WorldWideScience

Sample records for net land demand

  1. Demand for Agricultural Land in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirgasová Katarína

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In general, soil is perceived as an unreplaceable and unrenewable natural resource that allows plants, animals and man to live. It is significant in several ways out of which the most important is the production of food for population, the production of fodder for livestock and the production of raw materials for food and light industry. Due to these as well as the other reasons, land becomes the object of competition between different subjects which are trying to get it and use it. The aim of the paper is to map and to characterise the demand for agricultural land at the agricultural land market based on the certificates on fulfilment of the requirements on purchase of agricultural land. Based on the data collected throughout 31 months, it was proved that the demand for agricultural land is influenced by price, land quality, area, fragmentation of land ownership, distance of the offered plot from a county seat and localisation of a given land plot.

  2. Demand and willingness-to-pay for bed nets in Tanzania: results from a choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingrich, Chris D; Ricotta, Emily; Kahwa, Amos; Kahabuka, Catherine; Koenker, Hannah

    2017-07-14

    Universal coverage campaigns for long-lasting insecticide-treated nets do not always reach the goal of one net for every two household members, and even when ownership of at least one net per household is high, many households may not own enough nets. The retail market provides these households options for replacing or increasing the number of nets they own with products that best fit their needs since a variety of net shapes, sizes, and colours are available. Hence, it is important to understand the factors affecting private net demand. This study explores private demand for nets in Tanzania using a discrete choice experiment. The experiment provides participants the option to buy nets with their own money, and thus should prove more accurate than a hypothetical survey of net preferences. Nearly 800 participants sampled in two regions showed an overall strong demand for nets, with 40% choosing to buy a net across all seven combinations of net prices and characteristics such as size, shape, and insecticide treatment. Only 8% of all participants chose not to buy a single net. A key factor influencing demand was whether a participant's household currently owned sufficient nets for all members, with rural participants showing lower net coverage and greater demand than urban participants. Both poor and less poor households showed strong evidence of making purchase decisions based on more than price alone. Mean willingness-to-pay values for a net started at US$1.10 and grew by US$0.50-1.40 for various attributes such as rectangular shape, large size, and insecticide treatment. The impact of price on demand was negative but small, with elasticity values between -0.25 and -0.45. The results suggest that private demand for nets in Tanzania could potentially supplement future coverage campaigns. Net manufacturers and retailers should advertise and promote consumers' preferred net attributes to improve sales and further expand net access and coverage. To overcome household

  3. Determinants of household demand for bed nets in a rural area of southern Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhacolo Ariel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A key to making insecticide-treated nets (ITNs a long-term, sustainable solution to the spread of malaria is understanding what drives their purchase and use. Few studies have analysed the determinants of demand for bed nets for malaria prevention at the household level, and in particular, how demand for nets compares with demand for other mosquito prevention methods. Methods This study uses a household survey to assess the determinants of demand for bed nets in an area of endemic malaria transmission in rural, southern Mozambique. The study looks at willingness to pay (WTP for bed nets, net ownership, usage, and past purchase behaviour, alongside expenditure and frequency of use of alternate methods for malaria prevention. Results While overall net ownership in the sample is low, the evidence fails to suggest that poorer households are less likely to own bed nets, when controlling for covariates, nor does the likelihood of receiving a free net depend on socioeconomic status (SES. Formal schooling and market knowledge seem to indicate higher average willingness to pay, while use of alternate methods for malaria prevention, and receipt of Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS are found to decrease demand for bed nets. Conclusion For long-term sustainability of ITNs to be realized, results suggest that either full or partial subsidies may be necessary in some contexts to encourage households to obtain and use nets. Given the possible substitution effects of combined malaria control interventions, and the danger of not taking into consideration household preferences for malaria prevention, successful malaria control campaigns should invest a portion of their funds towards educating recipients of IRS and users of other preventive methods on the importance of net use even in the absence of mosquitoes.

  4. Transformative optimisation of agricultural land use to meet future food demands

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    Lian Pin Koh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The human population is expected to reach ∼9 billion by 2050. The ensuing demands for water, food and energy would intensify land-use conflicts and exacerbate environmental impacts. Therefore we urgently need to reconcile our growing consumptive needs with environmental protection. Here, we explore the potential of a land-use optimisation strategy to increase global agricultural production on two major groups of crops: cereals and oilseeds. We implemented a spatially-explicit computer simulation model across 173 countries based on the following algorithm: on any cropland, always produce the most productive crop given all other crops currently being produced locally and the site-specific biophysical, economic and technological constraints to production. Globally, this strategy resulted in net increases in annual production of cereal and oilseed crops from 1.9 billion to 2.9 billion tons (46%, and from 427 million to 481 million tons (13%, respectively, without any change in total land area harvested for cereals or oilseeds. This thought experiment demonstrates that, in theory, more optimal use of existing farmlands could help meet future crop demands. In practice there might be cultural, social and institutional barriers that limit the full realisation of this theoretical potential. Nevertheless, these constraints have to be weighed against the consequences of not producing enough food, particularly in regions already facing food shortages.

  5. Future supply and demand of net primary production in the Sahel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallaba, Florian; Olin, Stefan; Engström, Kerstin; Abdi, Abdulhakim M.; Boke-Olén, Niklas; Lehsten, Veiko; Ardö, Jonas; Seaquist, Jonathan W.

    2017-12-01

    In the 21st century, climate change in combination with increasing demand, mainly from population growth, will exert greater pressure on the ecosystems of the Sahel to supply food and feed resources. The balance between supply and demand, defined as the annual biomass required for human consumption, serves as a key metric for quantifying basic resource shortfalls over broad regions.Here we apply an exploratory modelling framework to analyse the variations in the timing and geography of different NPP (net primary production) supply-demand scenarios, with distinct assumptions determining supply and demand, for the 21st century Sahel. We achieve this by coupling a simple NPP supply model forced with projections from four representative concentration pathways with a global, reduced-complexity demand model driven by socio-economic data and assumptions derived from five shared socio-economic pathways.For the scenario that deviates least from current socio-economic and climate trends, we find that per capita NPP begins to outstrip supply in the 2040s, while by 2050 half the countries in the Sahel experience NPP shortfalls. We also find that despite variations in the timing of the onset of NPP shortfalls, demand cannot consistently be met across the majority of scenarios. Moreover, large between-country variations are shown across the scenarios, in which by the year 2050 some countries consistently experience shortage or surplus, while others shift from surplus to shortage. At the local level (i.e. grid cell), hotspots of total NPP shortfall consistently occur in the same locations across all scenarios but vary in size and magnitude. These hotspots are linked to population density and high demand. For all scenarios, total simulated NPP supply doubles by 2050 but is outpaced by increasing demand due to a combination of population growth and the adoption of diets rich in animal products. Finally, variations in the timing of the onset and end of supply shortfalls stem from

  6. Attribution of Net Carbon Change by Disturbance Type across Forest Lands of the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, S. C.; Harris, N.; Saatchi, S. S.; Domke, G. M.; Woodall, C. W.; Pearson, T.

    2016-12-01

    We generated spatially comprehensive maps of carbon stocks and net carbon changes from US forestlands between 2005 and 2010 and attributed the changes to natural and anthropogenic processes. The prototype system created to produce these maps is designed to assist with national GHG inventories and support decisions associated with land management. Here, we present the results and methodological framework of our analysis. In summary, combining estimates of net C losses and gains results in net carbon change of 269±49 Tg C yr-1 (sink) in the coterminous US forest land, with carbon loss from harvest acting as the predominent source process.

  7. Integration of Systems Network (SysNet) tools for regional land use scenario analysis in Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roetter, R.P.; Hoanh, C.T.; Laborte, A.G.; Keulen, van H.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Dreiser, C.; Diepen, van C.A.; Ridder, de N.; Laar, van H.H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces the approach of the Systems research Network (SysNet) for land use planning in tropical Asia with a focus on its main scientific-technical output: the development of the land use planning and analysis system (LUPAS) and its component models. These include crop simulation

  8. NetLand: quantitative modeling and visualization of Waddington's epigenetic landscape using probabilistic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing; Lin, Feng; Zhang, Xiaomeng; Tanavde, Vivek; Zheng, Jie

    2017-05-15

    Waddington's epigenetic landscape is a powerful metaphor for cellular dynamics driven by gene regulatory networks (GRNs). Its quantitative modeling and visualization, however, remains a challenge, especially when there are more than two genes in the network. A software tool for Waddington's landscape has not been available in the literature. We present NetLand, an open-source software tool for modeling and simulating the kinetic dynamics of GRNs, and visualizing the corresponding Waddington's epigenetic landscape in three dimensions without restriction on the number of genes in a GRN. With an interactive and graphical user interface, NetLand can facilitate the knowledge discovery and experimental design in the study of cell fate regulation (e.g. stem cell differentiation and reprogramming). NetLand can run under operating systems including Windows, Linux and OS X. The executive files and source code of NetLand as well as a user manual, example models etc. can be downloaded from http://netland-ntu.github.io/NetLand/ . zhengjie@ntu.edu.sg. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  9. The Implications of Future Food Demand on Global Land Use, Land-Use Change Emissions, and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, K. V.; Wise, M.; Kyle, P.; Luckow, P.; Clarke, L.; Edmonds, J.; Eom, J.; Kim, S.; Moss, R.; Patel, P.

    2011-12-01

    In 2005, cropland accounted for approximately 10% of global land area. The amount of cropland needed in the future depends on a number of factors including global population, dietary preferences, and agricultural crop yields. In this paper, we explore the effect of various assumptions about global food demand and agricultural productivity between now and 2100 on global land use, land-use change emissions, and climate using the GCAM model. GCAM is a global integrated assessment model, linking submodules of the regionally disaggregated, global economy, energy system, agriculture and land-use, terrestrial carbon cycle, oceans and climate. GCAM simulates supply, demand, and prices for energy and agricultural goods from 2005 to 2100 in 5-year increments. In each time period, the model computes the allocation of land across a variety of land cover types in 151 different regions, assuming that farmers maximize profits and that food demand is relatively inelastic. For this analysis, we look at the effect of alternative socioeconomic pathways, crop yield improvement assumptions, and future meat demand scenarios on the demand for agricultural land. The three socioeconomic pathways explore worlds where global population in 2100 ranges from 6 billion people to 14 billion people. The crop yield improvement assumptions range from a world where yields do not improve beyond today's levels to a world with significantly higher crop productivity. The meat demand scenarios range from a vegetarian world to a world where meat is a dominant source of calories in the global diet. For each of these scenarios, we find that sufficient land exists to feed the global economy. However, rates of deforestation, bioenergy potential, land-use change emissions, and climate change differ across the scenarios. Under less favorable scenarios, deforestation rates, land-use change emissions, and the rate of climate change can be adversely affected.

  10. Effect of land area on average annual suburban water demand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AADD) in South Africa are based on residential plot size. This paper presents a novel, robust method for estimating suburban water demand as a function of the suburb area. Seventy suburbs, identified as being predominantly residential, were ...

  11. Attribution of net carbon change by disturbance type across forest lands of the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. L. Harris; S. C. Hagen; S. S. Saatchi; T. R. H. Pearson; Christopher W. Woodall; Grant M. Domke; B. H. Braswell; Brian F. Walters; S. Brown; W. Salas; A. Fore; Y. Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Locating terrestrial sources and sinks of carbon (C) will be critical to developing strategies that contribute to the climate change mitigation goals of the Paris Agreement. Here we present spatially resolved estimates of net C change across United States (US) forest lands between 2006 and 2010 and attribute them to natural and anthropogenic processes....

  12. Ecological balance between supply and demand based on cultivated land ecological footprint method in Guizhou Province

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    Qian, Qinghuan; Zhou, Dequan; Bai, Xiaoyong; Xiao, Jianyong; Chen, Fei; Zeng, Cheng

    2018-01-01

    In order to construct the indicators of the balance between supply and demand of the cultivated land ecological carrying capacity, basing on the relation of the cultivated land ecological carrying capacity supply and demand, applying the model of Cultivated Land Ecological Footprints and the method of CIS and considering the factors of cultivated land production, taking the statistical data of 2015 as an example, and then made a systematic evaluation of the balance between supply and demand of the cultivated land ecological carrying capacity in Guizhou Province. The results show that (1) the spatial distribution of supply and demand of cultivated land ecological carrying capacity in Guizhou is unbalanced, and the northern and eastern parts are the overloading area, the middle, the south and the west parts are the balance area. (2) From the perspective of cultivated land structure, the crops with ecological carrying capacity surplus were rice, vegetables and peanuts, among which rice was the highest and the ecological balance index was 0.7354. The crops with ecological carrying capacity overload were potato, wheat, maize, rapeseeds, soybeans and cured tobacco, of which the index of potato up to 7.11, other types of indices are less than 1.5. The research can provide the ecological security early warning, the overall plan of land use and sustainable development of the area cultivated land with scientific evidence and decision support.

  13. Demand-driven land evaluation; with case studies in Santa Catarina-Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bacic, I.L.Z.

    2003-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to improve use and usefulness of information for rural land use decisions based on an operational demand-driven approach for land evaluation with case studies in Santa Catarina State, Brazil. To achieve this objective, the following research questions were

  14. What explains the demand for collective forest rights amidst land use conflicts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashwan, Prakash

    2016-12-01

    This article presents one of the first empirical studies of the demand for collective forest rights by forest-dependent groups locked in longstanding conflicts with government forestry agencies, which is a common feature of forested regions in the Global South. This analysis shows that (1) past engagements with community-based forest protection help foster demand for collective forest management rights despite the longstanding land use conflicts; (2) large areas of forest land affected by land use conflicts undermine the propensity of community groups to demand collective forest rights; (3) after the area affected by land use conflicts is controlled for, a larger number of land rights claimants is associated with a greater probability that a village group will claim collective forest rights; and (4) micro-institutional variables, particularly financial autonomy of village groups engaged in forest protection efforts, are likely to be among the main drivers of the local demand for collective forest management rights. The main finding is that community-based forest management is not merely an agenda that is imposed from the top by donors. Rather, recognizing the agency of rural residents in the process of adjudication of land use conflicts and providing them with autonomous spaces for management of local resources is likely to significantly boost the local demand for environmental stewardship. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Estimating demand for industrial and commercial land use given economic forecasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Batista e Silva

    Full Text Available Current developments in the field of land use modelling point towards greater level of spatial and thematic resolution and the possibility to model large geographical extents. Improvements are taking place as computational capabilities increase and socioeconomic and environmental data are produced with sufficient detail. Integrated approaches to land use modelling rely on the development of interfaces with specialized models from fields like economy, hydrology, and agriculture. Impact assessment of scenarios/policies at various geographical scales can particularly benefit from these advances. A comprehensive land use modelling framework includes necessarily both the estimation of the quantity and the spatial allocation of land uses within a given timeframe. In this paper, we seek to establish straightforward methods to estimate demand for industrial and commercial land uses that can be used in the context of land use modelling, in particular for applications at continental scale, where the unavailability of data is often a major constraint. We propose a set of approaches based on 'land use intensity' measures indicating the amount of economic output per existing areal unit of land use. A base model was designed to estimate land demand based on regional-specific land use intensities; in addition, variants accounting for sectoral differences in land use intensity were introduced. A validation was carried out for a set of European countries by estimating land use for 2006 and comparing it to observations. The models' results were compared with estimations generated using the 'null model' (no land use change and simple trend extrapolations. Results indicate that the proposed approaches clearly outperformed the 'null model', but did not consistently outperform the linear extrapolation. An uncertainty analysis further revealed that the models' performances are particularly sensitive to the quality of the input land use data. In addition, unknown

  16. Green and blue water demand from large-scale land acquisitions in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Emma Li; Fader, Marianela; Seaquist, Jonathan W.; Nicholas, Kimberly A.

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, more than 22 million ha of land have been contracted to large-scale land acquisitions in Africa, leading to increased pressures, competition, and conflicts over freshwater resources. Currently, 3% of contracted land is in production, for which we model site-specific water demands to indicate where freshwater appropriation might pose high socioenvironmental challenges. We use the dynamic global vegetation model Lund–Potsdam–Jena managed Land to simulate green (precipitation stored in soils and consumed by plants through evapotranspiration) and blue (extracted from rivers, lakes, aquifers, and dams) water demand and crop yields for seven irrigation scenarios, and compare these data with two baseline scenarios of staple crops representing previous water demand. We find that most land acquisitions are planted with crops that demand large volumes of water (>9,000 m3⋅ha−1) like sugarcane, jatropha, and eucalyptus, and that staple crops have lower water requirements (land acquisitions, totaling 91,000 ha, would still require more than 50% of water from blue water sources. These hotspots indicate areas at risk for transgressing regional constraints for freshwater use as a result of overconsumption of blue water, where socioenvironmental systems might face increased conflicts and tensions over water resources. PMID:27671634

  17. MISR Level 3 Component Global Land product in netCDF format covering a day V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MISR Level 3 Component Global Land Product in netCDF contains a daily statistical summary of directional hemispherical reflectance (DHR), photosynthetically...

  18. MISR Level 3 Component Global Land product in netCDF format covering a year V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MISR Level 3 Yearly Component Global Land Product in netCDF contains a yearly statistical summary of directional hemispherical reflectance (DHR),...

  19. MISR Level 3 Component Global Land product in netCDF format covering a month V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MISR Level 3 Monthly Component Global Land Product in netCDF contains a monthly statistical summary of directional hemispherical reflectance (DHR),...

  20. Multi-crew Model Analytic Assessment of Landing Performance and Decision-making Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgram, P.; Vanderwijngaart, R.; Veerbeek, H.; Bleeker, O. F.

    1984-01-01

    Some of the relative merits of the PROCRU approach to modelling multi-crew flight deck activity during approach to landing are discussed. On the basis of two realistic flight scenarios, the ability of the model to simulate different vectored approaches is demonstrated. A secondary exemplary analysis of a nominal and an accelerated final approach is performed, illustrating the potential of the expected net gain (ENGP) functions as a measure of decision-making load.

  1. How do land management practices affect net ecosystem CO2 exchange of an invasive plant infestation?

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    Sonnentag, O.; Detto, M.; Runkle, B.; Kelly, M.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2009-12-01

    Ecosystem gas and energy exchanges of invasive plant infestations under different land management practices have been subject of few studies and thus little is known. Our goal is to characterize seasonal changes in net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) through the processes of photosynthesis (GEP) and ecosystem respiration (Reco) of a grassland used as pasture yet infested by perennial pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium) in California’s Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. We analyze eddy-covariance supported by environmental and canopy-scale hyperspectral reflectance measurements acquired in 2007-2009. Our study covers three summer drought periods with slightly different land management practices. Over the study period the site was subject to year-round grazing, and in 2008 the site was additionally mowed. Specific questions we address are a) how does pepperweed flowering affect GEP, b) does a mowing event affect NEE mainly through GEP or Reco, and c) can the combined effects of phenology and mowing on pepperweed NEE potentially be tracked using routinely applied remote sensing techniques? Preliminary results indicate that pepperweed flowering drastically decreases photosynthetic CO2 uptake due to shading by the dense arrangement of white flowers at the canopy top, causing the infestation to be almost CO2 neutral. In contrast, mowing causes the infestation to act as moderate net CO2 sink, mainly due to increased CO2 uptake during regrowth. We demonstrate that spectral regions other than commonly-used red and near-infrared might be more promising for pepperweed monitoring because of its spectral uniqueness during the flowering phase. Our results have important implications for land-use land-cover (LULC) change studies when biological invasions and their management alter ecosystem structure and functioning but not necessarily the respective LULC class.

  2. Meeting the Demand for Biofuels: Impact on Land Use and Carbon Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanna, Madhu; Jain, Atul; Onal, Hayri; Scheffran, Jurgen; Chen, Xiaoguang; Erickson, Matt; Huang, Haixiao; Kang, Seungmo.

    2011-08-14

    The purpose of this research was to develop an integrated, interdisciplinary framework to investigate the implications of large scale production of biofuels for land use, crop production, farm income and greenhouse gases. In particular, we examine the mix of feedstocks that would be viable for biofuel production and the spatial allocation of land required for producing these feedstocks at various gasoline and carbon emission prices as well as biofuel subsidy levels. The implication of interactions between energy policy that seeks energy independence from foreign oil and climate policy that seeks to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions for the optimal mix of biofuels and land use will also be investigated. This project contributes to the ELSI research goals of sustainable biofuel production while balancing competing demands for land and developing policy approaches needed to support biofuel production in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly manner.

  3. Land Use Effects on Net Greenhouse Gas Fluxes in the US Great Plains: Historical Trends and Model Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Grosso, S. J.; Parton, W. J.; Ojima, D. S.; Mosier, A. R.; Mosier, A. R.; Paustian, K.; Peterson, G. A.

    2001-12-01

    We present maps showing regional patterns of land use change and soil C levels in the US Great Plains during the 20th century and time series of net greenhouse gas fluxes associated with different land uses. Net greenhouse gas fluxes were calculated by accounting for soil CO2 fluxes, the CO2 equivalents of N2O emissions and CH4 uptake, and the CO2 costs of N fertilizer production. Both historical and modern agriculture in this region have been net sources of greenhouse gases. The primary reason for this, prior to 1950, is that agriculture mined soil C and resulted in net CO2 emissions. When chemical N fertilizer became widely used in the 1950's agricultural soils began to sequester CO2-C but these soils were still net greenhouse gas sources if the effects of increased N2O emissions and decreased CH4 uptake are included. The sensitivity of net greenhouse gas fluxes to conventional and alternative land uses was explored using the DAYCENT ecosystem model. Model projections suggest that conversion to no-till, reduction of the fallow period, and use of nitrification inhibitors can significantly decrease net greenhouse gas emissions in dryland and irrigated systems, while maintaining or increasing crop yields.

  4. Land use affects the net ecosystem CO2 exchange and its components in mountain grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, M.; Bahn, M.; Wohlfahrt, G.; Tappeiner, U.; Cernusca, A.

    2010-08-01

    Changes in land use and management have been strongly affecting mountain grassland, however, their effects on the net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) and its components have not yet been well documented. We analysed chamber-based estimates of NEE, gross primary productivity (GPP), ecosystem respiration (R) and light use efficiency (LUE) of six mountain grasslands differing in land use and management, and thus site fertility, for the growing seasons of 2002 to 2008. The main findings of the study are that: (1) land use and management affected seasonal NEE, GPP and R, which all decreased from managed to unmanaged grasslands; (2) these changes were explained by differences in leaf area index (LAI), biomass and leaf-area-independent changes that were likely related to photosynthetic physiology; (3) diurnal variations of NEE were primarily controlled by photosynthetically active photon flux density and soil and air temperature; seasonal variations were associated with changes in LAI; (4) parameters of light response curves were generally closely related to each other, and the ratio of R at a reference temperature/ maximum GPP was nearly constant across the sites; (5) similarly to our study, maximum GPP and R for other grasslands on the globe decreased with decreasing land use intensity, while their ratio remained remarkably constant. We conclude that decreasing intensity of management and, in particular, abandonment of mountain grassland lead to a decrease in NEE and its component processes. While GPP and R are generally closely coupled during most of the growing season, GPP is more immediately and strongly affected by land management (mowing, grazing) and season. This suggests that management and growing season length, as well as their possible future changes, may play an important role for the annual C balance of mountain grassland.

  5. Land use affects the net ecosystem CO2 exchange and its components in mountain grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cernusca

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Changes in land use and management have been strongly affecting mountain grassland, however, their effects on the net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE and its components have not yet been well documented. We analysed chamber-based estimates of NEE, gross primary productivity (GPP, ecosystem respiration (R and light use efficiency (LUE of six mountain grasslands differing in land use and management, and thus site fertility, for the growing seasons of 2002 to 2008. The main findings of the study are that: (1 land use and management affected seasonal NEE, GPP and R, which all decreased from managed to unmanaged grasslands; (2 these changes were explained by differences in leaf area index (LAI, biomass and leaf-area-independent changes that were likely related to photosynthetic physiology; (3 diurnal variations of NEE were primarily controlled by photosynthetically active photon flux density and soil and air temperature; seasonal variations were associated with changes in LAI; (4 parameters of light response curves were generally closely related to each other, and the ratio of R at a reference temperature/ maximum GPP was nearly constant across the sites; (5 similarly to our study, maximum GPP and R for other grasslands on the globe decreased with decreasing land use intensity, while their ratio remained remarkably constant. We conclude that decreasing intensity of management and, in particular, abandonment of mountain grassland lead to a decrease in NEE and its component processes. While GPP and R are generally closely coupled during most of the growing season, GPP is more immediately and strongly affected by land management (mowing, grazing and season. This suggests that management and growing season length, as well as their possible future changes, may play an important role for the annual C balance of mountain grassland.

  6. Increase in observed net carbon dioxide uptake by land and oceans during the past 50 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, A P; Alden, C B; Miller, J B; Tans, P P; White, J W C

    2012-08-02

    One of the greatest sources of uncertainty for future climate predictions is the response of the global carbon cycle to climate change. Although approximately one-half of total CO(2) emissions is at present taken up by combined land and ocean carbon reservoirs, models predict a decline in future carbon uptake by these reservoirs, resulting in a positive carbon-climate feedback. Several recent studies suggest that rates of carbon uptake by the land and ocean have remained constant or declined in recent decades. Other work, however, has called into question the reported decline. Here we use global-scale atmospheric CO(2) measurements, CO(2) emission inventories and their full range of uncertainties to calculate changes in global CO(2) sources and sinks during the past 50 years. Our mass balance analysis shows that net global carbon uptake has increased significantly by about 0.05 billion tonnes of carbon per year and that global carbon uptake doubled, from 2.4 ± 0.8 to 5.0 ± 0.9 billion tonnes per year, between 1960 and 2010. Therefore, it is very unlikely that both land and ocean carbon sinks have decreased on a global scale. Since 1959, approximately 350 billion tonnes of carbon have been emitted by humans to the atmosphere, of which about 55 per cent has moved into the land and oceans. Thus, identifying the mechanisms and locations responsible for increasing global carbon uptake remains a critical challenge in constraining the modern global carbon budget and predicting future carbon-climate interactions.

  7. Climatic and Socioeconomic Determinants of the Supply and Demand of Net Primary Production in sub-Saharan Drylands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, A.

    2015-12-01

    Around two-thirds of Africa's inhabitants live in drylands and rely on multifaceted livelihoods involving rain-fed agriculture, cash crops, pastoralism, and livestock production. A large portion of dryland sub-Saharan Africa is under the influence of global climatic teleconnections that produces variability in the Earth's climate. Areas where the vegetation has a strong response to climatic variability clearly exhibit the relationship between human well-being and the climate system. We define NPP supply as the annual amount of carbon that plants remove from the atmosphere through photosynthesis and store as biomass, and NPP demand is the annual amount of carbon required for food, feed and fuel and it drives land use changes such as the expansion of cropland, wood fuel extraction and pasture creation. In this poster, we present preliminary evidence to show that global climatic teleconnections regulate the NPP supply in Africa, while NPP demand increase as a function of demographic growth. Our results point to a scenario whereby the demand for NPP could outpace available supply. Increased climatic variability and extreme events could potentialy tilt this balance further by reducing NPP supply through intense droughts and floods.

  8. Is the available cropland and water enough for food demand? A global perspective of the Land-Water-Food nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarrola-Rivas, M. J.; Granados-Ramírez, R.; Nonhebel, S.

    2017-12-01

    Land and water are essential local resources for food production but are limited. The main drivers of increasing food demand are population growth and dietary changes, which depend on the socioeconomic situation of the population. These two factors affect the availability of local resources: population growth reduces the land and water per person; and adoption of affluent diets increases the demand for land and water per person. This study shows potentials of global food supply by linking food demand drivers with national land and water availability. Whether the available land and water is enough to meet national food demand was calculated for 187 countries. The calculations were performed for the past situation (1960 and 2010) and to assess four future scenarios (2050) to discuss different paths of diets, population numbers and agricultural expansion. Inclusion of the demand perspective in the analysis has shown stronger challenges for future global food supply than have other studies. The results show that with the "business as usual" scenario, 40% of the global population in 2050 will live in countries with not enough land nor water to meet the demands of their population. Restriction to basic diets will be the most effective in lowering both land and water constraints. Our results identify both food production and food demand factors, and the regions that may experience the strongest challenges in 2050.

  9. A theoretical framework for the net land-to-atmosphere CO2 flux and its implications in the definition of "emissions from land-use change"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Gasser

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We develop a theoretical framework and analysis of the net land-to-atmosphere CO2 flux in order to discuss possible definitions of "emissions from land-use change". The terrestrial biosphere is affected by two perturbations: the perturbation of the global carbon-climate-nitrogen system (CCN with elevated atmospheric CO2, climate change and nitrogen deposition; and the land-use change perturbation (LUC. Here, we progressively establish mathematical definitions of four generic components of the net land-to-atmosphere CO2 flux. The two first components are the fluxes that would be observed if only one perturbation occurred. The two other components are due to the coupling of the CCN and LUC perturbations, which shows the non-linear response of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Thanks to these four components, we introduce three possible definitions of "emissions from land-use change" that are indeed used in the scientific literature, often without clear distinctions, and we draw conclusions as for their absolute and relative behaviors. Thanks to the OSCAR v2 model, we provide quantitative estimates of the differences between the three definitions, and we find that comparing results from studies that do not use the same definition can lead to a bias of up to 20% between estimates of those emissions. After discussion of the limitations of the framework, we conclude on the three major points of this study that should help the community to reconcile modeling and observation of emissions from land-use change. The appendix mainly provides more detailed mathematical expressions of the four components of the net land-to-atmosphere CO2 flux.

  10. A theoretical framework for the net land-to-atmosphere CO2 flux and its implications in the definition of "emissions from land-use change"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, T.; Ciais, P.

    2013-06-01

    We develop a theoretical framework and analysis of the net land-to-atmosphere CO2 flux in order to discuss possible definitions of "emissions from land-use change". The terrestrial biosphere is affected by two perturbations: the perturbation of the global carbon-climate-nitrogen system (CCN) with elevated atmospheric CO2, climate change and nitrogen deposition; and the land-use change perturbation (LUC). Here, we progressively establish mathematical definitions of four generic components of the net land-to-atmosphere CO2 flux. The two first components are the fluxes that would be observed if only one perturbation occurred. The two other components are due to the coupling of the CCN and LUC perturbations, which shows the non-linear response of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Thanks to these four components, we introduce three possible definitions of "emissions from land-use change" that are indeed used in the scientific literature, often without clear distinctions, and we draw conclusions as for their absolute and relative behaviors. Thanks to the OSCAR v2 model, we provide quantitative estimates of the differences between the three definitions, and we find that comparing results from studies that do not use the same definition can lead to a bias of up to 20% between estimates of those emissions. After discussion of the limitations of the framework, we conclude on the three major points of this study that should help the community to reconcile modeling and observation of emissions from land-use change. The appendix mainly provides more detailed mathematical expressions of the four components of the net land-to-atmosphere CO2 flux.

  11. Revisiting a Hydrological Analysis Framework with International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project Initiative 2 Rainfall, Net Radiation, and Runoff Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Randal D.; Fekete, Balazs M.; Huffman, George J.; Stackhouse, Paul W.

    2006-01-01

    The International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project Initiative 2 (ISLSCP-2) data set provides the data needed to characterize the surface water budget across much of the globe in terms of energy availability (net radiation) and water availability (precipitation) controls. The data, on average, are shown to be consistent with Budyko s decades-old framework, thereby demonstrating the continuing relevance of Budyko s semiempirical relationships. This consistency, however, appears only when a small subset of the data with hydrologically suspicious behavior is removed from the analysis. In general, the precipitation, net radiation, and runoff data also appear consistent in their interannual variability and in the phasing of their seasonal cycles.

  12. On demand: The singular rht net, an ideal blueprint for the construction of a metal-organic framework (mof) platform

    KAUST Repository

    Eubank, Jarrod F.

    2012-09-07

    The exceptional nature of the rht-MOF platform, based on a singular edge-transitive net (the only net for the combination of 3- and 24-connected nodes), makes it an ideal target in crystal chemistry. The high level of control indicates an unparalleled blueprint for isoreticular functional materials (without concern for interpenetration) for targeted applications. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. BECCS capability of dedicated bioenergy crops under a future land-use scenario targeting net negative carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, E.; Yamagata, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS) is a key component of mitigation strategies in future socio-economic scenarios that aim to keep mean global temperature rise below 2°C above pre-industrial, which would require net negative carbon emissions in the end of the 21st century. Because of the additional need for land, developing sustainable low-carbon scenarios requires careful consideration of the land-use implications of deploying large-scale BECCS. We evaluated the feasibility of the large-scale BECCS in RCP2.6, which is a scenario with net negative emissions aiming to keep the 2°C temperature target, with a top-down analysis of required yields and a bottom-up evaluation of BECCS potential using a process-based global crop model. Land-use change carbon emissions related to the land expansion were examined using a global terrestrial biogeochemical cycle model. Our analysis reveals that first-generation bioenergy crops would not meet the required BECCS of the RCP2.6 scenario even with a high fertilizer and irrigation application. Using second-generation bioenergy crops can marginally fulfill the required BECCS only if a technology of full post-process combustion CO2 capture is deployed with a high fertilizer application in the crop production. If such an assumed technological improvement does not occur in the future, more than doubling the area for bioenergy production for BECCS around 2050 assumed in RCP2.6 would be required, however, such scenarios implicitly induce large-scale land-use changes that would cancel half of the assumed CO2 sequestration by BECCS. Otherwise a conflict of land-use with food production is inevitable.

  14. Gross and net land cover changes in the main plant functional types derived from the annual ESA CCI land cover maps (1992–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Land-use and land-cover change (LULCC impacts local energy and water balance and contributes on global scale to a net carbon emission to the atmosphere. The newly released annual ESA CCI (climate change initiative land cover maps provide continuous land cover changes at 300 m resolution from 1992 to 2015, and can be used in land surface models (LSMs to simulate LULCC effects on carbon stocks and on surface energy budgets. Here we investigate the absolute areas and gross and net changes in different plant functional types (PFTs derived from ESA CCI products. The results are compared with other datasets. Global areas of forest, cropland and grassland PFTs from ESA are 30.4, 19.3 and 35.7 million km2 in the year 2000. The global forest area is lower than that from LUH2v2h (Hurtt et al., 2011, Hansen et al. (2013 or Houghton and Nassikas (2017 while cropland area is higher than LUH2v2h (Hurtt et al., 2011, in which cropland area is from HYDE 3.2 (Klein Goldewijk et al., 2016. Gross forest loss and gain during 1992–2015 are 1.5 and 0.9 million km2 respectively, resulting in a net forest loss of 0.6 million km2, mainly occurring in South and Central America. The magnitudes of gross changes in forest, cropland and grassland PFTs in the ESA CCI are smaller than those in other datasets. The magnitude of global net cropland gain for the whole period is consistent with HYDE 3.2 (Klein Goldewijk et al., 2016, but most of the increases happened before 2004 in ESA and after 2007 in HYDE 3.2. Brazil, Bolivia and Indonesia are the countries with the largest net forest loss from 1992 to 2015, and the decreased areas are generally consistent with those from Hansen et al. (2013 based on Landsat 30 m resolution images. Despite discrepancies compared to other datasets, and uncertainties in converting into PFTs, the new ESA CCI products provide the first detailed long-term time series of land-cover change and can be implemented in LSMs to

  15. Is the available cropland and water enough for food demand? A global perspective of the Land-Water-Food nexus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibarrola-Rivas, M. J.; Granados-Ramirez, R.; Nonhebel, S.

    2017-01-01

    Land and water are essential local resources for food production but are limited. The main drivers of increasing food demand are population growth and dietary changes, which depend on the socioeconomic situation of the population. These two factors affect the availability of local resources:

  16. Projected Impacts of Bioenergy-Demand-Induced Land Use and Cover Changes on Regional Climate in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Yin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy shortfalls are becoming more and more serious all over the world, and worldwide governments have tried to promote the development of biofuels in order to mitigate the climatic impacts of massive fossil fuel consumption. Since the land is the main input factor of the bioenergy production, the development of biofuels will inevitably lead to change of the land use structure and allocation and thereby affect the climate system. With Central Europe as the study area, this study explored the impacts of land use/land cover change (LUCC on climate under the influence of demand of bioenergy production for land resources. First, the land use structure from 2010 to 2050 is simulated with the Agriculture and Land Use model in MiniCam. The result indicates that the main conversion will be mainly from grassland and forest to cropland and from cropland to grassland. Then the Dynamics of Land System model was used to spatially simulate the LUCC in the future. The impacts of LUCC on the climate were analyzed on the basis of simulation with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model. The climate change will be characterized by the increase of latent heat flux and temperature and the decrease of precipitation.

  17. Optimizing Virtual Land and Water Resources Flow Through Global Trade to Meet World Food and Biofuel Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Cai, X.; Zhu, T.

    2013-12-01

    Biofuels is booming in recent years due to its potential contributions to energy sustainability, environmental improvement and economic opportunities. Production of biofuels not only competes for land and water with food production, but also directly pushes up food prices when crops such as maize and sugarcane are used as biofuels feedstock. Meanwhile, international trade of agricultural commodities exports and imports water and land resources in a virtual form among different regions, balances overall water and land demands and resource endowment, and provides a promising solution to the increasingly severe food-energy competition. This study investigates how to optimize water and land resources uses for overall welfare at global scale in the framework of 'virtual resources'. In contrast to partial equilibrium models that usually simulate trades year-by-year, this optimization model explores the ideal world where malnourishment is minimized with optimal resources uses and trade flows. Comparing the optimal production and trade patterns with historical data can provide meaningful implications regarding how to utilize water and land resources more efficiently and how the trade flows would be changed for overall welfare at global scale. Valuable insights are obtained in terms of the interactions among food, water and bioenergy systems. A global hydro-economic optimization model is developed, integrating agricultural production, market demands (food, feed, fuel and other), and resource and environmental constraints. Preliminary results show that with the 'free market' mechanism and land as well as water resources use optimization, the malnourished population can be reduced by as much as 65%, compared to the 2000 historical value. Expected results include: 1) optimal trade paths to achieve global malnourishment minimization, 2) how water and land resources constrain local supply, 3) how policy affects the trade pattern as well as resource uses. Furthermore, impacts of

  18. Impact of changes in diet on the availability of land, energy demand, and greenhouse gas emissions of agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazeni, Karin; Steinmueller, Horst [Johannes Kepler Univ. (JKU Linz), Linz (Austria). Energy Inst.

    2011-12-15

    Recent scientific investigations have revealed a correlation between nutrition habits and the environmental impacts of agriculture. So, it is obviously worthwhile to study what effects a change in diet has on land use patterns, energy demand, and greenhouse gas emissions of agricultural production. This study calculates the amount of energy and emission savings as well as changes in land use that would result from different scenarios underlying a change in diet. Based on the healthy eating recommendations of the German Nutrition Society, meat consumption in Austria should decrease by about 60%, and consumption of fruits and vegetables has to increase strongly. This investigation showed that compliance with healthy eating guidelines leads to lower energy demand and a decrease in greenhouse gas emissions, largely due to a decrease in livestock numbers. Furthermore, arable land and grassland no longer needed for animal feed production becomes redundant and can possibly be used for the production of raw materials for renewable energy. The scenario examination shows that in the self-sufficiency scenario and in the import/export scenario, up to 443,100 ha and about 208,800 ha, respectively, of arable land and grassland are released for non-food uses. The cumulative energy demand of agriculture is lower by up to 38%, and the greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture decrease by up to 37% in these scenarios as against the reference situation. The land use patterns for the scenario demonstrate that animal feed production still takes up the largest share of agricultural land even though the extent of animal husbandry decreased considerably in the scenarios. (orig.)

  19. Crater Morphology in the Phoenix Landing Ellipse: Insights Into Net Erosion and Ice Table Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noe Dobrea, E. Z.; Stoker, C. R.; McKay, C. P.; Davila, A. F.; Krco, M.

    2015-01-01

    Icebreaker [1] is a Discovery class mission being developed for future flight opportunities. Under this mission concept, the Icebreaker payload is carried on a stationary lander, and lands in the same landing ellipse as Phoenix. Samples are acquired from the subsurface using a drilling system that penetrates into materials which may include loose or cemented soil, icy soil, pure ice, rocks, or mixtures of these. To avoid the complexity of mating additional strings, the drill is single-string, limiting it to a total length of 1 m.

  20. Net farm income and land use under a U.S. greenhouse gas cap and trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin S. Baker; Bruce A. McCarl; Brian C. Murray; Steven K. Rose; Ralph J. Alig; Darius Adams; Greg Latta; Robert Beach; Adam. Daigneault

    2010-01-01

    During recent years, the U.S. agricultural sector has experienced high prices for energy related inputs and commodities, and a rapidly developing bioenergy market. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions mitigation would further alter agricultural markets and increase land competition in forestry and agriculture by shifting input costs, creating an agricultural GHG abatement...

  1. Estimating Trends and Variation of Net Biome Productivity in India for 1980-2012 Using a Land Surface Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahlot, Shilpa; Shu, Shijie; Jain, Atul K.; Baidya Roy, Somnath

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we explore the trend in net biome productivity (NBP) over India for the period 1980-2012 and quantify the impact of different environmental factors, including atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]), land use and land cover change, climate, and nitrogen deposition on carbon fluxes using a land surface model, Integrated Science Assessment Model. Results show that terrestrial ecosystems of India have been a carbon sink for this period. Driven by a strong CO2 fertilization effect, magnitude of NBP increased from 27.17 TgC/yr in the 1980s to 34.39 TgC/yr in the 1990s but decreased to 23.70 TgC/yr in the 2000s due to change in climate. Adoption of forest conservation, management, and reforestation policies in the past decade has promoted carbon sequestration in the ecosystems, but this effect has been offset by loss of carbon from ecosystems due to rising temperatures and decrease in precipitation.

  2. Net ecosystem production in the arid land in northwest China from 1982 to 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shunli; Shi, Qingdong

    2009-06-01

    This study constructs a soil respiration model, which includes three variables: air temperature, precipitation and soil character using a semi-mechanistic-empirically statistical model by James W. Raich. The soil characteristics are variables introduced into the model in the study, including soil texture, soil depth, PH and soil organic carbon. Then the model was used to estimate the gross and illustrate spatial-temporal patterns of soil respiration based on the data obtained monthly across the arid land in northwest China from 1961 to 2001. The solar energy efficiency model was used to survey NPP, and the NEP on 20 years scale from 1982 to 2001. Thus, the following conclusions can be come up with: (1) from 1961 to 2001, the temperature and wetness had an increasing trend in the arid land in northwest China, while the range of precipitation variation was greater than before. Such climate change accelerated NPP and soil respiration, and declined NEP on a total level. The carbon sink function of arid land of Northwest China was weakening. (2) Under the background of increasing temperature and wetness, human cultivation accelerated soil respiration of the oasis. Thus, NEP of the oasis was declined. Thereby, the carbon sink function of oasis was weakening and soil degradation happened. 3) Moisture is a more important factor than temperature in the main processes of terrestrial carbon cycle in the arid areas in Northwest China. More attention should be paid to the precipitation in modeling dominant processes of the carbon cycle process in the arid areas.

  3. A theoretical framework for the net land-to-atmosphere CO2 flux and its implications in the definition of "emissions from land-use change"

    OpenAIRE

    T. Gasser; Ciais, P

    2013-01-01

    We develop a theoretical framework and analysis of the net land-to-atmosphere CO2 flux in order to discuss possible definitions of "emissions from land-use change". The terrestrial biosphere is affected by two perturbations: the perturbation of the global carbon-climate-nitrogen system (CCN) with elevated atmospheric CO2, climate change and nitrogen deposition; and the land-use change perturbation (LUC). Here, we progressively establish mathematical definitions of four gener...

  4. A theoretical framework for the net land-to-atmosphere CO2 flux and its implications in the definition of "emissions from land-use change"

    OpenAIRE

    T. Gasser; Ciais, P

    2013-01-01

    We develop a theoretical framework and analysis of the net land-to-atmosphere CO2 flux in order to discuss possible definitions of "emissions from land-use change". The terrestrial biosphere is affected by two perturbations: the perturbation of the global Carbon-Climate-Nitrogen system (CCN) with elevated atmospheric CO2, climate change and nitrogen deposition; and the Land-Use Change perturbation (LUC). Here, we progressively establish mathematical definitions of four generic components of t...

  5. Impact of land-use change in the net radiation of the Cerrado of the southern Mato Grosso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Alves Fausto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Changes resulting from land use and occupation modify the surface radioactive balance. This paper evaluated the impact on the net radiation caused by the conversion of a Cerrado area in an agricultural zone in the southern Mato Grosso using Landsat 5 TM sensor imagery acquired between June and October 2011. The analyses were performed of the following land use classes: Cerrado, riparian vegetation, sugarcane, soybean, pasture, bare soil and water. The replacement of Cerrado by agricultural areas changed the biophysical indices of the surface due to the change in biomass and the optical properties of the surface as observed in this study. The NDVI values were higher in the typical Cerrado vegetation and Riparian Forest than in agricultural areas. The surface temperature and the surface albedo showed an inverse pattern of NDVI, with lower values in the typical Cerrado vegetation and Riparian Forest and higher values in agricultural areas and bare soil. The replacement of Cerrado by cultivated crops in the south of Mato Grosso decreased the available energy at the surface, as indicated by the radiation balance.

  6. Optimal transfer, ordering and payment policies for joint supplier-buyer inventory model with price-sensitive trapezoidal demand and net credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nita H.; Shah, Digeshkumar B.; Patel, Dushyantkumar G.

    2015-07-01

    This study aims at formulating an integrated supplier-buyer inventory model when market demand is variable price-sensitive trapezoidal and the supplier offers a choice between discount in unit price and permissible delay period for settling the accounts due against the purchases made. This type of trade credit is termed as 'net credit'. In this policy, if the buyer pays within offered time M1, then the buyer is entitled for a cash discount; otherwise the full account must be settled by the time M2; where M2 > M1 ⩾ 0. The goal is to determine the optimal selling price, procurement quantity, number of transfers from the supplier to the buyer and payment time to maximise the joint profit per unit time. An algorithm is worked out to obtain the optimal solution. A numerical example is given to validate the proposed model. The managerial insights based on sensitivity analysis are deduced.

  7. Implementation strategies to increase access and demand of long-lasting insecticidal nets: a before-and-after study and scale-up process in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroz, Jorge A H; Mendis, Chandana; Pinto, Liliana; Candrinho, Baltazar; Pinto, João; Martins, Maria do Rosário O

    2017-10-25

    The universal coverage bed nets campaign is a proven health intervention promoting increased access, ownership, and use of bed nets to reduce malaria burden. This article describes the intervention and implementation strategies that Mozambique carried out recently in order to improve access and increase demand for long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). A before-and-after study with a control group was used during Stage I of the implementation process. The following strategies were tested in Stage I: (1) use of coupons during household registration; (2) use of stickers to identify the registered households; (3) new LLIN ascription formula (one LLIN for every two people). In Stage II, the following additional strategies were implemented: (4) mapping and micro-planning; (5) training; and (6) supervision. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to compare and establish differences between intervened and control districts in Stage I. Main outcomes were: percentage of LLINs distributed, percentage of target households benefited. In Stage I, 87.8% (302,648) of planned LLINs were distributed in the intervention districts compared to 77.1% (219,613) in the control districts [OR: 2.14 (95% CI 2.11-2.16)]. Stage I results also showed that 80.6% (110,453) of households received at least one LLIN in the intervention districts compared to 72.8% (87,636) in the control districts [OR: 1.56 (95% CI 1.53-1.59)]. In Stage II, 98.4% (3,536,839) of the allocated LLINs were delivered, covering 98.6% (1,353,827) of the registered households. Stage I results achieved better LLINs and household coverage in districts with the newly implemented strategies. The results of stage II were also encouraging. Additional strategies adaptation is required for a wide-country LLIN campaign.

