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Sample records for net joint moments

  1. Relationship between resultant force at the pushrim and the net shoulder joint moments during manual wheelchair propulsion in elderly persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desroches, Guillaume; Aissaoui, Rachid; Bourbonnais, Daniel

    2008-06-01

    To determine the relationship between the resultant force at the pushrim and the net shoulder joint moments during manual wheelchair propulsion in elderly persons. Convenience sample. Motion analysis laboratory. Older manual wheelchair users (N=14; age, 68.2+/-5.2y) were tested. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected during manual wheelchair propulsion at a speed between 0.96 and 1.01m/s for 10 seconds and at a power output around 22.4W on a wheelchair ergometer. Net shoulder joint moments were computed with an inverse dynamic model. The mechanical use of the forces at the pushrim and the mechanical fraction of effective force were measured during propulsion. Mechanical use and mechanical fraction of effective force had a positive and significant correlation with the net internal (Pplane, and the net flexion (Pplane. The results suggest that because the resultant force at the pushrim has a greater tangential component and a greater proportion of the maximal voluntary force, most of the net moments around the shoulder are higher. Thus the optimal way of propelling, from a mechanical point of view (ie, tangential), may not be advantageous for manual wheelchair users.

  2. Modulation of joint moments and work in the goat hindlimb with locomotor speed and surface grade

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arnold, Allison S; Lee, David V; Biewener, Andrew A

    2013-01-01

    ..., +15 and -15 deg sloped surfaces. Net joint moments, powers and work were estimated at the goats' hip, knee, ankle and metatarsophalangeal joints throughout the stance phase via inverse dynamics calculations...

  3. Explanations pertaining to the Hip Joint Flexor Moment During the Stance Phase of Human Walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik B; Cappelen, Katrine L; Skorini, Ragnhild

    2012-01-01

    positions: normal, inclined and reclined. Net joint moments were calculated about the hip, knee and ankle joint. The peak hip joint flexor moment during late stance was significantly lower during inclined walking than in the two other conditions. During normal walking the iliacus muscle showed no or very...... activity but only in the swing phase. It is concluded that the hip flexor moment in question is largely generated by passive structures in the form of ligaments resisting hip joint extension....

  4. Predicting the Functional Roles of Knee Joint Muscles from Internal Joint Moments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaxman, Teresa E; Alkjær, Tine; Simonsen, Erik B; Krogsgaard, Michael R; Benoit, Daniel L

    2017-03-01

    Knee muscles are commonly labeled as flexors or extensors and aptly stabilize the knee against sagittal plane loads. However, how these muscles stabilize the knee against adduction-abduction and rotational loads remains unclear. Our study sought 1) to classify muscle roles as they relate to joint stability by quantifying the relationship between individual muscle activation patterns and internal net joint moments in all three loading planes and 2) to determine whether these roles change with increasing force levels. A standing isometric force matching protocol required subjects to modulate ground reaction forces to elicit various combinations and magnitudes of sagittal, frontal, and transverse internal joint moments. Surface EMG measured activities of 10 lower limb muscles. Partial least squares regressions determined which internal moment(s) were significantly related to the activation of individual muscles. Rectus femoris and tensor fasciae latae were classified as moment actuators for knee extension and hip flexion. Hamstrings were classified as moment actuators for hip extension and knee flexion. Gastrocnemius and hamstring muscles were classified as specific joint stabilizers for knee rotation. Vastii were classified as general joint stabilizers because activation was independent of moment generation. Muscle roles did not change with increasing effort levels. Our findings indicate muscle activation is not dependent on anatomical orientation but perhaps on its role in maintaining knee joint stability in the frontal and transverse loading planes. This is useful for delineating the roles of biarticular knee joint muscles and could have implications in robotics, musculoskeletal modeling, sports sciences, and rehabilitation.

  5. Predicting the Functional Roles of Knee Joint Muscles from Internal Joint Moments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flaxman, Teresa E; Alkjær, Tine; Simonsen, Erik B

    2017-01-01

    subjects to modulate ground reaction forces to elicit various combinations and magnitudes of sagittal, frontal, and transverse internal joint moments. Surface EMG measured activities of 10 lower limb muscles. Partial least squares regressions determined which internal moment(s) were significantly related......INTRODUCTION: Knee muscles are commonly labeled as flexors or extensors and aptly stabilize the knee against sagittal plane loads. However, how these muscles stabilize the knee against adduction-abduction and rotational loads remains unclear. Our study sought 1) to classify muscle roles...... as they relate to joint stability by quantifying the relationship between individual muscle activation patterns and internal net joint moments in all three loading planes and 2) to determine whether these roles change with increasing force levels. METHODS: A standing isometric force matching protocol required...

  6. Effects of the racket polar moment of inertia on dominant upper limb joint moments during tennis serve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Rogowski

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of the polar moment of inertia of a tennis racket on upper limb loading in the serve. Eight amateur competition tennis players performed two sets of 10 serves using two rackets identical in mass, position of center of mass and moments of inertia other than the polar moment of inertia (0.00152 vs 0.00197 kg.m2. An eight-camera motion analysis system collected the 3D trajectories of 16 markers, located on the thorax, upper limbs and racket, from which shoulder, elbow and wrist net joint moments and powers were computed using inverse dynamics. During the cocking phase, increased racket polar moment of inertia was associated with significant increases in the peak shoulder extension and abduction moments, as well the peak elbow extension, valgus and supination moments. During the forward swing phase, peak wrist extension and radial deviation moments significantly increased with polar moment of inertia. During the follow-through phase, the peak shoulder adduction, elbow pronation and wrist external rotation moments displayed a significant inverse relationship with polar moment of inertia. During the forward swing, the magnitudes of negative joint power at the elbow and wrist were significantly larger when players served using the racket with a higher polar moment of inertia. Although a larger polar of inertia allows players to better tolerate off-center impacts, it also appears to place additional loads on the upper extremity when serving and may therefore increase injury risk in tennis players.

  7. Modulation of joint moments and work in the goat hindlimb with locomotor speed and surface grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Allison S; Lee, David V; Biewener, Andrew A

    2013-06-15

    Goats and other quadrupeds must modulate the work output of their muscles to accommodate the changing mechanical demands associated with locomotion in their natural environments. This study examined which hindlimb joint moments goats use to generate and absorb mechanical energy on level and sloped surfaces over a range of locomotor speeds. Ground reaction forces and the three-dimensional locations of joint markers were recorded as goats walked, trotted and galloped over 0, +15 and -15 deg sloped surfaces. Net joint moments, powers and work were estimated at the goats' hip, knee, ankle and metatarsophalangeal joints throughout the stance phase via inverse dynamics calculations. Differences in locomotor speed on the level, inclined and declined surfaces were characterized and accounted for by fitting regression equations to the joint moment, power and work data plotted versus non-dimensionalized speed. During level locomotion, the net work generated by moments at each of the hindlimb joints was small (less than 0.1 J kg(-1) body mass) and did not vary substantially with gait or locomotor speed. During uphill running, by contrast, mechanical energy was generated at the hip, knee and ankle, and the net work at each of these joints increased dramatically with speed (Pgoats generated larger knee extension moments in the first half of stance, absorbing energy as the knee flexed, and goats generated smaller ankle extension moments in the second half of stance, delivering less energy. The goats' hip extension moment in mid-stance was also diminished, contributing to the decrease in energy. These analyses offer new insight into quadrupedal locomotion, clarifying how the moments generated by hindlimb muscles modulate mechanical energy at different locomotor speeds and grades, as needed to accommodate the demands of variable terrain.

  8. Upper limb joint forces and moments during underwater cyclical movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Jessy; Rouard, Annie Hélène; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo

    2016-10-03

    Sound inverse dynamics modeling is lacking in aquatic locomotion research because of the difficulty in measuring hydrodynamic forces in dynamic conditions. Here we report the successful implementation and validation of an innovative methodology crossing new computational fluid dynamics and inverse dynamics techniques to quantify upper limb joint forces and moments while moving in water. Upper limb kinematics of seven male swimmers sculling while ballasted with 4kg was recorded through underwater motion capture. Together with body scans, segment inertial properties, and hydrodynamic resistances computed from a unique dynamic mesh algorithm capable to handle large body deformations, these data were fed into an inverse dynamics model to solve for joint kinetics. Simulation validity was assessed by comparing the impulse produced by the arms, calculated by integrating vertical forces over a stroke period, to the net theoretical impulse of buoyancy and ballast forces. A resulting gap of 1.2±3.5% provided confidence in the results. Upper limb joint load was within 5% of swimmer׳s body weight, which tends to supports the use of low-load aquatic exercises to reduce joint stress. We expect this significant methodological improvement to pave the way towards deeper insights into the mechanics of aquatic movement and the establishment of practice guidelines in rehabilitation, fitness or swimming performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Higher Moments of Net-Kaon Multiplicity Distributions at STAR

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2016-01-01

    Fluctuations of conserved quantities such as baryon number (B), electric charge number (Q), and strangeness number (S), are sensitive to the correlation length and can be used to probe non-gaussian fluctuations near the critical point. Experimentally, higher moments of the multiplicity distributions have been used to search for the QCD critical point in heavy-ion collisions. In this paper, we report the efficiency-corrected cumulants and their ratios of mid- rapidity (|y| < 0.5) net-kaon multiplicity distributions in Au+Au collisions at 7.7, 11.5, 14.5, 19.6, 27, 39, 62.4, and 200 GeV collected in 2010, 2011, and 2014 with STAR at RHIC. The centrality and energy dependence of the cumulants and their ratios, are presented. Furthermore, the comparisons with baseline calculations (Poisson) and non-critical-point models (UrQMD) are also discussed.

  10. Behaviour of high strength steel moment joints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girão Coelho, A.M.; Bijlaard, F.S.K.

    2010-01-01

    The design of joints to European standard EN 1993 within the semi-continuous/partially restrained philosophy is restricted to steel grades up to S460. With the recent development of high performance steels, the need for these restrictions should be revisited. The semicontinuous joint modelling can

  11. Knee Osteoarthritis Affects the Distribution of Joint Moments During Gait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeni, Joseph A; Higginson, Jill S.

    2010-01-01

    Alterations in lower extremity kinetics have been shown to exist in persons with knee osteoarthritis (OA), however few investigations have examined how the intersegmental coordination of the lower extremity kinetic chain varies in the presence of knee joint pathology. The objective of this study was to evaluate the how knee OA and walking speed affect total support moment and individual joint contributions to the total support moment. Fifteen healthy subjects and 30 persons with knee OA participated in 3D walking analysis at constrained (1.0 m/s), self-selected and fastest tolerable walking speeds. Individual joint contributions to total support moment were analyzed using separate ANOVAs with one repeated measure (walking speed). Linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between walking speed and joint contribution. Persons with knee OA reduced the contribution of the knee joint when walking at constrained (p=0.04) and self-selected walking speeds (p=0.009). There was a significant increase in the ankle contribution and a significant decrease in the hip contribution when walking speed was increased (Pknee OA is not responsible for the reduction in knee joint moments, rather this change is likely due to alterations in the neuromuscular strategy of the lower extremity kinetic chain in response to joint pain or muscle weakness. PMID:20510618

  12. Adaptive Elastic Net for Generalized Methods of Moments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caner, Mehmet; Zhang, Hao Helen

    2014-01-30

    Model selection and estimation are crucial parts of econometrics. This paper introduces a new technique that can simultaneously estimate and select the model in generalized method of moments (GMM) context. The GMM is particularly powerful for analyzing complex data sets such as longitudinal and panel data, and it has wide applications in econometrics. This paper extends the least squares based adaptive elastic net estimator of Zou and Zhang (2009) to nonlinear equation systems with endogenous variables. The extension is not trivial and involves a new proof technique due to estimators lack of closed form solutions. Compared to Bridge-GMM of Caner (2009), we allow for the number of parameters to diverge to infinity as well as collinearity among a large number of variables, also the redundant parameters set to zero via a data dependent technique. This method has the oracle property, meaning that we can estimate nonzero parameters with their standard limit and the redundant parameters are dropped from the equations simultaneously. Numerical examples are used to illustrate the performance of the new method.

  13. Distributionally Robust Joint Chance Constrained Problem under Moment Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-wei Ding

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss and develop the convex approximation for robust joint chance constraints under uncertainty of first- and second-order moments. Robust chance constraints are approximated by Worst-Case CVaR constraints which can be reformulated by a semidefinite programming. Then the chance constrained problem can be presented as semidefinite programming. We also find that the approximation for robust joint chance constraints has an equivalent individual quadratic approximation form.

  14. Energy Dependence of Moments of Net-Proton, Net-Kaon, and Net-Charge Multiplicity Distributions at STAR

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2016-01-01

    One of the main goals of the RHIC Beam Energy Scan (BES) program is to study the QCD phase structure, which includes the search for the QCD critical point, over a wide range of chemical potential. Theoretical calculations predict that fluctuations of conserved quantities, such as baryon number (B), charge (Q), and strangeness (S), are sensitive to the correlation length of the dynamical system. Experimentally, higher moments of multiplicity distributions have been utilized to search for the QCD critical point in heavy-ion collisions. In this paper, we report recent efficiency-corrected cumulants and cumulants ratios of the net- proton, net-kaon, and net-charge multiplicity distributions in Au+Au collisions at 7.7, 11.5, 14.5, 19.6, 27, 39, 62.4, and 200 GeV collected in the years 2010, 2011, and 2014 with STAR at RHIC. The centrality and energy dependence of the cumulants up to the fourth order, as well as their ratios, are presented. Furthermore, the comparisons with baseline calculations (Poisson) and non-c...

  15. The Origin of the Net Magnetic Moment in LaCoO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Gregory M.

    Investigations into the origin of the magnetic moment in LaCoO3 were done. Using mean-field calculations we demonstrate that the presence of just antiferromagnetic interactions is enough to generate a net moment in the system. Metastable states form upon FC. Twinning interfaces in LaCoO 3 are examined and their contribution is demonstrated.

  16. Differences between measured and resultant joint moments during isometric contractions at the ankle joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arampatzis, Adamantios; Morey-Klapsing, Gaspar; Karamanidis, Kiros; DeMonte, Gianpiero; Stafilidis, Savvas; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine two hypotheses: (a) during voluntary and electrically induced isometric contractions the moments measured at the dynamometer are different from the resultant moments in the same plane around the ankle joint and (b) at a given resultant moment during electrically induced isometric contractions the ankle angle while loading is different from the ankle angle while unloading. Twenty-seven long distance runners participated in the study. All subjects performed isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) and contractions induced by electrostimulation at four different ankle-knee angle combinations on a Biodex-dynamometer. The kinematics of the leg were recorded using the vicon 624 system with eight cameras operating at 120 Hz. The main findings were: (a) the resultant moment at the ankle joint and the moment measured by the Biodex-dynamometer during isometric contractions are different, (b) during a plantar flexion effort the ankle angle changes significantly, whereas the knee angle shows only small and in most cases not significant changes, and (c) at identical resultant ankle joint moments the ankle angles are different between the loading and the unloading phases. The observed differences may lead to erroneous conclusions concerning the following: (a) diagnostic of muscle architecture, (b) estimation of the moment-ankle angle relationship and (c) estimation of the strain and hysteresis of tendons and aponeuroses.

  17. Comparing polynomial and cubic spline interpolation of segment angles for estimating L5/S1 net moment during symmetric lifting tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, X.; Chang, C.C.; Faber, G.S.; Kingma, I.; Dennerlein, J.T.

    2010-01-01

    Simple video-based methods previously proposed for field research to estimate L5/S1 net moments during real-world manual materials handling rely on polynomial interpolation on the joint angles from key frames extracted from video recordings; however, polynomial interpolations may not converge as the

  18. Higher moments of net proton multiplicity distributions at RHIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alakhverdyants, A V; Alekseev, I; Alford, J; Anderson, B D; Arkhipkin, D; Averichev, G S; Balewski, J; Barnby, L S; Baumgart, S; Beavis, D R; Bellwied, R; Betancourt, M J; Betts, R R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Biritz, B; Bland, L C; Bonner, B E; Bouchet, J; Braidot, E; Brandin, A V; Bridgeman, A; Bruna, E; Bueltmann, S; Bunzarov, I; Burton, T P; Cai, X Z; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Catu, O; Cebra, D; Cendejas, R; Cervantes, M C; Chajecki, Z; Chaloupka, P; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, J Y; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Choi, K E; Christie, W; Chung, P; Clarke, R F; Codrington, M J M; Corliss, R; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Das, D; Dash, S; Davila Leyva, A; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Derevschikov, A A; Derradi de Souza, R; Didenko, L; Djawotho, P; Dogra, S M; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Dunlop, J C; Dutta Mazumdar, M R; Efimov, L G; Elhalhuli, E; Elnimr, M; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Estienne, M; Eun, L; Evdokimov, O; Fachini, P; Fatemi, R; Fedorisin, J; Fersch, R G; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fine, V; Fisyak, Y; Gagliardi, C A; Gangadharan, D R; Ganti, M S; Garcia-Solis, E J; Geromitsos, A; Geurts, F; Ghazikhanian, V; Ghosh, P; Gorbunov, Y N; Gordon, A; Grebenyuk, O; Grosnick, D; Guertin, S M; Gupta, A; Gupta, N; Guryn, W; Haag, B; Hamed, A; Han, L-X; Harris, J W; Hays-Wehle, J P; Heinz, M; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffman, A M; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Huang, B; Huang, H Z; Humanic, T J; Huo, L; Igo, G; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Jena, C; Jin, F; Jones, C L; Jones, P G; Joseph, J; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kajimoto, K; Kang, K; Kapitan, J; Kauder, K; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kettler, D; Kikola, D P; Kiryluk, J; Kisiel, A; Klein, S R; Knospe, A G; Kocoloski, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Konzer, J; Koralt, I; Koroleva, L; Korsch, W; Kotchenda, L; Kouchpil, V; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Krus, M; Kumar, L; Kurnadi, P; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; LaPointe, S; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, C-H; Lee, J H; Leight, W; LeVine, M J; Li, C; Li, L; Li, N; Li, W; Li, X; Li, X; Li, Y; Li, Z M; Lin, G; Lindenbaum, S J; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Liu, H; Liu, J; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Longacre, R S; Love, W A; Lu, Y; Lukashov, E V; Luo, X; Ma, G L; Ma, Y G; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Mall, O I; Mangotra, L K; Manweiler, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; McDonald, D; McShane, T S; Meschanin, A; Milner, R; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mischke, A; Mitrovski, M K; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, B; Morozov, D A; Munhoz, M G; Nandi, B K; Nattrass, C; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Netrakanti, P K; Ng, M J; Nogach, L V; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Okorokov, V; Oldag, E W; Olson, D; Pachr, M; Page, B S; Pal, S K; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlak, T; Peitzmann, T; Perevoztchikov, V; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Phatak, S C; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Ploskon, M A; Pluta, J; Plyku, D; Poljak, N; Poskanzer, A M; Potukuchi, B V K S; Powell, C B; Prindle, D; Pruneau, C; Pruthi, N K; Pujahari, P R; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Redwine, R; Reed, R; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Rose, A; Roy, C; Ruan, L; Sahoo, R; Sakai, S; Sakrejda, I; Sakuma, T; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sangaline, E; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmitz, N; Schuster, T R; Seele, J; Seger, J; Selyuzhenkov, I; Seyboth, P; Shahaliev, E; Shao, M; Sharma, M; Shi, S S; Sichtermann, E P; Simon, F; Singaraju, R N; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, N; Sorensen, P; Sowinski, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Staszak, D; Stevens, J R; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Suaide, A A P; Suarez, M C; Subba, N L; Sumbera, M; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarini, L H; Tarnowsky, T; Thein, D; Thomas, J H; Tian, J; Timmins, A R; Timoshenko, S; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Tram, V N; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tsai, O D; Ulery, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; van Leeuwen, M; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vanfossen, J A; Varma, R; Vasconcelos, G M S; Vasiliev, A N; Videbaek, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Wada, M; Walker, M; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, J S; Wang, Q; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Webb, G; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y F; Xie, W; Xu, H; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, W; Xu, Y; Xu, Z; Xue, L; Yang, Y; Yepes, P; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Yue, Q; Zawisza, M; Zbroszczyk, H; Zhan, W; Zhang, J B; Zhang, S; Zhang, W M; Zhang, X P; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhou, J; Zhou, W; Zhu, X; Zhu, Y H; Zoulkarneev, R; Zoulkarneeva, Y

    2010-07-09

    We report the first measurements of the kurtosis (κ), skewness (S), and variance (σ2) of net-proton multiplicity (Np-Np) distributions at midrapidity for Au+Au collisions at square root of s(NN)=19.6, 62.4, and 200 GeV corresponding to baryon chemical potentials (μB) between 200 and 20 MeV. Our measurements of the products κσ2 and Sσ, which can be related to theoretical calculations sensitive to baryon number susceptibilities and long-range correlations, are constant as functions of collision centrality. We compare these products with results from lattice QCD and various models without a critical point and study the square root of s(NN) dependence of κσ2. From the measurements at the three beam energies, we find no evidence for a critical point in the QCD phase diagram for μB below 200 MeV.

  19. Determination of bending moment resistance of t-type joints constructed with wood biscuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kahvand

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to investigate effects of wood species (Beech and Fir, number of connectors (1 and 2, size of biscuit (10 and 20 and type of adhesives (Polyvinyl acetate (PVAc, polyurethane (PU and urea-formaldehyde (UF on bending moment resistance of joints fabricated with biscuit. Results have shown that member of joint, number of connector, size of biscuit and type of adhesive had significant effect on the bending moment resistance. Bending moment resistance of joints made of Beech wood were stronger than joints made of Fir ones. Bending moment resistance has increased, with the increase of size and number of biscuit. Performance of joints with PU adhesive had better than PVA and UF. Highest bending moment resistance were obtained from joints glued with PU adhesive, size of biscuit 20 and 2 connectors. The results also indicated that joints made with biscuit and glued with PU had higher resistance than wooden dowel joints.

  20. Test-retest reliability of the net joint power transferred by the lower limbs during walking in healthy men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Jandačka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the reliability of the measurement of net joint power during repeated gait measurements within one day and between two different measurement days. METHODS: Thirty able-bodied men who underwent repeated gait measurements within a day and between days participated in this research. An acceptable trial was one in which the participant complied with the range of walking speed 1.45 m/s ± 5%. Three-dimensional angles, angular velocities, net moments of force and net power for the ankle, knee and hip joints were determined using external passive reflective markers, an 8-camera motion analysis system and two force plates. RESULTS: This study presents the patterns of the net power in the fundamental joints of the lower limbs in young healthy men at standard gait velocity. Intraclass correlation coefficients for net joint power measure reached values in the range of .70 to .89 on the first day, from .69 to .86 on the second day, and from .67 to .83 in total. CONCLUSION: The reliability of the measurement of the peak net joint power within one day and between the two measurement days was evaluated as satisfactory. The study provides the value of minimal detectable change for the peak net power of the lower limb in the sagittal plane during gait. The net joint power appears to be a reliable measure and could be used in practice.

  1. Net joint kinetics in the limbs of pigs walking on concrete floor in dry and contaminated conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, V M; Laursen, B; Jensen, R B

    2008-01-01

    and hindlimbs of healthy pigs walking on solid concrete floors. Second, this study aimed to examine the effect of floor condition on the net joint kinetics. Kinematic (50-Hz video recordings) and kinetic (1-kHz force plate measurements) data were collected from 30 pigs and combined with body segment parameters...... from a cadaver study. Net joint kinetics was calculated by using a 2-dimensional inverse dynamic solution. Inverse dynamics have, to our knowledge, not been applied in pigs before. Dry, greasy, and wet floor conditions were tested with 10 pigs each. In the forelimbs, peak joint moment was less (P

  2. Differences between measured and resultant joint moments during voluntary and artificially elicited isometric knee extension contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arampatzis, Adamantios; Karamanidis, Kiros; De Monte, Gianpiero; Stafilidis, Savvas; Morey-Klapsing, Gaspar; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter

    2004-03-01

    Examine two hypotheses: (a) during isometric knee extension contractions the moment measured at the dynamometer is different from the resultant moment in the same plane around the knee joint and (b) during isometric contractions, at the same given resultant moment the knee angle while loading is different from the knee angle while unloading. Comparative study in which the geometrical and the kinetic differences between joint and dynamometer were determined. It is usually assumed that the moment measured by the dynamometer is equivalent to the resultant joint moment. The non-rigidity of the dynamometer-leg system can influence the equivalence of these two moments. Twenty seven subjects performed isometric maximal knee extension contractions and contractions induced by electrostimulation on a dynamometer. The kinematics of the leg were recorded using 8 cameras (120 Hz). The resultant moment at the knee joint and the moment measured by the dynamometer are different. During a knee extension effort the knee angle changes significantly. At identical resultant knee joint moments the knee angles are different when comparing the loading and the unloading phases. The differences between the measured and the resultant joint moments might influence the estimation of parameters as: muscle forces, moment-angle relationship and strain and hysteresis of tendons and aponeuroses. Torque dynamometers have been often used to estimate muscle forces, to examine neuromuscular processes and to determine the mechanical properties of tendons and aponeuroses.

  3. Computation of the kinematics and the minimum peak joint moments of sit-to-stand movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagano Akinori

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A sit-to-stand (STS movement requires muscle strength higher than that of other daily activities. There are many elderly people, who experience difficulty when standing up from a chair. The muscle strength required (or the load on the joints during a STS task is determined by the kinematics (movement pattern. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the kinematics and resultant joint moments of people standing up from a chair in order to determine the minimum peak joint moments required for a STS task. Methods This study consisted of three steps. In the first step, kinematic data of lower extremity joint angles (hip, knee and ankle during STS movements were experimentally collected from human subjects. Eighty-five sets of STS kinematic data were obtained. In the second step, the experimentally collected kinematic data and a link segment model of the human body were used to generate more than 5,000,000 computed STS movements. In the third step, using inverse dynamics method, joint moments of the lower extremity were calculated for all movements obtained through the preceding steps. From the outputs of the third step, the optimal kinematics (movement pattern in terms of minimized peak joint moment for the hip, knee and ankle was determined. Results The peak hip joint moment ranged from 0.24 to 1.92 N.m/kg. The peak knee joint moment ranged from 0.51 to 1.97 N.m/kg, and the peak ankle joint moment ranged from -0.11 to 1.32 N.m/kg. The optimal movement patterns differed depending on which minimized joint moment index was selected (hip, knee or ankle. However, the sum of the peak hip joint moment and peak knee joint moment was always approximately 1.53 N.m/kg regardless of which minimized joint moment index was selected. Conclusion The most important finding of this study was that the relation between the peak joint moments at the hip and knee joints was complementary and the sum of those moments needed to be greater than 1.53 N

  4. Program NetMoment; Simultaneous Calculation of Moment, Source Corner Frequency, and Site Specific t* from Network Recordings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchings, L

    2001-12-12

    The purpose of computer program NetMoment (Appendix I) is to utilize fundamental knowledge of earthquake sources, propagation attenuation, and site response in a simultaneous inversion of network data to determine the moment and source corner frequency of earthquakes, and site specific t*. The source parameters are especially difficult to determine for small earthquakes. A fundamental problem in determining the source corner frequencies of small earthquakes is that site response can result in spectral corner frequencies in the range that may be expected from the earthquakes themselves. Several authors have identified this as fmax (Hanks, 1982), a constant corner frequency for small events so that below threshold moment (about 1.0 x 10{sup 21} dyne-cm) the corner frequency remains constant the size of events diminishes. Hutchings and Wu (1990) found that for the southern California region, events with moment less than about 1.5 x 10{sup 21} dyne-cm (about magnitude 3.4) show no source effect in their spectra. Hanks (1982) found the threshold to be about 1.0 x l0{sup 21} dyne-cm for other southern California sites. Baise et al. (2002) found borehole recordings on Yerba Buena Island, in San Francisco Bay, to have corner frequencies limited to about 3-5 Hz for M < 4.0 earthquakes in the region. Some authors have attributed this to a minimum source dimension for earthquakes, which results in a decrease in stress drop for smaller events (Archuleta et al., 1982; Papageorgiou and Aki, 1983). alternative explanation is that the constant corner frequencies result from whole path or near site attenuation and/or amplifications due to soil response. This is supported by a wide body of literature (Anderson and Hough, 1984, Hutchings and Wu, 1990, Blakeslee and Malin, 1991; Aster and Shearer, 1991; Abercrombie, 1995). Abercrombie, for example, estimated source corner frequencies from events recorded in granite at a depth of 2.5 Km in the Cajon Pass scientific drill hole and

  5. Lower extremity joint moments of collegiate soccer players differ between genders during a forward jump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Joseph M; Garrison, J Craig; Palmieri-Smith, Riann; Kerrigan, D Casey; Ingersoll, Christopher D

    2008-05-01

    Lower extremity kinetics while performing a single-leg forward jump landing may help explain gender biased risk for noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury. Gender comparison of lower extremity joint angles and moments. Static groups comparison. Motion analysis laboratory. 8 male and 8 female varsity, collegiate soccer athletes. 5 single-leg landings from a 100cm forward jump. Peak and initial contact external joint moments and joint angles of the ankle, knee, and hip. At initial heel contact, males exhibited a adduction moment whereas females exhibited a abduction moment at the hip. Females also had significantly less peak hip extension moment and significantly less peak hip internal rotation moment than males had. Females exhibited greater knee adduction and hip internal rotation angles than men did. When decelerating from a forward jump, gender differences exist in forces acting at the hip.

  6. Functional roles of lower-limb joint moments while walking in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Tasuku; Shirota, Takashi; Yamamoto, Shin-Ichiro; Nakazawa, Kimitaka; Akai, Masami

    2005-02-01

    To clarify the functional roles of lower-limb joint moments and their contribution to support and propulsion tasks while walking in water compared with that on land. Sixteen healthy, young subjects walked on land and in water at several different speeds with and without additional loads. Walking in water is a major rehabilitation therapy for patients with orthopedic disorders. However, the functional role of lower-limb joint moments while walking in water is still unclear. Kinematics, electromyographic activities in biceps femoris and gluteus maximums, and ground reaction forces were measured under the following conditions: walking on land and in water at a self-determined pace, slow walking on land, and fast walking in water with or without additional loads (8 kg). The hip, knee, and ankle joint moments were calculated by inverse dynamics. The contribution of the walking speed increased the hip extension moment, and the additional weight increased the ankle plantar flexion and knee extension moment. The major functional role was different in each lower-limb joint muscle. That of the muscle group in the ankle is to support the body against gravity, and that of the muscle group involved in hip extension is to contribute to propulsion. In addition, walking in water not only reduced the joint moments but also completely changed the inter-joint coordination. It is of value for clinicians to be aware that the greater the viscosity of water produces a greater load on the hip joint when fast walking in water.

  7. A Hybrid Joint Moment Ratio Test for Financial Time Series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, Patrick A.; Lucas, André; Vries, de Casper G.

    1998-01-01

    We advocate the use of absolute moment ratio statistics in conjunctionwith standard variance ratio statistics in order to disentangle lineardependence, non-linear dependence, and leptokurtosis in financial timeseries. Both statistics are computed for multiple return horizonssimultaneously, and the

  8. The effect of foot orthoses on joint moment asymmetry in male children with flexible flat feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarnezhadgero, AmirAli; Madadi Shad, Morteza; Ferber, Reed

    2018-01-01

    It has been widely postulated that structural and functional misalignments of the foot, such as flat foot, may cause mechanical deviations of the lower limb during walking. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of foot orthoses on lower extremity joint moment asymmetry during the stance phase of walking in children with asymptomatic flexible flat feet. Fourteen volunteer male children, clinically diagnosed with flexible flat feet, participated in this study. Subjects completed 12 walking trials at a self-selected walking speed while 3-dimensional kinematic and kinetic data were collected for two conditions: shod with no orthoses, and shod with orthoses. The gait asymmetry index for each variable for each subject was defined as: (1-(lesser moment/greater moment)) × 100. Results reveal no significant differences in ankle or knee joint moment asymmetry. However, the use of foot orthoses decreased asymmetry for the hip abduction moment (P = 0.04) compared to walking without orthoses and also resulted in subtle, non-significant increases in frontal plane subtalar and sagittal plane knee and hip joints moment asymmetry. We conclude that foot orthoses decrease frontal plane hip joint moment asymmetry, but have little effect on ankle and knee joint asymmetry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Hybrid Joint Moment Ratio Test for Financial Time Series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Groenendijk (Patrick); A. Lucas (André); C.G. de Vries (Casper)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractWe advocate the use of absolute moment ratio statistics in conjunction with standard variance ratio statistics in order to disentangle linear dependence, non-linear dependence, and leptokurtosis in financial time series. Both statistics are computed for multiple return horizons

  10. Resultant lower extremity joint moments in below-knee amputees during running stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D I

    1987-01-01

    Resultant flexion/extension lower extremity joint moments of four below-knee amputees running between 2.5 and 5.7 m s-1 were computed during stance on their intact and prosthetic limbs. All subjects wore patellar tendon-bearing prostheses with either a SACH or Greissinger foot component. During stance on the prosthesis, the resultant hip extensor moment on the amputated side was greater in magnitude and duration than its counterpart on the intact limb during its corresponding stance period. Since the artificial foot was planted on the ground, such a moment may help control knee flexion and promote knee extension of the residual limb. For the three subjects whose knees continued to flex at the beginning of stance, there was a dominant extensor moment about the knee joint during stance on the prosthesis. By contrast, for the fourth subject whose knee remained straight or hyperextended throughout stance on the prosthesis, a flexor moment was dominant.

  11. Reduced knee joint moment in ACL deficient patients at a cost of dynamic stability during landing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberländer, Kai Daniel; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter; Höher, Jürgen; Karamanidis, Kiros

    2012-05-11

    The current study aimed to examine the effect of anterior cruciate ligament deficiency (ACLd) on joint kinetics and dynamic stability control after a single leg hop test (SLHT). Twelve unilateral ACLd patients and a control subject group (n=13) performed a SLHT over a given distance with both legs. The calculation of joint kinetics was done by means of a soft-tissue artifact optimized rigid full-body model. Margin of stability (MoS) was quantified by the difference between the base of support and the extrapolated center of mass. During landing, the ACLd leg showed lower external knee flexion moments but demonstrated higher moments at the ankle and hip compared to controls (pjoint moment redistribution in the ACLd leg was a more anterior position of the ground reaction force (GRF) vector, which affected the moment arms of the GRF acting about the joints (pknee joint and trunk angle (r² = 0.48;pjoint kinetics and dynamic stability during landing maneuvers and provide evidence of a feedforward adaptive adjustment in ACLd patients (i.e. more flexed trunk angle) aimed at reducing knee joint moments at the cost of dynamic stability control. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Higher moments of net kaon multiplicity distributions at RHIC energies for the search of QCD Critical Point at STAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Amal

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the measurements of the various moments mean (M, standard deviation (σ skewness (S and kurtosis (κ of the net-Kaon multiplicity distribution at midrapidity from Au+Au collisions at √sNN = 7.7 to 200 GeV in the STAR experiment at RHIC in an effort to locate the critical point in the QCD phase diagram. These moments and their products are related to the thermodynamic susceptibilities of conserved quantities such as net baryon number, net charge, and net strangeness as also to the correlation length of the system. A non-monotonic behavior of these variable indicate the presence of the critical point. In this work we also present the moments products Sσ, κσ2 of net-Kaon multiplicity distribution as a function of collision centrality and energies. The energy and the centrality dependence of higher moments of net-Kaons and their products have been compared with it0s Poisson expectation and with simulations from AMPT which does not include the critical point. From the measurement at all seven available beam energies, we find no evidence for a critical point in the QCD phase diagram for √sNN below 200 GeV.

  13. Energy dependence of moments of net-proton multiplicity distributions at RHIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, L; Adkins, J K; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Alford, J; Anson, C D; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Averichev, G S; Balewski, J; Banerjee, A; Barnovska, Z; Beavis, D R; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Borowski, W; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Brovko, S G; Bültmann, S; Bunzarov, I; Burton, T P; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Cebra, D; Cendejas, R; Cervantes, M C; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, L; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Chwastowski, J; Codrington, M J M; Corliss, R; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Cui, X; Das, S; Davila Leyva, A; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; Derradi de Souza, R; Dhamija, S; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Ding, F; Djawotho, P; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Engelage, J; Engle, K S; Eppley, G; Eun, L; Evdokimov, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Fedorisin, J; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Gagliardi, C A; Gangadharan, D R; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Gliske, S; Grosnick, D; Guo, Y; Gupta, A; Gupta, S; Guryn, W; Haag, B; Hajkova, O; Hamed, A; Han, L-X; Haque, R; Harris, J W; Hays-Wehle, J P; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Horvat, S; Huang, B; Huang, H Z; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jang, H; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kesich, A; Khan, Z H; Kikola, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Konzer, J; Koralt, I; Korsch, W; Kotchenda, L; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kulakov, I; Kumar, L; Kycia, R A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; Leight, W; LeVine, M J; Li, C; Li, W; Li, X; Li, X; Li, Y; Li, Z M; Lima, L M; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Ma, G L; Ma, Y G; Madagodagettige Don, D M M D; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; McShane, T S; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D A; Munhoz, M G; Mustafa, M K; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nogach, L V; Noh, S Y; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Ohlson, A; Okorokov, V; Oldag, E W; Oliveira, R A N; Pachr, M; Page, B S; Pal, S K; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlak, T; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Peterson, A; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Plyku, D; Poljak, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Pruthi, N K; Przybycien, M; Pujahari, P R; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Riley, C K; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Ross, J F; Roy, A; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandacz, A; Sandweiss, J; Sangaline, E; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, B; Shen, W Q; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Singaraju, R N; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, D; Smirnov, N; Solanki, D; Sorensen, P; deSouza, U G; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stevens, J R; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Suaide, A A P; Sumbera, M; Sun, X; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarnowsky, T; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Trzeciak, B A; Tsai, O D; Turnau, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vanfossen, J A; Varma, R; Vasconcelos, G M S; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbæk, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Vossen, A; Wada, M; Walker, M; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, J S; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Wang, Y; Webb, G; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y F; Xiao, Z; Xie, W; Xin, K; Xu, H; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, Y; Xu, Z; Yan, W; Yang, C; Yang, Y; Yang, Y; Ye, Z; Yepes, P; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Zawisza, Y; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, J B; Zhang, S; Zhang, X P; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, F; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhu, X; Zhu, Y H; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M

    2014-01-24

    We report the beam energy (sqrt[sNN]=7.7-200  GeV) and collision centrality dependence of the mean (M), standard deviation (σ), skewness (S), and kurtosis (κ) of the net-proton multiplicity distributions in Au+Au collisions. The measurements are carried out by the STAR experiment at midrapidity (|y|<0.5) and within the transverse momentum range 0.4moments, Sσ and κσ2, are sensitive to the correlation length of the hot and dense medium created in the collisions and are related to the ratios of baryon number susceptibilities of corresponding orders. The products of moments are found to have values significantly below the Skellam expectation and close to expectations based on independent proton and antiproton production. The measurements are compared to a transport model calculation to understand the effect of acceptance and baryon number conservation and also to a hadron resonance gas model.

  14. The effect of changing plantarflexion resistive moment of an articulated ankle-foot orthosis on ankle and knee joint angles and moments while walking in patients post stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Toshiki; Singer, Madeline L; Orendurff, Michael S; Gao, Fan; Daly, Wayne K; Foreman, K Bo

    2015-10-01

    The adjustment of plantarflexion resistive moment of an articulated ankle-foot orthosis is considered important in patients post stroke, but the evidence is still limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of changing the plantarflexion resistive moment of an articulated ankle-foot orthosis on ankle and knee joint angles and moments in patients post stroke. Gait analysis was performed on 10 subjects post stroke under four different plantarflexion resistive moment conditions using a newly designed articulated ankle-foot orthosis. Data were recorded using a Bertec split-belt instrumented treadmill in a 3-dimensional motion analysis laboratory. The ankle and knee sagittal joint angles and moments were significantly affected by the amount of plantarflexion resistive moment of the ankle-foot orthosis. Increasing the plantarflexion resistive moment of the ankle-foot orthosis induced significant decreases both in the peak ankle plantarflexion angle (Pdorsiflexion moment of the ankle joint (Pplantarflexion resistive moment of an articulated ankle-foot orthosis. A future study should be performed to clarify their relationship further so that the practitioners may be able to use these parameters as objective data to determine an optimal plantarflexion resistive moment of an articulated ankle-foot orthosis for improved orthotic care in individual patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Seismic Properties of Moment-resisting Timber Joints with a Combination of Bolts and Nails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awaludin A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of cyclic or dynamic performance of timber connections has been intensively conducted since the overall response of wooden structures is merely a function of joint performance. For a bolted joint, filling the lead-hole clearance with epoxy resin or gluing high embedding-strength materials at the interface of the individual timber member are probably the most common methods. This study presents cyclic test results of moment-resisting joints with a combination of bolts and nails. The nails were placed closer to the joint centroid than the bolts, acting as additional fasteners and were expected to improve the seismic performance of the joints. Static-cyclic test results confirmed the increase of joint stiffness and moment resistance due to the additional nails. The nails contribute to the increase of hysteretic damping significantly though pinching behavior or narrowing the hysteresis loops close to zero rotation points was still observed. The results indicated that contribution of nails or bolts on moment resistance and hysteretic damping can be superimposed.

  16. Effect of posture on hip joint moment during pregnancy, while performing a standing task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, J A; Sallé, H; Frings-Dresen, M H W

    1996-03-01

    In this paper the combined effect on reactive hip joint moment due to changes in (1) segment mass, (2) trunk centre of mass, and (3) working posture during pregnancy was estimated, and the relative contributions of these three changes to the change in the moment were assessed. The situation studied concerned standing work at a table. Sixteen women were studied monthly during pregnancy. The working posture was assessed by two-dimensional photographic posture recording and description. Body dimensions were measured to assess segment characteristics. A two-dimensional static model was used to estimate the reactive hip joint moment at 10, 20, 30 and 40 weeks of pregnancy. Between 10 and 40 weeks of pregnancy the moment increase was 52 Nm, i.e. the load at 40 weeks of pregnancy is 2.8 times the load at 10 weeks of pregnancy. On average half of this increase was due to postural changes. Changes in segment mass, trunk centre of mass, and the interaction between the three changes accounted for rougly 10, 20 and 15% of the load increase respectively. The increase in reactive hip joint moment may be minimized by preventing adverse postural changes, and optimizing the posture to reduce the contribution of changes in body weight (distribution).

  17. Ankle taping can reduce external ankle joint moments during drop landings on a tilted surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Nahoko; Nunome, Hiroyuki; Hopper, Luke S; Ikegami, Yasuo

    2017-09-20

    Ankle taping is commonly used to prevent ankle sprains. However, kinematic assessments investigating the biomechanical effects of ankle taping have provided inconclusive results. This study aimed to determine the effect of ankle taping on the external ankle joint moments during a drop landing on a tilted surface at 25°. Twenty-five participants performed landings on a tilted force platform that caused ankle inversion with and without ankle taping. Landing kinematics were captured using a motion capture system. External ankle inversion moment, the angular impulse due to the medio-lateral and vertical components of ground reaction force (GRF) and their moment arm lengths about the ankle joint were analysed. The foot plantar inclination relative to the ground was assessed. In the taping condition, the foot plantar inclination and ankle inversion angular impulse were reduced significantly compared to that of the control. The only component of the external inversion moment to change significantly in the taped condition was a shortened medio-lateral GRF moment arm length. It can be assumed that the ankle taping altered the foot plantar inclination relative to the ground, thereby shortening the moment arm of medio-lateral GRF that resulted in the reduced ankle inversion angular impulse.

  18. Immediate effect of valgus bracing on knee joint moments in meniscectomised patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorning, Maria; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Roos, Ewa M

    2016-01-01

    knee brace on knee joint moments in patients following medial arthroscopic partial meniscectomy. DESIGN: Within-participant design. METHODS: Twenty-two patients (age 35-55 years) who had undergone medial arthroscopic partial meniscectomy within the previous 8-15 months completed three......OBJECTIVES: Patients undergoing medial arthroscopic partial meniscectomy are at increased risk of developing and/or progressing knee osteoarthritis, with increased medial compartment load being a potential contributor. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immediate effect of a valgus unloader......-dimensional analysis of gait, forward lunge and one-leg rise during two conditions: with and without a valgus unloader knee brace. Outcome measures included the peak and impulse of the knee adduction moment and the peak knee flexion moment. RESULTS: The peak knee flexion moment increased during brace condition...

  19. A novel computational framework for deducing muscle synergies from experimental joint moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anantharaman eGopalakrishnan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Prior experimental studies have hypothesized the existence of a ‘muscle synergy’ based control scheme for producing limb movements and locomotion in vertebrates. Such synergies have been suggested to consist of fixed muscle grouping schemes with the co-activation of all muscles in a synergy resulting in limb movement. Quantitative representations of these groupings (termed muscle weightings and their control signals (termed synergy controls have traditionally been derived by the factorization of experimentally measured EMG. This study presents a novel approach for deducing these weightings and controls from inverse dynamic joint moments that are computed from an alternative set of experimental measurements – movement kinematics and kinetics. This technique was applied to joint moments for healthy human walking at 0.7 and 1.7 m/s, and two sets of ‘simulated’ synergies were computed based on two different criteria (1 synergies were required to minimize errors between experimental and simulated joint moments in a musculoskeletal model (pure-synergy solution (2 along with minimizing joint moment errors, synergies also minimized muscle activation levels (optimal-synergy solution. On comparing the two solutions, it was observed that the introduction of optimality requirements (optimal-synergy to a control strategy solely aimed at reproducing the joint moments (pure-synergy did not necessitate major changes in the muscle grouping within synergies or the temporal profiles of synergy control signals. Synergies from both the simulated solutions exhibited many similarities to EMG derived synergies from a previously published study, thus implying that the analysis of the two different types of experimental data reveals similar, underlying synergy structures.

  20. The effect of angle and moment of the hip and knee joint on iliotibial band hardness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateuchi, Hiroshige; Shiratori, Sakiko; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2015-02-01

    Although several studies have described kinematic deviations such as excessive hip adduction in patients with iliotibial band (ITB) syndrome, the factors contributing to increased ITB hardness remains undetermined, owing to lack of direct in vivo measurement. The purpose of this study was to clarify the factors contributing to an increase in ITB hardness by comparing the ITB hardness between the conditions in which the angle, moment, and muscle activity of the hip and knee joint are changed. Sixteen healthy individuals performed the one-leg standing under five conditions in which the pelvic and trunk inclination were changed in the frontal plane. The shear elastic modulus in the ITB was measured as an indicator of the ITB hardness using shear wave elastography. The three-dimensional joint angle and external joint moment in the hip and knee joints, and muscle activities of the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, tensor fasciae latae, and vastus lateralis, which anatomically connect to the ITB, were also measured. ITB hardness was significantly increased in the posture with pelvic and trunk inclination toward the contralateral side of the standing leg compared with that in all other conditions (increase of approximately 32% compared with that during normal one-leg standing). This posture increased both the hip adduction angle and external adduction moment at the hip and knee joint, although muscle activities were not increased. Our findings suggest that coexistence of an increased adduction moment at the hip and knee joints with an excessive hip adduction angle lead to an increase in ITB hardness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Low-Friction, Low-Profile, High-Moment Two-Axis Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, James L.; Le, Thang; Carroll, Monty B.

    2010-01-01

    The two-axis joint is a mechanical device that provides two-degrees-of-freedom motion between connected components. A compact, moment-resistant, two-axis joint is used to connect an electromechanical actuator to its driven structural members. Due to the requirements of the overall mechanism, the joint has a low profile to fit within the allowable space, low friction, and high moment-reacting capability. The mechanical arrangement of this joint can withstand high moments when loads are applied. These features allow the joint to be used in tight spaces where a high load capability is required, as well as in applications where penetrating the mounting surface is not an option or where surface mounting is required. The joint consists of one base, one clevis, one cap, two needle bearings, and a circular shim. The base of the joint is the housing (the base and the cap together), and is connected to the grounding structure via fasteners and a bolt pattern. Captive within the housing, between the base and the cap, are the rotating clevis and the needle bearings. The clevis is attached to the mechanical system (linear actuator) via a pin. This pin, and the rotational movement of the clevis with respect to the housing, provides two rotational degrees of freedom. The larger diameter flange of the clevis is sandwiched between a pair of needle bearings, one on each side of the flange. During the assembly of the two-axis joint, the circular shims are used to adjust the amount of preload that is applied to the needle bearings. The above arrangement enables the joint to handle high moments with minimal friction. To achieve the high-moment capability within a low-profile joint, the use of depth of engagement (like that of a conventional rotating shaft) to react moment is replaced with planar engagement parallel to the mounting surface. The needle bearings with the clevis flange provide the surface area to react the clevis loads/moments into the joint housing while providing minimal

  2. Abnormal Joint Moment Distributions and Functional Performance During Sit-to-Stand in Femoroacetabular Impingement Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaan, Michael A; Schwaiger, Benedikt J; Gallo, Matthew C; Link, Thomas M; Zhang, Alan L; Majumdar, Sharmila; Souza, Richard B

    2017-06-01

    Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is a morphological abnormality of the hip joint that causes pain when performing a mechanically demanding activity of daily living such as the sit-to-stand (STS) task. Previous studies have assessed lower extremity joint mechanics during an STS task in various pathologies, yet the STS task has not been studied in FAI patients. The objective of this study was to identify differences in joint kinetics and performance between FAI patients and healthy controls during a STS task. It was hypothesized that FAI patients would exhibit altered time needed to complete the STS task, as well as altered lower extremity biomechanics, when compared to healthy controls. This was a cross-sectional cohort study. The study took place at a motion capture laboratory at an institutional orthopedic facility. Biomechanical analysis was performed in 17 FAI patients and 31 age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy controls during the STS task. Sagittal plane joint moments, total support moment (TSM), joint contributions to the TSM, and functional measures during the STS task were compared between groups. Peak joint moments, TSM and joint contributions to the TSM were assessed during the STS task. In addition, the time to and value of the peak vertical ground reaction force (vGRF), limb symmetry index at peak vGRF, loading rate, and total time needed to perform the STS task were determined. Compared to the control participants, the FAI patients exhibited worse Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS) pain and function subscores. No group differences were observed in peak sagittal joint moments during the STS task. However, when compared to controls, the FAI patients demonstrated reduced knee joint contributions to the TSM. In addition, the FAI patients exhibited increased time needed to perform the STS task, increased time to reach peak vGRF, and reduced lower extremity loading rate during the STS task. FAI patients demonstrated abnormal

  3. Joint confidence region estimation of L-moment ratios with an extension to right censored data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongliang; Hutson, Alan D

    L-moments, defined as specific linear combinations of expectations of order statistics, have been advocated by Hosking [7] and others in the literature as meaningful replacements to that of classic moments in a wide variety of applications. One particular use of L-moments is to classify distributions based on the so-called L-skewness and L-kurtosis measures and given by an L-moment ratio diagram. This method parallels the classic moment-based plot of skewness and kurtosis corresponding to the Pearson system of distributions. In general, these methods have been more descriptive in nature and failed to consider the corresponding variation and covariance of the point estimators. In this note, we propose two procedures to estimate the 100(1 - α)% joint confidence region of L-skewness and L-kurtosis, given both complete and censored data. The procedures are derived based on asymptotic normality of L-moment estimators or through a novel empirical characteristic function (c.f.) approach. Simulation results are provided for comparing the performance of these procedures in terms of their respective coverage probabilities. The new and novel c.f.-based confidence region provided superior coverage probability as compared to the standard bootstrap procedure across all parameter settings. The proposed methods are illustrated via an application to a complete Buffalo snow fall data set and to a censored breast cancer data set, respectively.

