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Sample records for net lactate release

  1. Hypoxia and exercise provoke both lactate release and lactate oxidation by the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Morten; Rasmussen, Peter; Bohm, Aske M

    2012-01-01

    Lactate is shuttled between organs, as demonstrated in the Cori cycle. Although the brain releases lactate at rest, during physical exercise there is a cerebral uptake of lactate. Here, we evaluated the cerebral lactate uptake and release in hypoxia, during exercise and when the two interventions...... were combined. We measured cerebral lactate turnover via a tracer dilution method ([1-(13)C]lactate), using arterial to right internal jugular venous differences in 9 healthy individuals (5 males and 4 females), at rest and during 30 min of submaximal exercise in normoxia and hypoxia (F(i)o(2) 10......%, arterial oxygen saturation 72±10%, mean±SD). Whole-body lactate turnover increased 3.5-fold and 9-fold at two workloads in normoxia and 18-fold during exercise in hypoxia. Although middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity increased during exercise in hypoxia, calculated cerebral mitochondrial oxygen...

  2. Moderate hyperventilation during intravenous anesthesia increases net cerebral lactate efflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüne, Frank; Kazmaier, Stephan; Sonntag, Hans; Stolker, Robert Jan; Weyland, Andreas

    2014-02-01

    Hyperventilation is known to decrease cerebral blood flow (CBF) and to impair cerebral metabolism, but the threshold in patients undergoing intravenous anesthesia is unknown. The authors hypothesized that reduced CBF associated with moderate hyperventilation might impair cerebral aerobic metabolism in patients undergoing intravenous anesthesia. Thirty male patients scheduled for coronary surgery were included in a prospective, controlled crossover trial. Measurements were performed under fentanyl-midazolam anesthesia in a randomized sequence aiming at partial pressures of carbon dioxide of 30 and 50 mmHg. Endpoints were CBF, blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery, and cerebral metabolic rates for oxygen, glucose, and lactate. Global CBF was measured using a modified Kety-Schmidt technique with argon as inert gas tracer. CBF velocity of the middle cerebral artery was recorded by transcranial Doppler sonography. Data were presented as mean (SD). Two-sided paired t tests and one-way ANOVA for repeated measures were used for statistical analysis. Moderate hyperventilation significantly decreased CBF by 60%, blood flow velocity by 41%, cerebral oxygen delivery by 58%, and partial pressure of oxygen of the jugular venous bulb by 45%. Cerebral metabolic rates for oxygen and glucose remained unchanged; however, net cerebral lactate efflux significantly increased from -0.38 (2.18) to -2.41(2.43) µmol min 100 g. Moderate hyperventilation, when compared with moderate hypoventilation, in patients with cardiovascular disease undergoing intravenous anesthesia increased net cerebral lactate efflux and markedly reduced CBF and partial pressure of oxygen of the jugular venous bulb, suggesting partial impairment of cerebral aerobic metabolism at clinically relevant levels of hypocapnia.

  3. Channel-Mediated Lactate Release by K+-Stimulated Astrocytes

    KAUST Repository

    Sotelo-Hitschfeld, T.

    2015-03-11

    Excitatory synaptic transmission is accompanied by a local surge in interstitial lactate that occurs despite adequate oxygen availability, a puzzling phenomenon termed aerobic glycolysis. In addition to its role as an energy substrate, recent studies have shown that lactate modulates neuronal excitability acting through various targets, including NMDA receptors and G-protein-coupled receptors specific for lactate, but little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the increase in interstitial lactate. Using a panel of genetically encoded fluorescence nanosensors for energy metabolites, we show here that mouse astrocytes in culture, in cortical slices, and in vivo maintain a steady-state reservoir of lactate. The reservoir was released to the extracellular space immediately after exposure of astrocytes to a physiological rise in extracellular K+ or cell depolarization. Cell-attached patch-clamp analysis of cultured astrocytes revealed a 37 pS lactate-permeable ion channel activated by cell depolarization. The channel was modulated by lactate itself, resulting in a positive feedback loop for lactate release. A rapid fall in intracellular lactate levels was also observed in cortical astrocytes of anesthetized mice in response to local field stimulation. The existence of an astrocytic lactate reservoir and its quick mobilization via an ion channel in response to a neuronal cue provides fresh support to lactate roles in neuronal fueling and in gliotransmission.

  4. Creep feed intake during lactation enhances net absorption in the small intestine after weaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuller, W.I.; Beers-Schreurs, van H.M.G.; Soede, N.M.; Langendijk, P.; Taverne, M.A.M.; Kemp, B.; Verheijden, J.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to measure the effect of creep feeding during lactation on net absorption in the small intestine at 4 days after weaning. Intermittent suckling was used to increase creep feed intake during lactation. Creep feed containing chromic oxide was provided. Based on the colour of

  5. Net portal-drained visceral and hepatic metabolism of glucose, L-lactate, and nitrogenous compounds in lactating holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, C K; Huntington, G B; Tyrrell, H F; Reynolds, P J

    1988-07-01

    Net portal-drained visceral and hepatic flux of glucose, L-lactate, alpha-amino N, NH3N, urea N, glutamate, and glutamine were measured in four Holstein cows. Cows were fed a 60:40 corn silage: concentrate diet ad libitum and milked at 12-h intervals. Six to 16 d postpartum chronic catheters were established in hepatic portal, hepatic, and mesenteric veins and a carotid artery was elevated. Twelve Measurements of net flux, the mathematical product of blood flow (measured by p-aminohippurate dilution) and venous-arterial concentration difference, were obtained for each cow at hourly intervals during 1 d of wk 4 and 8 postpartum. Dry matter, N, and energy digestion trials began 1 to 2 d after blood sampling. Dry matter intake and milk yield averaged 15.6 and 32.2 kg/d. Portal-drained visceral blood flow averaged 80% of hepatic blood flow (2041 L/h). Net flux of NH3N, urea N, and alpha-amino N across portal-drained viscera represented 68, 54, and 51% of N apparently digested. There was net use of glucose by portal-drained viscera. Hepatic glucose production (3.1 kg/d) exceeded calculated mammary glucose requirements. Net hepatic removal of L-lactate, alpha-amino N, and NH3N represented 115, 43, and 101%, respectively, of their net absorption by portal-drained viscera. Net hepatic L-lactate and alpha-amino N removal could account maximally for 17.4 and 16.5% of glucose produced.

  6. Immediate and delayed effects of gill-net capture on acid-base balance and intramuscular lactate concentration of gummy sharks, Mustelus antarcticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Lorenz H; Walker, Terence I; Reina, Richard D

    2012-06-01

    Many sharks are captured as untargeted by-catch during commercial fishing operations and are subsequently discarded. A reliable assessment of the proportion of discarded sharks that die post-release as a result of excessive physiological stress is important for fisheries management and conservation purposes, but a reliable physiological predictor of post-release mortality has not been identified. To investigate effects of gill-net capture on the acid-base balance of sharks, we exposed gummy sharks, Mustelus antarcticus, to 60 min of gill-net capture in a controlled setting, and obtained multiple blood and muscle tissue samples during a 72-h recovery period following the capture event. Overall mortality of gummy sharks was low (9%). Blood pH was significantly depressed immediately after the capture event due to a combination of respiratory and metabolic acidosis. Maximum concentrations of plasma lactate (9.9 ± 1.5 mmol L(-1)) were measured 3h after the capture event. Maximum intramuscular lactate concentrations (37.0 ± 4.6 μmol g(-1)) were measured immediately after the capture event, and intramuscular lactate concentrations were substantially higher than plasma lactate concentrations at all times. Sharks in poor condition had low blood pH and high intramuscular lactate concentration, but blood pH does not appear to be a reliable predictor of survival. Suitability of intramuscular lactate concentration as predictor of delayed mortality deserves further investigation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Slow-release urea in diets for lactating crossbred cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Tadeu Santiago

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of F1 (Holstein × Zebu cows in lactation according to different levels of substitution of soybean meal for a protein equivalent non-protein nitrogen originated from slow-release urea (SRU. Eight F1 (Holstein × Zebu cows in the first third of lactation, with an average milk yield of 12.7 kg (±3.1 kg/day and a live weight of 552 kg (±30 kg, were used. The experimental design was composed of two simultaneous 4 × 4 Latin squares, with the following treatments: 100% soybean meal and 0% SRU; 66% soybean meal and 34% SRU; 34% soybean meal and 66% SRU; and 0% soybean meal and 100% SRU. Sorghum silage, used as roughage, was supplied together with the concentrate. Feed intake and digestibility as well as milk yield and milk composition were measured. The obtained data were subjected to analysis of variance, adopting a 5% probability level. No intake variable showed significant differences among the treatments, and the mean values for the intakes of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP and neutral detergent fiber (NDF were 18.35 2.62 and 5.85 kg/day, respectively. The results for apparent digestibility also did not show differences among treatments, with DM, CP and NDF averaging 58.16, 58.64 and 36.21%, respectively. Milk yield and composition were similar among the treatments. The average 4%-fat-corrected milk yield was 13.39 kg/animal day. Intake, digestibility and milk yield and composition variables are not changed according to the substitution of the soy protein for slow-release urea. Thus, for average-milk-yield crossbred.animals, this substitution depends on economic variables only.

  8. Lactate fuels the human brain during exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quistorff, Bjorn; Secher, Niels H.; van Lieshout, Johannes J.

    2008-01-01

    The human brain releases a small amount of lactate at rest, and even an increase in arterial blood lactate during anesthesia does not provoke a net cerebral lactate uptake. However, during cerebral activation associated with exercise involving a marked increase in plasma lactate, the brain takes up

  9. Effect of blood flow on muscle lactate release studied in perfused rat hindlimb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, H; Bangsbo, Jens; Henningsen, P

    1995-01-01

    The influence of blood flow on muscle lactate and H+ release as well as muscle glyconeogenesis was studied in the perfused rat hindlimb. After 2 min of supramaximal stimulation the perfusate flow rate was 7 (F7), 12 (F12), or 18 (F18) ml/min for 30 min. Perfusate samples were drawn frequently...... and muscle samples were obtained before stimulation, immediately after stimulation, and at 3, 10, and 30 min of recovery from soleus, white gastrocnemius (WG) and red gastrocnemius. During the first 5 min of recovery lactate release was 35-39% lower (P ... between H+ and lactate release was larger (P blood...

  10. Effect of decreasing dietary phosphorus supply on net recycling of inorganic phosphate in lactating dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puggaard, Liselotte; Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Sehested, Jens Jakob

    2011-01-01

    Five ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein cows, fitted with permanent indwelling catheters in the mesenteric vein, hepatic vein, portal vein, and an artery were used to study intestinal absorption and net recycling of inorganic phosphate (Pi) to the gastrointestinal tract. Treatments were low P...... restrictively, resulting in equal dry matter intakes as well as milk, fat, and protein yields between treatments. Net Pi recycling (primarily salivary) was estimated as the difference between net portal plasma flux (net absorption of Pi) and apparently digested tP (feed – fecal tP difference). Phosphorus intake...... (LP; 2.4 g of P/kg of DM) and high P (HP; 3.4 g of P/kg of DM). The dietary total P (tP) concentrations were obtained by replacing 0.50% calcium carbonate in the LP diet with 0.50% monocalcium phosphate in the HP diet. Diets were fed for 14 d and cows were sampled on d 14 in each period. Cows were fed...

  11. Neutrophil Integrins and Matrix Ligands and NET Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan S. Reichner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils are motile and responsive to tissue injury and infection. As neutrophils emigrate from the bloodstream and migrate towards a site of affliction, they encounter the tissue extracellular matrix (ECM and thereby engage integrins. Our laboratory studies the neutrophilic response to the fungal pathogen Candida albicans either in the filamentous state of the microbe or to the purified pathogen-associated molecular pattern, β-glucan. We have gained an appreciation for the role of integrins in regulating the neutrophil anti-Candida response and how the presence or absence of ECM can drive experimental outcome. The β2 integrin CR3 (Complement Receptor 3; αMβ2; Mac-1; CD11b/CD18 plays an important role in fungal recognition by its ability to bind β-glucan at a unique lectin-like domain. The presence of ECM differentially regulates essential neutrophil anti-fungal functions including chemotaxis, respiratory burst, homotypic aggregation, and the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETosis. We have shown that NET release to C. albicans hyphae or immobilized β-glucan occurs rapidly and without the requirement for respiratory burst on ECM. This is in contrast to the more frequently reported mechanisms of NETosis to other pathogens without the context of ECM which occur after a prolonged lag period and require respiratory burst. As expected for an ECM-dependent phenotype, NETosis and other neutrophil functions are dependent on specific β1 integrins. The focus of this review is the role of ECM ligation by neutrophil integrins as it pertains to host defense functions with an emphasis on lessons we have learned studying the anti-Candida response of human neutrophils.

  12. Prognostic significance of cytochrome C release and tissue lactate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study included 90 patients with breast cancer and 35 patients with benign breast lesions. In cytosolic fraction, release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol was detected by Western blot, while total LDH activity was measured spectrophotometrically. Tissue LDHA mRNA was assessed by RTPCR. We observed a ...

  13. Lactation Persistency as a Component Trait of the Selection Index and Increase in Reliability by Using Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in Net Merit Defined as the First Five Lactation Milk Yields and Herd Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Togashi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We first sought to clarify the effects of discounted rate, survival rate, and lactation persistency as a component trait of the selection index on net merit, defined as the first five lactation milks and herd life (HL weighted by 1 and 0.389 (currently used in Japan, respectively, in units of genetic standard deviation. Survival rate increased the relative economic importance of later lactation traits and the first five lactation milk yields during the first 120 months from the start of the breeding scheme. In contrast, reliabilities of the estimated breeding value (EBV in later lactation traits are lower than those of earlier lactation traits. We then sought to clarify the effects of applying single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP on net merit to improve the reliability of EBV of later lactation traits to maximize their increased economic importance due to increase in survival rate. Net merit, selection accuracy, and HL increased by adding lactation persistency to the selection index whose component traits were only milk yields. Lactation persistency of the second and (especially third parities contributed to increasing HL while maintaining the first five lactation milk yields compared with the selection index whose only component traits were milk yields. A selection index comprising the first three lactation milk yields and persistency accounted for 99.4% of net merit derived from a selection index whose components were identical to those for net merit. We consider that the selection index comprising the first three lactation milk yields and persistency is a practical method for increasing lifetime milk yield in the absence of data regarding HL. Applying SNP to the second- and third-lactation traits and HL increased net merit and HL by maximizing the increased economic importance of later lactation traits, reducing the effect of first-lactation milk yield on HL (genetic correlation (rG = −0.006, and by augmenting the effects of the second- and

  14. Lactation Persistency as a Component Trait of the Selection Index and Increase in Reliability by Using Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in Net Merit Defined as the First Five Lactation Milk Yields and Herd Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togashi, K.; Hagiya, K.; Osawa, T.; Nakanishi, T.; Yamazaki, T.; Nagamine, Y.; Lin, C.Y.; Matsumoto, S.; Aihara, M.; Hayasaka, K.

    2012-01-01

    We first sought to clarify the effects of discounted rate, survival rate, and lactation persistency as a component trait of the selection index on net merit, defined as the first five lactation milks and herd life (HL) weighted by 1 and 0.389 (currently used in Japan), respectively, in units of genetic standard deviation. Survival rate increased the relative economic importance of later lactation traits and the first five lactation milk yields during the first 120 months from the start of the breeding scheme. In contrast, reliabilities of the estimated breeding value (EBV) in later lactation traits are lower than those of earlier lactation traits. We then sought to clarify the effects of applying single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on net merit to improve the reliability of EBV of later lactation traits to maximize their increased economic importance due to increase in survival rate. Net merit, selection accuracy, and HL increased by adding lactation persistency to the selection index whose component traits were only milk yields. Lactation persistency of the second and (especially) third parities contributed to increasing HL while maintaining the first five lactation milk yields compared with the selection index whose only component traits were milk yields. A selection index comprising the first three lactation milk yields and persistency accounted for 99.4% of net merit derived from a selection index whose components were identical to those for net merit. We consider that the selection index comprising the first three lactation milk yields and persistency is a practical method for increasing lifetime milk yield in the absence of data regarding HL. Applying SNP to the second- and third-lactation traits and HL increased net merit and HL by maximizing the increased economic importance of later lactation traits, reducing the effect of first-lactation milk yield on HL (genetic correlation (rG) = −0.006), and by augmenting the effects of the second- and third-lactation

  15. Lactate as a fuel for mitochondrial respiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit

    2000-01-01

    Lactate production in skeletal muscle has now been studied for nearly two centuries and still its production and functional role at rest and during muscle contraction is a subject of debate. Historically, skeletal muscle was seen mainly as the site of lactate production during contraction...... and lactate production associated with a lack of muscle oxygenation and fatigue. Later, it was recognized that skeletal muscle not only plays an important role in lactate production but also in lactate clearance and this in turn has led to a renewed interest in the metabolic fate of lactate in skeletal muscle...... and also in other tissues. Studies using lactate isotopes have shown that skeletal muscle extracts lactate from the circulation despite a substantial net lactate release, and that skeletal muscle has a large capacity for lactate oxidation; these processes being enhanced with exercise. Lactate dehydrogenase...

  16. Inhibition of NET Release Fails to Reduce Adipose Tissue Inflammation in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Braster, Quinte; Roig, Carlos Silvestre; Hartwig, Helene; Beckers, Linda; den Toom, Myrthe; Döring, Yvonne; Deemen, Mat J.; Lutgens, Esther; Soehnlein, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Obesity-associated diseases such as Type 2 diabetes, liver disease and cardiovascular diseases are profoundly mediated by low-grade chronic inflammation of the adipose tissue. Recently, the importance of neutrophils and neutrophil-derived myeloperoxidase and neutrophil elastase on the induction of insulin resistance has been established. Since neutrophil elastase and myeloperoxidase are critically involved in the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), we here hypothesized that NETs...

  17. Leg and arm lactate and substrate kinetics during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Jensen-Urstad, M; Rosdahl, H

    2003-01-01

    To study the role of muscle mass and muscle activity on lactate and energy kinetics during exercise, whole body and limb lactate, glucose, and fatty acid fluxes were determined in six elite cross-country skiers during roller-skiing for 40 min with the diagonal stride (Continuous Arm + Leg) followed...... by 10 min of double poling and diagonal stride at 72-76% maximal O(2) uptake. A high lactate appearance rate (R(a), 184 +/- 17 micromol x kg(-1) x min(-1)) but a low arterial lactate concentration ( approximately 2.5 mmol/l) were observed during Continuous Arm + Leg despite a substantial net lactate...... release by the arm of approximately 2.1 mmol/min, which was balanced by a similar net lactate uptake by the leg. Whole body and limb lactate oxidation during Continuous Arm + Leg was approximately 45% at rest and approximately 95% of disappearance rate and limb lactate uptake, respectively. Limb lactate...

  18. [The influence of the social net of lactating mothers in the breastfeeding: the strategic role of the relatives and professionals of health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Emanuele Souza; Cotta, Rosângela Minardi Mitre; Magalhães, Kelly Alves; Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira da Rocha; Gomes, Andréia Patrícia; Siqueira-Batista, Rodrigo

    2010-06-01

    The objective was to raise and classify scientific works on the influence of the social net of lactating mothers in the context of the breastfeeding. A bibliographical review was done in the main databases (MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO), using as keywords: breastfeeding, weaning and family (and their versions in English and Spanish). Books, thesis, dissertations, and publications in international and national institutions were consulted (WHO, UNICEF, Ministry of Health). It could be observed that the actors that compose the social net of the lactating mothers can interfere in the decision of breastfeeding, through different extents, such as the encouragement/support to the initiative; reviewing the knowledge and cultural values; family tradition; and the cultivation of the indifference/discourage and the pressure exercised on the lactating mothers in relation to the form of feeding the child. In this way, it can infer on the need of the implementation of new health practices regarding to the care of this group. It is worth to highlight, the importance of the professionals to be qualified for the sensitive listening on the meaning of the nursing under the glance of the lactating mothers . Finally, it stands out the importance role of the social net of the lactating mothers, especially the family, for a successful breastfeeding.

  19. Net metabolism of volatile fatty acids, D-beta-hydroxybutyrate, nonesterifield fatty acids, and blood gasses by portal-drained viscera and liver of lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, C K; Huntington, G B; Tyrrell, H F; Reynolds, P J

    1988-09-01

    Net flux of VFA, D-beta-hydroxybutyrate, nonesterified fatty acids, and blood gasses across portal-drained viscera and liver was measured in four lactating Holstein cows fed a 60:40 corn silage: concentrate diet ad libitum and milked at 12-h intervals. Twelve consecutive hourly measurements of net flux (venous-arterial concentration difference times blood flow) were obtained during wk 4 and 8 postpartum for each cow. Milk yield and DM intake averaged 32.2 and 15.6 kg/d. On a net basis, hepatic tissues produced acetate and removed 63 to 101% of other VFA absorbed by portal-drained viscera. Hepatic and portal-drained visceral tissues produced 60 and 40%, respectively, of D-beta-hydroxybutyrate produced by splanchnic tissues. Hepatic tissues removed 9.3% of nonesterified fatty acids in portal vein and hepatic arterial blood. Oxygen use was greater by liver than for portal-drained viscera (3062 vs. 2394 mmol/h). Net portal-drained visceral flux of VFA, D-beta-hydroxybutyrate, alpha-amino nitrogen, L-lactate, and oxygen together accounted for 84.9% of calculated metabolizable energy intake. Net hepatic removal of propionate, L-lactate, and alpha-amino nitrogen maximally accounted for 55.1, 17.4, and 16.5% of carbon in glucose produced by hepatic tissues.

  20. Effects of gill-net trauma, barotrauma, and deep release on postrelease mortality of Lake Trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Elizabeth L.; Fredericks, Jim P.; Quist, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Unaccounted postrelease mortality violates assumptions of many fisheries studies, thereby biasing parameter estimates and reducing efficiency. We evaluated effects of gill-net trauma, barotrauma, and deep-release treatment on postrelease mortality of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush. Lake trout were captured at depths up to 65 m with gill nets in Priest Lake, Idaho, and held in a large enclosure for 10–12 d. Postrelease mortality was the same for surface-release–and deep-release–treated fish (41%). Mixed-effects logistic regression models were used to evaluate effects of intrinsic and environmental factors on the probability of mortality. Presence of gill-net trauma and degree of barotrauma were associated with increased probability of postrelease mortality. Smaller fish were also more likely to suffer postrelease mortality. On average, deep-release treatment did not reduce postrelease mortality, but effectiveness of treatment increased with fish length. Of the environmental factors evaluated, only elapsed time between lifting the first and last anchors of a gill-net gang (i.e., lift time) was significantly related to postrelease mortality. Longer lift times, which may allow ascending lake trout to acclimate to depressurization, were associated with lower postrelease mortality rates. Our study suggests that postrelease mortality may be higher than previously assumed for lake trout because mortality continues after 48 h. In future studies, postrelease mortality could be reduced by increasing gill-net lift times and increasing mesh size used to increase length of fish captured.

  1. Performance of lactating crossbred cows on pasture supplemented with conventional urea or slow release urea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. Abreu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of using conventional urea (CU or slow release urea (SRU was evaluated by replacing soybean meal (SBM in concentrated supplements in levels of 2, 4 or 6% (dry matter basis on productive performance of crossbred Holstein x Zebu lactating dairy cows (499±61kg body weight and 167 days of lactation grazing on elephant grass (11.5% CP and 60% NDF under rotational grazing during the rainy season. A supplement control (no urea was used containing SBM as a protein source. A total of 21 cows were distributed an incomplete randomized block design with three periods of 21 days each (14 days of adaptation and seven days of collection. The animals entered the paddocks with a pasture height of 110-120cm and left when the grass reached the height of 40-50cm. The concentrated isonitrogenous supplements (24% crude protein, dry matter basis were provided in the amount of 3.2kg/cow/day (fed basis. There was no effect (P>0.05 on source of crude protein (SBM vs source NPN, source NPN, level of NPN, interaction between source NPN and level of NPN on milk production (10.0kg/day, fat milk production corrected to 3.5% (10.7kg/day, levels of fat (4.01%, protein (3.66%, lactose (4.16%, total solids (12.86% and non-fat solids (8.60% in milk. The replacement of CU by SRU does not promote improvement in the productive performance of crossbred dairy cows grazing on elephant grass during the rainy season. Urea (CU or SRU can be included in up to 6% of the DM concentrated supplements, replacing SBM, without affecting the productive performance of crossbred cows (Holstein x Zebu in pasture during the rainy season.

  2. Chemosensitivity of MCF-7 cells to eugenol: release of cytochrome-c and lactate dehydrogenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Wafai, Rana; El-Rabih, Warde; Katerji, Meghri; Safi, Remi; El Sabban, Marwan; El-Rifai, Omar; Usta, Julnar

    2017-01-01

    Phytochemicals have been extensively researched for their potential anticancer effects. In previous study, direct exposure of rat liver mitochondria to eugenol main ingredient of clove, uncoupled mitochondria and increased F0F1ATPase activity. In the present study, we further investigated the effects of eugenol on MCF-7 cells in culture. Eugenol demonstrated: a dose-dependent decrease in viability (MTT assay), and proliferation (real time cell analysis) of MCF-7 cells, (EC50: 0.9 mM); an increase in reactive oxygen species; a decrease in ATP level and mitochondrial membrane potential (MitoPT JC-1 assay); and a release of cytochrome-c and lactate dehydrogenase (Cytotoxicity Detection Kit PLUS) into culture media at eugenol concentration >EC50. Pretreatment with the antioxidants Trolox and N-acetyl cysteine partially restored cell viability and decreased ROS, with Trolox being more potent. Expression levels of both anti- and pro-apoptotic markers (Bcl-2 and Bax, respectively) decreased with increasing eugenol concentration, with no variation in their relative ratios. Eugenol-treated MCF-7 cells overexpressing Bcl-2 exhibited results similar to those of MCF-7. Our findings indicate that eugenol toxicity is non-apoptotic Bcl-2 independent, affecting mitochondrial function and plasma membrane integrity with no effect on migration or invasion. We report here the chemo-sensitivity of MCF-7 cells to eugenol, a phytochemical with anticancer potential. PMID:28272477

  3. Inhibition of NET Release Fails to Reduce Adipose Tissue Inflammation in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braster, Quinte; Silvestre Roig, Carlos; Hartwig, Helene; Beckers, Linda; den Toom, Myrthe; Döring, Yvonne; Daemen, Mat J; Lutgens, Esther; Soehnlein, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Obesity-associated diseases such as Type 2 diabetes, liver disease and cardiovascular diseases are profoundly mediated by low-grade chronic inflammation of the adipose tissue. Recently, the importance of neutrophils and neutrophil-derived myeloperoxidase and neutrophil elastase on the induction of insulin resistance has been established. Since neutrophil elastase and myeloperoxidase are critically involved in the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), we here hypothesized that NETs may be relevant to early adipose tissue inflammation. Thus, we tested the effect of the Peptidyl Arginine Deiminase 4 inhibitor Cl-amidine, a compound preventing histone citrullination and subsequent NET release, in a mouse model of adipose tissue inflammation. C57BL6 mice received a 60% high fat diet for 10 weeks and were treated with either Cl-amidine or vehicle. Flow cytometry of adipose tissue and liver, immunohistological analysis and glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed to determine the effect of the treatment and diet. Although high fat diet feeding induced insulin resistance no significant effect was observed between the treatment groups. In addition no effect was found in leukocyte infiltration and activation in the adipose tissue and liver. Therefore we concluded that inhibition of neutrophil extracellular trap formation may have no clinical relevance for early obesity-mediated pathogenesis of the adipose tissue and liver.

  4. Inhibition of NET Release Fails to Reduce Adipose Tissue Inflammation in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinte Braster

    Full Text Available Obesity-associated diseases such as Type 2 diabetes, liver disease and cardiovascular diseases are profoundly mediated by low-grade chronic inflammation of the adipose tissue. Recently, the importance of neutrophils and neutrophil-derived myeloperoxidase and neutrophil elastase on the induction of insulin resistance has been established. Since neutrophil elastase and myeloperoxidase are critically involved in the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs, we here hypothesized that NETs may be relevant to early adipose tissue inflammation. Thus, we tested the effect of the Peptidyl Arginine Deiminase 4 inhibitor Cl-amidine, a compound preventing histone citrullination and subsequent NET release, in a mouse model of adipose tissue inflammation. C57BL6 mice received a 60% high fat diet for 10 weeks and were treated with either Cl-amidine or vehicle. Flow cytometry of adipose tissue and liver, immunohistological analysis and glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed to determine the effect of the treatment and diet. Although high fat diet feeding induced insulin resistance no significant effect was observed between the treatment groups. In addition no effect was found in leukocyte infiltration and activation in the adipose tissue and liver. Therefore we concluded that inhibition of neutrophil extracellular trap formation may have no clinical relevance for early obesity-mediated pathogenesis of the adipose tissue and liver.

  5. Lactate metabolism in chronic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Johanne B; Mortensen, Christian; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    Background. In the healthy liver there is a splanchnic net-uptake of lactate caused by gluconeogenesis. It has previously been shown that patients with acute liver failure in contrast have a splanchnic release of lactate caused by a combination of accelerated glycolysis in the splanchnic region...... and a reduction in hepatic gluconeogenesis. Aims. The aims of the present study were to investigate lactate metabolism and kinetics in patients with chronic liver disease compared with a control group with normal liver function. Methods. A total of 142 patients with chronic liver disease and 14 healthy controls...

  6. The predictive value of cumulative lactate dehydrogenase release within the first 72 h of acute myocardial infarction in patients treated with primary angioplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsman, Peter; Zijlstra, F.; Miedema, Kor; Hoorntje, J.C.; Dikkeschei, L.D.; Slingerland, R.J.; Reiffers, S.; de Boer, M.J.; Suryapranata, H.

    2004-01-01

    Background: In patients with acute myocardial infarction, estimation of infarct size by cumulative lactate dehydrogenase release at 72 h (LDHQ72) is a simple and widely used method. Our objective was to study the value of estimating infarct size, by the cumulative release of LDH over 72, 60, 48 and

  7. Lactate release from astrocytes to neurons contributes to cocaine memory formation

    KAUST Repository

    Boury-Jamot, Benjamin

    2016-10-12

    The identification of neural substrates underlying the long lasting debilitating impact of drug cues is critical for developing novel therapeutic tools. Metabolic coupling has long been considered a key mechanism through which astrocytes and neurons actively interact in response of neuronal activity, but recent findings suggested that disrupting metabolic coupling may represent an innovative approach to prevent memory formation, in particular drug-related memories. Here, we review converging evidence illustrating how memory and addiction share neural circuitry and molecular mechanisms implicating lactate-mediated metabolic coupling between astrocytes and neurons. With several aspects of addiction depending on mnemonic processes elicited by drug experience, disrupting lactate transport involved in the formation of a pathological learning, linking the incentive, and motivational effects of drugs with drug-conditioned stimuli represent a promising approach to encourage abstinence.

  8. Dissociation between lactate and proton exchange in muscle during intense exercise in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsbo, Jens; Juel, Carsten; Hellsten, Ylva

    1997-01-01

    , the difference between net proton and lactate release was positive throughout exercise and of similar magnitude in N and H. 5. The present data suggest that (1) H+ exchange in muscle during submaximal exercise can to a large extent occur through mechanisms other than via coupling to lactate; (2) muscle transport...

  9. Prolactin released in vitro from the pituitary of lactating, pregnant, and steroid-treated female or male rats stimulates prolactin secretion from pituitary lactotropes of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Flavio; Navarro, Nilda; Castilla, Alejandra; Morales, Teresa; Fiordelisio, Tatiana; Cárabez, Alfonso; Aguilar, Manuel B; Huerta-Ocampo, Icnelia

    2010-01-01

    We have previously shown that soluble factor(s) in conditioned media (CM) from the central and peripheral regions of the anterior pituitary (AP) gland of lactating rats promoted the in vitro dose-related release of prolactin (PRL) from pituitary glands of male rats. In the present experiments we sought to determine whether CM from rats in different physiological states provoked similar effects (like those of lactating rats), and the nature of the factors, whether 23K PRL or other variants of the hormone, were responsible for these effects. Stimulatory effects were induced by CM from pregnant females and steroid-treated castrated males or females, but not from untreated castrated rats, intact males, or by a PRL standard. More potent effects occurred with CM from APs of early- than from mid- or late-lactating rats, and from rats unsuckled for 8 or 16 h than from those unsuckled for 32 h. With respect to the nature of factor(s) responsible for these effects, immunoprecipitation of PRL from the CM of lactating females and of steroid-treated, castrated males eliminated, whereas dephosphorylation or deglycosylation of CM of lactating rats greatly increased its effects upon PRL release. Also, electrophoretic analysis and Western blotting of the CM proteins under native and denaturing conditions revealed a variety of PRL variants, ranging from 14 to <90 kDa, in CM from lactating rats, and the main effects on PRL release were provoked by the 23- to 46-kDa PRL variants. These results indicate that specific effects upon male rat lactotropes may be exerted by PRL variants released from APs of lactating and non-lactating rats. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Lactate transport and signaling in the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergersen, Linda Hildegard

    2015-01-01

    , such as in physical exercise, there is net influx of lactate from blood to brain, where the lactate is used for energy production and myelin formation. Lactate binds to the lactate receptor GPR81 aka hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor (HCAR1) on brain cells and cerebral blood vessels, and regulates the levels of c...... of the favorable effects on the brain resulting from physical exercise....... to some, lactate is a preferred fuel for brain metabolism. Immediately after brain activation, the rate of glycolysis exceeds oxidation, leading to net production of lactate. At physical rest, there is a net efflux of lactate from the brain into the blood stream. But when blood lactate levels rise...

  11. Effect of light on N2 fixation and net nitrogen release of Trichodesmium in a field study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yangyang; Wen, Zuozhu; Shi, Dalin; Chen, Mingming; Zhang, Yao; Bonnet, Sophie; Li, Yuhang; Tian, Jiwei; Kao, Shuh-Ji

    2018-01-01

    Dinitrogen fixation (NF) by marine cyanobacteria is an important pathway to replenish the oceanic bioavailable nitrogen inventory. Light is the key to modulating NF; however, field studies investigating the light response curve (NF-I curve) of NF rate and the effect of light on diazotroph-derived nitrogen (DDN) net release are relatively sparse in the literature, hampering prediction using models. A dissolution method was applied using uncontaminated 15N2 gas to examine how the light changes may influence the NF intensity and DDN net release in the oligotrophic ocean. Experiments were conducted at stations with diazotrophs dominated by filamentous cyanobacterium Trichodesmium spp. in the western Pacific and the South China Sea. The effect of light on carbon fixation (CF) was measured in parallel using the 13C tracer method specifically for a station characterized by Trichodesmium bloom. Both NF-I and CF-I curves showed a Ik (light saturation coefficient) range of 193 to 315 µE m-2 s-1, with light saturation at around 400 µE m-2 s-1. The proportion of DDN net release ranged from ˜ 6 to ˜ 50 %, suggesting an increasing trend as the light intensity decreased. At the Trichodesmium bloom station, we found that the CF / NF ratio was light-dependent and the ratio started to increase as light was lower than the carbon compensation point of 200 µE m-2 s-1. Under low-light stress, Trichodesmium physiologically preferred to allocate more energy for CF to alleviate the intensive carbon consumption by respiration; thus, there is a metabolism tradeoff between CF and NF pathways. Results showed that short-term ( < 24 h) light change modulates the physiological state, which subsequently determined the C / N metabolism and DDN net release by Trichodesmium. Reallocation of energy associated with the variation in light intensity would be helpful for prediction of the global biogeochemical cycle of N by models involving Trichodesmium blooms.

  12. Pregnancy success of lactating Holstein cows after a single administration of a sustained-release formulation of recombinant bovine somatotropin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutiérrez CG

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Results regarding the use of bovine somatotropin for enhancing fertility in dairy cattle are variable. Here, the hypothesis was tested that a single injection of a sustained-release preparation of bovine somatotropin (bST during the preovulatory period would improve pregnancy success of lactating dairy cows at first service. Results The first experiment was conducted in a temperate region of Mexico. Cows inseminated following natural estrus or timed artificial insemination were given a single injection of bST or a placebo injection at insemination (n = 100 cows per group. There was no significant difference between bST and control groups in the proportion of inseminated cows diagnosed pregnant (29 vs 31% pregnant. The second experiment was performed during heat stress in Florida. Cows were subjected to an ovulation synchronization regimen for first insemination. Cows treated with bST received a single injection at 3 days before insemination. Controls received no additional treatment. As expected, bST did not increase vaginal temperature. Treatment with bST did not significantly increase the proportion of inseminated cows diagnosed pregnant although it was numerically greater for the bST group (24.2% vs 17.8%, 124–132 cows per group. There was a tendency (p = 0.10 for a smaller percent of control cows to have high plasma progesterone concentrations (≥ 1 ng/ml at Day 7 after insemination than for bST-treated cows (72.6 vs 81.1%. When only cows that were successfully synchronized were considered, the magnitude of the absolute difference in the percentage of inseminated cows that were diagnosed pregnant between bST and control cows was reduced (24.8 vs 22.4% pregnant for bST and control. Conclusion Results failed to indicate a beneficial effect of bST treatment on fertility of lactating dairy cows.

  13. Human muscle net K(+) release during exercise is unaffected by elevated anaerobic metabolism, but reduced after prolonged acclimatization to 4,100 m.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai B; Calbet, José A L; Sander, Mikael; van Hall, Gerrit; Juel, Carsten; Saltin, Bengt; Lundby, Carsten

    2010-07-01

    It was investigated whether skeletal muscle K(+) release is linked to the degree of anaerobic energy production. Six subjects performed an incremental bicycle exercise test in normoxic and hypoxic conditions prior to and after 2 and 8 wk of acclimatization to 4,100 m. The highest workload completed by all subjects in all trials was 260 W. With acute hypoxic exposure prior to acclimatization, venous plasma [K(+)] was lower (P exercise intensity, leg net K(+) release was unaffected by hypoxic exposure independent of acclimatization. After 8 wk of acclimatization, no difference existed in venous plasma [K(+)] between the normoxic and hypoxic trial, either at submaximal intensities or at exhaustion (360 +/- 14 W vs. 313 +/- 8 W; P exercise intensity, leg net K(+) release was less (P exercise relative to rest was less (P anaerobic energy production and that acclimatization reduces leg net K(+) release during exercise.

  14. Lactate: Brain Fuel in Human Traumatic Brain Injury: A Comparison with Normal Healthy Control Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Neil A.; Horning, Michael A.; McArthur, David L.; Hovda, David A.; Vespa, Paul; Brooks, George A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We evaluated the hypothesis that lactate shuttling helps support the nutritive needs of injured brains. To that end, we utilized dual isotope tracer [6,6-2H2]glucose, that is, D2-glucose, and [3-13C]lactate techniques involving arm vein tracer infusion along with simultaneous cerebral (arterial [art] and jugular bulb [JB]) blood sampling. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients with nonpenetrating brain injuries (n=12) were entered into the study following consent of patients' legal representatives. Written and informed consent was obtained from control volunteers (n=6). Patients were studied 5.7±2.2 (mean±SD) days post-injury; during periods when arterial glucose concentration tended to be higher in TBI patients. As in previous investigations, the cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRgluc, i.e., net glucose uptake) was significantly suppressed following TBI (pcerebral lactate uptake related to systemic lactate supply, approximated 11% in both healthy control subjects and TBI patients. Further, neither the CMR for lactate (CMRlac, i.e., net lactate release), nor the tracer-measured cerebral lactate uptake differed between healthy controls and TBI patients. The percentages of lactate tracer taken up and released as 13CO2 into the JB accounted for 92% and 91% for control and TBI conditions, respectively, suggesting that most cerebral lactate uptake was oxidized following TBI. Comparisons of isotopic enrichments of lactate oxidation from infused [3-13C]lactate tracer and 13C-glucose produced during hepatic and renal gluconeogenesis (GNG) showed that 75–80% of 13CO2 released into the JB was from lactate and that the remainder was from the oxidation of glucose secondarily labeled from lactate. Hence, either directly as lactate uptake, or indirectly via GNG, peripheral lactate production accounted for ∼70% of carbohydrate (direct lactate uptake+uptake of glucose from lactate) consumed by the injured brain. Undiminished cerebral lactate fractional

  15. Empirical prediction of net splanchnic release of ketogenic nutrients, acetate, butyrate and β-hydroxybutyrate in ruminants: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loncke, C; Nozière, P; Bahloul, L; Vernet, J; Lapierre, H; Sauvant, D; Ortigues-Marty, I

    2015-03-01

    For energy feeding systems for ruminants to evolve towards a nutrient-based system, dietary energy supply has to be determined in terms of amount and nature of nutrients. The objective of this study was to establish response equations of the net hepatic flux and net splanchnic release of acetate, butyrate and β-hydroxybutyrate to changes in diet and animal profiles. A meta-analysis was applied on published data compiled from the FLuxes of nutrients across Organs and tissues in Ruminant Animals database, which pools the results from international publications on net splanchnic nutrient fluxes measured in multi-catheterized ruminants. Prediction variables were identified from current knowledge on digestion, hepatic and other tissue metabolism. Subsequently, physiological and other, more integrative, predictors were obtained. Models were established for intakes up to 41 g dry matter per kg BW per day and diets containing up to 70 g concentrate per 100 g dry matter. Models predicted the net hepatic fluxes or net splanchnic release of each nutrient from its net portal appearance and the animal profile. Corrections were applied to account for incomplete hepatic recovery of the blood flow marker, para-aminohippuric acid. Changes in net splanchnic release (mmol/kg BW per hour) could then be predicted by combining the previously published net portal appearance models and the present net hepatic fluxes models. The net splanchnic release of acetate and butyrate were thus predicted from the intake of ruminally fermented organic matter (RfOM) and the nature of RfOM (acetate: residual mean square error (RMSE)=0.18; butyrate: RMSE=0.01). The net splanchnic release of β-hydroxybutyrate was predicted from RfOM intake and the energy balance of the animals (RMSE=0.035), or from the net portal appearance of butyrate and the energy balance of the animals (RMSE=0.050). Models obtained were independent of ruminant species, and presented low interfering factors on the residuals, least

  16. Fasting Increases Human Skeletal Muscle Net Phenylalanine Release and This Is Associated with Decreased mTOR Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendelbo, Mikkel Holm; Møller, Andreas Buch; Christensen, Britt; Nellemann, Birgitte; Clasen, Berthil Frederik Forrest; Nair, K. Sreekumaran; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde; Jessen, Niels; Møller, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Aim Fasting is characterised by profound changes in energy metabolism including progressive loss of body proteins. The underlying mechanisms are however unknown and we therefore determined the effects of a 72-hour-fast on human skeletal muscle protein metabolism and activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a key regulator of cell growth. Methods Eight healthy male volunteers were studied twice: in the postabsorptive state and following 72 hours of fasting. Regional muscle amino acid kinetics was measured in the forearm using amino acid tracers. Signaling to protein synthesis and breakdown were assessed in skeletal muscle biopsies obtained during non-insulin and insulin stimulated conditions on both examination days. Results Fasting significantly increased forearm net phenylalanine release and tended to decrease phenylalanine rate of disappearance. mTOR phosphorylation was decreased by ∼50% following fasting, together with reduced downstream phosphorylation of 4EBP1, ULK1 and rpS6. In addition, the insulin stimulated increase in mTOR and rpS6 phosphorylation was significantly reduced after fasting indicating insulin resistance in this part of the signaling pathway. Autophagy initiation is in part regulated by mTOR through ULK1 and fasting increased expression of the autophagic marker LC3B-II by ∼30%. p62 is degraded during autophagy but was increased by ∼10% during fasting making interpretation of autophagic flux problematic. MAFbx and MURF1 ubiquitin ligases remained unaltered after fasting indicating no change in protesomal protein degradation. Conclusions Our results show that during fasting increased net phenylalanine release in skeletal muscle is associated to reduced mTOR activation and concomitant decreased downstream signaling to cell growth. PMID:25020061

  17. Fasting increases human skeletal muscle net phenylalanine release and this is associated with decreased mTOR signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkel Holm Vendelbo

    Full Text Available Fasting is characterised by profound changes in energy metabolism including progressive loss of body proteins. The underlying mechanisms are however unknown and we therefore determined the effects of a 72-hour-fast on human skeletal muscle protein metabolism and activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, a key regulator of cell growth.Eight healthy male volunteers were studied twice: in the postabsorptive state and following 72 hours of fasting. Regional muscle amino acid kinetics was measured in the forearm using amino acid tracers. Signaling to protein synthesis and breakdown were assessed in skeletal muscle biopsies obtained during non-insulin and insulin stimulated conditions on both examination days.Fasting significantly increased forearm net phenylalanine release and tended to decrease phenylalanine rate of disappearance. mTOR phosphorylation was decreased by ∼50% following fasting, together with reduced downstream phosphorylation of 4EBP1, ULK1 and rpS6. In addition, the insulin stimulated increase in mTOR and rpS6 phosphorylation was significantly reduced after fasting indicating insulin resistance in this part of the signaling pathway. Autophagy initiation is in part regulated by mTOR through ULK1 and fasting increased expression of the autophagic marker LC3B-II by ∼30%. p62 is degraded during autophagy but was increased by ∼10% during fasting making interpretation of autophagic flux problematic. MAFbx and MURF1 ubiquitin ligases remained unaltered after fasting indicating no change in protesomal protein degradation.Our results show that during fasting increased net phenylalanine release in skeletal muscle is associated to reduced mTOR activation and concomitant decreased downstream signaling to cell growth.

  18. Venous blood gas and lactate values of mourning doves (Zenaida macroura), boat-tailed grackles (Quiscalus major), and house sparrows (Passer domesticus) after capture by mist net, banding, and venipuncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Craig A; Harms, Ronald V

    2012-03-01

    Blood gas partial pressures, pH, and bicarbonate and lactate concentrations were measured from the basilic vein of mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) and the jugular vein of boat-tailed grackles (Quiscalus major) and house sparrows (Passer domesticus) to assess immediate impacts of mist net capture and handling for banding and venipuncture. Mourning doves and house sparrows exhibited mild acidemia (median [minimum-maximum] venous blood pH(41 degrees C) = 7.394 [7.230-7.496] and 7.395 [7.248-7.458], respectively), relative to boat-tailed grackles (Quiscalus major; 7.452 [7.364-7.512]), but for different reasons. Mourning doves exhibited relative metabolic acidosis (lower venous blood pH, higher lactate concentrations, lower bicarbonate, and no significant differences in partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) or partial pressure of O2 (pO2) compared with boat-tailed grackles). House sparrows exhibited relative respiratory acidosis (lower venous blood pH, higher pCO2, lower pO2, and no significant differences in bicarbonate and lactate concentrations compared with boat-tailed grackles). All birds captured by mist net and handled for banding and venipuncture experienced some degree of lactic acidemia; and values were greater in mourning doves (lactate, 7.72 [3.94-14.14] mmol/L) than in boat-tailed grackles (5.74 [3.09-8.75] mmol/L) and house sparrows (4.77 [2.66-12.03] mmol/L), despite mourning doves resisting least and being easiest to disentangle from the mist net. House sparrows were more susceptible to respiratory acidosis, warranting particular care in handling birds <30 g to minimize interference with ventilation. The different sample collection site for mourning doves may have affected results in comparison with the other two species, due to activity of the wing muscles. However, despite the higher lactate concentrations, pCO2 was relatively low in doves. The metabolic, respiratory, and acid-base alterations observed in this study were minor in most cases, indicative of

  19. Fluxes of lactate into, from, and among gap junction-coupled astrocytes and their interaction with noradrenaline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif eHertz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Lactate is a versatile metabolite with important roles in modulation of brain glucose utilization rate (CMRglc, diagnosis of brain-injured patients, redox- and receptor-mediated signaling, memory, and alteration of gene transcription. Neurons and astrocytes release and accumulate lactate using equilibrative monocarboxylate transporters that carry out net transmembrane transport of lactate only until intra- and extracellular levels reach equilibrium. Astrocytes have much faster lactate uptake than neurons and shuttle more lactate among gap junction-coupled astrocytes than to nearby neurons. Lactate diffusion within syncytia can provide precursors for oxidative metabolism and glutamate synthesis and facilitate its release from endfeet to perivascular space to stimulate blood flow. Lactate efflux from brain during activation underlies the large underestimation of CMRglc with labeled glucose and fall in CMRO2/CMRglc ratio. Receptor-mediated effects of lactate on locus coeruleus neurons include noradrenaline release in cerebral cortex and c-AMP-mediated stimulation of astrocytic gap junctional coupling, thereby enhancing its dispersal and release from brain. Lactate transport is essential for its multifunctional roles.

  20. Lactate Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Analysis Kidney Stone Risk Panel KRAS Mutation Lactate Lactate Dehydrogenase (LD) Lactoferrin Lactose Tolerance Tests LDL Cholesterol LDL ... metabolism) in which pyruvate is not converted to lactate. One example is pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency. In these cases, pyruvate will accumulate, the ...

  1. Evaluation of 1991-1992 Brood Overwinter-Reared Coho Released from Net Pens in Youngs Bay, Oregon : Final Completion Report Youngs Bay Terminal Fishery Project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, Paul S.

    1997-01-01

    Funding from Bonneville Power Administration was provided to the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife and the Clatsop County Economic Development Council`s Fisheries Project to identify and develop terminal fishing opportunities. The 1991 and 1992 brood fingerling coho from Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife hatcheries were successfully reared during the winter period to smolt stage in Youngs Bay utilizing floating net pens. Based on coded-wire-tag recoveries during 1991--93 from 2-week net-pen acclimation releases, total accountability of coho adults averaged 40,540 fish, with the Youngs Bay commercial harvest accounting for 39%. With reduced ocean harvest impacts during 1994 and 1995, 92% of 51,640 coho in 1994 and 68% of 23,599 coho in 1995 (based on coded-wire-tag recoveries) were accounted for in the Youngs Bay commercial fishery for combined 2-week and overwinter acclimation net-pen releases. Overwinter net-pen acclimation coho accounted for 35,063 and 15,775 coho adults in 1994 and 1995 with 93% and 68% accountable in the Youngs Bay commercial harvest. Based on coded-wire-tag recoveries, less than 1% of the adults resulting from releases at Youngs Bay net pens strayed to hatcheries, while none were recovered on spawning ground surveys during 1991--95. The highest survival rates were observed for 1991 and 1992 brood overwinter coho released in early May. Time of release, not rearing strategy, appears to be the determining factor affecting survival in Youngs Bay.

  2. Human muscle net K+ release during exercise is unaffected by elevated anaerobic metabolism, but reduced after prolonged acclimatization to 4100 m

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Calbet, Jose A. L.; Sander, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    It was investigated if skeletal muscle K(+) release is linked to the degree of anaerobic energy production. Six subjects performed an incremental bicycle exercise test in normoxic and hypoxic conditions prior to and after 2 and 8 weeks of acclimatization to 4100 m. The highest workload completed...... absolute exercise intensity, leg net K(+) release was unaffected by hypoxic exposure independent of acclimatization. After 8 weeks of acclimatization no difference existed in venous plasma [K(+)] between the normoxic and hypoxic trial, neither at submaximal intensities nor at exhaustion (360+/-14 W vs. 313...... (Pdegree of acclimatization (at 260 W prior to acclimatization: -10.0+/-0.4 % in normoxia and -4.9+/-0.8 % in hypoxia). It is concluded that leg net K(+) release is unrelated to anaerobic energy production and that acclimatization...

  3. Contraceptives for lactating women: a comparative trial of a progesterone-releasing vaginal ring and the copper T 380A IUD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivin, I; Díaz, S; Croxatto, H B; Miranda, P; Shaaban, M; Sayed, E H; Xiao, B; Wu, S C; Du, M; Alvarez, F; Brache, V; Basnayake, S; McCarthy, T; Lacarra, M; Mishell, D R; Koetsawang, S; Stern, J; Jackanicz, T

    1997-04-01

    From approximately one week before normal ovulation resumes, lactating women require protection against pregnancy by a contraceptive that is safe for both infant and mother in a multicenter one-year study, the natural hormone, progesterone, delivered vaginally by a sequence of four contraceptive rings designed for continuous use, was evaluated as a contraceptive for nursing mothers in comparison with the Copper T 380A IUD. Individual rings release in effective average dose of 10 mg day for a 3 month period. Evaluation included measures of lactational performance as well as of contraceptive efficacy and safety to mother and child. Nine participating clinics enrolled 802 ring users and 734 IUD acceptors between postpartum days 29 and 63. Life table analyses were performed with parallel decrements for ring and IUD subjects. Continuation in the study and analysis required that subjects not stop breastfeeding. The ring, with a one-year pregnancy rate of 1.5 per 100, did not differ significantly from the IUD with respect to contraceptive effectiveness (p > 0.05). More than half of the ring subjects were continuing at 6 months post admission and a quarter (23.5 per hundred) were still using the ring and breastfeeding one year after admission. Women with the IUD, however, had higher continuation rates (p single decrement for each method was that for weaning. Ring users had more complaints of vaginal problems but had fewer vaginal disorders on examination. At 12 months postpartum, 46 per 100 continuing ring users remained in amenorrhea. Lactation performance and the health and weight gain of the infants were similar among users of either regimen.

  4. The re-establishment of the normal blood lactate response to exercise in humans after prolonged acclimatization to altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Calbet, J A; Søndergaard, H

    2001-01-01

    1. One to five weeks of chronic exposure to hypoxia has been shown to reduce peak blood lactate concentration compared to acute exposure to hypoxia during exercise, the high altitude 'lactate paradox'. However, we hypothesize that a sufficiently long exposure to hypoxia would result in a blood......, in lowlanders acclimatized for 9 weeks to an altitude of 5260 m, the arterial lactate concentration was similar at 0 m acute hypoxia and 5260 m chronic hypoxia. The net lactate release from the active leg was higher at 5260 m chronic hypoxia compared to 0 m acute hypoxia, implying an enhanced lactate...... utilization with prolonged acclimatization to altitude. The present study clearly shows the absence of a lactate paradox in lowlanders sufficiently acclimatized to altitude....

  5. MCT1 and MCT4 expression and lactate flux activity increase during white and brown adipogenesis and impact adipocyte metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Charlotte; Nielsen, Mette D.; Andersen, Elise S.