  8. Sensitivity of boreal forest regional water flux and net primary production simulations to sub-grid-scale land cover complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, J. S.; Running, S. W.; Saatchi, S. S.

    1999-11-01

    We use a general ecosystem process model (BIOME-BGC) coupled with remote sensing information to evaluate the sensitivity of boreal forest regional evapotranspiration (ET) and net primary production (NPP) to land cover spatial scale. Simulations were conducted over a 3 year period (1994-1996) at spatial scales ranging from 30 to 50 km within the BOREAS southern modeling subarea. Simulated fluxes were spatially complex, ranging from 0.1 to 3.9 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 and from 18 to 29 cm yr-1. Biomass and leaf area index heterogeneity predominantly controlled this complexity, while biophysical differences between deciduous and coniferous vegetation were of secondary importance. Spatial aggregation of land cover characteristics resulted in mean monthly NPP estimation bias from 25 to 48% (0.11-0.20 g C m-2 d-1) and annual estimation errors from 2 to 14% (0.04-0.31 Mg C ha-1 yr-1). Error was reduced at longer time intervals because coarse scale overestimation errors during spring were partially offset by underestimation of fine scale results during summer and winter. ET was relatively insensitive to land cover spatial scale with an average bias of less than 5% (0.04 kg m-2 d-1). Factors responsible for differences in scaling behavior between ET and NPP included compensating errors for ET calculations and boreal forest spatial and temporal NPP complexity. Careful consideration of landscape spatial and temporal heterogeneity is necessary to identify and mitigate potential error sources when using plot scale information to understand regional scale patterns. Remote sensing data integrated within an ecological process model framework provides an efficient mechanism to evaluate scaling behavior, interpret patterns in coarse resolution data, and identify appropriate scales of operation for various processes.

  9. Evaluation of Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data Assimilation System (FLDAS) and application in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervez, M. S.; McNally, A.; Shukla, S.

    2016-12-01

    Convergence of evidence from different sources of agro-hydrologic information is particularly important for drought monitoring in data sparse regions. In Africa a combination of remote sensing and land surface modeling experiments are used to evaluate past, present and future drought conditions. The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data Assimilation System (FLDAS), which is a custom instance of the NASA Land Information System, routinely simulates daily soil moisture and other variables over East, West and Southern Africa using multiple models and inputs. We find that Noah 3.3 and Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) 4.1.2 land surface models based FLDAS simulations of monthly wetness percentile soil moisture maps captured concurrent drought and water surplus episodes effectively over East Africa. However, the results are sensitive to selection of land surface model and hydrometeorological forcings. This work seeks to identify sources of uncertainty (input, model, parameter) to eventually improve the accuracy of FLDAS outputs. In absence of in situ data previous work has used European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative Soil Moisture (CCI-SM) data measured from merged active-passive microwave remote sensing to evaluate FLDAS soil moisture calculations over East Africa based on Noah 3.3 and VIC 4.1.2, and found that during the high rainfall months of April-May and November-December pixel-wise correlations were relatively better between Noah soil moisture and CCI-SM over the greater horn. We have also found good correlations (r>0.6) for FLDAS Noah 3.3 evapotranspiration (ET) anomalies and Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) ET over East and Southern Africa. To further investigate the reasons for differences between models we evaluate FLDAS outputs with respect to Advanced Scatterometer and Soil Moisture Active Passive soil moisture, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

  10. A Demand-driven Model of Decentralised Land-use Planning and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2006-08-25

    Aug 25, 2006 ... to retain far-reaching control, define the form and extent of powers to be given to local-level authorities, usually resulting in de-concentration. This paper uses empirical evidence from Zimbabwe to argue that decentralisation is likely to result in more thoroughgoing empowerment if it is demand-driven.

  11. Effect of Bioenergy Demands and Supply Response on Markets, Carbon, and Land Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen L. Abt; Robert C. Abt; Christopher Galik

    2012-01-01

    An increase in the demand for wood for energy, including liquid fuels, bioelectricity, and pellets, has the potential to affect traditional wood users, forestland uses, management intensities, and, ultimately, carbon sequestration. Recent studies have shown that increases in bioenergy harvests could lead to displacement of traditional wood-using industries in the short...

  12. New demands on water and land in Bolivia's Altiplano require new ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-02-12

    Feb 12, 2015 ... The main crop is quinoa, a nutrient rich and longtime staple for indigenous people, which has gained wide popularity the world over. The average price of quinoa increased almost 500% between the 1980s and today, and the land area used for its production has more than quadrupled since 2007.

  13. Changes in Arable Land Demand for Food in India and China: A Potential Threat to Food Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshmita Nath

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available India and China are two similar developing countries with huge populations, rapid economic growth and limited natural resources, therefore facing the massive pressure of ensuring food security. In this paper, we will discuss the food security situations in these two countries by studying the historical changes of food supply-demand balance with the concept of agricultural land requirements for food (LRF from 1963–2009. LRF of a country is a function of population, per capita consumption/diet, cropping yield and cropping intensity. We have attempted to discuss and compare our results in a framework which links consumption of different groups of food items to diet patterns; then, to the total land requirement for food in a scenario when population is growing rapidly and diet diversification and urbanization due to economic reform impose excessive pressure on food security of both countries. We also elaborate on the role of technology dissemination and critically analyze the achievements and drawbacks of government policies to ensure food self-sufficiency and food security of nations. Our results show that the total LRF increases approximately by 42% and 40%, whereas per capita LRF decreases significantly by about 48% and 30% from 1963–2009, for India and China, respectively. Furthermore, our studies reveal that population growth dominates most of the increase in total LRF for India; whereas diet pattern change induced by income growth drives the major increase in LRF for China. Therefore, sustainable management of agricultural land resource is an urgent need both for India and China as there will be demand for more food to meet the diet requirement for the entire population. We also demonstrate the role of India and China in future global food security programs and the challenges to implement the new land reform policies domestically.

  14. Water resources sensitivity to the isolated effects of land use, water demand and climate change under 2 degree global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisselink, Berny; Bernhard, Jeroen; de Roo, Ad

    2017-04-01

    One of the key impacts of global change are the future water resources. These water resources are influenced by changes in land use (LU), water demand (WD) and climate change. Recent developments in scenario modelling opened new opportunities for an integrated assessment. However, for identifying water resource management strategies it is helpful to focus on the isolated effects of possible changes in LU, WD and climate that may occur in the near future. In this work, we quantify the isolated contribution of LU, WD and climate to the integrated total water resources assuming a linear model behavior. An ensemble of five EURO-CORDEX RCP8.5 climate projections for the 31-year periods centered on the year of exceeding the global-mean temperature of 2 degree is used to drive the fully distributed hydrological model LISFLOOD for multiple river catchments in Europe. The JRC's Land Use Modelling Platform LUISA was used to obtain a detailed pan-European reference land use scenario until 2050. Water demand is estimated based on socio-economic (GDP, population estimates etc.), land use and climate projections as well. For each climate projection, four model runs have been performed including an integrated (LU, WD and climate) simulation and other three simulations to isolate the effect of LU, WD and climate. Changes relative to the baseline in terms of water resources indicators of the ensemble means of the 2 degree warming period and their associated uncertainties will reveal the integrated and isolated effect of LU, WD and climate change on water resources.

  15. Asymmetrical loading demands associated with vertical jump landings in people with unilateral transtibial amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeman, Marlene; Diss, Ceri E; Strike, Siobhan C

    2013-01-01

    Loading symmetry during vertical jump landings between a person with amputation's intact and prosthetic limbs was assessed to determine the role of each limb in controlling the downward momentum of the center of mass during landing. Six participants with unilateral transtibial amputation (TTA) and ten nondisabled participants completed 10 maximal vertical jumps, of which the highest jump was analyzed. Contralateral symmetry was assessed through the Symmetry Index (SI), while symmetry at the group level was assessed through a Mann-Whitney U test. Participants with TTA performed quasi-unilateral landings onto the intact limbs, resulting from either the incapability of the prosthetic ankle to plantar flex or increased residual-limb knee and hip flexion. In the loading phase, the participants with TTA displayed reduced prosthetic-side peak vertical forces (p = 0.04) along with reduced prosthetic-side ankle range of motion (p vertical force magnitudes (SI = 51%-140%), duration from touchdown to peak vertical force (SI = 52%-157%), ankle joint angles at touchdown (SI = 100%-538%), ranges of motion (SI = 147%-200%), knee (SI = 66%-179%) and hip (SI = 87%-132%) extensor moments, and work done at the ankle (SI = 155%-199%) and hip (SI = 83%-204%). High peak forces (25.25 +/- 4.89 N·kg(-1) intact limb and 14.61 +/- 8.28 N·kg(-1) prosthetic limb) from significantly lower (p < 0.001) landing heights than the nondisabled participants indicate a potential injury risk associated with landing for people with TTA.

  16. DOSoReMI.hu: collection of countrywide DSM products partly according to GSM.net specifications, partly driven by specific user demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pásztor, László; Laborczi, Annamária; Takács, Katalin; Szatmári, Gábor; Illés, Gábor; Bakacsi, Zsófia; Szabó, József

    2017-04-01

    Due to former soil surveys and mapping activities significant amount of soil information has accumulated in Hungary. In traditional soil mapping the creation of a new map was troublesome and laborious. As a consequence, robust maps were elaborated and rather the demands were fitted to the available map products. Until recently spatial soil information demands have been serviced with the available datasets either in their actual form or after certain specific and often enforced, thematic and spatial inference. Considerable imperfection may occur in the accuracy and reliability of the map products, since there might be significant discrepancies between the available data and the expected information. The DOSoReMI.hu (Digital, Optimized, Soil Related Maps and Information in Hungary) project was started intentionally for the renewal of the national soil spatial infrastructure in Hungary. During our activities we have significantly extended the potential, how soil information requirements could be satisfied. Soil property, soil type as well as functional soil maps were targeted. The set of the applied digital soil mapping techniques has been gradually broadened incorporating and eventually integrating geostatistical, data mining and GIS tools. Soil property maps have been compiled partly according to GSM.net specifications, partly by slightly or more strictly changing some of their predefined parameters (depth intervals, pixel size, property etc.) according to the specific demands on the final products. The elaborated primary maps were further processed, since even DOSoReMI.hu intended to take steps for the regionalization of higher level soil information (processes, functions, and services) involving crop models in the spatial modelling. The framework of DOSoReMI.hu also provides opportunity for the elaboration of goal specific soil maps, with the prescription of the parameters (thematic, resolution, accuracy, reliability etc.) characterizing the map product. As a

  17. Socio-economic inequity in demand for insecticide-treated nets, in-door residual house spraying, larviciding and fogging in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Sara

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to optimally prioritize and use public and private budgets for equitable malaria vector control, there is a need to determine the level and determinants of consumer demand for different vector control tools. Objectives To determine the demand from people of different socio-economic groups for indoor residual house-spraying (IRHS, insecticide-treated nets (ITNs, larviciding with chemicals (LWC, and space spraying/fogging (SS and the disease control implications of the result. Methods Ratings and levels of willingness-to-pay (WTP for the vector control tools were determined using a random cross-sectional sample of 720 householdes drawn from two states. WTP was elicited using the bidding game. An asset-based socio-economic status (SES index was used to explore whether WTP was related to SES of the respondents. Results IRHS received the highest proportion of highest preferred rating (41.0% followed by ITNs (23.1%. However, ITNs had the highest mean WTP followed by IRHS, while LWC had the least. The regression analysis showed that SES was positively and statistically significantly related to WTP across the four vector control tools and that the respondents' rating of IRHS and ITNs significantly explained their levels of WTP for the two tools. Conclusion People were willing to pay for all the vector-control tools, but the demand for the vector control tools was related to the SES of the respondents. Hence, it is vital that there are public policies and financing mechanisms to ensure equitable provision and utilisation of vector control tools, as well as protecting the poor from cost-sharing arrangements.

  18. Biomechanical approaches to understanding the potentially injurious demands of gymnastic-style impact landings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gittoes Marianne JR

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gymnasts are exposed to a high incidence of impact landings due to the execution of repeated dismount performances. Biomechanical research can help inform recent discussions surrounding a proposed rule change in potentially injurious gymnastic dismounting. The review examines existing understanding of the mechanisms influencing the impact loads incurred in gymnastic-style landings achieved using biomechanical approaches. Laboratory-based and theoretical modelling research of inherent and regulatory mechanisms is appraised. The integration of the existing insights into injury prevention interventions studies is further considered in the appraisals. While laboratory-based studies have traditionally been favoured, the difficulty in controlling and isolating mechanisms of interest has partially restricted the understanding gained. An increase in the use of theoretical approaches has been evident over the past two decades, which has successfully enhanced insight into less readily modified mechanisms. For example, the important contribution of mass compositions and 'tuned' mass coupling responses to impact loading has been evidenced. While theoretical studies have advanced knowledge in impact landing mechanics, restrictions in the availability of laboratory-based input data have suppressed the benefits gained. The advantages of integrating laboratory-based and theoretical approaches in furthering scientific understanding of loading mechanisms have been recognised in the literature. Since a multi-mechanism contribution to impact loading has been evident, a deviation away from studies examining isolated mechanisms may be supported for the future. A further scientific understanding of the use of regulatory mechanisms in alleviating a performer's inherent injury predisposition may subsequently be gained and used to inform potential rule changes in gymnastics. While the use of controlled studies for providing scientific evidence for the

  19. Assessment Impacts of Weather and Land Use/Land Cover (LULC Change on Urban Vegetation Net Primary Productivity (NPP: A Case Study in Guangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiantie Zeng

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Net primary productivity (NPP can indicate vegetation ecosystem services ability and reflect variation response to climate change and human activities. This study applied MODIS-1 km NPP products to investigate the NPP variation from 2001 to 2006, a fast urban expansion and adjustment period in Guangzhou, China, and quantify the impacts of weather and land use/land cover (LULC changes, respectively. The results showed that the NPP mean value increased at a rate of 11.6 g∙C∙m−2∙yr−1 during the initial three years and decreased at an accelerated rate of 31.0 g∙C∙m−2∙yr−1 during the final three years, resulting in a total NPP loss of approximately 167 × 106 g∙C. The spatiotemporal of NPP varied obviously in the central area, suburb and exurb of Guangzhou driven by three patterns of weather and LULC changes. By the interactive effects and the weather variation dominated effects, NPP of most areas changed slightly with dynamic index less than 5% of NPP mean value in the central area and the suburb. The LULC change dominated effects caused obvious NPP reduction, by more than 15% of the NPP mean value, which occurred in some areas of the suburb and extended to the exurb with the outward urban sprawl. Importantly, conversion from wood grassland, shrublands and even forests to croplands occupied by urban landscapes proved to be a main process in the conversion from high-NPP coverage to low-NPP coverage, thereby leading to the rapid degradation of urban carbon stock capacity in urban fringe areas. It is helpful for government to monitor urban ecological health and safety and make relevant policies.

  20. Estimation of Community Land Model parameters for an improved assessment of net carbon fluxes at European sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Hanna; Vrugt, Jasper A.; Fox, Andrew; Vereecken, Harry; Hendricks Franssen, Harrie-Jan

    2017-03-01

    The Community Land Model (CLM) contains many parameters whose values are uncertain and thus require careful estimation for model application at individual sites. Here we used Bayesian inference with the DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM(zs)) algorithm to estimate eight CLM v.4.5 ecosystem parameters using 1 year records of half-hourly net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) observations of four central European sites with different plant functional types (PFTs). The posterior CLM parameter distributions of each site were estimated per individual season and on a yearly basis. These estimates were then evaluated using NEE data from an independent evaluation period and data from "nearby" FLUXNET sites at 600 km distance to the original sites. Latent variables (multipliers) were used to treat explicitly uncertainty in the initial carbon-nitrogen pools. The posterior parameter estimates were superior to their default values in their ability to track and explain the measured NEE data of each site. The seasonal parameter values reduced with more than 50% (averaged over all sites) the bias in the simulated NEE values. The most consistent performance of CLM during the evaluation period was found for the posterior parameter values of the forest PFTs, and contrary to the C3-grass and C3-crop sites, the latent variables of the initial pools further enhanced the quality-of-fit. The carbon sink function of the forest PFTs significantly increased with the posterior parameter estimates. We thus conclude that land surface model predictions of carbon stocks and fluxes require careful consideration of uncertain ecological parameters and initial states.

  1. Inferring CO2 Fluxes from OCO-2 for Assimilation into Land Surface Models to Calculate Net Ecosystem Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, R.; Radov, A.; Halem, M.; Nearing, G. S.

    2016-12-01

    Investigations of mid to high latitude atmospheric CO2 show a growing seasonal amplitude. Land surface models poorly predict net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and are unable to substantiate these sporadic observations. An investigation of how the biosphere has reacted to changes in atmospheric CO2 is essential to our understanding of potential climate-vegetation feedbacks. A global, seasonal investigation of CO2-flux is then necessary in order to assimilate into land surface models for improving the prediction of annual NEE. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program (ARM) of DOE collects CO2-flux measurements (in addition to CO2 concentration and various other meteorological quantities) at several towers located around the globe at half hour temporal frequencies. CO2-fluxes are calculated via the eddy covariance technique, which utilizes CO2-densities and wind velocities to calculate CO2-fluxes. The global coverage of CO2 concentrations as provided by the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2) provide satellite-derived CO2 concentrations all over the globe. A framework relating the satellite-inferred CO2 concentrations collocated with the ground-based ARM as well as Ameriflux stations would enable calculations of CO2-fluxes far from the station sites around the entire globe. Regression techniques utilizing deep-learning neural networks may provide such a framework. Additionally, meteorological reanalysis allows for the replacement of the ARM multivariable meteorological variables needed to infer the CO2-fluxes. We present the results of inferring CO2-fluxes from OCO-2 CO2 concentrations for a two year period, Sept. 2014- Sept. 2016 at the ARM station located near Oklahoma City. A feed-forward neural network (FFNN) is used to infer relationships between the following data sets: F([ARM CO2-density], [ARM Meteorological Data]) = [ARM CO2-Flux] F([OCO-2 CO2-density],[ARM Meteorological Data]) = [ARM CO2-Flux] F([ARM CO2-density],[Meteorological Reanalysis]) = [ARM CO2-Flux

  2. Variation and Trends of Landscape Dynamics, Land Surface Phenology and Net Primary Production of the Appalachian Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yeqiao; Zhao, Jianjun; Zhou, Yuyu; Zhang, Hongyan

    2012-12-15

    The gradients of the Appalachian Mountains in elevations and latitudes provide a unique regional perspective of landscape variations in the eastern United States and a section of the southeastern Canada. This study reveals patterns and trends of landscape dynamics, land surface phenology and ecosystem production along the Appalachian Mountains using time series data from Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) and AVHRR Global Production Efficiency Model (GloPEM) datasets. We analyzed the spatial and temporal patterns of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), length of growing season (LOS) and net primary production (NPP) of selected ecoregions along the Appalachian Mountains regions. We compared the results out of the Appalachian Mountains regions in different spatial contexts including the North America and the Appalachian Trail corridor area. To reveal latitudinal variations we analyzed data and compared the results between 30°N-40°N and 40°N-50°N latitudes. The result revealed significant decreases in annual peak NDVI in the Appalachian Mountains regions. The trend for the Appalachian Mountains regions was -0.0018 (R2=0.55, P<0.0001) NDVI unit decrease per year during 25 years between 1982 and 2006. The LOS had prolonged 0.3 day yr-1 during 25 years over the Appalachian Mountains regions. The NPP increased by 2.68 gC m-2yr-2 in Appalachian Mountains regions from 1981 to 2000. The comparison with the North America reveals the effects of topography and ecosystem compositions of the Appalachian Mountains. The comparison with the Appalachian Trail corridor area provides a regional mega-transect view of the measured variables.

  3. Impacts of climate and land use change on ecosystem hydrology and net primary productivity: Linking water availability to food security in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangal, S. R. S.; Tian, H.; Pan, S.; Zhang, B.; Yang, J.

    2015-12-01

    The nexus approach to food, water and energy security in Asia is extremely important and relevant as the region has to feed two-third of the world's population and accounts for 59% of the global water consumption. The distribution pattern of food, water and energy resources have been shaped by the legacy effect of both natural and anthropogenic disturbances and therefore are vulnerable to climate change and human activities including land use/cover change (LUCC) and land management (irrigation and nitrogen fertilization). In this study, we used the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM) to examine the effects of climate change, land use/cover change, and land management practices (irrigation and nitrogen fertilization) on the spatiotemporal trends and variability in water availability and its role in limiting net primary productivity (NPP) and food security in the 20th and early 21st centuries. Our specific objectives are to quantify how climate change, LUCC and other environmental changes have interactively affected carbon and water dynamics across the Asian region. In particular, we separated the Asian region into several sub-region based on the primary limiting factor - water, food and energy. We then quantified how changes in environmental factors have altered the water and food resources during the past century. We particularly focused on Net Primary Productivity (NPP) and water cycle (Evapotranspiration, discharge, and runoff) as a measure of available food and water resources, respectively while understanding the linkage between food and water resources in Asia.

  4. Estimating Evapotranspiration Demands of Different Land Cover Using Diurnal Signals in Dry Season Stream Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, R. S.; K, K.; Srinivas, V.; Krishnaswamy, J.; Chappell, N. A.; Jones, T.

    2015-12-01

    We use a paired catchment approach to compare the dry season flows between natural grasslands and introduced plantations of black wattle (Acacia mearnsii) in the Nilgiri South range forest which lies in the southern parts of the Western Ghat mountain range in Sothern India, a global biodiversity hot-spot. Discharges were measured using a portable flume and a weir fitted with capacitance probes logging water levels every five minutes in two adjacent catchments. Sensor artefacts in the data were filtered out before analysis. Diurnal variations in dry season flows from March 1st to April 15th, 2014 were used to estimate the daily ET based on Boronina et al. 2005 (Hyd. Proc. 19, 20, pp. 4055-4068.) using the equation 1. : E T daily = ∑ i=1 24 ( Q max - Q i ) Δ t , where E T daily is the daily loss of water from the catchment through ET, Q max is the daily maximum flow rate in the river, Q i is the average flow rate for every hour of the day and Δ t is one hour. Our results show that land use conversion from grasslands to wattle has increased ET by 40.97mm which is to the order of 60% during the period of the study (table 1). This has immediate relevance for dry season flows in the region. Nilgiris provide 40% of the total hydro-power generation for the state of Tamil Nadu and these streams sustain biodiversity and are tributaries of the Cauvery river, the largest the state. They also highlight the potential consequences of programmes such as the National Mission for Greening India which explicitly targets conversions of 10m ha of degraded forests, scrub and grasslands to tree cover and forest. Grassland Wattle Difference 1st Qu. 1.14 1.36 -1.33 Median 1.94 2.04 0.28 Mean 2.06 2.97 0.91 3rd Qu. 2.66 3.51 2.43 Sum 92.63 133.60 40.97 Table 1: Summary statistics for daily dry season ET for catchment under grassland, wattle and the daily differences between the two in mm per day.

  5. The analysis of clean water demand for land use optimization based on water resource balance in Balikpapan city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghozali, Achmad; Yanti, Rossana Margaret Kadar

    2017-11-01

    Balikpapan city has transformed from oil city to trade and industry center. In the last 5 years, industry and trade sectors experienced annual economic growth by more than 25%, while mining had only 0.05%. This condition raised a strong economic attraction which increased urban activities and population growth, especially urbanization process. Nevertheless, the growth of the city had a challenge in the urban water supply. Due to natural condition of the city, Balikpapan does not have a large river, making water supply conducted by reservoirs relying on rainfall intensity. In line with population growth and conversion of green open space, the city government should consider to the allocation of land use effectively based on sustainable water resources. As the associated pressure on water resources continued to increase, it is crucial to identify the water demand future in Balikpapan City related to domestic and non-domestic activities as the first step to optimize land use allocation. Domestic's activities is defined as household and public hydrant, while non-domestic sectors are public facilities, offices, trade and services, and industrial areas. Mathematical calculations, population projections and water consumption estimation, were used as analysis methods. Analysis result showed that the total the city population in 2025 amounted to 740.302 people, increasing by 14.5% from 2016. Population growth increased the urban water needs. From the calculations, the amount of water consumption in 2016 amounted to 5075.77 liter/s, and in 2025 to 7528.59 liter/s. Thus, the water needs of the population of Balikpapan from 2016-2025 year increased by 32.58%.

  6. Tracing trade-related telecouplings in the global land-system using the embodied human appropriation of net primary production framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberl, H.; Kastner, T.; Schaffartzik, A.; Erb, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    Global land-system change is influenced by a complex set of drivers that transcend spatial, institutional and temporal scales. The notion of "telecouplings" is gaining importance in Land System Science as a framework to address that complexity of drivers. One of them is the trade in land-based products, which forges connections between different geographic regions. Trade in land-based products is growing rapidly, thereby creating an increasing spatial disconnect between the locations where primary products (e.g. crops, fodder or timber) are grown and harvested and where the related environmental pressures occur, and the locations where final products (e.g. food, fiber or bioenergy) are consumed. Governing land-related sustainability issues such as GHG emissions or pressures on biodiversity and ecosystems related with land-use changes requires information on trade-related telecouplings, e.g. in order to avoid leakage effects. However, tracing land use (change) related with flows of traded products is challenging, among others due to (a) the lack of easily implementable metrics to account for differences in land quality and land-use intensity, and (b) the lack of satisfactory methods to allocate land to products that are traded and consumed. Drawing from a database derived from FAO statistics that allows tracing bilateral trade flows between ~200 countries at a resolution of ~500 products for the time period 1986-2006, this presentation will discuss how the framework of embodied human appropriation of net primary production (eHANPP) can help tackling these difficult issues. The HANPP framework allows to consistently represent important aspects of land quality and land-use intensity, e.g. natural productivity potential or land-use efficiency. In terms of allocation of land to products, eHANPP is a factor-based approach, and the presentation will discuss differences to alternative methods such as environmentally extended input-output analysis. We will use the available

  7. What drives the seasonal pattern of δ13C in the net land-atmosphere CO2 exchange across the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raczka, B. M.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Lai, C. T.; Pataki, D. E.; Saleska, S. R.; Torn, M. S.; Vaughn, B. H.; Wehr, R. A.; Bowling, D. R.

    2016-12-01

    The seasonal pattern of δ13C of atmospheric CO2 depends upon both local and non-local land-atmosphere exchange and atmospheric transport. It has been suggested that the seasonal pattern is driven primarily from local variation in the δ13C of the net CO2 flux (exchange between vegetation and the atmosphere) as a result of variation of stomatal conductance of the vegetation. Here we study local variation of δ13C of the land-atmosphere exchange at 7 sites across the United States representing forests (Harvard, Howland, Niwot Ridge, Wind River), grasslands (Southern Great Plains, Rannell Prairie) and an urban center (Salt Lake City). Using a simple 2-part mixing model with background corrections we find that the δ13C of the net exchange of CO2 was most enriched at the grassland sites (-18.9 o/oo), and most depleted at the urban site (-29.6 o/oo) due to the contribution of C4 photosynthesis and fossil fuel emissions, respectively. The amplitude of the seasonal cycle was most pronounced at the C3/C4 grassland and the urban sites. In contrast, the forested sites have a reduced seasonal cycle, and remain almost constant during the growing season (0.49 o/oo change). Furthermore, by accounting for relatively fast δ13C variations in non-local sources at Niwot Ridge we find that the seasonal pattern in δ13C of net exchange is eliminated altogether. These results support the idea that a coherent, global seasonal pattern in δ13C of net exchange is influenced by seasonal transitions in C3/C4 grass, and the intensity and seasonal timing of fossil fuel emissions. This will have important implications for studies that use δ13C to constrain large-scale carbon fluxes.

  8. Net ecosystem exchange from five land-use transitions to bioenergy crops from four locations across the UK - The Ecosystem Land Use Modelling & Soil Carbon GHG Flux Trial (ELUM) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xenakis, Georgios; Perks, Mike; Harris, Zoe M.; McCalmont, Jon; Rylett, Daniel; Brooks, Milo; Evans, Jonathan G.; Finch, Jon; Rowe, Rebecca; Morrison, Ross; Alberti, Giorgio; Donnison, Ian; Siebicke, Lukas; Morison, James; Taylor, Gail; McNamara, Niall P.

    2016-04-01

    A major part of international agreements on combating climate change is the conversion from a fossil fuel economy to a low carbon economy. Bioenergy crops have been proposed as a way to improve energy security while reducing CO2 emissions to help mitigate the effects of climate change. However, the impact of land-use change from a traditional land use (e.g., arable and grassland) to bioenergy cropping systems on greenhouse gas balance (GHG) and carbon stocks are poorly quantified at this time. The Ecosystem Land Use Modelling & Soil Carbon GHG Flux Trial (ELUM) project was commissioned and funded by the Energy Technologies Institute (ETI) to provide scientific evidence within the UK on a range of land-use conversions (LUC) to bioenergy crops. The ELUM network consists of seven partners investigating five LUCs in four locations including Scotland, Wales, North and South England. Transitions included grasslands to short rotation forestry (SRF), to short rotation coppice willow (SRC) and to Miscanthus and arable to SRC and Miscanthus Measurements of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) along with continuous measurements of meteorological conditions were made at seven sub-sites over a two-year period. Results showed that, over two years, two of the land-uses, a grassland in South England and a grassland conversion to Miscanthus in Wales were net sources of carbon. The greatest carbon sink was into the SRF site in Scotland followed by the SRC willow in South England. The annual terrestrial ecosystem respiration (TER) for the SRC willow in North and South Sussex sites were similar, but the annual GPP at the South England site was about 27% higher than that the North England site. Establishing a long term network will allow us to continue monitoring the effects of land use change on whole ecosystem carbon balance, providing an insight into which types of LUC are suitable for bioenergy cropping in the UK.

  9. Comparison of simulations of land-use specific water demand and irrigation water supply by MF-FMP and IWFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Wolfgang; Dogural, Emin; Hanson, Randall T.; Kadir, Tariq; Chung, Francis

    2011-01-01

    Two hydrologic models, MODFLOW with the Farm Process (MF-FMP) and the Integrated Water Flow Model (IWFM), are compared with respect to each model’s capabilities of simulating land-use hydrologic processes, surface-water routing, and groundwater flow. Of major concern among the land-use processes was the consumption of water through evaporation and transpiration by plants. The comparison of MF-FMP and IWFM was conducted and completed using a realistic hypothetical case study. Both models simulate the water demand for water-accounting units resulting from evapotranspiration and inefficiency losses and, for irrigated units, the supply from surface-water deliveries and groundwater pumpage. The MF-FMP simulates reductions in evapotranspiration owing to anoxia and wilting, and separately considers land-use-related evaporation and transpiration; IWFM simulates reductions in evapotranspiration related to the depletion of soil moisture. The models simulate inefficiency losses from precipitation and irrigation water applications to runoff and deep percolation differently. MF-FMP calculates the crop irrigation requirement and total farm delivery requirement, and then subtracts inefficiency losses from runoff and deep percolation. In IWFM, inefficiency losses to surface runoff from irrigation and precipitation are computed and subtracted from the total irrigation and precipitation before the crop irrigation requirement is estimated. Inefficiency losses in terms of deep percolation are computed simultaneously with the crop irrigation requirement. The seepage from streamflow routing also is computed differently and can affect certain hydrologic settings and magnitudes ofstreamflow infiltration. MF-FMP assumes steady-state conditions in the root zone; therefore, changes in soil moisture within the root zone are not calculated. IWFM simulates changes in the root zone in both irrigated and non-irrigated natural vegetation. Changes in soil moisture are more significant for non

  10. Uncovering the Minor Contribution of Land-Cover Change in Upland Forests to the Net Carbon Footprint of a Boreal Hydroelectric Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessureault, Pierre-Luc; Boucher, Jean-François; Tremblay, Pascal; Bouchard, Sylvie; Villeneuve, Claude

    2015-07-01

    Hydropower in boreal conditions is generally considered the energy source emitting the least greenhouse gas per kilowatt-hour during its life cycle. The purpose of this study was to assess the relative contribution of the land-use change on the modification of the carbon sinks and sources following the flooding of upland forested territories to create the Eastmain-1 hydroelectric reservoir in Quebec's boreal forest using Carbon Budget Model of the Canadian Forest Sector. Results suggest a carbon sink loss after 100 yr of 300,000 ± 100,000 Mg CO equivalents (COe). A wildfire sensitivity analysis revealed that the ecosystem would have acted as a carbon sink as long as carbon flux estimate resulted in emissions of 4 ± 2 g COe kWh as a contribution to the carbon footprint calculation, one-eighth what was obtained in a recent study that used less precise and less sensitive estimates. Consequently, this study significantly reduces the reported net carbon footprint of this reservoir and reveals how negligible the relative contribution of the land-use change in upland forests to the total net carbon footprint of a hydroelectric reservoir in the boreal zone can be. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  11. Net land-atmosphere flows of biogenic carbon related to bioenergy: towards an understanding of systemic feedbacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberl, Helmut

    2013-07-01

    The notion that biomass combustion is carbon neutral vis-a-vis the atmosphere because carbon released during biomass combustion is absorbed during plant regrowth is inherent in the greenhouse gas accounting rules in many regulations and conventions. But this 'carbon neutrality' assumption of bioenergy is an oversimplification that can result in major flaws in emission accounting; it may even result in policies that increase, instead of reduce, overall greenhouse gas emissions. This commentary discusses the systemic feedbacks and ecosystem succession/land-use history issues ignored by the carbon neutrality assumption. Based on recent literature, three cases are elaborated which show that the C balance of bioenergy may range from highly beneficial to strongly detrimental, depending on the plants grown, the land used (including its land-use history) as well as the fossil energy replaced. The article concludes by proposing the concept of GHG cost curves of bioenergy as a means for optimizing the climate benefits of bioenergy policies.

  12. Scenarios of land system change in the Lao PDR: Transitions in response to alternative demands on goods and services provided by the land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ornetsmüller, C.; Verburg, P.H.; Heinimann, A.

    2016-01-01

    Sudden and gradual land use changes can result in different socio-ecological systems, sometimes referred to as regime shifts. The Lao PDR (Laos) has been reported to show early signs of such regime shifts in land systems with potentially major socio-ecological implications. However, given the

  13. Evaluating Future Land-use Change Scenarios: Trade-offs between Bio-energy Demand, Food Production, and Carbon Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, E.; Yamagata, Y.

    2012-12-01

    In the construction of consistent future climate scenario, land use scenario has important role through both biogeochemical and biogeophysical effects on climate change. In terms of carbon emissions by the land-use change, relative importance may be high in the lower radiative forcing and lower carbon emission scenarios, which may use large amount of bio-energy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS). In this study, we first evaluated the CO2 emissions by land-use change in the 21st century using each RCPs scenarios. We use an offline terrestrial biogeochemical model VISIT, with book-keeping consideration of the carbon emission from deforested biomass and the regrowing uptake from abandoned cropland and pasture employing the gridded transition land-use data from RCPs. Effect of CO2 fertilization, land-use transition itself, and climate change are evaluated in the analysis. We found that constructing consistent land-use change carbon emission scenario with the gridded land-use change data requires precise considerations of effects of CO2 fertilization and climate change particularly for the regrowing uptake. Also, our result showed more emission of CO2 by the land-use change than the assumption in the integrated assessment model for RCP2.6 scenario. Then, we estimated the land-use area required to sustain the required biofuel production to match the assumption of BECCS use in RCPs with a global process based crop model. In the evaluation, we also estimated the further changes in carbon emissions by the required land-use change due to differences in crop yield assumptions, which also take into account of climate change. The trade-offs between land-use for crop, biocrop, and natural vegetation low-carbon scenario are discussed using the integrated terrestrial modeling approach.

  14. Australian net (1950s-1990) soil organic carbon erosion: implications for CO2 emission and land-atmosphere modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    The debate remains unresolved about soil erosion substantially offsetting fossil fuel emissions and acting as an important source or sink of CO2. There is little historical land use and management context to this debate, which is central to Australia's recent past of European settlement, agricultura...

  15. Local wood demand, land cover change and the state of Albany Thicket on an urban commonage in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickler, M M; Shackleton, C M

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the rates and causes of land-use change is crucial in identifying solutions, especially in sensitive landscapes and ecosystems, as well as in places undergoing rapid political, socioeconomic or ecological change. Despite considerable concern at the rate of transformation and degradation of the biodiversity-rich Albany Thicket biome in South Africa, most knowledge is gleaned from private commercial lands and state conservation areas. In comparison, there is limited work in communal areas where land uses include biomass extraction, especially for firewood and construction timber. We used aerial photographs to analyze land use and cover change in the high- and low-use zones of an urban commonage and an adjacent protected area over almost six decades, which included a major political transition. Field sampling was undertaken to characterize the current state of the vegetation and soils of the commonage and protected area and to determine the supply and demand for firewood and construction timber. Between the 1950s and 1980s, there was a clear increase in woody vegetation cover, which was reversed after the political transition in the mid-1990s. However, current woody plant standing stocks and sustainable annual production rates are well above current firewood demand, suggesting other probable causes for the decline in woody plant cover. The fragmentation of woody plant cover is paralleled by increases in grassy areas and bare ground, an increase in soil compaction, and decreases in soil moisture, carbon, and nutrients.

  16. Local Wood Demand, Land Cover Change and the State of Albany Thicket on an Urban Commonage in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickler, M. M.; Shackleton, C. M.

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the rates and causes of land-use change is crucial in identifying solutions, especially in sensitive landscapes and ecosystems, as well as in places undergoing rapid political, socioeconomic or ecological change. Despite considerable concern at the rate of transformation and degradation of the biodiversity-rich Albany Thicket biome in South Africa, most knowledge is gleaned from private commercial lands and state conservation areas. In comparison, there is limited work in communal areas where land uses include biomass extraction, especially for firewood and construction timber. We used aerial photographs to analyze land use and cover change in the high- and low-use zones of an urban commonage and an adjacent protected area over almost six decades, which included a major political transition. Field sampling was undertaken to characterize the current state of the vegetation and soils of the commonage and protected area and to determine the supply and demand for firewood and construction timber. Between the 1950s and 1980s, there was a clear increase in woody vegetation cover, which was reversed after the political transition in the mid-1990s. However, current woody plant standing stocks and sustainable annual production rates are well above current firewood demand, suggesting other probable causes for the decline in woody plant cover. The fragmentation of woody plant cover is paralleled by increases in grassy areas and bare ground, an increase in soil compaction, and decreases in soil moisture, carbon, and nutrients.

  17. Energy indicators for electricity production : comparing technologies and the nature of the indicators Energy Payback Ratio (EPR), Net Energy Ratio (NER) and Cumulative Energy Demand (CED). [Oestfoldforskning AS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raadal, Hanne Lerche [Ostfold research, Fredrikstad (Norway); Modahl, Ingunn Saur [Ostfold research, Fredrikstad (Norway); Bakken, Tor Haakon [SINTEF Energy, Trondheim (Norway)

    2012-11-01

    CEDREN (Centre for Environmental Design of Renewable Energy) is founded by The Research Council of Norway and energy companies and is one of eight centres that were part of the scheme Centre for Environment-friendly Energy Research (FME) when the scheme was launched in 2009. The main objective of CEDREN is to develop and communicate design solutions for transforming renewable energy sources to the desired energy products, and at the same time address the environmental and societal challenges at local, regional, national and global levels. CEDREN's board initiated in 2011 a pilot project on the topics 'Energy Pay-back Ratio (EPR)', 'Ecosystem services' and 'multi-criteria analysis (MCA)' in order to investigate the possible use of these concepts/indices in the management of regulated river basins and as tools to benchmark strategies for the development of energy projects/resources. The energy indicator part (documented in this report) has aimed at reviewing the applicability of different energy efficiency indicators, as such, in the strategic management and development of energy resources, and to compare and benchmark technologies for production of electricity. The main findings from this pilot study is also reported in a policy memo (in Norwegian), that is available at www.cedren.no. The work carried out in this project will be continued in the succeeding research project EcoManage, which was granted by the Research Council of Norway's RENERGI programme in December 2011. Energy indicators: Several energy indicators for extraction and delivery of an energy product (e.g. transport fuel, heat, electricity etc.) exist today. The main objective of such indicators is to give information about the energy efficiency of the needed extraction and transforming processes throughout the value chain related to the delivered energy product. In this project the indicators Energy Payback Ratio (EPR), Net Energy Ration (NER) and Cumulative

  18. The net benefits of human-ignited wildfire forecasting: the case of tribal land units in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeff Prestemon; David T. Butry; Douglas S. Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Research shows that some categories of human-ignited wildfires may be forecastable, owing to their temporal clustering, with the possibility that resources could be predeployed to help reduce the incidence of such wildfires. We estimated several kinds of incendiary and other human-ignited wildfire forecast models at the weekly time step for tribal land units in the...

  19. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes how Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets) have been developed — from being a promising theoretical model to being a full-fledged language for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems (and other systems in which human beings and...... use of CP-nets — because it means that the function representation and the translations (which are a bit mathematically complex) no longer are parts of the basic definition of CP-nets. Instead they are parts of the invariant method (which anyway demands considerable mathematical skills...

  20. Assessing regional crop water demand using a satellite-based combination equation with a land surface temperature componen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moyano, Carmen; Garcia, Monica; Tornos, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    historically based on combination equations, such as Penman-Monteith or Priestley-Taylor, forced with weather-data inputs. However, the requirements for long term in-situ data, limit the application of such traditional approaches and algorithms using satellite-data without field calibrations bridge this gap...... by estimating long-term ET at the pixel level from local to global scales. Land surface temperature is a key variable tracking land surface moisture status. However, it has not been included in satellite ET approaches based on combination equations. In this study, a land surface temperature component was used......-sequence spanning for more than a decade (2002-2013). The thermal-PT-JPL model was forced with vegetation, albedo, reflectance and temperature products from the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) from both Aqua and Terra satellites. The study region, B-XII Irrigation District of the Lower...

  1. Does vapor pressure deficit drive the seasonality of δ13C of the net land-atmosphere CO2 exchange across the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raczka, B.; Biraud, S. C.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Lai, C.-T.; Miller, J. B.; Pataki, D. E.; Saleska, S. R.; Torn, M. S.; Vaughn, B. H.; Wehr, R.; Bowling, D. R.

    2017-08-01

    The seasonal pattern of the carbon isotope content (δ13C) of atmospheric CO2 depends on local and nonlocal land-atmosphere exchange and atmospheric transport. Previous studies suggested that the δ13C of the net land-atmosphere CO2 flux (δsource) varies seasonally as stomatal conductance of plants responds to vapor pressure deficit of air (VPD). We studied the variation of δsource at seven sites across the United States representing forests, grasslands, and an urban center. Using a two-part mixing model, we calculated the seasonal δsource for each site after removing background influence and, when possible, removing δ13C variation of nonlocal sources. Compared to previous analyses, we found a reduced seasonal (March-September) variation in δsource at the forest sites (0.5‰ variation). We did not find a consistent seasonal relationship between VPD and δsource across forest (or other) sites, providing evidence that stomatal response to VPD was not the cause of the global, coherent seasonal pattern in δsource. In contrast to the forest sites, grassland and urban sites had a larger seasonal variation in δsource (5‰) dominated by seasonal transitions in C3/C4 grass productivity and in fossil fuel emissions, respectively. Our findings were sensitive to the location used to account for atmospheric background variation within the mixing model method that determined δsource. Special consideration should be given to background location depending on whether the intent is to understand site level dynamics or regional scale impacts of land-atmosphere exchange. The seasonal amplitude in δ13C of land-atmosphere CO2 exchange (δsource) varied across land cover types and was not driven by seasonal changes in vapor pressure deficit. The largest seasonal amplitudes of δsource were at grassland and urban sites, driven by changes in C3/C4 grass productivity and fossil fuel emissions, respectively. Mixing model approaches may incorrectly calculate δsource when

  2. SUSTAINING PADDY SELF-SUFFICIENCY AND LAND DEMANDS IN SABAH, MALAYSIA: A STRUCTURAL PADDY AND RICE ECONOMETRIC MODEL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Kelly_Kai_Seng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to construct an econometric commodity model in order to forecast the long term rice production performance of the state of Sabah, Malaysia. The baseline projection shows that the Sabah rice self-sufficiency is estimated to achieve approximately38% in the next 10 years due to the scarcity of the suitable land bank allocate for paddy cultivation. In order to achieve 60% of targeted rice self-sufficiency level (SSL, the size of land for paddy cultivation must be increased in Sabah. Based on the scenario simulation projection result, the expansion of paddy cultivation area will contribute a positively to the industrial rice production and consequently achieving the expected 60% of SSL by the end of 2024. In a nutshell, the state government of Sabah possess state autonomy on the land management, thus the state government plays a significant key role on promoting the local rice self-sufficiency level in the long-term period

  3. Forelimb kinematics and motor patterns of the slider turtle (Trachemys scripta) during swimming and walking: shared and novel strategies for meeting locomotor demands of water and land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Angela R V; Blob, Richard W

    2010-10-15

    Turtles use their limbs during both aquatic and terrestrial locomotion, but water and land impose dramatically different physical requirements. How must musculoskeletal function be adjusted to produce locomotion through such physically disparate habitats? We addressed this question by quantifying forelimb kinematics and muscle activity during aquatic and terrestrial locomotion in a generalized freshwater turtle, the red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta), using digital high-speed video and electromyography (EMG). Comparisons of our forelimb data to previously collected data from the slider hindlimb allow us to test whether limb muscles with similar functional roles show qualitatively similar modulations of activity across habitats. The different functional demands of water and air lead to a prediction that muscle activity for limb protractors (e.g. latissimus dorsi and deltoid for the forelimb) should be greater during swimming than during walking, and activity in retractors (e.g. coracobrachialis and pectoralis for the forelimb) should be greater during walking than during swimming. Differences between aquatic and terrestrial forelimb movements are reflected in temporal modulation of muscle activity bursts between environments, and in some cases the number of EMG bursts as well. Although patterns of modulation between water and land are similar between the fore- and hindlimb in T. scripta for propulsive phase muscles (retractors), we did not find support for the predicted pattern of intensity modulation, suggesting that the functional demands of the locomotor medium alone do not dictate differences in intensity of muscle activity across habitats.