  4. Joint moment contributions to swing knee extension acceleration during gait in individuals with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Evan J; Requejo, Philip S; Fowler, Eileen G

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms contributing to swing phase knee acceleration in individuals with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy (CP) are not well understood, but evidence suggests that selective voluntary motor control (SVMC) may play a role. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between lower limb SVMC, measured using Selective Control Assessment of the Lower Extremity (SCALE), and joint moment contributions to swing knee extension acceleration in participants with spastic diplegic CP. Eighteen participants were recruited (mean age=13.8 years, range=6-30 years, Gross Motor Function Classification System Levels I-III). Induced acceleration analysis was performed during the swing phase of gait. Average joint moment contributions to swing knee extension acceleration were calculated. Contributions from stance limb and swing limb joint moments were correlated with SCALE scores using Pearson's correlations. A strong correlation was found (pSCALE score and the total swing joint moment contributions to swing knee extension acceleration. As SCALE score increased, swing joint moments provided less resistance to knee extension acceleration. No relationship (p=0.18) was found between stance moment contributions to swing knee acceleration and stance limb SCALE scores. Excessive contributions from swing limb joint moments appear to be the factor limiting swing knee extension in spastic diplegic CP gait. Interventions that address negative contributions due to spasticity may not be effective in patients who cannot generate adequate knee extension due to poor SVMC. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Modelling knee flexion effects on joint power absorption and adduction moment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Hanatsu; Tatsumi, Ichiroh; Sarashina, Eri; Sparrow, W A; Begg, Rezaul K

    2015-12-01

    Knee osteoarthritis is commonly associated with ageing and long-term walking. In this study the effects of flexing motions on knee kinetics during stance were simulated. Extended knees do not facilitate efficient loading. It was therefore, hypothesised that knee flexion would promote power absorption and negative work, while possibly reducing knee adduction moment. Three-dimensional (3D) position and ground reaction forces were collected from the right lower limb stance phase of one healthy young male subject. 3D position was sampled at 100 Hz using three Optotrak Certus (Northern Digital Inc.) motion analysis camera units, set up around an eight metre walkway. Force plates (AMTI) recorded ground reaction forces for inverse dynamics calculations. The Visual 3D (C-motion) 'Landmark' function was used to change knee joint positions to simulate three knee flexion angles during static standing. Effects of the flexion angles on joint kinetics during the stance phase were then modelled. The static modelling showed that each 2.7° increment in knee flexion angle produced 2.74°-2.76° increments in knee flexion during stance. Increased peak extension moment was 6.61 Nm per 2.7° of increased knee flexion. Knee flexion enhanced peak power absorption and negative work, while decreasing adduction moment. Excessive knee extension impairs quadriceps' power absorption and reduces eccentric muscle activity, potentially leading to knee osteoarthritis. A more flexed knee is accompanied by reduced adduction moment. Research is required to determine the optimum knee flexion to prevent further damage to knee-joint structures affected by osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Residence time control on hot moments of net nitrate production and uptake in the hyporheic zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Martin A.; Lautz, Laura K.; Hare, Danielle K.

    2014-01-01

    The retention capacity for biologically available nitrogen within streams can be influenced by dynamic hyporheic zone exchange, a process that may act as either a net source or net sink of dissolved nitrogen. Over 5 weeks, nine vertical profiles of streambed chemistry (NO3- and NH4+) were collected above two beaver dams along with continuous high-resolution vertical hyporheic flux data. The results indicate a non-linear relation of net NO3- production followed by net uptake in the hyporheic zone as a function of residence time. This Lagrangian-based relation is consistent through time and across varied morphology (bars, pools, glides) above the dams, even though biogeochemical and environmental factors varied. The empirical continuum between net NO3- production and uptake and residence time is useful for identifying two crucial residence time thresholds: the transition to anaerobic respiration, which corresponds to the time of peak net nitrate production, and the net sink threshold, which is defined by a net uptake in NO3- relative to streamwater. Short-term hyporheic residence time variability at specific locations creates hot

  7. A new method for gravity correction of dynamometer data and determining passive elastic moments at the joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Dennis E.; Nussbaum, Maury A.; Madigan, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    Moments measured by a dynamometer in biomechanics testing often include the gravitational moment and the passive elastic moment in addition to the moment caused by muscle contraction. Gravitational moments result from the weight of body segments and dynamometer attachment, whereas passive elastic moments are caused by the passive elastic deformation of tissues crossing the joint being assessed. Gravitational moments are a major potential source of error in dynamometer measurements and must be corrected for, a procedure often called gravity correction. While several approaches to gravity correction have been presented in the literature, they generally assume that the gravitational moment can be adequately modeled as a simple sine or cosine function. With this approach, a single passive data point may be used to specify the model, assuming that passive elastic moments are negligible at that point. A new method is presented here for the gravity correction of dynamometer data. Gravitational moment is represented using a generalized sinusoid, which is fit to passive data obtained over the entire joint range of motion. The model also explicitly accounts for the presence of passive elastic moments. The model was tested for cases of hip flexion-extension, knee flexion-extension, and ankle plantar flexion-dorsiflexion, and provided good fits in all cases. PMID:20047749

  8. The Effect of Composite Patches on the Failure of Adhesively-Bonded Joints Under Bending Moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Salih

    2013-12-01

    In this study, it was aimed to compare mechanical behavior of double-strap joints with aluminum (AA2024-T3) or 16-ply laminate of carbon/epoxy composite (T300/934) patches of different orientation angles at their overlap area subjected to bending moment. For this purpose, AA2024-T3 aluminum was used as adherend, while the adhesive was a two-part paste (DP 460). Six different types of joint samples were subjected to bending moment. The effect of patch material on failure load and stress distribution was examined experimentally and numerically. In the numerical analysis, the composite patches were assumed to behave linearly elastic, while adherend and adhesive layers were assumed to be nonlinear. It was found that the data obtained from 3-D finite element analysis were coherent with experimental results. Meanwhile, experiments showed that fiber orientation angles of the patches markedly affected the failure load of joints, failure mode and stress distributions appeared in adhesive and composite.

  9. Musculoskeletal modelling of human ankle complex: Estimation of ankle joint moments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamwal, Prashant K; Hussain, Shahid; Tsoi, Yun Ho; Ghayesh, Mergen H; Xie, Sheng Quan

    2017-05-01

    A musculoskeletal model for the ankle complex is vital in order to enhance the understanding of neuro-mechanical control of ankle motions, diagnose ankle disorders and assess subsequent treatments. Motions at the human ankle and foot, however, are complex due to simultaneous movements at the two joints namely, the ankle joint and the subtalar joint. The musculoskeletal elements at the ankle complex, such as ligaments, muscles and tendons, have intricate arrangements and exhibit transient and nonlinear behaviour. This paper develops a musculoskeletal model of the ankle complex considering the biaxial ankle structure. The model provides estimates of overall mechanical characteristics (motion and moments) of ankle complex through consideration of forces applied along ligaments and muscle-tendon units. The dynamics of the ankle complex and its surrounding ligaments and muscle-tendon units is modelled and formulated into a state space model to facilitate simulations. A graphical user interface is also developed during this research in order to include the visual anatomical information by converting it to quantitative information on coordinates. Validation of the ankle model was carried out by comparing its outputs with those published in literature as well as with experimental data obtained from an existing parallel ankle rehabilitation robot. Qualitative agreement was observed between the model and measured data for both, the passive and active ankle motions during trials in terms of displacements and moments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Beam energy dependence of moments of the net-charge multiplicity distributions in Au+Au collisions at RHIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, L; Adkins, J K; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Alford, J; Anson, C D; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Averichev, G S; Balewski, J; Banerjee, A; Barnovska, Z; Beavis, D R; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Borowski, W; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Brovko, S G; Bültmann, S; Bunzarov, I; Burton, T P; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Cebra, D; Cendejas, R; Cervantes, M C; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, L; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Chwastowski, J; Codrington, M J M; Corliss, R; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Cui, X; Das, S; Davila Leyva, A; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; Derradi de Souza, R; Dhamija, S; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Ding, F; Djawotho, P; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Engelage, J; Engle, K S; Eppley, G; Eun, L; Evdokimov, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Fedorisin, J; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Gagliardi, C A; Gangadharan, D R; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Gliske, S; Grosnick, D; Guo, Y; Gupta, A; Gupta, S; Guryn, W; Haag, B; Hajkova, O; Hamed, A; Han, L-X; Haque, R; Harris, J W; Hays-Wehle, J P; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Horvat, S; Huang, B; Huang, H Z; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jang, H; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kesich, A; Khan, Z H; Kikola, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Konzer, J; Koralt, I; Korsch, W; Kotchenda, L; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kulakov, I; Kumar, L; Kycia, R A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; Leight, W; LeVine, M J; Li, C; Li, W; Li, X; Li, X; Li, Y; Li, Z M; Lima, L M; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Ma, G L; Ma, Y G; Madagodagettige Don, D M M D; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; McShane, T S; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D A; Munhoz, M G; Mustafa, M K; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nogach, L V; Noh, S Y; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Ohlson, A; Okorokov, V; Oldag, E W; Oliveira, R A N; Pachr, M; Page, B S; Pal, S K; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlak, T; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Peterson, A; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Plyku, D; Poljak, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Pruthi, N K; Przybycien, M; Pujahari, P R; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Riley, C K; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Ross, J F; Roy, A; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandacz, A; Sandweiss, J; Sangaline, E; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, B; Shen, W Q; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Singaraju, R N; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, D; Smirnov, N; Solanki, D; Sorensen, P; deSouza, U G; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stevens, J R; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Suaide, A A P; Sumbera, M; Sun, X; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarnowsky, T; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Trzeciak, B A; Tsai, O D; Turnau, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vanfossen, J A; Varma, R; Vasconcelos, G M S; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbæk, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Vossen, A; Wada, M; Walker, M; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, J S; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Wang, Y; Webb, G; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y F; Xiao, Z; Xie, W; Xin, K; Xu, H; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, Y; Xu, Z; Yan, W; Yang, C; Yang, Y; Yang, Y; Ye, Z; Yepes, P; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Zawisza, Y; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, J B; Zhang, S; Zhang, X P; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, F; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhu, X; Zhu, Y H; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M

    2014-08-29

    We report the first measurements of the moments--mean (M), variance (σ(2)), skewness (S), and kurtosis (κ)--of the net-charge multiplicity distributions at midrapidity in Au+Au collisions at seven energies, ranging from sqrt[sNN]=7.7 to 200 GeV, as a part of the Beam Energy Scan program at RHIC. The moments are related to the thermodynamic susceptibilities of net charge, and are sensitive to the location of the QCD critical point. We compare the products of the moments, σ(2)/M, Sσ, and κσ(2), with the expectations from Poisson and negative binomial distributions (NBDs). The Sσ values deviate from the Poisson baseline and are close to the NBD baseline, while the κσ(2) values tend to lie between the two. Within the present uncertainties, our data do not show nonmonotonic behavior as a function of collision energy. These measurements provide a valuable tool to extract the freeze-out parameters in heavy-ion collisions by comparing with theoretical models.

  11. Moment arms and lengths of human upper limb muscles as functions of joint angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigeon, P; Yahia, L; Feldman, A G

    1996-10-01

    Modeling of musculoskeletal structures requires accurate data on anatomical parameters such as muscle lengths (MLs), moment arms (MAs) and those describing the upper limb position. Using a geometrical model of planar arm movements with three degrees of freedom, we present, in an analytical form, the available information on the relationship between MAs and MLs and joint angles for thirteen human upper limb muscles. The degrees of freedom included are shoulder flexion/extension, elbow flexion/extension, and either wrist flexion/extension (the forearm in supination) or radial/ulnar deviation (the forearm in mid-pronation). Previously published MA/angle curves were approximated by polynomials. ML/angle curves were obtained by combining the constant values of MLs (defined by the distance between the origin and insertion points for a specific upper limb position) with a variable part obtained by multiplying the MA (joint radius) and the joint angle. The MAs of the prime wrist movers in radial/ulnar deviation were linear functions of the joint angle (R2 > or = 0.9954), while quadratic polynomials accurately described their MAs during wrist flexion/extensions. The relationship between MAs and the elbow angle was described by 2nd, 3rd or 5th-order polynomials (R2 > or = 0.9904), with a lesser quality of fit for the anconeus (R2 = 0.9349). In the full range of angular displacements, the length of wrist, elbow and shoulder muscles can change by 8.5, 55 and 200%, respectively.

  12. Extraction of moments of net-particle event-by-event fluctuations in the CBM experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vovchenko, Volodymyr [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Taras Shevchenko University, Kyiv (Ukraine); Kisel, Ivan [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The future CBM experiment at FAIR will employ high intensity beams and large acceptance detectors in order to study the properties of the strongly interacting matter produced in heavy-ion collisions at high baryon densities. The search for the conjectured critical point of QCD is one the important tasks. It is predicted from statistical physics that higher moments of event-by-event fluctuations are very sensitive to the proximity of the critical point. This argument is explicitly demonstrated with the van der Waals equation of state. Thus, it was suggested that higher moments of fluctuations of conserved charges can be used as probes for the critical behavior. The statistical convergence of cumulants of different order is explored. The extraction of scaled variance, skewness, and kurtosis of proton distribution from simulated UrQMD events is performed and the efficiency correction described by binomial distribution is accounted for. The validity of this correction is tested with different modelings of the CBM detector response: from binomial distribution with fluctuating event-by-event efficiency to a full-scale GEANT simulation. The obtained results indicate that a more elaborate efficiency correction is needed in order to accurately reconstruct moments of higher orders.

  13. Bilateral ground reaction forces and joint moments for lateral sidestepping and crossover stepping tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntze, Gregor; Sellers, William I.; Mansfield, Neil

    2009-01-01

    Racquet sports have high levels of joint injuries suggesting the joint loads during play may be excessive. Sports such as badminton employ lateral sidestepping (SS) and crossover stepping (XS) movements which so far have not been described in terms of biomechanics. This study examined bilateral ground reaction forces and three dimensional joint kinetics for both these gaits in order to determine the demands of the movements on the leading and trailing limb and predict the contribution of these movements to the occurrence of overuse injury of the lower limbs. A force platform and motion-analysis system were used to record ground reaction forces and track marker trajectories of 9 experienced male badminton players performing lateral SS, XS and forward running tasks at a controlled speed of 3 m·s-1 using their normal technique. Ground reaction force and kinetic data for the hip, knee and ankle were analyzed, averaged across the group and the biomechanical variables compared. In all cases the ground reaction forces and joint moments were less than those experienced during moderate running suggesting that in normal play SS and XS gaits do not lead to high forces that could contribute to increased injury risk. Ground reaction forces during SS and XS do not appear to contribute to the development of overuse injury. The distinct roles of the leading and trailing limb, acting as a generator of vertical force and shock absorber respectively, during the SS and XS may however contribute to the development of muscular imbalances which may ultimately contribute to the development of overuse injury. However it is still possible that faulty use of these gaits might lead to high loads and this should be the subject of future work. Key pointsGround reaction forces and joint moments during lateral stepping are smaller in magnitude than those experienced during moderate running.Force exposure in SS and XS gaits in normal play does not appear to contribute to the development of

  14. Effects of foot orthoses and valgus bracing on the knee adduction moment and medial joint load during gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelburne, Kevin B; Torry, Michael R; Steadman, J Richard; Pandy, Marcus G

    2008-07-01

    Lateral shoe wedges and valgus knee braces are designed to decrease the force acting in the medial knee compartment by reducing the external adduction moment applied at the knee. The biomechanical changes introduced by these orthoses can be relatively small. Computer modeling and simulation offers an alternative approach for assessing the biomechanical performance of these devices. A three-dimensional model of the lower-limb was used to calculate muscle, ligament, and joint loading at the knee during gait. A lateral shoe wedge was simulated by moving the center of pressure of the ground reaction force up to 5mm laterally. A valgus knee brace was simulated by applying abduction moments of up to 12 Nm at the knee. Knee adduction moment and medial compartment load decreased linearly with lateral displacement of the center of pressure of the ground reaction force. A 1 mm displacement of the center of pressure decreased the peak knee adduction moment by 2%, while the peak medial compartment load was reduced by 1%. Knee adduction moment and medial compartment force also decreased linearly with valgus moments applied about the knee. A 1 Nm increase in brace moment decreased the peak knee adduction moment by 3%, while the peak medial compartment load was reduced by 1%. Changes in knee joint loading due to lateral shoe wedges and valgus bracing are small and may be difficult to measure by conventional gait analysis methods. The relationships between lateral shift in the center of pressure of the ground force, valgus brace moment, knee adduction moment, and medial joint load can be quantified and explained using computer modeling and simulation. These relationships may serve as a useful guide for evaluating the biomechanical efficacy of a generic wedge insole or knee brace.

  15. Injury tolerance and moment response of the knee joint to combined valgus bending and shear loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Dipan; Bhalla, Kavi S; Untaroiu, Costin D; Ivarsson, B Johan; Crandall, Jeff R; Hurwitz, Shepard

    2008-06-01

    Valgus bending and shearing of the knee have been identified as primary mechanisms of injuries in a lateral loading environment applicable to pedestrian-car collisions. Previous studies have reported on the structural response of the knee joint to pure valgus bending and lateral shearing, as well as the estimated injury thresholds for the knee bending angle and shear displacement based on experimental tests. However, epidemiological studies indicate that most knee injuries are due to the combined effects of bending and shear loading. Therefore, characterization of knee stiffness for combined loading and the associated injury tolerances is necessary for developing vehicle countermeasures to mitigate pedestrian injuries. Isolated knee joint specimens (n=40) from postmortem human subjects were tested in valgus bending at a loading rate representative of a pedestrian-car impact. The effect of lateral shear force combined with the bending moment on the stiffness response and the injury tolerances of the knee was concurrently evaluated. In addition to the knee moment-angle response, the bending angle and shear displacement corresponding to the first instance of primary ligament failure were determined in each test. The failure displacements were subsequently used to estimate an injury threshold function based on a simplified analytical model of the knee. The validity of the determined injury threshold function was subsequently verified using a finite element model. Post-test necropsy of the knees indicated medial collateral ligament injury consistent with the clinical injuries observed in pedestrian victims. The moment-angle response in valgus bending was determined at quasistatic and dynamic loading rates and compared to previously published test data. The peak bending moment values scaled to an average adult male showed no significant change with variation in the superimposed shear load. An injury threshold function for the knee in terms of bending angle and shear

  16. Biomechanical analysis of the relation between movement time and joint moment development during a sit-to-stand task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hay Dean C

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Slowness of movement is a factor that may cause a decrease of quality of daily life. Mobility in the elderly and people with movement impairments may be improved by increasing the quickness of fundamental locomotor tasks. Because it has not been revealed how much muscle strength is required to improve quickness, the purpose of this study was to reveal the relation between movement time and the required muscle strength in a sit to stand (STS task. Previous research found that the sum of the peak hip and knee joint moments was relatively invariant throughout a range of movement patterns (Yoshioka et al., 2007, Biomedical Engineering Online 6:26. The sum of the peak hip and knee joint moment is an appropriate index to evaluate the muscle strength required for an STS task, since the effect of the movement pattern variation can be reduced, that is, the results can be evaluated purely from the viewpoint of the movement times. Therefore, the sum of the peak hip and knee joint moment was used as the index to indicate the required muscle strength. Methods Experimental kinematics data were collected from 11 subjects. The time at which the vertical position of the right shoulder fell outside three standard deviations of the vertical positions during the static initial posture was regarded as the start time. The time at which the vertical position fell within three standard deviations of the vertical positions during static upright standing posture was regarded as the finish time. Each movement time of the experimental movements was linearly lengthened and shortened through post-processing. Combining the experimental procedure and the post-processing, movements having various movement patterns and a wide range of movement times were obtained. The joint moment and the static and inertial components of the joint moment were calculated with an inverse dynamics method. The static component reflects the gravitational and/or external forces

  17. BILATERAL GROUND REACTION FORCES AND JOINT MOMENTS FOR LATERAL SIDESTEPPING AND CROSSOVER STEPPING TASKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William I. Sellers

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Racquet sports have high levels of joint injuries suggesting the joint loads during play may be excessive. Sports such as badminton employ lateral sidestepping (SS and crossover stepping (XS movements which so far have not been described in terms of biomechanics. This study examined bilateral ground reaction forces and three dimensional joint kinetics for both these gaits in order to determine the demands of the movements on the leading and trailing limb and predict the contribution of these movements to the occurrence of overuse injury of the lower limbs. A force platform and motion-analysis system were used to record ground reaction forces and track marker trajectories of 9 experienced male badminton players performing lateral SS, XS and forward running tasks at a controlled speed of 3 m·s-1 using their normal technique. Ground reaction force and kinetic data for the hip, knee and ankle were analyzed, averaged across the group and the biomechanical variables compared. In all cases the ground reaction forces and joint moments were less than those experienced during moderate running suggesting that in normal play SS and XS gaits do not lead to high forces that could contribute to increased injury risk. Ground reaction forces during SS and XS do not appear to contribute to the development of overuse injury. The distinct roles of the leading and trailing limb, acting as a generator of vertical force and shock absorber respectively, during the SS and XS may however contribute to the development of muscular imbalances which may ultimately contribute to the development of overuse injury. However it is still possible that faulty use of these gaits might lead to high loads and this should be the subject of future work

  18. A new classification of hemiplegia gait patterns based on bicluster analysis of joint moments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauk, Jolanta; Minta-Bielecka, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Hemiplegia is a paralysis on one side of the body resulting from disease or injury to the motor centers of the brain that may lead to difficulty in walking and problems in balance. A new methodology for hemiplegia gait patterns classification based on bicluster analysis, which aims to identify a group of patients with similar gait patterns, and verify if spatial-temporal gait parameters are correlated with the Barthel Index, has been proposed. Eighteen hemiplegia patients were recruited. Measurements included spatialtemporal gait parameters and joint moments. Gait data were measured using a motion tracking system and two force platforms. Bicluster analysis was used to classify the subjects' gait patterns. The relation between Barthel Index and spatial-temporal gait parameters was determined based on the Spearman correlation. A high correlation between spatial-temporal gait parameters and Barthel Index (r>0.5, p <0.05) was observed. Well-separated biclusters presenting similarity among the lower limb joints during the gait cycles were obtained from the data. Bicluster analysis can be useful for identifying patients with similar gait patterns. The relation between the gait patterns and the underlying impairments would allow clinicians to target rehabilitation strategies at the patient's individual needs.

  19. Modeling the finger joint moments in a hand at the maximal isometric grip: the effects of friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, John Z; Dong, Ren G; McDowell, Thomas W; Welcome, Daniel E

    2009-12-01

    The interaction between the handle and operator's hand affects the comfort and safety of tool and machine operations. In most of the previous studies, the investigators considered only the normal contact forces. The effect of friction on the joint moments in fingers has not been analyzed. Furthermore, the observed contact forces have not been linked to the internal musculoskeletal loading in the previous experimental studies. In the current study, we proposed a universal model of a hand to evaluate the joint moments in the fingers during grasping tasks. The hand model was developed on the platform of the commercial software package AnyBody. Only four fingers (index, long, ring, and little finger) were included in the model. The anatomical structure of each finger is comprised of four phalanges (distal, middle, proximal, and metacarpal phalange). The simulations were performed using an inverse dynamics technique. The joint angles and the normal contact forces on each finger section reported by previous researchers were used as inputs, while the joint moments of each finger were predicted. The predicted trends of the dependence of the distal interphalangeal (DIP) and proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint moments on the cylinder diameter agree with those of the contact forces on the fingers observed in the previous experimental study. Our results show that the DIP and PIP joint moments reach their maximums at a cylinder diameter of about 31mm, which is consistent with the trend of the finger contact forces measured in the experiments. The proposed approach will be useful for simulating musculoskeletal loading in the hand for occupational activities, thereby optimizing tool-handle design.

  20. A sensitivity analysis method for the body segment inertial parameters based on ground reaction and joint moment regressor matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futamure, Sumire; Bonnet, Vincent; Dumas, Raphael; Venture, Gentiane

    2017-11-07

    This paper presents a method allowing a simple and efficient sensitivity analysis of dynamics parameters of complex whole-body human model. The proposed method is based on the ground reaction and joint moment regressor matrices, developed initially in robotics system identification theory, and involved in the equations of motion of the human body. The regressor matrices are linear relatively to the segment inertial parameters allowing us to use simple sensitivity analysis methods. The sensitivity analysis method was applied over gait dynamics and kinematics data of nine subjects and with a 15 segments 3D model of the locomotor apparatus. According to the proposed sensitivity indices, 76 segments inertial parameters out the 150 of the mechanical model were considered as not influent for gait. The main findings were that the segment masses were influent and that, at the exception of the trunk, moment of inertia were not influent for the computation of the ground reaction forces and moments and the joint moments. The same method also shows numerically that at least 90% of the lower-limb joint moments during the stance phase can be estimated only from a force-plate and kinematics data without knowing any of the segment inertial parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Higher moments of net-proton multiplicity distributions in a heavy-ion event pile-up scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, P.; Mishra, D. K.

    2017-10-01

    High-luminosity modern accelerators, like the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), inherently have event pile-up scenarios which significantly contribute to physics events as a background. While state-of-the-art tracking algorithms and detector concepts take care of these event pile-up scenarios, several offline analytical techniques are used to remove such events from the physics analysis. It is still difficult to identify the remaining pile-up events in an event sample for physics analysis. Since the fraction of these events is significantly small, it may not be as serious of an issue for other analyses as it would be for an event-by-event analysis. Particularly when the characteristics of the multiplicity distribution are observable, one needs to be very careful. In the present work, we demonstrate how a small fraction of residual pile-up events can change the moments and their ratios of an event-by-event net-proton multiplicity distribution, which are sensitive to the dynamical fluctuations due to the QCD critical point. For this study, we assume that the individual event-by-event proton and antiproton multiplicity distributions follow Poisson, negative binomial, or binomial distributions. We observe a significant effect in cumulants and their ratios of net-proton multiplicity distributions due to pile-up events, particularly at lower energies. It might be crucial to estimate the fraction of pile-up events in the data sample while interpreting the experimental observable for the critical point.

  2. A Practical Strategy for sEMG-Based Knee Joint Moment Estimation During Gait and Its Validation in Individuals With Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Suncheol; Park, Hyung-Soon; Stanley, Christopher J.; Kim, Jung; Kim, Jonghyun; Damiano, Diane L.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with cerebral palsy have neurological deficits that may interfere with motor function and lead to abnormal walking patterns. It is important to know the joint moment generated by the patient’s muscles during walking in order to assist the suboptimal gait patterns. In this paper, we describe a practical strategy for estimating the internal moment of a knee joint from surface electromyography (sEMG) and knee joint angle measurements. This strategy requires only isokinetic knee flexi...

  3. Redistribution of joint moments during walking in patients with drop-foot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik B; Moesby, Lene M; Hansen, Lasse D

    2010-01-01

    to increased joint loading, which potentially may lead to development of osteo-arthritis over the years. It is recommended that patients with a drop-foot are offered an ankle joint orthosis in an attempt to restore normal function of the ankle joint, which will most likely reduce the knee joint loadings....

  4. The influence of simulated transversus abdominis muscle force on sacroiliac joint flexibility during asymmetric moment application to the pelvis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnat, Rafael; Spoor, Kees; Pool-Goudzwaard, Annelies

    2015-10-01

    The role of so-called local muscle system in motor control of the lower back and pelvis is a subject of ongoing debate. Prevailing beliefs in stabilizing function of this system were recently challenged. This study investigated the impact of in vitro simulated force of transversely oriented fibres of the transversus abdominis muscle (a part of the local system) on flexibility of the sacroiliac joint during asymmetric moment application to the pelvis. In 8 embalmed specimens an incremental moment was applied in the sagittal plane to one innominate with respect to the fixed contralateral innominate. Ranges of motion of the sacroiliac joint were recorded using the Vicon Motion Capture System. Load-deformation curves were plotted and flexibility of the sacroiliac joint was calculated separately for anterior and posterior rotations of the innominate, with and without simulated muscle force. Flexibility of the sacroiliac joint was significantly bigger during anterior rotation of the innominate, as compared to posterior rotation (Anova Ppelvis cannot be confirmed. Consistent with previous findings smaller flexibility of the joint recorded during posterior rotation of the innominate may be of clinical importance for physio- and manual therapists. However, major limitations of the study should be acknowledged: in vitro conditions and simulation of only solitary muscle force. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The end distance effect of knock-down furniture fasteners on bending moment resistance of corner joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Šimek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to investigate the effect of the end distance of cam lock fasteners on the bending moment resistance of knock-down corner joints. The preliminary study of knock-down furniture assembly plans was done in order to discover the manufacturers’ fastener typical usage in case construction. Laminated particleboard, cam fasteners and wooden dowels were used for specimen construction. L-shaped joint specimens 760 mm in length were tested by pressing the joint members together – also called a compression test in the angle plane. The study results showed that cam fasteners with end distance of 60 mm from the member edges perform the best.

  6. The stable orientations of the net magnetic moment within single-domain particles: Experimental evidence for a range of stable states and implications for rock magnetism and palaeomagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, David K.; Stephenson, Alan

    2006-03-01

    An idealised stable uniaxial single-domain (SD) particle permits only two possible stable positions in which the magnetic moment can lie, either closely parallel or anti-parallel to the particle long (easy) axis. In real acicular SD particles, which have generally been regarded as uniaxial, this implicit two state feature has never been challenged, whilst there has been considerable debate concerning the mechanism of moment reversal between the two states. We present experimental results suggesting that acicular SD particles may actually have a range of several quantifiable stable (or metastable) orientations of the net magnetic moment. In order to help explain our experimental observations we present a new simple model of acicular SD particles, which gives quantitative predictions verified by further experiments. The model also appears to be relevant to other SD particle morphologies and crystal structures (such as hematite). A possible physical basis for our model in acicular particles may lie in non-uniform SD structures (such as the flower or vortex states). Small variations in the non-uniform SD structures available to a particle might allow a range of stable positions of the net moment. The results have several implications for rock magnetism and palaeomagnetism. Firstly, the new model can quantitatively account for several previously unexplained diverse phenomena exhibited by real acicular SD particles. These include the acquisition of gyroremanences and field-impressed anisotropy in dilute dispersions of such particles, as well as observations of transverse components of remanence in individual acicular SD particles. All these phenomena are theoretically impossible in idealised uniaxial SD particles. Interestingly, it appears that these phenomena could now be used to quantify the deviation of real acicular SD particles from ideal uniaxial behaviour and also, therefore, the deviation from a uniform SD structure. In hematite, observations of large field

  7. Lines of action and moment arms of the major force-bearing structures crossing the human knee joint: comparison between theory and experiment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, T W; O'Connor, J J

    1996-01-01

    Lines of action and moment arms in the sagittal plane of the major tension-bearing structures at the knee joint were calculated using an anatomy-based mathematical model and compared with experimental...

  8. Musculoskeletal modelling of human ankle complex: Estimation of ankle joint moments

    OpenAIRE

    Jamwal, PK; Hussain, S; Tsoi, YH; Ghayesh, MH; Xie, SQ

    2017-01-01

    Background: A musculoskeletal model for the ankle complex is vital in order to enhance the understanding of neuro-mechanical control of ankle motions, diagnose ankle disorders and assess subsequent treatments. Motions at the human ankle and foot, however, are complex due to simultaneous movements at the two joints namely, the ankle joint and the subtalar joint. The musculoskeletal elements at the ankle complex, such as ligaments, muscles and tendons, have intricate arrangements and exhibit tr...

  9. On the decision threshold of eigenvalue ratio detector based on moments of joint and marginal distributions of extreme eigenvalues

    KAUST Repository

    Shakir, Muhammad Zeeshan

    2013-03-01

    Eigenvalue Ratio (ER) detector based on the two extreme eigenvalues of the received signal covariance matrix is currently one of the most effective solution for spectrum sensing. However, the analytical results of such scheme often depend on asymptotic assumptions since the distribution of the ratio of two extreme eigenvalues is exceptionally complex to compute. In this paper, a non-asymptotic spectrum sensing approach for ER detector is introduced to approximate the marginal and joint distributions of the two extreme eigenvalues. The two extreme eigenvalues are considered as dependent Gaussian random variables such that their joint probability density function (PDF) is approximated by a bivariate Gaussian distribution function for any number of cooperating secondary users and received samples. The PDF approximation approach is based on the moment matching method where we calculate the exact analytical moments of joint and marginal distributions of the two extreme eigenvalues. The decision threshold is calculated by exploiting the statistical mean and the variance of each of the two extreme eigenvalues and the correlation coefficient between them. The performance analysis of our newly proposed approximation approach is compared with the already published asymptotic Tracy-Widom approximation approach. It has been shown that our results are in perfect agreement with the simulation results for any number of secondary users and received samples. © 2002-2012 IEEE.

  10. Energy efficiency based joint cell selection and power allocation scheme for HetNets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwabena Kobia Mensah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous networks (HetNets composed of overlapped cells with different sizes are expected to improve the transmission performance of data service significantly. User equipments (UEs in the overlapped area of multiple cells might be able to access various base stations (BSs of the cells, resulting in various transmission performances due to cell heterogeneity. Hence, designing optimal cell selection scheme is of particular importance for it may affect user quality of service (QoS and network performance significantly. In this paper, we jointly consider cell selection and transmit power allocation problem in a HetNet consisting of multiple cells. For a single UE case, we formulate the energy efficiency of the UE, and propose an energy efficient optimization scheme which selects the optimal cell corresponding to the maximum energy efficiency of the UE. The problem is then extended to multiple UEs case. To achieve joint performance optimization of all the UEs, we formulate an optimization problem with the objective of maximizing the sum energy efficiency of UEs subject to QoS and power constraints. The formulated nonlinear fractional optimization problem is equivalently transformed into two subproblems, i.e., power allocation subproblem of each UE-cell pair, and cell selection subproblem of UEs. The two subproblems are solved respectively through applying Lagrange dual method and Kuhn–Munkres (K-M algorithm. Numerical results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

  11. Stress Analysis of Adhesive Lap Joint of Hollow Shafts Subjected to Torsional Moments

    OpenAIRE

    仲野, 雄一; 高城, 有希久

    2001-01-01

    The stress and strain distributions in adhesively bonded lap joints of dissimilar hollow shafts are examined using the axisymmetric theory of elasticity. In the analysis, the joint is modeled as an elastic three-body contact problem where the hollow shafts and the adhesive are replaced by finite hollow cylinders. The effects of the ratio of Young's modulus of the adhesive to that of the shaft, the overlap length and the thickness of the adhesive on the stress distributions at the interfaces i...

  12. Body weight unloading modifications on frontal plane joint moments, impulses and Center of Pressure during overground gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Arielle G; Wolf, Alon

    2016-11-01

    Body weight unloading is a common method of gait rehabilitation. However, little is known about its effects on the overground gait biomechanical parameters which were often confounded by the walking modality (treadmill) or the speed variability when subjects walked overground while having to pull the body weight unloading system to which they were attached. By designing a mechanical device that pulled the system at a constant speed, we were able to assess the unique effects of body weight unloading on healthy subjects' kinetics during overground gait. Fifteen healthy subjects walked overground under three (0%, 15%, and 30%) body weight unloading experimental conditions. Kinetic measures included hip and knee frontal plane moments and impulses and the foot center of pressure. A significant inverse relationship was shown between increased body weight unloading levels (0% to 30%) and a decrease in the hip and knee first adduction moments and impulses and an increase in the lateral shift of the foot center of pressure. Frontal plane hip and knee kinetic curvature patterns remained similar as evidenced by low normalized RMSE under paired comparisons of the experimental conditions. Overground gait with up to 30% body weight unloading stands out as an efficient method of reducing loads on joints without distorting kinetic gait curvature patterns. The relationship between increased unloading with decreased hip and knee moments and impulses and increased lateral shift of the center of pressure also suggests that this shift may be an important diagnostic tool in gait assessment and correction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Joint ENEA-ANSALDO design and manufacturing feasibility study of a brazed first wall for NET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franconi, E.; Rado, V.; Simbolotti, G.; Violante, V.; Zampaglione, V. (Associazione Euratom-ENEA, Frascati (Italy). Centro Ricerche Energia); Avanzini, P.G.; Brossa, M.; Casali, D.; Grattarola, M.; Guerreschi, M.; Rosatelli, F. (Ansaldo S.p.A., Genoa (Italy)); Vieider, G. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany, F.R.)); NET Team

    1989-05-01

    In collaboration with ANSALDO, ENEA is performing a design and manufacturing feasibility study for the first wall of NET during the physics operation phase. The main design specifications are the average neutron wall load=1 MW/m/sup 2/, peak surface heat flux=0.4 MW/m/sup 2/, total number of burn pulses=1x10/sup 4/, average burn pulse duration=100 s, structure material=ss 316L S.A., coolant=H/sub 2/O (He) at 50/sup 0/C. The ENEA-ANSALDO reference design is based on the use of flat plates coupled by nicrobrazing to water poloidal cooling tubes. The final aim of the work is manufacturing a representative NET first wall box segment (mockup of indicative dimensions 0.65x0.25x0.15 m/sup 3/) suitable for testing in the 190 kW Thermal Fatigue Test Facility at JRC-Ispra. In this paper we report on the related design work and the results of the studied performed: Technological development (manufacturing test activity, brazed joints characterization tests, mockup design and manufacturing), thermomechanical analysis, plasma-wall interaction studies (test on protective carbon composite material, theory), and tritium transport analysis. (orig.).

  14. A practical strategy for sEMG-based knee joint moment estimation during gait and its validation in individuals with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Suncheol; Park, Hyung-Soon; Stanley, Christopher J; Kim, Jung; Kim, Jonghyun; Damiano, Diane L

    2012-05-01

    Individuals with cerebral palsy have neurological deficits that may interfere with motor function and lead to abnormal walking patterns. It is important to know the joint moment generated by the patient's muscles during walking in order to assist the suboptimal gait patterns. In this paper, we describe a practical strategy for estimating the internal moment of a knee joint from surface electromyography (sEMG) and knee joint angle measurements. This strategy requires only isokinetic knee flexion and extension tests to obtain a relationship between the sEMG and the knee internal moment, and it does not necessitate comprehensive laboratory calibration, which typically requires a 3-D motion capture system and ground reaction force plates. Four estimation models were considered based on different assumptions about the functions of the relevant muscles during the isokinetic tests and the stance phase of walking. The performance of the four models was evaluated by comparing the estimated moments with the gold standard internal moment calculated from inverse dynamics. The results indicate that an optimal estimation model can be chosen based on the degree of cocontraction. The estimation error of the chosen model is acceptable (normalized root-mean-squared error: 0.15-0.29, R: 0.71-0.93) compared to previous studies (Doorenbosch and Harlaar, 2003; Doorenbosch and Harlaar, 2004; Doorenbosch, Joosten, and Harlaar, 2005), and this strategy provides a simple and effective solution for estimating knee joint moment from sEMG.

  15. A non-invasive, 3D, dynamic MRI method for measuring muscle moment arms in vivo: demonstration in the human ankle joint and Achilles tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, E C; Martin, J H; d'Entremont, A G; Pandy, M G; Wilson, D R; Herbert, R D

    2015-01-01

    Muscle moment arms are used widely in biomechanical analyses. Often they are measured in 2D or at a series of static joint positions. In the present study we demonstrate a simple MRI method for measuring muscle moment arms dynamically in 3D from a single range-of-motion cycle. We demonstrate this method in the Achilles tendon for comparison with other methods, and validate the method using a custom apparatus. The method involves registration of high-resolution joint geometry from MRI scans of the stationary joint with low-resolution geometries from ultrafast MRI scans of the slowly moving joint. Tibio-talar helical axes and 3D Achilles tendon moment arms were calculated throughout passive rotation for 10 adult subjects, and compared with recently published data. A simple validation was conducted by comparing MRI measurements with direct physical measurements made on a phantom. The moment arms measured using our method and those of others were similar and there was good agreement between physical measurements (mean 41.0mm) and MRI measurements (mean 39.5mm) made on the phantom. This new method can accurately measure muscle moment arms from a single range-of-motion cycle without the need to control rotation rate or gate the scanning. Supplementary data includes custom software to assist implementation. Copyright © 2014 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Numerical assessment of the influence of different joint hysteretic models over the seismic behaviour of Moment Resisting Steel Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, V.; Chisari, C.; Rizzano, G.; Latour, M.

    2017-10-01

    The main aim of this work is to understand how the prediction of the seismic performance of moment-resisting (MR) steel frames depends on the modelling of their dissipative zones when the structure geometry (number of stories and bays) and seismic excitation source vary. In particular, a parametric analysis involving 4 frames was carried out, and, for each one, the full-strength beam-to-column connections were modelled according to 4 numerical approaches with different degrees of sophistication (Smooth Hysteretic Model, Bouc-Wen, Hysteretic and simple Elastic-Plastic models). Subsequently, Incremental Dynamic Analyses (IDA) were performed by considering two different earthquakes (Spitak and Kobe). The preliminary results collected so far pointed out that the influence of the joint modelling on the overall frame response is negligible up to interstorey drift ratio values equal to those conservatively assumed by the codes to define conventional collapse (0.03 rad). Conversely, if more realistic ultimate interstorey drift values are considered for the q-factor evaluation, the influence of joint modelling can be significant, and thus may require accurate modelling of its cyclic behavior.

  17. Joint INFN-CERN-EuCARD-AccNet Workshop on Electron-Cloud Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Rumolo, Giovanni; Zimmermann, Frank; ECLOUD'12

    2013-01-01

    This report contains the Proceedings of the Joint INFN-Frascati, INFN-Pisa, CERN-LER and EuCARD-AccNet Mini-Workshop on Electron-Cloud Effects, “ECLOUD12”, held at La Biodola, Isola d’Elba, from 5 to 9 June 2012. The ECLOUD12 workshop reviewed many recent electron-cloud (EC) observations at existing storage rings, EC predictions for future accelerators, electron-cloud studies at DAFNE, EC mitigation by clearing electrodes and graphite/carbon coatings, modeling of incoherent EC effects, self-consistent simulations, synergies with other communities like the Valencia Space Consortium and the European Space Agency. ECLOUD12 discussed new EC observations at existing machines including LHC, CesrTA, PETRA-3, J-PARC, and FNAL MI; latest experimental efforts to characterize the EC – including EC diagnostics, experimental techniques, mitigation techniques such as coating and conditioning, advanced chemical and physical analyses of various vacuum-chamber surfaces, beam instabilities and emittance growth –; the...

  18. Cluster Formation and Joint Power-Bandwidth Allocation for Imperfect NOMA in DL-HetNets

    KAUST Repository

    Celik, Abdulkadir

    2017-04-15

    Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) has recently drawn attentions on its ability to fairly serve multiple users on the same radio resource with a desirable performance. However, achievable NOMA gain is primarily limited by channel gain disparity and successive interference cancellation (SIC) receiver characteristics. Accordingly, we introduce an imperfect SIC receiver model considering the power disparity and sensitivity constraints, delay tolerance, and residual interference due to detection and estimation errors. Then, a generic cluster formation (CF) and Power-Bandwidth Allocation (PBA) is formulated as a mixed-integer non-linear programming (MINLP) problem for downlink (DL) heterogeneous networks (HetNets). After dividing the MINLP problem into mixed-integer and non-linear subprobems, we first transform CF into a multi-partite matching, which is solved sequentially using bi-partite matching techniques. For sumrate maximization, max-min fairness, and energy & spectrum efficiency objectives, we secondly put highly non-convex joint PBA into a convex form using geometric programming (GP). Extensive simulations unleash the potential of NOMA to handle large number of users, traffic offloading, and user fairness.

  19. The error of L5/S1 joint moment calculation in a body-centered non-inertial reference frame when the fictitious force is ignored

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, X.; Faber, G.S.; Kingma, I.; Chang, C.C.; Hsiang, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    In ergonomics studies, linked segment models are commonly used for estimating dynamic L5/S1 joint moments during lifting tasks. The kinematics data input to these models are with respect to an arbitrary stationary reference frame. However, a body-centered reference frame, which is defined using the

  20. Inter-joint sharing of total support moments in the lower extremities during gait in narrow-heeled shoes of different heights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Hui-Lien; Liu, Ming-Wei; Lu, Tung-Wu; Kuo, Chien-Chung; Chung, Pei-Chen

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the influence of the base and height of shoe heels on the total support moment (Ms) and individual joint contributions during gait. Fifteen healthy females walked barefoot and with narrow-heeled shoes (heel heights: 3.9, 6.3 and 7.3 cm) while kinematic and kinetic data were measured. Compared with the barefoot condition, the subjects maintained unaltered Ms in the sagittal plane in shod conditions. This was achieved by increasing the knee extensor moment to compensate for the diminished ankle plantarflexor moments in medium and high heel conditions. In the frontal plane, subjects in shod conditions had to sustain an increased Ms for balance control during late single-leg stance with increased knee abductor and ankle pronator moments as a result of the reduced base of the heels. The results will be helpful for future shoe designs to reduce fall risks and prevent relevant musculoskeletal problems.

  1. Assessment of air quality microsensors versus reference methods: The EuNetAir joint exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, C.; Costa, A. M.; Ginja, J.; Amorim, M.; Coutinho, M.; Karatzas, K.; Sioumis, Th.; Katsifarakis, N.; Konstantinidis, K.; De Vito, S.; Esposito, E.; Smith, P.; André, N.; Gérard, P.; Francis, L. A.; Castell, N.; Schneider, P.; Viana, M.; Minguillón, M. C.; Reimringer, W.; Otjes, R. P.; von Sicard, O.; Pohle, R.; Elen, B.; Suriano, D.; Pfister, V.; Prato, M.; Dipinto, S.; Penza, M.

    2016-12-01

    The 1st EuNetAir Air Quality Joint Intercomparison Exercise organized in Aveiro (Portugal) from 13th-27th October 2014, focused on the evaluation and assessment of environmental gas, particulate matter (PM) and meteorological microsensors, versus standard air quality reference methods through an experimental urban air quality monitoring campaign. The IDAD-Institute of Environment and Development Air Quality Mobile Laboratory was placed at an urban traffic location in the city centre of Aveiro to conduct continuous measurements with standard equipment and reference analysers for CO, NOx, O3, SO2, PM10, PM2.5, temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction, solar radiation and precipitation. The comparison of the sensor data generated by different microsensor-systems installed side-by-side with reference analysers, contributes to the assessment of the performance and the accuracy of microsensor-systems in a real-world context, and supports their calibration and further development. The overall performance of the sensors in terms of their statistical metrics and measurement profile indicates significant differences in the results depending on the platform and on the sensors considered. In terms of pollutants, some promising results were observed for O3 (r2: 0.12-0.77), CO (r2: 0.53-0.87), and NO2 (r2: 0.02-0.89). For PM (r2: 0.07-0.36) and SO2 (r2: 0.09-0.20) the results show a poor performance with low correlation coefficients between the reference and microsensor measurements. These field observations under specific environmental conditions suggest that the relevant microsensor platforms, if supported by the proper post processing and data modelling tools, have enormous potential for new strategies in air quality control.

  2. Joint contact forces when minimizing the external knee adduction moment by gait modification: A computer simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ross H; Esterson, Aryeh Y; Shim, Jae Kun

    2015-12-01

    Gait modification is often used to reduce the external knee adduction moment (KAM) in human walking, but the relationship between KAM reduction and changes in medial knee joint contact force (JCF) is not well established. Our purpose was to examine the limiting case of KAM-based gait modification: reducing the KAM as much as possible, and the resulting effects on JCF. We used musculoskeletal modeling to perform three optimal control simulations: normal walking, a modified gait that reduced the KAM as much as theoretically possible (Min(KAM) simulation), and a second modified gait that minimized the KAM plus the metabolic cost of transport (Min(KAM+CoT) simulation). The two modified gaits both reduced the peak KAM from normal walking (-82% for Min(KAM) simulation, -74% for Min(KAM+CoT) simulation) by increasing trunk lean, toe-out, and step width, and reducing knee flexion. Even though the Min(KAM+CoT) simulation had the larger KAM, it had a greater reduction in peak medial JCF (-27%) than the Min(KAM) simulation (-15%) because it reduced the KAM using less knee muscle activity. These results were qualitatively robust to a sensitivity analysis of the knee joint model, but the magnitude of changes varied by an order of magnitude. The results suggest that (i) gait modification can benefit from considering whole-body motion rather than single adjustments, (ii) accurate interpretation of KAM effects on medial JCF requires consideration of muscle forces, and (iii) subject-specific knee models are needed to accurately determine the magnitude of KAM reduction effects on JCF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Joint moment and muscle power output characteristics of below knee amputees during running: the influence of energy storing prosthetic feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerniecki, J M; Gitter, A; Munro, C

    1991-01-01

    Stance phase joint moments, muscle power outputs and mechanical energy characteristics were determined in five normal and five below knee amputee subjects running at 2.8 m s-1. The amputees were studied sequentially on three different prosthetic feet: the SACH foot (solid ankle cushion heel), and two energy storing feet, Seattle and Flex. While wearing the SACH foot, the amputees exhibited major alterations in the distribution and magnitude of muscle power output and muscle work: (1) the total work done by the lower extremity was reduced; (2) the hip extensors became the main source of energy absorption and generation, while in normal subjects the ankle plantarflexors were the major energy generators and the knee extensors the major energy absorbers; (3) the eccentric and concentric knee extensor power outputs were reduced and an abnormal concentric knee flexor power output was noted immediately after heel contact. In four of the amputees, energy storing feet resulted in improvements in the power output and mechanical work characteristics of the lower extremity: (1) the energy storing prosthetic feet generated 2-3 times greater energy than the SACH foot; (2) with the Flex foot the amputees exhibited a more normal pattern and magnitude of hip and knee extensor muscle work. One of the subjects, however, exhibited increased abnormalities with the energy storing prosthetic feet. The amount of energy restored relative to the amount of energy absorbed by each of the prosthetic feet was greater with the energy storing feet than the SACH foot (Flex 84%, Seattle 52%, SACH 31%).

  4. The effect of the heel- to- toe rocker shoe on moments of ankle joint and temporal-spatial of gait in female student

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    masoomeh Veiskarami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Rocker shoes are the most commonly prescribed external therapeutic shoe modification and are used for treatment of the ankle and midfoot problems. The aim of this study was to assesse the effects of the heel- to-toe rocker shoes on temporal-spatial and ankle joint moments in sagital and frontal plane. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-exprimental study, three-dimentional gait analysis was carried out on 20 healthy university female students with normal normal gait pattern selected by convenience sampling method. A Vicon 470 system(Oxford Metrix, U.K. consisting of 6 cameras operating at 60Hz and kistler forceplate (A9286 was used.The paired samples T test was used to statistical analysis. Results: The results showed that there is no significant change in temporal-spatial parameters while wearing this modified shoe ,but the ankle moments while wearing rocker shoes in sagittal plane was significantly less than that while wearing traditional shoes(p=0.002 but in frontal plane significantly increased(p=0.007. Conclusion: Based on the current findings the major benefits of this modified shoe appear to be significantly restricted sagital plane moments with maintenance of walking speed so the loads on ankle joint and achilles tendon reduced, but increases frontal plain moments which leads to increase of mediolateral instability of ankle joint.

  5. Invariant hip moment pattern while walking with a robotic hip exoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cara L.; Ferris, Daniel P.

    2011-01-01

    Robotic lower limb exoskeletons hold significant potential for gait assistance and rehabilitation; however, we have a limited understanding of how people adapt to walking with robotic devices. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that people reduce net muscle moments about their joints when robotic assistance is provided. This reduction in muscle moment results in a total joint moment (muscle plus exoskeleton) that is the same as the moment without the robotic assistance despite potential differences in joint angles. To test this hypothesis, eight healthy subjects trained with the robotic hip exoskeleton while walking on a force-measuring treadmill. The exoskeleton provided hip flexion assistance from approximately 33% to 53% of the gait cycle. We calculated the root mean squared difference (RMSD) between the average of data from the last 15 minutes of the powered condition and the unpowered condition. After completing three 30-minute training sessions, the hip exoskeleton provided 27% of the total peak hip flexion moment during gait. Despite this substantial contribution from the exoskeleton, subjects walked with a total hip moment pattern (muscle plus exoskeleton) that was almost identical and more similar to the unpowered condition than the hip angle pattern (hip moment RMSD 0.027, angle RMSD 0.134, p<0.001). The angle and moment RMSD were not different for the knee and ankle joints. These findings support the concept that people adopt walking patterns with similar joint moment patterns despite differences in hip joint angles for a given walking speed. PMID:21333995

  6. Estimation of joint forces and moments for the in-run and take-off in ski jumping based on measurements with wearable inertial sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logar, Grega; Munih, Marko

    2015-05-13

    This study uses inertial sensors to measure ski jumper kinematics and joint dynamics, which was until now only a part of simulation studies. For subsequent calculation of dynamics in the joints, a link-segment model was developed. The model relies on the recursive Newton-Euler inverse dynamics. This approach allowed the calculation of the ground reaction force at take-off. For the model validation, four ski jumpers from the National Nordic center performed a simulated jump in a laboratory environment on a force platform; in total, 20 jumps were recorded. The results fit well to the reference system, presenting small errors in the mean and standard deviation and small root-mean-square errors. The error is under 12% of the reference value. For field tests, six jumpers participated in the study; in total, 28 jumps were recorded. All of the measured forces and moments were within the range of prior simulated studies. The proposed system was able to indirectly provide the values of forces and moments in the joints of the ski-jumpers' body segments, as well as the ground reaction force during the in-run and take-off phases in comparison to the force platform installed on the table. Kinematics assessment and estimation of dynamics parameters can be applied to jumps from any ski jumping hill.

  7. Estimation of Joint Forces and Moments for the In-Run and Take-Off in Ski Jumping Based on Measurements with Wearable Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grega Logar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study uses inertial sensors to measure ski jumper kinematics and joint dynamics, which was until now only a part of simulation studies. For subsequent calculation of dynamics in the joints, a link-segment model was developed. The model relies on the recursive Newton–Euler inverse dynamics. This approach allowed the calculation of the ground reaction force at take-off. For the model validation, four ski jumpers from the National Nordic center performed a simulated jump in a laboratory environment on a force platform; in total, 20 jumps were recorded. The results fit well to the reference system, presenting small errors in the mean and standard deviation and small root-mean-square errors. The error is under 12% of the reference value. For field tests, six jumpers participated in the study; in total, 28 jumps were recorded. All of the measured forces and moments were within the range of prior simulated studies. The proposed system was able to indirectly provide the values of forces and moments in the joints of the ski-jumpers’ body segments, as well as the ground reaction force during the in-run and take-off phases in comparison to the force platform installed on the table. Kinematics assessment and estimation of dynamics parameters can be applied to jumps from any ski jumping hill.