    2017-01-01

    Adipose tissue takes up glucose and releases lactate, thereby contributing significantly to systemic glucose and lactate homeostasis. This implies the necessity of upregulation of net acid and lactate flux capacity during adipocyte differentiation and function. However, the regulation of lactate......- and acid/base transporters in adipocytes is poorly understood. Here, we tested the hypothesis that adipocyte thermogenesis, browning and differentiation are associated with an upregulation of plasma membrane lactate and acid/base transport capacity that in turn is important for adipocyte metabolism. The m...... level upon differentiation of cultured pre-adipocytes. Adipocyte differentiation was accompanied by increased plasma membrane lactate flux capacity, which was reduced by MCT inhibition and by MCT1 knockdown. Finally, in differentiated brown adipocytes, glycolysis (assessed as ECAR), and after...

  6. Effects of particle size and dry matter content of a total mixed ration on intraruminal equilibration and net portal flux of volatile fatty acids in lactating dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Adam Christian; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2010-01-01

    ration (44.3 and 53.8%). The feed DM did not affect chewing time, ruminal variables, or net portal flux of VFA. However, decreasing the FPS decreased the overall chewing and rumination times by 151 ± 55 and 135 ± 29 min/d, respectively. No effect of the reduced chewing time was observed on ruminal p...

  7. Delayed Effects of Remote Limb Ischemic Preconditioning on Maximum Oxygen Consumption, Lactate Release and Pulmonary Function Tests in Athletes and non-Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Momeni

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Remote Ischemic Preconditioning (RIPC improves exercise performance, and since this phenomenon has two phases, the aim of the current study was to investigate the delayed effects of remote ischemic preconditioning on cardiopulmonary function in athletes and non-athletes. Materials and Methods: 25 male and female students were studied in two main athletes and non-athletes groups. RIPC was induced by using 3 cycles of alternative 5 minutes ischemia and 5 minutes reperfusion at arms of participants. Cardiopulmonary tests were measured before, after and 24 hours after inducing remote ischemic preconditioning. Maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max estimated by using queen steps test. Results: Analysis of data demonstrated that delayed RIPC in non-athletes group caused significant improvement in Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1 and Maximum Voluntary Ventilation (MVV and noticeable improvement in some other parameters of pulmonary function tests. Moreover, it decreased systolic blood pressure and heart rate and decreased lactate release in both groups especially athletes group but it had no significant effect on VO2max of both groups. Conclusion: Delayed RIPC improves cardiovascular function of athletes and pulmonary function of non-athletes subjects. Thus, it can be considered as a good replacement for doping to improve sports performance of subjects in sports tournaments.

  8. Cycling above rather than below lactate threshold is more effective for nitric oxide release and post-exercise blood pressure reduction in individuals with type-2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Yukio Asano

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to analyze and compare the effects of exercise performed in different intensities, above and below lactate threshold (LT on post-exercise blood pressure (BP and nitric oxide (NO responses in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D. For this, 11 T2D underwent the following sessions: 1 control session; 2 20-min of moderate cycling (80% LT; and 3 20-min of high intensity cycling (120%LT on a cycle ergometer. Plasma NO and BP measurements were carried out at rest and at 15 and 45 min of post-sessions. When compared to rest, only the exercise session performed at 120%LT elicited an increase of NO (from 7.2 to 9.5 µM, p<0.05, as well as a decrease in systolic BP (from 126.6±7.9 to 118.7±3.9 mmHg, p<0.05 during the post-exercise period. In conclusion, the results suggest that NO release and post-exercise BP decrease are intensity-dependent for individuals with T2D.

  9. Microbial release of ferulic and p-coumaric acids from forages and their digestibility in lactating cows fed total mixed rations with different forage combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bin-Bin; Jin, Xin; Yang, Hong-Jian; Li, Sheng-Li; Jiang, Lin-Shu

    2016-01-30

    Ferulic acid (FA) and p-coumaric acid (PCA) are widely distributed in graminaceous plant cell walls. This study investigated the in vitro and in vivo digestibility of ester-linked FA (FAest) and PCA (PCAest) in lactating dairy cows. Regarding corn stover, ensiled corn stover, whole corn silage, Chinese wild ryegrass and alfalfa hay with different phenolic acid profiles, the in vitro rumen digestibility of forage FAest and PCAest was negatively correlated with the ether-linked FA content and original PCA/FA ratio in the forages. The concentration of both phenolic acids in culture fluids was low after a 72 h incubation, and the mixed rumen microorganisms metabolized nearly all phenolic acids released into the culture fluids. FAest digestibility in the whole digestive tract was negatively correlated with dietary PCA/FA ratio, but a converse result occurred with dietary PCAest digestibility. The digestibility in either the rumen or the whole digestive tract was greater for FAest than for PCAest. Forage PCAest in comparison with FAest is not easily digested in either the rumen or the whole digestive tract, and they were negatively affected by forage FAeth content and lignification extent indicated by the original dietary PCA/FA ratio. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. BLOOD GAS, LACTATE, AND HEMATOLOGY EFFECTS OF VENIPUNCTURE TIMING AND LOCATION AFTER MIST-NET CAPTURE OF MOURNING DOVES (ZENAIDA MACROURA), BOAT-TAILED GRACKLES (QUISCALUS MAJOR), AND HOUSE SPARROWS (PASSER DOMESTICUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Craig A; Jinks, Maggie R; Harms, Ronald V

    2016-04-01

    Venous blood gas partial pressures, pH, bicarbonate and lactate concentrations, packed cell volume, white blood cell differential counts, and heterophil/lymphocyte ratios were measured from Mourning Doves (Zenaida macroura), Boat-tailed Grackles (Quiscalus major), and House Sparrows (Passer domesticus). Birds were bled promptly after mist-net capture and banding or following a targeted delay of 45-60 min, in order to assess the impacts of a brief holding period commonly practiced in large-scale bird banding operations. Additionally, effects of venipuncture location (basilic [=ulnar] vein versus jugular vein) were evaluated in male Boat-tailed Grackles sampled promptly after capture and banding. All comparisons were with unpaired samples; no birds were subjected to more than one venipuncture. All three species exhibited moderate improvements in blood gas and acid-base status after the delay, with reductions in lactate concentrations with or without concurrent increases in pH and bicarbonate. Boat-tailed Grackles exhibited an increased proportion of heterophils in the differential white blood cell count following a delay in sampling, suggestive of a stress leukogram. There were no significant differences between basilic and jugular venipuncture results from male Boat-tailed Grackles. Most metabolic, respiratory, and acid-base alterations were minor, but a small number of birds exhibited values (e.g., temperature-corrected pH 10 mmol/L) that could be of concern if combined with other adverse conditions. For such birds, a short delay between capture and processing could benefit their blood gas and acid-base status, although loss of time foraging or feeding young and greater activation of the hypophyseal-pituitary-adrenal axis are additional considerations.

  11. High net CO2 and CH4 release at a eutrophic shallow lake on a formerly drained fen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Daniela; Koebsch, Franziska; Larmanou, Eric; Augustin, Jürgen; Sachs, Torsten

    2016-05-01

    Drained peatlands often act as carbon dioxide (CO2) hotspots. Raising the groundwater table is expected to reduce their CO2 contribution to the atmosphere and revitalise their function as carbon (C) sink in the long term. Without strict water management rewetting often results in partial flooding and the formation of spatially heterogeneous, nutrient-rich shallow lakes. Uncertainties remain as to when the intended effect of rewetting is achieved, as this specific ecosystem type has hardly been investigated in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange. In most cases of rewetting, methane (CH4) emissions increase under anoxic conditions due to a higher water table and in terms of global warming potential (GWP) outperform the shift towards CO2 uptake, at least in the short term.Based on eddy covariance measurements we studied the ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of CH4 and CO2 at a shallow lake situated on a former fen grassland in northeastern Germany. The lake evolved shortly after flooding, 9 years previous to our investigation period. The ecosystem consists of two main surface types: open water (inhabited by submerged and floating vegetation) and emergent vegetation (particularly including the eulittoral zone of the lake, dominated by Typha latifolia). To determine the individual contribution of the two main surface types to the net CO2 and CH4 exchange of the whole lake ecosystem, we combined footprint analysis with CH4 modelling and net ecosystem exchange partitioning.The CH4 and CO2 dynamics were strikingly different between open water and emergent vegetation. Net CH4 emissions from the open water area were around 4-fold higher than from emergent vegetation stands, accounting for 53 and 13 g CH4 m-2 a-1 respectively. In addition, both surface types were net CO2 sources with 158 and 750 g CO2 m-2 a-1 respectively. Unusual meteorological conditions in terms of a warm and dry summer and a mild winter might have facilitated high respiration rates. In sum, even after 9

  12. Empirical prediction of net portal appearance of volatile fatty acids, glucose, and their secondary metabolites (beta-hydroxybutyrate, lactate) from dietary characteristics in ruminants: A meta-analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loncke, C; Ortigues-Marty, I; Vernet, J; Lapierre, H; Sauvant, D; Nozière, P

    2009-01-01

    The current trend in energy feeding systems for ruminants toward a nutrient-based system requires dietary energy supply to be determined in terms of amount and nature of absorbed energy-yielding nutrients. The objective of this study was to establish response equations on the net portal appearance (NPA) of VFA and glucose, and their secondary metabolites beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) and lactate, to changes in intake level and chemical dietary characteristics based on the Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique Feed Evaluation System for Ruminants. Meta-analyses were applied on published data compiled from the FLORA database, which pools the results on net splanchnic nutrient fluxes in multi-catheterized ruminants from international publications. For each nutrient, several prediction variables were tested. We obtained robust models for intakes up to 30 g of DM x d(-1) x kg of BW(-1) and diets containing less than 70 g of concentrate per 100 g of DM. These models were designed to predict the NPA (mmol x h(-1) x kg of BW(-1)) of total VFA based on the amount of ruminally fermented OM (RfOM) intake [adjusted R(2) (R(2)(adj)) = 0.95; residual means square errors (RMSE) = 0.24], to predict VFA profile (mol/100 mol of total VFA) based on type of RfOM intake (acetate: R(2)(adj) = 0.85, RMSE = 2.2; propionate: R(2)(adj) = 0.76, RMSE = 2.2; butyrate: R(2)(adj) = 0.76, RMSE = 1.09), and to predict the NPA (mmol x h(-1) x kg of BW(-1)) of glucose based on the starch digested in the small intestine independent of ruminant species, and while presenting no interfering factors on the residuals and individual slopes. The model predicting the NPA (mmol x h(-1) x kg of BW(-1)) of BHBA based on the amount of RfOM intake (R(2)(adj) = 0.91; RMSE = 0.036) was species-dependent, and the model predicting NPA (mmol x h(-1) x kg of BW(-1)) of lactate based on starch digested in the rumen (R(2)(adj) = 0.77; RMSE = 0.042) presented a wide dispersion. However, the NPA (mmol x h(-1) x kg of

  13. Insecticidal and sterilizing effect of Olyset Duo®, a permethrin and pyriproxyfen mixture net against pyrethroid-susceptible and -resistant strains of Anopheles gambiae s.s.: a release-recapture assay in experimental huts

    OpenAIRE

    Djènontin, A; Ahoua Alou, LP; Koffi, A; Zogo, B; Duarte, E.; N'Guessan, R; Moiroux, N; Pennetier, C

    2015-01-01

    In the context of the widespread distribution of pyrethroid resistance among malaria vectors, we did a release-recapture trial in experimental huts to investigate the insecticidal and sterilizing effects of a novel long-lasting net (LN), Olyset (R) Duo, incorporating a mixture of permethrin (PER) and the insect growth regulator (IGR), pyriproxyfen (PPF). An LN containing PPF alone and a classic Olyset (R) Net were tested in parallel as positive controls. The effect of progressive number of ho...

  14. Lactate metabolism in the fetal rabbit lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engle, M.J.; Brown, D.J.; Dooley, M.

    1986-05-01

    Lactate is frequently overlooked as a potential substrate for the fetal lung, even though it is present in the fetal circulation in concentrations as high as 8 mM. These high concentrations, coupled with the relatively low levels of glucose in the fetal blood, may indicate that lactate can substitute for glucose in pulmonary energy generation and phospholipid synthesis. A series of experiments was therefore undertaken in order to investigate the role of lactate in perinatal pulmonary development. Explants from 30 day gestation fetal rabbit lungs were incubated in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer supplemented with 3 mM (U-/sup 14/C)-glucose and varying levels of lactate. In the absence of medium lactate, fetal rabbit lung explants were capable of producing lactate at a rate of approximately 200 etamoles/mg protein/hour. The addition of lactate to the bathing medium immediately reduced net lactate production and above 4 mM, fetal rabbit lung explants became net utilizers of lactate. Media lactate concentrations of 2.5 mM, 5 mM and 10 mM also decreased glucose incorporation into total tissue disaturated phosphatidylcholine by approximately 20%, 35%, and 45%, respectively. Glucose incorporation into surfactant phosphatidylcholine was also reduced by approximately 50%, when lactate was present in the incubation medium at a concentration of 5 mM. Additional experiments also revealed that fetal lung lactate dehydrogenase activity was almost twice that found in the adult rabbit lung. These data indicate that lactate may be an important carbon source for the developing lung and could be a significant component in the manufacture of surfactant phosphatidylcholine during late gestation.

  15. Administration of a GnRH analog on day 9 of a 14-day controlled internal drug release insert with timed artificial insemination in lactating beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, R L; Ahola, J K; Whittier, J C; French, J T; Repenning, P E; Kruse, S G; Seidel, G E; Peel, R K

    2013-04-01

    Many estrus synchronization protocols aim to induce a new follicular wave to improve response and enhance pregnancy rate. Our objectives were to determine the effectiveness of GnRH analog administered d 0 and 9 during an extended controlled internal drug release (CIDR) protocol to produce 2 follicular waves, induce cyclicity in anestrus cows, and evaluate the efficacy of a single 50-mg dose of PGF2α to initiate luteal regression on CIDR removal. Lactating beef cows (n = 779) at 3 locations (n = 247, location 1; n = 395, location 2; n = 137, location 3) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments. Cows in the 14-d 50 PG treatment received a CIDR (1.38 g progesterone) with 100 μg GnRH analog intramuscularly (i.m.) on d 0, 100 μg GnRH analog i.m. on d 9, and CIDR removal concurrent with 50 mg PGF2α i.m. on d 14. Cows in the 14-d 6-h PG treatment were assigned the same protocol as the 14-d 50 PG treatment except that 25 mg PGF2α i.m. was given on d 14 plus 25 mg PGF2α i.m. 6 ± 1 h later. Cows in the control treatment, 5-d CO-Synch + CIDR (5-d CO-Synch), received a CIDR concurrent with 100 μg GnRH analog i.m. on d 9, CIDR removal concurrent with 25 mg PGF2α i.m. on d 14, and 25 mg PGF2α i.m. 6 ± 1 h after first F2α injection. Cows in all treatments received 100 μg GnRH analog i.m. and timed AI (TAI) 72 ± 3 h after CIDR removal. Pregnancy status to TAI was determined by ultrasonography 37 to 40 d after TAI. Averaged over all locations, pregnancy rates to TAI for 14-d 50 PG, 14-d 6-h PG, and 5-d CO-Synch treatments were 58.2%, 46.8%, and 41.9%, respectively. Pregnancy rates to TAI were greater (P 1 ng/mL at either (or both) bleeding date were considered cyclic. Averaged over the 2 locations, there was a tendency (P = 0.06) for a greater number of cyclic animals to become pregnant to TAI in the 14-d 50 PG treatment (64.4%) than 5-d CO-Synch treatment (50.2%). The 14-d CIDR with GnRH analog on d 0 and 9 and a single 50-mg dose of PG i.m. at CIDR removal was a

  16. Dinosaur lactation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Else, Paul L

    2013-02-01

    Lactation is a process associated with mammals, yet a number of birds feed their newly hatched young on secretions analogous to the milk of mammals. These secretions are produced from various sections (crop organ, oesophageal lining and proventriculus) of the upper digestive tract and possess similar levels of fat and protein, as well as added carotenoids, antibodies and, in the case of pigeons and doves, epidermal growth factor. Parental care in avian species has been proposed to originate from dinosaurs. This study examines the possibility that some dinosaurs used secretory feeding to increase the rate of growth of their young, estimated to be similar to that of present day birds and mammals. Dinosaur 'lactation' could also have facilitated immune responses as well as extending parental protection as a result of feeding newly hatched young in nest environments. While the arguments for dinosaur lactation are somewhat generic, a case study for lactation in herbivorous site-nesting dinosaurs is presented. It is proposes that secretory feeding could have been used to bridge the gap between hatching and establishment of the normal diet in some dinosaurs.

  17. Granulocyte maturation determines ability to release chromatin NETs and loss of DNA damage response; these properties are absent in immature AML granulocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukášová, Emilie; Kořistek, Zdeněk; Klabusay, Martin; Ondřej, Vladan; Grigoryev, Sergei; Bačíková, Alena; Řezáčová, Martina; Falk, Martin; Vávrová, Jiřina; Kohútová, Viera; Kozubek, Stanislav

    2013-03-01

    Terminally-differentiated cells cease to proliferate and acquire specific sets of expressed genes and functions distinguishing them from less differentiated and cancer cells. Mature granulocytes show lobular structure of cell nuclei with highly condensed chromatin in which HP1 proteins are replaced by MNEI. These structural features of chromatin correspond to low level of gene expression and the loss of some important functions as DNA damage repair, shown in this work and, on the other hand, acquisition of a new specific function consisting in the release of chromatin extracellular traps in response to infection by pathogenic microbes. Granulocytic differentiation is incomplete in myeloid leukemia and is manifested by persistence of lower levels of HP1γ and HP1β isoforms. This immaturity is accompanied by acquisition of DDR capacity allowing to these incompletely differentiated multi-lobed neutrophils of AML patients to respond to induction of DSB by γ-irradiation. Immature granulocytes persist frequently in blood of treated AML patients in remission. These granulocytes contrary to mature ones do not release chromatin for NETs after activation with phorbol myristate-12 acetate-13 and do not exert the neutrophil function in immune defence. We suggest therefore the detection of HP1 expression in granulocytes of AML patients as a very sensitive indicator of their maturation and functionality after the treatment. Our results show that the changes in chromatin structure underlie a major transition in functioning of the genome in immature granulocytes. They show further that leukemia stem cells can differentiate ex vivo to mature granulocytes despite carrying the translocation BCR/ABL. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone or prostaglandin F(2α)-based estrus synchronization programs for first or subsequent artificial insemination in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, R G S; Farias, A M; Hernández-Rivera, J A; Navarrette, A E; Hawkins, D E; Bilby, T R

    2013-03-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effects of GnRH or PGF(2α)-based synchronization and resynchronization programs on fertility in lactating dairy cows. For experiment 1, cows (n=1,521) were presynchronized with 2 injections of PGF given at 36 and 50 DIM and assigned to 1 of 3 protocols: Ovsynch [OVS; n=552; GnRH injection, PGF(2α) injection 7 d later, GnRH injection 56 h later, and timed artificial insemination (TAI) 16 h later] beginning at 14 d after presynchronization (PS), GnRH-GnRH-PGF(2α)-GnRH (GGPG; n=402) treatment with a GnRH injection given 7 d after PS and OVS 7 d later, or PGF(2α)-GnRH-PGF(2α)-GnRH (P7GPG; n=567) treatment with a PGF(2α) injection given 7 d after PS and OVS beginning 7 d later. Experiment 2 cows (n=2,327) were assigned to 1 of 3 resynchronization protocols 7 d before nonpregnancy diagnosis (NPD): GGPG cows (n=458) received a GnRH injection at enrollment and OVS at NPD; P7GPG cows (n=940) received a PGF(2α) injection at NPD and OVS 7 d later; and P11GPG cows (n=929) received a PGF(2α) injection 3 d after NPD and OVS 11 d later. In both experiments, cows were artificially inseminated upon estrus detection (ED). In experiment 1, 52.3% of cows were artificially inseminated upon ED, with GGPG having reduced ED (GGPG=46.8 vs. OVS=50.7 and P7GPG=57.7%). Treatments did not affect overall pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) at 36 and 66 d after AI (OVS=34.1 and 32.3, P7GPG=34.6 and 31.9, and GGPG=31.3 and 28.1%, respectively) or pregnancy loss but cows artificially inseminated upon ED had higher P/AI than cows undergoing TAI (ED cows=37.9 vs. TAI cows=28.8%). Treatment did not affect P/AI for cows artificially inseminated upon ED or TAI at 36 and 66 d after AI (OVS=34.1 and 32.3, P7GPG=34.6 and 31.9, and GGPG=31.3 and 28.1%). Median days in milk at first AI was affected by treatment (P7GPG=59 vs. OVS=68 and GGPG=68 d). In experiment 2, GGPG reduced ED (GGPG=23.3 vs. P7GPG=74.9 and P11GPG=79.6%). Treatment did not affect overall

  19. Difference in glucose sensitivity of liver glycolysis and glycogen synthesis. Relationship between lactate production and fructose 2,6-bisphosphate concentration.

    OpenAIRE

    Hue, Louis; Sobrino, F.; Bosca, L

    1984-01-01

    Incubation of isolated rat hepatocytes from fasted rats with 0-6 mM-glucose caused an increase in [fructose 2,6-bisphosphate] (0.2 to about 5 nmol/g) without net lactate production. A release of 3H2O from [3-3H]glucose was, however, detectable, indicating that phosphofructokinase was active and that cycling occurred between fructose 6-phosphate and fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. A relationship between [fructose 2,6-bisphosphate] and lactate production was observed when hepatocytes were incubated ...

  20. Reconsidering lactate as a sepsis risk biomarker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L Moran

    Full Text Available There has been renewed interest in lactate as a risk biomarker in sepsis and septic shock. However, the ability of the odds ratio (OR and change in the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC-ROC to assess biomarker added-value has been questioned.A sepsis cohort was identified from the ICU database of an Australian tertiary referral hospital using APACHE III diagnostic codes. Demographic information, APACHE III scores, 24-hour post-admission patient lactate levels, and hospital mortality were accessed.Hospital mortality was modelled using a base predictive logistic regression model and sequential addition of admission lactate, lactate clearance ([lactateadmission-lactatefinal]/lactateadmission, and area under the lactate-time curve (LTC. Added-value was assessed using lactate index OR; AUC-ROC difference (base-model versus lactate index addition; net (mortality reclassification index (NRI; range -2 to +2; and net benefit (NB, the number of true positives per patient adjusted for the number of false positives. The data set comprised 717 patients with mean(SD age and APACHE III score 61.1(16.5 years and 68.3(28.2 respectively; 59.2% were male. Admission lactate was 2.3(2.5 mmol/l; with lactate of ≥ 4 mmol/L (37% hospital mortality in 17% and patients with lactate < 4 mmol/L having 18% hospital mortality. The admission base-model had an AUC-ROC = 0.81 with admission lactate OR = 1.127 (95%CI: 1.038, 1.224, AUC-ROC difference of 0.0032 (-0.0037, 0.01615; P = 0.61, and NRI 0.240(0.030, 0.464. The over-time model had an AUC-ROC = 0.86 with (i clearance OR = 0.771, 95%CI: 0.578, 1.030; P = 0.08; AUC-ROC difference 0.001 (-0.003, 0.014; P = 0.78, and NRI 0.109(-0.193, 0.425 and (ii LTC OR = 0.997, 95%CI: 0.989, 1.005, P = 0.49; AUC-ROC difference 0.004 (-0.002, 0.004; P = 0.34, and NRI 0.111(-0.222, 0.403. NB was not incremented by any lactate index.Lactate added-value assessment is dependent upon the performance of the underlying

  1. Similar carbohydrate but enhanced lactate utilization during exercise after 9 wk of acclimatization to 5,620 m

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Calbet, J A L; Sondergaard, H

    2002-01-01

    studied at rest and during 20 min of bicycle exercise at 146 W at sea level (SL) and after 9 wk of acclimatization to 5,260 m (Alt). Whole body glucose Ra was similar at SL and Alt at rest and during exercise. Lactate Ra was also similar for the two conditions at rest; however, during exercise, lactate Ra...... was substantially lower at SL (65 micro mol. min(-1). kg body wt(-1)) than it was at Alt (150 micro mol. min(-1). kg body wt(-1)) at the same exercise intensity. During exercise, net lactate release was approximately 6-fold at Alt compared with SL, and related to this, tracer-calculated leg lactate uptake...... and release were both 3- or 4-fold higher at Alt compared with SL. The contribution of the two legs to glucose disposal was similar at SL and Alt; however, the contribution of the two legs to lactate Ra was significantly lower at rest and during exercise at SL (27 and 81%) than it was at Alt (45 and 123...

  2. Lactate kinetics in human tissues at rest and during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hall, Gerrit

    2010-01-01

    Lactate production in skeletal muscle has now been studied for nearly two centuries and still its production and functional role at rest and during exercise is much debated. In the early days skeletal muscle was mainly seen as the site of lactate production during contraction and lactate production...... associated with a lack of muscle oxygenation and fatigue. Later it was recognized that skeletal muscle not only played an important role in lactate production but also in lactate clearance and this led to a renewed interest, not the least from the Copenhagen School in the 1930s, in the metabolic role...... of lactate in skeletal muscle. With the introduction of lactate isotopes muscle lactate kinetics and oxidation could be studied and a simultaneous lactate uptake and release was observed, not only in muscle but also in other tissues. Therefore, this review will discuss in vivo human: (1) skeletal muscle...

  3. Intravaginal instillation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues with an absorption enhancer induced a surge of luteinizing hormone in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijma, R; Stangaferro, M L; Masello, M; Elmetwally, M A; Granados, G E; Amovilli, F; Giordano, J O

    2017-09-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate circulating LH concentrations after intravaginal (IVG) instillation of GnRH analogs in lactating dairy cows. In 2 experiments, lactating Holstein cows (experiment 1: n = 32; experiment 2: n = 47) received the experimental treatments 48 h after the first of 2 PGF2α treatments given 12 h apart and 7 d after a modified Ovsynch protocol (GnRH at -7 d, PGF2α at -24 h, PGF2α at -56 h, GnRH at 0 h). In experiment 1, cows were stratified by parity and randomly allocated to receive the following treatments: 2 mL of saline IVG (SAL, n = 6), 100 µg of gonadorelin (Gon) i.m. (G100-IM, n = 5), and 100 (G100, n = 7), 500 (G500, n = 8), or 1,000 µg of Gon IVG (G1000, n = 7). In experiment 2, treatments were SAL (n = 8), G100-IM (n = 8), G1000 (n = 7), 1,000 µg of Gon plus 10% citric acid (CA) IVG (G1000CA, n = 8), 80 µg of buserelin IVG (B80, n = 8), and 80 µg of buserelin plus 10% CA IVG (B80CA, n = 8). In both experiments, blood was collected every 15 min from -15 min to 4 h, and every 30 min from 4 to 6 h after treatment. Data for area under the curve (AUC), mean LH concentrations, and time to maximum LH concentration were analyzed by ANOVA with (mean LH only) or without repeated measures using PROC MIXED of SAS (version 9.4, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The proportion of cows with a surge of LH was evaluated with Fisher's exact test using PROC FREQ of SAS. In both experiments, LH concentrations were affected by treatment, time, and the treatment by time interaction. In experiment 1, the AUC for LH and maximum LH concentration were greatest for the G100-IM treatment and were greater for the G1000 than for the SAL and G500 treatments. The proportion of cows with an observed surge of LH was 100 and 0% for cows that received Gon i.m. and IVG, respectively. In experiment 2, the AUC and maximum LH concentrations were greater for the G100-IM, G1000CA, and B80CA treatments than for the other IVG treatments. The proportion of cows with a surge

  4. Insecticidal and sterilizing effect of Olyset Duo®, a permethrin and pyriproxyfen mixture net against pyrethroid-susceptible and -resistant strains of Anopheles gambiae s.s.: a release-recapture assay in experimental huts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djènontin, Armel; Ahoua Alou, Ludovic P; Koffi, Alphonsine; Zogo, Barnabas; Duarte, Elves; N'Guessan, Raphael; Moiroux, Nicolas; Pennetier, Cédric

    2015-01-01

    In the context of the widespread distribution of pyrethroid resistance among malaria vectors, we did a release-recapture trial in experimental huts to investigate the insecticidal and sterilizing effects of a novel long-lasting net (LN), Olyset® Duo, incorporating a mixture of permethrin (PER) and the insect growth regulator (IGR), pyri-proxyfen (PPF). An LN containing PPF alone and a classic Olyset® Net were tested in parallel as positive controls. The effect of progressive number of holes (6, 30, or 150) that may accrue in nets over time was simulated. We used two laboratory Anopheles gambiae s.s. strains: the susceptible Kisumu strain and the pyrethroid-resistant VK-Per strain having solely kdr as resistance mechanism. The effect of these nets on the reproductive success of blood-fed females that survived the different LNs conditions was recorded. Regardless of the mosquito strain, the LNs containing PPF alone with as many as 30 holes drastically reduced the number of eggs laid by females succeeding in feeding, i.e. fecundity by 98% and egg hatching rate (fertility) by 93% relative to untreated control net. Very few of the resistant females blood fed and survived under the Olyset® Duo with similar number of holes (up to 30) but of these few, the inhibition of reproductive success was 100%. There was no evidence that the Olyset® Duo LN with 150 holes impacted fecundity or fertility of the resistant colony. The efficacy of Olyset® Duo is encouraging and clearly illustrates that this new net might be a promising tool for malaria transmission control and resistance management. © A. Djènontin et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2015.

  5. Insecticidal and sterilizing effect of Olyset Duo®, a permethrin and pyriproxyfen mixture net against pyrethroid-susceptible and -resistant strains of Anopheles gambiae s.s.: a release-recapture assay in experimental huts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djènontin Armel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the widespread distribution of pyrethroid resistance among malaria vectors, we did a release-recapture trial in experimental huts to investigate the insecticidal and sterilizing effects of a novel long-lasting net (LN, Olyset® Duo, incorporating a mixture of permethrin (PER and the insect growth regulator (IGR, pyri-proxyfen (PPF. An LN containing PPF alone and a classic Olyset® Net were tested in parallel as positive controls. The effect of progressive number of holes (6, 30, or 150 that may accrue in nets over time was simulated. We used two laboratory Anopheles gambiae s.s. strains: the susceptible Kisumu strain and the pyrethroid-resistant VK-Per strain having solely kdr as resistance mechanism. The effect of these nets on the reproductive success of blood-fed females that survived the different LNs conditions was recorded. Regardless of the mosquito strain, the LNs containing PPF alone with as many as 30 holes drastically reduced the number of eggs laid by females succeeding in feeding, i.e. fecundity by 98% and egg hatching rate (fertility by 93% relative to untreated control net. Very few of the resistant females blood fed and survived under the Olyset® Duo with similar number of holes (up to 30 but of these few, the inhibition of reproductive success was 100%. There was no evidence that the Olyset® Duo LN with 150 holes impacted fecundity or fertility of the resistant colony. The efficacy of Olyset® Duo is encouraging and clearly illustrates that this new net might be a promising tool for malaria transmission control and resistance management.

  6. Insecticidal and sterilizing effect of Olyset Duo®, a permethrin and pyriproxyfen mixture net against pyrethroid-susceptible and -resistant strains of Anopheles gambiae s.s.: a release-recapture assay in experimental huts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djènontin, Armel; Ahoua Alou, Ludovic P.; Koffi, Alphonsine; Zogo, Barnabas; Duarte, Elves; N’Guessan, Raphael; Moiroux, Nicolas; Pennetier, Cédric

    2015-01-01

    In the context of the widespread distribution of pyrethroid resistance among malaria vectors, we did a release-recapture trial in experimental huts to investigate the insecticidal and sterilizing effects of a novel long-lasting net (LN), Olyset® Duo, incorporating a mixture of permethrin (PER) and the insect growth regulator (IGR), pyri-proxyfen (PPF). An LN containing PPF alone and a classic Olyset® Net were tested in parallel as positive controls. The effect of progressive number of holes (6, 30, or 150) that may accrue in nets over time was simulated. We used two laboratory Anopheles gambiae s.s. strains: the susceptible Kisumu strain and the pyrethroid-resistant VK-Per strain having solely kdr as resistance mechanism. The effect of these nets on the reproductive success of blood-fed females that survived the different LNs conditions was recorded. Regardless of the mosquito strain, the LNs containing PPF alone with as many as 30 holes drastically reduced the number of eggs laid by females succeeding in feeding, i.e. fecundity by 98% and egg hatching rate (fertility) by 93% relative to untreated control net. Very few of the resistant females blood fed and survived under the Olyset® Duo with similar number of holes (up to 30) but of these few, the inhibition of reproductive success was 100%. There was no evidence that the Olyset® Duo LN with 150 holes impacted fecundity or fertility of the resistant colony. The efficacy of Olyset® Duo is encouraging and clearly illustrates that this new net might be a promising tool for malaria transmission control and resistance management. PMID:26489479

  7. A influência da rede social da nutriz no aleitamento materno: o papel estratégico dos familiares e dos profissionais de saúde The influence of the social net of lactating mothers in the breastfeeding: the strategic role of the relatives and professionals of health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Souza Marques

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se levantar e categorizar trabalhos científicos sobre a influência da rede social da lactante no contexto da amamentação. Para isto, realizou-se uma revisão bibliográfica nas principais bases de dados em saúde (MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO, utilizando como palavras chaves os descritores: aleitamento materno, desmame e família (e suas versões em inglês e espanhol. Foram consultados também livros, teses, dissertações, publicações em órgãos internacionais e nacionais (OMS, UNICEF, Ministério da Saúde. Pode-se observar que os atores que compõem a rede social da nutriz são capazes de exercer interferência na decisão de amamentar, através de diferentes âmbitos, tais como o incentivo/apoio à iniciativa; o repasse de conhecimentos e valores culturais; a tradição familiar e o cultivo do desinteresse/desestímulo e da pressão exercida sobre a lactante em relação à forma de alimentar a criança. Destarte, pode-se inferir sobre a necessidade de implementação de novas práticas de saúde no que tange à forma de cuidado a este grupo populacional. Vale ressaltar a importância de que os profissionais se capacitem para uma escuta sensível sobre o significado da lactação desde o olhar da nutriz. Por fim, destaca-se o papel importante da rede social da lactante, principalmente a família, para o sucesso da amamentação.The objective was to raise and classify scientific works on the influence of the social net of lactating mothers in the context of the breastfeeding. A bibliographical review was done in the main databases (MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO, using as keywords: breastfeeding, weaning and family (and their versions in English and Spanish. Books, thesis, dissertations, and publications in international and national institutions were consulted (WHO, UNICEF, Ministry of Health. It could be observed that the actors that compose the social net of the lactating mothers can interfere in the decision of breastfeeding

  8. Myocardial metabolism during hypoxia: Maintained lactate oxidation during increased glycolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazer, C.D.; Stanley, W.C.; Hickey, R.F.; Neese, R.A.; Cason, B.A.; Demas, K.A.; Wisneski, J.A.; Gertz, E.W. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (USA))

    1990-09-01

    In the intact animal, myocardial lactate utilization and oxidation during hypoxia are not well understood. Nine dogs were chronically instrumented with flow probes on the left anterior descending coronary artery and with a coronary sinus sampling catheter. ({sup 14}C)lactate and ({sup 13}C)glucose tracers, or ({sup 13}C)lactate and ({sup 14}C)glucose were administered to quantitate lactate and glucose oxidation, lactate conversion to glucose, and simultaneous lactate extraction and release. The animals were anesthetized and exposed to 90 minutes of severe hypoxia (PO2 = 25 +/- 4 torr). Hypoxia resulted in significant increases in heart rate, cardiac output and myocardial blood flow, but no significant change in myocardial oxygen consumption. The arterial/coronary sinus differences for glucose and lactate did not change from normoxia to hypoxia; however, the rate of glucose uptake increased significantly due to the increase in myocardial blood flow. Tracer-measured lactate extraction did not decrease with hypoxia, despite a 250% increase in lactate release. During hypoxia, 90% +/- 4% of the extracted {sup 14}C-lactate was accounted for by the appearance of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} in the coronary sinus, compared with 88% +/- 4% during normoxia. Thus, in addition to the expected increase in glucose uptake and lactate production, we observed an increase in lactate oxidation during hypoxia.

  9. Omnigen-AF reduces basal plasma cortisol, AWA cortisol release to adrencocorticotropic hormone or corticotrophin releasing hormone & vasopressin in lactating dairy cows under thermoneutral or acute heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Differences in the adrenal cortisol response of OmniGen-AF (OG) supplemented dairy cows to a corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin (VP) or an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge when housed at different temperature-humidity indices (THI) were studied. Holstein cows (n=12; 1...

  10. Net Locality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Gordon, Eric

    Provides an introduction to the new theory of Net Locality and the profound effect on individuals and societies when everything is located or locatable. Describes net locality as an emerging form of location awareness central to all aspects of digital media, from mobile phones, to Google Maps...... of emerging technologies, from GeoCities to GPS, Wi-Fi, Wiki Me, and Google Android....

  11. Net Neutrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej

    2017-01-01

    Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else.......Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else....

  12. Lactate oxidation at the mitochondria: a lactate-malate-aspartate shuttle at work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Kane

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Lactate, the conjugate base of lactic acid occurring in aqueous biological fluids, has been derided as a dead-end waste product of anaerobic metabolism. Catalyzed by the near-equilibrium enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, the reduction of pyruvate to lactate is thought to serve to regenerate the NAD+ necessary for continued glycolytic flux. Reaction kinetics for LDH imply that lactate oxidation is rarely favored in the tissues of its own production. However, a substantial body of research directly contradicts any notion that LDH invariably operates unidirectionally in vivo. In the current Perspective, a model is forwarded in which the continuous formation and oxidation of lactate serves as a mitochondrial electron shuttle, whereby lactate generated in the cytosol of the cell is oxidized at the mitochondria of the same cell. From this perspective, an intracellular lactate shuttle operates much like the malate-aspartate shuttle; it is also proposed that the two shuttles are necessarily interconnected. Among the requisite features of such a model, significant compartmentalization of LDH, much like the creatine kinase of the PCr shuttle, would facilitate net cellular lactate oxidation under a variety of conditions.

  13. Lactate dehydrogenase test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003471.htm Lactate dehydrogenase test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a protein that helps produce energy ...

  14. Hormonal Control of Lactation

    OpenAIRE

    青野, 敏博; Toshihiro, AONO; 徳島大学; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Tokushima, School of Medicine

    1990-01-01

    We studied the mechanism of normal lactation, especially the roles of prolactin (PRL) and oxytocin (OXT) in the initiation of lactation, the lactation in the women complicated with endocrinological disorders, and medical therapies for stimulation and suppression of lactation. The level of serum PRL increases as pregnancy progresses, and reachs to a peak on the day of delivery. Despite high PRL level, milk secretion does not appear during pregnancy, because the sex steroid hormones suppress bi...

  15. Blood lactate is an important energy source for the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    G., van Hall; Stromstad, M.; Rasmussen, P.

    2009-01-01

    Lactate is a potential energy source for the brain. The aim of this study was to establish whether systemic lactate is a brain energy source. We measured in vivo cerebral lactate kinetics and oxidation rates in 6 healthy individuals at rest with and without 90 mins of intravenous lactate infusion...... was released as (13)CO(2) with 100%+/-24%, 86%+/-15%, and 87%+/-30% at rest with and without lactate infusion and during exercise, respectively. The contribution of systemic lactate to cerebral energy expenditure was 8%+/-2%, 19%+/-4%, and 27%+/-4% for the respective conditions. In conclusion, systemic lactate...

  16. Net technical assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Wegmann, David G.

    1989-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The present and near term military balance of power between the U.S. and the Soviet Union can be expressed in a variety of net assessments. One can examine the strategic nuclear balance, the conventional balance in Europe, the maritime balance, and many others. Such assessments are essential not only for policy making but for arms control purposes and future force structure planning. However, to project the future military balance, on...

  17. RESTful NET

    CERN Document Server

    Flanders, Jon

    2008-01-01

    RESTful .NET is the first book that teaches Windows developers to build RESTful web services using the latest Microsoft tools. Written by Windows Communication Foundation (WFC) expert Jon Flanders, this hands-on tutorial demonstrates how you can use WCF and other components of the .NET 3.5 Framework to build, deploy and use REST-based web services in a variety of application scenarios. RESTful architecture offers a simpler approach to building web services than SOAP, SOA, and the cumbersome WS- stack. And WCF has proven to be a flexible technology for building distributed systems not necessa

  18. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Associate Professor of. Computer Science and. Automation at the Indian. Institute of Science,. Bangalore. His research interests are broadly in the areas of stochastic modeling and scheduling methodologies for future factories; and object oriented modeling. GENERAL I ARTICLE. Petri Nets. 1. Overview and Foundations.

  19. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 8. Petri Nets - Overview and Foundations. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 8 August 1999 pp ... Author Affiliations. Y Narahari1. Department ot Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  20. Contraception during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badraoui, M H; Hefnawi, F; Bahgat, R; Fawzi, G; El Gaali, O; Ismail, H; Hegab, M

    1982-01-01

    Seven hundred and seventy-two lactating mothers were studied from delivery for 1 year to select the best contraceptive method (oral drug, injected drug, or IUD) which did not affect lactation. Ten groups of mothers were studied, including 234 control subjects. The injectable progestational contraceptives caused an improvement in the amount of milk and its protein concentration, whereas the IUCDs did not influence the lactation pattern. Sulpiride was an ineffective contraceptive but a potent lactation stimulant. The side effects of each method (effects on milk yield, protein content and prolactin concentrations) were also noted; it was concluded that IUCDs are the ideal contraceptive method during lactation, with the use of a lactation stimulant when indicated.

  1. Brain lactate metabolism: the discoveries and the controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienel, Gerald A

    2012-01-01

    Potential roles for lactate in the energetics of brain activation have changed radically during the past three decades, shifting from waste product to supplemental fuel and signaling molecule. Current models for lactate transport and metabolism involving cellular responses to excitatory neurotransmission are highly debated, owing, in part, to discordant results obtained in different experimental systems and conditions. Major conclusions drawn from tabular data summarizing results obtained in many laboratories are as follows: Glutamate-stimulated glycolysis is not an inherent property of all astrocyte cultures. Synaptosomes from the adult brain and many preparations of cultured neurons have high capacities to increase glucose transport, glycolysis, and glucose-supported respiration, and pathway rates are stimulated by glutamate and compounds that enhance metabolic demand. Lactate accumulation in activated tissue is a minor fraction of glucose metabolized and does not reflect pathway fluxes. Brain activation in subjects with low plasma lactate causes outward, brain-to-blood lactate gradients, and lactate is quickly released in substantial amounts. Lactate utilization by the adult brain increases during lactate infusions and strenuous exercise that markedly increase blood lactate levels. Lactate can be an ‘opportunistic', glucose-sparing substrate when present in high amounts, but most evidence supports glucose as the major fuel for normal, activated brain. PMID:22186669

  2. L-lactate transport in Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, T L; Lehninger, A L

    1976-01-01

    Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells were investigated with regard to their stability to transport L-lactate by measuring either the distribution of [14C]lactate or concomitant H+ ion movements. The movement of lactate was dependent on the pH difference across the cell membrane and was electroneutral, as evidenced by an observed 1:1 antiport for OH- ions or 1:1 symport with H+ ions. 2. Kinetic experiments showed that lactate transport was saturable, with an apparent Km of approx. 4.68 mM and a Vmax. as high as 680 nmol/min per mg of protein at pH 6.2 and 37 degrees C. 3. Lactate transport exhibited a high temperature dependence (activation energy = 139 kJ/mol). 4. Lactate transport was inhibited competitively by (a) a variety of other substituted monocarboxylic acids (e.g. pyruvate, Ki = 6.3 mM), which were themselves transported, (b) the non-transportable analogues alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate (Ki = 0.5 mM), alpha-cyano-3-hydroxycinnamate (Ki = 2mM) and DL-p-hydroxyphenyl-lactate (Ki = 3.6 mM) and (c) the thiol-group reagent mersalyl (Ki = 125 muM). 5. Transport of simple monocarboxylic acids, including acetate and propionate, was insensitive to these inhibitors; they presumably cross the membrane by means of a different mechanism. 6. Experiments using saturating amounts of mersalyl as an "inhibitor stop" allowed measurements of the initial rates of net influx and of net efflux of [14C]lactate. Influx and efflux of lactate were judged to be symmetrical reactions in that they exhibited similar concentration dependence. 7. It is concluded that lactate transport in Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells is mediated by a carrier capable of transporting a number of other substituted monocarboxylic acids, but not unsubstituted short-chain aliphatic acids. PMID:7237

  3. Lactate-mediated glia-neuronal signalling in the mammalian brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, F.; Lane, S.; Korsak, A.; Paton, J. F. R.; Gourine, A. V.; Kasparov, S.; Teschemacher, A. G.

    2014-02-01

    Astrocytes produce and release L-lactate as a potential source of energy for neurons. Here we present evidence that L-lactate, independently of its caloric value, serves as an astrocytic signalling molecule in the locus coeruleus (LC). The LC is the principal source of norepinephrine to the frontal brain and thus one of the most influential modulatory centers of the brain. Optogenetically activated astrocytes release L-lactate, which excites LC neurons and triggers release of norepinephrine. Exogenous L-lactate within the physiologically relevant concentration range mimics these effects. L-lactate effects are concentration-dependent, stereo-selective, independent of L-lactate uptake into neurons and involve a cAMP-mediated step. In vivo injections of L-lactate in the LC evokes arousal similar to the excitatory transmitter, L-glutamate. Our results imply the existence of an unknown receptor for this ‘glio-transmitter’.

  4. Avaliação do modelo CNCPS na predição do consumo de matéria seca em vacas da raça Holandesa em pastejo Evaluation of the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System on the prediction of dry matter intake of grazing lactating Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Wyllie Elyas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o modelo Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS, versão 5.0, na predição do consumo de matéria seca de vacas da raça Holandesa, lactantes, em pastagem de capim coast-cross suplementada com silagem de milho e concentrado (3 ou 6 kg/vaca.dia. Foram realizados seis ensaios experimentais, cada um com 12 vacas. Em três das avaliações, os animais receberam, além do concentrado, 17 kg de silagem de milho/dia (base natural. As coletas de forragem selecionada na pastagem para análise da composição química foram realizadas por uma vaca com fístula esofágica. A estimativa do consumo voluntário foi realizada com sesquióxido de cromo (Cr2O3, administrado em doses de 5 g, duas vezes ao dia. Foram fornecidos ao programa dados (inputs referentes aos animais (peso vivo corporal, escore corporal, idade, produção e composição do leite e tipo racial, ao ambiente (temperatura, umidade relativa do ar e manejo e à composição do alimento em cada período experimental. Os valores preditos pelo CNCPS para a ingestão voluntária de matéria seca foram próximos àqueles estimados, havendo pequena tendência do modelo em subestimar o valor determinado com o indicador.The aim of this work was to evaluate the ability of the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS version 5.0 to estimate the dry matter intake (DMI of grazing lactating Holstein cows, grazing coast-cross pasture supplemented with corn silage and concentrate (3 or 6 kg/cow/day. Six experiments were carried out, with 12 cows each. The cows were fed 17 kg/cow/day of corn ensilage in three experiments. The chemical composition of extrusa samples of forage was determined, obtained using an esophageous fistulated cow. The intake estimates were obtained using 5 g of chromium oxide (Cr2O3 methodology supplied two times a day. Data corresponding to animals (body weight, age, milk yield and composition and racial type

  5. Ammonium Lactate Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breastfeeding. If you become pregnant while using ammonium lactate, call your doctor.plan to avoid unnecessary or prolonged exposure to natural or artificial sunlight to the affected skin area and to ...

  6. CSF LACTATE IN MENINGITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjampakuthikal Aboobekar Haris

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Meningitis is an infection within the subarachnoid space characterised by a CNS inflammatory reaction. It is a serious condition requiring immediate diagnosis and appropriate treatment to be started at the earliest to prevent mortality as well as irreversible neurological deficits. CSF lactate has been found useful in differentiating bacterial meningitis from viral meningitis in many studies in the western population, but studies in Indian population are limited. The aim of the study is to study whether CSF lactate can be used to distinguish bacterial from viral meningitis and to study the levels of CSF lactate in tuberculosis meningitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a descriptive study conducted in a tertiary care hospital. In this study, 78 cases of meningitis were selected. Cases are patients with bacterial, viral or tuberculosis meningitis admitted to the hospital under the Department of Medicine and Neurology. Cases are grouped into bacterial, viral and tuberculosis meningitis based on clinical picture, CSF analysis and imaging characteristics. CSF lactate estimation was done by dry chemistry method. Using appropriate statistical methods and SPSS software, CSF lactate levels were compared among these groups and analysed for any association with the final outcome. RESULTS The levels of CSF lactate in bacterial meningitis were higher than viral meningitis with a statistical significance of p 35 mg/dL for bacterial meningitis in this study was 95% and 100% respectively and the positive predictive value was 100% and the negative predictive value was 96%. The mean CSF lactate values in bacterial, viral and tuberculosis meningitis were 124.40 ± 35.85 mg/dL, 24.34 ± 6.05 mg/dL and 50.13 ± 9.89 mg/dL, respectively. CONCLUSION CSF lactate level was significantly elevated in bacterial meningitis than tuberculosis or viral meningitis and can be used as a marker for differentiating bacterial from viral meningitis.

  7. Factors influencing on lactation

    OpenAIRE

    M. V. Gmoshinskaya

    2013-01-01

    All factors influencing on lactation can be divided into 4 groups: organizational, medical, psychological and social. Among the last ones family support, solving of social problems in the family, formation of comfort conditions for breast-feeding, psychological state of the mother and her ability to relax during breast-feeding have the main significance. Formed maternity instinct and developed lactation dominant during pregnancy, understanding of the significance of breast-feeding among the f...

  8. Moderate hyperventilation during intravenous anesthesia increases net cerebral lactate efflux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Grüne (Frank); S. Kazmaier (Stephan); B. Sonntag (Barbara); R.J. Stolker (Robert); A. Weyland (Andreas)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND:: Hyperventilation is known to decrease cerebral blood flow (CBF) and to impair cerebral metabolism, but the threshold in patients undergoing intravenous anesthesia is unknown. The authors hypothesized that reduced CBF associated with moderate hyperventilation might impair

  9. Moderate hyperventilation during intravenous anesthesia increases net cerebral lactate efflux

    OpenAIRE

    Grüne, Frank; Kazmaier, Stephan; Sonntag, Barbara; Stolker, Robert; Weyland, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND:: Hyperventilation is known to decrease cerebral blood flow (CBF) and to impair cerebral metabolism, but the threshold in patients undergoing intravenous anesthesia is unknown. The authors hypothesized that reduced CBF associated with moderate hyperventilation might impair cerebral aerobic metabolism in patients undergoing intravenous anesthesia. METHODS:: Thirty male patients scheduled for coronary surgery were included in a prospective, controlled crossover trial. Mea...

  10. Lactation in Islam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefnawi, F I

    1982-01-01

    Preservation and promotion of breastfeeding in Islamic countries could be increased by stressing the religious importance of this practice as prescribed in Islamic religious teachings. The child's right to be breastfed is affirmed by the Quaran, the source of Islamic law and morality. Quranic verse 2:233 recommends a 2 year period of lactation. According to Islam a nursing mother is entitled to receive compensation from the father for nursing the child. The father, though, has the option to engage a paid or unpaid wet-nurse for the child, in which case the mother looses her right to be paid for nursing even is she volunteered to breastfeed. The mother's right to nurse a child without compensation is prior to a father's right to engage a wet-nurse. In another Islamic source the moral importance of breastfeeding is stressed. The mother receives the reward of a good deed for every single drop she gives her child. Islamic precepts on lactation influenced Arabian medicine. Avicenna's view that children should be breastfed for 2 years was approvingly quoted by European physicians in the 17th century. Major Arabian medical texts contain chapters on lactation, on tests for quality of breast milk, and on diets and drugs for improving lactation. Research at Al-Azhar University is directed toward finding a contraceptive that will not inhabit lactation and will not affect the quality of breast milk.

  11. Evidence for a lactate pool in the rat brain that is not used as an energy supply under normoglycemic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leegsma-Vogt, G; Venema, K; Korf, J

    Lactate derived from glucose can serve as an energy source in the brain. However, it is not certain how much lactate, directly taken from the blood circulation, may replace glucose as an energy source. This study aimed to estimate the uptake, release, and utilization of lactate entering the brain

  12. Effective lactation yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Akke; Middelaar, van C.E.; Engel, B.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Hogeveen, H.; Kemp, B.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    To compare milk yields between cows or management strategies, lactations are traditionally standardized to 305-d yields. The 305-d yield, however, gives no insight into the combined effect of additional milk yield before calving, decreased milk yield after calving, and a possible shorter calving

  13. Azathioprine treatment during lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, L.A.; Dahlerup, J.F.; Nielsen, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    to 6-mercaptopurine, as a metabolite of azathioprine, from maternal milk. METHODS: Eight lactating women with inflammatory bowel disease receiving maintenance therapy with azathioprine 75-200 mg daily were studied. Milk and plasma samples were obtained 30 and 60 min after drug administration and hourly...

