of the moon from the ultra-violet to the near-infrared regions. More than 1.7 million images of the moon, earth and space were returned from this mission. The longwave-infrared (LWIR) camera supplemented the UV/Visible and near-infrared mapping cameras providing limited strip coverage of the moon, giving insight to the thermal properties of the soils. This camera provided {approximately}100 m spatial resolution at 400 km periselene, and a 7 km across-track swath. This 2.1 kg camera using a 128 x 128 Mercury-Cadmium-Telluride (MCT) FPA viewed thermal emission of the lunar surface and lunar horizon in the 8.0 to 9.5 {micro}m wavelength region. A description of this light-weight, low power LWIR camera along with a summary of lessons learned is presented. Design goals and preliminary on-orbit performance estimates are addressed in terms of meeting the mission`s primary objective for flight qualifying the sensors for future Department of Defense flights.

  12. Longwave Imaging for Astronomical Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a compact portable longwave camera for astronomical applications. In Phase 1, we will develop and deliver the focal plane array (FPA) - a...

  13. Longwave Imaging for Astronomical Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a compact portable longwave camera for astronomical applications. In Phase 1, we successfully developed the eye of the camera, i.e. the focal...

  14. Ambient UV-B radiation reduces PSII performance and net photosynthesis in high Arctic Salix arctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, Helge

    2011-01-01

    Ambient ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation potentially impacts the photosynthetic performance of high Arctic plants. We conducted an UV-B exclusion experiment in a dwarf shrub heath in NE Greenland (74°N), with open control, filter control, UV-B filtering and UV-AB filtering, all in combination......, nitrogen and UV-B absorbing compounds. Compared to a 60% reduced UV-B irradiance, the ambient solar UV-B reduced net photosynthesis in Salix arctica leaves fixed in the 45° position which exposed leaves to maximum natural irradiance. Also a reduced Calvin Cycle capacity was found, i.e. the maximum rate...... across position in the vegetation. These findings add to the evidence that the ambient solar UV-B currently is a significant stress factor for plants in high Arctic Greenland....

  15. Ambient UV-B radiation reduces PSII performance and net photosynthesis in high Arctic Salix arctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, H.

    2011-01-01

    Ambient ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation potentially impacts the photosynthetic performance of high Arctic plants. We conducted an UV-B exclusion experiment in a dwarf shrub heath in NE Greenland (74°N), with open control, filter control, UV-B filtering and UV-AB filtering, all in combination...... was characterized by simultaneous gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements and the PSII performance through the growing season was investigated with fluorescence measurements. Leaf harvest towards the end of the growing season was done to determine the specific leaf area and the content of carbon......, nitrogen and UV-B absorbing compounds. Compared to a 60% reduced UV-B irradiance, the ambient solar UV-B reduced net photosynthesis in Salix arctica leaves fixed in the 45° position which exposed leaves to maximum natural irradiance. Also a reduced Calvin Cycle capacity was found, i.e. the maximum rate...

  16. Revisiting a Hydrological Analysis Framework with International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project Initiative 2 Rainfall, Net Radiation, and Runoff Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Randal D.; Fekete, Balazs M.; Huffman, George J.; Stackhouse, Paul W.

    2006-01-01

    The International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project Initiative 2 (ISLSCP-2) data set provides the data needed to characterize the surface water budget across much of the globe in terms of energy availability (net radiation) and water availability (precipitation) controls. The data, on average, are shown to be consistent with Budyko s decades-old framework, thereby demonstrating the continuing relevance of Budyko s semiempirical relationships. This consistency, however, appears only when a small subset of the data with hydrologically suspicious behavior is removed from the analysis. In general, the precipitation, net radiation, and runoff data also appear consistent in their interannual variability and in the phasing of their seasonal cycles.

  17. Net Surface Shortwave Radiation from GOES Imagery—Product Evaluation Using Ground-Based Measurements from SURFRAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand K. Inamdar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Earth’s surface net radiation controls the energy and water exchanges between the Earth’s surface and the atmosphere, and can be derived from satellite observations. The ability to monitor the net surface radiation over large areas at high spatial and temporal resolution is essential for many applications, such as weather forecasting, short-term climate prediction or water resources management. The objective of this paper is to derive the net surface radiation in the shortwave domain at high temporal (half-hourly and spatial resolution (~1 km using visible imagery from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES. The retrieval algorithm represents an adaptation to GOES data of a standard algorithm initially developed for the NASA-operated Clouds and Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES scanner. The methodology relies on: (1 the estimation of top of atmosphere shortwave radiation from GOES spectral measurements; and (2 the calculation of net surface shortwave (SW radiation accounting for atmospheric effects. Comparison of GOES-retrieved net surface shortwave radiation with ground-measurements at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA Surface Radiation (SURFRAD stations yields very good agreement with average bias lower than 5 W·m−2 and root mean square difference around 70 W·m−2. The algorithm performance is usually higher over areas characterized by low spatial variability in term of land cover type and surface biophysical properties. The technique does not involve retrieval and assessment of cloud properties and can be easily adapted to other meteorological satellites around the globe.

  18. Designing a Broadband Pump for High-Quality Micro-Lasers via Modified Net Radiation Method

    CERN Document Server

    Nechayev, Sergey; Baldo, Marc A; Rotschild, Carmel

    2016-01-01

    High-quality micro-lasers are key ingredients in non-linear optics, communication, sensing and low-threshold solar-pumped lasers. However, such micro-lasers exhibit negligible absorption of free-space broadband pump light. Recently, this limitation was lifted by cascade energy transfer, in which the absorption and quality factor are modulated with wavelength, enabling non-resonant pumping of high-quality micro-lasers and solar-pumped laser to operate at record low solar concentration. Here, we present a generic theoretical framework for modeling the absorption, emission and energy transfer of incoherent radiation between cascade sensitizer and laser gain media. Our model is based on linear equations of the modified net radiation method and is therefore robust, fast converging and has low complexity. We apply this formalism to compute the optimal parameters of low-threshold solar-pumped lasers. It is revealed that the interplay between the absorption and self-absorption of such lasers defines the optimal pump ...

  19. [Effects of reduced solar radiation on winter wheat flag leaf net photosynthetic rate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, You-Fei; Ni, Yan-Li; Mai, Bo-Ru; Wu, Rong-Jun; Feng, Yan; Sun, Jian; Li, Jian; Xu, Jing-Xin

    2011-06-01

    Taking winter wheat Triticum aestivum L. (cv. Yangmai 13) as test material, a field experiment was conducted in Nanjing City to study the effects of simulated reduced solar radiation on the diurnal variation of winter wheat flag leaf photosynthetic rate and the main affecting factors. Five treatments were installed, i. e., 15% (T15), 20% (T20) , 40% (T40), 60% (T60), and 100% (CK) of total incident solar radiation. Reduced solar irradiance increased the chlorophyll and lutein contents significantly, but decreased the net photosynthetic rate (Pn). Under different solar irradiance, the diurnal variation of Pn had greater difference, and the daily maximum Pn was in the order of CK > T60 > T40 > T 20 > T15. In CK, the Pn exhibited a double peak diurnal curve; while in the other four treatments, the Pn showed a single peak curve, and the peak was lagged behind that of CK. Correlation analysis showed that reduced solar irradiance was the main factor affecting the diurnal variation of Pn, but the physiological parameters also played important roles in determining the diurnal variation of Pn. In treatments T60 and T40, the photosynthesis active radiation (PAR), leaf temperature (T1) , stomatal conductance (Gs) , and transpiration rate (Tr) were significantly positively correlated with Pn, suggesting their positive effects on Pn. The intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and stomatal limitation (Ls) had significant negative correlations with Pn in treatments T60 and T40 but significant positive correlations with Pn in treatments T20 and T15, implying that the Ci and Ls had negative (or positive) effects on Pn when the solar irradiance was higher (or lower) than 40% of incident solar irradiance.

  20. An absolute cavity pyrgeometer to measure the absolute outdoor longwave irradiance with traceability to international system of units, SI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reda, Ibrahim; Zeng, Jinan; Scheuch, Jonathan; Hanssen, Leonard; Wilthan, Boris; Myers, Daryl; Stoffel, Tom

    2012-03-01

    This article describes a method of measuring the absolute outdoor longwave irradiance using an absolute cavity pyrgeometer (ACP), U.S. Patent application no. 13/049, 275. The ACP consists of domeless thermopile pyrgeometer, gold-plated concentrator, temperature controller, and data acquisition. The dome was removed from the pyrgeometer to remove errors associated with dome transmittance and the dome correction factor. To avoid thermal convection and wind effect errors resulting from using a domeless thermopile, the gold-plated concentrator was placed above the thermopile. The concentrator is a dual compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) with 180° view angle to measure the outdoor incoming longwave irradiance from the atmosphere. The incoming irradiance is reflected from the specular gold surface of the CPC and concentrated on the 11 mm diameter of the pyrgeometer's blackened thermopile. The CPC's interior surface design and the resulting cavitation result in a throughput value that was characterized by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The ACP was installed horizontally outdoor on an aluminum plate connected to the temperature controller to control the pyrgeometer's case temperature. The responsivity of the pyrgeometer's thermopile detector was determined by lowering the case temperature and calculating the rate of change of the thermopile output voltage versus the changing net irradiance. The responsivity is then used to calculate the absolute atmospheric longwave irradiance with an uncertainty estimate (U95) of ±3.96 W m-2 with traceability to the International System of Units, SI. The measured irradiance was compared with the irradiance measured by two pyrgeometers calibrated by the World Radiation Center with traceability to the Interim World Infrared Standard Group, WISG. A total of 408 readings were collected over three different nights. The calculated irradiance measured by the ACP was 1.5 W/m2 lower than that measured by the two

  1. Longwave indirect effect of mineral dusts on ice clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Min

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In addition to microphysical changes in clouds, changes in nucleation processes of ice cloud due to aerosols would result in substantial changes in cloud top temperature as mildly supercooled clouds are glaciated through heterogenous nucleation processes. Measurements from multiple sensors on multiple observing platforms over the Atlantic Ocean show that the cloud effective temperature increases with mineral dust loading with a slope of +3.06 °C per unit aerosol optical depth. The macrophysical changes in ice cloud top distributions as a consequence of mineral dust-cloud interaction exert a strong cooling effect (up to 16 Wm−2 of thermal infrared radiation on cloud systems. Induced changes of ice particle size by mineral dusts influence cloud emissivity and play a minor role in modulating the outgoing longwave radiation for optically thin ice clouds. Such a strong cooling forcing of thermal infrared radiation would have significant impacts on cloud systems and subsequently on climate.

  2. Longwave instabilities and patterns in fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Shklyaev, Sergey

    2017-01-01

    This book summarizes the main advances in the field of nonlinear evolution and pattern formation caused by longwave instabilities in fluids. It will allow readers to master the multiscale asymptotic methods and become familiar with applications of these methods in a variety of physical problems.  Longwave instabilities are inherent to a variety of systems in fluid dynamics, geophysics, electrodynamics, biophysics, and many others. The techniques of the derivation of longwave amplitude equations, as well as the analysis of numerous nonlinear equations, are discussed throughout. This book will be of value to researchers and graduate students in applied mathematics, physics, and engineering, in particular within the fields of fluid mechanics, heat and mass transfer theory, and nonlinear dynamics. .

  3. Remote sensing as a tool for watershed-wide estimation of net solar radiation and water loss to the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorram, S.; Thomas, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented for a study intended to develop a general remote sensing-aided cost-effective procedure to estimate watershed-wide water loss to the atmosphere via evapotranspiration and to estimate net solar radiation over the watershed. Evapotranspiration estimation employs a basic two-stage two-phase sample of three information resolution levels. Net solar radiation is taken as one of the variables at each level of evapotranspiration modeling. The input information for models requiring spatial information will be provided by Landsat digital data, environmental satellite data, ground meteorological data, ground sample unit information, and topographic data. The outputs of the sampling-estimation/data bank system will be in-place maps of evapotranspiration on a data resolution element basis, watershed-wide evapotranspiration isopleths, and estimates of watershed and subbasin total evapotranspiration with associated statistical confidence bounds. The methodology developed is being tested primarily on the Spanish Creek Watershed Plumas County, California.

  4. The positive net radiative greenhouse gas forcing of increasing methane emissions from a thawing boreal forest-wetland landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbig, Manuel; Chasmer, Laura E; Kljun, NatasCha; Quinton, William L; Treat, Claire C; Sonnentag, Oliver

    2017-06-01

    At the southern margin of permafrost in North America, climate change causes widespread permafrost thaw. In boreal lowlands, thawing forested permafrost peat plateaus ('forest') lead to expansion of permafrost-free wetlands ('wetland'). Expanding wetland area with saturated and warmer organic soils is expected to increase landscape methane (CH4 ) emissions. Here, we quantify the thaw-induced increase in CH4 emissions for a boreal forest-wetland landscape in the southern Taiga Plains, Canada, and evaluate its impact on net radiative forcing relative to potential long-term net carbon dioxide (CO2 ) exchange. Using nested wetland and landscape eddy covariance net CH4 flux measurements in combination with flux footprint modeling, we find that landscape CH4 emissions increase with increasing wetland-to-forest ratio. Landscape CH4 emissions are most sensitive to this ratio during peak emission periods, when wetland soils are up to 10 °C warmer than forest soils. The cumulative growing season (May-October) wetland CH4 emission of ~13 g CH4  m-2 is the dominating contribution to the landscape CH4 emission of ~7 g CH4  m-2 . In contrast, forest contributions to landscape CH4 emissions appear to be negligible. The rapid wetland expansion of 0.26 ± 0.05% yr-1 in this region causes an estimated growing season increase of 0.034 ± 0.007 g CH4  m-2  yr-1 in landscape CH4 emissions. A long-term net CO2 uptake of >200 g CO2  m-2  yr-1 is required to offset the positive radiative forcing of increasing CH4 emissions until the end of the 21st century as indicated by an atmospheric CH4 and CO2 concentration model. However, long-term apparent carbon accumulation rates in similar boreal forest-wetland landscapes and eddy covariance landscape net CO2 flux measurements suggest a long-term net CO2 uptake between 49 and 157 g CO2  m-2  yr-1 . Thus, thaw-induced CH4 emission increases likely exert a positive net radiative greenhouse gas forcing through the 21st century.

  5. Global and Regional Climate Responses Solar Radiation Management: Results from a climateprediction.net Geoengineering Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricke, Katharine; Allen, Myles; Ingram, William; Keith, David; Granger Morgan, M.

    2010-05-01

    To date modeling studies suggest that, while significant hydrological anomalies could result from the artificial addition of reflecting aerosols in the stratosphere for the purpose of solar radiation management (SRM), even at the regional level such a geoengineered world would bear a much closer resemblance to a low CO2 world, than to an unmodified high CO2 world. These previous modeling studies have generally compared one or two SRM forcing scenarios to various business-as-usual controls. However, such approaches cannot provide much information about regional sensitivities to the levels of SRM that might realistically result. Should engaging in SRM every be seriously contemplated, such regional analysis of a range of realistic scenarios will be an essential input to any process of geopolitical decision-making. Here we present the results from a large-ensemble experiment that used the HadCM3L GCM, implemented through climateprediction.net. The analysis examines 135 globally-uniform stratospheric optical depth modification scenarios designed to stabilize global temperatures under SRES A1B. Scenarios were tested using ten-member subensembles which made small perturbations to initial conditions. All simulations use identical standard settings of model physics parameters and are initiated from historically-forced runs from 1920-2005. A total of 7,331 simulations of the years 2000-2080 were performed for this experiment using computing resources donated by the general public. Our analysis of regional temperature and precipitation anomalies, normalized to account for variability, shows that SRM compensations for anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing do generally return regional climates closer to their baseline climate states than the no-geoengineering, business-as-usual scenarios. However, we find that the magnitudes and sensitivities of regional responses to this type of activity, as modeled in HadCM3L, are highly variable. As the amount of SRM increases to compensate

  6. RadNet Map Interface for Near-Real-Time Radiation Monitoring Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RadNet is a national network of monitoring stations that regularly collect air, precipitation, drinking water, and milk samples for analysis of radioactivity. The...

  7. Longwave emission trends over Africa and implications for Atlantic hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Rechtman, Thomas; Karnauskas, Kristopher B.; Li, Laifang; Donnelly, Jeffrey P.; Kossin, James P.

    2017-09-01

    The latitudinal gradient of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) over Africa is a skillful and physically based predictor of seasonal Atlantic hurricane activity. The African OLR gradient is observed to have strengthened during the satellite era, as predicted by state-of-the-art global climate models (GCMs) in response to greenhouse gas forcing. Prior to the satellite era and the U.S. and European clean air acts, the African OLR gradient weakened due to aerosol forcing of the opposite sign. GCMs predict a continuation of the increasing OLR gradient in response to greenhouse gas forcing. Assuming a steady linear relationship between African easterly waves and tropical cyclogenesis, this result suggests a future increase in Atlantic tropical cyclone frequency by 10% (20%) at the end of the 21st century under the RCP 4.5 (8.5) forcing scenario.

  8. Effect of the Aerosol Type Selection for the Retrieval of Shortwave Ground Net Radiation: Case Study Using Landsat 8 Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Bassani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the aerosol radiative effects involved in the accuracy of shortwave net radiation, R n . s w , with s w ∈ (400–900 nm, retrieved by the Operational Land Imager (OLI, the new generation sensor of the Landsat mission. Net radiation is a key parameter for the energy exchange between the land and atmosphere; thus, R n . s w retrieval from space is under investigation by exploiting the increased spatial resolution of the visible and near-infrared OLI data. We adopted the latest version of the Second Simulation of a Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6SV atmospheric radiative transfer model implemented in the atmospheric correction algorithm (OLI Atmospherically-Corrected Reflectance Imagery (OLI@CRI developed specifically for OLI data. The values of R n . s w were obtained by varying the microphysical properties of the aerosol during the OLI@CRI retrieval of both the OLI surface reflectance, ρ p x l o l i , and the incoming solar irradiance at the surface. The analysis of the aerosol effects on the R n . s w was carried out on a spectrally-homogeneous desert area located in the southwestern Nile Delta. The results reveal that the R n . s w available for energy exchange between the land and atmosphere reduces the accuracy (NRMSE ≃ 14% when the local aerosol microphysical properties are not considered during the processing of space data. Consequently, these findings suggest that the aerosol type should be considered for variables retrieved by satellite observations concerning the energy exchange in the natural ecosystems, such as Photosynthetically-Active Radiation (PAR. This will also improve the accuracy of land monitoring and of solar energy for power generation when space data are used.

  9. Long-Wave Infrared Semiconductor Negative Refraction Metamaterials for High-Resolution Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    semiconductor metamaterial lies in the collective response of highly-doped plasmonic layers, interlaced by undoped layers, to the incident long-wave infrared...specific attention to modal cross-talk and out-of-plane scattering in quasi-planar photonics . An algorithm capable of accurate numerical computation... photonics are all examples of planar optics, where the op- tical radiation is controllably guided on the plane of a photonic chip. A number of planar

  10. Surface Net Solar Radiation Estimated from Satellite Measurements: Comparisons with Tower Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanqing; Leighton, H. G.; Cess, Robert D.

    1993-01-01

    A parameterization that relates the reflected solar flux at the top of the atmosphere to the net solar flux at the surface in terms of only the column water vapor amount and the solar zenith angle was tested against surface observations. Net surface fluxes deduced from coincidental collocated satellite-measured radiances and from measurements from towers in Boulder during summer and near Saskatoon in winter have mean differences of about 2 W/sq m, regardless of whether the sky is clear or cloudy. Furthermore, comparisons between the net fluxes deduced from the parameterization and from surface measurements showed equally good agreement when the data were partitioned into morning and afternoon observations. This is in contrast to results from an empirical clear-sky algorithm that is unable to account adequately for the effects of clouds and that shows, at Boulder, a distinct morning to afternoon variation, which is presumably due to the predominance of different cloud types throughout the day. It is also demonstrated that the parameterization may be applied to irradiances at the top of the atmosphere that have been temporally averaged by using the temporally averaged column water vapor amount and the temporally averaged cosine of the solar zenith angle. The good agreement between the results of the parameterization and surface measurements suggests that the algorithm is a useful tool for a variety of climate studies.

  11. Nondestructive testing by using long-wave infrared interferometric techniques with CO2 lasers and microbolometer arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeenko, Igor; Vandenrijt, Jean-François; Pedrini, Giancarlo; Thizy, Cédric; Vollheim, Birgit; Osten, Wolfgang; Georges, Marc P

    2013-01-01

    We describe three different interferometric techniques (electronic speckle pattern interferometry, digital holographic interferometry, and digital shearography), using a long-wave infrared radiation produced by a CO(2) laser and recorded on a microbolometer array. Experimental results showing how these methods can be used for nondestructive testing are presented. Advantages and disadvantages of these approaches are discussed.

  12. Towards Silicon-Based Longwave Integrated Optoelectronics (LIO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-21

    communication- cryptography-metrology-computing; photonic testing of electronic ICs; bionic signal processors; neural network processors; data-fusion...Sensing longwave images with the human eye using a longwave-to-visible image converter “cube”, (7) Generating infrared “scenes” in miniature with a LIO

  13. Diffuse solar radiation and associated meteorological parameters in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Bhattacharya

    Full Text Available Solar diffuse radiation data including global radiation, shortwave and longwave balances, net radiation and sunshine hours have been extensively analyzed to study the variation of diffuse radiation with turbidity and cloud discharges appearing in the form of atmospherics over the tropics. Results of surface radiation measurements at Calcutta, Poona, Delhi and Madras are presented together with some meteorological parameters. The monthly values of diffuse radiation and the monthly ratios of diffuse to global solar radiation have been examined, with a special emphasis in relation to the noise level of atmospherics at Calcutta in the very low frequency band. The results exhibit some definite seasonal changes which appear to be in close agreement with one another.

  14. Diffuse solar radiation and associated meteorological parameters in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Bhattacharya

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Solar diffuse radiation data including global radiation, shortwave and longwave balances, net radiation and sunshine hours have been extensively analyzed to study the variation of diffuse radiation with turbidity and cloud discharges appearing in the form of atmospherics over the tropics. Results of surface radiation measurements at Calcutta, Poona, Delhi and Madras are presented together with some meteorological parameters. The monthly values of diffuse radiation and the monthly ratios of diffuse to global solar radiation have been examined, with a special emphasis in relation to the noise level of atmospherics at Calcutta in the very low frequency band. The results exhibit some definite seasonal changes which appear to be in close agreement with one another.

  15. Longwave infrared observation of urban landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goward, S. N.

    1981-01-01

    An investigation is conducted regarding the feasibility to develop improved methods for the identification and analysis of urban landscapes on the basis of a utilization of longwave infrared observations. Attention is given to landscape thermal behavior, urban thermal properties, modeled thermal behavior of pavements and buildings, and observed urban landscape thermal emissions. The differential thermal behavior of buildings, pavements, and natural areas within urban landscapes is found to suggest that integrated multispectral solar radiant reflectance and terrestrial radiant emissions data will significantly increase potentials for analyzing urban landscapes. In particular, daytime satellite observations of the considered type should permit better identification of urban areas and an analysis of the density of buildings and pavements within urban areas. This capability should enhance the utility of satellite remote sensor data in urban applications.

  16. Modification of Sunlight Radiation through Colored Photo-Selective Nets Affects Anthocyanin Profile in Vaccinium spp. Berries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Zoratti

    Full Text Available In recent years, the interest on the effects of the specific wavelengths of the light spectrum on growth and metabolism of plants has been increasing markedly. The present study covers the effect of modified sunlight conditions on the accumulation of anthocyanin pigments in two Vaccinium species: the European wild bilberry (V. myrtillus L. and the cultivated highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum L..The two Vaccinium species were grown in the same test field in the Alps of Trentino (Northern Italy under modified light environment. The modification of sunlight radiation was carried out in field, through the use of colored photo-selective nets throughout the berry ripening during two consecutive growing seasons. The anthocyanin profile was then assessed in berries at ripeness.The results indicated that the light responses of the two Vaccinium species studied were different. Although both studied species are shade-adapted plants, 90% shading of sunlight radiation was beneficial only for bilberry plants, which accumulated the highest content of anthocyanins in both seasons. The same condition, instead, was not favorable for blueberries, whose maturation was delayed for at least two weeks, and anthocyanin accumulation was significantly decreased compared to berries grown under sunlight conditions. Moreover, the growing season had strong influence on the anthocyanin accumulation in both species, in relation to temperature flow and sunlight spectra composition during the berry ripening period.Our results suggest that the use of colored photo-selective nets may be a complementary agricultural practice for cultivation of Vaccinium species. However, further studies are needed to analyze the effect of the light spectra modifications to other nutritional properties, and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms behind the detected differences between the two relative Vaccinium species.

  17. Modification of Sunlight Radiation through Colored Photo-Selective Nets Affects Anthocyanin Profile in Vaccinium spp. Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoratti, Laura; Jaakola, Laura; Häggman, Hely; Giongo, Lara

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the interest on the effects of the specific wavelengths of the light spectrum on growth and metabolism of plants has been increasing markedly. The present study covers the effect of modified sunlight conditions on the accumulation of anthocyanin pigments in two Vaccinium species: the European wild bilberry (V. myrtillus L.) and the cultivated highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum L.). The two Vaccinium species were grown in the same test field in the Alps of Trentino (Northern Italy) under modified light environment. The modification of sunlight radiation was carried out in field, through the use of colored photo-selective nets throughout the berry ripening during two consecutive growing seasons. The anthocyanin profile was then assessed in berries at ripeness. The results indicated that the light responses of the two Vaccinium species studied were different. Although both studied species are shade-adapted plants, 90% shading of sunlight radiation was beneficial only for bilberry plants, which accumulated the highest content of anthocyanins in both seasons. The same condition, instead, was not favorable for blueberries, whose maturation was delayed for at least two weeks, and anthocyanin accumulation was significantly decreased compared to berries grown under sunlight conditions. Moreover, the growing season had strong influence on the anthocyanin accumulation in both species, in relation to temperature flow and sunlight spectra composition during the berry ripening period. Our results suggest that the use of colored photo-selective nets may be a complementary agricultural practice for cultivation of Vaccinium species. However, further studies are needed to analyze the effect of the light spectra modifications to other nutritional properties, and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms behind the detected differences between the two relative Vaccinium species.

  18. Modification of Sunlight Radiation through Colored Photo-Selective Nets Affects Anthocyanin Profile in Vaccinium spp. Berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoratti, Laura; Jaakola, Laura; Häggman, Hely; Giongo, Lara

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In recent years, the interest on the effects of the specific wavelengths of the light spectrum on growth and metabolism of plants has been increasing markedly. The present study covers the effect of modified sunlight conditions on the accumulation of anthocyanin pigments in two Vaccinium species: the European wild bilberry (V. myrtillus L.) and the cultivated highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum L.). Methods The two Vaccinium species were grown in the same test field in the Alps of Trentino (Northern Italy) under modified light environment. The modification of sunlight radiation was carried out in field, through the use of colored photo-selective nets throughout the berry ripening during two consecutive growing seasons. The anthocyanin profile was then assessed in berries at ripeness. Results The results indicated that the light responses of the two Vaccinium species studied were different. Although both studied species are shade-adapted plants, 90% shading of sunlight radiation was beneficial only for bilberry plants, which accumulated the highest content of anthocyanins in both seasons. The same condition, instead, was not favorable for blueberries, whose maturation was delayed for at least two weeks, and anthocyanin accumulation was significantly decreased compared to berries grown under sunlight conditions. Moreover, the growing season had strong influence on the anthocyanin accumulation in both species, in relation to temperature flow and sunlight spectra composition during the berry ripening period. Conclusions Our results suggest that the use of colored photo-selective nets may be a complementary agricultural practice for cultivation of Vaccinium species. However, further studies are needed to analyze the effect of the light spectra modifications to other nutritional properties, and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms behind the detected differences between the two relative Vaccinium species. PMID:26288240

  19. NOy production, ozone loss and changes in net radiative heating due to energetic particle precipitation in 2002–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sinnhuber

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the impact of energetic particle precipitation on the stratospheric nitrogen budget, ozone abundances and net radiative heating using results from three global chemistry-climate models considering solar protons and geomagnetic forcing due to auroral or radiation belt electrons. Two of the models cover the atmosphere up to the lower thermosphere, the source region of auroral NO production. Geomagnetic forcing in these models is included by prescribed ionization rates. One model reaches up to about 80 km, and geomagnetic forcing is included by applying an upper boundary condition of auroral NO mixing ratios parameterized as a function of geomagnetic activity. Despite the differences in the implementation of the particle effect, the resulting modeled NOy in the upper mesosphere agrees well between all three models, demonstrating that geomagnetic forcing is represented in a consistent way either by prescribing ionization rates or by prescribing NOy at the model top.Compared with observations of stratospheric and mesospheric NOy from the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS instrument for the years 2002–2010, the model simulations reproduce the spatial pattern and temporal evolution well. However, after strong sudden stratospheric warmings, particle-induced NOy is underestimated by both high-top models, and after the solar proton event in October 2003, NOy is overestimated by all three models. Model results indicate that the large solar proton event in October 2003 contributed about 1–2 Gmol (109 mol NOy per hemisphere to the stratospheric NOy budget, while downwelling of auroral NOx from the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere contributes up to 4 Gmol NOy. Accumulation over time leads to a constant particle-induced background of about 0.5–1 Gmol per hemisphere during solar minimum, and up to 2 Gmol per hemisphere during solar maximum. Related negative anomalies of ozone are predicted by

  20. Impact of land-use change in the net radiation of the Cerrado of the southern Mato Grosso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Alves Fausto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Changes resulting from land use and occupation modify the surface radioactive balance. This paper evaluated the impact on the net radiation caused by the conversion of a Cerrado area in an agricultural zone in the southern Mato Grosso using Landsat 5 TM sensor imagery acquired between June and October 2011. The analyses were performed of the following land use classes: Cerrado, riparian vegetation, sugarcane, soybean, pasture, bare soil and water. The replacement of Cerrado by agricultural areas changed the biophysical indices of the surface due to the change in biomass and the optical properties of the surface as observed in this study. The NDVI values were higher in the typical Cerrado vegetation and Riparian Forest than in agricultural areas. The surface temperature and the surface albedo showed an inverse pattern of NDVI, with lower values in the typical Cerrado vegetation and Riparian Forest and higher values in agricultural areas and bare soil. The replacement of Cerrado by cultivated crops in the south of Mato Grosso decreased the available energy at the surface, as indicated by the radiation balance.

  1. Applying Artificial Neural Networks to Estimate Net Radiation at Surface Using the Synergy between GERB-SEVIRI and Ground Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraldo Ferreira, A.; Soria, Emilio; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto; Vila, Joan; Serrano, Antonio J.; Martinez, Marcelino; Velazquez Blazquez, Almudena; Clerbaux, Nicolas

    This paper describes the results obtained using Artificial Neural Networks (AAN) models to estimate the diurnal cycle of net radiation (Rn) at surface. The data used as input parameter in the AAN model were that measured by Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB-1) instrument, on board Meteosat 9 satellite. The data concerning Rn at the surface were collected at the Valencia Anchor Station (VAS), a ground reference meteorological station for the validation of low spatial resolution sensors situated near de city of Valencia, Spain. This data refers to the periods July 31st -August 6th 2006 and June 19th -August 18th 2007. Both, GERB-1 and VAS data are used to train and validate the AAN model. The same data set is also used to develop and validate a Multivariate Linear Regression (MLR) model. A comparison between the estimates provided by the AAN and the MLR models has been carried out; the results obtained with the neural model outperform the linear model. Moreover, the low values of the error indexes show that neural models can be used as an alternative methodology to make atmospheric corrections.

  2. Reply to comment by R. Philipona on “A new absolute reference for atmospheric longwave irradiance measurements with traceability to SI units”: Reply to Comment of Dr. Philipona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gröbner, Julian [Physikalisch Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos/World Radiation Center, Davos Switzerland; Reda, Ibrahim [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden Colorado USA; Wacker, Stefan [Physikalisch Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos/World Radiation Center, Davos Switzerland; Nyeki, Stephan [Physikalisch Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos/World Radiation Center, Davos Switzerland; Behrens, Klaus [Meteorologisches Observatorium Lindenberg Richard-Aßmann-Observatorium, Deutscher Wetterdienst, Lindenberg Germany; Gorman, J. [Bureau of Meteorology, Melbourne Victoria Australia

    2015-07-21

    Atmospheric longwave irradiance is currently not metrologically traceable. Traceability requires formal comparisons in the framwork of the CIPM MRA. A task team on Radiation has been created by the WMO to address these issues.

  3. Radiative and convective properties of 316L Stainless Steel fabricated using the Laser Engineered Net Shaping process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopp, Jonathan

    Temperature evolution of metallic materials during the additive manufacturing process has direct influence in determining the materials microstructure and resultant characteristics. Through the power of Infrared (IR) thermography it is now possible to monitor thermal trends in a build structure, giving the power to adjust building parameters in real time. The IR camera views radiation in the IR wavelengths and determines temperature of an object by the amount of radiation emitted from the object in those wavelengths. Determining the amount of radiation emitted from the material, known as a materials emissivity, can be difficult in that emissivity is affected by both temperature and surface finish. It has been shown that the use of a micro-blackbody cavity can be used as an accurate reference temperature when the sample is held at thermal equilibrium. A micro-blackbody cavity was created in a sample of 316L Stainless Steel after being fabricated during using the Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS) process. Holding the sample at thermal equilibrium and using the micro-blackbody cavity as a reference and thermocouple as a second reference emissivity values were able to be obtained. IR thermography was also used to observe the manufacturing of these samples. When observing the IR thermography, patterns in the thermal history of the build were shown to be present as well as distinct cooling rates of the material. This information can be used to find true temperatures of 316L Stainless Steel during the LENS process for better control of desired material properties as well as future work in determining complete energy balance.

  4. Earth radiation budget from a surface perspective and its representation in CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, M.

    2012-04-01

    The genesis and evolution of Earth's climate is largely regulated by the global energy balance. Despite the central importance of the global energy balance for the climate system and climate change, substantial uncertainties still exist in the quantification of its different components, and their representation in climate models (e.g., Wild et al. 1998 Clim. Dyn., Wild 2008 Tellus). While the net radiative energy flow in and out of the climate system at the top of atmosphere (TOA) is known with considerable accuracy from new satellite programs such as CERES, much less is known about the energy distribution within the climate system and at the Earth surface. Here we use direct surface observations from the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) and the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) to provide better constraints on the surface radiative components as well as to investigate their temporal changes. We analyze radiation budgets of the latest generation of global climate models as used in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) and in the upcoming Fifth IPCC assessment report (IPCCAR5). Compared to a comprehensive set of surface observations, the CMIP5 models overestimate the shortwave radiation incident at the surface by 5-10 Wm-2 on average, due to a lack of absorption in the atmosphere. This suggests that the best estimate for the global mean absorbed shortwave radiation at the surface should be lower than the simulated estimates, which are on average slightly below 170 Wm-2, so that a value of no more than 160 Wm-2 might be the most realistic estimate for the global mean absorbed shortwave radiation at the surface. In contrast, the longwave downward radiation at the surface is underestimated by a similar amount in these models, suggesting that the best estimate for the global mean downward longwave radiation should be rather around 345 Wm-2 than the model average of 338 Wm-2. There is further increasing evidence from the direct

  5. Simulated Seasonal Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Soil Moisture, Temperature, and Net Radiation in a Deciduous Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Jerrell R., Jr.; Howington, Stacy E.; Cinnella, Pasquale; Smith, James A.

    2011-01-01

    The temperature and moisture regimes in a forest are key components in the forest ecosystem dynamics. Observations and studies indicate that the internal temperature distribution and moisture content of the tree influence not only growth and development, but onset and cessation of cambial activity [1], resistance to insect predation[2], and even affect the population dynamics of the insects [3]. Moreover, temperature directly affects the uptake and metabolism of population from the soil into the tree tissue [4]. Additional studies show that soil and atmospheric temperatures are significant parameters that limit the growth of trees and impose treeline elevation limitation [5]. Directional thermal infrared radiance effects have long been observed in natural backgrounds [6]. In earlier work, we illustrated the use of physically-based models to simulate directional effects in thermal imaging [7-8]. In this paper, we illustrated the use of physically-based models to simulate directional effects in thermal, and net radiation in a adeciduous forest using our recently developed three-dimensional, macro-scale computational tool that simulates the heat and mass transfer interaction in a soil-root-stem systems (SRSS). The SRSS model includes the coupling of existing heat and mass transport tools to stimulate the diurnal internal and external temperatures, internal fluid flow and moisture distribution, and heat flow in the system.

  6. Cloud effects on the solar and thermal radiation budgets of the Mediterranean basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrina, M.; Hatzianastassiou, N.; Matsoukas, C.; Fotiadi, A.; Papadimas, C. D.; Pavlakis, K. G.; Vardavas, I.

    2015-01-01

    The cloud effects on the shortwave (SW), longwave (LW) and net all-wave radiation budgets of the Mediterranean basin were computed using a detailed radiative transfer model together with satellite and reanalysis data for surface and atmospheric properties. The model radiation fluxes at TOA were validated against CERES and ERBE satellite data, while at the Earth's surface they were validated against ground-based GEBA and BSRN station measurements. The cloud radiative effects were obtained for low, middle, high-level clouds, and for total cloud cover. Overall for the basin, the effect on solar radiation is to produce radiative cooling at the top of atmosphere (TOA) and at the surface that more than balances the warming effects on terrestrial radiation. The result is a net radiative cooling at TOA and at the surface, equal to - 18.8 and - 15.9 Wm- 2, respectively. The low-level clouds are most important for the TOA budget through significant SW reflection and little LW emission to space. High clouds play an important role in net surface cooling (- 9.8 Wm- 2) through the combination of SW reflection to space and a much reduced LW warming effect at the surface. The geographical patterns of the effects are mainly characterized by a strong south to north increasing gradient. The seasonal variation of net radiative effects is dominated by solar radiation with maxima in spring and minima in winter.

  7. Computational ghost imaging of hot objects in long-wave infrared range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Chao; Zhang, Shuang

    2017-07-01

    Ghost imaging (GI) is an intriguing imaging modality to obtain the object information from the correlation calculations of spatial intensity fluctuations. In this letter, we report the computational GI of hot objects in the long-wave infrared range both in experiment and simulation. Without employing an independent light source, we reconstruct thermal images of objects only based on the intensity correlations of their thermal radiation at room temperature. By comparing different GI reconstruction algorithms, we demonstrate that GI with compressive sensing can efficiently obtain the thermal object information only with a single-pixel infrared camera, which might be applied to night-vision, environmental sensing, military detection, etc.

  8. Radiation components of beech stands in southwest Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holst, T.; Mayer, H. [Meteorological Inst., Univ. of Freiburg (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    Within the framework of an interdisciplinary project on the impact of climate and forest management on beech dominated deciduous forests, forest meteorological measurements are carried out within and above different beech stands (Fagus sylvatica L.) on opposite slopes of a narrow valley located in the Swabian Jura mountain range (south-west Germany). Referring to test plots on both slopes, the following cycles of radiation components are discussed: (1) Monthly mean values of transmission and extinction of global solar irradiance, photosynthetically active radiation as well as UV-A and UV-B radiation through the canopy, (2) diurnal courses of surface albedo {alpha}, net short-wave radiation K{sup *}, net long-wave radiation L{sup *} and net all-wave radiation Q{sup *} for a cloudless day in March (leafless period) and a cloudless day in July (fully-leaved period) above and below the canopy of different beech stands, and (3) monthly mean values of {alpha}, K{sup *}, L{sup *} and Q{sup *} for the same stand conditions as for (2). The results point out the combined impact on the investigated radiation components emanating from seasonally variable canopy density (quantified by the plant area index), exposure and sun elevation. (orig.)

  9. Comparative Assessment of Satellite-Retrieved Surface Net Radiation: An Examination on CERES and SRB Datasets in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xin Pan; Yuanbo Liu; Xingwang Fan

    2015-01-01

    ...) and the Surface Radiation Budget project (SRB) products, respectively, with quality-controlled radiation data from 50 meteorological stations in China for the period from March 2000 to December 2007...

  10. Temporal and spatial changes in mixed layer properties and atmospheric net heat flux in the Nordic Seas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, A; Alekseev, G [SI ' Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute' , St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Korablev, A; Esau, I, E-mail: avsmir@aari.nw.r [Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Centre, Bergen (Norway)

    2010-08-15

    The Nordic Seas are an important area of the World Ocean where warm Atlantic waters penetrate far north forming the mild climate of Northern Europe. These waters represent the northern rim of the global thermohaline circulation. Estimates of the relationships between the net heat flux and mixed layer properties in the Nordic Seas are examined. Oceanographic data are derived from the Oceanographic Data Base (ODB) compiled in the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute. Ocean weather ship 'Mike' (OWS) data are used to calculate radiative and turbulent components of the net heat flux. The net shortwave flux was calculated using a satellite albedo dataset and the EPA model. The net longwave flux was estimated by Southampton Oceanography Centre (SOC) method. Turbulent fluxes at the air-sea interface were calculated using the COARE 3.0 algorithm. The net heat flux was calculated by using oceanographic and meteorological data of the OWS 'Mike'. The mixed layer depth was estimated for the period since 2002 until 2009 by the 'Mike' data as well. A good correlation between these two parameters has been found. Sensible and latent heat fluxes controlled by surface air temperature/sea surface temperature gradient are the main contributors into net heat flux. Significant correlation was found between heat fluxes variations at the OWS 'Mike' location and sea ice export from the Arctic Ocean.

  11. Improved Estimates of Clear Sky Longwave Flux and Application to the Tropical Greenhouse Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, W. D.

    1997-01-01

    The first objective of this investigation is to eliminate the clear-sky offset introduced by the scene-identification procedures developed for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). Estimates of this systematic bias range from 10 to as high as 30 W/sq m. The initial version of the ScaRaB data is being processed with the original ERBE algorithm. Since the ERBE procedure for scene identification is based upon zonal flux averages, clear scenes with longwave emission well below the zonal mean value are mistakenly classified as cloudy. The erroneous classification is more frequent in regions with deep convection and enhanced mid- and upper-tropospheric humidity. We will develop scene identification parameters with zonal and/or time dependence to reduce or eliminate the bias in the clear- sky data. The modified scene identification procedure could be used for the ScaRaB-specific version of the Earth-radiation products. The second objective is to investigate changes in the clear-sky Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) associated with decadal variations in the tropical and subtropical climate. There is considerable evidence for a shift in the climate state starting in approximately 1977. The shift is accompanied by higher SSTs in the equatorial Pacific, increased tropical convection, and higher values of atmospheric humidity. Other evidence indicates that the humidity in the tropical troposphere has been steadily increasing over the last 30 years. It is not known whether the atmospheric greenhouse effect has increased during this period in response to these changes in SST and precipitable water. We will investigate the decadal-scale fluctuations in the greenhouse effect using Nimbus-7, ERBE, and ScaRaB measurements spaning 1979 to the present. The data from the different satellites will be intercalibrated by comparison with model calculations based upon ship radiosonde observations. The fluxes calculated from the radiation model will also be used for validation of the

  12. Taklimakan dust aerosol radiative heating derived from CALIPSO observations using the Fu-Liou radiation model with CERES constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Huang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The dust aerosol radiative forcing and heating rate over the Taklimakan Desert in Northwestern China in July 2006 are estimated using the Fu-Liou radiative transfer model along with satellite observations. The vertical distributions of the dust aerosol extinction coefficient are derived from the CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations lidar measurements. The CERES (Cloud and the Earth's Energy Budget Scanner measurements of reflected solar radiation are used to constrain the dust aerosol type in the radiative transfer model, which determines the dust aerosol single-scattering albedo and asymmetry factor as well as the aerosol optical properties' spectral dependencies. We find that the dust aerosols have a significant impact on the radiative energy budget over the Taklimakan desert. In the atmospheres containing light, moderate and heavy dust layers, the dust aerosols heat the atmosphere (daily mean by up to 1, 2, and 3 K day−1, respectively. The maximum daily mean radiative heating rate reaches 5.5 K day−1 at 5 km on 29 July. The averaged daily mean net radiative effect of the dust are 44.4, −41.9, and 86.3 W m−2, respectively, at the top of the atmosphere (TOA, surface, and in the atmosphere. Among these effects about two thirds of the warming effect at the TOA is related to the longwave radiation, while about 90% of the atmospheric warming is contributed by the solar radiation. At the surface, about one third of the dust solar radiative cooling effect is compensated by its longwave warming effect. The large modifications of radiative energy budget by the dust aerosols over Taklimakan Desert should have important implications for the atmospheric circulation and regional climate, topics for future investigations.