  8. EMG-Driven Forward-Dynamic Estimation of Muscle Force and Joint Moment about Multiple Degrees of Freedom in the Human Lower Extremity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Massimo; Reggiani, Monica; Farina, Dario; Lloyd, David G.

    2012-01-01

    This work examined if currently available electromyography (EMG) driven models, that are calibrated to satisfy joint moments about one single degree of freedom (DOF), could provide the same musculotendon unit (MTU) force solution, when driven by the same input data, but calibrated about a different DOF. We then developed a novel and comprehensive EMG-driven model of the human lower extremity that used EMG signals from 16 muscle groups to drive 34 MTUs and satisfy the resulting joint moments simultaneously produced about four DOFs during different motor tasks. This also led to the development of a calibration procedure that allowed identifying a set of subject-specific parameters that ensured physiological behavior for the 34 MTUs. Results showed that currently available single-DOF models did not provide the same unique MTU force solution for the same input data. On the other hand, the MTU force solution predicted by our proposed multi-DOF model satisfied joint moments about multiple DOFs without loss of accuracy compared to single-DOF models corresponding to each of the four DOFs. The predicted MTU force solution was (1) a function of experimentally measured EMGs, (2) the result of physiological MTU excitation, (3) reflected different MTU contraction strategies associated to different motor tasks, (4) coordinated a greater number of MTUs with respect to currently available single-DOF models, and (5) was not specific to an individual DOF dynamics. Therefore, our proposed methodology has the potential of producing a more dynamically consistent and generalizable MTU force solution than was possible using single-DOF EMG-driven models. This will help better address the important scientific questions previously approached using single-DOF EMG-driven modeling. Furthermore, it might have applications in the development of human-machine interfaces for assistive devices. PMID:23300725

  9. Effects of EMG processing on biomechanical models of muscle joint systems: sensitivity of trunk muscle moments, spinal forces, and stability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staudenmann, D.; Potvin, J.R.; Kingma, I.; Stegeman, D.F.; Dieen, J.H. van

    2007-01-01

    Biomechanical models are in use to estimate parameters such as contact forces and stability at various joints. In one class of these models, surface electromyography (EMG) is used to address the problem of mechanical indeterminacy such that individual muscle activation patterns are accounted for.

  10. Effect of knee flexion angle on Achilles tendon force and ankle joint plantarflexion moment during passive dorsiflexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orishimo, Karl F; Burstein, Gideon; Mullaney, Michael J; Kremenic, Ian J; Nesse, Marcus; McHugh, Malachy P; Lee, Steven J

    2008-01-01

    Early mobilization exercises are advocated following Achilles tendon (AT) repair, but forces on the repair during passive range of motion are unknown. The extent to which these forces change with flexion of the knee is also not known. Estimated AT forces were measured using 3 models: cadaveric, uninjured subjects, and in both legs of subjects 6 weeks following unilateral AT repair. For cadaveric testing, estimated AT force was recorded using a force transducer while cycling the ankle from 10 degrees plantarflexion to maximum dorsiflexion at 3 different knee flexion angles (0 degrees , 45 degrees , and 90 degrees ). For in vivo testing, subjects were seated in an isokinetic dynamometer, and their ankles passively cycled from plantarflexion to dorsiflexion with the knee extended and flexed 50 degrees . Passive plantarflexion moment recorded by the dynamometer was converted to AT force by estimating the AT moment arm. In the cadaveric model, knee flexion reduced estimated AT forces during dorsiflexion by more than 40% (P < .036). In vivo testing showed that estimated AT force was reduced in knee flexion in healthy subjects (P < .001) and in the uninvolved leg AT repair subjects (P = .021), but not in the AT repaired leg (P = .387). Normal AT showed a marked reduction in estimated AT force with knee flexion which was not present in repaired AT. This could be because of elongation of the repair, causing more slack in the tendon that would need to be taken up before force transmission occurs. ACFAS Level of Clinical Evidence: 4.

  11. Joint pattern of seasonal hydrological droughts and floods alternation in China's Huai River Basin using the multivariate L-moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, ShaoFei; Zhang, Xiang; She, DunXian

    2017-06-01

    Under the current condition of climate change, droughts and floods occur more frequently, and events in which flooding occurs after a prolonged drought or a drought occurs after an extreme flood may have a more severe impact on natural systems and human lives. This challenges the traditional approach wherein droughts and floods are considered separately, which may largely underestimate the risk of the disasters. In our study, the sudden alternation of droughts and flood events (ADFEs) between adjacent seasons is studied using the multivariate L-moments theory and the bivariate copula functions in the Huai River Basin (HRB) of China with monthly streamflow data at 32 hydrological stations from 1956 to 2012. The dry and wet conditions are characterized by the standardized streamflow index (SSI) at a 3-month time scale. The results show that: (1) The summer streamflow makes the largest contribution to the annual streamflow, followed by the autumn streamflow and spring streamflow. (2) The entire study area can be divided into five homogeneous sub-regions using the multivariate regional homogeneity test. The generalized logistic distribution (GLO) and log-normal distribution (LN3) are acceptable to be the optimal marginal distributions under most conditions, and the Frank copula is more appropriate for spring-summer and summer-autumn SSI series. Continuous flood events dominate at most sites both in spring-summer and summer-autumn (with an average frequency of 13.78% and 17.06%, respectively), while continuous drought events come second (with an average frequency of 11.27% and 13.79%, respectively). Moreover, seasonal ADFEs most probably occurred near the mainstream of HRB, and drought and flood events are more likely to occur in summer-autumn than in spring-summer.

  12. Informatics Moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kate

    2012-01-01

    The informatics moment is the moment when a person seeks help in using some digital technology that is new to him or her. This article examines the informatics moment in people's everyday lives as they sought help at a branch public library. Four types of literacy were involved: basic literacy (reading and writing), computer literacy (use of a…

  13. The effect of foot progression angle on knee joint compression force during walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koblauch, Henrik; Heilskov-Hansen, Thomas; Alkjær, Tine

    2013-01-01

    males walked at a fixed speed of 4.5 km/h under three conditions: Normal walking, internally rotated and externally rotated. All gait trials were recorded by six infrared cameras. Net joint moments were calculated by 3D inverse dynamics. The results revealed that the medial knee joint compartment...... was to investigate the knee joint compressive forces during walking with internal, external and normal foot rotation and to determine if the frontal plane knee joint moment is an adequate surrogate for the compression forces in the medial and lateral knee joint compartments under such gait modifications. Ten healthy...... compression force increased during external foot rotation and the lateral knee joint compartment compression force increased during internal foot rotation. The increases in joint loads may be a result of increased knee flexion angles. Further, these data suggest that the frontal plane knee joint moment...

  14. Moments and power generated by the horse (Equus caballus) hind limb during jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutto, Darren J; Hoyt, Donald F; Clayton, Hilary M; Cogger, Edward A; Wickler, Steven J

    2004-02-01

    The ability to jump over an obstacle depends upon the generation of work across the joints of the propelling limb(s). The total work generated by one hind limb of a horse and the contribution to the total work by four joints of the hind limb were determined for a jump. It was hypothesized that the hip and ankle joints would have extensor moments performing positive work, while the knee would have a flexor moment and perform negative work during the jump. Ground reaction forces and sagittal plane kinematics were simultaneously recorded during each jumping trial. Joint moment, power and work were determined for the metatarsophalangeal (MP), tarsal (ankle), tibiofemoral (knee) and coxofemoral (hip) joints. The hip, knee and ankle all flexed and then extended and the MP extended and then flexed during ground contact. Consistent with our hypothesis, large extensor moments were observed at the hip and ankle joints and large flexor moments at the knee and MP joints throughout ground contact of the hind limb. Peak moments tended to occur earlier in stance in the proximal joints but peak power generation of the hind limb joints occurred at similar times except for the MP joint, with the hip and ankle peaking first followed by the MP joint. During the first portion of ground contact (approximately 40%), the net result of the joint powers was the absorption of power. During the remainder of the contact period, the hind limb generated power. This pattern of power absorption followed by power generation paralleled the power profiles of the hip, ankle and MP joints. The total work performed by one hind limb was 0.71 J kg(-1). Surprisingly, the knee produced 85% of the work (0.60 J kg(-1)) done by the hind limb, and the positive work performed by the knee occurred during the first 40% of the take-off. There is little net work generated by the other three joints over the entire take-off. Velocity of the tuber coxae (a landmark on the pelvis of the animal) was negative (downward

  15. Moment Contribution Capacity of Tendon Prestressed Partial on Concrete Beam-column Joint Interior According to Provisions ACI 318-2008 Chapter 21.5.2.5(c Due to Cyclic Lateral Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astawa Made Dharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research designed a partial prestressed concrete beam-column with reinforced concrete interior joint, using square columns of 400/400 mm, reinforcement 6 D16 + 4D13, section beam 250/400 mm, tensile reinforcement 5 D13, compression reinforcement 3 D13 + 2 strand tendon D12,7 mm , and joint without plastic hinge, then tested in laboratory with lateral cyclic loads on peak column, static axial load 1120 kN on the centre column, to get the tendon capacity to assume positive and negative bending moments due to lateral load, according to provisions of ACI 318-2008 part 21.5.2.5 (c. Test results showed that the moment tendon contribution on beam section, in the tensile area, the positive and negative moment both on the left side or the right side column are all qualified ( 25 %. As for the negative moment, either left or right side column are all qualified (4.0. Although the contribution of positive moment capacity tendon in compression areas does not qualify, in overall, the reliability and ductility of the structure qualify.

  16. Earthquake scaling characteristics and the scale-(in)dependence of seismic energy-to-moment ratio: Insights from KiK-net data in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oth, Adrien; Bindi, Dino; Parolai, Stefano; Di Giacomo, Domenico

    2010-10-01

    We investigate earthquake source characteristics and scaling properties using the results of a spectral inversion of more than 29,000 accelerometric borehole recordings from 1,826 earthquakes (MJMA 2.7-8) throughout Japan. We find that the calculated source spectra can be well characterized by the omega-square model and show on average self-similar scaling over the entire magnitude range, with median stress drops of 1.1 and 9.2 MPa for crustal and subcrustal events, respectively. The seismic energy-to-moment ratio, as theoretically expected if the omega-square model is valid, shows a strong dependency on stress drop only, which, in conjunction with data selection practice in some studies to cope with limited recording bandwidth, can explain the often observed apparent scale-dependence. Our observations suggest that there is no significant deviation from similarity of the energy radiation in the investigated magnitude range and that the observed scatter is mainly related to the scatter in stress drop.

  17. Peak hip and knee joint moments during a sit-to-stand movement are invariant to the change of seat height within the range of low to normal seat height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Shinsuke; Nagano, Akinori; Hay, Dean C; Fukashiro, Senshi

    2014-03-12

    Previous studies have consistently reported that decreasing seat height increases the peak hip and knee joint moments; however, these findings may not apply to biomechanical changes at very low seat heights. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to examine the effect of a large range of seat heights on peak joint moments of the lower limb during a sit-to-stand (STS) movement. Eight healthy young subjects participated in this experiment. Each subject was instructed to stand up from six seat heights (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 cm). Joint moments were calculated with an inverse dynamics method. The sum of the hip and knee joint moments was used as the index to indicate the mechanical load of the STS movement. The effect of seat height on the mechanical load was examined with both analytical and experimental approaches. Through the analytical approach, it was revealed that the mechanical load of STS movements from low and normal seat heights (10 to 40 cm) always reaches its peak at or near the posture in which the thigh is horizontally positioned. This finding indicates that the peak value is invariant between the low and normal seat heights. Similar results were also found in the experimental approach. There were few significant differences in the peak mechanical load and the peak hip and knee joint moments between the low and normal seat heights, while they differed significantly between the low and high seat heights. This study concluded that, while the peak mechanical load and the peak hip and knee joint moments increase inversely to seat height within the range of high to normal seat height (60 to 40 cm), they are invariant to the change of seat height within the range of low to normal seat height (10 to 40 cm). These findings are useful for the design of chair, the improvement in the evaluation standard of minimum sit-to-stand height tests and the development of new muscular strength test.

  18. Private Moments

    OpenAIRE

    Paul R. Reed; Carol J. Cumber

    2000-01-01

    In October, 1996 Private Moments, an adult novelty store, opened for business in Huntsville, Texas. Huntsville had no ordinances in place to prevent the opening of this type of business. In fact, the local Small Business Development Center provided guidance and assistance to Edward Delagarza, the founder and owner of Private Moments. Many of the Huntsville citizens, unhappy with the opening of Private Moments, approached the City Council requesting that it be closed immediately and asked for ...

  19. A homogeneous group of persons with multiple sclerosis seem to use different net joint power strategies to increase gait speed - a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincks, John

    PwMS with an EDSS score median at 2.5 (Inter quartile range=1) participated. The gait patterns were analysed using 3D motion analysis at self-selected and maximum gait speed. The net joint power peaks were measured for H1-S, H2-S, H3-S, H1-F, H2-F, H3-F, K1-S, K2-S, K3-S, A1-S and A2-S......Background: Major symptoms associated with multiple sclerosis are muscle weakness, fatique and loss of limb coordination, all of which contribute to an unsafe gait. To improve gait function in persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) it is essential to determine which problems underlie gait...... dysfunction. Aims: This pilot study examined changes in net joint power generated or absorbed by hip flexors (H2-S, H3-S), hip extensors (H1-S), hip abductors (H1-F, H2-F, H3-F) knee extensors (K1-S, K2-S, K3-S) and ankle plantar flexors (A1-S, A2-S) bilaterally, when gait speed increased. Methods: Fourteen...

  20. A homogeneous group of persons with multiple sclerosis seem to use different net joint power strategies to increase gait speed - a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincks, John

    2014-01-01

    PwMS with an EDSS score median at 2.5 (Inter quartile range=1) participated. The gait patterns were analysed using 3D motion analysis at self-selected and maximum gait speed. The net joint power peaks were measured for H1-S, H2-S, H3-S, H1-F, H2-F, H3-F, K1-S, K2-S, K3-S, A1-S and A2-S......Background: Major symptoms associated with multiple sclerosis are muscle weakness, fatique and loss of limb coordination, all of which contribute to an unsafe gait. To improve gait function in persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) it is essential to determine which problems underlie gait...... dysfunction. Aims: This pilot study examined changes in net joint power generated or absorbed by hip flexors (H2-S, H3-S), hip extensors (H1-S), hip abductors (H1-F, H2-F, H3-F) knee extensors (K1-S, K2-S, K3-S) and ankle plantar flexors (A1-S, A2-S) bilaterally, when gait speed increased. Methods: Fourteen...

  1. Tibiofemoral joint kinetics during squatting with increasing external load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahli, Sonia; Rebai, Haithem; Elleuch, Mohamed Habib; Tabka, Zouheir; Poumarat, Georges

    2008-08-01

    There is limited information about the effects of increasing load while squatting. To quantify tibiofemoral joint kinetics during squatting with variable loads. Research laboratory. 20 male students. Tibiofemoral joint kinetics and electromyographic (EMG) activity of four involved muscles were determined by recording the half squat with variable external loads. Tibiofemoral joint force and external moment components and EMG activity of four involved muscles. Throughout the exercise, a posterior direction for the antero-posterior shear force and a net extension for the external moment were observed. They increased with knee flexion reaching peak force of 29% of the subject body weight (BW) and moment of 88Nm (without external load). All force and moment components and muscle activities increased as the external load increased. These findings suggest that half squat may be safe to use for quadriceps strengthening with very low potential loading on the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Our data can help clinicians choose the appropriate external load.

  2. An Analytical Calculation of Frictional and Bending Moments at the Head-Neck Interface of Hip Joint Implants during Different Physiological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Farhoudi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study predicts the frictional moments at the head-cup interface and frictional torques and bending moments acting on the head-neck interface of a modular total hip replacement across a range of activities of daily living. The predicted moment and torque profiles are based on the kinematics of four patients and the implant characteristics of a metal-on-metal implant. Depending on the body weight and type of activity, the moments and torques had significant variations in both magnitude and direction over the activity cycles. For the nine investigated activities, the maximum magnitude of the frictional moment ranged from 2.6 to 7.1 Nm. The maximum magnitude of the torque acting on the head-neck interface ranged from 2.3 to 5.7 Nm. The bending moment acting on the head-neck interface varied from 7 to 21.6 Nm. One-leg-standing had the widest range of frictional torque on the head-neck interface (11 Nm while normal walking had the smallest range (6.1 Nm. The widest range, together with the maximum magnitude of torque, bending moment, and frictional moment, occurred during one-leg-standing of the lightest patient. Most of the simulated activities resulted in frictional torques that were near the previously reported oxide layer depassivation threshold torque. The predicted bending moments were also found at a level believed to contribute to the oxide layer depassivation. The calculated magnitudes and directions of the moments, applied directly to the head-neck taper junction, provide realistic mechanical loading data for in vitro and computational studies on the mechanical behaviour and multi-axial fretting at the head-neck interface.

  3. On the interpretation of the support moment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, AL

    2000-01-01

    It has been suggested by Winter (J. Biomech. 13 (1980) 923-927) that the 'support moment', the sum of the sagittal extension moments, shows less variability in walking than any of the joint moments separately. A simple model is put forward to explain this finding. It is proposed to reformulate the

  4. Antagonist muscle moment is increased in ACL deficient subjects during maximal dynamic knee extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkjær, Tine; Simonsen, Erik B; Magnusson, S Peter

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Coactivation of the hamstring muscles during dynamic knee extension may compensate for increased knee joint laxity in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficient subjects. This study examined if antagonist muscle coactivation during maximal dynamic knee extension was elevated...... in subjects with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency compared to age-matched healthy controls. METHODS: Electromyography (EMG) and net knee joint moments were recorded during maximal concentric quadriceps and eccentric hamstring contractions, performed in an isokinetic dynamometer (ROM: 90......-10°, angular speed: 30°/s). Hamstring antagonist EMG recorded during concentric quadriceps contraction was converted into antagonist moment based on the EMG-moment relationship observed during eccentric agonist contractions. RESULTS: The magnitude of antagonist hamstring EMG was 65.5% higher in ACL deficient...

  5. Optimal transfer, ordering and payment policies for joint supplier-buyer inventory model with price-sensitive trapezoidal demand and net credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nita H.; Shah, Digeshkumar B.; Patel, Dushyantkumar G.

    2015-07-01

    This study aims at formulating an integrated supplier-buyer inventory model when market demand is variable price-sensitive trapezoidal and the supplier offers a choice between discount in unit price and permissible delay period for settling the accounts due against the purchases made. This type of trade credit is termed as 'net credit'. In this policy, if the buyer pays within offered time M1, then the buyer is entitled for a cash discount; otherwise the full account must be settled by the time M2; where M2 > M1 ⩾ 0. The goal is to determine the optimal selling price, procurement quantity, number of transfers from the supplier to the buyer and payment time to maximise the joint profit per unit time. An algorithm is worked out to obtain the optimal solution. A numerical example is given to validate the proposed model. The managerial insights based on sensitivity analysis are deduced.

  6. Temperature moments vs poison moments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staebler, U.M.

    1947-05-19

    The excess reactivity available in an operating pile is absorbed in poison columns and horizontal rods. The temperature distribution of the pile is determined by the relative strengths and locations of the poison columns and the configuration of control rods used. A method for adjusting poison columns and rods to improve upon the pile`s temperature distribution is given in Document {number_sign}7-2654, ``Procedure for Improving Temperature Distribution via Rods and Columns,`` Wheeler and Menegus to Jordan, September 9, 1945. A relationship between poison moment (inhour lattice units) and temperature moments (per coat) was theoretically derived in the above document and has since been measured on several occasions on the basis of operating experience. A survey of recent operating data for the F Pile has been made by H. A. Gauper, Jr. with the intent of improving the method for obtaining the temperature and poison moments and relating changes in the two. This study was concerned with only the horizontal and vertical dipole moments. The results of Mr. Gauper`s investigation are summarized in this memorandum.

  7. Dissection of a Single Rat Muscle-Tendon Complex Changes Joint Moments Exerted by Neighboring Muscles: Implications for Invasive Surgical Interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, H.; Baan, G.C.; Huijing, P.A.J.B.M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate mechanical functioning of a single skeletal muscle, active within a group of (previously) synergistic muscles. For this purpose, we assessed wrist angle-active moment characteristics exerted by a group of wrist flexion muscles in the rat for three conditions:

  8. NET.EXCEL - a European thematic network for suggesting and prioritising future joint R and D projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svemar, C. [Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (Sweden); Brewitz, W. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The NET.EXCEL project concerns the forming of a network of European end users for analysing the present status and future needs in research, technical development and demonstration (RTD) for the disposal of highly radioactive waste in the three classical rock media: salt, clay/clay sediments and crystalline rock. The aim is to generate values additional to that gained by the individual participants: Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (Sweden), Posiva Oy (Finland), Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radioactivos SA (Spain), Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (Germany), Agence nationale pour la gestion des dechets radioactifs (France), Nationale Genossenschaft fuer die Lagerung radioaktiver Abfaelle (Swizerland), Organisme National des Dechets Radioactifs et des Matieres Fissiles Enrichies (Belgium) and United Kingdom Nirex Limited (UK). The practical way to carry out the needed RTD-activities and the principles behind the process to establish priorities for the necessary RTD-work is quite similar among the participants. Common ground has been analysed for the role/responsibilities of the participating organisations, for the establishment of priorities for the RTD work and for the modus operandi of the organisations to carry out the RTD. The issue of prioritising the potential RTD activities and the factors taken into account by the participating organisations have been summarised and analysed with respect to the common denominator in the project. (orig.)

  9. Collaborative Moments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Kirsten Blinkenberg

    2017-01-01

    as an experiment in real time, where insights gained intersubjectively gradually shape up as knowledge through analysis. This line of thought is brought to bear on a discussion of collaboration between anthropologists, archaeologists, and biologists in North West Greenland. Through actual experiences from...... the field, this article shows how knowledge generated on the edge of one’s familiar disciplinary territory may both expand and intensify the anthropological field. Collaborative moments are seen to make new anthropological insights emerge through the co-presence of several analytical perspectives...

  10. Joint axes of rotation and body segment parameters of pig limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorup, Vivi M; Tøgersen, Frede Aa; Jørgensen, Bente; Jensen, Bente R

    2007-09-06

    To enable a quantification of net joint moments and joint reaction forces, indicators of joint loading, this study aimed to locate the mediolateral joint axes of rotation and establish the body segment parameters of the limbs of pigs (Sus scrofa). To locate the joint axes of rotation the scapulohumeral, humeroradial, carpal complex, metacarpophalangeal, coxofemoral, femorotibial, tarsal, and metatarsophalangeal joints from 12 carcasses were studied. The joints were photographed in three positions, bisecting lines drawn at fixed landmarks with their intersection marking the joint axes of rotation. The body segment parameters, i.e. the segment mass, center of mass and moment of inertia were measured on the humerus, radius/ulna, metacarpus, forepastern, foretoe, femur, tibia, metatarsus, hindpastern, and hindtoe segments from five carcasses. The segments were weighed, and their center of mass was found by balancing them. The moments of inertia of the humerus, radius/ulna, femur and tibia were found by rotating the segments. The moments of inertia of the remaining segments were calculated. Generally, the joint axes of rotation were near the attachment site of the lateral collateral ligaments. The forelimb, with segments taken as one, was significantly lighter and shorter than the hindlimb (P joint axes of rotation and on the body segment parameters for inverse dynamic modeling of pigs.

  11. Joint axes of rotation and body segment parameters of pig limbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgensen Bente

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To enable a quantification of net joint moments and joint reaction forces, indicators of joint loading, this study aimed to locate the mediolateral joint axes of rotation and establish the body segment parameters of the limbs of pigs (Sus scrofa. To locate the joint axes of rotation the scapulohumeral, humeroradial, carpal complex, metacarpophalangeal, coxofemoral, femorotibial, tarsal, and metatarsophalangeal joints from 12 carcasses were studied. The joints were photographed in three positions, bisecting lines drawn at fixed landmarks with their intersection marking the joint axes of rotation. The body segment parameters, i.e. the segment mass, center of mass and moment of inertia were measured on the humerus, radius/ulna, metacarpus, forepastern, foretoe, femur, tibia, metatarsus, hindpastern, and hindtoe segments from five carcasses. The segments were weighed, and their center of mass was found by balancing them. The moments of inertia of the humerus, radius/ulna, femur and tibia were found by rotating the segments. The moments of inertia of the remaining segments were calculated. Generally, the joint axes of rotation were near the attachment site of the lateral collateral ligaments. The forelimb, with segments taken as one, was significantly lighter and shorter than the hindlimb (P

  12. Joint kinetics in unilateral below-knee amputee patients during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, D J; Martin, P E

    1996-12-01

    To explore the nature of the accommodations in running gait that persons with below-knee amputations make in response to the limb segment loss. Two groups of volunteer subjects (n = 6 in each group). Individuals in one group had below-knee amputations; the second group had intact lower limbs. Individuals ran at two nominal speeds, 2.7 m/sec and 3.5 m/sec, over a flush-mounted force platform. Ground reaction force data were combined with simultaneously recorded and subsequently digitized video data of coordinate motion to calculate joint and segment motion and net joint moment data. The degree of left-to-right asymmetry for the amputee group was dependent on the variable of interest. There was symmetry in stride frequency and support moment and a marked asymmetry in ankle, knee, and hip moments. In response to increased running speed, both groups increased the amplitude of each joint moment. The nonamputee group appeared to increase the gain uniformly across the three joints, whereas the intact and prosthetic limbs were not uniformly increased. The temporal sequencing of the components for the intact and prosthetic limbs did not appear to differ from the nonamputee limb. This similarity in timing was unaffected by speed increases. There was no need to develop completely new patterns of joint moments; rather, it was sufficient to retune the current moment patterns to account for new segmental properties and thus retain the internal timing characteristics.

  13. The 'impact' of force filtering cut-off frequency on the peak knee abduction moment during landing: artefact or 'artifiction'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roewer, Benjamin D; Ford, Kevin R; Myer, Gregory D; Hewett, Timothy E

    2014-03-01

    Joint moments computed using inverse dynamic techniques are important estimators of net joint loads. Joints moments computed from marker position and ground reaction force data filtered using different cut-off frequencies may capture changes in moment magnitudes at a single joint that exceed normal physiological response. Peak external knee abduction moment (KAM) generated during landing (ie, the drop vertical jump, DVJ) predicts anterior cruciate ligament injury risk using marker and force data filtered at different cut-off frequencies. The purpose of the current investigation was to determine the effects of using the same low cut-off frequencies versus different cut-off frequencies on joint moment magnitudes to evaluate if artificial smoothing attenuates actual resultant joint loads related to injury risk. Twenty-two female, high school volleyball players performed three maximum DVJs in a laboratory setting. The average peak KAM was computed for each knee using marker and force data filtered with the same low cut-off frequencies and different cut-off frequencies. Peak KAMs were significantly larger using different cut-off frequencies. The order of athletes ranked based on the magnitude of their peak KAMs did not significantly change across all filtering cut-off frequencies. The magnitude of peak KAM may differ when the same low or different higher cut-off frequencies are used to filter marker and ground reaction forces (GRF) data collected using standard motion capture equipment. It is not clear to what extent the decrease in peak KAM reported when the same low cut-off frequencies were used was solely due to attenuation of the GRF signal.

  14. Affecting aspects on the behaviour of frame joints

    OpenAIRE

    Nabil, Mohamed; Hamdy, Osama; Abobeah, Ayman

    2016-01-01

    The variation of reinforcement details, confinement and joints angle are considerable factors which affect the ultimate limit moment of joints and joints efficiency. The variation of joint size is another factor that significantly affects the ultimate limit moment of joints and frame joints efficiency. These previous factors were not considered in design. Corners may be subjected to closing moments, which subject to tensile stresses in the outside of the corner, or to opening moments, which c...

  15. Relation between ankle joint dynamics and patellar tendinopathy in elite volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, David P; Ajemian, Stanley V; Wiley, J Preston; Brunet, Jacques A; Zernicke, Ronald F

    2002-09-01

    Ankle joint complex dynamics developed during volleyball spike jumps take-offs and landings were quantified to assess potential relations between these joint dynamics and patellar tendinopathy. Three-dimensional kinematic data provided information about movements of the lower limbs, while the kinetic data permitted analysis of ground reaction forces as players took-off and landed from full-speed spike jumps. Simulated volleyball court with net in a biomechanics research laboratory. 10 members of the Canadian Men's National Volleyball Team. From history and physical examination, 3 of the 10 players had patellar tendon pain associated with activity and were diagnosed with patellar tendinopathy at the time of the study. Investigators were blinded about the injury status of the players. None. Three-dimensional kinematics and joint moments of the ankle, knee, and hip joints. Our analysis revealed that maximal external tibial rotation occurred at or near maximal dorsiflexion while maximal internal tibial rotation coincided with maximal plantarflexion. The plantarflexion moment was 3 to 10 times greater than all the other moments measured, with the maximal plantarflexor moment being calculated at 0.4 BWm (360 Nm). In blinded logistic regression analyses, we found one of the dynamics variables (inversion moment during the landing of the spike jump) was a significant predictor of patellar tendinopathy. Coupling the results of the current analysis of ankle joint complex dynamics with previously reported results of knee joint dynamics related to patellar tendinopathy suggests that a cluster of variables linked to patellar tendinopathy includes: high ankle inversion-eversion moments, high external tibial rotation and plantarflexion moments, large vertical ground reaction forces, and high rate of knee extensor moment development.

  16. Joint axes of rotation and body segment parameters of pig limbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorup, Vivi M; Aa Tøgersen, Frede; Jørgensen, Bente; Jensen, Bente R

    2007-01-01

    To enable a quantification of net joint moments and joint reaction forces, indicators of joint loading, this study aimed to locate the mediolateral joint axes of rotation and establish the body segment parameters of the limbs of pigs (Sus scrofa). To locate the joint axes of rotation the scapulohumeral, humeroradial, carpal complex, metacarpophalangeal, coxofemoral, femorotibial, tarsal, and metatarsophalangeal joints from 12 carcasses were studied. The joints were photographed in three positions, bisecting lines drawn at fixed landmarks with their intersection marking the joint axes of rotation. The body segment parameters, i.e. the segment mass, center of mass and moment of inertia were measured on the humerus, radius/ulna, metacarpus, forepastern, foretoe, femur, tibia, metatarsus, hindpastern, and hindtoe segments from five carcasses. The segments were weighed, and their center of mass was found by balancing them. The moments of inertia of the humerus, radius/ulna, femur and tibia were found by rotating the segments. The moments of inertia of the remaining segments were calculated. Generally, the joint axes of rotation were near the attachment site of the lateral collateral ligaments. The forelimb, with segments taken as one, was significantly lighter and shorter than the hindlimb (P < 0.001). In all segments the center of mass was located 31 to 50% distal to the proximal segment end. The segment mass decreased with distance from the trunk, as did the segment moment of inertia. The results may serve as reference on the location of the joint axes of rotation and on the body segment parameters for inverse dynamic modeling of pigs. PMID:17822536

  17. JOINT KINETICS TO ASSESS THE INFLUENCE OF THE RACKET ON A TENNIS PLAYER'S SHOULDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Creveaux

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating the influence of three rackets on shoulder net joint moments, power and muscle activity during the flat tennis serve under field- conditions. A 6-camera Eagle® motion analysis system, operating at 256 Hz, captured racket and dominant upper limb kinematics of the serve in five tennis players under three racket conditions (A: low mass, high balance and polar moment, B: low three moments of inertia, and C: high mass, swingweight and twistweight. The electromyographic activity of six trunk and arm muscles was simultaneously recorded. Shoulder net joint moments and power were computed by 3D inverse dynamics. The results showed that greater shoulder joint power and internal/external rotation peak moments were found to accelerate and decelerate racket A in comparison with the racket C. Moreover, serving with the racket A resulted in less activity in latissimus dorsi muscle during the acceleration phase, and biceps brachii muscle during the follow-through phase when compared with racket C. These initial findings encourage studying the biomechanical measurements to quantify the loads on the body during play in order to reduce them, and then prevent shoulder injuries. Racket specifications may be a critical point for coaches who train players suffering from shoulder pain and chronic upper limb injuries should be considered in relation to the racket specifications of the players

  18. Net Locality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Gordon, Eric

    Provides an introduction to the new theory of Net Locality and the profound effect on individuals and societies when everything is located or locatable. Describes net locality as an emerging form of location awareness central to all aspects of digital media, from mobile phones, to Google Maps...... of emerging technologies, from GeoCities to GPS, Wi-Fi, Wiki Me, and Google Android....

  19. Net Neutrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej

    2017-01-01

    Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else.......Repealing “net neutrality” in the US will have no bearing on Internet freedom or security there or anywhere else....

  20. The ‘impact’ of force filtering cut-off frequency on the peak knee abduction moment during landing: artefact or ‘artifiction’?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roewer, Benjamin D; Ford, Kevin R; Myer, Gregory D; Hewett, Timothy E

    2014-01-01

    Background Joint moments computed using inverse dynamic techniques are important estimators of net joint loads. Joints moments computed from marker position and ground reaction force data filtered using different cut-off frequencies may capture changes in moment magnitudes at a single joint that exceed normal physiological response. Peak external knee abduction moment (KAM) generated during landing (ie, the drop vertical jump, DVJ) predicts anterior cruciate ligament injury risk using marker and force data filtered at different cut-off frequencies. The purpose of the current investigation was to determine the effects of using the same low cut-off frequencies versus different cut-off frequencies on joint moment magnitudes to evaluate if artificial smoothing attenuates actual resultant joint loads related to injury risk. Methods Twenty-two female, high school volleyball players performed three maximum DVJs in a laboratory setting. The average peak KAM was computed for each knee using marker and force data filtered with the same low cut-off frequencies and different cut-off frequencies. Results Peak KAMs were significantly larger using different cut-off frequencies. The order of athletes ranked based on the magnitude of their peak KAMs did not significantly change across all filtering cut-off frequencies. Conclusions The magnitude of peak KAM may differ when the same low or different higher cut-off frequencies are used to filter marker and ground reaction forces (GRF) data collected using standard motion capture equipment. It is not clear to what extent the decrease in peak KAM reported when the same low cut-off frequencies were used was solely due to attenuation of the GRF signal. PMID:22893510

  1. Does ankle joint power reflect type of muscle action of soleus and gastrocnemius during walking in cats and humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Neil J; Prilutsky, Boris I; Lichtwark, Glen A; Maas, Huub

    2013-04-26

    The main objective of this paper is to highlight the difficulties of identifying shortening and lengthening contractions based on analysis of power produced by resultant joint moments. For that purpose, we present net ankle joint powers and muscle fascicle/muscle-tendon unit (MTU) velocities for medial gastrocnemius (MG) and soleus (SO) muscles during walking in species of different size (humans and cats). For the cat, patterns of ankle joint power and MTU velocity of MG and SO during stance were similar: negative power (ankle moment×angular velocitypower (generation of mechanical energy) was found during MTU shortening. This was also found for the general fascicle velocity pattern in SO. In contrast, substantial differences between ankle joint power and fascicle velocity patterns were observed for MG muscle. In humans, like cats, the patterns of ankle joint power and MTU velocity of SO and MG were similar. Unlike the cat, there were substantial differences between patterns of fascicle velocity and ankle joint power during stance in both muscles. These results indicate that during walking, only a small fraction of mechanical work of the ankle moment is either generated or absorbed by the muscle fascicles, thus confirming the contribution of in-series elastic structures and/or energy transfer via two-joint muscles. We conclude that ankle joint negative power does not necessarily indicate eccentric action of muscle fibers and that positive power cannot be exclusively attributed to muscle concentric action, especially in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Lepton dipole moments

    CERN Document Server

    Marciano, William J

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a self-contained description of the measurements of the magnetic dipole moments of the electron and muon, along with a discussion of the measurements of the fine structure constant, and the theory associated with magnetic and electric dipole moments. Also included are the searches for a permanent electric dipole moment of the electron, muon, neutron and atomic nuclei. The related topic of the transition moment for lepton flavor violating processes, such as neutrinoless muon or tauon decays, and the search for such processes are included as well. The papers, written by many o

  3. Moment graphs and representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jens Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Moment graphs and sheaves on moment graphs are basically combinatorial objects that have be used to describe equivariant intersectiion cohomology. In these lectures we are going to show that they can be used to provide a direct link from this cohomology to the representation theory of simple Lie ...

  4. The moment problem

    CERN Document Server

    Schmüdgen, Konrad

    2017-01-01

    This advanced textbook provides a comprehensive and unified account of the moment problem. It covers the classical one-dimensional theory and its multidimensional generalization, including modern methods and recent developments. In both the one-dimensional and multidimensional cases, the full and truncated moment problems are carefully treated separately. Fundamental concepts, results and methods are developed in detail and accompanied by numerous examples and exercises. Particular attention is given to powerful modern techniques such as real algebraic geometry and Hilbert space operators. A wide range of important aspects are covered, including the Nevanlinna parametrization for indeterminate moment problems, canonical and principal measures for truncated moment problems, the interplay between Positivstellensätze and moment problems on semi-algebraic sets, the fibre theorem, multidimensional determinacy theory, operator-theoretic approaches, and the existence theory and important special topics of multidime...

  5. RESTful NET

    CERN Document Server

    Flanders, Jon

    2008-01-01

    RESTful .NET is the first book that teaches Windows developers to build RESTful web services using the latest Microsoft tools. Written by Windows Communication Foundation (WFC) expert Jon Flanders, this hands-on tutorial demonstrates how you can use WCF and other components of the .NET 3.5 Framework to build, deploy and use REST-based web services in a variety of application scenarios. RESTful architecture offers a simpler approach to building web services than SOAP, SOA, and the cumbersome WS- stack. And WCF has proven to be a flexible technology for building distributed systems not necessa

  6. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Associate Professor of. Computer Science and. Automation at the Indian. Institute of Science,. Bangalore. His research interests are broadly in the areas of stochastic modeling and scheduling methodologies for future factories; and object oriented modeling. GENERAL I ARTICLE. Petri Nets. 1. Overview and Foundations.

  7. Petri Nets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 8. Petri Nets - Overview and Foundations. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 8 August 1999 pp ... Author Affiliations. Y Narahari1. Department ot Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  8. Multi-moment maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swann, Andrew Francis; Madsen, Thomas Bruun

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a notion of moment map adapted to actions of Lie groups that preserve a closed three-form. We show existence of our multi-moment maps in many circumstances, including mild topological assumptions on the underlying manifold. Such maps are also shown to exist for all groups whose second...... and third Lie algebra Betti numbers are zero. We show that these form a special class of solvable Lie groups and provide a structural characterisation. We provide many examples of multi-moment maps for different geometries and use them to describe manifolds with holonomy contained in G(2) preserved by a two...

  9. Teaching and Learning with the Net Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Kassandra; Marateo, Raymond C.; Ferris, S. Pixy

    2007-01-01

    As the Net Generation places increasingly greater demands on educators, students and teachers must jointly consider innovative ways of teaching and learning. In this, educators are supported by the fact that the Net Generation wants to learn. However, these same educators should not fail to realize that this generation learns differently from…

  10. Grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) locomotion: forelimb joint mechanics across speed in the sagittal and frontal planes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, Catherine L; Robbins, Charles T; Nelson, O Lynne; McGowan, Craig P

    2017-04-01

    The majority of terrestrial locomotion studies have focused on parasagittal motion and paid less attention to forces or movement in the frontal plane. Our previous research has shown that grizzly bears produce higher medial ground reaction forces (lateral pushing from the animal) than would be expected for an upright mammal, suggesting frontal plane movement may be an important aspect of their locomotion. To examine this, we conducted an inverse dynamics analysis in the sagittal and frontal planes, using ground reaction forces and position data from three high-speed cameras of four adult female grizzly bears. Over the speed range collected, the bears used walks, running walks and canters. The scapulohumeral joint, wrist and the limb overall absorb energy (average total net work of the forelimb joints, -0.97 W kg-1). The scapulohumeral joint, elbow and total net work of the forelimb joints have negative relationships with speed, resulting in more energy absorbed by the forelimb at higher speeds (running walks and canters). The net joint moment and power curves maintain similar patterns across speed as in previously studied species, suggesting grizzly bears maintain similar joint dynamics to other mammalian quadrupeds. There is no significant relationship with net work and speed at any joint in the frontal plane. The total net work of the forelimb joints in the frontal plane was not significantly different from zero, suggesting that, despite the high medial ground reaction forces, the forelimb acts as a strut in that plane. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Tau magnetic moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sprinberg, G. A.; Vidal, J.

    2017-10-01

    The τ lepton magnetic moment theoretical predictions and measurements are reviewed. While it is believed that such a high mass particle is a good candidate to show up new physics, this is not the case up to now. The magnetic moment of elementary fermions, and in particular the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron, had an historical impact both in relativistic quantum mechanics and in quantum field theories. Besides, many new physics models were discarded when confronted with these magnitudes. More recently, the discrepancy of the experiments and the theoretical predictions for the muon anomalous magnetic moment is still an open issue. For the τ lepton, instead, while the theoretical prediction is well known for the standard model and some new physics models, the data are very far of determining even its sign or the first figure. We will discuss the most important theoretical aspects of the τ magnetic moment, and also the current accepted measurements and future perspectives, in particular related to B-factories.

  12. Moments of Negotiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Jurgen

    2001-01-01

    'Moments of Negotiation' offers the first book-length and indepth analysis of the New Historicist reading method, which the American Shakespeare-scolar Stephen Greenblatt introduced at the beginning of the 1980s. Ever since, Greenblatt has been hailed as the prime representative of this movement,

  13. Three Moments in Jewish Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Goltzberg

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to offer a new periodization of Jewish philosophy and to reflect on the definition of Jewish philosophy. It will therefore deal with the characteristic style of each Jewish philosophy rather than with their content. I shall identify three moments in the history of Jewish philosophy: the Arab moment, the German moment, and the analytic moment; this last moment, largely unknown, will be studied more in depth. This paper does not aim to present an exhaustive panora...

  14. Plantar flexor moment arm and muscle volume predict torque-generating capacity in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Josh R; Piazza, Stephen J

    2014-03-01

    Muscle volume is known to correlate with maximal joint torque in humans, but the role of muscle moment arm in determining maximal torque is less clear. Moderate correlations have been reported between maximal isometric knee extensor torque and knee extensor moment arm, but no such observations have been made for the ankle joint. It has been suggested that smaller muscle moment arms may enhance force generation at high rates of joint rotation, but this has not yet been observed for ankle muscles in vivo. The purpose of the present study was to correlate plantar flexor moment arm and plantar flexor muscle volume with maximal plantar flexor torque measured at different rates of plantar flexion. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to quantify the plantar flexor moment arm and muscle volume of the posterior compartment in 20 healthy young men. Maximal plantar flexor torque was measured isometrically and at three plantar flexion speeds using an isokinetic dynamometer. Plantar flexor torque was significantly correlated with muscle volume (0.222 muscle moment arm at each speed (0.323 muscle volume was strongly correlated with body mass and stature, moment arm was not. The slope of the torque-moment arm regression line decreased as the rate of joint rotation increased, indicating that subjects with small moment arms experienced smaller reductions in torque at high speeds. The findings of this study suggest that plantar flexor moment arm is a determinant of joint strength that is at least as important as muscle size.

  15. Redefining the political moment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Arvanitakis

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available On 16 February 2003, more than half a million people gathered in Sydney, Australia, as part of a global anti-war protest aimed at stopping the impending invasion of Iraq by the then US Administration. It is difficult to estimate how many millions marched on the coordinated protest, but it was by far the largest mobilization of a generation. Walking and chanting on the streets of Sydney that day, it seemed that a political moment was upon us. In a culture that rarely embraces large scale activism, millions around Australian demanded to be heard. The message was clear: if you do not hear us, we would be willing to bring down a government. The invasion went ahead, however, with the then Australian government, under the leadership of John Howard, being one of the loudest and staunchest supporters of the Bush Administrations drive to war. Within 18 months, anti-war activists struggled to have a few hundred participants take part in anti-Iraq war rallies, and the Howard Government was comfortably re-elected for another term. The political moment had come and gone, with both social commentators and many members of the public looking for a reason. While the conservative media was often the focus of analysis, this paper argues that in a time of late capitalism, the political moment is hollowed out by ‘Politics’ itself. That is to say, that formal political processes (or ‘Politics’ undermine the political practices that people participate in everyday (or ‘politics’. Drawing on an ongoing research project focusing on democracy and young people, I discuss how the concept of ’politics‘ has been destabilised and subsequently, the political moment has been displaced. This displacement has led to a re-definition of ‘political action’ and, I argue, the emergence of a different type of everyday politics.

  16. Distributions on unbounded moment spaces and random moment sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Dette, Holger; Nagel, Jan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we define distributions on moment spaces corresponding to measures on the real line with an unbounded support. We identify these distributions as limiting distributions of random moment vectors defined on compact moment spaces and as distributions corresponding to random spectral measures associated with the Jacobi, Laguerre and Hermite ensemble from random matrix theory. For random vectors on the unbounded moment spaces we prove a central limit theorem where the centering vecto...

  17. Estimation of instantaneous moment arms of lower-leg muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoor, C W; van Leeuwen, J L; Meskers, C G; Titulaer, A F; Huson, A

    1990-01-01

    Muscle moment arms at the human knee and ankle were estimated from muscle length changes measured as a function of joint flexion angle in cadaver specimens. Nearly all lower-leg muscles were studied: extensor digitorum longus, extensor hallucis longus, flexor digitorum longus, flexor hallucis longus, gastrocnemius lateralis, gastrocnemius medialis, peroneus brevis, peroneus longus, peroneus tertius, plantaris, soleus, tibialis anterior, and tibialis posterior. Noise in measured muscle length was filtered by means of quintic splines. Moment arms of the mm. gastrocnemii appear to be much more dependent on joint flexion angles than was generally assumed by other investigators. Some consequences for earlier analyses are mentioned.

  18. Higher moments of multiplicity fluctuations in a hadron-resonance gas with exact conservation laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jing-Hua

    2017-09-01

    Higher moments of multiplicity fluctuations of hadrons produced in central nucleus-nucleus collisions are studied within the hadron-resonance gas model in the canonical ensemble. Exact conservation of three charges, baryon number, electric charge, and strangeness is enforced in the large volume limit. Moments up to the fourth order of various particles are calculated at CERN Super Proton Synchrotron, BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), and CERN Large Hadron Collider energies. The asymptotic fluctuations within a simplified model with only one conserved charge in the canonical ensemble are discussed where simple analytical expressions for moments of multiplicity distributions can be obtained. Moments products of net-proton, net-kaon, and net-charge distributions in Au + Au collisions at RHIC energies are calculated. The pseudorapidity coverage dependence of net-charge fluctuation is discussed.

  19. Magnetization moment recovery using Kelvin transformation and Fourier analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratchart, L.; Leblond, J.; Lima, E. A.; Ponomarev, D.

    2017-10-01

    In the present work, we consider a magnetization moment recovery problem, that is finding integral of the vector function (over its compact support) whose divergence constitutes a source term in the Poisson equation. We outline derivation of explicit asymptotic formulas for estimation of the net magnetization moment vector of the sample in terms of partial data for the vertical component of the magnetic field measured in the plane above it. For this purpose, two methods have been developed: the first one is based on approximate projections onto spherical harmonics in Kelvin domain while the second stems from analysis in Fourier domain following asymptotic continuation of the data. Recovery results obtained by both methods agree and are illustrated numerically by plotting formulas for net moment components with respect to the size of the measurement area.

  20. Possibilistic Fuzzy Net Present Value Model and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Appadoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The cash flow values and the interest rate in the net present value (NPV model are usually specified by either crisp numbers or random variables. In this paper, we first discuss some of the recent developments in possibility theory and find closed form expressions for fuzzy possibilistic net present value (FNPV. Then, following Carlsson and Fullér (2001, we discuss some of the possibilistic moments related to FNPV model along with an illustrative numerical example. We also give a unified approach to find higher order moments of FNPV by using the moment generating function introduced by Paseka et al. (2011.

  1. Face recognition using Krawtchouk moment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Feature extraction is one of the important tasks in face recognition. Moments are widely used feature extractor due to their superior discriminatory power and geometrical invariance. Moments generally capture the global features of the image. This paper proposes Krawtchouk moment for feature extraction in face recognition ...

  2. Face recognition using Krawtchouk moment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Feature extraction is one of the important tasks in face recognition. Moments are widely used feature extractor due to their superior discriminatory power and geometrical invariance. Moments generally capture the global features of the image. This paper proposes Krawtchouk moment for feature extraction in face ...

  3. Paul Callaghan luminous moments

    CERN Document Server

    Callaghan, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Acknowledged internationally for his ground-breaking scientific research in the field of magnetic resonance, Sir Paul Callaghan was a scientist and visionary with a rare gift for promoting science to a wide audience. He was named New Zealander of the Year in 2011. His death in early 2012 robbed New Zealand of an inspirational leader. Paul Callaghan: Luminous Moments brings together some of his most significant writing. Whether he describes his childhood in Wanganui, reflects on discovering the beauty of science, sets out New Zealand's future potential or discusses the experience of fa

  4. Hip joint mechanics during walking in individuals with mild-to-moderate hip osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinou, Maria; Loureiro, Aderson; Carty, Christopher; Mills, Peter; Barrett, Rod

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this case-control study was to characterise hip joint kinematics and moments during gait in people with mild-to-moderate hip osteoarthritis (OA). Eligible participants were allocated to the hip OA group (n=27) or the age-matched control group (n=26) based on radiographic and symptomatically defined inclusion criteria. Participants walked barefoot along a 10-m walkway at their self-selected gait speed. Trajectories of 43 markers attached to the trunk, pelvis, upper and lower limbs were recorded using a 12-camera motion capture system. Ground reaction force data were simultaneously collected. Individuals in the hip OA group had a 10% higher body mass, 13% slower self-selected walking speed, 10% shorter step length, 2% and 9% longer relative stance and double support duration (% stride) respectively, 41% lower sagittal plane hip range of motion, and 28% and 45% lower peak sagittal and transverse plane hip joint moments respectively during gait compared to controls (phip OA experienced less net hip joint loading over a reduced range of hip motion for a longer proportion of the gait cycle when walking at their preferred gait speed suggest that the mechanics of the hip joint are altered in hip OA, and could have implications for disease progression through altered mechano-biological processes within the joint. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Moments in time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc eWittmann

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that perception and action can be understood as evolving in temporal epochs or sequential processing units. Successive events are fused into units forming a unitary experience or ‘psychological present’. Studies have identified several temporal integration levels on different time scales which are fundamental for our understanding of behaviour and subjective experience. In recent literature concerning the philosophy and neuroscience of consciousness these separate temporal processing levels are not always precisely distinguished. Therefore, empirical evidence from psychophysics and neuropsychology on these distinct temporal processing levels is presented and discussed within philosophical conceptualizations of time experience. On an elementary level, one can identify a functional moment, a basic temporal building block of perception in the range of milliseconds that defines simultaneity and succession. Below a certain threshold temporal order is not perceived, individual events are processed as co-temporal. On a second level, an experienced moment, which is based on temporal integration of up to a few seconds, has been reported in many qualitatively different experiments in perception and action. It has been suggested that this segmental processing mechanism creates temporal windows that provide a logistical basis for conscious representation and the experience of nowness. On a third level of integration, continuity of experience is enabled by working-memory in the range of multiple seconds allowing the maintenance of cognitive operations and emotional feelings, leading to mental presence, a temporal window of an individual’s experienced presence.

  6. The effect of functional knee brace design and hinge misalignment on lower limb joint mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Jonathan C; Lamontagne, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Knee bracing has been shown to alter lower limb joint mechanics, which may protect the anterior cruciate ligament. The effect of brace alignment and brace type, however, remains largely unknown. This study was conducted to determine whether the use of a functional knee brace, the type of brace used or its alignment relative to the knee causes biomechanical alterations to gait. Ten healthy participants took part in two walking conditions (aligned brace and misaligned brace) for two different types of brace (sleeve brace with bilateral hinges and hinge-post-shell). A non-braced condition was included as a baseline measure. Three-dimensional kinematics and force platform data were used to calculate the joint intersegmental forces and net joint moments of the ankle, knee and hip. In comparison to non-braced walking, the shell brace in its aligned position significantly reduced the peak ankle plantarflexor moment. There was a decreased peak knee flexion angle with both the aligned shell and sleeve braces. The shell brace in its aligned position significantly increased peak knee adduction and reduced peak knee internal rotation. In this sample of healthy participants, functional knee bracing failed to alter lower limb mechanics in such a way that would reduce the force transmitted to the anterior cruciate ligament. In addition, although there were brace induced changes in lower limb kinematics with 2cm of distal hinge misalignment, it is unlikely that hinge misalignment of this magnitude is detrimental to an uninjured knee joint during walking.