  14. Isolating the cow-specific part of residual energy intake in lactating dairy cows using random regressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, A; Friggens, N C; Berry, D P; Faverdin, P

    2017-12-11

    The ability to properly assess and accurately phenotype true differences in feed efficiency among dairy cows is key to the development of breeding programs for improving feed efficiency. The variability among individuals in feed efficiency is commonly characterised by the residual intake approach. Residual feed intake is represented by the residuals of a linear regression of intake on the corresponding quantities of the biological functions that consume (or release) energy. However, the residuals include both, model fitting and measurement errors as well as any variability in cow efficiency. The objective of this study was to isolate the individual animal variability in feed efficiency from the residual component. Two separate models were fitted, in one the standard residual energy intake (REI) was calculated as the residual of a multiple linear regression of lactation average net energy intake (NEI) on lactation average milk energy output, average metabolic BW, as well as lactation loss and gain of body condition score. In the other, a linear mixed model was used to simultaneously fit fixed linear regressions and random cow levels on the biological traits and intercept using fortnight repeated measures for the variables. This method split the predicted NEI in two parts: one quantifying the population mean intercept and coefficients, and one quantifying cow-specific deviations in the intercept and coefficients. The cow-specific part of predicted NEI was assumed to isolate true differences in feed efficiency among cows. NEI and associated energy expenditure phenotypes were available for the first 17 fortnights of lactation from 119 Holstein cows; all fed a constant energy-rich diet. Mixed models fitting cow-specific intercept and coefficients to different combinations of the aforementioned energy expenditure traits, calculated on a fortnightly basis, were compared. The variance of REI estimated with the lactation average model represented only 8% of the variance of

  15. The Net Physiological Cost of Dribbling a Soccer Ball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Thomas; Ball, David

    1984-01-01

    To establish the net energy cost of dribbling a soccer ball, eight males ran on a treadmill while dribbling a ball against a rebound box. Oxygen uptake, perceived exertion, and blood lactate levels were measured and compared with results from subjects running without dribbling. Results are discussed. (Author/DF)

  16. Pre-resuscitation Lactate and Hospital Mortality in Prehospital Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Adam Z.; Guyette, Francis X.; Seymour, Christopher W.; Suffoletto, Brian P.; Martin-Gill, Christian; Quintero, Jorge; Kristan, Jeffrey; Callaway, Clifton W.; Yealy, Donald M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Serum lactate elevations are associated with morbidity and mortality in trauma patients, but their value in prehospital medical patients prior to resuscitation is unknown. We sought to assess the distribution of blood lactate concentrations prior to intravenous (IV) resuscitation and examine the association of elevation on in-hospital death. Methods A convenience sample of adult patients over 14 months who received an IV line by eight EMS agencies in Western Pennsylvania had lactate measurement prior to any IV treatment. We assessed the lactate values and any relationship between these and hospital mortality (our primary outcome) and admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). We also compared the ability of lactate to discriminate outcomes with a prehospital critical illness score using age, Glasgow Coma Score, and initial vital signs. Results We included 673 patients, among whom 71 (11%) were admitted to the ICU and 21 (3.1%) died in-hospital. Elevated lactate (≥2 mmol/L) occurred in 307 (46%) patients and was strongly associated with hospital death after adjustment for known covariates (odds ratio = 3.57, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10, 11.6). Lactate ≥2 mmol/L had a modest sensitivity (76%) and specificity (55%), and discrimination for hospital death (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.66, 95%CI: 0.56, 0.75). Compared to the prehospital critical illness score alone (AUC = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.59, 0.80), adding lactate to the score offered modest improvement (net reclassification improvement = 0.63, 95%CI: 0.23, 1.01, p prehospital medical patient population was associated with hospital mortality. However, it is a modest predictor of outcome, offering similar discrimination to a prehospital critical illness score. PMID:24548128

  17. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Rosener, B. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host ``na-net.ornl.gov`` at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message ``send index`` to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user`s perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  18. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Rosener, B. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host na-net.ornl.gov'' at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message send index'' to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user's perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  19. Extended lactation in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Annette; Muir, D. Donald; Knight, Christopher Harold

    2008-01-01

    of the lactation, protein and fat percentages increasing and lactose percentage decreasing, irrespective of treatment. The quality of the milk for processing into cheese, fermented products, heat-treated products and cream liqueurs was assessed by calculation of casein number (casein protein as a proportion...... interventions, the results lend support to the economic arguments in favour of extended lactation cycles. The likely welfare benefits of extended lactation are also discussed....

  20. Lactate in cystic fibrosis sputum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bensel, Tobias; Stotz, Martin; Borneff-Lipp, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Antibiotic therapy is thought to improve lung function in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) by decreasing neutrophil-derived inflammation. We investigated the origin and clinical significance of lactate in the chronically inflamed CF lung. Methods Lactate was measured in sputa of 18 exacerbated...... and 25 stable CF patients via spectrophotometry and gaschromatography. Lung function was assessed via spirometry. Seven patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and three patients with acute lung inflammation served as control groups. Neutrophil and bacterial lactate production...

  1. Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux is defined as the year-over-year change in Total Ecosystem Carbon Stock, or the net rate of carbon exchange between an ecosystem and the...

  2. Lactate dehydrogenase assay for assessment of polycation cytotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parhamifar, Ladan; Andersen, Helene; Moghimi, Seyed Moien

    2013-01-01

    cannot stand alone in determining the type and extent of damage or cell death mechanism. In this chapter we describe a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay for high-throughput screening that can be used as a starting point for further detailed cytotoxicity determination. LDH release is considered an early...

  3. Pregnancy outcomes after change in dose delivery of prostaglandin F₂α and time of gonadotropin-releasing hormone injection in a 5-day timed artificial insemination program in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, J S; Pulley, S L; Hill, S L

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrated that 50mg of PGF₂α on d 6 successfully induced luteolysis in lactating dairy cows enrolled in a traditional 5-d Ovsynch-72 program [GnRH injection 5 d before (d 0; GnRH-1) and 56 (p.m. on d 7; GnRH-2) or 72 h (d 8; GnRH-2) after a 25-mg injection of PGF₂α (d 5 and 6 after GnRH injection); timed artificial insemination (AI) on d 8]. Our current objective was to determine pregnancy outcomes in lactating dairy cows after a 50-mg injection of PGF₂α on d 6 or a 25-mg injection of PGF₂α on d 5 and 6 in a 5-d Ovsynch program. Cows in herd 1 diagnosed not pregnant between 30 and 36 d since last AI were enrolled to receive either a 50-mg injection of PGF₂α on d 6 (1 × 50; n=134) or a 25-mg injection of PGF₂α on d 5 and 6 (2 × 25; n=139) after GnRH-1 (d 0), with GnRH-2 at 72 h after PGF₂α injection (d 5), concurrent with timed AI (d 8). Cows in herd 2 diagnosed not pregnant between 34 and 40 d were treated similarly: even-tagged cows received the 2 × 25 (n=422) treatment, and odd-tagged cows received the 1 × 50 (n=450) treatment, except that GnRH-2 was administered at 56 h. Blood collected from cows in herd 1 at d 0, 5, 6, and 8 was assayed for progesterone. Luteolysis was defined to occur when progesterone concentration was ≥1 ng/mL on d 5, and 72 h later (d 8) was either <0.5 ng/mL or <1 ng/mL. Progesterone concentrations did not differ between treatments on pretreatment d 0 and 5, but were greater in 1 × 50 than 2 × 25 cows on d 6 (4.7 ± 0.2 vs. 1.1 ± 0.2 ng/mL) and d 8 (0.43 ± 0.04 vs. 0.19 ± 0.04 ng/mL), respectively. Luteolysis was greater in the 2 × 25 versus 1 × 50 treatment when the cut point was 0.5 ng/mL, whereas no difference was detected when the cut point was <1 ng/mL on d 8. Lack of complete luteolysis was greater in cows classified as early cycle on d 0 or having a new corpus luteum after d 0 because progesterone concentration was greater on d 5 and 6 than for cows classified as late cycle on d 0 or cows

  4. Direct effects of TNF-α on local fuel metabolism and cytokine levels in the placebo controlled bilaterally infused human leg; increased insulin sensitivity, increased net protein breakdown and increased IL-6 release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Ermina; Nielsen, Bent Roni Ranghøj; Vendelbo, Mikkel H

    2013-01-01

    . Insulin and protein signaling in muscle biopsies was not affected by TNF-α. TNF-α directly increased net muscle protein loss, which may contribute to cachexia and general protein loss during severe illness. The finding of increased insulin sensitivity, which could relate to IL-6, is of major clinical...

  5. [Cabergoline for inhibition of lactation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Topete, Enrique Gómez; Mendoza-Hernández, Freddy; Cejudo-Alvarez, José; Briones-Garduño, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    Despite advances in prevention inhibition of lactation, only administration of estrogens or these combined with androgens show variable effectiveness and are indirectly associated with high percentage for lactation rebound, thrombosis, or pulmonary embolism or both of the later during puerperium; in addition, bromocriptine, also used indirectly for inhibition of lactation, is associated with lactation, rebound in 18-40%. Cabergolin is a new ergoline with efficient and durable prolactin reducer effect with fewer adverse effects. Which will the smallest cabergolin dosage be to inhibit lactation? To demonstrate clinical effectiveness with smallest cabergolina dosage in lactation inhibition. We carried on a the Service Clinical test on patients hospitalization with an indication to inhibit lactation as the Hospital of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Infantil Maternal Institute of the State of Mexico (IMIEM). The study was done 80 patients to who we administered oral 0.5 mg cabergoline to 40 patients and another group of 40 whom we administered 1.0 mg of cabergoline orally at random and blinded by means of out-patient consultation. We studied correlation between dose and inhibition of lactation as well as presence of adverse effects. In the group of patients to whom administered 0.5 mg, we found 65% (n = 26) with lactation inhibition; adverse effects in this group appeared in 32.5% (n = 13) the second group with a dose of 1.0 mg; 95% with adverse effects in 25% P < 0.001. Inhibition of lactation with unique dose of 1.0 has satisfactory clinical effectiveness, this being the smaller dose to inhibit lactation at a suitable percentage.

  6. Professional Enterprise NET

    CERN Document Server

    Arking, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Comprehensive coverage to help experienced .NET developers create flexible, extensible enterprise application code If you're an experienced Microsoft .NET developer, you'll find in this book a road map to the latest enterprise development methodologies. It covers the tools you will use in addition to Visual Studio, including Spring.NET and nUnit, and applies to development with ASP.NET, C#, VB, Office (VBA), and database. You will find comprehensive coverage of the tools and practices that professional .NET developers need to master in order to build enterprise more flexible, testable, and ext

  7. Presynchronization using a modified Ovsynch protocol or a single gonadotropin-releasing hormone injection 7 d before an Ovsynch-56 protocol for submission of lactating dairy cows to first timed artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, P D; Guenther, J N; Fuenzalida, M J; Amundson, M C; Wiltbank, M C; Fricke, P M

    2014-10-01

    Presynchronization strategies, such as Presynch-Ovsynch and Double-Ovsynch, increase fertility to timed artificial insemination (TAI) compared with Ovsynch alone; however, simpler presynchronization strategies could reduce costs and simplify reproductive management. Lactating Holstein cows (n=601) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 presynchronization treatments before beginning an Ovsynch-56 protocol (GnRH at 70 ± 3 DIM, PGF2α 7 d later, GnRH 56 h after PGF2α, and TAI 16 h later at 80 ± 3 DIM) for first TAI. Cows (n=306) in the first treatment (Double-Ovsynch; DO) were presynchronized using a modified Ovsynch protocol (GnRH at 53 ± 3 DIM, 7 d later PGF2α, and GnRH 3 d later) ending 7 d before the first GnRH injection (G1) of an Ovsynch-56 protocol. Cows (n=295) in the second treatment (GGPG) were presynchronized using a single injection of GnRH 7 d before G1 of an Ovsynch-56 protocol at 63 ± 3 DIM. Blood samples were collected at G1 and the PGF2α injections of the Ovsynch-56 protocol to determine progesterone (P4) concentrations. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed using ultrasonography 32 d after TAI, and pregnant cows were reexamined 46 and 70 d after TAI. Overall, DO cows had more pregnancies per artificial insemination (P/AI) compared with GGPG cows 32 d after TAI (53 vs. 43%). Overall, P/AI did not differ by parity (primiparous vs. multiparous), and pregnancy loss did not differ between treatments or parities. More DO cows had P4 in a medium range (>0.5 to 4 ng/mL) at the PGF2α injection of the Ovsynch-56 protocol compared with GGPG cows (67 vs. 36%). Thus, presynchronization with a modified Ovsynch protocol increased P/AI after TAI at first AI by increasing synchrony to the Ovsynch-56 protocol compared with presynchronization using a single injection of GnRH. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Safety assessment of lactate esters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clary, J.J.; Feron, V.J.; Velthuijsen, J.A. van

    1998-01-01

    Lactate eaters have an oral LD50 greater than 2000 mg/kg and the inhalation LC50 is generally above 5000 mg/m3 and they may be potential eye and skin irritants, but not skin sensitizers. No evidence of teratogenicity or maternal toxicity was observed in an inhalation (2-ethylhexyl-L-lactate) or

  9. Pathological Panorama of Lactating Adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Sankaye

    2014-06-01

    Results:Out of the 14 palpable breast masses in lactating women that were diagnosed as lactating adenoma on sonomammography, 05 were found to be tense galactoceles and 09 were found to be lactational adenomas. Panorama of lactational adenomas showed 4 distinct patterns. Pattern A( 04 cases: low columnar epithelium, No necrotic areas or cytoplasmic vacuoles.Pattern B (03 cases: high columnar epithelium with cytoplasmic vacuoles. No necrotic areas. Pattern C (1 case: prominent lactiferous ductules with areas of necrosis and infarct. Pattern D (1 case: cytoplasmic vacuoles, and islands of ductal cells in a background of prominent foamy material. This internal nature of lesions on FNAC was not identifiable by clinical palpation alone. None of the lesions labelled as lactating adenomas on sonomammography showed any signs of malignancy on FNAC. Conclusions:FNAC is a useful method for confirming that a palpable breast lump in a lactating lady is lactating adenoma indeed. Four different patterns of microscopic appearances of lactational adenoma were noted in this study. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(3.000: 464-469

  10. Elevated lactate during psychogenic hyperventilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Avest, E.; Patist, F. M.; ter Maaten, J. C.; Nijsten, M. W. N.

    Study objective Elevated arterial lactate levels are closely related to morbidity and mortality in various patient categories. In the present retrospective study, the relation between arterial lactate, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco(2)) and pH was systematically investigated in patients who

  11. Genetics Home Reference: lactate dehydrogenase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Lactate dehydrogenase deficiency Lactate dehydrogenase deficiency Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Lactate dehydrogenase deficiency is a condition that affects how the ...

  12. Cerebral extracellular lactate increase is predominantly nonischemic in patients with severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Nathalie; Suys, Tamarah; Zerlauth, Jean-Baptiste; Bouzat, Pierre; Messerer, Mahmoud; Bloch, Jocelyne; Levivier, Marc; Magistretti, Pierre J; Meuli, Reto; Oddo, Mauro

    2013-11-01

    Growing evidence suggests that endogenous lactate is an important substrate for neurons. This study aimed to examine cerebral lactate metabolism and its relationship with brain perfusion in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). A prospective cohort of 24 patients with severe TBI monitored with cerebral microdialysis (CMD) and brain tissue oxygen tension (PbtO2) was studied. Brain lactate metabolism was assessed by quantification of elevated CMD lactate samples (>4 mmol/L); these were matched to CMD pyruvate and PbtO2 values and dichotomized as glycolytic (CMD pyruvate >119 μmol/L vs. low pyruvate) and hypoxic (PbtO2 <20 mm Hg vs. nonhypoxic). Using perfusion computed tomography (CT), brain perfusion was categorized as oligemic, normal, or hyperemic, and was compared with CMD and PbtO2 data. Samples with elevated CMD lactate were frequently observed (41±8%), and we found that brain lactate elevations were predominantly associated with glycolysis and normal PbtO2 (73±8%) rather than brain hypoxia (14±6%). Furthermore, glycolytic lactate was always associated with normal or hyperemic brain perfusion, whereas all episodes with hypoxic lactate were associated with diffuse oligemia. Our findings suggest predominant nonischemic cerebral extracellular lactate release after TBI and support the concept that lactate may be used as an energy substrate by the injured human brain.

  13. Elevated lactate during psychogenic hyperventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Avest, E; Patist, F M; Ter Maaten, J C; Nijsten, M W N

    2011-04-01

    Elevated arterial lactate levels are closely related to morbidity and mortality in various patient categories. In the present retrospective study, the relation between arterial lactate, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco(2)) and pH was systematically investigated in patients who visited the emergency department (ED) with psychogenic hyperventilation. Over a 5-month period, all the patients who visited the ED of a university hospital with presumed psychogenic hyperventilation were evaluated. Psychogenic hyperventilation was presumed to be present when an increased respiratory rate (>20 min) was documented at or before the ED visit and when somatic causes explaining the hyperventilation were absent. Arterial blood gas and lactate levels (reference values 0.5-1.5 mmol/l) were immediately measured by a point-of-care analyser that was managed and calibrated by the central laboratory. During the study period, 46 patients were diagnosed as having psychogenic hyperventilation. The median (range) Pco(2) for this group was 4.3 (2.0-5.5) kPa, the pH was 7.47 (7.40-7.68) and the lactate level was 1.2 (0.5-4.4) mmol/l. 14 participants (30%) had a lactate level above the reference value of 1.5 mmol/l. Pco(2) was the most important predictor of lactate in multivariate analysis. None of the participants underwent any medical treatment other than observation at the ED or had been hospitalised after their ED visit. In patients with psychogenic hyperventilation, lactate levels are frequently elevated. Whereas high lactates are usually associated with acidosis and an increased risk of poor outcome, in patients with psychogenic hyperventilation, high lactates are associated with hypocapnia and alkalosis. In this context, elevated arterial lactate levels should not be regarded as an adverse sign.

  14. Musings on Sketches, Artists, and Mosquito Nets

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-09-23

    Byron Breedlove reads his essay Musings on Sketches, Artists, and Mosquito Nets about the art of James Whistler and the transmission of vector borne diseases.  Created: 9/23/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/20/2014.

  15. WaveNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Coastal Inlets Research Program WaveNet WaveNet is a web-based, Graphical-User-Interface ( GUI ) data management tool developed for Corps coastal...generates tabular and graphical information for project planning and design documents. The WaveNet is a web-based GUI designed to provide users with a...data from different sources, and employs a combination of Fortran, Python and Matlab codes to process and analyze data for USACE applications

  16. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes how Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets) have been developed — from being a promising theoretical model to being a full-fledged language for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems (and other systems in which human beings and...... use of CP-nets — because it means that the function representation and the translations (which are a bit mathematically complex) no longer are parts of the basic definition of CP-nets. Instead they are parts of the invariant method (which anyway demands considerable mathematical skills...

  17. Game Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of game coloured Petri nets. This allows the modeler to explicitly model what parts of the model comprise the modeled system and what parts are the environment of the modeled system. We give the formal definition of game coloured Petri nets, a means of reachability...... analysis of this net class, and an application of game coloured Petri nets to automatically generate easy-to-understand visualizations of the model by exploiting the knowledge that some parts of the model are not interesting from a visualization perspective (i.e. they are part of the environment...

  18. Programming NET Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Alex

    2007-01-01

    Web services are poised to become a key technology for a wide range of Internet-enabled applications, spanning everything from straight B2B systems to mobile devices and proprietary in-house software. While there are several tools and platforms that can be used for building web services, developers are finding a powerful tool in Microsoft's .NET Framework and Visual Studio .NET. Designed from scratch to support the development of web services, the .NET Framework simplifies the process--programmers find that tasks that took an hour using the SOAP Toolkit take just minutes. Programming .NET

  19. Annotating Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Bo; Wells, Lisa Marie

    2002-01-01

    -net. An example of such auxiliary information is a counter which is associated with a token to be able to do performance analysis. Modifying colour sets and arc inscriptions in a CP-net to support a specific use may lead to creation of several slightly different CP-nets – only to support the different uses...... a method which makes it possible to associate auxiliary information, called annotations, with tokens without modifying the colour sets of the CP-net. Annotations are pieces of information that are not essential for determining the behaviour of the system being modelled, but are rather added to support...

  20. Characteristics of feed efficiency within and across lactation in dairy cows and the effect of genetic selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, A M; Lopez-Villalobos, N; McParland, S; Lewis, E; Kennedy, E; O'Donovan, M; Burke, J L; Berry, D P

    2018-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the phenotypic inter- and intra-relationships within and among alternative feed efficiency metrics across different stages of lactation and parities; the expected effect of genetic selection for feed efficiency on the resulting phenotypic lactation profiles was also quantified. A total of 8,199 net energy intake (NEI) test-day records from 2,505 lactations on 1,290 cows were used. Derived efficiency traits were either ratio based or residual based; the latter were derived from least squares regression models. Residual energy intake (REI) was defined as NEI minus predicted energy requirements based on lactation performance; residual energy production (REP) was defined as net energy for lactation minus predicted energy requirements based on lactation performance. Energy conversion efficiency was defined as net energy for lactation divided by NEI. Pearson phenotypic correlations among traits were computed across lactation stages and parities, and the significance of the differences was determined using the Fisher r-to-z transformation. Sources of variation in the feed efficiency metrics were investigated using linear mixed models, which included the fixed effects of contemporary group, breed, parity, stage of lactation, and the 2-way interaction of parity by stage of lactation. With the exception of REI, parity was associated with all efficiency and production traits. Stage of lactation, as well as the 2-way interaction of parity by stage of lactation, were associated with all efficiency and production traits. Phenotypic correlations among the efficiency and production traits differed not only by stage of lactation but also by parity. For example, the strong phenotypic correlation between REI and energy balance (EB; 0.89) for cows in parity 3 or greater and early lactation was weaker for parity 1 cows at the same lactation stage (0.81), suggesting primiparous cows use the ingested energy for both milk production

  1. Net zero water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lindeque, M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Is it possible to develop a building that uses a net zero amount of water? In recent years it has become evident that it is possible to have buildings that use a net zero amount of electricity. This is possible when the building is taken off...

  2. SolNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Ulrike; Vajen, Klaus; Bales, Chris

    2014-01-01

    SolNet, founded in 2006, is the first coordinated International PhD education program on Solar Thermal Engineering. The SolNet network is coordinated by the Institute of Thermal Engineering at Kassel University, Germany. The network offers PhD courses on solar heating and cooling, conference...

  3. Kunstige neurale net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørning, Annette

    1994-01-01

    Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse.......Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse....

  4. 76 FR 81793 - Net Worth Standard for Accredited Investors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... of ``accredited investor'' in our Securities Act rules to exclude the value of a person's primary... amendments, exclusion of the value of the primary residence would reduce the investor's net worth by the same... Proposing Release, we believe that reducing an investor's net worth by the value of the primary residence...

  5. Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book chapter describes the taxonomic classification of Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV). Included are: host, genome, classification, morphology, physicochemical and physical properties, nucleic acid, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, geographic range, phylogenetic properties, biologic...

  6. Bioassay Guided Chromatographic Isolation Of Lactation Inducing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2014-01-07

    Jan 7, 2014 ... et al, 1977). These nutrients include carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and minerals (Hurley, 1998). Lactogenesis is the term meaning the initiation of lactation. Lactation is the process of functional differentiation which mammary tissue undergoes when changing from a non-lactating to a lactating stage.

  7. Ovarian responses to lactation management strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soede, N.M.; Hazeleger, W.; Gerritsen, R.; Langendijk, P.; Kemp, B.

    2009-01-01

    A number of lactation management strategies can be applied to reduce negative effects of lactation on post-weaning fertility. This paper focuses on effects of lactation length, Intermittent Suckling and Split Weaning on follicle development and subsequent oestrus. It is concluded that a lactation

  8. Chronic oral lactate supplementation does not affect lactate disappearance from blood after exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouns, F; Fogelholm, M; Van Hall, Gerrit

    1995-01-01

    they drank an oral lactate or a maltodextrin (placebo) supplement twice a day. The lactate drink contained 10 g of lactate as calcium, sodium, and potassium salts. Blood lactate concentrations were studied before, during, and immediately after three exercise tests, both pre- and posttreatment. Peak lactate...

  9. Diminution in energy expenditure during lactation.

    OpenAIRE

    Illingworth, P J; Jung, R. T.; Howie, P W; P; Leslie; Isles, T E

    1986-01-01

    Energy expenditure at rest and in response to a meal and to an infusion of noradrenaline was measured in 12 lactating women and compared with that in seven bottle feeding women and seven non-pregnant, non-lactating controls. The energy response of the lactating women was remeasured after lactation stopped. During lactation the resting metabolic rate was unaltered but there was a reduced response to infusion of noradrenaline and to a meal, which increased to normal control values after lactati...

  10. Increased myocardial lactate oxidation in lambs with aortopulmonary shunts at rest and during exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beaufort-Krol, GCM; Takens, J; Molenkamp, MC; Smid, GB; Meuzelaar, KJ; Zijlstra, WG; Kuipers, JRG

    1998-01-01

    Free fatty acids are the major fuels for the myocardium, but during a higher load carbohydrates are preferred. Previously, we demonstrated that myocardial net lactate uptake was higher in lambs with aortopulmonary shunts than in control lambs. To determine whether this was caused by an increased

  11. Estimation of residual energy intake for lactating cows using an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwerume, F; Mao, I L

    1992-08-01

    Residual energy intake is defined as the remaining energy from total net energy intake after accounting for all energy uses. Residual energy intake is proposed as a measure of feed efficiency because animal efficiency increases as the proportion of accountable energy intake increases or the residual energy intake decreases. Residual energy intake was estimated for each of 247 Holstein cows, daughters of 127 sires and 226 dams distributed in five herds across the US. Data consisted of daily milk production and net energy intake, biweekly measures of milk components, and BW measures taken at varied intervals throughout a lactation. Average daily net energy intake in a lactation was the dependent variable in a model that contained fixed effects of parity and herd-season subclass; covariates of lactation average daily SCM, metabolic BW, and weight change in a lactation; and random animal effect. From this model, residual energy intake was a sum of animal and residual effects. Partial energy requirements for SCM, maintenance, and weight change estimated for all cows were .54, .15, and 1.52 Mcal/kg, respectively. Heritability estimate for residual energy intake was .016; phenotypic standard deviation was 2.455. The proportion of the phenotypic standard deviation in net energy intake that was due to residual energy was 68%.

  12. Pro NET Best Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, Stephen D

    2011-01-01

    Pro .NET Best Practices is a practical reference to the best practices that you can apply to your .NET projects today. You will learn standards, techniques, and conventions that are sharply focused, realistic and helpful for achieving results, steering clear of unproven, idealistic, and impractical recommendations. Pro .NET Best Practices covers a broad range of practices and principles that development experts agree are the right ways to develop software, which includes continuous integration, automated testing, automated deployment, and code analysis. Whether the solution is from a free and

  13. Getting to Net Zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-01

    The technology necessary to build net zero energy buildings (NZEBs) is ready and available today, however, building to net zero energy performance levels can be challenging. Energy efficiency measures, onsite energy generation resources, load matching and grid interaction, climatic factors, and local policies vary from location to location and require unique methods of constructing NZEBs. It is recommended that Components start looking into how to construct and operate NZEBs now as there is a learning curve to net zero construction and FY 2020 is just around the corner.

  14. Instant Lucene.NET

    CERN Document Server

    Heydt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A step-by-step guide that helps you to index, search, and retrieve unstructured data with the help of Lucene.NET.Instant Lucene.NET How-to is essential for developers new to Lucene and Lucene.NET who are looking to get an immediate foundational understanding of how to use the library in their application. It's assumed you have programming experience in C# already, but not that you have experience with search techniques such as information retrieval theory (although there will be a l

  15. Lactate clearance in cardiorespiratory emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Greco

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Early goal directed therapy has been found to improve prognosis in septic patients, if the therapeutic goal is achieved within the first six hours. The aim of our study is to demonstrate that in patients with acute cardiorespiratory failure, rapid (within 2 hours lactate clearance can help define patients’ prognosis. 67 consecutive patients, admitted to our 16-bed Emergency Medicine ward for acute cardiorespiratory failure (age 75,9 ± 9,8 (APACHE II score 19,0 ± 4,1, were included in the study. Blood lactate concentration was read at admission and after 2, 6 and 24 hours. We evaluated mortality at seven days and the use of orotracheal intubation (patients with negative outcome vs. discharge or transfer to a non-emergency ward with subsequent discharge (patients with negative outcome. Lactate concentration at admission was 4,6 ± 2,5 mmol/l; lactate clearance (% at 2 hours was 40,4 ± 32,1 in patients with a positive outcome and –8,3 ± 5,0 in patients with a negative outcome (p < 0,05. Lactate clearance at 2 hours < 25% is correlated to a negative outcome with an 84,2% sensitivity and a 79,2% specificity. The positive predictive value was 61,5% and the negative predictive value was 92,2%. Systematic lactate clearance monitoring can be used in cases of acute cardiorespiratory insufficiency to identify patients with a high risk of negative outcome. In our study, low clearance at two hours was associated with an increase in mortality and/or the need for orotracheal intubation. Conversely, a clearance at two hours of > 25% in most cases confirms the therapeutic strategy undertaken. Serial evaluation of blood lactate concentration may therefore be useful in guiding treatment strategies.

  16. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Musall, Eike

    2010-01-01

    and identify possible renewable energy supply options which may be considered in calculations. Finally, the gap between the methodology proposed by each organisation and their respective national building code is assessed; providing an overview of the possible changes building codes will need to undergo......The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...... parameters used in the calculations are discussed and the various renewable supply options considered in the methodologies are summarised graphically. Thus, the paper helps to understand different existing approaches to calculate energy balance in Net ZEBs, highlights the importance of variables selection...

  17. PhysioNet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The PhysioNet Resource is intended to stimulate current research and new investigations in the study of complex biomedical and physiologic signals. It offers free...

  18. NetSig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Heiko; Lawrence, Michael S; Chouinard, Candace R

    2018-01-01

    Methods that integrate molecular network information and tumor genome data could complement gene-based statistical tests to identify likely new cancer genes; but such approaches are challenging to validate at scale, and their predictive value remains unclear. We developed a robust statistic (Net......Sig) that integrates protein interaction networks with data from 4,742 tumor exomes. NetSig can accurately classify known driver genes in 60% of tested tumor types and predicts 62 new driver candidates. Using a quantitative experimental framework to determine in vivo tumorigenic potential in mice, we found that Net......Sig candidates induce tumors at rates that are comparable to those of known oncogenes and are ten-fold higher than those of random genes. By reanalyzing nine tumor-inducing NetSig candidates in 242 patients with oncogene-negative lung adenocarcinomas, we find that two (AKT2 and TFDP2) are significantly amplified...

  19. TideNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    query tide data sources in a desired geographic region of USA and its territories (Figure 1). Users can select a tide data source through the Google Map ...select data sources according to the desired geographic region. It uses the Google Map interface to display data from different sources. Recent...Coastal Inlets Research Program TideNet The TideNet is a web-based Graphical User Interface (GUI) that provides users with GIS mapping tools to

  20. Building Neural Net Software

    OpenAIRE

    Neto, João Pedro; Costa, José Félix

    1999-01-01

    In a recent paper [Neto et al. 97] we showed that programming languages can be translated on recurrent (analog, rational weighted) neural nets. The goal was not efficiency but simplicity. Indeed we used a number-theoretic approach to machine programming, where (integer) numbers were coded in a unary fashion, introducing a exponential slow down in the computations, with respect to a two-symbol tape Turing machine. Implementation of programming languages in neural nets turns to be not only theo...

  1. Interaction Nets in Russian

    OpenAIRE

    Salikhmetov, Anton

    2013-01-01

    Draft translation to Russian of Chapter 7, Interaction-Based Models of Computation, from Models of Computation: An Introduction to Computability Theory by Maribel Fernandez. "In this chapter, we study interaction nets, a model of computation that can be seen as a representative of a class of models based on the notion of 'computation as interaction'. Interaction nets are a graphical model of computation devised by Yves Lafont in 1990 as a generalisation of the proof structures of linear logic...

  2. Programming NET 35

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Bestselling author Jesse Liberty and industry expert Alex Horovitz uncover the common threads that unite the .NET 3.5 technologies, so you can benefit from the best practices and architectural patterns baked into the new Microsoft frameworks. The book offers a Grand Tour" of .NET 3.5 that describes how the principal technologies can be used together, with Ajax, to build modern n-tier and service-oriented applications. "

  3. Genetics of alternative definitions of feed efficiency in grazing lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, A M; López-Villalobos, N; McParland, S; Lewis, E; Kennedy, E; O'Donovan, M; Burke, J L; Berry, D P

    2017-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate genetic parameters across lactation for measures of energy balance (EB) and a range of feed efficiency variables as well as to quantify the genetic inter-relationships between them. Net energy intake (NEI) from pasture and concentrate intake was estimated up to 8 times per lactation for 2,481 lactations from 1,274 Holstein-Friesian cows. A total of 8,134 individual feed intake measurements were used. Efficiency traits were either ratio based or residual based; the latter were derived from least squares regression models. Residual energy intake (REI) was defined as NEI minus predicted energy requirements [e.g., net energy of lactation (NEL), maintenance, and body tissue anabolism] or supplied from body tissue mobilization; residual energy production was defined as the difference between actual NEL and predicted NEL based on NEI, maintenance, and body tissue anabolism/catabolism. Energy conversion efficiency was defined as NEL divided by NEI. Random regression animal models were used to estimate residual, additive genetic, and permanent environmental (co)variances across lactation. Heritability across lactation stages varied from 0.03 to 0.36 for all efficiency traits. Within-trait genetic correlations tended to weaken as the interval between lactation stages compared lengthened for EB, REI, residual energy production, and NEI. Analysis of eigenvalues and associated eigenfunctions for EB and the efficiency traits indicate the ability to genetically alter the profile of these lactation curves to potentially improve dairy cow efficiency differently at different stages of lactation. Residual energy intake and EB were moderately to strongly genetically correlated with each other across lactation (genetic correlations ranged from 0.45 to 0.90), indicating that selection for lower REI alone (i.e., deemed efficient cows) would favor cows with a compromised energy status; nevertheless, selection for REI within a holistic

  4. Targeting Astrocytes for Treating Neurological Disorders: Carbon Monoxide and Noradrenaline-Induced Increase in Lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvat, Anemari; Vardjan, Nina; Zorec, Robert

    2017-06-22

    There are at least three reasons why brain astrocytes represent a new target for treating neurological disorders. First, although the human neocortex represents over 80% of brain mass, neurons are outnumbered by non-neuronal cells, including astrocytes, a neuroglial cell type. Second, as in neurons, vesicle-based release of transmitters is present in astrocytes, however with much slower kinetics than in neurons. Third, astrocytes contain glycogen, which can be transformed to L-lactate in glycolysis. L-lactate is considered to be a fuel and a signalling molecule involved in cognition and neuroprotection. The mechanisms of neuroprotection are unclear but may be linked to carbon monoxide, a product of the heme oxygenase, an evolutionarily conserved cellular cytoprotectant. Increased levels of local carbon monoxide arising from heme oxygenase activity may increase L-lactate, but direct measurements of cytosolic L-lactate are lacking. A fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based nanosensor selective for L-lactate was used to monitor cytosolic levels of L-lactate while cultured astrocytes were exposed to carbon monoxide. The results revealed that in astrocytes exposed to carbon monoxide there is no significant increase in L-lactate, however, when noradrenaline, a potent glycogenolytic agent, is applied, cytosolic levels of L-lactate are increased, but strongly attenuated in astrocytes pretreated with carbon monoxide. These first measurements of carbon monoxide-modulated L-lactate levels in astrocytes provide evidence that the L-lactate and heme oxygenase neuroprotective systems may interact. In conclusion, not only the abundance of astrocytes but their signalling capacity using vesicles and metabolites, such as L-lactate, are valid targets for neurological disorders. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. The demands of lactation promote differential regulation of lipid stores in fasting elephant seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Melinda A; Debier, Cathy; Champagne, Cory D; Crocker, Daniel E; Costa, Daniel P

    2016-01-01

    Fasting animals must ration stored reserves appropriately for metabolic demands. Animals that experience fasting concomitant with other metabolically demanding activities are presented with conflicting demands of energy conservation and expenditure. Our objective was to understand how fasting northern elephant seals regulate the mobilization of lipid reserves and subsequently milk lipid content during lactation. We sampled 36 females early and 39 at the end of lactation. To determine the separate influences of lactation from fasting, we also sampled fasting but non-lactating females early and late (8 and 6 seals, respectively) in their molting fasting period. Mass and adiposity were measured, as well as circulating non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), triacylglycerol (TAG), cortisol, insulin and growth hormone levels. Milk was collected from lactating females. Milk lipid content increased from 31% in early to 51% in late lactation. In lactating females plasma NEFA was positively related to cortisol and negatively related to insulin, but in molting seals, only variation in cortisol was related to NEFA. Milk lipid content varied with mass, adiposity, NEFA, TAG, cortisol and insulin. Surprisingly, growth hormone concentration was not related to lipid metabolites or milk lipid. Suppression of insulin release appears to be the differential regulator of lipolysis in lactating versus molting seals, facilitating mobilization of stored lipids and maintenance of high NEFA concentrations for milk synthesis. Milk lipid was strongly impacted by the supply of substrate to the mammary gland, indicating regulation at the level of mobilization of lipid reserves. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. L-lactate utilization by dairy goats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, N.R.

    1984-01-01

    Three Toggenberg goats were used to investigate utilization of L-lactate as substrate for lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis. Objectives were: (1) to determine the extent lactate could be used for body and milk fat synthesis; (2) to estimate contribution of lactate to glucose synthesis; (3) to assess differences in these measurements during early lactation, mid-lactation and the dry period; and (4) to observe differences in labeling of glycerol and free fatty acid (FFA) fractions in body and milk fat 7 days post-infusion of isotopes. Goats were fed in metabolism crates a 70% concentrate ration in hourly increments to meet individual requirements. After a pulse dose, U-/sup 14/C-lactate (34 uCi/hr) and 6-/sup 3/H-Glucose (100 uCi/hr) was infused via jugular cannula for 8 hours. Blood an milk were sampled hourly beginning 3 and 3.5 hours, respectively, after the pulse dose. Body fat was biopsied after the infusion (Day 0) and one week post-infusion (Day 7). Plasma glucose and lactate concentrations were greater in early 70.4 and 7.7 mg/dl, respectively) compared to mid-lactation (50.8 and 5.9 gm/dl). Mid-lactation and dry period values were similar. Glucose turnover differed for early and mid-lactation and the dry period (141, 86, and 70 mmol/hr, respectively). Percentage of glucose derived from lactate tended to decrease through lactation into the dry period (28% vs 10%). Plasma lactate turnover was greater during lactation as opposed to the dry period (124 and 35 mmol/hr). During early lactation a greater proportion of lactate was incorporated into glucose than during either mid-lactation or the dry period.

  7. Artificial induction of lactation in cattle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Priscila Ribeiro Corradi Freitas; Sandra Gesteira Coelho; Euler Rabelo; Ângela Maria Quintão Lana; Maria Alexandra Torres Artunduaga; Helton Mattana Saturnino

    2010-01-01

    Forty Holstein cows, with previous reproductive problems, empty, at second or more lactations, with an average milk production of 9,200 kg in the previous lactation and a dry period over than 50 days...

  8. LactMed: Drugs and Lactation Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > LactMed LactMed A TOXNET DATABASE Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed) SEARCH LACTMED BROWSE LACTMED ADVANCED SEARCH ... Drug Levels and Effects Summary of Use during Lactation Drug Levels Effects in Breastfed Infants Possible Effects ...

  9. Ivermectin pharmacokinetics in lactating sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerkvenik, V.; Grabnar, V.; Skubic, V.; Doganoc, D.Z.; Beek, W.M.J.; Keukens, H.J.; Kosorok, M.D.; Pogacnik, M.

    2002-01-01

    Ivermectin (IVM) concentrations in plasma and milk were studied in six Istrian Pramenka dairy sheep after a single subcutaneous dose of 0.2 mg/kg b.w. of IVM in the early lactation period to describe IVM disposition in milk and to evaluate the transfer of IVM residues via milk to suckling lambs.

  10. Oxytocin for promoting successful lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renfrew, M J; Lang, S; Woolridge, M

    2000-01-01

    A rise in the concentration of oxytocin causes contraction of cells around the alveoli and milk ducts, in preparation for suckling. Lactation failure may result from insufficient oxytocin. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of using oral or nasal oxytocin on lactation. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register. Randomised and quasi-randomised trials of variable doses of oxytocin and different methods of administration versus placebo in breastfeeding women using oxytocin to augment lactation. Trial quality was assessed and data were extracted by two reviewers. Four trials of 639 women were included. There was potential for significant bias in these trials. Restricted breastfeeding schedules may have contributed to inadequate production of milk by the participants. Sublingual and buccal preparations of oxytocin were associated with an increase in milk production. Oxytocin did not appear to increase the incidence of breast pain and 100 international units of oxytocin appeared to be slightly more beneficial than 10 international units. An appropriate dose of sublingual or buccal oxytocin may help augment lactation where necessary. However if women are encouraged and supported with unrestricted breastfeeding, the need for oxytocin would probably be diminished.

  11. La plataforma .NET

    OpenAIRE

    Fornas Estrada, Miquel

    2008-01-01

    L'aparició de la plataforma .NET Framework ha suposat un canvi molt important en la forma de crear i distribuir aplicacions, degut a que incorpora una sèrie d'innovacions tècniques i productives que simplifiquen molt les tasques necessàries per desenvolupar un projecte. La aparición de la plataforma. NET Framework ha supuesto un cambio muy importante en la forma de crear y distribuir aplicaciones, debido a que incorpora una serie de innovaciones técnicas y productivas que simplifican mucho...

  12. Biological Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Wingender, E

    2011-01-01

    It was suggested some years ago that Petri nets might be well suited to modeling metabolic networks, overcoming some of the limitations encountered by the use of systems employing ODEs (ordinary differential equations). Much work has been done since then which confirms this and demonstrates the usefulness of this concept for systems biology. Petri net technology is not only intuitively understood by scientists trained in the life sciences, it also has a robust mathematical foundation and provides the required degree of flexibility. As a result it appears to be a very promising approach to mode

  13. Phyllodes Tumor in a Lactating Breast

    OpenAIRE

    Murthy, Sudha S.; Raju, K. V. V. N.; Nair, Haripreetha G.

    2016-01-01

    Phyllodes tumor is attributed to a small fraction of primary tumors of the breast. Such tumors occur rarely in pregnancy and lactation. We report a case of a 25-year-old lactating mother presenting with a lump in the left breast. Core needle biopsy was opined as phyllodes tumor with lactational changes, and subsequent wide local excision confirmed the diagnosis of benign phyllodes tumor with lactational changes. The characteristic gross and microscopic findings of a well-circumscribed lesion ...

  14. Modelling extended lactations of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vargas, B.; Koops, W.J.; Herrero, M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2000-01-01

    Nine mathematical models were compared for their ability to predict daily milk yields (n = 294,986) in standard 305-d and extended lactations of dairy cows of Costa Rica. Lactations were classified by parity (first and later), lactation length (9 to 10, 11 to 12, 13 to 14, 15 to 16, and 16 to 17

  15. Petri Nets-Applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 9. Petri Nets - Applications. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 9 September 1999 pp 44-52. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/09/0044-0052. Author Affiliations. Y Narahari ...

  16. Safety nets or straitjackets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Does regulation of working hours at national and sector level impose straitjackets, or offer safety nets to employees seeking working time flexibility? This article compares legislation and collective agreements in the metal industries of Denmark, Germany and the USA. The industry has historically...

  17. Coloured Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. This book introduces the constructs of the CPN modelling language and presents the related analysis methods. It provides a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN.

  18. Boom Booom Net Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Yong, Louisa; Dobie, Ian

    1999-01-01

    of an existing Internet radio station; Boom Booom Net Radio. Whilst necessity dictates some use of technology-related terminology, wherever possible we have endeavoured to keep such jargon to a minimum and to either explain it in the text or to provide further explanation in the appended glossary....

  19. Game Theory .net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Mikhael

    2003-01-01

    States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of GameTheory.net is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…

  20. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism...

  1. Exigências em energia e proteína líquida para ovelhas da raça Santa Inês em lactação Net requirement of protein and energy of Santa Inês ewe in lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Gionardoli Texeira Gomes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar as necessidades de proteína e energia líquida de ovelhas em lactação submetidas a dois manejos nutricionais na gestação e dois tipos de gestação. Os ensaios experimentais foram conduzidos nas instalações do Laboratório de Metabolismo e Calorimetria Animal do Departamento de Zootecnia da Escola de Veterinária da UFMG. Foram utilizadas 28 ovelhas da raça Santa Inês, em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado em arranjo fatorial 2x2, e considerou-se dois tipos de gestação (simples e gemelar e dois tipos de manejo nutricional (com e sem restrição. As ovelhas eram colocadas sobre plataforma e contidas para realização da ordenha. Para análise dos dados referentes às semanas em lactação utilizou-se o modelo de medidas repetidas no tempo. Os grupos experimentais foram avaliados mediante utilização do teste SNK a 5% de significância. A produção de leite não foi afetada pelo manejo nutricional, bem como a quantidade de gordura, proteína, energia e as necessidades em energia e proteína. Portanto, ficou evidenciado neste estudo que somente o manejo nutricional não foi capaz de alterar as variáveis estudadas. Ovelhas com gestação dupla apresentaram maior produção de leite, maiores teores de gordura e proteína no leite bem como maior valor energético do mesmo. As necessidades em energia e proteína foram maiores para ovelhas com gestação dupla. A produção de leite e as necessidades em energia e proteína foram maiores até a décima semana de lactação. A exigência nutricional em energia e proteína acompanhou a curva de produção de leite.This study aimed to obtain the protein and liquid energy requirements from lactating ewes under two nutritional managements during pregnancy and under two types of pregnancy. Experimental tests were conducted at the Animal Metabolism and Calorimetry Laboratory on Department of Animal Science from Veterinary School of UFMG. For the

  2. C# 4, ASP.NET 4, and WPF, with Visual Studio 2010 jump start

    CERN Document Server

    Nagel, Christian; Stephens, Rod; Hanselman, Scott; Glynn, Jay; Rader, Devin; Watson, Karli; Skinner, Morgan

    2010-01-01

    This Wrox Blox is a value-packed resource to help experienced .NETdevelopers learn the new .NET release. It is excerpted from theWrox books: Professional C# 4 and .NET 4, Professional ASP.NET4, and WPF Programmer's Reference by Christian Nagel,Bill Evjen, Scott Hanselman, and Rod Stephens, and includes morethan 100 print book pages drawn from these three key titles. It isan excellent resource to help .NET developers get up to speed faston .NET 4, C# 4.0, ASP.NET 4, and WPF, providing all theinformation needed to program with the important new features,including: C# Dynamic Types and Par

  3. L-Lactate protects neurons against excitotoxicity: implication of an ATP-mediated signaling cascade

    KAUST Repository

    Jourdain, P.

    2016-02-19

    Converging experimental data indicate a neuroprotective action of L-Lactate. Using Digital Holographic Microscopy, we observe that transient application of glutamate (100 μM; 2 min) elicits a NMDA-dependent death in 65% of mouse cortical neurons in culture. In the presence of L-Lactate (or Pyruvate), the percentage of neuronal death decreases to 32%. UK5099, a blocker of the Mitochondrial Pyruvate Carrier, fully prevents L-Lactate-mediated neuroprotection. In addition, L-Lactate-induced neuroprotection is not only inhibited by probenicid and carbenoxolone, two blockers of ATP channel pannexins, but also abolished by apyrase, an enzyme degrading ATP, suggesting that ATP produced by the Lactate/Pyruvate pathway is released to act on purinergic receptors in an autocrine/paracrine manner. Finally, pharmacological approaches support the involvement of the P2Y receptors associated to the PI3-kinase pathway, leading to activation of KATP channels. This set of results indicates that L-Lactate acts as a signalling molecule for neuroprotection against excitotoxicity through coordinated cellular pathways involving ATP production, release and activation of a P2Y/KATP cascade.

  4. Muscle lactate metabolism in recovery from intense exhaustive exercise: impact of light exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangsbo, J; Graham, T; Johansen, L; Saltin, B

    1994-10-01

    This study examined the effect of low-intensity exercise on lactate metabolism during the first 10 min of recovery from high-intensity exercise. Subjects exercised (61.0 +/- 5.4 W) one leg to exhaustion (approximately 3.5 min), and after 1 h of rest they performed the same exhaustive exercise with the other leg. For one leg the intense exercise was followed by rest [passive (P) leg], and for the other leg the exercise was followed by a 10-min period with low-intensity exercise at a work rate of 10 W [active (A) leg]. The muscle lactate concentration after the intense exercise was the same in the P and A legs, but after 10 min of recovery, the lactate concentration and the arterial blood lactate level were higher for the P leg than for the A leg (both P O2 consumption during 10 min of recovery was 440 and 750 ml for the P and A legs, respectively. The present data suggest that a lowered blood lactate level during active recovery is due to an elevated muscle lactate metabolism and is not caused by a transient higher release of lactate from the exercising muscles coupled with greater uptake in other tissues.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Breast pain in lactating mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, S Sf

    2016-08-01

    The number of new mothers who breastfeed has increased dramatically over the last three decades. There is a concern that the present related medical service may be inadequate. Breast pain is the most common complaint among lactating mothers who seek medical help. This study aimed to investigate this problem. Medical records of women who presented with breast pain to a private clinic run by a doctor who was trained as an International Lactation Consultant were reviewed over a period of 6 months in 2015. Most patients were self-referred after chatting online. Assessment included characteristics and duration of pain, treatment prior to consultation, feeding practices, mother's diet, and breast examination. Any site of blockage was identified and relieved. Those with persistent pain were given antibiotics. When there were signs of abscess or abscess that could not be drained, they were referred to a breast surgeon. A total of 69 patients were seen of whom 45 had been breastfeeding for more than 1 month. Pain was experienced for longer than 7 days in 22 women. Antifungal or antibacterial treatment had been unsuccessful in 31 women prior to consultation. The diagnoses were engorgement in five women, blocked duct in 35, mastitis in 13, breast abscess in six, poor positioning and latch in seven, nipple cracks in two, and skin infection in one. Oral antibiotics were prescribed to 21 patients and local antifungal treatment was given to one patient only. Blocked duct was the most common cause of breast pain in lactating mothers. Without prompt relief it is possible that it will progress to mastitis/breast abscess or the mother may discontinue breastfeeding. This may be a suitable time for Hong Kong to set up one or more public full-time breastfeeding clinics to provide a better service to lactating mothers and to facilitate professional training and research.

  6. Effect of adding a gonadotropin-releasing-hormone treatment at the beginning and a second prostaglandin F2α treatment at the end of an estradiol-based protocol for timed artificial insemination in lactating dairy cows during cool or hot seasons of the year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M H C; Wiltbank, M C; Barbosa, L F S P; Costa, W M; Carvalho, M A P; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2015-02-01

    Our hypothesis was that fertility could be increased in a timed artificial insemination (TAI) protocol based on estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) by combining GnRH with E2-benzoate at the start of the protocol to increase circulating P4 during preovulatory follicle development and by using 2 prostaglandin F2α (PGF) treatments at the end to decrease P4 near TAI. Lactating Holstein cows (n=1,808) were randomly assigned during the cool or hot season of the year to receive TAI (d 0) following 1 of 3 treatments: (1) control: controlled internal drug-release insert + 2mg of E2-benzoate on d -11, PGF on d -4, controlled internal drug-release insert withdrawal + 1.0mg of E2-cypionate on d -2, and TAI on d 0; (2) 2PGF: identical to control protocol with addition of a second PGF treatment on d -2; (3) GnRH: identical to 2PGF protocol with addition of a 100-μg GnRH treatment on d -11. Pregnancy diagnoses were performed on d 32 and 60 after TAI. Season had major effects on many reproductive measures, with cool season greater than hot season in percentage of cows with corpus luteum (CL) at PGF (62.9 vs. 56.2%), ovulatory follicle diameter (15.7 vs. 14.8mm), expression of estrus (86.7 vs. 79.9%), ovulation following the protocol (89.7 vs. 84.3%), and pregnancies per artificial insemination (P/AI; 45.4 vs. 21.4%). The GnRH protocol increased percentage of cows with CL (control=56.9%; 2PGF=55.8%; GnRH=70.5%) and P4 at PGF (control=3.28±0.22; 2PGF=3.35±0.22; GnRH=3.70±0.21ng/mL), compared with control and 2PGF protocols. The GnRH protocol increased P/AI at the pregnancy diagnosis at 32d [37.3% (219/595)] and 60d [31% (179/595)] after TAI, compared with control [30.0% (177/604); 25.1% (145/604)], with intermediate results with 2PGF protocol [33.2% (196/609); 28.0% (164/609)]. The positive effects of GnRH treatment on P/AI were only detected during the cool season (GnRH=50.9%; 2PGF=44.2%; control=41.0%) and not during the hot season. In addition, the effect of GnRH was only

  7. Food Safety Nets:

    OpenAIRE

    Haggblade, Steven; Diallo, Boubacar; Staatz, John; Theriault, Veronique; Traoré, Abdramane

    2013-01-01

    Food and social safety nets have a history as long as human civilization. In hunter gatherer societies, food sharing is pervasive. Group members who prove unlucky in the short run, hunting or foraging, receive food from other households in anticipation of reciprocal consideration at a later time (Smith 1988). With the emergence of the first large sedentary civilizations in the Middle East, administrative systems developed specifically around food storage and distribution. The ancient Egyptian...

  8. Using WordNet for Building WordNets

    CERN Document Server

    Farreres, X; Farreres, Xavier; Rodriguez, Horacio; Rigau, German

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarises a set of methodologies and techniques for the fast construction of multilingual WordNets. The English WordNet is used in this approach as a backbone for Catalan and Spanish WordNets and as a lexical knowledge resource for several subtasks.

  9. Absorption and Intermediary Metabolism of Purines and Pyrimidines in Lactating Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Stentoft; Røjen, Betina Amdisen; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2015-01-01

    /h), purine BS (0·0023–0·018 mmol/h), purine DP (7·0–7·8 mmol/h), pyrimidine NS (0·30–2·8 mmol/h) and pyrimidine DP (0·047–0·77 mmol/h). The hepatic removal of purine and pyrimidine was almost equivalent to the net PDV release, resulting in no net TSP release. One exception was uric acid (7·9 mmol/h) from...... which a large net TSP release originated from the degradation of purine NS and BS. A small net TSP release of the pyrimidine DP β-alanine and β-aminoisobutyric acid ( − 0·032 to 0·37 mmol/h) demonstrated an outlet of N into the circulating N pool. No effect of time relative to feeding was observed (P>0...

  10. Proof nets for lingusitic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moot, R.C.A.

    2002-01-01

    This book investigates the possible linguistic applications of proof nets, redundancy free representations of proofs, which were introduced by Girard for linear logic. We will adapt the notion of proof net to allow the formulation of a proof net calculus which is soundand complete for the

  11. Teaching Tennis for Net Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Bryce

    1989-01-01

    A program for teaching tennis to beginners, NET (Net Easy Teaching) is described. The program addresses three common needs shared by tennis students: active involvement in hitting the ball, clearing the net, and positive reinforcement. A sample lesson plan is included. (IAH)

  12. Net4Care Ecosystem Website

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius; Rasmussen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    is a tele-monitoring scenario in which Net4Care clients are deployed in a gateway in private homes. Medical devices then connect to these gateways and transmit their observations to a Net4Care server. In turn the Net4Care server creates valid clinical HL7 documents, stores them in a national XDS repository...