  4. Future of Water Supply and Demand in the Middle Drâa Valley, Morocco, under Climate and Land Use Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene M. Johannsen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Regions of scarce fresh water resources, such as the Middle East and North Africa, are facing great challenges already today, and even more in the future, due to climatic and socioeconomic changes. The Middle Drâa valley in Morocco is one of many semi-arid to arid mountainous areas struggling with increasing water scarcity threatening self-sufficient husbandry. In order to maintain people’s livelihoods water management needs to be adapted. The Water Evaluation And Planning System (WEAP software has been widely used to examine complex water systems in the water resource planning sector all around the world and proved to be a helpful asset to show the various interactions of water supply and demand. This paper presents the application of WEAP on the Middle Draâ valley’s water demand and supply, including several socioeconomic and land use scenarios under one basic climate change scenario. The climate scenario shows a significant decrease in available water resources up to 2029 while all socioeconomic scenarios show an increase in water demand. In years of droughts groundwater is used for irrigation, leading to increasingly depleted aquifers. The aquifers are recharged by percolation losses from irrigation and by river bed infiltration the latter of which is stronger in the northern oases than in the southern oases due to water withdrawal rules. A drastic reduction of irrigated agricultural area is the only solution to guarantee sustainable water use.

  5. How tight are the limits to land and water use? - Combined impacts of food demand and climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lotze-Campen

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the coming decades, world agricultural systems will face serious transitions. Population growth, income and lifestyle changes will lead to considerable increases in food demand. Moreover, a rising demand for renewable energy and biodiversity protection may restrict the area available for food production. On the other hand, global climate change will affect production conditions, for better or worse depending on regional conditions. In order to simulate these combined effects consistently and in a spatially explicit way, we have linked the Lund-Potsdam-Jena Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (LPJ with a "Management model of Agricultural Production and its Impact on the Environment" (MAgPIE. LPJ represents the global biosphere with a spatial resolution of 0.5 degree. MAgPIE covers the most important agricultural crop and livestock production types. A prototype has been developed for one sample region. In the next stage this will be expanded to several economically relevant regions on a global scale, including international trade. The two models are coupled through a layer of productivity zones. In the paper we present the modelling approach, develop first joint scenarios and discuss selected results from the coupled modelling system.

  6. Land

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Audouin, M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Unsustainable agricultural practices have had a role to play in the degradation of land on which agriculture depends. South Africa has an international obligation to develop a National Action Programme (NAP), the purpose of which is to identify...

  7. Net Locality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Gordon, Eric

    Provides an introduction to the new theory of Net Locality and the profound effect on individuals and societies when everything is located or locatable. Describes net locality as an emerging form of location awareness central to all aspects of digital media, from mobile phones, to Google Maps...... of emerging technologies, from GeoCities to GPS, Wi-Fi, Wiki Me, and Google Android....

  8. Net Neutrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej

    2017-01-01

    Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else.......Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else....

  9. Exploring long-term trends in land use change and aboveground human appropriation of net primary production in nine European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gingrich, Simone; Niedertscheider, Maria; Kastner, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    European countries (Albania, Austria, Denmark, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Romania, Sweden, and the United Kingdom) since the late 19th to early 20th century, when national statistical publications became available. We then calculated a range of indicators within the "human appropriation of net...

  10. RESTful NET

    CERN Document Server

    Flanders, Jon

    2008-01-01

    RESTful .NET is the first book that teaches Windows developers to build RESTful web services using the latest Microsoft tools. Written by Windows Communication Foundation (WFC) expert Jon Flanders, this hands-on tutorial demonstrates how you can use WCF and other components of the .NET 3.5 Framework to build, deploy and use REST-based web services in a variety of application scenarios. RESTful architecture offers a simpler approach to building web services than SOAP, SOA, and the cumbersome WS- stack. And WCF has proven to be a flexible technology for building distributed systems not necessa

  11. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Associate Professor of. Computer Science and. Automation at the Indian. Institute of Science,. Bangalore. His research interests are broadly in the areas of stochastic modeling and scheduling methodologies for future factories; and object oriented modeling. GENERAL I ARTICLE. Petri Nets. 1. Overview and Foundations.

  12. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 8. Petri Nets - Overview and Foundations. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 8 August 1999 pp ... Author Affiliations. Y Narahari1. Department ot Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  13. The Human-Baited Double Net Trap: An Alternative to Human Landing Catches for Collecting Outdoor Biting Mosquitoes in Lao PDR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tangena, J.A.; Thammavong, P.; Hiscox, A.F.; Lindsay, P.T.; Brey, P.T.

    2015-01-01

    Estimating the exposure of individuals to mosquito-borne diseases is a key measure used to evaluate the success of vector control operations. The gold standard is to use human landing catches where mosquitoes are collected off the exposed limbs of human collectors. This is however an unsatisfactory

  14. Demand Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Elliot E. Combs

    2017-01-01

    Price elasticity shows the responsiveness of demand to changes in price. Negative price elasticity of demand (PED) signifies the inverse relationship between price and demand. According to the equation, PED is -1.19 for widgets, which means that an increase in price of $1 would result in a contraction of demand of $1.19. Since the change in price corresponds with a more than proportionate change in demand, PED is said to be elastic. As a result, an increase in price would discourage consumers...

  15. D.NET case study

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    lremy

    developing products, marketing tools and building capacity of the grass root telecentre workers. D.Net recognized that it had several ideas worth developing into small interventions that would make big differences, but resource constraints were a barrier for scaling-up these initiatives. More demands, limited resources.

  16. Net profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menduno, M

    1999-03-01

    As Web traffic surges, health care has become a speed zone all its own. Sixth in Internet content, health sites draw two-thirds of all online users at least once. That's set off a race among the developers of specialized hubs aiming to organize it all--and cash in. "It's a land grab," says one player. "All of a sudden everyone woke up and said, 'We gotta do this.'"

  17. Teaching and Learning with the Net Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Kassandra; Marateo, Raymond C.; Ferris, S. Pixy

    2007-01-01

    As the Net Generation places increasingly greater demands on educators, students and teachers must jointly consider innovative ways of teaching and learning. In this, educators are supported by the fact that the Net Generation wants to learn. However, these same educators should not fail to realize that this generation learns differently from…

  18. Combined assessment and regulation on ecological land use and water demand of the river system: a case study in Luanhe River, North China

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, D. H.; Wang, G.; H. Wang; T. L. Qin

    2011-01-01

    With economic and social development, ecological water and land use of the river system were seriously misappropriated, which resulted in overall degradation of the river systems. In this study, theoretical and technical frameworks of regionalisation on the eco-environmental function of the river systems were preliminarily formulated. According to the river eco-environmental functions, Luanhe River was regionalised into four types of first-class functional areas, i.e., ecological preservation...

  19. Consumer Demands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    1996-01-01

    Consumers are farmers, land users in general private as well as public and citizens overall. The concept centralized biogas plants has been developed in Denmark. At present 16 plants are in operation with capacities ranging from 50-500 tons of biomass per day. The biomass consists of approximately...

  20. Net Energy, CO2 Emission and Land-Based Cost-Benefit Analyses of Jatropha Biodiesel: A Case Study of the Panzhihua Region of Sichuan Province in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangzheng Deng

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioenergy is currently regarded as a renewable energy source with a high growth potential. Forest-based biodiesel, with the significant advantage of not competing with grain production on cultivated land, has been considered as a promising substitute for diesel fuel by many countries, including China. Consequently, extracting biodiesel from Jatropha curcas has become a growing industry. However, many key issues related to the development of this industry are still not fully resolved and the prospects for this industry are complicated. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the net energy, CO2 emission, and cost efficiency of Jatropha biodiesel as a substitute fuel in China to help resolve some of the key issues by studying data from this region of China that is well suited to growing Jatropha. Our results show that: (1 Jatropha biodiesel is preferable for global warming mitigation over diesel fuel in terms of the carbon sink during Jatropha tree growth. (2 The net energy yield of Jatropha biodiesel is much lower than that of fossil fuel, induced by the high energy consumption during Jatropha plantation establishment and the conversion from seed oil to diesel fuel step. Therefore, the energy efficiencies of the production of Jatropha and its conversion to biodiesel need to be improved. (3 Due to current low profit and high risk in the study area, farmers have little incentive to continue or increase Jatropha production. (4 It is necessary to provide more subsidies and preferential policies for Jatropha plantations if this industry is to grow. It is also necessary for local government to set realistic objectives and make rational plans to choose proper sites for Jatropha biodiesel development and the work reported here should assist that effort. Future research focused on breading high-yield varieties, development of efficient field

  1. WATER DEMAND PREDICTION USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents Hourly water demand prediction at the demand nodes of a water distribution network using NeuNet Pro 2.3 neural network software and the monitoring and control of water distribution using supervisory control. The case study is the Laminga Water Treatment Plant and its water distribution network, Jos.

  2. In demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, B. [Bridgestone Ltd. (United Kingdom)

    2005-11-01

    The paper explains how good relationships can help alleviate potential tyre shortages. Demand for large dump truck tyres (largely for China) has increased by 50% within 12 months. Bridgestone's manufacturing plants are operating at maximum capacity. The company supplies tyres to all vehicles at Scottish Coal's opencast coal mines. Its Tyre Management System (TMS) supplied free of charge to customers helps maximise tyre life and minimise downtime from data on pressure, tread and general conditions fed into the hand-held TMS computer. 3 photos.

  3. Demand Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Daniel Xuyen

    This paper presents a model of trade that explains why firms wait to export and why many exporters fail. Firms face uncertain demands that are only realized after the firm enters the destination. The model retools the timing of uncertainty resolution found in productivity heterogeneity models...... the high rate of exit seen in the first years of exporting. Finally, when faced with multiple countries in which to export, some firms will choose to sequentially export in order to slowly learn more about its chances for success in untested markets....

  4. CDMA and TDMA based neural nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, J C

    2001-06-01

    CDMA and TDMA telecommunication techniques were established long time ago, but they have acquired a renewed presence due to the rapidly increasing mobile phones demand. In this paper, we are going to see they are suitable for neural nets, if we leave the concept "connection" between processing units and we adopt the concept "messages" exchanged between them. This may open the door to neural nets with a higher number of processing units and flexible configuration.

  5. NASA Net Zero Energy Buildings Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless, S.; Scheib, J.; Torcellini, P.; Hendron, B.; Slovensky, M.

    2014-10-01

    In preparation for the time-phased net zero energy requirement for new federal buildings starting in 2020, set forth in Executive Order 13514, NASA requested that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a roadmap for NASA's compliance. NASA detailed a Statement of Work that requested information on strategic, organizational, and tactical aspects of net zero energy buildings. In response, this document presents a high-level approach to net zero energy planning, design, construction, and operations, based on NREL's first-hand experience procuring net zero energy construction, and based on NREL and other industry research on net zero energy feasibility. The strategic approach to net zero energy starts with an interpretation of the executive order language relating to net zero energy. Specifically, this roadmap defines a net zero energy acquisition process as one that sets an aggressive energy use intensity goal for the building in project planning, meets the reduced demand goal through energy efficiency strategies and technologies, then adds renewable energy in a prioritized manner, using building-associated, emission- free sources first, to offset the annual energy use required at the building; the net zero energy process extends through the life of the building, requiring a balance of energy use and production in each calendar year.

  6. Physical and expenditure formulations of demand functions and evaluations of price demand elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Syrovátka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the demand relations on the consumer markets bring much useful information. The concept of the elasticity coefficients is frequently used for the quantitative analysis of the demand sensitivity. Formulation of the investigated demand functions is very important for the evaluation of the demand elasticity. Within net consumer demand (consumer purchase, it is possible to differentiate the physical and expenditure forms of the demand functions. The paper is focused on the theoretical and methodological backgrounds of the evaluation of price-demand elasticity under the physical and expenditure definitions of the demand relationships. In this paper, the relationship between the coefficient of the price elasticity of demand in the physical form and the coefficient of the price elasticity of demand in the expenditure form is determined and studied. The derived formula is tested using the USDA database.

  7. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Rosener, B. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host ``na-net.ornl.gov`` at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message ``send index`` to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user`s perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  8. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Rosener, B. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host na-net.ornl.gov'' at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message send index'' to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user's perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  9. Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux is defined as the year-over-year change in Total Ecosystem Carbon Stock, or the net rate of carbon exchange between an ecosystem and the...

  10. The emerging land management paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    paradigm. The model reflects drivers of globalisation and technology development which support establishment of multifunctional information systems incorporating diverse land rights, land use regulations and other useful data. A third major driver, sustainable development, stimulates demands...

  11. Land Competition and Land-Use Change:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vongvisouk, Thoumthone

    for commercial agricultural products in neighboring countries (including China and Vietnam) and to the government policies on agricultural development and poverty reduction. The land-use policy aims to improve rural land and resource tenure security, but in practice, it is actually used as a tool for state......Land competition and land-use changes are taking place in many developing countries as the demand for land increases. These changes are leading to changes in the livelihood conditions of rural people. The Government of Laos (GoL), on the one hand, aims to increase forest protection. On the other...... claims on land and forest resources and for increasing forest conservation. Not only do these land-use changes impact rural people’s livelihoods, but they also impact their access to land and natural forest resources. In general, rural people in the study area perceive that they have improved...

  12. Land Regularization in Tijuana, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Monkkonen, Paavo

    2008-01-01

    Land titling programs are increasingly encouraged by international organizations as an essential component of urban policy in developing countries. The clear definition of property rights is argued to be a sine qua non of economic development. However, most academic research on land titles has focused on the impacts of land titles and there is a dearth of analysis of the demand for land titling and the structure of land titling programs. A better understanding of land titling programs is esse...

  13. Professional Enterprise NET

    CERN Document Server

    Arking, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Comprehensive coverage to help experienced .NET developers create flexible, extensible enterprise application code If you're an experienced Microsoft .NET developer, you'll find in this book a road map to the latest enterprise development methodologies. It covers the tools you will use in addition to Visual Studio, including Spring.NET and nUnit, and applies to development with ASP.NET, C#, VB, Office (VBA), and database. You will find comprehensive coverage of the tools and practices that professional .NET developers need to master in order to build enterprise more flexible, testable, and ext

  14. Land-sharing versus land-sparing logging: reconciling timber extraction with biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, David P; Gilroy, James J; Woodcock, Paul; Edwards, Felicity A; Larsen, Trond H; Andrews, David J R; Derhé, Mia A; Docherty, Teegan D S; Hsu, Wayne W; Mitchell, Simon L; Ota, Takahiro; Williams, Leah J; Laurance, William F; Hamer, Keith C; Wilcove, David S

    2014-01-01

    Selective logging is a major driver of rainforest degradation across the tropics. Two competing logging strategies are proposed to meet timber demands with the least impact on biodiversity: land sharing, which combines timber extraction with biodiversity protection across the concession; and land sparing, in which higher intensity logging is combined with the protection of intact primary forest reserves. We evaluate these strategies by comparing the abundances and species richness of birds, dung beetles and ants in Borneo, using a protocol that allows us to control for both timber yield and net profit across strategies. Within each taxonomic group, more species had higher abundances with land-sparing than land-sharing logging, and this translated into significantly higher species richness within land-sparing concessions. Our results are similar when focusing only on species found in primary forest and restricted in range to Sundaland, and they are independent of the scale of sampling. For each taxonomic group, land-sparing logging was the most promising strategy for maximizing the biological value of logging operations. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Uncertainties in the land-use flux resulting from land-use change reconstructions and gross land transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Anita D.; Lindeskog, Mats; Pugh, Thomas A. M.; Anthoni, Peter M.; Fuchs, Richard; Arneth, Almut

    2017-02-01

    Land-use and land-cover (LUC) changes are a key uncertainty when attributing changes in measured atmospheric CO2 concentration to its sinks and sources and must also be much better understood to determine the possibilities for land-based climate change mitigation, especially in the light of human demand on other land-based resources. On the spatial scale typically used in terrestrial ecosystem models (0.5 or 1°) changes in LUC over time periods of a few years or more can include bidirectional changes on the sub-grid level, such as the parallel expansion and abandonment of agricultural land (e.g. in shifting cultivation) or cropland-grassland conversion (and vice versa). These complex changes between classes within a grid cell have often been neglected in previous studies, and only net changes of land between natural vegetation cover, cropland and pastures accounted for, mainly because of a lack of reliable high-resolution historical information on gross land transitions, in combination with technical limitations within the models themselves. In the present study we applied a state-of-the-art dynamic global vegetation model with a detailed representation of croplands and carbon-nitrogen dynamics to quantify the uncertainty in terrestrial ecosystem carbon stocks and fluxes arising from the choice between net and gross representations of LUC. We used three frequently applied global, one recent global and one recent European LUC datasets, two of which resolve gross land transitions, either in Europe or in certain tropical regions. When considering only net changes, land-use-transition uncertainties (expressed as 1 standard deviation around decadal means of four models) in global carbon emissions from LUC (ELUC) are ±0.19, ±0.66 and ±0.47 Pg C a-1 in the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s, respectively, or between 14 and 39 % of mean ELUC. Carbon stocks at the end of the 20th century vary by ±11 Pg C for vegetation and ±37 Pg C for soil C due to the choice of LUC

  16. WaveNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Coastal Inlets Research Program WaveNet WaveNet is a web-based, Graphical-User-Interface ( GUI ) data management tool developed for Corps coastal...generates tabular and graphical information for project planning and design documents. The WaveNet is a web-based GUI designed to provide users with a...data from different sources, and employs a combination of Fortran, Python and Matlab codes to process and analyze data for USACE applications

  17. Game Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of game coloured Petri nets. This allows the modeler to explicitly model what parts of the model comprise the modeled system and what parts are the environment of the modeled system. We give the formal definition of game coloured Petri nets, a means of reachability...... analysis of this net class, and an application of game coloured Petri nets to automatically generate easy-to-understand visualizations of the model by exploiting the knowledge that some parts of the model are not interesting from a visualization perspective (i.e. they are part of the environment...

  18. Programming NET Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Alex

    2007-01-01

    Web services are poised to become a key technology for a wide range of Internet-enabled applications, spanning everything from straight B2B systems to mobile devices and proprietary in-house software. While there are several tools and platforms that can be used for building web services, developers are finding a powerful tool in Microsoft's .NET Framework and Visual Studio .NET. Designed from scratch to support the development of web services, the .NET Framework simplifies the process--programmers find that tasks that took an hour using the SOAP Toolkit take just minutes. Programming .NET

  19. Annotating Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Bo; Wells, Lisa Marie

    2002-01-01

    -net. An example of such auxiliary information is a counter which is associated with a token to be able to do performance analysis. Modifying colour sets and arc inscriptions in a CP-net to support a specific use may lead to creation of several slightly different CP-nets – only to support the different uses...... a method which makes it possible to associate auxiliary information, called annotations, with tokens without modifying the colour sets of the CP-net. Annotations are pieces of information that are not essential for determining the behaviour of the system being modelled, but are rather added to support...

  20. Mars MetNet Mission Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, Ari-Matti; Aleksashkin, Sergei; Arruego, Ignacio; Schmidt, Walter; Genzer, Maria; Vazquez, Luis; Haukka, Harri

    2015-04-01

    New kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is under development in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested. 1. MetNet Lander The MetNet landing vehicles are using an inflatable entry and descent system instead of rigid heat shields and parachutes as earlier semi-hard landing devices have used. This way the ratio of the payload mass to the overall mass is optimized. The landing impact will burrow the payload container into the Martian soil providing a more favorable thermal environment for the electronics and a suitable orientation of the telescopic boom with external sensors and the radio link antenna. It is planned to deploy several tens of MNLs on the Martian surface operating at least partly at the same time to allow meteorological network science. 2. Scientific Payload The payload of the two MNL precursor models includes the following instruments: Atmospheric instruments: 1. MetBaro Pressure device 2. MetHumi Humidity device 3. MetTemp Temperature sensors Optical devices: 1. PanCam Panoramic 2. MetSIS Solar irradiance sensor with OWLS optical wireless system for data transfer 3. DS Dust sensor The descent processes dynamic properties are monitored by a special 3-axis accelerometer combined with a 3-axis gyrometer. The data will be sent via auxiliary beacon antenna throughout the

  1. Net zero water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lindeque, M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Is it possible to develop a building that uses a net zero amount of water? In recent years it has become evident that it is possible to have buildings that use a net zero amount of electricity. This is possible when the building is taken off...

  2. SolNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Ulrike; Vajen, Klaus; Bales, Chris

    2014-01-01

    SolNet, founded in 2006, is the first coordinated International PhD education program on Solar Thermal Engineering. The SolNet network is coordinated by the Institute of Thermal Engineering at Kassel University, Germany. The network offers PhD courses on solar heating and cooling, conference...

  3. Kunstige neurale net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørning, Annette

    1994-01-01

    Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse.......Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse....

  4. Comparing net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange at adjacent commercial bioenergy and conventional cropping systems in Lincolnshire, United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Ross; Brooks, Milo; Evans, Jonathan; Finch, Jon; Rowe, Rebecca; Rylett, Daniel; McNamara, Niall

    2016-04-01

    The conversion of agricultural land to bioenergy plantations represents one option in the national and global effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions whilst meeting future energy demand. Despite an increase in the area of (e.g. perennial) bioenergy crops in the United Kingdom and elsewhere, the biophysical and biogeochemical impacts of large scale conversion of arable and other land cover types to bioenergy cropping systems remain poorly characterised and uncertain. Here, the results of four years of eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) obtained at a commercial farm in Lincolnshire, United Kingdom (UK) are reported. CO2 flux measurements are presented and compared for arable crops (winter wheat, oilseed rape, spring barely) and plantations of the perennial biofuel crops Miscanthus x. giganteus (C4) and short rotation coppice (SRC) willow (Salix sp.,C3). Ecosystem light and temperature response functions were used to analyse and compare temporal trends and spatial variations in NEE across the three land covers. All three crops were net in situ sinks for atmospheric CO2 but were characterised by large temporal and between site variability in NEE. Environmental and biological controls driving the spatial and temporal variations in CO2 exchange processes, as well as the influences of land management, will be analysed and discussed.

  5. Pro NET Best Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, Stephen D

    2011-01-01

    Pro .NET Best Practices is a practical reference to the best practices that you can apply to your .NET projects today. You will learn standards, techniques, and conventions that are sharply focused, realistic and helpful for achieving results, steering clear of unproven, idealistic, and impractical recommendations. Pro .NET Best Practices covers a broad range of practices and principles that development experts agree are the right ways to develop software, which includes continuous integration, automated testing, automated deployment, and code analysis. Whether the solution is from a free and

  6. Getting to Net Zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-01

    The technology necessary to build net zero energy buildings (NZEBs) is ready and available today, however, building to net zero energy performance levels can be challenging. Energy efficiency measures, onsite energy generation resources, load matching and grid interaction, climatic factors, and local policies vary from location to location and require unique methods of constructing NZEBs. It is recommended that Components start looking into how to construct and operate NZEBs now as there is a learning curve to net zero construction and FY 2020 is just around the corner.

  7. Instant Lucene.NET

    CERN Document Server

    Heydt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A step-by-step guide that helps you to index, search, and retrieve unstructured data with the help of Lucene.NET.Instant Lucene.NET How-to is essential for developers new to Lucene and Lucene.NET who are looking to get an immediate foundational understanding of how to use the library in their application. It's assumed you have programming experience in C# already, but not that you have experience with search techniques such as information retrieval theory (although there will be a l

  8. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Musall, Eike

    2010-01-01

    and identify possible renewable energy supply options which may be considered in calculations. Finally, the gap between the methodology proposed by each organisation and their respective national building code is assessed; providing an overview of the possible changes building codes will need to undergo......The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...... parameters used in the calculations are discussed and the various renewable supply options considered in the methodologies are summarised graphically. Thus, the paper helps to understand different existing approaches to calculate energy balance in Net ZEBs, highlights the importance of variables selection...

  9. PhysioNet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The PhysioNet Resource is intended to stimulate current research and new investigations in the study of complex biomedical and physiologic signals. It offers free...

  10. NetSig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Heiko; Lawrence, Michael S; Chouinard, Candace R

    2018-01-01

    Methods that integrate molecular network information and tumor genome data could complement gene-based statistical tests to identify likely new cancer genes; but such approaches are challenging to validate at scale, and their predictive value remains unclear. We developed a robust statistic (Net......Sig) that integrates protein interaction networks with data from 4,742 tumor exomes. NetSig can accurately classify known driver genes in 60% of tested tumor types and predicts 62 new driver candidates. Using a quantitative experimental framework to determine in vivo tumorigenic potential in mice, we found that Net......Sig candidates induce tumors at rates that are comparable to those of known oncogenes and are ten-fold higher than those of random genes. By reanalyzing nine tumor-inducing NetSig candidates in 242 patients with oncogene-negative lung adenocarcinomas, we find that two (AKT2 and TFDP2) are significantly amplified...

  11. TideNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    query tide data sources in a desired geographic region of USA and its territories (Figure 1). Users can select a tide data source through the Google Map ...select data sources according to the desired geographic region. It uses the Google Map interface to display data from different sources. Recent...Coastal Inlets Research Program TideNet The TideNet is a web-based Graphical User Interface (GUI) that provides users with GIS mapping tools to

  12. Building Neural Net Software

    OpenAIRE

    Neto, João Pedro; Costa, José Félix

    1999-01-01

    In a recent paper [Neto et al. 97] we showed that programming languages can be translated on recurrent (analog, rational weighted) neural nets. The goal was not efficiency but simplicity. Indeed we used a number-theoretic approach to machine programming, where (integer) numbers were coded in a unary fashion, introducing a exponential slow down in the computations, with respect to a two-symbol tape Turing machine. Implementation of programming languages in neural nets turns to be not only theo...

  13. Interaction Nets in Russian

    OpenAIRE

    Salikhmetov, Anton

    2013-01-01

    Draft translation to Russian of Chapter 7, Interaction-Based Models of Computation, from Models of Computation: An Introduction to Computability Theory by Maribel Fernandez. "In this chapter, we study interaction nets, a model of computation that can be seen as a representative of a class of models based on the notion of 'computation as interaction'. Interaction nets are a graphical model of computation devised by Yves Lafont in 1990 as a generalisation of the proof structures of linear logic...

  14. Programming NET 35

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Bestselling author Jesse Liberty and industry expert Alex Horovitz uncover the common threads that unite the .NET 3.5 technologies, so you can benefit from the best practices and architectural patterns baked into the new Microsoft frameworks. The book offers a Grand Tour" of .NET 3.5 that describes how the principal technologies can be used together, with Ajax, to build modern n-tier and service-oriented applications. "

  15. U.S. landowner behavior, land use and land cover changes, and climate change mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph J. Alig

    2003-01-01

    Landowner behavior is a major determinant of land use and land cover changes. an important consideration for policy analysts concerned with global change. Study of landowner behavior aids in designing more effective incentives for inducing land use and land cover changes to help mitigate climate change by reducing net greenhouse gas emissions. Afforestation,...

  16. Climate policy implications for agricultural water demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturvedi, Vaibhav [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Hejazi, Mohamad I. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Edmonds, James A. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Clarke, Leon E. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Kyle, G. Page [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Davies, Evan [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Wise, Marshall A. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Calvin, Katherine V. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Energy, water and land are scarce resources, critical to humans. Developments in each affect the availability and cost of the others, and consequently human prosperity. Measures to limit greenhouse gas concentrations will inevitably exact dramatic changes on energy and land systems and in turn alter the character, magnitude and geographic distribution of human claims on water resources. We employ the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), an integrated assessment model to explore the interactions of energy, land and water systems in the context of alternative policies to limit climate change to three alternative levels: 2.5 Wm-2 (445 ppm CO2-e), 3.5 Wm-2 (535 ppm CO2-e) and 4.5 Wm-2 (645 ppm CO2-e). We explore the effects of two alternative land-use emissions mitigation policy options—one which taxes terrestrial carbon emissions equally with fossil fuel and industrial emissions, and an alternative which only taxes fossil fuel and industrial emissions but places no penalty on land-use change emissions. We find that increasing populations and economic growth could be anticipated to almost triple demand for water for agricultural systems across the century even in the absence of climate policy. In general policies to mitigate climate change increase agricultural demands for water still further, though the largest changes occur in the second half of the century, under both policy regimes. The two policies examined profoundly affected both the sources and magnitudes of the increase in irrigation water demands. The largest increases in agricultural irrigation water demand occurred in scenarios where only fossil fuel emissions were priced (but not land-use change emission) and were primarily driven by rapid expansion in bioenergy production. In these scenarios water demands were large relative to present-day total available water, calling into question whether it would be physically possible to produce the associated biomass energy. We explored the potential of improved

  17. Price smarter on the Net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, W; Marn, M; Zawada, C

    2001-02-01

    Companies generally have set prices on the Internet in two ways. Many start-ups have offered untenably low prices in a rush to capture first-mover advantage. Many incumbents have simply charged the same prices on-line as they do off-line. Either way, companies are missing a big opportunity. The fundamental value of the Internet lies not in lowering prices or making them consistent but in optimizing them. After all, if it's easy for customers to compare prices on the Internet, it's also easy for companies to track customers' behavior and adjust prices accordingly. The Net lets companies optimize prices in three ways. First, it lets them set and announce prices with greater precision. Different prices can be tested easily, and customers' responses can be collected instantly. Companies can set the most profitable prices, and they can tap into previously hidden customer demand. Second, because it's so easy to change prices on the Internet, companies can adjust prices in response to even small fluctuations in market conditions, customer demand, or competitors' behavior. Third, companies can use the clickstream data and purchase histories that it collects through the Internet to segment customers quickly. Then it can offer segment-specific prices or promotions immediately. By taking full advantage of the unique possibilities afforded by the Internet to set prices with precision, adapt to changing circumstances quickly, and segment customers accurately, companies can get their pricing right. It's one of the ultimate drivers of e-business success.

  18. Development of net cage acoustic alarm system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Shih-Wei; Wei, Ruey-Chang

    2004-05-01

    In recent years, the fishery production has been drastically decreased in Taiwan, mainly due to overfishing and coast pollution; therefore, fishermen and corporations are encouraged by government to invest in ocean net cage aquaculture. However, the high-price fishes in the net cage are often coveted, so incidences of fish stealing and net cage breaking were found occasionally, which cause great economical loss. Security guards or a visual monitoring system has limited effect, especially in the night when these intrusions occur. This study is based on acoustic measure to build a net cage alarm system, which includes the sonobuoy and monitor station on land. The sonobuoy is a passive sonar that collects the sounds near the net cage and transmits the suspected signal to the monitor station. The signals are analyzed by the control program on the personal computer in the monitor station, and the alarms at different stages could be activated by the sound levels and durations of the analyzed data. To insure long hours of surveillance, a solar panel is applied to charge the battery, and a photodetector is used to activate the system.

  19. Eddy covariance measurements of net C exchange in the CAM bioenergy crop, Agave tequiliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Nick A.; Choncubhair, Órlaith Ní; Males, Jamie; del Real Laborde, José Ignacio; Rubio-Cortés, Ramón; Griffiths, Howard; Lanigan, Gary

    2016-04-01

    Bioenergy crop cultivation may focus more on low grade and marginal lands in order to avoid competition with food production for land and water resources. However, in many regions, this would require improvements in plant water-use efficiency that are beyond the physiological capacity of most C3 and C4 bioenergy crop candidates. Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants, such as Agave tequiliana, can combine high above-ground productivity with as little as 20% of the water demand of C3 and C4 crops. This is achieved through temporal separation of carboxylase activities, with stomata opening at night to allow gas exchange and minimise transpirational losses. Previous studies have employed 'bottom-up' methodologies to investigate carbon (C) accumulation and productivity in Agave, by scaling leaf-level gas exchange and titratable acidity (TA) with leaf area index or maximum productivity. We used the eddy covariance (EC) technique to quantify ecosystem-scale gas exchange over an Agave plantation in Mexico ('top-down' approach). Measurements were made over 252 days, including the transition from wet to dry periods. Results were cross-validated against diel changes in titratable acidity, leaf-unfurling rates, energy exchange fluxes and reported biomass yields. Net ecosystem exchange of CO2 displayed a CAM rhythm that alternated from a net C sink at night to a net C source during the day and partitioned canopy fluxes (gross C assimilation, FA,EC) showed a characteristic four-phase CO2 exchange pattern. The projected ecosystem C balance indicated that the site was a net sink of -333 ± 24 g C m-2 y-1, comprising cumulative soil respiration of 692 ± 7 g C m-2 y-1 and FA,EC of -1025 ± 25 g C m-2 y-1. EC-estimated biomass yield was 20.1 Mg ha-1 y-1. Average integrated daily FA,EC was -234 ± 5 mmol CO2 m-2 d-1 and persisted almost unchanged after 70 days of drought conditions. Our results suggest that the carbon acquisition strategy of drought avoidance employed by Agave

  20. La plataforma .NET

    OpenAIRE

    Fornas Estrada, Miquel

    2008-01-01

    L'aparició de la plataforma .NET Framework ha suposat un canvi molt important en la forma de crear i distribuir aplicacions, degut a que incorpora una sèrie d'innovacions tècniques i productives que simplifiquen molt les tasques necessàries per desenvolupar un projecte. La aparición de la plataforma. NET Framework ha supuesto un cambio muy importante en la forma de crear y distribuir aplicaciones, debido a que incorpora una serie de innovaciones técnicas y productivas que simplifican mucho...

  1. Biological Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Wingender, E

    2011-01-01

    It was suggested some years ago that Petri nets might be well suited to modeling metabolic networks, overcoming some of the limitations encountered by the use of systems employing ODEs (ordinary differential equations). Much work has been done since then which confirms this and demonstrates the usefulness of this concept for systems biology. Petri net technology is not only intuitively understood by scientists trained in the life sciences, it also has a robust mathematical foundation and provides the required degree of flexibility. As a result it appears to be a very promising approach to mode

  2. Using risk maps to link land value damage and risk as basis of flexible risk management for brownfield redevelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I-chun; Ma, Hwong-wen

    2013-02-01

    Brownfield redevelopment involves numerous uncertain financial risks associated with market demand and land value. To reduce the uncertainty of the specific impact of land value and social costs, this study develops small-scale risk maps to determine the relationship between population risk (PR) and damaged land value (DLV) to facilitate flexible land reutilisation plans. This study used the spatial variability of exposure parameters in each village to develop the contaminated site-specific risk maps. In view of the combination of risk and cost, risk level that most affected land use was mainly 1.00×10(-6) to 1.00×10(-5) in this study area. Village 2 showed the potential for cost-effective conversion with contaminated land development. If the risk of remediation target was set at 5.00×10(-6), the DLV could be reduced by NT$15,005 million for the land developer. The land developer will consider the net benefit by quantifying the trade-off between the changes of land value and the cost of human health. In this study, small-scale risk maps can illuminate the economic incentive potential for contaminated site redevelopment through the adjustment of land value damage and human health risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Petri Nets-Applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 9. Petri Nets - Applications. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 9 September 1999 pp 44-52. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/09/0044-0052. Author Affiliations. Y Narahari ...

  4. Safety nets or straitjackets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Does regulation of working hours at national and sector level impose straitjackets, or offer safety nets to employees seeking working time flexibility? This article compares legislation and collective agreements in the metal industries of Denmark, Germany and the USA. The industry has historically...

  5. Coloured Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. This book introduces the constructs of the CPN modelling language and presents the related analysis methods. It provides a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN.

  6. Boom Booom Net Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Yong, Louisa; Dobie, Ian

    1999-01-01

    of an existing Internet radio station; Boom Booom Net Radio. Whilst necessity dictates some use of technology-related terminology, wherever possible we have endeavoured to keep such jargon to a minimum and to either explain it in the text or to provide further explanation in the appended glossary....

  7. Game Theory .net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Mikhael

    2003-01-01

    States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of GameTheory.net is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…

  8. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism...

  9. Causality in demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max; Jensen, Frank; Setälä, Jari

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on causality in demand. A methodology where causality is imposed and tested within an empirical co-integrated demand model, not prespecified, is suggested. The methodology allows different causality of different products within the same demand system. The methodology is applied...

  10. Effects of Land Use Change for Crops on Water and Carbon Budgets in the Midwest USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Sun

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Increasing demand for food and bioenergy has altered the global landscape dramatically in recent years. Land use and land cover change affects the environmental system in many ways through biophysical and biogeochemical mechanisms. In this study, we evaluate the impacts of land use and land cover change driven by recent crop expansion and conversion on the water budget, carbon exchange, and carbon storage in the Midwest USA. A dynamic global vegetation model was used to simulate and examine the impacts of landscape change in a historical case based on crop distribution data from the United States Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Statistics Services. The simulation results indicate that recent crop expansion not only decreased soil carbon sequestration (60 Tg less of soil organic carbon and net carbon flux into ecosystems (3.7 Tg·year−1 less of net biome productivity, but also lessened water consumption through evapotranspiration (1.04 × 1010 m3·year−1 less over 12 states in the Midwest. More water yield at the land surface does not necessarily make more water available for vegetation. Crop residue removal might also exacerbate the soil carbon loss.

  11. Demand as frequency controlled reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Togeby, M.; OEstergaard, J.

    2008-09-15

    Using demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) is an emerging technology which allow demand to participate actively in maintaining the system operation without reducing the energy service delivered to the customer and without need of user interaction. The basic premise is that traditional frequency controlled reserves from power plants and interconnections with neighbouring systems can be costly, slow and not fulfil the need for future power grids with a high share of wind power and fewer central power plants, and an intention to perform flexible operation such as is landing. Electricity demands, on the other hand, have advantages as frequency reserve including fast activation speed, smooth linear activation, low expected costs, and well-dispersed in the distribution grid. The main challenge of DFR is new methods for monitoring the available capacity. This project has investigated the technology of using electricity demands for providing frequency reserve to power systems. Within the project the potential and economy of DFR compatible loads in Denmark has been investigated, control logic has been designed, power system impact has been investigated, potential business models has been evaluated and an implementation strategy has been suggested. The tasks and goals of the project have been successfully accomplished based on which the conclusion and future recommendation are made. This project has developed the DFR technology that enables electricity demands to autonomously disconnect or reconnect to the grid in response to system frequency variations. The developed DFR technology is proved to be a promising technology from several perspectives. Technically, using DFR is feasible to provide reserves and enhance power system frequency control, while fulfilling technical requirements such as linear activation (or reconnection) according to frequency (or time). Environmentally, the DFR technology is pollution free in contrast to traditional reserves from generation

  12. Changes in Carbon Emissions in Colombian Savannas Derived From Recent Land use and Land Cover Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, A.; Sarmiento, A.

    2007-12-01

    The global contribution of carbon emissions from land use dynamics and change to the global carbon (C) cycle is still uncertain, a major concern in global change modeling. Carbon emission from fires in the tropics is significant and represents 9% of the net primary production, and 50% of worldwide C emissions from fires are attributable to savanna fires. Such emissions may vary significantly due to differences in ecosystem types. Most savanna areas are devoted to grazing land uses making methane emissions also important in savanna ecosystems. Land use change driven by intensification of grazing and cropping has become a major factor affecting C emission dynamics from savanna regions. Colombia has some 17 MHa of mesic savannas which have been historically burned. Due to changes in market demands and improved accessibility during the last 20 years, important areas of savannas changed land use from predominantly extensive grazing to crops and intensive grazing systems. This research models and evaluates the impacts of such land use changes on the spatial and temporal burning patterns and C emissions in the Orinoco savannas of Colombia. We address the effects of land use change patterns using remote sensing data from MODIS and Landsat, ecosystem mapping products, and spatial GIS analysis. First we map the expansion of the agricultural frontier from the 1980s-2000s. We then model the changes in land use from the 1980s using a statistical modeling approach to analyze and quantify the impact of accessibility, ecosystem type and land tenure. We calculate the effects on C emissions from fire regimes and other sources of C based on patterns and extent of burned areas in the 2000s for different savanna ecosystem types and land uses. In the Llanos the fire regime exhibits a marked seasonal variability with most fire events occurring during the dry season between December-March. Our analysis shows that fire frequencies vary consistently between 0.6 and 2.8 fires.yr-1 per 2

  13. Finite land resources and competition

    OpenAIRE

    Haberl, Helmut; Mbow, Cheikh; Deng, Xiangzheng; Irwin, Elena G; Kerr, Suzi; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Mertz, Ole; Meyfroidt, Patrick; Turner II, B. L.

    2014-01-01

    Rising demand for land-based products (food, feed, fi ber, and bioenergy) as well as conservation of forests and carbon sinks create increasing competition for land. Landuse competition has many drivers, takes different forms, and can have many significant implications for ecosystems as well as societal well-being. This chapter discusses several emerging issues, including the effect of increased demand for nonprovisioning ecosystem services ( biodiversity conservation and carbon sequestration...

  14. Food Safety Nets:

    OpenAIRE

    Haggblade, Steven; Diallo, Boubacar; Staatz, John; Theriault, Veronique; Traoré, Abdramane

    2013-01-01

    Food and social safety nets have a history as long as human civilization. In hunter gatherer societies, food sharing is pervasive. Group members who prove unlucky in the short run, hunting or foraging, receive food from other households in anticipation of reciprocal consideration at a later time (Smith 1988). With the emergence of the first large sedentary civilizations in the Middle East, administrative systems developed specifically around food storage and distribution. The ancient Egyptian...

  15. Net technical assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Wegmann, David G.

    1989-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The present and near term military balance of power between the U.S. and the Soviet Union can be expressed in a variety of net assessments. One can examine the strategic nuclear balance, the conventional balance in Europe, the maritime balance, and many others. Such assessments are essential not only for policy making but for arms control purposes and future force structure planning. However, to project the future military balance, on...

  16. Integrated Land Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2004-01-01

    management towards economic, social and environmental sustainability. Organisations such as FIG, UN, the World Bank and also the whole surveying/land administration community should recognize that the increasing demand for sustainable land administration infrastructures and sustainable structures...... for integrated land management includes some educational and professional challenges to be met at the threshold of the third millennium.    In short, it is critical that we prepare the profession as well the educational system to meet the challenges of tomorrow in achieving sustainable urban and rural...

  17. Using WordNet for Building WordNets

    CERN Document Server

    Farreres, X; Farreres, Xavier; Rodriguez, Horacio; Rigau, German

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarises a set of methodologies and techniques for the fast construction of multilingual WordNets. The English WordNet is used in this approach as a backbone for Catalan and Spanish WordNets and as a lexical knowledge resource for several subtasks.

  18. Demands For Solar Electricity From The BRICS Countries In The Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Y.

    2015-12-01

    BRICS countries are presently among the leading the economic powers globally, but their increasing demands for energy and sustainable future requires renewed technical progress on implementation of renewable energy (e.g., solar energy) and a sustainable solution rather than extracting finite natural resources. BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) face both social and environmental pressures as their economy keeps growing. The rapid development of technology in BRICS inevitably altered their culture and behavior, as reflected by education, gender equality, health, and other demographic/socio-economic indicators. These changes coupled with land use/land cover change have altered ecosystem services, as reflected by NEE (Net Ecosystem Exchange of CO2) and NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index). Global climatic changes also drives the demand for sustainable energy. With a focus on solar energy, we analyzed time series of energy consuming behaviors, government policies, and the ecosystem services. Structural equation modeling was applied to confirm the relationships among societal transition, ecosystem services, and climate change. We compared the energy consumption patterns for the five countries and forecasted the changes through 2025. We found that government policies significantly influenced energy consumption behaviors for BRICS and that solar energy usage would continue to increase to 2025 and beyond.

  19. Impacts of tropospheric ozone and climate change on net primary productivity and net carbon exchange of China’s forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei Ren; Hanqin Tian; Bo Tao; Art Chappelka; Ge Sun; et al

    2011-01-01

    Aim We investigated how ozone pollution and climate change/variability have interactively affected net primary productivity (NPP) and net carbon exchange (NCE) across China’s forest ecosystem in the past half century. Location Continental China. Methods Using the dynamic land ecosystem model (DLEM) in conjunction with 10-km-resolution gridded historical data sets (...

  20. Intersects between Land, Energy, Water and the Climate System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, K. A.; Skaggs, R.; Wilson, T.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change affects water, and land resources, and with growing human activity, each of these sectors relies increasingly on the others for critical resources. Events such as drought across the South Central U.S. during 2011 demonstrate that climatic impacts within each of these sectors can cascade through interactions between sectors. Energy, water, and land resources are each vulnerable to impacts on either of the other two sectors. For example, energy systems inherently require land and water. Increased electricity demands to contend with climate change can impose additional burdens on overly subscribed water resources. Within this environment, energy systems compete for water with agriculture, human consumption, and other needs. In turn, climate driven changes in landscape attributes and land use affect water quality and availability as well as energy demands. Diminishing water quality and availability impose additional demands for energy to access and purify water, and for land to store and distribute water. In some situations, interactions between water, energy, and land resources make options for reducing greenhouse gas emissions vulnerable to climate change. Energy options such as solar power or biofuel use can reduce net greenhouse gas emissions as well as U.S. dependence on foreign resources. As a result, the U.S. is expanding renewable energy systems. Advanced technology such as carbon dioxide capture with biofuels may offer a means of removing CO2 from the atmosphere. But as with fossil fuels, renewable energy sources can impose significant demands for water and land. For example, solar power mayrequire significant land to site facilities and water for cooling or to produce steam. Raising crops to produce biofuels uses arable land and water that might otherwise be available for food production. Thus, warmer and drier climate can compromise these renewable energy resources, and drought can stress water supplies creating competition between energy

  1. PERFECT DEMAND ILLUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Yu. Sulimov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to technique «Perfect demand illusion», which allows to strengthen the competitive advantageof retailers. Also in the paper spells out the golden rules of visual merchandising.The definition of the method «Demand illusion», formulated the conditions of its functioning, and is determined by the mainhypothesis of the existence of this method.Furthermore, given the definition of the «Perfect demand illusion», and describes its additional conditions. Also spells out the advantages of the «Perfect demandillusion», before the «Demand illusion».

  2. Proof nets for lingusitic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moot, R.C.A.

    2002-01-01

    This book investigates the possible linguistic applications of proof nets, redundancy free representations of proofs, which were introduced by Girard for linear logic. We will adapt the notion of proof net to allow the formulation of a proof net calculus which is soundand complete for the

  3. Teaching Tennis for Net Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Bryce

    1989-01-01

    A program for teaching tennis to beginners, NET (Net Easy Teaching) is described. The program addresses three common needs shared by tennis students: active involvement in hitting the ball, clearing the net, and positive reinforcement. A sample lesson plan is included. (IAH)

  4. Net4Care Ecosystem Website

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius; Rasmussen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    is a tele-monitoring scenario in which Net4Care clients are deployed in a gateway in private homes. Medical devices then connect to these gateways and transmit their observations to a Net4Care server. In turn the Net4Care server creates valid clinical HL7 documents, stores them in a national XDS repository...

  5. Global Patterns in Human Consumption of Net Primary Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, Marc L.; Bounoua, Lahouari; Ricketts, Taylor; Loucks, Colby; Harriss, Robert; Lawrence William T.

    2004-01-01

    The human population and its consumption profoundly affect the Earth's ecosystems. A particularly compelling measure of humanity's cumulative impact is the fraction of the planet's net primary production that we appropriate for our Net primary production-the net amount of solar energy converted to plant organic matter through photosynthesis-can be measured in units of elemental carbon and represents the primary food energy source for the world's ecosystems. Human appropriation of net primary production, apart from leaving less for other species to use, alters the composition of the atmosphere, levels of biodiversity, flows within food webs and the provision of important primary production required by humans and compare it to the total amount generated on the landscape. We then derive a spatial ba!mce sheet of net primary production supply and demand for the world. We show that human appropriation of net primary production varies spatially from almost zero to many times the local primary production. These analyses reveal the uneven footprint of human consumption and related environmental impacts, indicate the degree to which human populations depend on net primary production "imports" and suggest policy options for slowing future growth of human appropriation of net primary production.