  13. NETS FOR PEACH PROTECTED CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelia Schettini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the radiometric properties of coloured nets used to protect a peach cultivation. The modifications of the solar spectral distribution, mainly in the R and FR wavelength band, influence plant photomorphogenesis by means of the phytochrome and cryptochrome. The phytochrome response is characterized in terms of radiation rate in the red wavelengths (R, 600-700 nm to that in the farred radiation (FR, 700-800 nm, i.e. the R/FR ratio. The effects of the blue radiation (B, 400-500 nm is investigated by the ratio between the blue radiation and the far-red radiation, i.e. the B/FR ratio. A BLUE net, a RED net, a YELLOW net, a PEARL net, a GREY net and a NEUTRAL net were tested in Bari (Italy, latitude 41° 05’ N. Peach trees were located in pots inside the greenhouses and in open field. The growth of the trees cultivated in open field was lower in comparison to the growth of the trees grown under the nets. The RED, PEARL, YELLOW and GREY nets increased the growth of the trees more than the other nets. The nets positively influenced the fruit characteristics, such as fruit weight and flesh firmness.

  14. Development of models for thermal infrared radiation above and within plant canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paw u, Kyaw T.

    1992-01-01

    Any significant angular dependence of the emitted longwave radiation could result in errors in remotely estimated energy budgets or evapotranspiration. Empirical data and thermal infrared radiation models are reviewed in reference to anisotropic emissions from the plant canopy. The biometeorological aspects of linking longwave models with plant canopy energy budgets and micrometeorology are discussed. A new soil plant atmosphere model applied to anisotropic longwave emissions from a canopy is presented. Time variation of thermal infrared emission measurements is discussed.

  15. Seasonal Clear-Sky Flux and Cloud Radiative Effect Anomalies in the Arctic Atmospheric Column Associated with the Arctic Oscillation and Arctic Dipole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegyi, Bradley M.; Taylor, Patrick C.

    2017-01-01

    The impact of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and Arctic Dipole (AD) on the radiative flux into the Arctic mean atmospheric column is quantified. 3-month-averaged AO and AD indices are regressed with corresponding surface and top-of-atmosphere (TOA) fluxes from the CERES-SFC and CERES-TOA EBAF datasets over the period 2000-2014. An increase in clear-sky fluxes into the Arctic mean atmospheric column during fall is the largest net flux anomaly associated with AO, primarily driven by a positive net longwave flux anomaly (i.e. increase of net flux into the atmospheric column) at the surface. A decrease in the Arctic mean atmospheric column cloud radiative effect during winter and spring is the largest flux anomaly associated with AD, primarily driven by a change in the longwave cloud radiative effect at the surface. These prominent responses to AO and AD are widely distributed across the ice-covered Arctic, suggesting that the physical process or processes that bring about the flux change associated with AO and AD are distributed throughout the Arctic.

  16. Using surface remote sensors to derive radiative characteristics of Mixed-Phase Clouds: an example from M-PACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. de Boer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Measurements from ground-based cloud radar, high spectral resolution lidar and microwave radiometer are used in conjunction with a column version of the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTMG and radiosonde measurements to derive the surface radiative properties under mixed-phase cloud conditions. These clouds were observed during the United States Department of Energy (US DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Clouds Experiment (M-PACE between September and November of 2004. In total, sixteen half hour time periods are reviewed due to their coincidence with radiosonde launches. Cloud liquid (ice water paths are found to range between 11.0–366.4 (0.5–114.1 gm−2, and cloud physical thicknesses fall between 286–2075 m. Combined with temperature and hydrometeor size estimates, this information is used to calculate surface radiative flux densities using RRTMG, which are demonstrated to generally agree with measured flux densities from surface-based radiometric instrumentation. Errors in longwave flux density estimates are found to be largest for thin clouds, while shortwave flux density errors are generally largest for thicker clouds. A sensitivity study is performed to understand the impact of retrieval assumptions and uncertainties on derived surface radiation estimates. Cloud radiative forcing is calculated for all profiles, illustrating longwave dominance during this time of year, with net cloud forcing generally between 50 and 90 Wm−2.

  17. Relationships between radiation, clouds, and convection during DYNAMO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielski, Paul E; Johnson, Richard H; Jiang, Xianan; Zhang, Yunyan; Xie, Shaocheng

    2017-03-16

    The relationships between radiation, clouds, and convection on an intraseasonal time scale are examined with data taken during the Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) field campaign. Specifically, column-net, as well as vertical profiles of radiative heating rates, computed over Gan Island in the central Indian Ocean (IO) are used along with an objective analysis of large-scale fields to examine three MJO events that occurred during the 3 month period (October to December 2011) over this region. Longwave (LW) and shortwave radiative heating rates exhibit tilted structures, reflecting radiative effects associated with the prevalence of shallow cumulus during the dry, suppressed MJO phase followed by increasing deep convection leading into the active phase. As the convection builds going into the MJO active phase, there are increasingly top-heavy anomalous radiative heating rates while the column-net radiative cooling rate progressively decreases. Temporal fluctuations in the cloud radiative forcing, being quite sensitive to changes in high cloudiness, are dominated by LW effects with an intraseasonal variation of ~0.4-0.6 K/d. While both the water vapor and cloud fields are inextricably linked, it appears that the tilted radiative structures are more related to water vapor effects. The intraseasonal variation of column-net radiative heating enhances the convective signal in the mean by ~20% with a minimum in this enhancement ~10 days prior to peak MJO rainfall and maximum ~7 days after. This suggests that as MJO convective envelope weakens over the central IO, cloud-radiative feedbacks help maintain the mature MJO as it moves eastward.

  18. Assessing the retrieval of cloud properties from radiation measurements over snow and ice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers Munneke, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831891; Reijmer, C.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/229345956; van den Broeke, M.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073765643

    2011-01-01

    We critically review and improve a simple method to extract year-round records of cloud optical thickness from radiation measurements made by automatic weather stations (AWSs) over snow and ice surfaces. A ‘longwave-equivalent cloudiness’, Nε, obtained from longwave radiation measurements, is

  19. Using IASI to simulate the total spectrum of outgoing long-wave radiances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, E. C.; Lee, H.-T.; Tett, S. F. B.

    2015-06-01

    A new method of deriving high-resolution top-of-atmosphere spectral radiances in 10 181 bands, over the whole outgoing long-wave spectrum of the Earth, is presented. Correlations between different channels measured by the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interfermeter (IASI) on the MetOp-A (Meteorological Operation) satellite and unobserved wavenumbers are used to estimate far infrared (FIR) radiances at 0.5 cm-1 intervals between 25.25 and 644.75 cm-1 (the FIR), and additionally between 2760 and 3000 cm-1 (the NIR - near infrared). Radiances simulated by the line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM) are used to construct the prediction model. The spectrum is validated by comparing the Integrated Nadir Long-wave Radiance (INLR) product spanning the whole 25.25-3000 cm-1 range with the corresponding broadband measurements from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument on the Terra and Aqua satellites at points of simultaneous nadir overpass. There is a mean difference of 0.3 W m-2 sr-1 (0.5% relative difference). This is well within the uncertainties associated with the measurements made by either instrument. However, there is a noticeable contrast when the bias is separated into night-time and daytime scenes with the latter being significantly larger, possibly due to errors in the CERES Ed3 Spectral Response Functions (SRF) correction method. In the absence of an operational spaceborne instrument that isolates the FIR, this product provides a useful proxy for such measurements within the limits of the regression model it is based on, which is shown to have very low root mean squared errors. The new high-resolution spectrum is presented for global mean clear and all skies where the FIR is shown to contribute 44 and 47% to the total INLR, respectively. In terms of the spectral cloud effect (Cloud Integrated Nadir Long-wave Radiance - CINLR), the FIR contributes 19% and in some subtropical instances appears to be negative; results that

  20. Uncertainties in assessing radiative forcing by mineral dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claquin, T.; Schulz, M.; Balkanski, Y.; Boucher, O.

    1998-11-01

    The assessment of the climatic effects of an aerosol with a large variability like mineral dust requires some approximations whose validity is investigated in this paper. Calculations of direct radiative forcing by mineral dust (short-wave, long-wave and net) are performed with a single-column radiation model for two standard cases in clear sky condition: a desert case and an oceanic case. Surface forcing result from a large diminution of the short-wave fluxes and of the increase in down-welling long-wave fluxes. Top of the atmosphere (TOA) forcing is negative when short-wave backscattering dominates, for instance above the ocean, and positive when short-wave or long-wave absorption dominates, which occurs above deserts. We study here the sensitivity of these mineral forcings to different treatments of the aerosol complex refractive index and size distribution. We also describe the importance of the dust vertical profile, ground temperature, emissivity and albedo. Among these parameters, the aerosol complex refractive index has been identified as a critical parameter given the paucity and the incertitude associated with it. Furthermore, the imaginary part of the refractive index is inadequate if spectrally averaged. Its natural variability (linked to mineralogical characteristics) lead to variations of up to ± 40% in aerosol forcing calculations. A proper representation of the size distribution when modelling mineral aerosols is required since dust optical properties are very sensitive to the presence of small particles. In addition we demonstrate that LW forcing imply a non-negligible sensitivity to the vertical profiles of temperature and dust, the latter being an important constraint for dust effect calculations.

  1. Using the Synergy Between GERB/SEVIRI and Micrometeorological Data to Study the Relationship Between Surface Net Radiation and Soil Heat Flux at Local and Regional Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, A. G.; Velázquez Blázquez, A.; Soria, E.; Lopez-Baeza, E.

    2009-04-01

    The surface energy exchange between the land surface and the atmosphere can be described by the energy balance equation Rn - H - LE - G = 0, where Rn represents net radiation, H the sensible heat flux, LE, the latent heat flux and G the soil heat flux. In this work the relationship between Rn and G is studied over vineyard crops, a relative sparse vegetation cover crop where, according to the literature, it is expected that G consumes a significant proportion of Rn. In order to study this relationship at local and regional scales, micrometeorological observations and METEOSAT Second Generation (MSG) satellite data have been used. MSG through the GERB (Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget) and the SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager) sensors can provide estimates of net radiation and required land surface temperature (LST) information with a frequency of 15 min intervals. The necessary micrometeorological parameters, to compare with satellite data, were collected during the full vine growing season of 2007 (May to September) in a field experiment carried out at the Valencia Anchor Station (VAS) site area. The VAS is a robust reference meteorological station which is successfully used preferentially for validation of low spatial resolution satellite data and products. It is located on the natural region of the Utiel-Requena Plateau, at about 80 km west from the city of Valencia, Spain, and represents a reasonable homogeneous area of about 50 km x 50 km dedicated primarily to growing vines. The methodology utilized to study the relationship between Rn and G at local and regional scales, was that proposed by Santanello and Friedel (2002), where surface temperature can be obtained from SEVIRI that provides estimates of LST with unprecedented frequency of 15 min intervals with a spatial resolution of 3.1 km, thus totally covering its diurnal course. The preliminary results show that: 1- the correlation between the ground measurements and SEVIRI LST is

  2. The balanced radiative effect of tropical anvil clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Dennis L.; Berry, Sara E.

    2017-05-01

    Coincident instantaneous broadband radiation budget measurements from Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System and cloud vertical structure information from CloudSat-Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations radar-lidar observations are combined to study the relationship of cloud vertical structure to top-of-atmosphere energy balance fluctuations. Varying optical and physical thickness of high ice clouds produces most of the covariation between albedo and outgoing longwave radiation in regions of tropical convection. Rainy cores of tropical convective clouds have a negative impact on the radiation balance, while nonprecipitating anvil clouds have a positive effect. The effect of anvil clouds on the radiative heating profile is to warm near cloud base and cool near cloud top, and to reduce the radiative cooling rate in the clear air below the cloud. The cooling rate in the clear air below the anvil is reduced to small values for moderately thick anvils, and the driving of instability in the anvil itself also saturates for relatively thin clouds. It is hypothesized that the dependence of radiative heating on cloud thickness may be important in driving the distribution of tropical cloud structures toward one that produces net neutrality of the cloud radiative effect at the top-of-the-atmosphere, as is found in regions of deep convection over ocean areas with high and relatively uniform surface temperatures. This idea is tested with a single-column model, which indicates that cloud-radiation interactions affect anvil cloud properties, encouraging further investigation of the hypothesis.

  3. Estimativa do saldo de radiação em girassol como função da radiação solar global Estimation of net radiation in sunflower as a function of solar radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno B Heldwein

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho a obtenção de modelos para a estimativa do saldo de radiação (Q* a partir da radiação solar global incidente (Rg sobre dosseis de plantas de girassol. Os experimentos foram conduzidos na área experimental da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, nos anos de 2007, 2008 e 2009. O Q* foi medido com saldos radiômetros instalados acima das plantas e a Rg em estações meteorológicas automáticas. Para fins de cálculo foram efetuadas as somas diárias de Q* e de Rg, obtendo-se a relação entre Q* e Rg para cada dia. Obtiveram-se, então, modelos com elevado coeficiente de determinação e baixo RQME no teste entre valores medidos e estimados de um banco de dados independente, indicando precisão na estimativa do saldo de radiação em dosseis de girassol, independendo da época de cultivo no ano. A função linear geral obtida com dados de diferentes épocas de cultivo foi: Q* = 0,5285 Rg (R² = 0,95, que no teste apresentou RQME = 1,04 MJ m-2 d-1. Conclui-se que o saldo de radiação (Q* pode ser estimado utilizando-se a radiação solar global medida em estações automáticas, com precisão suficiente para os diferentes fins na agrometeorologia do girassol.This study aimed to develop models for estimating the net radiation (Q * from the incident solar radiation (Rg on canopies of sunflower plants. The experiments were conducted at the Plant Science Department of the Federal University of Santa Maria in 2007, 2008 and 2009 years. Q* was measured by net radiometers above the plants and Rg by automatic weather stations. For purposes of calculation, daily sums of Q* and Rg were performed, obtaining the relationship between Q* and Rg for each day. Models with high coefficient of determination and low RQME were obtained in test between measured and estimated values from an independent database, indicating precision to estimate net radiation in sunflower canopies, regardless of cultivation time in year. The general

  4. Net Locality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Gordon, Eric

    Provides an introduction to the new theory of Net Locality and the profound effect on individuals and societies when everything is located or locatable. Describes net locality as an emerging form of location awareness central to all aspects of digital media, from mobile phones, to Google Maps...... of emerging technologies, from GeoCities to GPS, Wi-Fi, Wiki Me, and Google Android....

  5. Net Neutrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej

    2017-01-01

    Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else.......Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else....

  6. Overhead longwave infrared hyperspectral material identification using radiometric models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelinski, M. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2018-01-09

    Material detection algorithms used in hyperspectral data processing are computationally efficient but can produce relatively high numbers of false positives. Material identification performed as a secondary processing step on detected pixels can help separate true and false positives. This paper presents a material identification processing chain for longwave infrared hyperspectral data of solid materials collected from airborne platforms. The algorithms utilize unwhitened radiance data and an iterative algorithm that determines the temperature, humidity, and ozone of the atmospheric profile. Pixel unmixing is done using constrained linear regression and Bayesian Information Criteria for model selection. The resulting product includes an optimal atmospheric profile and full radiance material model that includes material temperature, abundance values, and several fit statistics. A logistic regression method utilizing all model parameters to improve identification is also presented. This paper details the processing chain and provides justification for the algorithms used. Several examples are provided using modeled data at different noise levels.

  7. RadNet Air Data From Little Rock, AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Little Rock, AR from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  8. RadNet Air Data From Pittsburgh, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Pittsburgh, PA from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  9. RadNet Air Data From Montgomery, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Montgomery, AL from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  10. RadNet Air Data From Toledo, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Toledo, OH from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  11. RadNet Air Data From Honolulu, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Honolulu, HI from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  12. Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) Data Sets for Global Environment and Climate Change Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bess, T. Dale; Carlson, Ann B.; Denn, Fredrick M.

    1997-01-01

    For a number of years there has been considerable interest in the earth's radiation budget (ERB) or energy balance, and entails making the best measurements possible of absorbed solar radiation, reflected shortwave radiation (RSW), thermal outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), and net radiation. ERB data are fundamental to the development of realistic climate models and studying natural and anthropogenic perturbations of the climate. Much of the interest and investigations in the earth's energy balance predated the age of earth-orbiting satellites (Hunt et al., 1986). Beginning in the mid 1960's earth-orbiting satellites began to play an important role in making measurements of the earth's radiation flux although much effort had gone into measuring ERB parameters prior to 1960 (House et al., 1986). Beginning in 1974 and extending until the present time, three different satellite experiments (not all operating at the same time) have been making radiation budget measurements almost continually in time. Two of the experiments were totally dedicated to making radiation budget measurements of the earth, and the other experiment flown on NOAA sun-synchronous AVHRR weather satellites produced radiation budget parameters as a by-product. The heat budget data from the AVHRR satellites began collecting data in June 1974 and have operated almost continuously for 23 years producing valuable data for long term climate monitoring.

  13. Estimation of Asian Dust Aerosol Effect on Cloud Radiation Forcing Using Fu-Liou Radiative Model and CERES Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jing; Huang, Jianping; Fu, Qiang; Minnis, Patrick; Ge, Jinming; Bi, Jianrong

    2008-01-01

    The impact of Asian dust on cloud radiative forcing during 2003-2006 is studied by using the Earth's Radiant Energy Budget Scanner (CERES) data and the Fu-Liou radiative transfer model. Analysis of satellite data shows that the dust aerosol significantly reduced the cloud cooling effect at TOA. In dust contaminated cloudy regions, the 4-year mean values of the instantaneous shortwave, longwave and net cloud radiative forcing are -138.9, 69.1, and -69.7 Wm(sup -2), which are 57.0, 74.2, and 46.3%, respectively, of the corresponding values in more pristine cloudy regions. The satellite-retrieved cloud properties are significantly different in the dusty regions and can influence the radiative forcing indirectly. The contributions to the cloud radiation forcing by the dust direct, indirect and semi-direct effects are estimated using combined satellite observations and Fu-Liou model simulation. The 4-year mean value of combination of indirect and semi-direct shortwave radiative forcing (SWRF) is 82.2 Wm(sup -2), which is 78.4% of the total dust effect. The direct effect is only 22.7 Wm(sup -2), which is 21.6% of the total effect. Because both first and second indirect effects enhance cloud cooling, the aerosol-induced cloud warming is mainly the result of the semi-direct effect of dust.

  14. Longwave UV light induces the aging-associated progerin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hirotaka; Rünger, Thomas M

    2013-07-01

    Premature aging in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is caused by a mutation of the LMNA gene that activates a cryptic splice site. This results in expression of a truncated form of Lamin A, called progerin. Accumulation of progerin in the nuclei of HGPS cells impairs nuclear functions and causes abnormal nuclear morphology. Progerin accumulation has not only been described in HGPS, but also during normal intrinsic aging. We hypothesized that accumulation of progerin with abnormal nuclear shapes may also be accelerated by UV and with that contribute to photoaging of the skin. We exposed neonatal or aged cultured fibroblasts to single or repeated doses of longwave or shortwave UV (UVA or UVB) and found that UVA, but not UVB, induces progerin expression and HGPS-like abnormal nuclear shapes in all cells, but more in aged cells. The induction of progerin is mediated by UVA-induced oxidative damage and subsequent alternative splicing of the LMNA transcript, as progerin induction was suppressed by the singlet oxygen quencher sodium azide, and as mRNA expression of LMNA was not induced by UVA. These data suggest a previously unreported pathway of photoaging and support the concept that photoaging is at least in part a process of damage-accelerated intrinsic aging.

  15. Toward silicon-based longwave integrated optoelectronics (LIO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soref, Richard

    2008-02-01

    The vision of longwave silicon photonics articulated in the Journal of Optics A, vol. 8, pp 840-848, 2006 has now come into sharper focus. There is evidence that newly designed silicon-based optoelectronic circuits will operate at any wavelength within the wide 1.6 to 200 μm range. Approaches to that LWIR operation are reviewed here. A long-range goal is to manufacture LWIR OEIC chips in a silicon foundry by integrating photonics on-chip with CMOS, bipolar, or BiCMOS micro-electronics. A principal LWIR application now emerging is the sensing of chemical and biological agents with an OE laboratory-on-a-chip. Regarding on-chip IR sources, the hybrid evanescent-wave integration of III-V interband-cascade lasers and quantum-cascade lasers on silicon (or Ge/Si) waveguides is a promising technique, although an alternative all-group-IV solution is presently taking shape in the form of silicon-based Ge/SiGeSn band-to-band and inter-subband lasers. There is plenty of room for creativity in developing a complete suite of LWIR components. Materials modification, device innovation, and scaling of waveguide dimensions are needed to implement microphotonic, plasmonic and photonic-crystal LWIR devices, both active and passive. Such innovation will likely lead to significant LIO applications.

  16. RESTful NET

    CERN Document Server

    Flanders, Jon

    2008-01-01

    RESTful .NET is the first book that teaches Windows developers to build RESTful web services using the latest Microsoft tools. Written by Windows Communication Foundation (WFC) expert Jon Flanders, this hands-on tutorial demonstrates how you can use WCF and other components of the .NET 3.5 Framework to build, deploy and use REST-based web services in a variety of application scenarios. RESTful architecture offers a simpler approach to building web services than SOAP, SOA, and the cumbersome WS- stack. And WCF has proven to be a flexible technology for building distributed systems not necessa

  17. Handheld Longwave Infrared Camera Based on Highly-Sensitive Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a compact handheld longwave infrared camera based on quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal plane array (FPA) technology. Based on...

  18. High Quantum Efficiency 1024x1024 Longwave Infrared SLS FPA and Camera Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a high quantum efficiency (QE) 1024x1024 longwave infrared focal plane array (LWIR FPA) and CAMERA with ~ 12 micron cutoff wavelength made from...

  19. Current Status of Observation by the Longwave Infrared Camera (LIR) on Board Akatsuki Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, T.; Taguchi, M.; Imamura, T.; Kouyama, T.; Nakamura, M.; Sato, T. M.; Suzuki, M.; Iwagami, N.

    2017-11-01

    Current status of observation by the Longwave Infrared Camera (LIR) on board Akatsuki spacecraft is reported. We advance the study by using the abundant LIR images, and various large stationary gravity waves have been identified in LIR images.

  20. Atmospheric Retrieval Algorithms for Long-Wave Infrared and Solar Radiance Scenarios

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hackett, Michelle

    2006-01-01

    .... In particular, consider the retrieval of temperature and humidity profiles, and aerosol size distribution and the scattering refractive index from long-wave infrared and solar radiance spectra, respectively...

  1. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Associate Professor of. Computer Science and. Automation at the Indian. Institute of Science,. Bangalore. His research interests are broadly in the areas of stochastic modeling and scheduling methodologies for future factories; and object oriented modeling. GENERAL I ARTICLE. Petri Nets. 1. Overview and Foundations.

  2. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 8. Petri Nets - Overview and Foundations. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 8 August 1999 pp ... Author Affiliations. Y Narahari1. Department ot Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  3. Radiation in controlled environments: influence of lamp type and filter material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, D. L.; Bugbee, B.; Salisbury, F. B.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation in controlled environments was characterized using fluorescent and various high-intensity-discharge (HID) lamps, including metal halide, low-pressure sodium, and high-pressure sodium as the radiation source. The effects of water, glass, or Plexiglas filters on radiation were determined. Photosynthetic photon flux (PPF, 400 to 700 nm), spectra (400 to 1000 nm), shortwave radiation (285-2800 nm), and total radiation (300 to 100,000 nm) were measured, and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400 to 700 nm) and longwave radiation (2800 to 100,000 nm) were calculated. Measurement of PPF alone was not an adequate characterization of the radiation environment. Total radiant flux varied among lamp types at equal PPF. HID lamps provided a lower percentage of longwave radiation than fluorescent lamps, but, when HID lamps provided PPF levels greater than that possible with fluorescent lamps, the amount of longwave radiation was high. Water was the most effective longwave radiation filter. Glass and Plexiglas similarly filtered longwave more than shortwave radiation, but transmission of nonphotosynthetic shortwave radiation was less with Plexiglas than glass. The filter materials tested would not be expected to influence photomorphogenesis because radiation in the action spectrum of phytochrome was not altered, but this may not be the only pigment involved.

  4. Effect of gamma radiation on chlorophylls content, net photosynthesis and respiration of Chlorella pyrenoidosa; Efecto de la radiacion gamma sobre la fotosintesis neta y la respiracion de Chlorella pyrenoidosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, C.; Fernandez, J.

    1983-07-01

    The effect of five doses of gamma radiation: 10, 100, 500, 1000 and 5000 Gy on chlorophylls content, net photosynthesis and respiration of Chlorella pyrenoidosa has been studied. A decrease in chlorophylls levels is produced after irradiation at 500, 1000 and 5000 Gy, being, at first b chlorophyll affected to a greater extent than a chlorophyll. Net photosynthesis and respiration decline throughout the time of the observation after irradiation, this depressing effect being much more remarkable for the first one. Met photosynthesis inhibition levels of about 30% are got only five hours post irradiation at a dose of 5000 Gy. Radio estimation by low doses, although obtained in some cases for tho 10 Gy dose, has not been statistically confirmed. (Author) 23 refs.

  5. Sensitivity of surface temperature to radiative forcing by contrail cirrus in a radiative-mixing model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Schumann

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Earth's surface temperature sensitivity to radiative forcing (RF by contrail cirrus and the related RF efficacy relative to CO2 are investigated in a one-dimensional idealized model of the atmosphere. The model includes energy transport by shortwave (SW and longwave (LW radiation and by mixing in an otherwise fixed reference atmosphere (no other feedbacks. Mixing includes convective adjustment and turbulent diffusion, where the latter is related to the vertical component of mixing by large-scale eddies. The conceptual study shows that the surface temperature sensitivity to given contrail RF depends strongly on the timescales of energy transport by mixing and radiation. The timescales are derived for steady layered heating (ghost forcing and for a transient contrail cirrus case. The radiative timescales are shortest at the surface and shorter in the troposphere than in the mid-stratosphere. Without mixing, a large part of the energy induced into the upper troposphere by radiation due to contrails or similar disturbances gets lost to space before it can contribute to surface warming. Because of the different radiative forcing at the surface and at top of atmosphere (TOA and different radiative heating rate profiles in the troposphere, the local surface temperature sensitivity to stratosphere-adjusted RF is larger for SW than for LW contrail forcing. Without mixing, the surface energy budget is more important for surface warming than the TOA budget. Hence, surface warming by contrails is smaller than suggested by the net RF at TOA. For zero mixing, cooling by contrails cannot be excluded. This may in part explain low efficacy values for contrails found in previous global circulation model studies. Possible implications of this study are discussed. Since the results of this study are model dependent, they should be tested with a comprehensive climate model in the future.

  6. Diffraction analysis for DMD-based scene projectors in the long-wave infrared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qing; Zhang, Jianzhong; Wang, Jian; Sun, Qiang

    2016-10-01

    Diffraction effects play a significant role in the digital micromirror device (DMD)-based scene projectors in the long-wave infrared (IR) band (8-12 μm). The contrast provided by these projector systems can become noticeably worse because of the diffraction characteristics of the DMD. We apply a diffraction grating model of the DMD based on the scalar diffraction theory and the Fourier transform to address this issue. In addition, a simulation calculation is conducted with MATLAB. Finally, the simulation result is verified with an experiment. The simulation and experimental results indicate that, when the incident azimuth angle is 0° and the zenith angle is between 42°and 46°, the scene projectors will have a good imaging contrast in the long-wave IR. The diffraction grating model proposed in this study provides a method to improve the contrast of DMD-based scene projectors in the long-wave IR.

  7. Diffraction analysis for digital micromirror device scene projectors in the long-wave infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qing; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Jianzhong; Sun, Qiang

    2016-08-01

    Diffraction effects play a significant role in scene projectors by digital micromirror devices (DMDs) in the long-wave infrared (IR) band (8 to 12 μm). The contrast provided by these projector systems can become noticeably worse because of the diffraction characteristics of the DMD. The actual diffraction characteristics of the DMD deviate significantly from the predictions of scalar diffraction theory in the long-wave IR. To address this issue, we built a vector diffraction-grating model of the DMD; the diffraction grating model is simulated with MATLAB. Furthermore, we analyze the effect of incident angle and polarization, which are the main factors that decrease the contrast of DMD-based scene projectors in the long-wave IR. Finally, an effective method to improve the contrast of the scene projector system is given, and the maximum contrast of the scene projector system is ˜0.7.

  8. GALILEO PROBE NET FLUX RADIOMETER DATA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Galileo Probe Net Flux Radiometer (NFR) measured net and upward radiation fluxes in Jupiter's atmosphere between about 0.44 bars and 14 bars, using five spectral...

  9. Radiation Budget Profiles measured through the Atmosphere with a Return Glider Radiosonde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipona, R.; Kraeuchi, A.; Kivi, R.

    2015-12-01

    Very promising radiation budget profile measurements through the atmosphere were made in 2011 with a balloon borne short- and longwave net radiometer. New and improved radiation sensors from Kipp&Zonen are now used in a glider aircraft together with a standard Swiss radiosonde from Meteolabor AG. This new return glider radiosonde (RG-R), is lifted up with double balloon technique to prevent pendulum motion and to keep the radiation instruments as horizontal as possible during the ascent measuring phase. The RG-R is equipped with a release mechanism and an autopilot that flies the glider radiosonde back to the launch site, or to a predefined open space, where it releases a parachute for landing once it is 100 meter above ground. The RG-R was successfully tested and deployed for tropospheric and stratospheric radiation measurements up to 30 hPa (24 km altitude) at the GRUAN sites Payerne (Switzerland) and Sodankylä (Finland). Radiation profiles and the radiation budget through the atmosphere during different daytimes and under cloud-free and cloudy situations will be shown in relation to temperature and humidity at the surface and in the atmosphere. The RG-R flight characteristics and new measurement possibilities will also be discussed.

  10. Thermodynamics and Cloud Radiative Effect from the First Year of GoAmazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collow, Allie Marquardt; Miller, Mark; Trabachino, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Deforestation is an ongoing concern for the Amazon Rainforest of Brazil and associated changes to the land surface have been hypothesized to alter the climate in the region. A comprehensive set of meteorological observations at the surface and within the lower troposphere above Manacapuru, Brazil and data from the Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications Version 2 (MERRA-2) are used to evaluate the seasonal cycle of cloudiness, thermodynamics, and the radiation budget. While ample moisture is present in the Amazon Rainforest year round, the northward progression of the Hadley circulation during the dry season contributes to a drying of the middle troposphere and inhibits the formation of deep convection. This results in a reduction in cloudiness and precipitation as well as an increase in the height of the lifting condensation level, which is shown to have a negative correlation to the fraction of low clouds. Frequent cloudiness prevents solar radiation from reaching the surface and clouds are often reflective with high values of shortwave cloud radiative effect at the surface and top of the atmosphere. Cloud radiative effect is reduced during the dry season however the dry season surface shortwave cloud radiative effect is still double what is observed during the wet season in other tropical locations. Within the column, the impact of clouds on the radiation budget is more prevalent in the longwave part of the spectrum, with a net warming in the wet season.

  11. RadNet Air Quality (Deployable) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RadNet Deployable Monitoring is designed to collect radiological and meteorological information and data asset needed to establish the impact of radiation levels on...

  12. Variability In Long-Wave Runup as a Function of Nearshore Bathymetric Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunkin, Lauren McNeill [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Beaches and barrier islands are vulnerable to extreme storm events, such as hurricanes, that can cause severe erosion and overwash to the system. Having dunes and a wide beach in front of coastal infrastructure can provide protection during a storm, but the influence that nearshore bathymetric features have in protecting the beach and barrier island system is not completely understood. The spatial variation in nearshore features, such as sand bars and beach cusps, can alter nearshore hydrodynamics, including wave setup and runup. The influence of bathymetric features on long-wave runup can be used in evaluating the vulnerability of coastal regions to erosion and dune overtopping, evaluating the changing morphology, and implementing plans to protect infrastructure. In this thesis, long-wave runup variation due to changing bathymetric features as determined with the numerical model XBeach is quantified (eXtreme Beach behavior model). Wave heights are analyzed to determine the energy through the surfzone. XBeach assumes that coastal erosion at the land-sea interface is dominated by bound long-wave processes. Several hydrodynamic conditions are used to force the numerical model. The XBeach simulation results suggest that bathymetric irregularity induces significant changes in the extreme long-wave runup at the beach and the energy indicator through the surfzone.

  13. Long-Wave Instability of Advective Flows in Inclined Layer with Solid Heat Conductive Boundaries

    CERN Document Server

    Sagitov, R V

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the stability of the steady convective flow in a plane tilted layer with ideal thermal conductivity of solid boundaries in the presence of uniform longitudinal temperature gradient. Analytically found the stability boundary with respect to the long-wave perturbations, find the critical Grashof number for the most dangerous among them of even spiral perturbation.

  14. Improving Estimates of Cloud Radiative Forcing over Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W.; Zender, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    Multiple driving mechanisms conspire to increase melt extent and extreme melt events frequency in the Arctic: changing heat transport, shortwave radiation (SW), and longwave radiation (LW). Cloud Radiative Forcing (CRF) of Greenland's surface is amplified by a dry atmosphere and by albedo feedback, making its contribution to surface melt even more variable in time and space. Unfortunately accurate cloud observations and thus CRF estimates are hindered by Greenland's remoteness, harsh conditions, and low contrast between surface and cloud reflectance. In this study, cloud observations from satellites and reanalyses are ingested into and evaluated within a column radiative transfer model. An improved CRF dataset is obtained by correcting systematic discrepancies derived from sensitivity experiments. First, we compare the surface radiation budgets from the Column Radiation Model (CRM) driven by different cloud datasets, with surface observations from Greenland Climate Network (GC-Net). In clear skies, CRM-estimated surface radiation driven by water vapor profiles from both AIRS and MODIS during May-Sept 2010-2012 are similar, stable, and reliable. For example, although AIRS water vapor path exceeds MODIS by 1.4 kg/m2 on a daily average, the overall absolute difference in downwelling SW is CRM estimates are within 20 W/m2 range of GC-Net downwelling SW. After calibrating CRM in clear skies, the remaining differences between CRM and observed surface radiation are primarily attributable to differences in cloud observations. We estimate CRF using cloud products from MODIS and from MERRA. The SW radiative forcing of thin clouds is mainly controlled by cloud water path (CWP). As CWP increases from near 0 to 200 g/m2, the net surface SW drops from over 100 W/m2 to 30 W/m2 almost linearly, beyond which it becomes relatively insensitive to CWP. The LW is dominated by cloud height. For clouds at all altitudes, the lower the clouds, the greater the LW forcing. By applying

  15. Effects of variability in land surface characteristics on the summer radiation budget across desert-oasis region in Northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongyong; Zhao, Wenzhi

    2015-02-01

    The oasis area in the middle reaches of the Heihe River has changed since a water diversion scheme was implemented in 2000. The resultant variation land surface characteristics affects radiation budget during the oasisification process. The aim of this study was to investigate the variation in radiation budget within land surfaces during the oasisification process, through spatial instead of time-successional sequence method. Radiant data in the oasis fringe (maize field) and the desert-oasis ecotone was observed during the summer of 2009. The results showed that solar radiation (SR) in the oasis fringe was identical to that of the desert-oasis ecotone on selected clear, cloudy, and rainy days. Surface reflective radiation (SRR) and surface effective radiation (SER) both decreased from clear day to cloudy day and were lowest on the rainy day. The diurnal variation in radiation budget for cloudy and rainy days did not follow the same cycle as on clear day. The albedo values in the oasis fringe and the desert-oasis ecotone were 0.18 and 0.26, respectively. The diurnal variation in albedo tended toward a "U-shaped" curve on clear day. When the solar elevation angle was greater than 40°; the albedo was symmetrical in the a.m. and p.m. time frames. The radiation budget changed within land surfaces during the oasisification process. In summer, the albedo decreased, as did SER, with the transition from desert to oasis interior; whereas the surface-absorbed radiation (SAR) and net radiation (NR) both increased. More than half of the absorbed net energy in the desert was released in longwave form. The absorbed energy in the oasis was conserved to ensure stable light and heat resources utilization for agricultural production.

  16. The daytime cycle in dust aerosol direct radiative effects observed in the central Sahara during the Fennec campaign in June 2011

    KAUST Repository

    Banks, Jamie R.

    2014-12-16

    © 2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. The direct clear-sky radiative effect (DRE) of atmospheric mineral dust is diagnosed over the Bordj Badji Mokhtar (BBM) supersite in the central Sahara during the Fennec campaign in June 2011. During this period, thick dust events were observed, with aerosol optical depth values peaking at 3.5. Satellite observations from Meteosat-9 are combined with ground-based radiative flux measurements to obtain estimates of DRE at the surface, top-of-atmosphere (TOA), and within the atmosphere. At TOA, there is a distinct daytime cycle in net DRE. Both shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) DRE peak around noon and induce a warming of the Earth-atmosphere system. Toward dusk and dawn, the LW DRE reduces while the SW effect can switch sign triggering net radiative cooling. The net TOA DRE mean values range from -9 Wm-2 in the morning to heating of +59 Wm-2 near midday. At the surface, the SW dust impact is larger than at TOA: SW scattering and absorption by dust results in a mean surface radiative cooling of 145Wm-2. The corresponding mean surface heating caused by increased downward LW emission from the dust layer is a factor of 6 smaller. The dust impact on the magnitude and variability of the atmospheric radiative divergence is dominated by the SW cooling of the surface, modified by the smaller SW and LW effects at TOA. Consequently, dust has a mean daytime net radiative warming effect on the atmosphere of 153Wm-2.

  17. Radiação, fotossíntese, rendimento e qualidade de frutos em macieiras 'Royal Gala' cobertas com telas antigranizo Radiation, photosynthesis, yield, and fruit quality of 'Royal Gala' apples under hail protection nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a intensidade e a qualidade da radiação solar disponibilizada às plantas e os seus impactos sobre a fotossíntese, rendimento e qualidade dos frutos, em macieiras 'Royal Gala', cobertas ou não com telas antigranizo nas cores branca e preta. A tela preta provocou redução maior na densidade de fluxo de fótons fotossinteticamente ativos acima do dossel das plantas (24,8%, em comparação à tela branca (21,2%. O interior do dossel das plantas sob tela preta recebeu menores valores de radiação ultravioleta, azul, verde, vermelho e vermelho distante, bem como da relação vermelho:vermelho distante, em relação às plantas descobertas. Estas alterações na quantidade e qualidade da luz sob tela preta aumentaram o teor de clorofila total e a área específica nas folhas, e reduziram a taxa fotossintética potencial, o peso de frutos por cm² de seção transversal de tronco e a coloração vermelha dos frutos. As telas antigranizo branca e preta reduziram a incidência de queimadura de sol, porém não tiveram efeito sobre a severidade de "russeting" e sobre o número de sementes por fruto.The objective of this work was to assess the amount and quality of the light supplied to plants, and the resulting impacts on photosynthesis, yield, and fruit quality of 'Royal Gala' apple trees uncovered or covered with white and black hail protection nets. The black net caused a higher reduction (24.8% of photosynthetic photon flux density, accumulated over the plant canopy during the day, than the white net (21.2%. The canopy internal portion of plants covered by black net received lower levels of ultraviolet, blue, green, red, and far red radiation, and light with a lower red:far red ratio, in comparison to uncovered plants; these ligth changes increased chlorophyll content and specific area of the leaves, and reduced the potential photosynthesis, the weight of fruits per cm² of trunk cross section area, and the

  18. Long-term variations in outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    However, xy between OLR and temperature becomes opposite as we move towards low latitudes (∼8° – 10°N) due to strong solar cycle influence. ... variability) responding in consonance with shifting in convective activity regime during El Niño, seasonal variability in the tropical easterly jet, and the solar irradiance.

  19. Multimodality treatment of hypertrophic scars using long-wave X-radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Protsenko, T.V. (Donetskij Meditsinskij Inst. (Ukrainian SSR))

    1984-02-01

    The paper is concerned with a therapeutic method for hypertrophic scars including Bucky rays, pyrogenal, vitamins A, E, B/sub 12/, sodium salicylate and dimexide ointment. Multimodality treatment of hypertrophic scars is effective, well tolerated and can be widely used in out-patient clinics. It makes it possible to reduce the period of therapy by 2-3 mos., and the summary dose by 20 000-3000 rad (18.6-27.9 Gy) as compared to common therapy with Bucky rays only. Changes in the connective structure of scars in the process of multimodality therapy are nonspecific and account for some mechanisms of scar regression and reaffirm the efficacy of this therapeutic method.

  20. BOREAS Follow-On HMet-01 Level-2 GOES-8 1996 Shortwave and Longwave Radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The BOREAS RSS-14 team collected and processed several Level-1 GOES-7 and GOES-8 image data sets for 1994-1996, and GOES-7 Level-2 for 1994 over the BOREAS study...

  1. New sea surface salinity product in the tropical Indian Ocean estimated from outgoing longwave radiation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, B.; Murty, V.S.N.; O'Brien, J.J.

    rests uponthe authors, and notuponthe Marine Technology Society, the Institute ofElectrical and Electronics Engineers/Oceanic Engineering Society, orits members and HollandEnterprises dba HollandPublications. Copies of the OCEANS 2003 IEEE... including translations, are reserved bythe Marine Technology Society andthe Institute ofElectrical Electronics Engineers/Oceanic Engineering Society. Forcopying, reprint, orrepublications permission, write to Publications Manager, MTS 5565 Sterrett...

  2. Radiative Impact of Aerosols on the Regional Boundary Layer Features in Strong and Weak Wind Conditions using WRF Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, R. A.; Sharan, M.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles play a vital role in the Earth's radiative energy budget. They exert a net cooling influence on climate by directly reflecting the solar radiation to space and by modifying the shortwave reflective properties of clouds. Radiation is the main source that regulates the surface energy budget. Surface temperature and planetary boundary layer (PBL) height depends on accurate calculation of both shortwave and longwave radiation. The weakening of the ambient winds is known to influence the structure of PBL. This study examines the sensitivity of the performance of Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) ARW Model to the use of different radiation schemes [For Long wave Radiation: Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTM), Eta Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL), Goddard, New Goddard, NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM 3.0), New Goddard scheme, Fu-Liou-Gu scheme and for Short wave Radiation: Dudhia scheme, Eta Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL), NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM 3.0), New Goddard scheme]. Two different simulations are conducted one for the summer (14-15 May 2009) and winter (14-15 Dec 2008) season characterized by strong and weak wind conditions over India. Comparison of surface temperatures from different schemes for different cities (New Delhi, Ahmedabad, Lucknow, Kanpur, Jaipur and Jodhpur) on 14-15 May 2009 and 14-15 Dec 2008 with those observed shows the simulation with RRTM , New Goddard, and Fu-Liou-Gu schemes are closer to the observations as compared to other schemes. The temperature simulated from all the radiation schemes have more than 0.9 correlation coefficient but the root mean square error is relatively less in summer compared to winter season. It is surmised that Fu-Liou-Gu scheme performs better in almost all the cases. The reason behind can be the greater absorption of solar and IR radiative fluxes in the atmosphere and the surface provided in Fu-Liou-Gu radiation scheme than those computed in

  3. Spatial autocorrelation of radiation measured by the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment: Scene inhomogeneity and reciprocity violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Roger

    1994-01-01

    The spatial autocorrelation functions of broad-band longwave and shortwave radiances measured by the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) are analyzed as a function of view angle in an investigation of the general effects of scene inhomogeneity on radiation. For nadir views, the correlation distance of the autocorrelation function is about 900 km for longwave radiance and about 500 km for shortwave radiance, consistent with higher degrees of freedom in shortwave reflection. Both functions rise monotonically with view angle, but there is a substantial difference in the relative angular dependence of the shortwave and longwave functions, especially for view angles less than 50 deg. In this range, the increase with angle of the longwave functions is found to depend only on the expansion of pixel area with angle, whereas the shortwave functions show an additional dependence on angle that is attributed to the occlusion of inhomogeneities by cloud height variations. Beyond a view angle of about 50 deg, both longwave and shortwave functions appear to be affected by cloud sides. The shortwave autocorrelation functions do not satisfy the principle of directional reciprocity, thereby proving that the average scene is horizontally inhomogeneous over the scale of an ERBE pixel (1500 sq km). Coarse stratification of the measurements by cloud amount, however, indicates that the average cloud-free scene does satisfy directional reciprocity on this scale.