  7. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Rosener, B. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host ``na-net.ornl.gov`` at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message ``send index`` to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user`s perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  8. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Rosener, B. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host na-net.ornl.gov'' at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message send index'' to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user's perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  9. Magnetic Moment of $^{59}$Cu

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Experiment IS358 uses the intense and pure beams of copper isotopes provided by the ISOLDE RILIS (resonance ionization laser ion source). The isotopes are implanted and oriented in the low temperature nuclear orientation set-up NICOLE. Magnetic moments are measured by $\\beta$-NMR. Copper (Z=29), with a single proton above the proton-magic nickel isotopes provides an ideal testground for precise shell model calculations of magnetic moments and their experimental verification. In the course of our experiments we already determined the magnetic moments of $^{67}$Ni, $^{67}$Cu, $^{68g}$Cu, $^{69}$Cu and $^{71}$Cu which provide important information on the magicity of the N=40 subshell closure. In 2001 we plan to conclude our systematic investigations by measuring the magnetic moment of the neutron-deficient isotope $^{59}$Cu. This will pave the way for a subsequent study of the magnetic moment of $^{57}$Cu with a complementary method.

  10. The impact of joint disease on the Modified Health Assessment Questionnaire scores in rheumatoid arthritis patients: A cross-sectional study using the National Database of Rheumatic Diseases by iR-net in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Kumiko; Ohashi, Satoru; Oka, Hiroyuki; Kadono, Yuho; Yasui, Tetsuro; Omata, Yasunori; Nishino, Jinju; Tanaka, Sakae; Tohma, Shigeto

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the effect of bilateral and unilateral joint disease on the Modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (MHAQ) scores and the differences in joint weighting in rheumatoid arthritis patients. A total of 9212 subjects from the Japanese nationwide cohort database NinJa, 2011, were analyzed. The presence or absence of disease in each joint, including swelling and/or tenderness, was investigated. The correlations between bilateral and unilateral disease in each joint and MHAQ scores were investigated using multivariable logistic regression analysis. The patients' mean age and disease duration was 63.2 and 12.2 years, respectively. The Disease Activity Score-28 was 3.3. The odds ratios of physical impairment according to the MHAQ using multivariable logistic regression models for bilateral and unilateral joints, respectively, were: shoulder, 4.0 and 1.8; elbow, 2.6 and 1.8; wrist, 1.9 and 1.5; hip, 1.7 and 3.0; knee, 2.6 and 1.9; ankle, 2.3 and 2.0, finger, 1.4 and 1.2; and toe, 1.0 and 1.1. The shoulder, elbow, wrist, knee, and ankle had a significant effect on physical impairment. The MHAQ score was significantly affected by shoulder, elbow, wrist, knee, and ankle joint disease. Furthermore, bilateral disease tended to have a greater effect on physical impairment than unilateral disease.

  11. Knee contact forces and lower extremity support moments during running in young individuals post-partial meniscectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willy, R W; Bigelow, M A; Kolesar, A; Willson, J D; Thomas, J S

    2017-01-01

    While partial meniscectomy results in a compromised tibiofemoral joint, little is known regarding tibiofemoral joint loading during running in individuals who are post-partial meniscectomy. It was hypothesized that individuals post-partial meniscectomy would run with a greater hip support moment, yielding reduced peak knee extension moments and reduced tibiofemoral joint contact forces. 3-D Treadmill running mechanics were evaluated in 23 athletic individuals post-partial meniscectomy (37.5 ± 19.0 months post-partial meniscectomy) and 23 matched controls. Bilateral hip, knee and ankle contributions to the total support moment and the peak knee extension moment were calculated. A musculoskeletal model estimated peak and impulse tibiofemoral joint contact forces. Knee function was quantified with the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS). During running, the partial meniscectomy group had a greater hip support moment (p = 0.002) and a reduced knee support moment (p support moment. This movement pattern was associated with a 14.5 % reduction (p = 0.019) in the peak knee extension moment. Despite these differences, there were no significant group differences in peak or impulse tibiofemoral joint contact forces. Lower KOOS Quality of Life scores were associated with greater hip support moment (p = 0.004, r = -0.58), reduced knee support moment (p = 0.006, r = 0.55) and reduced peak knee extension moment (p = 0.01, r = 0.52). Disordered running mechanics are present long term post-partial meniscectomy. A coordination strategy that shifts a proportion of the total support moment away from the knee to the hip reduces the peak knee extension moment, but does not equate to reduced tibiofemoral joint contact forces during running in individuals post-partial meniscectomy. III.

  12. Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux is defined as the year-over-year change in Total Ecosystem Carbon Stock, or the net rate of carbon exchange between an ecosystem and the...

  13. What predicts the first peak of the knee adduction moment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Anne; Noehren, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The first peak of the knee adduction moment curve during walking has been shown to be a good clinical surrogate measure of medial tibiofemoral joint loading and osteoarthritis. Defining the relative contributions of the variables that dictate the knee adduction moment, such as center of mass, center of pressure, vertical ground reaction force, and knee adduction angle (i.e. lower limb alignment), has not been formally investigated within the same cohort of individuals. Purpose Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine which of these variables is the biggest determinant of the first peak of knee adduction moment curve. Methods Instrumented gait analysis was collected for 30 individuals. Variables significantly correlated with the peak knee adduction moment were input into a stepwise multi-variable linear regression model. Results The knee adduction angle predicted 58% of the variance in the first peak knee adduction moment and the vertical ground reaction force magnitude predicted the second most variance (20%). Conclusions The most effective way to modify the peak knee adduction moment may be to change the knee adduction angle (e.g. offloader brace), followed by changing the vertical magnitude of the ground reaction force (e.g. cane use). PMID:25127390

  14. Effect of reverse shoulder design philosophy on muscle moment arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Matthew A; Diep, Phong; Roche, Chris; Flurin, Pierre Henri; Wright, Thomas W; Zuckerman, Joseph D; Routman, Howard

    2015-04-01

    This study analyzes the muscle moment arms of three different reverse shoulder design philosophies using a previously published method. Digital bone models of the shoulder were imported into a 3D modeling software and markers placed for the origin and insertion of relevant muscles. The anatomic model was used as a baseline for moment arm calculations. Subsequently, three different reverse shoulder designs were virtually implanted and moment arms were analyzed in abduction and external rotation. The results indicate that the lateral offset between the joint center and the axis of the humerus specific to one reverse shoulder design increased the external rotation moment arms of the posterior deltoid relative to the other reverse shoulder designs. The other muscles analyzed demonstrated differences in the moment arms, but none of the differences reached statistical significance. This study demonstrated how the combination of variables making up different reverse shoulder designs can affect the moment arms of the muscles in different and statistically significant ways. The role of humeral offset in reverse shoulder design has not been previously reported and could have an impact on external rotation and stability achieved post-operatively. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Two-axis joint assembly and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thang D. (Inventor); Lewis, James L. (Inventor); Carroll, Monty B. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    In an embodiment, a two-axis joint that utilizes planar reactions to handle moments applied to the side of the joint thereby allowing the device to remain low profile and compact with minimal intrusion to the mounting surface of the two-axis joint. To handle larger moments, the diameter of the planar member can be increased without increasing the overall height of the joint assembly thereby retaining the low profile thereof. Upper and lower antifriction bearings may be positioned within a housing engage the planar member to reduce rotational friction. The upper and lower bearings and a hub which supports the planar member transfer forces produced by moments applied to the side of the joint so as to spread the forces over the area of the housing.

  16. Professional Enterprise NET

    CERN Document Server

    Arking, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Comprehensive coverage to help experienced .NET developers create flexible, extensible enterprise application code If you're an experienced Microsoft .NET developer, you'll find in this book a road map to the latest enterprise development methodologies. It covers the tools you will use in addition to Visual Studio, including Spring.NET and nUnit, and applies to development with ASP.NET, C#, VB, Office (VBA), and database. You will find comprehensive coverage of the tools and practices that professional .NET developers need to master in order to build enterprise more flexible, testable, and ext

  17. Influence of knee flexion on plantarflexion moments after open or percutaneous Achilles tendon repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargel, Jens; Ninck, Jutta; Koebke, Jürgen; Appell, Hans-Joachim; Pennig, Dietmar; Hillekamp, Jörn

    2009-06-01

    The influence of the knee angle on plantarflexion moments after Achilles tendon repair has yet to be analyzed. It was hypothesized that flexion of the knee joint will disproportionately influence isometric plantarflexion moments after Achilles tendon repair. Isometric plantarflexion moments and functional heel rise performance were retrospectively assessed in 32 patients at a mean follow-up of 36.9 (+/- 17.83) months after open or percutaneous repair of acute Achilles tendon rupture. Plantarflexion moments were measured with the knee joint in 0, 30, and 60 degrees of flexion and the ankle joint positioned in neutral, 15 degrees plantar flexion and 15 degrees dorsiflexion. Data were compared between the involved and the noninvolved leg as well as between open and percutaneous repair. Flexion of the knee had no significant effect on isometric plantarflexion moments in either the involved or the noninvolved leg, while at any knee angle, plantarflexion moments decreased from dorsiflexion to plantar flexion. In accordance, dynamic heel rise performance revealed no significant strength deficits between the involved and the noninvolved limb. No overall differences in plantarflexion strength were observed between open and percutaneous Achilles tendon repair. The flexion angle of the knee had no influence on plantarflexion moments when comparing the involved with the noninvolved leg after open or percutaneous Achilles tendon repair. Weakness of plantarflexion after open or percutaneous Achilles tendon repair is determined by the position of the ankle joint rather than by the flexion angle of the knee.

  18. Spin- and orbital-moment compensation in the zero-moment ferromagnet Sm0.974Gd0.026Al2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhesi, S. S.; van der Laan, G.; Bencok, P.; Brookes, N. B.; Galéra, R. M.; Ohresser, P.

    2010-11-01

    The balance between the orbital and spin magnetic moments of Sm3+ in the zero-moment ferromagnet Sm0.974Gd0.026Al2 has been studied using x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) at the SmM4,5 edges. The difference in the XMCD multiplet structure below and above the compensation point, Tcomp , demonstrates that the exchange and crystal-field interactions mix the low-lying J=7/2 excited state into the Sm f5 H65/2 ground state. Sum-rule analysis of the temperature-dependent XMCD reveals an anomalous change in the Sm3+ orbital to spin magnetic-moment ratio as the net magnetization vanishes at Tcomp . This behavior is ascribed to the role of the conduction electron-spin moment which couples parallel to the Sm spin moment.

  19. Intersegmental moment analysis characterizes the partial correspondence of jumping and jerking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleather, Daniel J; Goodwin, Jon E; Bull, Anthony M J

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify internal joint moments of the lower limb during vertical jumping and the weightlifting jerk to improve awareness of the control strategies and correspondence between these activities, and to facilitate understanding of the likely transfer of training effects. Athletic men completed maximal unloaded vertical jumps (n = 12) and explosive push jerks at 40 kg (n = 9). Kinematic data were collected using optical motion tracking and kinetic data via a force plate, both at 200 Hz. Joint moments were calculated using a previously described biomechanical model of the right lower limb. Peak moment results highlighted that sagittal plane control strategies differed between jumping and jerking (p jerking being a knee dominant task in terms of peak moments as opposed to a more balanced knee and hip strategy in jumping and landing. Jumping and jerking exhibited proximal to distal joint involvement and landing was typically reversed. High variability was seen in nonsagittal moments at the hip and knee. Significant correlations were seen between jump height and hip and knee moments in jumping (p jerking (p jerk were not significantly correlated to jump height (p > 0.05) possibly indicating a limit to the direct transferability of jerk performance to jumping. Ankle joint moments were poorly related to jump performance (p > 0.05). Peak knee and hip moment generating capacity are important to vertical jump performance. The jerk appears to offer an effective strategy to overload joint moment generation in the knee relative to jumping. However, an absence of hip involvement would appear to make it a general, rather than specific, training modality in relation to jumping.

  20. Determination of three-dimensional joint loading within the lower extremities in snowboarding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Andreas; McAlpine, Paul; Borrani, Fabio; Edelmann-Nusser, Jürgen

    2012-02-01

    In the biomechanical literature only a few studies are available focusing on the determination of joint loading within the lower extremities in snowboarding. These studies are limited to analysis in a restricted capture volume due to the use of optical video-based systems. To overcome this restriction the aim of the present study was to develop a method to determine net joint moments within the lower extremities in snowboarding for complete measurement runs. An experienced snowboarder performed several runs equipped with two custom-made force plates as well as a full-body inertial measurement system. A rigid, multi-segment model was developed to describe the motion and loads within the lower extremities. This model is based on an existing lower-body model and designed to be run by the OpenSim software package. Measured kinetic and kinematic data were imported into the OpenSim program and inverse dynamic calculations were performed. The results illustrate the potential of the developed method for the determination of joint loadings within the lower extremities for complete measurement runs in a real snowboarding environment. The calculated net joint moments of force are reasonable in comparison to the data presented in the literature. A good reliability of the method seems to be indicated by the low data variation between different turns. Due to the unknown accuracy of this method the application for inter-individual studies as well as studies of injury mechanisms may be limited. For intra-individual studies comparing different snowboarding techniques as well as different snowboard equipment the method seems to be beneficial. The validity of the method needs to be studied further.

  1. Inquiry-Based Science: Turning Teachable Moments into Learnable Moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Berit S.

    2014-02-01

    This study examines how an inquiry-based approach to teaching and learning creates teachable moments that can foster conceptual understanding in students, and how teachers capitalize upon these moments. Six elementary school teachers were videotaped as they implemented an integrated inquiry-based science and literacy curriculum in their classrooms. In this curriculum, science inquiry implies that students search for evidence in order to make and revise explanations based on the evidence found and through critical and logical thinking. Furthermore, the curriculum material is designed to address science key concepts multiple times through multiple modalities (do it, say it, read it, write it). Two types of teachable moments were identified: planned and spontaneous. Results suggest that the consolidation phases of inquiry, when students reinforce new knowledge and connect their empirical findings to theory, can be considered as planned teachable moments. These are phases of inquiry during which the teacher should expect, and be prepared for, student utterances that create opportunities to further student learning. Spontaneous teachable moments are instances when the teacher must choose to either follow the pace of the curriculum or adapt to the students' need. One implication of the study is that more teacher support is required in terms of how to plan for and effectively utilize the consolidation phases of inquiry.

  2. Image Recognition Using Modified Zernike Moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min HUANG

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Zernike moments are complex moments with the orthogonal Zernike polynomials as kernel function, compared with other moments; Zernike moments have greater advantages in image rotation and low noise sensitivity. Because of the Zernike moments have image rotation invariance, and can construct arbitrary high order moments, it can be used for target recognition. In this paper, the Zernike moment algorithm is improved, which makes it having scale invariance in the processing of digital image. At last, an application of the improved Zernike moments in image recognition is given.

  3. Rotation invariants from Gaussian-Hermite moments of color images

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yang, B.; Suk, Tomáš; Flusser, Jan; Shi, Z.; Chen, X.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 143, č. 1 (2018), s. 282-291 ISSN 0165-1684 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-16928S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Color images * Object recognition * Rotation invariants * Gaussian–Hermite moments * Joint invariants Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 3.110, year: 2016 http:// library .utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/ZOI/suk-0479748.pdf

  4. WRIST SALVAGE PROCEDURES ALTER MOMENT ARMS OF THE PRIMARY WRIST MUSCLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Jennifer A.; Bednar, Michael S.; Havey, Robert M.; Murray, Wendy M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Proximal row carpectomy and scaphoid-excision four-corner fusion are salvage procedures that relieve pain by removing arthritic joint surfaces. While numerous studies have examined how these procedures affect joint motion, few have examined how they influence muscle mechanical actions. This study examines whether muscle moment arms change after these procedures. Methods Moment arms of primary wrist muscles were measured in 8 cadaveric specimens using the tendon excursion method. In each specimen, moment arms were measured for two degrees of freedom (flexion-extension and radial-ulnar deviation) and three conditions (nonimpaired, scaphoid-excision four-corner fusion, and proximal row carpectomy). For each muscle and degree of freedom, moment arm versus joint angle curves for the three conditions were statistically compared. Findings Wrist salvage procedures significantly alter moment arms of the primary wrist muscles. Proximal row carpectomy primarily alters flexion-extension moment arms, while scaphoid-excision four-corner fusion primarily alters radial-ulnar deviation moment arms. Both procedures also alter the balance between agonist and antagonist wrist muscles. Following proximal row carpectomy, wrist extensors have smaller moment arms in extended postures. Following scaphoid-excision four-corner fusion, radial deviators have larger moment arms throughout radial-ulnar deviation. Interpretation Different moment arms indicate that different forces are required to complete the same tasks in nonimpaired and surgically altered wrists. The altered muscle moment arms likely contribute to post-operative impairments. Understanding how salvage procedures alter muscle mechanical actions is a critical first step toward identifying the cause of post-operative impairments and is necessary to develop effective interventions to augment deficient muscles and improve overall function. PMID:25843482

  5. WaveNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Coastal Inlets Research Program WaveNet WaveNet is a web-based, Graphical-User-Interface ( GUI ) data management tool developed for Corps coastal...generates tabular and graphical information for project planning and design documents. The WaveNet is a web-based GUI designed to provide users with a...data from different sources, and employs a combination of Fortran, Python and Matlab codes to process and analyze data for USACE applications

  6. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes how Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets) have been developed — from being a promising theoretical model to being a full-fledged language for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems (and other systems in which human beings and...... use of CP-nets — because it means that the function representation and the translations (which are a bit mathematically complex) no longer are parts of the basic definition of CP-nets. Instead they are parts of the invariant method (which anyway demands considerable mathematical skills...

  7. Game Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of game coloured Petri nets. This allows the modeler to explicitly model what parts of the model comprise the modeled system and what parts are the environment of the modeled system. We give the formal definition of game coloured Petri nets, a means of reachability...... analysis of this net class, and an application of game coloured Petri nets to automatically generate easy-to-understand visualizations of the model by exploiting the knowledge that some parts of the model are not interesting from a visualization perspective (i.e. they are part of the environment...

  8. Programming NET Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Alex

    2007-01-01

    Web services are poised to become a key technology for a wide range of Internet-enabled applications, spanning everything from straight B2B systems to mobile devices and proprietary in-house software. While there are several tools and platforms that can be used for building web services, developers are finding a powerful tool in Microsoft's .NET Framework and Visual Studio .NET. Designed from scratch to support the development of web services, the .NET Framework simplifies the process--programmers find that tasks that took an hour using the SOAP Toolkit take just minutes. Programming .NET

  9. Annotating Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Bo; Wells, Lisa Marie

    2002-01-01

    -net. An example of such auxiliary information is a counter which is associated with a token to be able to do performance analysis. Modifying colour sets and arc inscriptions in a CP-net to support a specific use may lead to creation of several slightly different CP-nets – only to support the different uses...... a method which makes it possible to associate auxiliary information, called annotations, with tokens without modifying the colour sets of the CP-net. Annotations are pieces of information that are not essential for determining the behaviour of the system being modelled, but are rather added to support...

  10. Quadrupole moment of 203Fr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, S. G.; Lynch, K. M.; Billowes, J.; Binnersley, C. L.; Bissell, M. L.; Cocolios, T. E.; Goodacre, T. Day; de Groote, R. P.; Farooq-Smith, G. J.; Flanagan, K. T.; Franchoo, S.; Ruiz, R. F. Garcia; Gins, W.; Heylen, H.; Koszorús, Á.; Neyens, G.; Stroke, H. H.; Vernon, A. R.; Wendt, K. D. A.; Yang, X. F.

    2017-09-01

    The spectroscopic electric quadrupole moment of the neutron-deficient francium isotope 203Fr was measured by using high-resolution collinear resonance ionization spectroscopy (CRIS) at the CERN Isotope Separation On-Line Device (ISOLDE) facility. A remeasurement of the 207Fr quadrupole moment was also performed, resulting in a departure from the established literature value. A sudden increase in magnitude of the 203Fr quadrupole moment, with respect to the general trend in the region, points to an onset of static deformation at N =116 in the 87Fr isotopic chain. Calculation of the static and total deformation parameters show that the increase in static deformation only cannot account for the observed departure of its relative charge radius from the 82Pb chain.

  11. Stochastic Generalized Method of Moments

    KAUST Repository

    Yin, Guosheng

    2011-08-16

    The generalized method of moments (GMM) is a very popular estimation and inference procedure based on moment conditions. When likelihood-based methods are difficult to implement, one can often derive various moment conditions and construct the GMM objective function. However, minimization of the objective function in the GMM may be challenging, especially over a large parameter space. Due to the special structure of the GMM, we propose a new sampling-based algorithm, the stochastic GMM sampler, which replaces the multivariate minimization problem by a series of conditional sampling procedures. We develop the theoretical properties of the proposed iterative Monte Carlo method, and demonstrate its superior performance over other GMM estimation procedures in simulation studies. As an illustration, we apply the stochastic GMM sampler to a Medfly life longevity study. Supplemental materials for the article are available online. © 2011 American Statistical Association.

  12. Robots arm motion representation in Petri NETS using sequent calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Uzair Ahmad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There are many sort of motion in robots structure. Such as the robot locomotion robot jumps robots picking and so on but all are presented through Petri NETS. The one motion which is also the important one and most worthy motion of the robots is the robots arm motion. Which till yet not represented through Petri NETS. In this paper we are going to represent the motion of the robot arm in different angles and different aspect, such as up, down, circular, back and front moment of the robot arm, through Petri net we can present the complex form of motions into simplex paths.

  13. Moment Distributions of Phase Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    In this paper we prove that the class of distributions on the positive reals with a rational Laplace transform, also known as matrix-exponential distributions, is closed under formation of moment distributions. In particular, the results are hence valid for the well known class of phase-type dist......In this paper we prove that the class of distributions on the positive reals with a rational Laplace transform, also known as matrix-exponential distributions, is closed under formation of moment distributions. In particular, the results are hence valid for the well known class of phase...

  14. Method of moments in electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Walton C

    2007-01-01

    Responding to the need for a clear, up-to-date introduction to the field, The Method of Moments in Electromagnetics explores surface integral equations in electromagnetics and presents their numerical solution using the method of moments (MOM) technique. It provides the numerical implementation aspects at a nuts-and-bolts level while discussing integral equations and electromagnetic theory at a higher level. The author covers a range of topics in this area, from the initial underpinnings of the MOM to its current applications. He first reviews the frequency-domain electromagnetic theory and t

  15. Inter-segmental moment analysis characterises the partial correspondence of jumping and jerking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleather, Daniel J; Goodwin, Jon E; Bull, Anthony MJ

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify internal joint moments of the lower limb during vertical jumping and the weightlifting jerk in order to improve awareness of the control strategies and correspondence between these activities, and to facilitate understanding of the likely transfer of training effects. Athletic males completed maximal unloaded vertical jumps (n=12) and explosive push jerks at 40 kg (n=9). Kinematic data were collected using optical motion tracking and kinetic data via a force plate, both at 200 Hz. Joint moments were calculated using a previously described biomechanical model of the right lower limb. Peak moment results highlighted that sagittal plane control strategies differed between jumping and jerking (p0.05) possibly indicating a limit to the direct transferability of jerk performance to jumping. Ankle joint moments were poorly related to jump performance (p>0.05). Peak knee and hip moment generating capacity are important to vertical jump performance. The jerk appears to offer an effective strategy to overload joint moment generation in the knee relative to jumping. However, an absence of hip involvement would appear to make it a general, rather than specific, training modality in relation to jumping. PMID:22362089

  16. Moment arms of the muscles crossing the anatomical shoulder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackland, David C; Pak, Ponnaren; Richardson, Martin; Pandy, Marcus G

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the instantaneous moment arms of 18 major muscle sub-regions crossing the glenohumeral joint during coronal-plane abduction and sagittal-plane flexion. Muscle moment-arm data for sub-regions of the shoulder musculature during humeral elevation are currently not available. The tendon-excursion method was used to measure instantaneous muscle moment arms in eight entire upper-extremity cadaver specimens. Significant differences in moment arms were reported across sub-regions of the deltoid, pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, subscapularis, infraspinatus and supraspinatus (P shoulder muscles of broad origins into sub-regions highlighted distinct functional differences across those sub-regions. Most significantly, we found that the superior sub-region of the pectoralis major had the capacity to exert substantial torque in flexion, whereas the middle and inferior sub-regions tended to behave as a stabilizer and extensor, respectively. Knowledge of moment arm differences between muscle sub-regions may assist in identifying the functional effects of muscle sub-region tears, assist surgeons in planning tendon reconstructive surgery, and aid in the development and validation of biomechanical computer models used in implant design. PMID:18691376

  17. Effect of exercise and gait retraining on knee adduction moment in people with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaj, Nafiseh; Abu Osman, Noor A; Mokhtar, Abdul H; Mehdikhani, Mahboobeh; Wan Abas, Wan A B

    2014-02-01

    The knee adduction moment represents the medial knee joint load, and greater value is associated with higher load. In people with knee osteoarthritis, it is important to apply proper treatment with the least side effects to reduce knee adduction moment and, consequently, reduce medial knee joint load. This reduction may slow the progression of knee osteoarthritis. The research team performed a literature search of electronic databases. The search keywords were as follows: knee osteoarthritis, knee adduction moment, exercise program, exercise therapy, gait retraining, gait modification and knee joint loading. In total, 12 studies were selected, according to the selection criteria. Findings from previous studies illustrated that exercise and gait retraining programs could alter knee adduction moment in people with knee osteoarthritis. These treatments are noninvasive and nonpharmacological which so far have no or few side effects, as well as being low cost. The results of this review revealed that gait retraining programs were helpful in reducing the knee adduction moment. In contrast, not all the exercise programs were beneficial in reducing knee adduction moment. Future studies are needed to indicate best clinical exercise and gait retraining programs, which are most effective in reducing knee adduction moment in people with knee osteoarthritis.

  18. How muscle relaxation and laterotrusion resolve open locks of the temporomandibular joint. Forward dynamic 3D-modeling of the human masticatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuijt, M; Koolstra, J H; Lobbezoo, F; Naeije, M

    2016-01-25

    Patients with symptomatic hypermobility of the temporomandibular joint report problems with the closing movement of their jaw. Some are even unable to close their mouth opening wide (open lock). Clinical experience suggests that relaxing the jaw muscles or performing a jaw movement to one side (laterotrusion) might be a solution. The aim of our study was to assess the potential of these strategies for resolving an open lock and we hypothesised that both strategies work equally well in resolving open locks. We assessed the interplay of muscle forces, joint reaction forces and their moments during closing of mouth, following maximal mouth opening. We used a 3D biomechanical model of the masticatory system with a joint shape and muscle orientation that predispose for an open lock. In a forward dynamics approach, the effect of relaxation and laterotrusion strategies was assessed. Performing a laterotrusion movement was predicted to release an open lock for a steeper anterior slope of the articular eminence than relaxing the jaw-closing muscles, herewith we rejected our hypothesis. Both strategies could provide a net jaw closing moment, but only the laterotrusion strategy was able to provide a net posterior force for steeper anterior slope angles. For both strategies, the temporalis muscle appeared pivotal to retrieve the mandibular condyles to the glenoid fossa, due to its' more dorsally oriented working lines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Net zero water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lindeque, M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Is it possible to develop a building that uses a net zero amount of water? In recent years it has become evident that it is possible to have buildings that use a net zero amount of electricity. This is possible when the building is taken off...

  20. SolNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Ulrike; Vajen, Klaus; Bales, Chris

    2014-01-01

    SolNet, founded in 2006, is the first coordinated International PhD education program on Solar Thermal Engineering. The SolNet network is coordinated by the Institute of Thermal Engineering at Kassel University, Germany. The network offers PhD courses on solar heating and cooling, conference...

  1. Kunstige neurale net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørning, Annette

    1994-01-01

    Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse.......Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse....

  2. Combining valgus knee brace and lateral foot wedges reduces external forces and moments in osteoarthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarnezhadgero, Amir Ali; Oliveira, Anderson S; Mousavi, Seyed Hamed; Madadi-Shad, Morteza

    2018-01-01

    Osteoarthritis progression can be related to the external knee adduction and flexion moments during walking. Lateral foot wedges and knee braces have been used as treatment for osteoarthritis, but little is known about their influence on knee joint moments generated in the sagittal and frontal planes. Therefore, the aim of the present study was determine the effects of the isolated and combined use of valgus knee brace and lateral wedge foot orthotic on peak forces and moments during gait in knee osteoarthritis patients. Twenty four males (age: 62.1±2.0years) with varus alignment, symptomatic medial compartment knee osteoarthritis participated in this study. Subjects walked over ground at preferred speed in four conditions: (1) no assistive device (control); (2) using lateral wedges, (3) using knee braces, and (4) using both lateral wedges and knee braces. Ground reaction forces (GRF) and moments, as well as lower limb kinematics were recorded. Peak GRF, vertical loading rate, free moment, external knee adduction and flexion moments were compared across conditions. The concurrent use of lateral wedge and knee brace reduced the first peak GRF in the vertical (6%, p=0.002), anterior-posterior (30%, p=0.028) and medial-lateral directions (44%, p=0.029). Moreover, the use of these devices reduced the peak external knee adduction moment (25%, p=0.019), but not the external flexion moment and free moment (p>0.05). The combined use of lateral wedges and knee braces can reduce medial-lateral knee joint loading, but despite reduced peak forces in the sagittal plane, these device do not reduce joint moments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Quiet Moment around the Campfire

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-06-18

    Byron Breedlove reads his essay, "Quiet Moment around the Campfire," about the art of Frederic Remington and the transmission of pathogens as frontiers expand.  Created: 6/18/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/19/2014.

  4. Measuring the Moment of Inertia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmberg, George L.

    1978-01-01

    Two physics experiments are described, One, involving a laboratory cart accelerated along a level surface, examines the concept of inertial mass in translation and the other, using a solid cylinder, measures the moment of inertia of a wheel. Equations and illustrations are included. (MA)

  5. Particle electric dipole-moments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendlebury, J.M. [Sussex Univ., Brighton (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    The incentive to detect particle electric dipole-moments, as a window on time-reversal violation, remains undiminished. Efforts to improve the measurements for the neutron, the electron and some nuclei are still making rapid progress as more powerful experimental methods are brought to bear. A new measurement for the neutron at ILL is presented. (author). 7 refs.

  6. Updating neutrino magnetic moment constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.C. Cañas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we provide an updated analysis of the neutrino magnetic moments (NMMs, discussing both the constraints on the magnitudes of the three transition moments Λi and the role of the CP violating phases present both in the mixing matrix and in the NMM matrix. The scattering of solar neutrinos off electrons in Borexino provides the most stringent restrictions, due to its robust statistics and the low energies observed, below 1 MeV. Our new limit on the effective neutrino magnetic moment which follows from the most recent Borexino data is 3.1×10−11μB at 90% C.L. This corresponds to the individual transition magnetic moment constraints: |Λ1|≤5.6×10−11μB, |Λ2|≤4.0×10−11μB, and |Λ3|≤3.1×10−11μB (90% C.L., irrespective of any complex phase. Indeed, the incoherent admixture of neutrino mass eigenstates present in the solar flux makes Borexino insensitive to the Majorana phases present in the NMM matrix. For this reason we also provide a global analysis including the case of reactor and accelerator neutrino sources, presenting the resulting constraints for different values of the relevant CP phases. Improved reactor and accelerator neutrino experiments will be needed in order to underpin the full profile of the neutrino electromagnetic properties.

  7. NETS - Danish participation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsen, S. (Grontmij - Carl Bro, Glostrup (Denmark)); Theel, C. (Baltic Sea Solutions, Holeby (Denmark))

    2008-12-15

    Within the NICe-funded project 'Nordic Environmental Technology Solutions (NETS)' a new type of networking at the Nordic level was organized in order to jointly exploit the rapidly growing market potential in the environmental technology sector. The project aimed at increased and professionalized commercialization of Nordic Cleantech in energy and water business segments through 1) closer cooperation and joint marketing activities, 2) a website, 3) cleantech product information via brochures and publications 4) and participating in relevant trade fairs and other industry events. Facilitating business-to-business activities was another core task for the NETS project partners from Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark with the aim to encourage total solutions for combined Cleantech system offers. The project has achieved to establish a Cleantech register of 600 Nordic Cleantech companies, a network of 86 member enterprises, produced several publications and brochures for direct technology promotion and a website for direct access to company profiles and contact data. The project partners have attended 14 relevant international Cleantech trade fairs and conferences and facilitated business-to-business contacts added by capacity building offers through two company workshops. The future challenge for the project partners and Nordic Cleantech will be to coordinate the numerous efforts within the Nordic countries in order to reach concerted action and binding of member companies for reliable services, an improved visibility and knowledge exchange. With Cleantech's growing market influence and public awareness, the need to develop total solutions is increasing likewise. Marketing efforts should be encouraged cross-sectional and cross-border among the various levels of involved actors from both the public and the private sector. (au)

  8. The use of surface EMG in knee extensor moment prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, C K; Hsiung, H S; Lai, J S

    1994-10-01

    A systematic method of EMG quantification is developed to estimate the isometric muscle moment directly from quantified surface EMG. This method includes the EMG Signals acquired from an acupuncture point Fu-Tu located on the quadriceps muscle group, an EMG smoothing scheme, an electromechanical time lag estimation, and a mathematical model with the polynomial regression function to quantify the EMG. Three subjects were asked to be tested on the CYBEX II dynamometer with a knee joint angle of 90 degree flexion and hip joint angle of also 90 degrees. They were asked to perform "two" trials of maximal voluntary contraction and "three" trials of free voluntary contraction of the isometric exercise. The first two trials were used to build up the quantification model, and the latter three trials served as data for the validation of the method. A Medelec MS92 EMG system with surface EMG electrodes was used to acquire the EMG Signals. In the determination of the regression order of the polynomial equations, the threshold value 0.0001 of the difference of the coefficient of determination values was used. The results of the polynomial regression orders are all 6 for three subjects, which reflects a tendency of nonlinear behavior of the EMG/moment relationship. A validation scheme was proposed to calculate the root mean square difference (RMSD) of the measured knee extensor moments from the CYBEX II dynamometer and estimated moments from the EMG quantification. The mean values of the RMSD of the three subjects were 0.0597, 0.0679 and 0.1080. These results demonstrate that the present approach can estimate the isometric muscle moment exerted by the quadriceps muscle group.

  9. Pro NET Best Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, Stephen D

    2011-01-01

    Pro .NET Best Practices is a practical reference to the best practices that you can apply to your .NET projects today. You will learn standards, techniques, and conventions that are sharply focused, realistic and helpful for achieving results, steering clear of unproven, idealistic, and impractical recommendations. Pro .NET Best Practices covers a broad range of practices and principles that development experts agree are the right ways to develop software, which includes continuous integration, automated testing, automated deployment, and code analysis. Whether the solution is from a free and

  10. Getting to Net Zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-01

    The technology necessary to build net zero energy buildings (NZEBs) is ready and available today, however, building to net zero energy performance levels can be challenging. Energy efficiency measures, onsite energy generation resources, load matching and grid interaction, climatic factors, and local policies vary from location to location and require unique methods of constructing NZEBs. It is recommended that Components start looking into how to construct and operate NZEBs now as there is a learning curve to net zero construction and FY 2020 is just around the corner.

  11. Instant Lucene.NET

    CERN Document Server

    Heydt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A step-by-step guide that helps you to index, search, and retrieve unstructured data with the help of Lucene.NET.Instant Lucene.NET How-to is essential for developers new to Lucene and Lucene.NET who are looking to get an immediate foundational understanding of how to use the library in their application. It's assumed you have programming experience in C# already, but not that you have experience with search techniques such as information retrieval theory (although there will be a l

  12. Moment of truth for CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    One of the first events reconstructed in the Muon Drift Tubes, the Hadron Calorimeter and elements of the Silicon Tracker (TK) at 3 Tesla. The atmosphere in the CMS control rooms was electric. Everbody was at the helm for the first full-scale testing of the experiment. This was a crunch moment for the entire collaboration. On Tuesday, 22 August the magnet attained almost its nominal power of 4 Tesla! At the same moment, in a tiny improvised control room, the physicists were keyed up to test the entire detector system for the first time. The first cosmic ray tracks appeared on their screens in the week of 15 August. The tests are set to continue for several weeks more until the first CMS components are lowered into their final positions in the cavern.

  13. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Musall, Eike

    2010-01-01

    and identify possible renewable energy supply options which may be considered in calculations. Finally, the gap between the methodology proposed by each organisation and their respective national building code is assessed; providing an overview of the possible changes building codes will need to undergo......The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...... parameters used in the calculations are discussed and the various renewable supply options considered in the methodologies are summarised graphically. Thus, the paper helps to understand different existing approaches to calculate energy balance in Net ZEBs, highlights the importance of variables selection...

  14. PhysioNet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The PhysioNet Resource is intended to stimulate current research and new investigations in the study of complex biomedical and physiologic signals. It offers free...

  15. NetSig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Heiko; Lawrence, Michael S; Chouinard, Candace R

    2018-01-01

    Methods that integrate molecular network information and tumor genome data could complement gene-based statistical tests to identify likely new cancer genes; but such approaches are challenging to validate at scale, and their predictive value remains unclear. We developed a robust statistic (Net......Sig) that integrates protein interaction networks with data from 4,742 tumor exomes. NetSig can accurately classify known driver genes in 60% of tested tumor types and predicts 62 new driver candidates. Using a quantitative experimental framework to determine in vivo tumorigenic potential in mice, we found that Net......Sig candidates induce tumors at rates that are comparable to those of known oncogenes and are ten-fold higher than those of random genes. By reanalyzing nine tumor-inducing NetSig candidates in 242 patients with oncogene-negative lung adenocarcinomas, we find that two (AKT2 and TFDP2) are significantly amplified...

  16. Evading the joint decision trap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbæk, Jørgen; Jensen, Mads Christian Dagnis

    2016-01-01

    is applied, including the concept of the joint-decision trap. The paper finds that the outcome was made possible by compensating the member states that were worst affected by the policy changes. A coalition of net contributors, centered on Germany and the United Kingdom, was influential regarding the overall...

  17. TideNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    query tide data sources in a desired geographic region of USA and its territories (Figure 1). Users can select a tide data source through the Google Map ...select data sources according to the desired geographic region. It uses the Google Map interface to display data from different sources. Recent...Coastal Inlets Research Program TideNet The TideNet is a web-based Graphical User Interface (GUI) that provides users with GIS mapping tools to

  18. Building Neural Net Software

    OpenAIRE

    Neto, João Pedro; Costa, José Félix

    1999-01-01

    In a recent paper [Neto et al. 97] we showed that programming languages can be translated on recurrent (analog, rational weighted) neural nets. The goal was not efficiency but simplicity. Indeed we used a number-theoretic approach to machine programming, where (integer) numbers were coded in a unary fashion, introducing a exponential slow down in the computations, with respect to a two-symbol tape Turing machine. Implementation of programming languages in neural nets turns to be not only theo...

  19. Interaction Nets in Russian

    OpenAIRE

    Salikhmetov, Anton

    2013-01-01

    Draft translation to Russian of Chapter 7, Interaction-Based Models of Computation, from Models of Computation: An Introduction to Computability Theory by Maribel Fernandez. "In this chapter, we study interaction nets, a model of computation that can be seen as a representative of a class of models based on the notion of 'computation as interaction'. Interaction nets are a graphical model of computation devised by Yves Lafont in 1990 as a generalisation of the proof structures of linear logic...

  20. Programming NET 35

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Bestselling author Jesse Liberty and industry expert Alex Horovitz uncover the common threads that unite the .NET 3.5 technologies, so you can benefit from the best practices and architectural patterns baked into the new Microsoft frameworks. The book offers a Grand Tour" of .NET 3.5 that describes how the principal technologies can be used together, with Ajax, to build modern n-tier and service-oriented applications. "

  1. Joint ventures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    Afhandlingen analysere de konkurrenceretlige og selskabsretlige regler som er bestemmende for hvordan et joint venture samarbejde er struktureret......Afhandlingen analysere de konkurrenceretlige og selskabsretlige regler som er bestemmende for hvordan et joint venture samarbejde er struktureret...

  2. Joint audits - benefit or burden?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus; Thinggaard, Frank

    In this paper we examine whether there are perceived and observed benefits or burdens from using two audit firms instead of one. In 2005 the mandatory joint audit requirement was abolished in Denmark. This provides a unique setting for studying the consequences and implications of going from...... a joint audit regime to a single auditor/voluntary joint audit regime. The dataset used in this paper has been collected for the full population of non-financial Danish companies listed on the Copenhagen Stock Exchange (CSE) in the years 2004 and 2005. We find that a majority of firms perceive joint...... audits to be a net burden. Furthermore, based on DeAngelo's (1981) initial audit pricing model and legislators' claim that joint audits are an unnecessary economic burden to the companies we predict and find discounts (of around 25%) in audit fees in companies that change to single audits. The primary...

  3. MOMENTS OF THE LENGTH OF LINE SEGMENTS IN HOMOGENEOUS PLANAR STIT TESSELLATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Thäle

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Homogeneous planar tessellations stable under iteration (STIT tessellations are considered. Using recent results about the joint distribution of direction and length of the typical I-, K- and J-segment we prove closed formulas for the first, second and higher moments of the length of these segments given their direction. This especially leads to themean values and variances of these quantities andmean value relations as well as general moment relationships. Moreover, the relation between these mean values and certain conditional mean values (and also higher moments is discussed. The results are also illustrated for several examples.

  4. Eccentric loading and range of knee joint motion effects on performance enhancement in vertical jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Kieran A; Wallace, Eric S

    2007-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effects of variations in eccentric loading and knee joint range of motion on performance enhancement associated with the stretch-shortening cycle in vertical jumping. Seventeen male elite volleyball players performed three variations of the vertical jump which served as the research model: the squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ) and drop jump from a height of 30 cm (DJ30). Knee joint angle (70 degrees and 90 degrees of flexion) at the commencement of the propulsive phase for each jump type was experimentally controlled, with the trunk kept as erect as possible. Force and motion data were recorded for each performance and used to compute a range of kinematic and kinetic variables, including hip, knee and ankle angles, angular velocities, work done, net joint moments and a number of temporal variables. The average of 12 trials for each participant was used in a series of repeated measures ANOVA's (jump xk nee, alpha=.05). From both knee joint angles, an increase in eccentric loading resulted in a significant increase in jump height (DJ30>CMJ>SJ; pjumping is dependent upon the interaction of the magnitude of eccentric loading and the range of motion used.

  5. Joint Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    A joint is where two or more bones come together, like the knee, hip, elbow, or shoulder. Joints can be damaged by many types of injuries or diseases, including Arthritis - inflammation of a joint. It causes pain, stiffness, and swelling. Over time, ...

  6. Moment Closure for the Stochastic Logistic Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singh, Abhyudai; Hespanha, Joao P

    2006-01-01

    ..., which we refer to as the moment closure function. In this paper, a systematic procedure for constructing moment closure functions of arbitrary order is presented for the stochastic logistic model...

  7. Nuclear Quadrupole Moments and Nuclear Shell Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townes, C. H.; Foley, H. M.; Low, W.

    1950-06-23

    Describes a simple model, based on nuclear shell considerations, which leads to the proper behavior of known nuclear quadrupole moments, although predictions of the magnitudes of some quadrupole moments are seriously in error.

  8. Defining moments in leadership character development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Michael R

    2015-06-01

    Critical moments in life define one's character and clarify true values. Reflective leadership is espoused as an important practice for transformational leaders. Professional development educators can help surface and explore defining moments, strengthen leadership behavior with defining moments as a catalyst for change, and create safe spaces for leaders to expand their leadership capacity. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. The Krein condition for the moment problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Laurberg

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a class of Wiener functionals that are `indeterminate by their moments', that is, whose distributions are not uniquely determined by their moments. In particular, it is proved that the integral of a geometric Brownian motion is indeterminate by its moments and, moreover...

  10. Electric and Magnetic Dipole Moments

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    The stringent limit on the electric dipole moment of the neutron forced the issue on the strong CP-problem. The most elegant solution of which is the axion field proposed by Peccei and Quinn. The current limit on the QCD parameter theta coming from the limit on the neutron EDM is of order 10-10. I am going to describe the present status on the neutron EDM searches and further prospects on getting down to theta_qcd sensitivity of 10-13 with the new deuteron EDM in storage rings proposal. For completeness the current status and prospects of the muon g-2 experiment will also be given.

  11. Joint Injection/Aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Patient / Caregiver Treatments Joint Injection / Aspiration Joint Injections (Joint Aspirations) Fast Facts Joint aspiration is used ... is derived from a joint aspiration or joint injection? Joint aspiration usually is done for help with ...

  12. Isometric contractions reduce plantar flexor moment, Achilles tendon stiffness, and neuromuscular activity but remove the subsequent effects of stretch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Anthony D; Blazevich, Anthony J

    2009-10-01

    The effects of isometric contractions and passive stretching on muscle-tendon mechanics and muscle activity were studied in 16 healthy human volunteers. First, peak concentric and passive ankle joint moment data were recorded on an isokinetic dynamometer with electromyographic monitoring of the triceps surae; real-time motion analysis of the lower leg and ultrasound imaging of the Achilles-medial gastrocnemius muscle-tendon junction were simultaneously conducted. Second, the subjects performed six 8-s maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVICs) before repeating the passive and active trials. Although there was no decrease in isometric joint moment after MVICs, peak concentric moment was significantly reduced (11.5%, P static plantar flexor stretches before being retested 2 and 30 min after stretch. The stretch protocol caused no significant change in any measure. At 30 min after stretching, significant recovery in concentric moment and muscle activity was detected at dorsiflexed joint angles, while Achilles tendon stiffness and passive joint moment remained significantly reduced. These data show that the performance of MVICs interrupts the normal stretch-induced losses in active and passive plantar flexor joint moment and neuromuscular activity, largely because concentric strength and tendon properties were already affected. Importantly, the decrease in Achilles tendon stiffness remained 30 min later, which may be an important etiological factor for muscle-tendon strain injury risk.

  13. Changes in the tibialis anterior tendon moment arm from rest to maximum isometric dorsiflexion: in vivo observations in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maganaris, C N; Baltzopoulos, V; Sargeant, A J

    1999-11-01

    In the present study, we examined the hypothesis that the tibialis anterior tendon moment arm increases during maximum isometric dorsiflexion as compared with rest. In musculoskeletal modelling applications, moment arms from passive muscles at rest are assumed representative of those measured during isometric muscle contraction. The validity of this assumption is questionable in musculotendon actuators enclosed by retinacular systems as in tibialis anterior. Sagittal-plane magnetic resonance images of the right ankle were taken in six subjects at rest and during maximum isometric dorsiflexion at six ankle angles between dorsiflexion and plantarflexion having the body placed in the supine position and the knee flexed at 90 degrees. Instant centres of rotation in the tibio-talar joint, tibialis anterior tendon action lines and moment arms were identified in the sagittal plane at ankle angles of -15 degrees, 0 degrees,+15 degrees and +30 degrees at rest and during maximum isometric dorsiflexion. At any given ankle angle, the tibialis anterior tendon moment arm during maximum isometric dorsiflexion increased by 0.9-1.5 cm (Pdorsiflexion is invalid. Erroneous tendon forces, muscle stresses and joint moments by as much as 30% would be calculated using resting tibialis anterior tendon moment arms in the moment equilibrium equation around the ankle joint during maximum isometric dorsiflexion. A substantial increase in the tibialis anterior tendon moment arm occurs from rest to maximum isometric dorsiflexion. This needs to be taken into consideration when using planimetric musculoskeletal modelling for analysing maximal static ankle dorsiflexion loads.

  14. Forces and moments generated by the human arm: Variability and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y; Terekhov, AV; Latash, ML; Zatsiorsky, VM

    2012-01-01

    This is an exploratory study of the accurate endpoint force vector production by the human arm in isometric conditions. We formulated three common-sense hypotheses and falsified them in the experiment. The subjects (n=10) exerted static forces on the handle in eight directions in a horizontal plane for 25 seconds. The forces were of 4 magnitude levels (10 %, 20%, 30% and 40% of individual MVC). The torsion moment on the handle (grasp moment) was not specified in the instruction. The two force components and the grasp moment were recorded, and the shoulder, elbow, and wrist joint torques were computed. The following main facts were observed: (a) While the grasp moment was not prescribed by the instruction, it was always produced. The moment magnitude and direction depended on the instructed force magnitude and direction. (b) The within-trial angular variability of the exerted force vector (angular precision) did not depend on the target force magnitude (a small negative correlation was observed). (c) Across the target force directions, the variability of the exerted force magnitude and directional variability exhibited opposite trends: In the directions where the variability of force magnitude was maximal, the directional variability was minimal and vice versa. (d) The time profiles of joint torques in the trials were always positively correlated, even for the force directions where flexion torque was produced at one joint and extension torque was produced at the other joint. (e) The correlations between the grasp moment and the wrist torque were negative across the tasks and positive within the individual trials. (f) In static serial kinematic chains, the pattern of the joint torques distribution could not be explained by an optimization cost function additive with respect to the torques. Plans for several future experiments have been suggested. PMID:23080084

  15. La plataforma .NET

    OpenAIRE

    Fornas Estrada, Miquel

    2008-01-01

    L'aparició de la plataforma .NET Framework ha suposat un canvi molt important en la forma de crear i distribuir aplicacions, degut a que incorpora una sèrie d'innovacions tècniques i productives que simplifiquen molt les tasques necessàries per desenvolupar un projecte. La aparición de la plataforma. NET Framework ha supuesto un cambio muy importante en la forma de crear y distribuir aplicaciones, debido a que incorpora una serie de innovaciones técnicas y productivas que simplifican mucho...

  16. Biological Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Wingender, E

    2011-01-01

    It was suggested some years ago that Petri nets might be well suited to modeling metabolic networks, overcoming some of the limitations encountered by the use of systems employing ODEs (ordinary differential equations). Much work has been done since then which confirms this and demonstrates the usefulness of this concept for systems biology. Petri net technology is not only intuitively understood by scientists trained in the life sciences, it also has a robust mathematical foundation and provides the required degree of flexibility. As a result it appears to be a very promising approach to mode

  17. Moment-to-moment dynamics of ADHD behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aase Heidi

    2005-08-01

    learning long behavioural sequences may ultimately lead to deficient development of verbally governed behaviour and self control. The study represents a new approach to analyzing the moment-to-moment dynamics of behaviour, and provides support for the theory that reinforcement processes are altered in ADHD.

  18. Predicting Robust Learning with the Visual Form of the Moment-by-Moment Learning Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ryan S.; Hershkovitz, Arnon; Rossi, Lisa M.; Goldstein, Adam B.; Gowda, Sujith M.

    2013-01-01

    We present a new method for analyzing a student's learning over time for a specific skill: analysis of the graph of the student's moment-by-moment learning over time. Moment-by-moment learning is calculated using a data-mined model that assesses the probability that a student learned a skill or concept at a specific time during learning (Baker,…

  19. Probing freeze-out conditions in heavy ion collisions with moments of charge fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Karsch, Frithjof

    2011-01-01

    We calculate the first four moments of baryon number, electric charge and strangeness fluctuations within the hadron resonance gas model. Different moments and their ratios as well as skewness and kurtosis are evaluated on the phenomenologically determined freeze-out curve in the temperature, baryon chemical potential plane. The model results and its predictions as well as relations between different moments are compared with the first data on net proton fluctuations in Au-Au collisions obtained at RHIC by the STAR Collaboration. We find good agreement between the model calculations and experimental results. We also point out that higher order moments should be more sensitive to critical behavior and will also distinguish hadron resonance gas model calculations from results obtained from lattice QCD.

  20. Petri Nets-Applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 9. Petri Nets - Applications. Y Narahari. General Article Volume 4 Issue 9 September 1999 pp 44-52. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/09/0044-0052. Author Affiliations. Y Narahari ...

  1. Safety nets or straitjackets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Does regulation of working hours at national and sector level impose straitjackets, or offer safety nets to employees seeking working time flexibility? This article compares legislation and collective agreements in the metal industries of Denmark, Germany and the USA. The industry has historically...

  2. Coloured Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. This book introduces the constructs of the CPN modelling language and presents the related analysis methods. It provides a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN.

  3. Boom Booom Net Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Yong, Louisa; Dobie, Ian

    1999-01-01

    of an existing Internet radio station; Boom Booom Net Radio. Whilst necessity dictates some use of technology-related terminology, wherever possible we have endeavoured to keep such jargon to a minimum and to either explain it in the text or to provide further explanation in the appended glossary....

  4. Game Theory .net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Mikhael

    2003-01-01

    States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of GameTheory.net is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…

  5. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism...

  6. Design and evaluation of net radiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritschen, Leo J.; Fritschen, Charles L.

    Net radiometer designs were evaluated with respect to long and short wave sensitivities and to the effect of ambient wind on the signal. The design features of the instrument with the best overall performance include: equal sensitivity to long and short wave radiation, a thermal pile which is thermally isolated from the frame, a white guard ring, pathways for internal circulation between the top and bottom hemispheres, and self-supporting windshields. The windshields have O-ring seals, a ball joint is provided for ease of leveling, and ample desiccant is enclosed in the mounting pipe. Under a high radiant load, the net radiometer signal decreased by 2.5, 3.7, and 4.3 percent at wind speeds of 12.5, 4.6, and 7.5 m/s.