  6. Customary land tenure dynamics at peri-urban Ghana : Implications for land administration system modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arko-Adjei, A.; de Jong, J.; Zevenbergen, J.A.; Tuladhar, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Customary land tenure is criticized as dynamic with the institutional framework unable to provide enough tenure security at all times. It is also criticized as ineffective to cope with the trends in land tenure delivery at peri-urban areas where individualization of land and demand for land is high.

  7. Biofuel on contaminated land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suer, Pascal; Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne; Blom, Sonja; Bardos, Paul; Polland, Marcel; Track, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    Desktop studies of two Swedish contaminated sites has indicated that growing biofuel crops on these sites may be more environmentally beneficial than alternative risk management approaches such as excavation / removal or containment The demand for biofuel increases pressure on the cultivatable soil of the world. While contaminated land is not very suitable for food production, cultivation of low and medium contaminated soil may remove some pressure from agricultural soils. For larger sites, biofuel cultivation may be economically viable without a remediation bonus. Suitable sites have topographic conditions that allow agricultural machinery, are not in urgent need of remediation, and contamination levels are not plant toxic. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was done for two cases. The (desk top) case studies were - Case K, a 5000 m2 site where salix (willow) was cultivated with hand-held machinery and the biofuel harvest was left on site, and - Case F, a 12 ha site were on site ensuring was being considered, and were salix might have rented an economic profit if the remediation had not been urgent due to exploitation pressure. Some selected results for biofuel K; biofuel F; excavation K; and on site ensuring F respectively: Energy: 0,05; 1,4; 3,5; 19 TJ Waste: 1; 9; 1200; 340 ton Land use off-site: 190; 3 500; 200 000; 1 400 000 m² a Global warming: 3; 86; 230; 1 200 ton CO2 eq Acidification: 25; 1 000; 2 600; 14 000 kg SO2 eq Photochemical smog: 10; 180; 410; 2 300 kg ethene eq Human health: 2; 51; 150; 620 index The environmental impact of the traditional remediation methods of excavation and on-site ensuring was mainly due to the transport of contaminated soil and replacement soil, and landfilling of the contaminated soil. Biofuel cultivation avoids these impacts, while fertiliser production and agricultural machinery would have a lower environmental impact than moving large volumes of soil around. Journeys of a controller to check on the groundwater quality also

  8. Contributions of fallow lands in the Brazilian Amazon to CO2 balance, deforestation and the agrarian economy: Inequalities among competing land use trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis Costa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Development of regulations limiting greenhouse gas emissions is creating demands and new markets for land-based carbon sinks. Expectations of development of clean technologies and new sources of clean energy are affecting the supply side, creating opportunities for remuneration for sustainable development of natural resources. This paper[1] presents a model developed to gain a realistic understanding of the heterogeneous roles of capoeira (fallow agricultural land in land use dynamics and CO2 balance in the Brazilian Amazon. The model estimates the areas and CO2 balance of different types of capoeira in association with different farming activities and also monitors carbon intensity over time in the context of technological trajectories (distinct farming systems. Modeling with agricultural census data compared six different, competing technological trajectories of capoeira for changes in major land use variables and impacts on CO2 balance from 1990 to 2011. Results revealed that: a technological trajectories contribute differently to net emissions of CO2, with livestock for meat enterprises being the highest net emitters and peasant agroforestry and plantation enterprises the lower emitters; b carbon intensity tends to diminish over time because of increased weight of trajectories with lower carbon intensity, in combination with reduced carbon intensity of trajectories with higher carbon intensity; and c for most trajectories, reuse of “old land” becomes increasingly more important for explaining the essence of agricultural dynamics, including CO2 balance, than is deforestation for opening up new agricultural land. These results draw attention to the role of capoeiras in modernization and intensification of the agricultural sector through renovation of deforested land. The model allows evaluation of deforestation and CO2 emissions as functions of the evolution of markets for agricultural products and of deforestation dynamics

  9. Master Robotic Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Lipunov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the MASTER-Net project is to produce a unique fast sky survey with all sky observed over a single night down to a limiting magnitude of 19-20. Such a survey will make it possible to address a number of fundamental problems: search for dark energy via the discovery and photometry of supernovae (including SNIa, search for exoplanets, microlensing effects, discovery of minor bodies in the Solar System, and space-junk monitoring. All MASTER telescopes can be guided by alerts, and we plan to observe prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts synchronously in several filters and in several polarization planes.

  10. Art/Net/Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik; Lindstrøm, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    The seminar Art|Net|Work deals with two important changes in our culture. On one side, the network has become essential in the latest technological development. The Internet has entered a new phase, Web 2.0, including the occurrence of as ‘Wiki’s’, ‘Peer-2-Peer’ distribution, user controlled...... the praxis of the artist. We see different kinds of interventions and activism (including ‘hacktivism’) using the network as a way of questioning the invisible rules that govern public and semi-public spaces. Who ‘owns’ them? What kind of social relationships do they generate? On what principle...

  11. A quantitative assessment of policy options for no net loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulp, C.J.E.; van Teeffelen, A.J.A.; Tucker, G.; Verburg, P.H.

    2016-01-01

    The Biodiversity Strategy of the European Union includes a target to "ensure no-net-loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services by 2020". Many policy options can be envisioned to achieve such a no-net-loss target, mainly acting on land use and land management. To assess the effectiveness of such

  12. Wood supply and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; David B. McKeever

    2011-01-01

    At times in history, there have been concerns that demand for wood (timber) would be greater than the ability to supply it, but that concern has recently dissipated. The wood supply and demand situation has changed because of market transitions, economic downturns, and continued forest growth. This article provides a concise overview of this change as it relates to the...

  13. Helminth.net: expansions to Nematode.net and an introduction to Trematode.net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, John; Rosa, Bruce A.; Ozersky, Philip; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Zhang, Xu; Bhonagiri-Palsikar, Veena; Tyagi, Rahul; Wang, Qi; Choi, Young-Jun; Gao, Xin; McNulty, Samantha N.; Brindley, Paul J.; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2015-01-01

    Helminth.net (http://www.helminth.net) is the new moniker for a collection of databases: Nematode.net and Trematode.net. Within this collection we provide services and resources for parasitic roundworms (nematodes) and flatworms (trematodes), collectively known as helminths. For over a decade we have provided resources for studying nematodes via our veteran site Nematode.net (http://nematode.net). In this article, (i) we provide an update on the expansions of Nematode.net that hosts omics data from 84 species and provides advanced search tools to the broad scientific community so that data can be mined in a useful and user-friendly manner and (ii) we introduce Trematode.net, a site dedicated to the dissemination of data from flukes, flatworm parasites of the class Trematoda, phylum Platyhelminthes. Trematode.net is an independent component of Helminth.net and currently hosts data from 16 species, with information ranging from genomic, functional genomic data, enzymatic pathway utilization to microbiome changes associated with helminth infections. The databases’ interface, with a sophisticated query engine as a backbone, is intended to allow users to search for multi-factorial combinations of species’ omics properties. This report describes updates to Nematode.net since its last description in NAR, 2012, and also introduces and presents its new sibling site, Trematode.net. PMID:25392426

  14. Using Community Land Rights to Build Local Governance and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Using Community Land Rights to Build Local Governance and Reduce Land Conflicts. In the past five years, commercial interest and investments in agricultural land have intensified in quantity, speed, and size over the past five years, with demand for land in Africa particularly high. Yet, while the supply of fertile land ...

  15. NETS FOR PEACH PROTECTED CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelia Schettini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the radiometric properties of coloured nets used to protect a peach cultivation. The modifications of the solar spectral distribution, mainly in the R and FR wavelength band, influence plant photomorphogenesis by means of the phytochrome and cryptochrome. The phytochrome response is characterized in terms of radiation rate in the red wavelengths (R, 600-700 nm to that in the farred radiation (FR, 700-800 nm, i.e. the R/FR ratio. The effects of the blue radiation (B, 400-500 nm is investigated by the ratio between the blue radiation and the far-red radiation, i.e. the B/FR ratio. A BLUE net, a RED net, a YELLOW net, a PEARL net, a GREY net and a NEUTRAL net were tested in Bari (Italy, latitude 41° 05’ N. Peach trees were located in pots inside the greenhouses and in open field. The growth of the trees cultivated in open field was lower in comparison to the growth of the trees grown under the nets. The RED, PEARL, YELLOW and GREY nets increased the growth of the trees more than the other nets. The nets positively influenced the fruit characteristics, such as fruit weight and flesh firmness.

  16. Credit Demand Amongst Farmers in Mukono District, Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We employ the binary logit model estimation to analyse demand for credit. The empirical results suggest that the probability of a farmer demanding credit increases with proximity to credit facility, easier application procedures, customary land tenure system and membership to farmers' association. In contrast, the likelihood ...

  17. The equivalency between logic Petri workflow nets and workflow nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue

    2015-01-01

    Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented.

  18. Mars MetNet Mission - Martian Atmospheric Observational Post Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Haukka, H.; Aleksashkin, S.; Arruego, I.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.; Siikonen, T.; Palin, M.

    2017-09-01

    A new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is under development in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested.

  19. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    studies that illustrate the practical use of CPN modelling and validation for design, specification, simulation, verification and implementation in various application domains. Their presentation primarily aims at readers interested in the practical use of CPN. Thus all concepts and constructs are first......Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism...... and the immense number of possible execution sequences. In this textbook, Jensen and Kristensen introduce the constructs of the CPN modelling language and present the related analysis methods in detail. They also provide a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN by showcasing selected industrial case...

  20. Resource Usage Strategies and Trade-Offs between Cropland Demand, Fossil Fuel Consumption, and Greenhouse Gas Emissions—Building Insulation as an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Hansen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioresources are used in different production systems as materials as well as energy carriers. The same is true for fossil fuel resources. This study explored whether preferential resource usages exist, using a building insulation system as an example, with regard to the following sustainability criteria: climate impact, land, and fossil fuel demand. We considered the complete life cycle in a life cycle assessment-based approach. The criteria were compared for two strategies: one used natural fibers as material and generated production energies from fossil fuels; the other generated production energies from bioenergy carriers and transformed fossil resources into the insulation material. Both strategies finally yielded the same insulation effect. Hence, the energy demand for heating the building was ignored. None of the strategies operated best in all three criteria: While cropland demand was lower in the bioenergy than in the biomaterial system, its fossil fuel demand was higher. Net contribution to climate change was in the same range for both strategies if we considered no indirect changes in land use. Provided that effective recycling concepts for fossil-derived insulations are in place, using bioresources for energy generation was identified as a promising way to mitigate climate change along with efficient resource use.

  1. Variations in land requirements for meat production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elferink, E.V.; Nonhebel, S.

    2007-01-01

    Production of meat requires substantial amounts of feed grains which in turn require vast amounts of land. Future population growth and increase in consumption will raise the demand for meat and with it the land required for meat production. This paper analyses the various factors that affect land

  2. Using Community Land Rights to Build Local Governance and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In the past five years, commercial interest and investments in agricultural land have intensified in quantity, speed, and size over the past five years, with demand for land in Africa particularly high. Yet, while the supply of fertile land diminishes globally, pressure continues to mount to meet the demands of growing populations ...

  3. Innovation and Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Esben Sloth

    2007-01-01

    Economic evolution is an immensely complex phenomenon, so there is an obvious need of simplifying the way we handle this phenomenon. Since Nelson and Winter's pioneering formalisation of the Schumpeterian vision of innovation-driven evolution, the major simplification has been obtained by modelling...... the demand-side of markets in the simplest possible way. This strategy has allowed a gradual increase in the sophistication of supply-side aspects of economic evolution, but the one-sided focus on supply is facing diminishing returns. Therefore, demand-side aspects of economic evolution have in recent years....... Second, firms' innovative activities relate, directly or indirectly, to the structure of expected and actual demand. Third, the demand side represents the most obvious way of turning to the much-needed analysis of macro-evolutionary change of the economic system....

  4. Methodology to guide the expansion of natural gas distribution network through the identification of potential demand based on the use of urban land; Metodologia de suporte a expansao da rede de distribuicao de gas natural atraves da identificacao da demanda potencial com base no uso do solo urbano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandeira, Maria Ines V.Q.B.; Arruda, Joao Bosco F. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The search for sustainability and the largest efficiency in the energy supply has implied in the gradual substitution of the electric power source for the use of the Natural Gas in the residential, automotive, services and industrial sectors. This paper reports a study which aims at the construction of a methodology to support the expansion of the Natural Gas distribution network using concepts of Space Syntax Theory. Through the analysis of the geographical location of urban land use activity system it is expected to define priority roadway routes in terms of potential demand for Natural Gas. A case study is on process in Fortaleza city, in the Northeastern Brazil, which is adequate to such an approach given its disperse density pattern and the present low scale of Natural Gas use in the four above mentioned urban sectors. (author)

  5. The Welfare Economics of Land Use Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Cheshire; Stephen Sheppard

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical methodology for the evaluation of the benefits and costs of land use planning. The technique is applied in the context of the Town and Country Planning System of the UK, and examines the gross and net benefits of land use regulation and their distribution across income groups. The results show that the welfare and distributional impacts can be large.

  6. Prospects for European labour demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, R M

    1988-07-01

    The impact of economic and technological trends upon the level and structure of labor demand is examined, exploring the methods used to model the labor market and making special reference to demography and technology. Evidence on recent and prospective changes in labor demand is reviewed for France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and the UK. The models used to explore future employment scenarios usually fail to incorporate the linkages required to fully analyze the various demographic-economic interactions. Further, this is not generally viewed as a limitation, given the time frame of most employment projections and their preoccupation with changes in the structure of labor demand. Medium-term multisectoral models tend to pay more attention to both demographic and technical change, but the treatment of both aspects is limited. The projections provide a framework for considering how both socioeconomic behavior and policy might change to achieve different outcomes. The greater a model's behavioral content, as expressed in its relationships between different variables, the greater the insight obtainable from simulation exercises. The 1st half of the 1970s was characterized by a reduction in German employment, representing the severest of European reactions to the oil crisis. The 2nd half of the decade recorded rapid growth in Italy and the Netherlands. The 1980s started with marked declines in Germany and the UK. Overall, the net gains of the 1970s were lost in the recession following the 2nd oil crisis. In none of the 5 countries studied does any realistic prospect emerge of achieving full employment before 2000. The most optimistic outcome is that unemployment will decline only slowly, it at all. The growth of both new forms and areas of employment will not compensate sufficiently for the loss of jobs elsewhere and the growth of labor supply. The industrial sector will continue to experience change in favor of the service sector but at a slower rate than during

  7. Transitions in Land Use Architecture under Multiple Human Driving Forces in a Semi-Arid Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issa Ouedraogo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to detect the main shifts in land-use architecture and assess the factors behind the changes in typical tropical semi-arid land in Burkina Faso. Three sets of time-series LANDSAT data over a 23-year period were used to detect land use changes and their underpinning drivers in multifunctional but vulnerable ecologies. Group discussions in selected villages were organized for mapping output interpretation and collection of essential drivers of change as perceived by local populations. Results revealed profound changes and transitions during the study period. During the last decade, shrub and wood savannahs exhibited high net changes (39% and −37% respectively with a weak net positive change for cropland (only 2%, while cropland and shrub savannah exhibited high swap (8% and 16%. This suggests that the area of cropland remained almost unchanged but was subject to relocation, wood savannah decreased drastically, and shrub savannah increased exponentially. Cropland exhibited a null net persistence while shrub and wood savannahs exhibited positive and negative net persistence (1.91 and −10.24, respectively, indicating that there is movement toward agricultural intensification and wood savannah tended to disappear to the benefit of shrub savannah. Local people are aware of the changes that have occurred and support the idea that illegal wood cutting and farming are inappropriate farming practices associated with immigration; absence of alternative cash generation sources, overgrazing and increasing demand for wood energy are driving the changes in their ecosystems. Policies that integrate restoration and conservation of natural ecosystems and promote sustainable agroforestry practices in the study zone are highly recommended.

  8. Global food demand and the sustainable intensification of agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilman, David; Balzer, Christian; Hill, Jason; Befort, Belinda L

    2011-12-13

    Global food demand is increasing rapidly, as are the environmental impacts of agricultural expansion. Here, we project global demand for crop production in 2050 and evaluate the environmental impacts of alternative ways that this demand might be met. We find that per capita demand for crops, when measured as caloric or protein content of all crops combined, has been a similarly increasing function of per capita real income since 1960. This relationship forecasts a 100-110% increase in global crop demand from 2005 to 2050. Quantitative assessments show that the environmental impacts of meeting this demand depend on how global agriculture expands. If current trends of greater agricultural intensification in richer nations and greater land clearing (extensification) in poorer nations were to continue, ~1 billion ha of land would be cleared globally by 2050, with CO(2)-C equivalent greenhouse gas emissions reaching ~3 Gt y(-1) and N use ~250 Mt y(-1) by then. In contrast, if 2050 crop demand was met by moderate intensification focused on existing croplands of underyielding nations, adaptation and transfer of high-yielding technologies to these croplands, and global technological improvements, our analyses forecast land clearing of only ~0.2 billion ha, greenhouse gas emissions of ~1 Gt y(-1), and global N use of ~225 Mt y(-1). Efficient management practices could substantially lower nitrogen use. Attainment of high yields on existing croplands of underyielding nations is of great importance if global crop demand is to be met with minimal environmental impacts.

  9. Linear Logic on Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn

    This article shows how individual Petri nets form models of Girard's intuitionistic linear logic. It explores questions of expressiveness and completeness of linear logic with respect to this interpretation. An aim is to use Petri nets to give an understanding of linear logic and give some apprai...

  10. Reference Guide Microsoft.NET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee M van der; Verspaij GJ; Rosbergen S; IMP; NMD

    2003-01-01

    Developers, administrators and managers can get more understanding of the .NET technology with this report. They can also make better choices how to use this technology. The report describes the results and conclusions of a study of the usability for the RIVM of this new generation .NET development

  11. Net neutrality and audiovisual services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.; Nikoltchev, S.

    2011-01-01

    Net neutrality is high on the European agenda. New regulations for the communication sector provide a legal framework for net neutrality and need to be implemented on both a European and a national level. The key element is not just about blocking or slowing down traffic across communication

  12. A Small Universal Petri Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A. Zaitsev

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A universal deterministic inhibitor Petri net with 14 places, 29 transitions and 138 arcs was constructed via simulation of Neary and Woods' weakly universal Turing machine with 2 states and 4 symbols; the total time complexity is exponential in the running time of their weak machine. To simulate the blank words of the weakly universal Turing machine, a couple of dedicated transitions insert their codes when reaching edges of the working zone. To complete a chain of a given Petri net encoding to be executed by the universal Petri net, a translation of a bi-tag system into a Turing machine was constructed. The constructed Petri net is universal in the standard sense; a weaker form of universality for Petri nets was not introduced in this work.

  13. Travel Demand Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southworth, Frank [ORNL; Garrow, Dr. Laurie [Georgia Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes the principal types of both passenger and freight demand models in use today, providing a brief history of model development supported by references to a number of popular texts on the subject, and directing the reader to papers covering some of the more recent technical developments in the area. Over the past half century a variety of methods have been used to estimate and forecast travel demands, drawing concepts from economic/utility maximization theory, transportation system optimization and spatial interaction theory, using and often combining solution techniques as varied as Box-Jenkins methods, non-linear multivariate regression, non-linear mathematical programming, and agent-based microsimulation.

  14. Demand Modelling in Telecommunications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chvalina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the existing possibilities for using Standard Statistical Methods and Artificial Intelligence Methods for a short-term forecast and simulation of demand in the field of telecommunications. The most widespread methods are based on Time Series Analysis. Nowadays, approaches based on Artificial Intelligence Methods, including Neural Networks, are booming. Separate approaches will be used in the study of Demand Modelling in Telecommunications, and the results of these models will be compared with actual guaranteed values. Then we will examine the quality of Neural Network models. 

  15. Mars MetNet Mission - Martian Atmospheric Observational Post Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Ari-Matti; Haukka, Harri; Aleksashkin, Sergey; Arruego, Ignacio; Schmidt, Walter; Genzer, Maria; Vazquez, Luis; Siikonen, Timo; Palin, Matti

    2017-04-01

    A new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is under development in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested. 1. MetNet Lander The MetNet landing vehicles are using an inflatable entry and descent system instead of rigid heat shields and parachutes as earlier semi-hard landing devices have used. This way the ratio of the payload mass to the overall mass is optimized. The landing impact will burrow the payload container into the Martian soil providing a more favorable thermal environment for the electronics and a suitable orientation of the telescopic boom with external sensors and the radio link antenna. It is planned to deploy several tens of MNLs on the Martian surface operating at least partly at the same time to allow meteorological network science. 2. Strawman Scientific Payload The strawman payload of the two MNL precursor models includes the following instruments: Atmospheric instruments: - MetBaro Pressure device - MetHumi Humidity device - MetTemp Temperature sensors Optical devices: - PanCam Panoramic - MetSIS Solar irradiance sensor with OWLS optical wireless system for data transfer - DS Dust sensor Composition and Structure Devices: Tri-axial magnetometer MOURA Tri-axial System Accelerometer The descent processes dynamic properties are monitored by a special 3-axis

  16. Demand functions and reflexivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyrakis, Ioannis A.

    2008-02-01

    In the theory of ordered spaces and in microeconomic theory two important notions, the notion of the base for a cone which is defined by a continuous linear functional and the notion of the budget set are equivalent. In economic theory the maximization of the preference relation of a consumer on any budget set defines the demand correspondence which at any price vector indicates the preferred vectors of goods and this is one of the fundamental notions of this theory. Contrary to the finite-dimensional economies, in the infinite-dimensional ones, the existence of the demand correspondence is not ensured. In this article we show that in reflexive spaces (and in some other classes of Banach spaces), there are only two classes of closed cones, i.e. cones whose any budget set is bounded and cones whose any budget set is unbounded. Based on this dichotomy result, we prove that in the first category of these cones the demand correspondence exists and that it is upper hemicontinuous. We prove also a characterization of reflexive spaces based on the existence of the demand correspondences.

  17. Oil supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rech, O

    2006-07-01

    The year 2004 saw a change in the oil market paradigm that was confirmed in 2005. Despite a calmer geopolitical context, prices continued to rise vigorously. Driven by world demand, they remain high as a result of the saturation of production and refining capacity. The market is still seeking its new equilibrium. (author)

  18. Oil supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rech, O

    2004-07-01

    World oil demand, driven by economic development in China, posted the highest growth rate in 20 years. In a context of geopolitical uncertainty, prices are soaring, encouraged by low inventory and the low availability of residual production capacity. Will 2004 bring a change in the oil market paradigm? (author)

  19. Rewarding yet demanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørkedal, S T B; Torsting, A M B; Møller, T

    2016-01-01

    , as demanding. Participants valued engaging in real-life occupations while anchoring new strategies but also the occupational therapist's role in dealing with failure. Participants felt the intervention assisted in their recovery process and enabled them to engage in meaningful occupations. CONCLUSION...

  20. DEMAND AND PRICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VĂDUVA MARIA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Studying the consumer’s behavior by the ordinal approach of utility with the help of indifference curves allows us to deduce the two “movement laws of demand” in this chapter: the demand for a “normal” good is decreasing function of its price and an increasing function of income. We will use the elasticity concept to measure the intensity of the relation that is established between the demand, on the one hand, and prices or income, on the other hand: elasticity – price, direct and crossed, and elasticity – income. We can classify the goods in many categories, depending on the values that this elasticity takes. The demand elasticity can be determined depending on price and income. It reflects the proportion in which the demand for different products changes with the modification of the consumers’ income, the other factors remaining constant. The elasticity compared to the income is a demonstration of legality from the consumer’s sphere, which determines a certain hierarchy of the needs of each population category in a certain level of income. The movement of prices orients both the options and decisions of producers, namely the most useful productions and the most efficient investments, as well as the consumers’ options and decisions on the most advantageous buying of goods and services that they need. The prices appear as a “signal system” coordinating and making coherence the economic agents’ decisions – producers, consumers and population.

  1. Demands for School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley-Levine, Jill

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the ways that graduate courses in teacher leadership influenced the ways that teachers described the nature of leadership and their role as educational leaders. Using Foster's (1989) four demands for school leaders as a theoretical framework, participants' perceptions are examined to determine how teachers synthesized their…

  2. Sterically demanding iminopyridine ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Irrgang, Torsten; Keller, Sandra; Maisel, Heidi; Kretschmer, Winfried; Kempe, Rhett

    Two sterically demanding iminopyridine ligands, (2,6-diisopropylphenyl)[6-(2,4,6-triisopropylphenyl)pyridin-2-ylmeth- ylene]amine and (2,6-diisopropylphenyl)]6-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)pyridin-2-ylmethylene]amine, were prepared by a two-step process: first, condensation of 6-bromopyridine-2-carbaldehyde

  3. PULP DEMAND IN THE INTERNATIONAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson Santos Cruz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at analyzing the international pulp market, taking into account themain exporting countries and importing regions, with the objective of estimating, for each market, theown-price and cross-price elasticity in relation to the demand of the pulp, differentiated for country oforigin. The model considers that imports are differentiated by origin; therefore they are not perfect substitutes. The demand from Europe, North America and the Rest of the World for the pulp from theUnited States,Canada, Sweden, Finland, Portugal and Brazil was inelastic. The Asian demand for thissome pulp was elastic. Europe and the Rest of the World showed negative cross-price elasticity, i. e.,and the imported pulp from other countries are complementary products. North America and Asiashowed positive crow-price elasticity, i. e., they consider the pulp produced in other countries assubstitute products. The net effect of the variation on the price of pulp in a country h, over the amountof pulp that goes to the region i depends on the matching of values related to the elasticity ofsubstitution and the price elasticity of the total demand.

  4. Land Use Change under Biofuel Policies and a Tax on Meat and Dairy Products: Considering Complexity in Agricultural Production Chains Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Delzeit

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Growing demand for meat and dairy products (MDP, biofuels, and scarcity of agricultural land are drivers of global land use competition. Impacts of policies targeting demand for MDP or biofuels have only been analysed separately. We use the computable general equilibrium model DART-BIO to investigate combined effects, since MDP and biofuel production are closely related via feestock use and co-production of animal feed. We implement four scenarios: (a a baseline scenario; (b halving MDP consumption in industrialised countries by a tax; (c abolishing current biofuel policies; and (d no exogenous land use change. We find that a MDP tax and exogenous land use change have larger effects on land use and food markets than biofuel policies. International trade is affected in all scenarios. With respect to combined effects of a MDP tax and biofuel policies, we find decreasing biodiesel but increasing bioethanol production. In addition, the MDP tax decreases the impact of biofuel policies on agricultural markets and land use. Our results highlight the importance of a detailed representation of different vegetable oils used in biodiesel production and related by-products. Finally, since the MDP tax increases the use of fossil fuels, the net climate mitigation potentials of such a tax should be investigated further.

  5. Land Grabbing and the Commodification of Agricultural Land in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, P.; Rulli, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    The increasing global demand for farmland products is placing unprecedented pressure on the global agricultural system. The increasing demand can be met through either the intensification or the expansion of agricultural production at the expenses of other ecosystems. The ongoing escalation of large scale land acquisitions in the developing world may contribute to both of these two processes. Investments in agriculture have become a priority for a number of governments and corporations that are trying to expand their agricultural production while securing good profits. It is unclear however to what extent these investments are driving the intensification or the expansion of agriculture. In the last decade large scale land acquisitions by external investors have increased at unprecedented rates. This global land rush was likely enhanced by recent food crises, when prices skyrocketed in response to crop failure, new bioenergy policies, and the increasing demand for agricultural products by a growing and increasingly affluent human population. Corporations recognized the potential for high return investments in agricultural land, while governments started to enhance their food security by purchasing large tracts of land in foreign countries. It has been estimated that, to date, about 35.6 million ha of cropland - more than twice the agricultural land of Germany - have been acquired by foreign investors worldwide. As an effect of these land deals the local communities lose legal access to the land and its products. Here we investigate the effect of large scale land acquisition on agricultural intensification or expansion in African countries. We discuss the extent to which these investments in agriculture may increase crop production and stress how this phenomenon can greatly affect the local communities, their food security, economic stability and the long term resilience of their livelihoods, regardless of whether the transfer of property rights is the result of an

  6. Photosynthesis drives anomalies in net carbon-exchange of pine forests at different latitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luyssaert, S.; Janssens, I.A.; Sulkava, M.; Papale, D.; Dolman, A.J.; Reichstein, M.; Hollmén, J.; Martin, J.G.; Suni, T.; Vesala, T.; Loustau, D.; Law, B.E.; Moors, E.J.

    2007-01-01

    The growth rate of atmospheric CO2 exhibits large temporal variation that is largely determined by year-to-year fluctuations in land¿atmosphere CO2 fluxes. This land¿atmosphere CO2-flux is driven by large-scale biomass burning and variation in net ecosystem exchange (NEE). Between- and within years,

  7. High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    High-level Petri nets are now widely used in both theoretical analysis and practical modelling of concurrent systems. The main reason for the success of this class of net models is that they make it possible to obtain much more succinct and manageable descriptions than can be obtained by means...... of low-level Petri nets - while, on the other hand, they still offer a wide range of analysis methods and tools. The step from low-level nets to high-level nets can be compared to the step from assembly languages to modern programming languages with an elaborated type concept. In low-level nets...... there is only one kind of token and this means that the state of a place is described by an integer (and in many cases even by a boolean). In high-level nets each token can carry a complex information/data - which, e.g., may describe the entire state of a process or a data base. Today most practical...

  8. Land acquisition

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of lands acquired by Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge between 1991 and 2009. Lists of acres and locations of land acquired are provided for each...

  9. Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Land Cover database depicts 10 general land cover classes for the State of Kansas. The database was compiled from a digital classification of Landsat Thematic...

  10. Soil survey as a basis for land evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deckers, J.; Spaargaren, O.C.; Dondeyne, S.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to elaborate on soil surveys in view of land evaluation, with emphasis on how soil surveys can meet the information demand for land evaluation. The paper starts by explaining what soil survey and land evaluation is about. Elements of soil survey and land evaluation

  11. Pro asynchronous programming with .NET

    CERN Document Server

    Blewett, Richard; Ltd, Rock Solid Knowledge

    2014-01-01

    Pro Asynchronous Programming with .NET teaches the essential skill of asynchronous programming in .NET. It answers critical questions in .NET application development, such as: how do I keep my program responding at all times to keep my users happy how do I make the most of the available hardware how can I improve performanceIn the modern world, users expect more and more from their applications and devices, and multi-core hardware has the potential to provide it. But it takes carefully crafted code to turn that potential into responsive, scalable applications.With Pro Asynchronous Programming

  12. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André

    2017-08-01

    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  13. Net Generation: Visions for their Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Davila

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses the changes that are demanded in the conception and culture of the learning, focuses the attention on the effect that the new digital environments have cause on the person, the education and the society. The main reflection is over the digital culture that characterizes to the Net generation (people that had from zero to 20 years for the year 1999 and their requirements of knowing or knowledge and of how to learn that knowledge today and always. This research was carried out a bibliographical and documental revision. The information makes us meditate about the change of the traditional transmission learning to the interactive learning defendant in the digital environments; they involve a new culture of educational system, of teaching and learning, where this responsible the own individual, the family and the society. This will contribute with the understanding, acceptance, adaptation, use, development and life in an interconnected world, digital and communicated globally.

  14. Modelling seasonal farm labour demand: What can we learn from rural Kakamega district, western Kenya?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Canwat

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Seasonality of agricultural activities causes fluctuation in the quantity of labour consumed by these activities, and yet many rural labour studies in developing countries still treat labour demand in agriculture as if it is the same across different farm operations. To unearth the amount of information hidden by this aggregated analysis, labour demand for specific farm operations was estimated based on data collected from Kakamega District. This analysis shows that increasing household size increases labour demand for planting, weeding and harvesting. Increasing the share of elderly household members has a negligible effect on labour demand for farm activities except for land preparation, with which it is positively related. Participation of primary school-going children in farm activities is the highest in planting and harvesting. Participation in off-farm employment seems to increase labour demand only during peak seasons. The area planted appears to have an insignificant effect on labour demand for land preparation. Planting sugar cane appears to reduce labour demand for weeding and primary processing, but planting tea increases labour demand for planting. Mechanising land preparation only reduces labour demand for land preparation, but it seems to be offset by other labour-intensive farm operations. The distance from water source is positively related to labour demand for land preparation, but the distance to the market is negatively related to labour demand for weeding and harvesting. These observations point to the need for supporting and investing in technological and organisational innovations in agriculture.

  15. Scenario Simulation and the Prediction of Land Use and Land Cover Change in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiran Han

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Land use and land cover (LULC models are essential for analyzing LULC change and predicting land use requirements and are valuable for guiding reasonable land use planning and management. However, each LULC model has its own advantages and constraints. In this paper, we explore the characteristics of LULC change and simulate future land use demand by combining a CLUE-S model with a Markov model to deal with some shortcomings of existing LULC models. Using Beijing as a case study, we describe the related driving factors from land-adaptive variables, regional spatial variables and socio-economic variables and then simulate future land use scenarios from 2010 to 2020, which include a development scenario (natural development and rapid development and protection scenarios (ecological and cultivated land protection. The results indicate good consistency between predicted results and actual land use situations according to a Kappa statistic. The conversion of cultivated land to urban built-up land will form the primary features of LULC change in the future. The prediction for land use demand shows the differences under different scenarios. At higher elevations, the geographical environment limits the expansion of urban built-up land, but the conversion of cultivated land to built-up land in mountainous areas will be more prevalent by 2020; Beijing, however, still faces the most pressure in terms of ecological and cultivated land protection.

  16. Geographical information systems as a tool to explore land characteristics and land use : with reference to Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoorvogel, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    An adequate inventory of land characteristics and land use is increasingly necessary to support agricultural land use planning, especially in view of the conflicting demands on scarce land resources. Fortunately new tools like GIS are being developed and adapted to support these

  17. Land evaluation for agricultural development : some explorations of land-use systems analysis with particular reference to Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, K.J.

    1978-01-01

    LAND EVALUATION

    Increases in the demand for agricultural produce and for space to meet non-agricultural needs are provoking rapid changes in the use of land. These changes have stimulated a critical examination of our methods of looking at land. Most useful is a land evaluation that predicts the

  18. Demand surge following earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Anna H.

    2012-01-01

    Demand surge is understood to be a socio-economic phenomenon where repair costs for the same damage are higher after large- versus small-scale natural disasters. It has reportedly increased monetary losses by 20 to 50%. In previous work, a model for the increased costs of reconstruction labor and materials was developed for hurricanes in the Southeast United States. The model showed that labor cost increases, rather than the material component, drove the total repair cost increases, and this finding could be extended to earthquakes. A study of past large-scale disasters suggested that there may be additional explanations for demand surge. Two such explanations specific to earthquakes are the exclusion of insurance coverage for earthquake damage and possible concurrent causation of damage from an earthquake followed by fire or tsunami. Additional research into these aspects might provide a better explanation for increased monetary losses after large- vs. small-scale earthquakes.

  19. Petri Net Tool Overview 1986

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Feldbrugge, Frits

    1987-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the characteristics of all currently available net based tools. It is a compilation of information provided by tool authors or contact persons. A concise one page overview is provided as well....

  20. Understanding Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salom, Jaume; Widén, Joakim; Candanedo, José

    2011-01-01

    Although several alternative definitions exist, a Net-Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) can be succinctly described as a grid-connected building that generates as much energy as it uses over a year. The “net-zero” balance is attained by applying energy conservation and efficiency measures...... and by incorporating renewable energy systems. While based on annual balances, a complete description of a Net ZEB requires examining the system at smaller time-scales. This assessment should address: (a) the relationship between power generation and building loads and (b) the resulting interaction with the power grid....... This paper presents and categorizes quantitative indicators suitable to describe both aspects of the building’s performance. These indicators, named LMGI - Load Matching and Grid Interaction indicators, are easily quantifiable and could complement the output variables of existing building simulation tools...

  1. PolicyNet Publication System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The PolicyNet Publication System project will merge the Oracle-based Policy Repository (POMS) and the SQL-Server CAMP system (MSOM) into a new system with an Oracle...

  2. KM3NeT

    CERN Multimedia

    KM3NeT is a large scale next-generation neutrino telescope located in the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea, optimized for the discovery of galactic neutrino sources emitting in the TeV energy region.

  3. Net Neutrality: Background and Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilroy, Angele A

    2006-01-01

    .... The move to place restrictions on the owners of the networks that compose and provide access to the Internet, to ensure equal access and nondiscriminatory treatment, is referred to as "net neutrality...

  4. Demand scenarios, worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Center for Technology, Policy and Industrial Development and the MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Existing methods are inadequate for developing aggregate (regional and global) and long-term (several decades) passenger transport demand scenarios, since they are mainly based on simple extensions of current patterns rather than causal relationships that account for the competition among transport modes (aircraft, automobiles, buses and trains) to provide transport services. The demand scenario presented in this paper is based on two empirically proven invariances of human behavior. First, transport accounts for 10 to 15 percent of household total expenditures for those owning an automobile, and around 5 percent for non-motorized households on average (travel money budget). Second, the mean time spent traveling is approximately one hour per capita per day (travel time budget). These two budgets constraints determine the dynamics of the scenario: rising income increases per capita expenditure on travel which, in turn, increase demand for mobility. Limited travel time constraints travelers to shift to faster transport systems. The scenario is initiated with the first integrated historical data set on traffic volume in 11 world regions and the globe from 1960 to 1990 for all major modes of motorized transport. World average per capita traffic volume, which was 1,800 kilometers in 1960 and 4,2090 in 1990, is estimated to rise to 7,900 kilometers in 2020 - given a modest average increase in Gross World Product of 1.9% per year. Higher economic growth rates in Asian regions result in an increase in regional per capita traffic volume up to a factor of 5.3 from 1990 levels. Modal splits continue shifting to more flexible and faster modes of transport. At one point, passenger cars can no longer satisfy the increasing demand for speed (i.e. rising mobility within a fixed time budget). In North America it is estimated that the absolute traffic volume of automobiles will gradually decline starting in the 2010s. (author) 13 figs., 6 tabs., 35 refs.

  5. Household electricity demand profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Larsen, Olena Kalyanova

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •A 1-min resolution household electricity load model is presented. •Model adapts a bottom-up approach with single appliance as the main building block. •Load profiles are used to analyse the flexibility potential of household appliances. •Load profiles can be applied in other domains, e.......g. building energy simulations. •The demand level of houses with different number of occupants is well captured....

  6. Petri Nets in Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A process language for security protocols is presented together with a semantics in terms of sets of events. The denotation of process is a set of events, and as each event specifies a set of pre and postconditions, this denotation can be viewed as a Petri net. By means of an example we illustrate...... how the Petri-net semantics can be used to prove security properties....

  7. The Economics of Net Neutrality

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, Robert W.; Wallsten, Scott

    2006-01-01

    This essay examines the economics of "net neutrality" and broadband Internet access. We argue that mandating net neutrality would be likely to reduce economic welfare. Instead, the government should focus on creating competition in the broadband market by liberalizing more spectrum and reducing entry barriers created by certain local regulations. In cases where a broadband provider can exercise market power the government should use its antitrust enforcement authority to police anticompetitiv...

  8. Psychopathology and tobacco demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Aston, Elizabeth R; Zvolensky, Michael J; Abrantes, Ana M; Metrik, Jane

    2017-08-01

    Behavioral economic measurement of the relative value of tobacco (Cigarette Purchase Task; CPT) is used to examine individual differences in motivation for tobacco under certain contexts. Smokers with psychopathology, relative to those without, may demonstrate stronger demand for tobacco following a period of smoking deprivation, which could account for disparate rates of smoking and cessation among this subgroup. Participants (n=111) were community-recruited adult daily smokers who completed the CPT after a deprivation period of approximately 60min. Presence of psychopathology was assessed via clinical interview; 40.5% (n=45) of the sample met criteria for past-year psychological diagnosis. Specifically, 31.5% (n=35) had an emotional disorder (anxiety/depressive disorder), 17.1% (n=19) had a substance use disorder, and 19.1% of the sample had more than one disorder. Smokers with any psychopathology showed significantly higher intensity (demand at unrestricted cost; $0) and Omax (peak expenditure for a drug) relative to smokers with no psychopathology. Intensity was significantly higher among smokers with an emotional disorder compared to those without. Smokers with a substance use disorder showed significantly higher intensity and Omax, and lower elasticity, reflecting greater insensitivity to price increases. Having≥2 disorders was associated with higher intensity relative to having 1 or no disorders. Findings suggest that presence of psychopathology may be associated with greater and more persistent motivation to smoke. Future work is needed to explore the mechanism linking psychopathology to tobacco demand. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Introduction to disaggregate demand models

    OpenAIRE

    Bierlaire, Michel; Lurkin, Virginie

    2017-01-01

    Demand information is an input for a great deal of operations research models. Assumed as given in many problem instances addressed in the literature, demand data are difficult to generate. In this tutorial, we provide an introduction to disaggregate demand models that are designed to capture in detail the underlying behavioral mechanisms at the foundation of the demand.

  10. Gambia Land Use Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This series of three-period land use land cover (LULC) datasets (1975, 2000, and 2013) aids in monitoring change in West Africa’s land resources (exception is...

  11. Manufacturing of thin walled near net shape iron castings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Per Leif

    2003-01-01

    The demand for near net shape thin walled iron castings is growing. This has several reasons, the main one is the need for lowering the fuel consumption of cars; the easiest way to do that is to lower the weight of the cars. The best way to do this was for a period of time believed to be substitu.......000.000 cars produced world wide each year consumes enormous amounts of cast parts ! The aim of the project is to develop the green sand molding method on DISAMATIC to be able to deal with the new demands for thin walled near net shape castings in iron.......The demand for near net shape thin walled iron castings is growing. This has several reasons, the main one is the need for lowering the fuel consumption of cars; the easiest way to do that is to lower the weight of the cars. The best way to do this was for a period of time believed...... to be substituting iron casings with aluminum castings. Substituting iron castings with aluminum castings is not as easy as first believed, and hence the substitution is very slow. This combined with the lack of fully exploiting the potential in iron castings, makes research in iron castings interesting. The 60...

  12. How important are exports for job growth in China? : A demand side analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Los, Bart; Timmer, Marcel P.; de Vries, Gaaitzen J.

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the impact of foreign demand on Chinese employment creation by extending the global input–output methodology introduced by Johnson and Noguera (2012). We find that between 1995 and 2001, fast growth in foreign demand was offset by strong increases in labor productivity and the net effect

  13. Mechanical demands of kettlebell swing exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Jason P; Lauder, Mike A

    2012-12-01

    The aims of this study were to establish mechanical demands of kettlebell swing exercise and provide context by comparing them to mechanical demands of back squat and jump squat exercise. Sixteen men performed 2 sets of 10 swings with 16, 24, and 32 kg, 2 back squats with 20, 40, 60, and 80% 1-repetition maximum (1RM), and 2 jump squats with 0, 20, 40, and 60% 1RM. Sagittal plane motion and ground reaction forces (GRFs) were recorded during swing performance, and GRFs were recorded during back and jump squat performances. Net impulse, and peak and mean propulsion phase force and power applied to the center of mass (CM) were obtained from GRF data and kettlebell displacement and velocity from motion data. The results of repeated measures analysis of variance showed that all swing CM measures were maximized during the 32-kg condition but that velocity of the kettlebell was maximized during the 16-kg condition; displacement was consistent across different loads. Peak and mean force tended to be greater during back and jump squat performances, but swing peak and mean power were greater than back squat power and largely comparable with jump squat power. However, the highest net impulse was recorded during swing exercise with 32 kg (276.1 ± 45.3 N·s vs. 60% 1RM back squat: 182.8 ± 43.1 N·s, and 40% jump squat: 231.3 ± 47.1 N·s). These findings indicate a large mechanical demand during swing exercise that could make swing exercise a useful addition to strength and conditioning programs that aim to develop the ability to rapidly apply force.

  14. Economic Assessment of Rising Global Demand for Farmland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Anna

    incomes, with poverty reductions and general economic development as the ultimate outcome. On the other hand it could also induce a neo-colonial scramble for land, where politically and economically powerful actors appropriate land at the expense of rural populations, whose livelihoods depend on this land....... To avoid such an outcome of land grabbing by powerful elites, policy recommendations presented in the literature point towards the importance of the ability and potential for rural populations to claim their rights, in an institutional environment characterized by transparency and well-defined property...... rights. However, such circumstances are rare in many land-abundant developing countries, and there are no good reasons why increasing demand for land should spark such fundamental changes in the political-institutional environment. In addition, a large literature on political economy and natural...

  15. 26 CFR 1.904(f)-3 - Allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation of net operating losses and net....904(f)-3 Allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses. For rules relating to the allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses, see § 1.904(g)-3T. ...

  16. 29 CFR 4204.13 - Net income and net tangible assets tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Net income and net tangible assets tests. 4204.13 Section....13 Net income and net tangible assets tests. (a) General. The criteria under this section are that either— (1) Net income test. The purchaser's average net income after taxes for its three most recent...

  17. Quantifying the net social benefits of vehicle trip reductions : guidance for customizing the TRIMMS(c) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    This study details the development of a series of enhancements to the Trip Reduction Impacts of : Mobility Management Strategies (TRIMMS) model. TRIMMS allows quantifying the net social : benefits of a wide range of transportation demand management...

  18. Meeting increased demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Andrew

    2004-07-01

    New Zealand is a little country with a little economy but with a population that's rapidly aging. New Zealand's population is only 4.3 million people. It's GDP is only $US58.6 billion (2002). New Zealand's expenditure on health as a percentage of GDP is not out of line with that of other countries. As a nation we have been increasing expenditure on health over recent years. In 1990 we spent 7% of GDP on health. In 1995 that increased to 7.65% and is now 8.3%. However, in per capita terms our expenditure on health does not compare so well with like countries. The size of New Zealand's economy is restricting what our country spends on health. Health is already the second highest demand on the New Zealand tax dollar. The tolerance of New Zealanders would be challenged if a Government attempted to increase taxes further to meet the growing demands for expenditure on health, but at the same time the population's expectations are increasing. This is the challenging situation we face today. What lies ahead? Like all industrialized countries New Zealand is facing an aging population. The population below age 40 is decreasing, but it is increasing significantly over that age. 16% of the population is currently aged over 60. By 2051 this proportion will almost double to just over 31%. Coupled with the aging population is increased awareness and expectations, as access to options for treatment and technology becomes readily accessible to the population through such media as the internet. The extent of the impact of the aging population can be clearly represented by focusing on one specialty such as orthopaedics. The New Zealand Orthopaecic Association undertook a study in July 2003 which concluded (among other things) that as a result of the projected aging of the population, over the next 50 years: Musculo-skeletal operations will increase by over 30%. The number of hip replacements will nearly double. The incidence of osteoporosis will increase by a massive 201%. The number

  19. Effect of land area on average annual suburban water demand

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-10-02

    Oct 2, 2013 ... Department of Civil Engineering, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, South Africa. ABSTRACT ... would ultimately include the roads, parks and public open spaces in addition to the residential ...... (1995) A strategy and master plan for water supply, storage and dis- tribution in the East ...