  13. Lactate Transport and Receptor Actions in Retina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolko, Miriam; Vosborg, Fia; Henriksen, Jens Ulrik Lütken

    2016-01-01

    In retina, like in brain, lactate equilibrates across cell membranes via monocarboxylate transporters and in the extracellular space by diffusion, forming a basis for the action of lactate as a transmitter of metabolic signals. In the present paper, we argue that the lactate receptor GPR81, also......, such as excitability, metabolism and inflammation. Recent publications predict effects of the lactate receptor on neurodegeneration. Neurodegenerative diseases in retina, where the retinal ganglion cells die, notably glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy, may be linked to disturbed lactate homeostasis. Pilot studies...... reveal high GPR81 mRNA in retina and indicate GPR81 localization in Müller cells and retinal ganglion cells. Moreover, monocarboxylate transporters are expressed in retinal cells. We envision that lactate receptors and transporters could be useful future targets of novel therapeutic strategies to protect...

  14. Master Robotic Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Lipunov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the MASTER-Net project is to produce a unique fast sky survey with all sky observed over a single night down to a limiting magnitude of 19-20. Such a survey will make it possible to address a number of fundamental problems: search for dark energy via the discovery and photometry of supernovae (including SNIa, search for exoplanets, microlensing effects, discovery of minor bodies in the Solar System, and space-junk monitoring. All MASTER telescopes can be guided by alerts, and we plan to observe prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts synchronously in several filters and in several polarization planes.

  15. Art/Net/Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik; Lindstrøm, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    The seminar Art|Net|Work deals with two important changes in our culture. On one side, the network has become essential in the latest technological development. The Internet has entered a new phase, Web 2.0, including the occurrence of as ‘Wiki’s’, ‘Peer-2-Peer’ distribution, user controlled...... the praxis of the artist. We see different kinds of interventions and activism (including ‘hacktivism’) using the network as a way of questioning the invisible rules that govern public and semi-public spaces. Who ‘owns’ them? What kind of social relationships do they generate? On what principle...

  16.  NET and NETosis – new phenomenon in immunology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Matoszka

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available  Neutrophils are one of the first cells of the immune system recruited to the site of infection, representing the host’s most effective and numerous front-line defenders. Recently, a novel antimicrobial mechanism of neutrophils has been described: upon activation, they release DNA and a subset of their granule content, forming neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs. These extracellular, chromatin structures, which contain histones and neutrophil granule proteins, can trap and kill a broad spectrum of microbes, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, protozoa and viruses. Some of the pathogens, which are trapped and exposed to high local concentrations of antimicrobial compounds, employ strategies against NET binding, including surface modification and/or degradation of NET by DNases. It has been suggested that NETs are formed during active cell death, recently named NETosis. New data indicate that this novel mechanism of cell death requires interaction between three processes – reactive oxygen species generation, histone citrullination and autophagy – and significantly differs from previously known types of cell death, including apoptosis and necrosis. Moreover, the release of nuclear chromatin was also described for other types of cells – mast cells and eosinophils. Mast cells, like neutrophils, under certain conditions release nuclear chromatin and may undergo a similar active cell death program, while eosinophils release only mitochondrial chromatin, and its release does not lead to the death of these cells.

  17. Efficiency of utilization of dietary energy for milk production in lactating crossbred cattle (Bos Indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashis Saha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted on efficiency of utilization of dietary energy for milk production in lactating crossbred cattle. 18 lactating crossbred cattle of early to mid-lactation, approximate body weight (375.39±23.43 kg, milk yield, parity and stage of lactation were divided into three groups of six animals each and were fed 0, 50 and 100% diammonium phosphate (DAP in the mineral mixture of concentrates for 120 days. The chaffed mixed roughage (berseem + wheat straw and concentrate mixture was fed to supply about nearly 18:82 concentrate to roughage ratio on dry matter basis. Tap water was available to the animals twice daily. A metabolism trial of seven days was conducted at the end of experiment to study digestibility of organic nutrients and balances of energy. DAP did not affect the nutrient intake, body weight changes, digestibility of Dry matter (DM, Crude protein (CP, Ether extract (EE, Crude fiber (CF, Nitrogen free extract (NFE and daily milk yield. It was concluded that the at 46.07 Mcal Gross energy intake level the losses in feces, urine, methane and heat production was 45.82%, 5.40%, 4.31% and 33.01%, respectively, and net energy retention for milk production was 11.43%. The gross efficiency of conversion of metabolic energy ME for milk production was 35.69% and the net efficiency of conversion of ME for milk production was 39.56%.

  18. BREAST INFECTIONS IN NON-LACTATING WOMEN

    OpenAIRE

    AbdelHadi, Maha S.A; Bukharie, Huda A.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Breast infection in lactating mothers is a common entity which in the majority of cases can be explained by ascending infections. However, it has been noticed that the number of non lactating women presenting with breast abscesses is rising. This study attempts to explore the sensitivity pattern of organisms and underlying cause of breast infections in non-lactating women. Materials and Methods: This review was undertaken at King Fahd of the University, Alkhobar, Saudi Arabia betw...

  19. Cerebral Lactate Metabolism After Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patet, Camille; Suys, Tamarah; Carteron, Laurent; Oddo, Mauro

    2016-04-01

    Cerebral energy dysfunction has emerged as an important determinant of prognosis following traumatic brain injury (TBI). A number of studies using cerebral microdialysis, positron emission tomography, and jugular bulb oximetry to explore cerebral metabolism in patients with TBI have demonstrated a critical decrease in the availability of the main energy substrate of brain cells (i.e., glucose). Energy dysfunction induces adaptations of cerebral metabolism that include the utilization of alternative energy resources that the brain constitutively has, such as lactate. Two decades of experimental and human investigations have convincingly shown that lactate stands as a major actor of cerebral metabolism. Glutamate-induced activation of glycolysis stimulates lactate production from glucose in astrocytes, with subsequent lactate transfer to neurons (astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle). Lactate is not only used as an extra energy substrate but also acts as a signaling molecule and regulator of systemic and brain glucose use in the cerebral circulation. In animal models of brain injury (e.g., TBI, stroke), supplementation with exogenous lactate exerts significant neuroprotection. Here, we summarize the main clinical studies showing the pivotal role of lactate and cerebral lactate metabolism after TBI. We also review pilot interventional studies that examined exogenous lactate supplementation in patients with TBI and found hypertonic lactate infusions had several beneficial properties on the injured brain, including decrease of brain edema, improvement of neuroenergetics via a "cerebral glucose-sparing effect," and increase of cerebral blood flow. Hypertonic lactate represents a promising area of therapeutic investigation; however, larger studies are needed to further examine mechanisms of action and impact on outcome.

  20. LactMed-new NLM database on drugs and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasulo, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    LactMed, released in the spring of 2006, is a new peer-reviewed database from the Specialized Information Services division of the National Library of Medicine that is accessible free of charge through the TOXNET suite of databases. As its name indicates, Lact- Med provides information on medicines used during lactation along with data on the levels of these drugs in breast milk and infant blood, the potential effects on the breastfed infants, and possible alternatives to these drugs. doi:10.1300/J115v26n01_05.

  1. Augmentation of luteal function in the lactating ewe after induction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Augmentation of luteal function in the lactating ewe after induction of ovulation with a gonadropin releasing hormone. H.G. Pearson and A.W. Lishman. University of Natal, Pietermarirzbulg 3201, Republic of Sourh Aftica. Received 21 August 1989; accepted 5lu . 1990. Numerous studies have shown thar in the acyclic ewe, ...

  2. The metabolic trinity, glucose-glycogen-lactate, links astrocytes and neurons in brain energetics, signaling, memory, and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienel, Gerald A

    2017-01-10

    Glucose, glycogen, and lactate are traditionally identified with brain energetics, ATP turnover, and pathophysiology. However, recent studies extend their roles to include involvement in astrocytic signaling, memory consolidation, and gene expression. Emerging roles for these brain fuels and a readily-diffusible by-product are linked to differential fluxes in glycolytic and oxidative pathways, astrocytic glycogen dynamics, redox shifts, neuron-astrocyte interactions, and regulation of astrocytic activities by noradrenaline released from the locus coeruleus. Disproportionate utilization of carbohydrate compared with oxygen during brain activation is influenced by catecholamines, but its physiological basis is not understood and its magnitude may be affected by technical aspects of metabolite assays. Memory consolidation and gene expression are impaired by glycogenolysis blockade, and prevention of these deficits by injection of abnormally-high concentrations of lactate was interpreted as a requirement for astrocyte-to-neuron lactate shuttling in memory and gene expression. However, lactate transport was not measured and evidence for presumed shuttling is not compelling. In fact, high levels of lactate used to preserve memory consolidation and induce gene expression are sufficient to shut down neuronal firing via the HCAR1 receptor. In contrast, low lactate levels activate a receptor in locus coeruleus that stimulates noradrenaline release that may activate astrocytes throughout brain. Physiological relevance of exogenous concentrations of lactate used to mimic and evaluate metabolic, molecular, and behavioral effects of lactate requires close correspondence with the normal lactate levels, the biochemical and cellular sources and sinks, and specificity of lactate delivery to target cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Helminth.net: expansions to Nematode.net and an introduction to Trematode.net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, John; Rosa, Bruce A.; Ozersky, Philip; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Zhang, Xu; Bhonagiri-Palsikar, Veena; Tyagi, Rahul; Wang, Qi; Choi, Young-Jun; Gao, Xin; McNulty, Samantha N.; Brindley, Paul J.; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2015-01-01

    Helminth.net (http://www.helminth.net) is the new moniker for a collection of databases: Nematode.net and Trematode.net. Within this collection we provide services and resources for parasitic roundworms (nematodes) and flatworms (trematodes), collectively known as helminths. For over a decade we have provided resources for studying nematodes via our veteran site Nematode.net (http://nematode.net). In this article, (i) we provide an update on the expansions of Nematode.net that hosts omics data from 84 species and provides advanced search tools to the broad scientific community so that data can be mined in a useful and user-friendly manner and (ii) we introduce Trematode.net, a site dedicated to the dissemination of data from flukes, flatworm parasites of the class Trematoda, phylum Platyhelminthes. Trematode.net is an independent component of Helminth.net and currently hosts data from 16 species, with information ranging from genomic, functional genomic data, enzymatic pathway utilization to microbiome changes associated with helminth infections. The databases’ interface, with a sophisticated query engine as a backbone, is intended to allow users to search for multi-factorial combinations of species’ omics properties. This report describes updates to Nematode.net since its last description in NAR, 2012, and also introduces and presents its new sibling site, Trematode.net. PMID:25392426

  4. NETS FOR PEACH PROTECTED CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelia Schettini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the radiometric properties of coloured nets used to protect a peach cultivation. The modifications of the solar spectral distribution, mainly in the R and FR wavelength band, influence plant photomorphogenesis by means of the phytochrome and cryptochrome. The phytochrome response is characterized in terms of radiation rate in the red wavelengths (R, 600-700 nm to that in the farred radiation (FR, 700-800 nm, i.e. the R/FR ratio. The effects of the blue radiation (B, 400-500 nm is investigated by the ratio between the blue radiation and the far-red radiation, i.e. the B/FR ratio. A BLUE net, a RED net, a YELLOW net, a PEARL net, a GREY net and a NEUTRAL net were tested in Bari (Italy, latitude 41° 05’ N. Peach trees were located in pots inside the greenhouses and in open field. The growth of the trees cultivated in open field was lower in comparison to the growth of the trees grown under the nets. The RED, PEARL, YELLOW and GREY nets increased the growth of the trees more than the other nets. The nets positively influenced the fruit characteristics, such as fruit weight and flesh firmness.

  5. Lactate fuels the human brain during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quistorff, Bjørn; Secher, Niels H; Van Lieshout, Johannes J

    2008-01-01

    lactate in proportion to the arterial concentration. Cerebral lactate uptake, together with glucose uptake, is larger than the uptake accounted for by the concomitant O(2) uptake, as reflected by the decrease in cerebral metabolic ratio (CMR) [the cerebral molar uptake ratio O(2)/(glucose+(1/2) lactate...... blockade but not with beta(1)-adrenergic blockade alone. Also, CMR decreases in response to epinephrine, suggesting that a beta(2)-adrenergic receptor mechanism enhances glucose and perhaps lactate transport across the blood-brain barrier. The pattern of CMR decrease under various forms of brain activation...

  6. Modeling extended lactations of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, B; Koops, W J; Herrero, M; Van Arendonk, J A

    2000-06-01

    Nine mathematical models were compared for their ability to predict daily milk yields (n = 294,986) in standard 305-d and extended lactations of dairy cows of Costa Rica. Lactations were classified by parity (first and later), lactation length (9 to 10, 11 to 12, 13 to 14, 15 to 16, and 16 to 17 mo), and calving to conception interval (1 to 2, 3 to 4, 5 to 6, 7 to 8, and 9 to 10 mo). Of the nine models, the diphasic model and lactation persistency model resulted in the best goodness of fit as measured by adjusted coefficient of determination, residual standard deviation, and Durbin-Watson coefficient. All other models showed less accuracy and positively correlated residuals. In extended lactations, models were also fitted using only test-day records before 305 d, which resulted in a different ranking. The diphasic model showed the best prediction of milk yield in standard and extended lactations. We concluded that the diphasic model provided accurate estimates of milk yield for standard and extended lactations. Interpretation of parameters deserves further attention because of the large variation observed. As expected, the calving to conception interval was found to have a negative effect on milk yield for cows with a standard lactation length. In extended lactations, these negative effects of pregnancy on milk yield were not observed.

  7. The Reset Hypothesis: Lactation and Maternal Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuebe, Alison M.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.

    2010-01-01

    For maternal metabolism, pregnancy ends not with delivery, but with weaning. In several recent epidemiological studies, authors have reported an association between duration of breast-feeding and reduced maternal risk of metabolic disease. These findings parallel data from animal models showing favorable changes in metabolism associated with lactation. During gestation, visceral fat accumulates, and insulin resistance and lipid and triglyceride levels increase. These changes appear to reverse more quickly, and more completely, with lactation. In this article, we review animal and human studies regarding the effects of lactation on adiposity, lipid, and glucose homeostasis. We hypothesize that lactation plays an important role in “resetting” maternal metabolism after pregnancy. PMID:19031350

  8. Blood lactate level in Elite boy swimmers after lactate tolerance exercise test

    OpenAIRE

    Asghar Nikseresht; Iman Yabande; Karamatollah Rahmanian; Abdolreza Sotoodeh Jahromi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: To avoid injuries during high-intensity sports training, it is important to recognize conditions of bodily consumption and production of adequate energy; exercise increases the concentration of the blood lactate. This paper is an attempt to compare pre and post lactate tolerance exercise test - blood lactate concentrations - of elite boy swimmers. Methods: Blood lactates are measured by an enzymatic method on 12 subjects 30 minutes before and adjust and 24 hours after the t...

  9. Renal lactate elimination is maintained during moderate exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volianitis, Stefanos; Dawson, Ellen A; Dalsgaard, Mads

    2012-01-01

    Reduced hepatic lactate elimination initiates blood lactate accumulation during incremental exercise. In this study, we wished to determine whether renal lactate elimination contributes to the initiation of blood lactate accumulation. The renal arterial-to-venous (a-v) lactate difference was dete...

  10. METABOLISM OF PREGNANT-LACTATING RATS IS ADAPTED TO PREGNANCY RATHER THAN TO LACTATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIJKSTRA, S; MOES, H; KOITER, TR

    1992-01-01

    In pregnant-lactating rats implantation was induced on day 4 of lactation so that, as an exception, lactation coincided with the period of high fetal growth. The already present suckling litters of these animals lagged behind in growth, but the "second" litters were at birth normal in size and

  11. Ramadan fasting, pregnancy and lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Khoshniat Nikoo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fasting and malnutrition during pregnancy is associated with deleterious consequences such as hypoglycemia, ketonemia, impaired fetal IQ, low birth weight and even abortion. Comparison of pregnancy length and year duration shows that about 75% of pregnancies coincided with Ramadan. Also, fasting during Ramadan is not equivalent to hunger and malnutrition, however, knowledge of the effects of Ramadan fasting on pregnancy outcome is important. In this review, the results of all studies related to the possible effects of Ramadan fasting in pregnancy and lactation have been collected. Material and Methods: Keywords such as "Ramadan", "Ramadan Fasting", "Islamic Fasting", "Fasting in Ramadan "and Fasting with words Pregnancy, Birth Weight, Lactation, Preterm, Milk Composition, Breast Milk were searched in PubMed Database, SID (Scientific Information Database, and some regional journals and 40 related articles (descriptive cross - sectional, cohort, clinical trial and review articles from 1968 to 2010 were studied. Results: Based on available information, if the maternal nutrition during Ramadan is good, the normal process of pregnancy will be maintained and Ramadan fasting would not have deleterious effects on fetal physical and mental growth. Conclusion: Considering nutritional tips, nursing mothers could also fast during Ramadan.

  12. Influence of complement on neutrophil extracellular trap release induced by bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Lisa Joanne; Damgaard, Christian; Holmstrup, Palle

    2016-01-01

    . viscosus, there was no enhancement of NET release induced by F. nucleatum. The serum-mediated enhancement of NET release by A. actinomycetemcomitans was neutralized by heat inactivation of serum complement, while this was not the case for S. aureus. Blockade of CR1, significantly reduced NET release......Background and Objectives Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) release has generally been studied in the absence of serum, or at low concentrations of untreated or heat-inactivated serum. The influence of serum complement on NET release therefore remains unclear. We examined the DNA release induced...... by Staphylococcus aureus and three oral bacteria: Actinomyces viscosus, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. vincettii. Material and Methods Bacteria-stimulated NET release from the neutrophils of healthy donors was measured fluorometrically. Various complement containing...

  13. Lactate production yield from engineered yeasts is dependent from the host background, the lactate dehydrogenase source and the lactate export

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valli Minoska

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic pathway manipulation for improving the properties and the productivity of microorganisms is becoming a well established concept. For the production of important metabolites, but also for a better understanding of the fundamentals of cell biology, detailed studies are required. In this work we analysed the lactate production from metabolic engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells expressing a heterologous lactate dehydrogenase (LDH gene. The LDH gene expression in a budding yeast cell introduces a novel and alternative pathway for the NAD+ regeneration, allowing a direct reduction of the intracellular pyruvate to lactate, leading to a simultaneous accumulation of lactate and ethanol. Results Four different S. cerevisiae strains were transformed with six different wild type and one mutagenised LDH genes, in combination or not with the over-expression of a lactate transporter. The resulting yield values (grams of lactate produced per grams of glucose consumed varied from as low as 0,0008 to as high as 0.52 g g-1. In this respect, and to the best of our knowledge, higher redirections of the glycolysis flux have never been obtained before without any disruption and/or limitation of the competing biochemical pathways. Conclusion In the present work it is shown that the redirection of the pathway towards the lactate production can be strongly modulated by the genetic background of the host cell, by the source of the heterologous Ldh enzyme, by improving its biochemical properties as well as by modulating the export of lactate in the culture media.

  14. The equivalency between logic Petri workflow nets and workflow nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue

    2015-01-01

    Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented.

  15. Lactation as a model for naturally reversible hypercorticalism plasticity in the mechanisms governing hypothalamo-pituitary- adrenocortical activity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, D; Patchev, V K; Hellbach, S; Hassan, A H; Almeida, O F

    1995-01-01

    Steady state levels of hypothalamic expression of the genes encoding corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), proopiomelanocortin (POMC), arginine vasopressin (AVP), and oxytocin (OT) were studied in rats to investigate the mechanisms underlying the transitions between hypercorticalism during lactation and normocorticalism upon weaning. During lactation, CRH mRNA levels and blood titers of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) were found to be significantly reduced, although POMC mRNA levels in the anterior pituitary were not significantly different from those found in cycling virgin (control) rats; during all phases of lactation, an inverse relationship was observed between the blood levels of ACTH and corticosterone (CORT). Plasma prolactin (PRL) concentrations were elevated approximately 30-fold during lactation. Whereas steady state levels of OT mRNA were markedly increased throughout lactation, those of AVP mRNA were only transiently (initially) elevated, and the blood levels of these hormones were not significantly altered in lactating as compared with cycling virgin and postlactating rats. CRH and POMC gene expression and blood levels of ACTH, CORT, and PRL were normalized within 1-3 d of removal of suckling pups. The temporal relationships between the biosynthetic profiles of the various peptide hormones and the patterns of ACTH and CORT secretion during the two physiological states suggest that lactation-associated hypercorticalism does not merely result from increased ACTH secretion; although still not well substantiated at this time, the evidence points to contributory roles of PRL, OT, and AVP in the hypercorticalismic state found during lactation. Images PMID:7657793

  16. L-Lactate Protects Skin Fibroblasts against Aging-Associated Mitochondrial Dysfunction via Mitohormesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Zelenka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A moderate elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS production and a mild inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory chain have been associated with a health promotion and a lifespan extension in several animal models of aging. Here, we tested whether this phenomenon called mitohormesis could be mediated by L-lactate. The treatment with 5 mM L-lactate significantly increased H2O2 production and slightly inhibited the respiration in cultured skin fibroblasts and in isolated mitochondria. The L-lactate exposure was associated with oxidation of intracellular glutathione, phosphorylation of 5′AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, and induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α (PGC1α transcription. A replicative aging of fibroblasts (L0 with a constant (LC, or intermittent 5 mM L-lactate (LI in media showed that the high-passage LI fibroblasts have higher respiration, lower H2O2 release, and lower secretion of L-lactate compared to L0 and LC. This protection against mitochondrial dysfunction in LI cells was associated with lower activity of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1, less signs of cellular senescence, and increased autophagy compared to L0 and LC. In conclusion, we demonstrated that intermittent but not constant exposure to L-lactate triggers mitohormesis, prevents aging-associated mitochondrial dysfunction, and improves other markers of aging.

  17. Entamoeba histolytica induces human neutrophils to form NETs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura-Juarez, J; Campos-Esparza, Mr; Pacheco-Yepez, J; López-Blanco, J A; Adabache-Ortíz, A; Silva-Briano, M; Campos-Rodríguez, R

    2016-08-01

    Entamoeba histolytica invades the intestine and other organs during the pathogenesis of amoebiasis. In the early stages, the host organism responds with an inflammatory infiltrate composed mostly of neutrophils. It has been reported that these immune cells, activated by E. histolytica, exert a protective role by releasing proteolytic enzymes and generating reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) and antimicrobial peptides. It is now known that neutrophils also produce neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which are able to damage and kill pathogens. Studies have shown that intracellular protozoan pathogens, including Toxoplasma gondi, Plasmodium falciparum and Leishmania spp, induce neutrophils to release NETs and are damaged by them. However, the action of this mechanism has not been explored in relation to E. histolytica trophozoites. Through scanning electron, epifluorescence microscopy and viability assays, we show for first time that during in vitro interaction with E. histolytica trophozoites, human neutrophils released NETs that covered amoebas and reduced amoebic viability. These NETs presented histones, myeloperoxidase and decondensed chromatin. The results suggest that NETs participate in the elimination of the parasite. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    studies that illustrate the practical use of CPN modelling and validation for design, specification, simulation, verification and implementation in various application domains. Their presentation primarily aims at readers interested in the practical use of CPN. Thus all concepts and constructs are first......Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism...... and the immense number of possible execution sequences. In this textbook, Jensen and Kristensen introduce the constructs of the CPN modelling language and present the related analysis methods in detail. They also provide a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN by showcasing selected industrial case...

  19. Invited review: Carryover effects of early lactation feeding on total lactation performance in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carina; Spörndly, R; Bertilsson, J

    2016-01-01

    In comparison with the intensive research on the direct effects of energy supply on dairy cow lactation performance, little attention has been paid to the effect of early lactation feeding on subsequent production. The present paper reviews 9 studies carried out with the aim of quantifying...... the immediate and subsequent responses in milk production and body weight to early lactation feeding. Most results showed that a more generous feeding in early lactation caused a positive carryover effect on subsequent production, whereas an inadequate level of feed in early lactation has been shown to reduce...

  20. effect of hippocratea obtusifolia extracts on lactation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... hormones), mammary tissue from most state of non- lactating mammary gland can be made to undergo ... substance that promotes lactation in humans and other animals (Gabay, 2002). It may be synthetic, .... occurs in some part of West African countries like. Nigeria, Niger, Senegal and Cameroon.

  1. Comparison and evaluation of mathematical lactation curve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    Abstract. Describing lactation in mammals using a lactation curve aims to provide a concise summary of the pattern of milk yield and valuable information about the biological and economic efficiency of the animal or herd under consideration. A total of 106 581 monthly test-day milk records collected from 12 677 Tehran.

  2. Comparison and evaluation of mathematical lactation curve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison and evaluation of mathematical lactation curve functions of Iranian primiparous Holsteins. ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... The suitability of seven mathematical models (with three, four and five parameters) for describing the 305-day milk yield lactation curve of Holstein cows, were examined in this ...

  3. Maternal treatment with dexamethasone during lactation alters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increased glucocorticoid levels may affect serum electrolyte levels and the architecture of the adrenal cortex. This study was designed to investigate the effects of maternal treatment with dexamethasone during lactation on serum electrolytes and structure of the adrenal gland. Methods: Twenty lactating dams were divided ...

  4. Lactate biosensors: current status and outlook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rassaei, Liza; Olthuis, Wouter; Tsujimura, Seiya; Sudhölter, Ernst J.R.; Sudholter, Ernst; van den Berg, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Many research efforts over the last few decades have been devoted to sensing lactate as an important analytical target in clinical care, sport medicine, and food processing. Therefore, research in designing lactate sensors is no longer in its infancy and now is more directed toward viable sensors

  5. The quality of lactation studies including antipsychotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummels, Hazel; Bertholee, Daphne; van der Meer, Douwe; Smit, Jan Pieter; Wilffert, Bob; ter Horst, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the quality of lactation studies that investigated antipsychotics in breast milk according to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and International Lactation Consultant Association (ILCA) draft guidelines. We used the draft FDA and ILCA guidelines to review

  6. Breast conditions during pregnancy and lactation: An understanding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breast conditions during pregnancy and lactation: An understanding of unique breast conditions associated with pregnancy and lactation is essential for evaluation and management of breast problems in pregnant or lactating women.

  7. Isotopic tracers for net primary productivity for a terrestrial esocystem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The coupling effect of vapour release and CO2 uptake during photosynthesis plays an important role in the carbon and hydrologic cycles. The water use efficiency (WUE) for transpiration was used in calculating the net primary productivity (NPP) for terrestrial ecosystem. Three parameters were used in calculating the water ...

  8. EPICS release 3.11 specific documentation -- EPICS release notes for 3.11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-01-19

    EPICS release 3.11 is now ready for user testing. A person who wants to set up a simplified application environment to boot an IOC and create databases using R3.11 should follow the directions in Appendix B, page 27, of the EPICS Source/Release Control Manual, Sept. 20, 1993. The R3.11 EPICS path at ANL/APS is /net/phebos/epics/R3.11 so the command to get the new release is /net/phebos/epics/R3.11/Unix/share/bin/getrel /net/phebos/epics/R3.11. An existing R3.8 short form report can be copied to this new directory and used to create a database. ANL/APS is currently testing an Application Developers Source/Release control system. It is not yet ready for general distribution. Attached are the EPICS R3.11 release notes.

  9. Lactate oxidation in human skeletal muscle mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Robert A; Meinild, Anne-Kristine; Nordsborg, Nikolai B

    2013-01-01

    Lactate is an important intermediate metabolite in human bioenergetics and is oxidized in many different tissues including the heart, brain, kidney, adipose tissue, liver, and skeletal muscle. The mechanism(s) explaining the metabolism of lactate in these tissues, however, remains unclear. Here, we...... analyze the ability of skeletal muscle to respire lactate by using an in situ mitochondrial preparation that leaves the native tubular reticulum and subcellular interactions of the organelle unaltered. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained from vastus lateralis muscle in 16 human subjects. Samples were...... of four separate and specific substrate titration protocols, the respirometric analysis revealed that mitochondria were capable of oxidizing lactate in the absence of exogenous LDH. The titration of lactate and NAD(+) into the respiration medium stimulated respiration (P = 0.003). The addition...

  10. Genetic parameters of estimated net energy efficiencies for milk production, maintenance, and body weight change in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttazzoni, L; Mao, I L

    1989-03-01

    Net efficiencies of converting intake energy into energy for maintenance, milk production, and body weight change in a lactation were estimated for each of 79 Holstein cows by a two-stage multiple regression model. Cows were from 16 paternal half-sib families, which each had members in at least two of the six herds. Each cow was recorded for milk yield, net energy intake, and three efficiency traits. These were analyzed in a multitrait model containing the same 14 fixed subclasses of herd by season by parity and a random factor of sires for each of the five traits. Restricted maximum likelihood estimates of sire and residual (co)variance components were obtained by an expectation maximization algorithm with canonical transformations. Between milk yield and net energy intake, net energy efficiencies for milk yield, maintenance, and body weight change, the estimated phenotypic correlations were .36, -.02, .08, and -.06, while the genetic correlations were .92, .56, .02, and -.32, respectively. Both genetic and phenotypic correlations were zero between net energy efficiency of maintenance and that of milk yield and .17 between net energy efficiency of body weight change and that of milk yield. The estimated genetic correlation between net efficiency for lactation and milk yield is approximately 60% of that between gross efficiency and milk yield. With a heritability of .32 equivalent.49, net energy efficiency for milk yield may be worth consideration for genetic selection in certain dairy cattle populations.

  11. Linear Logic on Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn

    This article shows how individual Petri nets form models of Girard's intuitionistic linear logic. It explores questions of expressiveness and completeness of linear logic with respect to this interpretation. An aim is to use Petri nets to give an understanding of linear logic and give some apprai...

  12. Reference Guide Microsoft.NET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee M van der; Verspaij GJ; Rosbergen S; IMP; NMD

    2003-01-01

    Developers, administrators and managers can get more understanding of the .NET technology with this report. They can also make better choices how to use this technology. The report describes the results and conclusions of a study of the usability for the RIVM of this new generation .NET development

  13. Net neutrality and audiovisual services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.; Nikoltchev, S.

    2011-01-01

    Net neutrality is high on the European agenda. New regulations for the communication sector provide a legal framework for net neutrality and need to be implemented on both a European and a national level. The key element is not just about blocking or slowing down traffic across communication

  14. LTE HetNet Mobility Performance Through Emulation with Commercial Smartphones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Riis; Pedersen, Klaus I.; Lauridsen, Mads

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a laboratory emulation setup for evaluation of Long Term Evolution (LTE) mobility performance in a co-channel heterogeneous network (HetNet). The setup consists of two eNodeB emulators, signal faders and release 9 LTE User Equipment (UE). It is shown how the LTE HetNet ...

  15. A Small Universal Petri Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A. Zaitsev

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A universal deterministic inhibitor Petri net with 14 places, 29 transitions and 138 arcs was constructed via simulation of Neary and Woods' weakly universal Turing machine with 2 states and 4 symbols; the total time complexity is exponential in the running time of their weak machine. To simulate the blank words of the weakly universal Turing machine, a couple of dedicated transitions insert their codes when reaching edges of the working zone. To complete a chain of a given Petri net encoding to be executed by the universal Petri net, a translation of a bi-tag system into a Turing machine was constructed. The constructed Petri net is universal in the standard sense; a weaker form of universality for Petri nets was not introduced in this work.

  16. Managing antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy and lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabers, Anne; Tomson, Torbjörn

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses data on the pharmacokinetics of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in pregnancy and lactation, and the clinical consequences thereof, thus providing a basis for a rational management of AEDs during pregnancy and lactation. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies have confirmed...... of AEDs in pregnancy and during lactation is important to enable optimal treatment. Gestation induced alterations in pharmacokinetics vary with the AED but also between patients and are difficult to predict. Therapeutic drug monitoring is, therefore, advisable during pregnancy and the use...... of the individual patient's optimal prepregnancy drug level is recommended as reference. Breastfeeding is in general safe but needs appropriate observation of the nursing infant....

  17. Lactational mastitis caused by Streptococcus lactarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tena, Daniel; Fernández, Cristina; López-Garrido, Beatriz; Pérez-Balsalobre, Mercedes; Losa, Cristina; Medina-Pascual, María José; Sáez-Nieto, Juan Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Human infections caused by Streptococcus lactarius have not been previously reported. In the present report, we describe a lactational mastitis caused by this organism. The infection occurred in a 28-year-old breast-feeding female, with a 10-days history of moderate pain on the right breast. The patient was cured after antibiotic treatment with levofloxacin for 21 days. Our case shows that S. lactarius should be considered as a cause of lactational mastitis. The introduction of molecular microbiology techniques can be extremely useful for knowing the implication of streptococci in lactational mastitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Lactate versus pH levels in fetal scalp blood during labor--using the Lactate Scout System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundin, Ingeborg Christina Rørbye; Perslev, Anette; Nickelsen, Carsten Nahne Amtoft

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess if lactate measured with the Scout Lactate System is a reliable alternative to pH in intrapartum monitoring of the fetus. METHODS: A prospective study analyzing (1) the correlation between scalp lactate measured by the Scout Lactate System and the Automatic Blood Laboratory...... (ABL), (2) the correlation between lactate and pH measured in scalp blood and (3) the correlation between fetal scalp lactate and umbilical cord SBE. The sensitivity/specificity and positive/negative predictive values of lactate in predicting low pH were analyzed and expressed as Receiver Operating...... Curves (ROC). RESULTS: Lactate measured by the Scout Lactate System and the ABL correlated well (r(2)=0.85). Both lactate and pH were measured in 1009 scalp blood samples. The sensitivity and specificity of lactate ≥ 4.8 mmol/l in predicting a pH

  19. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL in sheep. IV. Analysis of lactation persistency and extended lactation traits in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Mary K

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In sheep dairy production, total lactation performance, and length of lactation of lactation are of economic significance. A more persistent lactation has been associated with improved udder health. An extended lactation is defined by a longer period of milkability. This study is the first investigation to examine the presence of quantitative trait loci (QTL for extended lactation and lactation persistency in sheep. Methods An (Awassi × Merino × Merino single-sire backcross family with 172 ewes was used to map QTL for lactation persistency and extended lactation traits on a framework map of 189 loci across all autosomes. The Wood model was fitted to data from multiple lactations to estimate parameters of ovine lactation curves, and these estimates were used to derive measures of lactation persistency and extended lactation traits of milk, protein, fat, lactose, useful yield, and somatic cell score. These derived traits were subjected to QTL analyses using maximum likelihood estimation and regression analysis. Results Overall, one highly significant (LOD > 3.0, four significant (2.0 Conclusion This study identified ten novel QTL for lactation persistency and extended lactation in sheep, but results suggest that lactation persistency and extended lactation do not have a major gene in common. These results provide a basis for further validation in extended families and other breeds as well as targeting regions for genome-wide association mapping using high-density SNP arrays.

  20. Lactoferrin Suppresses Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Release in Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Koshu; Kamiya, Mako; Urano, Yasuteru; Nishi, Hiroshi; Herter, Jan M; Mayadas, Tanya; Hirohama, Daigoro; Suzuki, Kazuo; Kawakami, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Mototsugu; Kurosawa, Miho; Kagaya, Shinji; Hishikawa, Keiichi; Nangaku, Masaomi; Fujita, Toshiro; Hayashi, Matsuhiko; Hirahashi, Junichi

    2016-08-01

    Neutrophils are central players in the innate immune system. They generate neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which protect against invading pathogens but are also associated with the development of autoimmune and/or inflammatory diseases and thrombosis. Here, we report that lactoferrin, one of the components of NETs, translocated from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane and markedly suppressed NETs release. Furthermore, exogenous lactoferrin shrunk the chromatin fibers found in released NETs, without affecting the generation of oxygen radicals, but this failed after chemical removal of the positive charge of lactoferrin, suggesting that charge-charge interactions between lactoferrin and NETs were required for this function. In a model of immune complex-induced NET formation in vivo, intravenous lactoferrin injection markedly reduced the extent of NET formation. These observations suggest that lactoferrin serves as an intrinsic inhibitor of NETs release into the circulation. Thus, lactoferrin may represent a therapeutic lead for controlling NETs release in autoimmune and/or inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Maternal Buprenorphine Maintenance and Lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Lauren M; Spencer, Nancy; McConnell, Krystle; Velez, Martha; Tuten, Michelle; Harrow, Cheryl A; Jones, Hendrée E; Swortwood, Madeleine J; Barnes, Allan J; Scheidweiler, Karl B; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2016-11-01

    In addition to the well-known benefits of human milk and breastfeeding for the mother and infant, breastfeeding may mitigate neonatal abstinence syndrome severity in prenatally opioid-exposed infants. However, lack of conclusive data regarding the extent of the presence of buprenorphine and active metabolites in human milk makes the recommendation of breastfeeding for buprenorphine-maintained women difficult for many providers. This study seeks to determine the concentrations of buprenorphine and its active metabolites (norbuprenorphine, buprenorphine-glucuronide, and norbuprenorphine-glucuronide) in human milk, maternal plasma, and infant plasma of buprenorphine-maintained women and their infants. Up to 10 buprenorphine-maintained women provided paired breast milk and plasma samples at 2, 3, 4, 14, and 30 days postdelivery, and 9 infants provided plasma samples on day 14 of life. All samples were analyzed via liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to determine concentrations of buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, buprenorphine-glucuronide, and norbuprenorphine-glucuronide by a fully validated method. Concentrations of buprenorphine and metabolites are low in human milk and maternal plasma. Breastfed infant plasma concentrations of buprenorphine were low or undetectable and metabolite concentrations undetectable at 14 days of infant age. There were significant correlations between maternal buprenorphine dose and maternal plasma and human milk buprenorphine concentrations. These data find low concentrations of buprenorphine and metabolites in human milk and lend support to the recommendation for lactation among stable buprenorphine-maintained women. However, the correlation between maternal dose and maternal plasma and human milk buprenorphine concentrations bears further study.

  2. High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    High-level Petri nets are now widely used in both theoretical analysis and practical modelling of concurrent systems. The main reason for the success of this class of net models is that they make it possible to obtain much more succinct and manageable descriptions than can be obtained by means...... of low-level Petri nets - while, on the other hand, they still offer a wide range of analysis methods and tools. The step from low-level nets to high-level nets can be compared to the step from assembly languages to modern programming languages with an elaborated type concept. In low-level nets...... there is only one kind of token and this means that the state of a place is described by an integer (and in many cases even by a boolean). In high-level nets each token can carry a complex information/data - which, e.g., may describe the entire state of a process or a data base. Today most practical...

  3. Mammary nutrient uptake in multiparous sows fed supplementary arginine during gestation and lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Uffe Krogh; Oksbjerg, Niels; Storm, Adam Christian

    2017-01-01

    from d 30 of gestation until weaning on d 28 of lactation and 2) to quantify mammary nutrient uptake in late gestation and in early and at peak lactation. Sows were surgically fitted with indwelling catheters on d 76 ± 2 SEM of gestation. Para-amino hippuric acid (pAH) was infused (3.0 mmol.......03) and net mammary flux (P = 0.01) of Ala were increased in CON sows, while the net flux of most other metabolites (P > 0.05) was unaffected by treatment. The mammary extraction of all essential AA was below 13% in late gestation. The average mammary extraction of essential AA at peak lactation was greatest......, we failed to observe an increased MPF and mammary uptake of AA and energy metabolites in ARG-supplemented sows. The mammary extraction rate of essential AA indicated that AA were not limiting for the mammary glands in late gestation, while Lys and Leu appeared to be the 2 most limiting essential AA...

  4. Lactate and force production in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Michael; Albertsen, Janni; Rentsch, Maria

    2005-01-01

    Lactic acid accumulation is generally believed to be involved in muscle fatigue. However, one study reported that in rat soleus muscle (in vitro), with force depressed by high external K+ concentrations a subsequent incubation with lactic acid restores force and thereby protects against fatigue...... muscle. Three incubation solutions were used: 20 mm Na-lactate (which acidifies internal pH), 12 mm Na-lactate +8 mm lactic acid (which mimics the pH changes during muscle activity), and 20 mm lactic acid (which acidifies external pH more than internal pH). All three solutions improved force in K+-depressed...... development in repetitively stimulated muscle (Na-lactate had a negative effect). It is concluded that although lactate/lactic acid incubation regains force in K+-depressed resting muscle, a similar incubation has no or a negative effect on force development in active muscle. It is suggested...

  5. Regulation of bone mineral loss during lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brommage, R.; Deluca, H. F.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of varyng dietary calcium and phosphorous levels, vitamin D deficiency, oophorectomy, adrenalectomy, and simultaneous pregnancy on bone mineral loss during lactation in rats are studied. The experimental procedures and evaluations are described. The femur ash weight of lactating and nonlactating rats are calculated. The data reveals that a decrease in dietary calcium of 0.02 percent results in an increased loss of bone mineral, an increase in calcium to 1.4 percent does not lessen bone mineral loss, and bone mineral loss in vitamin D deficient rats is independent of calcium levels. It is observed that changes in dietary phosphorous level, oophorectomy, adrenalectomy, and simultaneous pragnancy do not reduce bone mineral loss during lactation. The analysis of various hormones to determine the mechanism that triggers bone mineral loss during lactation is presented.

  6. Lactate production retards, not causes, acidosis: a practical approach for physical education students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.O.C. Silva

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The content of numerous  textbooks  of exercise physiology, biochemistry and even many papers  in the current  literature explain  acidosis  during  intense  exercise by the  production of lactic  acid,  causing the  release  of a proton  with  lactate as the  final product.   However,  lactate  production retards not cause acidosis.  To understand better the importance of training schedules features  and to do a correct interpretation of blood lactate measurements during different kinds of exercise, the goal of this work is to present a practical  approach  carried out with physical education  students that allows the discussion of these concepts with real datas,  breaking  the myth  involving this subject.  Firstly,  the students were conduct to plan different exercise protocols  (continuous versus intermittent where the average speed and blood lactate were measured.  After the exercise protocols done, the students did some correlation among blood lactate, fatigue index and performance  datas.  The results  show that there  is not a clear relationship between blood lactate and fatigue, independently of exercise type that is being considered. By this way, it is possible to build with the students a new view of this polemic subject (blood lactate and fatigue through  a simple practical  approach, helping the students to understand better metabolic aspects  involved with physical exercises.

  7. 21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system. 862... Test Systems § 862.1445 Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system. (a) Identification. A lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system is a device intended to measure the activity of lactate dehydrogenase...

  8. Cerebral lactate production and blood flow in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, O; Gideon, P; Sperling, B

    1992-01-01

    that follows reperfusion. The amount of lactate present in the acute phase reflects the severity of ischemia in the affected region. The lactate level was still above normal in the subacute phase with hyperemia, suggesting lactate production through aerobic glycolysis. Thus, the lactate level in the subacute...... phase probably does not reflect the degree of anaerobic glycolysis in hypoxic neuronal tissue....

  9. Effect of abomasal ferrous lactate infusion on phosphorus absorption in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, X; Knowlton, K F; Dietrich, A D; Duncan, S

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ferrous lactate infusion on postruminal P absorption in lactating dairy cows. Four ruminally cannulated lactating cows were used in a 4×4 Latin square design with 14 d per period. Cows were fed a basal diet containing 0.39% P, providing 100% of the calculated P requirement. On d 8 to 14 of each period, each cow was infused with 0, 200, 500, or 1,250mg of Fe/d in the form of ferrous lactate solution (ferrous lactate in 1L of double-distilled water) into the abomasum. Infusate was formulated to approximate 0, 2, 5, or 12.5mg of Fe/L in drinking water with 100L of water intake/d. Total fecal collection was conducted in the last 4 d of each period to measure nutrient digestion and excretion. Dry matter intake, milk yield, and milk composition were not affected by treatment. Digestibility of DM, NDF, and nitrogen decreased linearly with increasing ferrous lactate infusion. Infusion of ferrous lactate did not affect intake and digestibility of total P, inorganic P, or phytate P. In lactating cows, P absorption was not negatively influenced by abomasally infused ferrous lactate up to 1,250mg of Fe/d. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of the Lactate Plus monitor for plasma lactate concentration measurement in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Carolyn J; Musulin, Sarah E; Hanel, Rita M; Mariani, Christopher L

    2017-01-01

    To compare the Lactate Plus handheld monitor to a reference blood gas analyzer for determining plasma lactate concentrations in canine whole blood. Prospective observational study. University teaching hospital. Ninety-four dogs hospitalized or admitted through the emergency service provided 125 blood samples. Only dogs that required a venous or arterial blood gas evaluation as a part of their diagnostic assessment or ongoing management were included. None. Canine whole blood samples were assayed for plasma lactate concentration with a reference blood gas analyzer and the Lactate Plus monitor. Correlation and Bland-Altman analyses were used to compare results between the 2 methods. A subset of blood samples was repeatedly analyzed with the Lactate Plus to assess monitor precision. Plasma lactate measurements from the Lactate Plus monitor showed excellent correlation with those from the reference analyzer (ρ = 0.98, P 5 mmol/L. The coefficient of variation ranged from 0-26.2% (median, 3.7%) and was <15% for 50/53 samples. The Lactate Plus provides a fast and affordable method to measure plasma lactate concentration in dogs. Results showed excellent agreement with the reference analyzer and precision of the instrument was acceptable. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2016.

  11. Pro asynchronous programming with .NET

    CERN Document Server

    Blewett, Richard; Ltd, Rock Solid Knowledge

    2014-01-01

    Pro Asynchronous Programming with .NET teaches the essential skill of asynchronous programming in .NET. It answers critical questions in .NET application development, such as: how do I keep my program responding at all times to keep my users happy how do I make the most of the available hardware how can I improve performanceIn the modern world, users expect more and more from their applications and devices, and multi-core hardware has the potential to provide it. But it takes carefully crafted code to turn that potential into responsive, scalable applications.With Pro Asynchronous Programming

  12. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André

    2017-08-01

    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  13. Lactate Kinetics during Multiple Set Resistance Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolas Wirtz; Patrick Wahl; Heinz Kleinöder; Joachim Mester

    2014-01-01

    Intensive exercise like strength training increases blood lactate concentration [La]. [La] is commonly used to define the metabolic stress of an exercise and depends on the lactate production, transportation, metabolism, and elimination. This investigation compared multiple set training of different volumes to show the influence of exercise volume on [La]. Ten male subjects performed 3 sets of resistance exercises within 4 separate sessions: Arm Curl with 1 or 2 arms (AC1 or AC2), and Leg Ext...

  14. [Inhibition of lactation with lisuride. CLinical evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereno Coló, J A; Navarrete Horta, M T

    1994-01-01

    Lactation in humans requires the collaboration of neural and endocrine systems. During pregnancy and after parturition prolactin and also sex steroids, corticoids, growth hormone and human placental lactogen are necessary for lactogenesis. In an open, simple and prospective study, 50 women with normal delivery or cesarean section, between 34 and 41 weeks of gestation, were treated with lisuride, 0.2 mg t.i.d. for 14 days in order to inhibit lactation. The arrest of lactation was mandatory for medical reasons and the results were evaluated by changes in breast related with shape, volume, symmetry, coloring, temperature, turgescence, venous appearance, nipple condition, colostrum and lymph nodes increase. Lactation that was already present in 87% of patients in the first exploration 24 hours after delivery was satisfactorily suppressed and also breast pain, engorgement and discomfort caused by milk leakage. None had rebound lactation. 5 patients had light nausea. The dopamine agonist lisuride can be used for primary arrest of lactation with clinical effectiveness and without potential dangerous side effects of hormonal compounds.

  15. [Prevalence of and risk factors for delayed onset of lactation in Chinese lactating women in 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, S; Duan, Y F; Pang, X H; Bi, Y; Wang, J; Zhao, L Y; Yin, S A; Yang, Z Y

    2016-12-06

    Objective: To study the prevalence of delayed onset of lactation (later than 3 days) in lactating women in China and to analyze its influencing factors. Methods: Data were extracted from Chinese National Nutrition and Health Surveillance-Mothers, from mothers with children under 2 years of age (in 2013). A total of 11 178 women who were lactating or had lactated were selected from 55 counties of 30 provinces (excluding the Tibet Autonomous Region) in China, using the multi-stage stratified cluster randomization sampling method. Basic information, including onset of lactation, initiation of breastfeeding, breastfeeding difficulties and breastfeeding knowledge were collected using a questionnaire investigation. The prevalence of delayed onset of lactation were analyzed by the weighted processing of complex sampling from the 6(th) national population census data. A multiple logistic regression was used to analyze the factors associated with delaged onset of lactation. Results: Among 11 178 lactating women, 3 388 had an onset of lactation later than 3 d. The prevalence of delayed onset of lactation was 30.3%. After complex weighting, the prevalence of delayed onset of lactation was 31.2% (95% CI: 25.7%-36.8%) for lactating women in China. Delivery by Caesarean section (OR=1.28, 95%CI: 1.06-1.53) and initiating breastfeeding ≥4 h (OR= 2.34, 95%CI: 1.76-3.11) were the negative factors for delayed onset of lactation. Compared with those living in large cities, lactating women living in medium or small cities (OR=1.39, 95%CI: 1.05-1.84) had a higher risk of delayed onset of lactation. Compared with the lactating women doing housework, the risk of delayed onset of lactation was lower (P<0.05) among those whose occupations were as leaders of Enterprises/Institutions (OR=0.68, 95%CI: 0.47-0.99), in catering and service trades (OR=0.61, 95%CI: 0.43-0.86), in agriculture/forestry/fishery/herdsmen fields (OR=0.65, 95%CI: 0.44-0.96) and who were unemployed (OR= 0.64, 95%CI: 0

  16. Effects of dry period length and dietary energy source on lactation curve characteristics over 2 subsequent lactations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.; Kok, A.; Remmelink, G.J.; Gross, J.J.; Bruckmaier, R.M.; Kemp, B.; Knegsel, Van A.T.M.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of dry period (DP) length and dietary energy source on lactation curve characteristics over 2 subsequent lactations. It also evaluated the relationships of energy balance or metabolic status in early lactation with lactation curve characteristics in dairy cows.

  17. Petri Net Tool Overview 1986

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Feldbrugge, Frits

    1987-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the characteristics of all currently available net based tools. It is a compilation of information provided by tool authors or contact persons. A concise one page overview is provided as well....

  18. Understanding Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salom, Jaume; Widén, Joakim; Candanedo, José

    2011-01-01

    Although several alternative definitions exist, a Net-Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) can be succinctly described as a grid-connected building that generates as much energy as it uses over a year. The “net-zero” balance is attained by applying energy conservation and efficiency measures...... and by incorporating renewable energy systems. While based on annual balances, a complete description of a Net ZEB requires examining the system at smaller time-scales. This assessment should address: (a) the relationship between power generation and building loads and (b) the resulting interaction with the power grid....... This paper presents and categorizes quantitative indicators suitable to describe both aspects of the building’s performance. These indicators, named LMGI - Load Matching and Grid Interaction indicators, are easily quantifiable and could complement the output variables of existing building simulation tools...

  19. PolicyNet Publication System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The PolicyNet Publication System project will merge the Oracle-based Policy Repository (POMS) and the SQL-Server CAMP system (MSOM) into a new system with an Oracle...

  20. KM3NeT

    CERN Multimedia

    KM3NeT is a large scale next-generation neutrino telescope located in the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea, optimized for the discovery of galactic neutrino sources emitting in the TeV energy region.

  1. Net Neutrality: Background and Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilroy, Angele A

    2006-01-01

    .... The move to place restrictions on the owners of the networks that compose and provide access to the Internet, to ensure equal access and nondiscriminatory treatment, is referred to as "net neutrality...

  2. Petri Nets in Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A process language for security protocols is presented together with a semantics in terms of sets of events. The denotation of process is a set of events, and as each event specifies a set of pre and postconditions, this denotation can be viewed as a Petri net. By means of an example we illustrate...... how the Petri-net semantics can be used to prove security properties....

  3. The Economics of Net Neutrality

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, Robert W.; Wallsten, Scott

    2006-01-01

    This essay examines the economics of "net neutrality" and broadband Internet access. We argue that mandating net neutrality would be likely to reduce economic welfare. Instead, the government should focus on creating competition in the broadband market by liberalizing more spectrum and reducing entry barriers created by certain local regulations. In cases where a broadband provider can exercise market power the government should use its antitrust enforcement authority to police anticompetitiv...

  4. Radiation-induced defects in magnesium lactate as ESR dosimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Hassan, G M; Takaki, S

    1999-01-01

    Magnesium lactate (Mg-lactate: (CH sub 3 CH(OH)COO) sub 2 Mg), magnesium lactate doped with lithium lactate (Mg(Li)-lactate) and nominal pure lithium lactate (CH sub 3 CH(OH)COOLi) doped with Mg-lactate (Li(Mg)-lactate) were irradiated by gamma-rays to study radicals for materials of radiation dosimeter with electron spin resonance (ESR). Quartet spectra were ascribed to lactate radicals in Mg-lactate and Li(Mg)-lactate with the spectroscopic splitting factors (g-factor) of 2.0032+-0.004 and 2.0029+-0.004 and the intensity ratio of 1:3:3:1 due to the hyperfine coupling constants of (A/g beta) of 1.92+-0.06 and 1.82+-0.06 mT, respectively. The response to gamma-ray dose and the thermal stability as well as the effect of UV-illumination have been studied to establish this material as an ESR dosimeter. The number of free radicals per 100 eV (G-value) was obtained to be 1.15+-0.32, 1.35+-0.35, 0.46+-0.14 and 0.78+-0.24 for Mg-lactate, Mg(Li)-lactate, Li-lactate and Lie(Mg)-lactate, respectively. Thermoluminescenc...