  7. Moment measurements in dynamic and quasi-static spine segment testing using eccentric compression are susceptible to artifacts based on loading configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Toen, Carolyn; Carter, Jarrod W; Oxland, Thomas R; Cripton, Peter A

    2014-12-01

    The tolerance of the spine to bending moments, used for evaluation of injury prevention devices, is often determined through eccentric axial compression experiments using segments of the cadaver spine. Preliminary experiments in our laboratory demonstrated that eccentric axial compression resulted in "unexpected" (artifact) moments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the static and dynamic effects of test configuration on bending moments during eccentric axial compression typical in cadaver spine segment testing. Specific objectives were to create dynamic equilibrium equations for the loads measured inferior to the specimen, experimentally verify these equations, and compare moment responses from various test configurations using synthetic (rubber) and human cadaver specimens. The equilibrium equations were verified by performing quasi-static (5 mm/s) and dynamic experiments (0.4 m/s) on a rubber specimen and comparing calculated shear forces and bending moments to those measured using a six-axis load cell. Moment responses were compared for hinge joint, linear slider and hinge joint, and roller joint configurations tested at quasi-static and dynamic rates. Calculated shear force and bending moment curves had similar shapes to those measured. Calculated values in the first local minima differed from those measured by 3% and 15%, respectively, in the dynamic test, and these occurred within 1.5 ms of those measured. In the rubber specimen experiments, for the hinge joint (translation constrained), quasi-static and dynamic posterior eccentric compression resulted in flexion (unexpected) moments. For the slider and hinge joints and the roller joints (translation unconstrained), extension ("expected") moments were measured quasi-statically and initial flexion (unexpected) moments were measured dynamically. In the cadaver experiments with roller joints, anterior and posterior eccentricities resulted in extension moments, which were unexpected and expected, for those

  8. Amine-hydrogen halide complexes: experimental electric dipole moments and a theoretical decomposition of dipole moments and binding energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, Carolyn S; Craddock, Matthew B; Kilian, Jacob; Grumstrup, Erik M; Orilall, M Christopher; Mo, Yirong; Gao, Jiali; Leopold, Kenneth R

    2006-08-24

    The Stark effect has been observed in the rotational spectra of several gas-phase amine-hydrogen halide complexes and the following electric dipole moments have been determined: H(3)(15)N-H(35)Cl (4.05865 +/- 0.00095 D), (CH(3))(3)(15)N-H(35)Cl (7.128 +/- 0.012 D), H(3)(15)N-H(79)Br (4.2577 +/- 0.0022 D), and (CH(3))(3)(15)N-H(79)Br (8.397 +/- 0.014 D). Calculations of the binding energies and electric dipole moments for the full set of complexes R(n)()(CH(3))(3)(-)(n)()N-HX (n = 0-3; X = F, Cl, Br) at the MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ level are also reported. The block localized wave function (BLW) energy decomposition method has been used to partition the binding energies into contributions from electrostatic, exchange, distortion, polarization, and charge-transfer terms. Similarly, the calculated dipole moments have been decomposed into distortion, polarization, and charge-transfer components. The complexes studied range from hydrogen-bonded systems to proton-transferred ion pairs, and the total interaction energies vary from 7 to 17 kcal/mol across the series. The individual energy components show a much wider variation than this, but cancellation of terms accounts for the relatively narrow range of net binding energies. For both the hydrogen-bonded complexes and the proton-transferred ion pairs, the electrostatic and exchange terms have magnitudes that increase with the degree of proton transfer but are of opposite sign, leaving most of the net stabilization to arise from polarization and charge transfer. In all of the systems studied, the polarization terms contribute the most to the induced dipole moment, followed by smaller but still significant contributions from charge transfer. A significant contribution to the induced moment of the ion pairs also arises from distortion of the HX monomer.

  9. Estimation of ground reaction forces and moments during gait using only inertial motion capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karatsidis, Angelos; Bellusci, Giovanni; Schepers, H. Martin; de Zee, Mark; Andersen, Michael S.; Veltink, Petrus H.

    Ground reaction forces and moments (GRF&M) are important measures used as input in biomechanical analysis to estimate joint kinetics, which often are used to infer information for many musculoskeletal diseases. Their assessment is conventionally achieved using laboratory-based equipment that cannot

  10. Product Formula, Independence and Asymptotic Moment-Independence for Complex Multiple Wiener-Ito Integrals

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yong

    2014-01-01

    We present the product formula for complex multiple Wiener-Ito integrals. As applications, we show the Ustunel-Zakai independent criterion, the Nourdin-Rosinski asymptotic moment-independent criterion and joint convergence criterion for complex multiple Wiener-Ito integrals.

  11. The relationships among sagittal-plane lower extremity moments: implications for landing strategy in anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimokochi, Yohei; Yong Lee, Sae; Shultz, Sandra J; Schmitz, Randy J

    2009-01-01

    Excessive quadriceps contraction with insufficient hamstrings muscle cocontraction has been shown to be a possible contributing factor for noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. Assessing the relationships among lower extremity internal moments may provide some insight into avoiding muscle contraction patterns that increase ACL injury risk. To examine the relationships of knee-extensor moment with ankle plantar-flexor and hip-extensor moments and to examine the relationship between knee moment and center of pressure as a measure of neuromuscular response to center-of-mass position. Cross-sectional study. Applied Neuromechanics Research Laboratory. Eighteen healthy, recreationally active women (age = 22.3 +/- 2.8 years, height = 162.5 +/- 8.1 cm, mass = 57.8 +/- 9.3 kg). Participants performed a single-leg landing from a 45-cm box onto a force plate. Kinetic and kinematic data were collected. Pearson product moment correlation coefficients were calculated among the net peak knee-extensor moment (KEMpk), sagittal-plane ankle (AM) and hip (HM) net internal moments, and anterior-posterior center of pressure relative to foot center of mass at KEMpk (COP). Lower KEMpk related to both greater AM (r = -0.942, P < .001) and HM (r = -0.657, P = .003). We also found that more anterior displacement of COP was related to greater AM (r = -0.750, P < .001) and lower KEMpk (r = 0.618, P = .006). Our results suggest that participants who lean the whole body forward during landing may produce more plantar-flexor moment and less knee-extensor moment, possibly increasing hip-extensor moment and decreasing knee-extensor moment production. These results suggest that leaning forward may be a technique to decrease quadriceps contraction demand while increasing hamstrings cocontraction demand during a single-leg landing.

  12. The Relationship between Knee Joint Loading Rate During Walking and Degenerative Changes on Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenroth, David C.; Medverd, Jonathan R.; Seyedali, Mahyo; Czerniecki, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    Background While animal study and cadaveric study have demonstrated an association between knee joint loading rate and joint degeneration, the relationship between knee joint loading rate during walking and osteoarthritis has not yet been sufficiently studied in humans. Methods Twenty-eight participants (14 transfemoral amputees and 14 age and body mass matched controls) underwent knee MRI with subsequent assessment using the semiquantitative Whole-Organ Magnetic Resonance Image Score. Each subject also underwent gait analysis in order to determine knee adduction moment loading rate, peak, and impulse and an exploratory measure, knee adduction moment rate*magnitude. Findings Significant correlations were found between medial tibiofemoral joint degeneration and knee adduction moment peak (slope = 0.42 [SE 0.20]; P=.037), loading rate (slope = 12.3 [SE 3.2]; P=.0004), and rate*magnitude (slope = 437 [SE 100]; Pknee semiquantitative MRI score and knee adduction moment loading rate and rate*magnitude continued to be significant even after adjusting for peak moment (Pknee semiquantitative MRI score and peak moment was no longer significant after adjusting for either loading rate or rate*magnitude (P>.2 in both cases). Interpretation This study suggests an independent relationship between knee adduction moment loading rate and medial tibiofemoral joint degeneration. Our results support the hypothesis that rate of loading, represented by the knee adduction moment loading rate, is strongly associated with medial tibiofemoral joint degeneration independent of knee adduction moment peak and impulse. PMID:24820134

  13. Ceramic joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Bradley J.; Patten, Jr., Donald O.

    1991-01-01

    Butt joints between materials having different coefficients of thermal expansion are prepared having a reduced probability of failure of stress facture. This is accomplished by narrowing/tapering the material having the lower coefficient of thermal expansion in a direction away from the joint interface and not joining the narrow-tapered surface to the material having the higher coefficient of thermal expansion.

  14. Solving moment hierarchies for chemical reaction networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Supriya; Smith, Eric

    2017-10-01

    The study of chemical reaction networks (CRN’s) is a very active field. Earlier well-known results (Feinberg 1987 Chem. Enc. Sci. 42 2229, Anderson et al 2010 Bull. Math. Biol. 72 1947) identify a topological quantity called deficiency, for any CRN, which, when exactly equal to zero, leads to a unique factorized steady-state for these networks. No results exist however for the steady states of non-zero-deficiency networks. In this paper, we show how to write the full moment-hierarchy for any non-zero-deficiency CRN obeying mass-action kinetics, in terms of equations for the factorial moments. Using these, we can recursively predict values for lower moments from higher moments, reversing the procedure usually used to solve moment hierarchies. We show, for non-trivial examples, that in this manner we can predict any moment of interest, for CRN’s with non-zero deficiency and non-factorizable steady states.

  15. Spermatogonium image recognition using Zernike moments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyun, Wang; Hefei, Ling; Fuhao, Zou; Zhengding, Lu; Zhendi, Wang

    2009-07-01

    The automatic identification and classification of spermatogonium images is a very important issue in biomedical engineering research. This paper proposes a scheme for spermatogonium recognition, in which Zernike moments are used to represent image features. First of all, the mathematical morphology method is employed to extract the intact individual cell in every image, and then we normalize these binary images. Then, Zernike moments are calculated from these normalized images, followed by recognizing the spermatogonia through computing similarity of vectors composed with Zernike moments using Euclidean distance. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method, based on Zernike moments, outperforms two well-known methods, namely those based on Hu moments and boundary moments. This method has stronger distinguishing ability, showing better performance in discriminating cell images whether belong to the same cell.

  16. Food Safety Nets:

    OpenAIRE

    Haggblade, Steven; Diallo, Boubacar; Staatz, John; Theriault, Veronique; Traoré, Abdramane

    2013-01-01

    Food and social safety nets have a history as long as human civilization. In hunter gatherer societies, food sharing is pervasive. Group members who prove unlucky in the short run, hunting or foraging, receive food from other households in anticipation of reciprocal consideration at a later time (Smith 1988). With the emergence of the first large sedentary civilizations in the Middle East, administrative systems developed specifically around food storage and distribution. The ancient Egyptian...

  17. Net technical assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Wegmann, David G.

    1989-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The present and near term military balance of power between the U.S. and the Soviet Union can be expressed in a variety of net assessments. One can examine the strategic nuclear balance, the conventional balance in Europe, the maritime balance, and many others. Such assessments are essential not only for policy making but for arms control purposes and future force structure planning. However, to project the future military balance, on...

  18. Neuromusculoskeletal model self-calibration for on-line sequential bayesian moment estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Diana R.; Montano, L.

    2017-04-01

    Objective. Neuromusculoskeletal models involve many subject-specific physiological parameters that need to be adjusted to adequately represent muscle properties. Traditionally, neuromusculoskeletal models have been calibrated with a forward-inverse dynamic optimization which is time-consuming and unfeasible for rehabilitation therapy. Non self-calibration algorithms have been applied to these models. To the best of our knowledge, the algorithm proposed in this work is the first on-line calibration algorithm for muscle models that allows a generic model to be adjusted to different subjects in a few steps. Approach. In this paper we propose a reformulation of the traditional muscle models that is able to sequentially estimate the kinetics (net joint moments), and also its full self-calibration (subject-specific internal parameters of the muscle from a set of arbitrary uncalibrated data), based on the unscented Kalman filter. The nonlinearity of the model as well as its calibration problem have obliged us to adopt the sum of Gaussians filter suitable for nonlinear systems. Main results. This sequential Bayesian self-calibration algorithm achieves a complete muscle model calibration using as input only a dataset of uncalibrated sEMG and kinematics data. The approach is validated experimentally using data from the upper limbs of 21 subjects. Significance. The results show the feasibility of neuromusculoskeletal model self-calibration. This study will contribute to a better understanding of the generalization of muscle models for subject-specific rehabilitation therapies. Moreover, this work is very promising for rehabilitation devices such as electromyography-driven exoskeletons or prostheses.

  19. Influence of kinematic cuts on the net charge distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Hannah [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Institut für Theoretische Physik, Goethe Universität, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Oliinychenko, Dmytro [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kiev 03680 (Ukraine); Steinheimer, Jan [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Bleicher, Marcus [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Institut für Theoretische Physik, Goethe Universität, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    The higher moments of the net charge distributions, e.g. the skewness and kurtosis, are studied within an infinite hadronic matter calculation in a transport approach. By dividing the box into several parts, the volume dependence of the fluctuations is investigated. After confirming that the initial distributions follow the expectations from a binomial distribution, the influence of quantum number conservation in this case the net charge in the system on the higher moments is evaluated. For this purpose, the composition of the hadron gas is adjusted and only pions and ρ mesons are simulated to investigate the charge conservation effect. In addition, the effect of imposing kinematic cuts in momentum space is analysed. The role of resonance excitations and decays on the higher moments can also be studied within this model. This work is highly relevant to understand the experimental measurements of higher moments obtained in the RHIC beam energy scan and their comparison to lattice results and other theoretical calculations assuming infinite matter.

  20. Muon Dipole Moment Experiments Interpretation and Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, J L; Shadmi, Y; Feng, Jonathan L; Matchev, Konstantin T.; Shadmi, Yael

    2001-01-01

    We examine the prospects for discovering new physics through muon dipole moments. The current deviation in $g_{\\mu}-2$ may be due entirely to the muon's {\\em electric} dipole moment. We note that the precession frequency in the proposed BNL muon EDM experiment is also subject to a similar ambiguity, but this can be resolved by up-down asymmetry measurements. We then review the theoretical expectations for the muon's electric dipole moment in supersymmetric models.

  1. Applications of Generalized Method of Moments Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Wooldridge, Jeffrey M.

    2001-01-01

    I describe how the method of moments approach to estimation, including the more recent generalized method of moments (GMM) theory, can be applied to problems using cross section, time series, and panel data. Method of moments estimators can be attractive because in many circumstances they are robust to failures of auxiliary distributional assumptions that are not needed to identify key parameters. I conclude that while sophisticated GMM estimators are indispensable for complicated estimation ...

  2. Effect of six degrees of freedom knee kinematics on ligament length and moment arm in an intact knee model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozada, Neriman

    2015-01-01

    Biomechanics studies can help improve athletic performance. However, the biomechanics of knee joint ligament length changes and moment arms over six degrees of freedom (DOF) have yet to be established. To construct a knee model to investigate the length and moment arm changes of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), medial collateral ligament (MCL), and lateral collateral ligament (LCL). Six DOF joint modeling and analysis were performed using specialized modeling software. The length of all ligaments varied with tibiofemoral flexion angle, contributed to joint motion, and restrained the joint in different positions. The ACL, MCL, and LCL lengths decreased, the PCL increased, the posterior tibial translation increased, the MCL moment arm increased, and the LCL moment arm decreased between 0° and 90°. The primary ligament restraints were the PCL (0° to 30°), MCL (30° to 60°), and PCL (60° to 90°). The restraining function of each ligament during motion can be modeled based on changes in ligament lengths during tibial translations and rotations during flexion. Understanding the correlations between ligament lengths and moment arm changes over a wide range of motion will help improve our understanding of joint kinematics and may be useful for the diagnosis and treatment of sports injury.

  3. Using WordNet for Building WordNets

    CERN Document Server

    Farreres, X; Farreres, Xavier; Rodriguez, Horacio; Rigau, German

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarises a set of methodologies and techniques for the fast construction of multilingual WordNets. The English WordNet is used in this approach as a backbone for Catalan and Spanish WordNets and as a lexical knowledge resource for several subtasks.

  4. Image Description using Radial Associated Laguerre Moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojun Pan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a new set of moment functions for describing gray-level and color images based on the associated Laguerre polynomials, which are orthogonal over the whole right-half plane. Moreover, the mathematical frameworks of radial associated Laguerre moments (RALMs and associated rotation invariants are introduced. The proposed radial Laguerre invariants retain the basic form of disc-based moments, such as Zernike moments (ZMs, pseudo-Zernike moments (PZMs, Fourier-Mellin moments (OFMMs, and so on. Therefore, the rotation invariants of RALMs can be easily obtained. In addition, the study extends the proposed moments and invariants defined in a gray-level image to a color image using the algebra of quaternion to avoid losing some significant color information. Finally, the paper verifies the feature description capacities of the proposed moment function in terms of image reconstruction and invariant pattern recognition accuracy. Experimental results confirmed that the associated Laguerre moments (ALMs perform better than orthogonal OFMMs in both noise-free and noisy conditions.

  5. Estimating 3D L5/S1 moments and ground reaction forces during trunk bending using a full-body ambulatory inertial motion capture system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, G.S.; Chang, C.C.; Kingma, I.; Dennerlein, J.T.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2016-01-01

    Inertial motion capture (IMC) systems have become increasingly popular for ambulatory movement analysis. However, few studies have attempted to use these measurement techniques to estimate kinetic variables, such as joint moments and ground reaction forces (GRFs). Therefore, we investigated the

  6. Kant’s Machiavellian Moment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Foster

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available At least two recent collections of essays – Postmodernism and the Enlightenment (2001 and What’s Left of Enlightenment?: A Postmodern Question (2001 – have responded to postmodern critiques of Enlightenment by arguing that Enlightenment philosophes themselves embraced a number of post-modern themes. This essay situates Kant’s essay Was ist Aufklärung (1784 in the context of this recent literature about the appropriate characterization of modernity and the Enlightenment. Adopting an internalist reading of Kant’s Aufklärung essay, this paper observes that Kant is surprisingly ambivalent about who might be Enlightened and unspecific about when Enlightenment might be achieved. The paper argues that this is because Kant is concerned less with elucidating his concept of Enlightenment and more with characterizing a political condition that might provide the conditions for the possibility of Enlightenment. This paper calls this political condition modernity and it is achieved when civil order can be maintained alongside fractious and possibly insoluble public disagreement about matters of conscience, including the nature and possibility of Enlightenment. Thus, the audience for the Aufklärung essay is not the tax collector, soldier or clergyman, but rather the sovereign. Kant enjoins and advises the prince that discord and debate about matters of conscience need not entail any political unrest or upheaval. It is in this restricted (Pocockian sense that the Enlightenment essay is Kant’s Machiavellian moment.

  7. Hip abductor moment arm - a mathematical analysis for proximal femoral replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temple H Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients undergoing proximal femoral replacement for tumor resection often have compromised hip abductor muscles resulting in a Trendelenberg limp and hip instability. Commercially available proximal femoral prostheses offer several designs with varying sites of attachment for the abductor muscles, however, no analyses of these configurations have been performed to determine which design provides the longest moment arm for the hip abductor muscles during normal function. Methods This study analyzed hip abductor moment arm through hip adduction and abduction with a trigonometric mathematical model to evaluate the effects of alterations in anatomy and proximal femoral prosthesis design. Prosthesis dimensions were taken from technical schematics that were obtained from the prosthesis manufacturers. Manufacturers who contributed schematics for this investigation were Stryker Orthopaedics and Biomet. Results Superior and lateral displacement of the greater trochanter increased the hip abductor mechanical advantage for single-leg stance and adduction and preserved moment arm in the setting of Trendelenberg gait. Hip joint medialization resulted in less variance of the abductor moment arm through coronal motion. The Stryker GMRS endoprosthesis provided the longest moment arm in single-leg stance. Conclusions Hip abductor moment arm varies substantially throughout the hip's range of motion in the coronal plane. Selection of a proximal femur endoprosthesis with an abductor muscle insertion that is located superiorly and laterally will optimize hip abductor moment arm in single-leg stance compared to one located inferiorly or medially.

  8. Proof nets for lingusitic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moot, R.C.A.

    2002-01-01

    This book investigates the possible linguistic applications of proof nets, redundancy free representations of proofs, which were introduced by Girard for linear logic. We will adapt the notion of proof net to allow the formulation of a proof net calculus which is soundand complete for the

  9. Teaching Tennis for Net Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Bryce

    1989-01-01

    A program for teaching tennis to beginners, NET (Net Easy Teaching) is described. The program addresses three common needs shared by tennis students: active involvement in hitting the ball, clearing the net, and positive reinforcement. A sample lesson plan is included. (IAH)

  10. Net4Care Ecosystem Website

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius; Rasmussen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    is a tele-monitoring scenario in which Net4Care clients are deployed in a gateway in private homes. Medical devices then connect to these gateways and transmit their observations to a Net4Care server. In turn the Net4Care server creates valid clinical HL7 documents, stores them in a national XDS repository...

  11. A Unified Methodology for Computing Accurate Quaternion Color Moments and Moment Invariants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakasis, Evangelos G; Papakostas, George A; Koulouriotis, Dimitrios E; Tourassis, Vassilios D

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, a general framework for computing accurate quaternion color moments and their corresponding invariants is proposed. The proposed unified scheme arose by studying the characteristics of different orthogonal polynomials. These polynomials are used as kernels in order to form moments, the invariants of which can easily be derived. The resulted scheme permits the usage of any polynomial-like kernel in a unified and consistent way. The resulted moments and moment invariants demonstrate robustness to noisy conditions and high discriminative power. Additionally, in the case of continuous moments, accurate computations take place to avoid approximation errors. Based on this general methodology, the quaternion Tchebichef, Krawtchouk, Dual Hahn, Legendre, orthogonal Fourier-Mellin, pseudo Zernike and Zernike color moments, and their corresponding invariants are introduced. A selected paradigm presents the reconstruction capability of each moment family, whereas proper classification scenarios evaluate the performance of color moment invariants.

  12. Effect of lateralized design on muscle and joint reaction forces for reverse shoulder arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, William; Yang, Yang; Petersen-Fitts, Graysen R; Lombardo, Daniel J; Stine, Sasha; Sabesan, Vani J

    2017-04-01

    Manufacturers of reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) implants have recently designed innovative implants to optimize performance in rotator cuff-deficient shoulders. These advancements are not without tradeoffs and can have negative biomechanical effects. The objective of this study was to develop an integrated finite element analysis-kinematic model to compare the muscle forces and joint reaction forces (JRFs) of 3 different RSA designs. A kinematic model of a normal shoulder joint was adapted from the Delft model and integrated with the well-validated OpenSim shoulder model. Static optimizations then allowed for calculation of the individual muscle forces, moment arms, and JRFs relative to net joint moments. Three-dimensional computer models of 3 RSA designs-humeral lateralized design (HLD), glenoid lateralized design, and Grammont design-were integrated, and parametric studies were performed. Overall, there were decreases in deltoid and rotator cuff muscle forces for all 3 RSA designs. These decreases were greatest in the middle deltoid of the HLD model for abduction and flexion and in the rotator cuff muscles under both internal rotation and external rotation. The JRFs in abduction and flexion decreased similarly for all RSA designs compared with the normal shoulder model, with the greatest decrease seen in the HLD model. These findings demonstrate that the design characteristics implicit in these modified RSA prostheses result in mechanical differences most prominently seen in the deltoid muscle and overall JRFs. Further research using this novel integrated model can help guide continued optimization of RSA design and clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Master Robotic Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Lipunov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the MASTER-Net project is to produce a unique fast sky survey with all sky observed over a single night down to a limiting magnitude of 19-20. Such a survey will make it possible to address a number of fundamental problems: search for dark energy via the discovery and photometry of supernovae (including SNIa, search for exoplanets, microlensing effects, discovery of minor bodies in the Solar System, and space-junk monitoring. All MASTER telescopes can be guided by alerts, and we plan to observe prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts synchronously in several filters and in several polarization planes.

  14. Art/Net/Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik; Lindstrøm, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    The seminar Art|Net|Work deals with two important changes in our culture. On one side, the network has become essential in the latest technological development. The Internet has entered a new phase, Web 2.0, including the occurrence of as ‘Wiki’s’, ‘Peer-2-Peer’ distribution, user controlled...... the praxis of the artist. We see different kinds of interventions and activism (including ‘hacktivism’) using the network as a way of questioning the invisible rules that govern public and semi-public spaces. Who ‘owns’ them? What kind of social relationships do they generate? On what principle...

  15. Statistical Inference Based on L-Moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Šimková

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To overcome drawbacks of central moments and comoment matrices usually used to characterize univariate and multivariate distributions, respectively, their generalization, termed L-moments, has been proposed. L-moments of all orders are defined for any random variable or vector with finite mean. L-moments have been widely employed in the past 20 years in statistical inference. The aim of the paper is to present the review of the theory of L-moments and to illustrate their application in parameter estimating and hypothesis testing. The problem of estimating the three-parameter generalized Pareto distribution’s (GPD parameters that is generally used in modelling extreme events is considered. A small simulation study is performed to show the superiority of the L-moment method in some cases. Because nowadays L-moments are often employed in estimating extreme events by regional approaches, the focus is on the key assumption of index-flood based regional frequency analysis (RFA, that is homogeneity testing. The benefits of the nonparametric L-moment homogeneity test are implemented on extreme meteorological events observed in the Czech Republic.

  16. Closed forms and multi-moment maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Thomas Bruun; Swann, Andrew Francis

    We extend the notion of multi-moment map to geometries defined by closed forms of arbitrary degree. We give fundamental existence and uniqueness results and discuss a number of essential examples, including geometries related to special holonomy. For forms of degree four, multi-moment maps...

  17. Teachable Moment: Google Earth Takes Us There

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ann; Davinroy, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    In the current educational climate, where clearly articulated learning objectives are required, it is clear that the spontaneous teachable moment still has its place. Authors Ann Williams and Thomas Davinroy think that instructors from almost any discipline can employ Google Earth as a tool to take advantage of teachable moments through the…

  18. How to Introduce the Magnetic Dipole Moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, M.; Kort-Kamp, W. J. M.; Cougo-Pinto, M. V.; Farina, C.

    2012-01-01

    We show how the concept of the magnetic dipole moment can be introduced in the same way as the concept of the electric dipole moment in introductory courses on electromagnetism. Considering a localized steady current distribution, we make a Taylor expansion directly in the Biot-Savart law to obtain, explicitly, the dominant contribution of the…

  19. Magnetic moment of single layer graphene rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulis, V. A.; Karpunin, V. V.; Mironova, K. I.

    2018-01-01

    Magnetic moment of single layer graphene rings is investigated. An analytical expression for the magnetic moment as a function of the magnetic field flux through the one-dimensional quantum rings is obtained. This expression has the oscillation character. The oscillation period is equal to one flux quanta.

  20. Closed forms and multi-moment maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Thomas Bruun; Swann, Andrew Francis

    2013-01-01

    We extend the notion of multi-moment map to geometries defined by closed forms of arbitrary degree. We give fundamental existence and uniqueness results and discuss a number of essential examples, including geometries related to special holonomy. For forms of degree four, multi-moment maps are gu...

  1. Joint Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Commission Websites Quick Links The Center for Transforming Healthcare Blogs DataMart Event ... Table of Contents and Abstracts for The Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety Monday October 2, ...

  2. Joint pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or conditions. It may be linked to arthritis , bursitis , and muscle pain . No matter what causes it, ... Autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus Bursitis Chondromalacia patellae Crystals in the joint: Gout (especially ...

  3. Blurred image recognition by Legendre moment invariants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Shu, Huazhong; Han, Guoniu N; Coatrieux, Gouenou; Luo, Limin; Coatrieux, Jean Louis

    2010-03-01

    Processing blurred images is a key problem in many image applications. Existing methods to obtain blur invariants which are invariant with respect to centrally symmetric blur are based on geometric moments or complex moments. In this paper, we propose a new method to construct a set of blur invariants using the orthogonal Legendre moments. Some important properties of Legendre moments for the blurred image are presented and proved. The performance of the proposed descriptors is evaluated with various point-spread functions and different image noises. The comparison of the present approach with previous methods in terms of pattern recognition accuracy is also provided. The experimental results show that the proposed descriptors are more robust to noise and have better discriminative power than the methods based on geometric or complex moments.

  4. Helminth.net: expansions to Nematode.net and an introduction to Trematode.net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, John; Rosa, Bruce A.; Ozersky, Philip; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Zhang, Xu; Bhonagiri-Palsikar, Veena; Tyagi, Rahul; Wang, Qi; Choi, Young-Jun; Gao, Xin; McNulty, Samantha N.; Brindley, Paul J.; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2015-01-01

    Helminth.net (http://www.helminth.net) is the new moniker for a collection of databases: Nematode.net and Trematode.net. Within this collection we provide services and resources for parasitic roundworms (nematodes) and flatworms (trematodes), collectively known as helminths. For over a decade we have provided resources for studying nematodes via our veteran site Nematode.net (http://nematode.net). In this article, (i) we provide an update on the expansions of Nematode.net that hosts omics data from 84 species and provides advanced search tools to the broad scientific community so that data can be mined in a useful and user-friendly manner and (ii) we introduce Trematode.net, a site dedicated to the dissemination of data from flukes, flatworm parasites of the class Trematoda, phylum Platyhelminthes. Trematode.net is an independent component of Helminth.net and currently hosts data from 16 species, with information ranging from genomic, functional genomic data, enzymatic pathway utilization to microbiome changes associated with helminth infections. The databases’ interface, with a sophisticated query engine as a backbone, is intended to allow users to search for multi-factorial combinations of species’ omics properties. This report describes updates to Nematode.net since its last description in NAR, 2012, and also introduces and presents its new sibling site, Trematode.net. PMID:25392426

  5. NETS FOR PEACH PROTECTED CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelia Schettini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the radiometric properties of coloured nets used to protect a peach cultivation. The modifications of the solar spectral distribution, mainly in the R and FR wavelength band, influence plant photomorphogenesis by means of the phytochrome and cryptochrome. The phytochrome response is characterized in terms of radiation rate in the red wavelengths (R, 600-700 nm to that in the farred radiation (FR, 700-800 nm, i.e. the R/FR ratio. The effects of the blue radiation (B, 400-500 nm is investigated by the ratio between the blue radiation and the far-red radiation, i.e. the B/FR ratio. A BLUE net, a RED net, a YELLOW net, a PEARL net, a GREY net and a NEUTRAL net were tested in Bari (Italy, latitude 41° 05’ N. Peach trees were located in pots inside the greenhouses and in open field. The growth of the trees cultivated in open field was lower in comparison to the growth of the trees grown under the nets. The RED, PEARL, YELLOW and GREY nets increased the growth of the trees more than the other nets. The nets positively influenced the fruit characteristics, such as fruit weight and flesh firmness.

  6. Debonding problem of a transversely loaded single lap joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, J.H.; Sridhar, I.; Tan, G.E.B. [Nanyang Technological Univ., Singapore (Singapore)

    2012-07-01

    This paper aims to describe the debonding problem of transversely loaded single lap joint using fracture mechanics approach. This is achieved by first solving the deflection problem of the single lap joint. By evaluating the bending moments at the vicinity of crack tip, non-dimensional energy release rate required for the debonding can be found. The effects of relative position of transverse load and overlap length on the debonding propensity are discussed. As for design consideration, any transverse load moving towards critical side of square edge of the joint should be avoided. Increasing the overlap length improves the joint's strength, particularly when the joint is also axially loaded. (Author)

  7. Joint kinematics and kinetics of overground accelerated running versus running on an accelerated treadmill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Caekenberghe, Ine; Segers, Veerle; Aerts, Peter; Willems, Patrick; De Clercq, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Literature shows that running on an accelerated motorized treadmill is mechanically different from accelerated running overground. Overground, the subject has to enlarge the net anterior–posterior force impulse proportional to acceleration in order to overcome linear whole body inertia, whereas on a treadmill, this force impulse remains zero, regardless of belt acceleration. Therefore, it can be expected that changes in kinematics and joint kinetics of the human body also are proportional to acceleration overground, whereas no changes according to belt acceleration are expected on a treadmill. This study documents kinematics and joint kinetics of accelerated running overground and running on an accelerated motorized treadmill belt for 10 young healthy subjects. When accelerating overground, ground reaction forces are characterized by less braking and more propulsion, generating a more forward-oriented ground reaction force vector and a more forwardly inclined body compared with steady-state running. This change in body orientation as such is partly responsible for the changed force direction. Besides this, more pronounced hip and knee flexion at initial contact, a larger hip extension velocity, smaller knee flexion velocity and smaller initial plantarflexion velocity are associated with less braking. A larger knee extension and plantarflexion velocity result in larger propulsion. Altogether, during stance, joint moments are not significantly influenced by acceleration overground. Therefore, we suggest that the overall behaviour of the musculoskeletal system (in terms of kinematics and joint moments) during acceleration at a certain speed remains essentially identical to steady-state running at the same speed, yet acting in a different orientation. However, because acceleration implies extra mechanical work to increase the running speed, muscular effort done (in terms of power output) must be larger. This is confirmed by larger joint power generation at the level

  8. Retrieving Source-Time Function and Seismic Moment Tensor From Near Field Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Catalina; Ruiz, Javier A.; Ortega, Francisco; Rivera, Luis

    2017-04-01

    Retrieve earthquake source parameters from seismological or geodetic data is an important aspect in the rapid characterization of the earthquake source, which is particularly relevant in real-time operations. The inversion of seismic moment tensors and slip distributions of large earthquakes is a recurrent and important topic in seismology because it allows to know the source properties and rupture process. Several methodologies allow to make these inferences assuming different levels of complexity of the earthquake source, for instance, the Global Centroid Moment Tensor compute routinely the centroid moment tensor from global seismic data, on the other hand, agencies such as the National Earthquake Information Center have implemented methodologies to retrieve the moment tensor in real-time (e.g the W-Phase). However, the joint inversion of the moment tensor and the source-time function using regional and near-field data is a promising approach to characterize source parameters. Several methodologies allow to invert the seismic moment tensor using broadband regional data assuming a simple source-time function (e.g. impulsive, or with a triangular shape), but are usually limited because broadband stations get saturated near the source for moderate and large earthquakes. Yagi and Nishimura (2011) proposed a method that inverts the moment tensor and the half duration using strong motion data. Weber (2009) computes the seismic moment tensor as a function of time using broadband regional data, applying a inverse method that minimize the L1-norm, and then retrieves the source-time function. The aim of this study is to develop a method and a computational tool that allows to jointly invert the moment tensor and the source-time function using strong motion and broadband regional data. The inverse method is applied in two steps, (1) we invert the moment tensor assuming a triangular source-time function and, (2) minimizing the L2-norm, we invert the amplitude of a series of

  9. The equivalency between logic Petri workflow nets and workflow nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue

    2015-01-01

    Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented.

  10. The Effect of Foot Progression Angle on Knee Joint Compression Force during Walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldvinsson, Henrik Koblauch; Heilskov-Hansen, Thomas; Alkjær, Tine

    2013-01-01

    compression force increased during EFR and the lateral knee joint compartment compression force increased during IFR. The increases in joint loads may be a result of increased knee flexion angles. Further these data suggest that the frontal plane knee joint moment is not a valid surrogate measure for knee...

  11. Model reduction using the Vorobyev moment problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strakoš, Zdeněk

    2009-07-01

    Given a nonsingular complex matrix and complex vectors v and w of length N, one may wish to estimate the quadratic form w * A - 1 v, where w * denotes the conjugate transpose of w. This problem appears in many applications, and Gene Golub was the key figure in its investigations for decades. He focused mainly on the case A Hermitian positive definite (HPD) and emphasized the relationship of the algebraically formulated problems with classical topics in analysis - moments, orthogonal polynomials and quadrature. The essence of his view can be found in his contribution Matrix Computations and the Theory of Moments, given at the International Congress of Mathematicians in Zürich in 1994. As in many other areas, Gene Golub has inspired a long list of coauthors for work on the problem, and our contribution can also be seen as a consequence of his lasting inspiration. In this paper we will consider a general mathematical concept of matching moments model reduction, which as well as its use in many other applications, is the basis for the development of various approaches for estimation of the quadratic form above. The idea of model reduction via matching moments is well known and widely used in approximation of dynamical systems, but it goes back to Stieltjes, with some preceding work done by Chebyshev and Heine. The algebraic moment matching problem can for A HPD be formulated as a variant of the Stieltjes moment problem, and can be solved using Gauss-Christoffel quadrature. Using the operator moment problem suggested by Vorobyev, we will generalize model reduction based on matching moments to the non-Hermitian case in a straightforward way. Unlike in the model reduction literature, the presented proofs follow directly from the construction of the Vorobyev moment problem.

  12. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    studies that illustrate the practical use of CPN modelling and validation for design, specification, simulation, verification and implementation in various application domains. Their presentation primarily aims at readers interested in the practical use of CPN. Thus all concepts and constructs are first......Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism...... and the immense number of possible execution sequences. In this textbook, Jensen and Kristensen introduce the constructs of the CPN modelling language and present the related analysis methods in detail. They also provide a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN by showcasing selected industrial case...

  13. Moment of inertia in elliptical quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Llorenç; Puente, Antonio; Lipparini, Enrico

    The moment of inertia of deformed quantum dots and its experimental relevance in relation to the dot spectroscopic features is theoretically investigated. A strong link to the low-energy orbital current mode that manifests in the magnetic dipole (M1) spectrum is stressed. The moment of inertia is obtained by solving the cranked Kohn-Sham equations within the local-spin-density approximation and the results discussed in comparison with the predictions of an analytical non-interacting model. The results as a function of deformation and size indicate that the existence of spin transitions in the dot ground state has an important effect on the moment of inertia.

  14. A cohomological framework for homotopy moment maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frégier, Yaël; Laurent-Gengoux, Camille; Zambon, Marco

    2015-11-01

    Given a Lie group acting on a manifold M preserving a closed n + 1-form ω, the notion of homotopy moment map for this action was introduced in Fregier (0000), in terms of L∞-algebra morphisms. In this note we describe homotopy moment maps as coboundaries of a certain complex. This description simplifies greatly computations, and we use it to study various properties of homotopy moment maps: their relation to equivariant cohomology, their obstruction theory, how they induce new ones on mapping spaces, and their equivalences. The results we obtain extend some of the results of Fregier (0000).

  15. Moment analysis of hadronic vacuum polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafael, Eduardo de

    2014-09-07

    I suggest a new approach to the determination of the hadronic vacuum polarization (HVP) contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon a{sub μ}{sup HVP} in lattice QCD. It is based on properties of the Mellin transform of the hadronic spectral function and their relation to the HVP self-energy in the Euclidean. I show how a{sub μ}{sup HVP} is very well approximated by a few moments associated to this Mellin transform and how these moments can be evaluated in lattice QCD, providing thus a series of tests when compared with the corresponding determinations using experimental data.

  16. Binomial moment equations for stochastic reaction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzel, Baruch; Biham, Ofer

    2011-04-15

    A highly efficient formulation of moment equations for stochastic reaction networks is introduced. It is based on a set of binomial moments that capture the combinatorics of the reaction processes. The resulting set of equations can be easily truncated to include moments up to any desired order. The number of equations is dramatically reduced compared to the master equation. This formulation enables the simulation of complex reaction networks, involving a large number of reactive species much beyond the feasibility limit of any existing method. It provides an equation-based paradigm to the analysis of stochastic networks, complementing the commonly used Monte Carlo simulations.

  17. Moment analysis of hadronic vacuum polarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de Rafael

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available I suggest a new approach to the determination of the hadronic vacuum polarization (HVP contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon aμHVP in lattice QCD. It is based on properties of the Mellin transform of the hadronic spectral function and their relation to the HVP self-energy in the Euclidean. I show how aμHVP is very well approximated by a few moments associated to this Mellin transform and how these moments can be evaluated in lattice QCD, providing thus a series of tests when compared with the corresponding determinations using experimental data.

  18. Leg general muscle moment and power patterns in able-bodied subjects during recumbent cycle ergometry with ankle immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szecsi, J; Straube, A; Fornusek, C

    2014-11-01

    Rehabilitation of persons with pareses commonly uses recumbent pedalling and a rigid pedal boot that fixes the ankle joint from moving. This study was performed to provide general muscle moments (GMM) and joint power data from able-bodied subjects performing recumbent cycling at two workloads. Twenty-six able-bodied subjects pedalled a stationary recumbent tricycle at 60 rpm during passive cycling and at two workloads (low 15 W and high 40 W per leg) while leg kinematics and pedal forces were recorded. GMM and power were calculated using inverse dynamic equations. During the high workload, the hip and knee muscles produced extensor/flexor moments throughout the extensions/flexions phases of the joints. For low workload, a prolonged (crank angle 0-258°) hip extension moment and a shortened range (350-150°) of knee extension moment were observed compared to the corresponding extension phases of each joint. The knee and hip joints generated approximately equal power. At the high workload the hip and knee extensors generated increased power in the propulsion phase. For the first time, this study provides GMM and power patterns for able-bodied subjects performing recumbent cycling with an immobilized ankle. The patterns showed greater similarities to upright cycling with a free ankle, than previously supposed. Copyright © 2014 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhanced moments in bcc Co{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x} on MgO(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snow, R.J.; Bhatkar, H. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59715 (United States); N' Diaye, A.T.; Arenholz, E. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley Nat. Labs, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Idzerda, Y.U., E-mail: Idzerda@montana.edu [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59715 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    A 40% enhancement of the Co magnetic moment has been found for thin films of bcc Co{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x} grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a 2 nm bcc Fe buffer layer on MgO(001). Although the bcc phase cannot be stabilized in the bulk, we confirm that it is stable as an epitaxial film in the composition range x=0–0.7. Using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism, we show that the Co moment is a maximum of 2.38 μ{sub B} at x=0.24, while the net Mn moment remains roughly constant until x=0.24, then drops steadily. Mn is found to align parallel with Co for all ferromagnetic concentrations, up to x=0.7, where the total moment of the film abruptly collapses to zero, most likely due to the onset of the observed structural instability. - Highlights: • Stabilization of bcc Co{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x} films in the composition range of x=0 to 0.7. • Enhancement of Co moment by 40% from pure bcc Co. • Parallel alignment of Mn moment and Co moment. • Measured the elemental moment of Co and Mn as a function of composition.

  20. Earth's magnetic moment during geomagnetic reversals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokoloff, D. D.

    2017-11-01

    The behavior of the dipole magnetic moment of the geomagnetic field during the reversals is considered. By analogy with the reversals of the magnetic field of the Sun, the scenario is suggested in which during the reversal the mean dipole moment becomes zero, whereas the instantaneous value of the dipole magnetic moment remains nonzero and the corresponding vector rotates from the vicinity of one geographical pole to the other. A thorough discussion concerning the definition of the mean magnetic moment, which is used in this concept, is presented. Since the behavior of the geomagnetic field during the reversal is far from stationary, the ensemble average instead of the time average has to be considered.

  1. Nonredundant Single-Gimbaled Control Moment Gyroscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    p. 79. [3] Kennel , H. F., “Steering Law for Parallel Mounted Double-Gimbaled Control Moment Gyros,” NASATM-X-64930, 1975, p. 34. [4] Colburn, B. K...NASATM-X-64926, 1975. [6] Kennel , H. F., “Steering Law for Parallel Mounted Double-Gimbaled Control Moment Gyros,” NASATM-X-82390, 1981, p. 22. Fig. 16

  2. Variational approach to the moment of inertia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stringari, S.; Lipparini, E.

    1980-08-01

    We derive an approximate expression for the moment of inertia theta in the framework of the cranked Hartree-Fock theory. Our method allows for a detailed study of the role of spin-orbit and two-body nuclear potentials. In particular it is shown that in /sup 20/Ne the two-body interaction lowers by 30% the rigid value of theta. The irrotational and rigid values for the moment of inertia are obtained as special cases of the present approach.

  3. Maximum Entropy Moment Systems and Galilean Invariance

    OpenAIRE

    Junk, Michael; Unterreiter, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the maximum entropy moment closure in gas dynamics. We show that the usual choice of polynomial weight functions may lead to hyperbolic systems with an unpleasant state space: equilibrium states are boundary points with possibly singular fluxes. In order to avoid singularities, the necessary arises to find weight functions which growing sub-quadratically at infinity. Unfortunately, this requirement leads to a conflict with Galilean invariance of the moment syst...

  4. Link between chips and cutting moments evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Cahuc, Olivier; Gérard, Alain; 10.4028/WWW.scientific.net/AMR.423.89

    2012-01-01

    The better understanding of the material cutting process has been shown with the benefit of the forces and moments measurement since some years ago. In paper, simultaneous six mechanical components and chip orientation measurements were realized during turning tests. During these tests, the influence of the depth of cut or feed rate has been observed and a link between the chip orientation and the moment vector orientation or the central axis characteristics has been shown.

  5. Joint purpose?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    2013-01-01

    of anti-discrimination in Europe today? And what empirical evidence may be found for such a joint approach? The paper discusses how the contemporary EU context differs from the American context which prompted Crenshaw to raise the point about intersectionality, and it analyses documents and interviews...

  6. Linear Logic on Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn

    This article shows how individual Petri nets form models of Girard's intuitionistic linear logic. It explores questions of expressiveness and completeness of linear logic with respect to this interpretation. An aim is to use Petri nets to give an understanding of linear logic and give some apprai...

  7. Reference Guide Microsoft.NET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee M van der; Verspaij GJ; Rosbergen S; IMP; NMD

    2003-01-01

    Developers, administrators and managers can get more understanding of the .NET technology with this report. They can also make better choices how to use this technology. The report describes the results and conclusions of a study of the usability for the RIVM of this new generation .NET development

  8. Net neutrality and audiovisual services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.; Nikoltchev, S.

    2011-01-01

    Net neutrality is high on the European agenda. New regulations for the communication sector provide a legal framework for net neutrality and need to be implemented on both a European and a national level. The key element is not just about blocking or slowing down traffic across communication

  9. A Great Moment for Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    illustrates how the appearance of a stellar image at the focal plane is fully controllable. Fast and thorough optical adjustment ensures the best possible optical quality at all times . 9. Image Quality of the VLT This diagram demonstrates that First Light specifications have been fully met and, more impressively, that the actual VLT performance is sometimes already within the more stringent specifications that were expected to be fulfilled only three years from now. The final steps before "First Light" The final, critical testing phase commenced with the installation of the 8.2-m primary (at that time still uncoated) Zerodur mirror and 1.1-m secondary Beryllium mirror during the second half of April. The optics were then gradually brought into position during carefully planned, successive adjustments. Due to the full integration of an advanced, active control system into the VLT concept, this delicate process went amazingly fast, especially when compared to other ground-based telescopes. It included a number of short test exposures in early May, first with the Guide Camera that is used to steer the telescope. Later, some exposures were made with the Test Camera mounted just below the main mirror at the Cassegrain Focus, in a central space inside the mirror cell. It will continue to be used during the upcoming Commissioning Phase, until the first major instruments (FORS and ISAAC) are attached to the UT1, later in 1998. The 8.2-m mirror was successfully aluminized at the Paranal Mirror Coating facility on May 20 and was reattached to the telescope tube the day thereafter, cf. ESO PR Photos 13a-e/98 and ESO PR Photos 14a-i/98. Further test exposures were then made to check the proper functioning of the telescope mechanics, optics and electronics. This has lead up to the moment of First Light , i.e. the time when the telescope is considered able to produce the first, astronomically useful images. Despite an intervening spell of bad atmospheric conditions, this important event

  10. A Small Universal Petri Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A. Zaitsev

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A universal deterministic inhibitor Petri net with 14 places, 29 transitions and 138 arcs was constructed via simulation of Neary and Woods' weakly universal Turing machine with 2 states and 4 symbols; the total time complexity is exponential in the running time of their weak machine. To simulate the blank words of the weakly universal Turing machine, a couple of dedicated transitions insert their codes when reaching edges of the working zone. To complete a chain of a given Petri net encoding to be executed by the universal Petri net, a translation of a bi-tag system into a Turing machine was constructed. The constructed Petri net is universal in the standard sense; a weaker form of universality for Petri nets was not introduced in this work.

  11. Joint Hypermobility: What Causes Loose Joints?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... result in a higher incidence of dislocations and sprains. Your doctor might suggest physical therapy to help strengthen the muscles surrounding these joints. See your doctor if your loose joints also cause you pain. Rarely, joint hypermobility is a sign ...

  12. Changes in lower extremity peak angles, moments and muscle activations during stair climbing at different speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jacqueline; Freisinger, Greg; Pan, Xueliang; Siston, Robert; Schmitt, Laura; Chaudhari, Ajit

    2015-12-01

    Stair climbing is a common daily activity, yet there is no basic knowledge on how lower extremity joint angles, moments or muscle activations are affected by stair climbing speed. This information will determine whether speed matching is necessary for stair climbing studies. Moreover, changes in lower extremity biomechanics during stair climbing at different speeds will aid in the clinical interpretation of a patient's maximal stair climbing speed. Thirty healthy participants provided consent. Kinematics, kinetics, and muscle activations were collected on a three step staircase. Subjects climbed the staircase at normal, slow and fast self-selected speeds. Linear mixed models for repeated measures were used to study the associations between speed and the lower extremity peak joint angles and moments, and muscle activations. The peak hip flexion and extension moments increased with increasing speed, while peak knee flexion moment did not vary consistently with speed. The peak muscle activations varied consistently with respect to the sagittal plane kinetics. These results suggest that in healthy subjects, the hip is the greatest contributor when modulating stair climbing speed, while additional knee contributions do not appear necessary to increase speed. Further stair studies should consider speed matching in order to accurately assess biomechanical differences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bayesian inference and interpretation of centroid moment tensors of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake sequence, Kyushu, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallo, Miroslav; Asano, Kimiyuki; Gallovič, František

    2017-09-01

    On April 16, 2016, Kumamoto prefecture in Kyushu region, Japan, was devastated by a shallow M JMA7.3 earthquake. The series of foreshocks started by M JMA6.5 foreshock 28 h before the mainshock. They have originated in Hinagu fault zone intersecting the mainshock Futagawa fault zone; hence, the tectonic background for this earthquake sequence is rather complex. Here we infer centroid moment tensors (CMTs) for 11 events with M JMA between 4.8 and 6.5, using strong motion records of the K-NET, KiK-net and F-net networks. We use upgraded Bayesian full-waveform inversion code ISOLA-ObsPy, which takes into account uncertainty of the velocity model. Such an approach allows us to reliably assess uncertainty of the CMT parameters including the centroid position. The solutions show significant systematic spatial and temporal variations throughout the sequence. Foreshocks are right-lateral steeply dipping strike-slip events connected to the NE-SW shear zone. Those located close to the intersection of the Hinagu and Futagawa fault zones are dipping slightly to ESE, while those in the southern area are dipping to WNW. Contrarily, aftershocks are mostly normal dip-slip events, being related to the N-S extensional tectonic regime. Most of the deviatoric moment tensors contain only minor CLVD component, which can be attributed to the velocity model uncertainty. Nevertheless, two of the CMTs involve a significant CLVD component, which may reflect complex rupture process. Decomposition of those moment tensors into two pure shear moment tensors suggests combined right-lateral strike-slip and normal dip-slip mechanisms, consistent with the tectonic settings of the intersection of the Hinagu and Futagawa fault zones.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  14. Measurement of magnetic moment via optical transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidsieck, Alexandra; Schmid, Daniel; Gleich, Bernhard

    2016-03-01

    The magnetic moment of nanoparticles is an important property for drug targeting and related applications as well as for the simulation thereof. However, the measurement of the magnetic moment of nanoparticles, nanoparticle-virus-complexes or microspheres in solution can be difficult and often yields unsatisfying or incomparable results. To measure the magnetic moment, we designed a custom measurement device including a magnetic set-up to observe nanoparticles indirectly via light transmission in solution. We present a simple, cheap device of manageable size, which can be used in any laboratory as well as a novel evaluation method to determine the magnetic moment of nanoparticles via the change of the optical density of the particle suspension in a well-defined magnetic gradient field. In contrast to many of the established measurement methods, we are able to observe and measure the nanoparticle complexes in their natural state in the respective medium. The nanoparticles move along the magnetic gradient and thereby away from the observation point. Due to this movement, the optical density of the fluid decreases and the transmission increases over time at the measurement location. By comparing the measurement with parametric simulations, we can deduce the magnetic moment from the observed behavior.

  15. Electric multipole moments, topological multipole moment pumping, and chiral hinge states in crystalline insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benalcazar, Wladimir A.; Bernevig, B. Andrei; Hughes, Taylor L.