  20. Oxide nanoelectronics on demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Cheng; Thiel, Stefan; Mannhart, Jochen; Levy, Jeremy

    2009-02-20

    Electronic confinement at nanoscale dimensions remains a central means of science and technology. We demonstrate nanoscale lateral confinement of a quasi-two-dimensional electron gas at a lanthanum aluminate-strontium titanate interface. Control of this confinement using an atomic force microscope lithography technique enabled us to create tunnel junctions and field-effect transistors with characteristic dimensions as small as 2 nanometers. These electronic devices can be modified or erased without the need for complex lithographic procedures. Our on-demand nanoelectronics fabrication platform has the potential for widespread technological application.

  1. Energy and land use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-01

    This report addresses the land use impacts of past and future energy development and summarizes the major federal and state legislation which influences the potential land use impacts of energy facilities and can thus influence the locations and timing of energy development. In addition, this report describes and presents the data which are used to measure, and in some cases, predict the potential conflicts between energy development and alternative uses of the nation's land resources. The topics section of this report is divided into three parts. The first part describes the myriad of federal, state and local legislation which have a direct or indirect impact upon the use of land for energy development. The second part addresses the potential land use impacts associated with the extraction, conversion and combustion of energy resources, as well as the disposal of wastes generated by these processes. The third part discusses the conflicts that might arise between agriculture and energy development as projected under a number of DOE mid-term (1990) energy supply and demand scenarios.

  2. Lower Extremity Biomechanical Demands During Saut de Chat Leaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Danielle N; Kulig, Kornelia

    2016-12-01

    In dance, high demands are placed on the lower extremity joints during jumping tasks. The purpose of this study was to compare biomechanical demands placed on the lower extremity joints during the takeoff and landing phases of saut de chat leaps. Thirty healthy, experienced dancers with 20.8±4.9 yrs of dance training performed 5 saut de chat leaps. A three-dimensional motion analysis system and force plates were used to collect kinematic and kinetic data. Ground reaction force (GRF) peaks and impulse and sagittal plane kinematics and kinetics of the hip, knee, ankle, and metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints were calculated for the takeoff and landing phases of each leap. Saut de chat takeoffs demonstrated greater braking GRF impulse (pchat leaps place significant demands on a dancer's body. Takeoff involves greater demands on the more distal joints and requires more braking forces, while the landing phase involves greater demands on the more proximal joints of the lower extremity and requires the dancer to absorb more vertical force. These demands, combined with extensive repetition of movements during training, may contribute to the high number of chronic injuries seen in dance.

  3. Waterscape determinants of net mercury methylation in a tropical wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro, Wilkinson L; Díez, Sergi; da Silva, Carolina J; Ignácio, Áurea R A; Guimarães, Jean R D

    2016-10-01

    The periphyton associated with freshwater macrophyte roots is the main site of Hg methylation in different wetland environments in the world. The aim of this study was to test the use of connectivity metrics of water bodies, in the context of patches, in a tropical waterscape wetland (Guapore River, Amazonia, Brazil) as a predictor of potential net methylmercury (MeHg) production by periphyton communities. We sampled 15 lakes with different patterns of lateral connectivity with the main river channel, performing net mercury methylation potential tests in incubations with local water and Eichhornia crassipes root-periphyton samples, using (203)HgCl2 as a tracer. Physico-chemical variables, landscape data (morphological characteristics, land use, and lateral connection type of water bodies) using GIS resources and field data were analyzed with Generalized Additive Models (GAM). The net Me(203)Hg production (as % of total added (203)Hg) was expressive (6.2-25.6%) showing that periphyton is an important matrix in MeHg production. The model that best explained the variation in the net Me(203)Hg production (76%) was built by the variables: connection type, total phosphorus and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in water (AICc=48.324, p=0.001). Connection type factor was the best factor to model fit (r(2)=0.32; p=0.008) and temporarily connected lakes had higher rates of net mercury methylation. Both DOC and total phosphorus showed positive significant covariation with the net methylation rates (r(2)=0.26; p=0.008 and r(2)=0.21; p=0.012 respectively). Our study suggests a strong relationship between rates of net MeHg production in this tropical area and the type of water body and its hydrological connectivity within the waterscape. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Developing A One Stop Shop Model For Integrated Land Information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Net 2005 and Microsoft Visio. A Land Management Key (LANMANK) program was finally developed with geodatabase capabilities for storing and displaying spatial data as well as other non-spatial data. LANMANK has a unique parcel identifier ...

  5. TimeNET Optimization Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Bodenstein

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a novel tool for simulation-based optimization and design-space exploration of Stochastic Colored Petri nets (SCPN is introduced. The working title of this tool is TimeNET Optimization Environment (TOE. Targeted users of this tool are people modeling complex systems with SCPNs in TimeNET who want to find parameter sets that are optimal for a certain performance measure (fitness function. It allows users to create and simulate sets of SCPNs and to run different optimization algorithms based on parameter variation. The development of this tool was motivated by the need to automate and speed up tests of heuristic optimization algorithms to be applied for SCPN optimization. A result caching mechanism is used to avoid recalculations.

  6. Making the most of our land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulte, Rogier Patrick Olaf; Bampa, Francesca; Bardy, Marion

    2015-01-01

    The challenges of achieving both food security and environmental sustainability have resulted in a confluence of demands on land within the European Union (EU): we expect our land to provide food, fiber and fuel, to purify water, to sequester carbon, and provide a home to biodiversity as well...

  7. Implementing NetScaler VPX

    CERN Document Server

    Sandbu, Marius

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow guide with detailed step-by step-instructions on how to implement the different key components in NetScaler, with real-world examples and sample scenarios.If you are a Citrix or network administrator who needs to implement NetScaler in your virtual environment to gain an insight on its functionality, this book is ideal for you. A basic understanding of networking and familiarity with some of the different Citrix products such as XenApp or XenDesktop is a prerequisite.

  8. Net4Care PHMR Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the SimpleClinicalDocument......The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the Simple...

  9. Pro DLR in NET 4

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Chaur

    2011-01-01

    Microsoft's Dynamic Language Runtime (DLR) is a platform for running dynamic languages such as Ruby and Python on an equal footing with compiled languages such as C#. Furthermore, the runtime is the foundation for many useful software design and architecture techniques you can apply as you develop your .NET applications. Pro DLR in .NET 4 introduces you to the DLR, showing how you can use it to write software that combines dynamic and static languages, letting you choose the right tool for the job. You will learn the core DLR components such as LINQ expressions, call sites, binders, and dynami

  10. Hierarchies in Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Peter; Jensen, Kurt; Shapiro, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    The paper shows how to extend Coloured Petri Nets with a hierarchy concept. The paper proposes five different hierarchy constructs, which allow the analyst to structure large CP-nets as a set of interrelated subnets (called pages). The paper discusses the properties of the proposed hierarchy...... constructs, and it illustrates them by means of two examples. The hierarchy constructs can be used for theoretical considerations, but their main use is to describe and analyse large real-world systems. All of the hierarchy constructs are supported by the editing and analysis facilities in the CPN Palette...

  11. Non-urban mobile radio market demand forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castruccio, P. A.; Cooper, J.

    1982-06-01

    A national nonmetropolitan land mobile traffic model for 1990-2000 addresses user classes, density classes, traffic mix statistics, distance distribution, geographic distribution, price elasticity, and service quality elasticity. Traffic demands for business, special industrial, and police were determined on the basis of surveys in 73 randomly selected nonurban counties. The selected services represent 69% of total demand. The results were extrapolated to all services in the non-SMSA areas of the contiguous United States. Radiotelephone services were considered separately. Total non-SMSA mobile radio demand (one way) estimates are given. General functional requirements include: hand portability, privacy, reduction of blind spots, two way data transmission, position location, slow scan imagery.

  12. Animating the Ethical Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter; Jensen, Thessa; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the challenge of attaining ethical user stances during the design process of products and services and proposes animation-based sketching as a design method, which supports elaborating and examining different ethical stances towards the user. The discussion is qualified...... dispositions, as well as create an incentive for ethical conduct in development and innovation processes. The ethical fulcrum evolves around Løgstrup’s Ethical Demand and his notion of spontaneous life manifestations. From this, three ethical stances are developed; apathy, sympathy and empathy. By exploring...... both apathetic and sympathetic views, the ethical reflections are more nuanced as a result of actually seeing the user experience simulated through different user dispositions. Exploring the three ethical stances by visualising real use cases with the technologies simulated as already being implemented...

  13. Demand for male contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, Emily; Bishai, David

    2012-10-01

    The biological basis for male contraception was established decades ago, but despite promising breakthroughs and the financial burden men increasingly bear due to better enforcement of child support policies, no viable alternative to the condom has been brought to market. Men who wish to control their fertility must rely on female compliance with contraceptives, barrier methods, vasectomy or abstinence. Over the last 10 years, the pharmaceutical industry has abandoned most of its investment in the field, leaving only nonprofit organisations and public entities pursuing male contraception. Leading explanations are uncertain forecasts of market demand pitted against the need for critical investments to demonstrate the safety of existing candidate products. This paper explores the developments and challenges in male contraception research. We produce preliminary estimates of potential market size for a safe and effective male contraceptive based on available data to estimate the potential market for a novel male method.

  14. Modelling momentary electricity demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrels, A.H.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation is to develop a load shape simulation model for the public electricity network in the Netherlands with special reference to social and economic phenomena underlying its development. The main structure of the model consists of the electric power planning environment in which the altering requirements concerning load shape assessment are defined, and three subsets of modules describing the manufacturing industry, the services and the residential sector (households). The load shapes of the three main sectors are aggregated and augmented with the loads of the remaining sectors in order to produce an overall load shape. Part A of this book depicts the planning environment, and gives historical and future aspects of the Dutch electricity demand. Part B offers a theoretical and methodological discussion about the translation of a firm's operational behaviour into electricity demand by time of day, describes the simulation modules for the manufacturing industry and services, and several simulation experiments are discussed. Part C, devoted to the residential sector, deals with household behaviour and time allocation, presents an operational model of timing integrated in the household model. Also various simulation results are presented and compared with other simulation studies. Part D contains comprehensive experiments with the model system. Comparisons are made with load shapes of the public network in recent years. Next, overall forecasts are made in the framework of three scenario's: (a) low growth - normal conservation; (b) high growth - more conservation - extension of production times; (c) as (b) plus extensive teleworking. The results of the scenario exercises are discussed in connection with strategic management prospects of the public network. 65 figs., 26 tabs., 11 apps., 126 refs.

  15. User Requirements & Demand for Services and Applications in PNs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Bo

    services and applications need to be developed with a much stronger focus on the end-users' needs and demands. The paper is based on ongoing work in WP1 of the MAGNET project (My personal Adaptive Global NET)including contributions to determine, clarify and understand user requirements and the future...... demand for services and applications in a PN setting. This further includes discussion of service categorization, service description and human-value issues as personalization, security and privacy, billing and price and human-computer interaction paradigms....

  16. International trade causes large net economic losses in tropical countries via the destruction of ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Junning; Symes, William S; Lim, Felix; Carrasco, L Roman

    2016-05-01

    Despite the large implications of the use of tropical land for exports ("land absorption") on ecosystem services (ES) and global biodiversity conservation, the magnitude of these externalities is not known. We quantify the net value of ES lost in tropical countries as a result of cropland, forestland and pastureland absorption for exports after deducting ES gains through imports ("land displacement"). We find that net ES gains occur only in 7 out of the 41 countries and regions considered. We estimate global annual net losses of over 1.7 x 10(12) international dollars (I$) (I$1.1 x 10(12) if carbon-related services are not considered). After deducting the benefits from agricultural, forest and livestock rents in land replacing tropical forests, the net annual losses are I$1.3 and I$0.7 x 10(12), respectively. The results highlight the large magnitude of tropical ES losses through international trade that are not compensated by the rents of land uses in absorbed land.

  17. Land Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land use in the Narragansett Bay Watershed (NBW) is subject to conversion, and these changes influence the Watershed’s hydrologic functions. Changes of natural habitat such as wetlands and forests to urban lands have impacted how water is delivered to rivers and lakes, to g...

  18. Impact of Massachusetts Health Reform on Inpatient Care Use: Was the Safety-Net Experience Different Than in the Non-Safety-Net?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanchate, Amresh D; McCormick, Danny; Lasser, Karen E; Feng, Chen; Manze, Meredith G; Kressin, Nancy R

    2017-10-01

    Most inpatient care for the uninsured and other vulnerable subpopulations occurs in safety-net hospitals. As insurance expansion increases the choice of hospitals for the previously uninsured, we examined if Massachusetts health reform was associated with shifts in the volume of inpatient care from safety-net to non-safety-net hospitals overall, or among other vulnerable sociodemographic (racial/ethnic minority, low socioeconomic status, high uninsured rate area) and clinical subpopulations (emergent status, diagnosis). Discharge records for adults discharged from all nonfederal acute care hospitals in Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania 2004-2010. Using a difference-in-differences design, we compared pre-/post-reform changes in safety-net and non-safety-net hospital discharge outcomes in Massachusetts among adults 18-64 with corresponding changes in comparisons states with no reform, overall, and by subpopulations. Reform was not associated with changes in inpatient care use at safety-net and non-safety-net hospitals across all discharges or in most subpopulations examined. Demand for inpatient care at safety-net hospitals may not decrease following insurance expansion. Whether this is due to other access barriers or patient preference needs to be explored. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  19. A small-scale land-sparing approach to conserving biological diversity in tropical agricultural landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard B. Chandler; David I. King; Raul Raudales; Richard Trubey; Carlin Chandler; Víctor Julio. Arce Chávez

    2013-01-01

    Two contrasting strategies have been proposed for conserving biological diversity while meeting the increasing demand for agricultural products: land sparing and land sharing production systems. Land sparing involves increasing yield to reduce the amount of land needed for agriculture, whereas land-sharing agricultural practices incorporate elements of native...

  20. Surgery for GEP-NETs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, Ulrich; Hansen, Carsten Palnæs

    2012-01-01

    Surgery is the only treatment that may cure the patient with gastroentero-pancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumours (NET) and neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC) and should always be considered as first line treatment if R0/R1 resection can be achieved. The surgical and interventional procedures for GEP...

  1. Net Neutrality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.

    2014-01-01

    The Netherlands is among the first countries that have put specific net neutrality standards in place. The decision to implement specific regulation was influenced by at least three factors. The first was the prevailing social and academic debate, partly due to developments in the United States. The

  2. Complexity Metrics for Workflow Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; van der Aalst, Wil M.P.

    2009-01-01

    Process modeling languages such as EPCs, BPMN, flow charts, UML activity diagrams, Petri nets, etc.\\ are used to model business processes and to configure process-aware information systems. It is known that users have problems understanding these diagrams. In fact, even process engineers and system...

  3. User fees and the demand of OHV recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas P. Holmes; Jeffrey E. Englin

    2005-01-01

    The recent boom in the demand for off-highway vehicle (OHV) recreation has created an important policy issue for public land managers who are concerned with the impacts of OHV use on environmental quality. Within the past few years, the U.S. Forest Service has recognized the need for greater authority in managing these recreation areas and has proposed to amend OHV...

  4. Dietetics supply and demand: 2010-2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Roderick S; Williams, James H; Papneja, Jesleen; Sen, Namrata; Hogan, Paul

    2012-03-01

    -credentialed dietetics practitioners declined from 3% in the early 1990s to 1.5% by 2010. • The net supply of CDR-credentialed dietetics practitioners is projected to grow by 1.1% annually. • Approximately 75% of the demand for the dietetics workforce will be met by the 2020 supply of CDR-credentialed dietetics practitioners. • The aging population, health care reform, increased prevalence of certain conditions (including obesity), and growth in the food industry are key factors affecting the demand. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Caught in the Net: Perineuronal Nets and Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Slaker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to drugs of abuse induces plasticity in the brain and creates persistent drug-related memories. These changes in plasticity and persistent drug memories are believed to produce aberrant motivation and reinforcement contributing to addiction. Most studies have explored the effect drugs of abuse have on pre- and postsynaptic cells and astrocytes; however, more recently, attention has shifted to explore the effect these drugs have on the extracellular matrix (ECM. Within the ECM are unique structures arranged in a net-like manner, surrounding a subset of neurons called perineuronal nets (PNNs. This review focuses on drug-induced changes in PNNs, the molecules that regulate PNNs, and the expression of PNNs within brain circuitry mediating motivation, reward, and reinforcement as it pertains to addiction.

  6. Birds achieve high robustness in uneven terrain through active control of landing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birn-Jeffery, Aleksandra V; Daley, Monica A

    2012-06-15

    We understand little about how animals adjust locomotor behaviour to negotiate uneven terrain. The mechanical demands and constraints of such behaviours likely differ from uniform terrain locomotion. Here we investigated how common pheasants negotiate visible obstacles with heights from 10 to 50% of leg length. Our goal was to determine the neuro-mechanical strategies used to achieve robust stability, and address whether strategies vary with obstacle height. We found that control of landing conditions was crucial for minimising fluctuations in stance leg loading and work in uneven terrain. Variation in touchdown leg angle (θ(TD)) was correlated with the orientation of ground force during stance, and the angle between the leg and body velocity vector at touchdown (β(TD)) was correlated with net limb work. Pheasants actively targeted obstacles to control body velocity and leg posture at touchdown to achieve nearly steady dynamics on the obstacle step. In the approach step to an obstacle, the birds produced net positive limb work to launch themselves upward. On the obstacle, body dynamics were similar to uniform terrain. Pheasants also increased swing leg retraction velocity during obstacle negotiation, which we suggest is an active strategy to minimise fluctuations in peak force and leg posture in uneven terrain. Thus, pheasants appear to achieve robustly stable locomotion through a combination of path planning using visual feedback and active adjustment of leg swing dynamics to control landing conditions. We suggest that strategies for robust stability are context specific, depending on the quality of sensory feedback available, especially visual input.

  7. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Army Net Zero Training Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-20

    sensors were strategically placed throughout the installation by magnetically attaching them to water main valve stems. The sensors check sound...Recycle Wrap  Substitutes for Packaging Materials  Re-Use of Textiles and Linens  Setting Printers to Double-Sided Printing Net Zero Waste...can effectively achieve source reduction. Clean and Re-Use Shop Rags - Shop rags represent a large textile waste stream at many installations. As a

  8. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Net Zero Waste Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-20

    Anaerobic Digesters – Although anaerobic digestion is not a new technology and has been used on a large-scale basis in wastewater treatment , the...technology and has been used on a large-scale basis in wastewater treatment , the use of the technology should be demonstrated with other...approaches can be used for cardboard and cellulose -based packaging materials. This approach is in line with the Net Zero Waste hierarchy in terms of

  9. Ecosystems and Land Use Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFries, Ruth S.; Asner, Gregory P.; Houghton, Richard A.

    Land use is at the center of one of the most vexing challenges for the coming decades: to provide enough food, fiber and shelter for the world's population; raise the standard of living for the billion people currently below the poverty line; and simultaneously sustain the world's ecosystems for use by humans and other species. The intended consequence of cropland expansion, urban growth, and other land use changes is to satisfy demands from the increasing appetite of the world's population. Unintended consequences, however, can alter ecological processes and have far-reaching and long-term effects that potentially compromise the basic functioning of ecosystems. Recently, the scientific community has begun to confront such issues. Several national and international programs have been at the forefront of scientific enquiry on the causes and consequences of land use change, including: the Land Use and Land Cover Change Program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Land Use program element in the interagency U.S. Climate Change Science Program, and the International Geosphere-Biosphere's Land Use and Cover Change (LUCC) core project. The result has been significant advances in understanding the complex socioeconomic, technological, and biophysical factors that drive land use change worldwide.

  10. Global land and water grabbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulli, Maria Cristina; Saviori, Antonio; D’Odorico, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Societal pressure on the global land and freshwater resources is increasing as a result of the rising food demand by the growing human population, dietary changes, and the enhancement of biofuel production induced by the rising oil prices and recent changes in United States and European Union bioethanol policies. Many countries and corporations have started to acquire relatively inexpensive and productive agricultural land located in foreign countries, as evidenced by the dramatic increase in the number of transnational land deals between 2005 and 2009. Often known as “land grabbing,” this phenomenon is associated with an appropriation of freshwater resources that has never been assessed before. Here we gather land-grabbing data from multiple sources and use a hydrological model to determine the associated rates of freshwater grabbing. We find that land and water grabbing are occurring at alarming rates in all continents except Antarctica. The per capita volume of grabbed water often exceeds the water requirements for a balanced diet and would be sufficient to improve food security and abate malnourishment in the grabbed countries. It is found that about 0.31 × 1012 m3⋅y−1 of green water (i.e., rainwater) and up to 0.14 × 1012 m3⋅y−1 of blue water (i.e., irrigation water) are appropriated globally for crop and livestock production in 47 × 106 ha of grabbed land worldwide (i.e., in 90% of the reported global grabbed land). PMID:23284174

  11. Climate Mitigation Policy Implications for Global Irrigation Water Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Wise, Marshall A.

    2013-08-22

    Energy, water and land are scarce resources, critical to humans. Developments in each affect the availability and cost of the others, and consequently human prosperity. Measures to limit greenhouse gas concentrations will inevitably exact dramatic changes on energy and land systems and in turn alter the character, magnitude and geographic distribution of human claims on water resources. We employ the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), an integrated assessment model to explore the interactions of energy, land and water systems in the context of alternative policies to limit climate change to three alternative levels: 2.5 Wm-2 (445 ppm CO2-e), 3.5 Wm-2 (535 ppm CO2-e) and 4.5 Wm-2 (645 ppm CO2-e). We explore the effects of alternative land-use emissions mitigation policy options—one which values terrestrial carbon emissions equally with fossil fuel and industrial emissions, and an alternative which places no penalty on land-use change emissions. We find that increasing populations and economic growth could be anticipated to lead to increased demand for water for agricultural systems (+200%), even in the absence of climate change. In general policies to mitigate climate change will increase agricultural demands for water, regardless of whether or not terrestrial carbon is valued or not. Burgeoning demands for water are driven by the demand for bioenergy in response to emissions mitigation policies. We also find that the policy matters. Increases in the demand for water when terrestrial carbon emissions go un-prices are vastly larger than when terrestrial system carbon emissions are prices at the same rate as fossil fuel and industrial emissions. Our estimates for increased water demands when terrestrial carbon systems go un-priced are larger than earlier studies. We find that the deployment of improved irrigation delivery systems could mitigate some of the increase in water demands, but cannot reverse the increases in water demands when terrestrial carbon

  12. Global Surface Net-Radiation at 5 km from MODIS Terra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Verma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Reliable and fine resolution estimates of surface net-radiation are required for estimating latent and sensible heat fluxes between the land surface and the atmosphere. However, currently, fine resolution estimates of net-radiation are not available and consequently it is challenging to develop multi-year estimates of evapotranspiration at scales that can capture land surface heterogeneity and are relevant for policy and decision-making. We developed and evaluated a global net-radiation product at 5 km and 8-day resolution by combining mutually consistent atmosphere and land data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS on board Terra. Comparison with net-radiation measurements from 154 globally distributed sites (414 site-years from the FLUXNET and Surface Radiation budget network (SURFRAD showed that the net-radiation product agreed well with measurements across seasons and climate types in the extratropics (Wilmott’s index ranged from 0.74 for boreal to 0.63 for Mediterranean sites. Mean absolute deviation between the MODIS and measured net-radiation ranged from 38.0 ± 1.8 W∙m−2 in boreal to 72.0 ± 4.1 W∙m−2 in the tropical climates. The mean bias was small and constituted only 11%, 0.7%, 8.4%, 4.2%, 13.3%, and 5.4% of the mean absolute error in daytime net-radiation in boreal, Mediterranean, temperate-continental, temperate, semi-arid, and tropical climate, respectively. To assess the accuracy of the broader spatiotemporal patterns, we upscaled error-quantified MODIS net-radiation and compared it with the net-radiation estimates from the coarse spatial (1° × 1° but high temporal resolution gridded net-radiation product from the Clouds and Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES. Our estimates agreed closely with the net-radiation estimates from the CERES. Difference between the two was less than 10 W·m−2 in 94% of the total land area. MODIS net-radiation product will be a valuable resource for the

  13. Private lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes private land activities on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (formerly Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge) from 1994 to 2009.

  14. Land Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is working to develop methods and guidance to manage and clean up contaminated land, groundwater and nutrient pollution as well as develop innovative approaches to managing materials and waste including energy recovery.

  15. HANPP Collection: Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity (NPP) portion of the Human Appropriation of Net Primary...

  16. Hydrodynamic characteristics of plane netting used for aquaculture net cages in uniform current

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DONG, SHUCHUANG; HU, FUXIANG; KUMAZAWA, TAISEI; SIODE, DAISUKE; TOKAI, TADASHI

    2016-01-01

      The hydrodynamic characteristics of polyethylene (PE) netting and chain link wire netting with different types of twine diameter and mesh size for aquaculture net cages were examined by experiments in a flume tank...

  17. Optimal Use of Finite Land Resources. Field Test Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Stephen R.; And Others

    This module, a component of a larger teaching model, seeks to present several concepts to the teacher. It seeks to develop awareness and understanding of use of finite land resources including types of land use and abuse; stewardship of land resources; natural systems functioning; human system demands on the natural environment; carrying capacity;…

  18. Land change monitoring, assessment, and projection (LCMAP) revolutionizes land cover and land change research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Steven

    2017-05-02

    When nature and humanity change Earth’s landscapes - through flood or fire, public policy, natural resources management, or economic development - the results are often dramatic and lasting.Wildfires can reshape ecosystems. Hurricanes with names like Sandy or Katrina will howl for days while altering the landscape for years. One growing season in the evolution of drought-resistant genetics can transform semiarid landscapes into farm fields.In the past, valuable land cover maps created for understanding the effects of those events - whether changes in wildlife habitat, water-quality impacts, or the role land use and land cover play in affecting weather and climate - came out at best every 5 to 7 years. Those high quality, high resolution maps were good, but users always craved more: even higher quality data, additional land cover and land change variables, more detailed legends, and most importantly, more frequent land change information.Now a bold new initiative called Land Change Monitoring, Assessment, and Projection (LCMAP) promises to fulfill that demand.Developed at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, LCMAP provides definitive, timely information on how, why, and where the planet is changing. LCMAP’s continuous monitoring process can detect changes as they happen every day that Landsat satellites acquire clear observations. The result will be to place near real-time information in the hands of land and resource managers who need to understand the effects these changes have on landscapes.

  19. Joint Land Attack Cruise Missile Defense Elevated Netted Sensor System (JLENS) Land-Based Testing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Winter views can be monochromatic gray when weather inversions result in dense fogs . Also typical are clear blue skies above the gray-brown dormant...construction for the JLENS test sites and ac- cess roads. Other hazardous materials such as paints, thinners, and sealants may be used during the

  20. Finite land resources and competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haberl, Helmut; Mbow, Cheikh; Deng, Xiangzheng

    2014-01-01

    such as fossil fuels), mitigation and adaptation policies related to climate change, as well as climate change impacts and demographic pressures. The chapter concludes with a discussion of major research gaps, and it outlines priority research topics, including the improved analysis of interdependencies of land...... as their functions (objectives, distribution/ equity, effectiveness/efficiency). Analysis of long-term trajectories suggests that land-use competition is likely to intensify in the medium- to long-term future, mainly in the face of expected scarcities in resource supply (e.g., in terms of limited resources......Rising demand for land-based products (food, feed, fi ber, and bioenergy) as well as conservation of forests and carbon sinks create increasing competition for land. Landuse competition has many drivers, takes different forms, and can have many significant implications for ecosystems as well...

  1. Synthesis in land change science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magliocca, Nicholas R.; Rudel, Thomas K.; Verburg, Peter H.

    2015-01-01

    of these changes, land change science (LCS) draws on a wide array synthetic and meta-study techniques to generate global and regional knowledge from local case studies of land change. Here, we review the characteristics and applications of synthesis methods in LCS and assess the current state of synthetic research...... based on a meta-analysis of synthesis studies from 1995 to 2012. Publication of synthesis research is accelerating, with a clear trend toward increasingly sophisticated and quantitative methods, including meta-analysis. Detailed trends in synthesis objectives, methods, and land change phenomena......, synthesis methods based on local case studies will remain essential for generating systematic global and regional understanding of local land change for the foreseeable future, and multiple opportunities exist to accelerate and enhance the reliability of synthetic LCS research in the future. Demand...

  2. Isolated unit tests in .Net

    OpenAIRE

    Haukilehto, Tero

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis isolation in unit testing is studied to get a precise picture of the isolation frameworks available for .Net environment. At the beginning testing is discussed in theory with the benefits and the problems it may have been linked with. The theory includes software development in general in connection with testing. Theory of isolation is also described before the actual isolation frameworks are represented. Common frameworks are described in more detail and comparable informa...

  3. FPGA shore station demonstrator for KM3NeT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anassontzis, E.G. [Physics Department, University of Athens (Greece); Belias, A.; Koutsoukos, S.; Koutsoumpos, V. [NESTOR Institute for Astroparticle Physics, National Observatory of Athens, 24001 Pylos (Greece); Manolopoulos, K., E-mail: kmanolo@phys.uoa.gr [NESTOR Institute for Astroparticle Physics, National Observatory of Athens, 24001 Pylos (Greece); Resvanis, L.K. [Physics Department, University of Athens (Greece); NESTOR Institute for Astroparticle Physics, National Observatory of Athens, 24001 Pylos (Greece)

    2013-10-11

    The KM3NeT readout concept is based on a point-to-point optical network connecting the 10,000 optical modules in the deep-sea neutrino telescope with the shore station. The numerous fiber optic channels arriving at the shore station will be concentrated on the shore electronics systems, which will receive, merge and time order the data, and send them to the DAQ system. Although the network functionality is bi-directional, the physical channel allocation is asymmetric; most channels are assigned to the data reception and only a few channels are used for control with data transport from shore to the telescope. We will discuss the FPGA based platform systems for the shore station and the appropriate firmware implementation for the data gathering and broadcast demands of a neutrino telescope. We will present our experiences based on FPGA evaluation platforms suitable to build a demonstrator of the KM3NeT shore station.

  4. Net soil respiration and greenhouse gas balance along a sequence of forest disturbance to smallholder rubber and oil palm plantations in Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusyu Aini, Fitri; Hergoualc'h, Kristell; Smith, Jo; Verchot, Louis; Martius, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    The rapid increase in demand for land to establish oil palm and rubber plantations has led to the conversion of forests, with potential impacts on greenhouse gas emissions and on climate change. This study evaluates the net greenhouse gas balance following forest change to other land uses, i.e. one year rubber plantation, twenty-year rubber plantation and eight year oil palm plantation on Sumatran mineral soils. None of the plantations had ever been fertilized previously. During this study they were fertilized to provide nitrogen at the recommended rate used by farmers (33.3 kg N ha-1 y-1). The ecosystem stores carbon in litterfall, standing litter biomass (undergrowth vegetation, leaves, twigs, litter on the soil surface), soil organic matter, root biomass, and standing tree biomass. It releases carbon to the atmosphere through soil respiration fluxes, negative values indicating that carbon is stored by the land use change and positive values indicating emissions to the atmosphere. Net soil respiration was assessed using a mass balance approach: standing litter and tree biomass were measured once; the rate of carbon accumulation from standing litter and tree biomass was calculated by dividing the stock by the age of plantation or the time since logging started in the disturbed forest. The carbon accumulation in standing litter, tree biomass in the forest and soil organic matter for all land-uses was estimated from available in the literature. Root biomass for each land-use system was calculated using the root:shoot ratio. The net soil respiration of carbon dioxide from the forest, disturbed forest, one year rubber plantation, twenty-year rubber plantation and oil palm plantation were calculated to be -6 (± 5), 12 (± 6), 11 (± 15), 10 (± 5), 39 (± 7) Mg ha-1 y-1, respectively. Soil nitrous oxide, methane and litterfall were measured for 14 months and respiration fluxes were measured for 5 months across land uses and different seasons. The measured emissions of

  5. Global land-water nexus: Agricultural land and freshwater use embodied in worldwide supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B; Han, M Y; Peng, K; Zhou, S L; Shao, L; Wu, X F; Wei, W D; Liu, S Y; Li, Z; Li, J S; Chen, G Q

    2018-02-01

    As agricultural land and freshwater inextricably interrelate and interact with each other, the conventional water and land policy in "silos" should give way to nexus thinking when formulating the land and water management strategies. This study constructs a systems multi-regional input-output (MRIO) model to expound global land-water nexus by simultaneously tracking agricultural land and freshwater use flows along the global supply chains. Furthermore, land productivity and irrigation water requirements of 160 crops in different regions are investigated to reflect the land-water linkage. Results show that developed economies (e.g., USA and Japan) and major large developing economies (e.g., mainland China and India) are the overriding drivers of agricultural land and freshwater use globally. In general, significant net transfers of these two resources are identified from resource-rich and less-developed economies to resource-poor and more-developed economies. For some crops, blue water productivity is inversely related to land productivity, indicating that irrigation water consumption is sometimes at odds with land use. The results could stimulus international cooperation for sustainable land and freshwater management targeting on original suppliers and final consumers along the global supply chains. Moreover, crop-specific land-water linkage could provide insights for trade-off decisions on minimizing the environmental impacts on local land and water resources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Exploring future changes in land use and land condition and the impacts on food, water, climate change and biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esch, van der Stefan; Brink, ten B.; Stehfest, Elke; Bakkenes, Michel; Sewell, Annelies; Bouwman, A.; Meijer, Johan; Westhoek, Henk; Berg, van den Maurits; Born, van den Gert Jan; Doelman, Jonathan; Berkhout, Ezra; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Bouwman, A.F.; Beusen, Arthur; Zeist, van Willem-Jan; Stoorvogel, J.J.; Schut, A.G.T.; Biemans, H.; Candel, J.J.L.; Beek, Van Rens; Tabeau, A.A.; Meijl, van J.C.M.; Caspari, T.M.; Egmond, van F.M.; Lynden, van G.W.J.; Mantel, S.

    2017-01-01

    The pressure on land is growing in many regions of the world, due to the increasing demand for arable crops, meat and dairy products, bio-energy and timber, and is exacerbated by land degradation and climate change. This policy report provides scenario projections for the UNCCD Global Land Outlook,

  7. Future mobility demand in megaregions : a national study with a focus on the Gulf Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    About three fourth of national population and wealth are concentered in the 11 megaregional areas that occupy one fourth of the land areas in the US. NHTS reveal that megaregions also concentrate current and future mobility demand. This report presen...

  8. Recents declines in potential evapotranspiration over South Africa: potential causes and implications for maize yield and irrigation demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, L. D.; Caylor, K. K.; Chaney, N.; Herrera-Estrada, J. E.; Sheffield, J.; Wood, E. F.

    2014-12-01

    Recent work has identified a 31-year (1979-2010) decline in potential evapotranspiration (PET) during the maize growing season in South Africa, the world's 9th largest producer of that crop. Using a newly-developed, bias-corrected meteorological forcing dataset, we apply an attribution analysis to identify the relative role of four key physical drivers (temperature, net radiation, vapor pressure, and windspeed) in reducing atmospheric demand for water. We conduct a statistical analysis to correlate changes in these four key drivers to potential causal mechanisms, including atmospheric aerosol concentration and changes in the extent of irrigated cropland, which we identify using a novel, high accuracy landcover dataset. Finally, we use the DSSAT maize model, together with counter-factual climate scenarios, to investigate the implications of the PET decline on maize yields and maize irrigation demand. This study illustrates how improved meteorological data, better landcover maps, and crop simulation can be combined to 1) improve understanding of the linkages between the land surface and atmosphere, and 2) help inform crop and irrigation management under changing climates.

  9. Urban land grab or fair urbanization? : Compulsory land acquisition and sustainable livelihoods in Hue, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen Quang, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/37580949X

    2015-01-01

    Urbanization often goes hand in hand with a growing demand for housing, urban infrastructure and other facilities that are necessary for sustainable urban development. This has created numerous pressures on land, especially in peri-urban areas where land, traditionally used for agriculture, is still

  10. Event hierarchies in DanNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bolette Sandford; Nimb, Sanni

    2008-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler udarbejdelsen af et verbumshierarki i det leksikalsk-semantiske ordnet, DanNet.......Artiklen omhandler udarbejdelsen af et verbumshierarki i det leksikalsk-semantiske ordnet, DanNet....

  11. The Uniframe .Net Web Service Discovery Service

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berbeco, Robert W

    2003-01-01

    Microsoft .NET allows the creation of distributed systems in a seamless manner Within NET small, discrete applications, referred to as Web services, are utilized to connect to each other or larger applications...

  12. Long Term RadNet Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This RadNet Quality Data Asset includes all data since initiation and when ERAMS was expanded to become RadNet, name changed to reflect new mission. This includes...

  13. Spatial scaling of net primary productivity using subpixel landcover information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X. F.; Chen, Jing M.; Ju, Wei M.; Ren, L. L.

    2008-10-01

    Gridding the land surface into coarse homogeneous pixels may cause important biases on ecosystem model estimations of carbon budget components at local, regional and global scales. These biases result from overlooking subpixel variability of land surface characteristics. Vegetation heterogeneity is an important factor introducing biases in regional ecological modeling, especially when the modeling is made on large grids. This study suggests a simple algorithm that uses subpixel information on the spatial variability of land cover type to correct net primary productivity (NPP) estimates, made at coarse spatial resolutions where the land surface is considered as homogeneous within each pixel. The algorithm operates in such a way that NPP obtained from calculations made at coarse spatial resolutions are multiplied by simple functions that attempt to reproduce the effects of subpixel variability of land cover type on NPP. Its application to a carbon-hydrology coupled model(BEPS-TerrainLab model) estimates made at a 1-km resolution over a watershed (named Baohe River Basin) located in the southwestern part of Qinling Mountains, Shaanxi Province, China, improved estimates of average NPP as well as its spatial variability.

  14. Net change in carbon emissions with increased wood energy use in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash Nepal; David N. Wear; Kenneth E. Skog

    2014-01-01

    Use of wood biomass for energy results in carbon (C) emissions at the time of burning and alters C stocks on the land because of harvest, regrowth, and changes in land use or management. This study evaluates the potential effects of expanded woody biomass energy use (for heat and power) on net C emissions over time. A scenario with increased wood energy use is compared...

  15. PsychoNet: a psycholinguistc commonsense ontology

    OpenAIRE

    Mohtasseb, Haytham; Ahmed, Amr

    2010-01-01

    Ontologies have been widely accepted as the most advanced knowledge representation model. This paper introduces PsychoNet, a new knowledgebase that forms the link between psycholinguistic taxonomy, existing in LIWC, and its semantic textual representation in the form of commonsense semantic ontology, represented by ConceptNet. The integration of LIWC and ConceptNet and the added functionalities facilitate employing ConceptNet in psycholinguistic studies. Furthermore, it simplifies utilization...

  16. Land use planning policy and climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, S.; Cope, D.

    1992-04-01

    The report covers two aspects of the relationship between climate change and land use planning. These are: the land use planning implications of policies that might be adopted to reduce emissions or atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases; and the land use planning implications of physical impacts of climate change and adaptive responses in the UK. The most significant land use planning implications of climate change arise in two areas; from the increased threat of flooding and erosion in the coastal zone; and from policies which might be adopted to abate emissions of greenhouse gases in the transport sector. Other substantial implications relate to energy supply and demand. 244 refs., 19 figs., 19 tabs.

  17. 78 FR 72451 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BL74 Net Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service...). These regulations provide guidance on the computation of net investment income. The regulations affect... lesser of: (A) The individual's net investment income for such taxable year, or (B) the excess (if any...

  18. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net investment. 69.302 Section 69.302... Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B Rural...) Investment in Accounts 2002, 2003 and to the extent such inclusions are allowed by this Commission, Account...

  19. 47 CFR 65.450 - Net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.450 Section 65.450... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.450 Net income. (a) Net income shall consist of all revenues derived from the provision of interstate telecommunications services...

  20. 47 CFR 65.500 - Net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.500 Section 65.500... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Interexchange Carriers § 65.500 Net income. The net income methodology specified in § 65.450 shall be utilized by all interexchange carriers that are...

  1. NetBeans IDE 8 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Salter, David

    2014-01-01

    If you're a Java developer of any level using NetBeans and want to learn how to get the most out of NetBeans, then this book is for you. Learning how to utilize NetBeans will provide a firm foundation for your Java application development.

  2. Characterizing behavioural congruences for Petri nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Priese, Lutz; Sassone, Vladimiro

    1995-01-01

    We exploit a notion of interface for Petri nets in order to design a set of net combinators. For such a calculus of nets, we focus on the behavioural congruences arising from four simple notions of behaviour, viz., traces, maximal traces, step, and maximal step traces, and from the corresponding...

  3. 27 CFR 4.37 - Net contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the volume of wine within the container, except that the following tolerances shall be allowed: (1... THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.37 Net contents. (a) Statement of net contents. The net contents of wine for which a standard of fill is...

  4. Intelligent systems for demand forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majithia, S.; Kiernan, L.; Hannan, J.

    1997-12-31

    The electricity industry is a huge and growing business, centring around the supply and demand of electricity. There are many benefits in knowing the future load on the system by way of forecasting future demand for electricity. Demand forecasts are of use in a wide range of issues relating to system control, maintenance and planning. Short term demand forecasting (1-7 days ahead) allows unit scheduling to be planned, preparing the industry to meet the demand for electricity. There are large financial benefits in improving forecasts even by a small percentage, so it is always worth investigating new techniques that may help the forecaster. ISs offer a range of new approaches that can help improve demand forecasts. There are two major benefits of using ISs rather than the more traditional modelling techniques. Firstly, intelligent systems offer powerful modelling techniques with very different strengths from those currently available. ESs can be used to encapsulate knowledge and experience, to track not just the general trends in demand but also many of the irregularities. They can easily be updated to include any new relationships. Fuzzy sets permit the linguistic rules that are often present in human descriptions to be incorporated into the model. ANNs offer the ability to model the non-linearities that are known to be part of the demand pattern. The second benefit is the ability of intelligent systems to automate the process of constructing a forecasting model. (UK)

  5. Job demands-resources model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Bakker (Arnold); E. Demerouti (Eva)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract* The question of what causes job stress and what motivates people has received a lot of research attention during the past five decades. In this paper, we discuss Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) theory, which represents an extension of the Job Demands-Resources model (Bakker &

  6. Demand Response in Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jacob; Knudsen, Jesper Viese; Annaswamy, Anuradha M.

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, moves toward higher integration of Renewable Energy Resources have called for fundamental changes in both the planning and operation of the overall power grid. One such change is the incorporation of Demand Response (DR), the process by which consumers can adjust their demand...

  7. Derived factor demand under monopoly

    OpenAIRE

    Thorsten Bayindir-Upmann

    2002-01-01

    We generalize the formula provided by Maurice and Ferguson (1973) for derived factor demand in a monopoly by extending it to cross-price effects and taking into account other variables which may, within an general-equilibrium framework, affect demand, such as income. Hopefully, both features increase the applicability of this formula in general-equilibrium analyses.

  8. The current situation of cultivated land and population in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, B

    1991-10-01

    China/s current cultivated land supply will be depleted in 200 years if present land use and population pressure continue, according to Professor Liu Xuanhao of the Beijing Agriculture University in 1989. The amount of cultivated land began to decline after 1957 due to national construction projects. By 1985 the decline had reached a net annual average of 15 million mu (1 mu = 16.5% of an acre). Land lost between 1949 and 1986 amounted to a 7 million annual average. During this period, population grew from 540 million in 1949 to 1.14 billion in 1990, which meant 2.8 mu/capita in 1949 vs. 1.5mu/capita in 1990. 5 major points are made. 1) China feeds 22% of the world's population on 7% of world's land. Per capita area of cultivated land is low for China's population size. Land area is 13.3 mu/capita or 25% of US land area. 2) Of the total land area, cultivated land constitutes a small proportion, i.e., 31% is plains and basins while 69% is mountains, plateaus, and hilly areas. 1.4 billion mu is cultivatable land or 10% of the land area. In contrast, 50% of India's territory is cultivatable land. 3) East and south China have the greatest area (90%) of cultivable land. Forest reserves are in the northeast and southwest, and grasslands predominate in the northwest. 4) There is only 500 million mu of arable land. 5) There are insufficient water resources and uneven regional and seasonal distribution. Water resources are 25% of the world average. National Economic development will be impeded by the pressure between limited land resources and population growth which is expected to increase until 2020. Land management since 1986 has come under the Land Administration Law whose guidelines stipulate that land is to be valued, protected, and utilized rationally. Since 1986, there has been nationwide monitoring of land use for nonfarming purposes, which has contributed to less loss of land for cultivation. Evaluation of land resources will now permit plans for appropriate land

  9. NET 40 Generics Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Sudipta

    2012-01-01

    This is a concise, practical guide that will help you learn Generics in .NET, with lots of real world and fun-to-build examples and clear explanations. It is packed with screenshots to aid your understanding of the process. This book is aimed at beginners in Generics. It assumes some working knowledge of C# , but it isn't mandatory. The following would get the most use out of the book: Newbie C# developers struggling with Generics. Experienced C++ and Java Programmers who are migrating to C# and looking for an alternative to other generic frameworks like STL and JCF would find this book handy.

  10. The Net Reclassification Index (NRI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pepe, Margaret S.; Fan, Jing; Feng, Ziding

    2015-01-01

    The Net Reclassification Index (NRI) is a very popular measure for evaluating the improvement in prediction performance gained by adding a marker to a set of baseline predictors. However, the statistical properties of this novel measure have not been explored in depth. We demonstrate the alarming...... marker is proven to erroneously yield a positive NRI. Some insight into this phenomenon is provided. Since large values for the NRI statistic may simply be due to use of poorly fitting risk models, we suggest caution in using the NRI as the basis for marker evaluation. Other measures of prediction...

  11. The relationships among sagittal-plane lower extremity moments: implications for landing strategy in anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimokochi, Yohei; Yong Lee, Sae; Shultz, Sandra J; Schmitz, Randy J

    2009-01-01

    Excessive quadriceps contraction with insufficient hamstrings muscle cocontraction has been shown to be a possible contributing factor for noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. Assessing the relationships among lower extremity internal moments may provide some insight into avoiding muscle contraction patterns that increase ACL injury risk. To examine the relationships of knee-extensor moment with ankle plantar-flexor and hip-extensor moments and to examine the relationship between knee moment and center of pressure as a measure of neuromuscular response to center-of-mass position. Cross-sectional study. Applied Neuromechanics Research Laboratory. Eighteen healthy, recreationally active women (age = 22.3 +/- 2.8 years, height = 162.5 +/- 8.1 cm, mass = 57.8 +/- 9.3 kg). Participants performed a single-leg landing from a 45-cm box onto a force plate. Kinetic and kinematic data were collected. Pearson product moment correlation coefficients were calculated among the net peak knee-extensor moment (KEMpk), sagittal-plane ankle (AM) and hip (HM) net internal moments, and anterior-posterior center of pressure relative to foot center of mass at KEMpk (COP). Lower KEMpk related to both greater AM (r = -0.942, P < .001) and HM (r = -0.657, P = .003). We also found that more anterior displacement of COP was related to greater AM (r = -0.750, P < .001) and lower KEMpk (r = 0.618, P = .006). Our results suggest that participants who lean the whole body forward during landing may produce more plantar-flexor moment and less knee-extensor moment, possibly increasing hip-extensor moment and decreasing knee-extensor moment production. These results suggest that leaning forward may be a technique to decrease quadriceps contraction demand while increasing hamstrings cocontraction demand during a single-leg landing.