  4. The HIRLAM fast radiation scheme for mesoscale numerical weather prediction models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rontu, Laura; Gleeson, Emily; Räisänen, Petri; Pagh Nielsen, Kristian; Savijärvi, Hannu; Hansen Sass, Bent

    2017-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of the HLRADIA shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) broadband radiation schemes used in the HIRLAM numerical weather prediction (NWP) model and available in the HARMONIE-AROME mesoscale NWP model. The advantage of broadband, over spectral, schemes is that they can be called more frequently within the model, without compromising on computational efficiency. In mesoscale models fast interactions between clouds and radiation and the surface and radiation can be of greater importance than accounting for the spectral details of clear-sky radiation; thus calling the routines more frequently can be of greater benefit than the deterioration due to loss of spectral details. Fast but physically based radiation parametrizations are expected to be valuable for high-resolution ensemble forecasting, because as well as the speed of their execution, they may provide realistic physical perturbations. Results from single-column diagnostic experiments based on CIRC benchmark cases and an evaluation of 10 years of radiation output from the FMI operational archive of HIRLAM forecasts indicate that HLRADIA performs sufficiently well with respect to the clear-sky downwelling SW and longwave LW fluxes at the surface. In general, HLRADIA tends to overestimate surface fluxes, with the exception of LW fluxes under cold and dry conditions. The most obvious overestimation of the surface SW flux was seen in the cloudy cases in the 10-year comparison; this bias may be related to using a cloud inhomogeneity correction, which was too large. According to the CIRC comparisons, the outgoing LW and SW fluxes at the top of atmosphere are mostly overestimated by HLRADIA and the net LW flux is underestimated above clouds. The absorption of SW radiation by the atmosphere seems to be underestimated and LW absorption seems to be overestimated. Despite these issues, the overall results are satisfying and work on the improvement of HLRADIA for the use in HARMONIE-AROME NWP system

  5. The HIRLAM fast radiation scheme for mesoscale numerical weather prediction models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rontu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the HLRADIA shortwave (SW and longwave (LW broadband radiation schemes used in the HIRLAM numerical weather prediction (NWP model and available in the HARMONIE-AROME mesoscale NWP model. The advantage of broadband, over spectral, schemes is that they can be called more frequently within the model, without compromising on computational efficiency. In mesoscale models fast interactions between clouds and radiation and the surface and radiation can be of greater importance than accounting for the spectral details of clear-sky radiation; thus calling the routines more frequently can be of greater benefit than the deterioration due to loss of spectral details. Fast but physically based radiation parametrizations are expected to be valuable for high-resolution ensemble forecasting, because as well as the speed of their execution, they may provide realistic physical perturbations. Results from single-column diagnostic experiments based on CIRC benchmark cases and an evaluation of 10 years of radiation output from the FMI operational archive of HIRLAM forecasts indicate that HLRADIA performs sufficiently well with respect to the clear-sky downwelling SW and longwave LW fluxes at the surface. In general, HLRADIA tends to overestimate surface fluxes, with the exception of LW fluxes under cold and dry conditions. The most obvious overestimation of the surface SW flux was seen in the cloudy cases in the 10-year comparison; this bias may be related to using a cloud inhomogeneity correction, which was too large. According to the CIRC comparisons, the outgoing LW and SW fluxes at the top of atmosphere are mostly overestimated by HLRADIA and the net LW flux is underestimated above clouds. The absorption of SW radiation by the atmosphere seems to be underestimated and LW absorption seems to be overestimated. Despite these issues, the overall results are satisfying and work on the improvement of HLRADIA for the use in HARMONIE

  6. Simulação do saldo de radiação na Serra da Mantiqueira Simulation of net radiation in the Mantiqueira mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pabricio M. O. Lopes

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A influência do desmatamento da Mata Atlântica sobre o microclima da Serra da Mantiqueira ainda não é totalmente compreendida. Para conhecer as consequências do desmatamento sobre o clima serrano é necessário realizar estudos sobre o balanço de radiação na superfície. A falta de dados possibilita conjugar imagens de satélite com dados meteorológicos em um Sistema de Informação Geográfica na determinação do balanço de radiação. O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar o modelo MTCLIM em dias de céu claro ou nublado para simular o balanço de radiação na Serra da Mantiqueira, divisa entre os estados de São Paulo, Minas Gerais e Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Imagens diárias, semanais e dezesseis dias do sensor MODIS disponíveis em 2003 foram utilizadas em rotinas específicas do MTCLIM. Alvos específicos foram selecionados para avaliar o comportamento do balanço de radiação. Observou-se que o balanço de radiação acompanhou a topografia local e é influenciado pelo tipo de uso da terra. Conclui-se que a temperatura da superfície contribui para aumentar a temperatura do ar implicando em diminuição do balanço de radiação sobre pastagem. O modelo MTCLIM demonstrou boa correlação para a temperatura do ar (R² = 0,82 e para a radiação solar global (R² = 0,71.The influence of deforestation of the Atlantic Forest on the microclimate of the mountain Mantiqueira is not yet fully understood. To understand the consequences of deforestation on the highland climate research is needed about the surface radiation balance. The lack of data allows combining satellite images with meteorological data in a Geographic Information System in determining the radiation balance. The study aimed to evaluate the MTCLIM model in cloudless days or cloudy sky and simulate the radiation balance in the Mantiqueira mountain, between São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Daily images, weekly and sixteen days MODIS available in

  7. Optical properties of PbIn6Te10 in the long-wave IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, Yu M.; Badikov, V. V.; Ionin, A. A.; Kinyaevskiy, I. O.; Klimachev, Yu M.; Kotkov, A. A.; Lanskii, G. V.; Svetlichnyi, V. A.

    2016-12-01

    Optical properties of nonlinear PbIn6Te10 (PIT) crystal were studied for the first time within 30-1200 µm (0.2-15 THz) by FTIR and THz-TDS. It was found that PIT possesses the most attractive transparency features for efficient generation of long-wave mid-IR emission including 20-60 µm (5-15 THz) region by optical rectification. This crystal is also found useful for phase matched DFG generation into the long-wave THz region. In particular, by model study phase matched down-conversion of CO and CO2 laser lines into 130-1200 µm (0.3-2.3 THz) range is shown possible by ooe and eoe type of three wave interaction. Noncritical 90° phase matching for eoe type of interactions can be realized by selecting samples with specified composition.

  8. The use of adomian decomposition method for solving the regularized long-wave equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Danaf, Talaat S. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Menoufia University, Shiben El-Kom (Egypt); Ramadan, Mohamed A. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Menoufia University, Shiben El-Kom (Egypt)] e-mail: mramadan@mailer.eun.eg; Abd Alaal, Faysal E.I. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Menoufia University, Shiben El-Kom (Egypt)

    2005-11-01

    In this paper, an accurate method to obtain an approximate numerical solution for the nonlinear regularized long-wave (in short RLW) equation is considered. The theoretical analysis of the method is investigated. The performance and the accuracy of the algorithm are illustrated by solving two test examples of the problem. The obtained results are presented and compared with the analytical solutions. It is observed that only few terms of the series expansion are required to obtain approximate solutions with good accuracy.

  9. Video-rate computational super-resolution and integral imaging at longwave-infrared wavelengths

    OpenAIRE

    Preciado, Miguel A.; Carles, Guillem; Harvey, Andrew R.

    2017-01-01

    We report the first computational super-resolved, multi-camera integral imaging at long-wave infrared (LWIR) wavelengths. A synchronized array of FLIR Lepton cameras was assembled, and computational super-resolution and integral-imaging reconstruction employed to generate video with light-field imaging capabilities, such as 3D imaging and recognition of partially obscured objects, while also providing a four-fold increase in effective pixel count. This approach to high-resolution imaging enab...

  10. Photonic antenna enhanced middle wave and longwave infrared focal plane array with low noise and high operating temperature Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Photodetectors and focal plane arrays (FPAs) covering the middle-wave and longwave infrared (MWIR/LWIR) are of great importance in numerous NASA applications,...

  11. Estimation of Asian dust aerosol effect on cloud radiation forcing using Fu-Liou radiative model and CERES measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Su

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of Asian dust on cloud radiative forcing during 2003–2006 is studied by using the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy Budget Scanner (CERES data and the Fu-Liou radiative transfer model. Analysis of satellite data shows that the dust aerosol significantly reduced the cloud cooling effect at TOA. In dust contaminated cloudy regions, the 4-year mean values of the instantaneous shortwave, longwave and net cloud radiative forcing are −138.9, 69.1, and −69.7 Wm−2, which are 57.0, 74.2, and 46.3%, respectively, of the corresponding values in pristine cloudy regions. The satellite-retrieved cloud properties are significantly different in the dusty regions and can influence the radiative forcing indirectly. The contributions to the cloud radiation forcing by the dust direct, indirect and semi-direct effects are estimated using combined satellite observations and Fu-Liou model simulation. The 4-year mean value of combination of dust indirect and semi-direct shortwave radiative forcing (SWRF is 82.2 Wm−2, which is 78.4% of the total dust effect. The dust direct effect is only 22.7 Wm−2, which is 21.6% of the total effect. Because both first and second indirect effects enhance cloud cooling, the aerosol-induced cloud warming is mainly the result of the semi-direct effect of dust.

  12. RadNet Air Data From Salt Lake City, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Salt Lake City, UT from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  13. Cloud and radiative heating profiles associated with the boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinwon; Waliser, Duane E.; Cesana, Gregory V.; Jiang, Xianan; L'Ecuyer, Tristan; Neena, J. M.

    2017-04-01

    The cloud water content (CW) and radiative heating rate (QR) structures related to northward propagating boreal summer intraseasonal oscillations (BSISOs) are analyzed using data from A-train satellites in conjunction with the ERA-Interim reanalysis. It is found that the northward movement of CW- and QR anomalies are closely synchronized with the northward movement of BSISO precipitation maxima. Commensurate with the northward propagating BSISO precipitation maxima, the CW anomalies exhibit positive ice (liquid) CW maxima in the upper (middle/low) troposphere with a prominent tilting structure in which the low-tropospheric (upper-tropospheric) liquid (ice) CW maximum leads (lags) the BSISO precipitation maximum. The BSISO-related shortwave heating (QSW) heats (cools) the upper (low) troposphere; the longwave heating (QLW) cools (heats) the upper (middle/low) troposphere. The resulting net radiative heating (QRN), being dominated by QLW, cools (heats) the atmosphere most prominently above the 200 hPa level (below the 600 hPa level). Enhanced clouds in the upper and middle troposphere appears to play a critical role in increasing low-level QLW and QRN. The vertically-integrated QSW, QLW and QRN are positive in the region of enhanced CW with the maximum QRN near the latitude of the BSISO precipitation maximum. The bottom-heavy radiative heating anomaly resulting from the cloud-radiation interaction may act to strengthen convection.

  14. Mapeamento do saldo de radiação com imagens Landsat 5 e modelo de elevação digital Mapping net radiation using Landsat 5 imagery and digital elevation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico T. Di Pace

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O saldo de radiação é um importante componente do balanço de energia e tem grande relevância em estudos de evapotranspiração em áreas irrigadas e em bacias hidrográficas. Obteve-se, através do estudo, a estimativa do saldo de radiação à superfície terrestre, mediante imagens multiespectrais do Mapeador Temático do satélite Landsat 5, utilizando-se o SEBAL (Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land e o MED (Modelo de Elevação Digital. Os cálculos foram realizados com e sem utilização do MED, nos dias 04 de dezembro de 2000 e 04 de outubro de 2001. A temperatura da superfície (Ts e os valores do albedo estimados com o MED em 04/12/2000, foram um pouco superiores aos valores de Ts estimados sem a utilização deste modelo. Os resultados demonstraram que na estimativa do saldo de radiação com base em imagens MT - Landsat 5, se deve levar em consideração os efeitos topográficos da região de estudo.Net radiation is an important component of the surface energy balance in studies of evapotranspiration of irrigated crops and in evaporation of hydrological basins. The objective of this research was to determine the surface radiation balance, by using multispectral imagery of the Thematic Mapper (Landsat 5 satellite. In this study the SEBAL (Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land and DEM (Digital Elevation Model were used in order to correct the albedo and vegetation indices under the influence of the slope aspects were used for each study area. TM (Thematic Mapper imageries were used for two different dates (December 4, 2000 and October 4, 2001. The calculations were accomplished with and without use of the DEM. The land surface temperature and albedo values with DEM were larger than without DEM in both years, for two selected areas. Results also show that for obtaining net radiation based on imagery of the TM - Landsat 5 the topographical effects of the study area must be considered.

  15. Technical note: Fu-Liou-Gu and Corti-Peter model performance evaluation for radiative retrievals from cirrus clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolli, Simone; Campbell, James R.; Lewis, Jasper R.; Gu, Yu; Welton, Ellsworth J.

    2017-06-01

    We compare, for the first time, the performance of a simplified atmospheric radiative transfer algorithm package, the Corti-Peter (CP) model, versus the more complex Fu-Liou-Gu (FLG) model, for resolving top-of-the-atmosphere radiative forcing characteristics from single-layer cirrus clouds obtained from the NASA Micro-Pulse Lidar Network database in 2010 and 2011 at Singapore and in Greenbelt, Maryland, USA, in 2012. Specifically, CP simplifies calculation of both clear-sky longwave and shortwave radiation through regression analysis applied to radiative calculations, which contributes significantly to differences between the two. The results of the intercomparison show that differences in annual net top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) cloud radiative forcing can reach 65 %. This is particularly true when land surface temperatures are warmer than 288 K, where the CP regression analysis becomes less accurate. CP proves useful for first-order estimates of TOA cirrus cloud forcing, but may not be suitable for quantitative accuracy, including the absolute sign of cirrus cloud daytime TOA forcing that can readily oscillate around zero globally.

  16. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Rosener, B. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host ``na-net.ornl.gov`` at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message ``send index`` to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user`s perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  17. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Rosener, B. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host na-net.ornl.gov'' at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message send index'' to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user's perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  18. Radiation budget changes with dry forest clearing in temperate Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houspanossian, Javier; Nosetto, Marcelo; Jobbágy, Esteban G

    2013-04-01

    Land cover changes may affect climate and the energy balance of the Earth through their influence on the greenhouse gas composition of the atmosphere (biogeochemical effects) but also through shifts in the physical properties of the land surface (biophysical effects). We explored how the radiation budget changes following the replacement of temperate dry forests by crops in central semiarid Argentina and quantified the biophysical radiative forcing of this transformation. For this purpose, we computed the albedo and surface temperature for a 7-year period (2003-2009) from MODIS imagery at 70 paired sites occupied by native forests and crops and calculated the radiation budget at the tropopause and surface levels using a columnar radiation model parameterized with satellite data. Mean annual black-sky albedo and diurnal surface temperature were 50% and 2.5 °C higher in croplands than in dry forests. These contrasts increased the outgoing shortwave energy flux at the top of the atmosphere in croplands by a quarter (58.4 vs. 45.9 W m(-2) ) which, together with a slight increase in the outgoing longwave flux, yielded a net cooling of -14 W m(-2) . This biophysical cooling effect would be equivalent to a reduction in atmospheric CO2 of 22 Mg C ha(-1) , which involves approximately a quarter to a half of the typical carbon emissions that accompany deforestation in these ecosystems. We showed that the replacement of dry forests by crops in central Argentina has strong biophysical effects on the energy budget which could counterbalance the biogeochemical effects of deforestation. Underestimating or ignoring these biophysical consequences of land-use changes on climate will certainly curtail the effectiveness of many warming mitigation actions, particularly in semiarid regions where high radiation load and smaller active carbon pools would increase the relative importance of biophysical forcing. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. An intercomparison and validation of satellite-based surface radiative energy flux estimates over the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riihelä, Aku; Key, Jeffrey R.; Meirink, Jan Fokke; Kuipers Munneke, Peter; Palo, Timo; Karlsson, Karl-Göran

    2017-05-01

    Accurate determination of radiative energy fluxes over the Arctic is of crucial importance for understanding atmosphere-surface interactions, melt and refreezing cycles of the snow and ice cover, and the role of the Arctic in the global energy budget. Satellite-based estimates can provide comprehensive spatiotemporal coverage, but the accuracy and comparability of the existing data sets must be ascertained to facilitate their use. Here we compare radiative flux estimates from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Synoptic 1-degree (SYN1deg)/Energy Balanced and Filled, Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) surface energy budget, and our own experimental FluxNet / Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring cLoud, Albedo and RAdiation (CLARA) data against in situ observations over Arctic sea ice and the Greenland Ice Sheet during summer of 2007. In general, CERES SYN1deg flux estimates agree best with in situ measurements, although with two particular limitations: (1) over sea ice the upwelling shortwave flux in CERES SYN1deg appears to be underestimated because of an underestimated surface albedo and (2) the CERES SYN1deg upwelling longwave flux over sea ice saturates during midsummer. The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer-based GEWEX and FluxNet-CLARA flux estimates generally show a larger range in retrieval errors relative to CERES, with contrasting tendencies relative to each other. The largest source of retrieval error in the FluxNet-CLARA downwelling shortwave flux is shown to be an overestimated cloud optical thickness. The results illustrate that satellite-based flux estimates over the Arctic are not yet homogeneous and that further efforts are necessary to investigate the differences in the surface and cloud properties which lead to disagreements in flux retrievals.

  20. Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux is defined as the year-over-year change in Total Ecosystem Carbon Stock, or the net rate of carbon exchange between an ecosystem and the...

  1. Saldo de radiação diurno em dosséis de batata como função da radiação solar global Daytime net radiation on potato canopies as a function of global solar radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno Bernardo Heldwein

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar a relação entre o saldo de radiação (Rn e a radiação solar global incidente (Rg sobre dosséis de plantas de batata em diferentes épocas de cultivo e fases de desenvolvimento para a geração de modelos lineares que representem essa relação. Os experimentos foram conduzidos na área experimental da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, RS, nos anos de 2004 a 2007. O Rn foi medido acima do dossel de plantas de seis experimentos de batata e a Rg em uma estação meteorológica automática distante 30 a 80 m dos experimentos. Para fins de cálculo, foram efetuadas as somas do período diurno, de Rn e de Rg, obtendo-se a relação entre Rn e Rg para cada dia. Também foi estimado o índice de área foliar das plantas. Foram obtidos modelos com elevado coeficiente de determinação e baixa raiz do quadrado médio do erro no teste entre valores independentes medidos e estimados, indicando boa precisão para a estimativa do saldo de radiação em dosséis de batata, em função da radiação solar global, independentemente da época do ano. A função linear geral obtida com dados de diferentes anos, épocas de cultivo e genótipos não foi sensível ao índice de área foliar, resultando em: Rn = 0,6410 Rg (R² = 0,976, que no teste apresentou RQME = 0,75 MJ m-2 dia-1. Conclui-se que o Rn pode ser estimado por meio da Rg medida nas estações automáticas com precisão suficiente para fins de modelagem.The objective of this work was to determine the relationship between net radiation (Rn and incident solar radiation (Rg in potato canopy at six different cultivation periods and stages of development in order to generate linear models that describe this relationship. The experiments were conducted in the experimental area of University of Santa Maria, RS, in the years of 2004 to 2007. Rn was measured by net radiometers in six experiments and Rg by automatic weather station, situated 30 to 80 m from the experiments. For

  2. Characterizing sensitivity of longwave infrared hyperspectral target detection with respect to signature mismatch and dimensionality reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meola, Joseph

    2017-05-01

    Hyperspectral target detection typically relies upon libraries of material reflectance and emissivity signatures. Application to real-world, airborne data requires estimation of atmospheric properties in order to convert reflectance/emissivity signatures to the sensor data domain. In the longwave infrared, an additional nuisance parameter of surface temperature exists that further complicates the signature conversion process. A significant amount of work has been done in atmospheric compensation and temperature-emissivity-separation techniques. This work examines the sensitivity of target detection performance for various materials with respect to target signature mismatch introduced from atmospheric compensation error or target temperature mismatch. Additionally, the impact of dimensionality reduction via principal components analysis is assessed.

  3. Professional Enterprise NET

    CERN Document Server

    Arking, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Comprehensive coverage to help experienced .NET developers create flexible, extensible enterprise application code If you're an experienced Microsoft .NET developer, you'll find in this book a road map to the latest enterprise development methodologies. It covers the tools you will use in addition to Visual Studio, including Spring.NET and nUnit, and applies to development with ASP.NET, C#, VB, Office (VBA), and database. You will find comprehensive coverage of the tools and practices that professional .NET developers need to master in order to build enterprise more flexible, testable, and ext

  4. About the clinical effectiveness of the far long-wave UV-therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alipov N.V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess clinical efficiency and safety of using long wavelength ultraviolet therapy in children children and adolescents suffering from atopic dermatitis during exacerbation of the dermatosis. Materials and methods. The data about the usage of the far long-wave UV therapy in the treatment of 38 children suffering from atopic dermatitis. The 2nd group of patients (42 patients received standard therapy with the use of the usual doses and methods of taking medication and did not differ from the first group by age of patients, duration and form of the disease. Results. All observed on the background of therapy was noted positive dynamics of the pathological process in the skin, however, patients of the 1st group were observed earlier (average 5-7 days than in the 2nd group, resolution of the clinical manifestations of AD, which was confirmed by a significant decrease in SCORAD values (1,9±0,7; p<0.05. Conclusion. The high efficiency of the far long-wave UV therapy, as evidenced by a reduction of the absolute values of SCORAD index.

  5. Mineral Classification of Makhtesh Ramon in Israel Using Hyperspectral Longwave Infrared (LWIR Remote-Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gila Notesco

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral remote-sensing techniques offer an efficient procedure for mineral mapping, with a unique hyperspectral remote-sensing fingerprint in the longwave infrared spectral region enabling identification of the most abundant minerals in the continental crust—quartz and feldspars. This ability was examined by acquiring airborne data with the AisaOWL sensor over the Makhtesh Ramon area in Israel. The at-sensor radiance measured from each pixel in a longwave infrared image represents the emissivity, expressing chemical and physical properties such as surface mineralogy, and the atmospheric contribution which is expressed differently during the day and at night. Therefore, identifying similar features in day and night radiance enabled identifying the major minerals in the surface—quartz, silicates (feldspars and clay minerals, gypsum and carbonates—and mapping their spatial distribution. Mineral identification was improved by applying the radiance of an in situ surface that is featureless for minerals but distinctive for the atmospheric contribution as a gain spectrum to each pixel in the image, reducing the atmospheric contribution and emphasizing the mineralogical features. The results were in agreement with the mineralogy of selected rock samples collected from the study area as derived from laboratory X-ray diffraction analysis. The resulting mineral map of the major minerals in the surface was in agreement with the geological map of the area.

  6. Analysis of regularized long-wave equation associated with a new fractional operator with Mittag-Leffler type kernel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Devendra; Singh, Jagdev; Baleanu, Dumitru; Sushila

    2018-02-01

    In this work, we aim to present a new fractional extension of regularized long-wave equation. The regularized long-wave equation is a very important mathematical model in physical sciences, which unfolds the nature of shallow water waves and ion acoustic plasma waves. The existence and uniqueness of the solution of the regularized long-wave equation associated with Atangana-Baleanu fractional derivative having Mittag-Leffler type kernel is verified by implementing the fixed-point theorem. The numerical results are derived with the help of an iterative algorithm. In order to show the effects of various parameters and variables on the displacement, the numerical results are presented in graphical and tabular form.

  7. Chemistry in a dry cloud: the effects of radiation and turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vil...-Guerau, de J.; Cuijpers, J.W.M.

    2000-01-01

    The combined effect of ultraviolet radiation and turbulent mixing on chemistry in a cloud-topped boundary layer is investigated. The authors study a flow driven by longwave radiative cooling at cloud top. They consider a chemical cycle that is composed of a first-order reaction whose

  8. Cloud-radiation-precipitation associations over the Asian monsoon region: an observational analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiandong; Wang, Wei-Chyung; Dong, Xiquan; Mao, Jiangyu

    2017-11-01

    This study uses 2001-2014 satellite observations and reanalyses to investigate the seasonal characteristics of Cloud Radiative Effects (CREs) and their associations with cloud fraction (CF) and precipitation over the Asian monsoon region (AMR) covering Eastern China (EC) and South Asia (SA). The CREs exhibit strong seasonal variations but show distinctly different relationships with CFs and precipitation over the two regions. For EC, the CREs is dominated by shortwave (SW) cooling, with an annual mean value of - 40 W m- 2 for net CRE, and peak in summer while the presence of extensive and opaque low-level clouds contributes to large Top-Of-Atmosphere (TOA) albedo (>0.5) in winter. For SA, a weak net CRE exists throughout the year due to in-phase compensation of SWCRE by longwave (LW) CRE associated with the frequent occurrence of high clouds. For the entire AMR, SWCRE strongly correlates with the dominant types of CFs, although the cloud vertical structure plays important role particularly in summer. The relationships between CREs and precipitation are stronger in SA than in EC, indicating the dominant effect of monsoon circulation in the former region. SWCRE over EC is only partly related to precipitation and shows distinctive regional variations. Further studies need to pay more attention to vertical distributions of cloud micro- and macro-physical properties, and associated precipitation systems over the AMR.

  9. WaveNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Coastal Inlets Research Program WaveNet WaveNet is a web-based, Graphical-User-Interface ( GUI ) data management tool developed for Corps coastal...generates tabular and graphical information for project planning and design documents. The WaveNet is a web-based GUI designed to provide users with a...data from different sources, and employs a combination of Fortran, Python and Matlab codes to process and analyze data for USACE applications

  10. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes how Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets) have been developed — from being a promising theoretical model to being a full-fledged language for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems (and other systems in which human beings and...... use of CP-nets — because it means that the function representation and the translations (which are a bit mathematically complex) no longer are parts of the basic definition of CP-nets. Instead they are parts of the invariant method (which anyway demands considerable mathematical skills...

  11. Game Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of game coloured Petri nets. This allows the modeler to explicitly model what parts of the model comprise the modeled system and what parts are the environment of the modeled system. We give the formal definition of game coloured Petri nets, a means of reachability...... analysis of this net class, and an application of game coloured Petri nets to automatically generate easy-to-understand visualizations of the model by exploiting the knowledge that some parts of the model are not interesting from a visualization perspective (i.e. they are part of the environment...

  12. Programming NET Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Alex

    2007-01-01

    Web services are poised to become a key technology for a wide range of Internet-enabled applications, spanning everything from straight B2B systems to mobile devices and proprietary in-house software. While there are several tools and platforms that can be used for building web services, developers are finding a powerful tool in Microsoft's .NET Framework and Visual Studio .NET. Designed from scratch to support the development of web services, the .NET Framework simplifies the process--programmers find that tasks that took an hour using the SOAP Toolkit take just minutes. Programming .NET

  13. Annotating Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Bo; Wells, Lisa Marie

    2002-01-01

    -net. An example of such auxiliary information is a counter which is associated with a token to be able to do performance analysis. Modifying colour sets and arc inscriptions in a CP-net to support a specific use may lead to creation of several slightly different CP-nets – only to support the different uses...... a method which makes it possible to associate auxiliary information, called annotations, with tokens without modifying the colour sets of the CP-net. Annotations are pieces of information that are not essential for determining the behaviour of the system being modelled, but are rather added to support...

  14. Assessment of fungal viability after long-wave ultraviolet light irradiation combined with riboflavin administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwabuchi, Renata T; Carvalho, Fabio R S; Khan, Yasin A; Hirai, Flavio; Campos, Mauro S; McDonnell, Peter J

    2013-02-01

    Corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL), a technique that combines riboflavin administration with long-wave ultraviolet light irradiation, was primarily developed to increase the biomechanical strength of collagen fibrils of the cornea to avoid the progression of keratoconus. Recently, this method has been proposed to treat selected cases of infectious keratitis. To test the protocol used for progressive keratoconus in infectious keratitis, Candida albicans, and Fusarium solani, strains were exposed to irradiation using a wavelength of 365 nm at a power density of 3 mW/cm(2) for 30 min in the presence of riboflavin photosensitizer. All experiments were performed in triplicate. Qualitative and quantitative measurements of fungal viability used plate cultures and an automated trypan blue dye exclusion method respectively. Fungal cell diameter was also assessed in all groups. Statistical analyses were performed using the triplicate values of each experimental condition. Experimental findings of photodynamic therapy applied to the cell inactivation of both yeasts and filamentous fungi were compared with control groups. Qualitative results were corroborated with quantitative findings which showed no statistical significance between challenged samples (experimental groups) and the control group (p-value = 1). In comparison with a control group of live cells, statistical significance was observed when riboflavin solution alone had an effect on the morphologic size of filamentous fungi, while ultraviolet light irradiation alone showed a slight decrease in the cell structure of C. albicans. The impact of long-wave ultraviolet combined with riboflavin photosensitizer showed no antifungal effect on C. albicans and F. solani. The significant decrease in cell morphology of both filamentous fungi and yeasts submitted to photosensitizing riboflavin and exposure to ultraviolet light, respectively, may be promising in the development and standardization of alternatives for fungal cell

  15. Net clinical benefit analysis of radiation therapy oncology group 0525: a phase III trial comparing conventional adjuvant temozolomide with dose-intensive temozolomide in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Terri S; Wefel, Jeffrey S; Wang, Meihua; Gilbert, Mark R; Won, Minhee; Bottomley, Andrew; Mendoza, Tito R; Coens, Corneel; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Brachman, David G; Choucair, Ali K; Mehta, Minesh

    2013-11-10

    Radiation Therapy Oncology Group trial 0525 tested whether dose-intensifying temozolomide versus standard chemoradiotherapy improves overall survival (OS) or progression-free survival (PFS) in newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Tests of neurocognitive function (NCF) and symptoms (using the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory-Brain Tumor module; MDASI-BT) and of quality of life (European Organisation for the Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire [EORTC QLQ] -C30/BN20) examined the net clinical benefit (NCB) of therapy. NCF tests (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, Trail Making Test, and Controlled Oral Word Association), MDASI-BT, and EORTC QLQ-C30/BN20 were completed in a subset of patients. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression modeling determined the prognostic value of baseline and early change from baseline to cycle 1 for OS and PFS. Two-sample proportional test statistic was used to evaluate differences between treatments (dose-dense v standard-dose) on NCB measures from baseline to cycle 4 in stable patients. Overall, 182 patients participated in the study. Baseline NCF tests and the physical functioning quality of life scale were associated with OS and PFS. Baseline to cycle 1 in all NCB components were associated with OS and PFS. There was greater deterioration in the dose-dense arm from baseline to cycle 4 in the Global Health and Motor Function subscales (EORTC QLQ-C30/BN20) as well as in overall symptom burden, overall symptom interference, and activity-related symptom interference subscales (MDASI-BT). There were no between-arm differences in NCF. Longitudinal collection of NCB measures is feasible in cooperative group studies and provides an added dimension to standard outcome measures. Greater adverse symptom burden and functional interference, as well as decreased global health and motor function were observed in patients randomly assigned to the dose-dense arm. Baseline and early change in NCB measures were associated with

  16. Annual and Seasonal Variability of Net Heat Budget in the Northern Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinker, Rachel T.; Bentamy, Abderrahim; Chen, Wen; Kumar, M. R. Ramesh; Mathew, Simi; Venkatesan, Ramasamy

    2017-04-01

    In this study we investigate the spatial and temporal features of the net heat budget over the Northern Indian Ocean (focusing on the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal), using satellite and numerical model estimates. The main objective is to characterize the annual, seasonal, and inter-annual patterns over this basin of climatic significance. To assess the temporal variability, several turbulent and radiative fluxes are used The turbulent fluxes are based on information from the Institut Français pout la Recherche et l'Exploitation de la MER (IFREMER V3), the Hamburg Ocean-Atmosphere Parameters from Satellite (HOAPS V3), the SEAFLUX V1, the Japanese Ocean Flux Data sets with Use of Remote Sensing Observations (J-OFURO V2), the Objective Analysis Fluxes (OAFlux V2), the European Center for Medium Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), the ERA Interim, the National centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System Reanalysis, CFSR, and the National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA) Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Application (MERRA). The radiative fluxes, both shortwave and longwave, include those produced at the University of Maryland (UMD) as well as those derived from several of the above mentioned numerical models. An attempt will be made to evaluate the various fluxes against buoy observations such as those from the RAMA array. The National Institute of Ocean Technology, Chennai, India under its Ocean Observation Program has deployed a series of OMNI Buoys both in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. These buoys are equipped with sensors to measure the radiation as well as other parameters. Comparison has been done with the OMNI observations and good agreement has been found with the current set-up of the instrument at a 3 m level. We found significant differences between the various products at specific locations. The ultimate objective is to investigates the sources of the differences in terms of atmospheric variables (surface

  17. Spatial variability of shortwave radiative fluxes in the context of snowmelt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinker, Rachel T.; Ma, Yingtao; Hinkelman, Laura; Lundquist, Jessica

    2014-05-01

    Snow-covered mountain ranges are a major source of water supply for run-off and groundwater recharge. Snowmelt supplies as much as 75% of surface water in basins of the western United States. Factors that affect the rate of snow melt include incoming shortwave and longwave radiation, surface albedo, snow emissivity, snow surface temperature, sensible and latent heat fluxes, ground heat flux, and energy transferred to the snowpack from deposited snow or rain. The net radiation generally makes up about 80% of the energy balance and is dominated by the shortwave radiation. Complex terrain poses a great challenge for obtaining the needed information on radiative fluxes from satellites due to elevation issues, spatially-variable cloud cover, rapidly changing surface conditions during snow fall and snow melt, lack of high quality ground truth for evaluation of the satellite based estimates, as well as scale issues between the ground observations and the satellite footprint. In this study we utilize observations of high spatial resolution (5-km) as available from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) to derive surface shortwave radiative fluxes in complex terrain, with attention to the impact of slopes on the amount of radiation received. The methodology developed has been applied to several water years (January to July during 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2009) over the western part of the United States, and the available information was used to derive metrics on spatial and temporal variability in the shortwave fluxes. It is planned to apply the findings from this study for testing improvements in Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) estimates.

  18. Net zero water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lindeque, M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Is it possible to develop a building that uses a net zero amount of water? In recent years it has become evident that it is possible to have buildings that use a net zero amount of electricity. This is possible when the building is taken off...

  19. SolNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Ulrike; Vajen, Klaus; Bales, Chris

    2014-01-01

    SolNet, founded in 2006, is the first coordinated International PhD education program on Solar Thermal Engineering. The SolNet network is coordinated by the Institute of Thermal Engineering at Kassel University, Germany. The network offers PhD courses on solar heating and cooling, conference...

  20. Kunstige neurale net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørning, Annette

    1994-01-01

    Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse.......Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse....

  1. Cascaded Orientation-Patterned Gallium Arsenide Optical Parametric Oscillator for Improved Longwave Infrared Conversion Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feaver, Ryan K.

    Optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) utilizing quasi-phase matched materials offer an appealing alternative to direct laser sources. Quasi-phase matched materials provide a useful alternative to traditional birefringent nonlinear optical materials and through material engineering, higher nonlinear coefficients can now be accessed. Orientation patterned gallium arsenide (OPGaAs) is an ideal material because of its broad IR transmission and large nonlinear coefficient. In contrast to ferroelectric materials, such as lithium niobate, where the pattern is fabricated through electric poling, zincblende materials, like OPGaAs, are grown epitaxially with the designed pattern. Generating longwave output from a much shorter pump wavelength, however, is relatively inefficiency due to the large quantum defect when compared to similar devices operating in the 3 - 5 mum regime. One method to increase pump to idler conversion efficiency is to recycle the undesired and higher energy signal photons into additional idler photons via a second nonlinear stage. An external amplifier stage can be utilized, where the signal and idler from the OPO are sent to a second nonlinear crystal in which the idler is amplified at the expense of the signal. Alternatively, the second crystal can be placed within the original OPO cavity where the signal from the first-stage acts as the pump for the second crystal and the resonant intensity of the signal is higher. Pumping the second crystal within the OPO should lead to higher conversion efficiency into the longwave idler. The grating period needed for the second crystal to use the signal from the first crystal to produce additional idler has the fortuitous advantage that it will not phase match to the original pump wavelength, avoiding unwanted nonlinear interactions. Therefore, a simple linear cavity can be utilized where the pump from the first-stage will simply propagate through the second crystal without undesired results. Without this feature

  2. Single-frequency tunable long-wave infrared OP-GaAs OPO for gas sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armougom, J.; Clément, Q.; Melkonian, J.-M.; Dherbecourt, J.-B.; Raybaut, M.; Grisard, A.; Lallier, E.; Gérard, B.; Faure, B.; Souhaité, G.; Godard, A.

    2017-02-01

    We report on the first single-frequency nanosecond optical parametric oscillator (OPO) emitting in the longwave infrared, and use it to perform standoff detection of ammonia vapor by differential spectrometry. The OPO is based on orientation-patterned GaAs (OP-GaAs) pumped by a pulsed single-frequency Tm:YAP microlaser. Single-longitudinal mode emission is obtained owing to a nested cavity OPO (NesCOPO) scheme. The OPO is tuned over 700 nm around 10.4 μm, allowing to measure the absorption spectrum of ammonia across several lines at atmospheric pressure. The potential of this OPO for standoff detection of hazardous gases is also discussed.

  3. Pro NET Best Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, Stephen D

    2011-01-01

    Pro .NET Best Practices is a practical reference to the best practices that you can apply to your .NET projects today. You will learn standards, techniques, and conventions that are sharply focused, realistic and helpful for achieving results, steering clear of unproven, idealistic, and impractical recommendations. Pro .NET Best Practices covers a broad range of practices and principles that development experts agree are the right ways to develop software, which includes continuous integration, automated testing, automated deployment, and code analysis. Whether the solution is from a free and

  4. Getting to Net Zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-01

    The technology necessary to build net zero energy buildings (NZEBs) is ready and available today, however, building to net zero energy performance levels can be challenging. Energy efficiency measures, onsite energy generation resources, load matching and grid interaction, climatic factors, and local policies vary from location to location and require unique methods of constructing NZEBs. It is recommended that Components start looking into how to construct and operate NZEBs now as there is a learning curve to net zero construction and FY 2020 is just around the corner.

  5. Instant Lucene.NET

    CERN Document Server

    Heydt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A step-by-step guide that helps you to index, search, and retrieve unstructured data with the help of Lucene.NET.Instant Lucene.NET How-to is essential for developers new to Lucene and Lucene.NET who are looking to get an immediate foundational understanding of how to use the library in their application. It's assumed you have programming experience in C# already, but not that you have experience with search techniques such as information retrieval theory (although there will be a l

  6. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Musall, Eike

    2010-01-01

    and identify possible renewable energy supply options which may be considered in calculations. Finally, the gap between the methodology proposed by each organisation and their respective national building code is assessed; providing an overview of the possible changes building codes will need to undergo......The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...... parameters used in the calculations are discussed and the various renewable supply options considered in the methodologies are summarised graphically. Thus, the paper helps to understand different existing approaches to calculate energy balance in Net ZEBs, highlights the importance of variables selection...

  7. PhysioNet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The PhysioNet Resource is intended to stimulate current research and new investigations in the study of complex biomedical and physiologic signals. It offers free...

  8. NetSig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Heiko; Lawrence, Michael S; Chouinard, Candace R

    2018-01-01

    Methods that integrate molecular network information and tumor genome data could complement gene-based statistical tests to identify likely new cancer genes; but such approaches are challenging to validate at scale, and their predictive value remains unclear. We developed a robust statistic (Net......Sig) that integrates protein interaction networks with data from 4,742 tumor exomes. NetSig can accurately classify known driver genes in 60% of tested tumor types and predicts 62 new driver candidates. Using a quantitative experimental framework to determine in vivo tumorigenic potential in mice, we found that Net......Sig candidates induce tumors at rates that are comparable to those of known oncogenes and are ten-fold higher than those of random genes. By reanalyzing nine tumor-inducing NetSig candidates in 242 patients with oncogene-negative lung adenocarcinomas, we find that two (AKT2 and TFDP2) are significantly amplified...

  9. Ultraviolet radiation in the rhône river lenses of low salinity and in marine waters of the northwestern mediterranean sea: attenuation and effects on bacterial activities and net community production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joux, Fabien; Jeffrey, Wade H; Abboudi, Maher; Neveux, Jacques; Pujo-Pay, Mireille; Oriol, Louise; Naudin, Jean-Jacques

    2009-01-01

    The high content in nutrients of freshwater outflows induces highly productive and buoyant plumes spreading over marine waters (MW). As a consequence, the growth of organisms developing in these low-salinity waters (LSW) might be potentially affected by UV-R (280-400 nm). This study investigated the penetration of UV-R and its impact on net community production (NCP) and bacterial protein (B(PROT)S) and DNA (B(DNA)S) synthesis in mesotrophic-LSW formed from the Rhône River and in oligotrophic MW of the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea (Gulf of Lions) in May 2006. High concentrations of chlorophyll a (up to 8 microg L(-1)) measured in the LSW (<37.8 psu, 0-10 m) were the main factor influencing the diffuse attenuation coefficients (K(d)) of both UV-R and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). The mean ratio of the K(d) measured between the LSW and the MW increased with wavelength from 2.4 at 305 nm to 2.9 at 380 nm and 3.1 for PAR indicating more similarity in the UV region. NCP was severely inhibited by UV-R at the surface of the LSW, whereas no effect was measured in the surrounding MW. In contrast, B(PROT)S and B(DNA)S were affected deeper by UV-R in the MW (up to 8 m depth) compared to the LSW where inhibition was only observed at the surface. Differences in response of bacteria in LSW and MW are largely explained by differences in UV-R transparency; however, transplant experiments indicate that bacterial assemblages from the MW were also more sensitive to UV-R than those present in the LSW. We also observed that higher activity of bacteria after nutrient additions increased their sensitivity to UV-R during the day, but favored their recovery during the night incubation period for both LSW and MW. Results suggest that riverine and nutrient inputs may alter the effects of UV-R on microbial activity by attenuating the UV-R penetration and by modifying the physiology of bacteria.

  10. TideNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    query tide data sources in a desired geographic region of USA and its territories (Figure 1). Users can select a tide data source through the Google Map ...select data sources according to the desired geographic region. It uses the Google Map interface to display data from different sources. Recent...Coastal Inlets Research Program TideNet The TideNet is a web-based Graphical User Interface (GUI) that provides users with GIS mapping tools to

  11. Building Neural Net Software

    OpenAIRE

    Neto, João Pedro; Costa, José Félix

    1999-01-01

    In a recent paper [Neto et al. 97] we showed that programming languages can be translated on recurrent (analog, rational weighted) neural nets. The goal was not efficiency but simplicity. Indeed we used a number-theoretic approach to machine programming, where (integer) numbers were coded in a unary fashion, introducing a exponential slow down in the computations, with respect to a two-symbol tape Turing machine. Implementation of programming languages in neural nets turns to be not only theo...

  12. Interaction Nets in Russian

    OpenAIRE

    Salikhmetov, Anton

    2013-01-01

    Draft translation to Russian of Chapter 7, Interaction-Based Models of Computation, from Models of Computation: An Introduction to Computability Theory by Maribel Fernandez. "In this chapter, we study interaction nets, a model of computation that can be seen as a representative of a class of models based on the notion of 'computation as interaction'. Interaction nets are a graphical model of computation devised by Yves Lafont in 1990 as a generalisation of the proof structures of linear logic...