  5. Use of ionophores in lactating dairy cattle: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, T F; Bagg, R N

    2000-01-01

    Ionophores are feed additives that alter rumen microbial populations through ion transfer across cell membranes. Although ionophores have been used widely in the beef industry for improved feed efficiency and control of coccidiosis, there has been limited use by the dairy industry. In Canada, the label warning prohibiting the use of monensin premix in lactating dairy cattle was removed in June 1996. Following this, in December 1997, a controlled release capsule containing monensin was approved for use in dairy cattle as an aid to prevent subclinical ketosis. Monensin may have several advantages for dairy cattle, including improved energy metabolism, increased milk production, and altered milk components. This literature review was primarily conducted in 1996 by using the Agricola and CAB search databases. Other relevant articles published since the search (up to 1998) have been added. This review will provide practitioners with relevant references in the published literature regarding ionophore use in dairy cattle. It should also give some guidance as to what effects might be anticipated with the use of ionophores in lactating dairy animals. PMID:10816832

  6. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) in sheep. IV. Analysis of lactation persistency and extended lactation traits in sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background In sheep dairy production, total lactation performance, and length of lactation of lactation are of economic significance. A more persistent lactation has been associated with improved udder health. An extended lactation is defined by a longer period of milkability. This study is the first investigation to examine the presence of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for extended lactation and lactation persistency in sheep. Methods An (Awassi × Merino) × Merino single-sire backcross family with 172 ewes was used to map QTL for lactation persistency and extended lactation traits on a framework map of 189 loci across all autosomes. The Wood model was fitted to data from multiple lactations to estimate parameters of ovine lactation curves, and these estimates were used to derive measures of lactation persistency and extended lactation traits of milk, protein, fat, lactose, useful yield, and somatic cell score. These derived traits were subjected to QTL analyses using maximum likelihood estimation and regression analysis. Results Overall, one highly significant (LOD > 3.0), four significant (2.0 lactation persistency and extended lactation did not coincide. This suggests that persistency and extended lactation for the same as well as different milk yield and component traits are not controlled by the same genes. Conclusion This study identified ten novel QTL for lactation persistency and extended lactation in sheep, but results suggest that lactation persistency and extended lactation do not have a major gene in common. These results provide a basis for further validation in extended families and other breeds as well as targeting regions for genome-wide association mapping using high-density SNP arrays. PMID:21693024

  7. Dietary intake of Croatian lactating women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Krešić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional inadequacies during lactation may affect the well-being of both the mother and the infant. For this reason, breast-feeding women usually pay attention to their dietary practice during the breast-feeding period. The aim of this study was to examine changes in dietary intake of Croatian lactating women during six months postpartum. The study sample consisted of 83 lactating women whose diet records were collected at three measurements rounds: at 1 ± 0.25, 3 ± 0.25 and 6 ± 0.25 months postpartum. The mothers´ diets were investigated using two consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls. Energy and nutrient intakes were estimated using a nutritional database. The obtained results have shown that the diet of Croatian lactating women is hypocaloric (65.73 – 79.52 % DRI, p < 0.001 and deficient in magnesium, zinc, vitamins A, B1, B6, D and folate. Also evident was a moderate imbalance in the distribution of energy percentages from macronutrients. During six months postpartum, lactating women continuously decreased food intake resulting in a gradual decrease in energy intake (p < 0.001 and in the intake of all micronutrients. However, during six months postpartum, lactating women increased the share of total fat in energy intake (p = 0.006 and the share of saturated fatty acids (p = 0.048, while the share of monounsaturated fatty acids in total energy intake decreased (p = 0.004. It could be concluded that it is worthwhile to further study the nutritional status of Croatian lactating women during this vulnerable period especially regarding their micronutrients intake in order to achieve the recommended dietary requirements.

  8. 26 CFR 1.904(f)-3 - Allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation of net operating losses and net....904(f)-3 Allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses. For rules relating to the allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses, see § 1.904(g)-3T. ...

  9. 29 CFR 4204.13 - Net income and net tangible assets tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Net income and net tangible assets tests. 4204.13 Section....13 Net income and net tangible assets tests. (a) General. The criteria under this section are that either— (1) Net income test. The purchaser's average net income after taxes for its three most recent...

  10. Design and characterization of a lactate biosensor based on immobilized lactate oxidase onto gold surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, A. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Analisis Instrumental, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Casero, E. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Analisis Instrumental, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Vazquez, L. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (CSIC), C/Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, No 3, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Pariente, F. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Analisis Instrumental, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Lorenzo, E. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Analisis Instrumental, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: encarnacion.lorenzo@uam.es

    2006-01-12

    The design and characterization of a lactate biosensor and its application to the determination of this analyte in wine and beer are described. The biosensor is developed through the immobilization of lactate oxidase (LOx) using two different strategies including direct adsorption and covalent binding. The characterization of the resulting lactate oxidase monolayers was performed in aqueous phosphate buffer solutions using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) techniques. In presence of lactate and using hydroxymethylferrocene as a redox mediator, biosensors obtained by either direct adsorption or by covalent binding exhibit a clear electrocatalytic activity, and lactate could be determined amperometrically at 300 mV versus SSCE. Results obtained under these conditions give a linear current response versus lactate concentration up to 0.3 mM, with a detection limit of 10 {mu}M of lactate and a sensitivity of 0.77 {+-} 0.08 {mu}A mM{sup -1}. Finally, biosensors were applied to the determination of lactate in wine and beer. The results obtained are in good agreement with those obtained by a well-established enzymatic-spectrophotometric assay kit.

  11. Blood lactate level in Elite boy swimmers after lactate tolerance exercise test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Nikseresht

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To avoid injuries during high-intensity sports training, it is important to recognize conditions of bodily consumption and production of adequate energy; exercise increases the concentration of the blood lactate. This paper is an attempt to compare pre and post lactate tolerance exercise test - blood lactate concentrations - of elite boy swimmers. Methods: Blood lactates are measured by an enzymatic method on 12 subjects 30 minutes before and adjust and 24 hours after the test. Results: The mean lactate concentration of 30.35±12.16 mg/dl is observed in swimmers 30 minutes before the test. Swimmers adjust after the test show mean blood lactate concentration of 108.52±18.17 mg/dl that is significantly higher than 30 minutes before the test (p<0.001. Then blood lactate level decreases below baseline level at 24 hours after the test. Conclusion: Blood lactate increases with the test and decreases below baseline within 24 hours after the test.

  12. Renin release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweda, Frank; Friis, Ulla; Wagner, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    The aspartyl-protease renin is the key regulator of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, which is critically involved in salt, volume, and blood pressure homeostasis of the body. Renin is mainly produced and released into circulation by the so-called juxtaglomerular epithelioid cells, located...

  13. Management of hyperthyroidism during pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Fereidoun; Amouzegar, Atieh

    2011-06-01

    Poorly treated or untreated maternal overt hyperthyroidism may affect pregnancy outcome. Fetal and neonatal hypo- or hyper-thyroidism and neonatal central hypothyroidism may complicate health issues during intrauterine and neonatal periods. To review articles related to appropriate management of hyperthyroidism during pregnancy and lactation. A literature review was performed using MEDLINE with the terms 'hyperthyroidism and pregnancy', 'antithyroid drugs and pregnancy', 'radioiodine and pregnancy', 'hyperthyroidism and lactation', and 'antithyroid drugs and lactation', both separately and in conjunction with the terms 'fetus' and 'maternal.' Antithyroid drugs are the main therapy for maternal hyperthyroidism. Both methimazole (MMI) and propylthiouracil (PTU) may be used during pregnancy; however, PTU is preferred in the first trimester and should be replaced by MMI after this trimester. Choanal and esophageal atresia of fetus in MMI-treated and maternal hepatotoxicity in PTU-treated pregnancies are of utmost concern. Maintaining free thyroxine concentration in the upper one-third of each trimester-specific reference interval denotes success of therapy. MMI is the mainstay of the treatment of post partum hyperthyroidism, in particular during lactation. Management of hyperthyroidism during pregnancy and lactation requires special considerations and should be carefully implemented to avoid any adverse effects on the mother, fetus, and neonate.

  14. Accuracy of a Modified Lactate Minimum Test and Reverse Lactate Threshold Test to Determine Maximal Lactate Steady State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Patrick; Manunzio, Christian; Vogt, Florian; Strütt, Sarah; Volmary, Prisca; Bloch, Wilhelm; Mester, Joachim

    2017-12-01

    Wahl, P, Manunzio, C, Vogt, F, Strütt, S, Volmary, P, Bloch, W, and Mester, J. Accuracy of a modified lactate minimum test and reverse lactate threshold test to determine maximal lactate steady state. J Strength Cond Res 31(12): 3489-3496, 2017-This study evaluated the accuracy of a modified lactate minimum test (mLMT), a modified reverse lactate threshold test (mRLT), compared with 2 established threshold concepts (onset of blood lactate accumulation [OBLA] and modified maximal deviation method [mDmax]) to determine power output at maximal lactate steady state (MLSS) in cycling. Nineteen subjects performed an mLMT, mRLT, graded exercise test (100 W start, +20 W every 3 minutes) and 3 or more constant-load tests of 30 minutes to determine power output at MLSS. The mLMT and mRLT both consisted of an initial lactate priming segment, followed by a short recovery phase. Afterward, the initial load of the subsequent incremental or reverse segment was calculated individually and was increased or decreased by 10 W every 90 seconds, respectively. The mean difference to MLSS was +2 ± 7 W (mLMT), +5 ± 10 W (mRLT), +9 ± 21 W (OBLA), and +6 ± 14 W (mDmax). The correlation between power output at MLSS and mLMT was highest (r = 0.99), followed by mRLT (r = 0.98), mDmax (r = 0.95), and OBLA (r = 0.90). Because of the higher accuracy of the mLMT and the mRLT to determine MLSS compared with OBLA and mDmax, we suggest both tests as valid and meaningful concepts to estimate power output at MLSS in one single test in moderately trained to well-trained athletes. Additionally, our modified tests provide anaerobic data and do not require detailed knowledge of the subjects' training status compared with previous LMT or RLT protocols.

  15. Artisanal fishing net float loss and a proposal for a float design solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Tarso Chaves

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Plastic floats from fishing nets are commonly found washed up on beaches in southern Brazil. They are usually broken and show signs of having been repaired. Characteristics of floats and interviews with fishermen suggest two main causes of float loss. First, collisions between active gear, bottom trawl nets for shrimp, and passive gear, drift nets for fish, destroy nets and release fragments of them, including floats. Second, the difficulty with which floats are inserted on the float rope of the nets when they are used near the surface. Floats are inserted to replace damaged or lost floats, or they may be removed if it is desired that the nets be used in deeper waters. Floats may thus be poorly fixed to the cables and lost. Here a new float design that offers greater safety in use and for the replacement of floats is described and tested.

  16. SkyGlowNet as a Vehicle for STEM Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flurchick, K. M.; Craine, E. R.; Culver, R. B.; Deal, S.; Foster, C.

    2013-06-01

    SkyGlowNet is an emerging network of internet-enabled sky brightness meters (iSBM) that continuously record and log sky brightness at the zenith of each network node site. Also logged are time and weather information. These data are polled at a user-defined frequency, typically about every 45 seconds. The data are uploaded to the SkyGlowNet website, initially to a proprietary area where the data for each institution are embargoed for one or two semesters as students conduct research projects with their data. When released from embargo, the data are moved to another area where they can be accessed by all SkyGlowNet participants. Some of the data are periodically released to a public area on the website. In this presentation we describe the data formats and provide examples of both data content and the structure of the website. Early data from two nodes in the SkyGlowNet have been characterized, both quantitatively and qualitatively, by undergraduate students at NCAT. A summary of their work is presented here. These analyses are of utility in helping those new to looking at these data to understand how to interpret them. In particular, we demonstrate differences between effects on light at night and sky brightness due to astronomical cycles, atmospheric phenomena, and artificial lighting. Quantitative characterization of the data includes statistical analyses of parsed segments of the temporal data stream. An attempt is made to relate statistical metrics to specific types of phenomena.

  17. Glycolysis and the significance of lactate in traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keri Linda Carpenter

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In traumatic brain injury (TBI patients, elevation of the brain extracellular lactate concentration and the lactate/pyruvate ratio are well recognised, and are associated statistically with unfavourable clinical outcome. Brain extracellular lactate was conventionally regarded as a waste product of glucose, when glucose is metabolised via glycolysis (Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway to pyruvate, followed by conversion to lactate by the action of lactate dehydrogenase, and export of lactate into the extracellular fluid. In TBI, glycolytic lactate is ascribed to hypoxia or mitochondrial dysfunction, although the precise nature of the latter is incompletely understood. Seemingly in contrast to lactate’s association with unfavourable outcome is a growing body of evidence that lactate can be beneficial. The idea that the brain can utilise lactate by feeding into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle of neurons, first published two decades ago, has become known as the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle hypothesis. Direct evidence of brain utilisation of lactate was first obtained 5 years ago in a cerebral microdialysis study in TBI patients, where administration of 13C-labelled lactate via the microdialysis catheter and simultaneous collection of the emerging microdialysates, with 13C NMR analysis, revealed 13C labelling in glutamine consistent with lactate utilisation via the TCA cycle. This suggests that where neurons are too damaged to utilise the lactate produced from glucose by astrocytes, i.e. uncoupling of neuronal and glial metabolism, high extracellular levels of lactate would accumulate, explaining association between high lactate and poor outcome. An intravenous exogenous lactate supplementation study in TBI patients showed evidence for a beneficial effect judged by surrogate endpoints. Here we review current knowledge about glycolysis and lactate in TBI, how it can be measured in patients, and whether it can be modulated to achieve better

  18. Early lactation production, health, and welfare characteristics of cows selected for extended lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, J O; Mogensen, L; Kristensen, T

    2017-02-01

    Some cows are able to achieve relatively high milk yields during extended lactations beyond 305 d in milk, and farmers may be able to use this potential by selecting the most suitable cows for an extended lactation. However, the decision to postpone insemination has to rely on information available in early lactation. The main objectives of this study were, therefore, to assess the association between the information available in early lactation and the relative milk production of cows on extended lactation, and to investigate if this information can be used to differentiate time of first insemination between cows. Data came from 4 Danish private herds practicing extended lactation in which some cows are selected to have a delayed time of planned first insemination. Average herd size varied from 93 to 157 cows, and milk yield varied from 7,842 to 12,315 kg of energy-corrected milk (ECM) per cow per year across herds. The analysis was based on 422 completed extended lactations (427 ± 87 d), and each lactation was assigned to 1 of 3 (low, medium, and high) milk performance groups (MPG) within parity group within herd based on a standardized lactation yield. For cows in the high MPG, peak ECM yield, and ECM yield at dry off were significantly greater, the relative reduction in milk yield between 60 and 305 d in milk was significantly smaller, and a smaller proportion had a body condition score (scale: 1-5) at dry off of 3.5 or greater compared with cows in low MPG. Previous lactation days in milk at peak ECM yield and ECM yield at dry off were higher, the relative reduction in milk yield between 60 and 305 d in milk was smaller, and the number of inseminations per conception was higher for multiparous cows in high MPG compared with low. Current lactation ECM yield at second and third milk recording were greater for cows in high MPG compared with low. A principal component analysis indicated that variables related to fertility, diseases, and milk yield explained most

  19. Dermatological treatment during pregnancy and lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilianna Kulczycka

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Since wellbeing and health have become fashionable and widespread polypragmasia is popular, adverse drug reactions are a particularly important medical problem. Pregnant women as well as breast-feeding mothers need very particular care from the physician. Treatment during pregnancy or lactation is a more complicated issue not only because it concerns at least two persons, but also because of the many anatomical and functional differences between the adult and fetus or newborn organism. The safety aspects of dermatological treatment during pregnancy and lactation are presented. Both topical and systemic treatment, mainly for bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic dermatoses and acne, alopecia, psoriasis, and autoimmunological processes, are discussed. Moreover, the most recent methods of dermatological treatment are mentioned taking into consideration their safety during pregnancy and lactation. Furthermore, the traditional drug classification made by the United States Food and Drug Administration as well as the most modern division, which is under construction, are presented.

  20. TimeNET Optimization Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Bodenstein

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a novel tool for simulation-based optimization and design-space exploration of Stochastic Colored Petri nets (SCPN is introduced. The working title of this tool is TimeNET Optimization Environment (TOE. Targeted users of this tool are people modeling complex systems with SCPNs in TimeNET who want to find parameter sets that are optimal for a certain performance measure (fitness function. It allows users to create and simulate sets of SCPNs and to run different optimization algorithms based on parameter variation. The development of this tool was motivated by the need to automate and speed up tests of heuristic optimization algorithms to be applied for SCPN optimization. A result caching mechanism is used to avoid recalculations.

  1. Effect of Intramuscular Protons, Lactate, and ATP on Muscle Hyperalgesia in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Nicholas S; Whitley, Phillip E; Sluka, Kathleen A

    2015-01-01

    Chronic muscle pain is a significant health problem leading to disability[1]. Muscle fatigue can exacerbate muscle pain. Metabolites, including ATP, lactate, and protons, are released during fatiguing exercise and produce pain in humans. These substances directly activate purinergic (P2X) and acid sensing ion channels (ASICs) on muscle nociceptors, and when combined, produce a greater increase in neuron firing than when given alone. Whether the enhanced effect of combining protons, lactate, and ATP is the sum of individual effects (additive) or more than the sum of individual effects (synergistic) is unknown. Using a rat model of muscle nociceptive behavior, we tested each of these compounds individually over a range of physiologic and supra-physiologic concentrations. Further, we combined all three compounds in a series of dilutions and tested their effect on muscle nociceptive behavior. We also tested a non-hydrolyzable form of ATP (α,β-meATP) alone and in combination with lactate and acidic pH. Surprisingly, we found no dose-dependent effect on muscle nociceptive behavior for protons, lactate, or ATP when given alone. We similarly found no effect after application of each two-metabolite combination. Only pH 4 saline and α,β-meATP produced hyperalgesia when given alone. When all 3 substances were combined, however, ATP (2.4μm), lactate (10mM), and acidic pH (pH 6.0) produced an enhanced effect greater than the sum of the effects of the individual components, i.e. synergism. α,β me ATP (3nmol), on the other hand, showed no enhanced effects when combined with lactate (10mM) or acidic pH (pH 6.0), i.e. additive. These data suggest that combining fatigue metabolites in muscle produces a synergistic effect on muscle nociception.

  2. Lactate dehydrogenase inhibitors can reverse inflammation induced changes in colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manerba, Marcella; Di Ianni, Lorenza; Govoni, Marzia; Roberti, Marinella; Recanatini, Maurizio; Di Stefano, Giuseppina

    2017-01-01

    The inflammatory microenvironment is an essential component of neoplastic lesions and can significantly impact on tumor progression. Besides facilitating invasive growth, inflammatory cytokines were also found to reprogram cancer cell metabolism and to induce aerobic glycolysis. Previous studies did not consider the possible contribution played in these changes by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). The A isoform of LDH (LDH-A) is the master regulator of aerobic glycolysis; it actively reduces pyruvate and causes enhanced lactate levels in tumor tissues. In cancer cells, lactate was recently found to directly increase migration ability; moreover, when released in the microenvironment, it can facilitate matrix remodeling. In this paper, we illustrate that treatment of human colon adenocarcinoma cells with TNF-α and IL-17, two pro-inflammatory cytokines, modifies LDH activity, causing a shift toward the A isoform which results in increased lactate production. At the same time, the two cytokines appeared to induce features of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in the treated cells, such as reduction of E-cadherin levels and increased secretion of metalloproteinases. Noteworthy, oxamate and galloflavin, two inhibitors of LDH activity which reduce lactate production in cells, were found to relieve the inflammation-induced effects. These results suggest LDH-A and/or lactate as common elements at the cross-road between cancer cell metabolism, tumor progression and inflammation. At present, LDH inhibitors suitable for clinical use are actively searched as possible anti-proliferative agents; our data lead to hypothesize for these compounds a wider potential in anticancer treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of Intramuscular Protons, Lactate, and ATP on Muscle Hyperalgesia in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas S Gregory

    Full Text Available Chronic muscle pain is a significant health problem leading to disability[1]. Muscle fatigue can exacerbate muscle pain. Metabolites, including ATP, lactate, and protons, are released during fatiguing exercise and produce pain in humans. These substances directly activate purinergic (P2X and acid sensing ion channels (ASICs on muscle nociceptors, and when combined, produce a greater increase in neuron firing than when given alone. Whether the enhanced effect of combining protons, lactate, and ATP is the sum of individual effects (additive or more than the sum of individual effects (synergistic is unknown. Using a rat model of muscle nociceptive behavior, we tested each of these compounds individually over a range of physiologic and supra-physiologic concentrations. Further, we combined all three compounds in a series of dilutions and tested their effect on muscle nociceptive behavior. We also tested a non-hydrolyzable form of ATP (α,β-meATP alone and in combination with lactate and acidic pH. Surprisingly, we found no dose-dependent effect on muscle nociceptive behavior for protons, lactate, or ATP when given alone. We similarly found no effect after application of each two-metabolite combination. Only pH 4 saline and α,β-meATP produced hyperalgesia when given alone. When all 3 substances were combined, however, ATP (2.4μm, lactate (10mM, and acidic pH (pH 6.0 produced an enhanced effect greater than the sum of the effects of the individual components, i.e. synergism. α,β me ATP (3nmol, on the other hand, showed no enhanced effects when combined with lactate (10mM or acidic pH (pH 6.0, i.e. additive. These data suggest that combining fatigue metabolites in muscle produces a synergistic effect on muscle nociception.

  4. Intestinal mucosal changes and upregulated calcium transporter and FGF-23 expression during lactation: Contribution of lactogenic hormone prolactin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongdee, Kannikar; Teerapornpuntakit, Jarinthorn; Sripong, Chanakarn; Longkunan, Asma; Chankamngoen, Wasutorn; Keadsai, Chutiya; Kraidith, Kamonshanok; Krishnamra, Nateetip; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol

    2016-01-15

    As the principal lactogenic hormone, prolactin (PRL) not only induces lactogenesis but also enhances intestinal calcium absorption to supply calcium for milk production. How the intestinal epithelium res-ponses to PRL is poorly understood, but it is hypothesized to increase mucosal absorptive surface area and calcium transporter expression. Herein, lactating rats were found to have greater duodenal, jejunal and ileal villous heights as well as cecal crypt depths than age-matched nulliparous rats. Morphometric analyses in the duodenum and cecum showed that their mucosal adaptations were diminished by bromocriptine, an inhibitor of pituitary PRL release. PRL also upregulated calcium transporter expression (e.g., TRPV6 and PMCA1b) in the duodenum of lactating rats. Since excessive calcium absorption could be detrimental to lactating rats, local negative regulator of calcium absorption, e.g., fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23, should be increased. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the upregulation of FGF-23 protein expression in the duodenal and cecal mucosae of lactating rats, consistent with the enhanced FGF-23 mRNA expression in Caco-2 cells. Bromocriptine abolished this lactation-induced FGF-23 expression. Additionally, FGF-23 could negate PRL-stimulated calcium transport across Caco-2 monolayer. In conclusion, PRL was responsible for the lactation-induced mucosal adaptations, which were associated with compensatory increase in FGF-23 expression probably to prevent calcium hyperabsorption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of adrenaline on lactate, glucose, lipid and protein metabolism in the placebo controlled bilaterally perfused human leg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjedsted, J; Buhl, M; Nielsen, S; Schmitz, O; Vestergaard, E T; Tønnesen, E; Møller, N

    2011-08-01

    Adrenaline has widespread metabolic actions, including stimulation of lipolysis and induction of insulin resistance and hyperlactatemia. Systemic adrenaline administration, however, generates a very complex hormonal and metabolic scenario. No studies employing regional, placebo controlled and adrenaline infusion exist. Our study was designed to test the hypothesis that local placebo controlled leg perfusion with adrenaline directly increases local lactate release, stimulates lipolysis, induces insulin resistance and leaves protein metabolism unaffected.   We studied seven healthy volunteers with bilateral femoral vein and artery catheters during 3-h basal and 3-h hyperinsulinemic (0.6 mU kg(-1) min(-1) ) euglycemic clamp conditions. One femoral artery was perfused with saline and the other with adrenaline (0.4 μg min m(-2) ). Lipid metabolism was quantified with [9,10-(3) H] palmitate and amino acid metabolism with (15) N-phenylalanine and lactate and glucose by raw arterio-venous differences.   Femoral vein plasma adrenaline increased ≈eightfold in the perfused leg with unaltered blood flows. Adrenaline perfusion significantly increased local leg lactate release from 0.01 to 0.25 mmol min(-1) per leg, palmitate release in the basal state 11.5-16.9 μmol min(-1) per leg and during the clamp 2.62-8.44 μmol min(-1) per leg. Glucose uptake decreased during the clamp from ≈180 to 30 μmol min(-1) per leg. Phenylalanine kinetics was not affected by adrenaline.   Adrenaline directly increases lactate release and lipolysis and inhibits insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in the perfused human leg. Adrenaline has no direct effects on peripheral amino acid metabolism. Adrenaline-induced lactate release from striated muscle may be an important mechanism underlying hyperlactatemia in the critically ill. © 2011 The Authors. Acta Physiologica © 2011 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  6. Oxytocin release in magnocellular nuclei: neurochemical mediators and functional significance during gestation

    OpenAIRE

    Bealer, Steven L.; Armstrong, William E.; Crowley, William R

    2010-01-01

    When released from dendrites within the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei (intranuclear release) during suckling, oxytocin exerts autocrine and paracrine effects on oxytocin neurons that are necessary for the unique timing and episodic pattern of oxytocin release into the systemic circulation that is characteristic of lactation. Recent reports have shown that stimulation of central noradrenergic and histaminergic receptors are both necessary for intranuclear release of oxytoci...

  7. Implementing NetScaler VPX

    CERN Document Server

    Sandbu, Marius

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow guide with detailed step-by step-instructions on how to implement the different key components in NetScaler, with real-world examples and sample scenarios.If you are a Citrix or network administrator who needs to implement NetScaler in your virtual environment to gain an insight on its functionality, this book is ideal for you. A basic understanding of networking and familiarity with some of the different Citrix products such as XenApp or XenDesktop is a prerequisite.

  8. Net4Care PHMR Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the SimpleClinicalDocument......The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the Simple...

  9. Pro DLR in NET 4

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Chaur

    2011-01-01

    Microsoft's Dynamic Language Runtime (DLR) is a platform for running dynamic languages such as Ruby and Python on an equal footing with compiled languages such as C#. Furthermore, the runtime is the foundation for many useful software design and architecture techniques you can apply as you develop your .NET applications. Pro DLR in .NET 4 introduces you to the DLR, showing how you can use it to write software that combines dynamic and static languages, letting you choose the right tool for the job. You will learn the core DLR components such as LINQ expressions, call sites, binders, and dynami

  10. Hierarchies in Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Peter; Jensen, Kurt; Shapiro, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    The paper shows how to extend Coloured Petri Nets with a hierarchy concept. The paper proposes five different hierarchy constructs, which allow the analyst to structure large CP-nets as a set of interrelated subnets (called pages). The paper discusses the properties of the proposed hierarchy...... constructs, and it illustrates them by means of two examples. The hierarchy constructs can be used for theoretical considerations, but their main use is to describe and analyse large real-world systems. All of the hierarchy constructs are supported by the editing and analysis facilities in the CPN Palette...

  11. [The disease entity of lactate acidosis. 3. Lactate as a metabolic product].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, H

    1977-08-04

    High blood lactate concentrations can be achieved by means of intravenous bicarbonate infusion. Metabolic production of lactic acid in this case is a compensation mechanism for the alcalosis induced by bicarbonate. This metabolic condition is called lactate alcalosis. The meaning and the diagnostic value of the lactate/pyruvate quotient and of excess lactate are discussed. A metabolic increase of the lactate/pyruvate quotient (normal values being 10-20) can be attained during the intravenous application of polyalcohols (like xylitol or sorbitol) or of ethanol. In these cases blood lactate concentration remains approximately normal. The alterations are due to the metabolism of the alcohols predominantly in the cytoplasmic compartment of the hepatocytes. The anion-gap is caused by the fact that the anions are considered only in part. However, the diagnostic value of the anion-gap is only minimum. An increase in the anion-gap with a simultaneous decrease in blood-pH is not significant for a lactate acidosis.

  12. Lactate and Lactate: Pyruvate Ratio in the Diagnosis and Outcomes of Pediatric Acute Liver Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Amy G; Sokol, Ronald J; Hardison, Regina M; Alonso, Estella M; Squires, Robert H; Narkewicz, Michael R

    2017-03-01

    To assess the accuracy of blood lactate and lactate: pyruvate molar ratio (L:P) as a screen for mitochondrial, respiratory chain, or fatty acid oxidation disorders in children with pediatric acute liver failure (PALF); to determine whether serum lactate ≥ 2.5 mmol/L or L:P  ≥ 25 correlated with biochemical variables of clinical severity; and to determine whether lactate or L:P is associated with clinical outcome at 21 days. Retrospective review of demographic, clinical, laboratory, and outcome data for PALF study group participants who had lactate and pyruvate levels collected on the same day. Of 986 participants, 110 had lactate and pyruvate levels collected on the same day. Of the 110, the etiology of PALF was a mitochondrial disorder in 8 (7%), indeterminate in 65 (59%), and an alternative diagnosis in 37 (34%). Lactate, pyruvate, and L:P were similar among the 3 etiologic groups. There was no significant association between the initial lactate or L:P and biochemical variables of clinical severity or clinical outcome at 21 days. A serum lactate ≥ 2.5 mmol/L and/or elevated L:P was common in all causes of PALF, not limited to those with a mitochondrial etiology, and did not predict 21-day clinical outcome. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00986648. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Lactate study using umbilical cord blood: agreement between Lactate Pro hand-held devices with blood gas analyser and evaluation of lactate stability over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tina Y; Reece, Mifanwy; Chua, Seng C

    2013-08-01

    Lactate measurements have become increasingly preferred over pH analysis in the evaluation of fetal acidaemia in labour. In a busy labour ward, often the umbilical cord may be sampled late and as a result yield unreliable lactate values. To investigate the agreement of hand-held device Lactate Pro with a reference method blood gas analyser and evaluate the stability of umbilical cord lactate values over time. Prospective study carried out at elective caesarean section. Sixteen umbilical cords were double clamped immediately after delivery with paired arterial and venous blood samples collected by an independent researcher, at varying time intervals, and processed by two Lactate Pro devices and a reference method blood gas analyser. A significant difference of -0.41 to 0.10 mmol/L was found when different groups of Lactate Pro devices were compared with blood gas analyser at lactate values up to 5.70 mmol/L, with average lactate value of 2.45 mmol/L. Over time, there is progressive rise in lactate samples obtained from the umbilical cord. Lactate Pro devices have a significant difference, but when used in clinical practice on cord blood after delivery, this is unlikely to be meaningful. In intrapartum fetal surveillance, a systematic overestimation might lead to unnecessary intervention. It is possible to retrospectively predict the likely level of lactate at birth in delayed cord samples. © 2013 The Authors ANZJOG © 2013 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  14. Intermittent suckling enables estrus and pregnancy during lactation in sows: Effects of stage of lactation and lactation during early pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, R.; Soede, N.M.; Hazeleger, W.; Langendijk, P.; Dieleman, S.J.; Taverne, M.A.M.; Kemp, B.

    2009-01-01

    Previously we demonstrated that pre-ovulatory LH and post-ovulatory progesterone (P4) concentrations in plasma were low and embryo development was retarded when sows were induced to ovulate during lactation by submitting them to intermittent suckling (IS). The present study investigated whether this

  15. SHORT AND ATYPICAL LACTATIONS IN NILI-RAVI BUFFALOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Khan and H. Z. Chaudhry

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Data on 2704 lactations of 993 Nili-Ravi buffaloes were analyzed to investigate the extent and behavior of short and complete lactations. Lactation milk yield up to 44 weeks was used and lactations with less .than eight weeks of duration were excluded. Fifty nine percent of the lactation records were shorter than 44 weeks. When minimum lactation length was required to be 26 weeks, 11% of lactations did not meet this criterion. Among 2107 lactations of< 308 days duration, reasons of drying were known for 534 lactations (25%. Out of these 31% had mastitis, 16% were shorter because buffaloes had been auctioned while she was in milk, 13% had bad temperament .while the other 40% were short because of reproductive problems and other reasons such as death of calf, old age, disease etc. Lactation curves were different for first and later parities with lactations of different duration. About 10% of lactations were atypical, with first calvers having the highest frequency. Improvement in data recording will help explore lactation length problems mote precisely in future.

  16. Cdc5 influences phosphorylation of Net1 and disassembly of the RENT complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou, Wenying; Azzam, Ramzi; Chen, Susan L; Huddleston, Michael J; Baskerville, Christopher; Charbonneau, Harry; Annan, Roland S; Carr, Steve A; Deshaies, Raymond J

    2002-04-17

    In S. cerevisiae, the mitotic exit network (MEN) proteins, including the Polo-like protein kinase Cdc5 and the protein phosphatase Cdc14, are required for exit from mitosis. In pre-anaphase cells, Cdc14 is sequestered to the nucleolus by Net1 as a part of the RENT complex. When cells are primed to exit mitosis, the RENT complex is disassembled and Cdc14 is released from the nucleolus. Here, we show that Cdc5 is necessary to free nucleolar Cdc14 in late mitosis, that elevated Cdc5 activity provokes ectopic release of Cdc14 in pre-anaphase cells, and that the phosphorylation state of Net1 is regulated by Cdc5 during anaphase. Furthermore, recombinant Cdc5 and Xenopus Polo-like kinase can disassemble the RENT complex in vitro by phosphorylating Net1 and thereby reducing its affinity for Cdc14. Surprisingly, although RENT complexes containing Net1 mutants (Net1(7m) and Net1(19m') lacking sites phosphorylated by Cdc5 in vitro are refractory to disassembly by Polo-like kinases in vitro, net1(7m) and net1(19m') cells grow normally and exhibit only minor defects in releasing Cdc14 during anaphase. However, net1(19m') cells exhibit a synergistic growth defect when combined with mutations in CDC5 or DBF2 (another MEN gene). We propose that although Cdc5 potentially disassembles RENT by directly phosphorylating Net1, Cdc5 mediates exit from mitosis primarily by phosphorylating other targets. Our study suggests that Cdc5/Polo is unusually promiscuous and highlights the need to validate Cdc5/Polo in vitro phosphorylation sites by direct in vivo mapping experiments.

  17. D.NET case study

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    lremy

    developing products, marketing tools and building capacity of the grass root telecentre workers. D.Net recognized that it had several ideas worth developing into small interventions that would make big differences, but resource constraints were a barrier for scaling-up these initiatives. More demands, limited resources.

  18. Surgery for GEP-NETs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, Ulrich; Hansen, Carsten Palnæs

    2012-01-01

    Surgery is the only treatment that may cure the patient with gastroentero-pancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumours (NET) and neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC) and should always be considered as first line treatment if R0/R1 resection can be achieved. The surgical and interventional procedures for GEP...

  19. Net Neutrality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.

    2014-01-01

    The Netherlands is among the first countries that have put specific net neutrality standards in place. The decision to implement specific regulation was influenced by at least three factors. The first was the prevailing social and academic debate, partly due to developments in the United States. The

  20. Complexity Metrics for Workflow Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; van der Aalst, Wil M.P.

    2009-01-01

    Process modeling languages such as EPCs, BPMN, flow charts, UML activity diagrams, Petri nets, etc.\\ are used to model business processes and to configure process-aware information systems. It is known that users have problems understanding these diagrams. In fact, even process engineers and system...

  1. A Proposed Role for Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs in Ewing Sarcoma Cancer Immunoediting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivan eBerger-Achituv

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Upon activation, neutrophils release fibers composed of chromatin and neutrophil proteins termed neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs. NETs trap and kill microbes, activate dendritic cells and T-cells, and are implicated in auto-immune and vascular diseases. Given the growing interest in the role of neutrophils in cancer immunoediting and the diverse function of NETs, we searched for NETs release by tumor associated neutrophils (TANs. Using pediatric Ewing sarcoma (ES as a model, we retrospectively examined histopathological material from diagnostic biopsies of 8 patients (mean ± SD age of 11.5 ± 4.7 years. TANs were found in 6 patients and in 2 of those we identified NETs. These 2 patients presented with metastatic disease and despite entering complete remission after intensive chemotherapy had an early relapse. NETs were not identified in the diagnostic biopsies of 2 patients with localized disease and 2 with metastatic disease. This study is the first to show that TANs in ES are activated to make NETs, pointing to a possible role of NETs in cancer.

  2. Lactate Kinetics during Exercise in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Maltais

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine whether the lactate kinetics during exercise are abnormal in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and to evaluate the relationship of lactate kinetics with functional status.

  3. LactMed: New NLM Database on Drugs and Lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIH LactMed: New NLM Database on Drugs and Lactation Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents For ... free online database with information on drugs and lactation, is one of the newest additions to the ...

  4. Fluorometric determination of d-lactate in biological fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    and methods The present paper introduces an enzymatic-fluorometric method for determination of D-lactate in biological matrices, including blood plasma, serum and urine. Macro molecules, including enzymes, were initially precipitated by ethanol and the supernatant used for analyses. Several plasma samples...... were analysed with and without standard addition of both L- and D-lactate in order to validate the assay. Results and conclusions The procedure effectively eliminates enzyme activities that may interfere with the D-lactate quantification, resulting in the situation that L-lactate in the sample does...... occurring stereoisomer L-lactate. If enzymatic analytical methods are used, it is consequently essential to eliminate the response from L-lactate and the ubiquitous enzyme L-lactate dehydrogenase (L-LDH) (and other oxido-reductases) which will interfere with the D-lactate determination heavily. Design...

  5. Ultrasound imaging of the lactating breast: methodology and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geddes Donna T

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ultrasound imaging has been used extensively to detect abnormalities of the non-lactating breast. In contrast, the use of ultrasound for the investigation of pathology of the lactating breast is limited. Recent studies have re-examined the anatomy of the lactating breast highlighting features unique to this phase of breast development. These features should be taken into consideration along with knowledge of common lactation pathologies in order to make an accurate diagnosis when examining the lactating breast. Scanning techniques and ultrasound appearances of the normal lactating breast will be contrasted to those of the non-lactating breast. In addition ultrasound characteristics of common pathologies encountered during lactation will be described.

  6. Biscuit bran for feeding lactating sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Corassa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Biscuit bran can be alternatively used as a partial or total substitute for conventional ingredients, however, it is necessary to evaluate the impact of its inclusion. Thus, this study aimed at evaluating the inclusion of biscuit bran in diets of lactating sows. A total of 16 lactating sows was used in a completely randomized design, with four treatments and each sow being considered an experimental unit. Treatments consisted of inclusions of 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% of biscuit bran composed by 50% of cream and salt and water crackers and 50% of buttered, chocolate and related biscuits. The weight, weight loss and weight variation, at the end of the lactation period, did not differ statistically for the different biscuit bran inclusion levels. Treatments did not affect the ration consumption, milk yield and bacon thickness of sows or the litter performance. The economic analysis showed better values for diets containing 20% and 30% of biscuit bran. It was concluded that the inclusion of biscuit bran was viable up to 30%, in diets for lactating sows, without affecting the sow and litter performance.

  7. National Survey of Convention Centers' Lactation Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Kristin; Spatz, Diane

    2016-11-01

    There is little published about lactation accommodations in public spaces. The objective of this study was to determine what lactation facilities, if any, convention centers in the United States are providing to accommodate breastfeeding moms. A list of national convention centers was collected from meetings-conventions.com and recorded in an Excel spreadsheet, with the name of the center, total meeting square feet, number of meeting rooms, address, and telephone number. Each convention center was contacted by phone and administered the survey. Questions were asked as to what type of lactation accommodations were available, if any. A response rate of 78.7% (326 of 414 convention centers) was achieved. A mere 5.5% reported permanently designated lactation rooms, whereas 32% made temporary accommodations. While the phone survey was conducted, a wide variety of qualitative responses were provided by participants, demonstrating an overall lack of awareness of this as a public health issue. Return to work and breastfeeding in public are commonly reported barriers to breastfeeding. This survey clearly demonstrates a lack of accommodations in very public areas that are visited by women on a regular basis. Policy changes are necessary so all women can be supported in reaching their personal breastfeeding goals.

  8. 21 CFR 582.5311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ferrous lactate. 582.5311 Section 582.5311 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary...

  9. Pharmacotherapy during pregnancy, childbirth and lactation: points ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pregnancy, childbirth and lactation pose unique challenges in terms of drug therapy. The pregnant mother and her ... to a number of important aspects, which could firstly influence the decision to opt for drug therapy, and secondly, could influence the specific agent selected for ..... with neural tube defects. Phenytoin may.

  10. Pregnancy- and lactation-associated osteoporosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-08-08

    Aug 8, 2012 ... Case Study: Pregnancy- and lactation-associated osteoporosis. 149. 2012 Volume 17 No 3 ... a review of the current knowledge on calcium and vitamin D .... gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia, the risk of preterm deliveries ... during infancy. In many countries, numerous articles have highlighted.

  11. Lactate uptake against a concentration gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Carl-Henrik; Nielsen, Troels Halfeld; Nielsen, Hans Boye

    2014-01-01

    The recently published article by Jalloh et al (Jalloh I, Helmy A, Shannon RJ, Gallagher CN, Menon D, Carpenter K, Hutchinson P. Lactate uptake by the injured human brain - evidence from an arterio-venous gradient and cerebral microdialysis study. J Neurotrauma. 2013 Aug 22. [Epub ahead of print...

  12. Nutritional Guide for Pregnant and Lactating Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelbard, Nancy

    Designed to provide accurate and up-to-date information about nutrition and health, this booklet is centered on the nutritional needs of pregnant and lactating adolescents and on the role of schools and the California State Department of Education in meeting those needs. The first section presents information for pregnant adolescents regarding…

  13. Lactation studies of anticonvulsants : A quality review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Douwe H.; Wieringa, Andre; Wegner, Ilse; Wilffert, Bob; Ter Horst, Peter G.J.

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this review was to investigate the quality of the current literature on the transfer of anticonvulsants to breast milk to provide an overview of which anticonvulsants are in need of further research. METHODS: We reviewed the quality of the available lactation studies for 19

  14. Bioassay Guided Chromatographic Isolation Of Lactation Inducing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extracts were subjected to bioactivity against lactation inducement, and the chloroform extract labeled HO2 was found to be the most active. The HO2 extract was then subjected to column and thin layer chromatography with similar fractions pooled together. The pooled fractions were then subjected to bioactivity testing ...

  15. Adaptations in lipid metabolism of bovine adipose tissue in lactogenesis and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, J P; Hillers, J K

    1986-02-01

    The timing and magnitude of metabolic adaptations in adipose tissue during lactogenesis and lactation were determined in first lactation bovines. In vitro rates of lipogenesis and palmitate esterification were measured to estimate in vivo synthesis. Lipolysis was measured in the basal state and as maximally stimulated by norepinephrine or epinephrine to estimate physiological adaptations as well as the changes in catecholamine responsiveness. Subcutaneous adipose tissue was biopsied at -1, -0.5, +0.5, 1, 2, and 6 months from parturition. From 1 to 0.5 months prepartum there was a 54% reduction in lipogenesis, a 16% reduction in esterification, a 54 and 77% increase in norepinephrine- and epinephrine-stimulated free fatty acid (FFA) release, respectively, and a 28% increase in epinephrine-stimulated glycerol release. The immediate postpartum period (0.5 and 1 month) was marked by a decrease in lipogenesis to 5% and esterification to 50% of -1 month rates. During this period, norepinephrine-stimulated FFA release increased 50% above -1 month rates, epinephrine-stimulated FFA release increased 128%, and norepinephrine- and epinephrine-stimulated glycerol release increased 30 and 87%, respectively. Midlactation (2 and 6 months) was marked by a dramatic rebound in lipogenesis and esterification to 14-fold and 2.5-fold prepartum rates, respectively. Basal glycerol release doubled during this period, while basal FFA release declined to near prepartum levels. Catecholamine-stimulated FFA and glycerol release decreased from the peak during midlactation, but remained elevated compared to prepartum levels.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Hormonal induced lactation in transgenic goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammuso, C; Porter, C; Nims, S; Gaucher, D; Melican, D; Bombard, S; Hawkins, N; O'Coin, A; Ricci, C; Brayman, C; Buzzell, N; Ziomek, C; Gavin, W

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to hormonally induce lactation in prepubertal, nulliparous, and male goats both transgenic and non-transgenic. Analysis of milk quality, recombinant protein expression levels, total amount of recombinant protein produced, and the affect on long-term reproductive capability was assessed. Fifty-one goats (Saanen, Alpine, and Toggenburg), male and non-pregnant females, 2-31 months of age, either non-transgenic or transgenic were evaluated with a total of 10 transgenes (constructs) represented. Animals were given estradiol (0.25 mg/kg, i.m.) and progesterone (0.75 mg/kg, i.m.) on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 and 13, while prednisilone (0.4 mg/kg, i.m.) was administered on days 14-16 with mammary massage occurring daily from day 5 onward. Forty of 51 animals, (36 of 38 females and 4 of 13 males) produced milk with total volumes in the 30-day experiment, ranging from 20 microl to 530 mls per day, or approximately 500 microl to 6.8 liters total. Milk composition was analyzed for various parameters (total protein, fat content, total solids and somatic cell count) with no significant differences found between induced and natural milk. Expression levels of recombinant proteins from transgenic animals that were analyzed during the induced lactation, and subsequently during normal lactations, were found to have no significant differences. Total amount of recombinant protein produced was evaluated at different expression levels with no statistical significance seen. While over 90% of the females placed in the regimen became pregnant, there was a correlation between increased age at time of induction and an increase in number of breedings, or reproductive cycles needed to establish a pregnancy after induction. For males, 100% placed in the regimen settled females after hormonal induction of lactation. Semen quality was evaluated prior to, during, and after hormonal treatments. Semen volume and sperm number did not differ; however, for a small percentage of

  17. Caught in the Net: Perineuronal Nets and Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Slaker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to drugs of abuse induces plasticity in the brain and creates persistent drug-related memories. These changes in plasticity and persistent drug memories are believed to produce aberrant motivation and reinforcement contributing to addiction. Most studies have explored the effect drugs of abuse have on pre- and postsynaptic cells and astrocytes; however, more recently, attention has shifted to explore the effect these drugs have on the extracellular matrix (ECM. Within the ECM are unique structures arranged in a net-like manner, surrounding a subset of neurons called perineuronal nets (PNNs. This review focuses on drug-induced changes in PNNs, the molecules that regulate PNNs, and the expression of PNNs within brain circuitry mediating motivation, reward, and reinforcement as it pertains to addiction.

  18. Self-Powered Electrochemical Lactate Biosensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Baingane

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the development and characterization of a self-powered electrochemical lactate biosensor for real-time monitoring of lactic acid. The bioanode and biocathode were modified with D-lactate dehydrogenase (D-LDH and bilirubin oxidase (BOD, respectively, to facilitate the oxidation and reduction of lactic acid and molecular oxygen. The bioelectrodes were arranged in a parallel configuration to construct the biofuel cell. This biofuel cell’s current–voltage characteristic was analyzed in the presence of various lactic acid concentrations over a range of 1–25 mM. An open circuit voltage of 395.3 mV and a short circuit current density of 418.8 µA/cm² were obtained when operating in 25 mM lactic acid. Additionally, a 10 pF capacitor was integrated via a charge pump circuit to the biofuel cell to realize the self-powered lactate biosensor with a footprint of 1.4 cm × 2 cm. The charge pump enabled the boosting of the biofuel cell voltage in bursts of 1.2–1.8 V via the capacitor. By observing the burst frequency of a 10 pF capacitor, the exact concentration of lactic acid was deduced. As a self-powered lactate sensor, a linear dynamic range of 1–100 mM lactic acid was observed under physiologic conditions (37 °C, pH 7.4 and the sensor exhibited an excellent sensitivity of 125.88 Hz/mM-cm2. This electrochemical lactate biosensor has the potential to be used for the real-time monitoring of lactic acid level in biological fluids.

  19. Northern pike bycatch in an inland commercial hoop net fishery: effects of water temperature and net tending frequency on injury, physiology, and survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colotelo, Alison HA; Raby, Graham D.; Hasler, Caleb T.; Haxton, Tim; Smokorowski, Karen; Blouin-Demers, Gabriel; Cooke, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    In lakes and rivers of eastern Ontario (Canada) commercial fishers use hoop nets to target a variety of fishes, but incidentally capture non-target (i.e., bycatch) gamefish species such as northern pike (Esox lucius). Little is known about the consequences of bycatch in inland commercial fisheries, making it difficult to identify regulatory options. Regulations that limit fishing during warmer periods and that require frequent net tending have been proposed as possible strategies to reduce bycatch mortality. Using northern pike as a model, we conducted experiments during two thermal periods (mid-April: 14.45 ± 0.32 °C, and late May: 17.17 ± 0.08 °C) where fish were retained in nets for 2 d and 6 d. A ‘0 d’ control group consisted of northern pike that were angled, immediately sampled and released. We evaluated injury, physiological status and mortality after the prescribed net retention period and for the surviving fish used radio telemetry with manual tracking to monitor delayed post-release mortality. Our experiments revealed that injury levels, in-net mortality, and post-release mortality tended to increase with net set duration and at higher temperatures. Pike exhibited signs of chronic stress and starvation following retention, particularly at higher temperatures. Total mortality rates were negligible for the 2 d holding period at 14 °C, 14% for 6 d holding at 14 °C, 21% for 2 d holding at 17 °C, and 58% for 6 d holding at 17 °C. No mortality was observed in control fish. Collectively, these data reveal that frequent net tending, particularly at warmer temperatures, may be useful for conserving gamefish populations captured as bycatch in inland hoop net fisheries.

  20. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Army Net Zero Training Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-20

    sensors were strategically placed throughout the installation by magnetically attaching them to water main valve stems. The sensors check sound...Recycle Wrap  Substitutes for Packaging Materials  Re-Use of Textiles and Linens  Setting Printers to Double-Sided Printing Net Zero Waste...can effectively achieve source reduction. Clean and Re-Use Shop Rags - Shop rags represent a large textile waste stream at many installations. As a

  1. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Net Zero Waste Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-20

    Anaerobic Digesters – Although anaerobic digestion is not a new technology and has been used on a large-scale basis in wastewater treatment , the...technology and has been used on a large-scale basis in wastewater treatment , the use of the technology should be demonstrated with other...approaches can be used for cardboard and cellulose -based packaging materials. This approach is in line with the Net Zero Waste hierarchy in terms of

  2. Effect of lisuride on inhibition of lactation and serum prolactin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cecco, L; Venturini, P L; Ragni, N; Rossato, P; Maganza, C; Gaggero, G; Horowski, R

    1979-11-01

    Lisuride, a new semisynthetic ergot derivative, was given to 53 women to inhibit lactation; 26 women had 300 micrograms daily and 27 had 600 micrograms daily for seven days. Eight lactating women acted as controls. Lisuride effectively inhibited lactation and also suppressed the serum prolactin levels; the latter effect was dose related. Lisuride produced no untoward side effects.

  3. Biosensors based on electrochemical lactate detection: A comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Rathee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Lactate detection plays a significant role in healthcare, food industries and is specially necessitated in conditions like hemorrhage, respiratory failure, hepatic disease, sepsis and tissue hypoxia. Conventional methods for lactate determination are not accurate and fast so this accelerated the need of sensitive biosensors for high-throughput screening of lactate in different samples. This review focuses on applications and developments of various electrochemical biosensors based on lactate detection as lactate being essential metabolite in anaerobic metabolic pathway. A comparative study to summarize the L-lactate biosensors on the basis of different analytical properties in terms of fabrication, sensitivity, detection limit, linearity, response time and storage stability has been done. It also addresses the merits and demerits of current enzyme based lactate biosensors. Lactate biosensors are of two main types – lactate oxidase (LOD and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH based. Different supports tried for manufacturing lactate biosensors include membranes, polymeric matrices-conducting or non-conducting, transparent gel matrix, hydrogel supports, screen printed electrodes and nanoparticles. All the examples in these support categories have been aptly discussed. Finally this review encompasses the conclusion and future emerging prospects of lactate sensors.

  4. Interaction of late pregnancy and lactation in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koiter, TR; Moes, H; Valkhof, N; Wijkstra, S

    The effect of pregnancy on lactation was studied during the third week of lactational pregnancy in postpartum pregnant rats with a delay in implantation of only 1 day (1d-LP rats). In an experimental design in which the suckling litter was prevented from consuming solid food, lactational performance

  5. Lactate dehydrogenase in the cyanobacterium Microcystis PCC7806

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moezelaar, R.; Teixeira, de M.J.; Stal, L.J.

    1995-01-01

    The cyanobacterium Microcystis PCC7806 was found to possess an NAD-dependent lactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.27) which catalyzes the reduction of pyruvate to l-lactate. The enzyme required fructose 1,6-bisphosphate for activity and displayed positive cooperativity towards pyruvate. Lactate was not

  6. Characterization of the L-lactate dehydrogenase from Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacie A Brown

    Full Text Available Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen and the proposed causative agent of localized aggressive periodontitis. A. actinomycetemcomitans is found exclusively in the mammalian oral cavity in the space between the gums and the teeth known as the gingival crevice. Many bacterial species reside in this environment where competition for carbon is high. A. actinomycetemcomitans utilizes a unique carbon resource partitioning system whereby the presence of L-lactate inhibits uptake of glucose, thus allowing preferential catabolism of L-lactate. Although the mechanism for this process is not fully elucidated, we previously demonstrated that high levels of intracellular pyruvate are critical for L-lactate preference. As the first step in L-lactate catabolism is conversion of L-lactate to pyruvate by lactate dehydrogenase, we proposed a model in which the A. actinomycetemcomitans L-lactate dehydrogenase, unlike homologous enzymes, is not feedback inhibited by pyruvate. This lack of feedback inhibition allows intracellular pyruvate to rise to levels sufficient to inhibit glucose uptake in other bacteria. In the present study, the A. actinomycetemcomitans L-lactate dehydrogenase was purified and shown to convert L-lactate, but not D-lactate, to pyruvate with a K(m of approximately 150 microM. Inhibition studies reveal that pyruvate is a poor inhibitor of L-lactate dehydrogenase activity, providing mechanistic insight into L-lactate preference in A. actinomycetemcomitans.