  12. Finding the food-fuel balance. Supply and demand dynamics in global vegetable oil markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savanti, P.

    2012-10-15

    Demand for vegetable oils for food and biofuel use is expected to increase by an additional 23 million tonnes by 2016; however supply is expected to struggle to keep up with this demand, according to this Rabobank report. Vegetable oil stocks have reached a 38 year low this year due in large part to constraints such as land availability and adverse weather.

  13. Assessing net carbon sequestration on urban and community forests of northern New England, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daolan Zheng; Mark J. Ducey; Linda S. Heath

    2013-01-01

    Urban and community forests play an important role in the overall carbon budget of the USA. Accurately quantifying carbon sequestration by these forests can provide insight for strategic planning to mitigate greenhouse gas effects on climate change. This study provides a new methodology to estimate net forest carbon sequestration (FCS) in urban and community lands of...

  14. Dissolved carbon leaching from soil is a crucial component of the net ecosystem carbon balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kindler, R.; Siemens, J.; Kaiser, K.; Moors, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of carbon leaching losses from different land use systems are few and their contribution to the net ecosystem carbon balance is uncertain. We investigated leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and dissolved methane (CH4), at forests, grasslands, and

  15. Biofuels on the landscape: Is "land sharing" preferable to "land sparing"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLucia, E. H.; Anderson-Teixeira, K. J.; Duval, B. D.; Long, S. P.

    2012-12-01

    Widespread land use changes—and ensuing effects on biodiversity and ecosystem services—are expected as a result of expanding bioenergy production. Although almost all US production of ethanol today is from corn, it is envisaged that future ethanol production will also draw from cellulosic sources such as perennial grasses. In selecting optimal bioenergy crops, there is debate as to whether it is preferable from an environmental standpoint to cultivate bioenergy crops with high ecosystem services (a "land sharing" strategy) or to grow crops with lower ecosystem services but higher yield, thereby requiring less land to meet bioenergy demand (a "land sparing" strategy). Here, we develop a simple model to address this question. Assuming that bioenergy crops are competing with uncultivated land, our model calculates land requirements to meet a given bioenergy demand intensity based upon the yields of bioenergy crops and combines fractional land cover of each ecosystem type with its associated ecosystem services to determine whether land sharing or land sparing strategies maximize ecosystem services at the landscape level. We apply this model to a case in which climate protection through GHG regulation—an ecosystem's greenhouse gas value (GHGV)—is the ecosystem service of interest. We consider five bioenergy crops competing for land area with five unfarmed ecosystem types in the central and eastern US. Our results show that the relative advantages of land sparing and land sharing depend upon the type of ecosystem with which the bioenergy crop is competing for land; as the GHGV value of the unfarmed land increases, the preferable strategy shifts from land sharing to land sparing. This implies that, while it may be preferable to replace ecologically degraded land with high-GHGV, lower yielding bioenergy crops, average landscape GHGV will most often be maximized through high yielding bioenergy crops that leave more land for uncultivated, high-GHGV ecosystems. While

  16. Carbon emissions from land use and land-cover change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Houghton

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The net flux of carbon from land use and land-cover change (LULCC accounted for 12.5% of anthropogenic carbon emissions from 1990 to 2010. This net flux is the most uncertain term in the global carbon budget, not only because of uncertainties in rates of deforestation and forestation, but also because of uncertainties in the carbon density of the lands actually undergoing change. Furthermore, there are differences in approaches used to determine the flux that introduce variability into estimates in ways that are difficult to evaluate, and not all analyses consider the same types of management activities. Thirteen recent estimates of net carbon emissions from LULCC are summarized here. In addition to deforestation, all analyses considered changes in the area of agricultural lands (croplands and pastures. Some considered, also, forest management (wood harvest, shifting cultivation. None included emissions from the degradation of tropical peatlands. Means and standard deviations across the thirteen model estimates of annual emissions for the 1980s and 1990s, respectively, are 1.14 ± 0.23 and 1.12 ± 0.25 Pg C yr−1 (1 Pg = 1015 g carbon. Four studies also considered the period 2000–2009, and the mean and standard deviations across these four for the three decades are 1.14 ± 0.39, 1.17 ± 0.32, and 1.10 ± 0.11 Pg C yr−1. For the period 1990–2009 the mean global emissions from LULCC are 1.14 ± 0.18 Pg C yr−1. The standard deviations across model means shown here are smaller than previous estimates of uncertainty as they do not account for the errors that result from data uncertainty and from an incomplete understanding of all the processes affecting the net flux of carbon from LULCC. Although these errors have not been systematically evaluated, based on partial analyses available in the literature and expert opinion, they are estimated to be on the order of ± 0.5 Pg C yr−1.

  17. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Togeby, Mikael; Østergaard, Jacob

    This report summaries the research outcomes of the project ‘Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve (DFR)’, which has received the support from Energinet.dk’s PSO program, Grant no. 2005-2-6380. The objective of this project is to investigate the technology of using electricity demands for providing...... frequency reserve to power systems. The project consists of five work packages, including: Background and perspective Dynamical simulation of chosen concepts Monitoring demand as frequency controlled reserve Strategy and practical implementation Conclusion and evaluation Within the project, the frequency...

  18. Numerical Study on the Stomatal Responses to Dry-Hot Wind Episodes and Its Effects on Land-Atmosphere Interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Wang

    Full Text Available The wheat production in midland China is under serious threat by frequent Dry-Hot Wind (DHW episodes with high temperature, low moisture and specific wind as well as intensive heat transfer and evapotranspiration. The numerical simulations of these episodes are important for monitoring grain yield and estimating agricultural water demand. However, uncertainties still remain despite that enormous experiments and modeling studies have been conducted concerning this issue, due to either inaccurate synoptic situation derived from mesoscale weather models or unrealistic parameterizations of stomatal physiology in land surface models. Hereby, we investigated the synoptic characteristics of DHW with widely-used mesoscale model Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF and the effects of leaf physiology on surface evapotranspiration by comparing two land surface models: The Noah land surface model, and Peking University Land Model (PKULM with stomata processes included. Results show that the WRF model could well replicate the synoptic situations of DHW. Two types of DHW were identified: (1 prevailing heated dry wind stream forces the formation of DHW along with intense sensible heating and (2 dry adiabatic processes overflowing mountains. Under both situations, the PKULM can reasonably model the stomatal closure phenomena, which significantly decreases both evapotranspiration and net ecosystem exchange of canopy, while these phenomena cannot be resolved in the Noah simulations. Therefore, our findings suggest that the WRF-PKULM coupled method may be a more reliable tool to investigate and forecast DHW as well as be instructive to crop models.

  19. An Environmental and Economic Evaluation of Pyrolysis for Energy Generation in Taiwan with Endogenous Land Greenhouse Gases Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chun Kung

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan suffers from energy insecurity and the threat of potential damage from global climate changes. Finding ways to alleviate these forces is the key to Taiwan’s future social and economic development. This study examines the economic and environmental impacts when ethanol, conventional electricity and pyrolysis-based electricity are available alternatives. Biochar, as one of the most important by-product from pyrolysis, has the potential to provide significant environmental benefits. Therefore, alternative uses of biochar are also examined in this study. In addition, because planting energy crops would change the current land use pattern, resulting in significant land greenhouse gases (GHG emissions, this important factor is also incorporated. Results show that bioenergy production can satisfy part of Taiwan’s energy demand, but net GHG emissions offset declines if ethanol is chosen. Moreover, at high GHG price conventional electricity and ethanol will be driven out and pyrolysis will be a dominant technology. Fast pyrolysis dominates when ethanol and GHG prices are low, but slow pyrolysis is dominant at high GHG price, especially when land GHG emissions are endogenously incorporated. The results indicate that when land GHG emission is incorporated, up to 3.8 billion kWh electricity can be produced from fast pyrolysis, while up to 2.2 million tons of CO2 equivalent can be offset if slow pyrolysis is applied.

  20. An Environmental and Economic Evaluation of Pyrolysis for Energy Generation in Taiwan with Endogenous Land Greenhouse Gases Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Chih-Chun; McCarl, Bruce A.; Chen, Chi-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Taiwan suffers from energy insecurity and the threat of potential damage from global climate changes. Finding ways to alleviate these forces is the key to Taiwan’s future social and economic development. This study examines the economic and environmental impacts when ethanol, conventional electricity and pyrolysis-based electricity are available alternatives. Biochar, as one of the most important by-product from pyrolysis, has the potential to provide significant environmental benefits. Therefore, alternative uses of biochar are also examined in this study. In addition, because planting energy crops would change the current land use pattern, resulting in significant land greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions, this important factor is also incorporated. Results show that bioenergy production can satisfy part of Taiwan’s energy demand, but net GHG emissions offset declines if ethanol is chosen. Moreover, at high GHG price conventional electricity and ethanol will be driven out and pyrolysis will be a dominant technology. Fast pyrolysis dominates when ethanol and GHG prices are low, but slow pyrolysis is dominant at high GHG price, especially when land GHG emissions are endogenously incorporated. The results indicate that when land GHG emission is incorporated, up to 3.8 billion kWh electricity can be produced from fast pyrolysis, while up to 2.2 million tons of CO2 equivalent can be offset if slow pyrolysis is applied. PMID:24619159

  1. An environmental and economic evaluation of pyrolysis for energy generation in Taiwan with endogenous land greenhouse gases emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Chih-Chun; McCarl, Bruce A; Chen, Chi-Chung

    2014-03-11

    Taiwan suffers from energy insecurity and the threat of potential damage from global climate changes. Finding ways to alleviate these forces is the key to Taiwan's future social and economic development. This study examines the economic and environmental impacts when ethanol, conventional electricity and pyrolysis-based electricity are available alternatives. Biochar, as one of the most important by-product from pyrolysis, has the potential to provide significant environmental benefits. Therefore, alternative uses of biochar are also examined in this study. In addition, because planting energy crops would change the current land use pattern, resulting in significant land greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions, this important factor is also incorporated. Results show that bioenergy production can satisfy part of Taiwan's energy demand, but net GHG emissions offset declines if ethanol is chosen. Moreover, at high GHG price conventional electricity and ethanol will be driven out and pyrolysis will be a dominant technology. Fast pyrolysis dominates when ethanol and GHG prices are low, but slow pyrolysis is dominant at high GHG price, especially when land GHG emissions are endogenously incorporated. The results indicate that when land GHG emission is incorporated, up to 3.8 billion kWh electricity can be produced from fast pyrolysis, while up to 2.2 million tons of CO2 equivalent can be offset if slow pyrolysis is applied.

  2. Scaling the land use system : a modelling approach with case studies for Central America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, K.

    2001-01-01

    Introduction

    There is a growing demand for quantitative information on actual land use/land cover and their future changes in space and time. Particularly during the last decade, land use and land cover change have become important issues. Besides

  3. Breast cancer: demands of illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveys, B J; Klaich, K

    1991-01-01

    This study explores the qualitative experience of illness demands from the woman's own perspective by asking, "What is the impact of breast cancer on the daily lives of women of childbearing age?" Semistructured interviews with 79 women newly diagnosed with breast cancer were transcribed and analyzed to discern illness demands. Content analysis yielded 14 domains of illness demands: treatment issues, change in life context or perspective, acceptance of the illness, social interaction or support, physical changes, reconstructing the self, uncertainty, loss, making comparisons, acquiring new knowledge, making choices, mortality issues, financial or occupational concerns, and making a contribution. Illness demands are experienced in every aspect of a woman's life, including her identity, daily routines, family and social experience, and her perception of the past, present, and future. This study details in the women's own language the considerable adjustments brought on by a diagnosis of breast cancer.

  4. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.

    2007-05-01

    The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.

  5. Living Lands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Suna Møller

    2015-01-01

    , hunters attended to questions like safe-journeying on ice or the role of natural surroundings in children’s education, in ways revealing a relational perception of ‘nature’ and dissolving culture-nature dualisms. Hunters’ experiences in living the land afforded children a dwelling position from which......In this presentation I draw on fieldtrips on dog sledge in Northern Greenland in 2012 and fieldtrips among caribou hunters in West Greenland in 2010 and 2012. I carried out fieldtrips through snow and ice to explore how these landscapes play a role in the life of modern Greenlanders. Fieldtrips...... to grow with the features of the land. Framed this way, ‘nature’ was regarded as part of the social world. I suggest that learning among Arctic hunters is social and twofold. First, we can learn how human-environment relations influence individual life trajectories. Secondly, ‘nature’ as part...

  6. Evaluation of demand integrated substations; Utvaerdering av funktionsintegrerad fjaerrvaermecentral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Sofie; Werner, Sven [FVB Sverige AB, Boraas (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    Demand integrated substations contain an intelligent control unit, which recently has been developed by NordIQ Goeteborg AB. The purpose with this project has been to evaluate the benefits of this intelligent control unit. This evaluation project has been based on field measurement of hourly heat supply, circulated water, forward- and return temperatures in six substations with a 12 month reference period with the existing substation and another 12 month evaluation period with a demand integrated substation. The results from the evaluation show that: - The annual heat delivery was reduced by 10-11 % in average, when a new demand integrated substation replaced an existing conventional substation in the same building. - The annual cooling of the district heat fluid increased by 10-11 deg C, giving lower return temperatures in the district heating systems. The annual volume of circulated water was reduced with 33,200 m{sup 3} from the initial 112,800 m{sup 3} during the reference year. - The daily variation of the customer heat demand became less bumpy from lower morning peaks and heat demands moved to evenings and nights. The financial benefit from the intelligent control unit estimated as net present value is higher than the cost for new conventional substations. Applied to the whole Swedish district heat sector, this benefit has an annual value of about 1,6-2,0 billion SEK (180- 220 million Euro), corresponding to 7-9 % of the current price level for district heat in Sweden.

  7. -Net Approach to Sensor -Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusco Giordano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensors rely on battery power, and in many applications it is difficult or prohibitive to replace them. Hence, in order to prolongate the system's lifetime, some sensors can be kept inactive while others perform all the tasks. In this paper, we study the -coverage problem of activating the minimum number of sensors to ensure that every point in the area is covered by at least sensors. This ensures higher fault tolerance, robustness, and improves many operations, among which position detection and intrusion detection. The -coverage problem is trivially NP-complete, and hence we can only provide approximation algorithms. In this paper, we present an algorithm based on an extension of the classical -net technique. This method gives an -approximation, where is the number of sensors in an optimal solution. We do not make any particular assumption on the shape of the areas covered by each sensor, besides that they must be closed, connected, and without holes.

  8. NETS - Danish participation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsen, S. (Grontmij - Carl Bro, Glostrup (Denmark)); Theel, C. (Baltic Sea Solutions, Holeby (Denmark))

    2008-12-15

    Within the NICe-funded project 'Nordic Environmental Technology Solutions (NETS)' a new type of networking at the Nordic level was organized in order to jointly exploit the rapidly growing market potential in the environmental technology sector. The project aimed at increased and professionalized commercialization of Nordic Cleantech in energy and water business segments through 1) closer cooperation and joint marketing activities, 2) a website, 3) cleantech product information via brochures and publications 4) and participating in relevant trade fairs and other industry events. Facilitating business-to-business activities was another core task for the NETS project partners from Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark with the aim to encourage total solutions for combined Cleantech system offers. The project has achieved to establish a Cleantech register of 600 Nordic Cleantech companies, a network of 86 member enterprises, produced several publications and brochures for direct technology promotion and a website for direct access to company profiles and contact data. The project partners have attended 14 relevant international Cleantech trade fairs and conferences and facilitated business-to-business contacts added by capacity building offers through two company workshops. The future challenge for the project partners and Nordic Cleantech will be to coordinate the numerous efforts within the Nordic countries in order to reach concerted action and binding of member companies for reliable services, an improved visibility and knowledge exchange. With Cleantech's growing market influence and public awareness, the need to develop total solutions is increasing likewise. Marketing efforts should be encouraged cross-sectional and cross-border among the various levels of involved actors from both the public and the private sector. (au)

  9. Climate change - Agricultural land use - Food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, János; Széles, Adrienn

    2015-04-01

    In Hungary, plougland decreased to 52% of its area by the time of political restructuring (1989) in comparison with the 1950s. Forested areas increased significantly (18%) and lands withdrawn from agricultural production doubled (11%). For today, these proportions further changed. Ploughlands reduced to 46% and forested areas further increased (21%) in 2013. The most significat changes were observed in the proportion of lands withdrawn from agricultural production which increased to 21%. Temperature in Hungary increased by 1°C during the last century and predictions show a further 2.6 °C increase by 2050. The yearly amount of precipitation significantly decreased from 640 mm to 560 mm with a more uneven temporal distribution. The following aspects can be considered in the correlation between climate change and agriculture: a) impact of agriculture on climate, b) future impact of climate change on agriculture and food supply, c) impact of climate change on food security. The reason for the significant change of climate is the accumulation of greenhouse gases (GHG) which results from anthropological activities. Between 2008 and 2012, Hungary had to reduce its GHG emission by 6% compared to the base period between 1985-1987. At the end of 2011, Hungarian GHG emission was 43.1% lower than that of the base period. The total gross emission was 66.2 million CO2 equivalent, while the net emission which also includes land use, land use change and forestry was 62.8 million tons. The emission of agriculture was 8.8 million tons (OMSZ, 2013). The greatest opportunity to reduce agricultural GHG emission is dinitrogen oxides which can be significantly mitigated by the smaller extent and more efficient use of nitrogen-based fertilisers (precision farming) and by using biomanures produced from utilised waste materials. Plant and animal species which better adapt to extreme weather circumstances should be bred and maintained, thereby making an investment in food security. Climate

  10. Characterizing commercial oil palm expansion in Latin America: land use change and trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furumo, Paul Richard; Aide, T. Mitchell

    2017-02-01

    Commodity crop expansion has increased with the globalization of production systems and consumer demand, linking distant socio-ecological systems. Oil palm plantations are expanding in the tropics to satisfy growing oilseed and biofuel markets, and much of this expansion has caused extensive deforestation, especially in Asia. In Latin America, palm oil output has doubled since 2001, and the majority of expansion seems to be occurring on non-forested lands. We used MODIS satellite imagery (250 m resolution) to map current oil palm plantations in Latin America and determined prior land use and land cover (LULC) using high-resolution images in Google Earth. In addition, we compiled trade data to determine where Latin American palm oil flows, in order to better understand the underlying drivers of expansion in the region. Based on a sample of 342 032 ha of oil palm plantations across Latin America, we found that 79% replaced previously intervened lands (e.g. pastures, croplands, bananas), primarily cattle pastures (56%). The remaining 21% came from areas that were classified as woody vegetation (e.g. forests), most notably in the Amazon and the Petén region in northern Guatemala. Latin America is a net exporter of palm oil but the majority of palm oil exports (70%) stayed within the region, with Mexico importing about half. Growth of the oil palm sector may be driven by global factors, but environmental and economic outcomes vary between regions (i.e. Asia and Latin America), within regions (i.e. Colombia and Peru), and within single countries (i.e. Guatemala), suggesting that local conditions are influential. The present trend of oil palm expanding onto previously cleared lands, guided by roundtable certifications programs, provides an opportunity for more sustainable development of the oil palm sector in Latin America.

  11. Stochastic model of forecasting spare parts demand

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan S. Milojević; Rade V. Guberinić

    2012-01-01

    If demand is known for the whole planning period (complete information), then this type of demand or a supply system is deterministic. In the simplest cases, the demand per time unit is constant. If demand levels change over time following a precisely determined and pre-known principle, this type of demand is also classified as deterministic. This quality of demand is very rare. In most cases demand is the product of a process, for example TMS maintenance, whose progression cannot be predicte...

  12. A Postponement Model for Demand Management

    OpenAIRE

    Iyer, Ananth.V.; Vinayak Deshpande; Zhengping Wu

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze demand postponement as a strategy to handle potential demand surges. Under demand postponement, a fraction of the demands from the "regular" period are postponed and satisfied during a "postponement" period. This permits capacity to be procured to satisfy the postponed demands. A reimbursement per unit is paid to customers whose demands are postponed. The basic idea is that by preempting stockouts through demand postponement, we can reduce overall stockout costs. We ...

  13. Application and Theory of Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 13th International Conference onApplication and Theory of Petri Nets, held in Sheffield, England, in June 1992. The aim of the Petri net conferences is to create a forum for discussing progress in the application and theory of Petri nets. Typically....... Balbo and W. Reisig, 18 submitted papers, and seven project papers. The submitted papers and project presentations were selectedby the programme committee and a panel of referees from a large number of submissions....

  14. Are You Neutral About Net Neutrality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-20

    Information Resources Management College National Defense University Are You Neutral About Net Neutrality ? A presentation for Systems & Software...author uses Verizon FiOS for phone, TV, and internet service 3 Agenda Net Neutrality —Through 2 Lenses Who Are the Players & What Are They Saying...Medical Treatment Mini-Case Studies Updates Closing Thoughts 4 Working Definitions of Net Neutrality "Network Neutrality" is the concept that

  15. Texture Based Image Analysis With Neural Nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilovici, Irina S.; Ong, Hoo-Tee; Ostrander, Kim E.

    1990-03-01

    In this paper, we combine direct image statistics and spatial frequency domain techniques with a neural net model to analyze texture based images. The resultant optimal texture features obtained from the direct and transformed image form the exemplar pattern of the neural net. The proposed approach introduces an automated texture analysis applied to metallography for determining the cooling rate and mechanical working of the materials. The results suggest that the proposed method enhances the practical applications of neural nets and texture extraction features.

  16. Factors associated with mosquito net use by individuals in households owning nets in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graves Patricia M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ownership of insecticidal mosquito nets has dramatically increased in Ethiopia since 2006, but the proportion of persons with access to such nets who use them has declined. It is important to understand individual level net use factors in the context of the home to modify programmes so as to maximize net use. Methods Generalized linear latent and mixed models (GLLAMM were used to investigate net use using individual level data from people living in net-owning households from two surveys in Ethiopia: baseline 2006 included 12,678 individuals from 2,468 households and a sub-sample of the Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS in 2007 included 14,663 individuals from 3,353 households. Individual factors (age, sex, pregnancy; net factors (condition, age, net density; household factors (number of rooms [2006] or sleeping spaces [2007], IRS, women's knowledge and school attendance [2007 only], wealth, altitude; and cluster level factors (rural or urban were investigated in univariate and multi-variable models for each survey. Results In 2006, increased net use was associated with: age 25-49 years (adjusted (a OR = 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.2-1.7 compared to children U5; female gender (aOR = 1.4; 95% CI 1.2-1.5; fewer nets with holes (Ptrend = 0.002; and increasing net density (Ptrend [all nets in HH good] = 1.6; 95% CI 1.2-2.1; increasing net density (Ptrend [per additional space] = 0.6, 95% CI 0.5-0.7; more old nets (aOR [all nets in HH older than 12 months] = 0.5; 95% CI 0.3-0.7; and increasing household altitude (Ptrend Conclusion In both surveys, net use was more likely by women, if nets had fewer holes and were at higher net per person density within households. School-age children and young adults were much less likely to use a net. Increasing availability of nets within households (i.e. increasing net density, and improving net condition while focusing on education and promotion of net use, especially in school-age children

  17. Pro Agile NET Development with Scrum

    CERN Document Server

    Blankenship, Jerrel; Millett, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Pro Agile .NET Development with SCRUM guides you through a real-world ASP.NET project and shows how agile methodology is put into practice. There is plenty of literature on the theory behind agile methodologies, but no book on the market takes the concepts of agile practices and applies these in a practical manner to an end-to-end ASP.NET project, especially the estimating, requirements and management aspects of a project. Pro Agile .NET Development with SCRUM takes you through the initial stages of a project - gathering requirements and setting up an environment - through to the development a

  18. Pro ASP.NET MVC 4

    CERN Document Server

    Freeman, Adam

    2012-01-01

    The ASP.NET MVC 4 Framework is the latest evolution of Microsoft's ASP.NET web platform. It provides a high-productivity programming model that promotes cleaner code architecture, test-driven development, and powerful extensibility, combined with all the benefits of ASP.NET. ASP.NET MVC 4 contains a number of significant advances over previous versions. New mobile and desktop templates (employing adaptive rendering) are included together with support for jQuery Mobile for the first time. New display modes allow your application to select views based on the browser that's making the request whi

  19. Professional Visual Basic 2010 and .NET 4

    CERN Document Server

    Sheldon, Bill; Sharkey, Kent

    2010-01-01

    Intermediate and advanced coverage of Visual Basic 2010 and .NET 4 for professional developers. If you've already covered the basics and want to dive deep into VB and .NET topics that professional programmers use most, this is your book. You'll find a quick review of introductory topics-always helpful-before the author team of experts moves you quickly into such topics as data access with ADO.NET, Language Integrated Query (LINQ), security, ASP.NET web programming with Visual Basic, Windows workflow, threading, and more. You'll explore all the new features of Visual Basic 2010 as well as all t

  20. Towards a Standard for Modular Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart; Petrucci, Laure

    2009-01-01

    When designing complex systems, mechanisms for structuring, composing, and reusing system components are crucial. Today, there are many approaches for equipping Petri nets with such mechanisms. In the context of defining a standard interchange format for Petri nets, modular PNML was defined....... Moreover, we present and discuss some more advanced features of modular Petri nets that could be included in the standard. This way, we provide a formal foundation and a basis for a discussion of features to be included in the upcoming standard of a module concept for Petri nets in general and for high...

  1. Biofuels on the landscape: is "land sharing" preferable to "land sparing"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J; Duval, Benjamin D; Long, Stephen P; DeLucia, Evan H

    2012-12-01

    Widespread land use changes, and ensuing effects on ecosystem services, are expected from expanding bioenergy production. Although most U.S. production of ethanol is from corn, it is envisaged that future ethanol production will also draw from cellulosic sources such as perennial grasses. In selecting optimal bioenergy crops, there is debate as to whether it is preferable from an environmental standpoint to cultivate bioenergy crops with high ecosystem services (a "land-sharing" strategy) or to grow crops with lower ecosystem services but higher yield, thereby requiring less land to meet bioenergy demand (a "land-sparing" strategy). Here, we develop a simple model to address this question. Assuming that bioenergy crops are competing with uncultivated land, our model calculates land requirements to meet a given bioenergy demand intensity based upon the yields of bioenergy crops. The model combines fractional land cover of each ecosystem type with its associated ecosystem services to determine whether land-sharing or land-sparing strategies maximize ecosystem services at the landscape level. We apply this model to a case in which climate protection through GHG regulation--an ecosystem's greenhouse gas value (GHGV)--is the ecosystem service of interest. Our results show that the relative advantages of land sparing and land sharing depend upon the type of ecosystem displaced by the bioenergy crop; as the GHGV of the unfarmed land increases, the preferable strategy shifts from land sharing to land sparing. Although it may be preferable to replace ecologically degraded land with high-GHGV, lower yielding bioenergy crops, average landscape GHGV will most often be maximized through high-yielding bioenergy crops that leave more land for uncultivated, high-GHGV ecosystems. Although our case study focuses on GHGV, the same principles will be applicable to any ecosystem service whose value does not depend upon the spatial configuration of the landscape. Whenever bioenergy

  2. National microalgae biofuel production potential and resource demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigmosta, Mark S.; Coleman, André M.; Skaggs, Richard J.; Huesemann, Michael H.; Lane, Leonard J.

    2011-03-01

    Microalgae are receiving increased global attention as a potential sustainable "energy crop" for biofuel production. An important step to realizing the potential of algae is quantifying the demands commercial-scale algal biofuel production will place on water and land resources. We present a high-resolution spatiotemporal assessment that brings to bear fundamental questions of where production can occur, how many land and water resources are required, and how much energy is produced. Our study suggests that under current technology, microalgae have the potential to generate 220 × 109 L yr-1 of oil, equivalent to 48% of current U.S. petroleum imports for transportation. However, this level of production requires 5.5% of the land area in the conterminous United States and nearly three times the water currently used for irrigated agriculture, averaging 1421 L water per liter of oil. Optimizing the locations for microalgae production on the basis of water use efficiency can greatly reduce total water demand. For example, focusing on locations along the Gulf Coast, southeastern seaboard, and Great Lakes shows a 75% reduction in consumptive freshwater use to 350 L per liter of oil produced with a 67% reduction in land use. These optimized locations have the potential to generate an oil volume equivalent to 17% of imports for transportation fuels, equal to the Energy Independence and Security Act year 2022 "advanced biofuels" production target and utilizing some 25% of the current irrigation demand. With proper planning, adequate land and water are available to meet a significant portion of the U.S. renewable fuel goals.

  3. Estimating the Market Demand and Elasticity for Enrollment at an Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlgemuth, Darin

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an applied research framework that can be helpful in tuition and net price policy discussions. It is the classic microeconomic concept of market demand applied to enrollment management in higher education. The policy relevance includes measuring a response to price. For example, the results of this model will allow the…

  4. Experiments and simulation of a net closing mechanism for tether-net capture of space debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, Inna; Thomsen, Benjamin; Botta, Eleonora M.; Misra, Arun K.

    2017-10-01

    This research addresses the design and testing of a debris containment system for use in a tether-net approach to space debris removal. The tether-net active debris removal involves the ejection of a net from a spacecraft by applying impulses to masses on the net, subsequent expansion of the net, the envelopment and capture of the debris target, and the de-orbiting of the debris via a tether to the chaser spacecraft. To ensure a debris removal mission's success, it is important that the debris be successfully captured and then, secured within the net. To this end, we present a concept for a net closing mechanism, which we believe will permit consistently successful debris capture via a simple and unobtrusive design. This net closing system functions by extending the main tether connecting the chaser spacecraft and the net vertex to the perimeter and around the perimeter of the net, allowing the tether to actuate closure of the net in a manner similar to a cinch cord. A particular embodiment of the design in a laboratory test-bed is described: the test-bed itself is comprised of a scaled-down tether-net, a supporting frame and a mock-up debris. Experiments conducted with the facility demonstrate the practicality of the net closing system. A model of the net closure concept has been integrated into the previously developed dynamics simulator of the chaser/tether-net/debris system. Simulations under tether tensioning conditions demonstrate the effectiveness of the closure concept for debris containment, in the gravity-free environment of space, for a realistic debris target. The on-ground experimental test-bed is also used to showcase its utility for validating the dynamics simulation of the net deployment, and a full-scale automated setup would make possible a range of validation studies of other aspects of a tether-net debris capture mission.

  5. Enabling Grid Computing resources within the KM3NeT computing model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippidis Christos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available KM3NeT is a future European deep-sea research infrastructure hosting a new generation neutrino detectors that – located at the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea – will open a new window on the universe and answer fundamental questions both in particle physics and astrophysics. International collaborative scientific experiments, like KM3NeT, are generating datasets which are increasing exponentially in both complexity and volume, making their analysis, archival, and sharing one of the grand challenges of the 21st century. These experiments, in their majority, adopt computing models consisting of different Tiers with several computing centres and providing a specific set of services for the different steps of data processing such as detector calibration, simulation and data filtering, reconstruction and analysis. The computing requirements are extremely demanding and, usually, span from serial to multi-parallel or GPU-optimized jobs. The collaborative nature of these experiments demands very frequent WAN data transfers and data sharing among individuals and groups. In order to support the aforementioned demanding computing requirements we enabled Grid Computing resources, operated by EGI, within the KM3NeT computing model. In this study we describe our first advances in this field and the method for the KM3NeT users to utilize the EGI computing resources in a simulation-driven use-case.

  6. Directed graph based carbon flow tracing for demand side carbon obligation allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Tao; Feng, Donghan; Ding, Teng

    2016-01-01

    method for tracing carbon flow is proposed. In a lossy network, matrices such as carbon losses, net carbon intensity (NCI) and footprint carbon intensity (FCI) are obtained with the proposed method and used to allocate carbon obligation at demand side. Case studies based on realistic distribution......In order to achieve carbon emission abatement, some researchers and policy makers have cast their focus on demand side carbon abatement potentials. This paper addresses the problem of carbon flow calculation in power systems and carbon obligation allocation at demand side. A directed graph based...

  7. Fundamental Travel Demand Model Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Instances of transportation models are abundant and detailed "how to" instruction is available in the form of transportation software help documentation. The purpose of this paper is to look at the fundamental inputs required to build a transportation model by developing an example passenger travel demand model. The example model reduces the scale to a manageable size for the purpose of illustrating the data collection and analysis required before the first step of the model begins. This aspect of the model development would not reasonably be discussed in software help documentation (it is assumed the model developer comes prepared). Recommendations are derived from the example passenger travel demand model to suggest future work regarding the data collection and analysis required for a freight travel demand model.

  8. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  9. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  10. Voltage Controlled Dynamic Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Mahat, Pukar

    2013-01-01

    central or dispersed generations might not be sufficient for future scenario. One of the effective methods to cope with this scenario is to enable demand response. This paper proposes a dynamic voltage regulation based demand response technique to be applied in low voltage (LV) distribution feeders....... An adaptive dynamic model has been developed to determine composite voltage dependency of an aggregated load on feeder level. Following the demand dispatch or control signal, optimum voltage setting at the LV substation is determined based on the voltage dependency of the load. Furthermore, a new technique...... has been proposed to estimate the voltage at consumer point of connection (POC) to ensure operation within voltage limits. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is analyzed comprehensively with reference to three different scenarios on a low voltage (LV) feeder (Borup feeder) owned...

  11. HANPP Collection: Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) as a Percentage of Net Primary Product (NPP) portion of the HANPP Collection represents a map identifying...

  12. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob; Togeby, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Relying on generation side alone is deemed insufficient to fulfill the system balancing needs for future Danish power system, where a 50% wind penetration is outlined by the government for year 2025. This paper investigates using the electricity demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) as a new...... balancing measure, which has a high potential and can provide many advantages. Firstly, the background of the research is reviewed, including conventional power system reserves and the electricity demand side potentials. Subsequently, the control logics and corresponding design considerations for the DFR...

  13. Credit demand in Mozambican manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byiers, Bruce; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    manager education and business association membership are associated with whether a firm is credit constrained or not. Using our preferred measure of credit constraint suggests that around 43 per cent of the firms surveyed are constrained, and these enterprises would almost triple their debt burden......This paper uses two industrial firm surveys to identify the key determinants of credit demand in Mozambican manufacturing. We construct five different measures of being credit constrained and estimate desired debt demand. Besides firm size and ownership structure, we find evidence that general...

  14. Forest transitions, trade, and the global displacement of land use

    OpenAIRE

    Meyfroidt, Patrick; Rudel, Thomas K.; Lambin, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Reducing tropical deforestation is an international priority, given its impacts on carbon emissions and biodiversity. We examined whether recent forest transitions-a shift from net deforestation to net reforestation-involved a geographic displacement of forest clearing across countries through trade in agricultural and forest products. In most of the seven developing countries that recently experienced a forest transition, displacement of land use abroad accompanied local reforestation. Addit...

  15. Agricultural Groundwater Demands in the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, M. W.; Parthasarathy, V.; Etienne, E.; Russo, T. A.; Devineni, N.; Lall, U.

    2016-12-01

    In the conterminous United States (CONUS), over 40% of water consumed for irrigation, livestock and domestic water is sourced from groundwater. The late 20th century and 21st century saw an expansion in irrigated agriculture across the CONUS that was accompanied by increased pumping of groundwater. Groundwater is typically used to mitigate impacts of drought on surface water supplies enabling water demands to be met as well as to augment sparse surface water resources in arid regions or where surface water availability is highly variable temporally and/or spatially. A Demand Sensitive Drought Index (DSDI) is used to examine the impacts of agricultural water needs on groundwater in the CONUS. The DSDI accounts for agricultural water deficits driven by low precipitation, high agricultural water demand, or a combination of both. Changes in groundwater levels relative to agricultural water deficits are characterized relative to precipitation during the growing season and winter precipitation. In several key irrigated agricultural regions in the CONUS, long-term trends in groundwater levels appear to reflect prolonged periods of surface water deficits resulting from land use and associated unsustainable water demands. These areas are subsequent unable to recover from persistent states of agricultural drought. Conversely, reductions in agricultural water demands for crops do not necessarily lead to immediate recovery of groundwater levels due to the demand for groundwater in other sectors. Calls to establish or reform groundwater policies have recently been made in an effort to achieve holistic groundwater management strategies that consider the human demands on both surface water and groundwater. There is a need for relevant groundwater policies to ensure that water demands are adequately managed across sectors without unsustainably depleting groundwater resources and to ensure efficient economic activity.

  16. Feasibility of Achieving a Zero-Net-Energy, Zero-Net-Cost Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Beaini, S.; Borgeson, S.; Coffery, B.; Gregory, D.; Konis, K.; Scown, C.; Simjanovic, J.; Stanley, J.; Strogen, B.; Walker, I.

    2009-09-01

    A green building competition, to be known as the Energy Free Home Challenge (EFHC), is scheduled to be opened to teams around the world in 2010. This competition will encourage both design innovation and cost reduction, by requiring design entries to meet 'zero net energy' and 'zero net cost' criteria. For the purposes of this competition, a 'zero net energy' home produces at least as much energy as it purchases over the course of a year, regardless of the time and form of the energy (e.g., electricity, heat, or fuel) consumed or produced. A 'zero net cost' home is no more expensive than a traditional home of comparable size and comfort, when evaluated over the course of a 30-year mortgage. In other words, the 'green premium' must have a payback period less than 30 years, based on the value of energy saved. The overarching goal of the competition is to develop affordable, high-performance homes that can be mass-produced at a large scale, and are able to meet occupant needs in harsh climates (as can be found where the competition will be held in Illinois). This report outlines the goals of the competition, and gauges their feasibility using both modeling results and published data. To ensure that the established rules are challenging, yet reasonable, this report seeks to refine the competition goals after exploring their feasibility through case studies, cost projections, and energy modeling. The authors of this report conducted a survey of the most progressive home energy-efficiency practices expected to appear in competition design submittals. In Appendix A, a summary can be found of recent projects throughout the United States, Canada, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden and Japan, where some of the most progressive technologies have been implemented. As with past energy efficient home projects, EFHC competitors will incorporate a multitude of energy efficiency measures into their home designs. The authors believe that

  17. 78 FR 72393 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Investment Income Tax; Final and Proposed Rules #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 231 / Monday, December... Parts 1 and 602 RIN 1545-BK44 Net Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury... Investment Income Tax and the computation of Net Investment Income. The regulations affect individuals...

  18. 77 FR 72611 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... December 5, 2012 Part V Department of the Treasury Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 Net Investment... Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking...) the individual's net investment income for such taxable year, or (B) the excess (if any) of (i) the...

  19. Net analyte signal based statistical quality control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skibsted, E.T.S.; Boelens, H.F.M.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Smilde, A.K.; Broad, N.W.; Rees, D.R.; Witte, D.T.

    2005-01-01

    Net analyte signal statistical quality control (NAS-SQC) is a new methodology to perform multivariate product quality monitoring based on the net analyte signal approach. The main advantage of NAS-SQC is that the systematic variation in the product due to the analyte (or property) of interest is

  20. Asynchronous stream processing with S-Net

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grelck, C.; Scholz, S.-B.; Shafarenko, A.

    2010-01-01

    We present the rationale and design of S-Net, a coordination language for asynchronous stream processing. The language achieves a near-complete separation between the application code, written in any conventional programming language, and the coordination/communication code written in S-Net. Our

  1. Using the MVC architecture on . NET platform

    OpenAIRE

    Ježek, David

    2011-01-01

    This thesis deals with usage of MVC (Model View Controller) technology in web development on ASP.NET platform from Microsoft. Mainly it deals with latest version of framework ASP.NET MVC 3. First part describes MVC architecture and the second describes usage of MVC in certain parts of web application an comparing with PHP.

  2. Analysis of Petri Nets and Transition Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eike Best

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a stand-alone, no-frills tool supporting the analysis of (labelled place/transition Petri nets and the synthesis of labelled transition systems into Petri nets. It is implemented as a collection of independent, dedicated algorithms which have been designed to operate modularly, portably, extensibly, and efficiently.

  3. 27 CFR 7.27 - Net contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net contents. 7.27 Section 7.27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... the net contents are displayed by having the same blown, branded, or burned in the container in...

  4. Petri nets and other models of concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Sassone, Vladimiro

    1998-01-01

    This paper retraces, collects, and summarises contributions of the authors - in collaboration with others - on the theme of Petri nets and their categorical relationships to other models of concurrency.......This paper retraces, collects, and summarises contributions of the authors - in collaboration with others - on the theme of Petri nets and their categorical relationships to other models of concurrency....

  5. Delta Semantics Defined By Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    This report is identical to an earlier version of May 1978 except that Chapter 5 has been revised. A new paper: "A Petri Net Definition of a System Description Language", DAIMI, April 1979, 20 pages, extends the Petri net model to include a data state representing the program variables. Delta...

  6. Net neutrality and inflation of traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peitz, M.; Schütt, Florian

    Under strict net neutrality Internet service providers (ISPs) are required to carry data without any differentiation and at no cost to the content provider. We provide a simple framework with a monopoly ISP to evaluate the short-run effects of different net neutrality rules. Content differs in its

  7. Net Neutrality and Inflation of Traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peitz, M.; Schütt, F.

    2015-01-01

    Under strict net neutrality Internet service providers (ISPs) are required to carry data without any differentiation and at no cost to the content provider. We provide a simple framework with a monopoly ISP to evaluate different net neutrality rules. Content differs in its sensitivity to delay.

  8. The Net Neutrality Debate: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Rich

    2006-01-01

    Rich Greenfield examines the basics of today's net neutrality debate that is likely to be an ongoing issue for society. Greenfield states the problems inherent in the definition of "net neutrality" used by Common Cause: "Network neutrality is the principle that Internet users should be able to access any web content they choose and…

  9. Dynamic response of the thermometric net radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. D. Wilson; W. J. Massman; G. E. Swaters

    2009-01-01

    We computed the dynamic response of an idealized thermometric net radiometer, when driven by an oscillating net longwave radiation intended roughly to simulate rapid fluctuations of the radiative environment such as might be expected during field use of such devices. The study was motivated by curiosity as to whether non-linearity of the surface boundary conditions...

  10. Verification of Timed-Arc Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lasse; Jacobsen, Morten; Møller, Mikael Harkjær

    2011-01-01

    Timed-Arc Petri Nets (TAPN) are an extension of the classical P/T nets with continuous time. Tokens in TAPN carry an age and arcs between places and transitions are labelled with time intervals restricting the age of tokens available for transition firing. The TAPN model posses a number...

  11. A Brief Introduction to Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1997-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets or CPN) is a graphical oriented language for design, specification, simulation and verification of systems. It is in particular well- suited for systems in which communication, synchronisation and resource sharing are important. Typical examples of application areas a...

  12. Can we be certain about future land use change in Europe? A multi-scenario, integrated-assessment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, I P; Brown, C; Janes, V; Sandars, D

    2017-02-01

    The global land system is facing unprecedented pressures from growing human populations and climatic change. Understanding the effects these pressures may have is necessary to designing land management strategies that ensure food security, ecosystem service provision and successful climate mitigation and adaptation. However, the number of complex, interacting effects involved makes any complete understanding very difficult to achieve. Nevertheless, the recent development of integrated modelling frameworks allows for the exploration of the co-development of human and natural systems under scenarios of global change, potentially illuminating the main drivers and processes in future land system change. Here, we use one such integrated modelling framework (the CLIMSAVE Integrated Assessment Platform) to investigate the range of projected outcomes in the European land system across climatic and socio-economic scenarios for the 2050s. We find substantial consistency in locations and types of change even under the most divergent conditions, with results suggesting that climate change alone will lead to a contraction in the agricultural and forest area within Europe, particularly in southern Europe. This is partly offset by the introduction of socioeconomic changes that change both the demand for agricultural production, through changing food demand and net imports, and the efficiency of agricultural production. Simulated extensification and abandonment in the Mediterranean region is driven by future decreases in the relative profitability of the agricultural sector in southern Europe, owing to decreased productivity as a consequence of increased heat and drought stress and reduced irrigation water availability. The very low likelihood (future policy should seek to promote and support the multifunctional role of agriculture and forests in different European regions, rather than focusing on increased productivity as a route to agricultural and forestry viability.

  13. Collusion and the elasticity of demand

    OpenAIRE

    David Collie

    2004-01-01

    The analysis of collusion in infinitely repeated Cournot oligopoly games has generally assumed that demand is linear, but this note uses constant-elasticity demand functions to investigate how the elasticity of demand affects the sustainability of collusion.

  14. Gill net and trammel net selectivity in the northern Aegean Sea, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Saadet Karakulak

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Fishing trials were carried out with gill nets and trammel nets in the northern Aegean Sea from March 2004 to February 2005. Four different mesh sizes for the gill nets and the inner panel of trammel nets (16, 18, 20 and 22 mm bar length were used. Selectivity parameters for the five most economically important species, bogue (Boops boops, annular sea bream (Diplodus annularis, striped red mullet (Mullus surmuletus, axillary sea bream (Pagellus acarne and blotched picarel (Spicara maena, caught by the two gears were estimated. The SELECT method was used to estimate the selectivity parameters of a variety of models. Catch composition and catch proportion of several species were different in gill and trammel nets. The length frequency distributions of the species caught by the two gears were significantly different. The bi-modal model selectivity curve gave the best fit for gill net and trammel net data, and there was little difference between the modal lengths of these nets. However, a clear difference was found in catching efficiency. The highest catch rates were obtained with the trammel net. Given that many discard species and small fish are caught by gill nets and trammel nets with a mesh size of 16 mm, it is clear that these nets are not appropriate for fisheries. Consequently, the best mesh size for multispecies fisheries is 18 mm. This mesh size will considerably reduce the numbers of small sized individuals and discard species in the catch.

  15. Discrete, continuous, and hybrid petri nets

    CERN Document Server

    David, René

    2004-01-01

    Petri nets do not designate a single modeling formalism. In fact, newcomers to the field confess sometimes to be a little puzzled by the diversity of formalisms that are recognized under this "umbrella". Disregarding some extensions to the theoretical modeling capabilities, and looking at the level of abstraction of the formalisms, Condition/Event, Elementary, Place/Transition, Predicate/Transition, Colored, Object Oriented... net systems are frequently encountered in the literature. On the other side, provided with appropriate interpretative extensions, Controled Net Systems, Marking Diagrams (the Petri net generalization of State Diagrams), or the many-many variants in which time can be explicitly incorporated -Time(d), Deterministic, (Generalized) Stochastic, Fuzzy...- are defined. This represents another way to define practical formalisms that can be obtained by the "cro- product" of the two mentioned dimensions. Thus Petri nets constitute a modeling paradigm, understandable in a broad sense as "the total...