  13. Programming NET 35

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Bestselling author Jesse Liberty and industry expert Alex Horovitz uncover the common threads that unite the .NET 3.5 technologies, so you can benefit from the best practices and architectural patterns baked into the new Microsoft frameworks. The book offers a Grand Tour" of .NET 3.5 that describes how the principal technologies can be used together, with Ajax, to build modern n-tier and service-oriented applications. "

  14. Evaluation of a model to Simulate Net Radiation Over a Vineyar cv. Cabernet Sauvignon Evaluación de un Modelo para Simular el Flujo de Radiación Neta Sobre un Viñedo cv. Cabernet Sauvignon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Carrasco

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Net radiation (Rn is the main energy balance component controlling evaporation and transpiration processes. In this regard, this study evaluated two models to estimate Rno above a commercial vineyard (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon located in Pencahue Valley, Maule Region (35º22’ S; 71°47’ Wl; 75 m.a.s.l.. An automatic meteorological station (AMS was installed in the central part of the vineyard and used to measure Rn, solar radiation (Rsi, air temperature (Ta, canopy temperature (Tf and relative humidity (RH. On a 30 min interval, results indicated that model Rne1 (assuming Ta ≠ Tf and model Rne2 (assuming Ta = Tf were able to estimate Rn with a mean absolute error (MAE of less than 40 W m-2 and root mean square error (RMSE of less than 61 W m-2. On daily intervals, the two models estimated Rno with MAE and RMSE values of less than 1.68 and 1.75 MJ m-2 d-1, respectively. In global terms, the models presented errors below 9 and 11% on 30 min and daily intervals, respectively. Furthermore, this study indicated that the incorporation of canopy temperature did not improve the Rno estimation substantially, in spite of having a temperature gradient (dT = Tf - Ta between -3 and to 4ºC. These results suggest that an Rne2 model could be used to estimate Rno using Rsi, Ta and RH measurements.El flujo de radiación neta (Rn es el principal componente del balance de energía que determina los procesos de evaporación y transpiración. En este contexto, este estudio evaluó dos modelos para estimar Rno sobre un viñedo (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon comercial ubicado en el Valle de Pencahue, Región del Maule (35º22’ S; 71º47’ Oeste; 75 m.s.n.m.. Para esto, se ubicó una estación meteorológica automática (AME en la parte central del viñedo para medir Rn, radiación solar (Rsi, temperatura del aire (Ta, temperatura del dosel (Tf y humedad relativa (HR. En intervalos de tiempo de 30 min, los resultados indicaron que el

  15. Synchrotron radiation facilities

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    Particularly in the past few years, interest in using the synchrotron radiation emanating from high energy, circular electron machines has grown considerably. In our February issue we included an article on the synchrotron radiation facility at Frascati. This month we are spreading the net wider — saying something about the properties of the radiation, listing the centres where synchrotron radiation facilities exist, adding a brief description of three of them and mentioning areas of physics in which the facilities are used.

  16. Environmental Radiation Data (ERD) Journal Report 166

    Science.gov (United States)

    RadNet environmental radiation monitoring data report for the period of April - June 2015. The report includes results for air, drinking water and precipitation samples collected as part of EPA's RadNet monitoring program.

  17. Environmental Radiation Data (ERD) Journal Report 156

    Science.gov (United States)

    RadNet environmental radiation monitoring data report for the period of October - December 2013. The report includes results for air, drinking water, precipitation samples collected as part of EPA's RadNet monitoring program.

  18. Environmental Radiation Data (ERD) Journal Report 161

    Science.gov (United States)

    RadNet environmental radiation monitoring data report for the period of January - March 2015. The report includes results for air, drinking water and precipitation samples collected as part of EPA's RadNet monitoring program.

  19. Environmental Radiation Data (ERD) Journal Report 158

    Science.gov (United States)

    RadNet environmental radiation monitoring data report for the period of April - June 2014. The report includes results for air, drinking water, precipitation samples collected as part of EPA's RadNet monitoring program.

  20. Environmental Radiation Data (ERD) Journal Report 157

    Science.gov (United States)

    RadNet environmental radiation monitoring data report for the period of January - March 2014. The report includes results for air, drinking water, precipitation samples collected as part of EPA's RadNet monitoring program.

  1. Environmental Radiation Data (ERD) Journal Report 160

    Science.gov (United States)

    RadNet environmental radiation monitoring data report for the period of October - December 2014. The report includes results for air, drinking water and precipitation samples collected as part of EPA's RadNet monitoring program.

  2. Environmental Radiation Data (ERD) Journal Report 163

    Science.gov (United States)

    RadNet environmental radiation monitoring data report for the period of July - September 2015. The report includes results for air, drinking water and precipitation samples collected as part of EPA's RadNet monitoring program.

  3. Environmental Radiation Data (ERD) Journal Report 159

    Science.gov (United States)

    RadNet environmental radiation monitoring data report for the period of July - September 2014. The report includes results for air, drinking water and precipitation samples collected as part of EPA's RadNet monitoring program.

  4. Environmental Radiation Data (ERD) Journal Report 167

    Science.gov (United States)

    RadNet Environmental Radiation Data (ERD) journal report for the period of July – September 2016. The report includes results for air, drinking water and precipitation samples collected as part of EPA's RadNet monitoring program.

  5. Environmental Radiation Data (ERD) Journal Report 154

    Science.gov (United States)

    RadNet environmental radiation monitoring data report for the period of April - June 2013. The report includes results for air, drinking water, precipitation samples collected as part of EPA's RadNet monitoring program.

  6. Environmental Radiation Data (ERD) Journal Report 155

    Science.gov (United States)

    RadNet environmental radiation monitoring data report for the period of July - September 2013. The report includes results for air, drinking water, precipitation samples collected as part of EPA's RadNet monitoring program.

  7. Environmental Radiation Data (ERD) Journal Report 162

    Science.gov (United States)

    RadNet environmental radiation monitoring data report for the period of April - June 2015. The report includes results for air, drinking water and precipitation samples collected as part of EPA's RadNet monitoring program.

  8. Environmental Radiation Data (ERD) Journal Report 165

    Science.gov (United States)

    RadNet environmental radiation monitoring data report for the period of January - March 2015. The report includes results for air, drinking water and precipitation samples collected as part of EPA's RadNet monitoring program.

  9. Environmental Radiation Data (ERD) Journal Report 164

    Science.gov (United States)

    RadNet environmental radiation monitoring data report for the period of October - December 2015. The report includes results for air, drinking water and precipitation samples collected as part of EPA's RadNet monitoring program.

  10. Environmental Radiation Data (ERD) Journal Report 168

    Science.gov (United States)

    RadNet Environmental Radiation Data (ERD) journal report for the period of October - December 2016. The report includes results for air, drinking water and precipitation samples collected as part of EPA's RadNet monitoring program.

  11. Full-wave reflection of lightning long-wave radio pulses from the ionospheric D- region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, A. R.; Shao, X.; Holzworth, R.

    2008-12-01

    A model is developed for calculating ionospheric reflection of electromagnetic pulses emitted by lightning, with most energy in the long-wave spectral region (f = 3 - 100 kHz). The building-block of the calculation is a differential-equation full-wave solution of Maxwell's Equations for the complex reflection of individual plane waves incident from below, by the anisotropic, dissipative, diffuse dielectric profile of the lower ionosphere. This full-wave solution is then put into a summation over plane waves in an angular Direct Fourier Transform to obtain the reflection properties of curved wavefronts. This step models also the diffraction effects of long- wave ionospheric reflections observed at short or medium range (200 - 500 km). The calculation can be done with any arbitrary but smooth dielectric profile versus altitude. For an initial test, we use the classic D- region exponential profiles of electron density and collision rate given by Wait. With even these simple profiles, our model of full-wave reflection of curved wavefronts captures some of the basic attributes of observed reflected waveforms recorded with the Los Alamos Sferic Array.

  12. Integration of Absorption Feature Information from Visible to Longwave Infrared Spectral Ranges for Mineral Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Kopačková

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Merging hyperspectral data from optical and thermal ranges allows a wider variety of minerals to be mapped and thus allows lithology to be mapped in a more complex way. In contrast, in most of the studies that have taken advantage of the data from the visible (VIS, near-infrared (NIR, shortwave infrared (SWIR and longwave infrared (LWIR spectral ranges, these different spectral ranges were analysed and interpreted separately. This limits the complexity of the final interpretation. In this study a presentation is made of how multiple absorption features, which are directly linked to the mineral composition and are present throughout the VIS, NIR, SWIR and LWIR ranges, can be automatically derived and, moreover, how these new datasets can be successfully used for mineral/lithology mapping. The biggest advantage of this approach is that it overcomes the issue of prior definition of endmembers, which is a requested routine employed in all widely used spectral mapping techniques. In this study, two different airborne image datasets were analysed, HyMap (VIS/NIR/SWIR image data and Airborne Hyperspectral Scanner (AHS, LWIR image data. Both datasets were acquired over the Sokolov lignite open-cast mines in the Czech Republic. It is further demonstrated that even in this case, when the absorption feature information derived from multispectral LWIR data is integrated with the absorption feature information derived from hyperspectral VIS/NIR/SWIR data, an important improvement in terms of more complex mineral mapping is achieved.

  13. Scanning Long-wave Optical Test System: a new ground optical surface slope test system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tianquan; Park, Won Hyun; Parks, Robert E.; Su, Peng; Burge, James H.

    2011-09-01

    The scanning long-wave optical test system (SLOTS) is under development at the University of Arizona to provide rapid and accurate measurements of aspherical optical surfaces during the grinding stage. It is based on the success of the software configurable optical test system (SCOTS) which uses visible light to measure surface slopes. Working at long wave infrared (LWIR, 7-14 μm), SLOTS measures ground optical surface slopes by viewing the specular reflection of a scanning hot wire. A thermal imaging camera collects data while motorized stages scan the wire through the field. Current experiments show that the system can achieve a high precision at micro-radian level with fairly low cost equipment. The measured surface map is comparable with interferometer for slow optics. This IR system could be applied early in the grinding stage of fabrication of large telescope mirrors to minimize the surface shape error imparted during processing. This advantage combined with the simplicity of the optical system (no null optics, no high power carbon dioxide laser) would improve the efficiency and shorten the processing time.

  14. Long-wave infrared identification of smoldering peat fires in Indonesia with nighttime Landsat data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvidge, Christopher D.; Zhizhin, Mikhail; Hsu, Feng-Chi; Baugh, Kimberly; Rokhis Khomarudin, M.; Vetrita, Yenni; Sofan, Parwati; Suwarsono; Hilman, Dadang

    2015-06-01

    Smoldering peat fires in Indonesia are responsible for large quantities of trace gas and particulate emissions. However, to date no satellite remote sensing technique has been demonstrated for the identification of smoldering peat fires. Fires have two distinct combustion phases: a high temperature flaming and low temperature smoldering phases. The flaming phase temperature is approximately twice that of the smoldering phase. This temperature differential results in a spectral displacement of the primary radiant emissions of the two combustion phases. It it is possible to exploit this spectral displacement using widely separated wavelength ranges. This paper examines active fire features found in short-wave infrared (SWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) nighttime Landsat data collected on peatlands in Sumatra and Kalimantan. Landsat 8’s SWIR bands are on the leading edge of flaming phase radiant emissions, with only minor contribution from the smoldering phase. Conversely, Landsat 8’s LWIR bands are on the trailing edge of smoldering phase radiant emissions. After examining the LWIR fire features, we conclude that they are the result of smoldering phase combustion. This has been confirmed with field validation. Detection limits for smoldering peat fires in Landsat 8 is in the 40-90 m2 range. These results could lead to improved management of peatland fires and emission modeling.

  15. Kinetic Super-Resolution Long-Wave Infrared (KSR LWIR) Thermography Diagnostic for Building Envelopes: Camp Lejeune, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-18

    thermal imagery and provides a custom report for each building that recommends cost-effective measures to improve comfort , save energy and lower utility...and prioritizing op- portunities to improve the thermal performance of building envelopes. Many installations have used infrared thermography as a...demonstrated a capability to quickly diagnose the condition and thermal performance of building envelopes using Kinetic Super- Resolution Long-Wave

  16. La plataforma .NET

    OpenAIRE

    Fornas Estrada, Miquel

    2008-01-01

    L'aparició de la plataforma .NET Framework ha suposat un canvi molt important en la forma de crear i distribuir aplicacions, degut a que incorpora una sèrie d'innovacions tècniques i productives que simplifiquen molt les tasques necessàries per desenvolupar un projecte. La aparición de la plataforma. NET Framework ha supuesto un cambio muy importante en la forma de crear y distribuir aplicaciones, debido a que incorpora una serie de innovaciones técnicas y productivas que simplifican mucho...

  17. Biological Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Wingender, E

    2011-01-01

    It was suggested some years ago that Petri nets might be well suited to modeling metabolic networks, overcoming some of the limitations encountered by the use of systems employing ODEs (ordinary differential equations). Much work has been done since then which confirms this and demonstrates the usefulness of this concept for systems biology. Petri net technology is not only intuitively understood by scientists trained in the life sciences, it also has a robust mathematical foundation and provides the required degree of flexibility. As a result it appears to be a very promising approach to mode

  18. Petri Nets-Applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 9. Petri Nets - Applications. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 9 September 1999 pp 44-52. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/09/0044-0052. Author Affiliations. Y Narahari ...

  19. Safety nets or straitjackets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Does regulation of working hours at national and sector level impose straitjackets, or offer safety nets to employees seeking working time flexibility? This article compares legislation and collective agreements in the metal industries of Denmark, Germany and the USA. The industry has historically...

  20. Coloured Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. This book introduces the constructs of the CPN modelling language and presents the related analysis methods. It provides a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN.

  1. Boom Booom Net Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Yong, Louisa; Dobie, Ian

    1999-01-01

    of an existing Internet radio station; Boom Booom Net Radio. Whilst necessity dictates some use of technology-related terminology, wherever possible we have endeavoured to keep such jargon to a minimum and to either explain it in the text or to provide further explanation in the appended glossary....

  2. Game Theory .net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Mikhael

    2003-01-01

    States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of GameTheory.net is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…

  3. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism...

  4. Automatic handling of shade net and irrigation in greenhouse with tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Hahn

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse vegetable production in México and worldwide has become important. Following greenhouses automation, a simple controller was designed to open and close shading nets to reduce incident radiation and excessive evapotranspiration. Irrigation period were radiation controlled and did not turn on the pump with clouds or moon radiation, saving 35% of water. The nets remained closed during the night and were opened during scarce radiation. In the tomato greenhouse experiment, every three months analysis was carried on manual and automatic net control. Maximum incident radiation was achieved in May and August when no shading nets were used. Air temperature increased to 28°C in August decreasing by 50% fruit size. Fruit temperature decreased 2.5°C when nets were used decreasing tomato cracking.

  5. Electronic Crosstalk in Aqua MODIS Long-Wave Infrared Photovoltaic Bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqiang Sun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent investigations have discovered that Terra MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS long-wave infrared (LWIR photovoltaic (PV bands, bands 27–30, have strong crosstalk among themselves. The linear model developed to test the electronic crosstalk effect was instrumental in the first discovery of the effect in Terra MODIS band 27, and through subsequent investigations the model and the correction algorithm were tested further and established to be correct. It was shown that the correction algorithm successfully mitigated the anomalous features in the calibration coefficients as well as the severe striping and the long-term drift in the Earth view (EV retrievals for the affected Terra bands. Here, the examination into Aqua MODIS using the established methodology confirms the existence of significant crosstalk contamination in its four LWIR PV, although the finding shows the overall effect to be of lesser degree. The crosstalk effect is characterized and the crosstalk correction coefficients are derived for all four Aqua LWIR PV bands via analysis of signal contamination in the lunar imagery. Sudden changes in the crosstalk contamination are clearly seen, as also in the Terra counterparts in previous investigations. These sudden changes are consistent with the sudden jumps observed in the linear calibration coefficients for many years, thus this latest finding provides an explanation to the long-standing but unexplained anomalies in the calibration coefficients of the four Aqua LWIR bands. It is also shown that the crosstalk contamination for these bands are of similar level for the two MODIS instruments in the early mission that can lead to as much as 2 K increase in brightness temperature for the affected bands, thus demonstrating significant impact on the science results already started at the early going. As Aqua MODIS is a legacy sensor, the crosstalk correction to its LWIR PV bands will be important to remove the impact of

  6. Multiple Versus Single Scattering of Terrestrial Infrared Longwave Radiation in an Aerosol-Laden Planetary Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Schwarzschild , K., 1906: On the Equilibrium of the Sun’s Atmo- sphere. Nachr. Gesell. Wiss. Gottingen, Math.-Phys. KI., 195, 41-53. Shettle, E.P., and J.A...Ap. J. Optics, 21, 1-22. Schwarzschild , K., 1906: On the Equilibrium of the Sun’s Atmo- sphere. Nachr. Gesell. Wiss. Gottingen, Math.-Phys. Ki., 195...52 Figure 5.1 An aerosol particle model which shows an increase in radius (r) and change in the fraction of water soluble and water insoluble

  7. An information theory approach for evaluating earth radiation budget (ERB) measurements - Nonuniform sampling of diurnal longwave flux variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halyo, Nesim; Direskeneli, Haldun; Barkstrom, Bruce R.

    1991-01-01

    Satellite measurements are subject to a wide range of uncertainties due to their temporal, spatial, and directional sampling characteristics. An information-theory approach is suggested to examine the nonuniform temporal sampling of ERB measurements. The information (i.e., its entropy or uncertainty) before and after the measurements is determined, and information gain (IG) is defined as a reduction in the uncertainties involved. A stochastic model for the diurnal outgoing flux variations that affect the ERB is developed. Using Gaussian distributions for the a priori and measured radiant exitance fields, the IG is obtained by computing the a posteriori covariance. The IG for the monthly outgoing flux measurements is examined for different orbital parameters and orbital tracks, using the Earth Observing System orbital parameters as specific examples. Variations in IG due to changes in the orbit's inclination angle and the initial ascending node local time are investigated.

  8. Food Safety Nets:

    OpenAIRE

    Haggblade, Steven; Diallo, Boubacar; Staatz, John; Theriault, Veronique; Traoré, Abdramane

    2013-01-01

    Food and social safety nets have a history as long as human civilization. In hunter gatherer societies, food sharing is pervasive. Group members who prove unlucky in the short run, hunting or foraging, receive food from other households in anticipation of reciprocal consideration at a later time (Smith 1988). With the emergence of the first large sedentary civilizations in the Middle East, administrative systems developed specifically around food storage and distribution. The ancient Egyptian...

  9. Net technical assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Wegmann, David G.

    1989-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The present and near term military balance of power between the U.S. and the Soviet Union can be expressed in a variety of net assessments. One can examine the strategic nuclear balance, the conventional balance in Europe, the maritime balance, and many others. Such assessments are essential not only for policy making but for arms control purposes and future force structure planning. However, to project the future military balance, on...

  10. Using WordNet for Building WordNets

    CERN Document Server

    Farreres, X; Farreres, Xavier; Rodriguez, Horacio; Rigau, German

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarises a set of methodologies and techniques for the fast construction of multilingual WordNets. The English WordNet is used in this approach as a backbone for Catalan and Spanish WordNets and as a lexical knowledge resource for several subtasks.

  11. EFFECTS OF RADIATION SCHEME ON THE SURFACE TEMPERATURE AND WIND OVER THE ANTARCTIC AND ON CIRCUMPOLAR LOWS

    OpenAIRE

    シバタ, キヨタカ; チバ, マサル; Kiyotaka, Shibata; Masaru, Chiba

    1990-01-01

    We have examined effects of radiation schemes including cloud emissivity on the surface temperature and wind over the Antarctic in May by performing one month integration of a global spectral model of the Meteorological Research Institute. It is found that radiation schemes have large effects on the surface and surface air temperatures; increase in longwave downward flux due to the improvement of radiation scheme directly results in temperature rises of surface and surface air. Above all, clo...

  12. An end-to-end model of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) Earth-viewing nonscanning radiometric channels

    OpenAIRE

    Priestly, Kory James

    1993-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) active-cavity radiometers are used to measure the incoming solar, reflected solar, and emitted longwave radiation from the Earth and its atmosphere. The radiometers are carried by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's NOAA-9 and NOAA-10 spacecraft. Four Earth-viewing nonscanning active-cavity radiometers are carried by e...

  13. Proof nets for lingusitic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moot, R.C.A.

    2002-01-01

    This book investigates the possible linguistic applications of proof nets, redundancy free representations of proofs, which were introduced by Girard for linear logic. We will adapt the notion of proof net to allow the formulation of a proof net calculus which is soundand complete for the

  14. Teaching Tennis for Net Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Bryce

    1989-01-01

    A program for teaching tennis to beginners, NET (Net Easy Teaching) is described. The program addresses three common needs shared by tennis students: active involvement in hitting the ball, clearing the net, and positive reinforcement. A sample lesson plan is included. (IAH)

  15. Net4Care Ecosystem Website

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius; Rasmussen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    is a tele-monitoring scenario in which Net4Care clients are deployed in a gateway in private homes. Medical devices then connect to these gateways and transmit their observations to a Net4Care server. In turn the Net4Care server creates valid clinical HL7 documents, stores them in a national XDS repository...

  16. The performance evaluation test for prototype model of Longwave Infrared Imager (LIR) onboard PLANET-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, Tetsuya; Taguchi, Makoto; Imamura, Takeshi

    The PLANET-C mission, which is one of the future planetary missions of Japan, aims at understanding the atmospheric circulation of Venus. Meteorological information will be obtained by globally mapping clouds and minor constituents successively with four imagers at ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths, and radio occultation experiments will provide vertical profiles of the atmospheric temperature. These systematic, continuous remote observations will provide us with an unprecedented large data set of the Venusian atmospheric dynamics. The Longwave Infrared Imager (LIR), which mounts a commercial uncooled micro-bolometer array (UMBA), is one of four imagers onboard the spacecraft and detects thermal emission from the top of the sulfur dioxide cloud in a rather wide wavelength region of 8-12 µm to map the cloud-top temperature which is typically as low as 230 K. Unlike other imagers, LIR is able to take images of both dayside and nightside with equal quality and accuracy. The cloud-top temperature map will reflect the cloud height distribution in which a few hundred meters of difference in cloud height corresponds to temperature difference of 0.3 K. In order to detect the cloud height difference of a few hundred meters, LIR requires a noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) of 0.3 K. The commercial UMBA camera is typically used for observing room-temperature targets, and thus the electronics and the driving parameters have been optimized for low temperature-targets. Images of blackbody targets in room temperature (˜300 K) and low temperature (˜230 K) have been acquired in a vacuum environment using a prototype model of LIR, showing that the NETD of 0.2 K and 0.8 K are achieved in room temperature and low temperature, respectively. Although the NETD at the low temperature is 4 times worse than the case for the room temperature, we expect that the requirement of N ET D < 0.3 K for a low-temperature target will be achieved by averaging several tens of images

  17. Long-wave infrared digital holography for the qualification of large space reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenrijt, J. F.; Thizy, C.; Georges, M. P.; Queeckers, P.; Dubois, F.; Doyle, D.

    2017-11-01

    Deformation metrology of complex and large space reflectors is a recurrent problem addressed by ESA. The challenging tasks of on-ground qualification and verification testing are to achieve the required accuracy in the measurement of these reflectors deformation and to verify their performance under simulated space conditions (vacuum, low temperature). A long-wave infrared digital holographic interferometer for the verification and validation of this type of reflector in a space environment is presented. It has been developed to fill the gap between holography/interferometry techniques in the visible wavelengths and methods based on structured light illumination like videogrammetry, stereocorrelation, and fringe/pattern projection. The former provide a good measurement uncertainty but the displacements are often too large to be measured and they require a very stable environment, while the latter provide large measurement range but with higher measurement uncertainty. The new instrument is based on digital holography and uses a CO2 lasers emitting at 10.6μm combined with a commercial thermographic camera. A diffuser is illuminated by the laser beam, producing a speckle wavefront which is observed after reflection on the reflector surface. This reflected speckle wavefront behaves exactly as if the reflector was a diffusive surface, producing its own speckle, allowing the measurement of its deformation. The advantage of this configuration compared to a classical interferometer working at 10.6μm, is that it requires no specific optics such as a null lens (in the case of parabola) or expensive illumination/collection optics (in the case of ellipse). The metrological certification of the system was performed in the laboratory by measuring the tilts of a 1.1 meter diameter parabolic reflector. The displacements are measured in parallel with a Doppler effect interferometer and the measurement uncertainty is estimated. The technique has been certified during a thermal

  18. A Climatology of Midlatitude Continental Clouds from the ARM SGP Central Facility. Part II; Cloud Fraction and Radiative Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiquan; Xi, Baike; Minnis, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Data collected at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) central facility are analyzed for determining the variability of cloud fraction and radiative forcing at several temporal scales between January 1997 and December 2002. Cloud fractions are estimated for total cloud cover and for single-layer low (0-3 km), middle (3-6 km), and high clouds (greater than 6 km) using ARM SGP ground-based paired lidar-radar measurements. Shortwave (SW), longwave (LW), and net cloud radiative forcings (CRF) are derived from up- and down-looking standard precision spectral pyranometers and precision infrared radiometer measurements. The annual averages of total, and single-layer, nonoverlapped low, middle and high cloud fractions are 0.49, 0.11, 0.03, and 0.17, respectively. Total and low cloud amounts were greatest from December through March and least during July and August. The monthly variation of high cloud amount is relatively small with a broad maximum from May to August. During winter, total cloud cover varies diurnally with a small amplitude, mid-morning maximum and early evening minimum, and during summer it changes by more than 0.14 over the daily cycle with a pronounced early evening minimum. The diurnal variations of mean single-layer cloud cover change with season and cloud height. Annual averages of all-sky, total, and single-layer high, middle, and low LW CRFs are 21.4, 40.2, 16.7, 27.2, and 55.0 Wm(sup -2), respectively; and their SW CRFs are -41.5, -77.2, -37.0, -47.0, and -90.5 Wm(sup -2). Their net CRFs range from -20 to -37 Wm(sup -2). For all-sky, total, and low clouds, the maximum negative net CRFs of -40.1, -70, and -69.5 Wm(sup -2), occur during April; while the respective minimum values of -3.9, -5.7, and -4.6 Wm(sup -2), are found during December. July is the month having maximum negative net CRF of -46.2 Wm(sup -2) for middle clouds, and May has the maximum value of -45.9 Wm(sup -2) for high clouds. An

  19. Master Robotic Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Lipunov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the MASTER-Net project is to produce a unique fast sky survey with all sky observed over a single night down to a limiting magnitude of 19-20. Such a survey will make it possible to address a number of fundamental problems: search for dark energy via the discovery and photometry of supernovae (including SNIa, search for exoplanets, microlensing effects, discovery of minor bodies in the Solar System, and space-junk monitoring. All MASTER telescopes can be guided by alerts, and we plan to observe prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts synchronously in several filters and in several polarization planes.

  20. Art/Net/Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik; Lindstrøm, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    The seminar Art|Net|Work deals with two important changes in our culture. On one side, the network has become essential in the latest technological development. The Internet has entered a new phase, Web 2.0, including the occurrence of as ‘Wiki’s’, ‘Peer-2-Peer’ distribution, user controlled...... the praxis of the artist. We see different kinds of interventions and activism (including ‘hacktivism’) using the network as a way of questioning the invisible rules that govern public and semi-public spaces. Who ‘owns’ them? What kind of social relationships do they generate? On what principle...

  1. Design and evaluation of net radiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritschen, Leo J.; Fritschen, Charles L.

    Net radiometer designs were evaluated with respect to long and short wave sensitivities and to the effect of ambient wind on the signal. The design features of the instrument with the best overall performance include: equal sensitivity to long and short wave radiation, a thermal pile which is thermally isolated from the frame, a white guard ring, pathways for internal circulation between the top and bottom hemispheres, and self-supporting windshields. The windshields have O-ring seals, a ball joint is provided for ease of leveling, and ample desiccant is enclosed in the mounting pipe. Under a high radiant load, the net radiometer signal decreased by 2.5, 3.7, and 4.3 percent at wind speeds of 12.5, 4.6, and 7.5 m/s.

  2. The Role of Clear Sky Identification in the Study of Cloud Radiative Effects: Combine Analysis from ISCCP and the Scanner of Radiation Budget (ScaRaB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossow, W. B.; Stubenrauch, C. J.; Briand, V.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Since the effect of clouds on the earth's radiation balance is often estimated as the difference of net radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere between all situations and monthly averaged clear sky situations of the same regions, a reliable identification of clear sky is important for the study of cloud radiative effects. The Scanner for Radiation Balance (ScaRaB) radiometer on board the Russian Meteor-3/7 satellite provided earth radiation budget observations from March 1994 to February 1995 with two ERBE-Re broad-band longwave and shortwave channels. Two narrow-band channels, in the infrared atmospheric window and in the visible band, have been added to the ScaRaB instrument to improve the cloud scene identification. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) method for cloud detection and determination of cloud and surface properties uses the same narrow-band channels as ScaRaB, but is employed to a collection of measurements at a better spatial resolution of about 5 km. By applying the original ISCCP algorithms to the ScaRaB data, the clear sky frequency is about 5% lower than the one over quasi-simultaneous original ISCCP data, an indication that the ISCCP cloud detection is quite stable. However, one would expect an about 10 to 20% smaller clear sky occurrence over the larger ScaRaB pixels. Adapting the ISCCP algorithms to the reduced spatial resolution of 60 km and to the different time sampling of the ScaRaB data leads therefore to a reduction of a residual cloud contamination. A sensitivity study with time-space collocated ScaRaB and original ISCCP data at a spatial resolution of 1deg longitude x 1deg latitude shows that the effect of clear sky identification method plays a higher role on the clear sky frequency and therefore on the statistics than on the zonal mean values of the clear sky fluxes. Nevertheless, the zonal outgoing longwave fluxes corresponding to ERBE clear sky are in general about 2 to 10 W/sq m higher than those

  3. Radiation Hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castor, J I

    2003-10-16

    The discipline of radiation hydrodynamics is the branch of hydrodynamics in which the moving fluid absorbs and emits electromagnetic radiation, and in so doing modifies its dynamical behavior. That is, the net gain or loss of energy by parcels of the fluid material through absorption or emission of radiation are sufficient to change the pressure of the material, and therefore change its motion; alternatively, the net momentum exchange between radiation and matter may alter the motion of the matter directly. Ignoring the radiation contributions to energy and momentum will give a wrong prediction of the hydrodynamic motion when the correct description is radiation hydrodynamics. Of course, there are circumstances when a large quantity of radiation is present, yet can be ignored without causing the model to be in error. This happens when radiation from an exterior source streams through the problem, but the latter is so transparent that the energy and momentum coupling is negligible. Everything we say about radiation hydrodynamics applies equally well to neutrinos and photons (apart from the Einstein relations, specific to bosons), but in almost every area of astrophysics neutrino hydrodynamics is ignored, simply because the systems are exceedingly transparent to neutrinos, even though the energy flux in neutrinos may be substantial. Another place where we can do ''radiation hydrodynamics'' without using any sophisticated theory is deep within stars or other bodies, where the material is so opaque to the radiation that the mean free path of photons is entirely negligible compared with the size of the system, the distance over which any fluid quantity varies, and so on. In this case we can suppose that the radiation is in equilibrium with the matter locally, and its energy, pressure and momentum can be lumped in with those of the rest of the fluid. That is, it is no more necessary to distinguish photons from atoms, nuclei and electrons, than it is

  4. Helminth.net: expansions to Nematode.net and an introduction to Trematode.net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, John; Rosa, Bruce A.; Ozersky, Philip; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Zhang, Xu; Bhonagiri-Palsikar, Veena; Tyagi, Rahul; Wang, Qi; Choi, Young-Jun; Gao, Xin; McNulty, Samantha N.; Brindley, Paul J.; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2015-01-01

    Helminth.net (http://www.helminth.net) is the new moniker for a collection of databases: Nematode.net and Trematode.net. Within this collection we provide services and resources for parasitic roundworms (nematodes) and flatworms (trematodes), collectively known as helminths. For over a decade we have provided resources for studying nematodes via our veteran site Nematode.net (http://nematode.net). In this article, (i) we provide an update on the expansions of Nematode.net that hosts omics data from 84 species and provides advanced search tools to the broad scientific community so that data can be mined in a useful and user-friendly manner and (ii) we introduce Trematode.net, a site dedicated to the dissemination of data from flukes, flatworm parasites of the class Trematoda, phylum Platyhelminthes. Trematode.net is an independent component of Helminth.net and currently hosts data from 16 species, with information ranging from genomic, functional genomic data, enzymatic pathway utilization to microbiome changes associated with helminth infections. The databases’ interface, with a sophisticated query engine as a backbone, is intended to allow users to search for multi-factorial combinations of species’ omics properties. This report describes updates to Nematode.net since its last description in NAR, 2012, and also introduces and presents its new sibling site, Trematode.net. PMID:25392426

  5. An assessment of the quality of aerosol retrievals over the Red Sea and evaluation of the climatological cloud-free dust direct radiative effect in the region

    KAUST Repository

    Brindley, H.

    2015-10-20

    Ground-based and satellite observations are used in conjunction with the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTM) to assess climatological aerosol loading and the associated cloud-free aerosol direct radiative effect (DRE) over the Red Sea. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrievals from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) instruments are first evaluated via comparison with ship-based observations. Correlations are typically better than 0.9 with very small root-mean-square and bias differences. Calculations of the DRE along the ship cruises using RRTM also show good agreement with colocated estimates from the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget instrument if the aerosol asymmetry parameter is adjusted to account for the presence of large particles. A monthly climatology of AOD over the Red Sea is then created from 5 years of SEVIRI retrievals. This shows enhanced aerosol loading and a distinct north to south gradient across the basin in the summer relative to the winter months. The climatology is used with RRTM to estimate the DRE at the top and bottom of the atmosphere and the atmospheric absorption due to dust aerosol. These climatological estimates indicate that although longwave effects can reach tens of W m−2, shortwave cooling typically dominates the net radiative effect over the Sea, being particularly pronounced in the summer, reaching 120 W m−2 at the surface. The spatial gradient in summertime AOD is reflected in the radiative effect at the surface and in associated differential heating by aerosol within the atmosphere above the Sea. This asymmetric effect is expected to exert a significant influence on the regional atmospheric and oceanic circulation.

  6. Mapeamento e quantificação de parâmetros biofísicos e radiação líquida em área de algodoeiro irrigado Mapping and quantification of biophysical parameters and net radiation over irrigated cotton fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Peixoto Borges

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O sensoriamento remoto tem se mostrado eficaz na avaliação de fluxos de energia e de propriedades biofísicas de superfícies vegetadas em escala regional. No presente trabalho, utilizou-se o algoritmo SEBAL - Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land e imagens TM - Landsat 5 para mapeamento e quantificação do albedo (α, NDVI, temperatura da superfície (Ts e radiação líquida (Rn em área de algodão irrigado por pivô central, na Fazenda Busato (13,25º S; 43,42º W; 436 m, município de Bom Jesus da Lapa, Bahia. Seis imagens de céu limpo ao longo do período da cultura (janeiro a agosto de 2007 e os respectivos dados meteorológicos foram utilizados para implementação do algoritmo. Após o processamento digital das imagens, verificou-se nítida relação dos parâmetros α, Ts e NDVI com o desenvolvimento da cultura. Os menores valores de α (10 a 20% e Ts (0,75 ocorreram na fase de máxima cobertura do solo. A radiação líquida (Rn diminuiu progressivamente com o tempo, influenciada, principalmente, pela diminuição da radiação solar incidente com o aumento do ângulo zenital. Os valores de Rn variaram de 430 W m-2 a 700 W m-2 nos pivos cultivados. A técnica de sensoriamento empregada capturou de forma nítida a variabilidade temporal e espacial de Rn e dos parâmetros biofísicos, cujos valores encontrados são compatíveis com os reportados na literatura para a mesma cultura sob regime de irrigação.Remote sensing is currently an important tool for evaluation of net radiation and biophysical parameters over vegetated surfaces on a regional scale. In this research, the SEBAL - Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land and TM - Landsat 5 images were used to map and quantify the albedo (α, NDVI, surface temperature (Ts and net radiation (Rn of center-pivot irrigated cotton fields in the Busato Farm (13.25º S; 43.42º W; 436 m asl, western of State of Bahia, Brazil. Images from six clear-sky days during the cropping season

  7. Full-wave reflection of lightning long-wave radio pulses from the ionospheric D region: Numerical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Abram R.; Shao, Xuan-Min; Holzworth, Robert

    2009-03-01

    A model is developed for calculating ionospheric reflection of electromagnetic pulses emitted by lightning, with most energy in the long-wave spectral region (f ~ 3-100 kHz). The building block of the calculation is a differential equation full-wave solution of Maxwell's equations for the complex reflection of individual plane waves incident from below, by the anisotropic, dissipative, diffuse dielectric profile of the lower ionosphere. This full-wave solution is then put into a summation over plane waves in an angular direct Fourier transform to obtain the reflection properties of curved wavefronts. This step models also the diffraction effects of long-wave ionospheric reflections observed at short or medium range (~200-500 km). The calculation can be done with any arbitrary but smooth dielectric profile versus altitude. For an initial test, this article uses the classic D region exponential profiles of electron density and collision rate given by Volland. With even these simple profiles, our model of full-wave reflection of curved wavefronts captures some of the basic attributes of observed reflected waveforms recorded with the Los Alamos Sferic Array. A follow-on article will present a detailed comparison with data in order to retrieve ionospheric parameters.

  8. The equivalency between logic Petri workflow nets and workflow nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue

    2015-01-01

    Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented.

  9. Ultra-Trace Chemical Sensing with Long-Wave Infrared Cavity-Enhanced Spectroscopic Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taubman, Matthew S.; Myers, Tanya L.; Cannon, Bret D.; Williams, Richard M.; Schultz, John F.

    2003-02-20

    The infrared sensors task of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL's) Remote Spectroscopy Project (Task B of Project PL211) is focused on the science and technology of remote and in-situ spectroscopic chemical sensors for detecting proliferation and coun-tering terrorism. Missions to be addressed by remote chemical sensor development in-clude detecting proliferation of nuclear or chemical weapons, and providing warning of terrorist use of chemical weapons. Missions to be addressed by in-situ chemical sensor development include countering terrorism by screening luggage, personnel, and shipping containers for explosives, firearms, narcotics, chemical weapons, or chemical weapons residues, and mapping contaminated areas. The science and technology is also relevant to chemical weapons defense, air operations support, monitoring emissions from chemi-cal weapons destruction or industrial activities, law enforcement, medical diagnostics, and other applications. Sensors for most of these missions will require extreme chemical sensitivity and selectiv-ity because the signature chemicals of importance are expected to be present in low con-centrations or have low vapor pressures, and the ambient air is likely to contain pollutants or other chemicals with interfering spectra. Cavity-enhanced chemical sensors (CES) that draw air samples into optical cavities for laser-based interrogation of their chemical content promise real-time, in-situ chemical detection with extreme sensitivity to specified target molecules and superb immunity to spectral interference and other sources of noise. PNNL is developing CES based on quantum cascade (QC) lasers that operate in the mid-wave infrared (MWIR - 3 to 5 microns) and long-wave infrared (LWIR - 8 to 14 mi-crons), and CES based on telecommunications lasers operating in the short-wave infrared (SWIR - 1 to 2 microns). All three spectral regions are promising because smaller mo-lecular absorption cross sections in the SWIR

  10. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    studies that illustrate the practical use of CPN modelling and validation for design, specification, simulation, verification and implementation in various application domains. Their presentation primarily aims at readers interested in the practical use of CPN. Thus all concepts and constructs are first......Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism...... and the immense number of possible execution sequences. In this textbook, Jensen and Kristensen introduce the constructs of the CPN modelling language and present the related analysis methods in detail. They also provide a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN by showcasing selected industrial case...

  11. Seasonality of net radiation in two sub-basins of Paracatu by the use of modis sensor products Sazonalidade do saldo de radiação em duas sub-bacias do Paracatu por meio da utilização de produtos do sensor modis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaldo de P. Lima

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The net radiation (Rn represents the main source of energy for physical and chemical processes that occur in the surface-atmosphere interface, and it is used for air and soil heating, water transfer, in the form of vapor from the surface to the atmosphere, and for the metabolism of plants, especially photosynthesis. If there is no record of net radiation in certain areas, the use of information is important to help determine it. Among them we can highlight those provided by remote sensing. In this context, this work aims to estimate the net radiation, with the use of products of MODIS sensor, in the sub-basins of Entre Ribeiros creek and Preto River, located between the Brazilian states of Goiás and Minas Gerais. The SEBAL (Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land was used to obtain the Rn in four different days in the period of July to October, 2007. The Rn results obtained were consistent with others cited in the literature and are important because the orbital information can help determine the Rn in areas where there are not automatic weather stations to record the net radiation.O saldo de radiação (Rn representa a principal fonte de energia para os processos físico-químicos que ocorrem na interface superfície-atmosfera, sendo utilizado no aquecimento do ar e do solo, transferência da água, na forma de vapor da superfície para a atmosfera, e metabolismo das plantas, especialmente a fotossíntese. Se não houver o registro do saldo de radiação em determinadas áreas, torna-se importante a utilização de informações que ajudem a determiná-lo. Entre elas, podemos destacar as fornecidas por sensoriamento remoto. Neste contexto, este trabalho tem o objetivo de determinar o saldo de radiação, com a utilização de produtos do sensor MODIS, nas sub-bacias do Ribeirão Entre Ribeiros e Rio Preto, que ficam entre os Estados de Goiás e Minas Gerais. O SEBAL (Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land foi utilizado para a obten

  12. Avaliação de modelos de estimativa do saldo de radiação e do método de Priestley-Taylor para a região de Dourados, MS Evaluation of models to estimate net radiation and the Priestley-Taylor method in the region of Dourados, MS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R. Fietz

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar modelos de estimativa da radiação líquida e o método de Priestley-Taylor para a região de Dourados. O ajuste dos parâmetros dos modelos foi realizado com base em uma série de 1.421 dados diários de radiação líquida, radiação solar global, radiação extraterrestre, temperaturas máxima e mínima. Uma segunda série de dados com 360 observações diárias foi utilizada para validar as equações geradas. A evapotranspiração de referência (ET0 foi estimada pela equação de Priestley-Taylor, como função da radiação solar global. Os valores de ET0 foram comparados com 218 medidas lisimétricas. As estimativas de radiação líquida geradas com base apenas nas temperaturas máximas e mínimas não foram satisfatórias, mas o modelo que utilizou radiação extraterrestre, além dessas duas variáveis, apresentou performance mediana. Os modelos que utilizaram a radiação solar global como variável independente tiveram desempenho classificados como ótimos. O método de Prietley-Taylor apresentou desempenho muito bom, possibilitando estimar a evapotranspiração de referência diária da região de Dourados com base na radiação solar global e na temperatura média do ar.The objective of this work was to evaluate models to estimate net radiation and the Priestley-Taylor method in Dourados, in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. For the purpose, 1,421 daily observations of net radiation, global radiation, extraterrestrial radiation, and maximum and minimum air temperatures were used. Another database containing 360 of these same daily variables was used to independently test the models The reference evapotranspiration (ET0 was estimated by the Priestley-Taylor method as a function of global radiation. The estimated values of ETo were compared with 218 lysimeter data. The equation based only on the maximum and minimum air temperatures showed unsatisfactory performance. A

  13. The role of DYNAMO in situ observations in improving NASA CERES-like daily surface and atmospheric radiative flux estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hailan; Su, Wenying; Loeb, Norman G.; Achuthavarier, Deepthi; Schubert, Siegfried D.

    2017-04-01

    The daily surface and atmospheric radiative fluxes from NASA Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Synoptic 1 degree (SYN1deg) Ed3A are among the most widely used data to study cloud-radiative feedback. The CERES SYN1deg data are based on Fu-Liou radiative transfer computations that use specific humidity (Q) and air temperature (T) from NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) reanalyses as inputs and are therefore subject to the quality of those fields. This study uses in situ Q and T observations collected during the Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (DYNAMO) field campaign to augment the input stream used in the NASA GMAO reanalysis and assess the impact on the CERES daily surface and atmospheric longwave estimates. The results show that the assimilation of DYNAMO observations considerably improves the vertical profiles of analyzed Q and T over and near DYNAMO stations by moistening and warming the lower troposphere and upper troposphere and drying and cooling the mid-upper troposphere. As a result of these changes in Q and T, the computed CERES daily surface downward longwave flux increases by about 5 W m-2, due mainly to the warming and moistening in the lower troposphere; the computed daily top-of-atmosphere (TOA) outgoing longwave radiation increases by 2-3 W m-2 during dry periods only. Correspondingly, the estimated local atmospheric longwave radiative cooling enhances by about 5 W m-2 (7-8 W m-2) during wet (dry) periods. These changes reduce the bias in the CERES SYN1deg-like daily longwave estimates at both the TOA and surface and represent an improvement over the DYNAMO region.

  14. Single-image-based solution for optics temperature-dependent nonuniformity correction in an uncooled long-wave infrared camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yanpeng; Tisse, Christel-Loic

    2014-02-01

    In this Letter, we propose an efficient and accurate solution to remove temperature-dependent nonuniformity effects introduced by the imaging optics. This single-image-based approach computes optics-related fixed pattern noise (FPN) by fitting the derivatives of correction model to the gradient components, locally computed on an infrared image. A modified bilateral filtering algorithm is applied to local pixel output variations, so that the refined gradients are most likely caused by the nonuniformity associated with optics. The estimated bias field is subtracted from the raw infrared imagery to compensate the intensity variations caused by optics. The proposed method is fundamentally different from the existing nonuniformity correction (NUC) techniques developed for focal plane arrays (FPAs) and provides an essential image processing functionality to achieve completely shutterless NUC for uncooled long-wave infrared (LWIR) imaging systems.