  7. Lactate and the injured brain: friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzat, Pierre; Oddo, Mauro

    2014-04-01

    Energy metabolism is increasingly recognized as a key factor in the pathogenesis of acute brain injury (ABI). We review the role of cerebral lactate metabolism and summarize evidence showing that lactate may act as supplemental fuel after ABI. The role of cerebral lactate has shifted from a waste product to a potentially preferential fuel and signaling molecule. According to the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle model, glycolytic lactate might act as glucose-sparing substrate. Lactate also is emerging as a key signal to regulate cerebral blood flow (CBF) and a neuroprotective agent after experimental ABI. Clinical investigation using cerebral microdialysis shows the existence of two main lactate patterns, ischemic - from anaerobic metabolism - and nonischemic, from activated glycolysis, whereby lactate can be used as supplemental energy fuel. Preliminary clinical data suggests hypertonic lactate solutions improve cerebral energy metabolism and are an effective treatment for elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) after ABI. Lactate can be a supplemental fuel for the injured brain and is important to regulate glucose metabolism and CBF. Exogenous lactate supplementation may be neuroprotective after experimental ABI. Recent clinical data from ABI patients suggest hypertonic lactate solutions may be a valid therapeutic option for secondary energy dysfunction and elevated ICP.

  8. Reproductive and lactation performance of crossbred dairy cattle in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was done to evaluate reproductive and lactation performance of crossbred dairy cattle in Kagera region, Tanzania. Traits studied were age at first calving (AFC), calving internal (Cl), lactation milk yield (LMY) and lactation length (LL). Records for the various traits were compiled covering the period between 1979 ...

  9. Does Lactation Mitigate Triple Negative/Basal Breast Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0679 TITLE: DOES LACTATION MITIGATE TRIPLE NEGATIVE/BASAL BREAST CANCER...2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER DOES LACTATION MITIGATE TRIPLE NEGATIVE/BASAL BREAST CANCER PROGRESSION? 5b. GRANT NUMBER...that this protective layer may be maintained by tumors formed during pregnancy lactation cycle, but may be preferentially compromised by tumors

  10. HANPP Collection: Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity (NPP) portion of the Human Appropriation of Net Primary...

  11. Hydrodynamic characteristics of plane netting used for aquaculture net cages in uniform current

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DONG, SHUCHUANG; HU, FUXIANG; KUMAZAWA, TAISEI; SIODE, DAISUKE; TOKAI, TADASHI

    2016-01-01

      The hydrodynamic characteristics of polyethylene (PE) netting and chain link wire netting with different types of twine diameter and mesh size for aquaculture net cages were examined by experiments in a flume tank...

  12. Lactate threshold concepts: how valid are they?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faude, Oliver; Kindermann, Wilfried; Meyer, Tim

    2009-01-01

    During the last nearly 50 years, the blood lactate curve and lactate thresholds (LTs) have become important in the diagnosis of endurance performance. An intense and ongoing debate emerged, which was mainly based on terminology and/or the physiological background of LT concepts. The present review aims at evaluating LTs with regard to their validity in assessing endurance capacity. Additionally, LT concepts shall be integrated within the 'aerobic-anaerobic transition' - a framework which has often been used for performance diagnosis and intensity prescriptions in endurance sports. Usually, graded incremental exercise tests, eliciting an exponential rise in blood lactate concentrations (bLa), are used to arrive at lactate curves. A shift of such lactate curves indicates changes in endurance capacity. This very global approach, however, is hindered by several factors that may influence overall lactate levels. In addition, the exclusive use of the entire curve leads to some uncertainty as to the magnitude of endurance gains, which cannot be precisely estimated. This deficiency might be eliminated by the use of LTs. The aerobic-anaerobic transition may serve as a basis for individually assessing endurance performance as well as for prescribing intensities in endurance training. Additionally, several LT approaches may be integrated in this framework. This model consists of two typical breakpoints that are passed during incremental exercise: the intensity at which bLa begin to rise above baseline levels and the highest intensity at which lactate production and elimination are in equilibrium (maximal lactate steady state [MLSS]). Within this review, LTs are considered valid performance indicators when there are strong linear correlations with (simulated) endurance performance. In addition, a close relationship between LT and MLSS indicates validity regarding the prescription of training intensities. A total of 25 different LT concepts were located. All concepts were

  13. Inter-relationships among alternative definitions of feed efficiency in grazing lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, A M; López-Villalobos, N; McParland, S; Kennedy, E; Lewis, E; O'Donovan, M; Burke, J L; Berry, D P

    2016-01-01

    International interest in feed efficiency, and in particular energy intake and residual energy intake (REI), is intensifying due to a greater global demand for animal-derived protein and energy sources. Feed efficiency is a trait of economic importance, and yet is overlooked in national dairy cow breeding goals. This is due primarily to a lack of accurate data on commercial animals, but also a lack of clarity on the most appropriate definition of the feed intake and utilization complex. The objective of the present study was to derive alternative definitions of energetic efficiency in grazing lactating dairy cows and to quantify the inter-relationships among these alternative definitions. Net energy intake (NEI) from pasture and concentrate intake was estimated up to 8 times per lactation for 2,693 lactations from 1,412 Holstein-Friesian cows. Energy values of feed were based on the French Net Energy system where 1 UFL is the net energy requirements for lactation equivalent of 1kg of air-dry barley. A total of 8,183 individual feed intake measurements were available. Energy balance was defined as the difference between NEI and energy expenditure. Efficiency traits were either ratio-based or residual-based; the latter were derived from least squares regression models. Residual energy intake was defined as NEI minus predicted energy to fulfill the requirements for the various energy sinks. The energy sinks (e.g., NEL, metabolic live weight) and additional contributors to energy kinetics (e.g., live weight loss) combined, explained 59% of the variation in NEI, implying that REI represented 41% of the variance in total NEI. The most efficient 10% of test-day records, as defined by REI (n=709), on average were associated with a 7.59 UFL/d less NEI (average NEI of the entire population was 16.23 UFL/d) than the least efficient 10% of test-day records based on REI (n=709). Additionally, the most efficient 10% of test-day records, as defined by REI, were associated with

  14. VitisNet: "Omics" integration through grapevine molecular networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Grimplet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genomic data release for the grapevine has increased exponentially in the last five years. The Vitis vinifera genome has been sequenced and Vitis EST, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic tools and data sets continue to be developed. The next critical challenge is to provide biological meaning to this tremendous amount of data by annotating genes and integrating them within their biological context. We have developed and validated a system of Grapevine Molecular Networks (VitisNet. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The sequences from the Vitis vinifera (cv. Pinot Noir PN40024 genome sequencing project and ESTs from the Vitis genus have been paired and the 39,424 resulting unique sequences have been manually annotated. Among these, 13,145 genes have been assigned to 219 networks. The pathway sets include 88 "Metabolic", 15 "Genetic Information Processing", 12 "Environmental Information Processing", 3 "Cellular Processes", 21 "Transport", and 80 "Transcription Factors". The quantitative data is loaded onto molecular networks, allowing the simultaneous visualization of changes in the transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome for a given experiment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: VitisNet uses manually annotated networks in SBML or XML format, enabling the integration of large datasets, streamlining biological functional processing, and improving the understanding of dynamic processes in systems biology experiments. VitisNet is grounded in the Vitis vinifera genome (currently at 8x coverage and can be readily updated with subsequent updates of the genome or biochemical discoveries. The molecular network files can be dynamically searched by pathway name or individual genes, proteins, or metabolites through the MetNet Pathway database and web-portal at http://metnet3.vrac.iastate.edu/. All VitisNet files including the manual annotation of the grape genome encompassing pathway names, individual genes, their genome identifier, and chromosome

  15. Isolated unit tests in .Net

    OpenAIRE

    Haukilehto, Tero

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis isolation in unit testing is studied to get a precise picture of the isolation frameworks available for .Net environment. At the beginning testing is discussed in theory with the benefits and the problems it may have been linked with. The theory includes software development in general in connection with testing. Theory of isolation is also described before the actual isolation frameworks are represented. Common frameworks are described in more detail and comparable informa...

  16. Effects of dry period length and dietary energy source on lactation curve characteristics over 2 subsequent lactations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J; Kok, A; Remmelink, G J; Gross, J J; Bruckmaier, R M; Kemp, B; van Knegsel, A T M

    2016-11-01

    This study evaluated the effects of dry period (DP) length and dietary energy source on lactation curve characteristics over 2 subsequent lactations. It also evaluated the relationships of energy balance or metabolic status in early lactation with lactation curve characteristics in dairy cows. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n=167) were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 DP lengths (0-, 30-, or 60-d) and 1 of 2 early-lactation diets (glucogenic or lipogenic) for 2 subsequent lactations. In the second lactation following DP length treatments, 19 cows in the 0-d DP group were assigned to a 0→67-d DP group (actual days dry: 67±8d). Cows were allocated to this new group when they had a milk yield of lactations. Blood samples were taken weekly from calving to wk 4 after calving. A Wilmink lactation curve for each lactation was modeled based on FPCM yield records from calving through 305 DIM. During the first lactation following DP length treatments, cows with a 0- or 30-d DP had lower peak yield, later time of peak yield, and lower FPCM305 than cows with a 60-d DP. In the second lactation following DP length treatments, cows with a 0- or 30-d DP had lower peak yield than cows with a 60-d DP. In both lactations, lactation persistency was not affected by DP length and none of the lactation curve characteristics were affected by diet. In parity >2 cows, total FPCM yield and average daily FPCM yield throughout 2 lactations did not differ among DP lengths. In addition, average energy balance in the first 4wk after calving had a negative relationship with peak yield and FPCM305, and a positive relationship with lactation persistency. Average plasma concentrations of free fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate had a positive relationship with peak yield and FPCM305, and a negative relationship with lactation persistency. Shortening or omitting the DP affected lactation curve characteristics in both lactations after implementation of DP length treatments but did not compromise FPCM yield

  17. Monocarboxylate Transporters and Lactate Metabolism in Equine Athletes: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pösö AR

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Lactate is known as the end product of anaerobic glycolysis, a pathway that is of key importance during high intensity exercise. Instead of being a waste product lactate is now regarded as a valuable substrate that significantly contributes to the energy production of heart, noncontracting muscles and even brain. The recent cloning of monocarboxylate transporters, a conserved protein family that transports lactate through biological membranes, has given a new insight into the role of lactate in whole body metabolism. This paper reviews current literature on lactate and monocarboxylate transporters with special reference to horses.

  18. Lactate Kinetics during Multiple Set Resistance Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Nicolas; Wahl, Patrick; Kleinöder, Heinz; Mester, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Intensive exercise like strength training increases blood lactate concentration [La]. [La] is commonly used to define the metabolic stress of an exercise and depends on the lactate production, transportation, metabolism, and elimination. This investigation compared multiple set training of different volumes to show the influence of exercise volume on [La]. Ten male subjects performed 3 sets of resistance exercises within 4 separate sessions: Arm Curl with 1 or 2 arms (AC1 or AC2), and Leg Extension with 1 or 2 legs (LE1 or LE2). Each set was performed at a standard velocity and at a previously determined 10RM load. Blood lactate samples were taken immediately before and after each set (pre1, post1, pre2, post2, pre3, post3). Maximum [La] was significantly higher after LE2 (6.8 ± 1.6mmol·L(-1)) and significantly lower after AC1 (2.8 ± 0.7mmol·L(-1)) in comparison with the other exercise protocols. There was no difference between AC2 (4.3 ± 1.1mmol·L(-1)) and LE1 (4.4 ± 1.1mmol·L(-1)). Surprisingly, [La] decreased during the 3(rd) set (for AC exercise), and during both the 2(nd) and 3(rd) sets (for LE exercise) and increased only during the recovery phases. In contrast to our expectations, blood [La] decreased during the 2(nd) and 3(rd) exercise sets and further increased only during recovery phases. However, from the increases observed following the first set, we know that lactate was produced and transported to the blood during our exercise protocol. We speculate that lactate is taken up and metabolized by distal muscle fibres or organs. In addition, as the decreases occurred within a short period of time, blood volume shifts and/or the muscle-to-blood gradient may account for the rapid decreases in [La]. Key PointsBlood lactate concentration [La] decreases during the 2(nd) and 3(rd) set of a resistance exercise program of the leg extensor muscles.[La] decreases during the 3(rd) set of a resistance exercise program of the arm flexor muscles.A significant

  19. Mustard bran in lactating dairy cow diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiga, H A; Bauer, M L; Dahlen, C R; Badaruddin, M; Scholljegerdes, E J

    2011-06-01

    Two trials using lactating Holstein cows were conducted to evaluate effects of a diet containing oriental mustard bran on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, milk components, and organoleptic properties. In experiment 1, 34 lactating cows (24 multiparous and 10 primiparous; days in milk ≥ 50 d) were used in a switchback design to determine the lactational response and organoleptic quality of milk when the diet contained 8% oriental mustard bran (MB) versus a control diet (CON). Mustard bran replaced a portion of soybean meal and all the beet pulp in the CON diet. Milk yields were greater for cows fed the MB diet; however, no differences were found in DMI, 3.5% fat- (FCM) or solids-corrected milk. Milk components and components production were not affected by treatment. Milk organoleptic qualities were not affected by diet. In experiment 2, 22 lactating cows (16 multiparous and 6 primiparous; days in milk ≥ 21 d) were assigned randomly within parity to receive MB or CON from wk 4 to 19 postpartum in a randomized complete block design. Cows were fed CON wk 1 to 3 postpartum. The MB diet contained the same ingredients as the CON, except sunflower seed and a portion of soybean meal were replaced with mustard bran. Milk and components data were collected during wk 3 postpartum and used as covariates to adjust treatment means. Intake was greater for cows fed the MB diet; however, daily milk, 3.5% FCM, and solids-corrected milk yields were not different between diets. Milk components and component yields were not affected by treatment. Milk urea concentration was less for cows fed the MB diet. Although cows fed the MB diet had greater DMI, this was not translated into a higher milk 3.5% FCM/DMI production efficiency ratio. During experiment 2, many cows fed MB experienced minor to severe hemolysis with bloody urine. This hemolysis believed to be caused by the S-methyl-cysteine sulfoxide contained in mustard bran could have affected milk production efficiency

  20. Protein release from hippocampus in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, G W; Hofstein, R; Shashoua, V E

    1984-07-02

    Physiologically viable slices of rat hippocampus in vitro continuously release protein into the superfusion medium at a rate of about 2 micrograms/mg tissue/h. Assays of a cytoplasmic marker enzyme (lactate dehydrogenase) indicate that this material is not the result of cell lysis. Pulse-chase experiments using [3H]valine indicate that a substantial fraction of the newly synthesized proteins eventually appear in the incubation medium (18.7% +/- 3% of the total TCA precipitable radioactivity during a 6-h superfusion) and that the releasable protein pool has an apparent half-life of about 4 h. Simultaneous labeling of newly synthetized proteins with [3H]fucose and [14C]valine showed a 3-fold higher ratio of [3H]fucose to [14C]valine in the released protein fraction compared to the soluble cytoplasmic protein and to the crude membrane protein fraction, suggesting that the soluble released proteins are more highly glycosylated than the proteins retained in the tissue. Electrophoretic migration patterns on SDS-polyacrylamide gels with both labeled and unlabeled proteins show differences between the released proteins and the soluble cytoplasmic proteins of the tissue. Several molecular weights between 14 kdalton and 86 kdalton appear to be characteristic of the released protein fraction. These results suggest that a distinct group of proteins and glycoproteins exists in hippocampal tissue which is destined to be selectively released into the extracellular space.

  1. The energetics of lactation in cooperatively breeding meerkats Suricata suricatta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantlebury, M; Russell, A F; McIlrath, G M; Speakman, J R; Clutton-Brock, T H

    2002-01-01

    Species may become obligate cooperative breeders when parents are unable to raise their offspring unassisted. We measured the daily energy expenditure of mothers, helpers and offspring during peak lactation in cooperatively breeding meerkats Suricata suricatta using the doubly labelled water technique. Lactating mothers expended more energy per day than allo-lactating subordinate females, non-lactating females or suckling offspring. Metabolizable energy intakes of lactating mothers were calculated from isotope-based estimates of offspring milk energy intake, and were not significantly different from the previously suggested maximal limit for mammals. Allo-lactating females were the only category of animals that lost weight during the period of study, probably because they spent more time babysitting than non-lactating females. Daily energy expenditure (DEE) of lactating mothers increased with litter size but decreased with the number of helpers. Calculations show that for every 10 helpers, even in the absence of allo-lactators, mothers are able to reduce their DEE during peak lactation by an amount equivalent to the energy cost of one pup. These results indicate that helpers have beneficial energetic consequences for lactating mothers in an obligate cooperatively breeding mammal. PMID:12396490

  2. Exercise induces cerebral VEGF and angiogenesis via the lactate receptor HCAR1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morland, Cecilie; Andersson, Krister A.; Haugen, Oyvind P.

    2017-01-01

    Physical exercise can improve brain function and delay neurodegeneration; however, the initial signal from muscle to brain is unknown. Here we show that the lactate receptor (HCAR1) is highly enriched in pial fibroblast-like cells that line the vessels supplying blood to the brain, and in pericyte...... levels similar to exercise, increases brain VEGFA protein and capillary density in wild-type mice, but not in knockout mice lacking HCAR1. In contrast, skeletal muscle shows no vascular HCAR1 expression and no HCAR1-dependent change in vascularization induced by exercise or lactate. Thus, we demonstrate...... that a substance released by exercising skeletal muscle induces supportive effects in brain through an identified receptor....

  3. EmojiNet: An Open Service and API for Emoji Sense Discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Wijeratne, Sanjaya; Balasuriya, Lakshika; Sheth, Amit; Doran, Derek

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the release of EmojiNet, the largest machine-readable emoji sense inventory that links Unicode emoji representations to their English meanings extracted from the Web. EmojiNet is a dataset consisting of: (i) 12,904 sense labels over 2,389 emoji, which were extracted from the web and linked to machine-readable sense definitions seen in BabelNet, (ii) context words associated with each emoji sense, which are inferred through word embedding models trained over Google News cor...

  4. Event hierarchies in DanNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bolette Sandford; Nimb, Sanni

    2008-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler udarbejdelsen af et verbumshierarki i det leksikalsk-semantiske ordnet, DanNet.......Artiklen omhandler udarbejdelsen af et verbumshierarki i det leksikalsk-semantiske ordnet, DanNet....

  5. The Uniframe .Net Web Service Discovery Service

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berbeco, Robert W

    2003-01-01

    Microsoft .NET allows the creation of distributed systems in a seamless manner Within NET small, discrete applications, referred to as Web services, are utilized to connect to each other or larger applications...

  6. Long Term RadNet Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This RadNet Quality Data Asset includes all data since initiation and when ERAMS was expanded to become RadNet, name changed to reflect new mission. This includes...

  7. The primary pathway for lactate oxidation in Desulfovibrio vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia ePieulle

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to respire sulfate linked to lactate oxidation is a key metabolic signature of the Desulfovibrio genus. Lactate oxidation by these incomplete oxidizers generates reductants through lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR, with the latter catalyzing pyruvate conversion into acetyl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA is the source of substrate-level phosphorylation though the production of ATP. Here, we show that these crucial steps are performed by enzymes encoded by a nonacistronic transcriptional unit named now as operon luo (for lactate utilization operon. Using a combination of genetic and biochemical techniques, we assigned a physiological role to the operon genes DVU3027-28 and DVU3032-33. The growth of mutant 26-28 was highly disrupted on D-lactate, whereas the growth of mutant 32-33 was slower on L-lactate, which could be related to a decrease in the activity of D-lactate or L-lactate oxidase in the corresponding mutants. The DVU3027-28 and DVU3032-33 genes thus encode functional D-LDH and L-LDH enzymes, respectively. Scanning of the genome for lactate utilization revealed several lactate permease and dehydrogenase homologs. However, transcriptional compensation was not observed in any of the mutants except for lactate permease. Although there is a high degree of redundancy for lactate oxidase, it is not functionally efficient in LDH mutants. This result could be related to the identification of several operon enzymes, including LDHs, in the PFOR activity bands, suggesting the occurrence of a lactate-oxidizing supermolecular structure that can optimize the performance of lactate utilization in Desulfovibrio species.

  8. PsychoNet: a psycholinguistc commonsense ontology

    OpenAIRE

    Mohtasseb, Haytham; Ahmed, Amr

    2010-01-01

    Ontologies have been widely accepted as the most advanced knowledge representation model. This paper introduces PsychoNet, a new knowledgebase that forms the link between psycholinguistic taxonomy, existing in LIWC, and its semantic textual representation in the form of commonsense semantic ontology, represented by ConceptNet. The integration of LIWC and ConceptNet and the added functionalities facilitate employing ConceptNet in psycholinguistic studies. Furthermore, it simplifies utilization...

  9. effect of hippocratea obtusifolia extracts on lactation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... female guinea pigs. The experimental animals with average weight of 200g were randomly grouped into six; the first five groups A, B, C, D and E were force-fed with feeds mixed with a ... lactation by putting the baby to breast (Turner et al., .... Table1: Weight of guinea pig in g (wt. of fraction force-fed in mg).

  10. An assessment of dioxin exposure across gestation and lactation using a PBPK model and new data from Seveso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emond, C; DeVito, M; Warner, M; Eskenazi, B; Mocarelli, P; Birnbaum, L S

    2016-01-01

    On July 10, 1976, an explosion at a chemical plant in Seveso, Italy, released up to 30kg of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-the most potent dioxin congener. Twenty years later, the Seveso Women's Health Study (SWHS) initiated a follow-up assessment of a cohort of female Seveso residents. Researchers collected serial blood, measured for TCDD levels, and recorded information about the women's medical history after the explosion. The study's aims were to: 1) modify the human PBPK model for TCDD (Emond et al. 2004; Emond et al. 2005; NCEA-USEPA, 2010) to include repetitive gestation and lactation; 2) simulate TCDD blood concentrations during different life stages including pregnancy and lactation, under different exposure scenarios; and 3) use this PBPK model to compare the influence of gestation and lactation on elimination of TCDD. After optimization of the model, it was assessed using data from the SWHS cohort. The 23 women in Subcohort A, were 4-39years old and in Subcohort B, the 18 women were 3-17years old when the explosion occurred. The model accurately predicted the blood concentrations during the 20years post-exposure, including periods of pregnancy and lactation. The model was also used to analyze the contribution of gestation and lactation to the mother's elimination of TCDD. The results suggest that gestation and lactation do not significantly impact TCDD blood elimination. Future efforts will focus on using additional data to evaluate the PBPK model and improving the mathematical descriptions of lactation and multiple gestations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Weter consumption during pregnancy and lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueroa Damián Ricardo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available During pregnancy, water is retained partially owing to an increase in vasopressin production. Ingested water is used to produce amniotic fluid. Climate conditions and physical activity, gestational nausea and vomit, and a higher caloric intake, increases water needs; during lactation, more water is needed to produce milk. Dehydration during pregnancy is especially dangerous; it must be avoided. Physiological changes during pregnancy modify water metabolism: blood volume and glomerular filtration rate increase; more water is lost trhough sweating and respiration. Placenta con- tains up to 500 mL of water, and there are between 500-1,200 mL of amniotic fluid. Different studies recommend a total water intake of 2,700-4,800 mL/day during pregnancy, of which 1,470-2,370 should be beverages and water. For the Mexican population, the recommendation is 3,000 mL/day. Based on energy intake and the rule of 1-1.5 mL of water per kcal, water intake must increase in at least 300 mL/day at the beginning of the third pregnancy trimester. During lactation the recommended intake is of 3-3.6 L/ day, depending on age. Obesity and overweight during pregnancy are a major health problem, to which sugary beverages contribute. Water must be considered the best choice for hydration during pregnancy and lactation.

  12. The Many Axes of Deer Lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceacero, Francisco; García, Andrés J; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás; Komárková, Martina; Hidalgo, Francisco; Serrano, Martina P; Gallego, Laureano

    2016-12-01

    In undomesticated animals information about the production and composition of milk over time is still scarce. In general, for most mammals it is known that milk composition changes across lactation, is different for male and female offspring, and even that marsupials, such as kangaroos, can simultaneously produce milk of different compositions for young of different ages. Such parallel milk production of differing compositions has not yet been studied in single-offspring placental mammals, but may help to explain behavioural processes like allosuckling (feeding the young of other adults) and lateralized suckling preferences. In this study we analysed the production and composition of milk in red deer throughout the lactation period and now confirm for the first time that there are axial differences present. The front teats, which are the favoured suckling positions of the deer's offspring, produce milk with a greater protein-to-fat ratio. Also, from the beginning of lactation the yield is greater on the left side, the side preferred by calves in all of the studied species, both at population and individual level. The links between milk production and calf behaviour in deer deserve further study.

  13. 78 FR 72451 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BL74 Net Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service...). These regulations provide guidance on the computation of net investment income. The regulations affect... lesser of: (A) The individual's net investment income for such taxable year, or (B) the excess (if any...

  14. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net investment. 69.302 Section 69.302... Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B Rural...) Investment in Accounts 2002, 2003 and to the extent such inclusions are allowed by this Commission, Account...

  15. 47 CFR 65.450 - Net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.450 Section 65.450... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.450 Net income. (a) Net income shall consist of all revenues derived from the provision of interstate telecommunications services...

  16. 47 CFR 65.500 - Net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.500 Section 65.500... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Interexchange Carriers § 65.500 Net income. The net income methodology specified in § 65.450 shall be utilized by all interexchange carriers that are...

  17. NetBeans IDE 8 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Salter, David

    2014-01-01

    If you're a Java developer of any level using NetBeans and want to learn how to get the most out of NetBeans, then this book is for you. Learning how to utilize NetBeans will provide a firm foundation for your Java application development.

  18. Characterizing behavioural congruences for Petri nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Priese, Lutz; Sassone, Vladimiro

    1995-01-01

    We exploit a notion of interface for Petri nets in order to design a set of net combinators. For such a calculus of nets, we focus on the behavioural congruences arising from four simple notions of behaviour, viz., traces, maximal traces, step, and maximal step traces, and from the corresponding...

  19. 27 CFR 4.37 - Net contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the volume of wine within the container, except that the following tolerances shall be allowed: (1... THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.37 Net contents. (a) Statement of net contents. The net contents of wine for which a standard of fill is...

  20. Correlation between Arterial Lactate and Central Venous Lactate in Children with Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Fernández Sarmiento

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Lactate is an important indicator of tissue perfusion. The objective of this study is to evaluate if there are significant differences between the arterial and central venous measurement of lactate in pediatric patients with sepsis and/or septic shock. Methods. Longitudinal retrospective observational study. Forty-two patients were included between the age of 1 month and 17 years, with a diagnosis of sepsis and septic shock, who were admitted to the intensive care unit of a university referral hospital. The lactate value obtained from an arterial blood sample and a central venous blood sample drawn simultaneously, and within 24 hours of admission to the unit, was recorded. Results. The median age was 2.3 years (RIC 0,3–15, with a predominance of males (71.4%, having a 2.5 : 1 ratio to females. Most of the patients had septic shock (78.5% of pulmonary origin (50.0%, followed by those of gastrointestinal origin (26.1%. Using Spearman’s Rho, a 0.872 (p<0.001 correlation was found between arterial and venous lactate, which did not vary when adjusted for age (p<0.05 and the use of vasoactive drugs (p<0.05. Conclusion. There is a good correlation between arterial and venous lactate in pediatric patients with sepsis and septic shock, which is not affected by demographic variables or type of vasoactive support.

  1. Characterization of Lactate Sensors Based on Lactate Oxidase and Palladium Benzoporphyrin Immobilized in Hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam P. Andrus

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An optical biosensor for lactate detection is described. By encapsulating enzyme-phosphor sensing molecules within permeable hydrogel materials, lactate-sensitive emission lifetimes were achieved. The relative amount of monomer was varied to compare three homo- and co-polymer materials: poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (pHEMA and two copolymers of pHEMA and poly(acrylamide (pAam. Diffusion analysis demonstrated the ability to control lactate transport by varying the hydrogel composition, while having a minimal effect on oxygen diffusion. Sensors displayed the desired dose-variable response to lactate challenges, highlighting the tunable, diffusion-controlled nature of the sensing platform. Short-term repeated exposure tests revealed enhanced stability for sensors comprising hydrogels with acrylamide additives; after an initial “break-in” period, signal retention was 100% for 15 repeated cycles. Finally, because this study describes the modification of a previously developed glucose sensor for lactate analysis, it demonstrates the potential for mix-and-match enzyme-phosphor-hydrogel sensing for use in future multi-analyte sensors.

  2. Lactate Kinetics during Multiple Set Resistance Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Wirtz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Intensive exercise like strength training increases blood lactate concentration [La]. [La] is commonly used to define the metabolic stress of an exercise and depends on the lactate production, transportation, metabolism, and elimination. This investigation compared multiple set training of different volumes to show the influence of exercise volume on [La]. Ten male subjects performed 3 sets of resistance exercises within 4 separate sessions: Arm Curl with 1 or 2 arms (AC1 or AC2, and Leg Extension with 1 or 2 legs (LE1 or LE2. Each set was performed at a standard velocity and at a previously determined 10RM load. Blood lactate samples were taken immediately before and after each set (pre1, post1, pre2, post2, pre3, post3. Maximum [La] was significantly higher after LE2 (6.8 ± 1.6mmol·L-1 and significantly lower after AC1 (2.8 ± 0.7mmol·L-1 in comparison with the other exercise protocols. There was no difference between AC2 (4.3 ± 1.1mmol·L-1 and LE1 (4.4 ± 1.1mmol·L-1. Surprisingly, [La] decreased during the 3rd set (for AC exercise, and during both the 2nd and 3rd sets (for LE exercise and increased only during the recovery phases. In contrast to our expectations, blood [La] decreased during the 2nd and 3rd exercise sets and further increased only during recovery phases. However, from the increases observed following the first set, we know that lactate was produced and transported to the blood during our exercise protocol. We speculate that lactate is taken up and metabolized by distal muscle fibres or organs. In addition, as the decreases occurred within a short period of time, blood volume shifts and/or the muscle-to-blood gradient may account for the rapid decreases in [La].

  3. Transcriptional Activity of Arsenic-Reducing Bacteria and Genes Regulated by Lactate and Biochar during Arsenic Transformation in Flooded Paddy Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jiang-Tao; Li, Xiao-Min; Hu, Min; Li, Fang-Bai; Young, Lily Y; Sun, Wei-Min; Huang, Weilin; Cui, Jiang-Hu

    2017-12-15

    Organic substrates and biochar are important in controlling arsenic release from sediments and soils; however, little is known about their impact on arsenic-reducing bacteria and genes during arsenic transformation in flooded paddy soils. In this study, microcosm experiments were established to profile transcriptional activity of As(V)-respiring gene (arrA) and arsenic resistance gene (arsC) as well as the associated bacteria regulated by lactate and/or biochar in anaerobic arsenic-contaminated paddy soils. Chemical analyses revealed that lactate as the organic substrate stimulated microbial reduction of As(V) and Fe(III), which was simultaneously promoted by lactate+biochar, due to biochar's electron shuttle function that facilitates electron transfer from bacteria to As(V)/Fe(III). Sequencing and phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that both arrA closely associated with Geobacter (>60%, number of identical sequences/number of the total sequences) and arsC related to Enterobacteriaceae (>99%) were selected by lactate and lactate+biochar. Compared with the lactate microcosms, transcriptions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene, Geobacter spp., and Geobacter arrA and arsC genes were increased in the lactate+biochar microcosms, where transcript abundances of Geobacter and Geobacter arrA closely tracked with dissolved As(V) concentrations. Our findings indicated that lactate and biochar in flooded paddy soils can stimulate the active As(V)-respiring bacteria Geobacter species for arsenic reduction and release, which probably increases arsenic bioavailability to rice plants.

  4. NET 40 Generics Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Sudipta

    2012-01-01

    This is a concise, practical guide that will help you learn Generics in .NET, with lots of real world and fun-to-build examples and clear explanations. It is packed with screenshots to aid your understanding of the process. This book is aimed at beginners in Generics. It assumes some working knowledge of C# , but it isn't mandatory. The following would get the most use out of the book: Newbie C# developers struggling with Generics. Experienced C++ and Java Programmers who are migrating to C# and looking for an alternative to other generic frameworks like STL and JCF would find this book handy.

  5. The Net Reclassification Index (NRI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pepe, Margaret S.; Fan, Jing; Feng, Ziding

    2015-01-01

    The Net Reclassification Index (NRI) is a very popular measure for evaluating the improvement in prediction performance gained by adding a marker to a set of baseline predictors. However, the statistical properties of this novel measure have not been explored in depth. We demonstrate the alarming...... marker is proven to erroneously yield a positive NRI. Some insight into this phenomenon is provided. Since large values for the NRI statistic may simply be due to use of poorly fitting risk models, we suggest caution in using the NRI as the basis for marker evaluation. Other measures of prediction...

  6. Lactate produced by glycogenolysis in astrocytes regulates memory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Lori A; Korol, Donna L; Gold, Paul E

    2011-01-01

    When administered either systemically or centrally, glucose is a potent enhancer of memory processes. Measures of glucose levels in extracellular fluid in the rat hippocampus during memory tests reveal that these levels are dynamic, decreasing in response to memory tasks and loads; exogenous glucose blocks these decreases and enhances memory. The present experiments test the hypothesis that glucose enhancement of memory is mediated by glycogen storage and then metabolism to lactate in astrocytes, which provide lactate to neurons as an energy substrate. Sensitive bioprobes were used to measure brain glucose and lactate levels in 1-sec samples. Extracellular glucose decreased and lactate increased while rats performed a spatial working memory task. Intrahippocampal infusions of lactate enhanced memory in this task. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of astrocytic glycogenolysis impaired memory and this impairment was reversed by administration of lactate or glucose, both of which can provide lactate to neurons in the absence of glycogenolysis. Pharmacological block of the monocarboxylate transporter responsible for lactate uptake into neurons also impaired memory and this impairment was not reversed by either glucose or lactate. These findings support the view that astrocytes regulate memory formation by controlling the provision of lactate to support neuronal functions.

  7. Lactate produced by glycogenolysis in astrocytes regulates memory processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori A Newman

    Full Text Available When administered either systemically or centrally, glucose is a potent enhancer of memory processes. Measures of glucose levels in extracellular fluid in the rat hippocampus during memory tests reveal that these levels are dynamic, decreasing in response to memory tasks and loads; exogenous glucose blocks these decreases and enhances memory. The present experiments test the hypothesis that glucose enhancement of memory is mediated by glycogen storage and then metabolism to lactate in astrocytes, which provide lactate to neurons as an energy substrate. Sensitive bioprobes were used to measure brain glucose and lactate levels in 1-sec samples. Extracellular glucose decreased and lactate increased while rats performed a spatial working memory task. Intrahippocampal infusions of lactate enhanced memory in this task. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of astrocytic glycogenolysis impaired memory and this impairment was reversed by administration of lactate or glucose, both of which can provide lactate to neurons in the absence of glycogenolysis. Pharmacological block of the monocarboxylate transporter responsible for lactate uptake into neurons also impaired memory and this impairment was not reversed by either glucose or lactate. These findings support the view that astrocytes regulate memory formation by controlling the provision of lactate to support neuronal functions.

  8. Importance of measuring lactate levels in children with sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anil, Nisha

    2017-10-10

    Sepsis is a major public health problem as well as one of the leading causes of preventable death in children because of failure to recognise the early signs and symptoms and to resuscitate rapidly. Blood lactate levels are used to assess the severity of sepsis and the effectiveness of resuscitation. Lactate levels are easily obtainable and should be checked in all patients admitted with suspected sepsis within six hours of presentation. The test should be repeated four and eight-hours post-diagnosis of sepsis. For the diagnosis of sepsis, patients' clinical symptoms, along with the combined analysis of partial pressure of oxygen, carbon dioxide and lactate levels, should be used. A multitude of factors can cause elevated lactate levels and so clinicians should use elevated levels cautiously by considering all other aetiologies. This article, which focuses on practice in Australia but makes reference to the UK, discusses the importance of measuring lactate levels in sepsis, the pathophysiology of lactate production, causes of elevated lactate levels, lactate measurement, nursing management of patients with elevated lactate levels, limitations of using lactate as a biomarker for diagnosing sepsis and implications for practice. ©2012 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.

  9. Reversal of ocean acidification enhances net coral reef calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Rebecca; Caldeira, Lilian; Hosfelt, Jessica; Kwiatkowski, Lester; Maclaren, Jana K; Mason, Benjamin M; Nebuchina, Yana; Ninokawa, Aaron; Pongratz, Julia; Ricke, Katharine L; Rivlin, Tanya; Schneider, Kenneth; Sesboüé, Marine; Shamberger, Kathryn; Silverman, Jacob; Wolfe, Kennedy; Zhu, Kai; Caldeira, Ken

    2016-03-17

    Approximately one-quarter of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere each year is absorbed by the global oceans, causing measurable declines in surface ocean pH, carbonate ion concentration ([CO3(2-)]), and saturation state of carbonate minerals (Ω). This process, referred to as ocean acidification, represents a major threat to marine ecosystems, in particular marine calcifiers such as oysters, crabs, and corals. Laboratory and field studies have shown that calcification rates of many organisms decrease with declining pH, [CO3(2-)], and Ω. Coral reefs are widely regarded as one of the most vulnerable marine ecosystems to ocean acidification, in part because the very architecture of the ecosystem is reliant on carbonate-secreting organisms. Acidification-induced reductions in calcification are projected to shift coral reefs from a state of net accretion to one of net dissolution this century. While retrospective studies show large-scale declines in coral, and community, calcification over recent decades, determining the contribution of ocean acidification to these changes is difficult, if not impossible, owing to the confounding effects of other environmental factors such as temperature. Here we quantify the net calcification response of a coral reef flat to alkalinity enrichment, and show that, when ocean chemistry is restored closer to pre-industrial conditions, net community calcification increases. In providing results from the first seawater chemistry manipulation experiment of a natural coral reef community, we provide evidence that net community calcification is depressed compared with values expected for pre-industrial conditions, indicating that ocean acidification may already be impairing coral reef growth.

  10. Expression profiles of microRNAs from lactating and non-lactating bovine mammary glands and identification of miRNA related to lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs have been implicated in the regulation of milk protein synthesis and development of the mammary gland (MG. However, the specific functions of miRNAs in these regulations are not clear. Therefore, the elucidation of miRNA expression profiles in the MG is an important step towards understanding the mechanisms of lactogenesis. Results Two miRNA libraries were constructed from MG tissues taken from a lactating and a non-lactating Holstein dairy cow, respectively, and the short RNA sequences (18–30 nt in these libraries were sequenced by Solexa sequencing method. The libraries included 885 pre-miRNAs encoding for 921 miRNAs, of which 884 miRNAs were unique sequences and 544 (61.5% were expressed in both periods. A custom-designed microarray assay was then performed to compare miRNA expression patterns in the MG of lactating and non-lactating dairy cows. A total of 56 miRNAs in the lactating MG showed significant differences in expression compared to non-lactating MG (P Conclusion Our study provides a broad view of the bovine MG miRNA expression profile characteristics. Eight hundred and eighty-four miRNAs were identified in bovine MG. Differences in types and expression levels of miRNAs were observed between lactating and non-lactating bovine MG. Systematic predictions aided in the identification of lactation-related miRNAs, providing insight into the types of miRNAs and their possible mechanisms in regulating lactation.

  11. Does Lactation Mitigate Triple Negative/Basal Breast Cancer Progression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2008. 109(1): p. 123-39. 2. Palmer, J.R., et al., Parity and lactation in relation to estrogen receptor negative breast ...Xue F, Michels KB: Lactation and incidence of premenopausal breast cancer : a longitudinal study. Arch Intern Med 2009, 169(15):1364-1371. 19...Palmer JR, Boggs DA, Wise LA, Ambrosone CB, Adams-Campbell LL, Rosenberg L: Parity and lactation in relation to estrogen receptor negative breast cancer

  12. Lactate metabolism during exercise in patients with mitochondrial myopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Tina Dysgaard; Ørngreen, Mette Cathrine; van Hall, Gerrit

    2013-01-01

    Patients with mitochondrial DNA mutations often have elevated plasma lactate at rest and during exercise, but it is unknown whether the high lactate levels are caused by a high production, an impaired oxidation or a combination. We studied lactate kinetics in 10 patients with mtDNA mutations and ...... is not solely an indicator of impaired oxidative capacity, but an important fuel for oxidative metabolism, even in muscle with severely impaired mitochondrial function....

  13. Brain lactate metabolism in humans with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddo, Mauro; Levine, Joshua M; Frangos, Suzanne; Maloney-Wilensky, Eileen; Carrera, Emmanuel; Daniel, Roy T; Levivier, Marc; Magistretti, Pierre J; LeRoux, Peter D

    2012-05-01

    Lactate is central for the regulation of brain metabolism and is an alternative substrate to glucose after injury. Brain lactate metabolism in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage has not been fully elucidated. Thirty-one subarachnoid hemorrhage patients monitored with cerebral microdialysis (CMD) and brain oxygen (PbtO(2)) were studied. Samples with elevated CMD lactate (>4 mmol/L) were matched to PbtO(2) and CMD pyruvate and categorized as hypoxic (PbtO(2) 119 μmol/L) versus nonhyperglycolytic. Median per patient samples with elevated CMD lactate was 54% (interquartile range, 11%-80%). Lactate elevations were more often attributable to cerebral hyperglycolysis (78%; interquartile range, 5%-98%) than brain hypoxia (11%; interquartile range, 4%-75%). Mortality was associated with increased percentage of samples with elevated lactate and brain hypoxia (28% [interquartile range 9%-95%] in nonsurvivors versus 9% [interquartile range 3%-17%] in survivors; P=0.02) and lower percentage of elevated lactate and cerebral hyperglycolysis (13% [interquartile range, 1%-87%] versus 88% [interquartile range, 27%-99%]; P=0.07). Cerebral hyperglycolytic lactate production predicted good 6-month outcome (odds ratio for modified Rankin Scale score, 0-3 1.49; CI, 1.08-2.05; P=0.016), whereas increased lactate with brain hypoxia was associated with a reduced likelihood of good outcome (OR, 0.78; CI, 0.59-1.03; P=0.08). Brain lactate is frequently elevated in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients, predominantly because of hyperglycolysis rather than hypoxia. A pattern of increased cerebral hyperglycolytic lactate was associated with good long-term recovery. Our data suggest that lactate may be used as an aerobic substrate by the injured human brain.

  14. Bottlenose Dolphins: Energy Consumption during Pregnancy, Lactation, and Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    cost for most mam- mars. The literature on energy consumption during gestation and lactation of bottle - nose dolphins is very small and all the reports...Tt453, from 18 months prior to parturition (-18). through birth (0), and continuing for 24 months of lactation (23). 36 Figure 1. Daily feeding ...Professional Paper 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS BOTTLENOSE DOLPHINS: PR: MM40 Energy Consumption During Pregnancy, Lactation , and Growth PE: 0603709N

  15. Saturated fats: a perspective from lactation and milk composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, J Bruce; Dillard, Cora J

    2010-10-01

    For recommendations of specific targets for the absolute amount of saturated fat intake, we need to know what dietary intake is most appropriate? Changing agricultural production and processing to lower the relative quantities of macronutrients requires years to accomplish. Changes can have unintended consequences on diets and the health of subsets of the population. Hence, what are the appropriate absolute amounts of saturated fat in our diets? Is the scientific evidence consistent with an optimal intake of zero? If not, is it also possible that a finite intake of saturated fats is beneficial to overall health, at least to a subset of the population? Conclusive evidence from prospective human trials is not available, hence other sources of information must be considered. One approach is to examine the evolution of lactation, and the composition of milks that developed through millennia of natural selective pressure and natural selection processes. Mammalian milks, including human milk, contain 50% of their total fatty acids as saturated fatty acids. The biochemical formation of a single double bond converting a saturated to a monounsaturated fatty acid is a pathway that exists in all eukaryotic organisms and is active within the mammary gland. In the face of selective pressure, mammary lipid synthesis in all mammals continues to release a significant content of saturated fatty acids into milk. Is it possible that evolution of the mammary gland reveals benefits to saturated fatty acids that current recommendations do not consider?

  16. Binding of titanium dioxide nanoparticles to lactate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaqout, Mazen S K; Sumizawa, Tomoyuki; Igisu, Hideki; Wilson, Donald; Myojo, Toshihiko; Ueno, Susumu

    2012-07-01

    Measurement of released lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, a commonly used marker of lethal cell injury in both in vitro and in vivo screenings, has been used to assess the cytotoxicity of nanoparticles (NPs), chemical compounds, and environmental factors. We have recently demonstrated that titanium dioxide (TiO₂) particles bind to several serum proteins. In the present study we investigated the binding of TiO₂ NPs to LDH. Purified LDH was incubated with TiO₂ NPs at 37°C for 1 h. The particles were then sedimented by centrifugation, and the activity and quantity of LDH in the supernatant and precipitated fraction were analyzed. Incubation with TiO₂ reduced the LDH activity in the supernatant in a dose-dependent manner, while LDH activity in the precipitated fraction increased in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis revealed a TiO₂ dose-dependent reduction in the quantity of LDH protein in the supernatant and an increase of LDH in particulate re-suspensions. These findings, although based on a purified form of LDH, suggest that TiO₂ NPs bind to LDH, and consequently, TiO₂ NP-induced toxicity could be underestimated by the LDH activity assay.

  17. -Net Approach to Sensor -Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusco Giordano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensors rely on battery power, and in many applications it is difficult or prohibitive to replace them. Hence, in order to prolongate the system's lifetime, some sensors can be kept inactive while others perform all the tasks. In this paper, we study the -coverage problem of activating the minimum number of sensors to ensure that every point in the area is covered by at least sensors. This ensures higher fault tolerance, robustness, and improves many operations, among which position detection and intrusion detection. The -coverage problem is trivially NP-complete, and hence we can only provide approximation algorithms. In this paper, we present an algorithm based on an extension of the classical -net technique. This method gives an -approximation, where is the number of sensors in an optimal solution. We do not make any particular assumption on the shape of the areas covered by each sensor, besides that they must be closed, connected, and without holes.

  18. Etiology and Therapeutic Approach to Elevated Lactate Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiuff Andersen, Lars; Mackenhauer, Julie; Roberts, Jonathan C

    2013-01-01

    . Clinicians need to be aware of the many potential causes of lactate level elevation as the clinical and prognostic importance of an elevated lactate level varies widely by disease state. Moreover, specific therapy may need to be tailored to the underlying cause of elevation. The present review is based......, and medication. We provide an overview of the pathogenesis of lactate level elevation followed by an in-depth look at the varied etiologies, including medication-related causes. The strengths and weaknesses of lactate as a diagnostic/prognostic tool and its potential use as a clinical end point of resuscitation...

  19. Long-alkyl-chain quaternary ammonium lactate based ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cybulski, Jacek; Wiśniewska, Anna; Kulig-Adamiak, Anna; Lewicka, Lidia; Cieniecka-Rosłonkiewicz, Anna; Kita, Kazimierz; Fojutowski, Andrzej; Nawrot, Jan; Materna, Katarzyna; Pernak, Juliusz

    2008-01-01

    A new group of quaternary ammonium lactate based ionic liquids have been prepared and characterized. Didecyldimethylammonium (DDA) and benzalkonium (BA) D,L- and L-lactates are air-stable, hydrophilic, surface-active salts. They are very effective antibacterial and antifungal agents, especially the DDA lactates, against Streptococcus mutants and Candida albicans. Their activities are comparable or more effective than the original benzalkonium chloride. In addition, they have been shown to be good insect-feeding deterrents. However, they are poor antifungal agents for wood preservation. The toxicity of the DDA and BA lactates has also been studied and the results are presented in this paper.

  20. Lactation and Reactivity to Physical and Psychological Stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carter, C

    1997-01-01

    .... Findings to date include lack of changes in attention and memory functions during pregnancy and lactation, lack of difference in hormonal and anxiety responses to psychological stress, enhanced...

  1. Point-of-care lactate testing in emergency room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darinka Purg

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lactate is a product of anaerobic metabolism, which can be used to detect the critically ill. Rapid recognition, early appropriate treatment and control of treatment success are paramount in that population. Lactate levels need to be available as soon as possible if they are to be of assistance at the bedside. Point-of-care analyzers enable rapid determination of lactate. The role of point-of-care lactate analyzers in the treatment of the critically ill, different analysis techniques and limitations of point-of-care lactate analyzers are presented. The use of point-of-care lactate analyzers is demonstrated in two cases of patients with sepsis. The first patient is a 73-year-old female, where point-of-care lactate was determined immediately. Septic shock with multi-organ failure developed. She was successfully treated and discharged after 14 days to home care. The second patient is a 62-year old male, where elevated lactate was detected after three hours. The patient died after a total of 5 months of treatment in the intensive care unit. Lactate can be an important tool in early recognition and treatment of the critically ill.

  2. Leptin and the adaptations of lactation in rodents and ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, R G; Denis, R G P; Sorensen, A; Williams, G

    2002-01-01

    Lactation markedly increases nutrient requirements in both rodents and ruminants. This is met mostly by increased food intake, but there are also adaptations to increase metabolic efficiency. Despite such changes, lactating animals usually experience periods of negative energy balance. This is not due to a physical constraint on food intake, at least in the rat. Leptin, a hormone secreted by adipocytes, plays an important role in the regulation of appetite and energy balance. During lactation, serum leptin concentration is decreased in both rodents and ruminants, and the nocturnal rise in concentration is lost in rats. Hypoleptinaemia in lactation is primarily a result of negative energy balance. There is also increased clearance of serum leptin, and the attenuation of the nocturnal rise in leptin in rats is at least partly due to the suckling stimulus. Hypoleptinaemia is not the major factor driving hyperphagia in lactating rats, but it probably facilitates the increased food intake. Leptin may play a more important role in this respect in lactating ruminants. Leptin is probably involved in other adaptations that increase metabolic efficiency during lactation. The ability of hypothalamic neuropeptides to respond to leptin does not appear to be altered by lactation in either rodents or ruminants. The reason why lactating animals do not respond to hypoleptinaemia with a further increase in appetite, thereby achieving energy balance, appears to be due to a failure to respond to changes in neuropeptides which mediate the effects of leptin.

  3. Self-assembled monolayers with biospecific affinity for lactate dehydrogenase for the electroenzymatic oxidation of lactate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlereth, Daniela D.; Kooyman, R.P.H.

    1997-01-01

    Surface modified gold electrodes with high biospecific affinity for NAD(H)-dependent lactate dehydrogenase have been prepared by covalent attachment of several traizine dyes to stepwise functionalized mixed alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers. The biospecific affinity of such ligand-anchored

  4. Not only osmoprotectant: betaine increased lactate dehydrogenase activity and L-lactate production in lactobacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Huibin; Wu, Zaiqiang; Xian, Mo; Liu, Hui; Cheng, Tao; Cao, Yujin

    2013-11-01

    Lactobacilli are commonly used for industrial production of polymer-grade L-lactic acid. The present study tested the Tween 80 alternative betaine in L-lactate production by several industrial lactobacilli. In flask fermentation of Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus buchneri, Lactobacillus lactis and Lactobacillus rhamnosus, the betaine addition (2g/l) had similar osmoprotectant effect with Tween 80 but had increased the lactate dehydrogenase activities and L-lactate production than Tween 80 control. In fed-batch fermentation of L. casei, betaine supplementation improved the L-lactic acid titer to 190 g/l, the yield to 95.5% (g L-lactic acid/g glucose), the productivity to 2.6g/lh, and the optical purity to 97.0%. The results demonstrated that supplementation of Tween 80 alternative - betaine in the fermentation medium is feasible for industrial l-lactic acid fermentation by lactobacilli, which will improve the lactate production but will not increase the process costs and modify any process conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Continuous lactation effects on mammary remodeling during late gestation and lactation in dairy goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safayi, Sina; Theil, Peter Kappel; Hou, Lei

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed to 1) elucidate whether continuous milking during late gestation in dairy goats negatively affects mammary remodeling and hence milk production in the subsequent lactation, and 2) identify the regulatory factors responsible for changes in cell turnover and angiogenesis...