  16. Quantifying and mapping the human appropriation of net primary production in earth's terrestrial ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberl, Helmut; Erb, K Heinz; Krausmann, Fridolin; Gaube, Veronika; Bondeau, Alberte; Plutzar, Christoph; Gingrich, Simone; Lucht, Wolfgang; Fischer-Kowalski, Marina

    2007-07-31

    Human appropriation of net primary production (HANPP), the aggregate impact of land use on biomass available each year in ecosystems, is a prominent measure of the human domination of the biosphere. We present a comprehensive assessment of global HANPP based on vegetation modeling, agricultural and forestry statistics, and geographical information systems data on land use, land cover, and soil degradation that localizes human impact on ecosystems. We found an aggregate global HANPP value of 15.6 Pg C/yr or 23.8% of potential net primary productivity, of which 53% was contributed by harvest, 40% by land-use-induced productivity changes, and 7% by human-induced fires. This is a remarkable impact on the biosphere caused by just one species. We present maps quantifying human-induced changes in trophic energy flows in ecosystems that illustrate spatial patterns in the human domination of ecosystems, thus emphasizing land use as a pervasive factor of global importance. Land use transforms earth's terrestrial surface, resulting in changes in biogeochemical cycles and in the ability of ecosystems to deliver services critical to human well being. The results suggest that large-scale schemes to substitute biomass for fossil fuels should be viewed cautiously because massive additional pressures on ecosystems might result from increased biomass harvest.

  17. The moral demands of affluence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderholm, Jørn

    2015-01-01

    In 2004, Garrett Cullity made a significant contribution to the literature on what the world’s relatively affluent owe to the world’s relatively poor through the publishing of The Moral Demands of Affluence. In this discussion note, I draw attention to a logical problem in Cullity’s master argument...

  18. The Cognitive Demands of Writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torrance, Mark; Jeffery, Gaynor

    1999-01-01

    Writing is a complex activity that places demands on cognitive resources. This volume presents original theory and research exploring the ways in which the sub-components of the writing process (generating and organizing content, producing grammatical sentences, etc.) differ in their cognitive

  19. Water Demand at Recreation Developments

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Simon; Hughes, Trevor C

    1980-01-01

    Design criteria for drinking water systems at recreation developments, particularly summer home type, cause frequent confrontations with regulatory agencies. Developers claim extremely low water use rates due to low occupancy rates, but regulatory agencies are concerned about changes over time from essentially weekend use to more permanent residency and also about occasional peak day water demands similar to those...

  20. Rent assistance and housing demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Ruud H.; Ridder, G.

    1997-01-01

    We examine the effect of a rent subsidy program, Rent Assistance, on the demand for rental housing in The Netherlands. Low-income households with a rent that exceeds a norm rent, but is smaller than a maximum rent are eligible for this subsidy, that is equal to a fraction of the difference between

  1. Rent assistance and housing demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Ruud H.; Ridder, G.

    1993-01-01

    We examine the effect of a rent subsidy program, Rent Assistance, on the demand for rental housing in The Netherlands. Low-income households with a rent that exceeds a norm rent, but is smaller than a maximum rent are eligible for this subsidy, that is equal to a fraction of the difference between

  2. Coal demand feeds stockyard market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-04-01

    After a period of relatively sluggish growth, particularly in northern Europe where heavy bulk imports have been static, a sudden surge in coal demand has put pressure on stockyard handling capacity. The article reports on several new bucket wheel stacker/reclaimers which have recently been ordered or installed in Germany, Wales, China and other countries. 2 figs.

  3. Faculty Demand in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Danielle

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study is to identify the factors that shift the demand curve for faculty at not-for-profit private institutions. It is unique in that to the author's knowledge no other study has directly addressed the question of how the positive correlation between average faculty salaries and faculty-student ratios can be reconciled with…

  4. Employer Demands from Business Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, Stephen; Dutton, Matthew; McQuaid, Ronald; Richard, Alec

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on research carried out with employers to determine demand for business and management skills in the Scottish workforce. Design/methodology/approach: The research used a questionnaire in which employers were interviewed (either telephone or face to face), completed themselves and returned by e-mail,…

  5. Consumer demand and quality assurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Wognum, Nel; Trienekens, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    an inventory of pork chain governance and quality management systems, also resulting from a pan-European study, and attempt to match types of chains to consumer segments, arguing that the type of quality demanded by the consumers has implications especially for the quality management system governing the chain...

  6. Demand Controlled Ventilation and Classroom Ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mendell, Mark J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Davies, Molly [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Eliseeva, Ekaterina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Faulkner, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hong, Tienzen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sullivan, Douglas P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    This document summarizes a research effort on demand controlled ventilation and classroom ventilation. The research on demand controlled ventilation included field studies and building energy modeling.

  7. Demand controlled ventilation and classroom ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mendell, Mark J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Davies, Molly [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Eliseeva, Ekaterina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Faulkner, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hong, Tienzen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sullivan, Douglas P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-01-06

    This document summarizes a research effort on demand controlled ventilation and classroom ventilation. The research on demand controlled ventilation included field studies and building energy modeling.

  8. Pro visual C++/CLI and the net 35 platform

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Pro Visual C++/CLI and the .NET 3.5 Platform is about writing .NET applications using C++/CLI. While readers are learning the ins and outs of .NET application development, they will also be learning the syntax of C++, both old and new to .NET. Readers will also gain a good understanding of the .NET architecture. This is truly a .NET book applying C++ as its development language not another C++ syntax book that happens to cover .NET.

  9. Recent land degradation and improvement in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhanguo; Dent, David

    2009-05-01

    Land degradation is a global development and environment issue that afflicts China more than most countries in terms of the extent, economic impact, and number of people affected. Up-to-date, quantitative information is needed to support policy and action for food and water security, economic development, and environmental integrity. Data for a defined, recent period enable us to distinguish the legacy of historical land degradation from what is happening now. We define land degradation as long-term decline in ecosystem function and productivity and measure it by remote sensing of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), the greenness index. NDVI may be translated to net primary productivity (NPP). Deviation from the norm serves as a proxy assessment of land degradation and improvement-if other factors that may be responsible are taken into account. These other factors include climate, which may be assessed by rain-use efficiency and energy-use efficiency. Analysis of the 23-year Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) NDVI data reveals that, in China over the period 1981-2003, NPP increased overall, but areas of declining climate-adjusted NPP comprise 23% of the country, mainly in south China. About 35% of China's population (457 million out of 1317 million) depend on the degrading land. Degrading areas suffered a loss of NPP of 12 kgC ha(-1) y(-1), amounting to almost 60 million tC not fixed from the atmosphere; loss of soil organic carbon from these areas is likely to be orders of magnitude greater. There is no correlation between land degradation and dry lands; it is more of an issue in cropland and forest: 21% of degrading land is cropland and 40% is forest, 24% of the arable and 44% of the forest, respectively. There is no simple statistical relationship between land degradation and rural population density or poverty. Most identified land degradation is in the south and east, driven by unprecedented land-use change.

  10. Land-atmosphere interactions due to anthropogenic and natural changes in the land surface: A numerical modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhao

    Alterations to the land surface can be attributed to both human activity and natural variability. Human activities, such as urbanization and irrigation, can change the conditions of the land surface by altering albedo, soil moisture, aerodynamic roughness length, the partitioning of net radiation into sensible and latent heat, and other surface characteristics. On the other hand, natural variability, manifested through changes in atmospheric circulation, can also induce land surface changes. These regional scale land surface changes, induced either by humans or natural variability, can effectively modify atmospheric conditions through land-atmosphere interactions. However, only in recent decades have numerical models begun to include representations of the critical processes driving changes at the land surface, and their associated effects on the overlying atmosphere. In this work we explore three mechanisms by which changes to the land surface - both anthropogenic and naturally induced - impact the overlying atmosphere and affect regional hydroclimate. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  11. Land Degradation and Desertification Vulnerability Assessment under Land Changes with MEDALUS approach in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, C.; Lee, E. J.; Yoo, S.; Lim, C. H.; Lee, S. J.; Lee, W. K.

    2016-12-01

    Land degradation usually referred the loss of land productivity, and the desertification was the result of the land degradation. To understand the symptoms of environmental changes, using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Net Primary Product (NPP) was novel approach. In this study, however, focused on land cover change itself. Therefore, this study focused on land cover change direction and frequency to understand the land degradation. We assumed that lands changed from natural vegetation to artificial barren area were degradation area, and lands changed a lot of classes in specific time were face high pressure of land degradation. For the analysis, we used MODIS land cover data which had around 500m spatial resolution, and time period was 2001 to 2012. We also applied Mediterranean Desertification and Land Use (MEDALUS) approach which requires following variables as its input data: climate quality, soil quality, vegetation quality and management quality. This approach originated from Mediterranean region, however, this study assumed that using those variables would be effective in such nations to monitoring and assessing desertification and land degradation. In the case of the land cover change monitoring, interestingly, the areas of barren which considered desert were fluctuated in each years. In addition, the other land covers also changing rapidly in pixel level with overall decreasing trends in savanna, grassland, forest, and barren, and increasing trends in shrubland and cropland. In the case of land change frequency, 31.7% of land area were not changed, but those area were mainly barren, savanna, and urban area. Through combining the results, boundary area of desert of North East part of Ethiopia were represented as the most vulnerable area, which means combating desertification activities would focus on among area. In addition, through monitoring land cover dynamics also useful approach to understand the land degradation area. As the future

  12. The alchemy of demand response: turning demand into supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochlin, Cliff

    2009-11-15

    Paying customers to refrain from purchasing products they want seems to run counter to the normal operation of markets. Demand response should be interpreted not as a supply-side resource but as a secondary market that attempts to correct the misallocation of electricity among electric users caused by regulated average rate tariffs. In a world with costless metering, the DR solution results in inefficiency as measured by deadweight losses. (author)

  13. Demand Engineering: IP Network Optimisation Through Intelligent Demand Placement

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, John; Afrakteh, Arash; Xiu, Ruoyang

    2016-01-01

    Traffic engineering has been used in IP and MPLS networks for a number of years as a tool for making more efficient use of capacity by explicitly routing traffic demands where there is available network capacity that would otherwise be unused. Deployment of traffic engineering imposes an additional layer of complexity to network design and operations, however, which has constrained its adoption for capacity optimisation. The rise of Software Defined Networks has renewed interest in the use of...

  14. Automation of Presentation Record Production Based on Rich-Media Technology Using SNT Petri Nets Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Martiník

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rich-media describes a broad range of digital interactive media that is increasingly used in the Internet and also in the support of education. Last year, a special pilot audiovisual lecture room was built as a part of the MERLINGO (MEdia-rich Repository of LearnING Objects project solution. It contains all the elements of the modern lecture room determined for the implementation of presentation recordings based on the rich-media technologies and their publication online or on-demand featuring the access of all its elements in the automated mode including automatic editing. Property-preserving Petri net process algebras (PPPA were designed for the specification and verification of the Petri net processes. PPPA does not need to verify the composition of the Petri net processes because all their algebraic operators preserve the specified set of the properties. These original PPPA are significantly generalized for the newly introduced class of the SNT Petri process and agent nets in this paper. The PLACE-SUBST and ASYNC-PROC algebraic operators are defined for this class of Petri nets and their chosen properties are proved. The SNT Petri process and agent nets theory were significantly applied at the design, verification, and implementation of the programming system ensuring the pilot audiovisual lecture room functionality.

  15. Automation of Presentation Record Production Based on Rich-Media Technology Using SNT Petri Nets Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martiník, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Rich-media describes a broad range of digital interactive media that is increasingly used in the Internet and also in the support of education. Last year, a special pilot audiovisual lecture room was built as a part of the MERLINGO (MEdia-rich Repository of LearnING Objects) project solution. It contains all the elements of the modern lecture room determined for the implementation of presentation recordings based on the rich-media technologies and their publication online or on-demand featuring the access of all its elements in the automated mode including automatic editing. Property-preserving Petri net process algebras (PPPA) were designed for the specification and verification of the Petri net processes. PPPA does not need to verify the composition of the Petri net processes because all their algebraic operators preserve the specified set of the properties. These original PPPA are significantly generalized for the newly introduced class of the SNT Petri process and agent nets in this paper. The PLACE-SUBST and ASYNC-PROC algebraic operators are defined for this class of Petri nets and their chosen properties are proved. The SNT Petri process and agent nets theory were significantly applied at the design, verification, and implementation of the programming system ensuring the pilot audiovisual lecture room functionality.

  16. Food appropriation through large scale land acquisitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulli, Maria Cristina; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    The increasing demand for agricultural products and the uncertainty of international food markets has recently drawn the attention of governments and agribusiness firms toward investments in productive agricultural land, mostly in the developing world. The targeted countries are typically located in regions that have remained only marginally utilized because of lack of modern technology. It is expected that in the long run large scale land acquisitions (LSLAs) for commercial farming will bring the technology required to close the existing crops yield gaps. While the extent of the acquired land and the associated appropriation of freshwater resources have been investigated in detail, the amount of food this land can produce and the number of people it could feed still need to be quantified. Here we use a unique dataset of land deals to provide a global quantitative assessment of the rates of crop and food appropriation potentially associated with LSLAs. We show how up to 300-550 million people could be fed by crops grown in the acquired land, should these investments in agriculture improve crop production and close the yield gap. In contrast, about 190-370 million people could be supported by this land without closing of the yield gap. These numbers raise some concern because the food produced in the acquired land is typically exported to other regions, while the target countries exhibit high levels of malnourishment. Conversely, if used for domestic consumption, the crops harvested in the acquired land could ensure food security to the local populations.

  17. Long-term trends in field level irrigation water demand in Mahanadi delta districts - a hydrological modeling approach for coping with climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju Pokkuluri, Venkat; Rao, Diwakar Parsi Guru; Hazra, Sugata; Srikant Kulkarni, Sunil

    2017-04-01

    India uses its 85 percent of available water resources for irrigation making it the country with largest net irrigated area in the world. With one of the largest delta plains, sustaining the needs of irrigation supplies is critical for food security and coping with challenges of climate change. The extensive development of upstream river basins/catchments is posing serious challenge and constrains to the water availability to delta regions, which depend on the controlled/regulated flows from the upstream catchments. The irrigation water demands vary due to changes in agricultural practices, cropping pattern and changing climate conditions. Estimation of realistic irrigation water demand and its trend over time is critical for meeting the supplementary water needs of productive agricultural lands in delta plains and there by coping the challenges of extensive upstream river basin development and climate change. The present study carried out in delta districts of Mahanadi river in Odisha State of India, wherein the long-term trends in field level irrigation water requirements were estimated, both on spatial & temporal scales, using hydrological modeling framework. This study attempts to estimate field level irrigation water requirements through simulation of soil water balance during the crop growing season through process based hydrological modeling framework. The soil water balance computations were carried out using FAO-56 framework, by modifying the crop coefficient (Kc) proportional to the water stress coefficient (Ks), which is a function of root zone depletion of water. Daily meteorological data, spatial cropping pattern, terrain are incorporated in the soil water balance simulation in the model. The irrigation water demand is derived considering the exclusion of soil water stress for each model time step. The field level irrigation water requirement at 8 day interval had been estimated for the each Rabi season (post-monsoon) spanning over 1986 to 2015. The

  18. Evaluation of Resources of Agricultural Lands Using Fuzzy Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    With ever increasing demands on agriculture, it is essential that we be able to adequately evaluate agriculture land resources. Recently, efforts have been undertaken to develop methods and tools for the purpose of evaluating agricultural land resources. However, to be successful, assessments need...

  19. Land Use Changes within the Bogoso-Prestea Gold Concession ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mining activities have existed in the Bogoso-Prestea area for over a century. The high demand for gold has led to intense mining activities in the area and has resulted in land use changes. This study evaluated a total area of 4 379.93 ha within the Bogoso-Prestea Gold Concession that has experienced land use change ...

  20. Calibration and validation of land-use models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van J.

    2013-01-01

    Land use is constantly changing. For example, urban areas expand as a result of population growth, cropping patterns change to fulfil the demand for bioenergy and natural vegetation recovers in locations where farmers cease to farm. Understanding these changes is pivotal to explore future land-use

  1. Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response. International Experiences and Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ghatikar, Girish [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ni, Chun Chun [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dudley, Junqiao [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Martin, Phil [Enernoc, Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Wikler, Greg

    2012-06-01

    Demand response (DR) is a load management tool which provides a cost-effective alternative to traditional supply-side solutions to address the growing demand during times of peak electrical load. According to the US Department of Energy (DOE), demand response reflects “changes in electric usage by end-use customers from their normal consumption patterns in response to changes in the price of electricity over time, or to incentive payments designed to induce lower electricity use at times of high wholesale market prices or when system reliability is jeopardized.” 1 The California Energy Commission (CEC) defines DR as “a reduction in customers’ electricity consumption over a given time interval relative to what would otherwise occur in response to a price signal, other financial incentives, or a reliability signal.” 2 This latter definition is perhaps most reflective of how DR is understood and implemented today in countries such as the US, Canada, and Australia where DR is primarily a dispatchable resource responding to signals from utilities, grid operators, and/or load aggregators (or DR providers).

  2. Ozone and haze pollution weakens net primary productivity in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xu; Unger, Nadine; Harper, Kandice; Xia, Xiangao; Liao, Hong; Zhu, Tong; Xiao, Jingfeng; Feng, Zhaozhong; Li, Jing

    2017-05-01

    Atmospheric pollutants have both beneficial and detrimental effects on carbon uptake by land ecosystems. Surface ozone (O3) damages leaf photosynthesis by oxidizing plant cells, while aerosols promote carbon uptake by increasing diffuse radiation and exert additional influences through concomitant perturbations to meteorology and hydrology. China is currently the world's largest emitter of both carbon dioxide and short-lived air pollutants. The land ecosystems of China are estimated to provide a carbon sink, but it remains unclear whether air pollution acts to inhibit or promote carbon uptake. Here, we employ Earth system modeling and multiple measurement datasets to assess the separate and combined effects of anthropogenic O3 and aerosol pollution on net primary productivity (NPP) in China. In the present day, O3 reduces annual NPP by 0.6 Pg C (14 %) with a range from 0.4 Pg C (low O3 sensitivity) to 0.8 Pg C (high O3 sensitivity). In contrast, aerosol direct effects increase NPP by 0.2 Pg C (5 %) through the combination of diffuse radiation fertilization, reduced canopy temperatures, and reduced evaporation leading to higher soil moisture. Consequently, the net effects of O3 and aerosols decrease NPP by 0.4 Pg C (9 %) with a range from 0.2 Pg C (low O3 sensitivity) to 0.6 Pg C (high O3 sensitivity). However, precipitation inhibition from combined aerosol direct and indirect effects reduces annual NPP by 0.2 Pg C (4 %), leading to a net air pollution suppression of 0.8 Pg C (16 %) with a range from 0.6 Pg C (low O3 sensitivity) to 1.0 Pg C (high O3 sensitivity). Our results reveal strong dampening effects of air pollution on the land carbon uptake in China today. Following the current legislation emission scenario, this suppression will be further increased by the year 2030, mainly due to a continuing increase in surface O3. However, the maximum technically feasible reduction scenario could drastically relieve the current level of NPP damage by 70 % in 2030

  3. Global and regional fluxes of carbon from land use and land cover change 1850-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, R. A.; Nassikas, Alexander A.

    2017-03-01

    The net flux of carbon from land use and land cover change (LULCC) is an important term in the global carbon balance. Here we report a new estimate of annual fluxes from 1850 to 2015, updating earlier analyses with new estimates of both historical and current rates of LULCC and including emissions from draining and burning of peatlands in Southeast Asia. For most of the 186 countries included we relied on data from Food and Agriculture Organization to document changes in the areas of croplands and pastures since 1960 and changes in the areas of forests and "other land" since 1990. For earlier years we used other sources of information. We used a bookkeeping model that prescribed changes in carbon density of vegetation and soils for 20 types of ecosystems and five land uses. The total net flux attributable to LULCC over the period 1850-2015 is calculated to have been 145 ± 16 Pg C (1 standard deviation). Most of the emissions were from the tropics (102 ± 5.8 Pg C), generally increasing over time to a maximum of 2.10 Pg C yr-1 in 1997. Outside the tropics emissions were roughly constant at 0.5 Pg C yr-1 until 1940, declined to zero around 1970, and then became negative. For the most recent decade (2006-2015) global net emissions from LULCC averaged 1.11 (±0.35) Pg C yr-1, consisting of a net source from the tropics (1.41 ± 0.17 Pg C yr-1), a net sink in northern midlatitudes (-0.28 ± 0.21 Pg C yr-1), and carbon neutrality in southern midlatitudes.

  4. Review: Feed demand landscape and implications of food-not feed strategy for food security and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkar, H P S

    2017-12-04

    The food-feed competition is one of the complex challenges, and so are the ongoing climate change, land degradation and water shortage for realizing sustainable food production systems. By 2050 the global demand for animal products is projected to increase by 60% to 70%, and developing countries will have a lion's share in this increase. Currently, ~800 million tonnes of cereals (one-third of total cereal production) are used in animal feed and by 2050 it is projected to be over 1.1 billion tonnes. Most of the increase in feed demand will be in developing countries, which already face many food security challenges. Additional feed required for the projected increased demand of animal products, if met through food grains, will further exacerbate the food insecurity in these countries. Furthermore, globally, the production, processing and transport of feed account for 45% of the greenhouse gas emissions from the livestock sector. This paper presents approaches for addressing these challenges in quest for making livestock sector more sustainable. The use of novel human-inedible feed resources such as insect meals, leaf meals, protein isolates, single cell protein produced using waste streams, protein hydrolysates, spineless cactus, algae, co-products of the biofuel industry, food wastes among others, has enormous prospects. Efficient use of grasslands also offers possibilities for increasing carbon sequestration, land reclamation and livestock productivity. Opportunities also exist for decreasing feed wastages by simple and well proven practices such as use of appropriate troughs, increase in efficiency of harvesting crop residues and their conversion to complete feeds especially in the form of densified feed blocks or pellets, feeding as per the nutrient requirements, among others. Available evidence have been presented to substantiate arguments that: (a) for successful and sustained adoption of a feed technology, participation of the private sector and a sound

  5. An Improved Approach for Estimating Daily Net Radiation over the Heihe River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingfang Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Net radiation plays an essential role in determining the thermal conditions of the Earth’s surface and is an important parameter for the study of land-surface processes and global climate change. In this paper, an improved satellite-based approach to estimate the daily net radiation is presented, in which sunshine duration were derived from the geostationary meteorological satellite (FY-2D cloud classification product, the monthly empirical as and bs Angstrom coefficients for net shortwave radiation were calibrated by spatial fitting of the ground data from 1997 to 2006, and the daily net longwave radiation was calibrated with ground data from 2007 to 2010 over the Heihe River Basin in China. The estimated daily net radiation values were validated against ground data for 12 months in 2008 at four stations with different underlying surface types. The average coefficient of determination (R2 was 0.8489, and the averaged Nash-Sutcliffe equation (NSE was 0.8356. The close agreement between the estimated daily net radiation and observations indicates that the proposed method is promising, especially given the comparison between the spatial distribution and the interpolation of sunshine duration. Potential applications include climate research, energy balance studies and the estimation of global evapotranspiration.

  6. Demand chain management - The evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Ericsson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of Supply Chain Management (SCM and Demand Chain Management (DCM are among the new and debated topics concerning logistics in the literature. The question considered in this paper is: “Are these concepts needed or will they just add to the confusion?” Lasting business concepts have always evolved in close interaction between business and academia. Different approaches start out in business and they are then, more or less si- multaneously, aligned, integrated, systemised and structured in academia. In this way a terminology (or language is provided that helps in further diffusion of the concepts. There is a lack of consensus on the definition of the concept of SCM. This may be one of the major reasons for the difficulty in advancing the science and measuring the results of implementation in business. Relationships in SCM span from rather loose coalitions to highly structured virtual network integrations. DCM is a highly organised chain in which the key is mutual interdependence and partnership. The purpose is to create a distinctive competence for the chain as a whole that helps to identify and satisfy customer needs and wishes. The classical research concerning vertical marketing systems is very helpful in systemising the rather unstructured discussions in current SCM research. The trend lies in increasing competition between channels rather than between companies, which in turn leads to the creation of channels with a high degree of partnership and mutual interdependence between members. These types of channels are known as organised vertical marketing systems in the classic marketing channel research. The behaviour in these types of channels, as well as the formal and informal structures, roles in the network, power and dependence relations, etc. are well covered topics in the literature. The concept of vertical marketing systems lies behind the definition of demand chains and demand chain management proposed in this paper. A

  7. Updated outdoor recreation use values on national forests and other public lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John. Loomis

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes more than 30 years of the literature on net economic value of outdoor recreation on public lands. The report provides average net willingness to pay or consumer surplus per day for 30 recreation activities at the national level. Values per day by recreation activity are also presented by census region of the United States. Detailed tables provide...

  8. KONVERGENSI DALAM PROGRAM NET CITIZEN JOURNALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhafidilla Vebrynda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Di dalam artikel ini, peneliti ingin melihat perkembangan teknologi di Indonesia sebagai sebuah peluang untuk menjalankan sebuah program berita berbasis video kiriman masyarakat. Perkembangan teknologi tersebut adalah teknologi penyiaran, teknologi sosial media dan teknologi dalam proses produksi sebuah video. Di Indonesia, jumlah televisi semakin banyak. Setiap stasiun televisi harus bersaing untuk dapat bertahan hidup. Net TV merupakan sebuah stasiun televisi baru di Indonesia yang harus memiliki berbagai program unggulan baru agar dapat bersaing dengan televisi lainnya yang sudah ada. Net TV menggunakan berbagai platform media untuk menjalankan program Net Citizen Journalism (Net CJ. Penggunaan berbagai platform media dikenal dengan istilah multiplatform dan secara teoritis dikenal dengan istilah konvergensi. Konvergensi yaitu saat meleburnya domain-domain dalam berbagai media komunikasi. Artikel ini menggunakan metode studi kasus untuk melihat bagaimana konvergensi terjadi dalam proses pengelolaan program Net CJ. Teknik pengumpulan data adalah dengan wawancara mendalam, observasi dan studi dokumen. Wawancara mendalam dilakukan dari tiga sudut pandang yaitu dari pengelola program, pengguna/audience dan pengamat media. Penelitian ini menemukan bahwa dengan menggunakan berbagai platform media yang fungsinya berbeda, memiliki satu tujuan yang sama yaitu untuk menjalankan program Net CJ. Adapun berbagai platform dalam proses produksi program yaitu tayangan TV konvensional, streaming TV, website, aplikasi Net CJ, facebook, twitter, instagram dan path. Konvergensi media dijalankan dalam dua proses, yaitu proses produksi dan proses promosi program berita.

  9. Net Neutrality: Media Discourses and Public Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Quail

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes media and public discourses surrounding net neutrality, with particular attention to public utility philosophy, from a critical perspective. The article suggests that further public education about net neutrality would be beneficial. The first portion of this paper provides a survey of the existing literature surrounding net neutrality, highlighting the contentious debate between market-based and public interest perspectives. In order to contextualize the debate, an overview of public utility philosophy is provided, shedding light on how the Internet can be conceptualized as a public good. Following this discussion, an analysis of mainstream media is presented, exploring how the media represents the issue of net neutrality and whether or not the Internet is discussed through the lens of public utility. To further examine how the net neutrality debate is being addressed, and to see the potential impacts of media discourses on the general public, the results of a focus group are reported and analyzed. Finally, a discussion assesses the implications of the net neutrality debate as presented through media discourses, highlighting the future of net neutrality as an important policy issue.

  10. Trade-Offs in Multi-Purpose Land Use under Land Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul L. G. Vlek

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Land provides a host of ecosystem services, of which the provisioning services are often considered paramount. As the demand for agricultural products multiplies, other ecosystem services are being degraded or lost entirely. Finding a sustainable trade-off between food production and one or more of other ecosystem services, given the variety of stakeholders, is a matter of optimizing land use in a dynamic and complex socio-ecological system. Land degradation reduces our options to meet both food demands and environmental needs. In order to illustrate this trade-off dilemma, four representative services, carbon sinks, water storage, biodiversity, and space for urbanization, are discussed here based on a review of contemporary literature that cuts across the domain of ecosystem services that are provided by land. Agricultural research will have to expand its focus from the field to the landscape level and in the process examine the cost of production that internalizes environmental costs. In some situations, the public cost of agriculture in marginal environments outweighs the private gains, even with the best technologies in place. Land use and city planners will increasingly have to address the cost of occupying productive agricultural land or the conversion of natural habitats. Landscape designs and urban planning should aim for the preservation of agricultural land and the integrated management of land resources by closing water and nutrient cycles, and by restoring biodiversity.

  11. Land Conservation in an Evolving Agricultural Industry: Trade-offs to Consider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, J. S.; Murray, B. C.; McCarl, B. A.; Jackson, R. B.

    2008-12-01

    This study analyzes the interactions of land conservation policy with biofuel expansion using an economic model of the U.S. forest and agricultural sectors. The world agricultural industry is changing rapidly under emerging market and policy-based pressures. An important driver in the U.S. is the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS), which mandates significant expansion in biofuels production (up to 36 billion gallons/year by 2022). Traditional land conservation practices such as the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) are at risk in this changing agricultural climate, as the opportunity costs of reverting to cropland continue to rise. Large- scale reversion of CRP acreage is likely to lead to substantial losses in soil carbon, biodiversity, soil erosion protection, and water quality. However, given the increased competition for land resources, continued efforts to maintain the CRP could induce land use change (LUC) and agricultural development from even more sensitive ecosystems, including native grasslands and forests. This study uses economic modeling to study CRP reversion and LUC under multiple scenarios, including: 1) Baseline assumptions of growth in world agricultural demand and energy prices, with and without CRP reversion; 2) Implementation of the RFS while maintaining the CRP; and 3) RFS with CRP reversion allowed. The study is done using the FASOMGHG model (Lee, McCarl et al, 2008), which is well suited for this analysis as it: 1) Depicts land use competition between crops, pasture, CRP, and forestry over a 100 year period 2) Contains comprehensive GHG accounting across the sectors, 3) Allows land in the CRP to revert to cultivation at an economically optimal rate as land values increase, and 4) Extensively models biofuel and conventional agricultural production possibilities. Results generated to date show significant reversion to cultivation, even under the baseline (36% of the total CRP stock by 2020). Implementing the RFS further pressures conservation

  12. Approximation methods for stochastic petri nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungnitz, Hauke Joerg

    1992-01-01

    Stochastic Marked Graphs are a concurrent decision free formalism provided with a powerful synchronization mechanism generalizing conventional Fork Join Queueing Networks. In some particular cases the analysis of the throughput can be done analytically. Otherwise the analysis suffers from the classical state explosion problem. Embedded in the divide and conquer paradigm, approximation techniques are introduced for the analysis of stochastic marked graphs and Macroplace/Macrotransition-nets (MPMT-nets), a new subclass introduced herein. MPMT-nets are a subclass of Petri nets that allow limited choice, concurrency and sharing of resources. The modeling power of MPMT is much larger than that of marked graphs, e.g., MPMT-nets can model manufacturing flow lines with unreliable machines and dataflow graphs where choice and synchronization occur. The basic idea leads to the notion of a cut to split the original net system into two subnets. The cuts lead to two aggregated net systems where one of the subnets is reduced to a single transition. A further reduction leads to a basic skeleton. The generalization of the idea leads to multiple cuts, where single cuts can be applied recursively leading to a hierarchical decomposition. Based on the decomposition, a response time approximation technique for the performance analysis is introduced. Also, delay equivalence, which has previously been introduced in the context of marked graphs by Woodside et al., Marie's method and flow equivalent aggregation are applied to the aggregated net systems. The experimental results show that response time approximation converges quickly and shows reasonable accuracy in most cases. The convergence of Marie's method and flow equivalent aggregation are applied to the aggregated net systems. The experimental results show that response time approximation converges quickly and shows reasonable accuracy in most cases. The convergence of Marie's is slower, but the accuracy is generally better. Delay

  13. Visual Studio 2010 and NET 4 Six-in-One

    CERN Document Server

    Novak, Istvan; Granicz, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Complete coverage of all key .NET 4 and Visual Studio 2010 languages and technologies. .NET 4 is Microsoft's latest version of their core programming platform, and Visual Studio 2010 is the toolset that helps write .NET 4 applications. This comprehensive resource offers one-stop shopping for all you need to know to get productive with .NET 4. Experienced author and .NET guru Mitchel Sellers reviews all the important new features of .NET 4, including .NET charting and ASP.NET charting, ASP.NET dynamic data and jQuery, and the addition of F# as a supported package language. The expansive coverag

  14. Application and Theory of Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , the conferences have 150-200 participants, one third of these coming from industry and the rest from universities and research institutions. The 1992 conference was organized by the School of Computing and Management Sciences at Sheffield City Polytechnic, England. The volume contains twoinvited papers, by G......This volume contains the proceedings of the 13th International Conference onApplication and Theory of Petri Nets, held in Sheffield, England, in June 1992. The aim of the Petri net conferences is to create a forum for discussing progress in the application and theory of Petri nets. Typically...

  15. Performance Analysis using Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wells, Lisa Marie

    an explicit separation between modelling the behaviour of a system and monitoring the behaviour of the model. As a result, cleaner and more understandable models can be created. The third paper presents a novel method for adding auxiliary information to coloured Petri net models. Coloured Petri nets models...... in a very limited and predictable manner, and it is easy to enable and disable the auxiliary information. The fourth paper is a case study in which the performance of a web server was analysed using coloured Petri nets. This case study has shown that it is relatively easy to analyse the performance...

  16. The KM3NeT project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, U.F., E-mail: katz@physik.uni-erlangen.d [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics (ECAP), University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2011-01-21

    The KM3NeT research infrastructure in the deep Mediterranean Sea will host a multi-cubic-kilometre neutrino telescope and provide connectivity for continuous, long-term measurements of earth and sea sciences, such as geology, marine biology and oceanography. The KM3NeT neutrino telescope will complement the IceCube telescope currently being installed at the South Pole in its field of view and surpass its sensitivity by a substantial factor. In this document the major aspects of the KM3NeT technical design are described and the expected physics sensitivity is discussed. Finally, the expected time line towards construction is presented.

  17. The net neutrality debate on Twitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf J. Schünemann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The internet has been seen as a medium that empowers individual political actors in relation to established political elites and media gatekeepers. The present article discusses this “net empowerment hypothesis” and tests it empirically by analysing Twitter communication on the regulation of net neutrality. We extracted 503.839 tweets containing #NetNeutrality posted between January and March 2015 and analysed central developments and the network structure of the debate. The empirical results show that traditional actors from media and politics still maintain a central role.

  18. Computational Imaging in Demanding Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-18

    to the Air Force; namely, the removal of disturbances due to demanding physical and environmental conditions. We considered degradations of interest...of  disturbances due to demanding physical and  environmental  conditions. We considered  degradations of interest that can be caused by a number of...addressed recently in computational  photography  is that of  producing a good picture of a poorly lit scene. The consensus approach for  solving this

  19. Market demands to Danish pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone

    2001-01-01

    Danish farmers produce more than 20 million slaughtering pigs every year and most of them are exported to markets all over the world. From a historical point of view, the United Kingdom has been the groundbreaking export market, but today Danish pork is exported to more than 100 countries....... The study focuses on the development on the most important markets for Danish pork. The countries are Denmark, Japan, UK, Germany, Italy, France, USA, Russia and South Korea. The primary purpose is to identify market demands of importance to the Danish pork sector in order to maintain and strengthen its...... position on its markets. It is expected that results of the analysis will be part of superior strategic decisions for the Danish pork sector as regards future Danish pork export markets. The market demands to be identified will therefore be evaluated in relation to resources and competences within the line...

  20. Land management and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land that are required to achieve sustainable development. The concept of land includes properties and natural resources and thereby...

  1. Exam papers on-demand

    OpenAIRE

    Rumsey, Sally; Maslin, Jon

    2001-01-01

    The Exam Papers On-demand Project comprised 1) research into the feasibility of electronic provision of University of Surrey past exam papers and 2) the subsequent development of a scalable and sustainable system for allowing Internet access to past exam papers by members of the University. Although this has been achieved at other institutions, the solution at the University of Surrey is believed to be innovative in a number of ways. The achievements include the compliance with the Dublin Cor...

  2. Water and Land Use Efficiency in Current and Potential Future US Corn and Brazilian Sugarcane Ethanol Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, E. S.; Zhang, Y.; Newmark, R. L.

    2012-12-01

    Biofuels represent an opportunity for domestic fuel production from renewable energy sources with potential environmental and social benefits such as reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) and promoting rural development. However, as demand for biofuel continues to increase worldwide, concerns about land competition between food and fuel, excessive water usage and other unintended environmental consequences have grown. Through a comparative study between US corn ethanol and Brazilian sugarcane ethanol, we examine the energy, land, water and GHG performance of the two largest industrial fuel ethanol production systems in the world. Our comparisons include current and potential future systems with improved agronomic practices, crop yields, ethanol conversion processes, and utilization of agricultural residues. Our results suggest that the average water footprints of US corn ethanol and Brazilian sugarcane ethanol are fairly close (108 and 110 m3/GJ of ethanol, respectively) while the variations can range from 50 to 250 m3/GJ for sugarcane ethanol and 50 to380 m3/GJ for corn ethanol. Results emphasize the need to examine the water footprint within the context of local and regional climatic variability, water availability, competing uses (e.g. agricultural, industrial, and municipal water needs) and other ecosystem constraints. Research is under way (at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and other institutions) to develop models to analyze water supply and demand at the watershed-scale for current and future biomass production, and to understand the tradeoffs among water supply, demand and quality due to more intensive agricultural practices and expansion of biofuels. Land use efficiency metrics, with regards to life cycle GHG emissions (without land use change) savings through gasoline displacement with ethanol, illustrate the progression of the biofuel industry and the importance of maximizing bioenergy production by utilizing both the crops and the residues. A recent

  3. Automatic Structure-Based Code Generation from Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lars Michael; Westergaard, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Automatic code generation based on Coloured Petri Net (CPN) models is challenging because CPNs allow for the construction of abstract models that intermix control flow and data processing, making translation into conventional programming constructs difficult. We introduce Process-Partitioned CPNs...... (PP-CPNs) which is a subclass of CPNs equipped with an explicit separation of process control flow, message passing, and access to shared and local data. We show how PP-CPNs caters for a four phase structure-based automatic code generation process directed by the control flow of processes....... The viability of our approach is demonstrated by applying it to automatically generate an Erlang implementation of the Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) routing protocol specified by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)....

  4. Climate impacts on agricultural land use in the USA: the role of socio-economic scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Jianhong E.; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Abatzoglou, John T.; Antle, John M.

    2017-01-01

    We examine the impacts of climate on net returns from crop and livestock production and the resulting impact on land-use change across the contiguous USA. We first estimate an econometric model to project effects of weather fluctuations on crop and livestock net returns and then use a semi-reduced form land-use share model to study agricultural land-use changes under future climate and socio-economic scenarios. Estimation results show that crop net returns are more sensitive to thermal and less sensitive to moisture variability than livestock net returns; other agricultural land uses substitute cropland use when 30-year averaged degree-days or precipitation are not beneficial for crop production. Under future climate and socio-economic scenarios, we project that crop and livestock net returns are both increasing, but with crop net returns increasing at a higher rate; cropland increases with declines of marginal and pastureland by the end of the twenty-first century. Projections also show that impacts of future climate on agricultural land uses are substantially different and a larger variation of land-use change is evident when socio-economic scenarios are incorporated into the climate impact analysis.

  5. Demand for radiotherapy in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, A; Borrás, J M; López-Torrecilla, J; Algara, M; Palacios-Eito, A; Gómez-Caamaño, A; Olay, L; Lara, P C

    2017-02-01

    Assessing the demand for radiotherapy in Spain based on existing evidence to estimate the human resources and equipment needed so that every person in Spain has access to high-quality radiotherapy when they need it. We used data from the European Cancer Observatory on the estimated incidence of cancer in Spain in 2012, along with the evidence-based indications for radiotherapy developed by the Australian CCORE project, to obtain an optimal radiotherapy utilisation proportion (OUP) for each tumour. About 50.5 % of new cancers in Spain require radiotherapy at least once over the course of the disease. Additional demand for these services comes from reradiation therapy and non-melanoma skin cancer. Approximately, 25-30 % of cancer patients with an indication for radiotherapy do not receive it due to factors that include access, patient preference, familiarity with the treatment among physicians, and especially resource shortages, all of which contribute to its underutilisation. Radiotherapy is underused in Spain. The increasing incidence of cancer expected over the next decade and the greater frequency of reradiations necessitate the incorporation of radiotherapy demand into need-based calculations for cancer services planning.

  6. Demands from the school inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Norberto Matos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available From the implementation of public policies on school inclusion, mainly those directed to the target audience of special education, the number of students with special educational needs in common classes has increased. This fact has helped to compose the picture in schools where the limitations and contradictions of the Brazilian educational system have appeared. Educational actors and authors are challenged to build knowledge able of responding to demands of daily school, concerning living and learning in diversity. Whereas this inclusive process is new in the schools, the study aimed to analyze the demands of teachers from the school inclusion. The research was qualitative and exploratory, and six teachers, their students with special educational needs and three professionals in the Nucleus of Inclusive Education from the Municipal Department of Education took in it. Technique of participant observation, field diary, semi-structured interview and questionnaire were used for data collection, while analysis of content was used for discussion of the data. The results indicate that there are achievements and contradictions in the reality of schools that themselves propose inclusive; advances and limitations resulting from the municipal politics; that the model of performance of the group of special education, in the context analyzed, may be revised or expanded; and that the teachers has demands with regard to public policy, training, and the psychologist.

  7. Balancing virtual land imports by a shift in the diet. Using a land balance approach to assess the sustainability of food consumption. Germany as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Toni; Christen, Olaf; Semler, Edmund; Jahreis, Gerhard; Voget-Kleschin, Lieske; Schrode, Alexander; Artmann, Martina

    2014-03-01

    Nutrition is considered as one of the main drivers of global environmental change. Dietary patterns in particular, embedded in the international trade of foods and other biomass based commodities, determine the dimension of beneficial or harmful environmental impacts of the agri-food sector - both domestically and abroad. In this study we analysed different dietary scenarios from a virtual land flow perspective, based on representative consumption data for Germany in the years 2006 and 1985-89. Further we identified the consumer groups that would have to adapt most to balance Germany's virtual land import and analysed the impact reduced food wastage. For the study, official data sets concerning production, trade and consumption were used. We derived land use data from environmentally extended input-output data sets and FAO statistics. The conversion of agricultural raw products to consumed commodities is based on official processing and composition data. Subgroup-specific intake data from the last representative National Nutrition Survey in Germany were used. We analysed 42 commodities, aggregated into 23 product groups, seven land use types and six nutrition scenarios. The results show that in the baseline scenario the average nutrition in the year 2006 leads to a virtual land import of 707m(2)p(-1)a(-1), which represents 30% of the total nutrition-induced land demand of 2365m(2)p(-1)a(-1). On the other hand, the German agri-food sector exports virtual land, in the form of commodities, equivalent to 262m(2)p(-1)a(-1). In this paper we calculate that the resulting net import of virtual land could be balanced by way of a shift to an officially recommended diet and a reduction in the consumption of stimulants (cocoa, coffee, green/black tea, wine). A shift to an ovo-lacto-vegetarian or vegan diet would even lead to a positive virtual land balance (even with maintained consumption of stimulants). Moreover, we demonstrate that a shift in the average diet profile could

  8. Planning long lasting insecticide treated net campaigns: should households' existing nets be taken into account?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukich, Joshua; Bennett, Adam; Keating, Joseph; Yukich, Rudy K; Lynch, Matt; Eisele, Thomas P; Kolaczinski, Kate

    2013-06-14

    Mass distribution of long-lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLINs) has led to large increases in LLIN coverage in many African countries. As LLIN ownership levels increase, planners of future mass distributions face the challenge of deciding whether to ignore the nets already owned by households or to take these into account and attempt to target individuals or households without nets. Taking existing nets into account would reduce commodity costs but require more sophisticated, and potentially more costly, distribution procedures. The decision may also have implications for the average age of nets in use and therefore on the maintenance of universal LLIN coverage over time. A stochastic simulation model based on the NetCALC algorithm was used to determine the scenarios under which it would be cost saving to take existing nets into account, and the potential effects of doing so on the age profile of LLINs owned. The model accounted for variability in timing of distributions, concomitant use of continuous distribution systems, population growth, sampling error in pre-campaign coverage surveys, variable net 'decay' parameters and other factors including the feasibility and accuracy of identifying existing nets in the field. Results indicate that (i) where pre-campaign coverage is around 40% (of households owning at least 1 LLIN), accounting for existing nets in the campaign will have little effect on the mean age of the net population and (ii) even at pre-campaign coverage levels above 40%, an approach that reduces LLIN distribution requirements by taking existing nets into account may have only a small chance of being cost-saving overall, depending largely on the feasibility of identifying nets in the field. Based on existing literature the epidemiological implications of such a strategy is likely to vary by transmission setting, and the risks of leaving older nets in the field when accounting for existing nets must be considered. Where pre-campaign coverage

  9. Planning long lasting insecticide treated net campaigns: should households’ existing nets be taken into account?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Mass distribution of long-lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLINs) has led to large increases in LLIN coverage in many African countries. As LLIN ownership levels increase, planners of future mass distributions face the challenge of deciding whether to ignore the nets already owned by households or to take these into account and attempt to target individuals or households without nets. Taking existing nets into account would reduce commodity costs but require more sophisticated, and potentially more costly, distribution procedures. The decision may also have implications for the average age of nets in use and therefore on the maintenance of universal LLIN coverage over time. Methods A stochastic simulation model based on the NetCALC algorithm was used to determine the scenarios under which it would be cost saving to take existing nets into account, and the potential effects of doing so on the age profile of LLINs owned. The model accounted for variability in timing of distributions, concomitant use of continuous distribution systems, population growth, sampling error in pre-campaign coverage surveys, variable net ‘decay’ parameters and other factors including the feasibility and accuracy of identifying existing nets in the field. Results Results indicate that (i) where pre-campaign coverage is around 40% (of households owning at least 1 LLIN), accounting for existing nets in the campaign will have little effect on the mean age of the net population and (ii) even at pre-campaign coverage levels above 40%, an approach that reduces LLIN distribution requirements by taking existing nets into account may have only a small chance of being cost-saving overall, depending largely on the feasibility of identifying nets in the field. Based on existing literature the epidemiological implications of such a strategy is likely to vary by transmission setting, and the risks of leaving older nets in the field when accounting for existing nets must be considered

  10. Investigating Comparative Advantages of Advance Demand Information in Presence of Heterogeneous Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Bisheng; Larsen, Christian

    The paper studies aspects of advance demand information and heterogeneous demand in a mathematical model of an inventory system. The concept advance demand information is that customers ahead in time of actual demand place their orders. The concept heterogeneous demand refers to that there are di......The paper studies aspects of advance demand information and heterogeneous demand in a mathematical model of an inventory system. The concept advance demand information is that customers ahead in time of actual demand place their orders. The concept heterogeneous demand refers...