  15. Shutterless solution for simultaneous focal plane array temperature estimation and nonuniformity correction in uncooled long-wave infrared camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yanpeng; Tisse, Christel-Loic

    2013-09-01

    In uncooled long-wave infrared (LWIR) microbolometer imaging systems, temperature fluctuations of the focal plane array (FPA) result in thermal drift and spatial nonuniformity. In this paper, we present a novel approach based on single-image processing to simultaneously estimate temperature variances of FPAs and compensate the resulting temperature-dependent nonuniformity. Through well-controlled thermal calibrations, empirical behavioral models are derived to characterize the relationship between the responses of microbolometer and FPA temperature variations. Then, under the assumption that strong dependency exists between spatially adjacent pixels, we estimate the optimal FPA temperature so as to minimize the global intensity variance across the entire thermal infrared image. We make use of the estimated FPA temperature to infer an appropriate nonuniformity correction (NUC) profile. The performance and robustness of the proposed temperature-adaptive NUC method are evaluated on realistic IR images obtained by a 640 × 512 pixels uncooled LWIR microbolometer imaging system operating in a significantly changed temperature environment.

  16. On exact solutions of the regularized long-wave equation: A direct approach to partially integrable equations. II. Periodic solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, A.

    1995-07-01

    In this second of two articles (designated I and II), the bilinear transformation method is used to obtain stationary periodic solutions of the partially integrable regularized long-wave (RLW) equation. These solutions are expressed in terms of Riemann theta functions, and this approach leads to a new and compact expression for the important dispersion relation. The periodic solution (or cnoidal wave) can be represented as an infinite sum of sech2 ``solitary waves'': this remarkable property may be interpreted in the context of a nonlinear superposition principle. The RLW cnoidal wave approximates to a sinusoidal wave and a solitary wave in the limits of small and large amplitudes, respectively. Analytic approximations and error estimates are given which shed light on the character of the cnoidal wave in the different parameter regimes. Similar results are presented in brief for the related RLW Boussinesq (RLWB) equation.

  17. Linear Logic on Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn

    This article shows how individual Petri nets form models of Girard's intuitionistic linear logic. It explores questions of expressiveness and completeness of linear logic with respect to this interpretation. An aim is to use Petri nets to give an understanding of linear logic and give some apprai...

  18. Reference Guide Microsoft.NET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee M van der; Verspaij GJ; Rosbergen S; IMP; NMD

    2003-01-01

    Developers, administrators and managers can get more understanding of the .NET technology with this report. They can also make better choices how to use this technology. The report describes the results and conclusions of a study of the usability for the RIVM of this new generation .NET development

  19. Net neutrality and audiovisual services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.; Nikoltchev, S.

    2011-01-01

    Net neutrality is high on the European agenda. New regulations for the communication sector provide a legal framework for net neutrality and need to be implemented on both a European and a national level. The key element is not just about blocking or slowing down traffic across communication

  20. Sol-Rad Net Flux (L 1.0, 1.5, 2.0)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SolRad-Net (Solar Radiation Network) is an established network of ground-based sensors providing high-frequency solar flux measurements in quasi-realtime to the...

  1. A Small Universal Petri Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A. Zaitsev

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A universal deterministic inhibitor Petri net with 14 places, 29 transitions and 138 arcs was constructed via simulation of Neary and Woods' weakly universal Turing machine with 2 states and 4 symbols; the total time complexity is exponential in the running time of their weak machine. To simulate the blank words of the weakly universal Turing machine, a couple of dedicated transitions insert their codes when reaching edges of the working zone. To complete a chain of a given Petri net encoding to be executed by the universal Petri net, a translation of a bi-tag system into a Turing machine was constructed. The constructed Petri net is universal in the standard sense; a weaker form of universality for Petri nets was not introduced in this work.

  2. The Remote Sensing of Surface Radiative Temperature over Barbados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    remote sensing of surface radiative temperature over Barbados was undertaken using a PRT-5 attached to a light aircraft. Traverses across the centre of the island, over the rugged east coast area, and the urban area of Bridgetown were undertaken at different times of day and night in the last week of June and the first week of December, 1969. These traverses show that surface variations in long-wave radiation emission lie within plus or minus 5% of the observations over grass at a representative site. The quick response of the surface to sunset and sunrise was

  3. Air temperature, radiation budget and area changes of Quisoquipina glacier in the Cordillera Vilcanota (Peru)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Wilson; Macedo, Nicolás; Montoya, Nilton; Arias, Sandro; Schauwecker, Simone; Huggel, Christian; Rohrer, Mario; Condom, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The Peruvian Andes host about 71% of all tropical glaciers. Although several studies have focused on glaciers of the largest glaciered mountain range (Cordillera Blanca), other regions have received little attention to date. In 2011, a new program has been initiated with the aim of monitoring glaciers in the centre and south of Peru. The monitoring program is managed by the Servicio Nacional de Meteorología e Hidrología del Perú (SENAMHI) and it is a joint project together with the Universidad San Antonio Abad de Cusco (UNSAAC) and the Autoridad Nacional del Agua (ANA). In Southern Peru, the Quisoquipina glacier has been selected due to its representativeness for glaciers in the Cordillera Vilcanota considering area, length and orientation. The Cordillera Vilcanota is the second largest mountain range in Peru with a glaciated area of approximately 279 km2 in 2009. Melt water from glaciers in this region is partly used for hydropower in the dry season and for animal breeding during the entire year. Using Landsat 5 images, we could estimate that the area of Quisoquipina glacier has decreased by approximately 11% from 3.66 km2 in 1990 to 3.26 km2 in 2010. This strong decrease is comparable to observations of other tropical glaciers. In 2011, a meteorological station has been installed on the glacier at 5180 m asl., measuring air temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, net short and longwave radiation and atmospheric pressure. Here, we present a first analysis of air temperature and the radiation budget at the Quisoquipina glacier for the first three years of measurements. Additionally, we compare the results from Quisoquipina glacier to results obtained by the Institut de recherche pour le développement (IRD) for Zongo glacier (Bolivia) and Antizana glacier (Ecuador). For both, Quisoquipina and Zongo glacier, net shortwave radiation may be the most important energy source, thus indicating the important role of albedo in the energy balance of the glacier

  4. Cloud types and the tropical Earth radiation budget, revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhuria, Harbans L.; Kyle, H. Lee

    1989-01-01

    Nimbus-7 cloud and Earth radiation budget data are compared in a study of the effects of clouds on the tropical radiation budget. The data consist of daily averages over fixed 500 sq km target areas, and the months of July 1979 and January 1980 were chosen to show the effect of seasonal changes. Six climate regions, consisting of 14 to 24 target areas each, were picked for intensive analysis because they exemplified the range in the tropical cloud/net radiation interactions. The normal analysis was to consider net radiation as the independent variable and examine how cloud cover, cloud type, albedo and emitted radiation varied with the net radiation. Two recurring themes keep repeating on a local, regional, and zonal basis: the net radiation is strongly influenced by the average cloud type and amount present, but most net radiation values could be produced by several combinations of cloud types and amount. The regions of highest net radiation (greater than 125 W/sq m) tend to have medium to heavy cloud cover. In these cases, thin medium altitude clouds predominate. Their cloud tops are normally too warm to be classified as cirrus by the Nimbus cloud algorithm. A common feature in the tropical oceans are large regions where the total regional cloud cover varies from 20 to 90 percent, but with little regional difference in the net radiation. The monsoon and rain areas are high net radiation regions.

  5. High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    High-level Petri nets are now widely used in both theoretical analysis and practical modelling of concurrent systems. The main reason for the success of this class of net models is that they make it possible to obtain much more succinct and manageable descriptions than can be obtained by means...... of low-level Petri nets - while, on the other hand, they still offer a wide range of analysis methods and tools. The step from low-level nets to high-level nets can be compared to the step from assembly languages to modern programming languages with an elaborated type concept. In low-level nets...... there is only one kind of token and this means that the state of a place is described by an integer (and in many cases even by a boolean). In high-level nets each token can carry a complex information/data - which, e.g., may describe the entire state of a process or a data base. Today most practical...

  6. Aerosol absorption and radiative forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Stier

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a comprehensive examination of aerosol absorption with a focus on evaluating the sensitivity of the global distribution of aerosol absorption to key uncertainties in the process representation. For this purpose we extended the comprehensive aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM by effective medium approximations for the calculation of aerosol effective refractive indices, updated black carbon refractive indices, new cloud radiative properties considering the effect of aerosol inclusions, as well as by modules for the calculation of long-wave aerosol radiative properties and instantaneous aerosol forcing. The evaluation of the simulated aerosol absorption optical depth with the AERONET sun-photometer network shows a good agreement in the large scale global patterns. On a regional basis it becomes evident that the update of the BC refractive indices to Bond and Bergstrom (2006 significantly improves the previous underestimation of the aerosol absorption optical depth. In the global annual-mean, absorption acts to reduce the short-wave anthropogenic aerosol top-of-atmosphere (TOA radiative forcing clear-sky from −0.79 to −0.53 W m−2 (33% and all-sky from −0.47 to −0.13 W m−2 (72%. Our results confirm that basic assumptions about the BC refractive index play a key role for aerosol absorption and radiative forcing. The effect of the usage of more accurate effective medium approximations is comparably small. We demonstrate that the diversity in the AeroCom land-surface albedo fields contributes to the uncertainty in the simulated anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcings: the usage of an upper versus lower bound of the AeroCom land albedos introduces a global annual-mean TOA forcing range of 0.19 W m−2 (36% clear-sky and of 0.12 W m−2 (92% all-sky. The consideration of black carbon inclusions on cloud radiative properties results in a small global annual-mean all-sky absorption of 0.05 W

  7. Pro asynchronous programming with .NET

    CERN Document Server

    Blewett, Richard; Ltd, Rock Solid Knowledge

    2014-01-01

    Pro Asynchronous Programming with .NET teaches the essential skill of asynchronous programming in .NET. It answers critical questions in .NET application development, such as: how do I keep my program responding at all times to keep my users happy how do I make the most of the available hardware how can I improve performanceIn the modern world, users expect more and more from their applications and devices, and multi-core hardware has the potential to provide it. But it takes carefully crafted code to turn that potential into responsive, scalable applications.With Pro Asynchronous Programming

  8. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André

    2017-08-01

    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  9. Radiative Effects of Global MODIS Cloud Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oraiopoulos, Lazaros; Cho, Nayeong; Lee, Dong Min; Kato, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    We update previously published MODIS global cloud regimes (CRs) using the latest MODIS cloud retrievals in the Collection 6 dataset. We implement a slightly different derivation method, investigate the composition of the regimes, and then proceed to examine several aspects of CR radiative appearance with the aid of various radiative flux datasets. Our results clearly show the CRs are radiatively distinct in terms of shortwave, longwave and their combined (total) cloud radiative effect. We show that we can clearly distinguish regimes based on whether they radiatively cool or warm the atmosphere, and thanks to radiative heating profiles to discern the vertical distribution of cooling and warming. Terra and Aqua comparisons provide information about the degree to which morning and afternoon occurrences of regimes affect the symmetry of CR radiative contribution. We examine how the radiative discrepancies among multiple irradiance datasets suffering from imperfect spatiotemporal matching depend on CR, and whether they are therefore related to the complexity of cloud structure, its interpretation by different observational systems, and its subsequent representation in radiative transfer calculations.

  10. Petri Net Tool Overview 1986

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Feldbrugge, Frits

    1987-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the characteristics of all currently available net based tools. It is a compilation of information provided by tool authors or contact persons. A concise one page overview is provided as well....

  11. Understanding Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salom, Jaume; Widén, Joakim; Candanedo, José

    2011-01-01

    Although several alternative definitions exist, a Net-Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) can be succinctly described as a grid-connected building that generates as much energy as it uses over a year. The “net-zero” balance is attained by applying energy conservation and efficiency measures...... and by incorporating renewable energy systems. While based on annual balances, a complete description of a Net ZEB requires examining the system at smaller time-scales. This assessment should address: (a) the relationship between power generation and building loads and (b) the resulting interaction with the power grid....... This paper presents and categorizes quantitative indicators suitable to describe both aspects of the building’s performance. These indicators, named LMGI - Load Matching and Grid Interaction indicators, are easily quantifiable and could complement the output variables of existing building simulation tools...

  12. PolicyNet Publication System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The PolicyNet Publication System project will merge the Oracle-based Policy Repository (POMS) and the SQL-Server CAMP system (MSOM) into a new system with an Oracle...

  13. KM3NeT

    CERN Multimedia

    KM3NeT is a large scale next-generation neutrino telescope located in the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea, optimized for the discovery of galactic neutrino sources emitting in the TeV energy region.

  14. Net Neutrality: Background and Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilroy, Angele A

    2006-01-01

    .... The move to place restrictions on the owners of the networks that compose and provide access to the Internet, to ensure equal access and nondiscriminatory treatment, is referred to as "net neutrality...

  15. Petri Nets in Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A process language for security protocols is presented together with a semantics in terms of sets of events. The denotation of process is a set of events, and as each event specifies a set of pre and postconditions, this denotation can be viewed as a Petri net. By means of an example we illustrate...... how the Petri-net semantics can be used to prove security properties....

  16. The Economics of Net Neutrality

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, Robert W.; Wallsten, Scott

    2006-01-01

    This essay examines the economics of "net neutrality" and broadband Internet access. We argue that mandating net neutrality would be likely to reduce economic welfare. Instead, the government should focus on creating competition in the broadband market by liberalizing more spectrum and reducing entry barriers created by certain local regulations. In cases where a broadband provider can exercise market power the government should use its antitrust enforcement authority to police anticompetitiv...

  17. Study on Earth Radiation Budget mission scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dlhopolsky, R.; Hollmann, R.; Mueller, J.; Stuhlmann, R. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Atmosphaerenphysik

    1997-12-31

    The goal of this study is to study optimized satellite configurations for observation of the radiation balance of the earth. We present a literature survey of earth radiation budget missions and instruments. We develop a parametric tool to simulate realistic multiple satellite mission scenarios. This tool is a modular computer program which models satellite orbits and scanning operation. We use Meteosat data sampled at three hour intervals as a database to simulate atmospheric scenes. Input variables are satellite equatorial crossing time and instrument characteristics. Regional, zonal and global monthly averages of shortwave and longwave fluxes for an ideal observing system and several realistic satellite scenarios are produced. Comparisons show that the three satellite combinations which have equatorial crossing times at midmorning, noon and midafternoon provide the best shortwave monitoring. Crossing times near sunrise and sunset should be avoided for the shortwave. Longwave diurnal models are necessary over and surfaces and cloudy regions, if there are only two measurements made during daylight hours. We have found in the shortwave inversion comparison that at least 15% of the monthly regional errors can be attributed to the shortwave anisotropic models used. (orig.) 68 refs.

  18. 26 CFR 1.904(f)-3 - Allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation of net operating losses and net....904(f)-3 Allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses. For rules relating to the allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses, see § 1.904(g)-3T. ...

  19. 29 CFR 4204.13 - Net income and net tangible assets tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Net income and net tangible assets tests. 4204.13 Section....13 Net income and net tangible assets tests. (a) General. The criteria under this section are that either— (1) Net income test. The purchaser's average net income after taxes for its three most recent...

  20. The effects of solar radiation and black body re-radiation on thermal comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodder, Simon; Parsons, Ken

    2008-04-01

    When the sun shines on people in enclosed spaces, such as in buildings or vehicles, it directly affects thermal comfort. There is also an indirect effect as surrounding surfaces are heated exposing a person to re-radiation. This laboratory study investigated the effects of long wave re-radiation on thermal comfort, individually and when combined with direct solar radiation. Nine male participants (26.0 +/- 4.7 years) took part in three experimental sessions where they were exposed to radiation from a hot black panel heated to 100 degrees C; direct simulated solar radiation of 600 Wm(-2) and the combined simulated solar radiation and black panel radiation. Exposures were for 30 min, during which subjective responses and mean skin temperatures were recorded. The results showed that, at a surface temperature of 100 degrees C (close to maximum in practice), radiation from the flat black panel provided thermal discomfort but that this was relatively small when compared with the effects of direct solar radiation. It was concluded that re-radiation, from a dashboard in a vehicle, for example, will not have a major direct influence on thermal comfort and that existing models of thermal comfort do not require a specific modification. These results showed that, for the conditions investigated, the addition of re-radiation from internal components has an effect on thermal sensation when combined with direct solar radiation. However, it is not considered that it will be a major factor in a real world situation. This is because, in practice, dashboards are unlikely to maintain very high surface temperatures in vehicles without an unacceptably high air temperature. This study quantifies the contribution of short- and long-wave radiation to thermal comfort. The results will aid vehicle designers to have a better understanding of the complex radiation environment. These include direct radiation from the sun as well as re-radiation from the dashboard and other internal surfaces.

  1. The World Radiation Monitoring Center of the Baseline Surface Radiation Network: Status 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driemel, Amelie; König-Langlo, Gert; Sieger, Rainer; Long, Charles N.

    2017-04-01

    The World Radiation Monitoring Center (WRMC) is the central archive of the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN). The BSRN was initiated by the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Working Group on Radiative Fluxes and began operations in 1992. One of its aims is to provide short and long-wave surface radiation fluxes of the best possible quality to support the research projects of the WCRP and other scientific projects. The high quality, uniform and consistent measurements of the BSRN network can be used to monitor the short- and long-wave radiative components and their changes with the best methods currently available, to validate and evaluate satellite-based estimates of the surface radiative fluxes, and to verify the results of global climate models. In 1992 the BSRN/WRMC started at ETH Zurich, Switzerland with 9 stations. Since 2007 the archive is hosted by the Alfred-Wegener-Institut (AWI) in Bremerhaven, Germany (http://www.bsrn.awi.de/) and comprises a network of currently 59 stations in contrasting climatic zones, covering a latitude range from 80°N to 90°S. Of the 59 stations, 23 offer the complete radiation budget (down- and upwelling short- and long-wave data). In addition to the ftp-service access instituted at ETH Zurich, the archive at AWI offers data access via PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science (https://www.pangaea.de). PANGAEA guarantees the long-term availability of its content through a commitment of the operating institutions. Within PANGAEA, the metadata of the stations are freely available. To access the data itself an account is required. If the scientist accepts to follow the data release guidelines of the archive (http://bsrn.awi.de/data/conditions-of-data-release/) he or she can get an account from amelie.driemel@awi.de. Currently, more than 9,400 station months (>780 years) are available for interested scientists (see also https://dataportals.pangaea.de/bsrn/?q=LR0100 for an overview on available data

  2. Modeling and simulation of long-wave infrared InAs/GaSb strained layer superlattice photodiodes with different passivants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Koushik; Huang, Jun; Ghosh, Siddhartha

    2011-11-01

    Current-voltage characteristics of long-wave infrared (LWIR) InAs/GaSb strained layer superlattice photodiodes (cut-off wavelength ˜10 μm), passivated with different surface passivants, have been modeled and simulated using ATLAS software from SILVACO. The simulated results are fitted to previous experimental results obtained on unpassivated devices and those passivated by silicon-dioxide (SiO 2), silicon nitride (Si xN y) and zinc sulfide (ZnS). Surface parameters in terms of surface recombination velocity, shunt resistance and interface trap density are extracted for different passivants. The performance of silicon-dioxide passivated diode is solely dominated by a shunt leakage path with a shunt resistance value of 0.56 Ω-cm 2. Extracted electron and hole surface recombination velocities have values of 10 5 cm/s and 10 7 cm/s for unpassivated, 10 3 cm/s and 10 5 cm/s for Si xN y passivated and 10 2 cm/s and 10 3 cm/s for ZnS passivated devices. Interface trap density follows a similar trend with values of 10 15 cm -2, 8.5 × 10 14 cm -2 and 10 10 cm -2 for unpassivated, Si xN y passivated and ZnS passivated devices respectively. The suitability and limitations of the simulation tool are discussed.

  3. Absolute calibration of brightness temperature of the Venus disk observed by the Longwave Infrared Camera onboard Akatsuki

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, Tetsuya; Taguchi, Makoto; Imamura, Takeshi; Hayashitani, Akane; Yamada, Takeru; Futaguchi, Masahiko; Kouyama, Toru; Sato, Takao M.; Takamura, Mao; Iwagami, Naomoto; Nakamura, Masato; Suzuki, Makoto; Ueno, Munetaka; Hashimoto, George L.; Sato, Mitsuteru; Takagi, Seiko; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Yamada, Manabu; Murakami, Shin-ya; Yamamoto, Yukio; Ogohara, Kazunori; Ando, Hiroki; Sugiyama, Ko-ichiro; Kashimura, Hiroki; Ohtsuki, Shoko; Ishii, Nobuaki; Abe, Takumi; Satoh, Takehiko; Hirose, Chikako; Hirata, Naru

    2017-10-01

    The Venus Climate Orbiter Akatsuki arrived at Venus in December 2015, and the Longwave Infrared Camera (LIR) onboard the spacecraft started making observations. LIR has acquired more than 8000 images during the first two Venusian years since orbit insertion without any serious faults. However, brightness temperature derived from LIR images contained an unexpected bias that related not to natural phenomena but to a thermal condition of the instrument. The bias could be partially eliminated by keeping the power supply unit for LIR always active, while the residual bias was simply correlated with the baffle temperature. Therefore, deep-space images were acquired at different baffle temperatures on orbit, and a reference table for eliminating the bias from images was prepared. In the corrected images, the brightness temperature was 230 K at the center of the Venus disk, where the effect of limb darkening is negligible. The result is independent of the baffle temperature and consistent with the results of previous studies. Later, a laboratory experiment with the proto model of LIR showed that when the germanium (Ge) lens was heated, its actual temperature was slightly higher than the temperature measured by a thermal sensor attached to the lens holder. The experiment confirmed that transitory baffle heating accounted for the background bias found in the brightness temperature observed by LIR.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  4. Global impact of 3D cloud-radiation interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Sophia; Hogan, Robin; Fielding, Mark; Chiu, Christine

    2017-04-01

    Clouds have a decisive impact on the Earth's radiation budget and on the temperature of the atmosphere and surface. However, in global weather and climate models, cloud-radiation interaction is treated in only the vertical dimension using several non-realistic assumptions, which contributes to the large uncertainty on the climatic role of clouds. We provide a first systematic investigation into the impact of horizontal radiative transport for both shortwave and longwave radiation on a global, long-term scale. For this purpose, we have developed and validated the SPARTACUS radiation scheme, a method for including three-dimensional radiative transfer effects approximately in a one-dimensional radiation calculation that is numerically efficient enough for global calculations, allowing us to conduct 1D and quasi-3D radiation calculations for a year of global of ERA-Interim re-analysis atmospheric data and compare the results of various radiation treatments. SPARTACUS includes the effects of cloud internal inhomogeneity, horizontal in-region transport and the spatial distribution of in-cloud radiative fluxes.The impact of varying three-dimensional cloud geometry can be described by one parameter, the effective cloud scale, which has a characteristic value for each cloud type. We find that both the 3D effects of cloud-side transport and of horizontal in-cloud radiative transport in the shortwave are significant. Overall, 3D cloud effects warm the Earth by about 4 W m -2 , with warming effects in both the shortwave and the longwave. The dominant 3D cloud effect is the previously rarely investigated in-region horizontal transfer effect in the shortwave, which significantly decreases cloud reflectance and warms the Earth system by 5 W m -2 , partly counteracted by the cooling effect of shortwave 3D cloud-side transport. Longwave heating and cooling at various heights is strengthened by up to 0.2 K d ^{-1} and -0.3 K d ^{-1} respectively. These 3D effects, neglected by

  5. TimeNET Optimization Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Bodenstein

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a novel tool for simulation-based optimization and design-space exploration of Stochastic Colored Petri nets (SCPN is introduced. The working title of this tool is TimeNET Optimization Environment (TOE. Targeted users of this tool are people modeling complex systems with SCPNs in TimeNET who want to find parameter sets that are optimal for a certain performance measure (fitness function. It allows users to create and simulate sets of SCPNs and to run different optimization algorithms based on parameter variation. The development of this tool was motivated by the need to automate and speed up tests of heuristic optimization algorithms to be applied for SCPN optimization. A result caching mechanism is used to avoid recalculations.

  6. Radiation closure under broken cloud conditions at the BSRN site Payerne: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aebi, Christine; Gröbner, Julian; Kämpfer, Niklaus; Vuilleumier, Laurent

    2017-04-01

    Clouds have a substantial influence on the surface radiation budget and on the climate system. There are several studies showing the opposing effect of clouds on shortwave and longwave radiation and thus on the global energy budget. Wacker et al., 2013 show an agreement between radiation flux measurements and radiative transfer models (RTM) under clear sky conditions which is within the measurement uncertainty. Our current study combines radiation fluxes from surface-based observations with RTM under cloudy conditions. It is a case study with data from the BSRN (Baseline Surface Radiation Network) site Payerne (46.49˚ N, 6.56˚ E, 490 m asl). Observation data are retrieved from pyranometers and pyrgeometers and additional atmospheric parameters from radiosondes and a ceilometer. The cloud information is taken from visible all-sky cameras. In a first step observations and RTM are compared for cases with stratiform overcast cloud conditions. In a next step radiation fluxes are compared under broken cloud conditions. These analyses are performed for different cloud types. Wacker, S., J. Gröbner, and L. Vuilleumier (2014) A method to calculate cloud-free long-wave irradiance at the surface based on radiative transfer modeling and temperature lapse rate estimates, Theor. Appl. Climatol., 115, 551-561.

  7. Earth radiation budgets in IPCC AR4 GCMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, M.

    2009-04-01

    Substantial uncertainty still exists regarding the distribution of radiative energy within the global climate system, and its representation in General Circulation Models. Compared to a comprehensive set of surface observations, the majority of the GCMs participating in the latest IPCC forth assessment report (AR4) overestimate the surface insolation, by 6 Wm-2 on average, while the bias is smaller at the TOA (Wild 2008). This is in line with an analysis of 20 earlier GCMs participating in the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project AMIP II and suggests that the GCM atmospheres are still overly transparent for solar radiation (Wild 2005). Based on observational clear-sky climatologies at worldwide distributed anchor sites from the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) and the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) it is shown, that the surface insolation is also overestimated under cloud-free conditions in many GCMs with comparatively low atmospheric clear-sky solar absorption (around 60 Wm-2 in the global mean) (Wild et al. 2006). This identifies an overly transparent cloud-free atmosphere as a key error source for the long known problem of excessive surface insolation in GCMs. However, there are now several models participating in IPCC-AR4 with higher atmospheric clear-sky absorption (70 Wm-2 and up, globally averaged) and more realistic aerosol treatment, which are in excellent agreement with the observational clear-sky climatologies. This underlines the progress made in radiative transfer modeling as well as in the observation and diagnosis of solar radiation under cloudless atmospheres (Wild 2008). The most difficult component to model in the longwave is the downward longwave flux at the surface. Accordingly, large discrepancies exist in the global means of this component in the GCMs, both under all sky and clear sky conditions. A comparison with available observations from GEBA and BSRN suggests that the IPCC AR4 GCMs tend to underestimate the

  8. Heating rate profiles and radiative forcing due to a dust storm in the Western Mediterranean using satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris-Ferrús, C.; Gómez-Amo, J. L.; Marcos, C.; Freile-Aranda, M. D.; Utrillas, M. P.; Martínez-Lozano, J. A.

    2017-07-01

    We analyze the vertically-resolved radiative impact due to a dust storm in the Western Mediterranean. The dust plume travels around 3-5 km altitude and the aerosol optical depth derived by MODIS at 550 nm ranges from 0.33 to 0.52 at the overpass time (13:05 UT). The aerosol radiative forcing (ARF), forcing efficiency (FE) and heating rate profile (AHR) are determined throughout the dust trajectory in shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) ranges. To do this, we integrate different satellite observations (CALIPSO and MODIS) and detailed radiative transfer modeling. The combined (SW + LW) effect of the dust event induces a net cooling in the studied region. On average, the FE at 22.4° solar zenith angle is -190.3 W m-2 and -38.1 W m-2, at surface and TOA, respectively. The corresponding LW/SW offset is 14% and 38% at surface and TOA, respectively. Our results at TOA are sensitive to the surface albedo in the SW and surface temperature in the LW. The absolute value of FE decrease (increase) in the SW (LW) with the surface albedo, resulting in an increasing LW/SW offset, up to 76%. The AHR profiles show a net warming within the dust layer, with a maximum value of 3.3 Kd-1. The ARF, FE and AHR are also highly sensitive to the dust optical properties in SW and LW. We evaluate this sensitivity by comparing the results obtained using two set of dust properties as input in our simulations: a) the prescribed dust model by Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds (OPAC) and; b) the dust optical properties derived from measurements of the size distribution and refractive index. Experimentally derived dust properties present larger SSA and asymmetry parameter in the SW than OPAC dust. Conversely, OPAC dust presents higher AOD in the LW range. These parameters drive the FE and AHR sensitivities in the SW and LW ranges, respectively. Therefore, when measured dust properties are used in our simulations: the ARF in the LW substantially reduces at surface and TOA (up to 57%); the

  9. Implementing NetScaler VPX

    CERN Document Server

    Sandbu, Marius

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow guide with detailed step-by step-instructions on how to implement the different key components in NetScaler, with real-world examples and sample scenarios.If you are a Citrix or network administrator who needs to implement NetScaler in your virtual environment to gain an insight on its functionality, this book is ideal for you. A basic understanding of networking and familiarity with some of the different Citrix products such as XenApp or XenDesktop is a prerequisite.

  10. Net4Care PHMR Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the SimpleClinicalDocument......The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the Simple...

  11. Pro DLR in NET 4

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Chaur

    2011-01-01

    Microsoft's Dynamic Language Runtime (DLR) is a platform for running dynamic languages such as Ruby and Python on an equal footing with compiled languages such as C#. Furthermore, the runtime is the foundation for many useful software design and architecture techniques you can apply as you develop your .NET applications. Pro DLR in .NET 4 introduces you to the DLR, showing how you can use it to write software that combines dynamic and static languages, letting you choose the right tool for the job. You will learn the core DLR components such as LINQ expressions, call sites, binders, and dynami

  12. Hierarchies in Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Peter; Jensen, Kurt; Shapiro, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    The paper shows how to extend Coloured Petri Nets with a hierarchy concept. The paper proposes five different hierarchy constructs, which allow the analyst to structure large CP-nets as a set of interrelated subnets (called pages). The paper discusses the properties of the proposed hierarchy...... constructs, and it illustrates them by means of two examples. The hierarchy constructs can be used for theoretical considerations, but their main use is to describe and analyse large real-world systems. All of the hierarchy constructs are supported by the editing and analysis facilities in the CPN Palette...

  13. Radiative forcing by contrails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Meerkötter

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available A parametric study of the instantaneous radiative impact of contrails is presented using three different radiative transfer models for a series of model atmospheres and cloud parameters. Contrails are treated as geometrically and optically thin plane parallel homogeneous cirrus layers in a static atmosphere. The ice water content is varied as a function of ambient temperature. The model atmospheres include tropical, mid-latitude, and subarctic summer and winter atmospheres. Optically thin contrails cause a positive net forcing at top of the atmosphere. At the surface the radiative forcing is negative during daytime. The forcing increases with the optical depth and the amount of contrail cover. At the top of the atmosphere, a mean contrail cover of 0.1% with average optical depth of 0.2 to 0.5 causes about 0.01 to 0.03 Wm-2 daily mean instantaneous radiative forcing. Contrails cool the surface during the day and heat the surface during the night, and hence reduce the daily temperature amplitude. The net effect depends strongly on the daily variation of contrail cloud cover. The indirect radiative forcing due to particle changes in natural cirrus clouds may be of the same magnitude as the direct one due to additional cover.Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles · Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology · radiative processes

  14. Radiative forcing by contrails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Meerkötter

    Full Text Available A parametric study of the instantaneous radiative impact of contrails is presented using three different radiative transfer models for a series of model atmospheres and cloud parameters. Contrails are treated as geometrically and optically thin plane parallel homogeneous cirrus layers in a static atmosphere. The ice water content is varied as a function of ambient temperature. The model atmospheres include tropical, mid-latitude, and subarctic summer and winter atmospheres. Optically thin contrails cause a positive net forcing at top of the atmosphere. At the surface the radiative forcing is negative during daytime. The forcing increases with the optical depth and the amount of contrail cover. At the top of the atmosphere, a mean contrail cover of 0.1% with average optical depth of 0.2 to 0.5 causes about 0.01 to 0.03 Wm-2 daily mean instantaneous radiative forcing. Contrails cool the surface during the day and heat the surface during the night, and hence reduce the daily temperature amplitude. The net effect depends strongly on the daily variation of contrail cloud cover. The indirect radiative forcing due to particle changes in natural cirrus clouds may be of the same magnitude as the direct one due to additional cover.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles · Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology · radiative processes

  15. D.NET case study

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    lremy

    developing products, marketing tools and building capacity of the grass root telecentre workers. D.Net recognized that it had several ideas worth developing into small interventions that would make big differences, but resource constraints were a barrier for scaling-up these initiatives. More demands, limited resources.

  16. Surgery for GEP-NETs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, Ulrich; Hansen, Carsten Palnæs

    2012-01-01

    Surgery is the only treatment that may cure the patient with gastroentero-pancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumours (NET) and neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC) and should always be considered as first line treatment if R0/R1 resection can be achieved. The surgical and interventional procedures for GEP...

  17. Net Neutrality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.

    2014-01-01

    The Netherlands is among the first countries that have put specific net neutrality standards in place. The decision to implement specific regulation was influenced by at least three factors. The first was the prevailing social and academic debate, partly due to developments in the United States. The

  18. Complexity Metrics for Workflow Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; van der Aalst, Wil M.P.

    2009-01-01

    Process modeling languages such as EPCs, BPMN, flow charts, UML activity diagrams, Petri nets, etc.\\ are used to model business processes and to configure process-aware information systems. It is known that users have problems understanding these diagrams. In fact, even process engineers and system...

  19. Caught in the Net: Perineuronal Nets and Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Slaker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to drugs of abuse induces plasticity in the brain and creates persistent drug-related memories. These changes in plasticity and persistent drug memories are believed to produce aberrant motivation and reinforcement contributing to addiction. Most studies have explored the effect drugs of abuse have on pre- and postsynaptic cells and astrocytes; however, more recently, attention has shifted to explore the effect these drugs have on the extracellular matrix (ECM. Within the ECM are unique structures arranged in a net-like manner, surrounding a subset of neurons called perineuronal nets (PNNs. This review focuses on drug-induced changes in PNNs, the molecules that regulate PNNs, and the expression of PNNs within brain circuitry mediating motivation, reward, and reinforcement as it pertains to addiction.

  20. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Army Net Zero Training Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-20

    sensors were strategically placed throughout the installation by magnetically attaching them to water main valve stems. The sensors check sound...Recycle Wrap  Substitutes for Packaging Materials  Re-Use of Textiles and Linens  Setting Printers to Double-Sided Printing Net Zero Waste...can effectively achieve source reduction. Clean and Re-Use Shop Rags - Shop rags represent a large textile waste stream at many installations. As a

  1. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Net Zero Waste Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-20

    Anaerobic Digesters – Although anaerobic digestion is not a new technology and has been used on a large-scale basis in wastewater treatment , the...technology and has been used on a large-scale basis in wastewater treatment , the use of the technology should be demonstrated with other...approaches can be used for cardboard and cellulose -based packaging materials. This approach is in line with the Net Zero Waste hierarchy in terms of

  2. HANPP Collection: Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity (NPP) portion of the Human Appropriation of Net Primary...

  3. Hydrodynamic characteristics of plane netting used for aquaculture net cages in uniform current

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DONG, SHUCHUANG; HU, FUXIANG; KUMAZAWA, TAISEI; SIODE, DAISUKE; TOKAI, TADASHI

    2016-01-01

      The hydrodynamic characteristics of polyethylene (PE) netting and chain link wire netting with different types of twine diameter and mesh size for aquaculture net cages were examined by experiments in a flume tank...

  4. Isolated unit tests in .Net

    OpenAIRE

    Haukilehto, Tero

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis isolation in unit testing is studied to get a precise picture of the isolation frameworks available for .Net environment. At the beginning testing is discussed in theory with the benefits and the problems it may have been linked with. The theory includes software development in general in connection with testing. Theory of isolation is also described before the actual isolation frameworks are represented. Common frameworks are described in more detail and comparable informa...

  5. Earth Radiation Budget Experiment scanner radiometric calibration results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robert B., III; Gibson, M. A.; Thomas, Susan; Meekins, Jeffrey L.; Mahan, J. R.

    1990-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanning radiometers are producing measurements of the incoming solar, earth/atmosphere-reflected solar, and earth/atmosphere-emitted radiation fields with measurement precisions and absolute accuracies, approaching 1 percent. ERBE uses thermistor bolometers as the detection elements in the narrow-field-of-view scanning radiometers. The scanning radiometers can sense radiation in the shortwave, longwave, and total broadband spectral regions of 0.2 to 5.0, 5.0 to 50.0, and 0.2 to 50.0 micrometers, respectively. Detailed models of the radiometers' response functions were developed in order to design the most suitable calibration techniques. These models guided the design of in-flight calibration procedures as well as the development and characterization of a vacuum-calibration chamber and the blackbody source which provided the absolute basis upon which the total and longwave radiometers were characterized. The flight calibration instrumentation for the narror-field-of-view scanning radiometers is presented and evaluated.

  6. UV sensitivity of planktonic net community production in ocean surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regaudie-de-Gioux, Aurore; Agustí, Susana; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2014-05-01

    The net plankton community metabolism of oceanic surface waters is particularly important as it more directly affects the partial pressure of CO2 in surface waters and thus the air-sea fluxes of CO2. Plankton communities in surface waters are exposed to high irradiance that includes significant ultraviolet blue (UVB, 280-315 nm) radiation. UVB radiation affects both photosynthetic and respiration rates, increase plankton mortality rates, and other metabolic and chemical processes. Here we test the sensitivity of net community production (NCP) to UVB of planktonic communities in surface waters across contrasting regions of the ocean. We observed here that UVB radiation affects net plankton community production at the ocean surface, imposing a shift in NCP by, on average, 50% relative to the values measured when excluding partly UVB. Our results show that under full solar radiation, the metabolic balance shows the prevalence of net heterotrophic community production. The demonstration of an important effect of UVB radiation on NCP in surface waters presented here is of particular relevance in relation to the increased UVB radiation derived from the erosion of the stratospheric ozone layer. Our results encourage design future research to further our understanding of UVB effects on the metabolic balance of plankton communities.

  7. The Role of DYNAMO in Situ Observations in Improving NASA Ceres-like Daily Surface and Atmospheric Radiative Flux Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hailan; Su, Wenying; Loeb, Norman G.; Achuthavarier, Deepthi; Schubert, Siegfried D.

    2017-01-01

    The daily surface and atmospheric radiative fluxes from NASA Clouds and the Earths RadiantEnergy System (CERES) Synoptic 1 degree (SYN1deg) Ed3A are among the most widely used data to studycloud-radiative feedback. The CERES SYN1deg data are based on Fu-Liou radiative transfer computations thatuse specific humidity (Q) and air temperature (T) from NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO)reanalyses as inputs and are therefore subject to the quality of those fields. This study uses in situ Q and Tobservations collected during the Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (DYNAMO) field campaign toaugment the input stream used in the NASA GMAO reanalysis and assess the impact on the CERES dailysurface and atmospheric longwave estimates. The results show that the assimilation of DYNAMOobservations considerably improves the vertical profiles of analyzed Q and T over and near DYNAMO stationsby moistening and warming the lower troposphere and upper troposphere and drying and cooling themid-upper troposphere. As a result of these changes in Q and T, the computed CERES daily surface downwardlongwave flux increases by about 5 W m(exp -2), due mainly to the warming and moistening in the lowertroposphere; the computed daily top-of-atmosphere (TOA) outgoing longwave radiation increases by2-3 W m(exp -2) during dry periods only. Correspondingly, the estimated local atmospheric longwave radiativecooling enhances by about 5 W m(exp -2) (7-8 W m(exp -2)) during wet (dry) periods. These changes reduce the bias inthe CERES SYN1deg-like daily longwave estimates at both the TOA and surface and represent animprovement over the DYNAMO region.

  8. Radiative forcing by contrails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meerkoetter, R.; Schumann, U. [DLR Oberpfaffenhofen, Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Phys. der Atmosphaere; Doelling, D.R.; Minnis, P. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA (United States). Langley Research Center; Nakajima, T.; Tsushima, Y. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Center for Climate System Research

    1999-08-01

    A parametric study of the instantaneous radiative impact of contrails is presented using three different radiative transfer models for a series of model atmospheres and cloud parameters. Contrails are treated as geometrically and optically thin plane parallel homogeneous cirrus layers in a static atmosphere. The ice water content is varied as a function of ambient temperature. The model atmospheres include tropical, midlatitude, and subarctic summer and winter atmospheres. Optically thin contrails cause a positive net forcing at top of the atmosphere. At the surface the radiative forcing is negative during daytime. The forcing increases with the optical depth and the amount of contrail cover. At the top of the atmosphere, a mean contrail cover of 0.1% with average optical depth of 0.2 to 0.5 causes about 0.01 to 0.03 Wm{sup -2} daily mean instantaneous radiative forcing. Contrails cool the surface during the day and heat the surface during the night, and hence reduce the daily temperature amplitude. The net effect depends strongly on the daily variation of contrail cloud cover. The indirect radiative forcing due to particle changes in natural cirrus clouds may be of the same magnitude as the direct one due to additional cover. (orig.) 78 refs.

  9. Bayesian Methods for Radiation Detection and Dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Groer, Peter G

    2002-01-01

    We performed work in three areas: radiation detection, external and internal radiation dosimetry. In radiation detection we developed Bayesian techniques to estimate the net activity of high and low activity radioactive samples. These techniques have the advantage that the remaining uncertainty about the net activity is described by probability densities. Graphs of the densities show the uncertainty in pictorial form. Figure 1 below demonstrates this point. We applied stochastic processes for a method to obtain Bayesian estimates of 222Rn-daughter products from observed counting rates. In external radiation dosimetry we studied and developed Bayesian methods to estimate radiation doses to an individual with radiation induced chromosome aberrations. We analyzed chromosome aberrations after exposure to gammas and neutrons and developed a method for dose-estimation after criticality accidents. The research in internal radiation dosimetry focused on parameter estimation for compartmental models from observed comp...

  10. Event hierarchies in DanNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bolette Sandford; Nimb, Sanni

    2008-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler udarbejdelsen af et verbumshierarki i det leksikalsk-semantiske ordnet, DanNet.......Artiklen omhandler udarbejdelsen af et verbumshierarki i det leksikalsk-semantiske ordnet, DanNet....

  11. The Uniframe .Net Web Service Discovery Service

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berbeco, Robert W

    2003-01-01

    Microsoft .NET allows the creation of distributed systems in a seamless manner Within NET small, discrete applications, referred to as Web services, are utilized to connect to each other or larger applications...

  12. Long Term RadNet Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This RadNet Quality Data Asset includes all data since initiation and when ERAMS was expanded to become RadNet, name changed to reflect new mission. This includes...

  13. Effect of Precipitable Water Vapor Amount on Radiative Cooling Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mingke; Zhao, Bin; Ao, Xianze; Pei, Gang

    2017-05-01

    A radiative cooler based on aluminum-evaporated polyvinyl-fluoride surface was employed to investigate the effect of precipitable water vapor amount on its radiative cooling performance. A mathematic model of steady heat transfer that considers the spectral radiant distribution of the sky, the transparent cover and the collecting surface was established. The results indicate that the amount of precipitable water vapor shows a remarkable and negative effect on radiative cooling performance of the radiative cooler. Both the temperature difference between the cooler and surroundings and the net radiative cooling power decrease as the precipitable water vapor amount increases. The net radiative cooling power drops by about 41.0% as the the precipitable water vapor amount changes from 1.0 cm to 7.0 cm. Besides, the radiative cooler shows better cooling performance in winter than in summer. The net radiative cooling power in summer of Hefei is about 82.2% of that in winter.

  14. PsychoNet: a psycholinguistc commonsense ontology

    OpenAIRE

    Mohtasseb, Haytham; Ahmed, Amr

    2010-01-01

    Ontologies have been widely accepted as the most advanced knowledge representation model. This paper introduces PsychoNet, a new knowledgebase that forms the link between psycholinguistic taxonomy, existing in LIWC, and its semantic textual representation in the form of commonsense semantic ontology, represented by ConceptNet. The integration of LIWC and ConceptNet and the added functionalities facilitate employing ConceptNet in psycholinguistic studies. Furthermore, it simplifies utilization...