    2017-12-01

    We extend the theory of dipole moments in crystalline insulators to higher multipole moments. As first formulated in Benalcazar et al. [Science 357, 61 (2017), 10.1126/science.aah6442], we show that bulk quadrupole and octupole moments can be realized in crystalline insulators. In this paper, we expand in great detail the theory presented previously [Benalcazar et al., Science 357, 61 (2017), 10.1126/science.aah6442] and extend it to cover associated topological pumping phenomena, and a class of three-dimensional (3D) insulator with chiral hinge states. We start by deriving the boundary properties of continuous classical dielectrics hosting only bulk dipole, quadrupole, or octupole moments. In quantum mechanical crystalline insulators, these higher multipole bulk moments manifest themselves by the presence of boundary-localized moments of lower dimension, in exact correspondence with the electromagnetic theory of classical continuous dielectrics. In the presence of certain symmetries, these moments are quantized, and their boundary signatures are fractionalized. These multipole moments then correspond to new symmetry-protected topological phases. The topological structure of these phases is described by "nested" Wilson loops, which we define. These Wilson loops reflect the bulk-boundary correspondence in a way that makes evident a hierarchical classification of the multipole moments. Just as a varying dipole generates charge pumping, a varying quadrupole generates dipole pumping, and a varying octupole generates quadrupole pumping. For nontrivial adiabatic cycles, the transport of these moments is quantized. An analysis of these interconnected phenomena leads to the conclusion that a new kind of Chern-type insulator exists, which has chiral, hinge-localized modes in 3D. We provide the minimal models for the quantized multipole moments, the nontrivial pumping processes, and the hinge Chern insulator, and describe the topological invariants that protect them.

  16. Dependence of human maximum jump height on moment arms of the bi-articular m. gastrocnemius; a simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, Maarten F.; van Zandwijk, Jan Peter

    1994-01-01

    In this study the dependence of maximum jump height on moment arms of m. gastrocnemius at the knee and ankle joint was investigated, using a forward dynamic simulation model of the human musculoskeletal system. Input of the model was the stimulation of six muscles of the lower extremity as a

  17. High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    High-level Petri nets are now widely used in both theoretical analysis and practical modelling of concurrent systems. The main reason for the success of this class of net models is that they make it possible to obtain much more succinct and manageable descriptions than can be obtained by means...... of low-level Petri nets - while, on the other hand, they still offer a wide range of analysis methods and tools. The step from low-level nets to high-level nets can be compared to the step from assembly languages to modern programming languages with an elaborated type concept. In low-level nets...... there is only one kind of token and this means that the state of a place is described by an integer (and in many cases even by a boolean). In high-level nets each token can carry a complex information/data - which, e.g., may describe the entire state of a process or a data base. Today most practical...

  18. Pengenalan Pose Tangan Menggunakan HuMoment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Budhi Utami

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Computer vision yang didasarkan pada pengenalan bentuk memiliki banyak potensi dalam interaksi manusia dan komputer. Pose tangan dapat dijadikan simbol interaksi manusia dengan komputer seperti halnya pada penggunaan berbagai pose tangan pada bahasa isyarat. Berbagai pose tangan dapat digunakan untuk menggantikan fungsi mouse, untuk mengendalikan robot, dan sebagainya. Penelitian ini difokuskan pada pembangunan sistem pengenalan pose tangan menggunakan HuMoment. Proses pengenalan pose tangan dimulai dengan melakukan segmentasi citra masukan untuk menghasilkan citra ROI (Region of Interest yaitu area telapak tangan. Selanjutnya dilakukan proses deteksi tepi. Kemudian dilakukan ekstraksi nilai HuMoment. Nilai HuMoment dikuantisasikan ke dalam bukukode yang dihasilkan dari proses pelatihan menggunakan K-Means. Proses kuantisasi dilakukan dengan menghitung nilai Euclidean Distance terkecil antara nilai HuMomment citra masukan dan bukukode. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, nilai akurasi sistem dalam mengenali pose tangan adalah 88.57%.

  19. The anomalous magnetic moment of the muon

    CERN Document Server

    Jegerlehner, Friedrich

    2017-01-01

    This research monograph covers extensively the theory of the muon anomalous magnetic moment and provides estimates of the theoretical uncertainties. The muon anomalous magnetic moment is one of the most precisely measured quantities in elementary particle physics and provides one of the most stringent tests of relativistic quantum field theory as a fundamental theoretical framework. It allows for an extremely precise check of the standard model of elementary particles and of its limitations. This book reviews the present state of knowledge of the anomalous magnetic moment a=(g-2)/2 of the muon. Recent experiments at the Brookhaven National Laboratory now reach the unbelievable precision of 0.5 parts per million, improving the accuracy of previous g-2 experiments at CERN by a factor of 14. In addition, quantum electrodynamics and electroweak and hadronic effects are reviewed. Since non-perturbative hadronic effects play a key role for the precision test, their evaluation is described in detail. Perspectives fo...

  20. A corrector for spacecraft calculated electron moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Geach

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available We present the application of a numerical method to correct electron moments calculated on-board spacecraft from the effects of potential broadening and energy range truncation. Assuming a shape for the natural distribution of the ambient plasma and employing the scalar approximation, the on-board moments can be represented as non-linear integral functions of the underlying distribution. We have implemented an algorithm which inverts this system successfully over a wide range of parameters for an assumed underlying drifting Maxwellian distribution. The outputs of the solver are the corrected electron plasma temperature Te, density Ne and velocity vector Ve. We also make an estimation of the temperature anisotropy A of the distribution. We present corrected moment data from Cluster's PEACE experiment for a range of plasma environments and make comparisons with electron and ion data from other Cluster instruments, as well as the equivalent ground-based calculations using full 3-D distribution PEACE telemetry.

  1. Magnetic Moment Distribution in Layered Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, D. M. C.; Zhang, X.-G.; Wang, Y.; Shelton, W. A.; Butler, W. H.; Stocks, G. M.; MacLaren, J. M.

    1996-03-01

    Thin layers of magnetic material surrounded by non-magnetic layers display a reduced moment per atom relative to the bulk magnetic material. Plots of sturation magnetization versus magnetic layer thickness can be explained in terms of magnetically dead layers at interfaces. First principles calculations indicate a more complex distribution of magnetic moments. Moment distributions calculated in the local density approximation restricted to colinear spins and with unrestricted spin orientations will be presented for Cu/Ni/Cu, Cu/permalloy/Cu, and Mo/Ni/Mo structures. Work supported by Division of Materials Science, the Mathematical Information and Computational Science Division of the Office of Computational Technology Research, and by the Assistant Secretary of Defence Programs, Technology Management Group, Technology Transfer Initiative, US DOE under subcontract DEAC05-84OR21400 with Martin-Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.

  2. Spin and orbital moments in actinide compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, B.; Wulff, M.; Lander, G.H.

    1991-01-01

    The extended spatial distribution of both the transition-metal 3d electrons and the actinide 5f electrons results in a strong interaction between these electron states when the relevant elements are alloyed. A particular interesting feature of this hybridization, which is predicted by single-electron...... band-structure calculations, is that the orbital moments of the actinide 5f electrons are considerably reduced from the values anticipated by a simple application of Hund's rules. To test these ideas, and thus to obtain a measure of the hybridization, we have performed a series of neutron scattering...... experiments designed to determine the magnetic moments at the actinide and transition-metal sublattice sites in compounds such as UFe2, NpCo2, and PuFe2 and to separate the spin and orbital components at the actinide sites. The results show, indeed, that the ratio of the orbital to spin moment is reduced...

  3. Electric dipole moments, cluster metallicity, and the magnetism of rare earth clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowlan, John

    One of the fundamental properties of bulk metals is the cancellation of electric fields. The free charges inside of a metal will move until they find an arrangement where the internal electric field is zero. This implies that the electric dipole moment of a metal particle should be exactly zero, because an electric dipole moment requires a net separation of charge and thus a nonzero internal electric field. This thesis is an experimental study to see if this property continues to hold for tiny subnanometer metal particles called clusters (2--200 atom, R beam electric deflection technique. We find that the observed dipole moments vary a great deal across the periodic table. Alkali metals have zero dipole moments, while transition metals and lanthanides all have dipole moments which are highly size dependent. In most cases, the measured dipole moments are independent of temperature (T = 20--50 K), and when there is a strong temperature dependence this suggests that there is a new state of matter present. Our interpretation of these results are that those clusters which have a nonzero dipole moment are non-metallic, in the sense that their electrons must be localized and prevented from moving to screen the internal field associated with a permanent dipole moment. This interpretation gives insight to several related phenomena and applications. We briefly discuss an example cluster system RhN where the measured electric dipole moments appear to be correlated with a the N2O reactivity. Finally, we discuss a series of magnetic deflection experiments on lanthanide clusters (Pr, Ho, Tb, and Tm). The magnetic response of these clusters is very complex and highly sensitive to size and temperature. We find that PrN (which is non-magnetic in the bulk) becomes magnetic in clusters and Tm N clusters have magnetic moments lower than the atomic value as well as the bulk saturation value implying that the magnetic order in the cluster involves non-collinear or antiferromagnetic

  4. Magnetic moment nonconservation in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalena, S; Greco, A; Rappazzo, A F; Mace, R L; Matthaeus, W H

    2012-07-01

    The fundamental assumptions of the adiabatic theory do not apply in the presence of sharp field gradients or in the presence of well-developed magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. For this reason, in such conditions the magnetic moment μ is no longer expected to be constant. This can influence particle acceleration and have considerable implications in many astrophysical problems. Starting with the resonant interaction between ions and a single parallel propagating electromagnetic wave, we derive expressions for the magnetic moment trapping width Δμ (defined as the half peak-to-peak difference in the particle magnetic moments) and the bounce frequency ω(b). We perform test-particle simulations to investigate magnetic moment behavior when resonance overlapping occurs and during the interaction of a ring-beam particle distribution with a broadband slab spectrum. We find that the changes of magnetic moment and changes of pitch angle are related when the level of magnetic fluctuations is low, δB/B(0) = (10(-3),10(-2)), where B(0) is the constant and uniform background magnetic field. Stochasticity arises for intermediate fluctuation values and its effect on pitch angle is the isotropization of the distribution function f(α). This is a transient regime during which magnetic moment distribution f(μ) exhibits a characteristic one-sided long tail and starts to be influenced by the onset of spatial parallel diffusion, i.e., the variance grows linearly in time as in normal diffusion. With strong fluctuations f(α) becomes completely isotropic, spatial diffusion sets in, and the f(μ) behavior is closely related to the sampling of the varying magnetic field associated with that spatial diffusion.

  5. Pro asynchronous programming with .NET

    CERN Document Server

    Blewett, Richard; Ltd, Rock Solid Knowledge

    2014-01-01

    Pro Asynchronous Programming with .NET teaches the essential skill of asynchronous programming in .NET. It answers critical questions in .NET application development, such as: how do I keep my program responding at all times to keep my users happy how do I make the most of the available hardware how can I improve performanceIn the modern world, users expect more and more from their applications and devices, and multi-core hardware has the potential to provide it. But it takes carefully crafted code to turn that potential into responsive, scalable applications.With Pro Asynchronous Programming

  6. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André

    2017-08-01

    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  7. Influence of joint models on lower-limb musculo-tendon forces and threedimensional joint reaction forces during gait

    OpenAIRE

    Dumas, Raphaël; Moissenet, Florent; GASPARUTTO, Xavier; Cheze, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Several three-dimensional (3D) lower-limb musculo-skeletal models have been developed for gait analysis and different hip, knee and ankle joint models have been considered in the literature. Conversely to the influence of the musculotendon geometry, the influence of the joint models - i.e. number of degrees of freedom and passive joint moments - on the estimated musculo-tendon forces and 3D joint reaction forces has not been extensively examined. In this paper musculo-tendon forces and 3D joi...

  8. Multipeakons and the Classical Moment Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Beals, R; Szmigielski, J; Beals, Richard

    1999-01-01

    Classical results of Stieltjes are used to obtain explicit formulas for the peakon-antipeakon solutions of the Camassa-Holm equation. The closed form solution is expressed in terms of the orthogonal polynomials of the related classical moment problem. It is shown that collisions occur only in peakon-antipeakon pairs, and the details of the collisions are analyzed using results {}from the moment problem. A sharp result on the steepening of the slope at the time of collision is given. Asymptotic formulas are given, and the scattering shifts are calculated explicitly

  9. Moment distributions of phase-type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2012-01-01

    of the age an residual life-time, is also phase-type distributed. Moreover, we give some explicit representations. The spread is known to have a first order moment distribution. If X is a positive random variable and ?i is its i'th moment, then the function fi(x) = xif(x)/?i is a density function......-normal, Pareto and gamma distributions. We provide explicit representations for both the matrix-exponential class and for the phase-type distributions, where the latter class may also use the former representations, but for various reasons it is desirable to establish a phase-type representation when dealing...

  10. Duality violations in τ hadronic spectral moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boito, D. R.; Catà, O.; Golterman, M.; Jamin, M.; Maltman, K.; Osborne, J.; Peris, S.

    2011-09-01

    Evidence is presented for the necessity of including duality violations in a consistent description of spectral function moments employed in the precision determination of α from τ decay. A physically motivated ansatz for duality violations in the spectral functions enables us to perform fits to spectral moments employing both pinched and unpinched weights. We describe our analysis strategy and provide some preliminary findings. Final numerical results await completion of an ongoing re-determination of the ALEPH covariance matrices incorpo-rating correlations due to the unfolding procedure which are absent from the currently posted versions. To what extent this issue affects existing analyses and our own work will require further study.

  11. Petri Net Tool Overview 1986

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Feldbrugge, Frits

    1987-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the characteristics of all currently available net based tools. It is a compilation of information provided by tool authors or contact persons. A concise one page overview is provided as well....

  12. Understanding Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salom, Jaume; Widén, Joakim; Candanedo, José

    2011-01-01

    Although several alternative definitions exist, a Net-Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) can be succinctly described as a grid-connected building that generates as much energy as it uses over a year. The “net-zero” balance is attained by applying energy conservation and efficiency measures...... and by incorporating renewable energy systems. While based on annual balances, a complete description of a Net ZEB requires examining the system at smaller time-scales. This assessment should address: (a) the relationship between power generation and building loads and (b) the resulting interaction with the power grid....... This paper presents and categorizes quantitative indicators suitable to describe both aspects of the building’s performance. These indicators, named LMGI - Load Matching and Grid Interaction indicators, are easily quantifiable and could complement the output variables of existing building simulation tools...

  13. PolicyNet Publication System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The PolicyNet Publication System project will merge the Oracle-based Policy Repository (POMS) and the SQL-Server CAMP system (MSOM) into a new system with an Oracle...

  14. KM3NeT

    CERN Multimedia

    KM3NeT is a large scale next-generation neutrino telescope located in the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea, optimized for the discovery of galactic neutrino sources emitting in the TeV energy region.

  15. Net Neutrality: Background and Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilroy, Angele A

    2006-01-01

    .... The move to place restrictions on the owners of the networks that compose and provide access to the Internet, to ensure equal access and nondiscriminatory treatment, is referred to as "net neutrality...

  16. Multidistortion-invariant image recognition with radial harmonic Fourier moments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Haiping; Ping, Ziliang; Bo, Wurigen; Wu, Wenkai; Sheng, Yunlong

    2003-04-01

    We propose radial harmonic Fourier moments, which are shifting, scaling, rotation, and intensity invariant. Compared with Chebyshev-Fourier moments, the new moments have superior performance near the origin and better ability to describe small images in terms of image-reconstruction errors and noise sensitivity. A multidistortion-invariant pattern-recognition experiment was performed with radial harmonic Fourier moments.

  17. Petri Nets in Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A process language for security protocols is presented together with a semantics in terms of sets of events. The denotation of process is a set of events, and as each event specifies a set of pre and postconditions, this denotation can be viewed as a Petri net. By means of an example we illustrate...... how the Petri-net semantics can be used to prove security properties....

  18. The Economics of Net Neutrality

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, Robert W.; Wallsten, Scott

    2006-01-01

    This essay examines the economics of "net neutrality" and broadband Internet access. We argue that mandating net neutrality would be likely to reduce economic welfare. Instead, the government should focus on creating competition in the broadband market by liberalizing more spectrum and reducing entry barriers created by certain local regulations. In cases where a broadband provider can exercise market power the government should use its antitrust enforcement authority to police anticompetitiv...

  19. Is coordination of two-joint leg muscles during load lifting consistent with the strategy of minimum fatigue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prilutsky, B I; Isaka, T; Albrecht, A M; Gregor, R J

    1998-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if strong correlations reported for a back lift task between activity (EMG) of two-joint rectus femoris (RF), hamstrings (HA), and gastrocnemius (GA) and the difference in the joint moments could be predicted by minimizing an objective function of minimum fatigue. Four subjects lifted barbell weights (9 and 18 kg) using a back lift technique at three speeds normal, slow, and fast. Recorded ground reaction forces and coordinates of the leg joints were used to calculate the resultant joint moments. Surface EMG of five muscles crossing the knee joint were also recorded. Forces of nine muscles were calculated using static optimization and a minimum fatigue criterion. Relationships (i) (RF EMG-HA EMG) vs (knee moment hip moment) and (ii) GA EMG vs. (ankle moment knee moment) were closely related (coefficients of determination were typically 0.9 and higher). Qualitatively similar relationships were predicted by minimizing fatigue. Gastrocnemius and hamstrings had the agonistic action at both joints they cross during load lifting, and their activation and predicted forces increased with increasing flexion knee moments and extension ankle and hip moments. The rectus femoris typically had the antagonistic action at the knee and hip, and its activation and predicted force were low. Patterns of predicted muscle forces were qualitatively similar to the corresponding EMG envelopes (except in phases of low joint moments where accuracy of determining joint moments was presumably poor). It was suggested that muscle coordination in load lifting is consistent with the strategy of minimum muscle fatigue.

  20. Shoulder joint kinetics during the push phase of wheelchair propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulig, K; Rao, S S; Mulroy, S J; Newsam, C J; Gronley, J K; Bontrager, E L; Perry, J

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to quantify the forces and moments at the shoulder joint during free, level wheelchair propulsion and to document changes imposed by increased speed, inclined terrain, and 15 minutes of continuous propulsion. Data were collected using a six-camera VICON motion analysis system, a strain gauge instrumented wheel, and a wheelchair ergometer. Seventeen men with low level paraplegia participated in this study. Shoulder joint forces and moments were calculated using a three-dimensional model applying the inverse dynamics approach. During free propulsion, peak shoulder joint forces were in the posterior (46 N) and superior directions (14 N), producing a peak resultant force of 51 N at an angle of 185 degrees (180 degrees = posterior). Peak shoulder joint moments were greatest in extension (14 Newton-meters [Nm]), followed by abduction (10 Nm), and internal rotation (6 Nm). With fast and inclined propulsion, peak vertical force increased by greater than 360%, and the increase in posterior force and shoulder moments ranged from 107% to 167%. At the end of 15 minutes of continuous free propulsion, there were no significant changes compared with short duration free propulsion. The increased joint loads documented during fast and inclined propulsion could lead to compression of subacromial structures against the overlying acromion.

  1. Moments, Mixed Methods, and Paradigm Dialogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzin, Norman K.

    2010-01-01

    I reread the 50-year-old history of the qualitative inquiry that calls for triangulation and mixed methods. I briefly visit the disputes within the mixed methods community asking how did we get to where we are today, the period of mixed-multiple-methods advocacy, and Teddlie and Tashakkori's third methodological moment. (Contains 10 notes.)

  2. Using Aha! Moments to Understand Leadership Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lori L.; Lewis, Lauren J.

    2012-01-01

    As Huber (2002) noted, striving to understand how leadership is taught and learned is both a challenge and an opportunity facing leadership educators. This article describes the "Leadership Aha! Moment" assignment used in a leadership theory course to help students recognize the intersection of leadership theories and their daily lives while…

  3. Anomalous magnetic moment and Compton wavelength

    OpenAIRE

    Heyrovska, Raji

    2004-01-01

    The relativistic and quantum theoretical explanations of the magnetic moment anomaly of the electron (or proton) show that it is a complicated function of the fine structure constant. In this work, a simple non-relativistic approach shows that the translational motion of the particle during its spin is responsible for the observed effects.

  4. The isotopic dipole moment of HDO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assafrao, Denise; Mohallem, Jose R [Laboratorio de Atomos e Moleculas Especiais, Departamento de Fisica, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, CP 702, 30123-970, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2007-03-14

    An adiabatic variational approximation is used to study the monodeuterated water molecule, HDO, accounting for the isotopic effect. The isotopic dipole moment, pointing from D to H, is then calculated for the first time, yielding (1.5 {+-} 0.1) x 10{sup -3} Debye, being helpful in the interpretation of experiments. (fast track communication)

  5. "To Value Every Child in the Moment"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This article takes as its starting point the assertion that the purpose of primary education is to value every child in the moment. The author examines one particular story by a six-year-old girl as an example of what this assertion implies, and of its significance for teaching and learning within the primary school.

  6. The Doubling Moment: Resurrecting Edgar Allan Poe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnick, J. Bradley; Mergil, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    This article expands upon Jeffrey Wilhelm's and Brian Edmiston's (1998) concept of a doubling of viewpoints by encouraging middle level students to use dramatization to take on multiple perspectives, to pose interpretive questions, and to enhance critical inquiry from inside and outside of texts. The doubling moment is both the activation of…

  7. Upper limb joint motion of two different user groups during manual wheelchair propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seonhong; Kim, Seunghyeon; Son, Jongsang; Lee, Jinbok; Kim, Youngho

    2013-02-01

    Manual wheelchair users have a high risk of injury to the upper extremities. Recent studies have focused on kinematic and kinetic analyses of manual wheelchair propulsion in order to understand the physical demands on wheelchair users. The purpose of this study was to investigate upper limb joint motion by using a motion capture system and a dynamometer with two different groups of wheelchair users propelling their wheelchairs at different speeds under different load conditions. The variations in the contact time, release time, and linear velocity of the experienced group were all larger than they were in the novice group. The propulsion angles of the experienced users were larger than those of the novices under all conditions. The variances in the propulsion force (both radial and tangential) of the experienced users were larger than those of the novices. The shoulder joint moment had the largest variance with the conditions, followed by the wrist joint moment and the elbow joint moment. The variance of the maximum shoulder joint moment was over four times the variance of the maximum wrist joint moment and eight times the maximum elbow joint moment. The maximum joint moments increased significantly as the speed and load increased in both groups. Quick and significant manipulation ability based on environmental changes is considered an important factor in efficient propulsion. This efficiency was confirmed from the propulsion power results. Sophisticated strategies for efficient manual wheelchair propulsion could be understood by observation of the physical responses of each upper limb joint to changes in load and speed. We expect that the findings of this study will be utilized for designing a rehabilitation program to reduce injuries.

  8. A comparison of the moment arms of pelvic limb muscles in horses bred for acceleration (Quarter Horse) and endurance (Arab).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, T C; Cruickshank, S E; McGowan, C M; Stubbs, N; Wilson, A M; Hodson-Tole, E; Payne, R C

    2010-07-01

    Selective breeding for performance has resulted in distinct breeds of horse, such as the Quarter Horse (bred for acceleration) and the Arab (bred for endurance). Rapid acceleration, seen during Quarter Horse racing, requires fast powerful muscular contraction and the generation of large joint torques, particularly by the hind limb muscles. This study compared hind limb moment arm lengths in the Quarter Horse and Arab. We hypothesized that Quarter Horse hind limb extensor muscles would have longer moment arms when compared to the Arab, conferring a greater potential for torque generation at the hip, stifle and tarsus during limb extension. Six Quarter Horse and six Arab hind limbs were dissected to determine muscle moment arm lengths for the following muscles: gluteus medius, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, vastus lateralis, gastrocnemius (medialis and lateralis) and tibialis cranialis. The moment arms of biceps femoris (acting at the hip) and gastrocnemius lateralis (acting at the stifle) were significantly longer in the Quarter Horse, although the length of the remaining muscle moment arms were similar in both breeds of horse. All the Quarter Horse muscles were capable of generating greater muscle moments owing to their greater physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) and therefore greater isometric force potential, which suggests that PCSA is a better determinant of muscle torque than moment arm length in these two breeds of horse. With the exception of gastrocnemius and tibialis cranialis, the observed muscle fascicle length to moment arm ratio (MFL : MA ratio) was greater for the Arab horse muscles. It appears that the Arab muscles have the potential to operate at slower velocities of contraction and hence generate greater force outputs when compared to the Quarter Horse muscles working over a similar range of joint motion; this would indicate that Arab hind limb muscles are optimized to function at maximum economy rather than maximum power output.

  9. 26 CFR 1.904(f)-3 - Allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation of net operating losses and net....904(f)-3 Allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses. For rules relating to the allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses, see § 1.904(g)-3T. ...

  10. 29 CFR 4204.13 - Net income and net tangible assets tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Net income and net tangible assets tests. 4204.13 Section....13 Net income and net tangible assets tests. (a) General. The criteria under this section are that either— (1) Net income test. The purchaser's average net income after taxes for its three most recent...

  11. Joint mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Deborah Gross; Walker, J Randy; Levine, David

    2005-11-01

    Therapeutic touch has been used in human beings to soothe aches and pains. Most dogs also seem to enjoy being touched. Manual therapy techniques are skilled hand movements intended to improve tissue extensibility; increase range of motion; induce relaxation; mobilize or manipulate soft tissue and joints; modulate pain; and reduce soft tissue swelling, inflammation, or restriction. The intent of this article is to provide an overview of the principles of manual therapy, followed by selected treatment techniques for the hip, stifle, elbow, shoulder, carpus.and thoracic and lumbar spine. The techniques of G.D. Maitland, an Australian physical therapist who developed a clinically based approach in the 1960s and 1970s, are emphasized.

  12. Reliability of Tubular Joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper the preliminary results obtained by tests on tubular joints are presented. The joints are T-joints and the loading is static. It is the intention in continuation of these tests to perform tests on other types of joints (e.g. Y-joints) and also with dynamic loading. The purpose of th...

  13. The effects of orientation of lumbar facet joints on the facet joint contact forces: an in vitro biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; Huang, Zhiping; Zhou, Ruozhou; Zhu, Qingan; Ji, Wei; Long, Yaowu; Wang, Jixing

    2017-07-28

    A biomechanical human cadaveric study. The aim of this study was to measure L2-L3 facet joint contact forces in a flexibility test using thin film electroresistive sensors, and facet joint orientation on CT scan images, to examine the effects of orientation of lumbar facet joint on the facet joint contact forces. Biomechanically the bilateral facet joints play a critical role in maintaining stability of the lumbar spine by sharing load. The effect of orientation of lumbar facet joints on the contact forces remains unknown. Eight human cadaveric lumbar spine specimens (L2-L3) were tested by applying a pure moment of ± 7.5 Nm in 3 directions of loading(flexion-extension, lateral bending and axial rotation) with and without a follower preload of 300 N. The orientation of the lumbar facet joints at the L2-L3 was measured on axial CT scans. Bilateral facet contact forces were measured during flexibility tests using thin film electroresistive sensors (Tekscan 6900). The average total peak facet loads was 66 N in axial rotation, 27 N in extension and 20 N in lateral bending under a pure moment. Under a pure moment and with a follower preload of 300N, the average total peak facet loads was 53 N in axial rotation, 43 N in extension and 24 N in lateral bending. The facet joint forces were correlated positively and significantly with the orientation in all directions with and without a compressive follower preload (P forces at neutral position with a follower preload were correlated positively with the orientation (rs = 0.759, P = 0.001). This study identified that the greater coronal orientation of lumbar facet joints are, the higher the facet joint contact forces are. 3.

  14. Effect of real-time biofeedback on peak knee adduction moment in patients with medial knee osteoarthritis: Is direct feedback effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Rosie E; van den Noort, Josien C; van der Esch, Martin; Booij, Marjolein J; Harlaar, Jaap

    2017-07-13

    Gait modifications can reduce the knee adduction moment, a representation of knee loading. Reduced loading may help to slow progression of medial knee osteoarthritis. We aimed to investigate the response of patients with medial knee osteoarthritis to direct feedback on the knee adduction moment as a method for modifying the gait pattern, before and after training with specific gait modifications. Forty patients with medial knee osteoarthritis underwent 3D gait analysis on an instrumented-treadmill, while receiving real-time feedback on the peak knee adduction moment. Patients were trained with three different modifications; toe-in, wider steps and medial thrust gait. The response to real-time feedback on the knee adduction moment was measured before and after training. To evaluate the short term retention effect, we measured the changes without feedback. We also evaluated the effects on the knee flexion moment and at the hip and ankle joints. With direct feedback on the knee adduction moment, patients were initially unable to reduce the knee adduction moment. After training with specific modifications, peak knee adduction moment was reduced by 14% in response to direct feedback. Without feedback a 9% reduction in peak knee adduction moment was maintained. Hip moments were not increased with modified gait, but small increases in ankle adduction moment and knee flexion moment were observed. Real-time biofeedback directly on the knee adduction moment is a promising option for encouraging gait modifications to reduce knee loading, however only when combined with specific instructions on how to modify the gait. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Estimating 3D L5/S1 moments and ground reaction forces during trunk bending using a full-body ambulatory inertial motion capture system

    OpenAIRE

    Faber, G S; Chang, C. C.; Kingma, I.; Dennerlein, J.T.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2016-01-01

    Inertial motion capture (IMC) systems have become increasingly popular for ambulatory movement analysis. However, few studies have attempted to use these measurement techniques to estimate kinetic variables, such as joint moments and ground reaction forces (GRFs). Therefore, we investigated the performance of a full-body ambulatory IMC system in estimating 3D L5/S1 moments and GRFs during symmetric, asymmetric and fast trunk bending, performed by nine male participants. Using an ambulatory IM...

  16. Matrix elements from moments of correlation functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chia Cheng [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Bouchard, Chris [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Orginos, Konstantinos [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Richards, David G. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Momentum-space derivatives of matrix elements can be related to their coordinate-space moments through the Fourier transform. We derive these expressions as a function of momentum transfer Q2 for asymptotic in/out states consisting of a single hadron. We calculate corrections to the finite volume moments by studying the spatial dependence of the lattice correlation functions. This method permits the computation of not only the values of matrix elements at momenta accessible on the lattice, but also the momentum-space derivatives, providing {\\it a priori} information about the Q2 dependence of form factors. As a specific application we use the method, at a single lattice spacing and with unphysically heavy quarks, to directly obtain the slope of the isovector form factor at various Q2, whence the isovector charge radius. The method has potential application in the calculation of any hadronic matrix element with momentum transfer, including those relevant to hadronic weak decays.

  17. Sequence Classification Using Third-Order Moments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troelsgaard, Rasmus; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2017-01-01

    . The proposed method provides lower computational complexity at classification time than the usual likelihood-based methods. In order to demonstrate the properties of the proposed method, we perform classification of both simulated data and empirical data from a human activity recognition study.......Model-based classification of sequence data using a set of hidden Markov models is a well-known technique. The involved score function, which is often based on the class-conditional likelihood, can, however, be computationally demanding, especially for long data sequences. Inspired by recent...... theoretical advances in spectral learning of hidden Markov models, we propose a score function based on third-order moments. In particular, we propose to use the Kullback-Leibler divergence between theoretical and empirical third-order moments for classification of sequence data with discrete observations...

  18. Higher Mellin moments for charged current DIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogal, M.; Moch, S.

    2007-06-15

    We report on our recent results for deep-inelastic neutrino({nu})-proton(P) scattering. We have computed the perturbative QCD corrections to three loops for the charged current structure functions F{sub 2}, F{sub L} and F{sub 3} for the combination {nu}P- anti {nu}P. In leading twist approximation we have calculated the first six odd-integer Mellin moments in the case of F{sub 2} and F{sub L} and the first six even-integer moments in the case of F{sub 3}. As a new result we have obtained the coefficient functions to O({alpha}{sup 3}{sub s}) and we have found the corresponding anomalous dimensions to agree with known results in the literature. (orig.)

  19. Stochastic development regression using method of moments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kühnel, Line; Sommer, Stefan Horst

    2017-01-01

    This paper considers the estimation problem arising when inferring parameters in the stochastic development regression model for manifold valued non-linear data. Stochastic development regression captures the relation between manifold-valued response and Euclidean covariate variables using...... the stochastic development construction. It is thereby able to incorporate several covariate variables and random effects. The model is intrinsically defined using the connection of the manifold, and the use of stochastic development avoids linearizing the geometry. We propose to infer parameters using...... the Method of Moments procedure that matches known constraints on moments of the observations conditional on the latent variables. The performance of the model is investigated in a simulation example using data on finite dimensional landmark manifolds....

  20. The Koszul complex of a moment map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbig, Hans-Christian; Schwarz, Gerald W.

    2013-01-01

    Let $K\\to\\U(V)$ be a unitary representation of the compact Lie group $K$. Then there is a canonical moment mapping $\\rho\\colon V\\to\\liek^*$. We have the Koszul complex ${\\mathcal K}(\\rho,\\mathcal C^\\infty(V))$ of the component functions $\\rho_1,\\dots,\\rho_k$ of $\\rho$. Let $G=K_\\C$, the complexif......Let $K\\to\\U(V)$ be a unitary representation of the compact Lie group $K$. Then there is a canonical moment mapping $\\rho\\colon V\\to\\liek^*$. We have the Koszul complex ${\\mathcal K}(\\rho,\\mathcal C^\\infty(V))$ of the component functions $\\rho_1,\\dots,\\rho_k$ of $\\rho$. Let $G...

  1. Achilles tendon moment arm in humans is not affected by inversion/eversion of the foot: a short report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfram, Susann; Morse, Christopher I; Winwood, Keith L; Hodson-Tole, Emma; McEwan, Islay M

    2018-01-01

    The triceps surae primarily acts as plantarflexor of the ankle joint. However, the group also causes inversion and eversion at the subtalar joint. Despite this, the Achilles tendon moment arm is generally measured without considering the potential influence of inversion/eversion of the foot during plantarflexion. This study investigated the effect of foot inversion and eversion on the plantarflexion Achilles tendon moment arm. Achilles tendon moment arms were determined using the centre-of-rotation method in magnetic resonance images of the left ankle of 11 participants. The foot was positioned at 15° dorsiflexion, 0° or 15° plantarflexion using a Styrofoam wedge. In each of these positions, the foot was either 10° inverted, neutral or 10° everted using an additional Styrofoam wedge. Achilles tendon moment arm in neutral foot position was 47.93 ± 4.54 mm and did not differ significantly when the foot was positioned in 10° inversion and 10° eversion. Hence, inversion/eversion position of the foot may not considerably affect the length of the Achilles tendon moment arm. This information could be useful in musculoskeletal models of the human lower leg and foot and when estimating Achilles tendon forces during plantarflexion with the foot positioned in inversion or eversion.

  2. Lower limb muscle strengthening does not change frontal plane moments in women with knee osteoarthritis: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroughi, Nasim; Smith, Richard M; Lange, Angela K; Baker, Michael K; Fiatarone Singh, Maria A; Vanwanseele, Benedicte

    2011-02-01

    Osteoarthritis is a common musculo-skeletal problem accompanied with muscle weakness. Muscle weakness may be readily improved by resistance training. Greater muscle strength has been associated with a lower knee joint loading rate. We conducted a single-blind randomized controlled trial of 54 female patients with osteoarthritis in at least one knee, according to the American College of Rheumatology clinical criteria. Patients were randomized into a 6-month high intensity progressive resistance training or a sham-exercise program. The primary outcomes were first peak knee and hip adduction moment measured using three-dimensional gait analysis at self-selected habitual and maximal speeds. Secondary outcomes were sagittal plane knee and hip moments, peak muscle strength, gait speed, and self-reported knee osteoarthritis symptoms measured by the Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). Six months of high intensity resistance training did not change the first peak knee or hip adduction moment at either habitual or maximum walking speeds (P>0.413) compared to the sham-exercise. However, the second peak hip adduction moment (P=0.025) and WOMAC pain score (PMuscle strength training in women with osteoarthritis, while effective for reducing osteoarthritis symptoms, appeared to operate through mechanisms other than improved knee or hip joint loading, as paradoxically, improved symptoms were related to decreases of hip adduction moment in late stance. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. TimeNET Optimization Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Bodenstein

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a novel tool for simulation-based optimization and design-space exploration of Stochastic Colored Petri nets (SCPN is introduced. The working title of this tool is TimeNET Optimization Environment (TOE. Targeted users of this tool are people modeling complex systems with SCPNs in TimeNET who want to find parameter sets that are optimal for a certain performance measure (fitness function. It allows users to create and simulate sets of SCPNs and to run different optimization algorithms based on parameter variation. The development of this tool was motivated by the need to automate and speed up tests of heuristic optimization algorithms to be applied for SCPN optimization. A result caching mechanism is used to avoid recalculations.

  4. New discrete orthogonal moments for signal analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honarvar Shakibaei Asli, Barmak; Flusser, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 141, č. 1 (2017), s. 57-73 ISSN 0165-1684 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-16928S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Orthogonal polynomials * Moment functions * Z-transform * Rodrigues formula * Hypergeometric form Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 3.110, year: 2016 http:// library .utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/ZOI/flusser-0475248.pdf

  5. Moments, positive polynomials and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lasserre, Jean Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Many important applications in global optimization, algebra, probability and statistics, applied mathematics, control theory, financial mathematics, inverse problems, etc. can be modeled as a particular instance of the Generalized Moment Problem (GMP) . This book introduces a new general methodology to solve the GMP when its data are polynomials and basic semi-algebraic sets. This methodology combines semidefinite programming with recent results from real algebraic geometry to provide a hierarchy of semidefinite relaxations converging to the desired optimal value. Applied on appropriate cones,

  6. Some special moments from last month

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira

    Integration of the three shells into the ATLAS pixel barrel last month. Lowering of the first sector of the MDT Muon Big Wheel on side C in the ATLAS cavern in December 2006. Some intense moment during the first ATLAS integration run from the main ATLAS control room. Muriel was one of the 20000 ATLAS cavern visitors in 2006 to enjoy herself during her visit.

  7. Analytic Moment-based Gaussian Process Filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Deisenroth, MP; Huber, MF; Hanebeck, UD

    2009-01-01

    04.07.13 KB. Ok to add accepted version to Spiral, authors retain copyright. We propose an analytic moment-based filter for nonlinear stochastic dynamic systems modeled by Gaussian processes. Exact expressions for the expected value and the covariance matrix are provided for both the prediction step and the filter step, where an additional Gaussian assumption is exploited in the latter case. Our filter does not require further approximations. In particular, it avoids finite-sample approxi...

  8. A big measurement of a small moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    E Sauer, B.; Devlin, J. A.; Rabey, I. M.

    2017-07-01

    A beam of ThO molecules has been used to make the most precise measurement of the electron’s electric dipole moment (EDM) to date. In their recent paper, the ACME collaboration set out in detail their experimental and data analysis techniques. In a tour-de-force, they explain the many ways in which their apparatus can produce a signal which mimics the EDM and show how these systematic effects are measured and controlled.

  9. Kairos time at the moment of birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Susan; Smythe, Elizabeth; Spence, Deb

    2015-04-01

    there is something extraordinary in the lived experience of being there at the time of birth. Yet the meaning and significance of this special time, named Kairos time in this paper, have received little attention. to describe the lived-experience of Kairos time at birth and surface its meaning. this is an interpretive hermeneutic phenomenology study informed by the writings of Heidegger and Gadamer. 14 in-depth interviews with mothers, birth partners, midwives and obstetricians were transcribed and stories from the data were hermeneutically analysed. there is a time, like no other, at the moment of birth that is widely known and valued. This paper reveals and names this phenomenon Kairos time. This is a felt-time that is lineal, process and cyclic time and more. Kairos time describes an existential temporal experience that is rich in significant sacred meaning; a time of emergent insight rarely spoken about in practice yet touches everyone present. The notion of Kairos time in relation to the moment of birth is introduced as a reminder of something significant that matters. Kairos time is revealed as a moment in and beyond time. It has a temporal enigmatic mystery involving spiritual connectedness. Kairos time is a time of knowing and remembrance of our shared natality. In this time life is disclosed as extraordinary and beyond everyday personal and professional concerns. It is all this and more. Kairos time at birth is precious and powerful yet vulnerable. It needs to be safeguarded to ensure its presence continues to emerge. This means maternity care providers and others at birth need to shelter and protect Kairos time from the sometimes harsh realities of birth and the potentially insensitive ways of being there at the moments of birth. Those who find themselves at birth need to pause and allow the profundity of its meaning to surface and inspire their actions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Monte Carlo Volcano Seismic Moment Tensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, G. P.; Brill, K. A.; Lanza, F.

    2015-12-01

    Inverse modeling of volcano seismic sources can provide insight into the geometry and dynamics of volcanic conduits. But given the logistical challenges of working on an active volcano, seismic networks are typically deficient in spatial and temporal coverage; this potentially leads to large errors in source models. In addition, uncertainties in the centroid location and moment-tensor components, including volumetric components, are difficult to constrain from the linear inversion results, which leads to a poor understanding of the model space. In this study, we employ a nonlinear inversion using a Monte Carlo scheme with the objective of defining robustly resolved elements of model space. The model space is randomized by centroid location and moment tensor eigenvectors. Point sources densely sample the summit area and moment tensors are constrained to a randomly chosen geometry within the inversion; Green's functions for the random moment tensors are all calculated from modeled single forces, making the nonlinear inversion computationally reasonable. We apply this method to very-long-period (VLP) seismic events that accompany minor eruptions at Fuego volcano, Guatemala. The library of single force Green's functions is computed with a 3D finite-difference modeling algorithm through a homogeneous velocity-density model that includes topography, for a 3D grid of nodes, spaced 40 m apart, within the summit region. The homogenous velocity and density model is justified by long wavelength of VLP data. The nonlinear inversion reveals well resolved model features and informs the interpretation through a better understanding of the possible models. This approach can also be used to evaluate possible station geometries in order to optimize networks prior to deployment.

  11. Individual joint contribution to body weight support in the affected lower limb during walking in post-stroke hemiplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woo-Sub; Kim, Min Joo

    2017-04-01

    Patients with post-stroke hemiplegia have difficulty with body weight support during walking. However, it is unclear which intra-limb strategy for body weight support tends to predominate, and how the intra-limb strategy is related to gait function. Support moment and individual joint contribution to support moment are the parameters that reflect intra-limb strategy for body weight supporting. The aim of this study was to test whether support moment and individual joint contributions differed between post-stroke subjects with different gait function. Laboratory gait analysis was performed for 14 non-hemiplegic elderly (NE) and 12 post-stroke hemiplegic elderly walking without cane (HNC) and 11 walking with a cane (HWC). Data were obtained for the vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) curve, 1st peak and 2nd peak of vGRF and corresponding temporal occurrences. Support moment (Ms) was numerical sum of hip extension, knee extension, and ankle plantar flexion moment. Individual joint contribution was calculated as the ratio of each joint moment to support moment. At temporal occurrences of vGRF peaks, Ms and individual joint contribution to Ms were calculated. Ms and individual joint contribution to Ms were compared among NE, HNC and HWC groups. Each subject's characteristics of individual joint contribution to Ms were explored. At the 1st peak of vGRF, support moments were similar among the three groups. However, the hip contributions were significantly greater in the NE group than in the other two groups, the ankle contributions were significantly greater in the HNC group than in the NE group. Notably, some of the subjects with post-stroke hemiplegia showed atypical characteristics that did not correspond to the group characteristics. Observing support moment and individual joint contribution is helpful to ascertain not only group characteristics, but also individual characteristics of intra-limb strategy for weight support in patients with post-stroke hemiplegia.

  12. Facades structure detection by geometric moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Diqiong; Chen, Hui; Song, Rui; Meng, Lei

    2017-06-01

    This paper proposes a novel method for extracting facades structure from real-world pictures by using local geometric moment. Compared with existing methods, the proposed method has advantages of easy-to-implement, low computational cost, and robustness to noises, such as uneven illumination, shadow, and shade from other objects. Besides, our method is faster and has a lower space complexity, making it feasible for mobile devices and the situation where real-time data processing is required. Specifically, a facades structure modal is first proposed to support the use of our special noise reduction method, which is based on a self-adapt local threshold with Gaussian weighted average for image binarization processing and the feature of the facades structure. Next, we divide the picture of the building into many individual areas, each of which represents a door or a window in the picture. Subsequently we calculate the geometric moment and centroid for each individual area, for identifying those collinear ones based on the feature vectors, each of which is thereafter replaced with a line. Finally, we comprehensively analyze all the geometric moment and centroid to find out the facades structure of the building. We compare our result with other methods and especially report the result from the pictures taken in bad environmental conditions. Our system is designed for two application, i.e, the reconstruction of facades based on higher resolution ground-based on imagery, and the positional system based on recognize the urban building.

  13. Nuclear moments of /sup 9/Li

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correll, F.D.; Madansky, L.; Hardekopf, R.A.; Sunier, J.W.

    1983-08-01

    The ground-state magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments of the ..beta.. emitter /sup 9/Li (J/sup ..pi../ = (3/2)/sup -/, T/sub 1/2/ = 0.176 s) have been measured for the first time. Polarized /sup 9/Li nuclei were produced in the /sup 7/Li(t,p) reaction, using 5--6 MeV polarized tritons. The recoiling /sup 9/Li nuclei were stopped either in Au foils or in LiNbO/sub 3/ single crystals, and their polarization was detected by measuring the ..beta..-decay asymmetry. Nuclear magnetic resonance techniques were used to depolarize the nuclei, and the resonant frequencies were deduced from changes in the asymmetry. The /sup 9/Li dipole moment was deduced from the measured Larmor frequency in Au; the result, including corrections for diamagnetic shielding and the Knight shift, is Vertical Bar..mu..Vertical Bar = 3.4391(6) ..mu../sub N/. The ratio of the /sup 9/Li quadrupole moment to that of /sup 7/Li was derived from their respective quadrupole couplings in LiNbO/sub 3/; the value is Vertical BarQ( /sup 9/Li)/Q( /sup 7/Li)Vertical Bar = 0. 88 +- 0.18. Both results are in agreement with shell model predictions.

  14. On moments-based Heisenberg inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zozor, Steeve; Portesi, Mariela; Sanchez-Moreno, Pablo; Dehesa, Jesus S.

    2011-03-01

    In this paper we revisit the quantitative formulation of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. The primary version of this principle establishes the impossibility of refined simultaneous measurement of position x and momentum u for a (1-dimensional) quantum particle in terms of variances: ⩾1/4. Since this inequality applies provided each variance exists, some authors proposed entropic versions of this principle as an alternative (employing Shannon's or Rényi's entropies). As another alternative, we consider moments-based formulations and show that inequalities involving moments of orders other than 2 can be found. Our procedure is based on the Rényi entropic versions of the Heisenberg relation together with the search for the maximal entropy under statistical moments' constraints ( and ). Our result improves a relation proposed very recently by Dehesa et al.. [1] where the same approach was used but starting with the Shannon version of the entropic uncertainty relation. Furthermore, we show that when a =b, the best bound we can find with our approach coincides with that of Ref. [1] and, in addition, for a = b = 2 the variance-based Heisenberg relation is recovered. Finally, we illustrate our results in the cases of d-dimensional hydrogenic systems.

  15. The effect of elbow angle and external moment on load sharing of elbow muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praagman, M; Chadwick, E K J; van der Helm, F C T; Veeger, H E J

    2010-10-01

    To study elbow muscle load sharing we investigated the effect of external flexion-extension (FE) and pronation-supination (PS) moments and elbow angle on muscle activation and oxygen consumption (V O(2)). Two data sets were obtained. First, (n=6) electromyography (EMG) of elbow flexors (long and short heads of biceps brachii, brachioradialis, brachialis) and extensors (long and short heads of triceps brachii and anconeus) was recorded in all combinations of FE and PS moments at three force levels and four elbow angles (50 degrees , 70 degrees , 90 degrees and 110 degrees ). Second, (n=4) EMG and V O(2) of three muscles (both heads of biceps and lateral head of triceps) were measured simultaneously during a subset of the above conditions. Joint angle and therefore both moment arm and muscle length influenced both EMG amplitude and the load sharing between muscles. The principles behind load sharing, however, were difficult to quantify, since it was impossible to distinguish between all individual aspects that affect muscle activity. We found a linear relationship between EMG and V O(2), while joint angle had no major effect. Although in general subjects showed comparable muscle activation patterns, there were also considerable inter-individual differences, which might be explained by the use of different optimisation strategies or differences in morphology. Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Implementing NetScaler VPX

    CERN Document Server

    Sandbu, Marius

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow guide with detailed step-by step-instructions on how to implement the different key components in NetScaler, with real-world examples and sample scenarios.If you are a Citrix or network administrator who needs to implement NetScaler in your virtual environment to gain an insight on its functionality, this book is ideal for you. A basic understanding of networking and familiarity with some of the different Citrix products such as XenApp or XenDesktop is a prerequisite.

  17. Net4Care PHMR Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the SimpleClinicalDocument......The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the Simple...

  18. Pro DLR in NET 4

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Chaur

    2011-01-01

    Microsoft's Dynamic Language Runtime (DLR) is a platform for running dynamic languages such as Ruby and Python on an equal footing with compiled languages such as C#. Furthermore, the runtime is the foundation for many useful software design and architecture techniques you can apply as you develop your .NET applications. Pro DLR in .NET 4 introduces you to the DLR, showing how you can use it to write software that combines dynamic and static languages, letting you choose the right tool for the job. You will learn the core DLR components such as LINQ expressions, call sites, binders, and dynami

  19. Hierarchies in Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Peter; Jensen, Kurt; Shapiro, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    The paper shows how to extend Coloured Petri Nets with a hierarchy concept. The paper proposes five different hierarchy constructs, which allow the analyst to structure large CP-nets as a set of interrelated subnets (called pages). The paper discusses the properties of the proposed hierarchy...... constructs, and it illustrates them by means of two examples. The hierarchy constructs can be used for theoretical considerations, but their main use is to describe and analyse large real-world systems. All of the hierarchy constructs are supported by the editing and analysis facilities in the CPN Palette...

  20. Comparison of global and joint-to-joint methods for estimating the hip joint load and the muscle forces during walking

    OpenAIRE

    FRAYSSE, François; DUMAS, Raphaël; CHEZE, Laurence; WANG, Xuguang

    2009-01-01

    A three-dimensional musculoskeletal model of the lower limb was developed to study the influence of biarticular muscles on the muscle force distribution and joint loads during walking. A complete walking cycle was recorded for 9 healthy subjects using the standard optoelectronic motion tracking system. Ground contact forces were also measured using a 6-axes force plate. Inverse dynamics was used to compute net joint reactions (forces and torques) in the lower limb. A static optimization metho...

  1. Joint Replacement (Finger and Wrist Joints)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... artificial joint Damage to vessels, nerves or other structures in the region of the surgery Alternatives Some alternate procedures for treating arthritis include: Joint injections Oral medications such as aspirin or anti-inflammatory medicines Hand therapy exercises and ...

  2. Joint x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - joint; Arthrography; Arthrogram ... x-ray technologist will help you position the joint to be x-rayed on the table. Once in place, pictures are taken. The joint may be moved into other positions for more ...

  3. Double-composite rectangular truss bridge and its joint analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjian Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a novel composite tubular truss bridge with concrete slab and concrete-filled rectangular chords. With concrete slab plus truss system and joints reinforced with concrete and Perfobond Leiste rib, double composite truss bridge proved to be a fairly suitable solution in negative moment area. Perfobond Leiste shear connector (PBL is widely implemented in the composite structure for its outstanding fatigue resistance. In this pilot bridge, Perfobond Leister ribs (PBR were installed in the truss girder's joints, which played double roles as shear connector and stiffener. An erection method and overall bridge structural analysis were then presented. Typical joints in the pilot bridge were selected to analyze the effect of PBR. Investigation of the effect of PBR in concrete-filled tubular joints was elaborated. Comparison has revealed that concrete-filled tubular joints with PBR have much higher constraint capability than joints without PBR. For rectangular tubular truss, the punching shear force of the concrete filled joint with PBR is approximately 43% larger than that of the joint without PBR. Fatigue performance of the joint installed with PBR was improved, which was found through analysis of the stress concentration factor of joint. The PBR installed in the joints mitigated the stress concentration factor in the chord face. Therefore, the advantages of this new type of bridge are demonstrated, including the convenience of construction using rectangular truss, innovative concept of structural design and better global and local performances.

  4. Improved moment scaling estimation for multifractal signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Veneziano

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental problem in the analysis of multifractal processes is to estimate the scaling exponent K(q of moments of different order q from data. Conventional estimators use the empirical moments μ^rq=⟨ | εr(τ|q of wavelet coefficients εr(τ, where τ is location and r is resolution. For stationary measures one usually considers "wavelets of order 0" (averages, whereas for functions with multifractal increments one must use wavelets of order at least 1. One obtains K^(q as the slope of log( μ^rq against log(r over a range of r. Negative moments are sensitive to measurement noise and quantization. For them, one typically uses only the local maxima of | εr(τ| (modulus maxima methods. For the positive moments, we modify the standard estimator K^(q to significantly reduce its variance at the expense of a modest increase in the bias. This is done by separately estimating K(q from sub-records and averaging the results. For the negative moments, we show that the standard modulus maxima estimator is biased and, in the case of additive noise or quantization, is not applicable with wavelets of order 1 or higher. For these cases we propose alternative estimators. We also consider the fitting of parametric models of K(q and show how, by splitting the record into sub-records as indicated above, the accuracy of standard methods can be significantly improved.