  6. NETS - Danish participation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsen, S. (Grontmij - Carl Bro, Glostrup (Denmark)); Theel, C. (Baltic Sea Solutions, Holeby (Denmark))

    2008-12-15

    Within the NICe-funded project 'Nordic Environmental Technology Solutions (NETS)' a new type of networking at the Nordic level was organized in order to jointly exploit the rapidly growing market potential in the environmental technology sector. The project aimed at increased and professionalized commercialization of Nordic Cleantech in energy and water business segments through 1) closer cooperation and joint marketing activities, 2) a website, 3) cleantech product information via brochures and publications 4) and participating in relevant trade fairs and other industry events. Facilitating business-to-business activities was another core task for the NETS project partners from Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark with the aim to encourage total solutions for combined Cleantech system offers. The project has achieved to establish a Cleantech register of 600 Nordic Cleantech companies, a network of 86 member enterprises, produced several publications and brochures for direct technology promotion and a website for direct access to company profiles and contact data. The project partners have attended 14 relevant international Cleantech trade fairs and conferences and facilitated business-to-business contacts added by capacity building offers through two company workshops. The future challenge for the project partners and Nordic Cleantech will be to coordinate the numerous efforts within the Nordic countries in order to reach concerted action and binding of member companies for reliable services, an improved visibility and knowledge exchange. With Cleantech's growing market influence and public awareness, the need to develop total solutions is increasing likewise. Marketing efforts should be encouraged cross-sectional and cross-border among the various levels of involved actors from both the public and the private sector. (au)

  7. Relationship between season, lactation number and incidence of clinical mastitis in different stages of lactation in a Holstein dairy farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi, Maede; Mirzaei, Abdolah; Ghavami, Mohsen; Tamadon, Amin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the occurrence and duration of clinical mastitis in different seasons, stages of lactation period and parities in a Holstein dairy farm in Iran. A retrospective epidemiological survey from April 2005 to March 2008 was conducted on 884 clinical mastitis cases of 7437 lactations. Data of each case including calendar-date of mastitis onset, days in milk (DIM) of mastitis onset (early: 0-74 DIM; middle: 75-150 DIM, and late ≥ 150 DIM), duration of mastitis, and parity (1, 2, and ≥ 3) were recorded. Based on date of mastitis onset, cases were classified into stages of lactation. Moreover, beginning of mastitis was seasonally categorized. Duration of clinical mastitis after treatment in early lactation was less than late lactation in the first-parity cows (p = 0.005). In early lactation period, the first-parity cows suffered clinical mastitis in days earlier than two other parity groups (p lactation period, the first-parity cows had clinical mastitis in days later than cows in the third and more parities (p = 0.002). Occurrence of clinical mastitis in summer increased in late lactation period but in winter increased in early lactation period (p = 0.001). In addition, occurrence time of clinical mastitis in summer were in days later than in spring (p = 0.02) and winter (p = 0.03) in early lactation period. In conclusion, occurrence of mastitis in winter and spring during early lactation and in summer during late lactation period were more prevalent especially in lower parities. PMID:25568687

  8. Fabrication of lactate biosensor based on lactate dehydrogenase immobilized on cerium oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesakumar, Noel; Sethuraman, Swaminathan; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari; Rayappan, John Bosco Balaguru

    2013-11-15

    An electrochemical biosensor was developed to determine lactate that plays an important role in clinical diagnosis, fermentation and food quality analysis. Abnormal concentration of lactate has been related to diseases such as hypoxia, acute heart disorders, lactic acidosis, muscle fatigue and meningitis. Also, lactate concentration in blood helps to evaluate the athletic performance in sports. The main aim of the work is to fabricate NADH/LDH/Nano-CeO2/GCE bio-electrode for sensing lactate in human blood samples. Toward this, CeO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by a hydroxide mediated approach using cerium nitrate hexahydrate (Ce(NO3)3·6H2O) and NaOH as precursors. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) studies were carried out to determine the structural and morphological characteristics of CeO2 nanoparticles. XRD pattern indicated the formation of highly crystalline CeO2 nanoparticles with face centered cubic structure. The FE-SEM studies revealed the formation of nanospherical particles of size 29.73±2.59 nm. The working electrode was fabricated by immobilizing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) on GCE surface with CeO2 nanoparticles as an interface. Electrochemical studies were carried out through cyclic voltammetry using a three electrode system with NADH/LDH/NanoCeO2/GCE as a working electrode, Ag/AgCl saturated with 0.1M KCl as a reference electrode and Pt wire as a counter electrode. From the amperometric study, the linearity was found to be in the range of 0.2-2 mM with the response time of less than 4s. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Invited review: Carryover effects of early lactation feeding on total lactation performance in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, C H; Spörndly, R; Bertilsson, J; Østergaard, S

    2016-05-01

    In comparison with the intensive research on the direct effects of energy supply on dairy cow lactation performance, little attention has been paid to the effect of early lactation feeding on subsequent production. The present paper reviews 9 studies carried out with the aim of quantifying the immediate and subsequent responses in milk production and body weight to early lactation feeding. Most results showed that a more generous feeding in early lactation caused a positive carryover effect on subsequent production, whereas an inadequate level of feed in early lactation has been shown to reduce subsequent milk yield. The carryover periods ranged from 3 to 12 wk and the difference in milk yield between cows in the carryover periods ranged between 1.5 and 4.5kg of milk/cow per day. When calculated as a percentage of the immediate effect, the carryover effect ranged from 22 to 63%. In 2 of the 9 papers reviewed, the authors found no carryover effect, probably due to the long post-treatment periods in these studies. This is supported by the other studies in which the carryover effect was only significant in a limited period after end of treatment. The magnitude of the carryover effect seems to be determined by several factors including duration of the treatment and post-treatment feeding level. The most important factor though appears to be the magnitude of over- or underfeeding (i.e., a strong relationship between the treatment period feeding level and the subsequent response in production). Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. ROLE OF LACTATION IN FAMILY PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha Kishore

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: 1. To evaluate the role of Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM as a spacing method. 2. To assess knowledge attitude and practices regarding breastfeeding. 3. To bring awareness regarding importance of breastfeeding on child health and as a method of family planning so that exclusive breast feeding is promoted. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: In rural village of district Wardha. Study Universe : All the lactating mothers who had2 children (one of which was less than 3 years. Study Variables: Duration of Breast Feeding, LAM, Importance of Breast Feeding. Knowledge of Colostrum, Awareness of Breast Feeding, etc. Statistical analysis used: Percentages and proportions. Result: A total 42 families were included in the survey of which 26 (61.9% belongs to nuclear families with majority of the women 19(45.2% in the age group of 20-25 yrs, 20 (47.6% were illiterate and 18(42.8% families were of lower Socio Economic Status. A directly proportional relationship was found between duration of Breastfeeding & LAM and period of LAM & age of youngest child when the mother delivered again. Only 31% knew about the importance of breastfeeding. 16.6% of woman initiated Breast Feeding within 1/2 hr.

  11. Application and Theory of Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 13th International Conference onApplication and Theory of Petri Nets, held in Sheffield, England, in June 1992. The aim of the Petri net conferences is to create a forum for discussing progress in the application and theory of Petri nets. Typically....... Balbo and W. Reisig, 18 submitted papers, and seven project papers. The submitted papers and project presentations were selectedby the programme committee and a panel of referees from a large number of submissions....

  12. Are You Neutral About Net Neutrality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-20

    Information Resources Management College National Defense University Are You Neutral About Net Neutrality ? A presentation for Systems & Software...author uses Verizon FiOS for phone, TV, and internet service 3 Agenda Net Neutrality —Through 2 Lenses Who Are the Players & What Are They Saying...Medical Treatment Mini-Case Studies Updates Closing Thoughts 4 Working Definitions of Net Neutrality "Network Neutrality" is the concept that

  13. Texture Based Image Analysis With Neural Nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilovici, Irina S.; Ong, Hoo-Tee; Ostrander, Kim E.

    1990-03-01

    In this paper, we combine direct image statistics and spatial frequency domain techniques with a neural net model to analyze texture based images. The resultant optimal texture features obtained from the direct and transformed image form the exemplar pattern of the neural net. The proposed approach introduces an automated texture analysis applied to metallography for determining the cooling rate and mechanical working of the materials. The results suggest that the proposed method enhances the practical applications of neural nets and texture extraction features.

  14. Factors associated with mosquito net use by individuals in households owning nets in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graves Patricia M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ownership of insecticidal mosquito nets has dramatically increased in Ethiopia since 2006, but the proportion of persons with access to such nets who use them has declined. It is important to understand individual level net use factors in the context of the home to modify programmes so as to maximize net use. Methods Generalized linear latent and mixed models (GLLAMM were used to investigate net use using individual level data from people living in net-owning households from two surveys in Ethiopia: baseline 2006 included 12,678 individuals from 2,468 households and a sub-sample of the Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS in 2007 included 14,663 individuals from 3,353 households. Individual factors (age, sex, pregnancy; net factors (condition, age, net density; household factors (number of rooms [2006] or sleeping spaces [2007], IRS, women's knowledge and school attendance [2007 only], wealth, altitude; and cluster level factors (rural or urban were investigated in univariate and multi-variable models for each survey. Results In 2006, increased net use was associated with: age 25-49 years (adjusted (a OR = 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.2-1.7 compared to children U5; female gender (aOR = 1.4; 95% CI 1.2-1.5; fewer nets with holes (Ptrend = 0.002; and increasing net density (Ptrend [all nets in HH good] = 1.6; 95% CI 1.2-2.1; increasing net density (Ptrend [per additional space] = 0.6, 95% CI 0.5-0.7; more old nets (aOR [all nets in HH older than 12 months] = 0.5; 95% CI 0.3-0.7; and increasing household altitude (Ptrend Conclusion In both surveys, net use was more likely by women, if nets had fewer holes and were at higher net per person density within households. School-age children and young adults were much less likely to use a net. Increasing availability of nets within households (i.e. increasing net density, and improving net condition while focusing on education and promotion of net use, especially in school-age children

  15. Lactate dehydrogenase has no control on lactate production but has a strong negative control on formate production in Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H.W.; Pedersen, M.B.; Hammer, Karin

    2001-01-01

    a homolactic pattern of fermentation. Only after lactate dehydrogenase activity was reduced ninefold compared to the wild-type was the growth rate significantly affected, and the ldh mutants started to produce mixed-acid products (formate, acetate, and ethanol in addition to lactate). Flux control coefficients...... were determined and it was found that lactate dehydrogenase exerted virtually no control on the glycolytic flux at the wild-type enzyme level and also not on the flux catalyzed by the enzyme itself, i.e. on the lactate production. As expected, the flux towards the mixed-acid products was strongly...

  16. Zoledronate prevents lactation induced bone loss and results in additional post-lactation bone mass in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendelboe, Mette Høegh; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Henriksen, Kim; Vegger, Jens Bay; Brüel, Annemarie

    2016-06-01

    In rodents, lactation is associated with a considerable and very rapid bone loss, which almost completely recovers after weaning. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the bisphosphonate Zoledronate (Zln) can inhibit lactation induced bone loss, and if Zln interferes with recovery of bone mass after lactation has ceased. Seventy-six 10-weeks-old NMRI mice were divided into the following groups: Baseline, Pregnant, Lactation, Lactation+Zln, Recovery, Recovery+Zln, and Virgin Control (age-matched). The lactation period was 12days, then the pups were removed, and thereafter recovery took place for 28days. Zln, 100μg/kg, was given s.c. on the day of delivery, and again 4 and 8days later. Mechanical testing, μCT, and dynamic histomorphometry were performed. At L4, lactation resulted in a substantial loss of bone strength (-55% vs. Pregnant, plactation induced loss of bone strength, BV/TV, and Tb.Th at L4. Full recovery of micro-architectural and mechanical properties was found 28days after weaning in vehicle-treated mice. Interestingly, the recovery group treated with Zln during the lactation period had higher BV/TV (+45%, plactation bone formation is not dependent on a preceding lactation induced bone loss. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Pro Agile NET Development with Scrum

    CERN Document Server

    Blankenship, Jerrel; Millett, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Pro Agile .NET Development with SCRUM guides you through a real-world ASP.NET project and shows how agile methodology is put into practice. There is plenty of literature on the theory behind agile methodologies, but no book on the market takes the concepts of agile practices and applies these in a practical manner to an end-to-end ASP.NET project, especially the estimating, requirements and management aspects of a project. Pro Agile .NET Development with SCRUM takes you through the initial stages of a project - gathering requirements and setting up an environment - through to the development a

  18. Pro ASP.NET MVC 4

    CERN Document Server

    Freeman, Adam

    2012-01-01

    The ASP.NET MVC 4 Framework is the latest evolution of Microsoft's ASP.NET web platform. It provides a high-productivity programming model that promotes cleaner code architecture, test-driven development, and powerful extensibility, combined with all the benefits of ASP.NET. ASP.NET MVC 4 contains a number of significant advances over previous versions. New mobile and desktop templates (employing adaptive rendering) are included together with support for jQuery Mobile for the first time. New display modes allow your application to select views based on the browser that's making the request whi

  19. Professional Visual Basic 2010 and .NET 4

    CERN Document Server

    Sheldon, Bill; Sharkey, Kent

    2010-01-01

    Intermediate and advanced coverage of Visual Basic 2010 and .NET 4 for professional developers. If you've already covered the basics and want to dive deep into VB and .NET topics that professional programmers use most, this is your book. You'll find a quick review of introductory topics-always helpful-before the author team of experts moves you quickly into such topics as data access with ADO.NET, Language Integrated Query (LINQ), security, ASP.NET web programming with Visual Basic, Windows workflow, threading, and more. You'll explore all the new features of Visual Basic 2010 as well as all t

  20. NASA Net Zero Energy Buildings Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless, S.; Scheib, J.; Torcellini, P.; Hendron, B.; Slovensky, M.

    2014-10-01

    In preparation for the time-phased net zero energy requirement for new federal buildings starting in 2020, set forth in Executive Order 13514, NASA requested that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a roadmap for NASA's compliance. NASA detailed a Statement of Work that requested information on strategic, organizational, and tactical aspects of net zero energy buildings. In response, this document presents a high-level approach to net zero energy planning, design, construction, and operations, based on NREL's first-hand experience procuring net zero energy construction, and based on NREL and other industry research on net zero energy feasibility. The strategic approach to net zero energy starts with an interpretation of the executive order language relating to net zero energy. Specifically, this roadmap defines a net zero energy acquisition process as one that sets an aggressive energy use intensity goal for the building in project planning, meets the reduced demand goal through energy efficiency strategies and technologies, then adds renewable energy in a prioritized manner, using building-associated, emission- free sources first, to offset the annual energy use required at the building; the net zero energy process extends through the life of the building, requiring a balance of energy use and production in each calendar year.

  1. Towards a Standard for Modular Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart; Petrucci, Laure

    2009-01-01

    When designing complex systems, mechanisms for structuring, composing, and reusing system components are crucial. Today, there are many approaches for equipping Petri nets with such mechanisms. In the context of defining a standard interchange format for Petri nets, modular PNML was defined....... Moreover, we present and discuss some more advanced features of modular Petri nets that could be included in the standard. This way, we provide a formal foundation and a basis for a discussion of features to be included in the upcoming standard of a module concept for Petri nets in general and for high...

  2. Prolactin regulation of oxytocin neurone activity in pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Rachael A; Ladyman, Sharon R; Bouwer, Gregory T; Alyousif, Yousif; Sapsford, Tony J; Scott, Victoria; Kokay, Ilona C; Grattan, David R; Brown, Colin H

    2017-06-01

    During lactation, prolactin promotes milk synthesis and oxytocin stimulates milk ejection. In virgin rats, prolactin inhibits the activity of oxytocin-secreting neurones. We found that prolactin inhibition of oxytocin neurone activity is lost in lactation, and that some oxytocin neurones were excited by prolactin in lactating rats. The change in prolactin regulation of oxytocin neurone activity was not associated with a change in activation of intracellular signalling pathways known to couple to prolactin receptors. The change in prolactin regulation of oxytocin neurone activity in lactation might allow coordinated activation of both populations of neurones when required for successful lactation. Secretion of prolactin for milk synthesis and oxytocin for milk secretion is required for successful lactation. In virgin rats, prolactin inhibits oxytocin neurones but this effect would be counterproductive during lactation when secretion of both hormones is required for synthesis and delivery of milk to the newborn. Hence, we determined the effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) prolactin on oxytocin neurones in urethane-anaesthetised virgin, pregnant and lactating rats. Prolactin (2 μg) consistently inhibited oxytocin neurones in virgin and pregnant rats (by 1.9 ± 0.4 and 1.8 ± 0.5 spikes s -1 , respectively), but not in lactating rats; indeed, prolactin excited six of 27 oxytocin neurones by >1 spike s -1 in lactating rats but excited none in virgin or pregnant rats (χ 2 2  = 7.2, P = 0.03). Vasopressin neurones were unaffected by prolactin (2 μg) in virgin rats but were inhibited by 1.1 ± 0.2 spikes s -1 in lactating rats. Immunohistochemistry showed that i.c.v. prolactin increased oxytocin expression in virgin and lactating rats and increased signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 phosphorylation to a similar extent in oxytocin neurones of virgin and lactating rats. Western blotting showed that i.c.v. prolactin did not affect

  3. News/Press Releases

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — A press release, news release, media release, press statement is written communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing programs...

  4. xiNET: Cross-link Network Maps With Residue Resolution*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combe, Colin W.; Fischer, Lutz; Rappsilber, Juri

    2015-01-01

    xiNET is a visualization tool for exploring cross-linking/mass spectrometry results. The interactive maps of the cross-link network that it generates are a type of node-link diagram. In these maps xiNET displays: (1) residue resolution positional information including linkage sites and linked peptides; (2) all types of cross-linking reaction product; (3) ambiguous results; and, (4) additional sequence information such as domains. xiNET runs in a browser and exports vector graphics which can be edited in common drawing packages to create publication quality figures. Availability: xiNET is open source, released under the Apache version 2 license. Results can be viewed by uploading data to http://crosslinkviewer.org/ or by downloading the software from http://github.com/colin-combe/crosslink-viewer and running it locally. PMID:25648531

  5. xiNET: cross-link network maps with residue resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combe, Colin W; Fischer, Lutz; Rappsilber, Juri

    2015-04-01

    xiNET is a visualization tool for exploring cross-linking/mass spectrometry results. The interactive maps of the cross-link network that it generates are a type of node-link diagram. In these maps xiNET displays: (1) residue resolution positional information including linkage sites and linked peptides; (2) all types of cross-linking reaction product; (3) ambiguous results; and, (4) additional sequence information such as domains. xiNET runs in a browser and exports vector graphics which can be edited in common drawing packages to create publication quality figures. xiNET is open source, released under the Apache version 2 license. Results can be viewed by uploading data to http://crosslinkviewer.org/ or by downloading the software from http://github.com/colin-combe/crosslink-viewer and running it locally. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Tropical forests are a net carbon source based on aboveground measurements of gain and loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccini, A.; Walker, W.; Carvalho, L.; Farina, M.; Sulla-Menashe, D.; Houghton, R. A.

    2017-10-01

    The carbon balance of tropical ecosystems remains uncertain, with top-down atmospheric studies suggesting an overall sink and bottom-up ecological approaches indicating a modest net source. Here we use 12 years (2003 to 2014) of MODIS pantropical satellite data to quantify net annual changes in the aboveground carbon density of tropical woody live vegetation, providing direct, measurement-based evidence that the world’s tropical forests are a net carbon source of 425.2 ± 92.0 teragrams of carbon per year (Tg C year–1). This net release of carbon consists of losses of 861.7 ± 80.2 Tg C year–1 and gains of 436.5 ± 31.0 Tg C year–1. Gains result from forest growth; losses result from deforestation and from reductions in carbon density within standing forests (degradation or disturbance), with the latter accounting for 68.9% of overall losses.

  7. Triiodothyronine activates lactate oxidation without impairing fatty acid oxidation and improves weaning from extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajimoto, Masaki; Ledee, Dolena R.; Xu, Chun; Kajimoto, Hidemi; Isern, Nancy G.; Portman, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides a rescue for children with severe cardiac failure. We previously showed that triiodothyronine (T3) improves cardiac function by modulating pyruvate oxidation during weaning. This study was focused on fatty acid (FA) metabolism modulated by T3 for weaning from ECMO after cardiac injury. Methods: Nineteen immature piglets (9.1-15.3 kg) were separated into 3 groups with ECMO (6.5 hours) and wean: normal circulation (Group-C);transient coronary occlusion (10 minutes) followed by ECMO (Group-IR); and IR with T3 supplementation (Group-IR-T3). 13-Carbon labeled lactate, medium-chain and long-chain FAs were infused as oxidative substrates. Substrate fractional contribution to the citric acid cycle (FC) was analyzed by 13-Carbon nuclear magnetic resonance. Results: ECMO depressed circulating T3 levels to 40% baseline at 4 hours and were restored in Group-IR-T3. Group-IR decreased cardiac power, which was not fully restorable and 2 pigs were lost because of weaning failure. Group-IR also depressed FC-lactate, while the excellent contractile function and energy efficiency in Group-IR-T3 occurred along with a marked FC-lactate increase and [ATP]/[ADP] without either decreasing FC-FAs or elevating myocardial oxygen consumption over Group-C or -IR. Conclusions: T3 releases inhibition of lactate oxidation following ischemia-reperfusion injury without impairing FA oxidation. These findings indicate that T3 depression during ECMO is maladaptive, and that restoring levels improves metabolic flux and enhances contractile function during weaning.

  8. Experiments and simulation of a net closing mechanism for tether-net capture of space debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, Inna; Thomsen, Benjamin; Botta, Eleonora M.; Misra, Arun K.

    2017-10-01

    This research addresses the design and testing of a debris containment system for use in a tether-net approach to space debris removal. The tether-net active debris removal involves the ejection of a net from a spacecraft by applying impulses to masses on the net, subsequent expansion of the net, the envelopment and capture of the debris target, and the de-orbiting of the debris via a tether to the chaser spacecraft. To ensure a debris removal mission's success, it is important that the debris be successfully captured and then, secured within the net. To this end, we present a concept for a net closing mechanism, which we believe will permit consistently successful debris capture via a simple and unobtrusive design. This net closing system functions by extending the main tether connecting the chaser spacecraft and the net vertex to the perimeter and around the perimeter of the net, allowing the tether to actuate closure of the net in a manner similar to a cinch cord. A particular embodiment of the design in a laboratory test-bed is described: the test-bed itself is comprised of a scaled-down tether-net, a supporting frame and a mock-up debris. Experiments conducted with the facility demonstrate the practicality of the net closing system. A model of the net closure concept has been integrated into the previously developed dynamics simulator of the chaser/tether-net/debris system. Simulations under tether tensioning conditions demonstrate the effectiveness of the closure concept for debris containment, in the gravity-free environment of space, for a realistic debris target. The on-ground experimental test-bed is also used to showcase its utility for validating the dynamics simulation of the net deployment, and a full-scale automated setup would make possible a range of validation studies of other aspects of a tether-net debris capture mission.

  9. Efficacy and residues of permethrin-incorporated nets used to protect maize grains post-harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaclerio, Matteo; Pellizzoni, Marco; Todeschini, Valeria; Kane, David; Hanafi, Ahmad; Trevisan, Marco; Lucini, Luigi

    2018-01-01

    Pest control in post-harvest food storage represents a great challenge in the sustainable prevention of food losses, and insecticide-treated netting may represent a valid alternative to traditional practices such as the direct application of insecticides. In our work, the efficacy of a permethrin-incorporated net, in combination with polypropylene or jute sacking, was tested for the control of Sitophilus oryzae. Contamination of maize grain by permethrin from the treated netting was also evaluated. A 98% control of S. oryzae was achieved using permethrin-treated netting. Both jute and polypropylene acted as additional barriers, increasing efficacy to 100%. The results also showed the contamination of maize kernel by permethrin released from the treated netting. The concentration of residues in maize kernels increased with increasing temperature; however, use of jute or polypropylene significantly reduced (by 87% to 97%) the concentration of residues transferred to maize kernels. Permethrin-treated netting provided a high level of efficacy in the post-harvest protection of maize. Several factors influenced permethrin residue concentrations in grains when treated nets are used. Therefore, solutions should be found to prevent contamination of food stored in the bags that are treated with insecticides. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Neutrophil NETs in reproduction: from infertility to preeclampsia and the possibility of fetal loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinuhe eHahn

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this review is to provide an overview of the potential role of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs in mammalian reproduction. Neutrophil NETs appear to be involved in various stages of the reproductive cycle, starting with fertility and possibly ending with fetal loss. The first suggestion that NETs may play a role in pregnancy-related disorders was in preeclampsia, where vast numbers were detected in the intervillous space of affected placentae. The induction of NETosis involved an auto-inflammatory component, mediated by the increased release of placental micro-debris in preeclampsia. This report was the first indicating that NETs may be associated with a human pathology not involving infection.Subsequently, NETs have since then been implicated in bovine or equine infertility, in that semen may become entrapped in the female reproductive during their passage to the oocyte. In this instance interesting species-specific differences are apparent, in that equine sperm evade entrapment via expression of a DNAse-like molecule, whereas highly motile bovine sperm, once free from seminal plasma that promotes interaction with neutrophils, appear impervious to NETs entrapment.Although still in the realm of speculation it is plausible that NETs may be involved in recurrent fetal loss mediated by anti-phospholipid antibodies, or perhaps even in fetal abortion triggered by infections with microorganisms such as L. monocytogenes or B. abortus.

  11. Lactate Racemization as a Rescue Pathway for Supplying d-Lactate to the Cell Wall Biosynthesis Machinery in Lactobacillus plantarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffin, Philippe; Deghorain, Marie; Mainardi, Jean-Luc; Tytgat, Isabelle; Champomier-Vergès, Marie-Christine; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Hols, Pascal

    2005-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is a lactic acid bacterium that produces d- and l-lactate using stereospecific NAD-dependent lactate dehydrogenases (LdhD and LdhL, respectively). However, reduction of glycolytic pyruvate by LdhD is not the only pathway for d-lactate production since a mutant defective in this activity still produces both lactate isomers (T. Ferain, J. N. Hobbs, Jr., J. Richardson, N. Bernard, D. Garmyn, P. Hols, N. E. Allen, and J. Delcour, J. Bacteriol. 178:5431-5437, 1996). Production of d-lactate in this species has been shown to be connected to cell wall biosynthesis through its incorporation as the last residue of the muramoyl-pentadepsipeptide peptidoglycan precursor. This particular feature leads to natural resistance to high concentrations of vancomycin. In the present study, we show that L. plantarum possesses two pathways for d-lactate production: the LdhD enzyme and a lactate racemase, whose expression requires l-lactate. We report the cloning of a six-gene operon, which is involved in lactate racemization activity and is positively regulated by l-lactate. Deletion of this operon in an L. plantarum strain that is devoid of LdhD activity leads to the exclusive production of l-lactate. As a consequence, peptidoglycan biosynthesis is affected, and growth of this mutant is d-lactate dependent. We also show that the growth defect can be partially restored by expression of the d-alanyl-d-alanine-forming Ddl ligase from Lactococcus lactis, or by supplementation with various d-2-hydroxy acids but not d-2-amino acids, leading to variable vancomycin resistance levels. This suggests that L. plantarum is unable to efficiently synthesize peptidoglycan precursors ending in d-alanine and that the cell wall biosynthesis machinery in this species is specifically dedicated to the production of peptidoglycan precursors ending in d-lactate. In this context, the lactate racemase could thus provide the bacterium with a rescue pathway for d-lactate production upon

  12. Pregnancy- and lactation-associated osteoporosis | Davey | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pregnancy-and lactation-associated osteoporosis is a rare syndrome of spontaneous fractures occurring in late pregnancy or lactation. Early diagnosis and management is essential, because of the severity of the morbidity associated with these fractures. Prior to therapy, other reversible causes of osteoporosis should be ...

  13. Derivation of standard lactation curves for South African dairy cows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African cows displayed more variation in yields compared to those of Holstein cows in the Netherlands and Ireland. Season of calving had a pronounced effect on the shape of the Standard Lactation Curve, while the combination of calving age and lactation affected both the shape and level of the curves. Expected ...

  14. herd levels and standard lactation curves for south african jersey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    variation in yields compared to those of Holstein cows in the Netherlands and Ireland. Season of calving had a pronounced effect on the shape of the Standard Lactation Curve, while the combination of calving age and lactation affected both the shape and level of the curves. Expected yields were therefore higher during the.

  15. 21 CFR 522.1698 - Pentazocine lactate injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pentazocine lactate injection. 522.1698 Section... § 522.1698 Pentazocine lactate injection. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous... due to colic. (iii) Limitations. Administer intravenously or intramuscularly. Intravenous injections...

  16. Reduced Maternal Selenium levels in Pregnant and Lactating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reduced Maternal Selenium levels in Pregnant and Lactating Nigerian women: Should Routine Selenium Supplementation be advocated? ... However, there was a non significant increase immediately after birth. In the breast milk, selenium concentration significantly decreased (P<0.0001) as lactation progressed.

  17. Fish meal supplementation to early lactation Jersey cows grazing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This trial was conducted to test the hypothesis that early lactation cows grazing ryegrass pasture and receiving maize and mineral supplementation could respond to additional supplementation with a protein source such as fish meal. Multiparous Jersey cows in early to mid lactation that grazed annual ryegrass pasture in ...

  18. Quantified Effects of Late Pregnancy and Lactation on the Osmotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alteration in erythrocyte osmotic fragility (EOF) during late pregnancy and lactation was investigated in 46 apparently healthy adult Sahel goats weighing 18- 30 kg consisting of 16 non-pregnant dry (NPD), 15 pregnant (PRE) and 15 lactating (LAC) animals. The PRE and LAC were in third trimester and nursing periods, ...

  19. Myocardial lactate metabolism in fetal and newborn lambs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartelds, B; Knoester, H; Beaufort-Krol, GCM; Smid, GB; Takens, J; Zijlstra, WG; Heymans, HSA; Kuipers, JRG

    1999-01-01

    Background-Around birth, myocardial substrate supply changes from carbohydrates before birth to primarily fatty acids after birth. Parallel to these changes, the myocardium is expected to switch from the use of primarily lactate before birth to fatty acids thereafter. However, myocardial lactate

  20. Transient congenital hypothyroidism after topical iodine in pregnancy and lactation.

    OpenAIRE

    Danziger, Y; Pertzelan, A; M. Mimouni

    1987-01-01

    A 6 week old girl with transient congenital hypothyroidism is described. The hypothyroidism was associated with multiple applications of povidone iodine during pregnancy and lactation. This case illustrates the potential hazard of using topical solutions containing iodine during pregnancy and lactation.

  1. Estimates of lactation curve parameters for Bonsmara and Nguni ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mike

    2013-05-30

    May 30, 2013 ... focus in the current study was on modelling the average lactation curve for each breed. Future research should focus on modelling of lactation curves for individual animals to aid in the genetic evaluation of beef cows. Acknowledgement. This research was jointly funded by the Agricultural Research Council ...

  2. Evaluation of Serum Iron Status of Lactating Mothers on Exclusive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: It is generally believed that a lactating mother is in a negative nutritional balance and this has often led to all forms of micronutrient supplementation including iron. However the iron status of our lactating mothers has received little or no evaluation. Aim: In this study, we determined the serum iron (SI), total iron ...

  3. Malnutrition and iron deficiency anaemia in lactating women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the status of iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) and malnutrition in lactating women. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: Six urban slum communities in Teklehaimanot district, Addis Ababa. Subjects: One thousand and seventeen lactating women were enrolled and assessed for their haemoglobin ...

  4. Listening to Motivational Music: Lactate and Cortisol Response to a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Listening to Motivational Music: Lactate and Cortisol Response to a Single Circuit Resistance Exercise for Young Male Athletes. ... CRE had no effect on GH, epinephrine and norepinephrine, yet decreased responses of lactate and cortisol were observed, which might be one of underlying mechanisms of fatigue reduction.

  5. Energetic parameters in pregnant and lactating rat ( Lasiopodomys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Energetic parameters in pregnant and lactating rat (Lasiopodomys brandtii) fed high- or low-fibre diets. OO Adewumi, XY Zhang, DH Wang. Abstract. The effect of diet quality (high-fibre (HF) or low-fibre (LF)) on energetic parameters in pregnant and lactating rats (Lasiopodomys brandtii) was examined. There was no ...

  6. Prelacteal feeding practices among lactating mothers in Benin City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Exclusive breastfeeding is the cornerstone of adequate early infant nutrition. Despite the acknowledged ... is so, a prospective, cross-sectional study involving mothers with recent history of lactation was carried. ... The reasons for pre-lacteal feeding included perceived delayed lactation and the need to keep the ...

  7. Genetic relationship between lactation curve traits in the first three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic relationship between lactation curve traits in the first three parities of dairy cattle. ... Records on functional traits relative to milk yield are scant. Properties of lactation curves could be used indirectly to ... in the contract mating scheme. Keywords: Correlation estimates, reproductive performance, test-day milk yield ...

  8. HANPP Collection: Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) as a Percentage of Net Primary Product (NPP) portion of the HANPP Collection represents a map identifying...

  9. Price smarter on the Net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, W; Marn, M; Zawada, C

    2001-02-01

    Companies generally have set prices on the Internet in two ways. Many start-ups have offered untenably low prices in a rush to capture first-mover advantage. Many incumbents have simply charged the same prices on-line as they do off-line. Either way, companies are missing a big opportunity. The fundamental value of the Internet lies not in lowering prices or making them consistent but in optimizing them. After all, if it's easy for customers to compare prices on the Internet, it's also easy for companies to track customers' behavior and adjust prices accordingly. The Net lets companies optimize prices in three ways. First, it lets them set and announce prices with greater precision. Different prices can be tested easily, and customers' responses can be collected instantly. Companies can set the most profitable prices, and they can tap into previously hidden customer demand. Second, because it's so easy to change prices on the Internet, companies can adjust prices in response to even small fluctuations in market conditions, customer demand, or competitors' behavior. Third, companies can use the clickstream data and purchase histories that it collects through the Internet to segment customers quickly. Then it can offer segment-specific prices or promotions immediately. By taking full advantage of the unique possibilities afforded by the Internet to set prices with precision, adapt to changing circumstances quickly, and segment customers accurately, companies can get their pricing right. It's one of the ultimate drivers of e-business success.

  10. Lactate production and clearance in exercise. Effects of training. A mini-review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stallknecht, B; Vissing, J; Galbo, H

    1998-01-01

    conditions. Due to influence on hormonal response, mitochondrial oxidative capacity and fiber recruitment, training diminishes glycogenolysis and lactate production. Training also increases lactate clearance. This reflects increased hepatic capacity for gluconeogenesis as well as increased lactate transport...

  11. Induction of lactational estrus in organic piglet production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anne Grete; Hermansen, John Erik

    2009-01-01

    The longer lactation period required in organic piglet producing herds reduces the potential number of produced litters per sow per year compared with that of conventional production. Induction and use of lactational estrus may be a way to increase the productivity in organic production. However...... in an organic outdoor system based on ad libitum feeding, individual housing until Day 35 in lactation, followed by grouping and introduction of a boar and weaning of piglets after 8 wk. Five groups with four sows ((Danish Yorkshire × Danish Landrace) × Danish Duroc) in each were observed, and rank...... study indicate that it is possible to combine lactational estrus and batch farrowing procedures to increase the number of weaned piglets per year per sow in organic piglet production based on 8 wk of lactation or more....

  12. Expression profiles of microRNAs from lactating and non-lactating bovine mammary glands and identification of miRNA related to lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in the regulation of milk protein synthesis and development of the mammary gland (MG). However, the specific functions of miRNAs in these regulations are not clear. Therefore, the elucidation of miRNA expression profiles in the MG is an important step towards understanding the mechanisms of lactogenesis. Results Two miRNA libraries were constructed from MG tissues taken from a lactating and a non-lactating Holstein dairy cow, respectively, and the short RNA sequences (18–30 nt) in these libraries were sequenced by Solexa sequencing method. The libraries included 885 pre-miRNAs encoding for 921 miRNAs, of which 884 miRNAs were unique sequences and 544 (61.5%) were expressed in both periods. A custom-designed microarray assay was then performed to compare miRNA expression patterns in the MG of lactating and non-lactating dairy cows. A total of 56 miRNAs in the lactating MG showed significant differences in expression compared to non-lactating MG (P<0.05). Integrative miRNA target prediction and network analysis approaches were employed to construct an interaction network of lactation-related miRNAs and their putative targets. Using a cell-based model, six miRNAs (miR-125b, miR-141, miR-181a, miR-199b, miR-484 and miR-500) were studied to reveal their possible biological significance. Conclusion Our study provides a broad view of the bovine MG miRNA expression profile characteristics. Eight hundred and eighty-four miRNAs were identified in bovine MG. Differences in types and expression levels of miRNAs were observed between lactating and non-lactating bovine MG. Systematic predictions aided in the identification of lactation-related miRNAs, providing insight into the types of miRNAs and their possible mechanisms in regulating lactation. PMID:23270386

  13. 78 FR 72393 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Investment Income Tax; Final and Proposed Rules #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 231 / Monday, December... Parts 1 and 602 RIN 1545-BK44 Net Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury... Investment Income Tax and the computation of Net Investment Income. The regulations affect individuals...

  14. 77 FR 72611 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... December 5, 2012 Part V Department of the Treasury Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 Net Investment... Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking...) the individual's net investment income for such taxable year, or (B) the excess (if any) of (i) the...

  15. Net analyte signal based statistical quality control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skibsted, E.T.S.; Boelens, H.F.M.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Smilde, A.K.; Broad, N.W.; Rees, D.R.; Witte, D.T.

    2005-01-01

    Net analyte signal statistical quality control (NAS-SQC) is a new methodology to perform multivariate product quality monitoring based on the net analyte signal approach. The main advantage of NAS-SQC is that the systematic variation in the product due to the analyte (or property) of interest is

  16. Asynchronous stream processing with S-Net

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grelck, C.; Scholz, S.-B.; Shafarenko, A.

    2010-01-01

    We present the rationale and design of S-Net, a coordination language for asynchronous stream processing. The language achieves a near-complete separation between the application code, written in any conventional programming language, and the coordination/communication code written in S-Net. Our

  17. Using the MVC architecture on . NET platform

    OpenAIRE

    Ježek, David

    2011-01-01

    This thesis deals with usage of MVC (Model View Controller) technology in web development on ASP.NET platform from Microsoft. Mainly it deals with latest version of framework ASP.NET MVC 3. First part describes MVC architecture and the second describes usage of MVC in certain parts of web application an comparing with PHP.

  18. Analysis of Petri Nets and Transition Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eike Best

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a stand-alone, no-frills tool supporting the analysis of (labelled place/transition Petri nets and the synthesis of labelled transition systems into Petri nets. It is implemented as a collection of independent, dedicated algorithms which have been designed to operate modularly, portably, extensibly, and efficiently.

  19. 27 CFR 7.27 - Net contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net contents. 7.27 Section 7.27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... the net contents are displayed by having the same blown, branded, or burned in the container in...

  20. Petri nets and other models of concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Sassone, Vladimiro

    1998-01-01

    This paper retraces, collects, and summarises contributions of the authors - in collaboration with others - on the theme of Petri nets and their categorical relationships to other models of concurrency.......This paper retraces, collects, and summarises contributions of the authors - in collaboration with others - on the theme of Petri nets and their categorical relationships to other models of concurrency....

  1. Delta Semantics Defined By Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    This report is identical to an earlier version of May 1978 except that Chapter 5 has been revised. A new paper: "A Petri Net Definition of a System Description Language", DAIMI, April 1979, 20 pages, extends the Petri net model to include a data state representing the program variables. Delta...

  2. Net neutrality and inflation of traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peitz, M.; Schütt, Florian

    Under strict net neutrality Internet service providers (ISPs) are required to carry data without any differentiation and at no cost to the content provider. We provide a simple framework with a monopoly ISP to evaluate the short-run effects of different net neutrality rules. Content differs in its

  3. Net Neutrality and Inflation of Traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peitz, M.; Schütt, F.

    2015-01-01

    Under strict net neutrality Internet service providers (ISPs) are required to carry data without any differentiation and at no cost to the content provider. We provide a simple framework with a monopoly ISP to evaluate different net neutrality rules. Content differs in its sensitivity to delay.

  4. The Net Neutrality Debate: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Rich

    2006-01-01

    Rich Greenfield examines the basics of today's net neutrality debate that is likely to be an ongoing issue for society. Greenfield states the problems inherent in the definition of "net neutrality" used by Common Cause: "Network neutrality is the principle that Internet users should be able to access any web content they choose and…

  5. Dynamic response of the thermometric net radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. D. Wilson; W. J. Massman; G. E. Swaters

    2009-01-01

    We computed the dynamic response of an idealized thermometric net radiometer, when driven by an oscillating net longwave radiation intended roughly to simulate rapid fluctuations of the radiative environment such as might be expected during field use of such devices. The study was motivated by curiosity as to whether non-linearity of the surface boundary conditions...

  6. Teaching and Learning with the Net Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Kassandra; Marateo, Raymond C.; Ferris, S. Pixy

    2007-01-01

    As the Net Generation places increasingly greater demands on educators, students and teachers must jointly consider innovative ways of teaching and learning. In this, educators are supported by the fact that the Net Generation wants to learn. However, these same educators should not fail to realize that this generation learns differently from…

  7. Verification of Timed-Arc Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lasse; Jacobsen, Morten; Møller, Mikael Harkjær

    2011-01-01

    Timed-Arc Petri Nets (TAPN) are an extension of the classical P/T nets with continuous time. Tokens in TAPN carry an age and arcs between places and transitions are labelled with time intervals restricting the age of tokens available for transition firing. The TAPN model posses a number...

  8. A Brief Introduction to Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1997-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets or CPN) is a graphical oriented language for design, specification, simulation and verification of systems. It is in particular well- suited for systems in which communication, synchronisation and resource sharing are important. Typical examples of application areas a...

  9. Gill net and trammel net selectivity in the northern Aegean Sea, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Saadet Karakulak

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Fishing trials were carried out with gill nets and trammel nets in the northern Aegean Sea from March 2004 to February 2005. Four different mesh sizes for the gill nets and the inner panel of trammel nets (16, 18, 20 and 22 mm bar length were used. Selectivity parameters for the five most economically important species, bogue (Boops boops, annular sea bream (Diplodus annularis, striped red mullet (Mullus surmuletus, axillary sea bream (Pagellus acarne and blotched picarel (Spicara maena, caught by the two gears were estimated. The SELECT method was used to estimate the selectivity parameters of a variety of models. Catch composition and catch proportion of several species were different in gill and trammel nets. The length frequency distributions of the species caught by the two gears were significantly different. The bi-modal model selectivity curve gave the best fit for gill net and trammel net data, and there was little difference between the modal lengths of these nets. However, a clear difference was found in catching efficiency. The highest catch rates were obtained with the trammel net. Given that many discard species and small fish are caught by gill nets and trammel nets with a mesh size of 16 mm, it is clear that these nets are not appropriate for fisheries. Consequently, the best mesh size for multispecies fisheries is 18 mm. This mesh size will considerably reduce the numbers of small sized individuals and discard species in the catch.

  10. Glucose feeds the TCA cycle via circulating lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Sheng; Ghergurovich, Jonathan M; Morscher, Raphael J; Jang, Cholsoon; Teng, Xin; Lu, Wenyun; Esparza, Lourdes A; Reya, Tannishtha; Le Zhan; Yanxiang Guo, Jessie; White, Eileen; Rabinowitz, Joshua D

    2017-11-02

    Mammalian tissues are fuelled by circulating nutrients, including glucose, amino acids, and various intermediary metabolites. Under aerobic conditions, glucose is generally assumed to be burned fully by tissues via the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) to carbon dioxide. Alternatively, glucose can be catabolized anaerobically via glycolysis to lactate, which is itself also a potential nutrient for tissues and tumours. The quantitative relevance of circulating lactate or other metabolic intermediates as fuels remains unclear. Here we systematically examine the fluxes of circulating metabolites in mice, and find that lactate can be a primary source of carbon for the TCA cycle and thus of energy. Intravenous infusions of 13C-labelled nutrients reveal that, on a molar basis, the circulatory turnover flux of lactate is the highest of all metabolites and exceeds that of glucose by 1.1-fold in fed mice and 2.5-fold in fasting mice; lactate is made primarily from glucose but also from other sources. In both fed and fasted mice, 13C-lactate extensively labels TCA cycle intermediates in all tissues. Quantitative analysis reveals that during the fasted state, the contribution of glucose to tissue TCA metabolism is primarily indirect (via circulating lactate) in all tissues except the brain. In genetically engineered lung and pancreatic cancer tumours in fasted mice, the contribution of circulating lactate to TCA cycle intermediates exceeds that of glucose, with glutamine making a larger contribution than lactate in pancreatic cancer. Thus, glycolysis and the TCA cycle are uncoupled at the level of lactate, which is a primary circulating TCA substrate in most tissues and tumours.

  11. Fluorometric determination of d-lactate in biological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Torben

    2017-12-15

    D-lactic acid in the mammalian body is mainly of microbiological origin and is often located somewhere along the digestive tract. Surgical, extensive re-sectioning of the small bowel may be one of the risk factors for altered balance in the microbiological environment. Higher levels in the body may lead to D-lactate acidosis and neurotoxicity; consequently, the possibility of diagnosis of this condition is important. Several analytical procedures for D-lactate have been introduced, but it is absolutely mandatory to distinguish this metabolite from the much more abundant and naturally occurring stereoisomer L-lactate. If enzymatic analytical methods are used, it is consequently essential to eliminate the response from L-lactate and the ubiquitous enzyme L-lactate dehydrogenase (L-LDH) (and other oxido-reductases) which will interfere with the D-lactate determination heavily. The present paper introduces an enzymatic-fluorometric method for determination of D-lactate in biological matrices, including blood plasma, serum and urine. Macro molecules, including enzymes, were initially precipitated by ethanol and the supernatant used for analyses. Several plasma samples were analysed with and without standard addition of both L- and D-lactate in order to validate the assay. The procedure effectively eliminates enzyme activities that may interfere with the D-lactate quantification, resulting in the situation that L-lactate in the sample does not interfere with the determination. Intra- and inter-assay precision, accuracy and recovery of the analyte were investigated and everything suggests that this method will be acceptable for analytical as well as descriptive purposes. The analytical procedure is suitable for a semi-automated large scale set-up in the laboratory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Continuous microdoses of chloramadinone during lactation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, C

    1970-11-01

    Progesterones and estrogens normally inhibit milk production. 50 lactating mothers, who had received no steroid since giving birth, were given daily doses of chlormadinone .5 mg from 5 to 40 days postpartum. Mothers and babies were seen every 2 weeks for 8 weeks and then every month. Milk production lasted an average of 5.7 months, with 7 women continuing from 7 to 10 months. On the average, the younger mothers produced more milk; the older ones recommenced menstruation sooner. Several supplemented their milk with other nourishment from the 2nd or 3rd month. The babies gained well, following closely the average gain, according to the Mexican Pediatric Academy. The chlormadinone was 100% effective as a contraceptive and milk production was good.

  13. [Pregnancy and lactation-associated osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlen, M; Lazarescu, A D; Hinz, C; Boncu, B; Schmidt, N; Pfeifer, M; Schwarz-Eywill, M; Pollähne, W; Minne, H W

    2017-04-01

    Pregnancy and lactation-associated osteoporosis (PLO) is a rare form of osteoporosis, which occurs in the last trimester or postpartum. So far 100 cases have been published. The leading symptoms are severe low back pain or less frequently hip pain. Many patients develop postpartum depression due to inability to care for the baby and vertebral fractures. The therapeutic decision has to be made individually but teriparatid and bisphosphonates seem to be the best option. We report the clinical course (16 years) of a 37-year-old patient with PLO, who suffered 6 vertebral fractures. There were severe physical limitations and mental problems caused by the disease. The patient was treated by multimodal therapy including physiotherapy and psychotherapy and bisphosphonates were given. The time between the onset of symptoms and diagnosis was 5 months. No further fractures occurred in the following 16 years. The physical and mental condition significantly improved.

  14. Recent Advances in Lactate Estimation and Lactate Sensors for Diagnosis of Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Lactate is one of the principle products of anaerobic metabolism in living organism. Determination of lactate (lactic acid is required in the diagnosis and medical management of various diseases such as tissue hypoxia, the individual causes include shock (hypovolemic, cardiogenic or endotoxic, systemic disorder (neoplastic diseases, liver or renal failure, diabetes mellitus, respiratory failure (asphyxia, severe congestive heart failure and also in food industry. Various methods are available for the measurement of lactic acid such as colorimetric, gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, ion exchange chromatography, near IR spectroscopy, HPLC, capillary electrophoresis, isotachophoresis, FIA, enzymic colorimetric and finally biosensor and biochip method. The principle, advantage and disadvantages of these methods have been compared and summarized in this review.

  15. Discrete, continuous, and hybrid petri nets

    CERN Document Server

    David, René

    2004-01-01

    Petri nets do not designate a single modeling formalism. In fact, newcomers to the field confess sometimes to be a little puzzled by the diversity of formalisms that are recognized under this "umbrella". Disregarding some extensions to the theoretical modeling capabilities, and looking at the level of abstraction of the formalisms, Condition/Event, Elementary, Place/Transition, Predicate/Transition, Colored, Object Oriented... net systems are frequently encountered in the literature. On the other side, provided with appropriate interpretative extensions, Controled Net Systems, Marking Diagrams (the Petri net generalization of State Diagrams), or the many-many variants in which time can be explicitly incorporated -Time(d), Deterministic, (Generalized) Stochastic, Fuzzy...- are defined. This represents another way to define practical formalisms that can be obtained by the "cro- product" of the two mentioned dimensions. Thus Petri nets constitute a modeling paradigm, understandable in a broad sense as "the total...

  16. Inflammatory mediators in mastitis and lactation insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingman, Wendy V; Glynn, Danielle J; Hutchinson, Mark R

    2014-07-01

    Mastitis is a common inflammatory disease during lactation that causes reduced milk supply. A growing body of evidence challenges the central role of pathogenic bacteria in mastitis, with disease severity associated with markers of inflammation rather than infection. Inflammation in the mammary gland may be triggered by microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) as well as danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) binding to pattern recognition receptors such as the toll-like receptors (TLRs) on the surface of mammary epithelial cells and local immune cell populations. Activation of the TLR4 signalling pathway and downstream nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) is critical to mediating local mammary gland inflammation and systemic immune responses in mouse models of mastitis. However, activation of NFkB also induces epithelial cell apoptosis and reduced milk protein synthesis, suggesting that inflammatory mediators activated during mastitis promote partial involution. Perturbed milk flow, maternal stress and genetic predisposition are significant risk factors for mastitis, and could lead to a heightened TLR4-mediated inflammatory response, resulting in increased susceptibility and severity of mastitis disease in the context of low MAMP abundance. Therefore, heightened host inflammatory signalling may act in concert with pathogenic or commensal bacterial species to cause both the inflammation associated with mastitis and lactation insufficiency. Here, we present an alternate paradigm to the widely held notion that breast inflammation is driven principally by infectious bacterial pathogens, and suggest there may be other therapeutic strategies, apart from the currently utilised antimicrobial agents, that could be employed to prevent and treat mastitis in women.

  17. Pharmacokinetics of metoprolol during pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Rachel J; Eyal, Sara; Easterling, Thomas R; Caritis, Steve N; Venkataraman, Raman; Hankins, Gary; Rytting, Erik; Thummel, Kenneth; Kelly, Edward J; Risler, Linda; Phillips, Brian; Honaker, Matthew T; Shen, Danny D; Hebert, Mary F

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the steady-state pharmacokinetics of metoprolol during pregnancy and lactation. Serial plasma, urine, and breast milk concentrations of metoprolol and its metabolite, α-hydroxymetoprolol, were measured over 1 dosing interval in women treated with metoprolol (25-750 mg/day) during early pregnancy (n = 4), mid-pregnancy (n = 14), and late pregnancy (n = 15), as well as postpartum (n = 9) with (n = 4) and without (n = 5) lactation. Subjects were genotyped for CYP2D6 loss-of-function allelic variants. Using paired analysis, mean metoprolol apparent oral clearance was significantly higher in mid-pregnancy (361 ± 223 L/h, n = 5, P < .05) and late pregnancy (568 ± 273 L/h, n = 8, P < .05) compared with ≥3 months postpartum (200 ± 131 and 192 ± 98 L/h, respectively). When the comparison was limited to extensive metabolizers (EMs), metoprolol apparent oral clearance was significantly higher during both mid- and late pregnancy (P < .05). Relative infant exposure to metoprolol through breast milk was <1.0% of maternal weight-adjusted dose (n = 3). Because of the large, pregnancy-induced changes in metoprolol pharmacokinetics, if inadequate clinical responses are encountered, clinicians who prescribe metoprolol during pregnancy should be prepared to make aggressive changes in dosage (dose and frequency) or consider using an alternate beta-blocker. © 2015, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  18. Associations between the time of conception and the shape of the lactation curve in early lactation in Norwegian dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Fredrik; Østerås, Olav; Reksen, Olav

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine if an association exists between the shape of the lactation curve before it is influenced by the event of conception and the time from calving to conception in Norwegian dairy cattle. Lactation curves of Norwegian Red cows during 5 to 42 days in milk (DIM) ...

  19. Stem/progenitor cells in non-lactating versus lactating equine mammary gland

    OpenAIRE

    Spaas, Jan; Chiers, Koen; Bussche, Leen; Burvenich, Christian; Van de Walle, Gerlinde

    2012-01-01

    The mammary gland is a highly regenerative organ that can undergo multiple cycles of proliferation, lactation, and involution. Based on the facts that (i) mammary stem/progenitor cells (MaSC) are proposed to be the driving forces behind mammary growth and function and (ii) variation exists between mammalian species with regard to physiological and pathological functioning of this organ, we believe that studying MaSC from different mammals is of great comparative interest. Over the years, impo...

  20. Lactate up-regulates the expression of lactate oxidation complex-related genes in left ventricular cardiac tissue of rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Gabriel-Costa

    Full Text Available Besides its role as a fuel source in intermediary metabolism, lactate has been considered a signaling molecule modulating lactate-sensitive genes involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle metabolism. Even though the flux of lactate is significantly high in the heart, its role on regulation of cardiac genes regulating lactate oxidation has not been clarified yet. We tested the hypothesis that lactate would increase cardiac levels of reactive oxygen species and up-regulate the expression of genes related to lactate oxidation complex.Isolated hearts from male adult Wistar rats were perfused with control, lactate or acetate (20mM added Krebs-Henseleit solution during 120 min in modified Langendorff apparatus. Reactive oxygen species (O2●-/H2O2 levels, and NADH and NADPH oxidase activities (in enriched microsomal or plasmatic membranes, respectively were evaluated by fluorimetry while SOD and catalase activities were evaluated by spectrophotometry. mRNA levels of lactate oxidation complex and energetic enzymes MCT1, MCT4, HK, LDH, PDH, CS, PGC1α and COXIV were quantified by real time RT-PCR. Mitochondrial DNA levels were also evaluated. Hemodynamic parameters were acquired during the experiment. The key findings of this work were that lactate elevated cardiac NADH oxidase activity but not NADPH activity. This response was associated with increased cardiac O2●-/H2O2 levels and up-regulation of MCT1, MCT4, LDH and PGC1α with no changes in HK, PDH, CS, COXIV mRNA levels and mitochondrial DNA levels. Lactate increased NRF-2 nuclear expression and SOD activity probably as counter-regulatory responses to increased O2●-/H2O2.Our results provide evidence for lactate-induced up-regulation of lactate oxidation complex associated with increased NADH oxidase activity and cardiac O2●-/H2O2 driving to an anti-oxidant response. These results unveil lactate as an important signaling molecule regulating components of the lactate oxidation complex in

  1. Portable lactate analyzer for measuring lactate in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and plasma ? method-comparison evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Monteiro de Almeida

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Increased plasma lactate levels can indicate the presence of metabolic disorders in HIV infected individuals. Objective: To determine whether a portable analyzer is valid for measuring cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and plasma lactate levels in HIV infected individuals. Method: CSF and plasma were collected from 178 subjects. Samples tested by the Accutrend® portable analyzer were compared to those tested by a reference device (SYNCHRON LX® 20. Results: The portable analyzer had in plasma sensitivity of 0.95 and specificity 0.87. For CSF the specificity was 0.95; the sensitivity 0.33; the negative predictive value was 95% and the positive predictive value 33%. Conclusions: These findings support the validity of the portable analyzer in measuring lactate concentrations in CSF that fall within the normal range. The relatively poor positive predictive value indicates that a result above the reference range may represent a “false positive test”, and should be confirmed by the reference device before concluding abnormality.

  2. Pro visual C++/CLI and the net 35 platform

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Pro Visual C++/CLI and the .NET 3.5 Platform is about writing .NET applications using C++/CLI. While readers are learning the ins and outs of .NET application development, they will also be learning the syntax of C++, both old and new to .NET. Readers will also gain a good understanding of the .NET architecture. This is truly a .NET book applying C++ as its development language not another C++ syntax book that happens to cover .NET.