  15. Analysis of the Electronic Crosstalk Effect in Terra MODIS Long-Wave Infrared Photovoltaic Bands Using Lunar Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Truman; Wu, Aisheng; Wang, Zhipeng; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2016-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is one of the key sensors among the suite of remote sensing instruments on board the Earth Observing System Terra and Aqua spacecrafts. For each MODIS spectral band, the sensor degradation has been measured using a set of on-board calibrators. MODIS also uses lunar observations from nearly monthly spacecraft maneuvers, which bring the Moon into view through the space-view port, helping to characterize the scan mirror degradation at a different angles of incidence. Throughout the Terra mission, contamination of the long-wave infrared photovoltaic band (LWIR PV, bands 27-30) signals has been observed in the form of electronic crosstalk, where signal from each of the detectors among the LWIR PV bands can leak to the other detectors, producing a false signal contribution. This contamination has had a noticeable effect on the MODIS science products since 2010 for band 27, and since 2012 for bands 28 and 29. Images of the Moon have been used effectively for determining the contaminating bands, and have also been used to derive correction coefficients for the crosstalk contamination. In this paper, we introduce an updated technique for characterizing the crosstalk contamination among the LWIR PV bands using data from lunar calibration events. This approach takes into account both the in-band and out-of-band contribution to the signal contamination for each detector in bands 27-30, which is not considered in previous works. The crosstalk coefficients can be derived for each lunar calibration event, providing the time dependence of the crosstalk contamination. Application of these coefficients to Earth-view image data results in a significant reduction in image contamination and a correction of the scene radiance for bands 27- 30. Also, this correction shows a significant improvement to certain threshold tests in the MODIS Level-2 Cloud Mask. In this paper, we will detail the methodology used to identify and correct

  16. 78 FR 72451 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BL74 Net Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service...). These regulations provide guidance on the computation of net investment income. The regulations affect... lesser of: (A) The individual's net investment income for such taxable year, or (B) the excess (if any...

  17. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net investment. 69.302 Section 69.302... Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B Rural...) Investment in Accounts 2002, 2003 and to the extent such inclusions are allowed by this Commission, Account...

  18. 47 CFR 65.450 - Net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.450 Section 65.450... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.450 Net income. (a) Net income shall consist of all revenues derived from the provision of interstate telecommunications services...

  19. 47 CFR 65.500 - Net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.500 Section 65.500... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Interexchange Carriers § 65.500 Net income. The net income methodology specified in § 65.450 shall be utilized by all interexchange carriers that are...

  20. NetBeans IDE 8 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Salter, David

    2014-01-01

    If you're a Java developer of any level using NetBeans and want to learn how to get the most out of NetBeans, then this book is for you. Learning how to utilize NetBeans will provide a firm foundation for your Java application development.

  1. Characterizing behavioural congruences for Petri nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Priese, Lutz; Sassone, Vladimiro

    1995-01-01

    We exploit a notion of interface for Petri nets in order to design a set of net combinators. For such a calculus of nets, we focus on the behavioural congruences arising from four simple notions of behaviour, viz., traces, maximal traces, step, and maximal step traces, and from the corresponding...

  2. 27 CFR 4.37 - Net contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the volume of wine within the container, except that the following tolerances shall be allowed: (1... THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.37 Net contents. (a) Statement of net contents. The net contents of wine for which a standard of fill is...

  3. 2-D and 3-D Radiation Transfer Models of High-Mass Star Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Whitney, Barbara A.; Robitaille, Thomas P.; Indebetouw, Remy; Wood, Kenneth; Bjorkman, J. E.; Denzmore, Pia

    2005-01-01

    2-D and 3-D radiation transfer models of forming stars generally produce bluer 1-10 micron colors than 1-D models of the same evolutionary state and envelope mass. Therefore, 1-D models of the shortwave radiation will generally estimate a lower envelope mass and later evolutionary state than multidimensional models. 1-D models are probably reasonable for very young sources, or longwave analysis (wavelengths > 100 microns). In our 3-D models of high-mass stars in clumpy molecular clouds, we fi...

  4. The response of cloud tops to radiative forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, A. R.; Davies, R.

    1986-01-01

    A longwave radiative transfer model was developed to study the effects on clouds of radiative loss of thermal energy from boundary layer cloud tops. Spectral properties of the drop size distributions are considered with Mie theory and LOWTRAN 6 gas transmission, which is combined with pathlength distributions from a Monte Carlo simulation, are used to obtain a 20/cm spectral resolution. Results are provided from a simulation of radiative cooling, at various wavelengths, of a 500 m thick cloud with a top at 2 km altitude. The very high values generated for the rates of cooling, of change of the liquid water content and of droplet growth rates indicate that cloud tops respond dynamically to strong thermal forcing.

  5. RRTM: A rapid radiative transfer model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mlawer, E.J.; Taubman, S.J.; Clough, S.A. [Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    A rapid radiative transfer model (RRTM) for the calculation of longwave clear-sky fluxes and cooling rates has been developed. The model, which uses the correlated-k method, is both accurate and computationally fast. The foundation for RRTM is the line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM) from which the relevant k-distributions are obtained. LBLRTM, which has been extensively validated against spectral observations e.g., the high-resolution sounder and the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer, is used to validate the flux and cooling rate results from RRTM. Validations of RRTM`s results have been performed for the tropical, midlatitude summer, and midlatitude winter atmospheres, as well as for the four Intercomparison of Radiation Codes in Climate Models (ICRCCM) cases from the Spectral Radiance Experiment (SPECTRE). Details of some of these validations are presented below. RRTM has the identical atmospheric input module as LBLRTM, facilitating intercomparisons with LBLRTM and application of the model at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Cloud and Radiation Testbed sites.

  6. NET 40 Generics Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Sudipta

    2012-01-01

    This is a concise, practical guide that will help you learn Generics in .NET, with lots of real world and fun-to-build examples and clear explanations. It is packed with screenshots to aid your understanding of the process. This book is aimed at beginners in Generics. It assumes some working knowledge of C# , but it isn't mandatory. The following would get the most use out of the book: Newbie C# developers struggling with Generics. Experienced C++ and Java Programmers who are migrating to C# and looking for an alternative to other generic frameworks like STL and JCF would find this book handy.

  7. The Net Reclassification Index (NRI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pepe, Margaret S.; Fan, Jing; Feng, Ziding

    2015-01-01

    The Net Reclassification Index (NRI) is a very popular measure for evaluating the improvement in prediction performance gained by adding a marker to a set of baseline predictors. However, the statistical properties of this novel measure have not been explored in depth. We demonstrate the alarming...... marker is proven to erroneously yield a positive NRI. Some insight into this phenomenon is provided. Since large values for the NRI statistic may simply be due to use of poorly fitting risk models, we suggest caution in using the NRI as the basis for marker evaluation. Other measures of prediction...

  8. Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Be extra careful not to spend time with children or pregnant women. Internal Radiation Therapy Makes You Give Off Radiation With systemic radiation, your body fluids ( urine , sweat, and saliva ) will give off radiation for a while. With ...

  9. Radiation enteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation enteropathy; Radiation-induced small bowel injury; Post-radiation enteritis ... Radiation therapy uses high-powered x-rays, particles, or radioactive seeds to kill cancer cells. The therapy ...

  10. The role of the continuous wavelet transform in mineral identification using hyperspectral imaging in the long-wave infrared by using SVM classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojasi, Saeed; Yousefi, Bardia; Liaigre, Kévin; Ibarra-Castanedo, Clemente; Beaudoin, Georges; Maldague, Xavier P. V.; Huot, François; Chamberland, Martin

    2017-05-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) in the long-wave infrared spectrum (LWIR) provides spectral and spatial information concerning the emissivity of the surface of materials, which can be used for mineral identification. For this, an endmember, which is the purest form of a mineral, is used as reference. All pure minerals have specific spectral profiles in the electromagnetic wavelength, which can be thought of as the mineral's fingerprint. The main goal of this paper is the identification of minerals by LWIR hyperspectral imaging using a machine learning scheme. The information of hyperspectral imaging has been recorded from the energy emitted from the mineral's surface. Solar energy is the source of energy in remote sensing, while a heating element is the energy source employed in laboratory experiments. Our work contains three main steps where the first step involves obtaining the spectral signatures of pure (single) minerals with a hyperspectral camera, in the long-wave infrared (7.7 to 11.8 μm), which measures the emitted radiance from the minerals' surface. The second step concerns feature extraction by applying the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) and finally we use support vector machine classifier with radial basis functions (SVM-RBF) for classification/identification of minerals. The overall accuracy of classification in our work is 90.23+/- 2.66%. In conclusion, based on CWT's ability to capture the information of signals can be used as a good marker for classification and identification the minerals substance.

  11. Climatic Forecasting of Net Infiltration at Yucca Montain Using Analogue Meteororological Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Faybishenko

    2006-09-11

    At Yucca Mountain, Nevada, future changes in climatic conditions will most likely alter net infiltration, or the drainage below the bottom of the evapotranspiration zone within the soil profile or flow across the interface between soil and the densely welded part of the Tiva Canyon Tuff. The objectives of this paper are to: (a) develop a semi-empirical model and forecast average net infiltration rates, using the limited meteorological data from analogue meteorological stations, for interglacial (present day), and future monsoon, glacial transition, and glacial climates over the Yucca Mountain region, and (b) corroborate the computed net-infiltration rates by comparing them with the empirically and numerically determined groundwater recharge and percolation rates through the unsaturated zone from published data. In this paper, the author presents an approach for calculations of net infiltration, aridity, and precipitation-effectiveness indices, using a modified Budyko's water-balance model, with reference-surface potential evapotranspiration determined from the radiation-based Penman (1948) formula. Results of calculations show that net infiltration rates are expected to generally increase from the present-day climate to monsoon climate, to glacial transition climate, and then to the glacial climate. The forecasting results indicate the overlap between the ranges of net infiltration for different climates. For example, the mean glacial net-infiltration rate corresponds to the upper-bound glacial transition net infiltration, and the lower-bound glacial net infiltration corresponds to the glacial transition mean net infiltration. Forecasting of net infiltration for different climate states is subject to numerous uncertainties-associated with selecting climate analogue sites, using relatively short analogue meteorological records, neglecting the effects of vegetation and surface runoff and runon on a local scale, as well as possible anthropogenic climate changes.

  12. Improved simulation of Antarctic sea ice due to the radiative effects of falling snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.-L. F.; Richardson, Mark; Hong, Yulan; Lee, Wei-Liang; Wang, Yi-Hui; Yu, Jia-Yuh; Fetzer, Eric; Stephens, Graeme; Liu, Yinghui

    2017-08-01

    Southern Ocean sea-ice cover exerts critical control on local albedo and Antarctic precipitation, but simulated Antarctic sea-ice concentration commonly disagrees with observations. Here we show that the radiative effects of precipitating ice (falling snow) contribute substantially to this discrepancy. Many models exclude these radiative effects, so they underestimate both shortwave albedo and downward longwave radiation. Using two simulations with the climate model CESM1, we show that including falling-snow radiative effects improves the simulations relative to cloud properties from CloudSat-CALIPSO, radiation from CERES-EBAF and sea-ice concentration from passive microwave sensors. From 50-70°S, the simulated sea-ice-area bias is reduced by 2.12 × 106 km2 (55%) in winter and by 1.17 × 106 km2 (39%) in summer, mainly because increased wintertime longwave heating restricts sea-ice growth and so reduces summer albedo. Improved Antarctic sea-ice simulations will increase confidence in projected Antarctic sea level contributions and changes in global warming driven by long-term changes in Southern Ocean feedbacks.

  13. Validação do balanço de radiação obtido a partir de dados MODIS/TERRA na Amazônia com medidas de superfície do LBA Validation of net radiation obtained from MODIS/TERRA data in Amazonia with LBA surface measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel de Oliveira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem como objetivo estimar os componentes do balanço de radiação em duas regiões do estado de Rondônia (sudoeste da Amazônia brasileira, a partir de dados do Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS/TERRA por intermédio do modelo Surface Energy Balance Algorithms for Land (SEBAL, e validar os resultados com informações adquiridas por torres micrometeorológicas do projeto LBA sob as condições de pastagem (Fazenda Nossa Senhora Aparecida e floresta (Reserva Biológica do Jaru. A implementação do modelo SEBAL foi realizada diretamente sobre os dados MODIS e incluiu etapas envolvendo o cômputo de índices de vegetação, albedo e transmitância atmosférica. A comparação das estimativas geradas a partir de dados MODIS com as observações resultou em erros relativos para a condição de pastagem variando entre 0,2 e 19,2%, e para a condição de floresta variando entre 0,8 e 15,6%. A integração de dados em diferentes escalas constituiu uma proposição útil para a estimativa e espacialização dos fluxos de radiação na região amazônica, o que pode contribuir para a melhor compreensão da interação entre a floresta tropical e a atmosfera e gerar informações de entrada necessárias aos modelos de superfície acoplados aos modelos de circulação geral da atmosfera.This study aims to estimate the components of net radiation in two regions located in the state of Rondônia (southwest of the Brazilian Amazon, using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS/TERRA data based on Surface Energy Balance Algorithms for Land (SEBAL model, and to validate the results with information acquired by the micrometeorological towers of LBA under the conditions of pasture (Fazenda Nossa Senhora Aparecida and forest (Reserva Biológica do Jaru. Implementation of SEBAL model was performed directly on the MODIS data and included steps involving the computation of vegetation indices, albedo and atmospheric

  14. Extending measurements in long-term permanent sites using a mobile observation system: Tradeoffs between carbon sequestration and radiation budget across a climatic gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramati, Efrat; Rohatyn, Shani; Rotenberg, Eyal; Tatarinov, Fyodor; Yakir, Dan

    2015-04-01

    Recent observations from the semi-arid region in Israel showed that conversion of the local sparse shrubland to pine forest resulted in greatly increased surface radiation load due to reduced canopy albedo combined with reduced emission of thermal radiations, which overwhelmed the beneficial effects of the relatively high rates of the forest carbon sequestration. Here we extend this study across the local climatic gradient, and test the hypothesis that increased carbon sequestration and reduced differences in surface radiation budgets along the precipitation gradient, diminish the surface effects of forestation while enhancing the benefits of carbon sequestration. We used a custom-built mobile laboratory (for eddy-flux and surface radiation measurements) on a campaign basis (about two weeks per site repeated along the seasonal cycle) to compare surface-atmosphere radiative (short- and long-wave radiation) and non-radiative (net carbon uptake, NEE, evapotranspiration, ET, and sensible heat, H) fluxes in three paired sites of pine forest (Pinus halepensis) and nearby non-forested ecosystems with mean annual precipitation/temperature of 291/19.5, 543/20.8, and 755/16.4 mm/˚C, respectively. Forests NEE and ET increased with increasing precipitation along the gradient from 0.8, to 1.5 gC m-2d-1, and 0.7 to 1.3 mmol H2O m-2s-1. Forests albedo did not changed along the gradient or along the seasonal cycle (αF ~0.12), while shrub land albedo (αS) varied along the gradient and the seasonal cycle due in part to variability in soil types (from 0.31 to 0.19, on average for dry and wet sites). Sensible heat flux did not markedly changed (HF~110 Wm-2 and HS~60 Wm-2), and the net thermal radiation emission along the climatic gradient increased in the forests (-90, to -105 Wm-2) and decreased in the shrub land (-112 to -104 Wm-2). The results showed, on average, enhanced carbon sink associated with forestation of shrub land (ΔNEEF-S) increased with precipitation (from near

  15. Influence of incorporated bromodeoxyuridine on the induction of chromosomal alterations by ionizing radiation and long-wave UV in CHO cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwanenburg, T S; van Zeeland, A A; Natarajan, A T

    1985-01-01

    Incorporation of BrdUrd into nuclear DNA sensitizes CHO cells (1) to the induction of chromosomal aberrations by X-rays and 0.5 MeV neutrons and (2) to induction of chromosomal aberrations and SCEs by lw-UV. We have attempted to establish a correlation between induced chromosomal alterations and induced single- or double-strand breaks in DNA. The data show that while DSBs correlate very well with X-ray-induced aberrations, no clear correlation could be established between lw-UV induced SSBs (including alkali-labile sites) and chromosomal alterations. In addition the effect of 3-aminobenzamide (3AB) on the induction of chromosomal aberrations and SCEs induced by lw-UV has been determined. It is shown that 3AB is without any effect when lw-UV-irradiated cells are posttreated with this inhibitor. The significance of these results is discussed.

  16. UV sensitivity of planktonic net community production in ocean surface waters

    OpenAIRE

    Regaudie de Gioux, Aurore; Agustí, Susana; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2014-01-01

    The net plankton community metabolism of oceanic surface waters is particularly important as it more directly affects the partial pressure of CO2 in surface waters and thus the air-sea fluxes of CO2. Plankton communities in surface waters are exposed to high irradiance that includes significant ultraviolet blue (UVB, 280-315 nm) radiation. UVB radiation affects both photosynthetic and respiration rates, increase plankton mortality rates, and other metabolic and chemical processes. Here we tes...

  17. Observations of Radiation Divergence and Stability Driven Slope Flows during the Field Experiment KASCADE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duine, Gert-Jan; Durand, Pierre; Hedde, Thierry; Roubin, Pierre; Augustin, Patrick; Fourmentin, Marc; Lohou, Fabienne; Lothon, Marie

    2014-05-01

    turbulence measurements and net radiometers at 2 levels to capture radiation divergence. TB-profiles up to 300 m allow to describe the SBL-formation and local wind patterns. In addition to the IOPs, year-round SODAR measurements are available to catch the influence of the Durance valley on wind patterns. During the desired conditions (clear sky and calm wind), the set-up of the experiment has proven successful in observing the main drivers for SBL-formation and its effects on local orography. Minimal longwave heating (cooling) values of -1 to -1.5 K h¬-1 are measured regularly and resulting slope flows are observed. The presentation focusses on the comparison of several contrasting nights.

  18. -Net Approach to Sensor -Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusco Giordano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensors rely on battery power, and in many applications it is difficult or prohibitive to replace them. Hence, in order to prolongate the system's lifetime, some sensors can be kept inactive while others perform all the tasks. In this paper, we study the -coverage problem of activating the minimum number of sensors to ensure that every point in the area is covered by at least sensors. This ensures higher fault tolerance, robustness, and improves many operations, among which position detection and intrusion detection. The -coverage problem is trivially NP-complete, and hence we can only provide approximation algorithms. In this paper, we present an algorithm based on an extension of the classical -net technique. This method gives an -approximation, where is the number of sensors in an optimal solution. We do not make any particular assumption on the shape of the areas covered by each sensor, besides that they must be closed, connected, and without holes.

  19. NETS - Danish participation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsen, S. (Grontmij - Carl Bro, Glostrup (Denmark)); Theel, C. (Baltic Sea Solutions, Holeby (Denmark))

    2008-12-15

    Within the NICe-funded project 'Nordic Environmental Technology Solutions (NETS)' a new type of networking at the Nordic level was organized in order to jointly exploit the rapidly growing market potential in the environmental technology sector. The project aimed at increased and professionalized commercialization of Nordic Cleantech in energy and water business segments through 1) closer cooperation and joint marketing activities, 2) a website, 3) cleantech product information via brochures and publications 4) and participating in relevant trade fairs and other industry events. Facilitating business-to-business activities was another core task for the NETS project partners from Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark with the aim to encourage total solutions for combined Cleantech system offers. The project has achieved to establish a Cleantech register of 600 Nordic Cleantech companies, a network of 86 member enterprises, produced several publications and brochures for direct technology promotion and a website for direct access to company profiles and contact data. The project partners have attended 14 relevant international Cleantech trade fairs and conferences and facilitated business-to-business contacts added by capacity building offers through two company workshops. The future challenge for the project partners and Nordic Cleantech will be to coordinate the numerous efforts within the Nordic countries in order to reach concerted action and binding of member companies for reliable services, an improved visibility and knowledge exchange. With Cleantech's growing market influence and public awareness, the need to develop total solutions is increasing likewise. Marketing efforts should be encouraged cross-sectional and cross-border among the various levels of involved actors from both the public and the private sector. (au)

  20. Cloud types and the tropical earth radiation budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhuria, Harbans L.; Kyle, H. Lee

    1990-01-01

    Nimbus-7 cloud and earth radiation budget data are compared in a study of the effects of clouds on the tropical radiation budget. The data consist of daily averages over fixed 500 sq km target areas, and the months of July 1979 and January 1980 were chosen to show the effect of seasonal changes. Six climate regions, consisting of 14 to 24 target areas each, were picked for intensive analysis because they exemplified the range in the tropical cloud/net radiation interactions. It is found that the net radiation is strongly influenced by the average cloud type and amount present, but most net radiation values could be produced by several combinations of cloud types and amount. The regions of highest net radiation (greater than 125 W/sq m) tend to have medium to heavy cloud cover. In these cases, thin medium-altitude clouds predominate. Their cloud tops are normally too warm to be classified as cirrus by the Nimbus cloud algorithm. In the tropical oceans there are large regions where the total regional cloud cover varies from 20 to 90 percent, but with little regional difference in the net radiation. The monsoon and rain areas are high net radiation regions.

  1. Earth Radiation Budget and Cloudiness Simulations with a General Circulation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshvardhan; Randall, David A.; Corsetti, Thomas G.

    1989-07-01

    The UCLA/GLA general circulation model has been endowed with new parameterizations of solar and terrestrial radiation, as well as new parameterized cloud optical properties. A simple representation of the cloud liquid water feedback is included. We have used the model and several observational datasets to analyze the effects of cloudiness on the Earth's radiation budget.Analysis of January and July results obtained with the full model shows that the simulated Earth radiation budget is in reasonable agreement with Nimbus 7 data. The globally averaged planetary albedo and outgoing longwave radiation am both slightly less than observed. A tropical minimum of the outgoing longwave radiation is simulated, but is weaker than observed. Comparisons of the simulated cloudiness with observations from ISCCP and HIRS2/MSU show that the model overpredicts subtropical and midlatitude cloudiness.The simulated cloud radiative forcings at the top of the atmosphere, at the Earth's surface, and across the atmosphere are discussed, and comparisons are made with the limited observations available. The simulated atmospheric cloud radiative forcing (ACRF) is comparable in magnitude to the latent heating. We have compared the clear-sky radiation fields obtained using Methods I and II of Cess and Potter; the results show significant differences between the two methods, primarily due to systematic variations of the cloudiness with time of day.An important feature of the new terrestrial radiation parameterization is its incorporation (for the first time in this GCM) of the effects of the water vapor continuum. To determine the effects of this change on the model results, we performed a numerical experiment in which the effects of the water vapor continuum were neglected. The troposphere warmed dramatically, and shallow convection weakened, and the radiative effects of the clouds were significantly enhanced.

  2. Thermal net flux measurements on the Pioneer Venus entry probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revercomb, H. E.; Sromovsky, L. A.; Suomi, V. E.; Boese, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    Corrected thermal net (upward minus downward flux) radiation data from four Pioneer Venus probes at latitudes of 4 deg and 60 deg N, and 27 deg and 31 deg S, are presented. Comparisons of these fluxes with radiative transfer calculations were interpreted in terms of cloud properties and the global distribution of water vapor in the lower atmosphere of Venus. The presence of an as yet undetected source of IR opacity is implied by the fluxes in the upper cloud range. It was also shown that beneath the clouds the fluxes at a given altitude increase with latitude, suggesting greater IR cooling below the clouds at high latitudes and a decrease of the water vapor mixing ratios toward the equator.

  3. Application and Theory of Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 13th International Conference onApplication and Theory of Petri Nets, held in Sheffield, England, in June 1992. The aim of the Petri net conferences is to create a forum for discussing progress in the application and theory of Petri nets. Typically....... Balbo and W. Reisig, 18 submitted papers, and seven project papers. The submitted papers and project presentations were selectedby the programme committee and a panel of referees from a large number of submissions....

  4. Are You Neutral About Net Neutrality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-20

    Information Resources Management College National Defense University Are You Neutral About Net Neutrality ? A presentation for Systems & Software...author uses Verizon FiOS for phone, TV, and internet service 3 Agenda Net Neutrality —Through 2 Lenses Who Are the Players & What Are They Saying...Medical Treatment Mini-Case Studies Updates Closing Thoughts 4 Working Definitions of Net Neutrality "Network Neutrality" is the concept that

  5. Texture Based Image Analysis With Neural Nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilovici, Irina S.; Ong, Hoo-Tee; Ostrander, Kim E.

    1990-03-01

    In this paper, we combine direct image statistics and spatial frequency domain techniques with a neural net model to analyze texture based images. The resultant optimal texture features obtained from the direct and transformed image form the exemplar pattern of the neural net. The proposed approach introduces an automated texture analysis applied to metallography for determining the cooling rate and mechanical working of the materials. The results suggest that the proposed method enhances the practical applications of neural nets and texture extraction features.

  6. Factors associated with mosquito net use by individuals in households owning nets in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graves Patricia M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ownership of insecticidal mosquito nets has dramatically increased in Ethiopia since 2006, but the proportion of persons with access to such nets who use them has declined. It is important to understand individual level net use factors in the context of the home to modify programmes so as to maximize net use. Methods Generalized linear latent and mixed models (GLLAMM were used to investigate net use using individual level data from people living in net-owning households from two surveys in Ethiopia: baseline 2006 included 12,678 individuals from 2,468 households and a sub-sample of the Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS in 2007 included 14,663 individuals from 3,353 households. Individual factors (age, sex, pregnancy; net factors (condition, age, net density; household factors (number of rooms [2006] or sleeping spaces [2007], IRS, women's knowledge and school attendance [2007 only], wealth, altitude; and cluster level factors (rural or urban were investigated in univariate and multi-variable models for each survey. Results In 2006, increased net use was associated with: age 25-49 years (adjusted (a OR = 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.2-1.7 compared to children U5; female gender (aOR = 1.4; 95% CI 1.2-1.5; fewer nets with holes (Ptrend = 0.002; and increasing net density (Ptrend [all nets in HH good] = 1.6; 95% CI 1.2-2.1; increasing net density (Ptrend [per additional space] = 0.6, 95% CI 0.5-0.7; more old nets (aOR [all nets in HH older than 12 months] = 0.5; 95% CI 0.3-0.7; and increasing household altitude (Ptrend Conclusion In both surveys, net use was more likely by women, if nets had fewer holes and were at higher net per person density within households. School-age children and young adults were much less likely to use a net. Increasing availability of nets within households (i.e. increasing net density, and improving net condition while focusing on education and promotion of net use, especially in school-age children

  7. Pro Agile NET Development with Scrum

    CERN Document Server

    Blankenship, Jerrel; Millett, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Pro Agile .NET Development with SCRUM guides you through a real-world ASP.NET project and shows how agile methodology is put into practice. There is plenty of literature on the theory behind agile methodologies, but no book on the market takes the concepts of agile practices and applies these in a practical manner to an end-to-end ASP.NET project, especially the estimating, requirements and management aspects of a project. Pro Agile .NET Development with SCRUM takes you through the initial stages of a project - gathering requirements and setting up an environment - through to the development a

  8. Pro ASP.NET MVC 4

    CERN Document Server

    Freeman, Adam

    2012-01-01

    The ASP.NET MVC 4 Framework is the latest evolution of Microsoft's ASP.NET web platform. It provides a high-productivity programming model that promotes cleaner code architecture, test-driven development, and powerful extensibility, combined with all the benefits of ASP.NET. ASP.NET MVC 4 contains a number of significant advances over previous versions. New mobile and desktop templates (employing adaptive rendering) are included together with support for jQuery Mobile for the first time. New display modes allow your application to select views based on the browser that's making the request whi

  9. Professional Visual Basic 2010 and .NET 4

    CERN Document Server

    Sheldon, Bill; Sharkey, Kent

    2010-01-01

    Intermediate and advanced coverage of Visual Basic 2010 and .NET 4 for professional developers. If you've already covered the basics and want to dive deep into VB and .NET topics that professional programmers use most, this is your book. You'll find a quick review of introductory topics-always helpful-before the author team of experts moves you quickly into such topics as data access with ADO.NET, Language Integrated Query (LINQ), security, ASP.NET web programming with Visual Basic, Windows workflow, threading, and more. You'll explore all the new features of Visual Basic 2010 as well as all t

  10. NASA Net Zero Energy Buildings Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless, S.; Scheib, J.; Torcellini, P.; Hendron, B.; Slovensky, M.

    2014-10-01

    In preparation for the time-phased net zero energy requirement for new federal buildings starting in 2020, set forth in Executive Order 13514, NASA requested that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a roadmap for NASA's compliance. NASA detailed a Statement of Work that requested information on strategic, organizational, and tactical aspects of net zero energy buildings. In response, this document presents a high-level approach to net zero energy planning, design, construction, and operations, based on NREL's first-hand experience procuring net zero energy construction, and based on NREL and other industry research on net zero energy feasibility. The strategic approach to net zero energy starts with an interpretation of the executive order language relating to net zero energy. Specifically, this roadmap defines a net zero energy acquisition process as one that sets an aggressive energy use intensity goal for the building in project planning, meets the reduced demand goal through energy efficiency strategies and technologies, then adds renewable energy in a prioritized manner, using building-associated, emission- free sources first, to offset the annual energy use required at the building; the net zero energy process extends through the life of the building, requiring a balance of energy use and production in each calendar year.

  11. Towards a Standard for Modular Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart; Petrucci, Laure

    2009-01-01

    When designing complex systems, mechanisms for structuring, composing, and reusing system components are crucial. Today, there are many approaches for equipping Petri nets with such mechanisms. In the context of defining a standard interchange format for Petri nets, modular PNML was defined....... Moreover, we present and discuss some more advanced features of modular Petri nets that could be included in the standard. This way, we provide a formal foundation and a basis for a discussion of features to be included in the upcoming standard of a module concept for Petri nets in general and for high...

  12. Change in the scattering spectrum of laser radiation in a plasma on transition from spontaneous to stimulated Mandelstam--Brillouin scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burunov, E.A.; Malyshev, G.M.; Razdobarin, G.T.; Semyonov, V.V.; Folomkin, I.P.

    1975-01-01

    The spectrum of radiation scattered by ion-sound plasma oscillations is obtained under conditions when the power density of the laser radiation is close to the threshold value for Mandelstam--Brillouin stimulated scattering. An additional maximum arises in the longwave range of the scattering spectrum when the laser power exceeds the threshold value. The width of the additional maximum indicates that damping of the stimulated oscillations is weak. When the threshold power is exceeded by several times, the intensity of the scattered radiation exceeds that of scattering by thermal oscillations by 15 to 20 percent.

  13. Estimating climate change effects on net primary production of rangelands in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew C. Reeves; Adam L. Moreno; Karen E. Bagne; Steven W. Running

    2014-01-01

    The potential effects of climate change on net primary productivity (NPP) of U.S. rangelands were evaluated using estimated climate regimes from the A1B, A2 and B2 global change scenarios imposed on the biogeochemical cycling model, Biome-BGC from 2001 to 2100. Temperature, precipitation, vapor pressure deficit, day length, solar radiation, CO2 enrichment and nitrogen...

  14. Experiments and simulation of a net closing mechanism for tether-net capture of space debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, Inna; Thomsen, Benjamin; Botta, Eleonora M.; Misra, Arun K.

    2017-10-01

    This research addresses the design and testing of a debris containment system for use in a tether-net approach to space debris removal. The tether-net active debris removal involves the ejection of a net from a spacecraft by applying impulses to masses on the net, subsequent expansion of the net, the envelopment and capture of the debris target, and the de-orbiting of the debris via a tether to the chaser spacecraft. To ensure a debris removal mission's success, it is important that the debris be successfully captured and then, secured within the net. To this end, we present a concept for a net closing mechanism, which we believe will permit consistently successful debris capture via a simple and unobtrusive design. This net closing system functions by extending the main tether connecting the chaser spacecraft and the net vertex to the perimeter and around the perimeter of the net, allowing the tether to actuate closure of the net in a manner similar to a cinch cord. A particular embodiment of the design in a laboratory test-bed is described: the test-bed itself is comprised of a scaled-down tether-net, a supporting frame and a mock-up debris. Experiments conducted with the facility demonstrate the practicality of the net closing system. A model of the net closure concept has been integrated into the previously developed dynamics simulator of the chaser/tether-net/debris system. Simulations under tether tensioning conditions demonstrate the effectiveness of the closure concept for debris containment, in the gravity-free environment of space, for a realistic debris target. The on-ground experimental test-bed is also used to showcase its utility for validating the dynamics simulation of the net deployment, and a full-scale automated setup would make possible a range of validation studies of other aspects of a tether-net debris capture mission.

  15. Global scale variability of the mineral dust long-wave refractive index: a new dataset of in situ measurements for climate modeling and remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Biagio, Claudia; Formenti, Paola; Balkanski, Yves; Caponi, Lorenzo; Cazaunau, Mathieu; Pangui, Edouard; Journet, Emilie; Nowak, Sophie; Caquineau, Sandrine; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Kandler, Konrad; Saeed, Thuraya; Piketh, Stuart; Seibert, David; Williams, Earle; Doussin, Jean-François

    2017-02-01

    Modeling the interaction of dust with long-wave (LW) radiation is still a challenge because of the scarcity of information on the complex refractive index of dust from different source regions. In particular, little is known about the variability of the refractive index as a function of the dust mineralogical composition, which depends on the specific emission source, and its size distribution, which is modified during transport. As a consequence, to date, climate models and remote sensing retrievals generally use a spatially invariant and time-constant value for the dust LW refractive index. In this paper, the variability of the mineral dust LW refractive index as a function of its mineralogical composition and size distribution is explored by in situ measurements in a large smog chamber. Mineral dust aerosols were generated from 19 natural soils from 8 regions: northern Africa, the Sahel, eastern Africa and the Middle East, eastern Asia, North and South America, southern Africa, and Australia. Soil samples were selected from a total of 137 available samples in order to represent the diversity of sources from arid and semi-arid areas worldwide and to account for the heterogeneity of the soil composition at the global scale. Aerosol samples generated from soils were re-suspended in the chamber, where their LW extinction spectra (3-15 µm), size distribution, and mineralogical composition were measured. The generated aerosol exhibits a realistic size distribution and mineralogy, including both the sub- and super-micron fractions, and represents in typical atmospheric proportions the main LW-active minerals, such as clays, quartz, and calcite. The complex refractive index of the aerosol is obtained by an optical inversion based upon the measured extinction spectrum and size distribution. Results from the present study show that the imaginary LW refractive index (k) of dust varies greatly both in magnitude and spectral shape from sample to sample, reflecting the

  16. Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment. It uses high doses of radiation to kill cancer cells and stop them from ... half of all cancer patients receive it. The radiation may be external, from special machines, or internal, ...

  17. HANPP Collection: Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) as a Percentage of Net Primary Product (NPP) portion of the HANPP Collection represents a map identifying...

  18. Radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Hine, Gerald J; Hine, Gerald J

    1956-01-01

    Radiation Dosimetry focuses on the advancements, processes, technologies, techniques, and principles involved in radiation dosimetry, including counters and calibration and standardization techniques. The selection first offers information on radiation units and the theory of ionization dosimetry and interaction of radiation with matter. Topics include quantities derivable from roentgens, determination of dose in roentgens, ionization dosimetry of high-energy photons and corpuscular radiations, and heavy charged particles. The text then examines the biological and medical effects of radiation,

  19. Price smarter on the Net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, W; Marn, M; Zawada, C

    2001-02-01

    Companies generally have set prices on the Internet in two ways. Many start-ups have offered untenably low prices in a rush to capture first-mover advantage. Many incumbents have simply charged the same prices on-line as they do off-line. Either way, companies are missing a big opportunity. The fundamental value of the Internet lies not in lowering prices or making them consistent but in optimizing them. After all, if it's easy for customers to compare prices on the Internet, it's also easy for companies to track customers' behavior and adjust prices accordingly. The Net lets companies optimize prices in three ways. First, it lets them set and announce prices with greater precision. Different prices can be tested easily, and customers' responses can be collected instantly. Companies can set the most profitable prices, and they can tap into previously hidden customer demand. Second, because it's so easy to change prices on the Internet, companies can adjust prices in response to even small fluctuations in market conditions, customer demand, or competitors' behavior. Third, companies can use the clickstream data and purchase histories that it collects through the Internet to segment customers quickly. Then it can offer segment-specific prices or promotions immediately. By taking full advantage of the unique possibilities afforded by the Internet to set prices with precision, adapt to changing circumstances quickly, and segment customers accurately, companies can get their pricing right. It's one of the ultimate drivers of e-business success.

  20. On precursors to the Italy earthquake M.6.2 using VLF signal of NSY(45.9 kHz) received at Kiel Longwave Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Keshav Prasad; Khadka, Balaram; Bhatta, Karan; Schnoor, Peter Wilhelm; Ghimire, Basu Dev

    2017-12-01

    On August 24, 2016, an earthquake of magnitude 6.2 struck Central Italy (42.706°N and 13.223°E) at 1:36 UT. We present the results obtained from the US Navy VLF Transmitter's NSY signal of 45.9 kHz transmitted from Niscemi, in the province of Sicily, Italy and received at the Kiel Longwave Monitor, Germany for 2016. We analysed the terminator times and their individual differences. We also analysed trends, dispersion and night time fluctuation which gave us a possible precursor the Italy earthquake. We found ionospheric perturbations in these parameters on 14th, 19th and 22nd of August, few days prior. Moreover, we filtered the possible effects due to lightning, storms and auroras if any.

  1. On precursors to the Italy earthquake M.6.2 using VLF signal of NSY(45.9 kHz) received at Kiel Longwave Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Keshav Prasad; Khadka, Balaram; Bhatta, Karan; Schnoor, Peter Wilhelm; Ghimire, Basu Dev

    2017-10-01

    On August 24, 2016, an earthquake of magnitude 6.2 struck Central Italy (42.706°N and 13.223°E) at 1:36 UT. We present the results obtained from the US Navy VLF Transmitter's NSY signal of 45.9 kHz transmitted from Niscemi, in the province of Sicily, Italy and received at the Kiel Longwave Monitor, Germany for 2016. We analysed the terminator times and their individual differences. We also analysed trends, dispersion and night time fluctuation which gave us a possible precursor the Italy earthquake. We found ionospheric perturbations in these parameters on 14th, 19th and 22nd of August, few days prior. Moreover, we filtered the possible effects due to lightning, storms and auroras if any.

  2. Preliminary results of a three-dimensional radiative transfer model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Hirok, W. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Clouds act as the primary modulator of the Earth`s radiation at the top of the atmosphere, within the atmospheric column, and at the Earth`s surface. They interact with both shortwave and longwave radiation, but it is primarily in the case of shortwave where most of the uncertainty lies because of the difficulties in treating scattered solar radiation. To understand cloud-radiative interactions, radiative transfer models portray clouds as plane-parallel homogeneous entities to ease the computational physics. Unfortunately, clouds are far from being homogeneous, and large differences between measurement and theory point to a stronger need to understand and model cloud macrophysical properties. In an attempt to better comprehend the role of cloud morphology on the 3-dimensional radiation field, a Monte Carlo model has been developed. This model can simulate broadband shortwave radiation fluxes while incorporating all of the major atmospheric constituents. The model is used to investigate the cloud absorption anomaly where cloud absorption measurements exceed theoretical estimates and to examine the efficacy of ERBE measurements and cloud field experiments. 3 figs.

  3. 78 FR 72393 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Investment Income Tax; Final and Proposed Rules #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 231 / Monday, December... Parts 1 and 602 RIN 1545-BK44 Net Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury... Investment Income Tax and the computation of Net Investment Income. The regulations affect individuals...

  4. 77 FR 72611 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... December 5, 2012 Part V Department of the Treasury Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 Net Investment... Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking...) the individual's net investment income for such taxable year, or (B) the excess (if any) of (i) the...

  5. Net analyte signal based statistical quality control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skibsted, E.T.S.; Boelens, H.F.M.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Smilde, A.K.; Broad, N.W.; Rees, D.R.; Witte, D.T.

    2005-01-01

    Net analyte signal statistical quality control (NAS-SQC) is a new methodology to perform multivariate product quality monitoring based on the net analyte signal approach. The main advantage of NAS-SQC is that the systematic variation in the product due to the analyte (or property) of interest is

  6. Asynchronous stream processing with S-Net

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grelck, C.; Scholz, S.-B.; Shafarenko, A.

    2010-01-01

    We present the rationale and design of S-Net, a coordination language for asynchronous stream processing. The language achieves a near-complete separation between the application code, written in any conventional programming language, and the coordination/communication code written in S-Net. Our

  7. Using the MVC architecture on . NET platform

    OpenAIRE

    Ježek, David

    2011-01-01

    This thesis deals with usage of MVC (Model View Controller) technology in web development on ASP.NET platform from Microsoft. Mainly it deals with latest version of framework ASP.NET MVC 3. First part describes MVC architecture and the second describes usage of MVC in certain parts of web application an comparing with PHP.

  8. Analysis of Petri Nets and Transition Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eike Best

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a stand-alone, no-frills tool supporting the analysis of (labelled place/transition Petri nets and the synthesis of labelled transition systems into Petri nets. It is implemented as a collection of independent, dedicated algorithms which have been designed to operate modularly, portably, extensibly, and efficiently.

  9. 27 CFR 7.27 - Net contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net contents. 7.27 Section 7.27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... the net contents are displayed by having the same blown, branded, or burned in the container in...

  10. Petri nets and other models of concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Sassone, Vladimiro

    1998-01-01

    This paper retraces, collects, and summarises contributions of the authors - in collaboration with others - on the theme of Petri nets and their categorical relationships to other models of concurrency.......This paper retraces, collects, and summarises contributions of the authors - in collaboration with others - on the theme of Petri nets and their categorical relationships to other models of concurrency....

  11. Delta Semantics Defined By Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    This report is identical to an earlier version of May 1978 except that Chapter 5 has been revised. A new paper: "A Petri Net Definition of a System Description Language", DAIMI, April 1979, 20 pages, extends the Petri net model to include a data state representing the program variables. Delta...

  12. Net neutrality and inflation of traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peitz, M.; Schütt, Florian

    Under strict net neutrality Internet service providers (ISPs) are required to carry data without any differentiation and at no cost to the content provider. We provide a simple framework with a monopoly ISP to evaluate the short-run effects of different net neutrality rules. Content differs in its

  13. Net Neutrality and Inflation of Traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peitz, M.; Schütt, F.

    2015-01-01

    Under strict net neutrality Internet service providers (ISPs) are required to carry data without any differentiation and at no cost to the content provider. We provide a simple framework with a monopoly ISP to evaluate different net neutrality rules. Content differs in its sensitivity to delay.

  14. The Net Neutrality Debate: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Rich

    2006-01-01

    Rich Greenfield examines the basics of today's net neutrality debate that is likely to be an ongoing issue for society. Greenfield states the problems inherent in the definition of "net neutrality" used by Common Cause: "Network neutrality is the principle that Internet users should be able to access any web content they choose and…

  15. Teaching and Learning with the Net Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Kassandra; Marateo, Raymond C.; Ferris, S. Pixy

    2007-01-01

    As the Net Generation places increasingly greater demands on educators, students and teachers must jointly consider innovative ways of teaching and learning. In this, educators are supported by the fact that the Net Generation wants to learn. However, these same educators should not fail to realize that this generation learns differently from…

  16. Verification of Timed-Arc Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lasse; Jacobsen, Morten; Møller, Mikael Harkjær

    2011-01-01

    Timed-Arc Petri Nets (TAPN) are an extension of the classical P/T nets with continuous time. Tokens in TAPN carry an age and arcs between places and transitions are labelled with time intervals restricting the age of tokens available for transition firing. The TAPN model posses a number...

  17. A Brief Introduction to Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1997-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets or CPN) is a graphical oriented language for design, specification, simulation and verification of systems. It is in particular well- suited for systems in which communication, synchronisation and resource sharing are important. Typical examples of application areas a...

  18. Quantifying the climatological cloud-free direct radiative forcing of aerosol over the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Brindley, Helen

    2015-04-01

    particles. A monthly climatology of AOD over the Red Sea is then created from 5yrs of SEVIRI retrievals and shows both enhanced aerosol loading and the development of a distinct north to south gradient across the basin in the summer relative to the winter months. The climatology is used as input to radiative transfer calculations to generate corresponding estimates of the DRF at the top and bottom of the atmosphere and the atmospheric absorption due to aerosol. These estimates indicate that although longwave effects can reach 10s W m-2, shortwave cooling typically dominates the net radiative effect over the basin and is particularly pronounced in the summer, exceeding 130 W m-2 at the surface. The spatial gradient in summer-time AOD is reflected in both the aerosol forcing at the surface and in associated differential heating by aerosol within the atmosphere above the Sea. This asymmetric forcing would be expected to exert a significant influence on the regional atmospheric and oceanic circulation and warrants further study in the context of coupled aerosol-atmosphere-ocean regional models.