  11. Determinants of banks’ net interest margins in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Rizdak

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes the main determinants of the net interest margin of banks operating in Central and Eastern European (CEE countries in the period from 1999 to 2010. The results reveal several main drivers of net interest margins in the CEE. Prior to 2008 the net interest margins declined primarily due to strong capital inflows and stable macroeconomic environment. In the crisis period, significant rise in government debt accompanied by the increase in macroeconomic risks and abating capital inflows were pushing margins up while other factors such as low credit demand, higher capitalization and significantly increased share of non-performing loans pressured banks’ margins down. The results also confirm the important contribution of higher efficiency to lowering banks’ margins.

  12. Data Acquisition for Land Subsidence Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y.; Balke, K.

    2009-12-01

    For controlling land subsidence caused by groundwater over-exploitation, loading of engineered structures, mining and other anthropogenic activities in this fast changing world, a large variety of different data of various scales of concerning areas are needed for scientific study and administrative operational purposes. The economical, social and environmental impacts of anthropogenic land subsidence have long been recognized by many scientific institutions and management authorities based on results of monitoring and analysis at an interdisciplinary level. The land subsidence information systems composed of the surface and subsurface monitoring nets (monitoring and development wells, GPS stations and other facilities) and local data processing centers as a system management tool in Shanghai City was started with the use of GPS technology to monitor land subsidence in 1998. After years of experiences with a set of initiatives by adopting adequate countermeasures, the particular attention given to new improved methodologies to monitor and model the process of land subsidence in a simple and timely way, this is going to be promoted in the whole Yangtze River Delta region in China, where land subsidence expands in the entire region of urban cluster. The Delta land subsidence monitoring network construction aims to establish an efficient and coordinated water resource management system. The land subsidence monitoring network records "living history" of land subsidence, produces detailed scheduled reports and environmental impact statements. For the different areas with local factors and site characteristics, parallel packages need to be designed for predicting changes, land sensitivity and uncertainty analysis, especially for the risk analysis in the rapid growth of megacities and urban areas. In such cases, the new models with new types of local data and the new ways of data acquisition provide the best information for the decision makers for their mitigating

  13. Delivering insecticide-treated nets for malaria prevention: innovative strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krezanoski PJ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Paul J Krezanoski1–3 1Department of Medicine, 2Department of Pediatrics, Massachusetts General Hospital, 3Medicine and Pedatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: The wide-scale adoption of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs has led to significant reductions in malaria morbidity and mortality worldwide. Delivery of ITNs to the 3.2 billion people at risk of malaria requires multiple steps in diverse settings. The effectiveness of the delivery of ITNs in order to prevent malaria relies on activities that include ITN manufacturing and design, integration into national and international malaria prevention policies, supplying and distributing ITNs to households and individuals, and, finally, programs focused on spurring demand for and use of ITNs by individuals at risk. This paper reviews some recent innovative strategies for ITN delivery across these four domains, places these innovations within the context of the history of ITN deployment, and identifies opportunities to further improve the effectiveness of this ubiquitous public health tool. Keywords: malaria, insecticide-treated bed nets, prevention, access, ownership, use, policies

  14. Land Cover - Minnesota Land Cover Classification System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Land cover data set based on the Minnesota Land Cover Classification System (MLCCS) coding scheme. This data was produced using a combination of aerial photograph...

  15. RadNet Air Quality (Deployable) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RadNet Deployable Monitoring is designed to collect radiological and meteorological information and data asset needed to establish the impact of radiation levels on...

  16. A Lightweight TwiddleNet Portal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rimikis, Antonios M

    2008-01-01

    TwiddleNet is a distributed architecture of personal servers that harnesses the power of the mobile devices, enabling real time information and file sharing of multiple data types from commercial-off-the-shelf platforms...

  17. Homology Groups of a Pipeline Petri Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Husainov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Petri net is said to be elementary if every place can contain no more than one token. In this paper, it is studied topological properties of the elementary Petri net for a pipeline consisting of n functional devices. If the work of the functional devices is considered continuous, we can come to some topological space of “intermediate” states. In the paper, it is calculated the homology groups of this topological space. By induction on n, using the Addition Sequence for homology groups of semicubical sets, it is proved that in dimension 0 and 1 the integer homology groups of these nets are equal to the group of integers, and in the remaining dimensions are zero. Directed homology groups are studied. A connection of these groups with deadlocks and newsletters is found. This helps to prove that all directed homology groups of the pipeline elementary Petri nets are zeroth.

  18. Net accumulation of the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilsholm, Sissi; Christensen, Jens Hesselbjerg; Dethloff, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    improvement compared to the driving OAGCM. Estimates of the regional net balance are also better represented by the RCM. In the future climate the net balance for the Greenland Ice Sheet is reduced in all the simulation, but discrepancies between the amounts when based on ECHAM4/OPYC3 and HIRHAM are found....... In both scenarios, the estimated melt rates are larger in HIRHAM than in the driving model....

  19. Mastering AngularJD for .NET developers

    CERN Document Server

    Majid, Mohammad Wadood

    2015-01-01

    This book is envisioned for traditional developers and programmers who want to develop client-side applications using the AngularJS framework and ASP.NET Web API 2 with Visual Studio. .NET developers who have already built web applications or web services and who have a fundamental knowledge of HTML, JavaScript, and CSS and want to explore single-page applications will also find this guide useful. Basic knowledge of AngularJS would be helpful.

  20. .NET 4.5 parallel extensions

    CERN Document Server

    Freeman, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    This book contains practical recipes on everything you will need to create task-based parallel programs using C#, .NET 4.5, and Visual Studio. The book is packed with illustrated code examples to create scalable programs.This book is intended to help experienced C# developers write applications that leverage the power of modern multicore processors. It provides the necessary knowledge for an experienced C# developer to work with .NET parallelism APIs. Previous experience of writing multithreaded applications is not necessary.

  1. A Lightweight TwiddleNet Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    designed to exploit the multiple networking modalities available in the current generation of smartphones . TwiddleNet enables well-organized and well...of Sonopia and will have a comprehensive review of the service in the coming weeks [12]. Twango, which was acquired by Nokia in July 2007, is an...EXPERIMENTATION As already mentioned the main purpose of this thesis is the development of a TwiddleNet portal running on a smartphone or a PDA, which can allow

  2. CCS - and its relationship to net theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens

    1987-01-01

    In this paper we give a short introduction to Milner's Calculus for Communicating Systems - a paradigm for concurrent computation. We put special emphasis on the basic concepts and tools from the underlying "algebraic approach", and their relationship to the approach to concurrency within net...... theory. Furthermore, we provide an operational version of the language CCS with "true concurrency" in the sense of net theory, and a discussion of the possible use of such a marriage of the two theories of concurrency....

  3. Balancing food security and water demand for freshwater ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Amandine; Palazzo, Amanda; Havlik, Petr; Obersteiner, Michael; Biemans, Hester; Wada, Yoshihide; Kabat, Pavel; Ludwig, Fulco

    2017-04-01

    Water is not an infinite resource and demand from irrigation, household and industry is constantly increasing. This study focused on including global water availability including environmental flow requirements with water withdrawal from irrigation and other sectors at a monthly time-step in the GLOBIOM model. This model allows re-adjustment of land-use allocation, crop management, consumption and international trade. The GLOBIOM model induces an endogenous change in water price depending on water supply and demand. In this study, the focus was on how the inclusion of water resources affects land-use and, in particular, how global change will influence repartition of irrigated and rainfed lands at global scale. We used the climate change scenario including a radiative forcing of 8.5 W/m2 (RCP8.5), the socio-economic scenario (SSP2: middle-of-road), and the environmental flow method based on monthly flow allocation (the Variable Monthly Flow method) with high and low restrictions. Irrigation withdrawals were adjusted to a monthly time-step to account for biophysical water limitations at finer time resolution. Our results show that irrigated land might decrease up to 40% on average depending on the choice of EFR restrictions. Several areas were identified as future hot-spots of water stress such as the Mediterranean and Middle-East regions. Other countries were identified to be in safe position in terms of water stress such as North-European countries. Re-allocation of rainfed and irrigated land might be useful information for land-use planners and water managers at an international level to decide on appropriate legislations on climate change mitigation/adaptation when exposure and sensitivity to climate change is high and/or on adaptation measures to face increasing water demand. For example, some countries are likely to adopt measures to increase their water use efficiencies (irrigation system, soil and water conservation practices) to face water shortages, while

  4. Assessing the impact of urbanization on regional net primary productivity in Jiangyin County, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C; Liu, M; An, S; Chen, J M; Yan, P

    2007-11-01

    Urbanization is one of the most important aspects of global change. The process of urbanization has a significant impact on the terrestrial ecosystem carbon cycle. The Yangtze Delta region has one of the highest rates of urbanization in China. In this study, carried out in Jiangyin County as a representative region within the Yangtze Delta, land use and land cover changes were estimated using Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery. With these satellite data and the BEPS process model (Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator), the impacts of urbanization on regional net primary productivity (NPP) and annual net primary production were assessed for 1991 and 2002. Landsat-based land cover maps in 1991 and 2002 showed that urban development encroached large areas of cropland and forest. Expansion of residential areas and reduction of vegetated areas were the major forms of land transformation in Jiangyin County during this period. Mean NPP of the total area decreased from 818 to 699 gCm(-2)yr(-1) during the period of 1991 to 2002. NPP of cropland was only reduced by 2.7% while forest NPP was reduced by 9.3%. Regional annual primary production decreased from 808 GgC in 1991 to 691 GgC in 2002, a reduction of 14.5%. Land cover changes reduced regional NPP directly, and the increasing intensity and frequency of human-induced disturbance in the urbanized areas could be the main reason for the decrease in forest NPP.

  5. Capo Verde, Land Use Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This series of three-period land use land cover (LULC) datasets (1975, 2000, and 2013) aids in monitoring change in West Africa’s land resources (exception is...

  6. THE INCREASE THE FERTILITY OF AGRICULTURAL LAND AND MONITORING OF THIS LAND ARE THE NECESSARY CONDITIONS FOR ENSURING FOOD SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Lipski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The availability of suitable land for agricultural activities and the quality of this land are the main factors determining the maximum number of the population of the planet. In the Russian Federation is 8.9 % of the world's arable land. But the natural-climatic conditions of Russia are rather complicated from the point of view of agricultural production. Therefore, the special significance is having the land reclamation and the measures of enhance soil fertility. Meanwhile, the share of reclaimed land in Russia is much lower than by our competitors in the global food market. From 2014 the state is starting the realization of the Federal target program of land reclamation agricultural purposes. The information systems about the land in the period of the agrarian and land transformation and development of a market turnover of land (including agricultural were attending more of legal aspects and of technical side (technology, electronic information exchange rather than on the characteristics of the land as the main means of production. Currently agricultural producers are demanding the land information. But the modern systems, containing information on agricultural lands, are not enough characterizing this land as a productive resource. It is negatively affects the development of agriculture. Now the Ministry of agriculture of Russia develops the proposals on establishment of a special system of monitoring agricultural lands. However, this system is created very slowly.

  7. Visual Studio 2013 and .NET 4.5 expert cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Sur, Abhishek

    2014-01-01

    If you are a Visual Studio 2013 or .NET developer who would like to sharpen your existing skill set and adapt to new .NET technologies, this is the book for you. A basic understanding of .NET and C# is required.

  8. HANPP Collection: Global Patterns in Net Primary Productivity (NPP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Patterns in Net Primary Productivity (NPP) portion of the Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) Collection maps the net amount of solar...

  9. Projecting the land cover change and its environmental impacts in the Cedar River Basin in the Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shuguang; Sohl, Terry L.; Young, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    The physical surface of the Earth is in constant change due to climate forcing and human activities. In the Midwestern United States, urban area, farmland, and dedicated energy crop (e.g., switchgrass) cultivation are predicted to expand in the coming decades, which will lead to changes in hydrological processes. This study is designed to (1) project the land use and land cover (LULC) by mid-century using the FORecasting SCEnarios of future land-use (FORE-SCE) model under the A1B greenhouse gas emission scenario (future condition) and (2) assess its potential impacts on the water cycle and water quality against the 2001 baseline condition in the Cedar River Basin using the physically based soil and water assessment tool (SWAT). We compared the baseline LULC (National Land Cover data 2001) and 2050 projection, indicating substantial expansions of urban area and pastureland (including the cultivation of bioenergy crops) and a decrease in rangeland. We then used the above two LULC maps as the input data to drive the SWAT model, keeping other input data (e.g., climate) unchanged to isolate the LULC change impacts. The modeling results indicate that quick-response surface runoff would increase significantly (about 10.5%) due to the projected urban expansion (i.e., increase in impervious areas), and the baseflow would decrease substantially (about 7.3%) because of the reduced infiltration. Although the net effect may cause an increase in water yield, the increased variability may impede its use for public supply. Additionally, the cultivation of bioenergy crops such as switchgrass in the newly added pasture lands may further reduce the soil water content and lead to an increase in nitrogen loading (about 2.5% increase) due to intensified fertilizer application. These study results will be informative to decision makers for sustainable water resource management when facing LULC change and an increasing demand for biofuel production in this area.

  10. USA: Organic demand to increase

    OpenAIRE

    Paull, John

    2013-01-01

    The demand for organic food will continue to increase driven by health conscious consumers, according to a new survey of 1500 US consumers. The 155 page report by Technomic Inc advises food service executives, operators and suppliers to “consider re-evaluating their product mix to appeal to this no-longer-niche market". A key finding of the Healthy Eating Consumer Trend Report is that "the vast majority [of consumers] say that health is a priority for them and they at least try to eat hea...

  11. ASP.NET web API build RESTful web applications and services on the .NET framework

    CERN Document Server

    Kanjilal, Joydip

    2013-01-01

    This book is a step-by-step, practical tutorial with a simple approach to help you build RESTful web applications and services on the .NET framework quickly and efficiently.This book is for ASP.NET web developers who want to explore REST-based services with C# 5. This book contains many real-world code examples with explanations whenever necessary. Some experience with C# and ASP.NET 4 is expected.

  12. FLDAS Noah Land Surface Model L4 daily 0.1 x 0.1 degree for Western Africa (GDAS and RFE2) V001 (FLDAS_NOAH01_A_WA_D) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the Noah 3.3 model in the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data...

  13. FLDAS Noah Land Surface Model L4 monthly 0.1 x 0.1 degree for Western Africa (GDAS and RFE2) V001 (FLDAS_NOAH01_A_WA_M) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the Noah 3.3 model in the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data...

  14. FLDAS Noah Land Surface Model L4 monthly 0.1 x 0.1 degree for Eastern Africa (GDAS and RFE2) V001 (FLDAS_NOAH01_A_EA_M) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the Noah 3.3 model in the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data...

  15. FLDAS VIC Land Surface Model L4 monthly 0.25 x 0.25 degree for Western Africa (MERRA-2 and CHIRPS) V001 (FLDAS_VIC025_C_WA_M) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the VIC model in the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data Assimilation...

  16. FLDAS VIC Land Surface Model L4 monthly 0.25 x 0.25 degree for Western Africa (GDAS and RFE2) V001 (FLDAS_VIC025_A_WA_M) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the VIC model in the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data Assimilation...

  17. FLDAS Noah Land Surface Model L4 monthly 0.1 x 0.1 degree for Eastern Africa (MERRA-2 and CHIRPS) V001 (FLDAS_NOAH01_C_EA_M) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the Noah 3.3 model in the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data...

  18. FLDAS Noah Land Surface Model L4 monthly 0.1 x 0.1 degree for Southern Africa (MERRA-2 and CHIRPS) V001 (FLDAS_NOAH01_C_SA_M) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the Noah 3.3 model in the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data...

  19. FLDAS VIC Land Surface Model L4 Daily 0.25 x 0.25 degree for Southern Africa (MERRA-2 and CHIRPS) V001 (FLDAS_VIC025_A_SA_D) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the VIC model in the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data Assimilation...

  20. FLDAS VIC Land Surface Model L4 daily 0.25 x 0.25 degree for Western Africa (GDAS and RFE2) V001 (FLDAS_VIC025_A_WA_D) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the VIC model in the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data Assimilation...

  1. FLDAS Noah Land Surface Model L4 monthly 0.1 x 0.1 degree for Western Africa (MERRA-2 and CHIRPS) V001 (FLDAS_NOAH01_C_WA_M) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the Noah 3.3 model in the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data...

  2. FLDAS VIC Land Surface Model L4 monthly 0.25 x 0.25 degree for Southern Africa (MERRA-2 and CHIRPS) V001 (FLDAS_VIC025_C_SA_M) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the VIC model in the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data Assimilation...

  3. FLDAS Noah Land Surface Model L4 daily 0.1 x 0.1 degree for Southern Africa (GDAS and RFE2) V001 (FLDAS_NOAH01_A_SA_D) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the Noah 3.3 model in the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data...

  4. FLDAS VIC Land Surface Model L4 monthly 0.25 x 0.25 degree for Eastern Africa (GDAS and RFE2) V001 (FLDAS_VIC025_A_EA_M) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the VIC model in the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data Assimilation...

  5. FLDAS Noah Land Surface Model L4 daily 0.1 x 0.1 degree for Eastern Africa (GDAS and RFE2) V001 (FLDAS_NOAH01_A_EA_D) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the Noah 3.3 model in the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data...

  6. FLDAS VIC Land Surface Model L4 monthly 0.25 x 0.25 degree for Southern Africa (GDAS and RFE2) V001 (FLDAS_VIC025_A_SA_M) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the VIC model in the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data Assimilation...

  7. FLDAS VIC Land Surface Model L4 daily 0.25 x 0.25 degree for Eastern Africa (GDAS and RFE2) V001 (FLDAS_VIC025_A_EA_D) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the VIC model in the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data Assimilation...

  8. FLDAS Noah Land Surface Model L4 monthly 0.1 x 0.1 degree for Southern Africa (GDAS and RFE2) V001 (FLDAS_NOAH01_A_SA_M) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the Noah 3.3 model in the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data...

  9. FLDAS VIC Land Surface Model L4 monthly 0.25 x 0.25 degree for Eastern Africa (MERRA-2 and CHIRPS) V001 (FLDAS_VIC025_C_EA_M) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a series of land surface parameters simulated from the VIC model in the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data Assimilation...

  10. PECULIARITIES OF METHODOLOGICAL PROCESS OF FORMING RESTRICTIONS IN LAND USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tretyak A.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the practice of regulation of land relations certain requirements to formation of land use restrictions and encumbrances of land rights are formed. Their systematization process will improve the regulation of the legal regime of land use as legal provisions form the essence of the land use restrictions and encumbrances of land rights and should be considered in their formation. As land use regime with restrictions in land use and other natural resources is interconnected, it is proposed restrictions to use spatial organization as a basic classification criteria. Spatial organization is formed by environmental management structure upon which different functional types and forms of land use, with the general trends in the exploitation of natural resources, land use and protection are integrated. The article states that the restriction of land use are divided into physical and administrative. Physical limitations – a bottleneck that do not enhance the efficiency of land- and environmental management system. However, the administrative limitations are stereotypes and beliefs that cannot be questioned, combining 80 to 95% of all restrictions. It is noted that there are several types of limitations, which include: restrictions of the available potential, restrictions due to public interest, execution time limit and market limitations (balance between supply and demand. Under the subtype of land use is meant the basic direction of use of land and other natural resources. Type of land use – a set of land use subtypes that have a similar intensity of use of land and other natural resources, improving the environment. It is therefore proposed to allocate two groups of natural resource use: a resource-consuming (which modifies or destroys and b resource-saving (which saves [2]. The first group includes the following land use types: background type, multicentral and central, and the second – disperse (saving. At the regional and territorial land

  11. Saving land to feed a growing population: consequences for consumption of crop and livestock products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kernebeek, van H.R.J.; Oosting, S.J.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Bikker, P.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The expected increase in demand for food raises concerns about the expansion of agricultural land worldwide. To avoid expansion, we need to focus on increasing land productivity, reducing waste, and shifting human diets. Studies exploring diet shifts so far have ignored competition for land

  12. Freeze-out conditions from net-proton and net-charge fluctuations at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alba, Paolo; Alberico, Wanda [Department of Physics, Torino University and INFN, Sezione di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Bellwied, Rene [Department of Physics, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Bluhm, Marcus [Department of Physics, Torino University and INFN, Sezione di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Mantovani Sarti, Valentina [Department of Physics, Torino University and INFN, Sezione di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Nahrgang, Marlene [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708-0305 (United States); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Ratti, Claudia [Department of Physics, Torino University and INFN, Sezione di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2014-11-10

    We calculate ratios of higher-order susceptibilities quantifying fluctuations in the number of net-protons and in the net-electric charge using the Hadron Resonance Gas (HRG) model. We take into account the effect of resonance decays, the kinematic acceptance cuts in rapidity, pseudo-rapidity and transverse momentum used in the experimental analysis, as well as a randomization of the isospin of nucleons in the hadronic phase. By comparing these results to the latest experimental data from the STAR Collaboration, we determine the freeze-out conditions from net-electric charge and net-proton distributions and discuss their consistency.

  13. Traffic forecasts ignoring induced demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter; Nicolaisen, Morten Skou; Strand, Arvid

    2012-01-01

    Although the phenomenon of induced traffic has been theorized for more than 60 years and is now widely accepted among transport researchers, the traffic-generating effects of road capacity expansion are still often neglected in transport modelling. Such omission can lead to serious bias...... performance of a proposed road project in Copenhagen with and without short-term induced traffic included in the transport model. The available transport model was not able to include long-term induced traffic resulting from changes in land use and in the level of service of public transport. Even though...... ways of dealing with congestion and environmental problems in urban areas....

  14. Quantifying the net economic benefits of mechanical wildfire hazard treatments on timberlands of the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Karen L. Abt; James R. Barbour

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical treatment of vegetation is done on public and private lands for many possible reasons, including enhancing wildlife habitat, increasing timber growth of residual stands, and improving resistance to damaging pests. Few studies, however, have focused on the circumstances under which mechanical wildfire hazard reduction treatments can yield positive net...

  15. Perception, demand and user contribution to ecosystem services in the Bilbao Metropolitan Greenbelt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado-Arzuaga, Izaskun; Madariaga, Iosu; Onaindia, Miren

    2013-11-15

    Peri-urban ecosystems are often managed as recreation areas or to enhance aesthetic value on the urban fringe. Scholars and land-use practitioners lack a current understanding of the supply of and the demands for these peri-urban ecosystem services (ES). In this study, we analysed the perceptions of 500 users and interest groups regarding the ES provided by the Bilbao Metropolitan Greenbelt (BMG) ecosystems in northern Spain, and we compared these perceptions to the demands for ES. The objective of this study is to understand user preferences and to thereby better orient land use planning. The results show that the demand for ES in the BMG did not correspond to what users perceived these ecosystems to provide. The respondents' perceptions appeared to be related to the management practices in the area, whereas their demand was related to the benefits they would like to obtain from the BMG. The interviewees were in favour of improvements to peri-urban rural areas, and the results suggested that the authorities should highlight the role of the BMG ecosystems with respect to regulating services and historic and cultural values to improve people's awareness of the ecosystems' capacity to provide benefits to society. Application of this framework also highlighted that there were differences in the perception of and demand for ES among different user groups. This holistic method of matching user demand with policy could be a useful tool to reorient ES-based land planning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The land management paradigm for institutional development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    encompasses the total natural and built environment. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional frameworks complicated by the tasks they must perform, by national cultural, political and judicial settings, and by technology. This paper facilitates an overall understanding of the land management...... paradigm. The paper presents a model for sharing LAS among countries with diverse legal systems and institutional structures by identifying an ideal and historically neutral LAS model for: servicing the needs of governments, business and the public; utilising the latest technologies; and servicing rights...... development which support establishment of multifunctional information systems incorporating diverse land rights, land use regulations and other useful data. A third major driver, sustainable development, stimulates demands for comprehensive information about environmental conditions in combination with other...

  17. Demand Side Bidding. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spahn, Andrew

    2003-12-31

    This document sets forth the final report for a financial assistance award for the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) to enhance coordination between the building operators and power system operators in terms of demand-side responses to Location Based Marginal Pricing (LBMP). Potential benefits of this project include improved power system reliability, enhanced environmental quality, mitigation of high locational prices within congested areas, and the reduction of market barriers for demand-side market participants. NARUC, led by its Committee on Energy Resources and the Environment (ERE), actively works to promote the development and use of energy efficiency and clean distributive energy policies within the framework of a dynamic regulatory environment. Electric industry restructuring, energy shortages in California, and energy market transformation intensifies the need for reliable information and strategies regarding electric reliability policy and practice. NARUC promotes clean distributive generation and increased energy efficiency in the context of the energy sector restructuring process. NARUC, through ERE's Subcommittee on Energy Efficiency, strives to improve energy efficiency by creating working markets. Market transformation seeks opportunities where small amounts of investment can create sustainable markets for more efficient products, services, and design practices.

  18. What is Transportation Demand Management?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, S.M. [UrbanTrans Consultants Inc., Denver, CO (United States)

    2003-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation described the impacts of Transportation Demand Management (TDM) strategies on people and communities. TDM supports sustainable transportation. More than 33 per cent of Canadian drivers spend more than one hour on their commute. In the past 20 years, suburban commute increased 74 per cent. Congestion is costly in terms of wasted time and fuel. Twenty-five per cent of Canada's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions come from the transportation sector. New facilities are more appealing when they maximize travel options. Keeping pace with transportation demand would require doubling the pace of road construction or shifting 4 per cent of single occupancy vehicle (SOV) drivers to other modes. TDM gives travelers real choices, provides incentives and focuses on partnerships. A survey has shown that employers who do not offer TDM benefits have an SOV rate of 86 per cent, compared to 71 per cent for employers who offer TDM benefits. TDM maximizes available infrastructure services, reduces traffic, improves personal mobility and facilitates employee retention. This presentation outlined several TDM tools for the Peel Region, including: commute coordinators; marketing promotions; intelligent transportation systems; high occupancy vehicle lanes; bus rapid transit; carpool parking lots; and a TDM-friendly site design. tabs., figs.

  19. Modest net autotrophy in the oligotrophic ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letscher, Robert T.; Moore, J. Keith

    2017-04-01

    The metabolic state of the oligotrophic subtropical ocean has long been debated. Net community production (NCP) represents the balance of autotrophic carbon fixation with heterotrophic respiration. Many in vitro NCP estimates based on oxygen incubation methods and the corresponding scaling relationships used to predict the ecosystem metabolic balance have suggested the ocean gyres to be net heterotrophic; however, all in situ NCP methods find net autotrophy. Reconciling net heterotrophy requires significant allochthonous inputs of organic carbon to the oligotrophic gyres to sustain a preponderance of respiration over in situ production. Here we use the first global ecosystem-ocean circulation model that contains representation of the three allochthonous carbon sources to the open ocean, to show that the five oligotrophic gyres exhibit modest net autotrophy throughout the seasonal cycle. Annually integrated rates of NCP vary in the range 1.5-2.2 mol O2 m-2 yr-1 across the five gyre systems; however, seasonal NCP rates are as low as 1 ± 0.5 mmol O2 m-2 d-1 for the North Atlantic. Volumetric NCP rates are heterotrophic below the 10% light level; however, they become net autotrophic when integrated over the euphotic zone. Observational uncertainties when measuring these modest autotrophic NCP rates as well as the metabolic diversity encountered across space and time complicate the scaling up of in vitro measurements to the ecosystem scale and may partially explain the previous reports of net heterotrophy. The oligotrophic ocean is autotrophic at present; however, it could shift toward seasonal heterotrophy in the future as rising temperatures stimulate respiration.

  20. Emotional labor demands and compensating wage differentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glomb, Theresa M; Kammeyer-Mueller, John D; Rotundo, Maria

    2004-08-01

    The concept of emotional labor demands and their effects on workers has received considerable attention in recent years, with most studies concentrating on stress, burnout, satisfaction, or other affective outcomes. This study extends the literature by examining the relationship between emotional labor demands and wages at the occupational level. Theories describing the expected effects of job demands and working conditions on wages are described. Results suggest that higher levels of emotional labor demands are associated with lower wage rates for jobs low in cognitive demands and with higher wage rates for jobs high in cognitive demands. Implications of these findings are discussed. (c) 2004 APA

  1. Cultivated Lands of Kuban and Features of Their Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyuchenko, Ivan S.

    2016-01-01

    The basis of cultivated lands consists of the interacting populations of annual and perennial weeds and updated annually cultural annual plants, which have very limited data on the aboveground net production, and even less information about the yield of their underground organs. The aim of the research is scientific and theoretical development of…

  2. Carbon emissions from land cover change in Central Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avitabile, Valerio; Schultz, Michael; Herold, Nadine; Bruin, De Sytze; Pratihast, Arun Kumar; Manh, Cuong Pham; Quang, Hien Vu; Herold, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The carbon emissions and removals due to land cover changes between 2001 and 2010 in the Vu Gia Thu Bon River Basin, Central Vietnam, were estimated using Landsat satellite images and 3083 forest inventory plots. The net emissions from above- and belowground vegetation biomass were equal to 1.76 ±

  3. Climate, soil and land-use based land suitability evaluation for oil palm production in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhebergen, Tiemen; Fairhurst, Thomas; Zingore, Shamie; Fisher, Myles; Oberthür, Thomas; Whitbread, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) has become the world's most important oil crop. The large demand for palm oil has resulted in a rapid expansion of oil palm cultivation across the globe. Because of the dwindling availability of land in Southeast Asia, most expansion of the

  4. Modeling Global Change in Local Places: Capturing Global Change and Local Impacts in a Global Land System Change Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verburg, P.; Eitelberg, D.; Ornetsmueller, C.; van Vliet, J.

    2015-12-01

    Global land use models are driven by demands for food and urban space. However, at the same time many transitions in land use and land cover are driven by societal changes and the demand for a wide range of landscape functions or ecosystem services, including the conservation of biodiversity, regulation of climate and floods, and recreation. Some of these demands lead to tele-connected land use change through the transport of good and services, others are place-based and shape the local realities of land system change. Most current land use change models focus on land cover changes alone and ignore the importance of changes in land management and landscape configuration that affect climate, biodiversity and the provisioning of ecosystem services. This talk will present an alternative approach to global land use modelling based on the simulation of changes in land systems in response to a wide set of ecosystem service demands. Simulations at global scale illustrate that accounting for demands for livestock products, carbon sequestration and biological conservation (following the Aichi targets) leads to different outcomes of land change models and allows the identification of synergies between carbon and biodiversity targets. An application in Laos indicates the complex transitions in land systems and landscapes that occur upon the transition from shifting cultivation to permanent agriculture and tree-crop plantations. We discuss the implications of such land system representations for Earth system modelling.

  5. Analysis of matters associated with the transferring of object-oriented applications to platform .Net using C# programming language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarsimbayeva, S. M.; Kospanova, K. K.

    2015-11-01

    The article provides the discussion of matters associated with the problems of transferring of object-oriented Windows applications from C++ programming language to .Net platform using C# programming language. C++ has always been considered to be the best language for the software development, but the implicit mistakes that come along with the tool may lead to infinite memory leaks and other errors. The platform .Net and the C#, made by Microsoft, are the solutions to the issues mentioned above. The world economy and production are highly demanding applications developed by C++, but the new language with its stability and transferability to .Net will bring many advantages. An example can be presented using the applications that imitate the work of queuing systems. Authors solved the problem of transferring of an application, imitating seaport works, from C++ to the platform .Net using C# in the scope of Visual Studio.

  6. Multi-temporal land use classification using hybrid approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi N. Kantakumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Land use and land cover (LULC classification of a satellite image is one of the prerequisites and plays an indispensable role in many land use inventories and environmental modeling. Many studies viz., forest inventories, hydrology and biodiversity studies, etc., are in demand to account the dynamics of land use and phenology of vegetation. Multi-temporal land use classification accounts the phenology of vegetation and land use dynamics of the study area. In this study, a hybrid classification scheme was developed to prepare a multi-temporal land use classification data set of Sawantwadi taluka of Maharashtra state in India. Parametric classification methods like maximum likelihood and ISODATA clustering methods are combined with the non-parametric decision tree approach to generate the multi-temporal LULC dataset. The accuracy assessment results have shown very promising results with a 93% overall accuracy with a kappa of 0.92.

  7. SOCIAL NET: A CASE STUDY OF THE UNIVERSITY NET OF POPULAR COOPERATIVES TECHNOLOGICAL INCUBATORS (PCTIS NET FROM THE INTERACTION AMONG THE INCUBATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Matos Pereira Lopes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this assignment was to identify if the University Net of Popular Cooperatives Technological Incubators (PCTIs Net is a social net. The research was an exploratory nature study with descriptive character, the technical procedure of the present research was the case study. The questionnaire was applied in 82% of the incubators belonging to the PCTIs Net, and interviews. The information acquired through the questionnaire was gathered and tabulated to compose the characterization of the net incubators and the social analyzer. With the Pajek program was created the social analyzer and the centralizing box. Was performed to compare the results with previous work Rennó et al. (2010 proposed that the same goal using a different approach. Ending the analysis guided by the characteristics of a social net, it was observed that the PCTIs Net is a social net, however it was emphasized that the existing communication is a point where the net needs to be fortified.

  8. Activation of PAD4 in NET formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda eRohrbach

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Peptidyl arginine deiminases, or PADs, convert arginine residues to the non-ribosomally encoded amino acid citrulline in a variety of protein substrates. PAD4 is expressed in granulocytes and is essential for the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs via PAD4-mediated histone citrullination. Citrullination of histones is thought to promote NET formation by inducing chromatin decondensation and facilitating the expulsion of chromosomal DNA that is coated with antimicrobial molecules. Numerous stimuli have been reported to lead to PAD4 activation and NET formation. However, how this signaling process proceeds and how PAD4 becomes activated in cells is largely unknown. Herein, we describe the various stimuli and signaling pathways that have been implicated in PAD4 activation and NET formation, including the role of reactive oxygen species generation. To provide a foundation for the above discussion, we first describe PAD4 structure and function, and how these studies led to the development of PAD-specific inhibitors. A comprehensive survey of the receptors and signaling pathways that regulate PAD4 activation will be important for our understanding of innate immunity, and the identification of signaling intermediates in PAD4 activation may also lead to the generation of pharmaceuticals to target NET-related pathogenesis.

  9. The net charge at interfaces between insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristowe, N. C.; Littlewood, P. B.; Artacho, Emilio

    2011-03-01

    The issue of the net charge at insulating oxide interfaces is briefly reviewed with the ambition of dispelling myths of such charges being affected by covalency and related charge density effects. For electrostatic analysis purposes, the net charge at such interfaces is defined by the counting of discrete electrons and core ion charges, and by the definition of the reference polarization of the separate, unperturbed bulk materials. The arguments are illustrated for the case of a thin film of LaAlO3 over SrTiO3 in the absence of free carriers, for which the net charge is exactly 0.5e per interface formula unit, if the polarization response in both materials is referred to zero bulk values. Further consequences of the argument are extracted for structural and chemical alterations of such interfaces, in which internal rearrangements are distinguished from extrinsic alterations (changes of stoichiometry, redox processes), only the latter affecting the interfacial net charge. The arguments are reviewed alongside the proposal of Stengel and Vanderbilt (2009 Phys. Rev. B 80 241103) of using formal polarization values instead of net interfacial charges, based on the interface theorem of Vanderbilt and King-Smith (1993 Phys. Rev. B 48 4442-55). Implications for non-centrosymmetric materials are discussed, as well as for interfaces for which the charge mismatch is an integer number of polarization quanta.

  10. Automating Ontological Annotation with WordNet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Chappell, Alan R.; Whitney, Paul D.; Posse, Christian; Paulson, Patrick R.; Baddeley, Bob L.; Hohimer, Ryan E.; White, Amanda M.

    2006-01-22

    Semantic Web applications require robust and accurate annotation tools that are capable of automating the assignment of ontological classes to words in naturally occurring text (ontological annotation). Most current ontologies do not include rich lexical databases and are therefore not easily integrated with word sense disambiguation algorithms that are needed to automate ontological annotation. WordNet provides a potentially ideal solution to this problem as it offers a highly structured lexical conceptual representation that has been extensively used to develop word sense disambiguation algorithms. However, WordNet has not been designed as an ontology, and while it can be easily turned into one, the result of doing this would present users with serious practical limitations due to the great number of concepts (synonym sets) it contains. Moreover, mapping WordNet to an existing ontology may be difficult and requires substantial labor. We propose to overcome these limitations by developing an analytical platform that (1) provides a WordNet-based ontology offering a manageable and yet comprehensive set of concept classes, (2) leverages the lexical richness of WordNet to give an extensive characterization of concept class in terms of lexical instances, and (3) integrates a class recognition algorithm that automates the assignment of concept classes to words in naturally occurring text. The ensuing framework makes available an ontological annotation platform that can be effectively integrated with intelligence analysis systems to facilitate evidence marshaling and sustain the creation and validation of inference models.

  11. Ontological Annotation with WordNet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Chappell, Alan R.; Whitney, Paul D.; Posse, Christian; Paulson, Patrick R.; Baddeley, Bob; Hohimer, Ryan E.; White, Amanda M.

    2006-06-06

    Semantic Web applications require robust and accurate annotation tools that are capable of automating the assignment of ontological classes to words in naturally occurring text (ontological annotation). Most current ontologies do not include rich lexical databases and are therefore not easily integrated with word sense disambiguation algorithms that are needed to automate ontological annotation. WordNet provides a potentially ideal solution to this problem as it offers a highly structured lexical conceptual representation that has been extensively used to develop word sense disambiguation algorithms. However, WordNet has not been designed as an ontology, and while it can be easily turned into one, the result of doing this would present users with serious practical limitations due to the great number of concepts (synonym sets) it contains. Moreover, mapping WordNet to an existing ontology may be difficult and requires substantial labor. We propose to overcome these limitations by developing an analytical platform that (1) provides a WordNet-based ontology offering a manageable and yet comprehensive set of concept classes, (2) leverages the lexical richness of WordNet to give an extensive characterization of concept class in terms of lexical instances, and (3) integrates a class recognition algorithm that automates the assignment of concept classes to words in naturally occurring text. The ensuing framework makes available an ontological annotation platform that can be effectively integrated with intelligence analysis systems to facilitate evidence marshaling and sustain the creation and validation of inference models.

  12. The NeuroDevNet vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldowitz, Dan; McArthur, Dawn

    2011-03-01

    The NeuroDevNet Network of Centres of Excellence has created the first trans-Canada effort devoted to the study of brain development from basic to clinical to societal perspectives. NeuroDevNet's vision is to accelerate efforts to (i) understand normal brain development; (ii) enhance our ability to make diagnoses of when normal development goes awry; and (iii) develop interventions to improve or prevent neurodevelopmental disorders. An early diagnosis coupled with the right therapies, The NeuroDevNet Network of Centres of Excellence has created the first trans-Canada effort devoted to the study of brain development from basic to clinical to societal perspectives. NeuroDevNet's vision is to accelerate efforts to (i) understand normal brain development; (ii) enhance our ability to make diagnoses of when normal development goes awry; and (iii) develop interventions to improve or prevent neurodevelopmental disorders. An early diagnosis coupled with the right therapies, Demonstration Projects. Funds were also allocated for an Opportunities Initiative. There is a wide of expertise amongst NeuroDevNet members. Researchers are supported by the management centre, three Platforms (Imaging; Genetics/ Epigenetics; Animal Models) and three Cores (Neuroethics; Neuroinformatics; Knowledge Translation). We emphasize multidisciplinary training of young researchers to advance the understanding of brain disorders that affect children. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The net charge at interfaces between insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bristowe, N C; Littlewood, P B [Theory of Condensed Matter Group, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Artacho, Emilio, E-mail: ncb30@cam.ac.uk [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EQ (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-02

    The issue of the net charge at insulating oxide interfaces is briefly reviewed with the ambition of dispelling myths of such charges being affected by covalency and related charge density effects. For electrostatic analysis purposes, the net charge at such interfaces is defined by the counting of discrete electrons and core ion charges, and by the definition of the reference polarization of the separate, unperturbed bulk materials. The arguments are illustrated for the case of a thin film of LaAlO{sub 3} over SrTiO{sub 3} in the absence of free carriers, for which the net charge is exactly 0.5e per interface formula unit, if the polarization response in both materials is referred to zero bulk values. Further consequences of the argument are extracted for structural and chemical alterations of such interfaces, in which internal rearrangements are distinguished from extrinsic alterations (changes of stoichiometry, redox processes), only the latter affecting the interfacial net charge. The arguments are reviewed alongside the proposal of Stengel and Vanderbilt (2009 Phys. Rev. B 80 241103) of using formal polarization values instead of net interfacial charges, based on the interface theorem of Vanderbilt and King-Smith (1993 Phys. Rev. B 48 4442-55). Implications for non-centrosymmetric materials are discussed, as well as for interfaces for which the charge mismatch is an integer number of polarization quanta. (viewpoint)

  14. Service on demand for ISS users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüser, Detlev; Berg, Marco; Körtge, Nicole; Mildner, Wolfgang; Salmen, Frank; Strauch, Karsten

    2002-07-01

    Since the ISS started its operational phase, the need of logistics scenarios and solutions, supporting the utilisation of the station and its facilities, becomes increasingly important. Our contribution to this challenge is a SERVICE On DEMAND for ISS users, which offers a business friendly engineering and logistics support for the resupply of the station. Especially the utilisation by commercial and industrial users is supported and simplified by this service. Our industrial team, consisting of OHB-System and BEOS, provides experience and development support for space dedicated hard- and software elements, their transportation and operation. Furthermore, we operate as the interface between customer and the envisaged space authorities. Due to a variety of tailored service elements and the ongoing servicing, customers can concentrate on their payload content or mission objectives and don't have to deal with space-specific techniques and regulations. The SERVICE On DEMAND includes the following elements: ITR is our in-orbit platform service. ITR is a transport rack, used in the SPACEHAB logistics double module, for active and passive payloads on subrack- and drawer level of different standards. Due to its unique late access and early retrieval capability, ITR increases the flexibility concerning transport capabilities to and from the ISS. RIST is our multi-functional test facility for ISPR-based experiment drawer and locker payloads. The test program concentrates on physical and functional interface and performance testing at the payload developers site prior to the shipment to the integration and launch. The RIST service program comprises consulting, planning and engineering as well. The RIST test suitcase is planned to be available for lease or rent to users, too. AMTSS is an advanced multimedia terminal consulting service for communication with the space station scientific facilities, as part of the user home-base. This unique ISS multimedia kit combines

  15. Understanding land administration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems - firstly the land management paradigm and its influence on the land administration framework, secondly the role that the cadastre plays...... in contributing to sustainable development, thirdly the changing nature of ownership and the role of land markets, and lastly a land management vision that promotes land administration in support of sustainable development and spatial enablement of society. We present here the first part of the paper. The second...

  16. MetNetAPI: A flexible method to access and manipulate biological network data from MetNet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucaet, Yves; Wurtele, Eve Syrkin

    2010-11-18

    Convenient programmatic access to different biological databases allows automated integration of scientific knowledge. Many databases support a function to download files or data snapshots, or a webservice that offers "live" data. However, the functionality that a database offers cannot be represented in a static data download file, and webservices may consume considerable computational resources from the host server. MetNetAPI is a versatile Application Programming Interface (API) to the MetNetDB database. It abstracts, captures and retains operations away from a biological network repository and website. A range of database functions, previously only available online, can be immediately (and independently from the website) applied to a dataset of interest. Data is available in four layers: molecular entities, localized entities (linked to a specific organelle), interactions, and pathways. Navigation between these layers is intuitive (e.g. one can request the molecular entities in a pathway, as well as request in what pathways a specific entity participates). Data retrieval can be customized: Network objects allow the construction of new and integration of existing pathways and interactions, which can be uploaded back to our server. In contrast to webservices, the computational demand on the host server is limited to processing data-related queries only. An API provides several advantages to a systems biology software platform. MetNetAPI illustrates an interface with a central repository of data that represents the complex interrelationships of a metabolic and regulatory network. As an alternative to data-dumps and webservices, it allows access to a current and "live" database and exposes analytical functions to application developers. Yet it only requires limited resources on the server-side (thin server/fat client setup). The API is available for Java, Microsoft.NET and R programming environments and offers flexible query and broad data- retrieval methods. Data

  17. MetNetAPI: A flexible method to access and manipulate biological network data from MetNet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sucaet Yves

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Convenient programmatic access to different biological databases allows automated integration of scientific knowledge. Many databases support a function to download files or data snapshots, or a webservice that offers "live" data. However, the functionality that a database offers cannot be represented in a static data download file, and webservices may consume considerable computational resources from the host server. Results MetNetAPI is a versatile Application Programming Interface (API to the MetNetDB database. It abstracts, captures and retains operations away from a biological network repository and website. A range of database functions, previously only available online, can be immediately (and independently from the website applied to a dataset of interest. Data is available in four layers: molecular entities, localized entities (linked to a specific organelle, interactions, and pathways. Navigation between these layers is intuitive (e.g. one can request the molecular entities in a pathway, as well as request in what pathways a specific entity participates. Data retrieval can be customized: Network objects allow the construction of new and integration of existing pathways and interactions, which can be uploaded back to our server. In contrast to webservices, the computational demand on the host server is limited to processing data-related queries only. Conclusions An API provides several advantages to a systems biology software platform. MetNetAPI illustrates an interface with a central repository of data that represents the complex interrelationships of a metabolic and regulatory network. As an alternative to data-dumps and webservices, it allows access to a current and "live" database and exposes analytical functions to application developers. Yet it only requires limited resources on the server-side (thin server/fat client setup. The API is available for Java, Microsoft.NET and R programming environments and offers

  18. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Demand Forecast Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackenberg, Davis L.

    2017-01-01

    UAS demand slides discuss the purpose, scope, and assumptions of the UAS Demand Forecast Study. It discusses some operational environments and market research study, this information is broad knowledge in the UAS community.

  19. Mobility on Demand Operational Concept Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-10

    This operational concept report provides an overview of the Mobility on Demand (MOD) concept and its evolution, description of the MOD ecosystem in a supply and demand framework, and its stakeholders and enablers. Leveraging the MOD ecosystem framewo...

  20. Driving demand for broadband networks and services

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Raul L

    2014-01-01

    This book examines the reasons why various groups around the world choose not to adopt broadband services and evaluates strategies to stimulate the demand that will lead to increased broadband use. It introduces readers to the benefits of higher adoption rates while examining the progress that developed and emerging countries have made in stimulating broadband demand. By relying on concepts such as a supply and demand gap, broadband price elasticity, and demand promotion, this book explains differences between the fixed and mobile broadband demand gap, introducing the notions of substitution and complementarity between both platforms. Building on these concepts, ‘Driving Demand for Broadband Networks and Services’ offers a set of best practices and recommendations aimed at promoting broadband demand.  The broadband demand gap is defined as individuals and households that could buy a broadband subscription because they live in areas served by telecommunications carriers but do not do so because of either ...