  3. Chemical release module facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasoner, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    The chemical release module provides the capability to conduct: (1) thermite based metal vapor releases; (2) pressurized gas releases; (3) dispersed liquid releases; (4) shaped charge releases from ejected submodules; and (5) diagnostic measurements with pi supplied instruments. It also provides a basic R-F and electrical system for: (1) receiving and executing commands; (2) telemetering housekeeping data; (3) tracking; (4) monitoring housekeeping and control units; and (5) ultrasafe disarming and control monitoring.

  4. Measuring the impact of motivation on achievement and course completion rates in MarineNet distance education

    OpenAIRE

    Lindshield, Timothy D.

    2016-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The Marine Corps Distance Learning Network (MarineNet) is the primary source for distance education (DE) and online training for the Marine Corps. This research applies the learning theory of human motivation to archival MarineNet data to determine if motivation factors impact academic performance and course completion. The literature on motivation divides this variable into multiple types of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations. Each t...

  5. KONVERGENSI DALAM PROGRAM NET CITIZEN JOURNALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhafidilla Vebrynda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Di dalam artikel ini, peneliti ingin melihat perkembangan teknologi di Indonesia sebagai sebuah peluang untuk menjalankan sebuah program berita berbasis video kiriman masyarakat. Perkembangan teknologi tersebut adalah teknologi penyiaran, teknologi sosial media dan teknologi dalam proses produksi sebuah video. Di Indonesia, jumlah televisi semakin banyak. Setiap stasiun televisi harus bersaing untuk dapat bertahan hidup. Net TV merupakan sebuah stasiun televisi baru di Indonesia yang harus memiliki berbagai program unggulan baru agar dapat bersaing dengan televisi lainnya yang sudah ada. Net TV menggunakan berbagai platform media untuk menjalankan program Net Citizen Journalism (Net CJ. Penggunaan berbagai platform media dikenal dengan istilah multiplatform dan secara teoritis dikenal dengan istilah konvergensi. Konvergensi yaitu saat meleburnya domain-domain dalam berbagai media komunikasi. Artikel ini menggunakan metode studi kasus untuk melihat bagaimana konvergensi terjadi dalam proses pengelolaan program Net CJ. Teknik pengumpulan data adalah dengan wawancara mendalam, observasi dan studi dokumen. Wawancara mendalam dilakukan dari tiga sudut pandang yaitu dari pengelola program, pengguna/audience dan pengamat media. Penelitian ini menemukan bahwa dengan menggunakan berbagai platform media yang fungsinya berbeda, memiliki satu tujuan yang sama yaitu untuk menjalankan program Net CJ. Adapun berbagai platform dalam proses produksi program yaitu tayangan TV konvensional, streaming TV, website, aplikasi Net CJ, facebook, twitter, instagram dan path. Konvergensi media dijalankan dalam dua proses, yaitu proses produksi dan proses promosi program berita.

  6. Net Neutrality: Media Discourses and Public Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Quail

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes media and public discourses surrounding net neutrality, with particular attention to public utility philosophy, from a critical perspective. The article suggests that further public education about net neutrality would be beneficial. The first portion of this paper provides a survey of the existing literature surrounding net neutrality, highlighting the contentious debate between market-based and public interest perspectives. In order to contextualize the debate, an overview of public utility philosophy is provided, shedding light on how the Internet can be conceptualized as a public good. Following this discussion, an analysis of mainstream media is presented, exploring how the media represents the issue of net neutrality and whether or not the Internet is discussed through the lens of public utility. To further examine how the net neutrality debate is being addressed, and to see the potential impacts of media discourses on the general public, the results of a focus group are reported and analyzed. Finally, a discussion assesses the implications of the net neutrality debate as presented through media discourses, highlighting the future of net neutrality as an important policy issue.

  7. Lactate oxidation by three segments of the rabbit proximal tubule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, P.H.; Taylor, B.B.

    1986-09-01

    Oxidation of (U/sup 14/C)lactate to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ was measured in vitro, in nonperfused anatomically defined segments of rabbit proximal tubule (S1, proximal convoluted, and S2 and S3, proximal straight tubules). The rate of lactate oxidation was similar in S2 and S3 segments, and within the range of lactate oxidation rates measured in vivo. In contrast, the oxidation rate of S1 segments was significantly lower than that of S2 or S3. In proximal straight tubules, lactate oxidation was inhibited by incubation at 0/sup 0/C, or by application of 1 mM ouabain. To determine if the rate of transepithelial transport affected the rate of lactate oxidation, lactate oxidation was measured in proximal straight tubules after the lumen had been opened by perfusion with Ringer's containing 10 mM polyethylene glycol. No difference in lactate oxidation rate was observed between tubules with patent lumina and nonperfused tubules. These results suggest that the various segments of the renal proximal tubule have difference metabolic characteristics, and that the rate of substrate oxidation is related to the activity of the Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase.

  8. Lactation Consultants' Perceived Barriers to Providing Professional Breastfeeding Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstey, Erica H; Coulter, Martha; Jevitt, Cecilia M; Perrin, Kay M; Dabrow, Sharon; Klasko-Foster, Lynne B; Daley, Ellen M

    2018-02-01

    Addressing suboptimal breastfeeding initiation and duration rates is a priority in the United States. To address challenges to improving these rates, the voices of the providers who work with breastfeeding mothers should be heard. Research aim: The purpose of this study was to explore lactation consultants' perceived barriers to managing early breastfeeding problems. This qualitative study was conducted with a grounded theory methodological approach. In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 International Board Certified Lactation Consultants across Florida. Lactation consultants were from a range of practice settings, including hospitals, Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children clinics, private practice, and pediatric offices. Data were digitally recorded, transcribed, and analyzed in Atlas.ti. A range of barriers was identified and grouped into the following categories/themes: indirect barriers (social norms, knowledge, attitudes); direct occupational barriers (institutional constraints, lack of coordination, poor service delivery); and direct individual barriers (social support, mother's self-efficacy). A model was developed illustrating the factors that influence the role enactment of lactation consultants in managing breastfeeding problems. Inadequate support for addressing early breastfeeding challenges is compounded by a lack of collaboration among various healthcare providers and the family. Findings provide insight into the professional management issues of early breastfeeding problems faced by lactation consultants. Team-based, interprofessional approaches to breastfeeding support for mothers and their families are needed; improving interdisciplinary collaboration could lead to better integration of lactation consultants who are educated and experienced in providing lactation support and management of breastfeeding problems.

  9. Approximation methods for stochastic petri nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungnitz, Hauke Joerg

    1992-01-01

    Stochastic Marked Graphs are a concurrent decision free formalism provided with a powerful synchronization mechanism generalizing conventional Fork Join Queueing Networks. In some particular cases the analysis of the throughput can be done analytically. Otherwise the analysis suffers from the classical state explosion problem. Embedded in the divide and conquer paradigm, approximation techniques are introduced for the analysis of stochastic marked graphs and Macroplace/Macrotransition-nets (MPMT-nets), a new subclass introduced herein. MPMT-nets are a subclass of Petri nets that allow limited choice, concurrency and sharing of resources. The modeling power of MPMT is much larger than that of marked graphs, e.g., MPMT-nets can model manufacturing flow lines with unreliable machines and dataflow graphs where choice and synchronization occur. The basic idea leads to the notion of a cut to split the original net system into two subnets. The cuts lead to two aggregated net systems where one of the subnets is reduced to a single transition. A further reduction leads to a basic skeleton. The generalization of the idea leads to multiple cuts, where single cuts can be applied recursively leading to a hierarchical decomposition. Based on the decomposition, a response time approximation technique for the performance analysis is introduced. Also, delay equivalence, which has previously been introduced in the context of marked graphs by Woodside et al., Marie's method and flow equivalent aggregation are applied to the aggregated net systems. The experimental results show that response time approximation converges quickly and shows reasonable accuracy in most cases. The convergence of Marie's method and flow equivalent aggregation are applied to the aggregated net systems. The experimental results show that response time approximation converges quickly and shows reasonable accuracy in most cases. The convergence of Marie's is slower, but the accuracy is generally better. Delay

  10. Development of a new multiple sampling trawl with autonomous opening/closing net control system for sampling juvenile pelagic fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oozeki, Yoshioki; Hu, Fuxiang; Tomatsu, Chiaki; Kubota, Hiroshi

    2012-03-01

    A new multiple layer sampling trawl with an autonomous net opening/closing control system was developed to sample pelagic juvenile fish quantitatively. The new trawl system, based on the Matsuda-Oozeki-Hu Trawl (MOHT), has a rigid-frame 3.3 m high and 2.35 m wide and five nets of 11.0 m length with a rectangular mouth of 2.22 m×1.81 m (4 m2 mouth area; large-scale prototype). A cambered V-shape depressor is hung below the frame and two bridles are attached at the midpoint of the side frames. A net-release controller is used, which not only controls the net release mechanism but also records the net depth, temperature and flow rate during net towing. The controller sends stored command signals to the net release mechanism as depth settings and/or time settings and does not require any commands from the surface through a conducting cable or by acoustic signals. Two other models were constructed before the construction of the large-scale prototype, which are a small-scale prototype (2 m2 mouth area) for testing the net release mechanism and a 1/4-scale model of the large-scale prototype for flume tank tests. Flume tank tests with the 1/4-scale model showed that the frame leaned forward at a tilt angle from 5 to 15 degrees at towing speeds from 0.8 to 1.4 m s-1. Opened nets closed smoothly and sequentially nets were completely opened when the trigger was released by the command. Net depth rarely changed even during changes in towing speed. Sea trials both by the small-scale and the large-scale prototype demonstrated the same towing characteristics expected from the flume tank tests. The newly developed multiple layer opening/closing MOHT (MOC-MOHT) is considered to be suitable for quantitative layer sampling of juvenile fish.

  11. Visual Studio 2010 and NET 4 Six-in-One

    CERN Document Server

    Novak, Istvan; Granicz, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Complete coverage of all key .NET 4 and Visual Studio 2010 languages and technologies. .NET 4 is Microsoft's latest version of their core programming platform, and Visual Studio 2010 is the toolset that helps write .NET 4 applications. This comprehensive resource offers one-stop shopping for all you need to know to get productive with .NET 4. Experienced author and .NET guru Mitchel Sellers reviews all the important new features of .NET 4, including .NET charting and ASP.NET charting, ASP.NET dynamic data and jQuery, and the addition of F# as a supported package language. The expansive coverag

  12. Cerebral Lactate Dynamics Across Sleep/Wake Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Rempe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral metabolism varies dramatically as a function of sleep state. Brain concentration of lactate, the end product of glucose utilization via glycolysis, varies as a function of sleep state, and like slow wave activity (SWA in the electroencephalogram (EEG, increases as a function of time spent awake or in rapid eye movement sleep and declines as a function of time spent in slow wave sleep (SWS. We sought to determine whether lactate concentration exhibits homeostatic dynamics akin to those of SWA in SWS. Lactate concentration in the cerebral cortex was measured by indwelling enzymatic biosensors. A set of equations based conceptually on Process S (previously used to quantify the homeostatic dynamics of SWA was used to predict the sleep/wake state-dependent dynamics of lactate concentration in the cerebral cortex. Additionally, we applied an iterative parameter space-restricting algorithm (the Nelder-Mead method to reduce computational time to find the optimal values of the free parameters. Compared to an exhaustive search, this algorithm reduced the computation time required by orders of magnitude. We show that state-dependent lactate concentration dynamics can be described by a homeostatic model, but that the optimal time constants for describing lactate dynamics are much smaller than those of SWA. This disconnect between lactate dynamics and SWA dynamics does not support the concept that lactate concentration is a biochemical mediator of sleep homeostasis. However, lactate synthesis in the cerebral cortex may nonetheless be informative with regard to sleep function, since the impact of glycolysis on sleep slow wave regulation is only just now being investigated.

  13. Serum D-lactate concentrations in cats with gastrointestinal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, R A; Moore, G E; Chang, C-Y; Zello, G A; Abeysekara, S; Naylor, J M; Steiner, J M; Suchodolski, J S; O'Brien, D P

    2012-01-01

    Increased D-lactate concentrations cause neurological signs in humans with gastrointestinal disease. To determine if serum D-lactate concentrations are increased in cats with gastrointestinal disease compared to healthy controls, and if concentrations correlate with specific neurological or gastrointestinal abnormalities. Systematically selected serum samples submitted to the Gastrointestinal Laboratory at Texas A&M University from 100 cats with clinical signs of gastrointestinal disease and abnormal gastrointestinal function tests, and 30 healthy cats. Case-control study in which serum D- and L-lactate concentrations and retrospective data on clinical signs were compared between 30 healthy cats and 100 cats with gastrointestinal disease. Association of D-lactate concentration with tests of GI dysfunction and neurological signs was evaluated by multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses, respectively. All 100 cats had a history of abnormal gastrointestinal signs and abnormal gastrointestinal function test results. Thirty-one cats had definitive or subjective neurological abnormalities. D-lactate concentrations of cats with gastrointestinal disease (median 0.36, range 0.04-8.33 mmol/L) were significantly higher than those in healthy controls (median 0.22, range 0.04-0.87 mmol/L; P = .022). L-lactate concentrations were not significantly different between the 2 groups of cats with gastrointestinal disease and healthy controls. D-lactate concentrations were not significantly associated with fPLI, fTLI, cobalamin, folate, or neurological abnormalities (P > .05). D-lactate concentrations can be increased in cats with gastrointestinal disease. These findings warrant additional investigations into the role of intestinal microbiota derangements in cats with gastrointestinal disease, and the association of D-lactate and neurological abnormalities. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  14. Genetic moderation of child maltreatment effects on depression and internalizing symptoms by serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), norepinephrine transporter (NET), and corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) genes in African American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A

    2014-11-01

    Genetic moderation of the effects of child maltreatment on depression and internalizing symptoms was investigated in a sample of low-income maltreated and nonmaltreated African American children (N = 1,096). Lifetime child maltreatment experiences were independently coded from Child Protective Services records and maternal report. Child depression and internalizing problems were assessed in the context of a summer research camp by self-report on the Children's Depression Inventory and adult counselor report on the Teacher Report Form. DNA was obtained from buccal cell or saliva samples and genotyped for polymorphisms of the following genes: serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), norepinephrine transporter, and corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1. Analyses of covariance with age and gender as covariates were conducted, with maltreatment status and respective polymorphism as main effects and their Gene × Environment (G × E) interactions. Maltreatment consistently was associated with higher Children's Depression Inventory and Teacher Report Form symptoms. The results for child self-report symptoms indicated a G × E interaction for BDNF and maltreatment. In addition, BDNF and triallelic 5-HTTLPR interacted with child maltreatment in a G × G × E interaction. Analyses for counselor report of child anxiety/depression symptoms on the Teacher Report Form indicated moderation of child maltreatment effects by triallelic 5-HTTLPR. These effects were elaborated based on variation in developmental timing of maltreatment experiences. Norepinephrine transporter was found to further moderate the G × E interaction of 5-HTTLPR and maltreatment status, revealing a G × G × E interaction. This G × G × E was extended by consideration of variation in maltreatment subtype experiences. Finally, G × G × E effects were observed for the co-action of BDNF and the corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1

  15. Application and Theory of Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , the conferences have 150-200 participants, one third of these coming from industry and the rest from universities and research institutions. The 1992 conference was organized by the School of Computing and Management Sciences at Sheffield City Polytechnic, England. The volume contains twoinvited papers, by G......This volume contains the proceedings of the 13th International Conference onApplication and Theory of Petri Nets, held in Sheffield, England, in June 1992. The aim of the Petri net conferences is to create a forum for discussing progress in the application and theory of Petri nets. Typically...

  16. Performance Analysis using Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wells, Lisa Marie

    an explicit separation between modelling the behaviour of a system and monitoring the behaviour of the model. As a result, cleaner and more understandable models can be created. The third paper presents a novel method for adding auxiliary information to coloured Petri net models. Coloured Petri nets models...... in a very limited and predictable manner, and it is easy to enable and disable the auxiliary information. The fourth paper is a case study in which the performance of a web server was analysed using coloured Petri nets. This case study has shown that it is relatively easy to analyse the performance...

  17. The KM3NeT project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, U.F., E-mail: katz@physik.uni-erlangen.d [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics (ECAP), University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2011-01-21

    The KM3NeT research infrastructure in the deep Mediterranean Sea will host a multi-cubic-kilometre neutrino telescope and provide connectivity for continuous, long-term measurements of earth and sea sciences, such as geology, marine biology and oceanography. The KM3NeT neutrino telescope will complement the IceCube telescope currently being installed at the South Pole in its field of view and surpass its sensitivity by a substantial factor. In this document the major aspects of the KM3NeT technical design are described and the expected physics sensitivity is discussed. Finally, the expected time line towards construction is presented.

  18. The net neutrality debate on Twitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf J. Schünemann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The internet has been seen as a medium that empowers individual political actors in relation to established political elites and media gatekeepers. The present article discusses this “net empowerment hypothesis” and tests it empirically by analysing Twitter communication on the regulation of net neutrality. We extracted 503.839 tweets containing #NetNeutrality posted between January and March 2015 and analysed central developments and the network structure of the debate. The empirical results show that traditional actors from media and politics still maintain a central role.

  19. Recovery from Short Term Intense Exercise: Its Relation to Capillary Supply and Lactate Release,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    different from Report) IS. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES :.!-- To be published in Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine 19. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse side...an antecubital vein prior to exercise, during the short recovery period, immediately after the additional five contractions, and at each minute up to

  20. Blood lactate levels in 31 female dogs with pyometra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlstam Erika

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canine pyometra is a life-threatening disease common in countries where spaying of dogs is not routinely performed. The disease is associated with endotoxemia, sepsis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS and a 3–4% mortality rate. Blood lactate analysis is clinically valuable in predicting prognosis and survival, evaluating tissue perfusion and treatment response in human and veterinary critical care settings. The aims of the present study were to investigate 1 the blood lactate levels of female dogs with pyometra by a hand-held analyser and 2 if these levels are related with the clinical status or other biochemical or hematological disorders. Methods In total 31 female dogs with pyometra admitted for surgical ovariohysterectomy and 16 healthy female control dogs were included in the present study. A complete physical examination including SIRS-status determination was performed. Blood samples for lactate concentrations, hematological and biochemical parameters, acid-base and blood gas analysis and other laboratory parameters were collected and subsequently analysed. The diagnosis pyometra was verified with histopathological examination of the uterus and ovaries. Increased hospitalisation length and presence of SIRS were used as indicators of outcome. Results In the pyometra group the median blood lactate level was 1,6 mmol l-1 (range -1. In the control group the median lactate level was 1,2 mmol l-1 (range -1. Of the 31 bitches 19 (61% fulfilled 2 or more criteria for SIRS at inclusion, 10 bitches (32% fulfilled 3 of the SIRS criteria whereas none accomplished more than 3 criteria. Lactate levels did not differ significantly between the pyometra and control group, or between the SIRS positive and SIRS negative dogs with pyometra. Increased lactate concentration (>2.5 mmol l-1 was demonstrated in one female dog with pyometra (3%, and was not associated with longer hospitalisation or presence of SIRS. Lactate

  1. Mammary remodeling in primiparous and multiparous dairy goats during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safayi, S; Theil, P K; Elbrønd, V S; Hou, L; Engbaek, M; Nørgaard, J V; Sejrsen, K; Nielsen, M O

    2010-04-01

    Milk production is generally lower but lactation persistency higher in primiparous (PP) than in multiparous (MP) goats. This may be related to differences in development and maintenance of mammary gland function, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. The present study aimed to elucidate whether differences in lactational performance between PP and MP mammary glands are related to the time course of development and maintenance, not only of the mammary epithelial cell (MEC) population, but also of the mammary vasculature that sustains synthetic activity. Mammary biopsies were obtained from both mammary glands of 3 PP and 6 MP (>or=2 parity) dairy goats at parturition (d 1), d 10, 60, and 180 of lactation. Gene transcription relating to MEC turnover and vascular function was quantified by real-time reverse transcription-PCR, mammary morphology was characterized (quantitative histology), and cell turnover was determined (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay and Ki-67). Primiparous glands showed higher expression for the genes involved in angiogenesis; namely, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, and angiopoietin 1 and 2 and their receptor, a few days after parturition (d 10). Primiparous glands also had higher rates of MEC proliferation in early lactation. It therefore appears that initiation of lactation is associated with development and growth of the mammary gland into early lactation, which continues for a longer period in PP compared with MP glands. In addition, MEC survival was found to be higher in PP glands throughout lactation, and MEC in PP glands underwent more extensive differentiation. This could explain the reported flatter lactation curve and higher lactation persistency in PP glands. Although some of the genes included in this study were differentially expressed in PP and MP glands during the course of lactation, it was not possible to identify any specific genomic factor(s) that could account for

  2. Blood lactate concentrations in Göttingen minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen

    2017-01-01

    Blood lactate concentration is a useful monitoring parameter in both human and veterinary anaesthesiology. As an intermediate metabolite, elevated concentrations are associated with hypoxia and poor outcome after surgery. In a newly published study (J Am Ass Lab Anim Sci 2016, 55(1): 1-3) we...... compared blood lactate concentrations in Göttingen minipigs with domestic pigs. We also evaluated effects of body weight, type of anaesthesia and surgery. We found that reference values for blood lactate concentration should reflect the breed of interest....

  3. Oxytocin release in magnocellular nuclei: neurochemical mediators and functional significance during gestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, William E.; Crowley, William R.

    2010-01-01

    When released from dendrites within the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei (intranuclear release) during suckling, oxytocin exerts autocrine and paracrine effects on oxytocin neurons that are necessary for the unique timing and episodic pattern of oxytocin release into the systemic circulation that is characteristic of lactation. Recent reports have shown that stimulation of central noradrenergic and histaminergic receptors are both necessary for intranuclear release of oxytocin in response to suckling. In addition, in vitro studies indicate that excitatory amino acids may also be critical for central oxytocin secretion, although in vivo experiments have not provided direct support for this hypothesis. In addition to a critical role in intranuclear oxytocin release during lactation, norepinephrine has also been shown to stimulate central oxytocin during gestation. Stimulation of central oxytocin receptors during gestation appears critical for normal systemic oxytocin secretion in responses to suckling during the subsequent period of lactation. Oxytocin receptor blockade during pregnancy alters normal timing of systemic oxytocin release during suckling and reduces milk delivery. Several adaptations occur in the central oxytocin system that are necessary for determining the unique response characteristic observed during parturition and gestation. Central oxytocin receptor stimulation during gestation has been implicated in pregnancy-related morphological changes in magnocellular oxytocin neurons, disinhibition of oxytocin neurons to GABA, and adaptations in membrane response characteristics of oxytocin neurons. In conclusion, intranuclear oxytocin release during gestation and lactation are critical for establishing, and then evoking the unique pattern of systemic oxytocin secretion in response to the suckling offspring necessary for adequate milk delivery. Furthermore, activation of central noradrenergic receptors appears to be critical for release of

  4. Oestradiol negative feedback inhibition on LH secretion during lactation is prolonged in adolescent primiparous rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M E

    1993-01-01

    Lactational infertility in rhesus monkeys is significantly prolonged in adolescent primiparous compared with adult multiparous mothers. In order to determine if this longer period of infertility for young mothers is the result of a greater sensitivity to nursing-induced inhibition of LH release either by enhanced oestradiol negative feedback or a direct non-gonadally mediated suppression, the effects of periodic administration of oestradiol on serum LH concentrations in nursing ovariectomized adolescent primiparous (Prp; n = 5) and adult multiparous (Mlt; n = 7) mothers was assessed. Females were treated every 5-6 weeks with a 21-day time-release capsule of oestradiol which produced serum concentrations of approximately 250, 90 and 45 pmol/l by +6, +13 and +20 days after treatment. Thus, the design permitted assessment of LH and prolactin concentrations under a regime of 21 days of decreasing oestradiol levels followed by 2-3 weeks of no oestradiol treatment. Females were studied from week 3 to week 42 post partum and oestradiol treatment occurred during weeks 5, 11, 21, 26, 31, 36 and 41. Behavioural observations indicated that the amount of time mothers nursed their offspring decreased in a similar fashion throughout the lactational period for both Prp and Mlt females. LH concentrations under the 'no oestradiol' conditions progressively increased throughout lactation reaching maximum levels by week 36 post partum in a similar manner for both Prp and Mlt mothers. These data suggest that differences in fertility between adolescent and adult nursing mothers observed previously cannot be attributed to a difference in a direct non-gonadally-mediated affect on LH. With respect to oestradiol negative feedback inhibition of LH, oestradiol treatment effectively suppressed serum LH concentrations at all points during lactation up to week 31, at which time LH concentrations were maximally suppressed in both Prp and Mlt mothers at +6 days after treatment but by day +13 LH

  5. Deterministic model to evaluate the impact of lactational treatment of subclinical mastitis due to coagulase-negative staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bexiga, Ricardo; Ellis, Kathryn A; Vilela, Cristina L; Mellor, Dominic J

    2011-08-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the most frequently isolated bacteria from milk samples in several studies worldwide. Despite their relative frequency, specific measures aiming at their control are not well established. One possible measure to include in a control programme is lactational antimicrobial treatment. The decision to perform such treatment, as well as other actions on farm, should be based on the likelihood of financial return. A deterministic model was used to evaluate whether performing an antimicrobial treatment during the lactation for quarters infected with CNS was financially justifiable. Input variables for the impact of CNS on udder health were based on a previous study by the same authors and on available literature on the subject. Prices included in the model were based on 2009/2010 conditions in Portugal. The average result per antimicrobial treated quarter was a net loss of €38·74. Performing a sensitivity analysis to evaluate how systematic variation of the input variables of the model would lead to outcome changes showed that variation in input variables nearly always led to a negative outcome, with the greatest variation in losses observed for variation in the length of treatment and milk withdrawal period (-€46·26 to -€28·49). The situations in which a net benefit was to be expected included the bulk tank somatic cell count decreasing to a level corresponding to a premium payment or to penalties being avoided, and the prevention of transmission of CNS in the milking parlour when the possibility of transmission was at its highest level. For most situations, lactational treatment of CNS subclinical mastitis was not financially justifiable.

  6. Planning long lasting insecticide treated net campaigns: should households' existing nets be taken into account?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukich, Joshua; Bennett, Adam; Keating, Joseph; Yukich, Rudy K; Lynch, Matt; Eisele, Thomas P; Kolaczinski, Kate

    2013-06-14

    Mass distribution of long-lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLINs) has led to large increases in LLIN coverage in many African countries. As LLIN ownership levels increase, planners of future mass distributions face the challenge of deciding whether to ignore the nets already owned by households or to take these into account and attempt to target individuals or households without nets. Taking existing nets into account would reduce commodity costs but require more sophisticated, and potentially more costly, distribution procedures. The decision may also have implications for the average age of nets in use and therefore on the maintenance of universal LLIN coverage over time. A stochastic simulation model based on the NetCALC algorithm was used to determine the scenarios under which it would be cost saving to take existing nets into account, and the potential effects of doing so on the age profile of LLINs owned. The model accounted for variability in timing of distributions, concomitant use of continuous distribution systems, population growth, sampling error in pre-campaign coverage surveys, variable net 'decay' parameters and other factors including the feasibility and accuracy of identifying existing nets in the field. Results indicate that (i) where pre-campaign coverage is around 40% (of households owning at least 1 LLIN), accounting for existing nets in the campaign will have little effect on the mean age of the net population and (ii) even at pre-campaign coverage levels above 40%, an approach that reduces LLIN distribution requirements by taking existing nets into account may have only a small chance of being cost-saving overall, depending largely on the feasibility of identifying nets in the field. Based on existing literature the epidemiological implications of such a strategy is likely to vary by transmission setting, and the risks of leaving older nets in the field when accounting for existing nets must be considered. Where pre-campaign coverage

  7. Planning long lasting insecticide treated net campaigns: should households’ existing nets be taken into account?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Mass distribution of long-lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLINs) has led to large increases in LLIN coverage in many African countries. As LLIN ownership levels increase, planners of future mass distributions face the challenge of deciding whether to ignore the nets already owned by households or to take these into account and attempt to target individuals or households without nets. Taking existing nets into account would reduce commodity costs but require more sophisticated, and potentially more costly, distribution procedures. The decision may also have implications for the average age of nets in use and therefore on the maintenance of universal LLIN coverage over time. Methods A stochastic simulation model based on the NetCALC algorithm was used to determine the scenarios under which it would be cost saving to take existing nets into account, and the potential effects of doing so on the age profile of LLINs owned. The model accounted for variability in timing of distributions, concomitant use of continuous distribution systems, population growth, sampling error in pre-campaign coverage surveys, variable net ‘decay’ parameters and other factors including the feasibility and accuracy of identifying existing nets in the field. Results Results indicate that (i) where pre-campaign coverage is around 40% (of households owning at least 1 LLIN), accounting for existing nets in the campaign will have little effect on the mean age of the net population and (ii) even at pre-campaign coverage levels above 40%, an approach that reduces LLIN distribution requirements by taking existing nets into account may have only a small chance of being cost-saving overall, depending largely on the feasibility of identifying nets in the field. Based on existing literature the epidemiological implications of such a strategy is likely to vary by transmission setting, and the risks of leaving older nets in the field when accounting for existing nets must be considered

  8. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals different molecular mechanisms of Bacillus coagulans 2-6 response to sodium lactate and calcium lactate during lactic acid production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayang Qin

    Full Text Available Lactate production is enhanced by adding calcium carbonate or sodium hydroxide during fermentation. However, Bacillus coagulans 2-6 can produce more than 180 g/L L-lactic acid when calcium lactate is accumulated, but less than 120 g/L L-lactic acid when sodium lactate is formed. The molecular mechanisms by which B. coagulans responds to calcium lactate and sodium lactate remain unclear. In this study, comparative transcriptomic methods based on high-throughput RNA sequencing were applied to study gene expression changes in B. coagulans 2-6 cultured in non-stress, sodium lactate stress and calcium lactate stress conditions. Gene expression profiling identified 712 and 1213 significantly regulated genes in response to calcium lactate stress and sodium lactate stress, respectively. Gene ontology assignments of the differentially expressed genes were performed. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis revealed that 'ATP-binding cassette transporters' were significantly affected by calcium lactate stress, and 'amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism' was significantly affected by sodium lactate stress. It was also found that lactate fermentation was less affected by calcium lactate stress than by sodium lactate stress. Sodium lactate stress had negative effect on the expression of 'glycolysis/gluconeogenesis' genes but positive effect on the expression of 'citrate cycle (TCA cycle' genes. However, calcium lactate stress had positive influence on the expression of 'glycolysis/gluconeogenesis' genes and had minor influence on 'citrate cycle (TCA cycle' genes. Thus, our findings offer new insights into the responses of B. coagulans to different lactate stresses. Notably, our RNA-seq dataset constitute a robust database for investigating the functions of genes induced by lactate stress in the future and identify potential targets for genetic engineering to further improve L-lactic acid production by B. coagulans.

  9. Short- and long-term effects of high milking frequency during the first 21 days of lactation on production and reproductive performance in high-lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoshani, E; Cohen, M; Doekes, J J

    2017-01-01

    We examined short- and long-term effects of high milking frequency (HMF) for the first 21 days of lactation. The study included 122 Israeli Holstein cows - 32 pregnant heifers, 40 cows in second lactation and 50 cows in >second lactation. Heifers were paired according to predicted transmitting ability and cows according to energy-corrected milk (ECM) production, age, days in milk and expected calving date. Thin cows (body condition score second lactation cows relative to their control counterparts (-0.37%); ECM production was also higher in 6× milking first and second lactation (7.6% and 5%, respectively) but not for >second lactation cows. Furthermore, HMF had long-lasting effects, expressed as significantly higher milk production through the succeeding lactation in the previous first lactation cows (10%); a tendency toward significance in the second lactation cows relative to the controls (4.7%), but a deleterious effect on the >second lactation cows, reflected by lower milk production (-5.25%) than in controls; similar patterns were found for the ECM. For the entire 305 days of lactation, fat and protein yields were higher for first and second lactation cows, whereas protein yield for >second lactation cows was lower in the 6× milking v. Given that HMF during the first 21 days of first or second lactation increases milk and ECM yields throughout the concurrent and successive lactation with no adverse effect on energy balance, mastitis, metabolic diseases or reproduction, it seems to be economically beneficial. However, caution should be paid for >second lactation cows due to absence of significant effect in the entire of the first HMF applied lactation and the deleterious effect in the succeeding lactation.

  10. Associations between the time of conception and the shape of the lactation curve in early lactation in Norwegian dairy cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background This study was carried out to determine if an association exists between the shape of the lactation curve before it is influenced by the event of conception and the time from calving to conception in Norwegian dairy cattle. Lactation curves of Norwegian Red cows during 5 to 42 days in milk (DIM) were compared between cows conceiving between 43 and 93 DIM and cows conceiving after 93 DIM. Methods Data from 23,049 cows, represented by one lactation each, with 219,538 monthly test days were extracted from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System, which represents 97% of all Norwegian dairy cows. Besides veterinary treatments, these records also included information on daily milk yield at monthly test days. The data were stratified by parity groups (1, 2, and 3 and higher) and time to conception periods (43-93 DIM and >93 DIM). The sample was selected using the following selection criteria: conception later than 42 DIM, calving season July to September, no records of veterinary treatment and the level of energy fed as concentrates between 8.69 and 12.83 MJ. The shape of the lactation curves were parameterized using a modified Wilmink-model in a mixed model analysis. Differences in the parameters of the lactation curves with different conception times were evaluated using confidence intervals. Results Lactation curves characterized by a low intercept and a steep ascending slope and a steep descending slope were associated with early conception across all parities. The peak milk yield was not associated with time of conception. Conclusions A practical application of the study results is the use of the shape of the lactation curve in future herd management. Groups of cows with impaired reproductive performance may be identified due to an unfavorable shape of the lactation curve. Monitoring lactation curves and adjusting the feeding strategy to adjust yield therefore may be useful for the improvement of reproductive performance at herd level. PMID:21299912

  11. Predicting manure volatile solid output of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appuhamy, J A D R N; Moraes, L E; Wagner-Riddle, C; Casper, D P; Kebreab, E

    2018-01-01

    Organic matter (OM) in livestock manure consisting of biodegradable and nonbiodegradable fractions is known as volatile solids (VS). According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Tier 2 guidelines, methane produced by stored manure is determined based on VS. However, only biodegradable OM generates methane production. Therefore, estimates of biodegradable VS (dVS; dVS = VS - lignin) would yield better estimates of methane emissions from manure. The objective of the study was to develop mathematical models for estimating VS and dVS outputs of lactating dairy cows. Dry matter intake, dietary nutrient contents, milk yield and composition, body weight, and days in milk were used as potential predictor variables. Multicollinearity, model simplicity, and random study effects were taken into account during model development that used 857 VS and dVS measurements made on individual cows (kg/cow per day) from 43 metabolic trials conducted at the USDA Energy and Metabolism laboratory in Beltsville, Maryland. The new models and the IPCC Tier 2 model were evaluated with an independent data set including 209 VS and dVS measurements (kg/cow per day) from 2 metabolic trials conducted at the University of California, Davis. Organic matter intake (kg/d) and dietary crude protein and neutral detergent fiber contents (% of dry matter) were significantly associated with VS. A new model including these variables fitted best to data. When evaluated with independent data, the new model had a root mean squared prediction error as a percentage of average observed value (RMSPE) of 12.5%. Mean and slope biases were negligible at IPCC Tier 2 model had a RMSPE of 13.7% and a notable mean bias for VS to be overpredicted by 0.4 kg/cow per day. A separate model including OM intake as well as dietary crude protein and neutral detergent fiber contents as predictor variables fitted best to dVS data and performed well on independent data (RMSPE = 12.7%). The Cornell Net

  12. Intracellular lactate dehydrogenase concentration as an index of cytotoxicity in rat hepatocyte primary culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, E S; Dunbar, D; Kaminsky, L S

    1988-03-01

    In searching for a reliable index for cytotoxicity testing in rat hepatocyte primary culture, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) concentrations in lysates of attached hepatocytes and LDH released into the culture medium were compared under conditions of exposure to various dosages of sodium chloride, sodium salicylate, R-warfarin, acetaminophen, phenylbutazone, and furosemide (frusemide). The amount of intracellular LDH was assessed by inducing the cells to release the enzyme with 0.1% Triton X-100. The induced LDH leakage was completed in 1 hr and the LDH activity was stable in storage at 10 degrees for 2 weeks. We found that intracellular LDH is a direct indicator of the number of viable hepatocytes in contrast to the LDH released, because released LDH does not account for the significant number of cells detached from monolayer but which are not leaky, during the 6-hr test period. Based on IC50 values (50% inhibitory concentration), the relative cytotoxicities are R-warfarin greater than phenylbutazone greater than furosemide greater than acetaminophen greater than sodium salicylate greater than sodium chloride.

  13. RadNet Air Quality (Deployable) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RadNet Deployable Monitoring is designed to collect radiological and meteorological information and data asset needed to establish the impact of radiation levels on...

  14. A Lightweight TwiddleNet Portal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rimikis, Antonios M

    2008-01-01

    TwiddleNet is a distributed architecture of personal servers that harnesses the power of the mobile devices, enabling real time information and file sharing of multiple data types from commercial-off-the-shelf platforms...

  15. Homology Groups of a Pipeline Petri Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Husainov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Petri net is said to be elementary if every place can contain no more than one token. In this paper, it is studied topological properties of the elementary Petri net for a pipeline consisting of n functional devices. If the work of the functional devices is considered continuous, we can come to some topological space of “intermediate” states. In the paper, it is calculated the homology groups of this topological space. By induction on n, using the Addition Sequence for homology groups of semicubical sets, it is proved that in dimension 0 and 1 the integer homology groups of these nets are equal to the group of integers, and in the remaining dimensions are zero. Directed homology groups are studied. A connection of these groups with deadlocks and newsletters is found. This helps to prove that all directed homology groups of the pipeline elementary Petri nets are zeroth.

  16. Imperfect Asymmetry of Life: Earth Microbial Communities Prefer D-Lactate but Can Use L-Lactate Also

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazeni, Faegheh; Zhang, Gaosen; Sun, Henry J.

    2010-05-01

    Asymmetrical utilization of chiral compounds has been sought on Mars as evidence for biological activity. This method was recently validated in glucose. Earth organisms utilize D-glucose, not L-glucose, a perfect asymmetry. In this study, we tested the method in lactate and found utilization of both enantiomers. Soil-, sediment-, and lake-borne microbial communities prefer D-lactate but can consume L-lactate if given extra time to acclimate. This situation is termed imperfect asymmetry. Future life-detection mission investigators need to be aware of imperfect asymmetry so as not to miss relatively subtle signs of life.

  17. Net accumulation of the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilsholm, Sissi; Christensen, Jens Hesselbjerg; Dethloff, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    improvement compared to the driving OAGCM. Estimates of the regional net balance are also better represented by the RCM. In the future climate the net balance for the Greenland Ice Sheet is reduced in all the simulation, but discrepancies between the amounts when based on ECHAM4/OPYC3 and HIRHAM are found....... In both scenarios, the estimated melt rates are larger in HIRHAM than in the driving model....

  18. CDMA and TDMA based neural nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, J C

    2001-06-01

    CDMA and TDMA telecommunication techniques were established long time ago, but they have acquired a renewed presence due to the rapidly increasing mobile phones demand. In this paper, we are going to see they are suitable for neural nets, if we leave the concept "connection" between processing units and we adopt the concept "messages" exchanged between them. This may open the door to neural nets with a higher number of processing units and flexible configuration.

  19. Mastering AngularJD for .NET developers

    CERN Document Server

    Majid, Mohammad Wadood

    2015-01-01

    This book is envisioned for traditional developers and programmers who want to develop client-side applications using the AngularJS framework and ASP.NET Web API 2 with Visual Studio. .NET developers who have already built web applications or web services and who have a fundamental knowledge of HTML, JavaScript, and CSS and want to explore single-page applications will also find this guide useful. Basic knowledge of AngularJS would be helpful.

  20. .NET 4.5 parallel extensions

    CERN Document Server

    Freeman, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    This book contains practical recipes on everything you will need to create task-based parallel programs using C#, .NET 4.5, and Visual Studio. The book is packed with illustrated code examples to create scalable programs.This book is intended to help experienced C# developers write applications that leverage the power of modern multicore processors. It provides the necessary knowledge for an experienced C# developer to work with .NET parallelism APIs. Previous experience of writing multithreaded applications is not necessary.

  1. A Lightweight TwiddleNet Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    designed to exploit the multiple networking modalities available in the current generation of smartphones . TwiddleNet enables well-organized and well...of Sonopia and will have a comprehensive review of the service in the coming weeks [12]. Twango, which was acquired by Nokia in July 2007, is an...EXPERIMENTATION As already mentioned the main purpose of this thesis is the development of a TwiddleNet portal running on a smartphone or a PDA, which can allow

  2. CCS - and its relationship to net theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens

    1987-01-01

    In this paper we give a short introduction to Milner's Calculus for Communicating Systems - a paradigm for concurrent computation. We put special emphasis on the basic concepts and tools from the underlying "algebraic approach", and their relationship to the approach to concurrency within net...... theory. Furthermore, we provide an operational version of the language CCS with "true concurrency" in the sense of net theory, and a discussion of the possible use of such a marriage of the two theories of concurrency....

  3. Maximal lactate steady state in Judo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo, Paulo Henrique Silva Marques; Pithon-Curi, Tania; Zagatto, Alessandro Moura; Oliveira, João; Perez, Sérgio

    2014-04-01

    the purpose of this study was to verify the validity of respiratory compensation threshold (RCT) measured during a new single judo specific incremental test (JSIT) for aerobic demand evaluation. to test the validity of the new test, the JSIT was compared with Maximal Lactate Steady State (MLSS), which is the gold standard procedure for aerobic demand measuring. Eight well-trained male competitive judo players (24.3 ± 7.9 years; height of 169.3 ± 6.7cm; fat mass of 12.7 ± 3.9%) performed a maximal incremental specific test for judo to assess the RCT and performed on 30-minute MLSS test, where both tests were performed mimicking the UchiKomi drills. the intensity at RCT measured on JSIT was not significantly different compared to MLSS (p=0.40). In addition, it was observed high and significant correlation between MLSS and RCT (r=0.90, p=0.002), as well as a high agreement. RCT measured during JSIT is a valid procedure to measure the aerobic demand, respecting the ecological validity of Judo.

  4. Lactogenesis. The transition from pregnancy to lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, M C; Morton, J; Umemura, S

    2001-02-01

    The most important factors in initiation of the cascade of changes in the mammary epithelium that constitute lactogenesis stage II seem to be a prepared mammary epithelium, progesterone withdrawal, maintained plasma prolactin (in most species), and removal of milk from the breast within an undefined interval after birth. Although the molecular mechanisms by which prolactin regulates milk protein synthesis are the subject of intense and productive studies, the specific mechanisms by which progesterone and milk removal interact with the mammary epithelial cell at parturition have not been studied, perhaps because no in vitro model system exists that mimics lactogenesis stage II, or because of the complexity of the changes that must be coordinated during this process, or because of a lack of general understanding of the complex progression of changes in the function of the breast as it goes from the quiescent state of pregnancy to the active secretory state of lactation. With new technologies designed to investigate the biology of complex systems arising from the growing knowledge of the genome of human and animal species and the growing availability of animal and tissue culture models for these processes, physicians can expect a rapid increase in the molecular understanding of lactogenesis in the near future. These fundamental studies must be coupled with good prospective clinical studies if physicians are to obtain a useful, comprehensive understanding of lactogenesis in women.

  5. Susceptibility of hair sheep ewes to nematode parasitism during pregnancy and lactation in a selective anthelmintic treatment scheme under tropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Garduño, R; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Chay-Canul, A J

    2014-06-01

    The objective was to determine the influence of year, season and age of hair sheep ewes on their susceptibility to gastrointestinal nematodes during pregnancy and lactation and to record the number of treatments within a selective anthelmintic (AH) treatment programme. A trial was performed with 46 grazing ewes kept in hot humid tropical conditions. Data included: average daily weight gain (ADG, kg), packed cell volume (PCV, %) and nematode eggs per gram of faeces (EPG) obtained during 2 years (2009 and 2011-2012). Ewes reaching 1000 EPG were treated with AH. Irrespective of year, season and age, ewes were more susceptible to GIN during lactation (higher EPG, lower PCV and net weight loss) and less susceptible during gestation (lower EPG, higher PCV and net weight gain). As a result, 24.4% of the ewes were left untreated during lactation, while 63.0% of the ewes needed no AH treatment during pregnancy. Even under the hot humid tropical conditions of the farm, the individual EPG helped to maintain a considerable proportion of animals without an AH treatments within the flock. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Visual Studio 2013 and .NET 4.5 expert cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Sur, Abhishek

    2014-01-01

    If you are a Visual Studio 2013 or .NET developer who would like to sharpen your existing skill set and adapt to new .NET technologies, this is the book for you. A basic understanding of .NET and C# is required.

  7. HANPP Collection: Global Patterns in Net Primary Productivity (NPP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Patterns in Net Primary Productivity (NPP) portion of the Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) Collection maps the net amount of solar...

  8. Lactate transport and receptor actions in cerebral malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariga, Shelton T; Kolko, Miriam; Gjedde, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral malaria (CM), caused by Plasmodium falciparum infection, is a prevalent neurological disorder in the tropics. Most of the patients are children, typically with intractable seizures and high mortality. Current treatment is unsatisfactory. Understanding the pathogenesis of CM is required...... in order to identify therapeutic targets. Here, we argue that cerebral energy metabolic defects are probable etiological factors in CM pathogenesis, because malaria parasites consume large amounts of glucose metabolized mostly to lactate. Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) mediate facilitated transfer...... on brain cells and cerebral blood vessels, causing inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. High levels of lactate delivered by the parasite at the vascular endothelium may damage the blood-brain barrier, disrupt lactate homeostasis in the brain, and imply MCTs and the lactate receptor as novel therapeutic targets...

  9. Categorizing the safety of medications during pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, Robert H

    2009-04-01

    When physicians and nurses see patients, they must be able to understand and discuss how drugs are labeled with regard to pregnancy and lactation. This article describes the current and proposed U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) classification system for pregnancy and lactation labeling. Using data from animal and human studies, the FDA currently classifies drug safety into five categories; however, there is no current standard FDA classification system to categorize risk for lactation. Because the current labeling category system has been criticized, the FDA has proposed a revision of the system. The proposed change to the labeling system would provide more detailed, comprehensible, and practical information about the use and effects of drugs during pregnancy and lactation.

  10. Survey of lactation suppression in HIV-positive pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pammi, M; Carlin, E M

    2012-04-01

    The risk of HIV transmission via breastfeeding is well reported. We conducted a national survey in the UK to look at the current knowledge and postpartum practice of HIV physicians caring for HIV-positive pregnant women. In total, 167 questionnaires were distributed, 85 (51%) questionnaires were returned. All the respondents advised their patients against breastfeeding, 17 (23%) respondents routinely prescribed drugs for postpartum lactation suppression and 32 (43%) detailed awareness of interactions between antiretroviral therapy and dopaminergic lactation suppression agents. Thirteen respondents reported awareness of guidance on lactation suppression. The knowledge and use of lactation suppression agents appears to be low. However, its use will not only reduce postnatal mastitis and breast engorgement but will also help women deal with social pressures to breastfeed. Increased use in specific circumstances will improve the postnatal care of HIV-positive pregnant women in the UK.

  11. Treatment of insufficient lactation is often not evidence-based

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsson, Paul Bryde; Bjerrum, Flemming; Løkkegaard, Ellen Christine Leth

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Breast milk has many advantages over formula for infants in developed and developing countries alike. Despite intentions of breastfeeding, some women develop insufficient lactation. Treatment options traditionally include breastfeeding education and pharmacotherapy. MATERIAL...... AND METHODS: An electronic questionnaire regarding treatment of insufficient lactation was sent to all obstetric departments (n = 21) and neonatal wards (n = 17) in Denmark. Three main questions were included which focused on: breastfeeding education for women, use of pharmacotherapy and availability of local...... guidelines. RESULTS: In all, 30 out of a total of 38 departments participated; and among those, 93% offered some form of breastfeeding education. 50% used either metoclopramide or syntocinon to promote lactation. None used domperidone. 73% had a local clinical guideline. 77% offered sessions with a lactation...

  12. Atraumatic femoral neck fracture secondary to prolonged lactation induced osteomalacia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhammapal Sahebrao Bhamare

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Presenting a case of atraumatic fracture neck femur secondary to 2 years of prolonged lactation. A 26-year-old lactating mother presented with pain in left hip from last 12 months. She was apparently alright before and during pregnancy. Plain radiograph showed a complete undisplaced fracture of femoral neck. Osteomalacia was diagnosed by radiological and serological investigations. The fracture was fixed using AO type cannulated cancellous screws. The fracture showed good clinical and radiological union at 3 months. Literature review shows that this is a first case of atraumatic fracture of neck femur due to prolonged lactational osteomalacia. It showed that even apparently healthy Indians are susceptible to osteomalacia, more so during pregnancy and lactation and can be presented as atraumatic fracture. Although considered relatively stable, a compression type incomplete fracture neck femur may progress to a complete fracture if not treated in time.

  13. Cerebral lactate dynamics across sleep/wake cycles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rempe, Michael J; Wisor, Jonathan P

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral metabolism varies dramatically as a function of sleep state. Brain concentration of lactate, the end product of glucose utilization via glycolysis, varies as a function of sleep state, and like slow wave activity (SWA...

  14. Cerebral lactate dynamics across sleep/wake cycles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rempe, Michael J; Wisor, Jonathan P

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral metabolism varies dramatically as a function of sleep state. Brain concentration of lactate, the end product of glucose utilization via glycolysis, varies as a function of sleep state, and like slow wave activity (SWA...

  15. ARTIFICIAL INDUCTION OF LACTATION IN DAIRY CATTLE: A REVIEW

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D. L. M. Ecco; R. C. A. Berber

    2014-01-01

    Several researches used the combination of ovarian hormones estrogen and progesterone, by itself or in combination, to promote the development of the mammary gland and induction of lactation in cattle...

  16. Lack of Influence of the Menstrual Cycle on Blood Lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Linda S.

    1986-01-01

    Nine healthy women were tested before, during, and after exercise during the follicular and luteal phases of their menstrual cycles to determine the effect of menstruation on blood lactate levels. Findings are discussed. (Author/MT)

  17. Estimates of lactation curve parameters for Bonsmara and Nguni ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimates of lactation curve parameters for Bonsmara and Nguni cattle using the weigh-suckle-weigh technique. A Maiwashe, NB Nengovhela, KA Nephawe, J Sebei, T Netshilema, HD Mashaba, L Nesengani, D Norris ...

  18. Pregnant & Lactating Populations Research - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identifying and studying additional biomarkers of energy and nutrient intake will advance validation efforts and lead to a better understanding of the biases and sources of measurement error in dietary assessment instruments in pregnant or lactating populations.

  19. Chronic vs. Acute Interactions between Supraoptic Oxytocin Neurons and Astrocytes during Lactation: Role of Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Feng Wang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we review studies of astrocytic-neuronal interactions and their effects on the activity of oxytocin (OXT neurons within the magnocellular hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system. Previous work over several decades has shown that withdrawal of astrocyte processes increases OXT neuron excitability in the hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus (SON during lactation. However, chronically disabling astrocyte withdrawal does not significantly affect the functioning of OXT neurons during suckling. Nevertheless, acute changes in a cytoskeletal element of astrocytes, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, occur in concert with changes in OXT neuronal activity during suckling. Here, we compare these changes in GFAP and related proteins with chronic changes that persist throughout lactation. During lactation, a decrease in GFAP levels accompanies retraction of astrocyte processes surrounding OXT neurons in the SON, resulting from high extracellular levels of OXT. During the initial stage of suckling, acute increases in OXT levels further strengthen this GFAP reduction and facilitate the retraction of astrocyte processes. This change, in turn, facilitates burst discharges of OXT neurons and leads to a transient increase in excitatory neurochemicals. This transient neurochemical surge acts to reverse GFAP expression and results in postburst inhibition of OXT neurons. The acute changes in astrocyte GFAP levels seen during suckling likely recur periodically, accompanied by rhythmic changes in glutamate metabolism, water transport, gliotransmitter release, and spatial relationships between astrocytes and OXT neurons. In the neurohypophysis, astrocyte retraction and reversal with accompanying GFAP plasticity also likely occur during lactation and suckling, which facilitates OXT release coordinated with its action in the SON. These studies of the dynamic interactions that occur between astrocytes and OXT neurons mediated by GFAP extend our understanding of

  20. Lactate- and acetate-based cross-feeding interactions between selected strains of lactobacilli, bifidobacteria and colon bacteria in the presence of inulin-type fructans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moens, Frédéric; Verce, Marko; De Vuyst, Luc

    2017-01-16

    Cross-feeding interactions were studied between selected strains of lactobacilli and/or bifidobacteria and butyrate-producing colon bacteria that consume lactate but are not able to degrade inulin-type fructans (ITF) in a medium for colon bacteria (supplemented with ITF as energy source and acetate when necessary). Degradation of oligofructose by Lactobacillus acidophilus IBB 801 and inulin by Lactobacillus paracasei 8700:2 and Bifidobacterium longum LMG 11047 resulted in the release of free fructose into the medium and the production of mainly lactate (lactobacilli) and acetate (B. longum LMG 11047). During bicultures of Lb. acidophilus IBB 801 and Anaerostipes caccae DSM 14662 T on oligofructose, the latter strain converted lactate (produced by the former strain from oligofructose) into butyrate and gases, but only in the presence of acetate. During bicultures of Lb. paracasei 8700:2 and A. caccae DSM 14662 T or Eubacterium hallii DSM 17630 on inulin, the butyrate-producing strains consumed low concentrations of lactate and acetate generated by inulin degradation by the Lactobacillus strain. As more acetate was produced during tricultures of Lb. paracasei 8700:2 and B. longum LMG 11047, which degraded inulin simultaneously, and A. caccae DSM 14662 T or E. hallii DSM 17630, a complete conversion of lactate into butyrate and gases by these butyrate-producing strains occurred. Therefore, butyrate production by lactate-consuming, butyrate-producing colon bacterial strains incapable of ITF degradation, resulted from cross-feeding of monosaccharides and lactate by an ITF-degrading Lactobacillus strain and acetate produced by a Bifidobacterium strain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.