  19. Gill net and trammel net selectivity in the northern Aegean Sea, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Saadet Karakulak

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Fishing trials were carried out with gill nets and trammel nets in the northern Aegean Sea from March 2004 to February 2005. Four different mesh sizes for the gill nets and the inner panel of trammel nets (16, 18, 20 and 22 mm bar length were used. Selectivity parameters for the five most economically important species, bogue (Boops boops, annular sea bream (Diplodus annularis, striped red mullet (Mullus surmuletus, axillary sea bream (Pagellus acarne and blotched picarel (Spicara maena, caught by the two gears were estimated. The SELECT method was used to estimate the selectivity parameters of a variety of models. Catch composition and catch proportion of several species were different in gill and trammel nets. The length frequency distributions of the species caught by the two gears were significantly different. The bi-modal model selectivity curve gave the best fit for gill net and trammel net data, and there was little difference between the modal lengths of these nets. However, a clear difference was found in catching efficiency. The highest catch rates were obtained with the trammel net. Given that many discard species and small fish are caught by gill nets and trammel nets with a mesh size of 16 mm, it is clear that these nets are not appropriate for fisheries. Consequently, the best mesh size for multispecies fisheries is 18 mm. This mesh size will considerably reduce the numbers of small sized individuals and discard species in the catch.

  20. Discrete, continuous, and hybrid petri nets

    CERN Document Server

    David, René

    2004-01-01

    Petri nets do not designate a single modeling formalism. In fact, newcomers to the field confess sometimes to be a little puzzled by the diversity of formalisms that are recognized under this "umbrella". Disregarding some extensions to the theoretical modeling capabilities, and looking at the level of abstraction of the formalisms, Condition/Event, Elementary, Place/Transition, Predicate/Transition, Colored, Object Oriented... net systems are frequently encountered in the literature. On the other side, provided with appropriate interpretative extensions, Controled Net Systems, Marking Diagrams (the Petri net generalization of State Diagrams), or the many-many variants in which time can be explicitly incorporated -Time(d), Deterministic, (Generalized) Stochastic, Fuzzy...- are defined. This represents another way to define practical formalisms that can be obtained by the "cro- product" of the two mentioned dimensions. Thus Petri nets constitute a modeling paradigm, understandable in a broad sense as "the total...

  1. Application of Improved Radiation Modeling to General Circulation Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael J Iacono

    2011-04-07

    This research has accomplished its primary objectives of developing accurate and efficient radiation codes, validating them with measurements and higher resolution models, and providing these advancements to the global modeling community to enhance the treatment of cloud and radiative processes in weather and climate prediction models. A critical component of this research has been the development of the longwave and shortwave broadband radiative transfer code for general circulation model (GCM) applications, RRTMG, which is based on the single-column reference code, RRTM, also developed at AER. RRTMG is a rigorously tested radiation model that retains a considerable level of accuracy relative to higher resolution models and measurements despite the performance enhancements that have made it possible to apply this radiation code successfully to global dynamical models. This model includes the radiative effects of all significant atmospheric gases, and it treats the absorption and scattering from liquid and ice clouds and aerosols. RRTMG also includes a statistical technique for representing small-scale cloud variability, such as cloud fraction and the vertical overlap of clouds, which has been shown to improve cloud radiative forcing in global models. This development approach has provided a direct link from observations to the enhanced radiative transfer provided by RRTMG for application to GCMs. Recent comparison of existing climate model radiation codes with high resolution models has documented the improved radiative forcing capability provided by RRTMG, especially at the surface, relative to other GCM radiation models. Due to its high accuracy, its connection to observations, and its computational efficiency, RRTMG has been implemented operationally in many national and international dynamical models to provide validated radiative transfer for improving weather forecasts and enhancing the prediction of global climate change.

  2. Study of Radiative Forcing of Dust Aerosols and its impact on Climate Characteristics

    KAUST Repository

    Qureshi, Fawwad H

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of following project is to study the effect of dust aerosols on the radiative forcing which is directly related to the surface temperature. A single column radiative convective model is used for simulation purpose. A series of simulations have been performed by varying the amount of dust aerosols present in the atmosphere to study the trends in ground temperature, heating rate and radiative forcing for both its longwave and shortwave components. A case study for dust storm is also performed as dust storms are common in Arabian Peninsula. A sensitivity analyses is also performed to study the relationship of surface temperature minimum and maximum against aerosol concentration, single scattering albedo and asymmetry factor. These analyses are performed to get more insight into the role of dust aerosols on radiative forcing.

  3. Pro visual C++/CLI and the net 35 platform

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Pro Visual C++/CLI and the .NET 3.5 Platform is about writing .NET applications using C++/CLI. While readers are learning the ins and outs of .NET application development, they will also be learning the syntax of C++, both old and new to .NET. Readers will also gain a good understanding of the .NET architecture. This is truly a .NET book applying C++ as its development language not another C++ syntax book that happens to cover .NET.

  4. Daily variation in net primary production and net calcification in coral reef communities exposed to elevated pCO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeau, Steeve; Edmunds, Peter J.; Lantz, Coulson A.; Carpenter, Robert C.

    2017-07-01

    The threat represented by ocean acidification (OA) for coral reefs has received considerable attention because of the sensitivity of calcifiers to changing seawater carbonate chemistry. However, most studies have focused on the organismic response of calcification to OA, and only a few have addressed community-level effects, or investigated parameters other than calcification, such as photosynthesis. Light (photosynthetically active radiation, PAR) is a driver of biological processes on coral reefs, and the possibility that these processes might be perturbed by OA has important implications for community function. Here we investigate how CO2 enrichment affects the relationships between PAR and community net O2 production (Pnet), and between PAR and community net calcification (Gnet), using experiments on three coral communities constructed to match (i) the back reef of Mo'orea, French Polynesia, (ii) the fore reef of Mo'orea, and (iii) the back reef of O'ahu, Hawaii. The results were used to test the hypothesis that OA affects the relationship between Pnet and Gnet. For the three communities tested, pCO2 did not affect the Pnet-PAR relationship, but it affected the intercept of the hyperbolic tangent curve fitting the Gnet-PAR relationship for both reef communities in Mo'orea (but not in O'ahu). For the three communities, the slopes of the linear relationships between Pnet and Gnet were not affected by OA, although the intercepts were depressed by the inhibitory effect of high pCO2 on Gnet. Our result indicates that OA can modify the balance between net calcification and net photosynthesis of reef communities by depressing community calcification, but without affecting community photosynthesis.

  5. Daily variation in net primary production and net calcification in coral reef communities exposed to elevated pCO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Comeau

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The threat represented by ocean acidification (OA for coral reefs has received considerable attention because of the sensitivity of calcifiers to changing seawater carbonate chemistry. However, most studies have focused on the organismic response of calcification to OA, and only a few have addressed community-level effects, or investigated parameters other than calcification, such as photosynthesis. Light (photosynthetically active radiation, PAR is a driver of biological processes on coral reefs, and the possibility that these processes might be perturbed by OA has important implications for community function. Here we investigate how CO2 enrichment affects the relationships between PAR and community net O2 production (Pnet, and between PAR and community net calcification (Gnet, using experiments on three coral communities constructed to match (i the back reef of Mo'orea, French Polynesia, (ii the fore reef of Mo'orea, and (iii the back reef of O'ahu, Hawaii. The results were used to test the hypothesis that OA affects the relationship between Pnet and Gnet. For the three communities tested, pCO2 did not affect the Pnet–PAR relationship, but it affected the intercept of the hyperbolic tangent curve fitting the Gnet–PAR relationship for both reef communities in Mo'orea (but not in O'ahu. For the three communities, the slopes of the linear relationships between Pnet and Gnet were not affected by OA, although the intercepts were depressed by the inhibitory effect of high pCO2 on Gnet. Our result indicates that OA can modify the balance between net calcification and net photosynthesis of reef communities by depressing community calcification, but without affecting community photosynthesis.

  6. Increased light-use efficiency sustains net primary productivity of shaded coffee plants in agroforestry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonnier, Fabien; Roupsard, Olivier; le Maire, Guerric; Guillemot, Joannès; Casanoves, Fernando; Lacointe, André; Vaast, Philippe; Allinne, Clémentine; Audebert, Louise; Cambou, Aurélie; Clément-Vidal, Anne; Defrenet, Elsa; Duursma, Remko A; Jarri, Laura; Jourdan, Christophe; Khac, Emmanuelle; Leandro, Patricia; Medlyn, Belinda E; Saint-André, Laurent; Thaler, Philippe; Van Den Meersche, Karel; Barquero Aguilar, Alejandra; Lehner, Peter; Dreyer, Erwin

    2017-08-01

    In agroforestry systems, shade trees strongly affect the physiology of the undergrown crop. However, a major paradigm is that the reduction in absorbed photosynthetically active radiation is, to a certain extent, compensated by an increase in light-use efficiency, thereby reducing the difference in net primary productivity between shaded and non-shaded plants. Due to the large spatial heterogeneity in agroforestry systems and the lack of appropriate tools, the combined effects of such variables have seldom been analysed, even though they may help understand physiological processes underlying yield dynamics. In this study, we monitored net primary productivity, during two years, on scales ranging from individual coffee plants to the entire plot. Absorbed radiation was mapped with a 3D model (MAESPA). Light-use efficiency and net assimilation rate were derived for each coffee plant individually. We found that although irradiance was reduced by 60% below crowns of shade trees, coffee light-use efficiency increased by 50%, leaving net primary productivity fairly stable across all shade levels. Variability of aboveground net primary productivity of coffee plants was caused primarily by the age of the plants and by intraspecific competition among them (drivers usually overlooked in the agroforestry literature) rather than by the presence of shade trees. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Solar and thermal radiative effects during the 2011 extreme desert dust episode over Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, A.; Costa, M. J.; Guerrero-Rascado, J. L.; Bortoli, D.; Olmo, F. J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyses the influence of the extreme Saharan desert dust (DD) event on shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiation at the EARLINET/AERONET Évora station (Southern Portugal) from 4 up to 7 April 2011. There was also some cloud occurrence in the period. In this context, it is essential to quantify the effect of cloud presence on aerosol radiative forcing. A radiative transfer model was initialized with aerosol optical properties, cloud vertical properties and meteorological atmospheric vertical profiles. The intercomparison between the instantaneous TOA shortwave and longwave fluxes derived using CERES and those calculated using SBDART, which was fed with aerosol extinction coefficients derived from the CALIPSO and lidar-PAOLI observations, varying OPAC dataset parameters, was reasonably acceptable within the standard deviations. The dust aerosol type that yields the best fit was found to be the mineral accumulation mode. Therefore, SBDART model constrained with the CERES observations can be used to reliably determine aerosol radiative forcing and heating rates. Aerosol radiative forcings and heating rates were derived in the SW (ARFSw, AHRSw) and LW (ARFLw, AHRLw) spectral ranges, considering a cloud-aerosol free reference atmosphere. We found that AOD at 440 nm increased by a factor of 5 on 6 April with respect to the lower dust load on 4 April. It was responsible by a strong cooling radiative effect pointed out by the ARFSw value (-99 W/m2 for a solar zenith angle of 60°) offset by a warming radiative effect according to ARFLw value (+21.9 W/m2) at the surface. Overall, about 24% and 12% of the dust solar radiative cooling effect is compensated by its longwave warming effect at the surface and at the top of the atmosphere, respectively. Hence, larger aerosol loads could enhance the response between the absorption and re-emission processes increasing the ARFLw with respect to those associated with moderate and low aerosol loads. The unprecedented

  8. KONVERGENSI DALAM PROGRAM NET CITIZEN JOURNALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhafidilla Vebrynda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Di dalam artikel ini, peneliti ingin melihat perkembangan teknologi di Indonesia sebagai sebuah peluang untuk menjalankan sebuah program berita berbasis video kiriman masyarakat. Perkembangan teknologi tersebut adalah teknologi penyiaran, teknologi sosial media dan teknologi dalam proses produksi sebuah video. Di Indonesia, jumlah televisi semakin banyak. Setiap stasiun televisi harus bersaing untuk dapat bertahan hidup. Net TV merupakan sebuah stasiun televisi baru di Indonesia yang harus memiliki berbagai program unggulan baru agar dapat bersaing dengan televisi lainnya yang sudah ada. Net TV menggunakan berbagai platform media untuk menjalankan program Net Citizen Journalism (Net CJ. Penggunaan berbagai platform media dikenal dengan istilah multiplatform dan secara teoritis dikenal dengan istilah konvergensi. Konvergensi yaitu saat meleburnya domain-domain dalam berbagai media komunikasi. Artikel ini menggunakan metode studi kasus untuk melihat bagaimana konvergensi terjadi dalam proses pengelolaan program Net CJ. Teknik pengumpulan data adalah dengan wawancara mendalam, observasi dan studi dokumen. Wawancara mendalam dilakukan dari tiga sudut pandang yaitu dari pengelola program, pengguna/audience dan pengamat media. Penelitian ini menemukan bahwa dengan menggunakan berbagai platform media yang fungsinya berbeda, memiliki satu tujuan yang sama yaitu untuk menjalankan program Net CJ. Adapun berbagai platform dalam proses produksi program yaitu tayangan TV konvensional, streaming TV, website, aplikasi Net CJ, facebook, twitter, instagram dan path. Konvergensi media dijalankan dalam dua proses, yaitu proses produksi dan proses promosi program berita.

  9. Net Neutrality: Media Discourses and Public Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Quail

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes media and public discourses surrounding net neutrality, with particular attention to public utility philosophy, from a critical perspective. The article suggests that further public education about net neutrality would be beneficial. The first portion of this paper provides a survey of the existing literature surrounding net neutrality, highlighting the contentious debate between market-based and public interest perspectives. In order to contextualize the debate, an overview of public utility philosophy is provided, shedding light on how the Internet can be conceptualized as a public good. Following this discussion, an analysis of mainstream media is presented, exploring how the media represents the issue of net neutrality and whether or not the Internet is discussed through the lens of public utility. To further examine how the net neutrality debate is being addressed, and to see the potential impacts of media discourses on the general public, the results of a focus group are reported and analyzed. Finally, a discussion assesses the implications of the net neutrality debate as presented through media discourses, highlighting the future of net neutrality as an important policy issue.

  10. The SARTre model for radiative transfer in spherical atmospheres and its application to the derivation of cirrus cloud properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendrock, J.

    2006-07-01

    Modeling of radiative transfer (RT) is one of the essentials of atmospheric remote sensing. It has been common to use separate models for the simulation of shortwave radiation dominated by scattering of sunlight and longwave radiation characterized by emission from trace gases. These days also shortwave instruments are operated in limb mode, which demand models taking the sphericity of the Earth and atmosphere into account. On the other hand, infrared and microwave sounders are increasingly being used for the observation of ice clouds, that necessitate the modeling of scattering by cloud particles. Both trends require RT models, that are capable of taking into account scattering as well as the sphericity of the atmosphere. This suggests a unified handling of short- and longwave radiation, which furthermore allows for a consistent evaluation of multispectral data. Focusing on these aspects, the RT-model SARTre ([Approximate] Spherical Atmospheric Radiative Transfer model) has been developed. To our knowledge, SARTre is the first model, that is capable of limb modeling in the ultraviolet, visible, near to far infrared, and microwave spectral region. Here, algorithm baseline, implementation, verification and validation of SARTre are presented. SARTre has been used to study effects of cirrus clouds on infrared limb emission spectra. An exemplary retrieval of cirrus parameters from MIPAS measurements is demonstrated, and the plausibility of the results is discussed. (orig.)

  11. Approximation methods for stochastic petri nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungnitz, Hauke Joerg

    1992-01-01

    Stochastic Marked Graphs are a concurrent decision free formalism provided with a powerful synchronization mechanism generalizing conventional Fork Join Queueing Networks. In some particular cases the analysis of the throughput can be done analytically. Otherwise the analysis suffers from the classical state explosion problem. Embedded in the divide and conquer paradigm, approximation techniques are introduced for the analysis of stochastic marked graphs and Macroplace/Macrotransition-nets (MPMT-nets), a new subclass introduced herein. MPMT-nets are a subclass of Petri nets that allow limited choice, concurrency and sharing of resources. The modeling power of MPMT is much larger than that of marked graphs, e.g., MPMT-nets can model manufacturing flow lines with unreliable machines and dataflow graphs where choice and synchronization occur. The basic idea leads to the notion of a cut to split the original net system into two subnets. The cuts lead to two aggregated net systems where one of the subnets is reduced to a single transition. A further reduction leads to a basic skeleton. The generalization of the idea leads to multiple cuts, where single cuts can be applied recursively leading to a hierarchical decomposition. Based on the decomposition, a response time approximation technique for the performance analysis is introduced. Also, delay equivalence, which has previously been introduced in the context of marked graphs by Woodside et al., Marie's method and flow equivalent aggregation are applied to the aggregated net systems. The experimental results show that response time approximation converges quickly and shows reasonable accuracy in most cases. The convergence of Marie's method and flow equivalent aggregation are applied to the aggregated net systems. The experimental results show that response time approximation converges quickly and shows reasonable accuracy in most cases. The convergence of Marie's is slower, but the accuracy is generally better. Delay

  12. Visual Studio 2010 and NET 4 Six-in-One

    CERN Document Server

    Novak, Istvan; Granicz, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Complete coverage of all key .NET 4 and Visual Studio 2010 languages and technologies. .NET 4 is Microsoft's latest version of their core programming platform, and Visual Studio 2010 is the toolset that helps write .NET 4 applications. This comprehensive resource offers one-stop shopping for all you need to know to get productive with .NET 4. Experienced author and .NET guru Mitchel Sellers reviews all the important new features of .NET 4, including .NET charting and ASP.NET charting, ASP.NET dynamic data and jQuery, and the addition of F# as a supported package language. The expansive coverag

  13. Aerosol Microphysics and Radiative Forcing At Kaashidhoo Climate Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgorny, I. A.; Ramanathan, V.

    The aerosol and radiometric data collected at Kaashidhoo Climate Observatory (4.9 N, 73.5 E) from February 1998 to April 1999 during the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) have been analyzed to document the short-wave and long-wave aerosol radiative forcing as a function of seasonal variations in aerosol chemical and micro- physical properties. The rotated principal component analysis of chemical and micro- physical data revealed three distinctive modes of variability linked to sea salt, dust and anthropogenic aerosol (sulfates, ammonium, nitrates, organics and soot), respectively. The anthropogenic mode represented species transported from the Indian subcontinent and was prevalent during winter monsoon, whereas mineral dust transported from the Arabian Peninsula and locally produced sea salt were dominant modes during summer monsoon. The seasonal variations of Angstrom parameter derived from CIMEL data at Kaashidhoo were strongly correlated with aerosol modes, confirming the prevalence of large particles during the summer. To quantify the aerosol forcing over the North- ern Indian Ocean, we developed a three-mode aerosol optical model and calculated daily short-wave and long-wave forcing at the top of the atmosphere, surface and in the atmosphere using CIMEL observations of aerosol optical thickness as input.

  14. Application and Theory of Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , the conferences have 150-200 participants, one third of these coming from industry and the rest from universities and research institutions. The 1992 conference was organized by the School of Computing and Management Sciences at Sheffield City Polytechnic, England. The volume contains twoinvited papers, by G......This volume contains the proceedings of the 13th International Conference onApplication and Theory of Petri Nets, held in Sheffield, England, in June 1992. The aim of the Petri net conferences is to create a forum for discussing progress in the application and theory of Petri nets. Typically...

  15. Performance Analysis using Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wells, Lisa Marie

    an explicit separation between modelling the behaviour of a system and monitoring the behaviour of the model. As a result, cleaner and more understandable models can be created. The third paper presents a novel method for adding auxiliary information to coloured Petri net models. Coloured Petri nets models...... in a very limited and predictable manner, and it is easy to enable and disable the auxiliary information. The fourth paper is a case study in which the performance of a web server was analysed using coloured Petri nets. This case study has shown that it is relatively easy to analyse the performance...

  16. The KM3NeT project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, U.F., E-mail: katz@physik.uni-erlangen.d [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics (ECAP), University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2011-01-21

    The KM3NeT research infrastructure in the deep Mediterranean Sea will host a multi-cubic-kilometre neutrino telescope and provide connectivity for continuous, long-term measurements of earth and sea sciences, such as geology, marine biology and oceanography. The KM3NeT neutrino telescope will complement the IceCube telescope currently being installed at the South Pole in its field of view and surpass its sensitivity by a substantial factor. In this document the major aspects of the KM3NeT technical design are described and the expected physics sensitivity is discussed. Finally, the expected time line towards construction is presented.

  17. The net neutrality debate on Twitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf J. Schünemann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The internet has been seen as a medium that empowers individual political actors in relation to established political elites and media gatekeepers. The present article discusses this “net empowerment hypothesis” and tests it empirically by analysing Twitter communication on the regulation of net neutrality. We extracted 503.839 tweets containing #NetNeutrality posted between January and March 2015 and analysed central developments and the network structure of the debate. The empirical results show that traditional actors from media and politics still maintain a central role.

  18. Evaluating Radiative Closure in the Middle-to-Upper Troposhere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, David C; Turner, David D; Knuteson, Robert O

    2013-01-02

    This project had two general objectives. The first is the characterization and improvement of the radiative transfer parameterization in strongly absorbing water vapor bands, as these strongly absorbing bands dictate the clear sky radiative heating rate. The second is the characterization and improvement of the radiative transfer in cirrus clouds, with emphasis on ensuring that the parameterization of the radiative transfer is consistent and accurate across the spectrum. Both of these objectives are important for understanding the radiative processes in the mid-to-upper troposphere. The research on this project primarily involved analysis of data from the First and Second Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaigns, RHUBC-I and II. This included a climate model sensitivity study using results from RHUBC-I. The RHUBC experiments are ARM-funded activities that directly address the objectives of this research project. A secondary effort was also conducted that investigated the trends in the long-term (~14 year) dataset collected by the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) at the ARM Southern Great Plains site. This work, which was primarily done by a post-doc at the University of Wisconsin, Madison under Dr. Turner's direction, uses the only NIST-traceable instrument at the ARM site that has a well-documented calibration and uncertainty performance to investigate long-term trends in the downwelling longwave radiance above this site.

  19. Planning long lasting insecticide treated net campaigns: should households' existing nets be taken into account?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukich, Joshua; Bennett, Adam; Keating, Joseph; Yukich, Rudy K; Lynch, Matt; Eisele, Thomas P; Kolaczinski, Kate

    2013-06-14

    Mass distribution of long-lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLINs) has led to large increases in LLIN coverage in many African countries. As LLIN ownership levels increase, planners of future mass distributions face the challenge of deciding whether to ignore the nets already owned by households or to take these into account and attempt to target individuals or households without nets. Taking existing nets into account would reduce commodity costs but require more sophisticated, and potentially more costly, distribution procedures. The decision may also have implications for the average age of nets in use and therefore on the maintenance of universal LLIN coverage over time. A stochastic simulation model based on the NetCALC algorithm was used to determine the scenarios under which it would be cost saving to take existing nets into account, and the potential effects of doing so on the age profile of LLINs owned. The model accounted for variability in timing of distributions, concomitant use of continuous distribution systems, population growth, sampling error in pre-campaign coverage surveys, variable net 'decay' parameters and other factors including the feasibility and accuracy of identifying existing nets in the field. Results indicate that (i) where pre-campaign coverage is around 40% (of households owning at least 1 LLIN), accounting for existing nets in the campaign will have little effect on the mean age of the net population and (ii) even at pre-campaign coverage levels above 40%, an approach that reduces LLIN distribution requirements by taking existing nets into account may have only a small chance of being cost-saving overall, depending largely on the feasibility of identifying nets in the field. Based on existing literature the epidemiological implications of such a strategy is likely to vary by transmission setting, and the risks of leaving older nets in the field when accounting for existing nets must be considered. Where pre-campaign coverage

  20. Planning long lasting insecticide treated net campaigns: should households’ existing nets be taken into account?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Mass distribution of long-lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLINs) has led to large increases in LLIN coverage in many African countries. As LLIN ownership levels increase, planners of future mass distributions face the challenge of deciding whether to ignore the nets already owned by households or to take these into account and attempt to target individuals or households without nets. Taking existing nets into account would reduce commodity costs but require more sophisticated, and potentially more costly, distribution procedures. The decision may also have implications for the average age of nets in use and therefore on the maintenance of universal LLIN coverage over time. Methods A stochastic simulation model based on the NetCALC algorithm was used to determine the scenarios under which it would be cost saving to take existing nets into account, and the potential effects of doing so on the age profile of LLINs owned. The model accounted for variability in timing of distributions, concomitant use of continuous distribution systems, population growth, sampling error in pre-campaign coverage surveys, variable net ‘decay’ parameters and other factors including the feasibility and accuracy of identifying existing nets in the field. Results Results indicate that (i) where pre-campaign coverage is around 40% (of households owning at least 1 LLIN), accounting for existing nets in the campaign will have little effect on the mean age of the net population and (ii) even at pre-campaign coverage levels above 40%, an approach that reduces LLIN distribution requirements by taking existing nets into account may have only a small chance of being cost-saving overall, depending largely on the feasibility of identifying nets in the field. Based on existing literature the epidemiological implications of such a strategy is likely to vary by transmission setting, and the risks of leaving older nets in the field when accounting for existing nets must be considered

  1. A Lightweight TwiddleNet Portal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rimikis, Antonios M

    2008-01-01

    TwiddleNet is a distributed architecture of personal servers that harnesses the power of the mobile devices, enabling real time information and file sharing of multiple data types from commercial-off-the-shelf platforms...

  2. Homology Groups of a Pipeline Petri Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Husainov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Petri net is said to be elementary if every place can contain no more than one token. In this paper, it is studied topological properties of the elementary Petri net for a pipeline consisting of n functional devices. If the work of the functional devices is considered continuous, we can come to some topological space of “intermediate” states. In the paper, it is calculated the homology groups of this topological space. By induction on n, using the Addition Sequence for homology groups of semicubical sets, it is proved that in dimension 0 and 1 the integer homology groups of these nets are equal to the group of integers, and in the remaining dimensions are zero. Directed homology groups are studied. A connection of these groups with deadlocks and newsletters is found. This helps to prove that all directed homology groups of the pipeline elementary Petri nets are zeroth.

  3. Net accumulation of the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilsholm, Sissi; Christensen, Jens Hesselbjerg; Dethloff, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    improvement compared to the driving OAGCM. Estimates of the regional net balance are also better represented by the RCM. In the future climate the net balance for the Greenland Ice Sheet is reduced in all the simulation, but discrepancies between the amounts when based on ECHAM4/OPYC3 and HIRHAM are found....... In both scenarios, the estimated melt rates are larger in HIRHAM than in the driving model....

  4. CDMA and TDMA based neural nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, J C

    2001-06-01

    CDMA and TDMA telecommunication techniques were established long time ago, but they have acquired a renewed presence due to the rapidly increasing mobile phones demand. In this paper, we are going to see they are suitable for neural nets, if we leave the concept "connection" between processing units and we adopt the concept "messages" exchanged between them. This may open the door to neural nets with a higher number of processing units and flexible configuration.

  5. Mastering AngularJD for .NET developers

    CERN Document Server

    Majid, Mohammad Wadood

    2015-01-01

    This book is envisioned for traditional developers and programmers who want to develop client-side applications using the AngularJS framework and ASP.NET Web API 2 with Visual Studio. .NET developers who have already built web applications or web services and who have a fundamental knowledge of HTML, JavaScript, and CSS and want to explore single-page applications will also find this guide useful. Basic knowledge of AngularJS would be helpful.

  6. .NET 4.5 parallel extensions

    CERN Document Server

    Freeman, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    This book contains practical recipes on everything you will need to create task-based parallel programs using C#, .NET 4.5, and Visual Studio. The book is packed with illustrated code examples to create scalable programs.This book is intended to help experienced C# developers write applications that leverage the power of modern multicore processors. It provides the necessary knowledge for an experienced C# developer to work with .NET parallelism APIs. Previous experience of writing multithreaded applications is not necessary.

  7. A Lightweight TwiddleNet Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    designed to exploit the multiple networking modalities available in the current generation of smartphones . TwiddleNet enables well-organized and well...of Sonopia and will have a comprehensive review of the service in the coming weeks [12]. Twango, which was acquired by Nokia in July 2007, is an...EXPERIMENTATION As already mentioned the main purpose of this thesis is the development of a TwiddleNet portal running on a smartphone or a PDA, which can allow

  8. CCS - and its relationship to net theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens

    1987-01-01

    In this paper we give a short introduction to Milner's Calculus for Communicating Systems - a paradigm for concurrent computation. We put special emphasis on the basic concepts and tools from the underlying "algebraic approach", and their relationship to the approach to concurrency within net...... theory. Furthermore, we provide an operational version of the language CCS with "true concurrency" in the sense of net theory, and a discussion of the possible use of such a marriage of the two theories of concurrency....

  9. Radiation Therapy: Professions in Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Professions in Radiation Therapy Radiation Oncologist Therapeutic Medical Physicist Radiation Therapist Dosimetrist Radiation Oncology Nurse Social Worker Dietitian Radiation Oncologist Radiation oncologists are physicians who oversee the ...

  10. Visual Studio 2013 and .NET 4.5 expert cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Sur, Abhishek

    2014-01-01

    If you are a Visual Studio 2013 or .NET developer who would like to sharpen your existing skill set and adapt to new .NET technologies, this is the book for you. A basic understanding of .NET and C# is required.

  11. HANPP Collection: Global Patterns in Net Primary Productivity (NPP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Patterns in Net Primary Productivity (NPP) portion of the Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) Collection maps the net amount of solar...

  12. Evaluation of 20-min and Annual Radiation Budget Components and Cloudiness in a Mountainous Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, E.

    2007-05-01

    Logan, Utah (USA) is among cities located in the mountainous valley in the western portion of Rocky Mountains in North America. It is the county seat of Cache Valley, a metropolitan area with a population of about 100,000. The valley had the polluted air in the USA during January 2004. To evaluate the daily and annual radiation budget and cloudiness in this mountainous valley, we set up a radiation station in the middle of the valley to measure the 20- min radiation budget components namely: incoming (Rso) and outgoing (Rso) solar or shortwave radiation, using to CM21 Kipp and Zonen (one inverted) and incoming (Rli) (or atmospheric) and outgoing (Rlo) or terrestrial) longwave radiation using two CG1 Kipp and Zonen Pyrgeometers (one inverted) during the year of 2003. All pyranometers and Pyrgeometers were ventilated with four CV2 Kipp and Zonen ventilation systems throughout the year to prevent deposition of dew, frost and snow, which otherwise would disturb the measurements. We also measured the 2-m air temperature and relative humidity along with surface temperature. All measurements were taken every 2 s, averaged to 20 min, continuously throughout the year 2000. A Met One heated rain gauge measured precipitation. Comparison of the annual radiation budget components indicates that about 25% of the annual Rsi (5848.6 MJ/ (squared m-y)) was reflected back to sky as Rso. Rli and Rlo amounted to 9968.7 and 13303.5 MJ/ (squared m-y)), respectively. This yielded about 1364.9 MJ/ (squared m- y)) available energy (Rn). Having the 2-m air temperature and moisture data and comparison between the theoretical and the measured longwave radiation, we evaluated the 20-m cloudy conditions throughout the year of 2003. The average cloud base height was 587 m (ranged from zero for foggy conditions to about 3000 m). Annual cloudiness contributed about 139.1 MJ/ (squared m-y)) more energy in this valley.

  13. Using radiative signatures to diagnose the cause of warming during the 2013-2014 Californian drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Sebastian; Yin, Dongqin; Roderick, Michael L.

    2017-10-01

    California recently experienced among the worst droughts of the last century, with exceptional precipitation deficits and co-occurring record high temperatures. The dry conditions caused severe water shortages in one of the economically most important agricultural regions of the US. It has recently been hypothesized that anthropogenic warming is increasing the likelihood of such extreme droughts in California, or more specifically, that warmer temperatures from the enhanced greenhouse effect intensify drought conditions. However, separating the cause and effect is difficult because the dry conditions lead to a reduction in evaporative cooling that contributes to the warming. Here we investigate and compare the forcing of long-term greenhouse-induced warming with the short-term warming during the 2013-2014 Californian drought. We use the concept of radiative signatures to investigate the source of the radiative perturbation during the drought, relate the signatures to expected changes due to anthropogenic warming, and assess the cause of warming based on observed changes in the surface energy balance compared to the period 2001-2012. We found that the recent meteorological drought based on precipitation deficits was characterised by an increase in incoming shortwave radiation coupled with a decline in incoming longwave radiation, which contributed to record warm temperatures. In contrast, climate models project that anthropogenic warming is accompanied by little change in incoming shortwave but a large increase in incoming longwave radiation. The warming during the drought was associated with increased incoming shortwave radiation in combination with reduced evaporative cooling from water deficits, which enhanced surface temperatures and sensible heat transfer to the atmosphere. Our analyses demonstrate that radiative signatures are a powerful tool to differentiate the source of perturbations in the surface energy balance at monthly to seasonal time scales.

  14. ASP.NET web API build RESTful web applications and services on the .NET framework

    CERN Document Server

    Kanjilal, Joydip

    2013-01-01

    This book is a step-by-step, practical tutorial with a simple approach to help you build RESTful web applications and services on the .NET framework quickly and efficiently.This book is for ASP.NET web developers who want to explore REST-based services with C# 5. This book contains many real-world code examples with explanations whenever necessary. Some experience with C# and ASP.NET 4 is expected.

  15. Freeze-out conditions from net-proton and net-charge fluctuations at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alba, Paolo; Alberico, Wanda [Department of Physics, Torino University and INFN, Sezione di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Bellwied, Rene [Department of Physics, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Bluhm, Marcus [Department of Physics, Torino University and INFN, Sezione di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Mantovani Sarti, Valentina [Department of Physics, Torino University and INFN, Sezione di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Nahrgang, Marlene [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708-0305 (United States); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Ratti, Claudia [Department of Physics, Torino University and INFN, Sezione di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2014-11-10

    We calculate ratios of higher-order susceptibilities quantifying fluctuations in the number of net-protons and in the net-electric charge using the Hadron Resonance Gas (HRG) model. We take into account the effect of resonance decays, the kinematic acceptance cuts in rapidity, pseudo-rapidity and transverse momentum used in the experimental analysis, as well as a randomization of the isospin of nucleons in the hadronic phase. By comparing these results to the latest experimental data from the STAR Collaboration, we determine the freeze-out conditions from net-electric charge and net-proton distributions and discuss their consistency.

  16. Effciency and safety of the use of long-wave UVA-1 phototherapy in treatment of psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakulev A.L.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

     

     

    The effectiveness of the long wavelength ultraviolet therapy (UVA-1 in complex treatment of patients with psoriasis has been studied during the research. There 20 patients with moderately severe and severe psoriasis in the phase of progressive dermatosis have been observed. The therapy was organized using photobox Waldmann UV-7001K (Herbert Waldmann GmbH & Co, Germany and F85 100W-TL10R lamps, creating radiation spectrum of UVA-1 (ƛ = 340 – 400 nm and emission maximum was ƛ=370 nm. 20 patients of the comparison group receive standard therapy in combination with PUVA therapy. The group did not differ from the main group of patients in age, duration and form of the disease. The effectiveness of the treatment was measured according to the dynamic assessment of PASI index. The usage of a long wavelength ultraviolet therapy (UVA-1 has caused a reduction of the severity and the extent of skin lesions, gave positive outcomes in all patients of the study. No adverse effects caused by the therapy undertaken have been noted. The administration of long wavelength ultraviolet therapy (UVA-1 is safe and effective in patients with psoriasis.

  17. A database on downward shortwave radiation for Africa and Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, M.; Cros, S.; Albuisson, M.; Wald, L.

    2003-04-01

    comparisons between satellite-derived assessments and measurements performed in the world radiation network in Europe and Africa. The results depend upon the number of pixels whose values are averaged for the comparison with the irradiation measurements. The satellite data are in B2 format. This format results from a sub-sampling of the high-resolution data. Briefly written, one pixel out of six original pixels is kept. Estimates at the geographical locations of the stations are therefore produced by spatial interpolation [15]. These estimates were compared to observations made by 60 stations in Europe and 30 stations in Africa for one year, July 1994 to June 1995. The bias and root mean square error (RMSE) for the assessment of the irradiance for a month are better than respectively 3 and 17 W m-2 on cells of 5' of arc angle in size (approx. 10 km at mid-latitude). The RMSE decreases down to 9 W m-2 if assessments are averaged over cells of 0.5° of arc angle. Data in B2 format were collected from Eumetsat. They were quality-controlled and calibrated. The method Heliosat-II is being operated to produce a database of SW downward radiation for the Eastern Atlantic Ocean, Europe and Africa from 1985 onwards and for each day. This database is accessible through the SoDa service on a free basis [16] (http://www.soda-is.com). Further, tools are available through this service to estimate longwave downward irradiance and net irradiance from the SW downward irradiance. The Heliosat-II method can be operated in real-time. When applied to Meteosat data (MOP and MSG), it produces maps of downward SW irradiance within the hour following the acquisition. 1 Perez R., Seals R., Zelenka A., 1997, Comparing satellite remote sensing and ground network measurements for the production of site/time specific irradiance data, Solar Energy, 60, 89-96. 2 Zelenka A., Perez R., Seals R., and Renné D., 1999, Effective accuracy of satellite-derived hourly irradiances, Theoretical and Applied Climatology

  18. Parameterization of sea-salt optical properties and physics of the associated radiative forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Li

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The optical properties of sea-salt aerosol have been parameterized at shortwave and longwave wavelengths. The optical properties were parameterized in a simple functional form in terms of the ambient relative humidity based on Mie optical property calculations. The proposed parameterization is tested relative to Mie calculations and is found to be accurate to within a few percent. In the parameterization, the effects of the size distribution on the optical properties are accounted for in terms of effective radius of the sea-salt size distribution. This parameterization differs from previous works by being formulated directly with the wet sea-salt size distribution and, to our knowledge, this is the first published sea-salt parameterization to provide a parameterization for both shortwave and longwave wavelengths.

    We have used this parameterization in a set of idealized 1-D radiative transfer calculations to investigate the sensitivity of various attributes of sea-salt forcing, including the dependency on sea-salt column loading, effective variance, solar angle, and surface albedo. From these sensitivity tests, it is found that sea-salt forcings for both shortwave and longwave spectra are linearly related to the sea-salt loading for realistic values of loadings. The radiative forcing results illustrate that the shortwave forcing is an order of magnitude greater than the longwave forcing results and opposite in sign, for various loadings. Forcing sensitivity studies show that the influence of effective variance for sea-salt is minor; therefore, only one value of effective variance is used in the parameterization. The dependence of sea-salt forcing with solar zenith angle illustrates an interesting result that sea-salt can generate a positive top-of-the-atmosphere result (i.e. warming when the solar zenith angle is relatively small (i.e. <30°. Finally, it is found that the surface albedo significantly affects the shortwave radiative

  19. RADIATION ACOUSTICS

    OpenAIRE

    Lyamshev, L.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation acoustics is a new branch of acoustics. Its' fundamentals are lying in the research of acoustical effects due to the interaction of a radiation with matter. The sound excitation in liquids and solids by modulated or pulsed particle beams (electron, proton, ion beams, γ-radiation and single high-energy elementary particles) and some practical applications are discussed.

  20. Modest net autotrophy in the oligotrophic ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letscher, Robert T.; Moore, J. Keith

    2017-04-01

    The metabolic state of the oligotrophic subtropical ocean has long been debated. Net community production (NCP) represents the balance of autotrophic carbon fixation with heterotrophic respiration. Many in vitro NCP estimates based on oxygen incubation methods and the corresponding scaling relationships used to predict the ecosystem metabolic balance have suggested the ocean gyres to be net heterotrophic; however, all in situ NCP methods find net autotrophy. Reconciling net heterotrophy requires significant allochthonous inputs of organic carbon to the oligotrophic gyres to sustain a preponderance of respiration over in situ production. Here we use the first global ecosystem-ocean circulation model that contains representation of the three allochthonous carbon sources to the open ocean, to show that the five oligotrophic gyres exhibit modest net autotrophy throughout the seasonal cycle. Annually integrated rates of NCP vary in the range 1.5-2.2 mol O2 m-2 yr-1 across the five gyre systems; however, seasonal NCP rates are as low as 1 ± 0.5 mmol O2 m-2 d-1 for the North Atlantic. Volumetric NCP rates are heterotrophic below the 10% light level; however, they become net autotrophic when integrated over the euphotic zone. Observational uncertainties when measuring these modest autotrophic NCP rates as well as the metabolic diversity encountered across space and time complicate the scaling up of in vitro measurements to the ecosystem scale and may partially explain the previous reports of net heterotrophy. The oligotrophic ocean is autotrophic at present; however, it could shift toward seasonal heterotrophy in the future as rising temperatures stimulate respiration.

  1. Analytic radiative-advective equilibrium as a model for high-latitude climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Timothy W.; Jansen, Malte F.

    2016-01-01

    We propose radiative-advective equilibrium as a basic-state model for the high-latitude atmosphere. Temperature profiles are determined by a competition between stabilization by atmospheric shortwave absorption and advective heat flux convergence, and destabilization by surface shortwave absorption. We derive analytic expressions for temperature profiles, assuming power law atmospheric heating profiles as a function of pressure and two-stream windowed-gray longwave radiative transfer. We discuss example profiles with and without an atmospheric window and show that the sensitivity of surface temperature to forcing depends on the nature of the forcing, with greatest sensitivity to radiative forcing by increased optical thickness and least sensitivity to increased atmospheric heat transport. These differences in sensitivity of surface temperature to forcing can be explained in terms of a forcing-dependent lapse-rate feedback.

  2. Thermal Radiation Anomalies Associated with Major Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounov, Dimitar; Pulinets, Sergey; Kafatos, Menas C.; Taylor, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Recent developments of remote sensing methods for Earth satellite data analysis contribute to our understanding of earthquake related thermal anomalies. It was realized that the thermal heat fluxes over areas of earthquake preparation is a result of air ionization by radon (and other gases) and consequent water vapor condensation on newly formed ions. Latent heat (LH) is released as a result of this process and leads to the formation of local thermal radiation anomalies (TRA) known as OLR (outgoing Longwave radiation, Ouzounov et al, 2007). We compare the LH energy, obtained by integrating surface latent heat flux (SLHF) over the area and time with released energies associated with these events. Extended studies of the TRA using the data from the most recent major earthquakes allowed establishing the main morphological features. It was also established that the TRA are the part of more complex chain of the short-term pre-earthquake generation, which is explained within the framework of a lithosphere-atmosphere coupling processes.

  3. Optimization of InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice interfaces for long-wave (˜8 μm) infrared detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshakhlagh, A.; Plis, E.; Myers, S.; Sharma, Y. D.; Dawson, L. R.; Krishna, S.

    2009-03-01

    Optimization of various growth parameters for type-II 13 MLs InAs/7 MLs GaSb strained layer superlattices (SLSs) ( λcut-off ˜8 μm at 300 K), grown by solid source molecular beam epitaxy, has been undertaken. This includes a systematic study to investigate the influence of the effect of the growth temperature and the thickness of an InSb layer formed at the GaSb-on-InAs interface on the properties of the superlattice. We present optical and structural characterization of these SLS structures, using high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and cross-sectional scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). Optimized growth parameters were then used to grow a 2-μm-thick active region for a SLS detector designed to operate in the long-wave infrared (LWIR) region, which demonstrated full-width half-maximum (FWHM) of 16 arcsec for the first SLS satellite peak and nearly zero lattice mismatch between zero-order SLS peak and GaSb substrate.