  5. Arthroplasty after war injuries to major joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haspl, M; Pećina, M; Orlić, D; Cicak, N

    1999-05-01

    From 1992 to 1995, replacement of the joint with an endoprosthesis after serious wounding and major destruction of joint elements was performed in 10 soldiers. Arthroplasty was performed on five knees, three hips, and two shoulders. The age range of the wounded soldiers was 22 to 55 years (mean, 37.7 years). Six soldiers suffered explosive injuries, and 4 were injured by gunfire. Time elapsed from the moment of wounding to the time of total joint replacement was 9 to 42 months. We decided on arthroplasty as the preferred treatment because of the presence of strong contractures and very painful movement. In 8 patients, the results of the treatment, based on a follow-up time of 36 to 48 months, were good. In 2 patients, early septic arthritis developed after arthroplasty of the knee with concomitant loosening of the endoprosthesis. Staphylococcus aureus was detected in both patients. In those 2 patients, therefore, arthrodesis of the knee with external fixation was performed.

  6. A general mixed mode fracture mechanics test specimen: The DCB-specimen loaded with uneven bending moments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Jørgensen, K.; Jacobsen, T.K.

    2004-01-01

    glass-fibre laminates was studied. The mixed mode fracture resistance increased with increasing crack length due to fibre bridging, eventually reaching asteady-state level (R-curve behaviour). The steady-state fracture toughness level increased with increasing tangential crack opening displacement.......A mixed mode specimen is proposed for fracture mechanics characterisation of adhesive joints, laminates and multilayers. The specimen is a double cantilever beam specimen loaded with uneven bending moments at the two free beams. By varying the ratiobetween the two applied moments, the full mode...

  7. Altered control strategy between leading and trailing leg increases knee adduction moment in the elderly while descending stairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamanidis, Kiros; Arampatzis, Adamantios

    2011-02-24

    The aim of the study was to examine the external knee adduction moments in a group of older and younger adults while descending stairs and thus the possibility of an increased risk of knee osteoarthritis due to altered knee joint loading in the elderly. Twenty-seven older and 16 younger adults descended a purpose-built staircase. A motion capture system and a force plate were used to determine the subjects' 3D kinematics and ground reaction forces (GRF) during locomotion. Calculation of the leg kinematics and kinetics was done by means of a rigid, three-segment, 3D leg model. In the initial portion of the support phase, older adults showed a more medio-posterior GRF vector relative to the ankle joint, leading to lower ankle joint moments (Pstairs by using the trailing leg before the initiation of the double support phase more compared to the younger ones. The consequence of this altered control strategy while stepping down is a more medially directed GRF vector increasing the magnitude of external knee adduction moment in the elderly. The observed changes between leading and trailing leg in the elderly may cause a redistribution of the mechanical load at the tibiofemoral joint, affecting the initiation and progression of knee osteoarthritis in the elderly. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Consistent accuracy in whole-body joint kinetics during gait using wearable inertial motion sensors and in-shoe pressure sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurelbaatar, Tsolmonbaatar; Kim, Kyungsoo; Lee, SuKyoung; Kim, Yoon Hyuk

    2015-06-01

    To analyze human motion such as daily activities or sports outside of the laboratory, wearable motion analysis systems have been recently developed. In this study, the joint forces and moments in whole-body joints during gait were evaluated using a wearable motion analysis system consisting of an inertial motion measurement system and an in-shoe pressure sensor system. The magnitudes of the joint forces and the moments in nine joints (cervical, thoracic, lumbar, right shoulder, right elbow, right wrist, right hip, right knee, and right ankle) during gait were calculated using the wearable system and the conventional system, respectively, based on a standard inverse dynamics analysis. The averaged magnitudes of the joint forces and moments of five subjects were compared between the wearable and conventional systems in terms of the Pearson's correlation coefficient and the normalized root mean squared error to the maximum value from the conventional system. The results indicated that both the joint forces and joint moments in human whole body joints using wearable inertial motion sensors and in-shoe pressure sensors were feasible for normal motions with a low speed such as walking, although the lower extremity joints showed the strongest correlation and overall the joint moments were associated with relatively smaller correlation coefficients and larger normalized root mean squared errors in comparison with the joint forces. The portability and mobility of this wearable system can provide wide applicability in both clinical and sports motion analyses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. D.NET case study

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    lremy

    developing products, marketing tools and building capacity of the grass root telecentre workers. D.Net recognized that it had several ideas worth developing into small interventions that would make big differences, but resource constraints were a barrier for scaling-up these initiatives. More demands, limited resources.

  10. Surgery for GEP-NETs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, Ulrich; Hansen, Carsten Palnæs

    2012-01-01

    Surgery is the only treatment that may cure the patient with gastroentero-pancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumours (NET) and neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC) and should always be considered as first line treatment if R0/R1 resection can be achieved. The surgical and interventional procedures for GEP...

  11. Net Neutrality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.

    2014-01-01

    The Netherlands is among the first countries that have put specific net neutrality standards in place. The decision to implement specific regulation was influenced by at least three factors. The first was the prevailing social and academic debate, partly due to developments in the United States. The

  12. Complexity Metrics for Workflow Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; van der Aalst, Wil M.P.

    2009-01-01

    Process modeling languages such as EPCs, BPMN, flow charts, UML activity diagrams, Petri nets, etc.\\ are used to model business processes and to configure process-aware information systems. It is known that users have problems understanding these diagrams. In fact, even process engineers and system...

  13. The effect of age and knee osteoarthritis on muscle activation patterns and knee joint biomechanics during dual belt treadmill gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Derek; Baker, Matthew; Wong, Ivan; Stanish, William

    2017-06-01

    To compare a group of individuals with moderate medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (OA) to both an age-matched asymptomatic group of older adults and younger adults to determine whether differences in knee joint muscle activation patterns and joint biomechanics exist during gait between these three groups. 20 young adults, 20 older adults, and 40 individuals with moderate knee OA were recruited. Using standardized procedures, surface electromyograms were recorded from the vastus lateralis and medialis, rectus femoris and the medial and lateral hamstrings. All individuals walked on a dual belt instrumented treadmill while segment motions and ground reaction forces were recorded. Sagittal plane motion and net external sagittal and frontal plane moments were calculated. Discrete measures and principal component analyses extracted amplitude and temporal waveform features. Analysis of Variance models using Bonferroni corrections determined between and within group differences in these gait features (α=0.05). Individuals with knee OA have distinct biomechanics and muscle activation patterns when compared to age-matched asymptomatic adults and younger adults whereas differences between the young and older adults were few and included only measures of muscle activation amplitude. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Determination of propulsion-system-induced forces and moments of a Mach 3 cruise aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilyard, G. B.

    1974-01-01

    During the joint NASA/USAF flight research program with the YF-12 airplane, the Dutch roll damping was found to be much less during automatic inlet operation than during fixed inlet operation at Mach numbers greater than 2.5 and with the yaw stability augmentation system off. It was concluded that the significant reduction in Dutch roll damping was due to the forces and moments induced by the variable-geometry features of the inlet. Two stability-derivative extraction techniques were applied to the flight data; the recently developed Newton-Raphson technique and the time vector method. These techniques made it possible to determine the forces and moments generated by spike and bypass door movement.

  15. Caught in the Net: Perineuronal Nets and Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Slaker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to drugs of abuse induces plasticity in the brain and creates persistent drug-related memories. These changes in plasticity and persistent drug memories are believed to produce aberrant motivation and reinforcement contributing to addiction. Most studies have explored the effect drugs of abuse have on pre- and postsynaptic cells and astrocytes; however, more recently, attention has shifted to explore the effect these drugs have on the extracellular matrix (ECM. Within the ECM are unique structures arranged in a net-like manner, surrounding a subset of neurons called perineuronal nets (PNNs. This review focuses on drug-induced changes in PNNs, the molecules that regulate PNNs, and the expression of PNNs within brain circuitry mediating motivation, reward, and reinforcement as it pertains to addiction.

  16. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Army Net Zero Training Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-20

    sensors were strategically placed throughout the installation by magnetically attaching them to water main valve stems. The sensors check sound...Recycle Wrap  Substitutes for Packaging Materials  Re-Use of Textiles and Linens  Setting Printers to Double-Sided Printing Net Zero Waste...can effectively achieve source reduction. Clean and Re-Use Shop Rags - Shop rags represent a large textile waste stream at many installations. As a

  17. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Net Zero Waste Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-20

    Anaerobic Digesters – Although anaerobic digestion is not a new technology and has been used on a large-scale basis in wastewater treatment , the...technology and has been used on a large-scale basis in wastewater treatment , the use of the technology should be demonstrated with other...approaches can be used for cardboard and cellulose -based packaging materials. This approach is in line with the Net Zero Waste hierarchy in terms of

  18. Second Moment Method on k-SAT: a General Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Hugel, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We give a general framework implementing the Second Moment Method on k-SAT and discuss the conditions making the Second Moment Method work in this framework. As applications, we make the Second Moment Method work on boolean solutions and implicants. We extend this to the distributional model of k-SAT.

  19. Recent measurements of nuclear moments far from stability

    CERN Document Server

    Keim, M

    1998-01-01

    Measurements of nuclear moments far from stability have been performed mainly applying laser spectroscopy and $\\beta$-NMR spectroscopy. A short overview of the experimental techniques are given. The $\\beta$-NMR experiments on the quadrupole moments of sodium isotopes and of the magnetic moment of $^{11}$Be, both using optically pumped radioactive beams, are discussed in more detail. (23 refs).

  20. The Magnetic Moment of the Lambda Hyperon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schachinger, Lindsay Carol [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    1978-10-01

    The magnetic moment of the lambda hyperon has been measured to be· -0.613S±0.0047 nuclear magneton. The experiment was performed in the neutral hyperon beam at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. Three million $\\Lambda^0 \\to p \\pi^-$ decays were detected in a multi-wire proportional chamber spectrometer. The lambda sample, produced inclusively by 400 Gev protons, had an. average momentum of 114 Gev / c and an average polarization of 0.085. This polarization was precessed through angles as large as 153 degrees

  1. Right-handed neutrino magnetic moments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aparici, Alberto; Kim, Kyungwook; Santamaria, Arcadi; Wudka, Jose, E-mail: alberto.aparici@uv.es

    2010-11-01

    We consider the most general dimension 5 effective Lagrangian that can be built using only Standard Model fields plus right-handed neutrinos, and fnd that there exists a term that provides electroweak moments (i.e., couplings to the Z and photon) for the right-handed neutrinos. Such term has not been described previously in the literature. We discuss its phenomenology and the bounds that can be derived from LEP results and from the observation of the cooling process of red giants and supernovae.

  2. Right-handed neutrino magnetic moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparici, Alberto; Kim, Kyungwook; Santamaria, Arcadi; Wudka, José

    2010-11-01

    We consider the most general dimension 5 efective Lagrangian that can be built using only Standard Model felds plus right-handed neutrinos, and fnd that there exists a term that provides electroweak moments (i.e., couplings to the Z and photon) for the right-handed neutrinos. Such term has not been described previously in the literature. We discuss its phenomenology and the bounds that can be derived from LEP results and from the observation of the cooling process of red giants and supernovae.

  3. EDM: Neutron electric dipole moment measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fierlinger

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An electric dipole moment (EDM of the neutron would be a clear sign of new physics beyond the standard model of particle physics. The search for this phenomenon is considered one of the most important experiments in fundamental physics and could provide key information on the excess of matter versus antimatter in the universe. With high measurement precision, this experiment aims to ultimately achieve a sensitivity of 10-28 ecm, a 100-fold improvement in the sensitivity compared to the state-of-the-art. The EDM instrument is operated by an international collaboration based at the Technische Universität München.

  4. Further analysis of the connected moments expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amore, Paolo; Rodriguez, Martin [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal Diaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico); Fernandez, Francisco M, E-mail: paolo.amore@gmail.com, E-mail: fernande@quimica.unlp.edu.ar, E-mail: martinalexander.rv@gmail.com [INIFTA (UNLP, CCT La Plata-CONICET), Division Quimica Teorica, Blvd. 113 S/N, Sucursal 4, Casilla de Correo 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2011-12-16

    By means of simple quantum-mechanical models we show that under certain conditions the main assumptions of the connected moments expansion (CMX) are no longer valid. In particular, we consider two-level systems: the harmonic oscillator and the pure quartic oscillator. Although derived from such simple models, we think that the results of this investigation may be of utility in future applications of the approach to realistic problems. We show that a straightforward analysis of the CMX exponential parameters may provide a clear indication of the success of the approach. (paper)

  5. HIV Care Initiation: A Teachable Moment for Smoking Cessation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidrine, Damon J; Frank, Summer G; Savin, Micah J; Waters, Andrew J; Li, Yisheng; Chen, Sixia; Fletcher, Faith E; Arduino, Roberto C; Gritz, Ellen R

    2017-09-25

    Tobacco use among persons living with HIV represents an important risk factor for poor treatment outcomes, morbidity, and mortality. Thus, efforts designed to inform the development of appropriate smoking cessation programs for this population remains a public health priority. To address this need, a study was conducted to longitudinally assess the relationship between intention to quit smoking and cessation over the 12 month period following initiation of HIV care. Patients initiating HIV care at a large inner city safety net clinic were enrolled (n=378) in a 12-month prospective study. Audio computer-assisted self-interviews were conducted at baseline, and at 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month post enrollment, and HIV-related clinical data were collected from participants' electronic medical records. Variables of interest included intention to quit smoking, 7-day point prevalence smoking abstinence (biochemically verified), and stage of HIV. Data were collected in Houston, Texas from 2009 to 2015. The sample was 75% male and 62% Black. Findings indicated that intention to quit smoking increased between baseline and 3 months, and subsequently trended downward from 3 to 12 months. Results from linear and generalized linear mixed models indicated that participants with advanced HIV disease (vs. not advanced) reported significantly (p<.05) higher intention to quit smoking at 3-, 6-, and 12-months post study enrollment. A similar though non-significant pattern was observed in the smoking abstinence outcome. HIV treatment initiation appears to be associated with increases in intention to quit smoking thus serves as a potential teachable moment for smoking cessation intervention. This study documents significant increases in intention to quit smoking in the 3-month period following HIV care initiation. Moreover, quit intention trended downward following the 3-month follow-up until the 12-month follow-up. In addition, a marked effect for HIV disease stage was observed, whereby

  6. A Telematics Learning Environment on the European Parliament: The ParlEuNet System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reggiori, Alberto; Best, Clive; Loekkemyhr, Per; van Gulik, Dirk-Willem

    The ParlEuNet (European Parliament Network) under development at the Joint Research Center of the European Communities is a Web-based information system that will provide a multimedia educational platform for 10 secondary schools across Europe. Schools, teachers and pupils will use the system to teach, learn about, and prepare collaborative…

  7. 26 CFR 1.1402(a)-2 - Computation of net earnings from self-employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... a partnership as known at common law, but, also a syndicate, group, pool, joint venture, or other... ascertaining his net earnings from self-employment, are to be determined by reference to the provisions of law... enterprise with respect to which an election has been made pursuant to section 1361 and the regulations...

  8. A non-invasive protocol to determine the personalized moment arms of knee and ankle muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnefoy, A; Doriot, N; Senk, M; Dohin, B; Pradon, D; Chèze, L

    2007-01-01

    One difficulty that comes with predicting muscular forces is the accuracy of experimental data, particularly the assessment of muscle moment arms with respect to each joint rotation axis. This paper presents a non-invasive experimental protocol to obtain the personalized muscle moment arms with respect to the ankle and knee joints. A specific pointer is used by a specialist of lower limb anatomy in order to define the local portion of the line of action of the different muscles closed to the joint on the standing subject's lower limb. With this pointer, the three-dimensional coordinates of several points representing the line of action of 12 ankle and knee muscles are collected by a Motion Analysis system. The collection is done five times by the same operator and one time by two different operators. From this data, the intra and inter operator repeatabilities are tested. Relative (ICC) and absolute (SEM) reliabilities are determined in order to evaluate the intra operator repeatability of this non-invasive protocol. The ICC values obtained are higher than 0.91 for 10 among 12 muscles. The intra operator repeatability is thus confirmed. From the records realized by the two operators, the differences are negligible. Thus, the inter operator repeatability is also confirmed. The moments arms obtained using this non-invasive experimental protocol are compared with those calculated from origin and insertion points reported in the literature, according to the work of Whites, Pierrynowskis and Kepples, respectively. The estimations obtained using the non-invasive experimental protocol are found, for some muscles, more realistic than those calculated using the literature data and are always coherent with the role of the muscles described in anatomical books.

  9. HANPP Collection: Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity (NPP) portion of the Human Appropriation of Net Primary...

  10. Hydrodynamic characteristics of plane netting used for aquaculture net cages in uniform current

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DONG, SHUCHUANG; HU, FUXIANG; KUMAZAWA, TAISEI; SIODE, DAISUKE; TOKAI, TADASHI

    2016-01-01

      The hydrodynamic characteristics of polyethylene (PE) netting and chain link wire netting with different types of twine diameter and mesh size for aquaculture net cages were examined by experiments in a flume tank...

  11. Space Station Control Moment Gyroscope Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurrisi, Charles; Seidel, Raymond; Dickerson, Scott; Didziulis, Stephen; Frantz, Peter; Ferguson, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Four 4760 Nms (3510 ft-lbf-s) Double Gimbal Control Moment Gyroscopes (DGCMG) with unlimited gimbal freedom about each axis were adopted by the International Space Station (ISS) Program as the non-propulsive solution for continuous attitude control. These CMGs with a life expectancy of approximately 10 years contain a flywheel spinning at 691 rad/s (6600 rpm) and can produce an output torque of 258 Nm (190 ft-lbf)1. One CMG unexpectedly failed after approximately 1.3 years and one developed anomalous behavior after approximately six years. Both units were returned to earth for failure investigation. This paper describes the Space Station Double Gimbal Control Moment Gyroscope design, on-orbit telemetry signatures and a summary of the results of both failure investigations. The lessons learned from these combined sources have lead to improvements in the design that will provide CMGs with greater reliability to assure the success of the Space Station. These lessons learned and design improvements are not only applicable to CMGs but can be applied to spacecraft mechanisms in general.

  12. Shuffle dislocation induced magnetic moment in graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Sancho, M.P., E-mail: pilar@icmm.csic.e [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid-CSIC, C/Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Juan, F. de; Vozmediano, M.A.H. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid-CSIC, C/Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    Graphene, a honeycomb arrangement of carbon atoms, is a promising material for nanoelectronics applications due to its unusual electronic properties. Recent experiments performed on suspended graphene indicate the existence of intrinsic defects on the samples. It is known that lattice defects such as vacancies or voids leaving unpaired atoms, lead to the formation of local magnetic moments (Vozmediano et al., 2005). The existence and ordering of these moments is largely determined by the bipartite character of the honeycomb lattice seen as two interpenetrating triangular sublattices. Dislocations made by pentagon-heptagon pairs or octagons with an unpaired atom have been studied recently and found to be stable in the graphene lattice (Carpio et al., 2008). These defects frustrate the sublattice structure and affect the magnetic properties of graphene. We study the magnetic properties of graphene in the presence of these defects. The system is described by a p{sub z} tight-binding model with electron-electron interactions modelled by a Hubbard term. Spin-polarized mean-field solutions are investigated within an unrestricted Hartree-Fock approximation.

  13. Moment equations in spatial evolutionary ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lion, Sébastien

    2016-09-21

    How should we model evolution in spatially structured populations? Here, I review an evolutionary ecology approach based on the technique of spatial moment equations. I first provide a mathematical underpinning to the derivation of equations for the densities of various spatial configurations in network-based models. I then show how this spatial ecological framework can be coupled with an adaptive dynamics approach to compute the invasion fitness of a rare mutant in a resident population at equilibrium. Under the additional assumption that mutations have small phenotypic effects, I show that the selection gradient can be expressed as a function of neutral measures of genetic and demographic structure. I discuss the connections between this approach and inclusive fitness theory, as well as the applicability and limits of this technique. My main message is that spatial moment equations can be used as a means to obtain compact qualitative arguments about the evolution of life-history traits for a variety of life cycles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Isolated unit tests in .Net

    OpenAIRE

    Haukilehto, Tero

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis isolation in unit testing is studied to get a precise picture of the isolation frameworks available for .Net environment. At the beginning testing is discussed in theory with the benefits and the problems it may have been linked with. The theory includes software development in general in connection with testing. Theory of isolation is also described before the actual isolation frameworks are represented. Common frameworks are described in more detail and comparable informa...

  15. Abnormal loading of the major joints in knee osteoarthritis and the response to knee replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Andrew; Stewart, Caroline; Postans, Neil; Barlow, David; Dodds, Alexander; Holt, Cathy; Whatling, Gemma; Roberts, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Knee osteoarthritis is common and patients frequently complain that they are 'overloading' the joints of the opposite leg when they walk. However, it is unknown whether moments or co-contractions are abnormal in the unaffected joints of patients with single joint knee osteoarthritis, or how they change following treatment of the affected knee. Twenty patients with single joint medial compartment knee osteoarthritis were compared to 20 asymptomatic control subjects. Gait analysis was performed for normal level gait and surface EMG recordings of the medial and lateral quadriceps and hamstrings were used to investigate co-contraction. Patients were followed up 12 months post-operatively and the analysis was repeated. Results are presented for the first 14 patients who have attended follow-up. Pre-operatively, adduction moment impulses were elevated at both knees and the contra-lateral hip compared to controls. Co-contraction of hamstrings and quadriceps was elevated bilaterally. Post-operatively, moment waveforms returned to near-normal levels at the affected knee and co-contraction fell in the majority of patients. However, abnormalities persisted in the contra-lateral limb with partial or no recovery of both moment waveforms and co-contraction in the majority. Patients with knee osteoarthritis do experience abnormal loads of their major weight bearing joints bilaterally, and abnormalities persist despite treatment of the affected limb. Further treatment may be required if we are to protect the other major joints following joint arthroplasty. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Regional, Local, and In-mine Moment Tensors for the 2013 Rudna Mine collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whidden, K. M.; Rudzinski, L.; Lizurek, G.; Pankow, K. L.

    2013-12-01

    On March 19, 2013, the room-and-pillar Rudna copper mine in southwest Poland experienced a collapse (mb 4.7) that trapped 19 miners who were all rescued hours later. News outlets reported that the collapse occurred as the result of an earthquake on a fault. We use three different moment tensor methods and seismic networks to study the source of this event. The velocity structure at regional distances is complex. To the southwest are the Sudetic Mountains and to the north and east a deep sedimentary basin extends towards the Baltic Sea. A single 1-D velocity model is unlikely to adequately account for the paths to all stations. Regional moment tensors were calculated for this event using two sets of velocity models: 1) those used for routine regional moment tensor calculation in Utah, with slight modifications for stations in the deepest part of the basin, and 2) velocity models derived from the POLONAISE'97 seismic refraction experiment (Janik et al. 2002, Sroda et al. 2002, Grad et al. 2003). All models were validated for use in Poland by calculating a moment tensor for the M4.4 earthquake on 2004/11/03 in southeast Poland that has regional moment tensor estimates from two different agencies (see International Seismological Centre event 7443851 for solutions by the Swiss Seismological Service and MedNet Regional Centroid Moment Tensors). Both sets of velocity models were able to generate synthetics that were a good match to the data for the 2004 earthquake, and the resulting moment tensor solutions closely match those from previous investigators, confirming that the velocity models used in the analysis are adequate. A full waveform moment tensor using the velocity models described above and a broadband regional network with event to station distances of 75 to 220 km reveals a source with a dominant and statistically significant implosive component. A local network consisting of four short-period three axial sensors, with event to station distances of 3.5 to 7 km

  17. What Clients Find Helpful in Psychotherapy: Developing Principles for Facilitating Moment-to-Moment Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Heidi; Butler, Mike; Hill, Travis

    2006-01-01

    Clients who had completed psychotherapy were interviewed about the significant experiences and moments they recalled within their sessions. These interviews were analyzed using grounded theory, creating a hierarchy of categories that represent what clients find important in therapy. From the hermeneutic analysis of the content of these categories,…

  18. Event hierarchies in DanNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bolette Sandford; Nimb, Sanni

    2008-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler udarbejdelsen af et verbumshierarki i det leksikalsk-semantiske ordnet, DanNet.......Artiklen omhandler udarbejdelsen af et verbumshierarki i det leksikalsk-semantiske ordnet, DanNet....

  19. The Uniframe .Net Web Service Discovery Service

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berbeco, Robert W

    2003-01-01

    Microsoft .NET allows the creation of distributed systems in a seamless manner Within NET small, discrete applications, referred to as Web services, are utilized to connect to each other or larger applications...

  20. Long Term RadNet Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This RadNet Quality Data Asset includes all data since initiation and when ERAMS was expanded to become RadNet, name changed to reflect new mission. This includes...

  1. PsychoNet: a psycholinguistc commonsense ontology

    OpenAIRE

    Mohtasseb, Haytham; Ahmed, Amr

    2010-01-01

    Ontologies have been widely accepted as the most advanced knowledge representation model. This paper introduces PsychoNet, a new knowledgebase that forms the link between psycholinguistic taxonomy, existing in LIWC, and its semantic textual representation in the form of commonsense semantic ontology, represented by ConceptNet. The integration of LIWC and ConceptNet and the added functionalities facilitate employing ConceptNet in psycholinguistic studies. Furthermore, it simplifies utilization...

  2. Fast Legendre moment computation for template matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing C.

    2017-05-01

    Normalized cross correlation (NCC) based template matching is insensitive to intensity changes and it has many applications in image processing, object detection, video tracking and pattern recognition. However, normalized cross correlation implementation is computationally expensive since it involves both correlation computation and normalization implementation. In this paper, we propose Legendre moment approach for fast normalized cross correlation implementation and show that the computational cost of this proposed approach is independent of template mask sizes which is significantly faster than traditional mask size dependent approaches, especially for large mask templates. Legendre polynomials have been widely used in solving Laplace equation in electrodynamics in spherical coordinate systems, and solving Schrodinger equation in quantum mechanics. In this paper, we extend Legendre polynomials from physics to computer vision and pattern recognition fields, and demonstrate that Legendre polynomials can help to reduce the computational cost of NCC based template matching significantly.

  3. Le dispositif, un incontournable du moment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Demaizière

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available 1.Introduction Je proposerai ci-après quelques réflexions à partir d'un terme qui est devenu omniprésent mais dont la définition et l'interprétation sont, me semble-t-il, assez variables. De telles variations sont courantes et ne sont pas forcément un obstacle majeur à l'action et à la réflexion. Il n'est toutefois pas inintéressant de s'arrêter un moment sur le ou les dispositifs d'apprentissage, de formation, multimédia, pédagogiques… 2.Omniprésence du terme, du mécanique au juridique et à ...

  4. Magnetic-Moment Fragmentation and Monopole Crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Brooks-Bartlett

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Coulomb phase, with its dipolar correlations and pinch-point–scattering patterns, is central to discussions of geometrically frustrated systems, from water ice to binary and mixed-valence alloys, as well as numerous examples of frustrated magnets. The emergent Coulomb phase of lattice-based systems has been associated with divergence-free fields and the absence of long-range order. Here, we go beyond this paradigm, demonstrating that a Coulomb phase can emerge naturally as a persistent fluctuating background in an otherwise ordered system. To explain this behavior, we introduce the concept of the fragmentation of the field of magnetic moments into two parts, one giving rise to a magnetic monopole crystal, the other a magnetic fluid with all the characteristics of an emergent Coulomb phase. Our theory is backed up by numerical simulations, and we discuss its importance with regard to the interpretation of a number of experimental results.

  5. General moment theorems for nondistinct unrestricted partitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coons, Michael; Kirsten, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    A well-known result from Hardy and Ramanujan ["Aysmptotic formulae in combinatory analysis," Proc. Lond. Math. Soc. 17, 75 (1918)] gives an asymptotic expression for the number of possible ways to express an integer as the sum of smaller integers. In this vein, we consider the general partitioning problem of writing an integer n as a sum of summands from a given sequence Λ of nondecreasing integers. Under suitable assumptions on the sequence Λ, we obtain results using associated zeta functions and saddle-point techniques. We also calculate higher moments of the sequence Λ as well as the expected number of summands. Applications are made to various sequences, including those of Barnes and Epstein types. These results are of potential interest in statistical mechanics in the context of Bose-Einstein condensation.

  6. 78 FR 72451 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BL74 Net Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service...). These regulations provide guidance on the computation of net investment income. The regulations affect... lesser of: (A) The individual's net investment income for such taxable year, or (B) the excess (if any...

  7. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net investment. 69.302 Section 69.302... Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B Rural...) Investment in Accounts 2002, 2003 and to the extent such inclusions are allowed by this Commission, Account...

  8. 47 CFR 65.450 - Net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.450 Section 65.450... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.450 Net income. (a) Net income shall consist of all revenues derived from the provision of interstate telecommunications services...

  9. 47 CFR 65.500 - Net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.500 Section 65.500... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Interexchange Carriers § 65.500 Net income. The net income methodology specified in § 65.450 shall be utilized by all interexchange carriers that are...

  10. NetBeans IDE 8 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Salter, David

    2014-01-01

    If you're a Java developer of any level using NetBeans and want to learn how to get the most out of NetBeans, then this book is for you. Learning how to utilize NetBeans will provide a firm foundation for your Java application development.

  11. Characterizing behavioural congruences for Petri nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Priese, Lutz; Sassone, Vladimiro

    1995-01-01

    We exploit a notion of interface for Petri nets in order to design a set of net combinators. For such a calculus of nets, we focus on the behavioural congruences arising from four simple notions of behaviour, viz., traces, maximal traces, step, and maximal step traces, and from the corresponding...

  12. 27 CFR 4.37 - Net contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the volume of wine within the container, except that the following tolerances shall be allowed: (1... THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.37 Net contents. (a) Statement of net contents. The net contents of wine for which a standard of fill is...

  13. Tecnoactivism. The political experience of Riereta.net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Callén

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This Thesis's summary explores the political and epistemological proposal that emerges from Free Software development made from Riereta.net. From the ethnography of this project, we analyse its contributions to knowledge production and to social studies of science and technology. This allows us to define the experience as a 'techno-epistemic workshop' in which new forms of organization, objects and epistemic practices coexist with other traditional ones, such as typical of laboratories and other techno-scientific institutions. Its description as “technoactivist” reveals its critical and politicizing potential in the field of technology and knowledge production. In a second moment, we explore its political potential in the light of Social Movements' Theories and other ones related to political philosophy. In conclusion, the experience of Riereta offers us new ways of understanding the collective political action, its objects and agents.

  14. Butt Joint Tool Commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martovetsky, N N

    2007-12-06

    ITER Central Solenoid uses butt joints for connecting the pancakes in the CS module. The principles of the butt joining of the CICC were developed by the JAPT during CSMC project. The difference between the CSMC butt joint and the CS butt joint is that the CS butt joint is an in-line joint, while the CSMC is a double joint through a hairpin jumper. The CS butt joint has to carry the hoop load. The straight length of the joint is only 320 mm, and the vacuum chamber around the joint has to have a split in the clamp shell. These requirements are challenging. Fig.1 presents a CSMC joint, and Fig.2 shows a CS butt joint. The butt joint procedure was verified and demonstrated. The tool is capable of achieving all specified parameters. The vacuum in the end was a little higher than the target, which is not critical and readily correctable. We consider, tentatively that the procedure is established. Unexpectedly, we discover significant temperature nonuniformity in the joint cross section, which is not formally a violation of the specs, but is a point of concern. All testing parameters are recorded for QA purposes. We plan to modify the butt joining tool to improve its convenience of operation and provide all features necessary for production of butt joints by qualified personnel.

  15. Axially Ligated Phthalocyanine Conductors with Magnetic Moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamotsu Inabe

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This mini-review describes electrical conductivity, magnetic properties, and magnetotransport properties of one-dimensional partially oxidized salts composed of axially ligated phthalocyanines, TPP[M(Pc(CN2]2 (TPP = tetraphenylphosphonium, Pc = phthalocyaninato, with M of Fe (d5, S = 1/2 and Cr (d3, S = 3/2. These salts are isomorphous, and π–π interactions in the crystal, that becomes the origin of the charge carriers, are nearly the same. Both the Fe and Cr salts show carrier localization and charge disproportionation which is enhanced by the interaction between local magnetic moments and conduction π-electrons (π–d interaction. However, the magnetic properties are slightly different between them. M = Fe has been found to show unique anisotropic magnetic properties and antiferromagnetic short-range magnetic order between the d-spins. On the other hand, for M = Cr, its magnetic moment is isotropic. Temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility shows typical Curie–Weiss behavior with negative Weiss temperature, but the exchange interaction is complicated. Both M = Fe and M = Cr show large negative magnetoresistance, reflecting the difference in the anisotropy. The magnetoresistance ratio (MR is larger in the Fe system than in the Cr system in the low magnetic field range, but MR in the Cr system exceeds that in the Fe system when the magnetic field becomes higher than 15 T. We discuss the mechanism of the giant negative magnetoresistance with reference to the d–d, π–d, and π–π interactions.

  16. Electron Excitation of High Dipole Moment Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Paul; Kauffmann, Jens

    2018-01-01

    Emission from high-dipole moment molecules such as HCN allows determination of the density in molecular clouds, and is often considered to trace the “dense” gas available for star formation. We assess the importance of electron excitation in various environments. The ratio of the rate coefficients for electrons and H2 molecules, ~10^5 for HCN, yields the requirements for electron excitation to be of practical importance if n(H2) 10^{-5}, where the numerical factors reflect critical values n_c(H2) and X^*(e-). This indicates that in regions where a large fraction of carbon is ionized, X(e-) will be large enough to make electron excitation significant. The situation is in general similar for other “high density tracers”, including HCO+, CN, and CS. But there are significant differences in the critical electron fractional abundance, X^*(e-), defined by the value required for equal effect from collisions with H2 and e-. Electron excitation is, for example, unimportant for CO and C+. Electron excitation may be responsible for the surprisingly large spatial extent of the emission from dense gas tracers in some molecular clouds (Pety et al. 2017, Kauffmann, Goldsmith et al. 2017, A&A, submitted). The enhanced estimates for HCN abundances and HCN/CO and HCN/HCO+ ratios observed in the nuclear regions of luminous galaxies may be in part a result of electron excitation of high dipole moment tracers. The importance of electron excitation will depend on detailed models of the chemistry, which may well be non-steady state and non--static.

  17. The perfect message at the perfect moment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanam, Kirthi; Zweben, Monte

    2005-11-01

    Marketers planning promotional campaigns ask questions to boost the odds that the messages will be accepted: Who should receive each message? What should be its content? How should we deliver it? The one question they rarely ask is, when should we deliver it? That's too bad, because in marketing, timing is arguably the most important variable of all. Indeed, there are moments in a customer's relationship with a business when she wants to communicate with that business because something has changed. If the company contacts her with the right message in the right format at the right time, there's a good chance of a warm reception. The question of "when" can be answered by a new computer-based model called "dialogue marketing," which is, to date, the highest rung on an evolutionary ladder that ascends from database marketing to relationship marketing to one-to-one marketing. Its principle advantages over older approaches are that it is completely interactive, exploits many communication channels, and is "relationship aware": that is, it continuously tracks every nuance of the customer's interaction with the business. Thus, dialogue marketing responds to each transition in that relationship at the moment the customer requires attention. Turning a traditional marketing strategy into a dialogue-marketing program is a straightforward matter. Begin by identifying the batch communications you make with customers, then ask yourself what events could trigger those communications to make them more timely. Add a question or call to action to each message and prepare a different treatment or response for each possible answer. Finally, create a series of increasingly urgent calls to action that kick in if the question or call to action goes unanswered by the customer. As dialogue marketing proliferates, it may provide the solid new footing that Madison Avenue seeks.

  18. Reproducibility of hand-held ankle dynamometry to measure altered ankle moment-angle characteristics in children with spastic cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benard, M.R.; Jaspers, R.T.; Huijing, P.A.J.B.M.; Becher, J.G.S.J.S.; Harlaar, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: In children with spastic cerebral palsy, the range of motion of the ankle joint is often limited. Measurement of range of motion may be hampered by a non-rigid foot deformity. We constructed a hand-held instrument which allows measurements of static ankle angle and moment in children

  19. A 3D musculoskeletal model of the western lowland gorilla hind limb: moment arms and torque of the hip, knee and ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Colleen; Blanchard, Mary L; Crompton, Robin H; Gunther, Michael M; Macaulay, Sophie; Bates, Karl T

    2017-10-01

    Three-dimensional musculoskeletal models have become increasingly common for investigating muscle moment arms in studies of vertebrate locomotion. In this study we present the first musculoskeletal model of a western lowland gorilla hind limb. Moment arms of individual muscles around the hip, knee and ankle were compared with previously published data derived from the experimental tendon travel method. Considerable differences were found which we attribute to the different methodologies in this specific case. In this instance, we argue that our 3D model provides more accurate and reliable moment arm data than previously published data on the gorilla because our model incorporates more detailed consideration of the 3D geometry of muscles and the geometric constraints that exist on their lines-of-action about limb joints. Our new data have led us to revaluate the previous conclusion that muscle moment arms in the gorilla hind limb are optimised for locomotion with crouched or flexed limb postures. Furthermore, we found that bipedalism and terrestrial quadrupedalism coincided more regularly with higher moment arms and torque around the hip, knee and ankle than did vertical climbing. This indicates that the ability of a gorilla to walk bipedally is not restricted by musculoskeletal adaptations for quadrupedalism and vertical climbing, at least in terms of moment arms and torque about hind limb joints. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Anatomical Society.

  20. Magnetic properties of two-dimensional Josephson nets with SNS-junctions

    CERN Document Server

    Ishikaev, S M; Ryazanov, V V; Oboznov, V A

    2002-01-01

    The dependence of the magnetic moment of the square (100 x 100) Josephson nets with the SNS-transitions in the Nb-Cu sub 0 sub . sub 9 sub 5 Al sub 0 sub . 0 sub 5 -Nb on the field is studied through the SQUID-magnetometer. Significant difference in the behaviour during the process of the magnetic flux inlet into the net and its outlet from there was identified thereby. The regular periodical dependence with peaks corresponding to the whole and half number of the flux quanta per one cell is observed on the curve branches, where the increase in the field absolute value takes place. At the same time no visible peculiarities are noted by decrease in the field absolute value. The flux quasi-hydrodynamic motion in the net is explained by significant viscosity of the vortices during their passage through the Josephson junction

  1. Sex Differences in Limb and Joint Stiffness in Recreational Runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinclair Jonathan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Female runners are known to be at greater risk from chronic running injuries than age-matched males, although the exact mechanisms are often poorly understood. The aim of the current investigation was to determine if female recreational runners exhibit distinct limb and joint stiffness characteristics in relation to their male counterparts. Methods. Fourteen male and fourteen female runners ran over a force platform at 4.0 m · s-1. Lower limb kinematics were collected using an eight-camera optoelectric motion capture system operating at 250 Hz. Measures of limb and joint stiffness were calculated as a function of limb length and joint moments divided by the extent of limb and joint excursion. All stiffness and joint moment parameters were normalized to body mass. Sex differences in normalized limb and knee and ankle joint stiffness were examined statistically using independent samples t tests. Results. The results indicate that normalized limb (male = 0.18 ± 0.07, female = 0.37 ± 0.10 kN · kg · m-1 and knee stiffness (male = 5.59 ± 2.02, female = 7.34 ± 1.78 Nm · kg · rad-1 were significantly greater in female runners. Conclusions. On the basis that normalized knee and limb stiffness were shown to be significantly greater in female runners, the findings from the current investigation may provide further insight into the aetiology of the distinct injury patterns observed between sexes.

  2. NET 40 Generics Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Sudipta

    2012-01-01

    This is a concise, practical guide that will help you learn Generics in .NET, with lots of real world and fun-to-build examples and clear explanations. It is packed with screenshots to aid your understanding of the process. This book is aimed at beginners in Generics. It assumes some working knowledge of C# , but it isn't mandatory. The following would get the most use out of the book: Newbie C# developers struggling with Generics. Experienced C++ and Java Programmers who are migrating to C# and looking for an alternative to other generic frameworks like STL and JCF would find this book handy.

  3. The Net Reclassification Index (NRI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pepe, Margaret S.; Fan, Jing; Feng, Ziding

    2015-01-01

    The Net Reclassification Index (NRI) is a very popular measure for evaluating the improvement in prediction performance gained by adding a marker to a set of baseline predictors. However, the statistical properties of this novel measure have not been explored in depth. We demonstrate the alarming...... marker is proven to erroneously yield a positive NRI. Some insight into this phenomenon is provided. Since large values for the NRI statistic may simply be due to use of poorly fitting risk models, we suggest caution in using the NRI as the basis for marker evaluation. Other measures of prediction...

  4. Vertical Open Patella Fracture, Treatment, Rehabilitation and the Moment to Fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larangeira, Joao Alberto; Bellenzier, Liliane; Rigo, Vanessa da Silva; Ramos Neto, Elias Josue; Krum, Francisco Fritsch Machry; Ribeiro, Tiango Aguiar

    2015-01-01

    Patella fracture is relatively uncommon and the vertical trace fracture represents almost 12-17%. The open patella fracture expresses 6-30%. The association of these two uncommon conditions was the aim of this case report even as the treatment and the moment of fixation (definitive surgical treatment). A 27-year-old man after a motorcycle accident showed an open patella fracture classified as a Gustilo and Anderson type IIIA lesion. The patient was immediately treated with precocious surgery fixation with a modified tension band which consists of two parallel K-wires positioned orthogonal to the fracture line and a cerclage wire shaped anteriorly at patella as an eight. The premature fixation benefited the infection prevention and provided earlier joint motion, which increased the nutrition of articular cartilage. Six months postoperatively, the patient had a satisfactory joint motion with full extension and 116° of joint flexion and returned to his daily life activities without restriction. Twelve months postoperatively, the patient had full extension and 120° of knee flexion without pain, joint effusion and instability. Muscle strength force was considered normal at grade V. In conclusion, early chirurgic treatment and precocious articular mobilization improve prognosis, suggesting that the employment of these practices should be adopted whenever possible in most of the open fractures. PMID:25436033

  5. Joint Replacement (Finger and Wrist Joints)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... alternate procedures for treating arthritis include: Joint injections Oral medications such as aspirin or anti-inflammatory medicines Hand therapy exercises and protective splints Arthrodesis surgery to fuse bones together, which relieves pain by eliminating motion be-tween damaged joint surfaces ...

  6. Advances in Numerical Modeling of Adhesive Joints

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, Lucas Filipe Martins

    2012-01-01

    This book deals with the most recent numerical modeling of adhesive joints. Advances in damage mechanics and extended finite element method are described in the context of the Finite Element method with examples of application. The book also introduces the classical continuum mechanics and fracture mechanics approach and discusses the boundary element method and the finite difference method with indication of the cases they are most adapted to. At the moment there a no numerical technique that can solve any problem and the analyst needs to be aware of the limitations involved in each case.

  7. Gyral net: A new representation of cortical folding organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hanbo; Li, Yujie; Ge, Fangfei; Li, Gang; Shen, Dinggang; Liu, Tianming

    2017-12-01

    One distinct feature of the cerebral cortex is its convex (gyri) and concave (sulci) folding patterns. Due to the remarkable complexity and variability of gyral/sulcal shapes, it has been challenging to quantitatively model their organization patterns. Inspired by the observation that the lines of gyral crests can form a connected graph on each brain hemisphere, we propose a new representation of cortical gyri/sulci organization pattern - gyral net, which models cortical architecture from a graph perspective, starting with nodes and edges obtained from the reconstructed cortical surfaces. A novel computational framework is developed to efficiently and automatically construct gyral nets from surface meshes, and four measurements are devised to quantify the folding patterns. Using an MRI dataset for autism study as a test bed, we identified reduced local connectivity cost and increased curviness of gyral net bilaterally on the parietal lobe, occipital lobe, and temporal lobe in autistic patients. Additionally, we found that the cortical thickness and the gyral straightness of gyral joints are higher than the rest of gyral crest regions. The proposed representation offers a new tool for a comprehensive and reliable characterization of the cortical folding organization. This novel computational framework will enable large-scale analyses of cortical folding patterns in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Generalised joint hypermobility and knee joint hypermobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Tina; Henriksen, Peter; Hansen, Sebrina

    2017-01-01

    AIM: Several biomechanical factors, such as knee joint hypermobility (KJH), are suggested to play a role in the etiology of knee joint symptoms and knee osteoarthritis. Nevertheless, the prevalence or consequences of KJH solely or included in the classification of generalized joint hypermobility...... (GJHk) is unknown for a general population. Therefore, the objectives were to report the prevalence of self-reported GJHk and KJH, as well as the association of these conditions to knee joint symptoms, severity and duration of symptoms, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a Danish adult...... population. METHOD: This study is a cross-sectional population-based survey of 2056 Danish adults. Respondents received online questionnaires of GJHk and KJH, knee joint symptoms, the severity and duration of these, as well as HRQoL. RESULTS: Total response rate was 49% (n = 1006). The prevalence of self...

  9. Endogenous opioids regulate moment-to-moment neuronal communication and excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Bryony L; Gregoriou, Gabrielle C; Kissiwaa, Sarah A; Wells, Oliver A; Medagoda, Danashi I; Hermes, Sam M; Burford, Neil T; Alt, Andrew; Aicher, Sue A; Bagley, Elena E

    2017-03-22

    Fear and emotional learning are modulated by endogenous opioids but the cellular basis for this is unknown. The intercalated cells (ITCs) gate amygdala output and thus regulate the fear response. Here we find endogenous opioids are released by synaptic stimulation to act via two distinct mechanisms within the main ITC cluster. Endogenously released opioids inhibit glutamate release through the δ-opioid receptor (DOR), an effect potentiated by a DOR-positive allosteric modulator. Postsynaptically, the opioids activate a potassium conductance through the μ-opioid receptor (MOR), suggesting for the first time that endogenously released opioids directly regulate neuronal excitability. Ultrastructural localization of endogenous ligands support these functional findings. This study demonstrates a new role for endogenously released opioids as neuromodulators engaged by synaptic activity to regulate moment-to-moment neuronal communication and excitability. These distinct actions through MOR and DOR may underlie the opposing effect of these receptor systems on anxiety and fear.

  10. A variational approach to moment-closure approximations for the kinetics of biomolecular reaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronstein, Leo; Koeppl, Heinz

    2018-01-07

    Approximate solutions of the chemical master equation and the chemical Fokker-Planck equation are an important tool in the analysis of biomolecular reaction networks. Previous studies have highlighted a number of problems with the moment-closure approach used to obtain such approximations, calling it an ad hoc method. In this article, we give a new variational derivation of moment-closure equations which provides us with an intuitive understanding of their properties and failure modes and allows us to correct some of these problems. We use mixtures of product-Poisson distributions to obtain a flexible parametric family which solves the commonly observed problem of divergences at low system sizes. We also extend the recently introduced entropic matching approach to arbitrary ansatz distributions and Markov processes, demonstrating that it is a special case of variational moment closure. This provides us with a particularly principled approximation method. Finally, we extend the above approaches to cover the approximation of multi-time joint distributions, resulting in a viable alternative to process-level approximations which are often intractable.

  11. A variational approach to moment-closure approximations for the kinetics of biomolecular reaction networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronstein, Leo; Koeppl, Heinz

    2018-01-01

    Approximate solutions of the chemical master equation and the chemical Fokker-Planck equation are an important tool in the analysis of biomolecular reaction networks. Previous studies have highlighted a number of problems with the moment-closure approach used to obtain such approximations, calling it an ad hoc method. In this article, we give a new variational derivation of moment-closure equations which provides us with an intuitive understanding of their properties and failure modes and allows us to correct some of these problems. We use mixtures of product-Poisson distributions to obtain a flexible parametric family which solves the commonly observed problem of divergences at low system sizes. We also extend the recently introduced entropic matching approach to arbitrary ansatz distributions and Markov processes, demonstrating that it is a special case of variational moment closure. This provides us with a particularly principled approximation method. Finally, we extend the above approaches to cover the approximation of multi-time joint distributions, resulting in a viable alternative to process-level approximations which are often intractable.

  12. RESEARCH OPPORTUNITIES TO IMPROVE THE HEALTH OF THE BOLTED JOINTS OF GAS TURBINE ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor E. Medentsov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the choice of the lubricants for using in the bolted joints of the serial gas-turbine engine AL-31. In a modern gas turbine engine complex bolted joints operating in various conditions are used. They are subject to demolition in the repair process, in which they break as the result of burning and thus the increase of the breakaway mo- ment. On the basis of maintenance conditions analysis there were determined the most characteristic defects in bolted joints, as well as the reasons for their occurrence. It was established that the main cause of failure of bolted joints is the increase breakaway moment of bolted joint. To reduce the breakaway moment one should choose such lubricants as to re- duce the thermal influence on the bolt and prevent it from being destroyed in the disassembly process. For choosing lubri- cations the analysis of the requirements for lubricants for bolted joints used at high temperatures was conducted. Lubricants choice was made based on the results of a comparative study of various compositions of lubricant application in the process of field testing. This research work is aimed to improve the efficiency of bolted connections in a wide operating range and to prevent the increase breakaway moments in gas-turbine engine repair. Obtained in the process of field testing results allow to suggest a lubricant that can be used in the bolt connection operating at high temperatures and to reduce the break- away moment compared to the commercially used one.

  13. MP Joint Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... crack extends into the joint Certain medical conditions ( rheumatoid arthritis , gout and pseudogout , psoriasis, etc.) Infections, often after a cut, puncture or animal bites where bacteria are introduced into the joint and cause rapid ...

  14. Knee joint replacement - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100088.htm Knee joint replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... to slide 4 out of 4 Overview The knee is a complex joint. It contains the distal ...

  15. Analytical Derivation of Moment Equations in Stochastic Chemical Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulos, Vassilios; Kaznessis, Yiannis N.

    2011-01-01

    The master probability equation captures the dynamic behavior of a variety of stochastic phenomena that can be modeled as Markov processes. Analytical solutions to the master equation are hard to come by though because they require the enumeration of all possible states and the determination of the transition probabilities between any two states. These two tasks quickly become intractable for all but the simplest of systems. Instead of determining how the probability distribution changes in time, we can express the master probability distribution as a function of its moments, and, we can then write transient equations for the probability distribution moments. In 1949, Moyal defined the derivative, or jump, moments of the master probability distribution. These are measures of the rate of change in the probability distribution moment values, i.e. what the impact is of any given transition between states on the moment values. In this paper we present a general scheme for deriving analytical moment equations for any N-dimensional Markov process as a function of the jump moments. Importantly, we propose a scheme to derive analytical expressions for the jump moments for any N-dimensional Markov process. To better illustrate the concepts, we focus on stochastic chemical kinetics models for which we derive analytical relations for jump moments of arbitrary order. Chemical kinetics models are widely used to capture the dynamic behavior of biological systems. The elements in the jump moment expressions are a function of the stoichiometric matrix and the reaction propensities, i.e the probabilistic reaction rates. We use two toy examples, a linear and a non-linear set of reactions, to demonstrate the applicability and limitations of the scheme. Finally, we provide an estimate on the minimum number of moments necessary to obtain statistical significant data that would uniquely determine the dynamics of the underlying stochastic chemical kinetic system. The first two moments

  16. Properties of Orthogonal Gaussian-Hermite Moments and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Shen

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Moments are widely used in pattern recognition, image processing, and computer vision and multiresolution analysis. In this paper, we first point out some properties of the orthogonal Gaussian-Hermite moments, and propose a new method to detect the moving objects by using the orthogonal Gaussian-Hermite moments. The experiment results are reported, which show the good performance of our method.

  17. Zernike moments features for shape-based gait recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Huanfeng; Qin, Lan; Liu, Jun; Chao, Jiang

    2011-12-01

    The paper proposes a new spatio-temporal gait representation, called cycles gait Zernike moments (CGZM), to characterize human walking properties for individual recognition. Firstly, Zernike moments as shape descriptors are used to characterize gait silhouette shape. Secondly, we generate CGZM from Zernike moments of silhouette sequences. Finally, the phase and magnitude coefficientsof CGZM are utilized to perform classification by the modified Hausdorff distance (MHD) classifier. Experimental results show that the proposed approach have an encouraging recognition performance.

  18. Study upon the Moment of Ovulation in Sows to Establish the Optimum Moment for Semen Inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Sandu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of artificial insemination depends equaly by semen quality and time of inoculation. The optimal time for inoculation was calculated usually from the moment of detection of heat, for double insemination, so that one of the two inoculations to approach the time of ovulation. To increase the efficiency of boars exploitation is necesary to change the method to a single insemination. To ensure normal fertility parameters with only one inoculation it is necessary to chose with great precision the moment of insemination ,in order to ensure the time for sperm capacitation and penetration of viable oocytes. Starting from the fact that major events such as forrowing and death occur, according to the circadian rhythm, in the second half of the night, this study aims to detect from this point of view the moment of ovulation, to find a more reliable calculation for the time of semen inoculation. The experiments were conducted on puberal gilts, which were not treated for induction of ovulation; the control for detecting the follicular dehiscence was done only on physiological oestrus. Females having symptoms at heat control were subject to series of laparatomias, complete with collection and examination of oocytes.

  19. Managing Joint Production Motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindenberg, Siegwart; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2011-01-01

    We contribute to the microfoundations of organizational performance by proffering the construct of joint production motivation. Under such motivational conditions individuals see themselves as part of a joint endeavor, each with his or her own roles and responsibilities; generate shared...... representations of actions and tasks; cognitively coordinate cooperation; and choose their own behaviors in terms of joint goals. Using goal-framing theory, we explain how motivation for joint production can be managed by cognitive/symbolic management and organizational design....