  4. Detector-level spectral characterization of the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite long-wave infrared bands M15 and M16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Francis; Cao, Changyong

    2015-06-01

    The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor data record (SDR) product achieved validated maturity status in March 2014 after roughly two years of on-orbit characterization (S-NPP spacecraft launched on 28 October 2011). During post-launch analysis the VIIRS Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Environmental Data Record (EDR) team observed an anomalous striping pattern in the daytime SST data. Daytime SST retrievals use the two VIIRS long-wave infrared bands: M15 (10.7 μm) and M16 (11.8 μm). To assess possible root causes due to detector-level spectral response function (SRF) effects, a study was conducted to compare the radiometric response of the detector-level and operational-band averaged SRFs of VIIRS bands M15 and M16. The study used simulated hyperspectral blackbody radiance data and clear-sky ocean hyperspectral radiances under different atmospheric conditions. It was concluded that the SST product is likely impacted by small differences in detector-level SRFs and that if users require optimal radiometric performance, detector-level processing is recommended for both SDR and EDR products. Future work should investigate potential SDR product improvements through detector-level processing in support of the generation of Suomi NPP VIIRS climate quality SDRs.

  5. Full down-conversion of amber-emitting phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes with powder phosphors and a long-wave pass filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jeong Rok; Cho, Sang-Hwan; Park, Hoo Keun; Oh, Ji Hye; Lee, Yong-Hee; Do, Young Rag

    2010-05-24

    This paper reports the possibility of a facile optical structure to realize a highly efficient monochromatic amber-emitting light-emitting diode (LED) using a powder-based phosphor-converted LED combined with a long-wave pass filter (LWPF). The capping of a blue-reflecting and amber-passing LWPF enhances both the amber emission from the silicate amber phosphor layer and the color purity due to the blocking and recycling of the pumping blue light from the InGaN LED. The enhancement of the luminous efficacy of the amber pc-LED with a LWPF (phosphor concentration 20 wt%, 39.4 lm/W) is 34% over that of an amber pc-LED without a LWPF (phosphor concentration 55 wt%, 29.4 lm/W) at 100 mA and a high color purity (>96%) with Commission International d'Eclairage (CIE) color coordinates of x=0.57 and y=0.42.

  6. Rapid long-wave infrared laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements using a mercury-cadmium-telluride linear array detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Clayton S-C; Brown, Eiei; Kumi-Barimah, Eric; Hommerich, Uwe; Jin, Feng; Jia, Yingqing; Trivedi, Sudhir; D'souza, Arvind I; Decuir, Eric A; Wijewarnasuriya, Priyalal S; Samuels, Alan C

    2015-11-20

    In this work, we develop a mercury-cadmium-telluride linear array detection system that is capable of rapidly capturing (∼1-5  s) a broad spectrum of atomic and molecular laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) emissions in the long-wave infrared (LWIR) region (∼5.6-10  μm). Similar to the conventional UV-Vis LIBS, a broadband emission spectrum of condensed phase samples covering the whole 5.6-10 μm region can be acquired from just a single laser-induced microplasma or averaging a few single laser-induced microplasmas. Atomic and molecular signature emission spectra of solid inorganic and organic tablets and thin liquid films deposited on a rough asphalt surface are observed. This setup is capable of rapidly probing samples "as is" without the need of elaborate sample preparation and also offers the possibility of a simultaneous UV-Vis and LWIR LIBS measurement.

  7. SOCIAL NET: A CASE STUDY OF THE UNIVERSITY NET OF POPULAR COOPERATIVES TECHNOLOGICAL INCUBATORS (PCTIS NET FROM THE INTERACTION AMONG THE INCUBATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Matos Pereira Lopes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this assignment was to identify if the University Net of Popular Cooperatives Technological Incubators (PCTIs Net is a social net. The research was an exploratory nature study with descriptive character, the technical procedure of the present research was the case study. The questionnaire was applied in 82% of the incubators belonging to the PCTIs Net, and interviews. The information acquired through the questionnaire was gathered and tabulated to compose the characterization of the net incubators and the social analyzer. With the Pajek program was created the social analyzer and the centralizing box. Was performed to compare the results with previous work Rennó et al. (2010 proposed that the same goal using a different approach. Ending the analysis guided by the characteristics of a social net, it was observed that the PCTIs Net is a social net, however it was emphasized that the existing communication is a point where the net needs to be fortified.

  8. Activation of PAD4 in NET formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda eRohrbach

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Peptidyl arginine deiminases, or PADs, convert arginine residues to the non-ribosomally encoded amino acid citrulline in a variety of protein substrates. PAD4 is expressed in granulocytes and is essential for the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs via PAD4-mediated histone citrullination. Citrullination of histones is thought to promote NET formation by inducing chromatin decondensation and facilitating the expulsion of chromosomal DNA that is coated with antimicrobial molecules. Numerous stimuli have been reported to lead to PAD4 activation and NET formation. However, how this signaling process proceeds and how PAD4 becomes activated in cells is largely unknown. Herein, we describe the various stimuli and signaling pathways that have been implicated in PAD4 activation and NET formation, including the role of reactive oxygen species generation. To provide a foundation for the above discussion, we first describe PAD4 structure and function, and how these studies led to the development of PAD-specific inhibitors. A comprehensive survey of the receptors and signaling pathways that regulate PAD4 activation will be important for our understanding of innate immunity, and the identification of signaling intermediates in PAD4 activation may also lead to the generation of pharmaceuticals to target NET-related pathogenesis.

  9. The net charge at interfaces between insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristowe, N. C.; Littlewood, P. B.; Artacho, Emilio

    2011-03-01

    The issue of the net charge at insulating oxide interfaces is briefly reviewed with the ambition of dispelling myths of such charges being affected by covalency and related charge density effects. For electrostatic analysis purposes, the net charge at such interfaces is defined by the counting of discrete electrons and core ion charges, and by the definition of the reference polarization of the separate, unperturbed bulk materials. The arguments are illustrated for the case of a thin film of LaAlO3 over SrTiO3 in the absence of free carriers, for which the net charge is exactly 0.5e per interface formula unit, if the polarization response in both materials is referred to zero bulk values. Further consequences of the argument are extracted for structural and chemical alterations of such interfaces, in which internal rearrangements are distinguished from extrinsic alterations (changes of stoichiometry, redox processes), only the latter affecting the interfacial net charge. The arguments are reviewed alongside the proposal of Stengel and Vanderbilt (2009 Phys. Rev. B 80 241103) of using formal polarization values instead of net interfacial charges, based on the interface theorem of Vanderbilt and King-Smith (1993 Phys. Rev. B 48 4442-55). Implications for non-centrosymmetric materials are discussed, as well as for interfaces for which the charge mismatch is an integer number of polarization quanta.

  10. Automating Ontological Annotation with WordNet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Chappell, Alan R.; Whitney, Paul D.; Posse, Christian; Paulson, Patrick R.; Baddeley, Bob L.; Hohimer, Ryan E.; White, Amanda M.

    2006-01-22

    Semantic Web applications require robust and accurate annotation tools that are capable of automating the assignment of ontological classes to words in naturally occurring text (ontological annotation). Most current ontologies do not include rich lexical databases and are therefore not easily integrated with word sense disambiguation algorithms that are needed to automate ontological annotation. WordNet provides a potentially ideal solution to this problem as it offers a highly structured lexical conceptual representation that has been extensively used to develop word sense disambiguation algorithms. However, WordNet has not been designed as an ontology, and while it can be easily turned into one, the result of doing this would present users with serious practical limitations due to the great number of concepts (synonym sets) it contains. Moreover, mapping WordNet to an existing ontology may be difficult and requires substantial labor. We propose to overcome these limitations by developing an analytical platform that (1) provides a WordNet-based ontology offering a manageable and yet comprehensive set of concept classes, (2) leverages the lexical richness of WordNet to give an extensive characterization of concept class in terms of lexical instances, and (3) integrates a class recognition algorithm that automates the assignment of concept classes to words in naturally occurring text. The ensuing framework makes available an ontological annotation platform that can be effectively integrated with intelligence analysis systems to facilitate evidence marshaling and sustain the creation and validation of inference models.

  11. Ontological Annotation with WordNet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Chappell, Alan R.; Whitney, Paul D.; Posse, Christian; Paulson, Patrick R.; Baddeley, Bob; Hohimer, Ryan E.; White, Amanda M.

    2006-06-06

    Semantic Web applications require robust and accurate annotation tools that are capable of automating the assignment of ontological classes to words in naturally occurring text (ontological annotation). Most current ontologies do not include rich lexical databases and are therefore not easily integrated with word sense disambiguation algorithms that are needed to automate ontological annotation. WordNet provides a potentially ideal solution to this problem as it offers a highly structured lexical conceptual representation that has been extensively used to develop word sense disambiguation algorithms. However, WordNet has not been designed as an ontology, and while it can be easily turned into one, the result of doing this would present users with serious practical limitations due to the great number of concepts (synonym sets) it contains. Moreover, mapping WordNet to an existing ontology may be difficult and requires substantial labor. We propose to overcome these limitations by developing an analytical platform that (1) provides a WordNet-based ontology offering a manageable and yet comprehensive set of concept classes, (2) leverages the lexical richness of WordNet to give an extensive characterization of concept class in terms of lexical instances, and (3) integrates a class recognition algorithm that automates the assignment of concept classes to words in naturally occurring text. The ensuing framework makes available an ontological annotation platform that can be effectively integrated with intelligence analysis systems to facilitate evidence marshaling and sustain the creation and validation of inference models.

  12. Development of net cage acoustic alarm system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Shih-Wei; Wei, Ruey-Chang

    2004-05-01

    In recent years, the fishery production has been drastically decreased in Taiwan, mainly due to overfishing and coast pollution; therefore, fishermen and corporations are encouraged by government to invest in ocean net cage aquaculture. However, the high-price fishes in the net cage are often coveted, so incidences of fish stealing and net cage breaking were found occasionally, which cause great economical loss. Security guards or a visual monitoring system has limited effect, especially in the night when these intrusions occur. This study is based on acoustic measure to build a net cage alarm system, which includes the sonobuoy and monitor station on land. The sonobuoy is a passive sonar that collects the sounds near the net cage and transmits the suspected signal to the monitor station. The signals are analyzed by the control program on the personal computer in the monitor station, and the alarms at different stages could be activated by the sound levels and durations of the analyzed data. To insure long hours of surveillance, a solar panel is applied to charge the battery, and a photodetector is used to activate the system.

  13. The NeuroDevNet vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldowitz, Dan; McArthur, Dawn

    2011-03-01

    The NeuroDevNet Network of Centres of Excellence has created the first trans-Canada effort devoted to the study of brain development from basic to clinical to societal perspectives. NeuroDevNet's vision is to accelerate efforts to (i) understand normal brain development; (ii) enhance our ability to make diagnoses of when normal development goes awry; and (iii) develop interventions to improve or prevent neurodevelopmental disorders. An early diagnosis coupled with the right therapies, The NeuroDevNet Network of Centres of Excellence has created the first trans-Canada effort devoted to the study of brain development from basic to clinical to societal perspectives. NeuroDevNet's vision is to accelerate efforts to (i) understand normal brain development; (ii) enhance our ability to make diagnoses of when normal development goes awry; and (iii) develop interventions to improve or prevent neurodevelopmental disorders. An early diagnosis coupled with the right therapies, Demonstration Projects. Funds were also allocated for an Opportunities Initiative. There is a wide of expertise amongst NeuroDevNet members. Researchers are supported by the management centre, three Platforms (Imaging; Genetics/ Epigenetics; Animal Models) and three Cores (Neuroethics; Neuroinformatics; Knowledge Translation). We emphasize multidisciplinary training of young researchers to advance the understanding of brain disorders that affect children. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The net charge at interfaces between insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bristowe, N C; Littlewood, P B [Theory of Condensed Matter Group, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Artacho, Emilio, E-mail: ncb30@cam.ac.uk [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EQ (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-02

    The issue of the net charge at insulating oxide interfaces is briefly reviewed with the ambition of dispelling myths of such charges being affected by covalency and related charge density effects. For electrostatic analysis purposes, the net charge at such interfaces is defined by the counting of discrete electrons and core ion charges, and by the definition of the reference polarization of the separate, unperturbed bulk materials. The arguments are illustrated for the case of a thin film of LaAlO{sub 3} over SrTiO{sub 3} in the absence of free carriers, for which the net charge is exactly 0.5e per interface formula unit, if the polarization response in both materials is referred to zero bulk values. Further consequences of the argument are extracted for structural and chemical alterations of such interfaces, in which internal rearrangements are distinguished from extrinsic alterations (changes of stoichiometry, redox processes), only the latter affecting the interfacial net charge. The arguments are reviewed alongside the proposal of Stengel and Vanderbilt (2009 Phys. Rev. B 80 241103) of using formal polarization values instead of net interfacial charges, based on the interface theorem of Vanderbilt and King-Smith (1993 Phys. Rev. B 48 4442-55). Implications for non-centrosymmetric materials are discussed, as well as for interfaces for which the charge mismatch is an integer number of polarization quanta. (viewpoint)

  15. Radiation hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomraning, G.C.

    1982-12-31

    This course was intended to provide the participant with an introduction to the theory of radiative transfer, and an understanding of the coupling of radiative processes to the equations describing compressible flow. At moderate temperatures (thousands of degrees), the role of the radiation is primarily one of transporting energy by radiative processes. At higher temperatures (millions of degrees), the energy and momentum densities of the radiation field may become comparable to or even dominate the corresponding fluid quantities. In this case, the radiation field significantly affects the dynamics of the fluid, and it is the description of this regime which is generally the charter of radiation hydrodynamics. The course provided a discussion of the relevant physics and a derivation of the corresponding equations, as well as an examination of several simplified models. Practical applications include astrophysics and nuclear weapons effects phenomena.

  16. Association mapping utilizing diverse barley lines reveals net form net blotch seedling resistance/susceptibility loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrenophora teres f. teres is a necrotrophic fungal pathogen and the causal agent of the economically important foliar disease net form net blotch (NFNB) of barley. The deployment of effective and durable resistance against P. teres f. teres has been hindered by the complexity of quantitative resist...

  17. Ozone and haze pollution weakens net primary productivity in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xu; Unger, Nadine; Harper, Kandice; Xia, Xiangao; Liao, Hong; Zhu, Tong; Xiao, Jingfeng; Feng, Zhaozhong; Li, Jing

    2017-05-01

    Atmospheric pollutants have both beneficial and detrimental effects on carbon uptake by land ecosystems. Surface ozone (O3) damages leaf photosynthesis by oxidizing plant cells, while aerosols promote carbon uptake by increasing diffuse radiation and exert additional influences through concomitant perturbations to meteorology and hydrology. China is currently the world's largest emitter of both carbon dioxide and short-lived air pollutants. The land ecosystems of China are estimated to provide a carbon sink, but it remains unclear whether air pollution acts to inhibit or promote carbon uptake. Here, we employ Earth system modeling and multiple measurement datasets to assess the separate and combined effects of anthropogenic O3 and aerosol pollution on net primary productivity (NPP) in China. In the present day, O3 reduces annual NPP by 0.6 Pg C (14 %) with a range from 0.4 Pg C (low O3 sensitivity) to 0.8 Pg C (high O3 sensitivity). In contrast, aerosol direct effects increase NPP by 0.2 Pg C (5 %) through the combination of diffuse radiation fertilization, reduced canopy temperatures, and reduced evaporation leading to higher soil moisture. Consequently, the net effects of O3 and aerosols decrease NPP by 0.4 Pg C (9 %) with a range from 0.2 Pg C (low O3 sensitivity) to 0.6 Pg C (high O3 sensitivity). However, precipitation inhibition from combined aerosol direct and indirect effects reduces annual NPP by 0.2 Pg C (4 %), leading to a net air pollution suppression of 0.8 Pg C (16 %) with a range from 0.6 Pg C (low O3 sensitivity) to 1.0 Pg C (high O3 sensitivity). Our results reveal strong dampening effects of air pollution on the land carbon uptake in China today. Following the current legislation emission scenario, this suppression will be further increased by the year 2030, mainly due to a continuing increase in surface O3. However, the maximum technically feasible reduction scenario could drastically relieve the current level of NPP damage by 70 % in 2030

  18. Towards Self-Managed Executable Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Zhang, Weishan; Ingstrup, Mads

    2008-01-01

    An issue in self-managed systems is that different abstractions and programming models are used on different architectural layers, leading to systems that are harder to build and understand. To alleviate this, we introduce a self-management approach which combines high-level Petri nets...... with the capability of distributed communication among nets. Organized in a three-layer goal management, change management, and component control architecture this allows for self-management in distributed systems. We validate the approach through the Flamenco/CPN middleware that allows for self-management of service......-oriented pervasive computing systems through the runtime interpretation of colored Petri nets. The current work focuses on the change management and component control layers....

  19. Professional ASP.NET MVC 2

    CERN Document Server

    Galloway, Jon; Haack, Phil

    2010-01-01

    Top-selling MVC book from a top team at Microsoft—now fully updated!. ASP.NET MVC 2.0 is now available and shipping with Visual Studio 2010 and .NET 4. A new update to Microsoft's Model-View-Controller technologies, MVC 2.0 enables developers to build dynamic, data-driven Web sites. This in-depth book shows you step-by-step how to use MVC 2.0. You'll learn both the theory behind MVC 2.0, as well as walk through practical tutorials, where you'll create a real-world application. Topics include transitioning from ASP.NET development, as well as an overview of related tools and technologies, inclu

  20. .net core application lifecycle on Openshift

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    # .net core application lifecycle on Openshift I will show an example of a lifecycle of an OpenShift application with an emphasis on the continuous integration and deployment. The application compatible with [.net Standard](https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/dotnet/standard/net-standard) can be easily deployed on OpenShift using [Source2Image](https://docs.openshift.com/enterprise/3.0/architecture/core_concepts/builds_and_image_streams.html#source-build) functionality, which doesn't require developers to maintain docker images of the application. I will also present how to efficiently integrate this feature into GitLab pipelines with an automated deployment of the "review" environment, as one its parts.

  1. Application and Theory of Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 13th International Conference onApplication and Theory of Petri Nets, held in Sheffield, England, in June 1992. The aim of the Petri net conferences is to create a forum for discussing progress in the application and theory of Petri nets. Typically......, the conferences have 150-200 participants, one third of these coming from industry and the rest from universities and research institutions. The 1992 conference was organized by the School of Computing and Management Sciences at Sheffield City Polytechnic, England. The volume contains twoinvited papers, by G....... Balbo and W. Reisig, 18 submitted papers, and seven project papers. The submitted papers and project presentations were selectedby the programme committee and a panel of referees from a large number of submissions....

  2. Chapter 17: Estimating Net Savings: Common Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Violette, D. M.; Rathbun, P.

    2014-09-01

    This chapter focuses on the methods used to estimate net energy savings in evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) studies for energy efficiency (EE) programs. The chapter provides a definition of net savings, which remains an unsettled topic both within the EE evaluation community and across the broader public policy evaluation community, particularly in the context of attribution of savings to particular program. The chapter differs from the measure-specific Uniform Methods Project (UMP) chapters in both its approach and work product. Unlike other UMP resources that provide recommended protocols for determining gross energy savings, this chapter describes and compares the current industry practices for determining net energy savings, but does not prescribe particular methods.

  3. The transition from No Net Loss to a Net Gain of biodiversity is far from trivial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, Joseph William; Brownlie, S.

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of No Net Loss and Net Gain have emerged as key principles in conservation policy. Both give rise to mechanisms by which certain unavoidable biodiversity losses associated with development are quantified, and compensated with comparable gains (e.g. habitat restoration). The former...... seeks a neutral outcome for biodiversity after losses and gains are accounted for, and the latter seeks an improved outcome. Policy-makers often assume that the transition from one to the other is straightforward and essentially a question of the amount of compensation provided. Consequently, companies...... increasingly favour Net Gain type commitments, and financial institutions make lending conditional on either objective, depending on the habitat involved. We contend, however, that achieving Net Gain is fundamentally different to achieving No Net Loss, and moving from one to the other is less trivial than...

  4. Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, James E

    2007-01-01

    Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection offers professionals and advanced students a comprehensive coverage of the major concepts that underlie the origins and transport of ionizing radiation in matter. Understanding atomic structure and the physical mechanisms of radiation interactions is the foundation on which much of the current practice of radiological health protection is based. The work covers the detection and measurement of radiation and the statistical interpretation of the data. The procedures that are used to protect man and the environment from the potential harmful effects of

  5. APIs de seguridad en .NET Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Domínguez Ruiz, Abel

    2014-01-01

    Este trabajo hace un estudio de algunas de las herramientas de seguridad disponibles en .Net Framework así como la forma de usarlas en un desarrollo web bajo la metodología de desarrollo de ASP.NET siguiendo el modelo Vista-Controlador y usando como entorno de desarrollo Visual Studio. Además de repasar las herramientas disponibles y la forma de uso se ha desarrollado también una aplicación de ejemplo: ItemCoteca-Web; en la que se demuestra cómo resolver el registro de usuarios, la autenticac...

  6. An ECNO semantics for Petri nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart

    2012-01-01

    The Event Coordination Notation (ECNO) allows modelling the behaviour of software on top of structural software models - and to generate program code from these models fully automatically. ECNO distinguishes between the local behaviour of elements (objects) and the global behaviour, which denes t...... work. In this paper, we will show that the ECNO, in turn, can be used for modelling the behaviour of Petri nets in a simple and concise way. What is more, we will show that the ECNO semantics of Place/Transition Systems can easily be extended to so-called signal-event nets....

  7. Introducing NET 40 With Visual Studio 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Mackey, A

    2010-01-01

    Microsoft is introducing a large number of changes to the way that the .NET Framework operates. Familiar technologies are being altered, best practices replaced, and developer methodologies adjusted. Many developers find it hard to keep up with the pace of change across .NET's ever-widening array of technologies. You may know what's happening in C#, but how about the Azure cloud? How is that going to affect your work? What are the limitations of the new pLINQ syntax? What you need is a roadmap. A guide to help you see the innovations that matter and to give you a head start on the opportunitie

  8. Deep Belief Nets for Topic Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaløe, Lars; Arngren, Morten; Winther, Ole

    2015-01-01

    -formative. In this paper we describe large-scale content based collaborative filtering for digital publishing. To solve the digital publishing recommender problem we compare two approaches: latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) and deep be-lief nets (DBN) that both find low-dimensional latent representations for documents....... Efficient retrieval can be carried out in the latent representation. We work both on public benchmarks and digital media content provided by Issuu, an on-line publishing platform. This article also comes with a newly developed deep belief nets toolbox for topic modeling tailored towards performance...

  9. Performance Analysis Using Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wells, Lisa Marie

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of improved facilities for performance analysis using coloured Petri nets. Coloured Petri nets is a formal method that is well suited for modeling and analyzing large and complex systems. The paper describes steps that have been taken to make a distinction between...... modeling the behavior of a system and observing the behavior of a model. Performance-related facilities are discussed, including facilities for collecting data, running multiple simulations, generating statistically reliable simulation output, and comparing alternative system configurations....

  10. Net Gain: A New Method for Preventing Malaria Deaths | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A finely spun net could prevent as many as one-third of all child deaths in Africa, reports IDRC's new publication, Net Gain. Studies conducted in Gambia, Ghana, and Kenya show that the insecticide-treated mosquito net reduced the mortality rate of children under 5 years of age by up to 63 percent. Net Gain reviews and ...

  11. Radiation Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnárovits, L.

    Ionizing radiation causes chemical changes in the molecules of the interacting medium. The initial molecules change to new molecules, resulting in changes of the physical, chemical, and eventually biological properties of the material. For instance, water decomposes to its elements H2 and O2. In polymers, degradation and crosslinking take place. In biopolymers, e.g., DNS strand breaks and other alterations occur. Such changes are to be avoided in some cases (radiation protection), however, in other cases they are used for technological purposes (radiation processing). This chapter introduces radiation chemistry by discussing the sources of ionizing radiation (radionuclide sources, machine sources), absorption of radiation energy, techniques used in radiation chemistry research, and methods of absorbed energy (absorbed dose) measurements. Radiation chemistry of different classes of inorganic (water and aqueous solutions, inorganic solids, ionic liquids (ILs)) and organic substances (hydrocarbons, halogenated compounds, polymers, and biomolecules) is discussed in concise form together with theoretical and experimental backgrounds. An essential part of the chapter is the introduction of radiation processing technologies in the fields of polymer chemistry, food processing, and sterilization. The application of radiation chemistry to nuclear technology and to protection of environment (flue gas treatment, wastewater treatment) is also discussed.

  12. Final Report – Study of Shortwave Spectra in Fully 3D Environment. Synergy Between Scanning Radars and Spectral Radiation Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, Jui-Yuan [University of Reading (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-14

    ARM set out 20 years ago to “close” the radiation problem, that is, to improve radiation models to the point where they could routinely predict the observed spectral radiation fluxes knowing the optical properties of the surface and of gases, clouds and aerosols in the atmosphere. Only then could such radiation models form a proper springboard for global climate model (GCM) parameterizations of spectral radiation. Sustained efforts have more or less achieved that goal with regard to longwave radiation; ASR models now routinely predict ARM spectral longwave radiances to 1–2%. Similar efforts in the shortwave have achieved far less; the successes are mainly for carefully selected 1D stratiform cloud cases. Such cases amount, even with the most optimistic interpretation, to no more than 30% of all cases at SGP. The problem has not been lack of effort but lack of appropriate instruments.The new ARM stimulus-funded instruments, with their new capabilities, will dramatically improve this situation and once again make progress possible on the shortwave problem. The new shortwave spectrometers will provide a reliable, calibrated record including the near infrared – and for other climatic regimes than SGP. The new scanning radars will provide the 3D cloud view, making it possible to tackle fully 3D situations. Thus, our main theme for the project is the understanding and closure of the surface spectral shortwave radiation problem in fully 3D cloud situations by combining the new ARM scanning radars and shortwave spectrometers with the arsenal of radiative transfer tools.

  13. Radiation Budget Instrument (RBI) for JPSS-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva, Elena; Priestley, Kory; Dunn, Barry; Cageao, Richard; Barki, Anum; Osmundsen, Jim; Turczynski, Craig; Abedin, Nurul

    2015-01-01

    Radiation Budget Instrument (RBI) will be one of five instruments flying aboard the JPSS-2 spacecraft, a polar-orbiting sun-synchronous satellite in Low Earth Orbit. RBI is a passive remote sensing instrument that will follow the successful legacy of the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments to make measurement of Earth's short and longwave radiation budget. The goal of RBI is to provide an independent measurement of the broadband reflected solar radiance and Earth's emitted thermal radiance by using three spectral bands (Shortwave, Longwave, and Total) that will have the same overlapped point spread function (PSF) footprint on Earth. To ensure precise NIST-traceable calibration in space the RBI sensor is designed to use a visible calibration target (VCT), a solar calibration target (SCT), and an infrared calibration target (ICT) containing phase change cells (PCC) to enable on-board temperature calibration. The VCT is a thermally controlled integrating sphere with space grade Spectralon covering the inner surface. Two sides of the sphere will have fiber-coupled laser diodes in the UV to IR wavelength region. An electrical substitution radiometer on the integrating sphere will monitor the long term stability of the sources and the possible degradation of the Spectralon in space. In addition the radiometric calibration operations will use the Spectralon diffusers of the SCT to provide accurate measurements of Solar degradation. All those stable on-orbit references will ensure that calibration stability is maintained over the RBI sensor lifetime. For the preflight calibration the RBI will view five calibration sources - two integrating spheres and three CrIS (Cross-track Infrared Sounder ) -like blackbodies whose outputs will be validated with NIST calibration approach. Thermopile are the selected detectors for the RBI. The sensor has a requirement to perform lunar calibration in addition to solar calibration in space in a way similar to CERES

  14. Photosynthetic behavior, growth and essential oil production of Melissa officinalis L. cultivated under colored shade nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziele C Oliveira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The modulation of light is of importance during cultivation of medicinal plants to obtain desirable morphological and physiological changes associated with the maximum production of active principles. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the light spectrum transmitted by colored shade nets on growth, essential oil production and photosynthetic behavior in plants of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L. Plants were cultivated in pots for 4-mo under black, red, and blue nets with 50% shading, and full sunlight exposure. Biometric and anatomical variables, essential oil yield, global solar radiation, photon flux density, chlorophyll content, and gas exchange parameters were measured in M. officinalis leaves. The results showed that despite being considered a partial shade plant, this species is able to adapt to full sunlight conditions without increasing biomass production. The spectral changes provided by colored shade nets did not caused any noticeable change in leaf anatomy of M. officinalis. However, the use of blue net resulted in increments of 116% in plant height, 168% in leaf area, 42% in chlorophyll content and 30% in yield of essential oil in lemon balm plants. These plant's qualities make the use of blue net a cultivation practice suitable for commercial use.

  15. Validation of cloud forcing simulated by the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model using observations from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soden, B. J.

    1992-01-01

    Satellite measurements of the effect of clouds on the top of atmosphere radiative energy budget are used to validate model simulations from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model (NCAR CCM). The ability of the NCAR CCM to reproduce the monthly mean global distribution and temporal variability on both daily and seasonal time scales is assessed. The comparison reveals several deficiencies in the CCM cloud representation. Most notable are the difficulties in properly simulating the effect of clouds on the planetary albedo. This problem arises from discrepancies in the model's portrayal of low-level cloudiness and leads to significant errors in the absorbed solar radiation simulated by the model. The CCM performs much better in simulating the effect of clouds on the longwave radiation emitted to space, indicating its relative success in capturing the vertical distribution of cloudiness. The daily variability of the radiative effects of clouds in both the shortwave and longwave spectral regions is systematically overestimated. Analysis of the seasonal variations illustrates a distinct lack of coupling in the seasonal changes in the radiative effects of cloudiness between the tropics and mid-latitudes and between the Northern and Southern Hemisphere. Much of this problem also arises from difficulties in simulating low-level cloudiness, placing further emphasis on the need for better model parameterizations of boundary layer clouds.

  16. Mars MetNet Mission Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, Ari-Matti; Aleksashkin, Sergei; Arruego, Ignacio; Schmidt, Walter; Genzer, Maria; Vazquez, Luis; Haukka, Harri

    2015-04-01

    New kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is under development in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested. 1. MetNet Lander The MetNet landing vehicles are using an inflatable entry and descent system instead of rigid heat shields and parachutes as earlier semi-hard landing devices have used. This way the ratio of the payload mass to the overall mass is optimized. The landing impact will burrow the payload container into the Martian soil providing a more favorable thermal environment for the electronics and a suitable orientation of the telescopic boom with external sensors and the radio link antenna. It is planned to deploy several tens of MNLs on the Martian surface operating at least partly at the same time to allow meteorological network science. 2. Scientific Payload The payload of the two MNL precursor models includes the following instruments: Atmospheric instruments: 1. MetBaro Pressure device 2. MetHumi Humidity device 3. MetTemp Temperature sensors Optical devices: 1. PanCam Panoramic 2. MetSIS Solar irradiance sensor with OWLS optical wireless system for data transfer 3. DS Dust sensor The descent processes dynamic properties are monitored by a special 3-axis accelerometer combined with a 3-axis gyrometer. The data will be sent via auxiliary beacon antenna throughout the

  17. Markets, voucher subsidies and free nets combine to achieve high bed net coverage in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrets Rene PM

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tanzania has a well-developed network of commercial ITN retailers. In 2004, the government introduced a voucher subsidy for pregnant women and, in mid 2005, helped distribute free nets to under-fives in small number of districts, including Rufiji on the southern coast, during a child health campaign. Contributions of these multiple insecticide-treated net delivery strategies existing at the same time and place to coverage in a poor rural community were assessed. Methods Cross-sectional household survey in 6,331 members of randomly selected 1,752 households of 31 rural villages of Demographic Surveillance System in Rufiji district, Southern Tanzania was conducted in 2006. A questionnaire was administered to every consenting respondent about net use, treatment status and delivery mechanism. Findings Net use was 62.7% overall, 87.2% amongst infants (0 to1 year, 81.8% amongst young children (>1 to 5 years, 54.5% amongst older children (6 to 15 years and 59.6% amongst adults (>15 years. 30.2% of all nets had been treated six months prior to interview. The biggest source of nets used by infants was purchase from the private sector with a voucher subsidy (41.8%. Half of nets used by young children (50.0% and over a third of those used by older children (37.2% were obtained free of charge through the vaccination campaign. The largest source of nets amongst the population overall was commercial purchase (45.1% use and was the primary means for protecting adults (60.2% use. All delivery mechanisms, especially sale of nets at full market price, under-served the poorest but no difference in equity was observed between voucher-subsidized and freely distributed nets. Conclusion All three delivery strategies enabled a poor rural community to achieve net coverage high enough to yield both personal and community level protection for the entire population. Each of them reached their relevant target group and free nets only temporarily

  18. Improvements to water use and water stress estimates with the addition of IR and net radiometers to weather stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is often estimated with the Penman-Monteith (P-M) equation. Net radiation (Rn) is a major component of the surface energy balance and an input to the P-M equation, but it is challenging and expensive to measure accurately. For these reasons, most weather stations do not inclu...

  19. Radiation carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1976-01-01

    The risk of iatrogenic tumors with radiation therapy is so outweighed by the benefit of cure that estimates of risk have not been considered necessary. However, with the introduction of chemotherapy, combined therapy, and particle radiation therapy, the comparative risks should be examined. In the case of radiation, total dose, fractionation, dose rate, dose distribution, and radiation quality should be considered in the estimation of risk. The biological factors that must be considered include incidence of tumors, latent period, degree of malignancy, and multiplicity of tumors. The risk of radiation induction of tumors is influenced by the genotype, sex, and age of the patient, the tissues that will be exposed, and previous therapy. With chemotherapy the number of cells at risk is usually markedly higher than with radiation therapy. Clearly the problem of the estimation of comparative risks is complex. This paper presents the current views on the comparative risks and the importance of the various factors that influence the estimation of risk.

  20. Hawking radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parentani, Renaud; Spindel, Philippe

    2011-12-01

    Hawking radiation is the thermal radiation predicted to be spontaneously emitted by black holes. It arises from the steady conversion of quantum vacuum fluctuations into pairs of particles, one of which escaping at infinity while the other is trapped inside the black hole horizon. It is named after the physicist Stephen Hawking who derived its existence in 1974. This radiation reduces the mass of black holes and is therefore also known as black hole evaporation.

  1. EVo: Net Shape RTM Production Line

    OpenAIRE

    Sven Torstrick; Felix Kruse; Martin Wiedemann

    2016-01-01

    EVo research platform is operated by the Center for Lightweight-Production-Technology of the German Aerospace Center in Stade. Its objective is technology demonstration of a fully automated RTM (Resin Transfer Molding) production line for composite parts in large quantities. Process steps include cutting and ply handling, draping, stacking, hot-forming, preform-trimming to net shape, resin injection, curing and demolding.

  2. The Lotto and Expected Net Revenue

    OpenAIRE

    Scoggins, John F.

    1995-01-01

    A multiperiod model (based on sales from the Florida Lotto) is used to estimate revenue and probability that the grand prize will roll over. Results indicate that allocating a greater percentage of ticket sales to the grand prize increases net revenue.

  3. Integrating phenotype ontologies with PhenomeNET

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez-Garcia, Miguel Angel

    2017-12-19

    Background Integration and analysis of phenotype data from humans and model organisms is a key challenge in building our understanding of normal biology and pathophysiology. However, the range of phenotypes and anatomical details being captured in clinical and model organism databases presents complex problems when attempting to match classes across species and across phenotypes as diverse as behaviour and neoplasia. We have previously developed PhenomeNET, a system for disease gene prioritization that includes as one of its components an ontology designed to integrate phenotype ontologies. While not applicable to matching arbitrary ontologies, PhenomeNET can be used to identify related phenotypes in different species, including human, mouse, zebrafish, nematode worm, fruit fly, and yeast. Results Here, we apply the PhenomeNET to identify related classes from two phenotype and two disease ontologies using automated reasoning. We demonstrate that we can identify a large number of mappings, some of which require automated reasoning and cannot easily be identified through lexical approaches alone. Combining automated reasoning with lexical matching further improves results in aligning ontologies. Conclusions PhenomeNET can be used to align and integrate phenotype ontologies. The results can be utilized for biomedical analyses in which phenomena observed in model organisms are used to identify causative genes and mutations underlying human disease.

  4. Soundness of Timed-Arc Workflow Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateo, Jose Antonio; Srba, Jiri; Sørensen, Mathias Grund

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of workflow processes with quantitative aspects like timing is of interest in numerous time-critical applications. We suggest a workflow model based on timed-arc Petri nets and study the foundational problems of soundness and strong (time-bounded) soundness. We explore the decidability o...

  5. Dahl: Time ripe for DHS net assessment

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Article review Center for Homeland Defense and Security instructor Erik Dahl urges the Department of Homeland Security to follow a practice of its military counterparts and establish an Office of Net Assessment that would gauge future threats and the nation's ability to mitigate them.

  6. Regular Event Structures and Finite Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M.; Thiagarajan, P.S.

    2002-01-01

    We present the notion of regular event structures and conjecture that they correspond exactly to finite 1-safe Petri nets. We show that the conjecture holds for the conflict-free case. Even in this restricted setting, the proof is non-trivial and involves a natural subclass of regular event...

  7. Net escapement of Antartic krill in trawls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krafft, B.A.; Krag, Ludvig Ahm; Herrmann, Bent

    This document describes the aims and methodology of a three year project (commenced in 2012) entitled Net Escapement of Antarctic krill in Trawls (NEAT). The study will include a morphology based mathematical modeling (FISHSELECT) of different sex and maturity groups of Antarctic krill (Euphausia...

  8. BioNet Digital Communications Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Kevin; Kuzminsky, Sebastian; Williams, Shea

    2010-01-01

    BioNet v2 is a peer-to-peer middleware that enables digital communication devices to talk to each other. It provides a software development framework, standardized application, network-transparent device integration services, a flexible messaging model, and network communications for distributed applications. BioNet is an implementation of the Constellation Program Command, Control, Communications and Information (C3I) Interoperability specification, given in CxP 70022-01. The system architecture provides the necessary infrastructure for the integration of heterogeneous wired and wireless sensing and control devices into a unified data system with a standardized application interface, providing plug-and-play operation for hardware and software systems. BioNet v2 features a naming schema for mobility and coarse-grained localization information, data normalization within a network-transparent device driver framework, enabling of network communications to non-IP devices, and fine-grained application control of data subscription band width usage. BioNet directly integrates Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) as a communications technology, enabling networked communications with assets that are only intermittently connected including orbiting relay satellites and planetary rover vehicles.

  9. Programming C# Building NET Applications with C#

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Programming C#, the top-selling book on Microsoft's high-performance C# programming language, is now in its fourth edition. Aimed at experienced programmers and web developers, this comprehensive guide focuses on the features and programming patterns that are unique to C#, and fundamental to the programming of web services and web applications on Microsoft's .NET platform.

  10. NetBench. Automated Network Performance Testing

    CERN Document Server

    Cadeddu, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    In order to evaluate the operation of high performance routers, CERN has developed the NetBench software to run benchmarking tests by injecting various traffic patterns and observing the network devices behaviour in real-time. The tool features a modular design with a Python based console used to inject traffic and collect the results in a database, and a web user

  11. Petri Nets as Models of Linear Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn

    1990-01-01

    The chief purpose of this paper is to appraise the feasibility of Girad's linear logic as a specification language for parallel processes. To this end we propose an interpretation of linear logic in Petri nets, with respect to which we investigate the expressive power of the logic...

  12. OK-Net Arable online knowledge platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ilse Ankjær; Jensen, Allan Leck; Jørgensen, Margit Styrbæk

    2017-01-01

    The complexity of organic farming requires farmers to have a very high level of knowledge and skills, but exchange on organic farming techniques remains limited. In order to increase productivity and quality in organic arable cropping in Europe, the thematic network OK-Net Arable under Horizon 20...

  13. Musings on Sketches, Artists, and Mosquito Nets

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-09-23

    Byron Breedlove reads his essay Musings on Sketches, Artists, and Mosquito Nets about the art of James Whistler and the transmission of vector borne diseases.  Created: 9/23/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/20/2014.

  14. Educating College Students of the Net Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Faculty and administrators of higher education today face a challenge with their student populations, many of whom are part of what is known as the net generation. As students become more technologically advanced, faculty must be technologically ready to meet the needs of students. Many college faculty and administrators are from earlier…

  15. State Space Methods for Timed Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren; Jensen, Kurt; Mailund, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    We present two recently developed state space methods for timed Petri nets. The two methods reconciles state space methods and time concepts based on the introduction of a global clock and associating time stamps to tokens. The first method is based on an equivalence relation on states which makes...

  16. Average Costs versus Net Present Value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. van der Laan (Erwin); R.H. Teunter (Ruud)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWhile the net present value (NPV) approach is widely accepted as the right framework for studying production and inventory control systems, average cost (AC) models are more widely used. For the well known EOQ model it can be verified that (under certain conditions) the AC approach gives

  17. GRAVITATIONAL RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin SALTIK

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available According to classical electromagnetic theory, an accelerated charge or system of charges radiates electromagnetic waves. In a radio transmitter antenna charges are accelerated along the antenna and release electromagnetic waves, which is radiated at the velocity of light in the surrounding medium. All of the radio transmitters work on this principle today. In this study an analogy is established between the principles by which accelerated charge systems markes radiation and the accelerated mass system, and the systems cousing gravitational radiation are investigated.

  18. Does temperature nudging overwhelm aerosol radiative ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    For over two decades, data assimilation (popularly known as nudging) methods have been used for improving regional weather and climate simulations by reducing model biases in meteorological parameters and processes. Similar practice is also popular in many regional integrated meteorology-air quality models that include aerosol direct and indirect effects. However in such multi-modeling systems, temperature changes due to nudging can compete with temperature changes induced by radiatively active & hygroscopic short-lived tracers leading to interesting dilemmas: From weather and climate prediction’s (retrospective or future) point of view when nudging is continuously applied, is there any real added benefit of using such complex and computationally expensive regional integrated modeling systems? What are the relative sizes of these two competing forces? To address these intriguing questions, we convert temperature changes due to nudging into radiative fluxes (referred to as the pseudo radiative forcing, PRF) at the surface and troposphere, and compare the net PRF with the reported aerosol radiative forcing. Results indicate that the PRF at surface dominates PRF at top of the atmosphere (i.e., the net). Also, the net PRF is about 2-4 times larger than estimated aerosol radiative forcing at regional scales while it is significantly larger at local scales. These results also show large surface forcing errors at many polluted urban sites. Thus, operational c

  19. A Climatology of Midlatitude Continental Clouds from the ARM SGP Site. Part II; Cloud Fraction and Surface Radiative Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, B.; Minnis, P.

    2006-01-01

    Data collected at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility (SCF) are analyzed to determine the monthly and hourly variations of cloud fraction and radiative forcing between January 1997 and December 2002. Cloud fractions are estimated for total cloud cover and for single-layered low (0-3 km), middle (3-6 km), and high clouds (more than 6 km) using ARM SCG ground-based paired lidar-radar measurements. Shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) fluxes are derived from up- and down-looking standard precision spectral pyranometers and precision infrared radiometer measurements with uncertainties of approximately 10 Wm(exp -2). The annual averages of total, and single-layered low, middle and high cloud fractions are 0.49, 0.11, 0.03, and 0.17, respectively. Both total and low cloud amounts peak during January and February and reach a minimum during July and August, high clouds occur more frequently than other types of clouds with a peak in summer. The average annual downwelling surface SW fluxes for total and low clouds (151 and 138 Wm(exp-2), respectively) are less than those under middle and high clouds (188 and 201 Wm(exp -2), respectively), but the downwelling LW fluxes (349 and 356 Wm(exp -2)) underneath total and low clouds are greater than those from middle and high clouds (337 and 333 Wm(exp -2)). Low clouds produce the largest LW warming (55 Wm(exp -2) and SW cooling (-91 Wm(exp -2)) effects with maximum and minimum absolute values in spring and summer, respectively. High clouds have the smallest LW warming (17 Wm(exp -2)) and SW cooling (-37 Wm(exp -2)) effects at the surface. All-sky SW CRF decreases and LW CRF increases with increasing cloud fraction with mean slopes of -0.984 and 0.616 Wm(exp -2)%(exp -1), respectively. Over the entire diurnal cycle, clouds deplete the amount of surface insolation more than they add to the downwelling LW flux. The calculated CRFs do not appear to be significantly

  20. The energy balance experiment EBEX-2000. Part III: Behaviour and quality of the radiation measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohsiek, W.; Liebethal, C.; Foken, T.; Vogt, R.; Oncley, S.P.; Bernhofer, C.; Debruin, H.A.R.

    2007-01-01

    An important part of the Energy Balance Experiment (EBEX-2000) was the measurement of the net radiation and its components. Since the terrain, an irrigated cotton field, could not be considered homogeneous, radiation measurements were made at nine sites using a variety of radiation instruments,