  20. Distal radioulnar joint injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Binu P.; Raveendran Sreekanth

    2012-01-01

    Distal radioulnar joint is a trochoid joint relatively new in evolution. Along with proximal radioulnar joint , forearm bones and interosseous membrane, it allows pronosupination and load transmission across the wrist. Injuries around distal radioulnar joint are not uncommon, and are usually associated with distal radius fractures,fractures of the ulnar styloid and with the eponymous Galeazzi or Essex_Lopresti fractures. The injury can be purely involving the soft tissue especially the triang...

  1. Estimating the Mechanical Behavior of the Knee Joint during Crouch Gait: Implications for Real-Time Motor Control of Robotic Knee Orthoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiano, Diane L.; Bulea, Thomas C.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with cerebral palsy frequently exhibit crouch gait, a pathological walking pattern characterized by excessive knee flexion. Knowledge of the knee joint moment during crouch gait is necessary for the design and control of assistive devices used for treatment. Our goal was to 1) develop statistical models to estimate knee joint moment extrema and dynamic stiffness during crouch gait, and 2) use the models to estimate the instantaneous joint moment during weight-acceptance. We retrospectively computed knee moments from 10 children with crouch gait and used stepwise linear regression to develop statistical models describing the knee moment features. The models explained at least 90% of the response value variability: peak moment in early (99%) and late (90%) stance, and dynamic stiffness of weight-acceptance flexion (94%) and extension (98%). We estimated knee extensor moment profiles from the predicted dynamic stiffness and instantaneous knee angle. This approach captured the timing and shape of the computed moment (root-mean-squared error: 2.64 Nm); including the predicted early-stance peak moment as a correction factor improved model performance (root-mean-squared error: 1.37 Nm). Our strategy provides a practical, accurate method to estimate the knee moment during crouch gait, and could be used for real-time, adaptive control of robotic orthoses. PMID:27101612

  2. Higher Moments of Weighted Integrals of Non-Gaussian Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Gunnar

    1996-01-01

    In general , the exact probability distribution of a definite non-Gaussian random field is not known. Some information about this unknown distribution can be obtained from the 3rd and 4th moment of the integral. Approximations to these moments are calculated by a numerical technique based...... on recursive application of Winterstein approximations) moment fitted linear combinations of Hermite Polynomials of standard Gaussian variables). By use of computerized symbol manipulations it is practicable to obtain exact moments (up to order 4) of partial weighted sums of mutually dependent variables...

  3. Extension of moment projection method to the fragmentation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Shaohua [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Engineering Block EA, Engineering Drive 1, 117576 (Singapore); Yapp, Edward K.Y.; Akroyd, Jethro; Mosbach, Sebastian [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, New Museums Site, Pembroke Street, Cambridge, CB2 3RA (United Kingdom); Xu, Rong [School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 62 Nanyang Drive, 637459 (Singapore); Yang, Wenming [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Engineering Block EA, Engineering Drive 1, 117576 (Singapore); Kraft, Markus, E-mail: mk306@cam.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, New Museums Site, Pembroke Street, Cambridge, CB2 3RA (United Kingdom); School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 62 Nanyang Drive, 637459 (Singapore)

    2017-04-15

    The method of moments is a simple but efficient method of solving the population balance equation which describes particle dynamics. Recently, the moment projection method (MPM) was proposed and validated for particle inception, coagulation, growth and, more importantly, shrinkage; here the method is extended to include the fragmentation process. The performance of MPM is tested for 13 different test cases for different fragmentation kernels, fragment distribution functions and initial conditions. Comparisons are made with the quadrature method of moments (QMOM), hybrid method of moments (HMOM) and a high-precision stochastic solution calculated using the established direct simulation algorithm (DSA) and advantages of MPM are drawn.

  4. Joint Cell Association and User Scheduling in Carrier Aggregated Heterogeneous Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the network capacity maximization problem through joint cell association and user scheduling with multiple carrier aggregation (CA in the heterogeneous networks (HetNets. For the downlink transmission, the proposed joint maximization problem is reformulated from single data flow into multiple data flow through carrier aggregated HetNets, in which the users could associate with BSs on more than one carrier band. Such a flexible joint maximization problem could be solved by convex optimization solutions with reasonable complexity. Numerical analysis has confirmed the performance advantages of the proposed multi-flow solution under different carrier aggregation deployment.

  5. International joint ventures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2001-01-01

    The article analysis problems connected with corporate joint ventures. Among others the possible conflicts between the joint venture agreement and the statutes of the companies is examined, as well as certain problems connected to the fact that the joint venture partners have created commen contr...

  6. Bridges Expansion Joints

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey W. Kozlachkow

    2012-01-01

    The survey is concerned with the expansion joints, used in bridge constructions to compensate medium and significant operational linear and spatial displacements between adjacent spans or between bridge span and pier. The analysis of design features of these types of expansion joints, their advantages and disadvantages, based on operational experience justified the necessity to design constructions, meeting the modern demands imposed to expansion joints.

  7. Estimating 3D L5/S1 moments and ground reaction forces during trunk bending using a full-body ambulatory inertial motion capture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, G S; Chang, C C; Kingma, I; Dennerlein, J T; van Dieën, J H

    2016-04-11

    Inertial motion capture (IMC) systems have become increasingly popular for ambulatory movement analysis. However, few studies have attempted to use these measurement techniques to estimate kinetic variables, such as joint moments and ground reaction forces (GRFs). Therefore, we investigated the performance of a full-body ambulatory IMC system in estimating 3D L5/S1 moments and GRFs during symmetric, asymmetric and fast trunk bending, performed by nine male participants. Using an ambulatory IMC system (Xsens/MVN), L5/S1 moments were estimated based on the upper-body segment kinematics using a top-down inverse dynamics analysis, and GRFs were estimated based on full-body segment accelerations. As a reference, a laboratory measurement system was utilized: GRFs were measured with Kistler force plates (FPs), and L5/S1 moments were calculated using a bottom-up inverse dynamics model based on FP data and lower-body kinematics measured with an optical motion capture system (OMC). Correspondence between the OMC+FP and IMC systems was quantified by calculating root-mean-square errors (RMSerrors) of moment/force time series and the interclass correlation (ICC) of the absolute peak moments/forces. Averaged over subjects, L5/S1 moment RMSerrors remained below 10Nm (about 5% of the peak extension moment) and 3D GRF RMSerrors remained below 20N (about 2% of the peak vertical force). ICCs were high for the peak L5/S1 extension moment (0.971) and vertical GRF (0.998). Due to lower amplitudes, smaller ICCs were found for the peak asymmetric L5/S1 moments (0.690-0.781) and horizontal GRFs (0.559-0.948). In conclusion, close correspondence was found between the ambulatory IMC-based and laboratory-based estimates of back load. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Research regarding wires elastic deformations influence on joints positioning of a wire-driven robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciofu, C.; Stan, G.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we present the influence of driving wires deformation on positioning precision of joints from an elephant's trunk robotic arm. Robotic arms driven by wires have the joint accuracy largely depending on wires rigidity. The joint moment of resistance causes elastic deformation of wires and it is determined by: manipulated object load, weight loads previous to the analyzed joint and inherent resistance moment of joint. Static load analysis emphasizes the particular wires elastic deformation of each driven joint from an elephant's trunk robotic arm with five degrees of freedom. We consider the case of a constant manipulated load. Errors from each driving system of joints are not part of the closed loop system. Thus, precision positioning depends on wires elastic deformation which is about microns and causes angle deviation of joints about tens of minutes of sexagesimal degrees. The closer the joints to base arm the smaller positioning precision of joint. The obtained results are necessary for further compensation made by electronic corrections in the programming algorithm of the elephant's trunk robotic arm to improve accuracy.

  9. The Electric Dipole Moment of the Electron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commins, Eugene D.; Demille, David

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Overview of relevant particle theory * Electron EDM in the Standard Model * Electron EDM in extensions of the Standard Model * Introduction to experimental basis for electron EDM searches * Other sources of atomic and molecular EDMs * Theoretical Basis of Electron EDM Experiments * Proper-Lorentz-invariant EDM Lagrangian density * Schiff's theorem * Enhancement factors for paramagnetic atoms * Is there a simple intuitive explanation for the Sandars effect? * P,T-odd electron-nucleon interaction * Paramagnetic molecules * Electron EDM Experiments * General overview * A simple model experiment * Noise * Systematic errors * The Berkeley thallium atomic beam experiment * Cesium optical pumping experiments * Cesium optical trap experiments * The francium optical trap experiment * The YbF experiment * The PbO experiment * The ThO experiment * The proposed HfF+ experiment * Electron EDM solid-state experiments * Basic ideas * The Indiana GGG experiment * The Amherst GdIG experiment * Atomic T,P-odd polarizability. Molecular T,P-odd magnetic moment * Acknowledgments * References

  10. The moment of proof mathematical epiphanies

    CERN Document Server

    Benson, Donald C

    2000-01-01

    When Archimedes, while bathing, suddenly hit upon the principle of buoyancy, he ran wildly through the streets of Syracuse, stark naked, crying "eureka!" In The Moment of Proof, Donald Benson attempts to convey to general readers the feeling of eureka--the joy of discovery--that mathematicians feel when they first encounter an elegant proof. This is not an introduction to mathematics so much as an introduction to the pleasures of mathematical thinking. And indeed the delights of this book are many and varied. The book is packed with intriguing conundrums--Loyd''s Fifteen Puzzle, the Petersburg Paradox, the Chaos Game, the Monty Hall Problem, the Prisoners'' Dilemma--as well as many mathematical curiosities. We learn how to perform the arithmetical proof called "casting out nines" and are introduced to Russian peasant multiplication, a bizarre way to multiply numbers that actually works. The book shows us how to calculate the number of ways a chef can combine ten or fewer spices to flavor his soup (1,024) and ...

  11. Electric Dipole Moments in the MSSM Reloaded

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Pilaftsis, Apostolos

    2008-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the Thallium, neutron, Mercury and deuteron electric dipole moments (EDMs) in the CP-violating Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM). We take into account the complete set of one-loop graphs, the dominant Higgs-mediated two-loop diagrams, the complete CP-odd dimension-six Weinberg operator and the Higgs-mediated four-fermion operators. We improve upon earlier calculations by including the resummation effects due to CP-violating Higgs-boson mixing and to threshold corrections to the Yukawa couplings of all up- and down-type quarks and charged leptons. As an application of our study, we analyse the EDM constraints on the CPX, trimixing and Maximally CP- and Minimally Flavour-Violating (MCPMFV) scenarios. Cancellations may occur among the CP-violating contributions to the three measured EDMs arising from the 6 CP-violating phases in the MCPMFV scenario, leaving open the possibility of relatively large contributions to other CP-violating observables. The anal...

  12. -Net Approach to Sensor -Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusco Giordano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensors rely on battery power, and in many applications it is difficult or prohibitive to replace them. Hence, in order to prolongate the system's lifetime, some sensors can be kept inactive while others perform all the tasks. In this paper, we study the -coverage problem of activating the minimum number of sensors to ensure that every point in the area is covered by at least sensors. This ensures higher fault tolerance, robustness, and improves many operations, among which position detection and intrusion detection. The -coverage problem is trivially NP-complete, and hence we can only provide approximation algorithms. In this paper, we present an algorithm based on an extension of the classical -net technique. This method gives an -approximation, where is the number of sensors in an optimal solution. We do not make any particular assumption on the shape of the areas covered by each sensor, besides that they must be closed, connected, and without holes.

  13. Comparison of global and joint-to-joint methods for estimating the hip joint load and the muscle forces during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraysse, F; Dumas, R; Cheze, L; Wang, X

    2009-10-16

    A three-dimensional musculoskeletal model of the lower limb was developed to study the influence of biarticular muscles on the muscle force distribution and joint loads during walking. A complete walking cycle was recorded for 9 healthy subjects using the standard optoelectronic motion tracking system. Ground contact forces were also measured using a 6-axes force plate. Inverse dynamics was used to compute net joint reactions (forces and torques) in the lower limb. A static optimization method was then used to estimate muscle forces. Two different approaches were used: in the first one named global method, the biarticular muscles exerted a torque on the two joints they spanned at the same time, and in the second one called joint-by-joint method, these biarticular muscles were divided into two mono-articular muscles with geometrical (insertion, origin, via points) and physiological properties remained unchanged. The hip joint load during the gait cycle was then calculated taking into account the effect of muscle contractions. The two approaches resulted in different muscle force repartition: the biarticular muscles were favoured over any set of single-joint muscles with the same physiological function when using the global method. While the two approaches yielded only little difference in the resultant hip load, the examination of muscle power showed that biarticular muscles could produce positive work at one joint and negative work at the other, transferring energy between body segments and thus decreasing the metabolic cost of movement.

  14. Sloped Connections and Connections with Fillet Welded Continuity Plates for Seismic Design of Special Moment Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashayekh, Adel

    Steel Special Moment Frames (SMF) are one of the most popular lateral force-resisting systems for multistory building construction in high seismic regions due to their architectural versatility. With a significant amount of research that was conducted after the 1994 Northridge, California earthquake, AISC has published design guidelines (AISC 341 and AISC 358) to avoid brittle fracture of beam-to-column welded moment connections that occurred in more than 100 steel buildings. This dissertation addresses two issues related to the moment connection design of SMF. Unless the column flanges are sufficiently thick, AISC 341 requires that continuity plates be installed, and that expensive complete-joint-penetration (CJP) groove welds be used to connect the continuity plates to the column flanges; the conservative nature of this requirement stems from a lack of procedure that the designer can use to quantify the required seismic forces in the continuity plates such that more economical welds (e.g., fillet welds) can be used. The first objective of this research was to investigate a design procedure and to verify it with full-scale testing of two Reduced Beam Section (RBS) moment connections. It was shown that the proposed design procedure could result in a more economical weld design while developing the ductile response of the moment connection. AISC seismic design codes implicitly assume that beams are orthogonal to the columns in elevation, but in real-life construction beams are sometimes connected to the columns with a slope. To fill this knowledge gap, both experimental and analytical studies were conducted. Full-scale testing of two additional moment connections with a 25° angle of inclination showed that sloped connections are vulnerable to brittle fracture at the "heel" location, where the beam flange and column form an acute angle. Fracture would initiate from the end of beam web CJP weld and the weld access hole. Guided by finite element simulation, a truss

  15. Joint Loading in the Sagittal Plane During Gait Is Associated With Hip Joint Abnormalities in Patients With Femoroacetabular Impingement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaan, Michael A; Schwaiger, Benedikt J; Gallo, Matthew C; Sada, Kiyoshi; Link, Thomas M; Zhang, Alan L; Majumdar, Sharmila; Souza, Richard B

    2017-03-01

    0.22 m/s; P = .20) and 6MWT performance (FAI: 628.0 ± 91.2 m; control: 667.2 ± 73.4 m; P = .13). The FAI group demonstrated increased hip flexion moment impulses (FAI: 0.14 ± 0.04 N·m·s/kg; control: 0.11 ± 0.03 N·m·s/kg; P = .03), peak ankle dorsiflexion moments (FAI: 1.64 ± 0.16 N·m/kg; control: 1.46 ± 0.31 N·m/kg; P = .04), and ankle dorsiflexion moment impulses (FAI: 0.39 ± 0.07 N·m·s/kg; control: 0.31 ± 0.07 N·m·s/kg; P = .01) compared with the control group. Within the FAI group, an increased hip flexion moment impulse during walking was significantly correlated with increased pain ( r = -0.60, P = .03), decreased ADL ( r = -0.57, P = .04), and increased severity of acetabular cartilage abnormalities (ρ = 0.82, P FAI exhibited altered hip and ankle joint loading patterns during walking. These data suggest that patients with FAI demonstrate both local and distal joint alterations during walking and that hip joint loading is directly related to hip joint abnormalities. The results of this study suggest that the hip flexion moment impulse may be an important biomechanical parameter to understand FAI, as the hip flexion moment impulse during walking was shown to be directly related to hip joint abnormalities on MRI.

  16. Effect of push handle height on net moments and forces on the musculoskeletal system during standardized wheelchair pushing tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Woude, L H; Van Koningsbruggen, C M; Kroes, A L; Kingma, I

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to analyze the external forces and biomechanical loading on the musculoskeletal system during wheelchair pushing, in relation to different push handle heights. In addition, recommendations for wheelchair pushing in accordance with push handle height are made. Eight

  17. Miniature, Variable-Speed Control Moment Gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilski, Steve; Kline-Schoder, Robert; Sorensen, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The Miniature Variable-Speed Control Moment Gyroscope (MVS-CMG) was designed for small satellites (mass from less than 1 kg up to 500 kg). Currently available CMGs are too large and heavy, and available miniature CMGs do not provide sufficient control authority for use on practical satellites. This primarily results from the need to greatly increase the speed of rotation of the flywheel in order to reduce the flywheel size and mass. This goal was achieved by making use of a proprietary, space-qualified, high-speed (100,000 rpm) motor technology to spin the flywheel at a speed ten times faster than other known miniature CMGs under development. NASA is supporting innovations in propulsion, power, and guidance and navigation systems for low-cost small spacecraft. One of the key enabling technologies is attitude control mechanisms. CMGs are particularly attractive for spacecraft attitude control since they can achieve higher torques with lower mass and power than reaction wheels, and they provide continuous torque capability that enables precision pointing (in contrast to on-off thruster control). The aim of this work was to develop a miniature, variable-speed CMG that is sized for use on small satellites. To achieve improved agility, these spacecraft must be able to slew at high rate, which requires attitude control actuators that can apply torques on the order of 5 N-m. The MVS-CMG is specifically designed to achieve a high-torque output with a minimum flywheel and system mass. The flywheel can be run over a wide range of speeds, which is important to help reduce/eliminate potential gimbal lock, and can be used to optimize the operational envelope of the CMG.

  18. Elliptic integral evaluations of Bessel moments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.; Broadhurst, David; Glasser, M.L.

    2008-01-06

    We record what is known about the closed forms for variousBessel function moments arising in quantum field theory, condensed mattertheory and other parts of mathematical physics. More generally, wedevelop formulae for integrals of products of six or fewer Besselfunctions. In consequence, we are able to discover and prove closed formsfor c(n,k) := Int_0 inf tk K_0 n(t) dt, with integers n = 1, 2, 3, 4 andk greater than or equal to 0, obtaining new results for the even momentsc3,2k and c4,2k . We also derive new closed forms for the odd momentss(n,2k+1) := Int_0 inf t(2k+1) I_0(t) K_0n(t) dt,with n = 3, 4 and fort(n,2k+1) := Int_0 inf t(2k+1) I_02(t) K_0(n-2) dt, with n = 5, relatingthe latter to Green functions on hexagonal, diamond and cubic lattices.We conjecture the values of s(5,2k+1), make substantial progress on theevaluation of c(5,2k+1), s(6,2k+1) and t(6,2k+1) and report more limitedprogress regarding c(5,2k), c(6,2k+1) and c(6,2k). In the process, weobtain 8 conjectural evaluations, each of which has been checked to 1200decimal places. One of these lies deep in 4-dimensional quantum fieldtheory and two are probably provable by delicate combinatorics. Thereremains a hard core of five conjectures whose proofs would be mostinstructive, to mathematicians and physicists alike.

  19. A sparse flat extension theorem for moment matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Laurent (Monique); B. Mourrain

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this note we prove a generalization of the flat extension theorem of Curto and Fialkow [4] for truncated moment matrices. It applies to moment matrices indexed by an arbitrary set of monomials and its border, assuming that this set is connected to 1. When formulated in a basis-free

  20. A generalized flat extension theorem for moment matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Laurent (Monique); B. Mourrain

    2009-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this note we prove a generalization of the flat extension theorem of Curto and Fialkow [4] for truncated moment matrices. It applies to moment matrices indexed by an arbitrary set of monomials and its border, assuming that this set is connected to 1. When formulated in a basis-free

  1. Score Function of Distribution and Revival of the Moment Method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fabián, Zdeněk

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 4 (2016), s. 1118-1136 ISSN 0361-0926 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG12020 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : characteristics of distributions * data characteristics * general moment method * Huber moment estimator * parametric methods * score function Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.311, year: 2016

  2. Wigner distribution moments in fractional Fourier transform systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiaans, Martin J; Alieva, Tatiana

    2002-09-01

    It is shown how all global Wigner distribution moments of arbitrary order in the output plane of a (generally anamorphic) two-dimensional fractional Fourier transform system can be expressed in terms of the moments in the input plane. Since Wigner distribution moments are identical to derivatives of the ambiguity function at the origin, a similar relation holds for these derivatives. The general input-output relationship is then broken down into a number of rotation-type input-output relationships between certain combinations of moments. It is shown how the Wigner distribution moments (or ambiguity function derivatives) can be measured as intensity moments in the output planes of a set of appropriate fractional Fourier transform systems and thus be derived from the corresponding fractional power spectra. The minimum number of (anamorphic) fractional power spectra that are needed for the determination of these moments is derived. As an important by-product we get a number of moment combinations that are invariant under (anamorphic) fractional Fourier transformation.

  3. Factorial moment -generating function and the Pascal distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given a distribution, the cumulants or factorial moments can be used to obtain the skewness and kurtosis which in turn are used to determine the normal approximation of the given distribution. It is shown in this paper that for the Pascal Distribution, the factorial moment generating function provides a simpler technique.

  4. Spin Structure Moments of the Proton and Deuteron

    CERN Document Server

    Slifer, K; Aghalaryan, A; Ahmidouch, A; Asaturyan, R; Bloch, F; Boeglin, W; Bosted, P; Carasco, C; Carlini, R; Cha, J; Chen, J P; Christy, M E; Cole, L; Coman, L; Crabb, D; Danagulyan, S; Day, D; Dunne, J; Elaasar, M; Ent, R; Fenker, H; Frlez, E; Gaskell, D; Gan, L; Gómez, J; Hu, B; Jourdan, J; Jones, M K; Keith, C; Keppel, C E; Khandaker, M; Klein, A; Kramer, L; Liang, Y; Lichtenstadt, J; Lindgren, R; Mack, D; McKee, P; McNulty, D; Meekins, D; Mkrtchyan, H; Nasseripour, R; Niculescu, I; Normand, K; Norum, B; Pocanic, D; Prok, Y; Raue, B; Reinhold, J; Roche, J; Kiselev, D; Savvinov, N; Sawatzky, B; Seely, M; Sick, I; Smith, C; Smith, G; Stepanyan, S; Tang, L; Tajima, S; Testa, G; Vulcan, W; Wang, K; Warren, G; Wesselmann, F R; Wood, S; Yan, C; Yuan, L; Yun, J; Zeier, M; Zhu, H

    2008-01-01

    Moments of the spin structure functions g1 and g2 of the proton and deuteron have been measured in the resonance region at intermediate four momentum transfer. We perform a Nachtmann moment analysis of this data, along with isovector and isoscalar combinations, in order to rigorously account for target mass effects. This analysis provides the first definitive evidence for dynamic higher twists.

  5. Bimodal distribution of the magnetic dipole moment in nanoparticles with a monomodal distribution of the physical size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rijssel, Jos van; Kuipers, Bonny W.M.; Erné, Ben H., E-mail: B.H.Erne@uu.nl

    2015-04-15

    High-frequency applications of magnetic nanoparticles, such as therapeutic hyperthermia and magnetic particle imaging, are sensitive to nanoparticle size and dipole moment. Usually, it is assumed that magnetic nanoparticles with a log-normal distribution of the physical size also have a log-normal distribution of the magnetic dipole moment. Here, we test this assumption for different types of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in the 5–20 nm range, by multimodal fitting of magnetization curves using the MINORIM inversion method. The particles are studied while in dilute colloidal dispersion in a liquid, thereby preventing hysteresis and diminishing the effects of magnetic anisotropy on the interpretation of the magnetization curves. For two different types of well crystallized particles, the magnetic distribution is indeed log-normal, as expected from the physical size distribution. However, two other types of particles, with twinning defects or inhomogeneous oxide phases, are found to have a bimodal magnetic distribution. Our qualitative explanation is that relatively low fields are sufficient to begin aligning the particles in the liquid on the basis of their net dipole moment, whereas higher fields are required to align the smaller domains or less magnetic phases inside the particles. - Highlights: • Multimodal fits of dilute ferrofluids reveal when the particles are multidomain. • No a priori shape of the distribution is assumed by the MINORIM inversion method. • Well crystallized particles have log-normal TEM and magnetic size distributions. • Defective particles can combine a monomodal size and a bimodal dipole moment.

  6. Influence of Different Hip Joint Centre Locations on Hip and Knee Joint Kinetics and Kinematics During the Squat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinclair Jonathan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Identification of the hip joint centre (HJC is important in the biomechanical examination of human movement. However, there is yet to be any published information regarding the influence of different HJC locations on hip and knee joint kinetics during functional tasks. This study aimed to examine the influence of four different HJC techniques on 3- D hip and knee joint kinetics/kinematics during the squat. Hip and knee joint kinetics/kinematics of the squat were obtained from fifteen male participants using an eight camera motion capture system. The 3-D kinetics/kinematics of the squat were quantified using four hip joint centre estimation techniques. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to compare the discrete parameters as a function of each HJC location. The results show that significant differences in joint angles and moment parameters were evident at both the hip and knee joint in the coronal and transverse planes. These observations indicate that when calculating non-sagittal joint kinetics/kinematics during the squat, researchers should carefully consider their HJC method as it may significantly affect the interpretation of their data.

  7. Application and Theory of Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 13th International Conference onApplication and Theory of Petri Nets, held in Sheffield, England, in June 1992. The aim of the Petri net conferences is to create a forum for discussing progress in the application and theory of Petri nets. Typically....... Balbo and W. Reisig, 18 submitted papers, and seven project papers. The submitted papers and project presentations were selectedby the programme committee and a panel of referees from a large number of submissions....

  8. Are You Neutral About Net Neutrality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-20

    Information Resources Management College National Defense University Are You Neutral About Net Neutrality ? A presentation for Systems & Software...author uses Verizon FiOS for phone, TV, and internet service 3 Agenda Net Neutrality —Through 2 Lenses Who Are the Players & What Are They Saying...Medical Treatment Mini-Case Studies Updates Closing Thoughts 4 Working Definitions of Net Neutrality "Network Neutrality" is the concept that

  9. Texture Based Image Analysis With Neural Nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilovici, Irina S.; Ong, Hoo-Tee; Ostrander, Kim E.

    1990-03-01

    In this paper, we combine direct image statistics and spatial frequency domain techniques with a neural net model to analyze texture based images. The resultant optimal texture features obtained from the direct and transformed image form the exemplar pattern of the neural net. The proposed approach introduces an automated texture analysis applied to metallography for determining the cooling rate and mechanical working of the materials. The results suggest that the proposed method enhances the practical applications of neural nets and texture extraction features.

  10. Factors associated with mosquito net use by individuals in households owning nets in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graves Patricia M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ownership of insecticidal mosquito nets has dramatically increased in Ethiopia since 2006, but the proportion of persons with access to such nets who use them has declined. It is important to understand individual level net use factors in the context of the home to modify programmes so as to maximize net use. Methods Generalized linear latent and mixed models (GLLAMM were used to investigate net use using individual level data from people living in net-owning households from two surveys in Ethiopia: baseline 2006 included 12,678 individuals from 2,468 households and a sub-sample of the Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS in 2007 included 14,663 individuals from 3,353 households. Individual factors (age, sex, pregnancy; net factors (condition, age, net density; household factors (number of rooms [2006] or sleeping spaces [2007], IRS, women's knowledge and school attendance [2007 only], wealth, altitude; and cluster level factors (rural or urban were investigated in univariate and multi-variable models for each survey. Results In 2006, increased net use was associated with: age 25-49 years (adjusted (a OR = 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.2-1.7 compared to children U5; female gender (aOR = 1.4; 95% CI 1.2-1.5; fewer nets with holes (Ptrend = 0.002; and increasing net density (Ptrend [all nets in HH good] = 1.6; 95% CI 1.2-2.1; increasing net density (Ptrend [per additional space] = 0.6, 95% CI 0.5-0.7; more old nets (aOR [all nets in HH older than 12 months] = 0.5; 95% CI 0.3-0.7; and increasing household altitude (Ptrend Conclusion In both surveys, net use was more likely by women, if nets had fewer holes and were at higher net per person density within households. School-age children and young adults were much less likely to use a net. Increasing availability of nets within households (i.e. increasing net density, and improving net condition while focusing on education and promotion of net use, especially in school-age children

  11. Experimental quadriceps muscle pain impairs knee joint control during walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marius; Alkjaer, Tine; Lund, Hans

    2007-01-01

    Pain is a cardinal symptom in musculoskeletal diseases involving the knee joint, and aberrant movement patterns and motor control strategies are often present in these patients. However, the underlying neuromuscular mechanisms linking pain to movement and motor control are unclear. To investigate......, and EMG activity in the VM and VL muscles was reduced. Compressive forces, adduction moments, knee joint kinematics, and hamstring EMG activity were unaffected by pain. Interestingly, the observed changes persisted when the pain had vanished. The results demonstrate that muscle pain modulated the function...

  12. Strength scaling of adhesive joints in polymer–matrix composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Goutianos, Stergios; Jacobsen, Torben K.

    2009-01-01

    The fracture of adhesive joints between two glass-fibre laminates was studied by testing double cantilever beam test specimens loaded by uneven bending moments. A large-scale fracture process zone, consisting of a crack tip and a fibre bridging zone, developed. The mixed mode fracture resistance...... carrying capacity of 2-m long “medium size” adhesive joint specimens subjected to four point flexure. Medium size specimens were manufactured and tested. A good agreement was found between the predicted and measured strength values of the medium-size specimens. Thus, the scaling from small specimens...

  13. A Comparison of Moments-Based Logo Recognition Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zili Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Logo recognition is an important issue in document image, advertisement, and intelligent transportation. Although there are many approaches to study logos in these fields, logo recognition is an essential subprocess. Among the methods of logo recognition, the descriptor is very vital. The results of moments as powerful descriptors were not discussed before in terms of logo recognition. So it is unclear which moments are more appropriate to recognize which kind of logos. In this paper we find out the relations between logos with different transforms and moments, which moments are fit for logos with different transforms. The open datasets are employed from the University of Maryland. The comparisons based on moments are carried out from the aspects of logos with noise, and rotation, scaling, rotation and scaling.

  14. Apple Shape Classification Method Based on Wavelet Moment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangsheng Gui

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Shape is not only an important indicator for assessing the grade of the apple, but also the important factors for increasing the value of the apple. In order to improve the apple shape classification accuracy rate, an approach for apple shape sorting based on wavelet moments was proposed, the image was first subjected to a normalization process using its regular moments to obtain scale and translation invariance, the rotation invariant wavelet moment features were then extracted from the scale and translation normalized images and the method of cluster analysis was used for finished the shape classification. This method performs better than traditional approaches such as Fourier descriptors and Zernike moments, because of that Wavelet moments can provide time-domain and frequency domain window, which was verified by experiments. The normal fruit shape, mild deformity and severe deformity classification accuracy is 86.21 %, 85.82 %, 90.81 % by our method.

  15. Pro Agile NET Development with Scrum

    CERN Document Server

    Blankenship, Jerrel; Millett, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Pro Agile .NET Development with SCRUM guides you through a real-world ASP.NET project and shows how agile methodology is put into practice. There is plenty of literature on the theory behind agile methodologies, but no book on the market takes the concepts of agile practices and applies these in a practical manner to an end-to-end ASP.NET project, especially the estimating, requirements and management aspects of a project. Pro Agile .NET Development with SCRUM takes you through the initial stages of a project - gathering requirements and setting up an environment - through to the development a

  16. Pro ASP.NET MVC 4

    CERN Document Server

    Freeman, Adam

    2012-01-01

    The ASP.NET MVC 4 Framework is the latest evolution of Microsoft's ASP.NET web platform. It provides a high-productivity programming model that promotes cleaner code architecture, test-driven development, and powerful extensibility, combined with all the benefits of ASP.NET. ASP.NET MVC 4 contains a number of significant advances over previous versions. New mobile and desktop templates (employing adaptive rendering) are included together with support for jQuery Mobile for the first time. New display modes allow your application to select views based on the browser that's making the request whi

  17. Professional Visual Basic 2010 and .NET 4

    CERN Document Server

    Sheldon, Bill; Sharkey, Kent

    2010-01-01

    Intermediate and advanced coverage of Visual Basic 2010 and .NET 4 for professional developers. If you've already covered the basics and want to dive deep into VB and .NET topics that professional programmers use most, this is your book. You'll find a quick review of introductory topics-always helpful-before the author team of experts moves you quickly into such topics as data access with ADO.NET, Language Integrated Query (LINQ), security, ASP.NET web programming with Visual Basic, Windows workflow, threading, and more. You'll explore all the new features of Visual Basic 2010 as well as all t

  18. NASA Net Zero Energy Buildings Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless, S.; Scheib, J.; Torcellini, P.; Hendron, B.; Slovensky, M.

    2014-10-01

    In preparation for the time-phased net zero energy requirement for new federal buildings starting in 2020, set forth in Executive Order 13514, NASA requested that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a roadmap for NASA's compliance. NASA detailed a Statement of Work that requested information on strategic, organizational, and tactical aspects of net zero energy buildings. In response, this document presents a high-level approach to net zero energy planning, design, construction, and operations, based on NREL's first-hand experience procuring net zero energy construction, and based on NREL and other industry research on net zero energy feasibility. The strategic approach to net zero energy starts with an interpretation of the executive order language relating to net zero energy. Specifically, this roadmap defines a net zero energy acquisition process as one that sets an aggressive energy use intensity goal for the building in project planning, meets the reduced demand goal through energy efficiency strategies and technologies, then adds renewable energy in a prioritized manner, using building-associated, emission- free sources first, to offset the annual energy use required at the building; the net zero energy process extends through the life of the building, requiring a balance of energy use and production in each calendar year.

  19. Towards a Standard for Modular Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart; Petrucci, Laure

    2009-01-01

    When designing complex systems, mechanisms for structuring, composing, and reusing system components are crucial. Today, there are many approaches for equipping Petri nets with such mechanisms. In the context of defining a standard interchange format for Petri nets, modular PNML was defined....... Moreover, we present and discuss some more advanced features of modular Petri nets that could be included in the standard. This way, we provide a formal foundation and a basis for a discussion of features to be included in the upcoming standard of a module concept for Petri nets in general and for high...

  20. An Alternative Stiffening Method for Rigid CHS L-Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niall Holmes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new method of stiffening CHS L-joints and compares it against current stiffened and unstiffened moment connections. The method is derived from studying the failure modes of existing methods, typically local buckling and ovalisation of the section. Unstiffened right-angled CHS connections have been shown to be weak due to local buckling and ovalisation. Stiffing plates placed across the joint can increase the moment capacity of the section by preventing ovalisation of the section but is architecturally unsightly. An alternative approach, where a stiffening plate welded vertically inside both the column and beam, outperformed the unstiffened frame plate in terms of reduced ovalisation and increased load capacity. It was also found to perform better than the stiffened connection in terms of both vertical and horizontal deflection. However, more research is required to ensure a fully restrained connection to satisfy codes of practice and constructible.

  1. Analysis of the affected joints in rheumatoid arthritis patients in a large Japanese cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Teruhisa; Nishino, Jinju; Tohma, Shigeto; Tanaka, Sakae

    2013-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disorder involving multiple joints. We investigated the distribution of the affected joints and the relationships among this distribution, the disease activity, and the disease duration in Japanese RA patients by cross-sectional analysis using the National Database of Rheumatic Diseases by iR-net in Japan. A total of 6408 RA patients registered in the database were analyzed. In each patient, the location of joint swelling and joint tenderness of 68 joints was examined, and the relationships among the distribution of the affected joints, the disease activity as determined using the DAS28-ESR, and the disease duration were analyzed statistically. For the 6408 RA patients examined, the wrist was the most frequently affected site. There were some differences in the prevalence of tenderness and swelling; tenderness was frequently observed in large joints such as the knee, elbow and shoulder, while swelling was frequently observed in small joints such as the metacarpophalangeal joints. Although the frequency of involvement increased in all joints as disease activity increased, the pattern of distribution was not affected by disease activity. Furthermore, the distribution was not influenced by disease duration. Based on the results of this study, we can draw the following conclusions: (1) the wrist was the most affected joint; (2) there was a discrepancy between the distribution of swollen joints and that of tender joints; and (3) the distribution of affected joints was uniform regardless of disease activity.

  2. Effect of landing height on frontal plane kinematics, kinetics and energy dissipation at lower extremity joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeow, C H; Lee, P V S; Goh, J C H

    2009-08-25

    Lack of the necessary magnitude of energy dissipation by lower extremity joint muscles may be implicated in elevated impact stresses present during landing from greater heights. These increased stresses are experienced by supporting tissues like cartilage, ligaments and bones, thus aggravating injury risk. This study sought to investigate frontal plane kinematics, kinetics and energetics of lower extremity joints during landing from different heights. Eighteen male recreational athletes were instructed to perform drop-landing tasks from 0.3- to 0.6-m heights. Force plates and motion-capture system were used to capture ground reaction force and kinematics data, respectively. Joint moment was calculated using inverse dynamics. Joint power was computed as a product of joint moment and angular velocity. Work was defined as joint power integrated over time. Hip and knee joints delivered significantly greater joint power and eccentric work (p<0.05) than the ankle joint at both landing heights. Substantial increase (p<0.05) in eccentric work was noted at the hip joint in response to increasing landing height. Knee and hip joints acted as key contributors to total energy dissipation in the frontal plane with increase in peak ground reaction force (GRF). The hip joint was the top contributor to energy absorption, which indicated a hip-dominant strategy in the frontal plane in response to peak GRF during landing. Future studies should investigate joint motions that can maximize energy dissipation or reduce the need for energy dissipation in the frontal plane at the various joints, and to evaluate their effects on the attenuation of lower extremity injury risk during landing.

  3. Experiments and simulation of a net closing mechanism for tether-net capture of space debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, Inna; Thomsen, Benjamin; Botta, Eleonora M.; Misra, Arun K.

    2017-10-01

    This research addresses the design and testing of a debris containment system for use in a tether-net approach to space debris removal. The tether-net active debris removal involves the ejection of a net from a spacecraft by applying impulses to masses on the net, subsequent expansion of the net, the envelopment and capture of the debris target, and the de-orbiting of the debris via a tether to the chaser spacecraft. To ensure a debris removal mission's success, it is important that the debris be successfully captured and then, secured within the net. To this end, we present a concept for a net closing mechanism, which we believe will permit consistently successful debris capture via a simple and unobtrusive design. This net closing system functions by extending the main tether connecting the chaser spacecraft and the net vertex to the perimeter and around the perimeter of the net, allowing the tether to actuate closure of the net in a manner similar to a cinch cord. A particular embodiment of the design in a laboratory test-bed is described: the test-bed itself is comprised of a scaled-down tether-net, a supporting frame and a mock-up debris. Experiments conducted with the facility demonstrate the practicality of the net closing system. A model of the net closure concept has been integrated into the previously developed dynamics simulator of the chaser/tether-net/debris system. Simulations under tether tensioning conditions demonstrate the effectiveness of the closure concept for debris containment, in the gravity-free environment of space, for a realistic debris target. The on-ground experimental test-bed is also used to showcase its utility for validating the dynamics simulation of the net deployment, and a full-scale automated setup would make possible a range of validation studies of other aspects of a tether-net debris capture mission.

  4. The Relation Between Moment-to-Moment Mindful Attention and Anxiety Among Young Adults in Substance Use Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Anderson, Scott; Lookatch, Samantha; Moore, Todd M; Stuart, Gregory L

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of research has examined the intersection of mindfulness and substance use, and a large body of research has examined the relation between mindfulness and anxiety. Unfortunately, no research has been conducted on the relation between mindfulness and anxiety symptoms among young adults (i.e., 18-25 years old) in treatment for substance use. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relation between one facet of mindfulness, moment-to-moment attention, and anxiety (panic and generalized anxiety) among young adults in treatment for substance use. Preexisting patient records from a residential substance use treatment center for young adults were reviewed (N = 148). Patient records were examined from May 2012 to August 2013, which represented all young adult patients admitted to the residential treatment facility during this time. Findings demonstrated that moment-to-moment mindful attention was associated with symptoms of panic disorder and generalized anxiety disorder even after controlling for gender, age, education, alcohol use, drug use, and the shared variance in generalized and panic symptoms. There were no gender differences in moment-to-moment mindful attention. These findings provide preliminary evidence that moment-to-moment mindful attention is associated with panic and generalized anxiety in young adults in substance use treatment. Combined with previous research on mindfulness-based interventions among adults in substance use treatment, research should examine the efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions for young adults in substance use treatment.

  5. Real-Time Moment-to-Moment Emotional Responses to Narrative and Informational Breast Cancer Videos in African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollinger, Sarah; Kreuter, Matthew W.

    2012-01-01

    In a randomized experiment using moment-to-moment audience analysis methods, we compared women's emotional responses with a narrative versus informational breast cancer video. Both videos communicated three key messages about breast cancer: (i) understand your breast cancer risk, (ii) talk openly about breast cancer and (iii) get regular…

  6. Influence of joint models on lower-limb musculo-tendon forces and three-dimensional joint reaction forces during gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Raphaël; Moissenet, Florent; Gasparutto, Xavier; Cheze, Laurence

    2012-02-01

    Several three-dimensional (3D) lower-limb musculo-skeletal models have been developed for gait analysis and different hip, knee and ankle joint models have been considered in the literature. Conversely to the influence of the musculo-tendon geometry, the influence of the joint models--i.e. number of degrees of freedom and passive joint moments--on the estimated musculo-tendon forces and 3D joint reaction forces has not been extensively examined. In this paper musculo-tendon forces and 3D joint reaction forces have been estimated for one subject and one gait cycle with nine variations of a musculoskeletal model and outputs have been compared to measured electromyographic signals and knee joint contact forces. The model outputs are generally in line with the measured signals. However, the 3D joint reaction forces were higher than published values and the contact forces measured for the subject. The results of this study show that, with more degrees of freedom in the model, the musculo-tendon forces and the 3D joint reaction forces tend to increase but with some redistribution between the muscles. In addition, when taking into account passive joint moments, the 3D joint reaction forces tend to decrease during the stance phase and increase during the swing phase. Although further investigations are needed, a five-degree-of-freedom lower-limb musculo-skeletal model with some angle-dependent joint coupling and stiffness seems to provide satisfactory musculo-tendon forces and 3D joint reaction forces.

  7. Study of the conditional covariance and variance equations for second order conditional moment closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, N.; Bilger, R. W.

    1999-09-01

    Presence of transient events like extinction/ignition in turbulent reacting flows increase conditional fluctuations. Thus, one needs to include the conditional fluctuations of reactive scalars, second order quantities, for conditional moment closure calculation when there are transient events and for predictions of sensitive species like NOx. Transport equations for conditional variances Gii and covariances Gij are derived and studied using a direct numerical simulation (DNS) data base. In high Damköhler number situations, chemically reactive and turbulent diffusive processes balance the effect of scalar dissipation-scalar fluctuations correlation on Gij evolution. Additionally, the dissipation of scalar fluctuation becomes important for low Damköhler number situations. Simple models for the different physical processes are proposed and evaluated. Chemical contributions are modeled using a presumed probability density function (PDF) approach which includes second order contributions. The conditional joint PDF of progress variables for the two steps used are observed to be jointly log-normal or jointly Gaussian depending on whether there is extinction or not. The scalar dissipation rate-scalar fluctuations correlation coefficient does not depend on Reynolds or Damköhler numbers. However, the model constant in the classical model for conditional dissipation of scalar fluctuations depends on Damköhler number. Based on the gradient alignment characteristics observed in the DNS, a new model for the above dissipation is proposed using stationary laminar flamelet theory. This model prediction of the above dissipation is better than the classical model prediction.

  8. Investigating spousal influence using moment-to-moment affect data from marital conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhyastha, Tara M; Hamaker, Ellen L; Gottman, John M

    2011-04-01

    Gottman and colleagues proposed using a dynamical systems model to study dyadic interaction in marriage. In this model, each spouse's affect in each 6-s window is described as a function of an uninfluenced linear steady state and a nonlinear influence function of the partner's affect in the previous window. Recently, an alternative parameter estimation procedure for the equations of marriage was introduced, which is based on threshold autoregressive models. We apply this estimation procedure to data from a study of couples (N = 124) and newlyweds (N = 130) to compare different forms of spousal influence using the Bayesian information criterion. Although results show some statistically significant evidence for influence, this is only slightly greater than what would be expected by random association. One model of influence does not fit all couples. This suggests that for many people initial state and emotional inertia dictate the outcome of the conflict discussion far more than the moment-to-moment affect of the spouse. This latter finding is in conflict with most models of couples' interaction, which suggest that the outcome of conflict discussions are determined by the nature of the couples' mutual influence processes.

  9. HANPP Collection: Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) as a Percentage of Net Primary Product (NPP) portion of the HANPP Collection represents a map identifying...

  10. Price smarter on the Net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, W; Marn, M; Zawada, C

    2001-02-01

    Companies generally have set prices on the Internet in two ways. Many start-ups have offered untenably low prices in a rush to capture first-mover advantage. Many incumbents have simply charged the same prices on-line as they do off-line. Either way, companies are missing a big opportunity. The fundamental value of the Internet lies not in lowering prices or making them consistent but in optimizing them. After all, if it's easy for customers to compare prices on the Internet, it's also easy for companies to track customers' behavior and adjust prices accordingly. The Net lets companies optimize prices in three ways. First, it lets them set and announce prices with greater precision. Different prices can be tested easily, and customers' responses can be collected instantly. Companies can set the most profitable prices, and they can tap into previously hidden customer demand. Second, because it's so easy to change prices on the Internet, companies can adjust prices in response to even small fluctuations in market conditions, customer demand, or competitors' behavior. Third, companies can use the clickstream data and purchase histories that it collects through the Internet to segment customers quickly. Then it can offer segment-specific prices or promotions immediately. By taking full advantage of the unique possibilities afforded by the Internet to set prices with precision, adapt to changing circumstances quickly, and segment customers accurately, companies can get their pricing right. It's one of the ultimate drivers of e-business success.

  11. Role of joint torques generated in an optimised Yurchenko layout vault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Michael; Jennings, Les; Elliott, Bruce

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to quantify the muscle torques required in the performance of an optimised Yurchenko layout vault based on a five-segment rigid link model and using input data from an elite female gymnast. At impact, the wrist torque trajectory indicated an extension-flexion action while the shoulder was characterised by extension. The approximate 100 Nm (wrist flexor) and 125 Nm (shoulder extensor) respective peak torque magnitudes indicated that the impact action is not passive in nature. The contribution of joint torques to the adjoining segments was apportioned to the relative components namely; centripetal, gravity and net joint torque components. Despite the presence of both large wrist and shoulder joint torques, the net turning effect on the upper limb and hand segments about their centre of mass (CM) was small. The principal role of the upper limb joint torques was therefore to effect the appropriate joint motions and to support the weight of the gymnast. The performance of the optimum vault was primarily the result of the interplay between the centripetal and the net joint torque components at the wrist, hip and shoulder joints. This has implications to the performer in that successful execution of the vault is principally concerned with the ability to create a high angular momentum for horse impact and to then apply an appropriate level of joint torques that will make optimal use of the initial kinetic condition.

  12. Luck Reveals Stellar Explosion's First Moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Through a stroke of luck, astronomers have witnessed the first violent moments of a stellar explosion known as a supernova. Astronomers have seen thousands of these stellar explosions, but all previous supernovae were discovered days after the event had begun. This is the first time scientists have been able to study a supernova from its very beginning. Seeing one just moments after the event began is a major breakthrough that points the way to unraveling longstanding mysteries about how such explosions really work. Galaxy Before Supernova Explosion NASA's Swift satellite took these images of SN 2007uy in galaxy NGC 2770 before SN 2008D exploded. An X-ray image is on the left; image at right is in visible light. CREDIT: NASA/Swift Science Team/Stefan Immler. Large Image With Labels Large Image Without Labels Galaxy After Supernova Explosion On January 9, 2008, Swift caught a bright X-ray burst from an exploding star. A few days later, SN 2008D appeared in visible light. CREDIT: NASA/Swift Science Team/Stefan Immler. Large Image With Labels Large Image Without Labels "For years, we have dreamed of seeing a star just as it was exploding," said team leader Alicia Soderberg, a Hubble and Carnegie-Princeton Fellow at Princeton University. "This newly-born supernova is going to be the Rosetta Stone of supernova studies for years to come." Theorists had predicted for four decades that a bright burst of X-rays should be produced as the shock wave from a supernova blasts out of the star and through dense material surrounding the star. However, in order to see this burst, scientists faced the nearly-impossible challenge of knowing in advance where to point their telescopes to catch a supernova in the act of exploding. On January 9, luck intervened. Soderberg and her colleagues were making a scheduled observation of the galaxy NGC 2770, 88 million light-years from Earth, using the X-ray telescope on NASA's Swift satellite. During that observation, a bright burst of X

  13. Mechanical analysis of the malformed, yet functional, mandibular joints of a wild timber wolf, Canis lupus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrette, C

    1986-01-01

    In spite of grossly malformed jaw joints, presumably from birth, the animal survived in the wild for at least 3 years. Instead of a deep glenoid fossa folded over a cylindrical condyle to form a hinge, both joints had freely open articulating surfaces and a mandibular condyle without neck. The neckless condyle produced a shorter moment arm of resistance in all biting positions. The moment arm of the masseter, the jaw-adductor tending to disarticulate the jaw, was longer as a result of an elongated angular process. The combined effect at the carnassials was a 36 per cent improvement in the efficiency of the lever for which the joint is the fulcrum and thus an equivalent reduction in the disarticulating force. The joints were held together by an extra stout ligament about 5 mm in diameter and 8 mm long, linking the lateral pole of the condyle to the zygomatic arch.

  14. Bridges Expansion Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey W. Kozlachkow

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The survey is concerned with the expansion joints, used in bridge constructions to compensate medium and significant operational linear and spatial displacements between adjacent spans or between bridge span and pier. The analysis of design features of these types of expansion joints, their advantages and disadvantages, based on operational experience justified the necessity to design constructions, meeting the modern demands imposed to expansion joints.

  15. Elbow joint instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Henriksen, M G; Søjbjerg, Jens Ole

    1994-01-01

    The effect of simultaneous ulnar and radial collateral ligament division on the kinematics of the elbow joint is studied in a cadaveric model. Severance of the anterior part of the ulnar collateral ligament and the annular ligament led to significant elbow joint instability in valgus and varus...... of the specimens was recorded. The reproducibility of the instability pattern suggests that this model is suitable for evaluating stabilizing procedures aimed at correction of elbow joint instability before these procedures are introduced into patient care....

  16. Jointly Poisson processes

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, D. H.; Goodman, I. N.

    2009-01-01

    What constitutes jointly Poisson processes remains an unresolved issue. This report reviews the current state of the theory and indicates how the accepted but unproven model equals that resulting from the small time-interval limit of jointly Bernoulli processes. One intriguing consequence of these models is that jointly Poisson processes can only be positively correlated as measured by the correlation coefficient defined by cumulants of the probability generating functional.

  17. A Study of Moment Based Features on Handwritten Digit Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Kumar Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Handwritten digit recognition plays a significant role in many user authentication applications in the modern world. As the handwritten digits are not of the same size, thickness, style, and orientation, therefore, these challenges are to be faced to resolve this problem. A lot of work has been done for various non-Indic scripts particularly, in case of Roman, but, in case of Indic scripts, the research is limited. This paper presents a script invariant handwritten digit recognition system for identifying digits written in five popular scripts of Indian subcontinent, namely, Indo-Arabic, Bangla, Devanagari, Roman, and Telugu. A 130-element feature set which is basically a combination of six different types of moments, namely, geometric moment, moment invariant, affine moment invariant, Legendre moment, Zernike moment, and complex moment, has been estimated for each digit sample. Finally, the technique is evaluated on CMATER and MNIST databases using multiple classifiers and, after performing statistical significance tests, it is observed that Multilayer Perceptron (MLP classifier outperforms the others. Satisfactory recognition accuracies are attained for all the five mentioned scripts.

  18. 78 FR 72393 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Investment Income Tax; Final and Proposed Rules #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 231 / Monday, December... Parts 1 and 602 RIN 1545-BK44 Net Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury... Investment Income Tax and the computation of Net Investment Income. The regulations affect individuals...

  19. 77 FR 72611 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... December 5, 2012 Part V Department of the Treasury Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 Net Investment... Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking...) the individual's net investment income for such taxable year, or (B) the excess (if any) of (i) the...

  20. Net analyte signal based statistical quality control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skibsted, E.T.S.; Boelens, H.F.M.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Smilde, A.K.; Broad, N.W.; Rees, D.R.; Witte, D.T.

    2005-01-01

    Net analyte signal statistical quality control (NAS-SQC) is a new methodology to perform multivariate product quality monitoring based on the net analyte signal approach. The main advantage of NAS-SQC is that the systematic variation in the product due to the analyte (or property) of interest is